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EMPLOYER EXPENDITURES FOR SELECTED /
SUPPLEMENTARY REMUNERATION PRACTICES
FOR PRODUCTION WORKERS IN MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRIES, 1959

Bulletin No. 1308
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




EMPLOYER EXPENDITURES FOR SELECTED
SUPPLEMENTARY REMUNERATION PRACTICES
FOR PRODUCTION WORKERS IN MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRIES, 1959

Bulletin No. 1308
January 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.




*

Price 6 5 cents




Preface

The p u b lica tion o f th ese s ta tis tic s r e p r e s e n ts the f i r s t a p p ra isa l by the
B ureau o f L a b or S ta tistics o f the m agnitude o f e m p lo y e r ex p en d itu res fo r su p p le­
m e n ta ry e m p lo y e e rem u n era tion p r a c t ic e s on a national b a s is .
A m e th o d o lo g ica l
study b a se d on a lim ite d sam p le w as pu b lish ed b y the B ureau in 1956 as P r o b le m s
in M e a su rem en t o f E xpen ditu res on S elected Item s o f Supplem entary E m p loy ee
R em u n eration , M anufacturing E sta b lish m en ts, 1953 (B L S B ull. 1186). The p re s e n t
su rv ey m a rk s the in itia tion o f a b r o a d p r o g r a m o f stu d ies in an a re a o f la b or
sta tis tic s w hich has b e c o m e in c r e a s in g ly im portant.
The p r o g r a m p r o v id e s fo r
su rv e y s in m an u factu rin g in d u strie s e v e r y 3 y e a r s and in s e le c te d nonm anufac­
turing in d u strie s in the in terven in g 2 y e a r s . F o r m anu factu rin g as a w hole and
fo r its m a jo r in du stry com p on en ts, the data in this r e p o r t supplem ent the lo n g e sta b lish e d B ureau m on th ly s e r ie s on a v e ra g e h ou rs and earn in gs.

The survey provides estimates of manufacturers* expenditures for se ­
lected supplementary pay practices in 1959.
It indicates the level of such ex­
penditures and form s the base for future estimates of trends. The data, however,
relate only to selected practices, and only to production and related workers.
The collection of data was limited to those practices that were both widely found
among manufacturing establishments and were measurable. Both conditions were
necessary. For example, although rest periods appear to be common in American
industry, the practice is largely informal even where form al collective bargaining
contracts exist. Since provisions for these rest periods are often not a matter
of record, the difficulties of measurement alone made them impractical for in­
clusion in this survey. Among other practices omitted were stock bonus plans,
which are not only difficult to measure in term s of expenditures but also are not
very common. Thus, the survey should not be assumed to include all supplementary
pay expenditures. Despite the limitations imposed by this decision, the selected
items are believed to represent an extremely high proportion of all such ex­
penditures for manufacturing as a whole. Nevertheless, it must also be recog­
nized that the items not surveyed
may
be important in some individual plants.

It should a ls o be b o rn e in m ind that although the a re a o f in qu iry w as
con fin ed to p ro d u ctio n and re la te d w o r k e rs , ex p en d itu res fo r the p r a c t ic e s s u r ­
v e y e d a r e co m m o n ly m ade fo r n on p rod u ction w o r k e rs and the e x clu s io n o f the
la tter fr o m the su rv ey is a s e r io u s r e s t r ic t io n fo r m any p u rp o s e s :

The su rv ey w as d e sig n e d to y ie ld sep a ra te data fo r each p r a c t ic e by in ­
du stry, re g io n , and c la s s o f e m p lo y ee (p rod u ction w o r k e r). H ow ever, as fir m s
do not alw ays m ain tain r e c o r d s in the d eta il req u ested , it w as found n e c e s s a r y
to a c c e p t so m e p r o r a tio n s o f fig u r e s o f b r o a d e r sco p e and som e e stim a te s b a se d
on c o lla t e r a l data. (See ’ ’ R ep ortin g P r o b le m s ” in chap. VIII fo r d e t a il s .) S p ecia l
a n a ly sis o f fin din gs in tw o p re v io u s su rv ey s in dicated that th ese e stim a te s cou ld
be a c c e p te d with v irtu a lly no lo s s in a c c u r a c y .

T his su rv e y d o e s not p u rp o rt to m e a su re o r d efin e "fr in g e b e n e fits. ”
T h is is a c o m p le x co n c e p t on w hich th ere is by no m ea n s co m p le te a g reem en t
as to the c r it e r ia to be u sed fo r d e fin ition a l p u rp o s e s .
The pay p r a c t ic e s in ­
cluded in the su rv e y w e r e not s e le c te d fo r the p u rp o se o f re s o lv in g this question.




iii

M o r e o v e r , the su rv ey w as not d esig n ed to p ro v id e a m e a s u r e of la b or
costs.
T h is a ls o is a c o m p le x c o n ce p t on w hich th ere is debate on the item s
that should p r o p e r ly b e in clu ded. It can be argu ed, fo r exam ple, that la b or c o s t
should in clu d e ite m s not c o v e r e d by this su rv ey , such as expen ditu res fo r in -p la n t
m e d ic a l c a r e , c a fe te r ia s , parkin g, and other fa c ilit ie s . F u rth e rm o re , total e x ­
p en d itu res fo r p a rticu la r p r a c t ic e s do not take into a ccou n t p o s s ib le offsettin g
savin gs w h ich m a y sig n ifica n tly a ffe c t r e a l c o s ts .
The m on ey c o s ts o f v a ca tion s,
fo r ex a m p le, m a y be o ffse t, at le a s t in part, by p ro d u ctiv ity gains during the
r e m a in d e r o f the y e a r, lo w e r la b o r tu rn ov er, and le s s a b s e n te e is m . C o n v e rse ly ,
a dd ition a l c o s t s m ay b e in c u r r e d in con n ection with the h irin g and train in g of
v a ca tio n re p la c e m e n ts who m a y be l e s s e fficie n t. The c o m p le x itie s o f m ea su rin g
la b o r c o s t a r e such that one cannot con clu d e that la b o r c o s ts a r e h igh er in one
p la c e than another sim p ly on the b a s is o f a co m p a r is o n o f m on ey w ages including
ex p en d itu res on su pplem en ts.

One fin a l p r e fa to r y note c o n c e r n s a p a rt o f the su rv ey w hich r e fle c t s a
g e n e ra l c o n c e r n with cu rre n t m e a s u r e s o f h ou rs o f w ork .
A few d e ca d e s ago,
h ou rs paid fo r and h o u rs spent at the plant w e r e not sig n ifica n tly d iffe r e n t fo r
m ost pu rp oses.
The grow th o f paid lea v e h ou rs, p a r tic u la r ly fo r v a ca tio n s and
h o lid a y s, has in trod u ced su bstan tial v a ria tio n betw een the two s ta tis tic a l m e a s u r e s
and, con seq u en tly , the n e c e s s it y o f m aking a d istin ction . The p e rce n ta g e o f h ou rs
p a id fo r w h ich a r e le a v e h ou rs aw ay fr o m the plant a r e r e p o r te d in the se ctio n on
the c o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h o u rs.

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the Bureau* s D iv isio n
tr ia l R e la tio n s.
The sta tis tic a l and sam pling tech n iqu es
Sam uel E. Cohen and T h e o d o re G olonka.
The a n a ly sis w as
P u g lis i a s s is t e d by A. R. P fe ffe r . The study w as d ir e c te d by




IV

o f W ages and Indus­
w e re d e v e lo p e d by
p re p a re d by E nzo A.
N orm an J. Sam uels.

Contents

Page
____

Preface

111
1
1
1

Chapter I. Summary
Introduction--------Background
The four types of measures shown
Supplemental expenditures
Variations by selected ch a ra c te ristic s------Regional differences
Industry variations
Expenditures as a percent of gross payroll
Expenditures per hour paid for -------------------

2

3
3
4
4
4

6

Chapter II. Paid leave
Total paid le a v e -----Paid v a c a tio n s_
Paid holidays
Paid sick leave
Other paid leave (military, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave) —

11
11
12
13
14
16

Chapter III. Premium p a y -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total premiums
Premium pay for daily overtime, weekly overtime, and weekend w o r k __
Premium pay for holiday w o rk ________
Differentials for shift work

29
29
31
33
34

Chapter IV. Legally required paym ents---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total legally required paym ents____________________________________________________________
Social security (old-age, survivors, and disability insurance)_________ - ________________

47
47
48

Workmen's com pensation___________________________________________________________________
Other legally required insurance __________________________________________________________

50
51

Chapter V. Private welfare plans __
Total private welfare p la n s ----------Health, accident, and life insuranc
Pension and retirement p la n s _____
Vacation and holiday funds
Supplemental unemployment benefit
Severance or dism issal p a y _______
Savings and thrift plans
Year end and Christmas bonuses —

57
57
59
63
64
65
67
69
69

Chapter VI. Variations in expenditures on basis of selected characteristics
Introduction______ _______ ___ ___ _____________________ _______________ __ ________
Variations by average hourly earnings
Variations by size of establishment
Variations on basis of collective bargaining agreements
Variations on basis of location in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.

89
89
89
90
91
91

Chapter VII.

Composition of payroll hours

Chapter VIII. Survey methods and definitions
Scope of survey and industry classification
Collection of d a t a --------Sampling p ro ce d u re-----.
Method of e stim a tio n _
Reporting problems
Production workers
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Broad economic r e g io n s ________________
Gross payroll
Straight-time payroll
Hours paid f o r _______




--------

97

_____

111
111

112
112
112
113
113
113
114
114
114
114

Contents— Continued

Page
Chapter VIII. Survey methods and definitions— Continued
Plant hour s __________________________________________________________________________________

114

Expenditures ratios (rates) for all establishments versus ratios (rates) for
establishments with expenditures for the practice _____________________________________

115

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
18.

19.

20.

Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in manufacturing industries by region, 1959__________________________
Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices by manufacturing industry group, 1959________________________________
Average expenditures for paid leave by all establishments and establishments
reporting expenditures, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959____—
Percent of production and related workers in establishments reporting
expenditures for paid leave by region and manufacturing
industry group, 1959 ______________________________ •-----------------------------------------------Distribution of production and related workers by leave expenditures as a
percent of gross payroll, region,and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ____
Distribution of production and related workers by vacation expenditures as a
percent of gross payroll, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ___
Distribution of production and related workers by holiday expenditures as a
percent of gross payroll, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ___
Distribution of production and related workers by leave expenditures in cents
per hour paid for, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959___________
Distribution of production and related workers by vacation expenditures in
cents per hour paid for, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 _____
Distribution of production and related workers by holiday expenditures in
cents per hour paid for, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 _____
Average expenditures and percent of workers in establishments which did
not report separate expenditures for premium pay by region and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Average expenditures for premium pay by all establishments and establish­
ments reporting expenditures, region, and manufacturing
Percent of production and related workers in establishments reporting for
premium pay by region and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ____—_________
Distribution of production and related workers by premium pay expenditures
as a percent of gross payroll, region, and manufacturing
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for overtime
and weekend work premiums as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ----------------------------------------------------- ---------------- 40
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for shift
differentials as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for premium
pay in cents per hour paid for, region, and manufacturing
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for overtime
and weekend work premiums in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ----------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for shift
differentials in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ------------------------------- —------------ ----------------------Average expenditures for legally required payments by all establishments,
region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959---------------— -------------------------------




vi

7
9
17
19
20
21
22
23
25
27
30

38

41

44

46
52

Contents—r
Continued

Page
Tables
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

39.

40.

ontinued
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for legally
required payments as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1 9 5 9 _______________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for legally
required payments in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Average expenditures and percent of workers in establishments which did
not report separate expenditures for selected private welfare plans by
region and manufacturing industry group, 1959 __________________________________
Average expenditures for private welfare plans by all establishments and
establishments reporting expenditures, region, and manufacturing
industry group, 1959 _______________________________________________________________
Average expenditures for health, accident, and life insurance in establish­
ments reporting expenditures by contributory and noncontributory type,
region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ________________________________
Average expenditures for pension and retirement plans in establishments
reporting expenditures by contributory and noncontributory type, region,
and manufacturing industry group, 1959 __________________________ _________ _____
Percent of production and related workers in establishments reporting
expenditures for private welfare plans by region and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for private
welfare plans as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for health,
accident, and life insurance as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for pension
and retirement plans as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ___________________________________ ___________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for year end
and Christmas bonuses as a percent of gross payroll, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ____________________ _____ ____________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for private
welfare plans in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for health,
accident, and life insurance in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ---------------------- --- ---------- -------------------------------Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for pension
and retirement plans in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by expenditures for yearend
and Christmas bonuses in cents per hour paid for, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 ______________________________________________
Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in manufacturing industries by average hourly
earnings group, 1959_______________
Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in manufacturing industries by establishment size group, 1959
—Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in manufacturing industries by collective bargaining
agreement coverage, 1959 _________________________________________________________
Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in manufacturing industries by metropolitan and non­
metropolitan area location, 1959 _______________________________ ——_______________
Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
region and manufacturing industry group, 1959 __________________________________




Vll

53
54
58
71
75
76

77
78
79
80
81
82
84
85
87
93
94

95

96
100

Contents— Continued

Page
Tables — Continued
41.

Distribution of production and related workers by paid leave hours as a
percent of total hours paid for, region, and manufacturing

42.

Distribution of production and related workers by paid vacation hours
as a percent of total hours paid for, region, and manufacturing
industry group, 1959 ____________________________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers by paid holiday hours
as a percent of total hours paid for, region, and manufacturing

43.
44.

Distribution of production and related workers by paid sick leave hours
as a percent of total hours paid for, region, and manufacturing

45.

Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
establishment size, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ________
Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
collective bargaining agreement coverage, region, and
manufacturing industry group, 1959 _____________________________________________
Distribution of production and related workers receiving vacation pay
by number of weeks of vacation pay, region, and manufacturing
industry group, 1959 ---------------------------------------Distribution of production and related workers by number of days of paid
holidays, region, and manufacturing industry group, 1959 ________ ___________

102

46.
47.
48.

105

106
107
108

Appendix:
Instruction s h e e t -----------------------------------




121

viii

Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Remuneration Practices
for Production Workers in Manufacturing Industries, 1959

C h apter I.

Summary

In trodu ction
In 1959, a ll p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in m anufacturing in d u strie s w e re c o v e re d
by one or m o r e le g a lly r e q u ir e d b e n e fit p r o g r a m s to w hich the em p lo y e r c o n tr ib ­
uted, su ch a s s o c ia l s e cu rity , u n em ploym ent in su ra n ce, and w orkm en*s co m p e n s a ­
tion. N in e ty -s ix p e r c e n t w e r e e m p loy ed in esta b lish m en ts that granted paid lea v e;
94 p e r c e n t w e re in esta b lish m en ts that paid p re m iu m s fo r o v e rtim e , weekend,
h oliday, o r la t e -s h ift w ork ; and 92 p e r c e n t w ork ed in esta b lish m en ts that m ade
co n trib u tion s tow ard so m e fo r m o f p riv a te w e lfa re plan (p r im a r ily health, in s u r ­
a n ce, o r p e n sio n plan s), often m o r e than one. 1
B a ck grou n d . — H is to r ica lly , paid v a ca tio n s w e re in itiated as a p r iv ile g e
fo r h igh er sa la r ie d e m p lo y e e s.
They sp rea d to lo w e r sa la rie d e m p lo y e e s and
then to p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
The ex ten sion o f paid v a ca tio n s to plant w o rk e rs
w as in p r o g r e s s p r io r to W orld W ar Hj it a c c e le r a te d during the w ar and has
p r o c e e d e d to the poin t w h ere such p r a c t ic e is now n e a rly u n iv e rsa l in m a n u fa c­
turing.
P a id h olid a y s fo r plant w o r k e r s a r e lik e w ise la r g e ly a p ro d u ct o f the
p a st two d e ca d e s. M any co m p a n ie s adopted w age supplem ents during the W orld
W ar II p e r io d o f w age c o n tr o ls when, under the L ittle Steel F orm u la , g e n e ra l
w age in c r e a s e s w e r e lim ite d to 15 p e r c e n t of the January 1941 le v e ls .
W ithin
lim its , h o w e v e r, the N ational W ar L a b or B oa rd san ction ed in d ir e ct in c r e a s e s in
the fo r m o f " fr in g e a d ju stm en ts" such as paid v a ca tio n s and h olid a y s, shift d if­
fe r e n tia ls , e m p lo y e r -fin a n c e d life in su ra n ce, a ccid e n t in su ra n ce, h osp ita liza tion ,
health plan s, s e v e r a n c e pay plans, and C h ristm a s b on u ses.
P r e m iu m s fo r o v e rtim e , w eek en ds, and h olid ay w ork w e re o rig in a lly
p e n a ltie s, e sta b lish e d by cu stom , u n ion -m an agem en t n eg otia tion s, or e m p lo y e r
p e r s o n n e l a ction , la r g e ly to d is c o u r a g e the scheduling o f such w ork .
On the
other hand, the p r im a r y co n s id e r a tio n in paying shift d iffe r e n tia ls has b een to
com p e n sa te the e m p lo y e e fo r w ork in g le s s d e s ir a b le h ou rs.
P re m iu m pay fo r
o v e r tim e a fte r 40 h ou rs in the w ork w eek w as w id ely extended by the F e d e r a l F a ir
L a b or Standards A ct o f 1938. V a rio u s m o d ifica tio n s o f this le g a l standard— e. g. ,
p re m iu m pay a fte r 8 h ou rs in the w ork day— a re found in m any c o lle c t iv e b a r ­
gaining a g re e m e n ts. 2 The paym ent o f la te -s h ift p re m iu m s w as co m m o n in the
fix e d sh ift in d u strie s even in the late 1920*s; the sp rea d into the continuous p r o c e s s
in d u strie s r e c e iv e d g re a t im petus under W orld W ar II w age sta b iliza tion p o lic y .

1 It should be noted that th ese fig u r e s apply only to the p r o p o r tio n who
w ork ed in esta b lish m e n ts w hich had expen ditu res fo r the s e le c te d supplem ents
in 1959, not to th ose who w e r e e lig ib le fo r them or r e c e iv e d them . A com pany
m ay n o rm a lly pay fo r item s such as o v e rtim e , fo r exam ple, but if it sch ed uled
no o v e r tim e in 1959, its w o r k e r s w ould not be in clu d ed am ong th ose fo r whom
expen ditu res w e re m ad e. C o n v e rse ly , it cannot be a ssu m ed that a ll the w o rk e rs
in an e sta b lish m en t that r e p o r te d ex p en d itu res, p a rticip a ted in the ben efit.
2 See, fo r exa m ple, BLS B ull. 1251, P re m iu m P ay fo r Night, W eekend,
and O v e rtim e W ork in M a jor Union C on tra cts (1959), re p o rtin g on d ev elop m en ts
in 1956—
58.




I

2

W orkm en*s com p e n sa tio n is the o ld e st of the le g a lly re q u ire d b en efit
paym en ts. M ost w o r k e r s r e c e iv e this p r o te c tio n through State law s w hich w e re
p a s se d during the f i r s t two d e ca d e s o f this cen tu ry. S ocia l se cu rity and u n em ­
p loy m en t com p e n sa tio n date b a ck to the d e p r e s s io n o f the 1930*s when th ere w as
g re a t c o n c e r n o v e r the p r o b le m of m aintaining w o rk e r in com e and buying p ow er
during p e r io d s of fo r c e d id le n e s s and in old age.
P r iv a te w e lfa r e plans a r e not new to the in d u stria l scen e; both union and
e m p lo y e r a c tiv itie s in this fie ld go b a ck m any y e a r s . M any unions in the United
States sta rted as m u tu a l-a id a s s o c ia tio n s , p rov id in g loan and s ick n e s s and death
b e n e fits to th eir m e m b e r s . The o r ig in a l co m p a n y -fin a n ce d plans w e re in trod u ced
by e m p lo y e r s on th eir own in itia tiv e.
Although it is p o s s ib le to find p riv a te
w e lfa r e plan s dating b a ck m any y e a r s , ex cep t fo r group life in su ra n ce, they b e ­
ca m e an im p orta n t fa c to r in the re m u n era tion of p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs only within
the la st 20 y e a r s .
The sp rea d o f th ese plans started during the w ar and c o n ­
tinued into the p ostw a r p e r io d under union stim u lu s.
Health in su ra n ce, life in ­
su ra n ce, and p en sion plans fig u re d stron g ly in c o lle c t iv e bargain in g d is c u s s io n s ,
p a r tic u la r ly in the b a s ic ste e l and a u tom ob ile in d u stries around 1949. The grow th
o f the p riv a te health and p en sion plans in p a rticu la r has b een an im portan t and
d ra m a tic dev elop m en t o f the p ostw a r p e rio d .
The F ou r T ypes o f M e a su res Show n.— In this re p o rt, the data a r e su m ­
m a r iz e d in fou r d iffe re n t types o f m e a s u r e s , each of w hich has r e le v a n c e fo r
p a r tic u la r types o f a n a ly sis. F o r ea ch p r a c t ic e the tabulations show:

(1)

E xpen ditu res as a p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll, ca lcu la te d by:
E xpen ditu res fo r the p r a c tic e
Gr o s s p a y r o ll

(2)

E xpen ditu res as a p e r c e n t o f s tra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll, ca lcu la te d by:
E xpen ditu res fo r the p r a c tic e
S tra ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll

(3)

x ^qq

^qq

E xpen ditu res in te rm s o f cen ts p e r hour paid fo r , ca lcu la te d by:
E xpen ditu res fo r the p r a c tic e
T ota l h ou rs paid fo r

(4)

E xpen ditu res in te r m s o f cen ts p e r plant m a n -h o u r, ca lcu la ted by:
E xpen ditu res fo r the p r a c tic e
T otal h ou rs paid fo r m inus le a v e h ou rs paid fo r

F o r each m e a su r e , two b ro a d types o f r a tio s w e re com pu ted : (1)
The
ra tio s fo r " a ll esta b lish m en ts, " w h ich a r e intended to show the rela tion sh ip of
the ex p en d itu res fo r the p r a c t ic e to the p a y r o ll (o r m a n -h o u rs) fo r a ll e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts in the group— both th ose with and without ex p en d itu res— and (2) the ra tio s
fo r "th o s e a ctu a lly re p o rtin g the p r a c tic e , " w hich re la te the sam e expen ditu res
to the p a y r o ll (o r m a n -h o u rs) o f only th ose rep o rtin g the expen ditu re. ^The fo r m e r
m e a su r e can be re la te d to pu b lish ed data fo r en tire in d u strie s or re g io n s , such
a s the a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs shown in the BLS m onthly s e r ie s .
The latter
m e a s u r e is u sefu l fo r determ in in g what is spent on the a v e ra g e by fir m s that




3
a ctu a lly have the p r a c t ic e .
The r a tio fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts w ill g e n e ra lly be
lo w e r than that fo r only th ose with actu al ex p en d itu res, the extent o f the d if­
fe r e n c e depending on the p r e v a le n c e o f the p r a c t ic e w ithin the total group.
Thus,
although the data fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts m ay in d icate a r e la tiv e ly low expenditure
ra tio fo r an in du stry, this m a y sim p ly in dicate the low p r e v a le n c e o f the p r a c t ic e
and m a y c o n c e a l a sig n ifica n t le v e l o f ex p en d itu res b y th ose esta b lish m en ts that
a ctu a lly had the p r a c t ic e .
Supplem ental E xpen ditu res
In 1959, employer payments for leave constituted 6 percent of the gross
payroll of production workers in manufacturing.
Premium pay amounted to
4. 3 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll. In add ition to th ese ex p en d itu res, w hich w ere
paid d ir e c t ly to the w o r k e r s , e m p lo y e r s paid add ition al am ounts to in su ra n ce
co m p a n ie s and to g o vern m en t and p riv a te funds fo r le g a lly re q u ire d in su ra n ce
and fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s.
E m p lo y e r expen ditu res fo r le g a lly re q u ire d in ­
su ra n ce equ aled 4. 5 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll; fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s, 5. 4 p e r ­
cent.
In te r m s o f ce n ts p e r hour paid fo r , the ex p en d itu res ca m e to 13. 5 cen ts
an hour fo r paid le a v e , 9. 7 cen ts fo r p re m iu m pay, 10. 1 cen ts fo r le g a lly r e ­
q u ired paym en ts, and 12.1 cen ts fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e p lan s.
(See table 1.)
V a ria tion s b y S e le cte d C h a r a c te r is tic s
In add ition to com pu tin g a v e ra g e s fo r a ll m an u factu rin g, the study g rou p s
the e sta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g to this su rv ey so as to p r o v id e a v e ra g e expenditure
r a tio s fo r s e le c te d c h a r a c t e r is t ic s , such a s in du stry c la s s ific a tio n , g e og ra p h ic
re g io n , le v e l o f a v e r a g e h ou rly ea rn in gs, 3 esta b lish m en t s iz e (num ber o f e m ­
p lo y e e s ), 4 d e g r e e o f unionization, 5 and type o f e c o n o m ic and s o c ia l a re a (i. e. ,
m e tro p o lita n o r n on m etrop olita n a rea ) in w hich the esta b lish m en t w as lo ca te d .
A s a p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll, a v e ra g e ex p en d itu res fo r total lea ve,
tota l p re m iu m s, and tota l p riv a te w e lfa r e plans w e re g e n e ra lly h igh er in the
h igh er paying in d u strie s and in the c la s s e s including the h igh er paying e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts, the la r g e r s iz e e sta b lish m e n ts, th ose with a m a jo r ity o f e m p lo y e e s c o v e r e d
by c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts, and th ose lo ca te d in m e tro p o lita n a r e a s .
F o r paid le a v e , fo r exa m ple, the a v e ra g e expen ditu re r a tio s v a r ie d fr o m 3. 1 to
10. 4 p e r c e n t on an in du stry b a s is , fr o m 5 to 6. 3 p e r c e n t by re g io n , 3. 4 to
6. 8 p e r c e n t by a v e ra g e h o u rly earn in gs c la s s , 4. 3 to 7 p e r c e n t by e sta b lish m e n ts iz e c la s s , 4. 5 to 6. 5 p e r c e n t by sco p e o f c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g a g reem en t, and
5. 1 to 6. 3 p e r c e n t by m e tro p o lita n -n o n m e tro p o lita n a re a lo ca tio n .
F o r total
le g a lly r e q u ir e d paym en ts, the re la tion sh ip betw een c la s s e s w as g e n e ra lly r e ­
v e r s e d , exh ibitin g to a c o n s id e r a b le extent the e ffe c t o f statutory c e ilin g s on the
am ounts that e m p lo y e r s w e r e r e q u ire d to con trib u te p e r e m p lo y e e fo r c e r ta in of
th ese plan s. In te r m s o f ce n ts p e r hour paid fo r , the d iffe r e n c e s betw een c la s s e s
w e r e m o r e p ron ou n ced and even fo r le g a lly re q u ire d p aym en ts the expen ditu res
ra te s w e re h igh er fo r the h igh er paying in d u stries, h igh er paying esta b lish m en ts,
la r g e s iz e esta b lish m e n ts, etc.

