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Ill M P L O Y M E N T O U T L O O K FOR BUSINESS MACHINE SERVICEMEN lob prospects • Training • Earnings • W orking conditions Cover picture— Repairing a typewriter. Two or three years of on-the-job training is required to learn the work. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR L . B . Schw ellenbach, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Ewan Clague, Commissioner EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK FOR BUSINESS MACHINE SERVICEMEN Bulletin No. 892 U N IT E D STATES G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE W A S H IN G TO N : 1947 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C. Price 15 cents LETTER O F TR A N SM ITTA L U nited S tates D epartment of L abor, B ureau of L abor S tatistics , Washington, D. C O c t o b e r 17, 191^0. The S ecretary of L abor : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on employment outlook for business machine servicemen. This is one of a series of occupational studies prepared in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Division for use in vocational counseling of veterans, young people in schools, and others con sidering the choice of an occupation. The present study was prepared by Claire L. Labbie, under the supervision of Bichard H. Lewis. The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the cooperation received from companies and trade associations in the business machine servicing field. E w a n C lague , Commissioner. Hon. L. B. SCH W E LLE N BA CH , Secretary of Labor. DoctHT»*r + $» CO N TEN TS Page Introduction____________________________________________________________________________ 1 The work of business machine servicemen____________________________________________ 1 Duties______________________________________________________________________________ 1 Training____________________________________________________________________________ 2 Chances for advancement_______ 3 Working conditions, _______________________________________________________________ 3 Where employed------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 General employment outlook----------------------------------------- 3 Employment opportunities in individual occupations________________________________ 4 Typewriter serv ice m e n ,__________________________________________________________ 4 Adding-machine servicemen______________________________________________________ 4 Cash register servicemen---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Calculator servicemen_____________________________________________________________ 6 Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen___________________________________ 6 Accounting-statistical machine servicemen______________________________________ 7 Dictating machine servicemen____________________________________________________ 7 Duplicating machine servicemen___________________ 9 How to get more information about job opportunities in the field__________________ 10 Appendix.— Major companies employing business machine servicemen____________ 11 The photographs reproduced in this bulletin are by courtesy of the Underwood Corp., Remington Rand, Inc., National Cash Register Co., and Marchant Calculating Machine Co. n E M P L O Y M E N T O U T L O O K F O R B U S IN E S S M A C H IN E S E R V IC E M E N Introduction About 20,000 men have the important job of keeping in good running condition the machines that millions of office and store workers use in their work. Business-machine servicing is not a large field, but one of interest to young men with gnechanical aptitudes because it offers opportunity for a limited number to enter in the next few years with the prospect of steady employment for a long period. Business machines have changed the way most office jobs are done, have created new types of jobs, and have made possible the great increase in the volume and scope of correspondence, accounting, statistics, and general clerical work that has oc curred in recent years. In a few decades they have become essential for the efficient operation of all types of business offices and stores. The type writer has eliminated the old time penman who laboriously and slowly copied letters and records by longhand. Instead of many bookkeepers pains takingly making entries on ledger sheets, we find in large modern offices workers operating ma chines which post and compute accounting records in a single operation. Busy executives save time by dictating to machines instead of stenographers; clerks in stores handle sales transactions with greater speed and accuracy with cash registers; and duplicating machines make possible the speedy and economical production of copies of special notices, bulletins, and advertising leaflets. Punched card accounting-statistical machines rapidly sort record cards, make computations, add up the results, and print the answers. The widespread use of these machines is fairly recent. Most of the growth has occurred in the past 3 decades along with the general increase of clerical and accounting work. This trend is shown by the increase in the number of clerical and re lated workers from less than 4,000,000 in 1910 to almost 9,000,000 in 1940. The W o rk of Business M achine Servicemen Duties The most important business machines, in terms of the number of jobs they provide for servicemen, are typewriters, adding machines, calculators, cash registers, accounting - bookkeeping machines, punched card accounting-statistical machines, dic tating and transcribing machines, and the various duplicating machines. There are in addition many other kinds of business machines, including equipment for handling checks, coins, currency, and envelopes; autographic registers; time record ing machines; postage meters; and microfilm ma chines. Although there are a small number of men who repair as many as four or five different types of machines, most servicemen specialize in repairing one or two types. 