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EMPLOYMENT AFTER COLLEGE:
Report on Women Graduates
Class of 1955




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Alice K. Leopold, Director
in cooperation with

National Vocational Guidance Association
Women's Section
1956

This survey of June 1955 women graduates was under*taken by the

Women1 s Bureau of the U. S* Department of

Labor in
National

Vocational

with the tfomenfs Section of the

cooperation

Guidance Association*

but limited survey, of

women college

served as a pilot

project*

college graduates

is now under

A similar,

graduates in 1954

A survey of June 1956 women
way*

Information which will thus be available

The comparative
will enhance

the usefulness of the survey findings both to women students and to their guidance and placement counselors*

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U* S* Government
Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C* ~ Price 25 cents
1956



EMPLOYMENT AFTER COLLEGE:
Report on Women Graduates
Class of 1955

College women all over the country are asking questions about
job opportunities.

They want to know what kinds of jobs are being

filled by women graduates, and they want to know if there is a
close connection between college training and these jobs.

For this

reason, the National Vocational Guidance Association and the Women's
Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor made a survey of the women
graduates of the class of June 1955.

The survey revealed what

these women were doing in the winter of 1955-56.
Six months after graduation four-fifths of the graduates had
jobs, most of them in fields for which they had been trained•

The

majority had prepared themselves to teach, and 6 out of 10 of the
employed graduates held teaching positions.

Other graduates with

jobs directly related to their field of study included those who
had majored in nursing, biological sciences, chemistry, home economics, and mathematics.

SURVEY COVERAGE AND PURPOSES
These findings were reported in a mail questionnaire survey of
June 1955 women college graduates conducted in the winter of 1955-56




2
by the Women1 s Section of the National Vocational Guidance Association in cooperation with the Women's Bureau.

Participating in the

survey were 108 colleges and universities in all sections of the
country.

(See table 1 of Appendix.) The 3,000 women graduates sup-

plying information were selected scientifically on the basis of a
stratified random sample, and represented 81,000 women who received
baccalaureate degrees in June 1955 from coeducational and women's
colleges and universities. i/
Interest in employment and related activities of college graduates has increased with the pressing need for maximum development
and utilization of the Nation's human resources.

The highly techni-

cal nature of the industrial world has meant expanding demand for
trained specialists and continuing concern about our ability to fulfill
these demands.

Experts who are analyzing the manpower situation or

formulating manpower policies have need of information which will help
them determine the potential supply of labor.

Since college-educated

youth are a major source of the Nation's highly trained and skilled
manpower, there is interest in learning how college women are utilizing their training.

With women comprising an important part of the

civilian work force, almost one-third of the total, the effective use
of womanpower has become a subject of increasing significance.

1/ The exclusion of women who received their degree in some month
other than June and women who graduated from so-called "men's schools"
accounts for the fact that this group is smaller than the total of
104,000 women college graduates reported by the D. S. Office of Education for the school year 1954-55.



3
There is also strong personal interest on the part of young
women still in school in the experience of recent women graduates•
While anticipating marriage and family responsibilities, the majority
of college women are faced immediately after graduation with the
need or desire to support themselves.

Some select their vocational

goals quite early in life, but many enter college still undecided
about how to earn a living.

Lacking adequate knowledge and experience

to make an appropriate choice, they can benefit from advice in planning their educational program and preparing for future employment.
The final occupational choice, of course, remains with the individual.
Recognizing the value of vocational guidance and counseling,
many colleges and universities employ professionally trained personnel
to assist their students.

Since there is wide variation in the amount

of assistance available to students and in the extent to which individuals

use the assistance available, it is helpful to learn what

recent women graduates are doing and how they evaluate their college
training.
The relationship between academic education and vocational pursuits is of increasing importance as the educational system expands.
Each year since 1949, more than 100,000 women have received baccalaureate or other first professional degrees.

The total of 104,000

women college graduates during 1954-55 was one-third higher than in
1940*

A much larger figure is expected in the 1960fs when war and

postwar babies reach college age.




COMMENTS OF THE GRADUATES
Participants expressed considerable interest in the survey and
its aims.

The graduates1 rate of response, about 70 percent, was

very good*

Some indicated that their willingness to cooperate stemmed

from the hope that the survey would help future students plan a more
satisfactory educational program*
The respondents1 most provocative remarks were offered voluntarily in response to a request for "ways in which your college work
might be made more v a l u a b l e S o m e took this opportunity to express
praise and appreciation for the way college had enriched their lives.
Others offered specific suggestions for changes in curricula content*
Some who had become teachers thought their methods courses and practice teaching should have contained more information on techniques
and procedures.

Numerous graduates wished they had studied typing

and shorthand or had been able to take general courses in homemaking,
family life, or child development*

Not all felt that their courses

of study had maintained a satisfactory balance.