3 The esta b lish m e n ts w e r e d ivid ed into th ree g rou p s o f equal s iz e . When so
divid ed, the c la s s lim its ca m e to under $ 1 .6 0 p e r hour, $ 1 .6 0 but under $2. 20 p e r
hour, and $2. 20 or m o r e .
4 T h re e s iz e c la s s e s w e r e e sta b lish ed :
Under 100 e m p lo y e e s, 100 to
499 e m p lo y e e s, and 500 o r m o r e e m p lo y e e s.
5 E sta b lish m en ts with a m a jo r ity o f e m p lo y e e s c o v e r e d b y c o lle c t iv e b a r ­
gaining a g re e m e n ts co m p a r e d w ith th ose with none or a m in o rity .




4

In a s s e s s in g the re la tio n s h ip s betw een the individual c h a r a c t e r is t ic s and
the r a tio s , it should be b o rn e in m ind that the ex p en d itu res r e s u lt fr o m the in te r ­
play o f m any fa c t o r s and the re la tion sh ip that a p p ea rs betw een an individual
c h a r a c t e r is t ic and the expen ditu re ra tio cannot be attributed in its en tirety to
any one elem en t; the c o r r e la t io n s that appear a re not n e c e s s a r ily ca u se and
e ffe c t re la tio n s h ip s.
R e g io n a l D iffe r e n c e s
No d istin ct pa ttern s w e r e a s ce rta in a b le in ra tio s o f expen ditu res to g r o s s
p ro d u ctio n w o rk e r p a y r o ll fo r the b r o a d g e o g ra p h ic r e g io n s o f the United States.
F o r ex a m p le, co m p a n ie s in the N orth east, w hich had the h igh est expenditure ra tio
fo r paid le a v e (6. 3 p e rce n t), had the lo w e st fo r p re m iu m pay (4. 1 p e rce n t). In
co n tra st, m a n u fa ctu re rs in the South, in te r m s o f p e rce n ta g e of p a y ro ll, show ed
the lo w e s t expen ditu res fo r paid lea v e (5 p erce n t) but sh ared with the N orth
C en tra l r e g io n the h igh est p e rce n ta g e with r e s p e c t to p rem iu m pay (4. 5 p e rce n t).
F o r le g a lly re q u ire d paym en ts, expen ditu res of fir m s in the W est show ed the
h igh est r a tio to g r o s s p a y r o ll (5 p e rce n t), w h erea s th ose in the N orth C entral
r e g io n show ed the lo w e st (4 p e r c e n t).
The p o s itio n s of th ese two r e g io n s ,
h o w e v e r, w e r e co m p le te ly r e v e r s e d with r e fe r e n c e to p riv a te w e lfa re plans—
ex p en d itu res w e re equal to 5 .8 p e r c e n t of g r o s s p a y r o ll in the N orth C entral
r e g io n but to 4 .4 p e r c e n t in the W est.
(See table 1 .)
In co n tra st, the a n a ly sis on the b a s is of expen ditu res p e r hour paid fo r
r e v e a ls a fa ir ly defin ite pattern.
F o r a ll su p plem en tary rem u n era tion ex cep t
le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su ra n ce, plants in the N orth C entral re g io n had the h igh est
a v e r a g e ex p en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r .
T h ese ca m e to 15. 3 cen ts fo r paid
lea ve, 11 cen ts fo r p re m iu m pay, 9 .9 cen ts fo r le g a lly r e q u ire d paym en ts, and
14. 3 ce n ts fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s.
T h ose in the South fe ll at the other e x ­
tre m e , with the lo w e st ex p en d itu res p e r hour fo r a ll p r a c t ic e s — paid lea ve,
9. 2 cen ts; p re m iu m pay, 8. 2 ce n ts; le g a lly r e q u ire d in su ra n ce, 8. 2 cen ts; and
p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s, 8. 9 cen ts. M a n u fa ctu rers in the W est ranked secon d fo r
paid le a v e and p re m iu m pay, with ex p en d itu res o f 14. 5 and 10. 5 cen ts p e r hour
paid fo r , r e s p e c t iv e ly ; f ir s t fo r le g a lly r e q u ire d paym ents (1 2 .6 cen ts p e r hour);
and th ird fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plans (1 1 .1 cen ts p e r hour).
The expen ditu res
p e r hour paid fo r , o f plants in the N orth east w e re 14 cen ts fo r paid lea ve,
9. 2 cen ts fo r p re m iu m pay, 10. 7 cen ts fo r le g a lly r e q u ire d in su ra n ce, and
12. 2 cen ts fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e pla n s.
The d iffe r e n c e s in the ranking o f the
r e g io n s and in the m agnitude o f the v a ria tio n s am ong re g io n s , when expen ditu res
a r e c o n s id e r e d in te rm s o f cen ts p e r hour ra th er than as p e rce n ta g e o f p a y ro ll,
a r e a ttribu table in la r g e p a rt to r e g io n a l d iffe r e n c e s in w age le v e ls , w hich r e p ­
r e s e n t not only g e o g ra p h ica l d iffe r e n c e s in the h ou rly ra te s paid by fir m s in the
sam e in du stry but a ls o d iffe r e n c e s in the in d u stria l co m p o s itio n o f the r e g io n s .
Industry V a ria tion s
E xpen ditu res as a P e r c e n t o f G r o s s P a y r o ll .— On an in du stry basis,,
th ere w as an apparen t re la tio n sh ip b etw een expen ditu res as a p e rce n ta g e of g r o s s
p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s and the a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs o f the w o r k e rs
in the in d u strie s.
F o r paid le a v e and p riv a te w e lfa re plans, the rela tion sh ip
w as a d ir e c t one; that is, high expen ditu re ra tio s w e re a s s o c ia te d with high a v ­
e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs.
F o r le g a lly re q u ire d in su ra n ce, th ere w as an in v e r s e
re la tio n sh ip , p a r tic u la r ly fo r the h igh er paying in du stry g rou p s. A sligh t in d i­
ca tion o f a p o s itiv e r e la tio n w as found fo r p rem iu m pay but it w as not d efin itiv e
enough to w a rra n t a co n clu s io n .
The ra tio o f ex p en d itu res to p a y r o ll fo r this
item is a com pou n d o f tw o fa c t o r s — the rate fo r the p r a c t ic e and the extent to
w hich the in d u stry w ork ed o v e r tim e , on h olid a ys, or on sh ift o p era tion s.
An
in du stry w hich paid d o u b le -tim e ra te s fo r o v e rtim e cou ld have a lo w e r ra tio




5
than one w h ich paid only at tim e -a n d -o n e -h a lf ra te s, i f e m p lo y e e s in the f o r ­
m e r in du stry w ork ed v e r y little o v e rtim e co m p a re d with th ose in the la tter.
(See table 2 .)
The h igh er b e n e fit r a tio s in the b etter paying in d u strie s p ro b a b ly r e fle c t
both in du stry a b ility to pay and the fin a n cia l a b ility or w illin g n e s s o f w o r k e rs to
a c c e p t su p plem en ts.
G en era lly , in d u stries with r e la tiv e ly low w age le v e ls m ay
not b e ab le to fin a n ce m u ch in su pplem ents. The w o r k e r 1s w illin g n e s s to a c c e p t
su p plem en tary b e n e fits in p a rtia l rem u n era tion w ould app ear to be re la te d to the
le v e l of h is pay.
W here w a g es a r e low , the w o rk e r w ould be m o r e lik e ly to
c h o o se h igh er w a g es o v e r su pplem ents.
The e v id e n ce o f the e x is te n ce o f an expen ditu re r a tio -a v e r a g e h ou rly
ea rn in gs re la tio n sh ip at the in du stry le v e l is p a r tic u la r ly in terestin g sin ce none
w as found on a r e g io n a l b a s is .
Industry c h a r a c t e r is t ic s m ay tend to p r e d o m i­
nate o v e r re g io n a l on es fo r both supplem ents and w age r a te s .
T o som e e x ­
tent, v a ria tio n am ong re g io n s in a v e ra g e pay is a fu n ction of d iffe r e n c e s in
in du stry c o m p o s itio n .
The p e tro le u m refin in g and re la te d in d u strie s, w hich had about the
h igh est a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs o f the 19 in du stry g rou p s fo r w hich sep a ra te
r a tio s w e r e com pu ted, had by fa r the h igh est ra tio o f le a v e expen ditu res to g r o s s
p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s (10. 4 p e rce n t). The r e la tiv e ly high paying ord n an ce
and a c c e s s o r i e s in d u strie s, p r im a r y m eta l in d u stries, and tra n sp orta tion equ ip ­
m en t in d u strie s fo llo w e d show ing r a tio s o f 7 to 8 p e rce n t.
The lo w e st a v e ra g e
le a v e ex p en d itu res r e la tiv e to p a y r o ll (3. 1 p e rce n t) w e re r e p o r te d by the lu m b er
and w ood p ro d u cts in d u strie s, although this indu stry group did not have the lo w e st
a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs. The a v e ra g e w age le v e l fo r lu m b er and w ood p rod u cts
w as h ea v ily a ffe c te d by la r g e w age d iffe r e n c e s b etw een w e ste rn and southern
segm en ts o f the in du stry.
The p r o d u c e r s o f ap p arel, te x tile s , and fu rn itu re—
r e la tiv e ly lo w e r paying g rou p s— show ed ra tio s ranging fr o m 3. 5 to 4. 6 p e rce n t.
F ou r o f the 5 in du stry g rou p s w hich had the h igh est ra tio o f le a v e e x ­
p en d itu res to g r o s s pay a ls o had the h igh est ra tio s fo r p riv a te w e lfa re plan s.
A gain, the p e tro le u m grou p— with 12. 2 p e r c e n t— had the h ig h est p riv a te w e lfa r e
plan expen ditu re r a tio by a c o n s id e r a b le m a rg in .
A lm o s t a 5-p e r c e n ta g e -p o in t
d iffe r e n c e sep a ra ted p e tro le u m fr o m the in stru m en ts and re la te d p ro d u cts in d u s­
t r ie s , w hich had the se co n d h igh est ra tio . A t the lo w e r end o f the d istrib u tion ,
the pattern w as s im ila r . The lu m b er and w ood p ro d u cts m a n u fa ctu re rs had the
lo w e st expen ditu re ra tio , 2. 4 p e rce n t, and the te x tile s , ap p a rel, lea th er, and
fu rn itu re g ro u p s had ra tio s ranging fr o m 3 to 3. 8 p e rce n t.
E xpen ditu res fo r p re m iu m pay ran ged fr o m 6. 9 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ­
r o l l in the p a p er and a llie d p ro d u cts in d u stries group to 1. 7 p e r c e n t fo r lea th er
and lea th er p ro d u cts. A lm o s t h a lf o f the in du stry g rou p s a v e ra g e d about 4 p e r ­
cen t and another fou rth about 5 p e rce n t.
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d paym en ts w e re m ade up fo r the m o s t p a rt of s o c ia l
se c u r ity and u n em ploym en t co m p e n sa tion and to a le s s e r extent, w o r k m e n s c o m ­
pen sation .
F o r s o c ia l s e c u r ity (o ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d isa b ility in su ra n ce),
e m p lo y e r s w e r e r e q u ir e d in 1959 to con trib u te 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f the fir s t $4, 800
earn ed by ea ch o f th eir w o r k e r s .
F o r unem ploym ent com p en sa tion , the secon d
m o s t im p orta n t b e n e fit in the le g a lly re q u ire d group, the ra te and b a se fo r the
con trib u tion v a r ie d , but g e n e ra lly it w as b a sed on the f i r s t $ 3 ,0 0 0 paid to the
w o r k e r.
F r o m the nature o f the con trib u tion sy stem , an in v e r s e rela tion sh ip
w ould be e x p e cte d b etw een a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs and the ra tio o f con trib u tion s
to g r o s s pay, fo r in the h igh er paying in d u stries the con trib u tion s a r e b a s e d on
a s m a lle r p o r tio n o f the g r o s s pay o f the individual w o rk e r.
The expenditure




6
r a tio s fo r s o c ia l s e c u r ity and u n em ploym en t co m p en sa tion la r g e ly co n fo rm e d to
the e x p e cte d re la tio n sh ip and in flu en ced the ra tio s fo r the sum o f the le g a lly
r e q u ir e d paym en ts.
T ota l con trib u tion s ranged fr o m le s s than 4 p e r c e n t o f
g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r p e tro le u m re fin in g and re la te d p ro d u cts, prin tin g and publishing,
and ordn a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s , to 5. 1 p e r c e n t fo r lea th er and leath er p ro d u cts,
5. 3 p e r c e n t fo r a p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed tex tile p ro d u cts, and 6. 4 p e r c e n t fo r
lu m b er and w ood p ro d u cts. A lthough s o c ia l s e c u r ity and w o r k m e n s com p e n sa tio n
ex p en d itu res w e r e r e la tiv e ly high in the lu m b er group, the high ra tio fo r the sum
o f the s e v e r a l ite m s is la r g e ly a ttribu table to the high w ork m en 1s co m p en sa tion
e x p en d itu res in lu m b erin g .
W h erea s in the other in du stry g rou p s, w o r k m e n 's
co m p e n sa tio n is a sm a ll p r o p o r tio n o f tjie le g a lly re q u ire d in su ra n ce total, in
this grou p it w as the p r in c ip a l elem en t.
E xpen ditu res P e r Hour P a id F o r . — On an in du stry b a s is , the r e la tio n ­
ship betw een expen ditu res p e r hour paid fo r and a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs w as
sim ila r to th ose fo r expen ditu res as a p e r c e n t o f p a y r o ll and earn in gs.
The
p r in c ip a l e x ce p tio n w as fo r le g a lly re q u ire d paym ents w h ere the rela tio n sh ip
changed fr o m an in v e r s e to a d ir e c t one.

The lo w e st le a v e ex p en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r w e re r e p o rte d by the
p r o d u c e r s o f a p p a rel, lu m b er, and tex tile p ro d u cts. F r o m th eir 6 -c e n t-a n -h o u r
le v e l, the expen ditu res r o s e at a m e a su re d p a ce until they re a ch e d about 21 cen ts
p e r h ou r, the le v e l o f ex p en d itu res o f the p r o d u c e r s of p r im a r y m e ta ls and o f
ord n a n ce.
F r o m that le v e l, th e re w as a jum p of 11 cen ts to the le v e l of the
p r o d u c e r s o f p e tro le u m p ro d u cts.
(See table 2 .)

A s im ila r re la tio n sh ip e x is te d fo r p riv a te w e lfa re plan s.
The p e tro le u m
refin in g and re la te d in d u strie s d e c is iv e ly led a ll the oth ers with ex p en d itu res o f
37 cen ts p e r hour paid fo r .
B etw een this and the next h igh est in du stry group—
the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u strie s— th ere w as a d iffe r e n c e of a lm o st 18 cen ts. F r o m
the 1 9 -c e n t le v e l, h ou rly ex p en d itu res then d e clin e d gra d u a lly until they rea ch ed
about 4 to 5 cen ts p e r h ou r.
T h ese w e re the lo w e st p riv a te w e lfa re plan e x ­
p en d itu res p e r hour w ork ed and r e p r e s e n te d the outlays of the lu m b er, the te x tile s,
and the a p p a re l in d u strie s.
P r e m iu m pay ex p en d itu res p er hour paid fo r ranged by in du stry group
fr o m 2. 8 cen ts p e r hour to 15. 9 cen ts.
The fo r m e r r e p re s e n te d the d is b u r s e ­
m en ts o f the lea th er and the a p p a rel in d u stries and the latter
the prin tin g,
pu blish in g, and a llie d in d u strie s.
The high p re m iu m pay expen ditu res o f the
prin tin g in d u strie s a r e p ro b a b ly a ttribu table to both the g re a te r p r e v a le n c e o f
o v e r tim e w o rk and to h igh er o v e r tim e ra te s .
In som e o f the printing c r a fts ,
o v e r tim e is so m e tim e s paid as dou ble tim e.

E xpen ditu res fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d paym en ts, in cen ts p e r hour paid fo r
r o s e slo w ly fr o m the le v e ls fo r the lo w e r paying in d u stries until they re a ch e d
a v irtu a l plateau am ong the h igh er paying on es.
The plateau re p re s e n te d the
in d u strie s in w hich ea rn in gs during the y e a r w e re high enough fo r the fir m s to
pay the m a xim u m under the s o c ia l s e cu rity and unem ploym ent com p en sa tion law s.
The expen ditu res v a r ie d fr o m 7. 7 cen ts p e r hour in the to b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res
in d u strie s and 7 .9 cen ts in the te x tile in d u stries to 1 1 .7 in the lu m b er in d u s­
t r ie s and 12. 1 cen ts in the p r im a r y m eta l in d u strie s.
The high rate in the
lu m b er grou p r e fle c t e d to a c o n s id e r a b le extent the m uch h igh er w ork m en 1s c o m ­
p en sa tion r a te s in this grou p.




Table 1.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries by Region, 1 1959
P e rc e n t o f stra igh t-tirne p a y ro ll

P e rc e n t of g r o s s p a y ro ll
P r a c t ic e

P a . , __________________________________
V acation s ------------------------------------S ick l e a v e ------------------------------------H o lid a y s ---------------------------------------M ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e s s,
votin g , and p e rs o n a l l e a v e -----P re m iu m pay ----------------------------------D a ily o v e r tim e , w eek ly
o v e r tim e , and w eekend w o r k —
H oliday w o rk ------------------------------Shift d i ffe r e n t ia ls -----------------------P re m iu m s not re p o rte d
s e p a r a t e l y --------------------------------L eg a lly re q u ire d paym ents -----------O ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d is ­
a b ility in su ra n ce (s o c ia l
s e c u r i t y ) -----------------------------------U nem p loym ent c o m p e n s a t io n ----W ork m en 's c o m p e n s a t io n ---------O ther, including t e m p o r a r y
d isa b ility in s u r a n c e -----------------P riv a te w e lfa re p la n s ----------------------H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life
in su ra n ce ----------------------------------P e n s io n and re tire m e n t plan s —
V a ca tion and h olid a y fu n d s -------Supplem ental u n em p loym ent
b e n e f i t s --------------------------------------S ev era n ce o r d is m is s a l p a y -----Savings and th rift p l a n s -------------Y ea ren d and C h ristm a s
bonuses ------------------------------------P riv a te w e lfa re plans not
re p o rte d s e p a ra te ly ---------------See footn otes at end o f tab le.