727454— 47 271321 Business machine servicemen must know thor oughly the mechanism of their respective types of machines. They inspect and take apart ap pliances to find defects; adjust the various parts of the machines, using such common hand tools as wrenches and pliers, and special tools designed for the particular type of machine; repair or replace broken or worn parts; and clean and oil machines. Sometimes they are required to explain to oper ators how the machines work and how to avoid damaging them. Minor adjustments are usually made in the offices where the machines are used; all other work is performed in the repair shop. In some shops, the servicemen specialize in work ing either “ outside” or “inside” the shop. Class in repair of punched-card accounting machines. Training In general, the way to learn this work is to be hired as a trainee in an office machine repair shop. The beginner is paid a salary while he is work ing and receiving instruction. Training may be given on the job, through courses in a company school, or through a combination of both of these methods. The length of this training varies greatly, depending upon the types of equipment serviced, the number of different brands repaired, and the kind of shop in which employed. Training in independent shops tends to be somewhat longer than in manufacturers’ service branches, because 2 of the greater variety of the work in independent shops and the more informal nature of much of the instruction. A few schools have recently been opened to give instruction in business machine servicing, covering mainly typewriter repair. Be cause this is a new development it is not known at this time if their graduates will qualify as skilled mechanics when they seek employment, or to what extent their training time on the job would be reduced. The Federal Committee on Apprenticeship has approved a 2-year training program for “ business machine mechanics” with the requirement that the apprentices’ training include the repair of several types of appliances and various makes of each type. The main aptitudes needed by a trainee are general mechanical ability and manual dexterity. The work is relatively light, except for the occa sional lifting of appliances; in general, physical demands are not high. Nevertheless, very few women are employed, this being almost entirely a man’s occupation. Chances for Advancement Business machine servicemen may be promoted to supervisory jobs, such as that of service manager in a local service branch. Some may become sales men of the equipment which they have repaired and, as salesmen, generally earn much more than repairmen. Experienced men sometimes open their own independent repair shops. Working Conditions Repairing business machines is comparatively free from the danger of accident and is cleaner than most mechanical trades. Very few business machine repairmen are mem bers of unions. Most of those who are members, however, belong to the International Association of Machinists, the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (C IO ), or to small independent unions. The amount of work does not vary much from season to season, and most servicemen are em ployed the year round. Where Employed Business machine repairmen are employed mainly in the local service branches of companies which make the machines. These service branches are operated in connection with the sales offices of the firms. Repairmen in service branches repair, and are trained on, only the company’s own make of machine. A large proportion of typewriter and adding machine servicemen, however, work in in dependently owned local repair shops. Most of these independent shops have only a few employees who usually service all make of typewriters and adding machines. Another source of employment is found in Federal, State, and local governments. In the Federal Government, men repair mainly typewriters, adding machines, and calculators. Applicants for Federal employment must have had at least 3 years’ experience in servicing at least one type of office machine. The basic entrance salary for office appliance repairmen in the Fed eral Government is $2,243 a year. Servicemen are employed principally in the large cities, since this is where the bulk of office machines are used. In small cities and in towns most of the work is done by independent repair shops, many of which are dealers for the manufacturing companies. General Employment Outlook In the next several years, although no sharp in creases in employment are expected, there will be some opportunities for new workers to get into most of the different types of business-machine servicing jobs. Looking further into the future, the prospects are for a gradual rise in the employ ment of business-machine servicemen. During the past 30 years, the increase in the volume of rec ord keeping and general clerical work, a desire to increase efficiency of office work and reduce labor costs, and the development and introduction of new types o f machines have caused a steady growth in the use of business machines o f all kinds. This trend should continue, and, particu larly for certain types of business machines, there are many places where new installation o f ma chines can improve efficiency and reduce costs. During the war, the production of business ma chines for civilian use was drastically curtailed. Although manufacture has been resumed there is still a large accumulated demand which will take several years to fill. Much of the demand is for replacement of existing machines, but the ma chines in use should be increased substantially beyond the present number. The eventual effect of this increase will be to require more servicemen to keep the business machines functioning effi ciently. The general upward trend of employment in this occupation is significant in considering the long-run opportunities, but also important is the