View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L /Q C j§

Bulletin No. 1297
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
Prepared for the

UNITED STATES ATOMIC


B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S

ENERGY COMMISSION

E w a n C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r




EMPLOYMENT IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD
A 1960 Occupational Survey

Prepared for the
UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COM M ISSION

Bulletin No. 1297
April 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
E w a n C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r

For sale by tho Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 30 cents







PREFACE
This bulletin (No. 1297) presents the results of an employment and occupa­
tional survey of major U.S. Atomic Energy Commission prime contractors. The
survey, which was conducted for the Atomic Energy Commission by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor, relates primarily to employ­
ment by occupation in January 1960 and employment which was anticipated in
January 1961.
The Atomic Energy Commission and the Bureau of Labor Statistics are grate­
ful to the organizations and individuals whose cooperation made the study pos­
sible, especially to the establishments that supplied the statistical data on
employment.
The study was carried out under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Com­
mission's Office of Industrial Relations, Oscar S. Smith, Director. Valuable
assistance was provided in all phases of the survey by John Chapman, Chief, Con­
tractor Personnel Branch of that office, and by John Rudolph of his staff. All
photographs were supplied by the Atomic Energy Commission.
The survey was conducted in the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Division
of Manpower and Employment Statistics. Mannie Kupinsky directed all work
on the project. Arthur Neef prepared the bulletin with the assistance of Anna
M. Latimer.




Contents
Introduction___________________________________________________________________
Summary of findings____________________________________________________________
Nature of the atomic energy field__________________________________________________
Distribution of employment by occupation__________________________________________
Engineers__________________________________________________________________
Scientists.. _ _______________________________________________________________
Technicians________________________________________________________________
Other technical personnel_____________________________________________________
Skilled workers_____________________________________________________________
Other occupations___________________________________________________________
Anticipated changes in occupational employment__________________________________
Distribution of employment by segment_____________________________________________
Atomic Energy Commission research facilities____________________________________
Defense production facilities__________________________________________________
Reactor manufacture________________________________________________________
Production of feed materials and enriched uranium________________________________
Construction of nuclear facilities_____________________________
Private research laboratories_____________________________________________
Production of special materials________________________________________________
Uranium milling____________________________________________________________
Fuel element fabrication______________________________________________________
Power reactor operation______________________________
Distribution of employment in the Atomic Energy Commission__________________________
Tables:
1 Employment in the atomic energy f e d by segment, January 1959, January 1960, and
.
il,
anticipated employment in January 1961__________________
2 Employment in the atomic energy f e d by occupational group, January 1960____________
.
il,
3 Percentage distribution of employees in the atomic energy f e d in selected occupational
.
il
groups, by primary work function, January 1960_______________________________
4 Regional distribution of employees in the atomic energy f e d January 1960__________
.
il,
5 Employment of engineers in the atomic energy f e d by occupation and primary work
.
il,
function, January 1960____________________________________________________
6 . Employment of scientists in the atomic energy f e d by occupation and primary work
il,
function, January 1960____________________________________________________
7 Employment of technicians and other technical personnel in the atomic energy f e d by
.
il,
occupation and primary work function, January 1960___ _______________________ _
8 . Employment of skilled workers in the atomic energy f e d by occupation and primary work
il,
function, January 1960____________________________________________________
9 Changes in occupational employment anticipated by survey respondents, January 1960.
January 1961___! ________________________________________________________
_
1 0 . Percentage distribution of employees in the atomic energy f e d by segment and occupa­
il,
tional group, January 1960_________________________________________________
1 1 . Employment in Atomic Energy Commission research f c l t e , by occupational group and
aiiis
percent in R & D for selected occupational groups, January 1960__________________
1 2 . Employment in defense production f c l t e , by occupational group and by primary work
aiiis
function for selected occupational groups, January 1960_________________________
13. Employment in reactor manufacture, by occupational group and by primary work func­
tion for selected occupational groups, January 1960_____________________________
14. Employment in the production of feed materials and enriched uranium, by occupational
group and by primary work function for selected occupational groups, January 1960_.
15. Employment in the construction of nuclear f c l t e , by occupational group, January I960.
aiiis
16. Employment in private research laboratories, by occupational group and percent in R & D
for selected occupational groups, January 1960_______________________________

iv




Page
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
18
18
19

2
3
3
3
6
7
8
9
11
12
13
14
14
15
15
16

Contents—Continued
Tables— Continued
Page
1
7. Employment in the production of special materials, by occupational group and by primary
work function for selected occupational groups, January 1960_____________________
18. Employment in uranium milling, by occupational group, January 1960_______________
19. Employment in fuel element fabrication, by occupational group and by primary work
function for selected occupational groups, January 1960__________________________
20. Employment in power reactor operation, by occupational group, January 1960_________
21. Employment in the Atomic Energy Commission, by occupational group and selected
occupation, October 31, 1959________________________________________________

19

Appendixes:
A. Tables____________________________________________________________________
B. Scope and method of survey_____________________________________________________________
Survey coverage_________________________________________________________
Conduct of the survey________________________________
Definitions______________________________________________
_
Classification of establishments by segment___________________________ _ ____
Adjustments for nonresponse______________________________________________
C. Questionnaire and covering letters______________________________________________
D. A brief description of atomic energy___________________________________
E. Applications of atomic energy_________________________________________________

20
22
22
22
22
23
24
25
33
35

17
17
18
18

Appendix tables:
A-l.
A-2.

Employment in the atomic energy f e d by occupation and segment, January I960--__
il,
Employment anticipated for January 1961 in the atomic energy f e d by occupation
il,
and segment____________________________________________________________




20
21

v




EMPLOYMENT IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD
Introduction
This bulletin summarizes the findings of a survey
of employment in the atomic energy field that was
conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics under the sponsorship of
the Atomic Energy Commission (A EC ). The
survey was carried out in the spring and summer
of 1960. Employment and occupational data, on
an establishment basis and as of January 1960,
were collected by mail questionnaire from estab­
lishments which were engaged in atomic energy
activities under direct contract with the
Commission.
The Survey covered 159 establishments which
held major prime contracts with the Atomic
Energy Commission as of September 30, 1959.1
This report is based on data representing complete
returns from 158 respondents. Also included, but
tabulated separately, is an occupational breakdown
of Atomic Energy Commission personnel.
About two-thirds of all workers estimated to be
employed in the atomic energy field were covered
by this survey.2 The survey covered all workers
in some atomic energy activities—such as uranium
milling and the production of feed materials and
enriched uranium—but only a portion of the work­
ers in other activities—such as the manufacture of
nuclear reactors. The remaining one-third of em­
ployment in the atomic energy field that was not
covered by this survey, included both workers en­
gaged in those activities that were only partially
represented in the survey and workers in atomic
energy activities that were not represented in the
survey—such as uranium mining and nuclear in­
strument manufacturing. All text and appendix
tables in this bulletin refer only to employment
in the 158 establishments surveyed, and not to the
entire atomic energy field.
Employment covered by this survey was, for the
most part, supported by funds supplied by the
Atomic Energy Commission. The Commission
also supports some employment in the atomic
energy field that was not covered by this survey.
The remaining uncovered employment was either
privately supported or supported by funds from
Government agencies other than the A EC , pri­
marily the Department of Defense.




This survey replaced the A E C ’s Annual Report
on Professional Personnel, which was a count of
employment, by selected occupation, by Commis­
sion contractors. The present survey differs from
that report both as to coverage and detail of data
collected. The Bureau of Labor Statistics survey
provides more detailed occupational information,
includes all major prime contractors, and, for the
most part, covers all employment in an establish­
ment, whereas the A E C ’s Annual Report covered
only cost-reimbursable operating and research
and development contractors at A EC installations
with 50 or more employees and included only em­
ployees paid out of A EC funds.
In succeeding surveys of employment in the
atomic energy field, the collection of data from
industrial establishments will be coordinated with
the surveys of scientific and technical personnel in
American industry that are conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Satistics for the National Science
Foundation. In addition, future surveys will not
be limited to major A EC prime contractors and,
therefore, will provide a broader coverage of the
atomic energy field than is presented here.
Since research and production activities covered
by this survey are highly complex, the report in­
cludes for those unfamiliar with this field a brief
description of atomic energy in nontechnical lan­
guage (appendix D) and a discussion of some of
the applications of atomic energy (appendix E ).
1 Coverage w a s generally limited to establishments under prime
contract to the Atomic Energy Commission with accumulated
obligations in excess of $1 million as of September 3Q, 1959.
(Not covered in the survey were the m a n y subcontractors w h o
had contracts with prime contractors to build components or to
supply services or materials.)
Coverage w a s also limited to
contractors w h o were working directly on atomic energy in some
w a y or w h o were constructing facilities for such wor k ; excluded
were contractors w h o were supplying materials for office work,
office equipment, coal, etc.
Since respondents were asked to
report on an establishment basis (with the exception of con­
struction establishments and private research laboratories, which
reported only those employees engaged in atomic energy work),
the survey includes some employees paid from other than A E C
funds.
(See appendix B for a more detailed discussion of
the coverage of the survey and for a description of h o w the
survey w a s conducted.)
2 T h e estimate of total employment (about 200,000) in the
atomic energy field is an approximation which w a s developed
from the employment reported in this survey a n d estimates of
employment in the remainder of the field. T h e atomic energy
field is not an “industry” as the term is customarily defined.
See footnote 8, p. 4.

1

Summary

of

Findings
employees were engaged in the construction of n u ­

Nearly 126,000 workers were employed in J a n ­
uary 1960 in the 158 establishments covered in

clear facilities and another 4 percent were working

this survey of Atomic E n e r g y Commission prime

in private research laboratories.

contractors.

maining 10 percent were employed in the produc­

As

indicated previously, this ac­

M o s t of the re­

counted for about two-thirds of estimated employ­

tion of special materials, uranium milling, and

ment in the entire atomic energy field. E m p l o y ­
ment rose by about 2 percent between January

fuel element fabrication segments.4

1959 and January 1960 in the 158 surveyed estab­
lishments.

Contractors expected that their e m ­

T h e occupational distribution of employment in
the establishments surveyed reflects the concentra­
tion on research and development w o r k in the

ployment would increase by another 3 percent to
atomic energy field.

130,000 by January 1961.
M a n y different activities are involved in the

Engineers, scientists, techni­

cians, and other technical personnel accounted for

production and application of nuclear energy.3

about one-third of the total surveyed employment

These include the mining and milling of uran i u m ­

in January 1960.

bearing ores, the refining of the ore, and the m a n ­

u p a higher proportion of employment in this field

ufacture of nuclear fuels, the manufacture of

than in most other fields of work.

nuclear

scientists combined accounted for about 20 per-

reactors

and

reactor components,

the

These technical workers m a d e
Engineers and

operation and maintenance of reactors, the m a n u ­
facture of nuclear instruments, and a great deal

3 The

p o r t io n

e s ta b lis h m e n ts
se g m e n ts,

of research and development work.

c o r d in g

In the portion of the atomic energy field cov­
ered by this survey, the two largest fields of e m ­
ployment

in

January

1960

were

the

Atomic

En e r g y Commission research facilities and the
facilities producing defense materials, accounting

research

u r a n iu m ;

for about 34 and 28 percent of the surveyed e m ­
(See table 1.)

Nuclear

reactor manufacture and production of feed m a ­
terials and enriched uranium (reactor fuel) each
accounted for more than 9 percent of total e m ­

(5 )

pow er

fo r
th e

seven

T able 1.

Ove r

5

percent

of

the

surveyed

A to m ic

fe e d

(9 )

n u c le a r

fu e l
A

c o u ld

a p p e n d ix

(3 )

re a cto r

p r iv a te

m a t e r ia ls ;

fa b r ic a tio n ;
ca teg ory
fitte d

and

w as set

not

be

fo r

B

ac­

e n r ic h e d

(6 )

s p e c ia l

e le m e n t

158

m a jo r

C o m m is s io n

and

fa c ilit ie s ;
o f

10

c la s s ifie d

fa c ilitie s ;

m is c e lla n e o u s

w h ic h

(S e e

b e in g
E n ergy

m a t e r ia ls

p r o d u c tio n

o p e r a t io n .

a c tiv itie s .

of

in to

d e fin itio n s o f

in to

any
each

s e g m e n t .)
4 The
th e
is

p r o p o r tio n

seg m en ts
not

F or

of

th e

in t o w h ic h

re p r e s e n ta tiv e

a ccou n ted

fo r

by

e x a m p le ,

H ow ever,

th a t

th is

o n ly

m a n u fa c tu r e

ployment.

(1 )

of

(7 )

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

above

d iv id e d

d e fe n se p r o d u c tio n

m illin g ;

rea ctor

w as

e s ta b lis h m e n t

p r o d u c tio n

co n s tr u ctio n

u r a n iu m

(1 0 )

su rvey

each

(2 )

(4 )

t h is

a c tiv ity :

la b o r a to r ie s ;

(8 )

up

in

p r im a r y

fa c ilitie s ;

resea rch

a t o m ic e n e r g y fie ld r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e

a c tiv itie s ,

its

m a n u fa c tu r e ;

of

ployment, respectively.

or

to

o f th e
covered

a

are

n o t m a jo r A E C

su rveyed

of

th e

p o r t io n
covered ;

th e

covers
of

a ll

of

e n tir e

in

has been

to ta l

any

A E C

e m p lo y m e n t

resea rch
engaged

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

not

of

d iv id e d

a t o m ic e n e r g y

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

th ose

w o r k in g

fie ld

p ro p o r tio n

s e g m e n t in

su rvey

p r im e

e m p lo y e e s

th e a t o m ic e n e r g y

fie ld .

fa c ilit ie s .
in

re a ctor

covered

are

co n tra cto rs.

E mployment in the A tomic E nergy F ield, by Segment, January 1959, January 1960, and A nticipated
E mployment in January 1961
E m p lo y m e n t

N um ber of
e s t a b lis h m e n t s

Segm ent

J a n u a r y 1959

J a n u a r y 1960

J a n u a r y 1961
(a n tic ip a te d )

N um ber

P ercen t

N um ber

P ercen t

N um ber

P ercen t

_______________________

158

1 2 3 ,5 3 0

1 0 0 .0

125, 921

1 0 0 .0

1 3 0 ,0 0 7

1 0 0 .0

A t o m i c E n e r g y C o m m i s s i o n r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s ____________________________ _______
D e f e n s e p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ____________________________________________________________
R e a c to r m a n u fa c tu r e .
________ ________ ______________ . . . . . . -------------------------P r o d u c t i o n o f f e e d m a t e r i a l s a n d e n r i c h e d u r a n i u m _____________________________
C o n s t r u c t i o n o f n u c l e a r f a c i l i t i e s _____________________ ________
________________ -------P r i v a t e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s ______________________________________ _____________________
P r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s ________________________________________________________
U r a n i u m m i l l i n g _______________________ ______ _____ _______________________________________
F u e l e l e m e n t f a b r i c a t i o n . ____________ _____________________________ ______________ ______
P o w e r r e a c t o r o p e r a t i o n ____________
. . . ______________________ ___________ . .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s ____________________________________ ______________________________________ .

19
11
16
6
12
34
10
26
8
9
7

4 0 ,5 3 1
35, 627
1 2 ,0 4 9
1 2 ,0 0 3
6 ,3 1 9
4 , 832
3 , 222
3 ,2 6 1
2 ,9 2 4
235
2 ,5 2 7

3 2 .8
2 8 .8
9 .8
9 .7
5 .1
3 .9
2 .6
2 .6
2 .4
.2
2* 1
.

4 2 ,1 7 2
35, 590
1 1 ,7 6 0
1 1 ,7 1 7
6 , 575
5, 295
3 ,5 8 4
3 ,4 3 2
2 ,9 0 3
366
2 ,5 2 7

3 3 .5
2 8 .3
9 .3
9 .3
5 .2
4 .2
2 .9
2 .7
2 .3
.3
2 .0

4 3 ,9 5 1
3 6 ,9 4 5
1 2 ,1 4 9
1 1 ,6 3 1
6 , 320
5, 725
3, 855
3 , 506
3, 021
531
2 ,3 7 3

3 3 .8
2 8 .4
9 .3
9 .0
4 .9
4 .4
3 .0
2 .7
2 .3
.4
1 .8

T o t a l , a ll s e g m e n t s ________

--

_______________________________

2




T able 2.

E mployment in the A tomic E nergy F ield, by
Occupational Group, January 1960
O c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

N um ber

In addition to supplying information for J a n ­
uary 1960, all establishments were asked to esti­
mate what their employment would be by January
1961.
(See table 1.) A n overall employment

P ercen t

T o t a l e m p l o y m e n t __________________________________________

1 2 5 ,9 2 1

1 0 0 .0

E n g i n e e r s . - - ____________________________ . . ______________
S c i e n t i s t s ______________________________________________________
T e c h n i c i a n s ____________ __________________ ________________
O t h e r t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l _____
__ . . .
___________
M a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n n e l ___________ _________ _______________
C l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l ____________ ___________________________
S k i l l e d w o r k e r s _________________________________________ . .
N u c l e a r r e a c t o r o p e r a t o r s ____
________________________
A l l o t h e r s ________ T______ __
____________________________

1 5 ,1 1 2
9 ,4 8 8
14, 612
3 . 744
1 2 ,4 1 7
1 8 ,5 3 7
2 3 ,8 8 1
881
2 7 .2 4 9

1 2 .0
7. 5
1 1 .6
3 .0
9 .9
14. 7
1 9 .0
.7
2 1 .6

increase of about 4,100 (over a 3-percent gain)
from January 1960 to January 1961 wa s indicated.
M o r e than three-fourths of this increase wa s ex­
pected to occur in the Ato m i c E n e r g y C o m m i s ­
sion research facilities and defense production
facilities.
E m p l o y m e n t in each of the occupational groups

cent of the employment.

Many

craftsmen were also employed.

highly trained

was expected to increase with the exception of

Skilled workers

clerical and other office personnel, for which a

accounted for 19 percent of the employment in the
surveyed establishments (table 2).

T able 4.

R egional D istribution of E mployees in the
A tomic E nergy F ield, January 1960

O n a primary w o r k function basis,5 approxi­
mately half of the workers surveyed were en­
gaged

in

the

fabrication

and

^

R e g io n 1

N um ber of
e s t a b lis h m e n t s

manufacture

(production and operations) of products, such as
reactors, fuel elements, and nuclear fuels.

A par­

ticularly large proportion, about 30 percent, were
engaged in research and development work.

P e rce n t o f to ta l
e m p lo y m e n t

158

S o u t h ______________________________________

Sev­

100

53
34
22
33
16

N o r t h e a s t ________________________________

17
22
24
18
19

enty-two percent of the skilled workers were in
production and operations.

O n the other hand,

84 percent of all scientists, 54 percent of the en­
gineers, and 51 percent of the technicians were in
research and development.

(Table 3 provides a

distribution of employment by function for se­

1 T h e r e g io n s a re d e fin e d as fo llo w s : N o r th e a s t— C o n n e c t ic u t , M a in e , M a s ­
sa ch u se tts, N e w H a m p s h ir e , N e w J e rs e y , N e w Y o r k , P e n n s y lv a n ia , R h o d e
I s la n d , a n d V e r m o n t ; N o r th C e n tr a l— I llin o is , I n d ia n a , I o w a , K a n s a s , M ic h ­
ig a n , M in n e s o t a , M is s o u r i, N e b r a s k a , N o r t h D a k o t a , O h io , S o u t h D a k o t a ,
a n d W is c o n s in ; S o u th — A la b a m a , A rk a n s a s , D e la w a r e , D is t r ic t o f C o lu m b ia ,
F lo r id a , G e o r g ia , K e n t u c k y , L o u is ia n a , M a r y la n d , M is s is s ip p i, N o r t h
C a r o lin a , O k la h o m a , S o u t h C a r o lin a , T e n n e s s e e , T e x a s ,
V ir g in ia , a n d
W e s t V ir g in ia ; M o u n t a i n — A r iz o n a , C o lo r a d o , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , N e v a d a ,
N e w (M e x ic o , U t a h , a n d W y o m in g ; a n d P a c i f i c — C a lifo r n ia , O r e g o n , a n d
W a s h in g to n .

lected occupational groups.)
1

Employment

in

the

atomic

energy

heavily concentrated within a few
though

field is

States, al­

there are people doing atomic energy

w o r k in every State.

Nearly 50 percent of the

employees covered by this survey were working
in the four States of Ohio, Tennessee, N e w M e x ­
ico, and California.

Table 4 provides a regional

distribution of employment.

-percent decline w as indicated.

(See table 9.)

Engineers and scientists together accounted for
the largest proportion of the anticipated total
increase, followed by technicians and skilled w o r k ­
ers.