United
States

N ortheast

South

N orth
C entral

W est

United
States

N ortheast

South

N orth
C entral

W est

6 .5
4. 0
.2
2. 3

6 .0
3 .4
.4
2 .2

/2\

/2\
( )

6 .0
3 .6
.2
2. 1

6. 3
3. 6
.2
2 .4

5 .0
3 .2
.3
1 .6

6 .2
3. 8
.2
2 .2

5 .8
3 .2
.4
2. 1

6 .3
3. 7
.2
2 .2

6 .6
3. 8
.3
2. 5

5 .3
3. 3
.3
1 .6

(2 )

*1

.1

(2 )

(2 )

(2 )

.1

.1

4 .3

4. 1

4 .5

4. 5

4 .2

4 .5

4 .3

4 .7

4 .7

4 .4

2. 8
.1
.8

3. 3
.2
.7

2. 5
.1
1 .0

2. 7
•2
.9

2 .6
.1
.9

2. 7
.1
.8

3.1
.2
.7

2 .4
.1
1 .0

2 .6
.2
.8

2. 7
.1
.9

.7

.6

.5

1 .0

.6

.8

.6

.5

1.1

.6

4 .5

4 .8

4 .5

4 .0

5 .0

4. 7

5 .0

4 .7

4 .2

5 .3

2 .2
1 .4
.8

2 .2
1 .7
.8

2 .2
1 .4
.8

2. 1
1 .2
.7

2 .2
1 .6
1 .2

2 .3
1 .5
.9

2. 3
1 .8
.9

2. 3
1 .4
•9

2 .2
1 .3
.7

2. 3
1 .7
1 .2

(2 )
5 .4

.1

(2 )
5 .8

.1

/2\
l )

/2\
l )

.i
i

4 .4

(2 )
5. 6

.1

5 .5

(2 )
4. 8

5 .7

5 .1

6. 1

4. 6

2. 1
2 .4
(2 )

2 .0
2 .3
(2 )

1. 7
2 .2
(2 )

2 .4
2. 7
(2 )

2. 1
1. 7
.1

2 .2
2 .5
(2 )

2. 1
2 .4
(2 )

1 .7
2 .3
(2 )

2 5
2. 8
( )

2 .2
1 .8
•1

.1
(2 )
.1

.2
(2 )
.1

.1
.1
.2

.2
(? )
(2 )

.1
(2 )
.1

.1
(2 )
.1

•2
(2 )
.1

.1
.1
.2

.2
(!)
(2 )

(2 )
.1

.5

.6

.5

.4

.3

.5

.6

.5

.4

.4

.2

.3

.1

.1

(2 )

.2

.3

.1

.1

.2

00
Table 1.

A verage Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries by Region, 1 1959— Continued
Cents p e r plant m an -h ou r

Cents p e r hour paid fo r
P r a c t ic e

South

North
C entral

W est

United
States

14. 0
8 .0
.6
5 .3

9 .2
5. 8
.5
2 .9

1 5 .3
9 .4
.4
5 .4

1 4 .5
8. 1
1 .0
5 .2

.1

.1

.1

9 .2

8 .2

5 .9
.2
1 .8

5. 7
.3
1 .3

1 .3

.8

2 .6

1 .5

1 .8

1 .4

.9

2. 7

1 .6

10. 7

8 .2

9 .9

12. 6

10. 7

1 1 .4

8 .5

10. 6

13.3

4. 8
3. 7
1 .9

4. 1
2. 5
1. 5

5 .2
3. 0
1 .7

5 .4
4 .1
2 .9

5 .2
3 .4
2 .0

5 .1
4 .0
2 .0

4 .3
2. 6
1 .6

5. 6
3 .2
1 .9

5 .7
4 .3
3. 1

.1

.2

(2 )
14. 3

.1

.3

12.2

(2 )
8 .9

.2

12. 1

11. 1

1 2 .9

1 3 .0

(2 )
9 .3

(2 )
1 5 .3

1 1.8

4. 7
5 .4
. 1

4 .4
5 .2
.1

3 .0
4. 1
(2 )

5. 8
6 .6
(2 )

5 .3
4 .4
.2

5. 0
5. 7
.1

4. 7
5. 6
.1

3 .2
4 .3
(2 )

6 .2
7.1
(2 )

5 .6
4 .6
.2

.3
.1
.1

.3
.1
.1

.2
.1
.3

.4
(2 )
.1

.2
.1
.2

.3
.1
.2

.4
.1
.1

.2
.1
.3

.4
(2 )
.1

.2
.1
.2

1 .1

1 .3

.9

1. 0

.8

1 .2

1 .4

1 .0

1.1

.9

.4

.6

.3

.1

.4

.6

.3

.4

.1

United
States

N ortheast

P aid lea ve -----------------------------------------V acation s --------------------------------------S ick lea ve ------------------------------------H o lid a y s ----------------------------------------M ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e s s,
votin g, and p e rs o n a l lea ve ------

13. 5
8. 0
.5
4. 8
.1

P re m iu m p a y ------------------------------------D a ily o v e r tim e , w eek ly
o v e r tim e , and w eekend w o r k —
H oliday w o rk -------------------------------Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls -------------------------P re m iu m s not r e p o rte d
s e p a r a t e l y -----------------------------------

9. 7
5 .9
.2
1 .9
1 .7

L e g a lly re q u ire d paym ents -------------O ld -a g e ^ su rv iv o rs , and d is ­
a b ility in su ra n ce (s o c ia l
s e c u r it y ) -----------------------------------U nem ploym ent c o m p e n s a t io n -----W ork m en 's c o m p e n s a t io n ----------O ther, including te m p o r a r y
d is a b ility in s u r a n c e ---------------- —

10. 1

4 .9
3 .2
1 .9

P riv a te w e lfa re plans ----------------------H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life
in su ra n ce -----------------------------------P en sion and re tire m e n t p l a n s ---V acation and h olid a y fu n d s ---------Supplem ental un em p loym ent
b en efits --------------------------------------S ev era n ce or d is m is s a l p a y ------Savings and th rift p l a n s --------------Y earen d and C h ristm a s
bonuses ---------------------------------------P riv a te w e lfa re plans not
re p o rte d se p a ra te ly — ---------------

N ortheast

South

N orth
C en tra l

W est

1 4.3
8. 5
.6
5. 1

1 4 .9
8. 5
.6
5. 6

9 .7
6 .1
.5
3. 0

1 6 .3
10. 0
.4
5. 8

1 5 .4
8 .6
1.1
5 .5

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

1 1.0

1 0 .5

1 0 .3

9 .8

8. 6

1 1 .7

11.1

5. 8
.2
2. 5

6. 5
.4
2. 1

6. 3
.3
2. 1

6 .3
.2
1 .9

6 .0
.3
1 .4

6 .2
.2
2. 6

6 .9
.4
2 .2

.2

3
1 The reg ion s u sed in this study a re : N ortheast— C onnecticu t, M aine, M a ssa ch u setts, New H a m p sh ire, New J e r s e y , New Y o rk , P en n sylva n ia, Rhode Island, and
V erm on t; South— A la b a m a , A rk a n s a s , D ela w a re, D is tr ic t o f C olum bia, F lo r id a , G e o rg ia , Kentucky, L ou isia n a, M arylan d, M is s is s ip p i, N orth C a ro lin a , Oklahom a, South
C a r o lin a , T e n n e ss e e , T ex a s , V irg in ia , and W est V irgin ia ; North C en tra l— Illin o is , Indiana, Iowa, K ansas, M ich igan, M inn esota, M is s o u r i, N eb ra sk a , N orth Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and W isco n sin ; and W est-—A la sk a , A rizon a , C aliforn ia , C o lo r a d o , H awaii, Idaho, Montana, N evada, New M e x ico , O regon , Utah, W ashington, and W yom ing.
2 L ess than 0. 05 p e rce n t o r 0. 05 cent.
N OTE:

B eca u se of rou nding,




sum s of individual item s m ay not equal tota ls.

. 625617 0 -6 2

Table 2.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices by Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P ercen t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

Industry grou p

L ega lly
P riv ate
req u ire d
w e lfa re
p a y­
plans
ments

Paid
leave

P re­
m ium
pay

A ll in d u s trie s 1- — __ ___ _ _____

6 .0

4 .3

4 .5

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s - _ ___
F ood and k in d red p rod u cts
_____
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res — — ____
T ex tile m ill p r o d u c t s --------------------A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts _________________
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F urnitu re and fix tu res ___________
P a p er and a llie d p rod u cts - _____
P rin tin g , publish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _________________
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u stries ____ — _____
R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts _____ __
L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts ____
S tone, cla y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s ________ __ __ ___ _______
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s _______ F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ______ M a ch in ery, ex cep t e l e c t r i c a l _____
T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent ------ --Instrum ents and r e la te d
p rod u cts _____ __
_____ __ —
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u stries
— - __ - —

7 .7
6 .0
5 .6
3 .6

3. 3
4 .2
2 .5
4. 1

3 .7
4 .7
4 .7
4 .9

3 .5
3.1
4 .6
6 .0

1 .8
3 .7
3 .6
6 .9

5 .3
6 .4
5 .0
4 .1

P e rc e n t o f stra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll
L e g a lly
P riv ate
re q u ire d
w e lfa re
p a y­
plans
m ents

Cents p er plant m an -hour

Cents p er hour paid fo r
P re­
m ium
pay

L e g a lly
P riv a te
re q u ire d
w e lfa re
pay­
plans
m ents

P re­
m ium
pay

L ega lly
P rivate
req u ire d
w elfa re
pay­
plans
m ents

P aid
lea ve

P re­
m ium
pay

5 .4

6 .3

4 .5

4 .7

5 .6

1 3.5

9 .7

10.1

12.1

1 4.3

1 0.3

10.7

12.9

6. 1
5 .2
5. 6
3 .0

8. 0
6 .3
5 .8
3 .7

3 .4
4 .4
2 .5
4 .3

3 .8
5. 0
4 .8
5 .1

6. 3
5 .4
5 .7
3 .2

2 1 .0
12. 6
9 .2
5 .7

9 .0
8 .9
4 .0
6 .6

10. 1
1 0 .0
7 .7
7 .9

1 6 .7
1 0 .8
9 .1
4 .9

2 2 .7
1 3 .4
9 .7
5 .9

9 .8
9 .4
4 .3
6 .8

11.0
1 0.6
8 .2
8 .2

18. 1
1 1.5
9 .6
5. 0

3 .2
2 .4
3 .8
5. 0

3 .5
3 .2
4 .7
6 .5

1 .8
3 .8
3 .7
7 .4

5 .4
6 .7
5 .2
4 .4

3 .3
2 .5
3 .9
5. 3

5 .5
5 .7
8 .7
13. 5

2 .8
6 .7
6 .9
1 5 .4

8 .4
1 1.7
9 .5
9 .2

5 .1
4 .3
7 .2
11.1

5 .7
5 .8
9 .1
1 4 .4

2 .9
6 .9
7 .2
1 6.5

8 .7
12.1
10. 0
9 .8

5 .3
4 .5
7 .5
11.9

P aid
lea ve

P a id
lea ve

6 .4

5 .9

3 .3

4 .1

6 .8

6 .2

3 .5

4 .4

1 7.2

1 5.9

9 .0

11.1

1 8 .4

1 7.0

9 .6

11.9

1 0.4

3 .5

3 .0

1 2 .2

10. 8

3. 7

3.1

1 2.6

3 1 .6

1 0 .7

9 .0

37. 0

3 5 .4

1 2 .0

10.0

4 1 .4

6 .4
5 .2

5 .2
1 .7

4 .2
5.1

6 .4
3 .4

6 .7
5 .2

5 .5
1 .7

4 .4
5 .2

6 .8
3 .4

15. 0
8 .6

1 2 .3
2 .8

9 .9
8 .6

1 5 .2
5 .6

16. 0
9 .1

13.1
2 .9

1 0.6
9 .0

1 6.2
5 .9

5 .0
7 .4
5 .6
6 .3
6 .9

5 .3
4 .9
4 .5
4 .3
4 .5

4 .9
4 .3
4 .7
4 .0
4 .3

5 .3
6 .8
5 .5
5 .9
6. 0

5 .3
7 .8
5 .9
6 .6
7 .2

5 .6
5 .2
4 .7
4 .5
4 .7

5.1
4 .5
4 .9
4 .2
4 .5

5 .6
7 .1
5 .8
6 .1
6 .3

11.1
2 0 .9
1 3.6
1 6.3
1 8.2

1 1 .8
14. 0
1 0.9
11.1
1 1 .8

1 0 .8
12.1
1 1 .3
1 0 .4
1 1 .4

1 1 .8
1 9 .2
1 3 .2
1 5 .2
1 6 .0

1 1.7
2 2 .6
1 4 .4
1 7 .4
1 9.5

1 2 .4
1 5 .2
1 1.6
1 1 .8
1 2 .7

1 1.4
13.1
1 2.0
11.1
12.3

1 2.4
2 0 .7
14.1
16.3
1 7.2

6 .6

4. 1

3 .9

7 .4

6 .9

4 .2

4 .1

7 .8

1 5.6

9 .6

9 .2

1 7.5

16. 7

1 0.3

9 .9

1 8 .8

5 .2

3 .7

5 .0

4 .6

5 .4

3 .9

5 .2

4 .8

9 .7

7. 0

9 .3

8 .7

1 0 .2

7 .4

9 .8

9. 1

1 Inclu des in d u stries not shown s ep a ra tely.




'O




C h ap ter II.

P a id L e a v e

T ota l P aid L ea v e
In 1959, v a ca tio n pay and h olid ay pay w e re p r a c t ic a lly u n iv ersa l, a lim ite d
p r o p o r tio n o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s w e re in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g paid sick
lea v e , and a som ew h at la r g e r p r o p o r tio n w e re c o v e r e d by p r o v is io n s fo r other
m is c e lla n e o u s types o f le a v e . A ll but 4. 2 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs w e re
in m anufacturing esta b lish m e n ts w hich paid fo r som e type o f le a v e in 1959.
T h ose
having expen ditu res fo r v a ca tio n s em p loy ed 93. 4 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s ; h olid ays,
89. 1 p e rce n t; s ic k le a v e , 22. 6 p e r c e n t; and m ilita ry , ju ry , w itn ess, voting, or
p e r s o n a l le a v e , 44. 3 p e r c e n t.
(See table 4 .)

E xpen ditu res fo r a ll paid le a v e am ounted to 6 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p r o ­
du ction w o rk e r p a y r o ll fo r m an u factu ring as a w hole.
The ra tio rem a in s p r a c ­
t ic a lly unchanged if the esta b lish m e n ts granting no paid le a v e a r e exclu d ed, sin ce
som e expen ditu re fo r le a v e w as re p o r te d by v irtu a lly e v e r y estab lish m en t.
D if­
fe r e n c e s do o c c u r , h o w e v e r, fo r som e o f the individual le a v e ite m s and fo r som e
of the in du stry g rou p s, betw een the expen ditu re ra tio s fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts and
fo r only th ose that a ctu a lly had e x p en d itu res.
F o r exam ple, fo r paid v a ca tion s,
expen ditu res as a p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll r is e fr o m 3. 6 fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts
to 3. 7 p e r c e n t in the a ctu a l expen ditu re fir m s ; fo r paid h olid a y s fr o m 2.1 to 2.3 p e r ­
cent; fo r paid s ic k le a v e fr o m 0. 2 to 1 p e rce n t; and fo r oth er le a v e fr o m le s s
than 0 .0 5 to 0 .1 p e r c e n t.
(See table 3 .)

A m on g the in du stry g rou p s, the la r g e s t changes w e r e in the ra tio s fo r
the a p p a re l and oth er te x tile p ro d u cts in d u stries and the lu m b er and w ood p rod u cts
in d u strie s.
The r a tio s fo r th ese changed, r e s p e c t iv e ly , fr o m 3. 5 to 4. 1 p e rce n t
and fr o m 3. 1 to 3. 6 p e rce n t. The g r e a te r change in the expen ditu re ra tio s fo r
th ese two g rou p s, when the ra tio is b a s e d on the p a y r o ll o f only th ose rep ortin g
expen ditu res fo r paid le a v e as d istin g u ish ed fr o m that o f a ll esta b lish m en ts in
the grou p, r e fle c t s the lo w e r p r e v a le n c e o f paid le a v e in th ese in d u strie s. W h ereas
in the o th er in du stry g ro u p s, esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 95 to 100 p e rce n t o f
the w o r k e r s r e p o r te d so m e fo r m o f paid lea v e, the p r o p o r tio n s w e re 77. 2 p e rce n t
in lu m b er and 82. 9 p e r c e n t in a p p a rel.
When total pay fo r le a v e w as d iv id ed by the total h ou rs paid fo r by a ll
esta b lish m en ts, the 1959 expen ditu res am ounted to 13. 5 cen ts p e r hour including
8 cen ts fo r v a ca tion , 4. 8 cen ts fo r h o lid a y s, 0. 5 cen t fo r s ic k leave^ and 0. 1 cen t
fo r oth er le a v e .
If r e s t r ic t e d to only th ose esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g lea v e e x ­
p en d itu res, the tota l am ount in c r e a s e d to 14 cen ts fo r each hou r paid fo r .
On
this b a s is , v a ca tio n s am ounted to 8. 5 cen ts; h olid a y s, 5. 4 cen ts; s ick lea v e,
2. 3 cen ts; and oth er le a v e , 0. 2 cent.
(See table 3 .)

F o r the p u rp o se o f this study, paid lea v e in clu d es only paym ents m ade
d ir e c t ly to the w o rk e r b y the com pan y; e m p lo y e r paym ents to v a ca tio n and h o li­
day funds w e r e trea ted a s p riv a te w e lfa re plan s.
S im ila rly , com pan y paym ents
to in su ra n ce c a r r ie r s o r s p e c ia l funds, w hich pay health and s ick n e s s b en efits
to w o r k e r s , w e r e c la s s ifie d as p riv a te w e lfa r e plans ra th er than paid sick lea v e.
In the few States in w h ich te m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce is r e q u ire d by law,
com pan y paym en ts m ade d ir e c t ly to the w o rk e r under s e lf-in s u r a n c e p r o v is io n s
of the law w e r e c o n s id e r e d le g a lly re q u ire d paym en ts ra th er than sick lea v e.




11

12

P a id V a ca tio n s

P aid v a ca tio n s fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs b e c a m e p a rt of the con d ition s o f
em p loy m en t in A m e r ic a n m an u factu rin g in d u stries during this cen tu ry.
The
b e n e fits ‘ 't r ic k le d dow n" to p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs by way of the w h it e -c o lla r w o r k ­
ers.
The f i r s t to obtain v a ca tio n s with pay w e re the h igh er sa la rie d o ffic e e m ­
p lo y e e s , fo llo w e d by the m in o r sa la rie d in o ffic e and plant. L ater, paid v a ca tio n s
w e r e extended to p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs .
T o the extent that the p r a c t ic e ex is te d
p r io r to the turn o f the cen tu ry and up to 1910, it w as con cen tra ted p r im a r ily
in a sm a ll num ber of esta b lish m e n ts in the fo o d in d u stries group and in the
c h e m ic a ls -p e t r o le u m re fin in g in d u strie s group. D uring the p e r io d 1910—19, m o r e
c h e m ic a l and fo o d co m p a n ie s instituted paid v a ca tion plans fo r th eir p ro d u ctio n
w o r k e r s , in addition to so m e ru b b er and e l e c t r ic a l m a ch in e ry co m p a n ie s.
The
f i r s t m a jo r in c r e a s e in the sp re a d o f paid v a ca tio n s fo r p rod u ction w o r k e rs o c ­
c u r r e d b etw een the end o f W orld W ar I and the beginning of the d e p r e s s io n o f
the 1930*s .
F r o m 1920—
29, the total num ber of p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts b rou gh t under paid v a ca tio n plans e x ce e d e d the num ber who up to that tim e
en joy ed the b en efit.
D uring this p e rio d , m o r e e m p lo y e e s in the e le c t r ic a l m a ­
ch in e ry , the food , and the c h e m ica ls (in clu din g p e tro le u m refin in g ) in d u stries
b e c a m e e lig ib le fo r paid v a ca tio n s as m o r e esta b lish m en ts instituted such plan s;
plan s b e c a m e fa ir ly n u m erou s in the printing and the r u b b e r -p r o d u c ts in d u strie s;
and a ll the oth er m a jo r in du stry g rou p s began to in trod u ce the p r a c tic e .
The v a ca tio n m o v e m e n t halted during the d e p r e s s io n y e a r s of 1930 to
1934, but sp rea d ra p id ly in the se con d p a rt of the d eca d e.
In ju s t the 2 y e a r s
of 1936 and 1937, paid v a ca tio n s w e re extended to m o r e p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs than
during the en tire 1 0 -y e a r p e r io d 1920—
29.
By 1937, 39. 3 p e r c e n t o f the p r o ­
d u ction w o r k e r s in m an u factu rin g w e re in plants p rov id in g paid v a ca tio n s.
The
co m b in e d c h e m ic a ls -p e t r o le u m in d u stries group, w hich w as am ong the f i r s t to
in tro d u ce v a ca tio n b e n e fits fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs , led a ll the oth ers with 8 6 .4 - p e r ­
cen t c o v e r a g e .
What w as then c la s s ifie d as iro n and ste e l and th eir p ro d u cts
grou p had a 73. 5 -p e r c e n t c o v e r a g e ; the ru b b er group, 72. 8 p e rce n t; and food ,
65. 5 p e r c e n t.
S teel co m p a n ie s had adopted v a ca tio n s with pay fo r th eir p r o d u c ­
tion w o r k e r s in 1936.
The lu m b er and a llie d p ro d u cts group and the w earin g
a p p a re l grou p tr a ile d a ll the oth er g rou p s, with fe w e r than 10 p e rce n t of the
w o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts with paid v a ca tio n s in 1937. 6 During W orld War II,
the fu rth e r ex ten sion o f v a ca tio n pay plans w as stim u lated by the N ational W ar
L a b or Board* s w age sta b iliza tio n p o lic y , w hich con fin ed d ir e c t w age in c r e a s e s
w ithin n a rro w lim its but w as m o r e len ien t with supplem ents such as v a ca tion
and h olid a y pay. By 1952, v ir tu a lly a ll the w o r k e rs under c o lle c t iv e bargain in g
a g re e m e n ts had b e c o m e e lig ib le fo r paid v a ca tio n s, a c c o r d in g to a BLS study of a
sa m p le o f 758 a g re e m e n ts c o v e r in g o v e r 3. 4 m illio n w o r k e r s in m anufacturing. 7
T his su rv e y found that in 1959 esta b lish m en ts granting paid v a ca tion s,
w hether through c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g or p e rs o n n e l p o lic y , em p loy ed 93. 4 p e r c e n t
o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in m a n u factu rin g.
The p ro p o rtio n e x ce e d e d 90 p e r c e n t
in a ll but two in du stry g ro u p s; in the lu m b er and w ood p ro d u cts group, the p r o ­
p o rtio n w as 75 p e r c e n t and in the a p p a re l in d u stries, 65 p e rce n t. (See table 4 .)

6 "E x te n t o f V a ca tion s with P ay in Industry, " M onthly L a b or R e v ie w ,
A ugust 1938, pp. 2 6 9-274 .
7 "P a id V a ca tion P r o v is io n s in C o lle c tiv e A g re e m e n ts, 1952, " M onthly
L a b o r R e v ie w , A ugust 1952, pp. 163 and 164; and the T erm in a tion R e p o rt o f The
N ational W ar L a b or B oa rd : In d u strial D isputes and W age S ta bilization in W a r­
tim e, January 12, 1 9 4 2 -D e c e m b e r 31, 1945, V ol. I (1947), pp^ 306 and 338.



13
A s a p e r c e n t o f the tota l m an ufacturing g r o s s p a y ro ll v acation ex p en d i­
tu res a v e ra g e d 3. 6 p e r c e n t in 1959. T h e re w as little v a ria tio n in the ra tio s by
re g io n ; they a v e ra g e d fr o m 3. 8 p e r c e n t in the N orth C en tral re g io n to 3. 2 p e r ­
cent in the W est and South.
H o w e v er, the in d u stry grou p ra tio s ranged fr o m
5. 5 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n -w o r k e r p a y r o ll f o r the p e tro le u m in d u stries and
4. 9 p e r c e n t fo r the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries to 1. 9 and 1. 8 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly ,
fo r the lu m b er and the a p p a re l in d u strie s. A s a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs r o s e , the
in du stry ra tio s had a ten den cy to r is e a ls o .
The lo w e r expen ditu re ra tio s in the
lu m b er and the a p p a re l g rou p s r e p r e s e n t, in p a rt, the low p r e v a le n c e o f paid
v a ca tio n s in the two g ro u p s.
(In addition
to th ose paying v a ca tion b en efits
d ir e c t ly to th e ir w o r k e r s , and h en ce in clu d ed in the ra tio s a b o v e , esta b lish m en ts
em ployin g 18 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in a p p a re l con trib u ted to v a ca tion and h olid ay
funds w hich w e r e r e s p o n s ib le fo r distrib u tin g v a ca tion and h olid a y pay to th eir
w o r k e r s . ) When the expen ditu res a r e re la te d to the g r o s s p a y r o lls o f only the
esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the ra tio s fo r the oth er in du stry g rou p s
rem a in m a te r ia lly unchanged, w h ile th ose f o r a p p a re l and lu m b er r is e .
The ap ­
p a r e l ra tio ch an ges fr o m 1 .8 to 2 .7 p e r c e n t, the lu m b er ra tio fr o m 1 .9 to
2. 3 p e r c e n t.
(See table 3. )
S im ila r re la tio n sh ip s w e r e found when ex p en d itu res w e r e m e a s u re d in
cen ts p e r h ou r p a id f o r .
The h ig h er paying p e tro le u m grou p re p o rte d an a v era g e
rate o f 16. 6 cen ts p e r h ou r, fo llo w e d b y a v e ra g e s ranging fr o m 13. 9 to 10. 3 cen ts
p e r h ou r p a id fo r b y a ll e sta b lish m en ts in the w e ll-p a y in g p r im a r y m e ta ls , printing
and pu b lish in g, tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent, and ord n a n ce g ro u p s.
E x pen ditu res
ra te s w e r e as low as 4. 9 cen ts in the le a th e r g rou p , 3. 9 cen ts in te x tile s , 3.5 cen ts
in lu m b e r, and 2. 8 cen ts in a p p a re l. If only the tota l m a n -h o u rs o f th ose who
re p o r te d v a ca tio n pay a r e c o n s id e r e d , the ra tes fo r lu m b er and a p p a rel r is e to
4. 5 and 4. 1 cen ts p e r h o u r, r e s p e c t iv e ly , but the a v e r a g e s fo r the rem ain in g
g rou p s do not in c r e a s e as m u ch .
P a id H olidays
In 1959, e sta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 9 out o f 10 p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in
m an u factu rin g w e r e granting p a id h o lid a y s to th eir p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
The
p r a c t ic e o f granting p a id h olid a y s w as v irtu a lly non existan t f o r p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s p r i o r to W orld W ar II.
It b e c a m e p re v a le n t during and a fte r the w a r . 8
A 1936 N ational In d u strial C o n fe re n ce B o a rd study o f 446 com p a n ies found that
on ly 9 p e r c e n t o f the co m p a n ie s gran ted paid h olid a y s to th eir p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s . 9 A s im ila r NICB study o f 240 com p a n ies in d ica ted that the p r o p o r tio n had
r is e n to about 40 p e r c e n t by 1946. 10 The B u r e a u 's stu d ies o f h olid a y p r o v is io n s
in c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts in d ica te the m o r e re ce n t expan sion in the
p r e v a le n c e o f h olid a y pay.
Although the NICB and B u reau stu d ies a r e not en ­
tir e ly c o m p a r a b le , the two g iv e a rough in d ica tion o f the tren d o f the paid h o li­
day m o v e m e n t fr o m p r e w a r to re ce n t y e a r s . A BLS study relatin g to 1, 574 a g r e e ­
m en ts in e ffe c t in m an u factu rin g in 1950 show ed that slig h tly m o r e than 3 out
o f 4 had p r o v is io n s fo r pa id h o lid a y s . 1 B y 1958, the ra tio had r is e n to 99 out o f
1
100 m a jo r a g r e e m e n ts.
B etw een 1950 and 1958, the p r o p o r tio n o f co n tra cts p r o ­
viding 6 h o lid a y s o r le s s d e c r e a s e d , w h erea s th ose sp e cify in g 7 d a y s, 8 d ay s,

8 The T e rm in a tio n R e p o rt o f the N ational W ar L a b o r B o a rd , op. cit. ,
3 6 1 -3 5 5 :
9 P e r s o n n e l P r a c t ic e s G overn in g F a c to r y and O ffice A d m in istra tion (New
Y o rk , N ational In d u stria l C o n fe re n ce B o a rd , Inc. , 1937), p. 16.
10 V a ca tion and H oliday P r a c t i c e s , Studies in P e r s o n n e l P o lic y , No. 75
(New Y o rk , N ational In d u strial C o n fe re n ce B o a rd , Inc. , 1946), pp. 16 and 17.
1 "H olid a y P r o v is io n s in Union A g re e m e n ts , 1950, " M onthly L a b o r R e ­
1
v ie w , January 1951, p. 24.

pp.