relative stability shown. In prosperous periods 3 additional machines are put in use, thus adding to the need for repairmen. In less favorable times, sales of new machines usually fa ll; but, since this means that the machines are used longer than would normally be the case, there is continued need for maintenance work. The result has been that employment of servicemen has held up rela tively well in periods of depression. Men who establish themselves in this field, particularly if employed by the large national concerns, are fairly well assured of continuing employment for many years if their work is satisfactory. The employment opportunities, training require ments, and earnings in each major type of business machine servicing job are discussed below. It should be realized that in each case the description of opportunities refers to the conditions in the country generally, and that individual companies and particular localities may vary in the oppor tunities afforded for employment of new workers. Employment Opportunities in Individual Occupations Typewriter Servicemen Typewriters are the most widely used of the business machines, having an important place in almost every type of office. In addition, many typewriters are used by individuals in their homes, which is not the case with other business machines. Typewriter servicing is the largest office machine repair occupation, with approximately 8,000 type writer mechanics employed at the present time to maintain the millions of typewriters now in use. A 2- to 3-year period of on-the-job training is ordinarily necessary to become a skilled typewriter repairman. During this training period, the me chanic learns how typewriters work and is taught how to clean the machine and to make all kinds of repairs, including aligning (making type print evenly), fixing the escapement (spacer), and ad justing the shift mechanism and ribbon movement. During the war, while typewriter manufacturing was curtailed, there was an increased need for serv icemen to keep existing typewriters in good work ing condition and to replace those machanics going into the armed forces. Despite this situation rela tively few workers were trained during this pe riod—owing to the drain of young men to the armed forces, the wartime labor shortage, and the reluctance of many shops to take on trainees—and a shortage of skilled men resulted. This shortage . has continued, and demand has been only partly met by veterans skilled in typewriter repair work returning to the trade. Thus, there should be opportunities for a small number of newcomers to get jobs as trainees in the next several years. In some areas, particularly in the smaller towns, there are also opportunities for experienced and skilled 4 typewriter servicemen, with general business and sales ability, to open their own repair and sales shops. In the longer run, employment in this field will tend to rise as the use o f typewriters gradually increases, particularly in homes and schools. In 1945 the typical pay of experienced type writer servicemen for a 40-hour week was between $40 and $65 in the larger cities. This represents an increase over prewar earnings. Because they are required to work on various makes of type writers, servicemen employed in independent re pair shops usually earn more than men in the serv ice branches of manufacturing companies. There are no figures on the earnings of the men who run their own repair shops. The profits of these shops vary widely and are influenced by such factors as the size of the firm and its location. Adding-M achine Servicemen Adding-machine repair requires less skill than most of the major business machine servicing occu pations. Consequently the training period is rela tively short, 6 months to a year of on-the-job in struction usually being all that is needed to learn the repair of a single make of adding machine. However, for those who learn to repair several makes of adding machines a longer training period is necessary. Very often, the servicing of adding machines is combined with typewriter repair or calculator repair into a single job. Employment prospects for adding-machine re pairmen are about the same as for typewriter me chanics. The actual number o f new openings, however, will be far fewer for adding-machine mechanics, as there are four times as many men servicing typewriters as repairing adding ma chines. About 1,800 men now have jobs in which most o f their time is spent in adding machine re pair, in addition to the large number who repair adding machines part time along with other busi ness machines. In 1945, typical weekly salaries of experienced adding-machine servicemen were between $40 and $60 in large cities. This is substantially higher than -their prewar earnings. Cash Register Servicemen Next to typewriters, cash registers are the most widely used business machines. They are found mainly in retail stores and service establishments. Cash registers vary greatly in the number of things they can do. The simple models merely record each transaction, total the day’s receipts, and pro vide a change drawer. The more complicated cash registers tabulate several different kinds of infor mation on one transaction simultaneously, such as identification of clerk, department, and type of merchandise, as well as provide printed receipts with such information for the customer. The more elaborate cash registers actually perform many functions of accounting machines. Nearly all cash register repairmen are trained in and employed by the service branches o f the one Repairing a cash register— Usually done in service branch of principal manufacturer. company which manufactures the great majority of cash registers. Training for this work consists of 1 }^ear of on-the-job instruction followed by about 6 months at the company school. In addi tion, a brief learning period in adding-machine repair may also be provided, since cash register servicemen in some