Within the scientific, engineering, and tech­

nical occupational groups, the occupations of
physicist, electrical and electronics engineer, elec­
tronics technician, and mechanical engineer, re­
spectively, were the ones expected to increase the

T able 3. P ercentage D istribution of E mployees in the
A tomic E nergy F ield in Selected Occupational
Groups, by P rimary W ork F unction , January 1960

most between January 1960 and January 1961.
A mo r e detailed discussion of these survey data
is found in the sections on distribution of employ­
ment by occupation and distribution of employ­

P r im a r y fc n o t io n

O c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

A ll
fu n c tio n s

R esearch
and
d e v e lo p ­
m ent

P rod u c­
tio n a n d
op era­
t io n s

ment by segment.
C o n s tru c­ O th er
tio n
6

A ll

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

E n g in e e r s. _
________
S c i e n t i s t s _____________________
T e c h n i c i a n s ___________________
O t h e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l..
S k i l l e d w o r k e r s ______________

100
100
100
100
100

54
84
51
47
11

29
13
40
30
72

14
(>)
4
17
10

3
3
5
6
7

to

p r im a r ily

en gaged — research

o p e r a tio n s ,
a p p e n d ix

C

D e fin itio n s
d e s c r ip tio n

i L ess th a n 1 p ercen t.

5 9 6 0 5 0 0 — 6 1 -------- 2




th e

w ork

w ere

a c c o r d in g

co n s tr u ctio n ,
fo r
in

th e d is tr ib u tio n

or

d e fin itio n s

a p p e n d ix

of

p r o b le m s

asked

fu n c t io n s

B,

and
a ll

of

in

S cope

c la s s ify
th e

(S e e

fu n c t io n s ,
and

en cou n tered

th e

e m p lo y e e s
w ere

p r o d u c tio n

and

q u e s tio n n a ir e

and

M eth od
and

th e ir

e m p lo y e e s

d e v e lo p m e n t,

o th er.
th e

to

w h ic h

of

th e

s e c tio n

S u rvey,

a d ju s t m e n t s

fo r

m ade

in
on
a
in

o f e m p lo y e e s b y f u n c t io n .)

3

Nature

of the

Atomic

M a n y peaceful uses of atomic energy as well as
military uses have been developed in recent years,

Energy

Field

lates the use of nuclear and byproduct materials.
T h e A E C , in directing the Federal program, has a

and, in fact, the two greatly overlap.6 Today, in

statutory responsibility to encourage the wide­

addition to submarines powered by nuclear energy

spread use of atomic energy in such a m a n n e r as

and

to strengthen free competition in private enter­

developmental

work

directed toward

the

eventual nuclear propulsion of surface ships, air­
craft,7 missiles, and space satellites, nuclear re­
actors are supplying electricity to electric utility
lines and producing radioisotopes which have be­
come

extremely

valuable as research tools in

agriculture, medicine, and industry, and as in­
spection and control devices in industrial pro­
duction (for example, radioisotope gages m a y be

prise.

private industry, wherever practical, and contracts
with industrial firms and educational institutions
to operate and m a n a g e

T h e atomic energy field covers manifold activi­

In­

cluded in the atomic energy field are uranium
mines and mills; refineries which process uranium
and thorium bearing ores; plants which produce
nuclear fuels; plants which manufacture reactors,
reactor components, and nuclear instruments; con­
cerns

which

design,

engineer,

and

construct

nuclear facilities; establishments which operate
and maintain nuclear reactors; companies which

facilities.

valued at over $7 billion in 1960 and included re­
search

facilities,

uranium-processing

reactors,

and

plants,

weapon-manufacturing

plants.)

ties 8 which are directed toward inquiring into the
nature of the energy contained within the atom

AEC-owned

(Commission-owned plant and equipment were

nuclear

used to regulate the thickness of materials).

and the development and use of this energy.

T o this end, the Commission follows a

policy of procuring all goods and services from

M u c h of the research and development w o r k in
this field is carried on at the A E C - o w n e d research
facilities.

However, a considerable a m o u n t of in­

dependent research in atomic energy is done with­
out financial assistance from the Commission.

The

Commission encourages private participation in
the atomic energy field by m a k i n g available, to the
fullest extent possible, scientific data on atomic
energy, Government-owned facilities for conduct­
ing experiments, and
projects.

equipment

for scientific

It also provides financial assistance to

specialize in the disposal of radioactive wastes;
and

research laboratories.

Generally excluded

from the atomic energy field are establishments

6 S ee

a p p e n d ix

a p p e n d ix

E

fo r

D
a

fo r

a

b r ie f

d is c u s s io n

d e s c r ip tio n

of

th e

m a jo r

of

a to m ic

en ergy

a p p lic a tio n s

and

o f a to m ic

en ergy.

which are concerned with the indirect applications
of atomic energy, such as those which use electric­

7 T h is
in

n oted

ity generated by nuclear reactors and those which
utilize radioisotopes in industrial and medical ap ­
plications.

E m p l o y m e n t at some establishments,

s u r v e y in c lu d e d

d e v e lo p in g
th a t,

A E C

has

8T he

s in c e

d u s tr ia l

th e

d ir e c te d

a t o m ic

c u s to m a r ily

th e

tw o

n u c le a r -p o w e r e d
b u lle tin

its

resea rch

w as

p repa red

fo r

and

d is c o n t in u e

an

“ in d u s tr y ”

n ot

p u rposes.

o th e r

energy field.

O n the other hand, m a n y establish­

ments, such as laboratories performing atomic re­

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

by

energy w o r k :Only some of the employees in these

tu r in g

field.

of

by

the

Federal

Government.

The

Atomic E nergy Commission directs the Federal
G o v ernment’ atomic energy prog r a m and regu­
s
4




th e

L abor

p r iv a te

in

u s e d .”

in d u s tr y

th e

The

th e

a to m ic

a ccep ted

in d u s tr ie s .

of

ow ned

en ergy

sen se,

o f

in

m in in g ,

fie ld ,

in c lu d e s

a ll

m a n u fa c ­
d e fin e d

used

in

p rocess

or

of

in

a n d /o r

m illin g ,

B u reau
d ir e c te d
T hus,

it

op e ra te d

r e fin in g ,

m anu­

d e v e lo p m e n t ; e m p lo y ­

o p era ted

th a n

in

F or

en ergy.

g o v ern m en ta l

ra th er

an

a c t iv it ie s

ow ned

and

la b o r a t o r ie s
in

fie ld , a s

of

d e fin e s

g e n e r a lly

a t o m ic

resea rch

e m p lo y m e n t

is
In ­

engaged

p r im a r ily

is

in c lu d e s

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

and

te rm

S ta n d a rd

c la s s ific a t io n

con su m ed,

en ergy

use

engaged

w ork.

t h is

engaged,

a c t iv it y .”

a c tiv ity

p u b lic a t io n s ,
and

T h e

th e

w h ic h

m a te r ia ls

a t o m ic

in

in

e c o n o m ic

lin e

th is
as

be
th e

is u s e d b y t h e F e d e r a l

in

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

o f

m ade,

c o n s tr u ctio n ,
fe d e r a lly

a c tiv ity

of

d e v e lo p m e n t

in s t it u t io n s ; a n d
fo r e ,

‘ ‘th e

e m p lo y m e n t

fa c t u r in g ,

o f

lin e s

p rodu ct

S ta tis tic s

th e

in c lu d e s

m ent

s im ila r

in d u s t r ie s ,

m a n u fa c tu r e

by

M a n y of the basic atomic energy activities are
supported

“ a

or

of

tow a rd

establishments are included in the atomic energy

as

sam e

term s

search, m a y be only partially engaged in atomic

o r g a n iz a tio n s

g r o u p in g

th e

ty p e

engaged

s h o u ld

( E x e c u t i v e O ffic e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ,

M a n u a l

in d u s tr y

nuclear fuels, falls entirely within the atomic

It

p u b lic a t io n ,

to

is

c la s s ific a t io n

C la s s ific a tio n

G overn m en t

fo r

fie ld

B u r e a u o f t h e B u d g e t , p . 4 3 1 , 1 & 5 7 ), w h ic h

such as uranium mills or facilities producing

fa c ilitie s

e n g in e s .

con tra ctors

en ergy

u sed

A E C

a ir c r a ft

b e in g

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

by

e d u c a t io n a l

a g e n c ie s .

in

an

T h ere­

in d u s tr y

m any

in

d iffe r e n t

private organizations in construction of research
and power reactors and m a y m a k e available the

erations. M a n y of these activities, such as ore
mining and milling, the manufacture of heat

necessary fuel.
Private concerns in their o w n installations are

transfer equipment, and the construction of facili­

engaged in every type of atomic energy activity
except development and production of military
weapons and certain nuclear fuel-processing o p ­

of the same sort. Other activities, such as m a n u ­
facture of fuels needed to run reactors, are unique
to the atomic energy field.

Distribution

of

ties, differ little from nonatomic energy operations

Employment

In January 1960, the 158 establishments sur­

by

Occupation 9

erators, an occupation unique to the atomic energy

veyed employed about 126,000 workers. Engineers

field.

and scientists together accounted for a large pro­
portion, nearly 20 percent, of the total (see tables

O f the 126,000 employees covered in the survey,
approximately 51 percent were engaged in pro­

2

and 10), reflecting the fact that atomic energy is

duction and operations, 30 percent in research and

a relatively new, complex, and growing field with

development, 6 percent in construction, and the re­

a large proportion of its w o r k force devoted to

maining 13 percent in all other functions.

The

basic and applied research and to the development

functional

and design of n e w and improved products and
methods of production.1 In contrast to the large
0

greatly a m o n g occupations.

proportion that engineers and scientists combined

51 percent of the technicians were doing R & D

represented of total employment in the atomic
energy field, they m a d e up only about 3.5 percent

work.

of total employment in manufacturing industries
as a whole in January 1959, according to informa­
tion from a recent Bureau of Labor Statistics sur­
vey.

This 1959 survey showed that even in such

distribution

of employment

varied

Eighty-four percent

of the scientists, 54 percent of the engineers, and
(See table 3.)

W i t h the exception of

health physicists and the small n u m b e r of geolo­
gists and geophysicists, over 75 percent of the e m ­
ployees in every scientific occupation were in R & D .
Total employment was expected to increase by

research-oriented industries as aircraft and parts

about 4,100 (3 percent) between January 1960 and

and chemicals and allied products, engineers and
scientists accounted for only 11 and 9 percent of

J anuary 1961.

employment, respectively.1 T h e highly technical
1

nearly half of this increase.

nature of m u c h of the w o r k in the atomic energy
field is further reflected by its employment of
m a n y technicians, accounting for nearly 12 percent
of total employment (table 2). Other technical
personnel, such as designers and technical writers,

manufacturing of most products, the precise toler­

employment by occupational group and individual
occupation are discussed on the following pages.
9 S e e a p p e n d ix

amount

of complex machinery

which must be serviced.

and equipment

Skilled workers rep­

10 S o m e
p a r is o n s

1960.

T h e remaining employment was divided

tio n .

ployment) ,managerial and administrative person­
nel (10 percent), and all other occupations (22
percent ), including nearly 900 nuclear reactor o p ­




lim it a t io n s
of

a

s a m p le

of

th e

q u e s tio n n a ir e .

o f s o m e o f th e p r o b le m s

and

(a n d

e x a m p le ,

a ls o

th e

seg m en ts
research

of
and

H ow ever,

fa c to r

s h o u ld

p r o b a b ly

te c h n ic a l

fo r

of

A ls o ,

see

in v o lv e d

in

th e

a to m ic

if

h ig h

in

t r ie s , is t h a t t h is

su rvey

r a tio

to ta l

engaged

en ergy

in

fie ld -a s

research
a

w h o le ,

w h ic h

in

had

been

is

r a t io s

oth er

c o m p a r is o n s
som e

th o se

am ount

p a r tic u la r ly

c o lle c t e d

th a t th ese
w ith

th e

on

th e

w o u ld

oth er

of

ex ten ­
e n tir e
s till be

in d u s t r ie s .
w ith

of

e m p lo y ­

th e e m p lo y e e s in

p e r fo r m e d

lim it

covers

cau ­

th e

to

m ore o f

c o m p a r is o n

s h o u ld

com ­

w ith

used

fie ld

fie ld , i t is b e lie v e d

w h ic h

th a t

be

o v ersta te

a to m ic

en ergy

in fo r m a tio n

in d ic a t e

p erson n el

e m p lo y e e s

r e la t iv e ly

d e v e lo p m e n t w o r k

a to m ic e n e r g y
e x c e p t io n a lly

in

p ro p o r tio n

covers

th e

su rvey

and

w ork)

su rvey

th is

d is tr ib u tio n s

retu rn s

s c ie n t ific ,

d e v e lo p m e n t

s in c e t h e

in h e r e n t

o c c u p a t io n a l

F or

oth er

a m o n g clerical personnel (15 percent of total e m ­

C fo r

fo r a d e s c r ip tio n

e n g in e e r in g ,

s iv e .

resented 19 percent of employment in January

B

c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s .

m ent

ances that must be maintained, and the great

(See table 9.)

Maj o r findings of the survey as they relate to

a p p e n d ix

accounted for another 3 percent of employment.
M a n y highly skilled craftsmen are employed in
the atomic energy field because of the custom

T h e employment of additional en­

gineers and scientists was expected to account for

A n­
in d u s ­

e m p lo y m e n t a t e d u c a t io n a l

in s titu tio n s .
11 S c i e n t i f i c
R ep ort
S c ie n c e

on

a

a n d

1959

T e c h n ic a l

S u rvey, N S F

F o u n d a tio n

by

th e

P erso n n el

6 0 -6 2 ,

in

A m e r ic a n

P rep ared

U .S . D e p a r t m e n t

of

fo r

In d u s tr y ,

th e N a tio n a l

L a b or, B u reau

of

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , (1 9 6 0 ) , ta b le 2 , p . 1 0 .

5

M o r e than half of the engineers (54 percent)
worked in R & D . Mo s t of the remaining engineers
worked either in production a nd operations (29
percent) or construction (14 percent) (table 3).
T h e type of w o r k being performed varied con­
siderably a m o n g the different segments of the
atomic energy field.

O n l y 3 of the 10 segments in

which the establishments were classified used more
than half of their engineers in R & D w o r k — the
A E C research facilities (82 percent), private re­
search laboratories

(93

percent), an d

reactor

manufacturers (53 percent)— but these 3 segments
employed about two-thirds of all engineers; in a
fourth segment, the construction firms, the major­
ity of engineers designed or supervised the con­
struction of nuclear facilities.

In the other seg­

ments, most of the engineers worked in production
and operations.
Mechanical engineers (4,391), w h o comprised
the largest single group a m o n g the engineers e m ­
ployed by the surveyed establishments (table 5),
worked in such activities as the development and
design of reactor components, such as heat trans­
Chemist using a remote control manipulator to handle radio­
active liquid behind a protective wall of lead bricks and special
lead glass.

Engineers

fer equipment, pressure vessels, core tanks, and
remote-handling equipment, and the testing of
reactor mechanical components.

A b o u t half of

the mechanical engineers worked in R & D .
Electrical and electronics engineers (3,015), w h o

Engineers in the atomic energy field are engaged

constituted (he second largest group of engineers,
t

primarily in designing nuclear reactors and other
equipment, in supervision of the production of
fuels and materials, and in research and develop­
ment w o r k concerning the uses of atomic energy.
While some of the engineers are highly trained
in nuclear technology, and most have h a d some
orientation in atomic energy, engineers in all m a ­
jor engineering disciplines are employed in sub­

were employed in such w o r k as the development

stantial numbers.
A b o u t 15,100 engineers were employed by the
surveyed establishments in January 1960, account­

and design of radiation detection instruments and
nuclear instrumentation and control circuitry for
reactors and in supervising the maintenance of
electronic instruments and controls.

T able 5. E mployment of E ngineers in the A tomic
E nergy F ield, by Occupation and P rimary W ork
F unction , January 1960
P r im a r y ftm c t io n

ing for 12 percent of the total establishment per­
sonnel.

T h e proportion of total employment ac­

Sixty per­

cent of these engineers worked in R & D .

O c c u p a tio n

A ll
fu n c t io n s

counted for by engineers in the various segments

R esearch
and
d e v e lo p ­
m ent

P rod u c­
tio n a n d
op era­
t io n s

C o n s tr u c ­ O th e r
tio n

of the atomic energy field ranged from over 20
E n g in e e rs, to ta l

percent in establishments which design and con­
struct nuclear facilities or design and manufacture
nuclear reactors to about 3 percent in uranium
mills and in establishments which produce special
materials for use in reactors.
6




____________

1 5 ,1 1 2

8 ,2 0 8

4, 4 0 8

2, 055

441

M e c h a n i c a l ___________________
E le c t r ic a l a n d e le c t r o n ic s ..
C h e m i c a l .................... ................
R e a c t o r ________________________
M e t a l l u r g i c a l __________ ______
C i v i l ______________ ____________
A e r o n a u t i c a l __________________
O t h e r e n g i n e e r s . .......................

4 ,3 9 1
3 ,0 1 5
1 ,8 2 0
1 ,7 2 4
916
905
93
2 ,2 4 8

2 , 276
1 ,8 1 2
1, 0 6 2
1 ,3 6 2
651
161
75
809

1 ,4 2 9
703
670
267
247
146
15
931

569
429
67
69
18
566
2
335

117
71
21
26
0
32
1
173

Metallurgical (916), civil (905), and a small
n u m b e r of aeronautical (93) engineers were also
employed by the surveyed establishments. Metal­
lurgical engineers study the properties of materi­
als (including m a n y newly developed materials)
of interest to the successful design and operation
of nuclear reactors and w o r k on the development
of suitable techniques for the fabrication of fuel
elements and other products.

A b o u t 70 percent of

the metallurgical engineers were in R & D work.
Abo u t two-thirds of the civil engineers were w o r k ­
ing in construction, particularly in the designing
of plant facilities for nuclear reactors a nd sup­
porting facilities and the supervision of their
erection. Mos t (81 percent) of the aeronautical
engineers were in R & D w o r k aimed at developing
nuclear propulsion systems for aircraft and other
space vehicles.

Also employed were a large n u m ­

ber of engineers (2,248) w h o were not classified
by the surveyed establishments according to any
of the listed engineering disciplines.
Scientists
A nuclear physicist lowers a bottle of ‘‘heavy’’ water to expose
it to gamma rays from a radioactive source.

The

surveyed

establishments

also employed

large numbers of chemical engineers (1,820) for
such

w or k

as

the

development

of

chemical

processes for the purification of reactor materials,
research in fuel element reprocessing, and for the

A b o u t 9,500 scientists were employed in the sur­
veyed establishments in January 1960, accounting
for almost 8 percent of total employment.

Com­

pared with most industries or other fields of work,
this is a large proportion, reflecting the intensive
basic and applied research being undertaken in the
atomic energy field. T h e surveyed establishments
employed scientists trained in physics, m a t h e ­

supervision of the chemical processing of m a ­

matics, chemistry, metallurgy, and biology, 84 per­

terials.

cent of w h o m

Nearly 60 percent of the chemical engi­

neers were in research and development.

were working in research and

development.

T h e surveyed establishments reported the e m ­
ployment of 1,724 reactor engineers (specialists in
nuclear reactor technology) w h o were engaged in

T able 6. E mployment of Scientists in the A tomic
E nergy F ield, by Occupation and P rimary W ork
F unction , January 1960

such w o r k as the development and evaluation of
reactor concepts, including the determination of
fuel element types, critical masses, and shielding
requirements.1
2

P r im a r y fu n c tio n

O c c u p a tio n

Nearly 80 percent of the reactor

A ll
fu n c ­
t io n s

engineers worked in R & D .

R esearch
and
d e v e lo p ­
m ent

P rodu c­
t io n a n d
opera­
t io n s

C o n s tr u c ­ O th e r
tio n

S c i e n t i s t s , t o t a l _____________ . . .
12

W h ile

“ re a cto r

e n g in e e r ”

t io n n a ir e , it is n o t u n iv e r s a lly
in g

d is c ip lin e

T h e r e fo r e ,

su ch

a n oth er

c la s s ifie d

as

e s ta b lis h m e n t, e v e n

R e p o r tin g o n

t h is o c c u p a t io n

lis te d

s e p a r a te ly

re c o g n iz e d a s a

m e c h a n ic a l

p e r s o n n e l c la s s ifie d

lis h m e n t m ig h t b e
by

as

w as

as

or

se p a ra te

c h e m ic a l

r e a c t o r e n g in e e r s

in

on

th e

qu es­

e n g in e e r ­
e n g in e e r .
one

esta b ­

m e c h a n ic a l o r c h e m ic a l e n g in e e r s
th ou g h

p e r fo r m in g

m a y , th e r e fo r e , h a v e a

s im ila r

w ork.

la r g e m a r g in

9 ,4 8 8

7 ,9 8 4

1 ,1 9 5

48

261

P h y s i c i s t s ________________
______
C h e m i s t s . __
_ _ ____ ________
M a t h e m a t i c i a n s _________________
M e t a l l u r g i s t s ____ _________________
B i o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i s t s ___________
H e a l t h p h y s i c i s t s _______ ______
M e d ic a l s c ie n t is t s .. .
_________
G e o lo g is t s a n d g e o p h y s ic is t s ..
A g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s ______
O t h e r n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s _______

3 ,4 3 1
3, 057
760
608
475
377
166
83
32
499

3 .1 3 2
2 ,3 9 9
600
533
461
214
126
53
32
434

251
609
82
69
7
109
25
25
0
18

26
7
5
4
0
1
0
4
0
1

22
42
73
2
7
53
15
1
0
46

o f error.