14
o r 9 days o r m o r e i n c r e a s e d .12 The p r e s e n t su rv ey in d ica tes that in 1959,
57 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in esta b lish m en ts giving 7 o r m o r e h o lid a y s .
P a id h olid a ys w e r e m o s t p rev a len t in the N orth C entral re g io n in 1959;
they w e r e le a s t p re v a le n t in the South.
F e w e r than 4 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s
in the N orth C en tra l r e g io n s w o r k e d in e sta b lish m en ts w h ich p r o v id e d no p a id
h o lid a y s ; in the South, the p r o p o r tio n w as n e a rly 30 p e r c e n t. Although the p a id
h olid a y p r a c t ic e w as w id e sp r e a d , it w as not as p re v a le n t as paid v a ca tion s in
1959.
In the o rd n a n ce, p e tr o le u m , p r im a r y m e ta ls , and in stru m en ts in d u strie s
a ll o r v irtu a lly a ll o f the w o r k e r s w e re in esta b lish m en ts that r e p o r te d paid
h o lid a y s ; in nine oth er in d u stry g ro u p s, at le a s t 90 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w e r e
in esta b lish m e n ts w h ich had pa id h olid a y s; and in another th ree g ro u p s, at le a s t
80 p e r c e n t.
The s m a lle s t p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s w e r e re p o rte d in a p p a rel
(74. 5 p e r c e n t), te x tile s (6 1 .9 p e r c e n t), and lu m b er (58. 2 p e r c e n t). (See table 4. )
P a id h olid a y ex p en d itu res a v era g ed 2. 1 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p r o d u ctio n w o r k e r p a y r o ll o f a ll e sta b lish m e n ts in m anufacturing and 2. 3 p e r c e n t o f the p a y ­
r o ll o f on ly th ose re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e .
Industry fo r in d u stry , th ere w as so m e
c o r r e la t io n b etw een the in du stry expenditure ra tio and the a v e ra g e h ou rly e a r n ­
ings in the in du stry.
The h ig h e r paying p e tro le u m , o rd n a n ce, and tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent in d u strie s re p o r te d the h igh est ra tio s— 2. 5 to 2. 7 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s
p a y r o ll.
At the lo w e r end o f the d istrib u tion w e r e the te x tile s and the lu m b er
in d u s tr ie s , w ith ra tio s o f 1. 1 p e r c e n t each , and the a p p a rel in d u stry with 1. 6 p e r ­
cen t.
H ere again, the m u ch lo w e r expenditure ra tio s fo r te x tile s and a p p a rel,
re la tiv e to the oth er g ro u p s, a r e attributable in p a rt to the lo w e r p r e v a le n c e o f
the p r a c t ic e in th ese in d u str ie s. When the ra tio s a re com pu ted using the p a y r o ll
o f on ly th ose rep o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the ra tio s r is e by 0. 6 p e r c e n t f o r lu m b er
and f o r t e x tile s , and 0. 5 p e r c e n t f o r a p p a rel. The change o f b a s e had le s s e f ­
fe c t on the oth er in d u strie s.
(See table 3. )
A v e r a g e expen ditu res fo r h olid a ys w e r e 4. 8 cen ts p e r hou r p a id fo r by
a ll esta b lish m e n ts in m an u factu rin g and 5 .4 cen ts f o r only th ose esta b lish m en ts
that r e p o r te d the p r a c t ic e .
The o r d e r o f the in d u s trie s , when a r r a y e d b y e x ­
pen d itu re r a te s , w as not m u ch d iffe re n t fr o m that b a s e d on p a y r o ll ra tio s . The
p r o d u c e r s o f p e tr o le u m p r o d u c t s , ord n a n ce, p r im a r y m e ta ls , and tra n sp orta tion
equipm ent w e r e at the h igh er end w ith expen ditu res o f 6. 6 to 8 .2 cen ts p e r h ou r.
At the lo w e r end w ith r e s p e c t iv e ra tes o f 1 .7 , 2 .1 , and 2 .6 cen ts p e r hou r paid
fo r by a ll esta b lish m en ts w e r e the te x tile , the lu m b e r, and the a p p a rel e sta b ­
lish m e n ts.
In th ese la tte r in d u strie s, the ra tes w e r e 2 .8 , 3 .4 , and 3 .4 cen ts
p e r h ou r, r e s p e c t iv e ly , fo r the esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g the p r a c tic e .
The r e g io n a l ra tio s o f p a id h olid ay le a v e ex p en d itu res to g r o s s p a y ­
r o ll fo r a ll esta b lish m e n ts am ounted to 1 .6 p e r c e n t in the South, 2. 1 p e r c e n t
in the W est, 2. 2 p e r c e n t in the N orth C en tral re g io n , and 2 .4 p e r c e n t in the
N orth ea st.
The r a tio s w e r e m o r e s im ila r when the v a ria tio n s , in trod u ced by
d iffe r e n c e s in p r e v a le n c e , w e r e elim in ated and only the p a y r o ll o f th ose r e ­
p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e w as u sed in the b a s e .
P a id S ick L ea v e

ers,

P a id s ic k le a v e is a fa ir ly old and esta b lish e d p r a c t ic e fo r o ffic e w o r k ­
but it has not b e e n extended as co m m o n ly to p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs as the oth er

12
(1959), pp.




P a id H oliday P r o v is io n s in M a jor Union C o n tra cts, 1958,
1 -3 .

B LS B u ll. 1248

15
types o f le a v e . When the e x ten sion o f s ic k b en efits to p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s began
in the e a r ly 1940* s, it took the fo r m p r im a r ily o f health and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce
ra th er than p a id s ic k le a v e . 13
E sta b lish m e n ts em ployin g 22. 6 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in
m an u factu rin g r e p o r te d s ic k le a v e expen ditu res in 1959. The p r a c t ic e w as m o s t
p re v a le n t in the W est and le a s t p re v a le n t in the N orth C en tral re g io n — 36. 1 p er­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s in the W est c o m p a re d w ith 18. 2 p e r c e n t in the N orth C entral
re g io n w e r e in esta b lish m e n ts that r e p o rte d the p r a c t ic e .
The p r e v a le n c e o f
pa id s ic k le a v e v a r ie d w id e ly b y in du stry.
In the p r im a r y m e ta ls , te x tile s ,
and ru b b er and p la s t ic s p ro d u cts in d u s trie s , ex p en d itu res w e r e re p o rte d b y e sta b ­
lish m en ts em p loyin g fe w e r than 10 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s ; in eight in du stry g rou p s,
by th ose em p loy in g 10-19 p e r c e n t in clu s iv e ; in s ix g ro u p s , 2 0 -4 6 p e r c e n t in ­
c lu s iv e ; in the ord n a n ce in d u s tr ie s , 6 0 .4 p e rce n t; and in the p e tro le u m in du s­
t r ie s , 9 1 .2 p e r c e n t.
(See ta b le 4 . )
T h e se fig u r e s on the p r e v a le n c e o f the p r a c t ic e c o v e r only th ose w hich
had a ctu a l expen ditu res in 1959. T hey ex clu d e th ose esta b lish m en ts that u su ally
gran t s ic k pay but had no a b s e n c e s ow ing to s ick n e s s in 1959. It should b e noted
that the expen ditu re ra tio can v a r y fr o m y e a r to y e a r , w ithout any change in
esta b lish m e n t sic k le a v e p r a c t ic e s , b e ca u s e o f v a ria tio n s in the in cid e n ce o f s ic k ­
n e s s , the le v e l o f g r o s s p a y, and the n u m ber o f m a n -h o u rs paid fo r during the y e a r .
E xp en d itu res fo r s ic k le a v e as a p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p r o d u ctio n -w o r k e r
p a y r o ll fo r a ll esta b lish m e n ts in m anufacturing a v e ra g e d 0. 2 p e r c e n t. Only the
p e tr o le u m and ord n a n ce in d u strie s r e p o rte d substantial s ic k lea ve paym ents to
the w o r k e r s ; in th ese in d u str ie s, ex p en d itu res a v e ra g e d 2 and 1. 2 p e r c e n t o f
g r o s s p a y r o ll, r e s p e c t iv e ly . Nine g rou p s a v e ra g e d betw een 0. 1 and 0. 5 p e r c e n t
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll and the rem a in in g eight b e lo w 0. 05 p e r c e n t. F o r th ose e s ta b ­
lish m en ts a ctu a lly re p o rtin g e x p e n d itu res, the ra tio w as 1 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ­
r o ll fo r m an u factu rin g as a w h ole— fiv e tim e s as g re a t as when re la te d to the
p a y r o ll o f a ll e sta b lish m e n ts, the d iffe r e n c e r e fle ctin g the low p r e v a le n c e o f
the p r a c t ic e .
B y in d u stry , a v e ra g e expen ditu res fo r esta b lish m en ts with the
p r a c t ic e ran ged fr o m 0. 3 p e r c e n t to 2. 2 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll.
F or m ore
than h a lf o f the in du stry g rou p s the expen ditu re r a tio s , fo r only th ose rep ortin g
the p r a c t ic e , se e m e d re la te d to the a v e ra g e h ou rly ea rn in gs o f the grou p.
As
ea rn in gs r o s e , the ra tio s a ls o had a ten den cy to r is e .
In evaluating e m p lo y e r expen ditu res fo r s ic k b e n e fits , p riv a te s ick n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce , and le g a lly re q u ire d te m p o ra ry d isa b ility in su ra n ce should
b e c o n s id e r e d as w e ll as p a id s ic k le a v e . Thus, the p e tro le u m refin in g and r e ­
lated in d u s tr ie s , w hich had b y fa r the h igh est ra tio o f ex p en d itu res f o r s ic k le a v e
(2 p e r c e n t), had the se co n d fr o m lo w e st ra tio o f ex p en d itu res fo r health, a ccid e n t,
and life in su ra n ce (1 .1 p e r c e n t). When the c o m p a r is o n is m ad e on the b a s is o f
the tota l o f the tw o ite m s , the ex p en d itu res ra tio o f the p e tro le u m grou p s till is
h igh er than that o f the oth er in du stry g rou p s e x ce p t o rd n a n ce, but not b y v e r y
m u ch .
The ord n a n ce in d u strie s had am ong the h igh est expen ditu re ra tio s fo r
health, a c c id e n t, and life in su ra n ce (2. 3 p e r c e n t) as w e ll as fo r p aid s ic k lea v e
(1 .2 p e r c e n t). The two ite m s tog e th e r gave the group the h igh est com b in ed e x ­
pen d itu re ra tio o f a ll the in du stry g rou p s.
An exam ination w as m ade o f the
c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts under w hich so m e o f the ord n an ce e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts in the su rv e y sa m p le op e ra te d . In som e p la n ts, w o r k e r s ea rn ed s ic k pay
w h eth er they took tim e o ff o r not.
A c c r u e d s ic k le a v e that w as not taken w as
pa ya b le p e r io d ic a lly as s ic k pay.

13
(I9 6 0 ), p.

P a id S ick L ea v e P r o v is io n s in M a jo r Union C o n tra cts, 1959. BL.S B u ll. 1282
1.




16
S ick le a v e ex p en d itu res am ounted to 0. 5 cen t p e r hour paid fo r by a ll
e sta b lish m e n ts in m an u factu rin g. F o r the p e tro le u m refin in g and rela ted in d u s­
t r ie s , this fig u re w as 6. 2 cen ts p e r hou r and fo r the ord n an ce and a c c e s s o r i e s
in d u s tr ie s , 3. 2 ce n ts.
F o r the rem ain in g in d u s trie s , the expen ditu res ra tes
ran ged fr o m 1. 2 cen ts down to le s s than 0. 05 cen t p e r hour paid f o r . The bulk
o f th ese in d u stry g rou p s r e p o r te d 0. 1 cen t p e r h ou r. When the expen ditu res w e r e
d iv id ed b y the h ou rs p a id f o r b y only th ose rep ortin g the p r a c t ic e , the rate fo r
the p e tr o le u m in d u strie s r o s e to 6 .8 cen ts p e r h ou r and that fo r the ord n an ce
in d u strie s to 5. 2 ce n ts.
The next lo w e r rate w as the 3. 3 cen ts p e r hou r paid
f o r , r e p o r te d b y the tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent in d u strie s; the lo w e st rate w as the
0. 5 cen ts p e r h ou r o f the a p p a re l and te x tile in d u strie s.

O ther P a id L ea v e (M ilita ry , J u ry ,

W itn ess,

V oting,

and P e r s o n a l L ea v e)

"O th e r " pa id le a v e w as c o m p o s e d o f m ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e ss, v otin g , and
p e r s o n a l le a v e (su ch as f o r death in the fa m ily ).
L e a v e , p a r tic u la r ly o f th ese
m is c e lla n e o u s ty p e s, often is not p a id fo r at the re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e rate. F o r
e x a m p le , m any fir m s pay the w o r k e r the d iffe r e n c e betw een h is re g u la r rate and
what he r e c e iv e s fo r se rv in g on a ju r y . A s fo r a ll ty p es o f le a v e , resp on d en ts
w e r e a sk ed to r e p o r t only th e ir a ctu al expen ditu res fo r the p r a c t ic e and the m a n ­
h o u rs equ iva len t to the pa y given .

E sta b lish m en ts em p loyin g 44. 3 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in
m an u factu rin g r e p o r te d ex p en d itu res fo r oth er paid lea v e in 1959. The in cid e n ce
o f the p r a c t ic e w as g r e a te s t in the N orth C en tral re g io n , and le a st in the South.
T h e re w as c o n s id e r a b le v a ria tio n in the extent to w hich the pay fo r m is c e lla n e o u s
types o f le a v e w as given in the v a rio u s in d u strie s.
The p e rce n ta g e o f w o r k e rs
in esta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g the ex p en d itu res v a r ie d fr o m about 8 p e r c e n t in the
lu m b e r and the a p p a re l in d u strie s to o v e r 90 p e r c e n t in the ord n an ce and the
p e tr o le u m in d u strie s.
The p r e v a le n c e o f the p r a c t ic e s e e m e d to b e re la te d to
the le v e l o f a v e r a g e h o u rly earn in gs fo r the in d u stry grou p.
G e n e ra lly , as
a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in gs in c r e a s e d , the p r e v a le n c e o f the p r a c t ic e tended a ls o
to in c r e a s e .
O ther p a id le a v e ex p en d itu res am ounted to le s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r g r o s s p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts in m an u factu rin g.
The
ex p en d itu res r a tio s fo r the s e v e r a l in d u stries w e r e equ ally sm a ll.
Only seven
in du stry g rou p s sh ow ed expen ditu re ra tio s o f o v e r 0. 05 p e r c e n t— th ese in clu d ed
0. 2 p e r c e n t b y both the ord n a n ce and the p e tro le u m g rou p s and 0. 1 p e r c e n t b y
the oth er fiv e g ro u p s.
The ra tio o f expen ditu res to g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r only the
e sta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e a v e ra g e d 0. 1 p e r c e n t fo r a ll m anufacturing
in d u strie s.
F o r 13 o f the 19 in du stry g ro u p s, the ra tio s w e r e 0. 1 p e r c e n t o f
the p a y r o ll o f on ly th ose re p o rtin g oth er le a v e ; h igh er ra tio s— 0. 2 p e r c e n t— w e r e
r e p o r te d b y only 3 g rou p s.




Table 3.

Average Expenditures for Paid Leave by A ll Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t of s tra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll

P erce n t of g r o s s p a y ro ll
E stablishm ents rep ortin g
expen ditures fo r —

A ll establishm ents

R egion and
in d u stry group
T otal

V aca­
tions

H oli­
days

Sick
leave

Other 1 Total2

V a ca ­
tions

H o li­
days

S ick
leave

E stablishm ents rep ortin g
expen ditures fo r —

A ll establishm ents

Other 1 Total

V a ca ­
tions

H o li­
days

S ick
V a ca ­
Other 1 T otal2 tions
leave

H oli­
days

Sick
leave

Other 1

United States 3------------------------N orth ea st --------------------------South
N orth C e n t r a l-------------------W est -----------------------------------

6 .0
6 .3
5 .0
6 .2
5 .8

3. 6
3. 6
3 .2
3 .8
3 .2

2. 1
2 .4
1 .6
2 .2
2. 1

0 .2
.2
.3
.2
.4

(4 )
0 .1
.1
(4 )
(4 )

6. 1
6 .4
5 .4
6 .3
5 .9

3. 7
3. 8
3 .4
3 .9
3 .3

2. 3
2 .5
2 .0
2. 3
2 .3

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0
.9
1.1

0.
.
.
.
.

1
1
1
1
1

6 .3
6 .6
5 .3
6 .5
6 .0

3. 7
3. 8
3 .3
4 .0
3 .4

2 .2
2. 5
1 .6
2 .3
2 .2

0 .2
.3
.3
.2
.4

(4 )
0. 1
.1
(4 )
(4 )

6 .4
6 .7
5 .6
6. 6
6 .2

3 .9
4 .0
3. 6
4. 1
3. 5

2 .4
2 .6
2. 1
2 .4
2 .4

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0
.9
1. 1

0.
.
.
.

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ---F ood and kindred p ro d u cts ----T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu re s ----------T extile m ill p rod u cts ----------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts ------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts —
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ---------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ----P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d in d u s tr ie s ------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u stries --------------R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p r o d u c ts -----------------L ea th er and lea th er
p r o d u c t s -------------------------------S tone, c la y , and glass
p rod u cts — —--------------- ---------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s ----F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c ts ----M a ch in ery , ex c e p t
e l e c t r i c a l -----------------------------T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t----Instrum ents and rela ted
p rod u cts — _______ __________
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s t r ie s ------------------------------

7 .7
6 .0
5 .6
3 .6

3 .8
3 .6
3 .4
2 .5

2. 6
2. 1
2 .0
1. 1

1 .2
.3
.2
(4 )

.2
(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

7 .7
6 .2
5 .7
3. 7

3.
3.
3.
2.

2.
2.
2.
1.

6
3
1
7

1 .9
.8
.4
.3

.2
.1
(4 )
.1

8 .0
6 .3
5 .8
3 .7

3 .9
3. 7
3 .5
2. 6

2. 6
2. 1
2 .1
1.1

1 .2
.4
.2
(4 )

.2
(4 )
(4 )

8 .0
6 .4
5 .8
3 .8

3 .9
3 .9
3. 7
2. 8

2 .6
2 .4
2 .2
1 .7

1 .9
.9
.4
.3

.2
.1
(4 )
.1

3 .5
3.1
4 .6
6 .0

1 .8
1 .9
2. 8
3 .8

1 .6
1 .1
1 .7
2 .1

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
.1

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
.1

4 .1
3 .6
4 .6
6 .0

2. 7
2 .3
2 .9
3 .8

2. 1
1 .7
2. 1
2. 1

.4
.4
.3
.6

.1
.2
(4 )
.1

3 .5
3 .2
4. 7
6 .5

1 .8
2 .0
2 .9
4 .0

1. 7
1 .2
1 .8
2 .2

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
.1

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
.1

4 .1
3 .8
4 .8
6 .5

2. 7
2 .4
3. 0
4 .0

2. 1
1 .7
2 .1
2 .3

.4
.4
.3
.7

.1
.2
(4 )
.1

n

-1

6 .4

4 .0

2 .1

.2

(4 )

6 .4

4. 1

2 .2

.6

.1

6 .8

4 .3

2 .3

.2

(4 )

6. 8

4 .4

2 .4

.7

.1

1 0 .4

5 .5

2. 7

2 .0

.2

1 0 .4

5 .5

2. 7

2 .2

.2

1 0 .8

5 .7

2 .8

2 .1

.2

1 0 .8

5. 7

2 .8

2 .3

.2

6 .4

4. 1

2 .2

(4 )

.1

6 .5

4 .2

2 .3

.4

.1

6 .7

4 .3

2 .3

(4 )

.1

6 .9

4 .4

2 .4

.5

•1

5 .2

2 .9

2 .2

(4 )

(4 )

5 .3

3 .0

2 .3

.3

.1

5 .2

3 .0

2 .2

(4 )

(4 )

5 .4

3. 1

2 .4

.3

.1

5 .0
7 .4
5 .6

3. 1
4 .9
3 .3

1 .8
2 .4
2 .2

(4 )
(4 )
.1

(4 )
(? )
(4 )

5 .2
7 .4
5. 8

3 .2
4 .9
3 .4

2 .0
2 .4
2. 3

.4
.6
.4

.1
(4 )
.1

5 .3
7 .8
5 .9

3 .2
5 .2
3 .5

1 .9
2 .5
2 .3

(4 )
(4 )
.1

(4 )

5 .4
7 .8
6 .0

3 .4
5 .2
3. 6

2 .1
2 .5
2 .5

.5
.6
.4

.1
(4 )
.1

6 .3
6 .9

3 .8
3 .9

2 .3
2 .5

.1
.4

(4 )
.1

6 .3
6 .9

3 .9
3 .9

2 .3
2. 5

1 .0
1 .3

. 1
.1

6 .6
7 .2

4 .0
4 .1

2 .4
2. 6

.2
.4

(4 )
.1

6. 6
7 .2

4. 1
4. 1

2. 5
2 .6

1 .0
1 .3

.1
.1

6 .6

3. 5

2 .5

.5

.1

6 .6

3. 5

2 .5

1 .1

.1

6 .9

3. 7

2. 6

.5

.1

6 .9

3. 7

2 .6

1.1

.1

2 .9

2. 1

.1

.1

5 .3

3 .0

2 .2

.5

.1

5 .4

3. 1

2 .2

.1

.1

5 .5

3. 1

2 .3

.6

.2

5 .2

See footn otes at end o f table.




8
7
6
7

1
1
1
1

(? )
lu

Table 3.

Average Expenditures for Paid Leave by All Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959”"“‘Continued
Cents p e r plaiit man-■hour

Cents p e r hour paid fo r
E stablishm ents re p o rtin g
expenditures fo r —

A ll establishm ents

R egion and
ind ustry grou p
T otal

V aca­
tions

H oli­
days

S ick
lea ve

13. 5
14. 0
9 .2
1 5.3
14. 5

8 .0
8. 0
5. 8
9- 4
8. 1

4. 8
5 .3
2 .9
5. 4
5 .2

0. 5
.6
.5
.4
1 .0

0.
.
.
.
.