There were those

with liberal arts majors who wished they had had more vocational preparation and some with job-orientated majors who longed for more
cultural subjects.
Among the women with job-oriented majors was a nursing graduate
who "would have enjoyed taking more liberal arts courses11 and a
pharmacy graduate who regretted that "due to the nature of the phar^
macy program . . * courses outside the science field could not have




5
been taken."

epical comments of graduates who thought they had

received insufficient vocational preparation follows

". . . my college work would have been more valuable if I
would have been given . . . a better orientation on what
to expect in opening positions after graduation."
" . . . more valuable if it had trained me for a specific
job rather than being quite so general."
" . . . more valuable . . . if each student could secure a
semester of outside placement in her field of study . . .
to acquire all-important experience and confidence."
"I do believe it is the responsibility of the college to
let its students know what they will be facing when they
graduate. College fosters many dreams and ambitions which
cannot survive disillusionment in the common world."
"At no time did I feel I had adequate information on what
the various curriculum offered and what the requirements
and job possibilities were for each. Thus, I drifted into
elementary education rather than choosing after knowing
what all the possibilities were."
"One of my pet peeves is the lack of help that college
placement offices seem to provide for women."
"I feel my indecision now indicates lack of careful thought
and questioning in college, particularly on my part . . •
plea would be for vocational guidance of a more personal
nature."
While these comments do not represent the view of all the graduates, they do reflect the feeling that much more individual counseling could be given students to help them choose the direction
and tools for a more satisfying life.
DESCRIPTION CP GRADUATES
Six months after graduation the typical woman graduate of the
class of June 1955 was single, 22 years old, and employed.



One-third

6
of the survey group were married, and about 2 percent were widowed,
separated, or divorced.

(Table 2.) Almost all were concerned with

paid employment, either in the present or near future.
graduates, 80 were employed.

More than one-tenth of these employed

women were also attending school, usually part time.
of every 100 graduates were attending school —
8 on a part-time basis.

Of every 100

In all, 17 out

9 as full-time students,

(liable 3.)

The husbands of one-fourth of the married graduates were reported
as attending school.

The fact that a higheivthan-average proportion

of these wives were working (79 percent compared with 69 percent for
all wives) reflects the tendency for some of today1s brides to work in
order that they may help send their husbands to school.

(Table 4*)

Married women with husbands in military service reported the
smallest proportion of employed graduates (only 52 percent).

Thirteen

percent of the group were looking for work, and 33 percent indicated
they were not in the labor market.

The latter percentages, which were

higher than those of other married women, were related to the fact that
many of these wives were living in small towns near their husbands1
stations of duty.
As was to be expected, over four-fifths of the women were 21
through 24 years of age.

But, 8 percent of the women graduated from

college in June 1955 were at least 30 years of age.

Most of these

women had returned to college specifically for teacher training.
More than 5,300 of the women 30 years of age or over represented in
the survey had obtained a teaching certificate and about nine-tenths
of the certificate holders were teaching in the winter of 1955-56.



7
The academic degrees of the women were divided mainly (and
about evenly) between B.A. and B.S.

Most of the women had special-

ized in subjects traditional to women.

Education

far outranked

other subjects as an undergraduate major. Almost 35 percent had
specialized in this field.

(There were also 3 percent who had

majored in physical education.)

Next most popular major subjects

were English with 10 percent of the graduates, and home economics
with 8 percent.

Relatively few of the women secured training

which could be utilized in shortage occupations other than teaching.

For example, about 5 percent had majored in nursing and other

health fields; 3 percent in biological sciences; and 2 percent
each in physical sciences and in mathematics —

all shortage areas

needing more trained people.
GRADUATES CONTINUING IN SCHOOL
Nine percent of all the graduates were attending school full
time and 8 percent were part-time students.

Evidently stimulated by

the demand for well-trained specialists, these women were continuing
their studies in a wide variety of fields.

The largest groups, how-

ever, were studying education, English, health services, business

2/ Includes only graduates who reported education as their
major subject. In addition, many graduates who reported other
majors were qualified to teach*



8
and commerce, sociology and social work, home economics, or music.
Of those not attending school in the winter of 1955-56, two-thirds
reported they planned to do graduate work in the future.
Most of the full-time students were working toward a master1s
degree; a few toward a doctoratej and most of the others toward a
certificate for teaching or other type of work*

Ihose who indicated

they were candidates for a degree or certificate are shown below:
Percent
Candidate for:
Bachelor^ degree in another field - - - - - - Mister1 s degree
Doctoral degree
Other degrees (first professional)

2
1/64
2
3

Certificate in:
Teaching
Health fields
Other fields
Not a candidate - -

1/ 13
8
2

-

—

—

11

1/ Includes 5 percent of the graduates who were studying
for both a master1s degree and a teaching certificate*

One-fourth of the full-time students received scholarships
averaging approximately $1,000, and one-fifth were graduate assistants earning about the same amount.
The extent to which the 1955 women college graduates were continuing their education varied with undergraduate major*

The high-

est percentages attending school full time were found among those
who had majored in natural sciences —



35 percent of the physical

9
science majors and 29 percent of the biological science majors.
Some 23 percent of the women who had majored in music and 21 percent
of the psychology majors reported they were attending school full
time.