7

Physicists

(3,431)

and

chemists

(3,057)

to­

gether accounted for m o r e than two-thirds of the
total n u m b e r of scientists. (See table 6.) Nearly
all of the physicists were engaged in research and

T able 7. E mployment of T echnicians and Other
T echnical P ersonnel in the A tomic E nergy F ield,
by Occupation and P rimary W ork F unction , January
1960
P r im a r y fu n c tio n

development w o r k — 91 percent— such as basic re­
search on the structure of nuclei and the develop­
ment

and

A ll
fu n c ­
t io n s

O c c u p a tio n

R esearch
and
d e v e lo p ­
m ent

design of nuclear reactors, particle

accelerators, automatic controls, an d

P rod u c­
t io n
and
opera­
tio n s

radiation

measuring instruments.

C on­
s tr u c ­ O th e r
tio n

T e c h n i c i a n s , t o t a l ...........- ................ . .

gaged in research and development work, includ­
ing the development of processing methods for
uranium and irradiated reactor fuels, a n d re­
search to determine the nature an d mechanism

7, 495

5 ,8 3 0

602

685

2 ,6 6 0

745

1 ,0 9 7

498

320

2 ,0 3 6
627
6 ,1 0 0
720

1 ,3 8 0
337
3 ,8 1 9
233

561
275
2 ,1 4 3
442

50
10
27
0

45
5
111
45

569
1 ,9 0 0

355
626

126
1 ,1 8 6

4
13

84
75

O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l, t o t a l.

ployed b y the surveyed establishments were en­

14, 612

D r a f t s m e n ______ ______________________
E n g in e e r in g a n d p h y s ic a l s c i­
en ce:
E l e c t r o n i c ________________________
I n s t r u m e n t ______________________
O t h e r _________________ . . . .
H e a l t h p h y s i c s _______________________
M e d ic a l, a g r ic u lt u r a l, a n d b io l o g i c a l ______________________________
O t h e r t e c h n i c i a n s ___________________

3 ,7 4 4

1 ,7 7 6

1 ,1 0 9

642

217

D e s i g n e r s __________________
_______
T e c h n i c a l w r i t e r s _________________ _
O t h e r t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l _________

A b o u t three-fourths of the 3,057 chemists e m ­

1 ,1 6 0
195
2 ,3 8 9

273
63
1 ,4 4 0

385
67
657

465
12
165

37
53
127

of chemical reactions caused b y radiation and by
extremely high temperatures.
Nearly 80 percent of the 760 mathematicians
employed by the surveyed establishments were
working in R & D , in such w o r k as the numerical
analysis associated with reactor design problems.
Most of the 608 metallurgists, 88 percent, were
also engaged in R & D , in such w o r k as research

m e n t an d materials.

T h e term “technician” was

defined in the questionnaire as a person engaged
in w o r k requiring knowledge of physical, engi­
neering, mathematical, biological, or other natural
sciences comparable

with

knowledge

acquired

on metals and alloys directed toward develop­

through a technical institute, junior college, or

ing suitable materials for reactor construction.

other formal post-high-school training, or through
equivalent on-the-job training or experience.

Nearly all of the 475 biological scientists, 97 per­
cent, were working in R & D .
The

surveyed

health physicists.

establishments

employed

377

Their occupation is unique to

the atomic energy field an d concerns the radio­
logical safety of personnel at a facility and of
people in the surrounding area. Health phys­
icists were engaged in administering radiological
safety programs, supervising the monitoring of
personnel, and performing research related to the
control and minimization of radiation hazards.
In addition to the above scientists, a few med i ­
cal scientists (166), agricultural scientists (32),
and geologists and geophysicists (83) were e m ­
ployed.

A b o u t 500 other natural scientists (not

classified by the surveyed establishments as to sci­
entific discipline) were also reported.

A b o u t 14,600 technicians were employed in the
surveyed establishments, accounting for approxi­
mately 12 percent of total employment.

There

were about 59 technicians for every 100 engineers
and scientists employed.

However, the ratios of

technicians to 100 engineers an d scientists varied
widely by area of w o r k within the atomic energy
field, from over 150 in the production of special
materials to under 30 in the construction of n u ­
clear facilities.

(For comparative purposes, it

might be well to note that, in all manufacturing
industries, according to a Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey of scientific and technical personnel,
there were 67 technicians for every 100 engineers
and scientists in January 1959, the ratios varying
by industry fr o m about 100 to less than 40.1
3

Technicians
T h e development and use of atomic energy re­
quires a large n u m b e r of technicians to assist en­

M o r e than half (51 percent) of the technicians
assisted engineers an d scientists in research and
development

work.

The

ratio of

technicians

per 100 engineers and scientists in R & D work, 46,

gineers and scientists in research and development
13

w o r k and in the designing and testing of equip8




S c ie n tific

c it ., ta b le 4 , p . 1 9 .

an d

T e c h n ic a l P e r s o n n e l in

A m e r ic a n

In d u s tr y ,

op.

w a s lower than the corresponding figure (59) for
all types of w o r k combined.

O ther Technical Personnel

Other technicians

assisted engineers and scientists in such w o r k as

In addition to scientists, engineers, and tech­
nicians, the surveyed establishments employed

designing, testing, and quality control.
T h e largest individual occupation a m o n g the
technicians was that of draftsman (2,660).

(See

3,744 other technical personnel.
who

O f those workers

were classified by occupation, 1,160 were

table 7.) Draftsmen were engaged in such w o r k
as the preparation of detailed drawings from

designers and 195 were technical writers.

design layouts and the development of routine

m a k i n g conceptual designs under the supervision

designs.

table 7.)

(See

T h e w o r k of the designers included

T h e surveyed establishments employed

of engineers, m a k i n g mathematical calculations

2,036 electronic technicians and 627 instrument

to validate designs, determining the materials

technicians.

T h e w o r k of these technicians in­

cluded assisting professional personnel in the

and processes to be used, and directing drafts­
m e n in the preparation of detailed drawings.

preparation of specifications for the fabrication
and installation of electronic and other instrument
components and systems; designing minor circuits
and components; and testing and modifying elec­
tronic equipment and mechanical instruments.
T h e survey covered 720 health physics tech­
nicians, w h o aided health physicists in the radia­
tion protection of workers.

Skilled W orkers
T h e largest occupational group in the establish­
ments surveyed wa s the skilled worker group.
These journeymen craftsmen represented 19 per­
cent of total employment.

Overall, there w a s an

In establishments producing feed materials and

average employment of about tw o health physics

enriched uranium, establishments which construct

technicians per health physicist, but this ratio
varied considerably a m o n g individual establish­

nuclear facilities, and in uranium mills, they con­

ments; it was generally higher in establishments
primarily engaged in production w o r k and lower

On

percent of employment in private research labora­

in research laboratories.
A large group of technicians, 6,100, were classi­
fied as “other engineering and physical science
technicians” (other than electronics or instrument
technicians), such as chemical analysts, engineer­
ing aids, mathematics aids, and other physical
science aids.

stituted over 25 percent of total employment.

the other hand, they accounted for only about 6

T h e duties of these technicians in­

cluded the testing of materials to determine their

tories and about 11 percent in the A E C research
facilities, establishments which design and m a n u ­
facture reactors, and in establishments which fab­
ricate fuel elements.
T able 8. E mployment of Skilled W orkers in the
A tomic E nergy F ield, by Occupation and P rimary
W ork F unction , January 1960

chemical and physical properties, the inspection

P r im a r y fu n c tio n

of fabricated components using X -r a y machines
O c c u p a tio n

A ll
fu n c ­
t io n s

S k i l l e d w o r k e r s , t o t a l ..........................

2 3 ,8 8 1

2 ,7 7 1

17, 218

2 ,3 0 2

1 ,5 9 0

3 ,6 3 5
3 ,2 2 7
3 ,0 7 1
2 ,2 5 6

269
132
871
149

2 ,8 5 7
3 ,0 9 5
2 ,0 2 6
1 ,4 7 8

201
0
82
365

308
0
92
264

1 ,4 5 6
1 ,3 2 0

122
137

767
1 ,0 3 0

360
120

207
33

1 ,2 6 9
717
646

200
55
95

1 ,0 6 6
278
465

0
240
39

3
144
47

537
504
114
5 ,1 2 9

67
227
3
444

440
277
29
3 ,4 1 0

0
0
71
824

30
0
11
451

and nuclear counters, and the assembling, testing,
and modifying of laboratory models and experi­
mental equipment.
T h e surveyed establishments also employed 569
medical, agricultural, and biological technicians—
primarily to assist in research w o r k related to the
effects of radiation on living organisms— and 1,900
“other technicians” (technicians w h o

were not

classified by the respondents according to any of
the listed categories) , 4
1
u

have

A t

le a s t

been

som e

c la s s ifie d

t e c h n ic ia n s .”

S ee

of
as

th e

“ o th e r

“ oth er

a p p e n d ix

B,

te c h n ic ia n s ”

e n g in e e r in g
S cope

and

and

p r o b a b ly

s h o u ld

p h y s ic a l

s c ie n c e

M eth od

of

S u rvey— -

M a in t e n a n c e m e c h a n ic s (in c lu d ­
in g m a c h in e r y r e p a ir m e n a n d
m i l l w r i g h t s ) ___________________
C h e m i c a l o p e r a t o r s . ............
. . .
M a c h i n i s t s , ( a l l - r o u n d ) _____ ______
E le c t r ic ia n s ...
____________________
P lu m b e r s ,
p ip e fitte r s ,
and
s t e a m f i t t e r s _____________
_______
W e l d e r s ___________
. _______________
I n s tr u m e n t m e c h a n ic s (in c lu d i n g i n s t r u m e n t r e p a i r m e n ) _____
C a r p e n t e r s ____________________________
S h e e t-m e ta lw o r k e r s . . . . . . . . _
I n s tr u m e n t m a k e r s (in c lu d in g
e x p e r im e n ta l m a c h in is ts a n d
o t h e r s w h o fa b r ic a t e in s t r u m e n ts.
. _______________________
T o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s ______________
B o i l e r m a k e r s _____________
. . ...
O t h e r s k i l l e d t r a d e s ________________

R esearch
and
d e v e lo p ­
m ent

P rod u c­
tio n a n d
opera­
tio n s

C on­
s tru c­ O th er
t io n

D e fin itio n s .




9

em ployed in the prod u ction o f defense materials
and the p rod u ction o f feed m aterials and enriched
uranium, p rim arily chem ical processing opera­
tions. A ll-ro u n d m achinists were em ployed in
m ost segments o f the field. In contrast to the
chem ical operators and m aintenance mechanics,
nearly all o f w hom were em ployed in production
and maintenance w ork, over on e-fou rth o f the a ll­
round machinists were w ork in g in R & D .
In addition to the above occupations, a large
number o f electricians (2,2 56 ), m any carpenters
(7 1 7 ), and plum bers, pipefitters, and steamfitters
(1,456) were em ployed. C onstruction firms em­
ployed m any o f these w orkers in the construction
o f facilities w hile establishments in other areas
o f w ork em ployed m any o f them in maintenance
work. M an y welders (1,320) and sheet-metal
workers (646) were em ployed to fabricate parts
and equipment, and m any instrum ent mechanics,
in clu d in g instrument repairm en (1,2 69 ), were em­
ployed. A num ber o f tool and die makers (5 0 4 ),
about h a lf o f w hom were in R & D w ork, and in ­
strument makers (5 3 7 ), were also em ployed.

Other Occupations
A worker wearing protective clothing while monitoring a
work area that has been contaminated with radioactive material.
T h e em ploym ent o f large num bers o f skilled
w orkers is attributable to such factors as the need
to fabricate special parts and equipm ent f o r use
in experim ental and p ilot w ork, the custom m anu­
factu rin g o f m any products, the close tolerances
that must be m aintained to insure the efficient o p ­
eration o f equipment, and the need fo r large
maintenance forces to care f o r the considerable
am ount o f com plex equipm ent and machines used
in atom ic energy w ork.
M aintenance mechanics, in clu d in g m achinery
repairm en and m illw righ ts (3,6 35 ), accounted fo r
about 15 percent o f the skilled w ork ers; chem ical
operators
essing

(3,2 27 ), w ho operate ch em ical-p roc­

equipm ent,

14

p ercen t;

and

all-rou nd

C lerical and other office personnel m ade up the
second largest occupational grou p. T h ey ac­
counted fo r about 15 percent o f total em ploym ent,
but their prop ortion ate em ploym ent ranged from
as low as 8 percent in uranium m ills to as much
as 17 percent in the A E C research facilities and
in establishments w hich design and m anufacture
reactors (tables 11-20, in clu siv e). T h e em p loy­
ment o f m anagerial, adm inistrative, and other
professional (oth er than scientific and technical)
personnel varied fro m a low o f 6 percent o f total
em ploym ent in construction firms and 7 percent in
private research laboratories to 13 percent in
plants p rod u cin g

feed m aterials and enriched

uranium. T h e m anagerial occu pational grou p
represented about 10 percent o f em ploym ent fo r
all segments com bined.
T h e surveyed establishments em ployed nearly

m achinists (3,0 71 ), 13 percent.
(See table 8.)
M aintenance m echanics were em ployed in all seg­

900 nuclear reactor operators w ho were classified

ments o f the atom ic energy field to m aintain and

separately in the survey, since this occu pation is

repair the large amount o f m achinery and other
m echanical equipm ent used in m uch o f the work.
O ver 80 percent o f the chem ical operators were

unique to the atom ic energy field. T h e reactor
op erator’s jo b in a nuclear p ow er station is bas­

10




ica lly the same as that o f a boiler op erator’s job

in a conventional pow er station, the operation o f
the steam -generating p ortion o f the p ow er plant.
I t is unique in that he operates the controls o f
a nuclear reactor rather than the controls o f a
conventional boiler.
T h e rem aining em ploym ent (abou t 22 percent
o f total em ploym ent) in the surveyed establish­
ments consisted m ostly o f semiskilled and un­
skilled workers in prod u ction and maintenance
w ork and o f service workers. M any o f the serv­
ice workers were engaged in plant protection or
security work.

Anticipated Changes in Occupational
Employment
A cco rd in g to the estimates m ade by the rep ort­
in g establishments, total em ploym ent was ex ­
pected to increase b y on ly a little m ore than 3 p er­
cent between January 1960 and Jan u ary 1961.
E m p loym ent was expected to increase in each o f
the occupational groups, w ith the exception o f a
1-percent decline in clerical and other office p er­
sonnel. T able 9 shows the expected percentage
change in em ploym ent by occupational grou p
and by selected individu al occupation, and the
distribution o f em ploym ent as o f January 1960
and as anticipated by January 1961. E n gin eer­
ing, scientific, and technical personnel were
expected to account fo r 72 percent o f the antici­
pated em ploym ent increase, whereas they repre­
sented on ly 34 percent o f total em ploym ent in
Jan u ary 1960. E ven so, the percentage distribu­
tion o f em ploym ent by occupational grou p w ould
change little over the year.
W ith in the engineering, scientific, and technical
occupational groups, the anticipated increase o f
320 physicists was the largest increase reported fo r
any occupation. (See appendix table A -2 .)
Physicists constituted on ly 3 percent o f total
em ploym ent in January 1960, but the expected
em ploym ent o f 320 additional physicists w ould
account fo r nearly 8 percent o f the p rojected em-

5 9 60 5 0 0 — 61

3




T a b l e 9.

C h a n g e s i n O c c u p a t io n a l E m p l o y m e n t A n ­
by
Su b ve y R espondents, J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 Ja n u a r y 1961

t ic ip a t e d

Number employed
Occupation
January
1960

Anticipated
percentage
change,
January 1961 January 1960(anticipated) January 1961

Total employment____________ ___

125,921

130,007

3.2

Engineers, total. .................................

15,112

16,154

6.9

Mechanical........... ............. .........
Electrical and electronics...........
Chemical........................................
Reactor...........................................
Metallurgical.................................
C i v i l ................... ........................
Other engineers_____ __________

4,391
3,015
1, 820
1,724
916
905
2,341

4,609
3,262
1,976
1,925
1,019
901
2,462

5.0
8.2
8.6
11.7
11.2
-.4
5.2

Scientists, total....................................

9,488

10,333

8.9

Physicists.......................................
Chemists........................................
M athematicians_______________
Metallurgists...........................
Biological scientists......................
Health physicists.........................
Other natural scientists..............

3,431
3,057
760
608
475
377
780

3,751
3,266
876
680
527
404
829

9.3
6.8
15.3
11.8
10.9
7.2
6.3

Technicians, total...............................

14,612

15, 393

5.3

Draftsmen......................................
Engineering
and
physical
science:
Electronics............................
Instrument._______________
O th er............................ .......
Health physics............................
Medical, agricultural, and bio­
logical..........................................
Other technicians______________

2,660

2,690

1.1

2,036
627
6,100
720

2,256
683
6,352
771

10.8
8.9
4.1
7.1

569
1,900

607
2,034

6.7
7.1

3,744

4,017

7.3

Designers.................... ..................
Other technical personnel....... .

1,160
2,584

1,168
2,849

0.7
10.3

Managerial personnel.........................
Clerical personnel.............................. .
Skilled workers____________________
Nuclear reactor operators..................
All others_______________ ________ _

12, 417
18, 537
23, 881
881
27,249

12,599
18, 413
24,383
958
27,757

1.5
-.7
2.1
8.7
1.9

Other technical personnel, total___

ploym ent increase over the year. O ther occu pa­
tions in w hich em ploym ent was expected to in­
crease b y m ore than 200 were those o f electrical
and electronics engineer (2 4 7 ), mechanical en gi­
neer (2 1 8 ), reactor engineer (2 0 1 ), chemist (2 0 9 ),
and electronics technician (2 2 0 ).
T h e occupation expected to increase the most on
a percentage basis was that o f m athem atician (15
p e rce n t). M etallurgists and reactor engineers
were expected to increase b y nearly 12 percent;
m etallurgical engineers, b iologica l scientists, and
electronics technicians, by about 11 percent; and
physicists, b y m ore than 9 percent.

11

Distribution of Employment by Segment
type o f activity. F o r all segments com bined, em­
ploym ent was expected to increase b y about 3
percent between January 1960 and Jan u ary 1961.
B y fa r the largest em ploym ent increase (45 p er­
cent) was expected in the nine establishments clas­
sified as operatin g p ow er reactors because only
one o f the establishments so classified was actually
op erating a reactor in Jan u ary 1960, whereas two
m ore estabilshments were expected to be in opera­
tion b y the end o f 1960 and another was expected
to begin operations in 1961. W ith in the other nine
segments, the sharpest increases in em ploym ent
were expected by private research laboratories
(8.1 percent) and establishments p rod u cin g special
m aterials (7.6 p e rce n t). E stablishm ents in these
tw o segments also had large em ploym ent increases
between 1959 and 1960 (nearly 10 percent and 11
percent, resp ectively). T h e A E C research fa c ili­
ties and fuel element fabricators were the only
other segments expectin g em ploym ent to increase

T h e developm ent, produ ction , and application
o f nuclear energy involves m any different a ctivi­
ties. Since em ploym ent patterns vary m arkedly
between establishments engaged in different ac­
tivities ( f o r exam ple, as between a uranium m ill
and a research la b o ra to ry ), the surveyed estab­
lishments w^ere classified into 10 segments o f the
atom ic energy field on the basis o f the prim ary
activity in w hich they were engaged.1 T he A E C
5
research facilities and defense produ ction fa c ili­
ties were the tw o largest segments, accounting fo r
about 34 percent and 28 percent, respectively, o f
total surveyed em ploym ent in January 1960. O nly
a total o f 18 percent o f em ploym ent wT reported
as
by establishments in the six smallest segments com ­
bined. ( See table 1.)
T h e distribution o f em ploym ent by occupational
grou p varied considerably am ong the different
areas in the atom ic energy field, reflecting the kinds
o f a ctivity conducted w ithin each segment. (See
table 10.) E ngineers, scientists, and technical p er­
sonnel, as a percentage o f total em ploym ent,
ranged from about 66 percent in private research
laboratories and 50 percent in A E C research
facilities to 13 percent in uranium m ills and 11
percent in plants p rod u cin g special materials.
Skilled workers, as a percentage o f total em p loy­
ment in the different segments, varied fro m about

by 4 percent or more.

T h e on ly segments (other

than m iscellaneous) in w hich em ploym ent was
expected to decline were the establishments p ro ­
ducin g feed materials and enriched uranium and
the establishments constructing nuclear fa c ili­
ties.1 E m p loym ent in the establishments p rod u c­
6
in g feed m aterials and enriched uranium also de­
clined between 1959 and 1960.

36 percent in plants p rod u cin g feed m aterials and
enriched uranium to about 6 percent in private re­
search laboratories.
T h e em ploym ent grow th anticipated b y the re­
p ortin g establishments varied considerably by

T ab le 10.