1
1
1
1
1

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ----- 2 1 .0
12. 6
F ood and k ind red p rod u cts —
9 .2
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ---------5. 7
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts ----------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
5. 5
textile p rod u cts ------------------5. 7
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts —
8. 7
F u rn itu re and fix t u r e s ----------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c ts ------ 13. 5
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llied in d u stries ------------------ 1 7.2
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r^ ld tcd in d u stries ———— —
——— — 3 1 .6
R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
1 5 .0
p la s tic s p rod u cts ---------------L ea th er and lea th er
8. 6
p rod u cts -------------------------------Stone, cla y , and gla ss
11. 1
p rod u cts -------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s ----- 2 0 .9
13. 6
F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts —
M a ch in e ry , ex cep t
e le c t r ic a l — -—-— —-------------- 16. 3
T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t----- 1 8 .2
Instrum ents and rela ted
—— — — — — - 1 5 .6
p r o d u c t s ------ —
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
9 .7
in d u s t r ie s ------------------------------

1 0 .3
7. 5
5 .5
3 .9

7 .0
4. 3
3 .3
1. 7

3 .2
.7
.3
(4 )

.5
(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

W est -----------------------------------

Other 1 T otal

V a ca ­
tions

H o li­
days

S ick
lea ve

0 .2
.3
.3
.1
.3

14.3
1 4.9
9 .7
16. 3
1 5 .4

8 .5
8 .5
6. 1
10. 0
8 .6

5. 1
5 .6
3. 0
5. 8
5. 5

0 .6
.6
.5
.4
1. 1

5 .2
1.9
.7
.5

.5
.1
(4 )
.1

22. 7
1 3 .4
9. 7
5 .9

1 1.2
8 .0
5. 8
4. 1

7. 5
4. 6
3. 5
1 .8

3. 5
.8
.3
(4 )

4. 1
4. 5
5. 5
8 .4

3 .4
3 .4
4. 1
4. 7

.5
.6
.6
1 .5

.2
.3
.1
.2

5. 7
5 .8
9. 1
1 4 .4

2 .9
3 .6
5. 6
9 .0

2. 7
2. 1
3. 5
5 .0

.
.
.
.

1
1
1
3

V a ca ­
tions

H o li­
days

S ick
leave

1 4.0
14. 5
10.2
15. 4
14. 8

8. 5
8. 7
6 .5
9. 5
8 .3

5 .4
5. 6
4. 0
5. 6
5. 7

2 .3
2. 3
2. 1
2. 1
2. 8

2 1 .0
13.2
9 .3
5 .9

10. 3
8 .0
5 .8
4 .3

7. 0
5. 0
3. 5
2 .8

O th e r1 T o ta l13
2

2 .8
3. 5
5 .3
8 .4

2 .6
2. 1
3 .3
4. 7

.1
.1
.1
.3

(4 )
c>
( 1

6 .5
7. 1
8 .9
1 3.5

1 0 .9

5. 8

.4

.1

17. 5

11. 1

6 .2

1 .7

.3

1 8 .4

1 1 .7

6 .2

.5

1 6 .6

8 .2

6 .2

.6

31. 6

1 6 .7

8 .2

6 .8

.7

3 5 .4

18. 6

9 .2

6 .9

1 .0

.3

1 6.0

1 0.3

5. 4

.1

9 .6

5. 1

.1

.2

1 5 .6

10. 0

5 .4

Other 1

1
1
1
1
1

1 4 .9
15. 5
10. 7
16. 5
1 5 .7

9 .1
9 .3
6. 8
10.2
8 .8

5 .7
6 .0
4 .2
6. 0
6 .1

2 .5
2. 5
2*2
2 .3
3.0

0 .2
.3
.3
.2
.3

.5
.1
(4 )

2 2 .7
14. 1
9. 8
6 .2

11.2
8. 5
6. 1
4. 5

7 .5
5. 3
3. 7
2 .9

5. 7
2 .0
.7
.6

/4 \
( /
.l

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
.l

6. 7
7. 4
9 .3
1 4 .4

4. 3
4. 7
5. 8
9 .0

3.
3.
4.
5.

5
5
4
0

.6
.7
.6
1 .6

.2
.3
.1
•2

.l

18. 7

1 1.9

6. 6

1 .9

.3

.7

3 5 .4

18. 7

9 .2

7. 7

.8

.2

16. 8

10. 7

5. 8

1. 1

.3
.1

0.
.
.
.
.

(

)

.6

3 .9

.1

(4 )

9 .4

5. 4

4. 2

.2

7 .2
15. 1
8. 5

4 .3
7 .4
5. 7

.1
.1
.1

.1
.1
.1

1 2 .3
2 2 .6
14. 8

7. 7
15. 1
8. 8

4 .9
7 .4
6. 0

1 .0
1 .6
1 .0

.3
.1
.2

.2
.2

1 7 .4
1 9 .5

10. 6
11.1

6 .3
7. 1

.4
1 .2

.1
.2

1 7 .6
19. 7

10. 7
1 1.2

6 .5
7. 1

2. 7
3. 6

.3
.2

2. 7

.4

1 6 .7

8 .9

6 .4

1 .2

.2

16. 7

8 .9

6 .4

2 .9

.4

1. 1

.3

1 0.2

5 .8

4. 1

.2

1 0 .4

6 .0

4. 5

1.1

.4

(4 )

8 .9

5. 1

4. 0

.6

.1

6. 8
1 3 .9
8 .0

.1
.1
.1

.1
.1
.1

11. 7
2 0 .9
1 3.9

7 .3
14. 0
8. 3

4. 6
6 .9
5. 7

.9
1 .5
.9

.3

9 .9
10. 3

5 .9
6 .6

.4
1.1

.1
.1

1 6 .4
18.3

1 0 .0
1 0 .4

6 .1
6 .6

2. 5
3 .3

8. 3

5. 9

1 .2

.2

15. 6

8. 3

6. 0

9 .9

5. 6

4 .3

.2

S ick
leave

5.1

.1

3 .9

H o li­
days

11. 7
22. 6
1 4 .4

3. 6
4. 1
6 .8
5 .4

5 .5

V aca ­
O th e r 1 T o ta l2 tions

.6

4 .9

.1

E stablishm ents rep ortin g
expen ditures fo r —

A ll establishm ents

9. 1

-1

1 Includes m ilit a r y , ju ry , w itn e s s , voting, and p e rs o n a l leave.
2 F o r "e sta b lis h m e n ts re p o rtin g expenditures fo r the p r a c t ic e " the detail does not add to the total b eca u se a d iffe re n t p a y ro ll o r hou rs base was u sed fo r each item .
3 Includes industries not shown separately.
4 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t or 0. 05 cent.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.







Table 4.

Percent of Production and Related Workers in Establishments Reporting Expenditures for Paid Leave
by Region and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959

P a id lea ve

P a id vacation s

U nited States 1
2
N o r t h e a s t _______ __ _____-___ ____
South _
—
N orth C entral _ .
W est
.
.

95. 8
95. 7
90. 0
9 9 .0
9 7 .7

9 3 .4
90. 7
88. 3
98. 3
97. 0

89. 1
9 2 .8
7 0 .8
9 6 .2
9 0 .6

2 2 .6
23. 1
2 2 .8
1 8.2
36. 1

44. 3
4 6 .6
3 3.6
5 0 .4
3 7 .5

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and kindred p r o d u c ts -----------T o b a c c o m anufactures
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts
A p p a re l and other finish ed
te x tile p rod u cts
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and fixtu res
— _
P a p e r and a llied p rod ucts
P rin tin g , publishing, and
a llie d in d u stries
—
P e tro le u m refining and
r e la te d industries
R u b b er and m iscella n eou s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts_________________
L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts _____
S tone, c la y , and gla ss
p rod u cts
_ _
P r im a r y m eta l ind ustries
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c ts -----------M a ch in e ry , excep t e le c t r ic a l ___—
T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent
Instrum ents and rela ted
p rod u cts
__ _
_
----M is ce lla n e o u s m anufacturing
in d u stries

100. 0
9 4 .9
9 9 .0
95. 8

100. 0
9 3 .9
9 4 .9
9 0 .6

100. 0
8 6 .9
94. 1
6 1 .9

6 0 .4
3 9.7
4 5 .8
7 .8

9 3 .9
3 7 .9
55. 0
16. 2

8 2 .9
7 7 .2
9 8 .4
9 9 .9

65. 2
7 5 .4
9 5 .8
9 9 .8

74. 5
5 8 .2
8 2 .2
9 9 .0

1 3.0
1 0 .4
10. 3
18. 1

8. 1
8. 3
2 1 .7
6 1 .6

R eg ion and industry group

P a id holidays

P a id s ic k le a v e

P a id o th e r le a ve 1

9 8 .7

98. 3

94. 1

25. 1

30. 1

1 00 .0

9 9 .7

100. 0

9 1 .2

9 1 .4

96. 1
9 6 .3

9 6 .1
95. 0

93. 7
9 1 .6

9 .4
11.9

5 9 .6
10. 0

9 5 .3
1 00.0
9 7 .8
99. 1
9 9 .0

94. 1
9 9 .8
97. 3
98. 7
9 9 .0

8 8 .6
99. 3
9 4 .4
96. 1
9 8 .6

10. 7
7 .6
13.5
1 4 .4
3 4 .5

34. 7
69. 8
39. 7
5 0 .2
80. 0

9 9 .9

9 9 .5

99. 3

4 3 .4

56. 2

9 8 .0

97. 1

91. 1

2 1 .5

30. 4

1 Includes m ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e ss, votin g, and p e rs o n a l le a v e .
2 Includes in d u stries not shown s e p a ra te ly .

Table 5.

Distribution of P roduction and Related W orkers by Leave Expenditures as a Percent of G ross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

___
U nited States 1 — ________________
N orth ea st _____ _ — —
N orth C e n t r a l ------ --------------- -----W est _ _ ______
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ______ —
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ___________
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s --------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts —
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s -----------------P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s — — _ — P e tro le u m re fin in g and
r e la te d i n d u s t r i e s _______________
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts —
----L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s ____ ____
__
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries — --------F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts ————
M a ch in ery, ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l -----T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p r o d u c t s -------------------- —------- —-----M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------------------

W o rk e rs
in a ll
e s ta b ­
lish m en ts

P aid lea ve expen ditures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll o f—
No paid
lea ve
exp en d i­
tures

Under
1
p e rce n t

1 .5
1 .0
4 .2
.5
1 .0

7
and
under
8
p e rce n t

8
and
under
9
p e rce n t

9
and
under
10
p e rce n t

10
and
under
11
p e rce n t

2
and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4 .9
4 .6
10. 0
1.9
5 .8

5 .7
5 .0
10.1
2 .9
8. 3

9 .8
6 .5
1 7 .7
8 .0
1 1.6

1 1.7
1 1.2
9 .6
13.1
13.1

1 5.5
1 6 .0
1 1 .0
1 7 .6
1 6 .3

18. 0
1 8 .6
9 .9
2 4 .4
1 1.3

12. 0
1 2 .2
6 .8
1 5 .8
9 .5

9 .4
1 1 .8
3 .7
10. 0
1 1.3

3 .9
5 .0
4 .1
2 .1
6. 0

2 .1
2 .2
1 .7
2. 0
2 .4

1 .3
1 .7
1.3
.8
1.1

7 .9
2 .1

6 .7
.2
■

11
p e rce n t
and
over

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

4 .2
4 .3
10. 0
1 .0
2 .3

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

_

_

5.1
1 .0
4 .2

2 .4
5 .4
4 .0

7 .5
6. 0
16.3

5 .8
2 .7
1 5.3

4 .9
8 .5
9 .4
2 8 .7

7 .5
9 .7
9 .1
1 1 .6

2 1 .2
1 3.5
30. 0
1 2.9

6 .2
1 7 .8
1 3.2
3 .2

16.1
13. 0
14. 7
3. 0

8 .4
9 .2
4 .1
.9

2 1 .0
5. 3
4. 5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

17.1
2 2 .8
1 .6
.1

4 .2
4 .6
3. 3
.4

12.9
9 .7
14.5
.6

1 4 .0
1 6.9
7 .1
2. 8

14. 0
19. 3
1 9 .0
5 .4

1 1 .2
1 2.3
1 5.7
1 3 .4

1 1.9
8 .1
1 8 .3
2 5.1

7 .7
5. 0
10. 1
3 1.1

2 .9
.9
3 .1
15. 7

3. 5
.4
3 .6
2 .9

.6
2. 3
2. 0

100. 0

1 .3

.2

1 .2

4 .2

3 .7

1 3 .3

1 7.9

2 3 .4

1 7 .2

1 1 .2

4. 2

.5

1.7

.8

5. 0

10.1

2 .4

1 7 .2

1 9 .6

4 1 .0

_

_

-

-

*
.1 .0
.2

.1
■
.4
.3

1 0 0 .0

-

"

3 .3

.4

100. 0
100. 0

3 .9
3 .7

.4
1 .8

2 .2
3 .3

4 .1
4 .1

6 .9
13. 1

8. 7
2 0 .7

1 3.4
2 4 .7

1 8.9
1 3 .6

2 2 .2
1 1 .7

1 6 .4
2. 3

2 .9
.7

~

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

4 .7

2 .8

2 .2
.9
1 .0

-

5.1
.2
3.1
1.6
.9

5 .5
1 .3
4 .3
3 .8
.7

1 1 .0
6 .5
6 .3
5 .3
7 .0

2 1 .2
8 .6
1 6.4
10.1
2 .9

2 5 .2
1 1 .0
2 1 .6
1 4.9
14. 6

13. 0
1 7.7
24. 8
2 8 .5
2 8 .8

7. 7
1 2.5
13. 8
18.1
12. 7

2. 8
2 0 .0
4 .9
1 2 .2
2 3 .0

.4
6. 3
.9
2. 7
6. 0

(1
2)
1 4 .6
.8
.5
1. 1

.5
1.1
.2
1 .5
1 .3

1 0 0 .0

.1

.9

.6

2 .0

3 .7

2 0 .7

1 1 .0

2 0 .2

1 8.9

18. 1

2 .2

.6

1 .0

2 .0

.8

4 .7

4. 0

2 0 .8

1 6.7

1 8.9

1 9.6

6. 7

5 .5

100. 0

.3

_
.6
_

1 In clu des in d u stries not shown se p a ra te ly .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




5
4
and
and
under
under
6
5
p e rce n t p e rce n t

6
and
under
7
p e rce n t

1
and
under
2
p ercen t

■

■
.2

.4

Table 6.

Distribution of Production and Related Workers by Vacation Expenditures as a Percent of G ross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts with—

R egion and in d u stry group

W ork ers
in all
esta b lish ­
m ents

P a id va ca tion ejqpenditures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f
No paid
vacation
expendi­
tures

Under
1
p e rce n t

and
under
2
p e rce n t

Z
and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

5
and
under
6
p e rce n t

6
and
under
7
p e rce n t

7
and
under
8
p ercen t

8
p ercen t
and
o ve r

United States 1 ______________________
N orth ea st _______________________
South __ „
__ __ _
N orth C en tra l _ __ __ ______ __
W est
..............................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6 .6
9 .3
11.7
1.7
3 .0

2 .9
1. 8
6. 8
1 .0
5 .3

11.2
9 .3
16. 7
8. 1
1 7.2

19.5
19. 7
2 0 .2
1 7.5
23. 7

26. 7
24. 7
23. 8
3 1 .5
2 3 .0

1 9 .9
20. 8
10. 8
2 5 .9
1 5 .7

8. 7
9 .3
6. 1
9 .6
8 .5

2 .9
3. 6
2 .4
2. 8
1 .4

1 .4
1 .4
.9
1. 8
1. 3

0. 3
.1
.6
(1
2)
.8

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s __ ___ ______
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts __ _ ___
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p ro d u c ts
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _
__
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u c ts _ __ ___
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s __ __ _
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s tries
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts ____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts _______ ___ ___________ _
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s _________
F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts
__ _
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p orta tion equipm en t
Instrum ents and r e la te d
___
p ro d u c ts _ __
__
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s __
__
_ __

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6 .1
5.1
9 .4

_
5 .9
12.5
4. 8

4. 7
13. 1
2. 7
19.5

2 8 .9
1 8.4
10. 8
30. 8

23. 7
21. 7
2 3 .3
3 2 .6

33. 8
2 0 .9
3 9 .2
2 .4

4 .0
11.3
6 .5
.3

5 .0
2 .5
.4

_
■

_
■

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3 4 .8
2 4 .6
4 .2
.2

5 .5
7 .3
6. 8
1.3

15.6
22. 8
2 4 .4
8. 1

1 4.5
3 0 .2
2 5 .5
15. 1

2 2 .4
1 1.4
2 7 .0
37. 1

5 .5
3 .3
6. 7
2 6 .4

1. 1
1 .7
11. 1

.5
.4
2 .3
.4

1 .4
“

.3

.4

100.0

1 .7

1 .0

6 .4

1 1.6

27. 1

3 4 .0

15.5

1. 8

100.0

.3

“

3. 8

.8

5 .8

17.3

48. 7

16.5

100.0
100.0

3 .9
5 .0

2 .2
1.5

11.6
20. 2

17.3
27. 8

1 1.0
3 2 .0

3 2 .4
9. 7

1 0.3
3 .4

1 1 .4
.1

( 2)

.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5 .9
.2
2 .7
1.3
1.0

4 .5
.8
2 .0
2 .2
.2

13. 7
6. 7
9. 1
6 .6
6 .5

2 1 .0
7 .3
2 9 .5
15.0
11. 1

33. 1
2 0 .3
2 4 .4
3 0 .4
33. 8

1 7.9
2 0 .6
2 5 .2
28. 8
33. 7

2. 8
1 3.5
5 .6
1 0.5
1 1.5

1 .0
15. 7
. 8
3 .6
1. 3

15.0
.7
1.5
“

.2
.8

100.0

.5

1 .4

7. 1

28. 5

32. 7

20. 8

7 .2

.9

.9

100.0

2 .9

.4

19. 7

3 6 .9

2 7 .0

8 .6

3. 7

.7

1 In clu des in d u s trie s not shown sep a ra tely,
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




.5
6 .8

*

Table 7.

Distribution o f Production and Related W orkers by Holiday Expenditures as a P ercent of G ross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

R egion and in d u stry grou p

W o rk e rs
m an
e s ta b lis h ­
m ents

p
P a id h olid a y exp en d itu res as a• e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f—
holiday
expen di­
tures

1
and
under
2
p e rce n t

2
and
under
3
p e rce n t

5 .4
3 .4
1 2.4
2 .7
6 .9

2 2 .4
18. 8
2 5 .5
2 4 .4
2 2 .0

50. 7
5 1 .5
2 8 .8
63. 1
5 2 .2

9 .7
1 7.5
3 .9
5 .5
7 .9

0. 7
1 .2
.2
.4
.8

0 .2
.3
(*)
(1
2)
.8

1. 8
2 .0
-

.1
-

Under
p e rce n t

0
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

5
p ercen t
and
o ve r

U nited State s 1
__ __ ____ ______
N orth ea st __
_____
______
South
___ ... __ „ „
__ _
N orth C en tra l
___ _____ _____
W est ....................................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.9
7 .2
2 9 .2
3 .8
9 .4

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
_ _
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts _______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res - . . _____
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts ______________
A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s ____ __ __ __
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u c ts _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _ __ _ __
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d in d u s trie s _________________
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s tries ________________
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts _ __ _______ —
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s -------------F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts — -----M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r ic a l ------T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent -------------Instrum ents and r e la te d
p ro d u c ts
__ _____ __ — ------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s trie s _____ __
-----— —

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

13. 1
5 .9
38. 1

4 .6
10.9
14.3
18.0

5 .6
2 2 .4
2 6 .9
2 3 .3

70. 7
41. 8
51. 8
1 6 .6

17.3
9 .7
1 .2
4. 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2 5 .5
4 1 .8
1 7 .8
1 .0

7 .6
11. 1
8 .7
2. 7

26. 8
3 0 .4
2 5 .6
37. 8

31. 7
1 5 .4
4 1 .0
55. 8

8 .3
1 .3
5. 7
2 .8

.1
1 .2

“
-

100.0

5 .9

6 .5

28. 7

4 4 .6

1 2.0

1 .2

1. 2

_

'

100.0

■

7 .5

1 2.9

48. 1

27. 8

3. 7

1 00.0
100.0

6 .3
8 .4

1 .6
4 .2

14. 8
1 7.9

74. 8
57. 0

2. 1
1 1 .8

.5
.9

-

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1 1 .4
.7
5 .6
3 .9
1 .4

6. 1
1 .4
3. 1
1. 1
.8

4 2 .6
1 8.5
2 3 .5
2 1 .9
1 0.6

3 7 .0
72. 1
5 3 .6
63. 3
77. 4

2. 1
7. 4
14. 1
8 .9
8 .9

.8
.2
.9

( 2)
.8

100.0

.7

1.9

1 7.4

67. 1

9 .5

2. 7

.9

1 00.0

8 .9

5 .7

2 6 .4

45. 3

12. 0

1. 7

1 In clu des in d u s tries not shown sep a ra tely .
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals,




'

Table 8.

Distribution of Production and Related W ofkers by Leave Expenditures in Cents P er Hour Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—

R egion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in a ll
es ta b lis h ­
m ents

P a id le a v e exp en d itu res p e r hour p aid fo r o f—
No paid
lea ve
expendi­
tures

Under
1
cen t

3
and
under
4
cen ts

1
and
under
2
cen ts

Z
and
under
3
cen ts

2. 1
.9
6 .5
.8
1. 5

2. 8
2 .5
6 .4
1 .0
2 .4

2 .9
2 .3
6. 8
1 .2
2 .4

United States 1 ______________________
N orth ea st _______________________
South
_ _____
_ __ _
N orth C en tra l
W est
.
_

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4 .2
4 .3
1 0.0
1 .0
2 .3

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
_
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res __ ___ „
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts ___
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p ro d u c ts
__ _
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ____________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ______
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d in d u s trie s ________ __ ______
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ________________
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts __________________________
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries ________
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ________
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l _____
T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t _________
Instrum ents and r e la te d
p ro d u c ts
M is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s tries _____ __________________

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

_

_

_

5. 1
1 .0
4. 2

.8
4 .9
2 .2

5. 1
5. 7
6 .0

_
4 .5
.8
8 .3

2. 5
2. 7
7 .2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

17. 1
22. 8
1 .6
. 1

4 .0
4 .3
.9
.4

6 .0
2 .2
1 0 .4
.3

7. 1
8. 7
6 .6
.4

8. 1
7. 5
4 .4
.5

100.0

1 .3

.2

-

100.0

-

-

.3

See footnotes at end of table.




1 .0
.9
2 .5
.3
.3

100.0
100.0

3 .9
3. 7

.3
1. 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4. 7
2 .2
.9
1 .0

1 .5

100.0

. 1

100.0

2 .0

-

.3
-

1 .5

_

.4

5
and
under
7
cen ts

7
and
under
8
cen ts

8
and
under
9
cen ts

9
and
under
10
cen ts

10
and
under
cen ts

11
and
under
12
cen ts

12
and
under
13
cen ts

3 .6
3. 1
7 .6
1. 8
2 .9

3 .3
3 .5
3. 3
3 .0
3 .9

4 .4
4. 7
5. 1
3 .5
5 .0

4 .6
5. 1
3 .9
4 .4
5 .2

4 .5
4 .9
2 .2
4. 7
4. 7

4 .5
4. 1
2 .2
6. 1
4 .9

5 .0
5. 6
3. 8
5 .2
5 .0

2 .9
2. 6
1 .4
3 .6
4. 3

3. 1
6 .4
22. 8

_
2. 7
.6
16. 7

_
6. 1
2 .9
5. 1

.3
4. 1
1 2.2
6 .9

_
5. 1
7 .4
3 .6

4 .6
3 .6
1 8.9
3. 8

_
1. 8
4. 7
1 .3

9 .3
5 .2
1 2.0
6 .6

3 .4
1.3
.6

1 3 .9
3 .0
8 .4
1 .9

4 .4
6 .6
4. 8
2 .3

3 .2
9 .9
6 .9
2 .6

6 .6
6. 5
6 .4
3. 1

8. 8
6. 1
5 .5
5 .3

5. 7
4. 7
2 .5
5 .5

3. 8
4 .4
9 .0
5 .5

2 .0
3. 5
6 .3
4 .4

2 .6
1. 0
4 .0
4. 7

1. 6

1. 8

1 .9

5 .5
*
-

3. 7

1 .4

2 .9

3. 7

2 .0

1 .6

-

_

_

. l

_

4 .6
4 .3
10. 5
1. 7
2 .6

_

_

2 .2

-

-

4. 7
6 .0

1. 8
5 .9

2 .3
10. 7

3 .9
11. 7

4 .6
7 .0

1 .9
13. 8

5 .6
8 .6

3. 5
8. 8

2 .4
2. 7

1 .9
1. 1
1. 8
. 8

2. 7
1 .3
2 .5
1. 1
.5

2. 7
. 1
2 .5
1 .4
.5

7 .0
3 .0
4 .4
1 .3
.8

6 .7
3. 8
3 .0
4. 0
.3

7. 1
3 .5
5. 7
3 .4
1. 1

7 .5
.9
5. 7
5 .2
4 .5

5 .0
3 .4
9 .9
2. 8
1. 6

2 .9
1. 5
3 .2
4 .0
3. 3

. 1
1. 7

1 .6
1 .4

1. 7
.2
.9

2 .9
.5
1 .4

5 .0
2 .0
1 .0
.3

-

5
and
under
6
cen ts

-

2. 2
4. 1

( 2)

4
and
under
5
cen ts

-

. 1

-

1 .3

1 .2

.7

.4

1 .2

3 .3

2 .0

3. 7

3 .4

3 .5

11. 1

4 .2

.8

1. 1

2. 1

7 .0

6 .5

10. 5

4. 1

7. 1

4 .9

9 .4

8 .6

7 .0

2 .9

Table 8.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Leave Expenditures in Cents P er Hour Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with— 1
2
P a id le a v e expen ditures p e r h ou r p aid f o r o f—

R egion and in d u stry group

U nited States 1 ____
N orth C en tra l - — —
.
W est
..................................