On the other hand, less than 5 percent of those who had majored

in education, nursing, mathematics, physical education, and business
and commerce were graduate students; there were relatively large proportions of employed women among these groups.

(Table 5.)

FIRST JOBS OF RECENT GRADUATES
Since first jobs often have a strong influence on employment
careers, it is notable that almost all the women graduates commented
favorably on their first jobs.

As may be seen below, high percent-

ages of graduates answered affirmatively to the following questions:

Percent
"Yes11
Does job provide step forward? Does it relate to college major?
Is it type of job hoped for?
Does it meet economic needs?

90
84
83

81

Much of this favorable reaction can be credited to the good
employment conditions encountered by the class of 1955.

But some of

the satisfaction may also be associated with the appreciation many
newcomers have for the valuable experience gained on a first job.
However, as previously quoted comments indicate, some might have
made different choices in college if they had had more knowledge of
all various job possibilities.




10
Seventeen percent of the employed graduates indicated that their
jobs were not the type they preferred*
sons for accepting them*

They offered a variety of rea-

The major reasons are listed below in the

order of importances
Percent
Financial reasons
Good experience or opportunity
Good location or hours
Only job available
Temporary or part-time work - - - - - - - - - - - - Other reasons

20
18
16
15
11
20

Almost two-fifths of this group were interested in teaching*
Many of them were actually teaching at the time of the survey but
not in the grade or subject of their choice.

The types of jobs pre-

ferred by other relatively large groups of graduates were in the
fields of social work, arts or painting, entertainment, health services, home economics, and personnel work*
Examination of the types of jobs obtained by the 1955 graduates
reveals both breadth and concentration of activity.

Altogether, five

occupational groups covered nearly four^-fifths of the working graduates.

Teaching led the occupational list.

Nearly 40,000 women, 61

percent of the employed graduates, reported that they held teaching
jobs.

Other large occupational groups were secretaries and stenog-

raphers (4,900); nurses (2,600); recreation, religious, social, and
welfare workers (2,000)j and biological technicians (1,900). (ifcble

6.)
Despite this heavy occupational concentration, some graduates
were doing work considered relatively unusual for women.



Among the

11
sample of respondents were one or more of the following:

City plan-

ning technician, research engineer, legal administrator of estates,
assistant curator of a museum, geologist, programmer for computing
machines, industrial relations assistant, and landscape architect.
Major assistance in locating jobs was given to one-third of the
graduates by their college or university placement bureaus and to
one-fourth of the graduates by their families or friends.

Mstny re-

ported the school placement bureaus most helpful with shortage skills.
This is not surprising, since college campuses are scouted most frequently by employers with a shortage of personnel such as teachers,
chemists, mathematicians, and statisticians.

Most of the nurses, how-

ever, learned about their jobs from family or friends or by applying
directly to a hospital—often where they had trained.

Employment

agencies, both private and public, were mentioned principally by secretaries, stenographers, typists, and other clerical workers. (Table 7.)
In the opinion of more than four-fifths of the graduates, their
first jobs were related to their undergraduate majors.

This

opinion

was substantiated by the fact that most of the graduates reported
employment in jobs for which they had been trained.

In the predom-

inant group, those who had prepared for teaching, fully three-fourths
of the women with teaching certificates were employed as teachers.
In addition, among other employed graduates, over nine-tenths of
those with nursing majors became nurses; two-thirds of those who
majored in business and commerce became secretaries, stenographers,
or miscellaneous clerical workers; two-thirds of those with majors



12
in biological science became biological technicians; and one-half
of the physical science graduates (most of whom were chemistry majors)
became chemists.

(Table 8.)

Graduates who had jobs not directly related to their undergraduate major were using their training in a variety of ways.

For

instance, of the employed women with psychology majors, 22 percent
were teachers; 20 percent were recreation, religious, social, and
welfare workers; 15 percent were miscellaneous professional workers;
17 percent were secretaries and stenographers; 12 percent were in
other clerical jobs; 8 percent were bank and insurance workers; and
6 percent were employed in other fields.
THE PREDOMINANT JOB:

TEACHING

The demand for more teachers to staff the Nation's expanding
school system has focused special attention on the college youths
who are taking teacher training and accepting teaching jobs.

In the

June 1955 class, almost three-fourths of the women took some courses
in education.

Most of these secured a teaching certificate and were

teaching in the winter of 1955-56.