P ercentage D

i s t r i b u t io n

Segment

of

E

16 See footn ote 5, p. 3, and appendix B.
1
1 The decline in employment in construction firms was ex­
6
pected because two establishments indicated that they would not
be in the atom ic energy field in January 1961. The remaining
establishments in this segment, combined, expected a slight in­
crease in employment.

i n t h e A t o m ic E n e r g y F ie l d ,
G roup, Ja n u a r y 1960

m ployees

All
employees Engineers

Scientists

Techni­
cians

Other
technical
personnel

by

Mana­
gerial
personnel

Segm ent

and

Clerical
personnel

Skilled
workers

O c c u p a t io n a l

All
Nuclear
reactor others
operators

Total, all segments___________________ _______

100.0

12.0

7.5

11.6

3.0

9.9

14.7

19.0

0.7

21.6

Atomic Energy Commission research facilities..
Defense production facilities..._____ __________
Reactor manufacture______ ___________________
Production of feed materials and enriched
uranium_________ _________________
___
Construction of nuclear facilities_______________
Private research laboratories___________ _____
Production of special materials________________
Uranium milling______________________
. .
Fuel element fabrication_____________ _______
Power reactor operation. ________ _______ ____
Miscellaneous_________________________________

100.0
100.0
100.0

15.2
7.3
21.1

13.2
2.8
6.1

17.1
6.8
13.4

4.4
2.7
2.0

9.1
10.8
9.3

17.4
13.0
16.9

11.6
23.8
11.1

0.3
1.7
.7

11.7
31.1
19.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.0
23.7
13.6
2.7
3.3
8.6
27.9
3.4

4.3
.3
26.3
1.7
2.6
3.7
4.1
.5

7.0
6.6
24.2
6.9
5.7
11.0
11.7
3.6

.3
7.8
2.2
.1
1.0
.1
.3
.6

12.7
6.1
7.0
12.0
9.2
8.5
8.2
13.0

13.1
13.7
11.6
11.3
7.9
13.3
10.9
16.3

36.1
28.9
5.5
22.0
26.8
11.6
1.4
29.9

0
0
.3
0
0
0
7.4
0

20.5
12.9
9.3
43.3
43.5
43.2
28.1
32.7

12




celerators fo r nuclear physics research and f o r the
developm ent, design, and testing o f nuclear re­
actors.

T h ey also develop and often fabricate

fuel elements, instruments, and other vital reactor
com ponents.

In addition, the research facilities

do research and developm ent w ork on the recovery
o f uranium fro m ores, the separation o f fissionable
uranium fro m natural uranium, the processing o f
irradiated fuel elements, and the p rodu ction and
uses o f isotopes, and they are the m a jor producers
o f both radioactive and stable isotopes. In sev­
eral research facilities scientists specialize in re­
search aim ed at learning m ore about the life p ro c­
esses o f animals and p la n ts; one research fa cility
operates a large farm in connection w ith these
studies. O ther research facilities specialize in the
developm ent and fabrication o f nuclear weapons
and other classified materials. Besides their re­
search and developm ent activities, several o f the
research facilities conduct nuclear train in g p ro ­
gram s in reactor and radioisotope techn ology and
in radiation health protection.
The effects of radiation on the growth of plants being measured
in a field that has been subjected to radiation.
M a jo r findings as they relate to em ploym ent in
the 10 segments by w hich the atom ic energy field
has been divided are discussed below.

Atomic Energy Commission Research Facilities

A great m any engineers and scientists were em­
ployed by the surveyed research facilities to p e r­
form the numerous and diverse research and de­
velopm ent activities fo r w hich they were respon­
sible.

28 percent o f the total research fa cility em p loy­
ment

T h e A to m ic E n ergy Com m ission supports a
large nuclear research and developm ent program .
A m ajor p ortion o f this research and developm ent
w ork is conducted in G overn m en t-ow n ed 17 re­
search facilities operated by educational institu­
tions and industrial concerns. T h e A E C research
facilities em ployed over 42,000 people in January
1960, representing about one-third o f all employees
in establishments included in this survey.
T h e A E C research facilities are the m a jor
centers fo r basic and applied nuclear research in
the physical, engineering, and life sciences. T he
research facilities are the A E C ’s m a jor centers fo r
w ork in the developm ent and use o f particle ac17 W hile nearly all of the research facilities In this segment are
owned by the A EC, some are partially or wholly owned by the
U.S. Department of Defense.




T he 19 establishments classified as A E C

research facilities em ployed about 6,400 engineers
and over 5,550 scientists, together accounting fo r
(table

1 1).

E ngineers and scientists o f

m any different specialties were em ployed. T h e
research facilities em ployed 2,030 physicists and
1,580 electrical and electronics engineers (table
A - l ) in such w ork as the developm ent o f nuclear
T able 11.
E m p l o y m e n t i n A t o m ic E n e r g y C o m m i s s i o n
R e s e a r c h F a c i l i t i e s , b y O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p a n d P er ­
cent
in
R & D for S e le c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s ,
Ja n u a r y 1960

Occupational group

Total, all employees__________ ______
Engineers_______________ _________
Scientists................................... ............. _
Other technical personnel____ _______
Managerial personnel________________
Skilled workers_________________ ____
All others............ 1___________________

Number

Percent

42,172

100.0

6,396
6, 565
203
1,836
3,857
7,355
4,872
146
4,942

15.2
13.2
17.1
4.4
9.1
17.4
11.6
.3
11.7

Percent In
research and
development

7
,

82
95
67
71
44

13

reactors and particle accelerators. M an y o f the
1,672 chemists and 637 chem ical engineers em ­
ployed in these establishments were d oin g research
on nuclear fuel problem s. T h e developm ent o f
new and im proved metals fo r nuclear applications
requires m etallurgists and m etallurgical engineers.
In all, 309 m etallurgists and 272 m etallurgical en­
gineers were em ployed. T h e research facilities
also em ployed 2,017 m echanical engineers, 667 re­
actor engineers, and 411 mathematicians, m any o f
them in the developm ent and design o f nuclear
reactors. M any b iologica l scientists (338) were
em ployed fo r research w ork on the effects o f radia­
tion on plants and animals and fo r other research
w ith radioisotopes. H ealth physicists (204) were
em ployed in w ork dealing w ith the problem s o f
radiation safety.
A b o u t 7,200 technicians and nearly 4,900 skilled
workers were em ployed by the A E C research f a ­
cilities to aid scientists and engineers in their
w ork. Th e m a jority o f the technicians were en­
gin eerin g or physical science technicians (4,854),
inclu din g electronics technicians (1,270) and in ­
strument technicians

(4 8 2 ).

M ore than

1,000

draftsm en were also em ployed. T h e largest o c­
cupations fou n d am ong the skilled w orkers were
those o f the all-round m achinist (1,076), m ainte­
nance m echanic (4 7 5 ), electrician (4 3 5 ), plum ber,
pipefitter, and steamfitter (2 9 6 ), tool and die
maker (2 5 2 ), w elder (2 3 5 ), and instrument maker
(2 2 8 ).
T h e laboratories also em ployed m any people in
m anagerial and adm inistrative positions (3,857)
and in clerical and related office jobs (7,355). T o ­
gether these tw o occupational groups accounted fo r
27 percent o f total A E C research fa cility em p loy­
ment. A b ou t 1,000 workers were engaged in plant
protection and security operations.

Defense Production Facilities
In January 1960, m ore than 35,000 persons
(table 12) were em ployed in the establishments
prim arily devoted to the prod u ction o f atom ic
weapons and related materials. In clu ded in this
segment w^ere the tw o m a jor plutonium production
facilities and a num ber o f plants p rod u cin g clas­
sified materials.
T he types o f w ork and, therefore, the occu pa­
tional patterns vary am ong the different defense
14




T a b l e 12.
E m p l o y m e n t i n D e f e n s e P r o d u c t io n F a c i l i ­
t ie s , b y O c c u p a t io n a l G roup a n d b y P r im a r y W ork
F u n c t i o n F or S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s , J a n u ­
a r y 1960
Percent in—
Occupational group

Number

Percent
Research
and devel­
opment

Total, all employees.......... .

35,590

100.0

Engineers_______ _________
Scientists____ _____________
Technicians_______________
Other technical personnel..
Managerial personnel_____
Clerical personnel................
Skilled workers___________
Nuclear reactor operators...
All others...................... .........

2, 608
1,006
2,399
945
3,850
4,640
8,473
616
11,053

7. S
2.8
6.8
2.7
10.8
13.0
23.8
1.7
31.1

Production
and
operations

25
41
21
35

64
49
73
50

2

93

production facilities. W ork ers in the plutonium
production facilities p erform a great deal o f re­
search and developm ent w ork, such as the develop­
ment o f reactors and fu el elements and the
developm ent o f m ethods fo r processing irradiated
materials, along w ith the operation o f reactors and
other produ ction work. O n the other hand, in
most o f the rem aining establishments, w orkers are
almost exclusively engaged in produ ction work,
such as the m etallurgical and chem ical processing
o f materials and the m anufacture and assembly o f
weapons com ponents.
Ten percent o f the em ployees in this segment
were engineers or scientists.

Inclu ded am ong

these were 702 mechanical, 591 chem ical, 408
electrical and electronics, and 237 m etallurgical
engineers; 440 chemists, and 264 physicists. A b ou t
100 health physicists were em ployed to supervise
the radiation protection o f personnel. M ore than
1,100 engineering and physical science technicians,
400 draftsm en, and about 200 designers were em ­
p loyed to assist engineers and scientists.
T h e defense produ ction facilities em ployed
nearly 8,500 craftsm en. Inclu ded am ong these
skilled workers were 1,304 maintenance mechanics,
963 chem ical operators, 937 all-rou nd machinists,
809 electricians, 642 instrument mechanics, and 522
plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.
M ore than 600 nuclear reactor operators were
em ployed in this segment o f the atom ic energy
field, all o f w hom were em ployed at the tw o p lu to­
nium production facilities. T h e establishments in
this segment also em ployed many people in m an­
agerial and adm inistrative positions and in clerical
and other office jobs. These tw o occupational

grou ps together accounted fo r alm ost one out o f
every fo u r employees. M ore than 1,400 w orkers
were em ployed in job s in v olv in g plan t protection
and security.

Reactor Manufacture
T h e prim ary activity of 16 establishments co v ­
ered in this survey was the design and m anufacture
o f nuclear reactors and reactor com ponents. These
establishments em ployed nearly 12,000 workers.
In addition to designing the reactor p ow er plant,
reactor m anufacturers generally fabricate and test
some o f the intricate com ponents, such as fuel ele­
ments, reactor cores, control rods, reactor vessels,
and heat exchangers, but m any o f the reactor’s
com ponents are m anufactured b y other firms f o l ­
low in g the reactor designer’s specifications.
T a b l e 13.
E m p l o y m e n t i n R eactor M a n u f a c t u r e , b y
O c c u p a t io n a l G roup a n d b y P r im a r y W o r k F u n c t io n
for S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0

Percent in—
Occupational group

Number

Percent
Research
and devel­
opment

Total, all employees............

11,760
2, 480
717
1,582
242
1,094
1,985
1,301
79
2,280

21.1
6.1
13.4
2.0
9.3
16.9
11.1
.7
19.4

Cans of evaporated milk and a sack of potatoes being lowered
into a water-filled canal containing spent fuel elements to test
the effects of radiation on food.

100.0

Engineers_____ ___________
Scientists___________ ______
Technicians_______________
Other technical personnel..
Managerial personnel_____
Clerical personnel_________
Skilled workers___________
Nuclear reactor operators..
All others............................

Production
and
operations

53
77
49
22
13

38
22
49
49
83

M any technicians and skilled w orkers m oreover
were em ployed in this segment.

N early 1,600

technicians were em ployed to assist scientists and
engineers. O f these, 730 were engineering and
physical science technicians and 539 were d ra fts­
men. A b o u t 1,300 craftsm en were em ployed, in ­

E ngineers were the largest occupational grou p
o f em ployees in this segment, constituting 21 p er­
cent o f total em ploym ent (table 13). Since the
ultimate produ ct o f the establishments in this seg­
ment was the design and construction o f nuclear
reactors, they em ployed a great m any engineers
w ho were specialists in reactor technology. O f the
nearly 2,500 engineers em ployed b y the 16 estab­
lishments, 816 were classified as reactor engineers.
A great m any m echanical engineers (718) were
likewise em ployed to w ork in such activities as the
developm ent and design o f pressure vessels and
heat transfer equipm ent and to supervise their
fabrication. In addition, these establishments em ­
ployed 299 physicists, 190 chemists, 170 electrical
and electronics engineers, 169 m etallurgical en gi­
neers, and 151 chem ical engineers.




clu din g 353 all-round machinists, 348 welders, and
179 sheet-metal workers.

Production of Feed Materials and Enriched Uranium
T h e A E C has a m u ltibillion d ollar investment
in facilities fo r the p rodu ction and enrichm ent o f
feed m aterials fo r use as fuel in reactor cores and
fo r national defense purposes.

T w o A E C -o w n e d

and privately operated facilities and one p rivately
owned fa cility were engaged in the chem ical re­
fining and reduction o f uranium ores and concen­
trates. P rivate contractors also operated the three
A E O -ow n ed facilities w hich produced enriched
uranium.
These six establishments em ployed
nearly 12,000 workers in January 1960.
15

T a b l e 14.

E m p l o y m e n t i n t h e P r o d u c t io n of F eed M a ­
E n r ic h e d U r a n i u m , b y O c c u p a t io n a l
i r o u p a n d b y P r i m a r y W o r k F u n c t i o n , fo r S e l e c t e d
G
O c c u p a t io n a l G ro u p s, J a n u a r y 1960
t e r ia l s

Construction of Nuclear Facilities

and

Percent in—
Occupational group

Number

Percent
Research
and devel­
opment

Total, all employees...........

11,717

100.0

Engineers.._ _____________
Scientists__________ _______
Technicians_______________
Other technical personnel-.
Managerial personnel_____
Clerical personnel_________
Skilled workers.....................
All others_______ __________

699
505
815
34
1, 490
1,532
4, 236
2,406

6.0
4.3
7.0
.3
12.7
13.1
36.1
20.5

Production
and
operations

26
51
14
9

69
40
79
88

1

98

A t the three feed materials facilities, m illed
uranium is processed in a series o f refining opera­
tions to rem ove im purities, fo llo w in g w hich it is
converted to metal or interm ediate chem ical p ro d ­
ucts o f acceptable p u rity fo r reactor fu el p rep ­
aration. C onventional chem ical and m etallurgical
processes are em ployed, but they must meet more
exactin g standards than in other industries. In
the other three plants, the output o f the feed
m aterials plants is fu rth er processed b y the gase­
ous diffusion m ethod to obtain enriched uranium.
E n rich ed uranium is used as the fu el fo r most
reactors.
E ngineers and scientists together constituted 10
percent o f total em ploym ent in this segment (table
14). Since the p rod u ction operations at these
facilities are largely chem ical processes, h a lf o f
the 1,200 scientists and engineers were either
chemists (336) or chem ical engineers (2 7 1 ). In
addition, 187 m echanical and 129 electrical and
electronics engineers were em ployed. A n oth er 7
percent o f the em ployees were technicians. A bou t
tw o-th irds o f the m ore than 800 technicians were
engineering and physical science technicians, p r i­
m arily w orkin g in chem ical analytical laboratories
associated w ith the prod u ction processes.
A b ou t 1,700 o f the m ore than 4,200 skilled
workers in these six establishments were chem ical
operators. M ost o f the rem aining skilled workers
were em ployed to m aintain the large am ount o f
com plex equipment. In clu d ed am ong these were
1,035 maintenance m echanics, 361 electricians, 333
instrument mechanics, 187 welders, and 179 a ll­
round machinists.

16




Several c o m p l i e s specialize in the designing
and construction o f nuclear facilities.
M any
other architect-engineer firms and construction
firms also design and construct such facilities or
segments o f facilities. T h is survey covered only
a few o f the m any firms engaged in such work.
T h e em ploym ent data below were obtained from
seven firms w hich were d oin g design and en gi­
neering w ork only and five firms w hich were also
d oin g the actual construction. T h e em ploym ent
data include on ly those em ployees engaged in
atom ic energy work.
These 12 architect-engineer and construction
firms em ployed nearly 6,600 w orkers in January
1960. A b ou t 24 percent o f the em ployees were
engineers and another 29 percent were skilled
workers (table 15). O ver 1,550 engineers were
em ployed, inclu din g 456 m echanical engineers,
409 civil engineers, and 334 electrical and elec­
tronics engineers. A ssistin g the engineers were
396 designers and 374 draftsm en. T h e estab­
lishments w hich were undertaking the actual
construction o f facilities em ployed workers in all
construction crafts, in clu d in g plum bers, pipefit­
ters, and steamfitters (3 2 9 ), electricians (2 9 0 ),
carpenters (1 7 9 ), and welders (11 6).

Private Research Laboratories
In addition to the research at the A E C -o w n e d
laboratories, a great deal o f atom ic energy re­
search is p erform ed at private laboratories under
A E C contract. T h is survey covered on ly those
private laboratories w’hich held A E C prim e con ­
tracts w ith accum ulated obligation s o f m ore than
a m illion dollars, although a great deal o f addiT able

15.
E m p l o y m e n t i n t h e C o n s t r u c t io n of N u ­
F a c il it ie s , b y O c c u p a t io n a l G roup, J a n u a r y

clear

1960
Occupational group

Number

Percent

6,575

100.0

1,558
18
435
513
404
899
1,898
850

23.7
.3
6.6
7.8
6.1
13.7
28.9
12.9

T a b l e 16.
E m p l o y m e n t i n P r iv a t e R e s e a r c h L a b o r a ­
t o r ie s , b y O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p a n d P e r c e n t i n R & D ,
fo r S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0

zirconium and hafnium , and m agnesium and cal­
cium.

Special p rod u ction processes h ad to be

developed fo r some o f the special m aterials in
Occupational group

Number

Percent

Total, all employees___________ _____

5,295

100.0

Engineers_____ _________ ___________
Scientists_____ _____ ___________ _____
Technicians................... ...........................
Other technical personnel..... ............ .
Managerial personnel.............. .............
Clerical personnel.................................._
Skilled workers........................... ............
Nuclear reactor operators......................
All others________________ __________

722
1,392
1,283
115
372
612
293
13
493

Percent in
research and
development

13.6
26.3
24.2
2.2
7.0
11.6
5.5
.3
9.3

93
97
85
79
76

tional research was sponsored b y the Commission.
M ost o f the laboratories covered were operated by
educational institutions, but a few were operated
by other n onprofit institutions and b y industrial
concerns. T h irty -fo u r establishments w ere clas­
sified as private research laboratories. T h ey em­
p loyed about 5,300 persons, on ly 4 percent o f the
em ployees covered in this survey. E stablish­
ments in this segment reported on ly the personnel
engaged in atom ic energy w ork rather than total
establishment em ploym ent.1
8
T w o-th ird s o f these em ployees at the private
research laboratories were in engineering, scien­

order to meet the rig id requirements.

reactors be free o f hafnium . Since all zirconium
ores contain a small percentage o f hafn iu m and
the tw o metals have sim ilar properties, new chem ­
ical separation processes had to be developed.
In January 1960, nearly 3,600 em ployees were
w ork in g at the 10 surveyed plants p ro d u cin g spe­
cial materials fo r use in reactors. A b o u t tw othirds o f these em ployees were plant w orkers
in produ ction , maintenance, and service jobs.
Chem ical operators (2 2 5 ), all-rou nd machinists
(1 5 2 ), and maintenance m echanics (105) were the
most numerous am ong the skilled workers.

group.

M ore

than

h a lf

of

the

nearly 1,400 scientists were physicists (7 6 0 ), re­
flecting the great am ount o f nuclear physics re­
search at these laboratories. In addition, 285
chemists, 100 mathematicians, and 97 b iological
scientists were em ployed. A m o n g the m ore than
700 engineers em ployed were 323 electrical and
electronics engineers, 115 m echanical engineers,
and 101 m etallurgical engineers. A lm ost as many
technicians were em ployed as scientists, inclu din g
375 electronics and 585 other engineering and
physical science technicians.

Production of Special Materials
M any o f the m aterials used in nuclear reactors
must meet stringent specifications and must have
certain special nuclear properties. C overed in
this survey and classified under this segment were
establishments w ith m a jor A E C prim e contracts
to produce some o f these materials— beryllium ,




S ci­

entists and engineers together (table 1 7 ), p rim ar­
ily chemists and chem ical engineers, accounted
fo r less than 5 percent o f the em ployees in this
segment.
T able 17.
E m p l o y m e n t i n t h e P r o d u c t io n of S p e c ia l
M a t e r ia l s , b y O c c u p a t io n a l G roup a n d b y P r im a r y
W o r k F u n c t i o n , for S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s ,
Ja n u a r y 1960

tific, or technical occupations (table 1 6), the scien­
tists, as w ould be expected, com prisin g the largest
occupational

F o r ex­

ample, it is necessary that zirconium f o r use in

Percent in—
Occupational group

Number

Percent
Research
and devel­
opment

Total, all employees.......... .