— —

......

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s __
_
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ------- ----T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____ ________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu re s —
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _________
P rin tin g , publish in g, and
a llie d in d u s trie s _
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d i n d u s t r i e s ----------- -----------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts
_
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts ------Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts
m _
T
r
,
_„ M II _
,.. L
__
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s -------------F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts —
__
M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t -------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u c ts __
_ _ __
----------M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s
___ —

—

n —
and
under
14
cen ts

—

r?—
and
under
15
cen ts

------ 13-----and
under
16
cen ts

16
and
under
17
cen ts

----- 17----and
under
18
cen ts

— T5—
and
under
20
cen ts

-----Z 5
T ------ — n —
and
and
under
under
22
21
cen ts
cen ts

TL ----- ----- Z3------ ----- 7A ----- ------ 23------- ------ 26-----and
and
and
and
and
under
under
under
under
under
25
27
26
24
23
cen ts
cen ts
cen ts
cen ts
cen ts

—

1 .2
1. 7
1. 7
.6
.5

27
cen ts
and
over

6 .3
6 .9
4. 4
6. 8
6. 8

2. 1
1 .6
1 .3
2. 8
2 .9

1 .9
2 .4
. 8
1 .3
4 .4

1 .0
1 .3
.2
1. 1
1. 6

17. 8
1 .0
■

5 .9
2. 2
“

-

-

1 .0
"

2. 2
■

.8

~
~
.4

~
-

"

.4
.8
.6

.4
.3

.6

2. 3
.3

4. 7

2. 6

4. 0

.8

2 .2

1 .4

12. 1

"

' .8

4 .2
4 .9
2 .0
4 .6
4 .9

4 .3
5 .0
3 .4
4. 7
2 .8

4. 3
4 .4
3 .0
5 .5
3 .0

4. 8
4 .6
2 .0
7. 1
3 .9

5. 7
4 .9
2. 7
8 .4
5 .9

3 .9
4 .2
1 .4
5. 1
4 .6

2. 8
2. 8
2 .0
3 .5
2 .3

2 .2
2. 1
.9
3 .5
1 .0

3. 1
1. 7
1. 7
4 .6
5. 7

1 .9
2. 5
.2
2 .3
2 .3

1 0 .4
5. 8
1 1 .3
1 .4

6 .3
3 .5
.5

8 .8
3 .9
1.0

_
5 .3
2. 8
.3

4 .9
1. 1

9 .4
2. 7
4. 5

.7
.7
.2

9 .8
1. 7
-

2. 1
4 .6
-

1 .6
-

2 .5
2 .6
5. 1
1 5 .0

1 .2
1.5
3 .7
11.6

2 .4
1 .4
2 .4
8. 1

1 .2
.2
9 .2

.2
2 .6
8 .5

l! 3
1 .2
2 .0

.3
.9
1 .8

.4
1 .7

.9
3. 8

2 .0

3 .2

7 .6

5 .7

7 .6

7 .5

3 .5

7 .2

-

14.6
5. 8
-

74. 8

1 .3

1 .4

"

1 .3

1 .4

2 .2

3 .0

1. 1

.6

8 .0

1 .8
1. 7

2 .5
5 .6

9 .4
1 .6

4 .5
.9

3 .9
1 .0

4 .4
1.3

2. 7

.4
.7

1 5 .4

.8

3 .5

-

6 .0

4 .3

1. 7
.2

5 .5
2. 8
4 .3
8 .4
1 .4

4 .9
4 .5
8 .7
4. 1
6 .2

7 .0
2 .6
6. 1
6 .5
4 .2

5. 8
3 .5
7 .5
9 .4
1 2 .6

7 .4
7 .7
4 .4
9 .1
14. 1

2 .4
7 .4
6 .3
7. 7
6 .2

1 .9
1 .9
4. 1
2 .9
6 .2

.8
1.5
2 .3
1 .8
6 .3

.3
2 .2
1. 8
4 .9
7 .5

.3
5. 7
3 .3
1 .4
3 .3

2. 0
1 .4
3. 8
6 .0
2 .2

2. 1
.6
3 .6
8 .3

. 8
2. 1
.2
1 .3
2. 1

2 .2
1 .2
1. 8
“

1.5
34. 1
.7
4 .5
4. 8

2 .6

11.2

5 .9

7. 7

9. 1

4 .0

5 .1

3 .9

"

1 .7

1 .0

.3

.3

1 .4

9 .7

.4

.3

4. 1

6 .6

7 .0

3 .2

1 In clu des in d u s tries not shown sep a ra tely .
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




18
and
under
19
cen ts

.5

“

1 .5

.3

1 .3

'

.6

Table 9.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Vacation Expenditures in Cents P er Hovtr Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959

625617 0 -6 2

P e rc e n t o f w o rk e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in all
esta b ­
lishm ents

P a id va ca tion exp en d itures p e r hour paid fo r o f—
No paid
va cation
expen di­
tures

Under
1
cent

1
and
under
2
cents

6
and
under
7
cents

2
and
under
3
cents

3'
and
under
4
cen ts

4
and
under
5
cents

5
and
under
6
cen ts

6 .3
6 .2
1 1 .3
2 .8
7 .6

6 .3
6 .0
8 .9
5 .0
5 .6

8 .6
9 .1
11.1
6 .7
7 .9

8 .2
7 .4
7 .9
8 .7
9 .6

5 .8
7. 1
3 .2
5 .6
7 .4

7
and
under
8
cen ts

8
and
under
9
cents

9
and
under
10
cents

6 .9
6. 3
5 .2
8. 1
9 .1

6 .3
7 .2
4 .2
6 .7
6 .2

7 .2
6 .6
4 .6
9 .4
7 .6

___
U nited States 1 ___
N orth ea st
— — - __
South
— _
N orth C en tra l - --- ;---------------------W e s t ....................................................

1 00 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 00 .0

6 .6
9 .3
1 1.7
1 .7
3 .0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s _____ _
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s __ _
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ___________
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts
- _
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts
_
_
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ___________
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s __ - «
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _______________ _
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s tries __ ___ _________
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts _______________
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u cts — —
Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p rod u cts _
_
__ __
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ---------- —
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s _____ —
M a ch in ery , ex ce p t e l e c t t i c a l _____
T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent ________
Instrum ents and r e la te d
p rod u cts . . . . .
.
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s tries
.
.
.
.

100. 0
1 00 .0
100 .0
100. 0

_

_

_

6 .1
5 .1
9 .4

4 .3
1 2 .0
1 .9

6 .1
1 .4
8 .9

5 .7
7 .6
1 5 .0

.3
8 .6
1 .3
1 1 .2

2 .6
6 .9
9 .4
2 4 .9

8. 0
6 .1
18. 3
1 7.9

.5
4 .9
1 5 .5
3 .7

1 8 .4
8 .8
2 .2
3 .3

17. 0
7 .5
1 8 .0
1 .3

3 .8
5 .2
4 .8
1.1

100 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0

3 4 .8
2 4 .6
4 .2
.2

5 .1
5 .7
1 .9
1 .0

5 .4
4 .8
1 1.4
1.1

1 4 .7
1 4 .5
1 4 .6
2 .4

6 .5
8 .1
1 1 .5
6 .7

9 .5
1 2.9
9 .9
5 .8

1 0 .6
1 1 .6
5 .8
7 .2

5. 0
4 .2
8 .7
5 .7

4 .3
5 .8
1 1 .2
1 7.6

2 .2
2 .6
6 .8
1 1 .0

1 .4
1 .4
4 .5
9 .2

1 00 .0

1 .7

1 .0

4 .1

4 .2

6 .2

3 .0

3 .5

5 .1

3 .3

4 .8

100 .0

.3

2 .2

1 .6

-

1 .3

.8

2. 0

1 00 .0
1 00 .0

3 .9
5. 0

.3
.4

4 .6
4 .8

4 .9
1 3 .5

6 .9
1 4.3

5 .8
1 7 .4

3 .0
13. 1

6 .1
1 2 .9

5 .3
9 .5

2 .8
5 .2

1 1.9
.8

100. 0
1 00 .0
100.0
100. 0
100 .0

5 .9
.2
2 .7
1 .3
1 .0

2 .5
.8
.7
( 2)
-

3 .6
( 2)
2 .6
1 .2
.6

5. 2
1.1
2 .4
2 .2
1.1

8 .2
4 .4
7 .2
3 .9
.5

6 .5
3 .8
7 .5
4 .7
4 .0

1 1.5
3 .4
1 0.3
5 .7
4 .5

1 0 .2
2 .7
9 .1
3 .4
4. 1

6 .3
4 .8
7 .1
8 .5
3 .7

3 .9
3 .6
1 1.5
1 0.9
9 .2

1 0 .0
4 .5
8 .6
1 2.7
13.9

100. 0

.5

_

2 .8

4 .3

3 .4

3 .5

6. 0

17. 1

1 7 .7

9 .7

6 .8

.4

7 .5

1 2 .6

13.1

14. 3

1 3 .2

1 1 .3

3 .8

4 .8

6 .3

See footnotes at end of table.




100. 0

2 .9

1 .7
1 .0
4 .9
.2
2 .7

-

3 .4
2. 3
8 .7
1 .8
1 .6

-

.1

-

Table 9.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Vacation Expenditures in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts withr—
P a id va ca tion exp en d itu res p e r hou r p aid fo r o f—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

10
and
under
11
cen ts

11
and
under
12
cents

12
and
under
13
cents

13
and
under
14
cen ts

14
and
under
15
cents

15
and
under
16
cents

16
and
under
17
cen ts

17
and
under
18
cents

18
and
under
19
cents

19
and
under
20
cen ts

20
cents
and
over

1.1
1 .2
.5
1.1
2 .1

1 .2
1 .3
1.1
.9
2 .0

1.1
.6
.9
2 .1
-

2 .6
3 .5
1 .4
2 .8
1.1

__ . . .
U nited States 1 __ ____
N o r t h e a s t _______________________
South
....
.......
N orth C e n t r a l __________________
W e s t --------------------------------------------

6 .1
5 .7
2 .3
9 .6
3 .6

6 .0
5 .3
3.1
7 .9
8 .0

4. 0
4 .6
2 .0
4 .5
4 .2

3 .8
3 .2
2 .8
5 .4
2 .3

3 .5
3 .0
2 .0
5. 0
2 .8

1 .8
1 .5
1 .2
2 .4
1 .8

1 .6
1 .6
.9
1 .6
3 .8

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ___
F ood and k in d red p r o d u c t s ----------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ___ __
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s -------------------A p p a rel and oth er finish ed
tex tile p rod u cts --------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ____ __
F u rn itu re and fix tu res ____
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s _____— _
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _____ ______ , __
_
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s trie s — ______
R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts —
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts _____________________ __ _
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ________
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts
__ __
M a ch in ery, e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l __
T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ________
Instrum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts _ _>
----- M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing

6 .7
5. 1

12.3
5 .2
4 .5

11.5
3 .3

1 .6
2 .7

5 .7
3 .8

5 .0
2 .3

3. 0

4 .3
1 .9

2 .4
.6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_
1 .9
-

-

.4

-

.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1
1..9
1 .9
1 0 .7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .5
2. 0
8. 1

8 .5

1 .3
.1

.5
2 .2

.3
1 .8

.4
.6
.4

-

-

.6
-

1 .2
-

1 .0
.3

.9

8 .4

6 .8

7 .4

1 2 .3

7 .8

4 .4

4 .4

2 .2

3 .1

2. 3

3 .9

2 .4

-

3 .8

8 .9

3 .5

1 2 .6

6 .5

2 0 .5

1 3 .7

6. 0

13.9

4 .8
1 .3

2 .7
1 .5

4 .6
(1
2)

1 .6
-

1 3.9
-

1 .7
-

.4
-

6 .3
-

4 .7

2 .4

-

-

1 .7
.2

1 5 .8
5 .8
4 .3
7 .8
1 4 .4

4 .5
6 .4
8. 3
9 .2
1 5 .0

.8
5.1
7.1
2 .7
7 .8

2 .3
6 .1
2 .2
8 .5
7 .9

4 .9
4 .6
3 .4
3 .8

.1
.7
1 .3
7 .4
1 .3

.8
1 .5
1 .3
2 .2
5 .4

.9
.8
.8
.7
1 .3

7 .3
.2
1.1
-

.9
8 .4
1 .5
.3

1 0 .5

1 .6

4 .0

.6

1 0.6

-

-

-

.9

5 .0

.9

.8

.8

2 .3

1 In clu des in d u s tries not shown S eparately.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




-

.1
2 3.9
.3
1 .2
.1

Table 10.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Holiday Expenditures in Cents P er Hour Paid F or, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—
W ork ers
in ail
holiday
e s ta b ­
Under
lishm ents exp en d i­
1
tures
cent

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

P aid holid a y exp en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r o f—
1
and
under
2
cents

2
and
under
3
cents

4
and
under
5
cents

1 1.2
1 1.4
10.1
1 2 .8
7 .7

1 3.9
1 6 .0
8 .0
1 4 .9
1 5 .3

5
and
under
6
cen ts

6
and
under
7
cen ts

7
and
under
8
cen ts

8
and
under
9
cen ts

13. 1
1 3 .9
8 .3
1 5 .2
1 3 .9

1 5 .7
1 6 .4
6 .4
2 1 .2
1 4 .5

9 .2
9 .1
4 .4
1 1 .0
1 3 .8

4 .9
4 .7
1 .9
6 .1
7 .9

3 .6
4 .8
1 .2
4. 0
3 .4

2 2 .0
8 .6

3 .2
1 .8
9 .2
1 .3
2 .0

3. 5
2 .5
7 .1
2 .3
3 .9

4 .6
8 .0
10.5
1 2.8

_

_

13.1
5 .9
38.1

3 .4
9 .1
9 .8

1 1.8
5 .0
10.9

.3
7 .2
4 3 .2
13.5

1 .8
1 3 .7
6 .4
7 .4

14.1
13.1
1 9.9
4 .7

4 1 .1
1 2 .3

0
0
0
0

2 5 .5
4 1 .8
1 7 .8
1 .0

4 .8
6 .7
5 .2
1 .6

10.1
6 .9
7 .9
1 .0

19.5
1 3 .0
1 5 .4
4. 6

14.5
6 .9
1 0.7
1 2 .8

1 3 .7
13. 0
1 5 .6
3 5 .4

100. 0

5 .9

1 .8

1 .8

5 .9

11.5

100. 0

-

-

7 .5

-

2 .9

100. 0
100. 0

6 .3
8 .4

.5
1 .8

2 .1
3 .7

5 .4
1 7.3

1 1 .4
.7
5 .6
3 .9
1 .4

3. 0
.2
1 .5
.2
.3

4 .1
.2
1 .9
1 .4
.4

7 .7
3. 0
5 .5
3. 1
1 .5

U nited States 1 _______________ —____
N orth ea st __ - — ____ South
N orth C en tra l _
W e s t --------------------------------------------

100.0
100. 0
100. 0
1 00 .0
100. 0

10.9
7 .2
2 9 .2
3 .8
9 .4

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ___
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts —______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ---------F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s _____ ______
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d in d u s tries
. . . .
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s tries __ —
— __
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s _________________
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s _________________________
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ________
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts _______
M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l _____
T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t_________
Instrum ents and r e la te d

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100.
100.
100.
100.

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0

_

8. 0
8 .2
1 2 .8
5 .6
5 .8

3
and
under
4
cents

9
and
under
10
cents

_

10
and
under
11
cen ts

11
and
under
12
cents

1 .0
.9
.9
1 .0
1 .5

0 .8
1 .7

__

_

0 .4
.9
(1
2)
.2
.4

1 .8
4 .2

1 .1

1 .8
1 .3

8 .1
.2

-

4 .3
1 .9

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 1

.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 .5
6. 0
1 3 .2
3 3 .7

2 .6
4 .1
5 .5
7. 0

1 .6
1 .3
1 .6
2 .7

2 .1
.3
1 .8
-

-

-

-

-

.1

.3
-

-

_
_
-

1 7.3

1 4 .4

1 2 .5

7 .6

8 .5

2 .2

2 .2

5 .0

.9

2 .5

5 .8

7 .5

1 2 .2

7 .7

1 6 .6

1 3 .2

5. 3

5 .0

1 4.2

2 .2

6 .9
2 9 .2

1 7 .7
2 0 .6

2 0 .6
8 .4

3 2 .3
7. 8

5. 1
1 .2

1 .7
1 .5

.5
"

.4
“

.5
~

"

“

2 2 .2
9 .0
1 1 .0
10.5
3. 0

2 0 .4
1 0 .6
1 4.5
1 4.6
1 .5

1 0 .5
1 1 .8
1 5 .0
1 7 .2
1 4 .3

9 .1
1 6 .2
1 9 .8
1 7 .2
4 9 .5

6 .4
1 0 .6
1 6 .2
1 2 .7
1 8 .4

2 .6
10. 3
7 .1
1 3.7
3 .7

1 .9
2 4 .4
1 .9
2 .7
1 .3

2 .4
.8
2 .3

-

.5
.5
*

.2
( 2)
.3
( 2)
-

1 .4

.9

.1
-

4 .9
-

.7

.9

1 .3

3 .5

9 .8

1 5 .8

2 5 .7

10. 5

2 2 .3

2 .6

3 .7

.9

100. 0

8 .9

3 .4

4 .4

17.9

1 5.4

2 1 .5

14. 0

8. 0

3 .7

1.1

1 .2

.3

1 Inclu des in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




.5
.2

0 .3
.4
.5
.1
.2

13
cents
and
over

-

-

100. 0
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s tries
_ ____ _

-

12
and
under
13
cents

.6
1 .4
2 .3
'

-




C h ap ter III.

Premium P a y

T o ta l P re m iu m s
In 1959, fir m s em p loy in g 9 3 .5 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs paid
so m e p re m iu m pa y. E sta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 9 2 .9 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs r e ­
p o r te d o v e r tim e p re m iu m paym ents to this s u rv e y , th ose em p loy in g 4 2 .6 p e r ­
cen t r e p o r te d the paym en t o f h olid a y p re m iu m s , and th ose em p loy in g 6 0 .7 p e r ­
cen t r e p o r te d s h ift-d iffe r e n tia l p a y .
(See table 1 3 .) It sh ou ld not be a ssu m ed
that a ll w o r k e r s in th ese esta b lish m en ts r e c e iv e d p re m iu m p ay.
S im ila rly , it
cannot be a ssu m e d that e sta b lish m e n ts w ith no ex p en d itu res did not m ake p r o ­
v is io n fo r p re m iu m pay.
P r e m iu m p a y as a p e rce n ta g e o f the g r o s s p ay o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs
o f a ll fir m s in m an u factu rin g a v e ra g e d 4. 3 p e r c e n t in 1959.
The fig u re in ­
clu d ed 2 .6 p e r c e n t f o r p re m iu m p a y fo r d a ily o v e r tim e , w e e k ly o v e r tim e , and
w eek en d w o r k ; 0 .1 p e r c e n t f o r p re m iu m p a y fo r h olid a y w o rk ; 0 .9 p e r c e n t fo r
sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls ; and an addition al 0 .7 p e rce n t fo r p re m iu m s that w e re not r e ­
p o r te d se p a r a te ly , p r in c ip a lly f o r o v e rtim e and h olid a y w o rk .
The ra tios fo r
the individual p r a c t ic e s are u n d ersta ted to the extent o f the ex p en d itu res not r e ­
p o r te d se p a r a te ly .
(See table 1 2 .)

T hroughout this r e p o r t , expen ditu res fo r p re m iu m pay c o v e r on ly the
e x tr a pa y fo r the p r a c t ic e . T h ey do not inclu d e the re g u la r p a y .
F o r e x a m p le,
i f an e sta b lish m e n t p a id tim e and o n e -h a lf fo r o v e r tim e , on ly the additional half
tim e w as r e p o r te d as p re m iu m pay fo r this su r v e y ; the s tra ig h t-tim e com pon en t
w as the re g u la r pa y f o r the w o r k p e r fo r m e d . S im ila rly , w h ere double tim e and
o n e -h a lf w as p a id fo r w o rk on a p a id h olid ay, on ly the h alf tim e w as re p o rte d
as the h olid a y p r e m iu m ; that is , the paym ent in clu d ed the re g u la r stra ig h t-tim e
pay fo r the w o rk p e r fo r m e d , the h olid a y p ay that w ou ld have b een p aid if th ere
had b een no w o rk , and the e x tr a h a lf-tim e h olid a y p re m iu m . If the w o r k e r had
r e c e iv e d on ly double tim e fo r w o r k on a p aid h olid a y, no h olid a y p re m iu m w ou ld
have b een r e p o r te d , but if the double tim e w as on an unpaid h olid a y, o n e -h a lf
the paym en t w ou ld be p re m iu m p a y.

T o ta l p re m iu m pay ex p en d itu res as a p e rce n ta g e o f the p a y r o ll o f on ly
the esta b lish m e n ts that r e p o r te d the p r a c tic e a v e ra g e d 4. 5 p e r c e n t.
The s m a ll
d iffe r e n c e b etw een this r a tio and the ratio to p a y r o ll fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts o c ­
cu rs b e ca u se esta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g on ly 6 .5 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs fa ile d
to r e p o r t pa y f o r at le a s t one type o f p re m iu m .
F o r the individual p r e m iu m
pay p r a c t ic e s , h o w e v e r, the ra tio s b a s e d on the p a y r o lls fo r o n ly th ose e s ta b ­
lish m en ts re p o rtin g su ch ex p en d itu res are c o n s id e r a b ly d iffe re n t fr o m th ose
b a s e d on the p a y r o lls fo r a ll e sta b lish m e n ts . F o r o v e r tim e , the r e s p e c t iv e ra tio s
are 3 .4 and 2 .6 p e r c e n t; fo r h olid a y w o rk , 0 .3 and 0 .1 p e r c e n t; fo r sh ift d if­
fe r e n t ia ls , 1 .3 and 0 .9 p e r c e n t. The lo w e r ra tio s fo r " a l l e sta b lish m e n ts1 are
’
attribu table to the a b sen ce o f expen ditu res b y s o m e esta b lish m en ts and to the
u n dersta tem en t o f the p re m iu m pa y expen ditu res r e p o r te d se p a ra te ly .
In using
the a ll-e s ta b lis h m e n t r a t io s , the fig u r e s in the "p r e m iu m s not r e p o r te d se p a ra te ly "
colu m n cannot be ig n o re d . (See tables H a n d 12.) This lim ita tio n d oes not extend to
the ra tio s fo r " o n ly esta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e " w h ere the ex p en d itu res
and p a y r o lls a re f o r id en tica l e sta b lish m e n ts . If a ll e sta b lish m en ts had b een able
to r e p o r t the p r a c t ic e s e p a r a te ly , the ra tios fo r esta b lish m en ts w ith actual e x ­
pen d itu res w ou ld p r o b a b ly have b e e n v e r y s im ila r to th ose show n.




29




T a b le 11.