cases also work on adding machines. During the next few years there will probably be more cash registers in use than ever before, since retail trade is expected to expand. This will mean an increased demand for cash register repairmen. Thus, prospects are favorable for entry into this field, although the number of men who can enter in any one year is limited by the small size of the occupation. At the present time there are prob ably not more than 1,600 cash register repairmen in the United States. Prewar average weekly earnings of cash register servicemen were from $35 to $50 in the larger cities. During the war these workers averaged between $50 and $75 a week. Calculator Servicemen Calculating machines, which add, subtract, di vide, multiply, and also perform combinations of these operations, are used mostly in offices where a great many computations are necessary. These machines, most of which are electrically operated, have elaborate mechanisms, and, therefore, skilled men are required to repair them. This is a fairly small field of work, with about 2,000 employed at the present time. To become a calculating machine repairman it is necessary to have 1 to 2 years of on-the-job train ing, often combined with 3 or 4 months of instruc tion at a company school. In the next several years there will be openings for only a very limited num ber of calculating machine servicemen. The short age of these men during the past few years was caused primarily by their entrance into the armed forces. The return of these mechanics to their former jobs limits the number of beginners needed in the next several years. After the temporary period of adjustment is over a continued gradual expansion in the use of calculators should create some additional servicing jobs and insure steady employment for those in the trade. In 1945, typical weekly earnings of experienced calculating machine servicemen in the large cities were from $45 to $65. 6 Accounting-Bookkeeping Machine Servicemen Accounting-bookkeeping machines vary greatly in function. Some machines only post entries, some do billing, while others are combination type writer and computing devices. A ll types have keyboards, like typewriters and adding machines, and are operated by striking the proper keys. They should not be confused with the punched card accounting-statistical machines which are de scribed in another section. Accounting-bookkeep ing machines are used wherever a great deal o f accounting and bookkeeping is done, such as in department stores, retail and wholesale businesses, and banks. Since there are several different types of machines, each quite complicated, the servicing is highly skilled work. About 1,000 men are now employed in this work. Usually a man must have had 1 or 2 years5 experience as an adding machine, calculator, or cash register repairman in order to be eligible for accounting-bookkeeping machine training—which consists of 2 to 3 years of on-the-job instruction and, in some cases, an additional 6 months of train ing at a company school. In at least one major office machine appliance firm, however, this work is combined with the servicing of other office ma chines, and a total of 4 or 5 years’ training is required. Many veterans skilled as accounting-bookkeep ing machine repairmen have returned to their former jobs, but there are not enough of them to meet the need resulting from the curtailment of training during the war. Thus, there will be jobs for trainees. These openings will be filled, however, by men who have had the required back ground in servicing adding machines, calculators, or cash registers. It will be several years before men not having this background can get the ex perience to qualify for jobs as trainees. By that time there will be fewer openings than at present, although the growth in the use of these machines and the need to replace men who leave the occu pation will provide opportunities for a small num ber of beginners each year. In 1945, typical weekly earnings of experienced accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen in the large cities were from $65 to $85, excluding overtime—substantially higher than their prewar earnings of between $40 and $65 a week. Accounting-Statistical Machine Servicemen Most amazing of the business appliances are the punched card accounting-statistical machines. Great masses of accounting and statistical data may be recorded, tabulated, and analyzed with this equipment. The information is punched on cards alphabetically or according to a code, and the cards are put into machines which sort them and tabulate the results. Besides the basic card punching, sorting, and tabulating machines, many other machines are used, such as collators, veri fiers, and multipliers and dividers, each having its own specific purpose. These machines are used mainly in large organizations, such as government agencies, department stores, insurance companies, and large industrial establishments for pay-roll and other accounting records, inventory control, statistical surveys, and similar purposes. The servicemen are employed solely by the two firms which manufacture and service all punched card accounting-statistical machines. These men may be assigned to work anywhere in the United States. They rarely transfer from one company to the other. High school graduation, followed by about 2 years o f technical schooling in electri cal or mechanical engineering is a necessary quali fication for this work. However, the equivalent in practical experience may be substituted. After a 2-month on-the-job trial period, new men are given 3 to 4 months’ instruction at a company school. They then work under experienced re pairmen until they are able to service machines on their own. For many years in the future there will be con tinued growth in the use of punched card account ing-statistical machines. This growth, together with the need for replacing those who leave this