Those who became teachers con-

stituted 87 percent of the graduates with elementary-school certificates and 63 percent of those with secondary-school certificates.
About one-tenth of the certificate holders accepted other jobs and
a small proportion were unemployed, although some of these had
arranged to teach during the following semester.

About U percent of

the certificate holders were continuing their education and about
6 percent were not in the labor market.



(Table 9.)

13
Over half of the certificate holders were certified to teach
in elementary schools only; one-third were certified for secondary
schools only; and about one-tenth held certificates for both types
of schools.

In view of the widespread concern over the shortage

of science teachers, it is important to consider the subjects which
the recent teacher trainees were qualified to teach. Among the
21,000 holders of secondary-school certificates covered by the survey were many who could teach more than one subject.

The following

percentages represent the proportions of graduates certified to
teach each subject:
Percent
English
Fine arts
Home economics - - Social sciences Business education -

3422
18
18
13

Natural sciences

Percent

12

- -

Physical education
History
Mathematics - - - - Modern languages Other

11
8
7
6
5

Four out of five certificates entitled the holders to teach in
one State and most of the other certificates, in two States.

About

U percent of the teachers among the June 1955 graduates did not have
a certificate; a number of these were taking education courses in
addition to teaching.
Among the nearly AO, 000 teachers represented in the survey, about
7 out of 10 were employed in elementary schools.

About two-thirds

of the 26,000 elementary-school teachers in the group were teaching
grades 1 through
postwar years.

the classes filled with children born in the
Seme of the graduates surveyed were teaching several

grades; the figures following show the percentages of elementary
school teachers


with students in each grade listed:

14
Percent

Percent
7
24
27
25
20

Kindergarten
First
Second
Third
Fourth

Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eighth

18
16
7
5

Over three-fourths of the elementary-schooi teachers had majored
in education and over three-fourths of the secondary-school teachers
reported a subject-matter major*
The principal subjects taught by the June 1955 graduates who
were secondary-school teachers in the winter of 1955-56 were:

English,

which was taught by 28 percent of the group} home economics by 21
percent} physical education by 14 percent; business education by 12
percent; fine arts, history, and mathematics, each by 9 percent; and
natural sciences and social sciences, each by 8 percent.

Some of the

secondary-school teachers reported they were teaching more than one
subject.
FIRST-YEAR EARNINGS
The average salary of the women graduates employed full time
was $3,141 a year.

Earnings of most of the women ranged between

$2,500 and $4,000.

About 12 percent earned less than $2,500 and

almost 7 percent more than $4,000.
Some significant differences in the women1s earnings were noted
by occupation and by undergraduate major.

The best-paying jobs were

held by chemists (averaging $3,900) and mathematicians and statisticians ($3,850)*



Over a third of the women in these occupations

15
earned as much as $4,000 a year.

Relatively high average salaries

were also reported by nurses ($3,438), home economists ($3,341), and
recreation, religious, social, and welfare workers ($3,214).

Although

the average starting salary for teachers ($3,197) was below these
groups, it compared favorably with others, such as biological technicians ($3,038), copywriters, editors, and reporters ($3,020), secretaries and stenographers ($2,895), and typists ($2,704).

(Table 10.)

Considered in terms of their undergraduate major, the graduates
with training in the physical science and health fields tended to
receive the highest pay.

Average salaries above $3,400 were received

by those with majors in physical science, nursing, other health fields,
and mathematics.

Also receiving above-average earnings were the women

with majors in sociology and social work ($3,214), education ($3,204),
and physical education ($3,174).

Those who had majored in art ($2,660),

foreign languages ($2,847), and music ($2,987) had lower average salaries. (Table 11.)
OTHER ASPECTS
The women graduates viewed their college education as something
more than preparation for future employment.

By their own report,

only one-^fourth of the group were interested in a career.

Another

fourth said they expected to work "indefinitely" or "only as necessary,"
but did not have a career in mind.

Almost half of the recent gradu-

ates considered paid employment as a temporary activity between
school and marriage.




(Table 12.)

16
The graduates were asked to indicate whether they considered
their college experience a help in the role of housewife or mother.
Of those who responded to this question, nine-tenths answered,
M

Tes,n

Nearly three-fourths of all the women were active members

of some organized group contributing time as well as dues, and onefourth of these were officers.

Almost half of all the graduates

belonged to a church or religious organization; over one-third to
a professional society related to work; almost one-fourth to a
social or community welfare organization; one-fifth to an educational or cultural group; a smaller proportion to a recreational
club; and a few to a political organization or a labor union.
Thus, in their roles as workers, homemakers, and citizens,
the recent women graduates were undertaking adult responsibilities.
They were turning their special skills, their trained minds, to
the service of society, as well as to the fulfillment of their individual aims.

While their decisions remain essentially personal to

the women themselves, the sum of their individual choices is of
vital interest and concern to those studying the utilization of our
Nation's trained men and women.