A v e ra g e E xpenditures and P e rce n t o f W o rk e rs in E sta blish m en ts W hich Did Not R e p o rt Separate E xpenditures
fo r P re m iu m P a y , by R egion and M anufacturing Industry G roup, 1959
A vera g e expenditures
fo r p rem ium pay not
re p o rte d s e p a ra te ly

R eg ion and industry group

P e rc e n t o f
g r o s s p a y ro ll
o f all
establishm ents

P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts that
did not re p o rt exp en d itures s e p a ra te ly fo r—

Cents p e r hour
paid fo r by a ll
establishm ents

O v ertim e and
weekend
w ork

H oliday
w o rk

Shift
d iffe re n tia ls

United S tates1 ------------------------------------------------------N orth ea st -------------------------------------------------------S o u t h ------------ --------------------------------------------------N orth C e n t r a l------------------------------------------------W est ----------------------------------------------------------------

0. 7
.6
.5
1 .0
.6

1 .7
1 .3
.8
2 .6
1 .5

1 5 .8
1 2 .4
9 .8
2 3. 6
1 4 .3

1 5 .7
1 2 .6
9 .8
2 3 .2
1 4 .0

1 .7
1 .6
2 .3
1 .3
1 .8

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -------------------------------F ood and kin d red p r o d u c t s --------------------------------T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu re s ---------------------------------------T extile m ill p r o d u c t s -----------------------------------------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed textile
p r o d u c t s ------------------------------------------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s -------------------------------F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s --------------------------------------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ---------------------------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and a llied
in d u s t r ie s ----------------------------------------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and rela ted
in d u s t r ie s ----------------------------------------------------------R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s p la s tic s
p rod u cts ------------------------------------------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p rod ucts ---------------------------Stone, c la y , and g la ss p r o d u c ts -------------------- —
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------------F a b rica te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s --------------------------------M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------- -------------------T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t --------------------------------Instrum ents and rela ted p r o d u c t s --------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing in d u s t r ie s ----------

.9
.7
.1
.3

2 .4
1 .5
.2
.5

5 2.1
1 4 .0
1 0 .0
7 .5

5 1 .8
1 4 .0
1 0 .0
7 .2

.3
3 .1
3. 7
2 .4

(!)
(2)
.2
1.1

.1
.1
.4
2 .5

1 .4
1 .0
6 .2
1 7 .7

1 .4
1 .0
5 .5
1 6 .8

1 .0
4 .5

.6

1 .6

5 .6

4 .5

1 .5

.5

1 .5

1 4 .9

1 4 .9

5 .0

.4
.1
.9
.6
.8
.7
1 .7
.8
.4

1 .0
.2
2 .0
1 .8
2 .0
1 .9
4 .4
1 .9
.8

8 .4
7 .4
14. 5
1 1 .9
1 3 .5
1 8 .5
5 1.1
2 2 .3
7 .6

8 .7
7 .4
1 4.3
1 1 .9
1 3 .5
1 8 .5
5 1.1
2 3 .2
7 .6

1 .6
.5
1 .8
.4
.8
.4
.3
.9

In clu des in d u stries not shown sepa ra tely.
L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t o r 0. 05 cen t.

31

B y in d u stry , a v e ra g e expen ditu res fo r all p re m iu m s b y th ose who r e ­
p o r te d actu al ex p en d itu res ra n g ed fr o m 7 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f e s ta b ­
lish m en ts in the p a p er in d u strie s down to 1 .9 p e r c e n t o f the p a y r o ll o f th ose in
the le a th e r in d u s tr ie s .
A lm o s t h alf o f the in d u stry grou ps a v e ra g e d fr o m 4 to
5 p e r c e n t.
Individual e sta b lish m e n t ex p en d itu res fo r total p re m iu m s v a r ie d fr o m ju s t
o v e r z e r o p e r c e n t to m o r e than 11 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f the e s ta b lis h ­
m en t. E xp en d itu res o f 2 but under 4 p e r c e n t, h o w e v e r, w e re r e p o r te d b y e s ta b ­
lish m en ts em p loy in g about o n e -t h ir d o f the p rod u ction w o r k e rs and the 1 to under
5 p e r c e n t range in clu d ed w e ll o v e r h a lf.
(See table 14. )
In te r m s o f cen ts p e r hour paid f o r , p re m iu m p a y a v e ra g e d 9 .7 cents
f o r a ll e sta b lish m en ts and 10. 3 cen ts p e r hour fo r th ose esta b lish m en ts actu a lly
re p o rtin g p re m iu m pa y e x p e n d itu re s. F o r the in dividual p r a c t ic e s , av era g e e x ­
p en d itu res p e r hour p a id fo r b y a ll esta b lish m en ts am ounted to 5 .9 cen ts f o r
o v e r t im e , 0 .2 cen t fo r h olid a y w o r k , 1 .9 cen ts fo r sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls , and 1 .7 cents
f o r p re m iu m s that co u ld not be r e p o r te d se p a ra te ly .
If on ly the hours o f the
esta b lish m e n ts w h ich a ctu a lly p a id the s p e c ific p re m iu m s are c o n s id e r e d , the
a v e ra g e s fo r o v e r t im e , h olid a y w o r k , and sh ift w o rk r is e to 7. 6 ce n ts , 0. 9 cen t,
and 3 .2 c e n ts , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
B y in d u stry , the a v e ra g e s fo r the sum o f the p re m iu m s b y esta b lish m en ts
a ctu a lly re p o rtin g e x p e n d itu re s, v a r ie d fr o m 3 .2 cen ts p e r hour paid fo r in the
le a th e r in d u strie s to 1 6 .8 cen ts p e r hour p aid fo r in the p rin tin g in d u s trie s . (See
table 1 2 .) E xpen ditu res fo r in dividu al esta b lish m en ts v a r ie d fr o m ju s t o v e r z e r o
cen ts to o v e r 21 cen ts p e r hour pa id f o r .
(See table 1 7 .)
P r e m iu m P a y f o r D a ily O v e r tim e , W eekly O v e rtim e , and W eekend W ork
P r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and w eek end w o rk o rg in a te d as pen a lties to
d is c o u r a g e th ese p r a c t ic e s .
T h is se e m s in d ica ted b y the s iz e o f the p re m iu m s
in c o rp o r a te d in the F a ir L a b o r Standards A ct o r o th e rw ise p ro v id e d .
P a y fo r
o v e r tim e is g e n e r a lly tim e and o n e -h a lf the re g u la r h ou rly ra te .
A m ong the
tra d e s m e n e x ce p te d a re so m e o f the printing cr a fts m e n who a re p aid at d o u b le tim e r a te s . O v e rtim e p re m iu m m a y b e paid if the e m p lo y e e is re q u ire d to w o rk
m o r e than a p r e d e te r m in e d n u m ber o f hours on any one day, e . g . , 8 hours a
day. P a ym en t m a y a lso be m ade fo r w o rk during h ou rs oth er than those that are
e sta b lish e d as the stan dard w o rk d a y , e . g . , 8 a .m . to 4 p .m . U nder th ese c i r ­
c u m s ta n c e s , the p re m iu m is r e f e r r e d to as d a ily o v e r t im e .
W eek ly o v e rtim e
p r o v id e s fo r paym ents fo r w o r k b ey on d a s p e c ifie d n u m ber o f h ours in any one
w eek .
F r e e d o m on the w eek en d, p a r tic u la r ly on Sunday, has fo r y e a rs b een
c o n s id e r e d e s p e c ia lly d e s ir a b le b y A m e r ic a n s .
If a w o r k e r is r e q u ir e d to give
up his fr e e d o m during the w eek en d, he m a y be p a id p re m iu m p ay fo r su ch
w eek en d w o r k .14
The pen a lties fo r o v e r tim e tend to in su re that the w o r k e r w ill not be
r e q u ir e d to w o r k ou tside his n o r m a l sch ed u le u n less th ere is co m p e llin g re a s o n .
On the oth er hand, the e m p lo y e r is n ot p re clu d e d fr o m sch ed u lin g w o rk ou tside
n o r m a l h ou rs when it is n e c e s s a r y o r d e s ira b le f o r him to do s o .
The p r e ­
m iu m s m a y r e s u lt in the u tiliz a tio n o f the la b o r fo r c e to b e tte r e c o n o m ic and
s o c ia l advantage. In p e r io d s o f u n em ploym en t, the additional c o s ts o f o v e rtim e
m a y stim u late the e m p loy m en t o f additional help, ra th er than an ex ten sion o f

14
P r e m iu m P a y P r a c t ic e s in P riv a te In d u stry , U .S . D epartm en t o f L a b o r ,
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics and W age and H our and P u b lic C on tra cts D iv is io n s ,
January 10, 1951.
M im e o g ra p h e d .
See pp. 22, 23, 24* and 48.




32
h o u r s , as p ro d u ctio n expands*
In p e r io d s o f g e n e ra l la b o r s h o r ta g e s , su ch as
in w a r tim e , o v e r tim e p re m iu m s m a y be e ffe c tiv e in draw ing w o r k e rs fr o m le s s
a ctiv e in d u stries to th ose that have to m ake su bstan tial o v e rtim e paym ents to
m e e t v ita l p ro d u ctio n com m itm en ts* The lu re o f su bstan tial o v e r tim e paym ents
in du ces w o r k e r s to m o v e to expanding in d u stries and to new a r e a s . 15

Until the p a s sa g e o f the F a ir L a b o r Standards A ct in 1938, o n ly a m inute
p r o p o r tio n o f the la b o r f o r c e had o v e r tim e p re m iu m s gu aran teed to them through
le g is la tio n . The p r a c t ic e s that e x is te d w e re b a s e d on cu s to m , p riv a te a r r a n g e ­
m en ts b etw een e m p lo y e r and e m p lo y e e , and c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts.
E a r ly le g is la tio n app lied to w o r k e r s em p lo y e d on F e d e r a l p u b lic co n tra cts and in
in d u strie s in volvin g the p u b lic sa fe ty .
As e a r ly as 1892, w o rk p e r fo r m e d b y
la b o r e r s and m e c h a n ic s , fo r the G ov ern m en t o r fo r c o n tr a c to r s on p u b lic w o r k s ,
w as lim ite d , b y the F e d e r a l E ig h t-H ou r L aw , to 8 h ou rs a day e x ce p t in e m e r ­
g e n c ie s .
H o w e v e r, it w as not until 1913 that this law w as am ended to p ro v id e
fo r o v e r tim e p re m iu m s a fter 8 h o u rs . The A d am son A ct o f 1916 exten ded tim e
and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 h ou rs to m en en gaged in op era tin g tr a in s .
T h rou gh the
W a ls h -H e a le y P u b lic C on tra cts A ct o f 1936, w o r k e rs in m anu factu rin g em p lo y e d
on F e d e r a l G overn m en t c o n tra cts w e re brou g h t under F e d e r a l o v e r tim e le g i s l a ­
tion , w h ich p r o v id e d f o r tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r e ith e r 8 h ou rs in 1 day o r
40 h ou rs in 1 w eek .
P a ym en t o f p re m iu m s at the rate o f tim e and o n e -h a lf
fo r w o r k in e x c e s s o f 40 hou rs w as m ade an a lm o st u n iv e rs a l p r a c t ic e in m anu­
fa ctu rin g b y the F a ir L a b o r Standards A ct o f 1938. Unlike the W a ls h -H e a le y A ct,
the F a ir L a b o r Standards A c t m a k es no p r o v is io n fo r d a ily o v e r tim e p a y m en ts.
A s late as about 1950, d a ily o v e r tim e p re m iu m s w e re s t ill not as p re v a le n t as
th ose fo r w e e k ly o v e r t im e . F o r e x a m p le , a B u reau study o f eight m anu factu rin g
in d u strie s d is c lo s e d that the a lm o st u n iv e rsa l p re v a le n ce o f d a ily o v e r tim e p r e ­
m iu m s p r o v id e d fo r in c o lle c t iv e barg ain in g a g reem en ts in 1948—
49
w as not
c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f a ll th ese in d u str ie s. A t that tim e , although w e ll o v e r 90 p e r ­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s in m a c h in e r y and W est C oa st lu m b e r w e re getting p rem iu m s
o f tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 hou rs d a ily , the p r o p o r tio n fe ll to under 30 p e r c e n t
in sou th ern cotton te x tile m ills , le s s than 25 p e r c e n t in w o o d fu rn itu re p la n ts,
and to 4 p e r c e n t in sou th ern s a w m i l l s .16

In 1959, esta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g ex p en d itu res fo r o v e r tim e p re m iu m s
to this s u r v e y e m p lo y e d 92. 9 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in m a n u factu rin g.
T h ey a ccou n ted f o r as m u ch as 100 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs in the ord n an ce in d u s­
t r i e s , 9 9 .2 p e r c e n t in the tra n sp o rta tion in d u strie s, and fo r as low as 7 6 .5 p e r ­
cen t in the a p p a rel in d u s tr ie s .

O v e rtim e ex p en d itu res w e r e 3 .4 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r g r o s s
p a y r o ll f o r m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g su ch ex p en d itu res s e p a ra te ly .
F o r the p a p er and a llie d p ro d u cts in d u s trie s , p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e a v era g ed
5 .6 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll, the h igh est ra tio r e p o r te d .
P rin tin g , p u blish in g,
and a llie d in d u stries a lso r e p o r te d a r e la tiv e ly high ra tio (4 .8 p e r c e n t), as did
the sto n e , c la y , and g la s s in d u stries (4 .5 p e r c e n t), and the ru b b er and m i s c e l ­
lan eou s p la s t ic s p ro d u cts in d u strie s (4 .4 p e r c e n t).
The lo w e s t ra tio (1 .9 p e r ­
cen t) w as r e p o r te d b y the to b a c c o and the lea th er m an u factu rin g in d u s trie s . O v e r ­
a ll, fiv e in d u stry grou ps r e p o r te d about 2 p e r c e n t; s ix re p o r te d 3 p e r c e n t; fiv e
r e p o r te d 4 p e r c e n t ; tw o, 5 p e r c e n t; and on e, 6 p e r c e n t.
(See table 1 2 .)

15

16

I b i d ., pp.
I b i d ., pp.




6 and 40.
1, 6, 7, 13, 20, 22, 23, and 24.

33

A v e ra g e ex p en d itu res fo r the p rin tin g, pu b lish in g, and a llie d in d u stries
w e r e h igh er than th ose f o r the p a p e r and a llie d p ro d u cts in d u stries on the b a s is
o f expen ditu res p e r hour p a id fo r b y esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g o v e rtim e p a y m en ts.
The prin tin g esta b lish m e n ts a v e ra g e d 13. 1 cen ts p e r hour p a id fo r ; p a p er m anu­
fa ctu re rs* ex p en d itu res a v e ra g e d 1 2 .4 ce n ts.
The d iffe r e n c e in the p o s itio n o f
the two in d u strie s in the c e n t s -p e r -h o u r s e r i e s , as d istin g u ish ed fr o m the ratio
to g r o s s p a y r o ll s e r i e s , is attribu table to the h igh er a v era g e h ou rly earn in gs in
the prin tin g in d u str ie s. On both the p ercen ta g e o f p a y r o ll and the c e n t s -p e r -h o u r
b a s is , the to b a c c o m a n u fa ctu re rs had the lo w e s t ex p en d itu re; on the la tte r b a s is ,
it w as 3. 1 cen ts p e r hour p a id f o r . The a v era ge fo r a ll in d u stries w as 7 .6 cents
p e r h ou r. A v e ra g e o v e r tim e p re m iu m s p e r hour paid fo r can v a r y am ong in d u s­
tr ie s b e ca u se o f b oth the rate at w h ich o v e rtim e is p a id and the extent to w hich
o v e r tim e is w o rk e d .
The am ount o f o v e rtim e that is sch ed u led fr o m y e a r to
y e a r in given esta b lish m en ts and the total num ber o f m a n -h o u rs w o rk e d w ill a lso
v a r y and can ca u se ch an ges in the av era ge in d u stry rate w ithout changes o c ­
cu r r in g in the p re m iu m rate at the esta b lish m en t le v e l.
P r e m iu m P a y fo r H olid a y W ork
P r e m iu m pa y fo r h olid a y w o rk im p lie s that w o rk on a h olid a y in volv es a
s a c r if ic e on the p a rt o f the w o r k e r and should be d is c o u r a g e d ; that if c ir c u m ­
sta n ce s sh ou ld r e q u ire su ch w o rk , e x tra co m p en sa tion sh ou ld be fo rth co m in g .
Studies o f c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts, m ade b y the B u reau as e a r ly as
1930, in d ica ted the e x is te n c e o f c la u se s p rov id in g fo r d o u b le -tim e ra tes fo r w o rk
on pa id h olid a ys and tim e and o n e -h a lf fo r w ork on unpaid h o lid a y s . (Under the
d efin ition o f h olid a y p re m iu m s u sed f o r this s u rv e y , the e x tra h a lf-tim e pay fo r
w o rk on an unpaid h olid a y w ou ld be c o n s id e r e d a h olid a y p re m iu m ; the d o u b le tim e paym ent on the paid h olid a y w ould not be c o n s id e r e d to include p rem iu m
pa y, but to c o n s is t o f pay fo r the w o rk p e r fo r m e d and the h olid a y pay the w o rk e r
w ou ld have r e c e iv e d if he had not w o r k e d .) A la te r B u reau study o f c o lle c tiv e
b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts, in 1942, found that 20 p e r c e n t o f the ag reem en ts p r o ­
vidin g pa y fo r h olid ays not w o rk e d stipu lated double tim e and o n e -h a lf o r t r ip le tim e ra tes fo r w o rk on su ch a h olid ay. O f the a g reem en ts that did not p ro v id e
f o r p a y on unw orked h o lid a y s , 50 p e r c e n t s p e c ifie d d o u b le -tim e paym ents fo r w ork
on su ch h olid ays and m o s t o f the r e m a in d e r, tim e and o n e - h a l f .17 Since these
ra tio s a pp lied o n ly to c o lle c t iv e ly b a rg a in ed c o n tr a c ts , they did not n e c e s s a r ily
r e p r e s e n t the p r a c t ic e s at th ese p e r io d s in in d u stry genereilly.
In 1959, a c c o r d in g to this study, 4 2 .6 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs
in m an u factu rin g w e r e in esta b lish m en ts w h ich a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d w o r k e rs on
h olid a ys and p a id h olid a y p re m iu m s fo r this w o rk .
The p e r c e n t o f w o rk e rs in
su ch e sta b lish m en ts v a r ie d fr o m 5 .2 p e rce n t in the a p p a re l in d u stries to 87. 1 p e r ­
cen t in the p e tro le u m in d u s tr ie s .

P r e m iu m p a y f o r w o r k on h olid ays a v e ra g e d 0. 1 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c ­
tion w o r k e r g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts and 0 .3 p e r c e n t fo r th ose w ith
actual e x p e n d itu re s.
The lo w e r ra tio fo r " a l l e sta b lish m e n ts " is ex p lain ed b y
the a b se n ce o f expen ditu res in e sta b lish m en ts em p loy in g a lm o st six -te n th s o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s and the in a b ility to re p o r t sep a ra te fig u r e s b y esta b lish m en ts
em p loy in g about o n e -s ix t h o f the p ro d u ction w o r k e r s . The h igh est in d u stry group
r a tio , r e la tiv e to the p a y r o ll fo r all esta b lish m en ts in the g rou p , w as re p o rte d
b y the p e tro le u m in d u strie s (0 .5 p e r c e n t), fo llo w e d b y 0 .2 p e r c e n t fo r the fo o d ,
17

I b i d ., p . 40.




34

p a p e r , p rin tin g, p r im a r y m e ta ls , and ston e, c la y , and g la s s in d u strie s.
(See
table 1 2 .) The p r o p o r tio n o f p re m iu m s not re p o r te d se p a ra te ly v a r ie s b y in d u stry
grou p and a ffe cts su ch in te rin d u stry c o m p a r is o n s . D iffe re n c e s am ong in d u stries
r e f le c t not on ly the rate o f co m p e n sa tion but a lso the p re v a le n ce o f the p r a c tic e
w ithin the g rou p . The nature o f the o p era tion s in c e r ta in in d u strie s, su ch as the
c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e ss in d u str ie s, w ou ld tend to m ake w o rk on h olid ays m o r e p re v a le n t
and p ro d u ce h igh er ra tio s even w h ere th ere are not m a te r ia l d iffe r e n c e s in the
rate o f pay.

D iffe re n tia ls fo r Shift W ork
Shift d iffe re n tia ls a re o f m u ch l e s s e r m agnitude than o v e rtim e and h olid a y
w o r k p re m iu m s and appear d e sig n e d p r im a r ily to p ro v id e co m p en sa tion fo r w o r k ­
ing during le s s d e s ir a b le h o u r s, ra th er than to cu rta il the p r a c t ic e .
A lthough
unions w e r e e ffe c tiv e in extending the p r a c t ic e , sh ift d iffe re n tia ls antedate the
e m e r g e n c e o f stron g unions in m an y in d u s trie s .
M any e m p lo y e r s in itiated the
p re m iu m s to a ttra ct la b o r to the le s s d e s ir a b le sh ifts .
In c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e s s
in d u strie s— su ch as s t e e l, c h e m ic a ls , and g la ss— sh ift w o rk a r is e s out o f the
nature o f the in d u stry . In o th e r in d u strie s, it m a y be in trod u ced to a llow m o r e
in ten sive u tiliza tio n o f e x p en siv e equipm ent o r to m e e t se a s o n a l p e a k s .18

F o r m any y e a r s , the c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e s s in d u stries rota ted th eir w o r k ­
e r s fr o m sh ift to sh ift but p a id no d iffe r e n tia ls .
A 1927 study o f 219 p la n ts,
b y the N ational In d u stria l C o n fe re n ce B o a rd (Night W ork in In d u stry ), in d ica ted
that plants op era tin g re g u la r rotating sh ifts (a p p ro x im a te ly equ iva len t to the
c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e s s in d u strie s) se ld o m p aid d iffe r e n tia ls , D iffe re n tia ls w e re p aid
b y a lm o st tw o -th ird s o f th ose op era tin g re g u la r fix e d sh ifts and b y o v e r h alf o f
th ose op era tin g . te m p o r a r y fix e d s h ifts.
Shift p re m iu m s in c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e s s
in d u stries w e re g e n e r a lly in tro d u ced during W orld W ar I I . 19 A BLS study o f
464 c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts in 1948—
49, sh ow ed that about 90 p e r ­
cen t o f the e m p lo y e e s under th ese a g reem en ts w e re c o v e r e d b y p r o v is io n s fo r
sh ift d iffe r e n t ia ls . 2 0
In 1959, esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 6 0 .7 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s in a ll m an u factu rin g in d u strie s r e p o r te d to this su rv e y that they paid sh ift
d iffe re n tia ls during the y e a r .
T h e re w as no in d ication o f how m any w o r k e rs
w e r e in plants that o p e ra te d sh ifts but p a id no d iffe r e n tia ls , o r how m any w e re
in plants w h ich had p r o v is io n s fo r d iffe re n tia ls but o p e ra te d no late sh ifts during
the y e a r . The p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e rs em p lo y e d b y e sta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g e x ­
pen d itu res fo r sh ift p re m iu m s ra n ged fr o m 93. 1 p e r c e n t in the tra n sp orta tion
equ ipm en t grou p to 2 .4 p e rce n t in the a p p a rel grou p.

Shift p re m iu m s m a y be in the fo r m o f w age d iffe r e n tia ls , tim e d iffe r ­
e n tia ls , o r a co m b in a tion o f the tw o.
W here w age d iffe re n tia ls are p a id , they
m a y be in te r m s o f cen ts p e r h ou r, cen ts p e r sh ift, o r as a p e rce n ta g e o f the
b a s e ra te . T im e d iffe re n tia ls m a y be in the fo r m o f s h o r te r h ou rs at the sam e pay
as the day sh ift, p a id m e a l p e r io d s not g iv en to the day sh ift, e t c . P re m iu m s paid
fo r th ir d -s h ift w o r k w e re g e n e r a lly g r e a te r than th ose p a id f o r the s e co n d sh ift.

PP

18
19
306
20

I b i d ., p . 30.
The T e rm in a tio n R e p o r t o f the N ational W ar L a b o r B o a rd , o p . c i t . ,
and 3 5 1 -3 6 0 .
P r e m iu m P a y P r a c t ic e s in P riv a te In d u stry , o p . c i t . , pp. 30, 31, and 34.