work, means that prospects should be favorable for entering the occupation and remaining em ployed in it for many years. The number of men that will be hired in any one year will be limited, however, by the small size of the occupation—there are about 2,400 punched card accounting-statistical machine servicemen employed at the present time— and by the fact that increases in use of the ma chines will be gradual rather than sharp. In re cent months, there have been practically no open ings for beginners in the company employing the majority of servicemen, because of the large num ber of experienced veterans returning to their jobs with the firm. This company expects, however, to resume the hiring of new men for this work within the next year. The other company in the field is currently hiring men for trainee jobs. The entrance salary for punched card account ing-statistical machine servicemen is about $35 per week. After completing the first 6 months of training they earn about $40. Periodic pay in creases are given thereafter, according to skill and experience. Dictating Machine Servicemen The widespread use of dictating and transcrib ing machines is a relatively recent development. There are now about 1,000 skilled men employed in servicing this equipment. At present, however, the application of electronic principles and the use of electronic tubes is changing considerably the nature of the dictating and transcribing machines being manufactured. This shift, from an acoustic machine to an electronic one, affects the servicing of the equipment and hence, to some extent, the qualifications and training needed. Although the introduction of electronic machines means that the servicemen must have additional knowledge, the electronic features require far less servicing than the mechanical features. Cleaning a calculator with a fine spray of cleaning fluid— An important step in keeping the complicated mechanism in good ru n n in g co n d itio n . At least 1 year o f technical training in electricity and electronics, or equivalent knowledge, is now required before entering employment. The length o f the subsequent training varies considerably among the companies in the field. Two of the im portant firms require 6 months to a year of on-thejob training, often combined with instruction by visiting teachers; in another company, 2 to 3 weeks of instruction at the factory school is the only training given. Returning veterans who are ex perienced in servicing acoustic dictating and tran scription machines usually need additional train ing on the electronic machines. The length of this added training depends upon the man’s back ground in electricity and electronics. Dictating machine repairmen are employed mainly in cities and large towns either by the service branches of the firms manufacturing this equipment or by their distributors. In the small towns, typewriter and adding machine mechanics often learn to service the acoustic dictating and transcribing machines. However, because these men lack the necessary electronic background, they will be unable to repair the electronic machines. In the next year or two, job opportunities for beginners will vary among the major companies Repairing an accounting-bookkeeping machine— One of the most highly paid of business machine servicing jobs. employing dictating machine servicemen. Some companies will have openings for new men; others already have enough experienced workers to meet their immediate needs. However, in the years ahead, there will probably be far more dictating and transcribing machines in use than there are at present. This expansion will create additional servicing jobs and will also provide steady employ ment for men already trained in the work. The occupation is small, nevertheless, and the number of new openings in any one year will be limited. Moreover, some of the servicing of electronic dic tating and transcribing machines may be done by radio repairmen, who can in a few months learn to service this equipment. In the future there may be widespread application of wire recording to dic tating and transcribing appliances. I f this should happen, more of the repair of these machines would be done by men trained as radio servicemen. In 1945, typical weekly earnings of experienced dictating machine servicemen in the large cities were from $40 to $50. Duplicating Machine Servicemen There are five main types of duplicating ma chines used in offices—direct, gelatin hektograph, spirit, offset, and stencil. These machines vary in the way they operate, but they are all used for the same purpose, which is the speedy and econom ical production of advertising leaflets, special no tices, instruction manuals, press releases, and similar materials. Duplicating machine repair is the least skilled o f the office machine servicing occupations, and consequently requires the shortest training period. The length of this training varies somewhat with the type of duplicating appliance to be repaired. For stencil and gelatin hektograph equipment, less training is needed than for the other types. In general, however, to learn duplicating machine repair requires from 3 to 6 weeks at a company school plus about 3 or 4 months of on-the-job training. A repairman learns to service all the machines manufactured by his company. In or der to transfer to a firm making a different type of duplicator, almost complete retraining is required. Duplicating machine repairmen are employed either by the service branches of companies manu facturing these appliances or by their dealers. They may work in any sizable city or town throughout the country. A t the present time there are about 1,300 work ers employed in this occupation. During the next year or two there will be few openings for new comers, because experienced veterans returning to their former jobs, plus those trained as replace ments during the war, will fill nearly all employ ment requirements. Thereafter, because of nor mal replacement needs, the hiring of a small num ber of men annually will be resumed. In 1945 typical earnings of experienced dupli cating machine servicemen were between $40 and $55 a week in the larger cities. 