3,584

100.0

Engineers..............................
Scientists___________ ______
Technicians______ _________
Other technical personnel..
Managerial personnel_____
Clerical personnel_________
Skilled workers_____ ______
All others_________________

97
60
246
5
429
406
790
1,551

2.7
1.7
6.9
.1
12.0
11.3
22.0
43.3

Production
and
operations

33
47
27
20

62
53
70
80

0

100

Uranium Milling
In uranium m ills, m etallurgical and chem ical
processes are used to extract uranium fro m the
mined ore.

T h e basic steps included are ore p rep ­

aration (p rim a rily crushing and g r in d in g ), leach­
ing, and p rod u ct recovery.

These operations are

sim ilar to those used in the m illin g o f other metal“ Some reported only those employees paid from AEC contract
funds. Also, some reported full-tim e equivalent em ployment
rather than total employment.

17

T able

18.

E mployment in Uranium Milling , by Occu­
pational Group, January 1 9 6 0
O c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

N um ber

P ercen t

T o t a l , a ll e m p l o y e e s ____________________________________

3, 432

100.0

E n g in e e r s ________________________________________________
S c ie n t is t s
_____ _________ ______________ ________________
T e c h n ic i a n s _____________ ________ ________________ _______
O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l ......................................................
M a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n n e l__________________________________
C le r ic a l p e r s o n n e l_____________
______________________
S k ille d w o r k e r s ._______ _______________ ________ .
A l l o t h e r s _______________________ _______________________

112
90
197
34
315
271
921
1,492

3 3
2. 6
5. 7
1 .0
9. 2
7. 9
26. 8
4 3 .5

lie ores. This survey covered all uranium mills
in operation at the time of the survey. A ll of the
mills were privately owned and operated, but
under contract to the A E C .
The uranium mills employed 3,432 workers in
January 1960 (table 18), less than 3 percent of
the total number of employees covered by this
survey. Only a total of about 200 scientists and
engineers were employed, nearly half of whom
were chemists and metallurgical engineers. O f
the 921 skilled workers employed in the milling
operations, more than a third were maintenance
mechanics (330) and nearly 20 percent were chem­
ical operators (179).

cerned with the design, development, and fabrica­
tion of fuel elements are included in this seg­
ment. The eight establishments in this segment
employed about 2,900 workers in January I960.1
9
Engineering, scientific, and technical personnel
accounted for about 23 percent o f employment in
the plants fabricating fuel elements (table 19).
Among these personnel were 101 mechanical en­
gineers, 71 metallurgists, and about 200 engi­
neering and physical science technicians. O f the
336 skilled workers, 161 were all-round machin­
ists and another 78 were welders.
Pow er Reactor O peration

Nine establishments -were classified as being pri­
marily engaged in the operation and maintenance
of a power reactor for the production of commer­
cial electricity. A t the time of this survey, only
one of the reactors was in operation, and it could
not be considered typical of such operations, since
a great deal of research and testing was being con­
ducted in connection with operating the reactor.
T able

20.

by

E mployment in P ower R eactor Operation,
Occupational Group, January 1 9 6 0

Fuel Elem ent Fabrication
O c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

The heart of a nuclear reactor is its fuel ele­
ments. Fuel elements for research and power re­
actors are prepared in a variety of forms and
employ different kinds of fuel and cladding ma­
terials. The principal steps in the fabrication of
solid fuel elements are forming, cladding, and ma­
chining, followed by extensive inspection and
testing. Establishments which are primarily conT able 1 9 . E mployment in F uel E lement F abrication,
by Occupational Group and by P rimary W ork F unc ­
tion , for Selected Occupational Groups, January
1960

P e r c e n t in —
O c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

N um ber

P ercen t
R esea rch
a n d d e v e l­
opm ent

T o t a l , a ll e m p l o y e e s ...............

2 ,9 0 3

1 00 .0

E n g in e e r s ____________________
S c ie n t is t s .......................................
T e c h n ic i a n s __________________
O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l ..
M a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n n e l______
C le r ic a l p e r s o n n e l___________
S k ille d w o r k e r s ______________
A ll o t h e r s _____________________

251
108
319
4
246
386
336
1,2 5 3

8 .6
3 .7
1 1 .0
.1
8 .5
1 3 .3
1 1 .6
4 3 .2

P r o d u ctio n
and
o p e r a t io n s

18




13
81
38
0

86
18
59
50

12

87

T o t a l , a ll e m p l o y e e s _____ . _______________
E n g in e e r s __________________
______
S c ie n t is t s ________

N um ber

...

.

_
___________
_________________________

O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l____
M a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n n e l_______. . .

N u c le a r r e a c t o r o p e r a t o r s ___
A ll o t h e r s ____ __
. _ _

__________________
___________________

. . ____________________
_.
_________________

P ercen t

366

100 .0

102
15
43
1
30
40
5
27
103

2 7 .9
4 .1
11.7
.3
8 .2
10 .9
1 .4
7 .4
2 8 .1

The eight other establishments classified in this
segment were in planning stages preliminary to
operation in January 1960, but two expected to
be operating reactors for the commercial produc­
tion of electricity in 1960, another in 1961, and the
remaining five establishments in 1962 or 1963.
An electric utility system consists of power gen­
erating, transmission, and distribution facilities.
The major change brought about by atomic energy
is the replacement of the coal, gas, or oil-burning
steam generator with a nuclear reactor.

The num-

1 Three establishments reported only those employees engaged
9
in atomic energy work rather than total establishment employ­
ment.

ber of operating personnel required for a nuclear
power station is expected to be greater than for a
conventional power station, partly because rela­
tively little experience has been acquired in the
operation of a nuclear station in comparison with
the conventional station, and partly because of the
extra precautions that must be taken to insure
health and safety protection. The one operating
power reactor covered in this survey had an operat­
ing stalf of about three times that required by a
coal-fired station of similar size, but many of the
additional employees were engaged in research,
testing, or training activities not required for the
operation of the reactor, and these employees

would not be required under normal operating
procedures.
The nine establishments employed a large num­
ber of engineers relative to total employment.
Twenty-eight percent of all employees were en­
gineers (table 20), most of whom were mechanical
and electrical and electronics engineers. Reactor
engineers, chemists and chemical engineers, and
health physicists were employed in smaller num­
bers. Technicians, such as health physics tech­
nicians and chemical analysts, accounted for about
12 percent of employment. Twenty-seven nuclear
reactor operators were employed, some o f whom
were in training.

Distribution of Employment in the Atomic Energy Commission
In addition to the A E C prime contractors cov­
ered by the survey, information on employment in
the Atomic Energy Commission itself was ob­
tained (table 21).

The data for the A E C , how­

ever, were not combined with that for the contrac­
tors, but are presented here separately.

of over 7,000 in 1958.2 Since the A E C is pri­
0
marily an administrative and regulatory agency,
nearly 70 percent of the Commission’s employees
were in managerial and administrative or in cleri­
Approximately

1,000 scientists and engineers were employed by the
Commission, including personnel in nearly every
major scientific and engineering discipline. These
included 114 reactor engineers, 91 civil engineers,
80 chemists, 54 electrical and electronics engineers,
and 53 health physicists.

Another large body of

20 T h e A E C r e p o r t a p p l i e s t o O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 r a t h e r t h a n J a n u a r y
1960

(u s e d

by

a ll

oth er

re s p o n d e n ts ),

r e p o r t w e r e c o lle c t e d in c o n ju n c t io n
m is s io n ’s y e a r ly

su rvey

s in c e

w it h

th e

T able

21.
E mployment in the A tomic E nergy Commis ­
sion , by Occupational Group and Selected Occupation ,
October 3 1 , 1 9 5 9

O c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p a n d s e le c t e d o c c u p a t i o n

A s of October 31,1959, the A E C had a total em­
ployment of 6,659— less than the peak employment

cal and other office positions.

workers (463) were engaged in protective and
security activities.

d a ta

fo r

th a t

th e C iv il S e r v ic e C o m ­

T o t a l , a ll e m p l o y e e s _________________ _____________

N um ber

_

P ercen t

6 ,6 5 9

10 0 .0

712

1 0 .7

R e a c t o r ............ .................................. .....................................
C i v i l ______________________ _____ ____________________
.
E le c t r ic a l a n d e le c t r o n ic s ________________ . . . .
C h e m i c a l ...................... ............................
M e c h a n i c a l ________________________________________
O th e r e n g in e e r s __________ _______________________

114
91
54
39
34
380

1 .7
1. 4
.8
.6
.5
5 .7

S c ie n tis ts , t o t a l _______________ __________________________

284

4 .3

C h e m i s t s ____________________________________________
H e a lt h p h y s i c is t s ________________________________
P h y s ic is ts J __________________________ _
M e t a llu r g is t s
_____
_ _________________________
G e o lo g is t s a n d g e o p h y s i c i s t s ____________________
B io lo g ic a l s c ie n t is t s ___ __
_______________________
M a t h e m a t ic i a n s ______________ _____________________
O th e r n a t u r a l s c ie n t is t s ________ . . .
.........

80
53
42
26
22
17
14
30

1 .2
.8
.6
.4
.3
.3
.2
.5

T e c h n ic ia n s ______________________________________________
O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l
____
. _________________
_________ _________________
C le r ic a l p e r s o n n e l_____ __
S k ille d w o r k e r s _____________ ._ . _ ________________

188
124
2 ,0 3 6
2, 581
21

2 .8
1 .9
3 0 .6
3 8 .7
.3

A l l o t h e r s , t o t a l _____ ____________________________________

713

10 .7

463
250

6 .9
3 .8

o f F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y m e n t.




1 9

Appendix A . Tables
T able A -l.

E mployment in the A tomic E nergy F ield, by Occupation and Segment, January 1960
Segm ent

A ll
a c t i­
v it ie s

O c c u p a t io n

T o t a l , a ll e m p l o y e e s

D e fe n s e
AEC
prod u c­
r e se a rch
t io n
fa c ilitie s fa c ilitie s

R ea ctor
m anu­
f a c tu r e

P rodu c­
t io n o f
fe e d
m a te r ia ls
and
e n r ic h e d
u r a n iu m

C on­
stru c­
t io n o f
n u c le a r
fa c ilitie s

P r iv a t e
re s e a r c h
la b o r a ­
to r ie s

P rodu c­
t io n o f
s p e c ia l
m a t e r ia ls

U ra ­
n iu m
m illin g

F uel
e le m e n t
f a b r i­
c a t io n

Pow er
rea ctor
op era ­
t io n

M is c e l ­
la n e o u s

____________________

125,921

4 2 ,172

3 5 ,5 9 0

11,760

11,717

6 ,5 7 5

5 ,2 9 5

3 ,5 8 4

3 ,4 3 2

2 ,9 0 3

366

2 ,5 2 7

S c ie n t is t s , t o t a l ....................... - ........................

9 ,4 8 8

5 ,5 6 5

1 ,0 0 6

717

505

18

1 ,392

60

90

108

15

12

A g r ic u lt u r a l s c ie n t is t s ________ ______
B io lo g ic a l s c ie n tis t s ................................
C h e m i s t s _____________________________
G e o lo g is t s a n d g e o p h y s i c i s t s ............
H e a lt h p h y s i c is t s ____________________
M a t h e m a t ic i a n s .......................................
M e d i c a l s c ie n t is t s ....................................
M e t a ll u r g i s t s _____ ___________________
P h y s ic i s t s ............... ......................................
O th e r n a t u r a l s c ie n t is t s .......................

32
475
3 ,0 5 7
83
377
760
166
608
3,4 3 1
499

27
338
1,6 7 2
16
204
411
93
309
2 ,0 3 0
465

3
24
440
5
99
89
25
47
264
10

0
0
190
2
33
112
0
78
299
3

0
16
336
0
24
42
10
17
60
0

0
0
4
0
0
5
0
3
6
0

2
97
285
40
6
100
37
46
760
19

0
0
39
0
1
1
1
17
1
0

0
0
50
20
0
0
0
20
0
0

0
0
25
0
4
0
0
71
6
2

0
0
8
0
6
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
4
0

15,112

E n g in e e r s , t o t a l ......... ...................................

6 ,3 9 6

2, 608

2 ,4 8 0

699

1,558

722

97

112

251

102

87

A e r o n a u t ic a l...............................................
C h e m i c a l .................................... .................
C i v i l (a r c h it e c t u r a l, c o n s t r u c t io n ,
s t r u c t u r a l, s a n it a r y , e t c . ) . ..............
E le c t r ic a l a n d e l e c t r o n i c s ...................
M e c h a n i c a l ___________________________
M e t a ll u r g i c a l .............................................
R e a c t o r _______ ________________________
O th e r e n g in e e r s ______________________

93
1 ,820

69
637

0
591

18
151

0
271

2
25

4
76

0
36

0
15

0
8

0
8

0
2

905
3 ,0 1 5
4,3 9 1
916
1 ,724
2 ,2 4 8

229
1 ,580
2 ,0 1 7
272
667
925

76
408
702
237
136
458

106
170
718
169
816
332

31
129
187
32
0
49

409
334
456
13
42
277

23
323
115
101
45
35

0
3
22
16
0
20

5
2
10
40
0
40

12
10
101
35
0
85

4
27
42
0
18
3

10
29
21
1
0
24

T e c h n ic i a n s , t o t a l ............................. ...............

1 4 ,612

7 ,2 0 3

2 ,3 9 9

1 ,582

815

435

1,2 8 3

246

197

319

43

90

D r a ft s m e n _________________ __________
E n g in e e r in g a n d p h y s i c a l s c ie n c e :
E l e c t r o n i c s ..........................................
I n s t r u m e n t ..........................................
O t h e r ___________________ _________
H e a lt h p h y s i c s ...........................................
M e d i c a l, a g r ic u lt u r a l, a n d b i o l o g i ­
c a l ..................................................................
O th e r t e c h n i c i a n s .....................................

2 ,6 6 0

1 ,063

403

539

94

374

107

28

8

30

1

13

2 ,0 3 6
627
6 ,1 0 0
720

1 ,270
482
3 ,1 0 2
289

249
37
837
311

43
38
649
61

14
9
511
19

21
10
20
0

375
36
549
5

2
0
171
6

1
6
70
0

17
6
173
18

2
0
11
11

42
3
7
0

569
1 ,900

323
674

55
507

15
237

46
122

4
6

110
101

6
33

8
104

1
74

1
17

0
25

O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l, t o t a l ..............

3 ,7 4 4

1, 836

945

242

34

513

115

5

34

4

1

15

D e s ig n e r s ......................................................
T e c h n ic a l w r it e r s .....................................
O th e r t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l...................

1,160
195
2 ,3 8 9

457
104
1,275

199
19
727

84
29
129

3
3
28

396
17
100

7
19
89

4
1
0

0
0
34

1
0
3

0
0
1

9
3
3

M a n a g e r ia l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , a n d o t h e r
p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l ( o t h e r t h a n
s c ie n t ific a n d t e c h n ic a l) , t o t a l ..............

12,417

3 ,8 5 7

3 ,8 5 0

1, 094

1,490

404

372

429

315

246

30

330

C le r ic a l a n d o t h e r o ffic e p e r s o n n e l,
t o t a l ............ ........ ................................................

18, 537

7 ,355

4 ,6 4 0

1,985

1, 532

899

612

406

271

386

40

411

S k ille d w o r k e r s (jo u r n e y m e n o n l y ) ,
t o t a l ......................................................................

23, 881

4 ,8 7 2

8 ,4 7 3

1,301

4 ,2 3 6

1 ,898

293

790

921

336

5

756

114
717
3 ,2 2 7
2 ,2 5 6

14
171
151
435

29
161
963
809

0
20
0
66

0
61
1,697
361

71
179
0
290

0
7
0
29

0
9
225
56

0
42
179
70

0
4
0
27

0
0
0
0

0
63
12
113

537

228

190

65

11

0

43

0

0

0

0

0

1,269
3, 071

159
1 ,076

642
937

78
353

333
179

8
161

3
0

9
13

3, 635

475

1 ,304

87

1,456
646
504
1,320
5 ,1 2 9

296
183
252
235
1 ,197

522
146
204
263
2 ,3 0 3

29
179
16
348
60

B o ile r m a k e r s ---------- ----------- -------------C a r p e n t e r s .......................................... ........
C h e m ic a l o p e r a t o r s ______ ________
E le c t r ic ia n s .................. ..............................
I n s t r u m e n t m a k e r s ( I n c lu d in g e x ­
p e r im e n t a l
m a c h in is t s
and
o t h e r s w h o fa b r ic a t e in s t r u ­
m e n t s ) ........................................................
I n s t r u m e n t m e c h a n ic s ( in c lu d in g
i n s t r u m e n t r e p a i r m e n ) ....................
M a c h in is t s ( a ll - r o u n d ) .........................
M a in t e n a n c e m e c h a n ic s ( i n c l u d ­
in g m a c h in e r y r e p a ir m e n a n d
m il l w r i g h t s ) ............................................
P l u m b e r s , p i p e fit t e r s , a n d s t e a m fit t e r s ________________ ______________ _
S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s ________________
T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s ________________
W e l d e r s ............... .........................................
O th e r s k ille d t r a d e s _________________

0
67

6
112

19
152

12
21

1 ,0 3 5

126

42

105

330

23

2

106

97
55
12
187
208

329
28
0
116
692

16
4
4
5
25

44
2
12
35
131

13
0
0
46
208

10
3
3
78
19

0
0
0
0
0

100
46
1
7
286

881

146

616

79

0

0

13

0

0

0

27

0

__________

27, 249

4 ,9 4 2

11,053

2 ,2 8 0

2 ,4 0 6

850

493

1,551

1 ,492

1,253

103

826

P l a n t p r o t e c t i o n a n d s e c u r it y _____

3 ,1 0 0

1 ,0 0 4

1,430

147

323

6

44

51

15

58

12

10

N u c le a r r e a c t o r o p e r a t o r s _______________
A l l o t h e r s _____________________

20




T

a b le

A -2 .

E

m p l o y m e n t

A

n t ic ip a t e d

for

J

a n u a r y

1961

in

t h e

A

t o m ic

E

n e r g y

F

ie l d

,

b y

O

c c u p a t io n

a n d

S

e g m e n t

Segm ent

A ll
a c t iv ­
ities

O c c u p a t io n

AEC
r e se a rch
fa c ilitie s

D e fe n s e
prod u c­
t io n
fa c ilitie s

R e a ctor
m anu­
fa c tu r e

P rodu c­
t io n o f
fe e d
m a te r ia ls
and
e n r ic h e d
u r a n iu m

C on­
s tru c­
t io n o f
n u c le a r
fa c ilitie s

P r iv a t e
r e se a rch
la b o r a ­
to rie s

P rodu c­
t io n o f
s p e c ia l
m a te r ia ls

U ra ­
n iu m
m illin g

F uel
e le m e n t
fa b r i­
c a t io n

P ow er
rea ctor
opera­
t io n

M is c e l ­
la n e o u s

130,007

36,945

12,149

11,631

6 ,320

5 ,725

3 ,855

3 ,506

3,021

531

2 ,373

6 ,048

1,063

852

520

21

1,506

77

95

122

16

13

30
527
3 ,266
83
404
876
178
680
3,751
538

25
385
1,782
13
222
474
104
341
2, 202
500

3
24
465
5
99
96
25
53
282
11

0
0
219
2
42
138
0
90
358
3

0
16
343
0
23
47
9
18
64
0

0
0
4
0
0
6
0
3
8
0

2
102
311
41
6
113
39
50
821
21

0
0
47
0
1
1
1
26
0
1

0
0
52
22
0
0
0
20
1
0

0
0
27
0
4
1
0
79
9
2

0
0
8
0
7
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

16,154

6 ,785

2,829

2,776

721

1,516

810

119

118

266

118

96

101
1,976

71
689

0
637

23
181

0
281

2
26

5
84

0
39

0
16

0
12

0
9

0
2

901
3 ,2 6 2
4 ,609
1,019
1 ,925
2,361

220
1 ,685
2,131
312
726
951

75
457
767
247
138
508

119
198
742
198
943
372

31
129
197
35
0
48

404
339
432
14
42
257

24
374
128
109
50
36

0
4
31
19
0
26

5
2
14
40
0
41

12
12
102
42
0
86

1
28
40
2
26
12

10
34
25
1
0
24

15,393

7 ,617

2,501

1,657

801

415

1,403

280

199

343

88

89

2,690

1 ,085

424

518

92

360

123

32

8

33

1

14

2 ,256
683
6 ,3 5 2
771

1 ,386
509
3 ,249
314

290
41
794
319

47
45
712
68

13
9
505
19

18
11
20
0

438
42
576
7

2
0
194
7

1
6
79
0

20
8
187
20

3
9
29
17

38
3
7
0

607
2 ,034

362
712

55
578

17
250

45
118

3
3

117
100

5
40

1
104

1
74

1
28

0
27

4,017

2 ,089

973

294

34

451

117

5

33

4

0

17

1,168
'2 0 0
2 ,649

485
104
1,5 0 0

209
19
745

98
34
162

3
3
28

349
18
84

7
19
91

5
0
0

0
0
33

1
0
3

0
0
0

11
3
3

12,599

3, 799

3 ,983

1,197

1,483

370

389

455

314

247

34

328

18,413

7 ,182

4 ,759

1,986

1,495

817

664

428

273

396

37

376

24,383

5 ,076

8 ,8 1 9

1,254

4,2 0 9

1,911

312

829

917

348

14

694

958

B io l o g ic a l s c ie n t is t s _________________

43,951

10,333

151

616

100

0

0

13

0

0

0

78

0

27, 757

5 ,204

11,402

2 ,033

2,3 6 8

819

511

1,662

1,557

1, 295

146

760

C i v i l ( a r c h it e c t u r a l, c o n s t r u c t io n ,

O th e r e n g in e e r s ___________

---

E n g in e e r in g a n d p h y s ic a l s c ie n ce :