A P P E N D I X

-

G E N E R A L

T A B L E S

Note 1:

Survey included only colleges and universities
granting bachelor1s degrees and classified as
women's schools or coeducational.

Note 2:

Due to rounding, percentages in these tables
may not add to 100.




Table 1.—Total June 1955 Women College Graduates and Survey Participants
Total

Participants

Item
Percent

81,108

100

2,919

100

23,975
21,660
25,952
9,521

30
27
32
12

990
857

766
306

3*
29
26
10

81,108

100

2,919

100

8,027
17,207
26,017
18,128
11,729

10
21
32
22
Ik

252
631
997
377

9
22
3^
23
13

1,006

100

108

100

12

Vomen graduate s, total

Number

Percent

Number

1
5
19

10
22
32
19
25

By region:
Northeast
North Central
South
West
Women graduates, total
By college or university (number of
vomen graduates):
500 and over
250 to b99
100 to 2k9
50 to 99
Under 50
Colleges and universities, total l/

662

By number of vomen graduates:
500 and over
250 to b99 —
100 to 2k9
50 to 99
Under 50

-

-

-

193
266
kBl

26
W

9

20
30
18
23

1/ Colleges and universities granting bachelor's degrees and classified as women's schools or
coeducational.







Table 2a.--Age and Marital Status of Graduates

Age and marital status

Number

Percent

Graduates reporting age

80,586

100

Under 21 years

l,64l
17,978
39,617
11,684
3,172
6,1*9k

2
22
49
15
k
8

Graduates reporting marital status

80,966

100

Married
Widowed, separated, divorced

51,911
27,^78
1,577

6k
3k

A.

22
23
25
30

Age

years
and 2k years
to 29 years
years and over

B.

Marital Status

2

Table 2b.—Age and Marital Status of Graduates
Marital status

Total

Married
Age

With childrenNumber^ Percent

Single
Total

Number of graduates

Vidoved, separated,
divorced

80,568

51,693
100

Percent - - — -

6k

Under
6 to
6 years-/ 17 years

With
no
children

Total

With
no
children

With
children

27,333 ; 3,366

2,38^

21,583

1,5^2

7U5

797

k

3

27

2

1

1

100

3U

Pei•cent distr Ibution
100
Under 21 years
21 years
22 years
23 and 2k years —
25 to 29 years
30 years and over -

17,978
39,599
11,68U
3,172
6,h9k

100

100

2
22
k9
15
k
8

2
25
53
15
3
2

2
18
kk
15
5

16

100
8
36
28
16
12

l/ Excludes 5U0 graduates vho did not report age and/or marital status.
2/ Includes 339 graduates who also had children 6 to 17 years of age.




100

100

100
2

2
98

2
21
51
Ik
k
8

8
5
9
77

'

100
3

12
k
Ik
70

5
5
k
83




Table 3.--Employment or School Status of Graduates

Employment or school status

Number

Percent

Attending school only

1/

100
71

7,078
5,966
485
627

9
7
1
1

6,816
6,428
388

8
8
1/

2,916
6,119

Employed and attending school
Employed full time, school part time —
Employed part time, school part time
School full time, employed part time

80,852
57,923
55,464
2,459

wumDer reporting bwiuud

4
8

68
3

Less than one percent.

Comment:

The total number of graduates holding jobs was 65,001-full time, 6l,Impart time, 3*571The total number of graduates attending school was 13,89^—full time, 7,055;
part time, 6,839-

Table 4.—Employment or School Status of Married Women Graduates and Their Husbands
Total
Status of married
women graduates

Number of married women graduates

Number^

Status of husband

Percent

Total

Attending
school 2 /

In
military
service

Other

15,272
100

13,724

1,548

6,395

5,283

145

56

27,095

Percent

Employed 2/
Full
Part
time
time

51

6

24

19

1

Percerrt distribution

100

Total
Employed
Employed only
Full time
Part time
Employed and attending school
part time
Attending school
Seeking work
Not seeking work

1

100

100

100

100

100

100

71
66

71

79
74
72
2

52
50
41
9

100
100

1,481

69
65
59
5

1,149
1,117
1,716
5,567

4
4
6
21

5
8
1
12

1
3
13
33

18,695
17,5^6

16,065

60

66
61

6

6

67
61
52
8

5
3
6
20

5
3
7
19

7
4
2
27

1/ Excludes 383 married women vho did not report their own and/or their husbands' status.
~
L ^ ^ ^ n f ^ 6 ^ 1 ? 8 f u 3 4 o r **** t l m e a n d
attending school part time are included in "employed";
those attending school full time and employed part time are included under "attending school."