9 How to G et More Information A bout Job Opportunities in the Field Men interested in becoming office machine mechanics may find out what job openings are available in several ways. The classified section of the local telephone book lists independent repair shops and the service branches of manufacturing companies. The national office of firms manufacturing these appliances can furnish the addresses of their service branches. The major companies manufacturing and servicing dictating and tran scribing machines are: Dictaphone Corp., 420 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. Thomas A. Edison, Inc., Ediphone Division, West Orange, N. J. Soundscriber Corp., 146 Munson St., New Haven 4, Conn. There are a large number of companies manufacturing duplicating ma chines. A few of the more well-known firms are: Addressograph-Multigraph Corp., 1200 Babbitt Rd., Cleveland, Ohio. A. B. Dick Co., 720 West Jackson Blvd., Chicago 6, 111. (makers of “ Mimeograph” equipment). Ditto, Inc., Harrison at Oakley Blvd., Chicago 12, 111. Major manufacturers of other types of business machines with Nation wide service branches are listed in the appendix table. Those interested in working for independent repair shops may write to the National Office Machine Dealers Association, 818 Winters Bank Bldg., Dayton, Ohio, for the names of firms in their home town. The local office of the United States Employment Service should also be consulted. Veterans may get information, especially about Government financial aid while train ing, at the nearest Veterans Information Center. 10 Appendix.— M ajor Companies Employing Business Machine Servicemen1 Type of business machine manufactured and serviced 2 Company and home office address Allen Calculators, Inc_____________________________ 678 Front Ave. N W . , Grand Rapids, Mich. Burroughs Adding Machine Co___________________ 6071 Second B lvd., Detroit, Mich. X Adding machines Calcu lators Cash reg isters X Type writers X X X Account ing-statis tical machines X X Account ing-bookkeeping machines Comptometer C o_________________________________ 1735 N . Paulina St., Chicago 22, 111. X Friden Calculating Machine Co., Inc___________ 2350 Washington Ave., San Leandro, Calif. X X X International Business Machines Corp__________ 590 Madison Ave., New York 22, N . Y . X Lanston Monotype Machine C o_________________ 24th and Locust Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. X Marchant Calculating Machine Co______________ 1475 Powell St., Oakland 8, Calif. Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Inc__________ Orange, N. J. X National Cash Register Co_______________________ Dayton, Ohio. X X X X X X Ohmer Register C o_______________________________ Dayton, Ohio. Remington Rand, Inc____________________________ 315 Fourth Ave., New York 10, N . Y . X Royal Typewriter Co., Inc_______________________ 2 Park Ave., New York, N . Y . X Smith, L. C., & Corona Typewriters, In c_____ 701 E. Washington St., Syracuse 1, N . Y . X X Underwood Corp________________________________ 1 Park Ave., New York 16, N . Y . X X X X X X X X X Victor Adding Machine C o_____________________ 3900 North Rockwell St., Chicago 18, 111. Woodstock Typewriter Co______________________ Woodstock, 111. X X 1 This list includes the major companies which manufacture the types of business machines specified and which have Nation-wide service branches. 2 Excludes certain other types of business machines manufactured and serviced by the firms shown. 11 Occupational Outlook Publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics This bulletin is one of a series of reports on employment trends and op portunities in the various occupations and professions, for use in the voca tional guidance of veterans, young people in schools, and others considering the choice o f an occupation. The reports describe the long-run outlook for employment in each occupation and give information on earnings, working conditions, and the training required. Reports are usually first published in the Monthly Labor Review (sub scription price per year, $3.50) and are reprinted as bulletins. Both the Monthly Labor Review and the bulletins may be purchased from the Super intendent o f Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Employment Opportunities for Diesel-Engine Mechanics. Bulletin No. 813 (1915), price 5 cents. (Monthly Labor Review, Febru ary 1945.) Occupational Data for Counselors: A Handbook of Census Information Selected for TJse in Guidance. Bulletin No. 817 (1945), price 10 cents. (Prepared jointly with the U. S. Office o f Education.) Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupations, Part 1.—Postwar Em ployment Outlook. Bulletin No. 837-1 (1945), price 10 cents. (Monthly Labor Review, April and June 1945.) Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupations, Part 2.—Duties, Quali fications, Earnings, and Working Conditions. Bulletin No. 837-2 (1946), price 20 cents. (Monthly Labor Review, August 1946.) Employment Outlook for Automobile Mechanics. Bulletin No. 842 (1945), price 10 cents. (Monthly Labor Review, February 1946.) Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bulletin No. 844 (1946), price 10 cents. September 1945.) (Monthly Labor Review, Postwar Outlook for Physicians. Bulletin No. 863 (1946), price 10 cents. December 1945.) (Monthly Labor Review, Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations. Bulletin No. 880 (1946), price 15 cents. December 1945 and April 1946.) (Monthly Labor Review, Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Bulletin No. 881 (1946), price 10 cents. (Monthly Labor Review, June 1946.) Employment Outlook in Machine Shop Occupations. Bulletin No. 895 (1947). (In press.)