M e d i c a l,

a g r ic u lt u r a l,

and

*

b io -

M a n a g e r ia l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , a n d o t h e r
p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l ( o th e r t h a n

C le r ic a l a n d

o t h e r o ffic e

S k ille d w o r k e r s

p e r s o n n e l,

( jo u r n e y m e n o n l y ) ,

A l l o t h e r s ____ _____ _ _____________________




21

Appendix B. Scope and Method of Survey
This survey of employment in the atomic energy
field was conducted by the U .S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics under contract
with the U .S. Atomic Energy Commission. The
survey was designed to provide information on the
employment of scientists, engineers, technicians,
skilled workers, and others in work related to the
development and production of atomic energy.
Text and appendix tables refer only to employment
in the 158 establishments surveyed, and not to the
entire atomic energy field.
Survey C o verag e

The list of establishments to be included in the
survey was prepared by the Atomic Energy Com­
mission and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In
general, an establishment was covered if it had a
prime contract with the A E C with accumulated
obligations in excess of $1 million as of September
30, 1959. Contractors from the following catego­
ries were included if they fell within the limits
specified: Operating and research and develop­
ment contractors at AEC-owned installations;
architect-engineer firms; commercial establish­
ments furnishing specialized materials, supplies,
or equipment to the A E C ; and research organiza­
tions (commercial and academic and other non­
profit) .
Respondents were asked to report separately for
each establishment engaged in atomic energy activ­
ities under contract with the A E C . Construction
establishments and research laboratories not
owned by the Federal Government were asked to
report only those employees engaged in atomic
energy work, since this might involve only a small
proportion of total establishment employment.
A ll other establishments were asked to report on
their total employment, on the assumption that
atomic energy work would constitute the primary
activity of the establishment. No distinction was
made between part-time and full-time employees;
both were to be included in the response.2
1
This survey is not a count of all employees work­
ing under funds provided by the A E C , nor are all
22




reported employees being paid out of such funds.
A s stated above, the survey did not cover all A E C
contractors. Furthermore, the reporting basis for
an establishment was either all employees or all
employees engaged in atomic energy activities,
which would include both employees paid from
A E C funds and those paid from all other sources.
Conduct of the Survey

The questionnaire used in the survey was devel­
oped in cooperation with the U .S. Atomic Energy
Commission. Comments on preliminary drafts of
the questionnaire and other aspects of the survey
were obtained from officials of industrial establish­
ments, educational institutions, and A E C research
facilities, as well as from personnel of the U .S.
Department of Labor and the A E C . W hile the
questionnaire was not ideally suited to all covered
establishments, the small number of establishments
included in the survey precluded the use of more
than one form.
The questionnaires were mailed in early Febru­
ary 1960 to all establishments. A followup letter
was sent in March and an additional followup
was made either by telephone or through the
A E C ’s regional offices. A n almost complete
response was obtained in the survey.
The data are subject to reporting, editing, and
tabulating errors. Such errors have been largely
eliminated through checking procedures and
through correspondence with establishments whose
reports appeared to involve inconsistencies or mis­
interpretation of terms or definitions.
Definitions

Major items on the questionnaire were defined
in order to get consistent returns. The definitions
(see appendix C) conformed as closely as possible
to the definitions used by the National Science
Foundation in its surveys of scientific and technical
personnel. The definitions were also tested
21A

fe w

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

c la s s ifie d

as

p r iv a te

resea rch

la b o r a ­

t o r ie s r e p o r t e d f u ll-t im e e q u iv a le n t e m p lo y m e n t r a t h e r th a n t o t a l
e m p lo y m e n t.

through visits to establishments which would be
receiving the questionnaire. The purpose was to
develop definitions which would accurately and
clearly describe the terms used and would conform
as much as possible with definitions used in other
surveys and with customary accounting practices.
However, wide differences exist in methods of rec­
ordkeeping and in the classification of employees
and these differences contributed to some varia­
tions in the interpretation and application of
definitions.
A n analysis of the returns disclosed that for
some items on the questionnaire all establishments
were not reporting on the same basis. One source
of difficulty was in the classification of technicians
according to the categories listed— with many
establishments classifying a large number of tech­
nicians in the “ other technicians” category. A
spot check on some of these returns showed that in
many instances a large proportion, or all, of the
technicians so classified should have been reported
as “ other engineering and physical science”
technicians.
Some establishments apparently also had diffi­
culty in determining the intended distinction
between workers to be classified functionally in
“ production and operations” or “ research and
development” and those belonging in the “ all other
functions” category. It is felt that some estab­
lishments incorrectly classified employees (e.g.,
workers engaged in testing associated with produc­
tion or in the maintenance of the production
process) in the “ all other functions” category. In

information indicated that an establishment was
incorrectly classified and in those few instances
where more than one segment was selected. None
of the surveyed establishments was found to be in
four of the segments. Therefore, all establish­
ments were classified in the 10 remaining segments
or in a miscellaneous category adopted for those
establishments which could not be properly classi­
fied in any of the listed segments.
Each establishment was classified in the segment
which best described the primary activity of the
establishment. Therefore, it should be kept in
mind in interpreting statistics in this report re­
lating to a particular segment, that the definitions
used 2 were not necessarily completely accurate
3
descriptions of each establishment within the seg­
ment. It should also be kept in mind that with
the small number of establishments in many seg­
ments, some of the occupational information pre­
sented is largely a reflection of a few large estab­
lishments. Following is a list of the segments
with pertinent information on the reporting
establishments:
1.

A to m ic

c lu d e s
ow ned

a ll

E n erg y

la b o r a t o r ie s

e d u c a tio n a l
2.

p lu s

or

d e fe n s e

and

p r o d u c tio n

d o in g

a t o m ic

e ffo r t,

research

oth er

research

in s t it u t io n s

D e fe n s e

fa c ilitie s
th e

C o m m is s io n

A E C -o w n e d

fa c ilitie s :
w ork

in c lu d in g

th e

In ­

G o v e rn m e n t-

fa c ilitie s

in d u s t r ia l

en ergy

fa c ilitie s :

F ed era l

o p e ra ted

by

con cern s.

I n c lu d e s

a ll

p r im a r ily
tw o

m a jo r

d ev oted

m a jo r

to

p lu to n iu m

p r o d u c tio n ce n te rs .
3.

R ea ctor

p r im a r ily

m a n u fa ctu re :

con cern ed

w ith

I n c lu d e s

th e

16

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

d e v e lo p m e n t,

d e s ig n ,

test­

in g , a n d m a n u fa c t u r e o f r e a c t o r s a n d r e a c t o r c o m p o n e n t s .

a few cases, where a large number of employees

O ne

were so classified, the returns were corrected after
correspondence with the respondent. No attempt
was made to check returns which contained a
relatively small proportion of the establishment’s
employees in the “ all other functions” category
although such a check probably would, in some
cases, have led to the reclassification of some
employees.

e e s w o r k in g u n d e r A E C c o n t r a c t fu n d s .

e s ta b lis h m e n t’s

4.

P r o d u c tio n

I n c lu d e s
and

5.

C o n s tr u c tio n

fe e d

p la n t

th ose

e n r ich e d

m a te r ia ls

o p e r a tio n s

e m p lo y ­

u r a n iu m :

fo r

rea ctor

th e

and

gaseou s

e m p lo y e e s

research

and

a ls o

do

e n g in e e r in g
th e

in

a to m ic

en ergy

la b o r a t o r ie s :

in c lu d e d

in

th is

e d u c a tio n a l

in s t it u t io n ^

in d e p e n d e n t

O ut

la b o r a t o r ie s

asked

to

report

E s ta b lis h m e n ts
o n ly

p erson n el

es­
fiv e

c o n s tr u c tio n .
to

o f

r e p o r t o n ly

th e

34

es­

24

w ere

th e

and
or

and

w ork .

seg m en t,

w it h

con cern s.

o n ly

a ctu a l

segm en t w ere ask ed

e ith e r

in d u s t r ia l
w ere

th is

engaged

ta b lis h m e n ts

w ere

d e s ig n

w h ic h

E s t a b lis h m e n t s in

P r iv a te

o f n u c le a r fa c ilit ie s : I n c lu d e s s e v e n

d o in g

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

n ected

was divided into 14 segments.2 Respondents
2
were asked to select the one segment which best

o n ly

m a t e r ia ls a n d

p r o d u c in g

d iffu s io n

t a b lis h m e n ts

6.

On the questionnaire, the atomic energy field

in c lu d e s

d iffu s io n p la n ts .

on

Classification of Establishm ents by Segm ent

o f fe e d

p la n ts

gaseou s

rep ort

r e m a in d e r

con n ected
in

th is

engaged

con ­

w it h

segm en t
in

a t o m ic

described the primary activity of the reporting
establishment.

Adjustments were made where




2 S e e q u e s t io n n a ir e in a p p e n d ix C .
2
2 S e e q u e s t io n n a ir e in a p p e n d ix C f o r d e fin itio n s .
3

23

en ergy
A E O
a le n t
7.

w ork .

Som e

rep orted

c o n tr a c t fu n d s .
e m p lo y m e n t

o n ly

e m p lo y e e s

A ls o , s o m e r e p o r te d

ra th e r

th a n

tota l

h a fn iu m ,

8.

fro m

e m p lo y m e n t.

one

p la n t

p r o d u c in g

person n el

w it h in

a

U r a n iu m

m illin g :

p la n t

z ir c o n iu m

m a g n e s iu m
p r o d u c in g

I n c lu d e s

a ll

25

and

and

ca lciu m ,

z irc o n iu m

u r a n iu m

tu b e.

m ills

in

o p e r a t io n a t t h e t im e o f th e s u r v e y p lu s a n o r e c o n c e n t r a t e

F u el

e le m e n t

fa b r ic a tio n :

m e n ts p r im a r ily

con cern ed

and

o f

fa b r ic a t io n

in c lu d e d

o n ly

fu e l

th o se

I n c lu d e s

w it h

th e

e le m e n ts .

e m p lo y e e s

e ig h t

d e s ig n ,
T h ree

engaged

e s ta b lis h ­

d e v e lo p m e n t,

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

in

a t o m ic

en ergy

10.

tio n

P ow er

rea ctor

m a in te n a n c e
o f

m en ts

o f

pow er

c o m m e r c ia l

c la s s ifie d

in

o p e r a tio n :

T w o

a ll

p la n n in g

a d d it io n a l

o p e r a tio n
or

in

ports were constructed for two of the three estab­
lishments which did not return questionnaires, on
the basis of information from the files of B L S and
from an official of one of the establishments. It
was not possible to construct a reasonable report
for the one remaining nonrespondent.

in

1960,




O f

fo r

th e

o p e r a tio n

th e

n in e

produ c­

e s ta b lis h ­

items.

The missing data were estimated on the

basis of information available on these estab­
lishments, by obtaining information by telephone

T h e r e m a in in g e ig h t e s t a b lis h m e n t s

or through the A E C ’s Regional Offices, and by

sta g es

a n oth er

24

used

th e

opera­

seg m en t,

in

o n ly

one

w as

p r e lim in a r y

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

1963.

I n c lu d e s

re a cto rs

e le c t r ic it y .
th is

tio n in J a n u a r y 196 0.
w ere

Re­

A number of respondents omitted data on some

w ork .

and

tablishments to which schedules were sent.

the A E C and information obtained by telephone

s t a t io n .
9.

A djustm ents for N onresponse

Reports were received from 156 of the 159 es­

P r o d u c t io n o f s p e c ia l m a te r ia ls : I n c lu d e s fo u r p la n ts

p r o d u c in g b e r y lliu m , fo u r p la n ts p r o d u c in g

and

p a id

fu ll-tim e e q u iv ­

w ere

1961,

to

e x p ected

and

th e

in

o p e r a tio n .
to

rest

be
in

in

1962

making estimations based on relationships shown
by the respondent and by other establishments in
the same segment.

Appendix C. Questionnaire and Covering Letters
B .L .S . N o . 2657

B udget

B u rea u

N o.

4 4 -5 9 3 4
A p p r o v a l e x p ir e s A p ril 30, 196 0

Survey of
EMPLOYMENT IN THE ATOM IC ENERGY FIELD
Conducted for the
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
By the
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Y o u r r e p ly w ill b e h e ld in
S T R IC T

C O N F ID E N C E

The purpose of this survey is to collect employment data from establishments which are engaged in a c ­
tivities in the atomic energy field under contract with the Atomic Energy Commission. These data a r e
needed by the Commission to develop programs and policies related to manpower requirements. A ll
information supplied on this form will be seen only by sworn employees of the Bureau of Labor S t a ­
tistics and the Atomic Energy Commission. Only statistical summaries that will preserve confidentiality
of individual reports will be released. Your reply will be held in S T R I C T C O N F I D E N C E .
G E N E R A L
(T e r m s in H E A V Y

Q u e s tio n n a ir e s
M E N T S

w h ic h

E N E R G Y

are

are

F IE L D

b e in g

engaged

sent
in

to

a ll

a c t iv it ie s

I N S T R U C T I O N S

C A P IT A L S

E S T A B L IS H ­

in

P le a s e

as

a ll

can n ot

th e

d a ta
be

p e n d it u r e o f tim e

and

be

“ none”

W r it e

le a v e a b la n k
to

th e

pay

T h e
th e ir
1.

space.

p e r io d

u s e fu ln e s s
t im e lin e s s .

F or

and

g r e a tly

s u p p ly

m ade.

p o s s ib le .

in g

u n d e r c o n tr a c t w it h th e A to m ic E n e rg y

fig u r e s

req u ested .

p r o v id e d

e ffo r t, r e a s o n a b le
w h ere

o f

th e

I f

undue

ex­

th ey

som e

e s tim a te s

a p p r o p r ia te

s h o u ld

ra th er

T h e

c o o p e r a t io n

r e t u r n in g
fa c ilita te

ex tra

t io n n a ir e

be

o f

fo rm s

re sp on d en ts

as

soon

as

in

c o m p le t ­

p o s s ib le

w ill

th is p r o c e s s .

c o p ie s

m ay

th e

o f

th e

o b ta in e d

on

q u e s tio n n a ir e
req u est.

w o u ld

M a il

be

h e lp fu l,

c o m p le t e d

qu es­

t o :

th a n

A ll fig u r e s s h o u ld a p p ly , i f p o s s ib le ,

e n d in g

n earest

o f th e se d a ta
A c c o r d in g ly ,

th e p u rp o se

I f

w it h o u t

page 4)

t o t a b u la t e a n d p u b lis h th e r e s u lt s o f t h e s u r v e y a s r a p id ly

th e A T O M IC

C o m m is s io n .
d e ta ile d

a r e d e fin e d o n

o f

th is

th e

is in
every

su rvey,

1 5 th

o f

e ffo r t

C O M M IS S IO N E R

Jan u ary.

la r g e p a r t r e la te d
w ill b e

O F
U .S .

to

m ade

t h e a t o m ic e n e r g y fie ld

is d iv id e d

in to fo u r te e n

L A B O R

S T A T IS T IC S

D epartment of L abor
W ashington 25, D . C .

m a jo r s e g m e n ts d e s c r ib e d

on p a g e 4.

P le a s e r e a d th e lis t o f s e g m e n ts c a r e fu lly , s e le c t th e o n e s e g m e n t w h ic h d e s c r ib e s th e p r im a r y a c t iv it y o f th e r e p o r t in g
e s t a b lis h m e n t

(d e fin itio n

on

page 4 )

T H IS

2.

and

Jan u ary

th e n u m b er o f

E S T A B L IS H M E N T

R e p o r t to ta l n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s e m p lo y e d

A .

p la c e

IS

t h a t s e g m e n t in

IN

S E G M E N T

th e b o x

N O .

(s e e d e fin itio n o f E M P L O Y M E N T o n p a g e 4 )

1 9 5 9 _________________________________________________

B .

Jan u ary

b e lo w .

in r e p o r t in g e s ta b lis h m e n t i n :

1 9 6 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

N am e

and

tit le

o f

N am e

and

lo c a tio n

o ffic ia l s u b m it t in g r e t u r n :

Change address if incorrect

o f

e s t a b lis h m e n t :

I f y o u w o u ld lik e a c o p y o f t h e r e le a s e o n t h e s u r v e y fin d in g s , p le a s e c h e c k : □




2 5

TERM S
3.

P R IN T E D

IN

HEAVY

C la s s ify in th e ta b le b e lo w

C A P IT A L S

a l e m p lo y e e s
l

ARE

D E F IN E D .

PLEASE

READ

D E F IN IT IO N S

CAREFULLY

in r e p o r tin g e s ta b lis h m e n t (in J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 ) b y th e o c c u p a tio n s a n d fu n c tio n s

in w h ic h t h e y are p r im a r ily e n g a g e d (ra th e r th a n b y th e ir e d u c a tio n or tr a in in g ).

F o r e x a m p le , a n e m p lo y e e tr a in e d as

a p h y s ic is t b u t w o r k in g as a n e le c tro n ic e n gin e e r sh o u ld b e re p o r te d as a n e le c tro n ic e n gin e e r.
o r g a n iz a tio n m a y n o t b e th e sa m e as th e o c c u p a tio n s lis te d .

T h e j o b title s in y o u r

I f th e d iffe re n ce is o n ly in th e title a n d n o t in jo b c o n te n t,

th e e m p lo y e e sh o u ld b e re p o r te d in th e a p p ro p r ia te o c c u p a tio n ra th e r th a n in a n “ o t h e r ” c a te g o r y .
A n e m p lo y e e s h o u ld b e c o u n te d o n ly o n c e — in th e o c c u p a tio n a n d in th e fu n c tio n in w h ic h h e sp e n d s th e g r e a te s t p ro­
p o r tio n o f h is tim e .

P e rso n n e l in b o rd erlin e o c c u p a tio n s su c h as b io c h e m is t sh o u ld b e classified in th e lis te d o c c u p a tio n

w ith w h ic h th e ir w o rk is m o s t c lo se ly id e n tifie d .
T o t a l o f c o lu m n 1 sh o u ld b e th e sa m e as J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 figure in ite m 2 o n p a g e 1.
Numb e r employed in January 1960

Primary function
Occupations
Total

0)

0 0 0 T o t a l , a ll e m p lo y e e s

1 0 0 S C I E N T I S T S , t o t a l __________________________
110 A G R IC U L T U R A L S C I E N T I S T S 120 B IO L O G IC A L
1 3 0 C h e m is ts

S C I E N T I S T S ________
_

___

1 4 0 G e o lo g is ts an d g e o p h y sic ists
1 5 0 H e a lt h p h y s ic is ts

-

_

160 M A T H E M A T I C I A N S
170 M E D I C A L
180

S C IE N T IS T S

M e t a llu r g is ts

__

_

_

1 9 0 P h y s ic is ts
101

O th e r n a tu ra l sc ie n tists

2 0 0 E N G I N E E R S , t o ta l
210

A e r o n a u tic a l

2 2 0 C h e m ic a l
230

C iv il

(a r c h ite c tu r a l,

c o n str u c tio n ,

str u c tu r a l, s a n ita r y , e t c .!
2 4 0 E le c tr ic a l a n d e le c tro n ic
250

M e c h a n ic a l

260

M e t a llu r g ic a l

270 R E A C T O R
2 8 0 O th e r e n g in e e rs

^

300 T E C H N IC IA N S , t o t a l .- .
310

D r a f ts m e n

3 2 0 E le c tr o n ic

___

-

___ ___

3 3 0 I n s tr u m e n t
340

O th e r

e n g in e e rin g

and

p h y s ic a l

scie n ce
3 5 0 H e a lt h p h y sic s
360
380

M e d ic a l, a g ric u ltu ra l, a n d b io lo g ic a l

370

O th e r te c h n ic ia n s

OTHER

T E C H N IC A L

PERSONNEL,

to ta l
381

D e sig n e r s

382

T e c h n ic a l w riters _

383

O th e r te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l.-

26




RESEARCH
PRODUC­
A N D DEVEL­ TION A N D
OPERA­
OPMENT
TIONS
(2)

(3)

C O N S T R U C ­ ALL O T H E R
TION
FUNCTIONS
(4)

(5)

TOTAL N U M B E R
EXPECTED TO
BE E M P L O Y E D
IN J A N U A R Y
1961 (comparable to
column 1
)

(6)

N u m b e r employed in January 1960
Primary function
Occupations
Total

RESEARCH
PRODUC­
A N D DE V E L ­ TION A N D
OPERA­
OPMENT
TIONS
(2)

(1)

400 M A N A G E R IA L ,
AND

(3)

(6)

(5)

(4)

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E ,

OTHER

PERSONNEL

C O N S T R U C ­ ALL O T H E R
TION
FUNCTIONS

TOTAL N U M B E R
EXPECTED TO
BE E M P L O Y E D
IN J A N U A R Y
1961 (comparable to
column 1
)

P R O F E S S IO N A L

(o th e r th a n

scie n tific

a n d te c h n ic a l), to ta l
500

C L E R IC A L

AND

OTHER

O F F IC E
X

P E R S O N N E L , to ta l
600 S K IL L E D

TRADES

X

X

X

(in c lu d e jo u r n e y ­

m e n o n ly ), t o t a l . .
X

6 1 0 B o ile r m a k e r s .