Table 5a.«Undergraduate Major of June 1955 Women College Graduates

Undergraduate major

Number

Percent

Total reporting major

78,819

100

Art Biological sciences
Business and commerce
Education
English
Health fields
History
Home economics
Journalism
Languages
Mathematics

2,118
2,521
3,^95
27,41+0
7,697
1,371
2,113
6,155
956
1,835
1,3^5
2,k3b
2,653
2,397
1,392
2,352
3,200
3,631
1,630
2,084

3
3
k
35
10
2
3
8
1
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
k
5
2
3

-

Nursing
Physical education
Physical sciences
Psychology
Social sciences (not elsewhere classified)
Sociology and social work
Speech and dramatic art
Other majors




Table 5b, --Undergraduate Major of Graduates, by Employment or School Status
Total

2/
Employed

Number—^

Number of graduates

Art
Biological sciences
Business and commerce —
Education
English
Health fields
—
History
Home economics
Journalism
Languages
Mathematics
Music
Nursing
Physical education
Physical sciences
Psychology
Social sciences (not elsewhere
classified)
Sociology and social work
'Speech and dramatic art
Other majors

100

1/
2/

2,100
2,477
3,495
27,416
7,647
1,371
2,113
6,129
956
1,835
1,345
2,378
2,653
2,397
1,392
2,352
3,178
3,631

1,630

2,084

Seeking
work

Not
seeking
work

7,366

2,866

5,955

79

9

4

8

68
65
91
88
72

13
29

Percent

78,579

Percent

Attending
school 1/

62,392

Undergraduate major

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

77

67
79

80
65
83
71
93

81
62
61

73

70
87

67

4
3
15
12
12
7
9
13
3
23
3
4
35
21
13
14
9
13

3
1
2
3

6
5
7
7
3

8

10

1
4

16
5
4

6
7
5
14
7
8
14
4
7
3

2

11
2

5

14

5

10

2
2

14

5

15

2

Excludes 2,529 graduates who did not report undergraduate major and/or employment or school status.
In this table graduates working full or part time and also attending school part time are included in
"employed") those attending school full time and employed part time are included under "attending school."




Table 6.--Type of Work of Employed Graduates

Type of work

Graduates reporting type of work
Bank, insurance workers
Buyers, assistant buyers, store managers, trainees
Chemists
•
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Copywriters, editors, reporters
Home economists
Mathematicians, statisticians
Nurses
Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation, religious, social, welfare workers
Sales clerks, miscellaneous retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Teachers
Grade school
High, junior high school
Other
Technicians, biological
Typists
Other types of work




Number

64,752

100

689

1
1
1
5

914
470
3A31

650
887

449
2,585
3,040
2,005
679

4,908

39,552

26,637

10,145
2,770
1,929
1,147
1,417

1

l
1
4
5
3
1
8
61
4l
16
4
3
2
2

Table 7 — T y p e of Work and Primary Job Source of Employed Graduates

Total
Tvue of

work

«

Government
employment
service

21,158

3,040

1,653

100

34

5

3

668

100

14

26

893
470
3>368

2,333

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

32
44
19
10
22
35
9

3,021

100

20

6

3

1,850

100

18

6

7

679
4,836
37,742
25,230
9,793
2,719
1,912
1,121
1,273

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

9
20
44
44
47
30
17
19
10

Percent

62,130

Percent
Bank, insurance workers —
Buyers, assistant buyers,
store managers, trainees
Chemists
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Copywriters, editors, reporters
Home economists
Mathematicians, statisticians Nurses
Professional workers,
miscellaneous
—
Recreation, religious, social,
welfare workers
Sales clerks, miscellaneous
retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Teachers
Grade school
High, Junior high school Other
Technicians, biological
Typists
Other types of work

College or
university
placement
bureau

Private
employment
agency

1/
Numbei—

Number of graduates

Percent of employed graduates listing as primary job source

650
865

6

7
12
2
1
3
—

3
20
5

Other

1,767

15,809

18,703

3

25

30

16

34

10

2
7
10
11
1

17
4
29
29
33
33
26

44
37
17
38
35
14
57

6

23

41

41

27

34
32
23
24
20
24
30
24
40

36
22
30
30
27
43
42
11
28

—

8
5

—

20
12
11
14
1

Family
Newspaper
advertiseor
friend
ment

—

—

4

6

3
9
1
1
1
3
2
21
4

1/ Excludes employed graduates vfco did not report occupational group and/or primary job source.



—

11
5
1
1
2
1
6
5
12

Table {}•— Occupational Distribution of Employed Graduates, by Undergraduate Major-Continued
Percent of employed graduates with undergraduate major in

Total
Type of work
Number^

Number of graduates

Percent

62,

Art

l,Ull

Biological
sciences

Business
and
commerce

Education

1,622

3,180

2*1,158

Percent distribution

100

Total
Bank, insurance workers
Buyers, assistant buyers, store
managers, trainees
Chemists —
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Copywriters, editors, reporters
Home economists —
Mathematicians, statisticians
Nurses
Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation, religious, social,
welfare workers
Sales clerks, miscellaneous retail
workers
Secretaries, stenographers
—
Teachers
Grade school
High, Junior high school
Other
Technicians, biological
Typists
Other types of work
"See footnotes at end of table/1



670
898
1+70
3,353

650
829

W9
2,523
2,998

100

1
1
5
1
1
1

5

8
61

2

2

5

1/

2

18
1

1

2/

—

—

2/

3

1

2/
2
95

8

82

1
3

5

10

8
5

—

66
5
3

k

k€>
k

Ik
—

2/

1
2
1

—

—
—

15

—

18
3*
23
5
6

7

k
—

5
1

h

1

IO
f
16
1
*
3

2

—

5

18

100

£/

—

5

679
^,726
38,011
25,396
9,958
2,657
1,929
1,1*7
1,M7

100

1

k

9
5
—

3

100

—

1

2,005

100

—

—

2

—

2

k

1

63
26
35
3
1
2

k

Table {}•— Occupational Distribution of Employed Graduates, by Undergraduate Major

- Continued

Percent of employed graduates with undergraduate major in
Type of work

Number of graduates

Health
fields

1>056

History

Home
economics

1M1

Journalism

765

languages

Mathematics

1,200

1,118

Percent distribution
Total
Bank, insurance workers
Buyers, assistant buyers, store
managers, trainees
Chemists
Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Copywriters, editors, reporters
Home economists
Mathematicians, statisticians
Nurses
Professional workers, miscellaneous —
Recreation, religious, social, welfare
workers
Sales clerks, miscellaneous retail
workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Teachers
Grade school
High, junior high school
Other
Technicians, biological
Typists
Other types of work
"See footnote at end of table/1



100

100

100

100

100

100

k

6
22

k
10

10

35
1

15
32

l

3

3

29

1

32

6

k

3

6

k

13

56
32

55

k

2k

k2

5

17

kk

8

21

k

5

5

57

5/
2

12

1

6

18

k

6
53

10

Table {}•— Occupational Distribution of Employed Graduates, by Undergraduate Major - Continued
Percent of employed graduates with undergraduate major in
Type of vork

2M9

Number of graduates

Physical
sciences

Psychology

1,950

Nursing

Physical
education

896

1,423

Social
sciences
n.e.c.
2,375

Speech
and
dramatic
art

Other
majors

2,532

1,408

1,389

Sociology
and
social
vork

Percent distribution

100

100

Bank, insurance vorkers
Buyers, assistant buyers, store
managers, trainees

"96
Professional vorkers,
miscellaneous
Recreation, religious, social,
welfare vorkers
—
Sales clerks, miscellaneous
retail vorkers
Secretaries, stenographers

100

100

7

2

2

3

2

1

1
"4

8

11
4

4

11

9

2

1

1

—
1
1

7

"85
11
59
15

2

3

10

2

12

24

20

6

27

1

17

4
17
22
17
3
2

l
13
39
18
18
4

2
7
40
29
8
3
1
5
4

3
15
41
18
12
10

4
17
16
11
3
1
1
3
8

23
2
2
7
3
18
2
2
2
1
Other types of vork
2
14
1/ Excludes employed graduates vho did not report occupation 3and/or undergraduate major.
2/ Less than one percent.
Note.—K.e.c. means not elsevhere classified.




2

1
13

1
Grade school
High, Junior high school
Other - — - —
Technicians, biological

100

3
3

" 4

Clerical workers, miscellaneous Copywriters, editors, reporters Home economists
Mathematicians, statisticians
—

100

5

100

100
8

Total

"I
2

Table 9-—Teacher Training and Certification of Graduates, by Employment and School Status

Percent of graduates who are

llftto 1

Employed
Teacher training
and certification

As teachers in

Other
occupations

Attending
school 2/

Seeking
work

Not
seeking
work

Total

Grade
school

High,
Junior
high

Other
schools

39,233

26,448

10,110

2,675

24,204

7,359

2,860

6,001

100

49

33

13

3

30

9

4

8

100
100
100
100
100

65
83
68
43
3

44
67
47
16
1

17
11
19
23
1

4
4
2
4
1

18
5
16
34
66

7
3
7
11
17

3
3
4
4
4

6
6
5
7
11

39,173

26,477

10,044

2,652

23,430

7,204

2,769

5,806

100

50

14

11

1

10

9

4

7

48,291
25,941
16,191

100
100
100

78
87
63

53
84
6

20

5
2

1

51

5

9
4
19

4

1

6

3
3
5

6
5
7

4,806
1,353
30,091

100
100
100

81
68
6

43
47
3

21
7

17
14

1

1

7
11
63

5
15
18

2
2
4

5
5
10

Number^

Number of graduates

Percent

79,657

Percent
Graduates vith:
Teacher training, total —
Education major
Education minor
Some education courses —
No education courses - — - -

59,064
30,144
4,787
24,133
20,593

Number of graduates

78,382

Percent
Graduates with:
Teaching certificates4total
Elementary education
Secondary education
Elementary, secondary
education
Other type of certificate
No teachnng certificate —
l7
2/

Excludes graduates who did not report their employment and school status and/or teacher training and certification.
Includes 627 graduates attending school full time and working part time.