X

620

C a rp e n te r s

630

C h e m ic a l o p e ra to r s

640

E le c t r ic ia n s .

651

I n s tr u m e n t m a k e r s (in c lu d e e x p eri­
m e n ta l

___
_

m a c h in is ts

and

_

X

___

X

oth ers
X

w h o fa b r ic a te i n s t r u m e n t s ) ________
6 5 2 I n s tr u m e n t

m e c h a n ic s

(in clu d e
X

in s tr u m e n t re p a ir m e n ) _ .
661

M a c h in is ts (a ll-r o u n d )

662

M a in te n a n c e
m a c h in e r y

.

m e c h a n ic s
re p a ir m e n

X

.

(in clu d e
and

m ill­
X

w rig h ts)
6 7 0 P lu m b e r s ,

p ip e fitte r s,

and

s te a m X

f itte r s .
6 9 2 S h e e t-m e ta l w o rk e rs
T o o l a n d die m a k e rs

X

693

W e ld e r s

X

699
691

X

663

O th e r sk ille d tra d e s

NUCLEAR

700 ALL

REACTOR

OTHER

X

O P E R A T O R S ..

P R O D U C T IO N , M A IN ­

TENANCE, AND

C O N S T R U C T IO N

W O R K E R S , to ta l
800

X

X

X

8 1 0 P la n t p r o te c tio n a n d s e c u rity

X

X

X

X

820

X

X

X

X

S E R V IC E

W O R K E R S , to ta l

O th e r se rv ic e w ork e rs




27

D E F IN IT IO N S
(I n ord er o f first use o f term )
E S T A B L I S H M E N T .— A n e s ta b lis h m e n t g e n e r a lly is a s in g le p h y s ic a l lo c a tio n w h e r e b u s in e s s is c o n d u c te d o r w h e re
s e rv ic e s o r in d u s tr ia l o p e ra tio n s a r e p e r f o r m e d ; e .g ., a f a c t o r y , m ill, p o w e r re a c to r, o r la b o r a to r y .

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t is

n o t n e c e s s a r ily id e n tic a l w ith th e b u sin e ss c o n ce rn , e n te rp ris e , o r firm a s th e s e m a y c o n s is t o f m o r e th a n o n e e s ta b lis h ­
m e n t ; a n d it sh o u ld be d is tin g u is h e d f r o m d e p a r tm e n ts o r d iv is io n s w ith in th e e s ta b lis h m e n t.

I f tw o u n its a t th e sa m e

lo c a tio n o p e ra te in s e p a r a te field s n o t u s u a lly a s s o c ia te d , h a v e s ig n ific a n t e m p lo y m e n t in e a c h field , a n d h a v e re co rd s
th a t p e r m it s e p a r a te re p o r ts, a f o r m sh o u ld b e c o m p le te d f o r e a ch o f th e m .
A T O M I C E N E R G Y F I E L D .— T h e field is d iv id e d in to th e f o llo w in g s e g m e n t s :
( 7 ) P o w e r r e a c t o r o p e r a tio n an d m a in te n a n c e .— O p e r­

( 1 ) U r a n iu m m illin g .— R e d u c tio n o f u r a n iu m o re s to

a tio n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f p o w e r r e a c to r s u se d f o r th e p ro ­

c o n c e n tr a te s f o r f u r th e r p r o c e ssin g a s fe e d m a te r ia ls .
( 2 ) P r o d u c tio n o f fe e d m a t e r ia ls .— R e fin in g a n d c o n ­

d u c tio n o f c o m m e r c ia l e le c tr ic ity .

E x c lu d e s r e s e a r c h an d

te s t r e a c to rs th a t sh o u ld be in c lu d e d u n d e r th e a c tiv ity
v e r tin g u r a n iu m a n d th o riu m , a ls o u r a n iu m e n ric h m e n t.

o r e s ta b lis h m e n t w ith w h ic h th e y a r e a s s o c ia te d .

I n c lu d e s th e re c o v e r y o f s c r a p f r o m th e a b o v e p ro c e sse s.
( 3 ) P r o d u c tio n o f sp e c ia l m a te r ia ls fo r u s e in r e a c to r s
(e .g .,

re a c to r

g r a d e g r a p h ic , b e r y lliu m , z irc o n iu m , h a f ­

( 8 ) R a d io a c tiv e w a s te d is p o s a l.— T h e p a c k a g in g an d
d is p o s a l o f r a d io a c tiv e w a s te m a te r ia ls , in c lu d in g b o th
b y -p r o d u c t a n d so u r c e m a te r ia l w a s te s .
( 9 ) N u c le a r

n iu m , h e a v y w a te r , e t c .) .
(4 ) F u el

e le m e n t

f a b r ic a tio n

and

reco v ery

t ie s .— In c lu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h h a v e a s

uct activity

a c tiv i­

end prod­

th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f f u e l e le m e n ts f o r r e a c to r s ;

th e re c o v e r y a n d c h e m ic a l p r o c e ssin g o f ir r a d ia te d u r a ­
n iu m

and

fro m

sp e n t f u e l e le m e n t s ; a n d th e sc r a p re c o v e ry

p lu to n iu m

p ro c e s s in g

of

fu e ls

u n ir r a d ia te d

to

s e p a r a te

u r a n iu m

fissio n

m e ta l,

a llo y s ,

f a c t u r in g .— T h e

d e sig n

a n d /o r

m a n u fa c tu r e

o f n u c le a r

In c lu d e s th e a s s e m b ly o f r e a c to r s a t th e p la ce

o f m a n u fa c tu r e .

A ls o in c lu d e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h a re

e x c lu s iv e ly

en ergy

( 1 0 ) P r o c e s s i n g an d p a c k a g in g r a d io is o to p e s .— E s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in th e s e a c tiv itie s .
( 1 1 ) P a r tic le

a c c e le r a to r

m a n u fa c tu r in g .— In c lu d e s

of

m a n u fa c tu r e

a c c e le r a to r s

p a r tic le

and

of

com ­

p o n e n ts sp e c ific a lly d e s ig n e d f o r an d u n iq u e to a c c e le r a ­
to rs.
( 1 2 ) P r iv a te

re se a rch

la b o r a to r ie s

an d

c e n te r s

en­

g a g e d in a t o m ic e n e r g y w o r k .— In c lu d e s la b o r a to r ie s an d

fo r

u n iv e r s ity d e p a r tm e n ts o r u n its e n g a g e d in a t o m ic e n e r g y

field a n d a r e n o t c la ssifie d in o th e r

w o r k u n d e r c o n tr a c t w ith th e A to m ic E n e r g y C o m m is s io n .

engaged

th e a to m ic

a n d h o t la b o r a to r y e q u ip m e n t.

th e

( 5 ) R e a c t o r a n d r e a c to r c o m p o n e n t d e s ig n a n d m a n u ­
r e a c to r s .

f o r th e a to m ic e n e r g y field , su c h a s a c c e s s o r y in s tr u m e n ta ­

an d

c o m p o u n d s f r o m f u e l e le m e n t f a b r ic a tio n p la n ts .

m a n u fa c tu r in g .— E s ta b lis h ­

tio n f o r r e a c to r c o n tr o ls , r a d ia tio n d e te c tio n in s tr u m e n ts ,

p ro d u c ts
an d

in s t r u m e n t

m e n ts e n g a g e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g in s t r u m e n ts p r im a r ily

in

m a k in g

re a c to r

c o m p o n e n ts

( S ee d e fin itio n o f e m p lo y m e n t b e lo w .)

s e g m e n ts.
( 6 ) C o n s tr u c tio n o f n u c le a r f a c ilit ie s .— D e s ig n , e n g i­

( 1 3 ) C o m m is s io n la b o r a to r y a n d r e s e a r c h f a c ilit ie s .—

n e e rin g , a n d c o n str u c tio n o f n u c le a r re a c to r h o u s in g ( in ­

C o m m is s io n o w n e d a n d p r iv a te ly o p e r a te d f a c ilit ie s s u c h

c lu d in g th e a s s e m b ly o f r e a c to r s a t s i t e s ) , a t o m ic e n e rg y

a s A r g o n n e N a tio n a l L a b o r a to r y , K n o lls A t o m ic P o w e r

la b o r a to r ie s , r e a c to r m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n ts , r e a c to r fu e l

L a b o r a to r y , e tc.

p ro c e s s in g p la n ts , a n d o th e r fa c ilit ie s f o r a t o m ic e n e rg y
a p p lic a tio n s .

I n c lu d e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts e n g a g e d in d esig n

( 1 4 ) A t o m ic e n e r g y d e f e n s e

p r o d u c tio n

f a c ilit ie s .—

F a c ilitie s w h ic h a r e p r im a r ily d e v o te d to w e a p o n s p ro ­

( excludes

o r e n g in e e rin g o f fa c ilit ie s , e v e n th o u g h n o t p a r t o f c o n ­

d u c tio n

s tr u c tio n firm s.

r e a c to r s w h ic h is c la s s ifie d in s e g m e n t 5 ) .

(S e e

d efin itio n o f e m p lo y m e n t b e lo w .)

d e s ig n

and

m a n u fa c tu r e

o f a irc r a ft

E M P L O Y M E N T .— E n te r th e to ta l n u m b e r o f p e r so n s in y o u r e s ta b lis h m e n t w h o w o r k e d d u r in g o r re c e iv e d p a y
f o r a n y p a r t o f th e p a y p e rio d e n d in g n e a r e s t J a n u a r y 15.
th o se on te m p o r a r y a s s ig n m e n t a b ro a d .

E x clu d e

w o r k in g f o r y o u r e s ta b lis h m e n t u n d e r c o n tr a c t.

In clu de

b o th f u ll-t im e a n d p a r t-t im e e m p lo y e e s .

In clu d e

c o n s u lta n ts a n d o th e r in d iv id u a ls w h o a r e e m p lo y e d b y o r g a n iz a tio n s
C o n stru c tio n e s ta b lis h m e n ts a n d p r iv a te r e s e a r c h la b o r a to r ie s sh o u ld

re p o r t o n ly th o s e e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in a t o m ic e n e r g y w o rk .
R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T . — Includes b a s ic a n d a p p lie d re s e a r c h in th e n a t u r a l sc ie n c e s ( in c lu d in g m e d i­
c in e )

a n d e n g in e e rin g , a n d d e sig n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f p ro to ty p e s a n d p ro c e sse s.

E xclu d es

q u a lity c o n tr o l, ro u tin e

p ro d u c t te stin g , m a r k e t re se a rc h , s a le s p ro m o tio n , s a le s se rv ic e , re s e a r c h in th e so c ia l scie n ce s, le g a l w o rk , o r o th e r
te c h n ic a l o r n o n te c h n ic a l se rv ic e s.

I f th e p r im a r y o b je c tiv e is re s e a r c h p r o je c ts w h ic h re p r e s e n t o r ig in a l in v e s tig a tio n

f o r a d v a n c e m e n t o f sc ie n tific k n o w le d g e o r to m a k e f u r th e r im p r o v e m e n ts on a p ro d u c t or p ro c e ss, th e n th e w o r k is
r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t.

I f , on th e o th e r h a n d , th e p ro d u c t o r p ro c e ss is s u b s t a n tia lly “ s e t ” a n d th e p r im a r y o b je c tiv e

is to d e v e lo p m a r k e ts , do p re p ro d u c tio n p la n n in g , o r g e t th e p ro d u c tio n p ro c e s s g o in g s m o o th ly , th e n th e w o r k is n o
lo n g e r r e se a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t.
r e la te d m a n u a l w o rk .

28



In clu de

th e a d m in is tr a tio n an d s u p e r v is io n o f r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t a n d d ir e c tly

P R O D U C T IO N

AND

O P E R A T I O N S .— In c lu d e s th e p ro d u c in g , fa b r ic a tin g , a n d m a n u fa c tu r in g o f p r o d u c ts a n d

m a t e r i a ls ; m o d ify in g e q u ip m e n t a n d p ro c e sse s t o m e e t s p ec ific p r o b le m s ; o p e r a tin g a f a c i li t y

(in c lu d in g a r e a c to r ) ;

a n d d e sig n , a n a ly s is , a n d te s tin g a s s o c ia te d w ith p ro d u c tio n a n d o p e ra tio n w h ic h a r e n o t p a r t o f r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p ­
m e n t.

In c lu d e th e a d m in is tr a tio n a n d s u p e r v isio n o f th e se f u n c tio n s .

C O N S T R U C T I O N .— I n c lu d e s

th e d e sig n

and

e n g in e e rin g

o f f a c ilit ie s , c o n s tr u c tio n o f f a c ilit ie s , th e o n -th e -s ite

a s s e m b ly o f re a c to rs, a n d th e a d m in is tr a tio n a n d s u p e r v isio n o f th e se fu n c tio n s .
A L L O T H E R F U N C T I O N S .— In c lu d e a ll e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in f u n c tio n s n o t lis te d a b o v e .

F o r e x a m p l e : te c h n ic a l

sales-, te c h n ic a l w r itin g , te c h n ic a l p u rc h a sin g , o p e r a tio n s re se a r c h , a n d o th e r te c h n ic a l s e rv ic e s a n d th e ir a d m in is tr a tio n
a n d s u p e r v isio n .
T O T A L N U M B E R E X P E C T E D .— B a s e d on a v a ila b le b u d g e t figu res, p r o je c t th e n u m b e r e x p e c te d to b e e m p lo y e d in
J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 in y o u r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
S C I E N T I S T S .— A ll p e r so n s e n g a g e d in sc ie n tific w o r k a t a le v e l w h ic h re q u ire s a k n o w le d g e o f p h y s ic a l, e n g in e e rin g ,
m a th e m a tic a l, b io lo g ic a l, a g r ic u ltu r a l, m e d ic a l, p sy c h o lo g ic a l, a n d o th e r n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s e q u iv a le n t a t le a s t t o t h a t
a c q u ir e d th r o u g h c o m p le tio n o f a 4 -y e a r c o lle g e c o u rse w ith a m a jo r in th e s e field s.

In clu d e

s c ie n tis ts in re se a r c h ,

p la n n in g , in sp e c tio n , a d m in is tr a tio n , te c h n ic a l se rv ic e , te c h n ic a l w r itin g , te c h n ic a l d r a w in g a n d e x h ib it d e sig n , d a ta
c o lle c tin g , a n d a ll o th e r p o s itio n s w h e n th e y re q u ire a scie n tific b a c k g r o u n d .

In clu de

a n th r o p o lo g is ts , a n d a r c h ite c ts.

E x clu d e

s o c ia l s c ie n tis ts , a r c h e o lo g is ts ,

a s tr o n o m e r s .

A G R I C U L T U R A L S C I E N T I S T S .— S c ie n tis ts w o r k in g in a g r o n o m y , a n im a l h u s b a n d ry , fo r e s tr y , h o r tic u ltu r e , ra n g e
m a n a g e m e n t, so il cu ltu re , an d v e te r in a r y scien ce.
B I O L O G I C A L S C I E N T I S T S .— A l l sc ie n tis ts , o th e r th a n a g r ic u ltu r a l a n d m e d ic a l s c ie n tis ts , w h o w o r k in sc ie n c e s
w h ic h d e a l w ith l i f e p ro c e sse s, in c lu d in g p a th o lo g is ts , m ic r o b io lo g is ts , p h a r m a c o lo g is ts , b a c te r io lo g is ts , to x ic o lo g is ts ,
b o ta n is ts , z o o lo g ists, e n to m o lo g is ts , e tc.
M A T H E M A T I C I A N S .— S c ie n tis ts p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in d e v e lo p m e n t or u tiliz a tio n o f a d v a n c e d m a th e m a t ic a l te c h ­
n iq u e s.

In clu de

E x clu d e

a c c o u n ta n ts.

s ta tis t ic ia n s

and

p ro gra m m ers fo r

c o m p u te rs

o n ly

i f th e y s p e c ia liz e in m a th e m a t ic a l te c h n iq u e s.

M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T S .— P h y s ic ia n s , d e n tists, p u b lic h e a lth s p e c ia lis ts , p h a r m a c is ts , a n d m e m b e r s o f o th e r s c ie n ­
tific p r o fe s s io n s c o n ce rn e d w ith

th e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f h u m a n d is e a s e s a n d im p r o v e m e n t o f h u m a n h e a lth , w h o a r e

e n g a g e d in a to m ic e n e r g y w o rk .

E x clu d e

d ia g n o s is , e tc.

E x clu d e

th o se o n ly e n g a g e d in p ro v id in g c a re to p a tie n ts , d is p e n s in g d r u g s o r s e rv ic e s,

th o s e o n ly e n g a g e d in a p p lic a tio n o f r a d ia tio n to p a tie n ts .

A ls o

exclude p e r s o n s e m p lo y e d a s
include th e m in th e fig u res

p a th o lo g is ts , m ic r o b io lo g is ts , p h a r m a c o lo g is ts , etc., f r o m th e figu res on m e d ic a l s c ie n tis ts b u t
on b io lo g ic a l s c ie n tists.

E N G I N E E R S .— A ll p e r so n s e n g a g e d in e n g in e e rin g w o r k a t a le v e l w h ic h r e q u ire s a k n o w le d g e o f e n g in e e rin g ,
m a th e m a tic a l, p h y s ic a l, o r o th e r n a tu r a l sc ie n c e s e q u iv a le n t a t le a s t to th a t a c q u ir e d th r o u g h c o m p le tio n o f a 4 -y e a r

In clu de

c o lle g e co u rse w ith a m a jo r in th e se field s.

a ll ty p e s o f e n g in e e rs

(c iv il, c h e m ic a l, e le c tro n ic , m e ta llu r g ic a l,

re a c to r, e t c .) e n g a g e d in re se a r c h , a d m in is tr a tio n , p la n n in g , te c h n ic a l s e rv ic e , te c h n ic a l w r itin g , etc., w h e n th e ir w o r k
re q u ire s a n e n g in e e rin g b a c k g r o u n d .

E x clu d e

a r c h ite c ts b u t

include

a r c h ite c tu r a l e n g in e e rs.

R E A C T O R E N G I N E E R S .— P e r so n n e l w h o e s ta b lis h th e n u c le a r c r ite r ia in a s y s te m , figu re th e s h ie ld in g re q u ir e ­
m e n ts , p re d ic t r e a c to r b e h a v io r , d o th e p r e lim in a r y d e sig n o f r e a c to r co re s, a n d m a k e o p tim iz a tio n s tu d ie s .
T E C H N I C I A N S .— A ll p e r so n s e n g a g e d in w o r k r e q u ir in g k n o w le d g e o f p h y s ic a l, e n g in e e rin g , m a th e m a tic a l, b io ­
lo g ic a l, o r o th e r n a t u r a l sc ie n c e s c o m p a r a b le to k n o w le d g e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a te c h n ic a l in s titu te , ju n io r c o lle g e , o r o th e r
f o r m a l p o st-h ig h -sc h o o l tr a in in g , or th r o u g h e q u iv a le n t o n -th e -jo b tr a in in g or e x p e r ie n c e .
e n g in e e rin g a s s is ta n t s , p h y s ic a l sc ie n c e a id s, a n d e le c tro n ic te c h n ic ia n s .
c a te d le v e l o f k n o w le d g e a n d tr a in in g sh o u ld b e

E x clu d e

included

S o m e ty p ic a l jo b tit le s a r e :

A ll e m p lo y e e s in p o s itio n s re q u ir in g th e in d i­

r e g a r d le s s o f jo b tit le a n d d e p a r tm e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d .

c r a fts m e n su ch a s in s tr u m e n t m a k e r s , to o l a n d d ie m a k e r s , m a c h in is ts , e le c tr ic ia n s , etc.