Table 10.--Type of Work and Annual Salary of Employed Graduates

Number^

Type of work

Average
annual
salary

59,7*7

Sales clerks, miscellaneous retail workers
Secretaries, stenographers
Grade school
High, junior high school
Technicians, biological
Other types of work

22,261

13,255

4,002

12

22

37

22

7

26

**

30

___

53

- - -

666

2,681*

100

893
1*70

2,791
3,900
2,838
3,020
3,3*1
3,8*8
3 A38
3,193

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3,21*
2,*20
2,895
3,197
3,21+2
3,061
3,275
3,038
2,701*
3,008

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3,06k

—

12,862

$3,1*1

Percent
Bank, insurance workers
Buyers, assistant buyers, store managers,
trainees

7,367
100

Number of graduates

Clerical workers, miscellaneous
Copywriters, editors, reporters
Home economists
Mathematicians, statisticians
Nurses
Professional workers, miscellaneous
Recreation, religious, sociali welfare

Total

Percent of employed graduates receiving
annual salary of
$4,000
$3,000
$3,500
$2,500
Under
to
to
and
to
$2,500
Over
3 J 999
3,*99
2,999

650
791
1*08
2,252
2,510
1,733
1*05
^,506
37,^18
25,800
9,578

2,CkO
1,720
996
1,218

6
16

17
20

30
21
32
12
*
31
30
3*
2*
1

9

18
10
*
31
18
16
2*
1
5
33
39
2*

*3
16
38
10
*
12
*
3*
18
*
38
25
11

17
—

—

20
8
6

38
37
19
—

—

**
19
10
8
15
10
10
30
31

41
8
7
27
34
22
27

39
2
6
18
36
22
14
8

22
—

12

1
6
7
2
7
5

26
27
25
30
14
6
17

—

1/ Excludes part-time workers and those full-time workers who did not report salary; the total includes 1*7 women who
did not report their occupation.



17

Table 11.--Undergraduate Major and Annual Salary of Employed Graduates

Undergraduate major

Number of graduates

1/
Number-

Average
annual
salary

59,7*7

Percent of employed graduates receiving annual
salary of
$3,500 • $4,000
$3,000
$2,500
Under
to
and
to
to
Total
$2,500
over
3,999
3,*99
2,999

$3,1*1
100

Art
Biological sciences
Business and commerce

Health fields

Social sciences, not elsewhere classified
Sociology, social work

1,29*
1,*55
3,027
22,962
5,09*
950
1,339
*,5*3
657
1,131
l,oU7
l,*88
2,123
1,913
679
1,102
2,215
2,*70
1,182
1,232

2,660
3,017
3,135
3,20*
3,015
3,*69
3,092
3,037
2,981
2,8^9
3,*02
2,987
3,*51
3,17*
3,670
2,862
3,122
3,21*
3,021
3,1*0

12,862

7,367
12

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

29
10
3
8
17
3
9
20
16
32
1
25
7
13
5
30
15
7
19

16

!

22,261

13,255

*,002

22

37

22

7

31
*0
31

29
30
**
*1
39
37
*6
28
*6
37
36
*1
32
38

10
1*
19
27
13
3*
17
26
15
11
2*
17
18
3*
29
1*
27
1*
11
16

18

25
9
27

20

23

20
23
l*

18
13

10

22
22
22
36
29

2?

31
30

*6
23
27

1/ Excludes all part-time workers, and those full-time workers who did not report salary; the total includes
who did not report their undergraduate major.




"~6
3
5
6
16
1
5
15
3
25
2
31
*
7
11

11
12

l,Bkk

Table 12. --Future Employment Plane of June 1955 Women College Graduates
Marital status

Total
Employment plans
. *
Number—

Number of graduates

1

Percent

k8,8l3

75,592
100

Percent

Single

65

Married

Widowed,
separated,
divorced

25,350

1,^9

34

2

ribution
Percent dist]
100

100

100

100

19,639

26

27

21

61

11,972

16

16

15

13

8,791
27,539
4,021
3,315
315

12

6
42
8

22
28

20
5
2

Total
Plan to have a career
Plan to work indefinitely, have no interest
in a career
Plan to work only as necessary-economic
reasons
Plan to work short while after marriage
Plan to stop working when married
Do not plan to work in forseeable future
Other plans

36
5
4
2/

2/

S/
12
1

1 / Excludes 5,516 graduates who did not report future employment plan and/or marital status.
2/ Less than one percent.