O T H E R T E C H N I C A L P E R S O N N E L .—

In clu d e

a ll o th e r

technical

p e rso n n e l, su c h a s d e s ig n e rs , te c h n ic a l w r ite r s ,

a n d a r c h ite c ts, n o t a lr e a d y c la ssifie d a s s c ie n tists, e n g in e e rs, or te c h n ic ia n s .
M A N A G E R IA L , A D M IN IS T R A T IV E , A N D

O T H E R P R O F E S S I O N A L P E R S O N N E L .— ( O th e r th a n sc ie n tific a n d

te c h n ic a l) : E x e c u tiv e s , h e a d s o f d e p a r tm e n ts, s u p e r v iso rs , an d fo r e m e n w h o a r e p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in p la n n in g a n d
d ir e c tin g th e w o rk o f o th e r s a n d th o se w h o r e g u la r ly e x e r c is e d is c r e tio n a n d in d e p e n d e n t ju d g m e n t in w o r k d ir e c tly
r e la te d to m a n a g e m e n t p o lic ie s o r g e n e ra l b u s in e s s o p e ra tio n s su c h a s a d m in is tr a tiv e a s s is ta n t s , p u r c h a s in g a g e n ts ,
p e r so n n e l d ire c to rs, w a g e r a te a n a ly s ts , e tc.

A ls o p e r so n s e n g a g e d in w o r k a t a le v e l w hich_ r e q u ire s a k n o w le d g e o f a

p r o fe s s io n a l d isc ip lin e (o th e r th a n scie n ce a n d e n g in e e r in g ) e q u iv a le n t to t h a t a c q u ir e d th r o u g h c o m p le tio n o f a 4 -y e a r
c o lle g e co u rse su ch a s la w y e r s , a c c o u n ta n ts, s o c ia l sc ie n tis ts , etc.

E x clu d e

e m p lo y e e s su c h a s s e n io r s c ie n tis ts , le a d -

m e n , o r w o r k in g fo r e m e n w h o m a y be “ in c h a r g e ” o f o th e r e m p lo y e e s b u t w h o sp en d m o s t o f th e ir tim e in n o n -s u p e r v is o r y




29

w ork .

( T h e e m p lo y e e s to b e c o u n te d in th is c a te g o r y a r e th o se e x e m p t u n d e r th e F e d e r a l W a g e a n d H o u r L a w a s

e m p lo y e d in a n “ e x e c u tiv e , a d m in is tr a tiv e , o r p r o fe s s io n a l c a p a c it y .” )
S K IL L E D

T R A D E S .— In c lu d e w o r k e r s in a re c o g n iz e d c r a f t or tr a d e w h o g e n e r a lly a c q u ir e th e ir s k ills th r o u g h

a p p re n tic e sh ip or e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g o r e x p e r ie n c e .

In c lu d e a ll c r a fts m e n

in p ro d u c tio n , o p e ra tio n , c o n str u c tio n , m a in te n a n c e , a n d la b o r a to r y w o r k .

( in c lu d in g w o r k in g fo r e m e n a n d le a d m e n )
In c lu d e

only

jo u r n e y m e n .

A p p r e n t ic e s a n d

tr a in e e s sh o u ld b e in c lu d e d in th e “ A L L O T H E R P R O D U C T I O N . . . W O R K E R S G R O U P .”
N U C L E A R R E A C T O R O P E R A T O R S .— A l l p e r so n s w h o s e
re a c to r.

prim ary

d u ty is th e o p e r a tio n o f th e c o n tr o ls o f a n u c le a r

N u c le a r re a c to r o p e r a to r s p o sse ss a n o p e r a tin g lic e n s e o b ta in e d f r o m th e A E C

( u n le s s o p e r a tin g a n A E C or

m ilit a r y se r v ic e r e a c t o r ) .
ALL

OTHER

P R O D U C T IO N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E , A N D

C O N S T R U C T IO N

W O R K E R S .— I n c lu d e a ll p ro d u c tio n ,

m a in te n a n c e , a n d c o n str u c tio n w o r k e r s o th e r th a n th o se in c lu d e d in th e s k ille d tr a d e s a n d s e r v ic e w o r k e r c a te g o r ie s .
L a b o r e r s , h e lp e rs, o p e ra to r s, a p p re n tic e s, e tc ., sh o u ld b e in c lu d e d in th is g r o u p .
S E R V I C E W O R K E R S .— A ll n o n -s u p e r v is o r y m a n u a l w o r k e r s e n g a g e d in s u p p o r tin g a c tiv itie s n o t d ir e c t ly r e la te d
to th e p r im a r y a c tiv itie s o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n t.

In c lu d e e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p ro te c tiv e , s e c u r ity , c u s to d ia l, a n d o th e r

s u p p o rtin g se rv ic e s, e .g ., g u a r d s , e le v a to r o p e ra to r s, c a fe te r ia w o rk e rs , ja n it o r s , firem en , c h a r w o m e n , la u n d r y w o r k e r s ,
d r iv e r s , e tc .

REMARKS
P le a s e n o te b e lo w a n y c o m m e n ts y o u w is h to m a k e co n c e rn in g th e d e fin itio n s, lim it a tio n s o f th e d a ta y o u w e r e a b le
to s u p p ly , o r o th e r p o in ts.

30



UN IT ED

STATES

ATOM IC EN ER G Y COMMISSION
W A S H I N G T O N 25, D . C .

D e a r S ir :
T h e A to m ic E n e r g y C o m m is s io n h a s c o n d u cte d a y e a r ly s u r v e y to c o lle c t
e m p lo y m e n t and o c c u p a t io n a l d a ta f r o m

e s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h a r e e n g a g e d in

a t o m i c e n e r g y a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r c o n t r a c t w ith th e C o m m i s s i o n .

T h e C o m m is s io n

h a s n o w a s k e d t h e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ’ s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s t o
c o n d u c t th is s u r v e y .
It i s h o p e d in th e f u t u r e t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a f o r th e C o m ­
m i s s i o n w ith b r o a d e r s u r v e y s o f s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l m a n p o w e r c o v e r i n g
a ll s e g m e n t s o f th e e c o n o m y w h ic h th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s m a y u n d e r ­
ta k e f o r th e N a tio n a l S c ie n c e F o u n d a tio n .
Y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n in p r o v i d i n g th e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d in t h e e n c l o s e d q u e s ­
t io n n a ir e is o f g r e a t im p o r t a n c e t o th e s u c c e s s
a r e p ly fr o m

o f th is u n d e r ta k in g .

e a c h e s ta b lis h m e n t r e c e iv in g a q u e s tio n n a ir e .

W e need

It is a ls o i m p o r ­

ta n t th a t a ll d e p a r t m e n t s a n d d i v i s i o n s w it h in th e e s t a b li s h m e n t b e c o v e r e d .
T h e d a ta y o u fu r n is h w ill b e u s e d f o r s t a t is t ic a l p u r p o s e s o n ly an d w ill n o t b e
p u b lis h e d in a m a n n e r th a t w o u ld d i s c l o s e i n f o r m a t i o n o n in d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts.

S in c e th e u s e f u l n e s s o f th e d a ta is in l a r g e p a r t r e l a t e d t o t h e ir t i m e l i ­

n e s s , p le a s e r e t u r n th e c o m p le t e d q u e s t io n n a ir e a s s o o n a s p r a c t ic a b le .
W e s h a l l b e v e r y g r a t e f u l f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n in s u p p ly in g th e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r ­
m a tio n .

T h e A t o m ic E n e r g y C o m m is s io n w ill a ls o w e lc o m e a n y s u g g e s tio n s y o u

m a y w is h to m a k e r e g a r d in g th e s u r v e y .




S in c e r e ly y o u r s ,

A . R . L u ed eck e
G en eral M anager

U N I T E D

ST AT ES

ATOMIC EN ER G Y COMMISSION
W A S H IN G T O N 25 , D . C .

D e a r S ir :
W e w r o t e y o u la s t m o n th r e g a r d in g a n e m p lo y m e n t s u r v e y w h ic h is
b e in g c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s f o r th e A t o m i c E n e r g y
C o m m is s io n .

S in c e y o u h a v e n o t y e t r e p lie d t o th e B u r e a u , w e a r e

w r it in g a g a in to r e q u e s t y o u r c o o p e r a t io n .
T h e p u r p o s e o f th e s u r v e y is t o c o l l e c t e m p lo y m e n t an d o c c u p a t io n a l
d a ta f r o m

e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h a r e e n g a g e d in a t o m ic e n e r g y a c t iv it ie s

u n d e r c o n t r a c t w ith th e A t o m i c E n e r g y C o m m i s s i o n .

In t h e f u t u r e , w e

h o p e t o c o o r d i n a t e th e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a f o r th e C o m m i s s i o n w ith
b roa d er su rveys

o f s c ie n t if ic and te c h n ic a l m a n p o w e r c o v e r in g a ll s e g ­

m e n t s o f th e e c o n o m y w h ic h th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s m a y u n d e r ­
ta k e f o r th e N a tio n a l S c ie n c e F o u n d a tio n .
I n fo r m a t io n f o r y o u r e s t a b lis h m e n t is o f im p o r t a n c e t o th e s u c c e s s
th is s u r v e y .

of

A ll in f o r m a t io n s u p p lie d w ill b e in s t r i c t c o n f id e n c e a n d

p u b lis h e d in fo r m a t io n w ill n o t p e r m it id e n t ific a t io n o f d a ta f o r in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

W e e n c lo s e a d d itio n a l c o p ie s

o f th e f o r m

p r e v io u s o n e s fa ile d to r e a c h y ou .
Y o u r p r o m p t c o o p e r a t io n w ill b e g r e a t ly a p p r e c ia t e d .
S in c e r e ly y o u rs

A . R . L u ed eck e
G en eral M anager
E n c lo s u r e s




in c a s e t h e

Appendix D. A Brief Description of Atomic Energy
A to m ic energy, or m ore accurately nuclear energ y,24 m ay be produ ced through tw o processes
called fission and fusion. In fission, the nucleus
o f a heavy atom, such as uranium or plutonium ,
is spilt, thereby releasing energy in the form o f
heat and radiation. In fusion, energy is produced
th rou gh the fusion (o r com bin in g) o f the nuclei
o f tw o ligh t atoms, such as hydrogen. T h e energy
created by these tw o processes is tremendous.
T h e detonation o f atom ic and h ydrogen bom bs is
an application o f a deliberately u n controlled and
explosive release o f this energy th rou gh the use
o f the fission and fusion processes. N onw eapon
applications require that release o f this energy be
ca refu lly con trolled and regulated so that it p ro ­
ceeds at a manageable rate. Scientists have de­
veloped p ractical m ethods o f con trollin g the fis­
sion reaction, but have n ot yet m astered control
o f the fusion (o r therm onuclear) reaction.
B oth atom ic fusion and fission take place in
nature. F u sion is generally believed to be the
source o f the energy o f the sun. A to m ic fission
occurs close to the earth through the interaction
o f cosm ic rays. T h is is part o f w hat is known
as natural background radiation. P r io r to the
A to m ic A g e, X -r a y s were the m ost com m only
know n form o f radiation. R adiation that arises
d u rin g fission is called nuclear radiation because
it comes from the nucleus o f the atom. N uclear
radiation can penetrate m atter and can be danger­
ous to man. It is also invisible and, therefore,
identifiable on ly by sensitive record in g instru­
ments.
C ontrolled fission is produ ced in a nuclear re­
actor, or “ p ile” as it is often called, w hich can
be thought o f as an atom ic furnace, although there
is n o fire and no com bustion in the usual sense.
Th e reactor, like other kinds o f furnaces, needs
fuel to operate. T h e principal source material
fo r reactor fuel is uranium. N atural uranium
contains a small quantity (0.7 o f 1 percent) o f the
fissionable isotope uranium U -235. (A n isotope
is one o f tw o or m ore species o f the same ele­




ment, such as uranium, h avin g alm ost identical
chem ical properties but differin g in atom ic
w eight.) T h e rem aining atoms are m ostly ura­
nium U -238.
W h en the U -2 35 atoms split, they release
“ atom ic bullets” called neutrons w h ich can be
made to split other U -2 35 atoms. These in turn
release additional neutrons w hich can sim ilarly
split m ore atoms. T h is is how the fission process
is started and m aintained. D ue to the presence
o f the fissionable U -2 35 atoms, natural uranium
m ay be used as a fuel in the reactor. H ow ever,
a m ore p ow erfu l and efficient type o f reactor fuel
can be m ade by separating the fissionable U -2 35
atoms from the nonfissionable U -2 3 8 atoms and
concentrating the form er in metal or solution.
T h is is the fuel referred to as “ enriched uranium .”
W h ile U -2 35 is the on ly naturally occu rrin g fis­
sionable m aterial, tw o additional m anmade fis­
sionable m aterials (plu ton iu m and uranium U 233) can be used as reactor fuel.
In the nuclear reactor, a specific mass o f fis­
sionable fuel is placed in a particu lar arrangem ent
w ith certain other elements in a heavy metal ves­
sel. Th e mass o f fuel is sufficient to sustain what
is called a “ chain reaction”— the continuous fis­
sioning (o r splittin g) o f the nuclei o f atom s—
resulting in the release o f energy in the fo rm o f
heat and radiation. T h is reaction is ca refu lly
controlled, usually b y inserting rods (w h ich ab­
sorb neutrons w ithout fissioning) into the fuel
chamber, o r “ core” o f the reactor. In this w ay,
the speed o f the fission reaction and o f the energy produ ced can be regulated or stopped
com pletely.
Thus, harnessed atom ic energy is produ ced in a
nuclear reactor in the fo rm o f heat and radiation.
H ow ever, i f reactors are to be used fo r pow er,
24

T h e term

n u c le u s o f a n

n u c le a r e n e r g y is m o r e a p p r o p r ia t e , s in c e i t is th e

a tom

th e r a d io a c t iv e ra y s.
th e

en ergy.

w h ic h

s p lit s d u r in g fis s io n a n d w h ic h

e m it s

T h e r e fo r e , i t is t h e n u c le u s w h ic h p r o v id e s

S im ila r ly , in f u s io n ,

th e n u c le i

o f tw o

a tom s com ­

b in e , r e s u lt in g in t h e r e le a s e o f e n e r g y .

33

this heat must be captured and p u t to w ork. In
a nuclear p ow er station, the reactor replaces on ly
the coal furnace, the heat produ ced being con ­
verted to electricity through the use o f conven­
tional generating equipment.
D u rin g the fission process, neutrons and other
form s o f nuclear radiation are released. N uclear
radiation is dangerous to personnel and ruinous
to equipment. T h erefore, special metals w hich
are resistant to intensive heat and the corrosive ac­
tion o f radiation had to be produ ced fo r use in
reactors and extreme precautions are taken to p ro ­
tect personnel. T o protect personnel, the nuclear

34




reactor is housed in a special con tainer and sur­
rounded by shielding m aterials, such as concrete
and lead, so that nuclear radiation is absorbed.
A valuable b yp rod u ct o f reactor op eration is
the p rodu ction or radioisotopes. T h e m ajor
m ethod o f p rod u cin g radioisotopes is to expose
stable atoms to neutrons em anating fro m the re­
actor core. R adioisotopes can also be produced
by the bom bardm ent o f target m aterials placed
in a particle accelerator (o fte n referred to as an
“ atom smasher” ) , a m achine w h ich accelerates
electrically charged particles to speeds o f thou­
sands o f m iles per second.

Appendix E. Applications of Atomic Energy
C on trolled nuclear fission is a tremendous source
o f energy w hich provides both heat and radiation
as useful products. T he m a jor non weapon use
appears to be the prod u ction o f com m ercial elec­
tricity, using nuclear reactors as the heat source.
In 1960, tw o large reactors and several smaller
reactors were p rod u cin g electricity w hich was
being fed into electric u tility lines fo r p u blic con ­
sum ption, w hile m any m ore reactors were in the
design or construction stage. T h ey are, however,
experim ents and prototypes and as such are not
expected to be econom ically com petitive w ith con ­
ventional pow er stations. A lth ou g h not eco­
n om ically com petitive today, nuclear pow er sta­
tions are expected to su pply a larger and larger
share o f the increasing p ow er requirements o f the
N ation as advancing nuclear techn ology reduces
costs. T h e A tom ic E n ergy Com m ission’s shortrange goal is to make it possible by 1968 f o r utility
com panies to build large-size nuclear plants to
produce electricity at costs com petitive w ith con ­
ventional plants in areas where fossil fuel (e.g.,
coal or o il) costs are high. T h e longer range ob ­
jective is to make nuclear plants com petitive with
conventional plants regardless o f location or plant
size. A vast m u ltim illion d ollar experim ental and
dem onstration program is in progress to achieve
these ends.
A to m ic energy has m any other uses. H eat from
reactors can be converted into p ropu lsive power.
R eactors already p ow er submarines and very
shortly w ill be used to p rop el com bat surface ships.
N uclear submarines have been h ig h ly successful
because o f their unique advantages o f subsurface
operation w ithout the need to com e to the surface
and o f nearly unlim ited range w ithout refueling.
T h e advantages o f nuclear ships make them m ili­
tarily useful since cost is a secondary consider­
ation. In the future, atom ic energy m ay be used
to prop el com m ercial ships, but the one nuclearpow ered com m ercial ship scheduled fo r operation
in 1961 w ill not be econom ically com petitive.
N uclear energy has potential uses fo r p rovid in g
p ropu lsion fo r m anned a ircraft, missiles, space
vehicles, and some types o f overland vehicles; as




a source o f heat and electric p ow er at rem ote land
installations, fo r unmanned weather installations,
and fo r space satellites; and as a source o f heat fo r
w arm ing buildings and fo r chem ical and m etallur­
gica l processing. Intensive research tow ard
d eveloping nuclear propu lsion systems fo r a ir­
cra ft,25 missiles, and space satellites is in progress.
Research is also underway to develop an extrem ely
com pact reactor capable o f p rop ellin g an overland
train and other vehicles fo r m ilitary use. A p ro ­
gram to develop ligh tw eigh t, portable nuclear
p ow er plants to p rovid e space heat and electricity
at rem ote installations has progressed rapidly.
Such a reactor was installed on the Greenland ice­
cap in 1960, another w as scheduled to be installed
early in 1961 in A laska, and a th ird is to be in ­
stalled in the A n ta rctic in 1962. E con om ica l use
o f the heat generated b y reactors fo r w arm ing
buildings o r as a source o f process heat is bein g
investigated.
R eactors can be b u ilt prim arily as a radiation
source. A s such, they are used fo r m any kinds o f
research and also fo r train in g and experim ental
w ork in nuclear research centers and university
and other laboratories. In addition, they are used
as h igh intensity radiation sources to study chem i­
cal reactions, and m ay be used to initiate chem ical
reactions and to sterilize fo o d .
R adioisotopes, once considered on ly as b y p r o ­
ducts o f nuclear reactors, have extensive ap p lica ­
tions in m edicine, industry, agriculture, and
research generally. T h ey have becom e valuable
products because o f their unique p rop erty o f
em itting penetrating radiation w hich can alter
m aterials and w hich can be detected even in
m inute quantities b y sensitive record in g instru­
ments. R adioisotopes are used in fo u r general
ways. One way is in the irradiation o f m aterials
to change their properties. F o r exam ple, high
intensity radiation sources are used to destroy b ac­
teria, to arrest the grow th o f cancer tissues, to
sterilize insect pests, and to develop better strains
o f plants.
26 P r o g r a m

d is c o n tin u e d .

IS e e f o o t n o t e

7 . p.

4.

35

R ad iation is also used f o r measurement. F o r
exam ple, the thickness o f metal or the liquid level
in a closed container can be determ ined b y measur­
in g the am ount o f radiation penetrating the sub­
stance. In d u stry uses this m ethod in p rodu ct
quality control. R ad ioisotope gages are now used
on about 90 percent o f U .S . cigarettes to control
autom atically the firmness and fullness o f p ackag­
ing, and are used to con trol the liqu id level in
m any canned fo o d produ cts and to con trol the
thickness o f almost everyth ing m anufactured in
sheet form , such as paper, plastics, and metals.
A th ird m a jor use o f radioisotopes is in indus­
trial ra d iograp h y— a nondestructive testing m eth­
o d used f o r the inspection o f m etal castings and
welds fo r possible flaws. T h e use o f radioactive
sources in ra d iograp h y units makes it possible
to p e rform inspections w hich are uneconom ic or
im possible w ith X -r a y machines.
T h e fou rth m a jor use o f radioisotopes is as
tracers. R adioisotopes can be placed in the b lood
stream o f men and animals, fo r exam ple, and
traced by instruments record in g the em itted rays.

3 6




In m edicine, this m ay perm it the physician to
diagnose a patient’s illness, such as cancer o f the
thyroid. In agriculture, these tracers are used to
study the fertilizer uptake b y plants, leadin g to
im proved m ethods o f fertilization . In industry,
they are used to study the wear on engine parts in
autom obiles and the efficiency o f detergents used
in w ashing machines. C urrently, tracin g is proba­
b ly the m ost im portan t use o f radioisotopes.
A potential use f o r radioisotopes w hich is being
investigated is the sm all-scale p rodu ction o f elec­
tricity. D ue to the lo n g life o f some radioisotopes,
they m ay eventually be used to p rovid e p ow er fo r
scientific instruments in satellites and fo r beacons
in rem ote areas.
N uclear explosives used fo r p eacefu l purposes
also have great potential. F o r exam ple, p relim i­
nary studies indicate that the trem endous amount
o f energy released in a nuclear explosion cou ld be
used as an inexpensive means o f excavatin g har­
bors and canals and in the developm ent o f our
natural resources b y aid in g in the recovery o f
m inerals and oils.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

O — 596050