35
In 1959, sh ift d iffe re n tia ls f o r a ll in d u stries in m an u factu rin g a v e ra g e d
1 ,3 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in the esta b lish m en ts r e ­
p ortin g the p r a c t ic e . E ight o f the 13 in du stry grou ps fo r w h ich data m e t p u b lic a ­
tion c r it e r i a r e p o r te d ra tio s equ al to o r b e lo w the a v e ra g e , w ith fiv e grou ps
clu s te r in g at 1 p e r c e n t. A m ong the fiv e in d u stry grou ps above the a v era ge w e re
so m e o f the h igh er paying in d u s tr ie s , su ch as tra n sp orta tion equipm ent (1 .6 p e r ­
ce n t), p rin tin g and pu blish in g (1 .5 p e r c e n t), and ord n a n ce (1 .4 p e r c e n t).
(See
table 1 2 .) Since the ra tio s are a p ro d u ct o f the extent to w h ich nightw ork is
p r a c t ic e d and the e x tr a am ounts p a id fo r it, it is d ifficu lt to sa y w hether the
h igh er ra tio s fo r the h igh er paying in d u stries r e p r e s e n t h igh er sh ift d iffe re n tia ls
o r g r e a te r am ounts o f sh ift w o rk .

The p rin tin g , p u b lish in g, and a llie d in d u stries had ex p en d itu res o f 4.3 cen ts
p e r hour p a id f o r in th ose plants a ctu a lly paying d iffe r e n tia ls , the tra n sp orta tion
equipm ent m a n u fa ctu re rs 4 .2 c e n ts, and p r im a r y m eta ls in d u stries 4 .1 ce n ts.
F o r a ll in d u stry g ro u p s, the a v e ra g e ca m e to 3 .2 ce n ts .
T h ese av era ge rates
w e re obtain ed b y dividin g ex p en d itu res fo r s h ift-w o r k p re m iu m s b y the total m a n ­
hou rs p a id f o r (not ju s t the sh ift h o u rs ), b y the e sta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g sh ift
p re m iu m e x p e n d itu re s. The r a te s , t h e r e fo r e , do not r e p r e s e n t the rate o f sh ift
d iffe re n tia l p e r h ou r.




Table 12.

A verage Expenditures for Prem ium Pay by A ll Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f str a ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll

P e rc e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll
E stablishm ents re p o rtin g
expen ditures 1 f o r —

A ll establishm ents

P re­
O v e r­
m iu m s
Shift
tim e
not
d iffe r ­
and
T otal 2
re p o rte d
weekend entials
sepa­
w ork
ra te ly

T otal

O v e r­
tim e
and
weekend
w ork

1 .3
1. 3
1 .2
1 .3
1 .2

4 .5
4 .3
4 .7
4. 7
4 .4

2 .2
3 .7
1 .9
3 .4

1 .4
1 .0
( 5)
1 .0

3 .4
4 .4
2 .5
4 .3

2 .3
4 .2
3. 8
7 .0

2 .3
3 .9
3 .6
5 .6

(!)

.6

6. 1

T otal

O v e r­
tim e
and
weekend
w ork

H o li­
day
w ork

Shift
d iffe r ­
entials

U nited S ta te s 3 .
N orth ea st
South ______
N orth C en tra l
W e s t __________

4 .3
4. 1
4 .5
4 .5
4 .2

2 .6
2 .7
3. 1
2 .4
2 .6

0. 1
. 1
.2
. 1
.2

0 .9
.8
.7
1.0
.8

0 .7
.6
.5
1 .0
.6

4 .5
4 .4
4. 7
4 .6
4 .4

3 .4
3 .4
3. 8
3 .3
3 .3

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s —
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts __
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res ----------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p ro d u c ts
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u cts —
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _______
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u c ts —
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s __
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s tries ___
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts ----------------L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u cts
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s tries ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s -----------M a ch in ery, e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u cts
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
indu s tr ie s ___________________

3 .3
4 .2
2 .5
4. 1

1. 1
2 .7
1 .7
3. 1

(4 )
.2
(4 )
.1

1.3
.6
.6
.6

.9
.7
.1
.3

3 .3
4 .5
2 .5
4 .2

1. 8
3. 7
3 .6
6 .9

1. 7
3 .3
3 .2
4 .5

(4 )
(4 )
.1
.2

(4 )
.3
.2
1. 1

(4 )
(4 )
.2
1. 1

5 .9

4 .3

.2

.8

3 .5

R egion and in d u stry group

See footn otes at end o f table.




H o li­
day
w ork

Shift
d iffe r ­
entials

2. 7
2. 8
3 .3
2 .5
2. 7

0. 1
.1

.2
.1
.2

.7
1 .0
.9

1. 1

(4)

1 .4
.7

.

2. 8

1 8
3 .2

.2
(4)

(4)

( 5)
1 .3

4. 8

1.5

6 .2

4 .6

.5

.

.5

.8

.5

3.6.

2 .0

1.0

3. 7

1 8

3 .9
1.5

j
(4 )

.8
(4 )

.4
.1

5 .3
1 .9

4 .4
1 .9

1.0
( 5)

5 .5
1 .7

3 .5
2. 8
2 .7
2 .6
1.3

.2
.2
(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

.7
1.3
.9
1.0
1.5

.9
.6
.8
.7
1 .7

5 .6
5 .0
4 .6
4 .3
4. 5

4 .5
3 .2
3 .3
3 .3
2. 8

1 .0
1 .4
1 .4
1.3
1 .6

5 .6
5 .2
4. 7
4 .5
4. 7

3. 7
2 .9
2 .9
2. 7
1 .4

4. 1

2 .4

(4 )

.9

.8

4 .2

3 .4

1. 1

4 .2

2 .5

(4 )

.4

.4

4 .3

3. 8

(5)

3 .9

Shift
d iffe r ­
entials

.5
1. 1
.6

4. 7
4 .6
4 .9
4. 8
4 .6

3 .6
3 .6
3 .9
3 .5
3 .4

1 .4
1 .4
1.3
1 .4
1.3

.9
.7
. 1
.4

3 .4
4. 8
2 .5
4 .4

2. 3
3 .9
1 .9
3 .6

1. 5

3 .0

.3

.2

P2
I
.

2 .3
4. 1
3. 8

(!)
(*)

1. 2

2 .4
4 .3
4 .0
7 .5

1.2

6.0

1.5

.8

.6

6 .5

5. 2

1 .6

11
.
(5)

.

1 1

(5 )

.2
(4)
(4)

(4)

.5

(4)
.3

.9
.9

4. 1
1.5

5 .3
4 .9
4 .5
4 .3
4 .5

.6
.7

(4)
(4)
.i
.2
.2

1 .7

2 .9

O v e r­
tim e
and
weekend
w ork

.8

.1

1. 7
3 .5
3 .3
4. 8

5 .2
1 .7

3 .7

P rem iu m s
not
re p o rte d
se p a ra te ly

0. 9

1. 8
3. 8
3. 7
7 .4

(!)

E sta blish m en ts rep ortin g
exp en d itures 1 fo r —

A ll e sta b lish m en ts

.4
.1

5 .6
1 .9

4 .6
1 .9

1.0

.7
1 .4
1 .0

1. 0
.7
.9

1 .5

1. 8

5 .9
5 .3
4 .9
4 .5
4. 7

4. 7
3 .4
3 .5
3 .5
2 .9

1 1
1. 5
1.5
1 .4
1.6

1. 0

.8

(5 )

.

(4)

.9

.8

4 .4

3. 5

1.2

(4)

.4

.5

4 .5

3 .9

(5 )

Table 12.

Average Expenditures for Prem ium Pay by Ail Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 19 59—"Continued
C ents p e r plant m an -h ou r

Cents p e r hour paid fo r
E stablishm ents re p o rtin g
expen ditures 1 f o r —

A ll esta b lish m en ts
R egion and in d u stry grou p
T otal

O v e r­
tim e
and
w eekend
w ork

H o li­
day
w ork

Shift
d iffe r ­
entials

P re­
O v e r­
m ium s
Shift
tim e
not
d iffe r ­
and
T o t a l1
2
re p o rte d
w eekend en tials
sep a ­
w ork
ra te ly

A ll e sta b lish m en ts

T otal

O v er­
tim e
and
w eeken d
w o rk

E stablishm ents rep ortin g
expenditures 1 fo r —
P re­
O v e r­
m iu m s
tim e
Shift
not
and
T otal 2
d iffe r ­
re p o rte d
weekend entials
se p a ­
w ork
ra te ly

H o li­
day
w ork

Shift
d if f e r ­
entials

0 .3
.2
.3
.2
.4

2. 1
1 .9
1 .4
2 .6
2 .2

1. 8
1 .4
.9
2 .7
1 .6

11.0
10.6
9 .3
12. 1
11. 7

8. 1
8. 1
7 .2
8 .5
8 .7

3 .5
3 .5
2 .9
3. 7
3 .5

United S ta te s 3 . __ __ _____ __ __
____ „
N orth ea st __ _ __ _
_ __ ___________________
South
N orth C e n t r a l ___________________
W e s t .............................................

9 .7
9 .2
8 .2
1 1.0
1 0.5

5 .9
5 .9
5. 7
5. 8
6 .5

0 .2
.2
.3
.2
.4

1 .9
1. 8
1 .3
2 .5
2. 1

1 .7
1.3
.8
2 .6
1 .5

10.3
9 .9
8. 8
11.3
1 1.0

7 .6
7. 5
6 .9
8 .0
8 .2

3 .2
3 .2
2. 7
3 .5
3 .2

1 0 .3
9. 8
8 .6
1 1 .7
11. 1

6 .3
6 .3
6 .0
6 .2
6 .9

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts __ __
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res _ _ —
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ______________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p r o d u c t s _______ —__________
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u cts _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _
P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s __
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s trie s _____ ___ ______
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts _ — __ __
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s trie s
F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts __
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t -------------In strum ents and r e la te d
p r o d u c t s __
_ _ _
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s ____________________ _____

9 .0
8 .9
4 .0
6 .6

2 .9
5. 7
2. 8
4 .9

. 1
.4
. 1
.1

3 .6
1 .3
1 .0
1 .0

2 .4
1 .5
.2
.5

9 .0
9 .9
4. 1
6. 7

6. 1
7. 8
3. 1
5 .5

3 .9
2 .5
( 5)
1 .7

9 .8
9 .4
4 .3
6. 8

3. 1
6 .0
3 .0
5. 1

.1
.4
.1
.1

3 .9
1 .4
1. 1
1 .0

2. 7
1 .6
.2
.6

9 .8
10. 5
4 .3
7 .0

6. 7
8. 3
3 .3
5. 7

4 .2
2. 7
( 5)
1. 8

2. 8
6. 7
6 .9
1 5 .4

2 .6
6. 1
6. 1
10. 1

.1
(4 )
. 1
.4

(4 )
.5
.3
2 .5

.1
.1
.4
2 .5

3 .6
8 .0
7 .3
15.7

3 .5
7 .5
6 .9
1 2 .4

(!)
!
( 5)
3. 1

2 .9
6 .9
7 .2
1 6 .5

2. 7
6 .3
6 .4
10. 7

.1
(4 )
. 1
.4

(4 )
.5
.3
2 .6

. 1
. 1
.4
2. 7

3. 7
8 .3
7 .7
16. 7

3 .6
7. 8
7 .2
13.3

(!)
( 5)
( 5)
3 .3

1 5.9

1 1.6

.5

2. 1

1 .6

16. 8

13. 1

4 .3

1 7 .0

1 2 .4

.6

2. 3

1. 7

17.9

14.0

4. 6

1 0.7

5. 1

1.6

2 .5

1 .5

10. 8

6 .0

3. 1

1 2 .0

5. 7

1 .7

2 .9

1. 7

12. 1

6. 8

3 .5

1 2.3
2. 8

9 .2
2 .5

.2
(4 )

1 .9
. 1

1 .0
.2

12.5
3 .2

1 0 .4
3 .2

2 .4
( 5)

13. 1
2 .9

9 .9
2. 7

.2
(4 )

2. 1
.1

1 .0
.2

1 3.4
3 .3

11. 1
3. 3

2 .6
( 5)

11. 8
1 4.0
1 0.9
11. 1
11. 8

7. 7
7 .9
6 .6
6. 7
3 .4

.5
.6
.1
(4 )
.1

1 .5
3 .7
2 .3
2 .5
3 .9

2 .0
1. 8
2 .0
1 .9
4 .4

1 2.5
1 4.2
11.3
11.3
11.9

9 .8
9 .2
7 .9
8 .4
7 .2

2 .4
4. 1
3 .6
3 .5
4 .2

1 2 .4
1 5 .2
1 1.6
11. 8
12. 7

8. 1
8 .6
7 .0
7. 1
3. 7

.6
.6
. 1
(4 )
. 1

1 .6
4 .0
2 .4
2. 7
4 .2

2. 1
2 .0
2. 1
2 .0
4. 8

13.2
1 5 .4
12.0
12. 1
12. 8

10.3
10. 0
8 .4
9 .0
7 .7

2 .6
4 .4
3. 8
3. 8
4 .5

9 .6

5 .6

(4 )

2 .0

1 .9

9 .9

7 .6

2. 8

1 0.3

6. 1

(4 )

2 .2

2 .0

10. 7

8. 1

3 .0

7 .0

5 .4

.7

.8

8 .0

6 .9

(5 )

7 .4

5. 7

.7

.9

8 .5

7. 2

(5)

.1

*1

1 G en era lly , the a v e ra g e s fo r "esta blish m en ts rep ortin g e xp e n d itu re s" f o r h olid ay w ork p re m iu m s d id not m e e t p u b lica tion c r it e r ia .
F o r all establishm ents in the
U nited S ta tes, the a v e ra g e s w e re : 0 .3 p e rce n t o f g r o ss p a y r o ll, 0 .4 p e rce n t o f stra ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll, 0 .9 cen ts p e r hour paid f o r , and 0 .9 cents p e r plant m an -h ou r.
2 F o r "e sta b lis h m e n ts rep ortin g expen ditures fo r the p r a c t ic e " the d etail d oes not add to the total b e ca u s e a d iffe re n t p a y r o ll o r hours b ase was used fo r each item ,
and b e ca u s e ite m s w hich did not m eet pub lica tion c r it e r ia a re not shown sepa ra tely.
3 In clu des in d u stries not shown s ep a ra tely.
4 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t o r 0 .0 5 cent.
5 Data d o not m e e t p u b lica tion c r it e r ia .

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.







Table 13.

Percent o f Production and Related W orkers in Establishments Reporting Expenditures for Prem ium Pay,
by Region and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
O v ertim e p rem iu m s

R e g io n and ind u stry group

P rem iu m
pay

In
com bin ation

9 3 .5
9 1 .4
9 1 .2
9 6 .9
9 4 .2

H olida y w o r k p re m iu m s

Shift d iffe re n tia ls
In
com b in a tion

S m i t h ________________________________________

N orth C en tra l
W est

-

O rd n a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s ---------F o o d and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts
A p p a re l and o th e r fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts
—
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s _____
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s tries
P e t r o le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u stries
R u b b er and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts
L e a th e r and le a th e r p r o d u c t s ____
S ton e, c la y , and g la ss
p ro d u c ts
_ —_________
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ----------F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s --------M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l -----T ra n s p o rta tio n eq u ip m en t-----------In stru m en ts and rela ted
p ro d u c ts
M is ce lla n e o u s m anufacturing

S e p a ra te ly

1 5 .8
1 2 .4
9 .8
2 3 .6
14. 3

77. 1
78. 3
8 1 .5
7 2 .7
78. 3

1 5.7
1 2 .6
9 .8
2 3 .2
14. 0

2 6 .9
24. 3
2 8 .6
26. 3
3 3 .9

1 .7
1 .6
2. 3
1. 3
1 .8

5 9 .0
5 4 .0
4 6 .9
7 0 .8
63. 1

100.0
8 8 .7
9 9.5
9 7 .8

5 2 .1
1 4 .0
1 0 .0
7 .5

4 7 .8
71. 3
89. 0
8 9 .5

5 1 .8
14. 0
10. 0
7 .2

2 2 .4
3 0 .7
2 9 .7
16. 1

.3
3. 1
3 .7
2 .4

9 1 .9
5 2 .5
4 5 .9
5 7 .5

7 6.6
8 1 .5
9 3 .7
9 8 .5

1 .4
1 .0
6 .2
1 7.7

75. 1
7 9 .2
8 7 .5
8 0 .8

1 .4
1 .0
5 .5
1 6 .8

3 .8
1 4 .4
17. 0
4 6 .2

1 .0
4 .5

2 .4
28. 3
27. 1
78. 5

94. 7

5 .6

8 8 .9

4 .5

26. 0

1 .5

5 0 .7

9 9 .2

1 4.9

84. 3

1 4.9

72. 2

5 .0

83. 1

9 7.9
8 7 .2

8 .4
7 .4

89. 5
79. 5

8 .7
7 .4

3 6 .8
4 .7

1 .6
.5

8 1 .0
8. 3

93. 3
9 8 .5
9 6 .9
9 7 .7
9 9 .2

1 4.5
1 1 .9
1 3.5
1 8 .5
5 1.1

7 7 .8
8 6 .6
8 3 .4
7 8 .6
48. 1

14. 3
1 1 .9
1 3 .5
1 8 .5
51. 1

4 0 .5
6 2 .6
20. 1
1 3 .7
27. 1

1 .8
.4
.8
.4
.3

63. 1
9 0 .8
6 3 .0
7 1 .6
9 2 .8

96.1

22. 3

7 3 .6

2 3 .2

2 0 .2

.9

7 2 .5

8 6 .5

U nited States 1
N orth ea st

S epa ra tely

In
com b in a tion

7 .6

7 8 .9

7 .6

1 6 .8

1 In clu des in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely.

S ep a ra tely

30. 0

Table 14.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Prem ium Pay Expenditures as a P ercen t of G ross P ayroll,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in a ll
No p r e ­
esta b ­ m ium pay
lishm ents expen di­
tures

.
P rem iu m pay expen ditures as ;a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f—
5
6
and
and
under
under
7
6
p e rce n t p e rce n t

7
and
under
8
p e rce n t

8
and
under
9
p e rce n t

9
and
under
10
p e rce n t

10
and
under
11
p ercen t

1
and
under
2
p e rce n t

2
and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

6 .5
7 .4
7 .1
5 .8
4 .6

1 2 .5
1 3.5
1 3.7
1 1.5
1 0.6

1 4 .7
17. 0
1 1 .4
1 4 .0
1 6 .4

1 5 .8
1 4 .0
1 5 .4
1 7.5
1 6.9

1 1.7
1 0 .6
10. 1
1 3 .4
1 3 .4

11.1
9 .6
1 0 .7
11.9
1 5 .0

8 .3
7. 3
8 .4
9 .3
8 .5

5 .2
4 .8
5 .0
5 .7
5 .2

3 .0
2 .6
4. 0
3 .2
1 .6

1 .7
1 .6
1 .9
2 .2
.2

1.1
.8
1 .4
1.1
1 .3

1 .8
2 .3
2 .2
1 .4
.5

_

Under
1
p ercen t

11
p ercen t
and
over

U nited States 1 .
—
_
N orth ea st — ___ _ _
S o u th _______
. ___ _
. . .
N orth C en tra l
W e s t --------------------------------------------

100.0
100. 0
1 00 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

6 .5
8 .6
8 .8
3 .1
5 .8

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ________
F ood and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res _ - _
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts --------A p p a rel and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p ro d u cts _ _ _
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F urnitu re and f i x t u r e s ____________
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s __ —____
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s __ ________ ______
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s tries _
— _
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts ______ _____
..
P r im a r y m eta l in d u stries _
F a b rica te d m e ta l p rod u cts —
M a ch in ery , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t ________
Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u cts __
__ _
__
_ _
M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s
_
—
_

100. 0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100. 0

1 1.3
.5
2 .2

8 .1
4 .4
2 8 .9
8 .1

8 .7
7 .2
2 3 .7
1 9 .4

1 8 .7
1 4 .6
1 0 .6
1 0 .7

3 2 .8
1 5 .6
1 3 .4
14.1

1 1.3
1 4 .2
8 .7
1 5.9

1 1 .4
1 2.5
14. 0
9 .7

6 .1
6 .8
1 0.7

2 .7
4 .2
4 .2

4 .6
3 .7

_
1 .6
■

_
1 .2
.2

_
1 .8
1 .2

100. 0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0

2 3 .4
18.5
6 .3
1 .5

1 6 .4
7 .1
6 .9
1 .3

2 3 .7
6 .7
1 4.5
2 .6

1 7 .9
13. 1
1 9 .0
5 .9

9 .0
1 4.5
1 2 .4
9 .0

4 .4
1 5 .6
13. 1
8 .8

2 .5
1 0 .2
1 1 .0
9 .9

1 .7
5 .0
4 .7
1 7.5

3 .3
7 .5
1 0 .7

.5
1 .3
1 .0
1 0 .9

.3
3 .8
.3
9 .6

.6
5 .6

.3
3. 3
6 .5

1 00 .0

5 .3

7 .6

5 .4

1 3 .0

8. 0

1 3 .6

1 0 .7

8 .4

9 .7

3 .4

2 .5

4 .8

7 .7

1 00 .0

.8

7 .0

12. 0

1 5 .5

6 .4

4 .5

1 9 .2

.8

■

1 .4

.3

1 .8
"

3 .5
“

1.9
~

.3
■

8 .0
1 .8
3 .0
4 .0
1 .7

1 .0
1 .6
.7
2 .0
3. 0

1 .8
1 .3
1 .7
1.1
.6

2 .3
2 .7
3 .4
2 .0
.9

■

_

3 2.1

100. 0
100. 0

2 .1
1 2.8

1.1
2 2 .0

4 .9
3 4 .3

1 2 .4
16. 0

1 2.3
9 .0

1 6.3
2 .7

1 7 .8
2 .1

1 7 .5
.2

8 .0
.9

1 00 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
100 .0

6 .7
1 .5
3.1
2 .3
.8

4 .9
1 .5
7 .6
4 .1
1.1

10.1
7 .2
14.1
1 5.6
1 1 .0

9 .2
8 .9
1 2.1
1 7 .7
17. 1

8 .1
2 1 .7
1 7 .0
2 3 .3
2 1 .9

7 .4
1 8 .2
1 3 .7
8 .4
1 0.9

1 5 .0
1 1.9
8 .2
1 2.7
1 5 .0

1 0 .5
1 7 .5
8 .0
4 .1
9 .4

1 4 .9
4 .2
7 .4
2 .8
6 .6

1 00 .0

3 .9

6 .6

1 2 .2

1 5 .0

1 5 .8

2 1 .2

4 .5

9 .9

5 .5

1 .5

2 .7

100. 0

1 3.5

1 2 .6

1 2.9

16.1

1 0 .8

1 0 .0

9 .0

6 .1

2 .7

2 .8

.4

-

1.1
3.1

1 In clu des in d u s tries not shown s ep a ra tely.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




v
O

Table 15.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures fo r Overtime and Weekend Work Prem ium s as a Percent of
Gross Payroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t

R egion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
No
P r e m iin a ll
um s not ov e rtim e
e s ta b lis h ­
Under
rep orted prem ium
m ents
expen di­
s ep a ­
1
tures
ra tely
p ercen t

~A

w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

O vertim e and w eekend w ork p rem iu m expen ditures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll of—
8
4
2
10
1
3
6
5
7
9
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
10
11
5
8
2
3
4
7
6
9
p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t
p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t

11
p ercen t
and
over

U nited States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st -----------------------------------South ---- —------ -----------------------—__
N orth C en tra l ---------------------------W est --------------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

1 5 .8
1 2 .4
9 .8
23. 6
1 4.3

7.1
9 .3
8. 7
3 .7
7 .4

10.2
9 .9
11.3
1 0.5
7 .5

15. 1
1 7.2
1 4 .0
1 3 .9
13. 7

1 6 .7
1 8 .4
1 5 .4
1 5 .0
1 9 .4

1 1 .5
1 1.3
11.1
1 1 .3
1 3 .9

8 .7
7 .8
9 .9
8 .2
1 1 .3

6 .0
5. 1
7 .2
5 .9
7 .2

3 .2
2. 1
4. 5
3. 7
2 .9

1. 7
2 .1
2 .0
1 .4
.9

1 .9
2 .4
2 .6
1 .0
1 .5

0. 8
.7
1 .2
.9
.1

0 .6
.6
.7
.6
-

0. 7
.8
1 .6
.3
(*)

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ------------F ood and kindred p r o d u c t s ------------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ------------------T extile m ill p r o d u c t s ---------------------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ----------F u rn itu re and fix t u r e s -------------------P a p er and a llie d p rod u cts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries --------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
rela ted in d u stries -----------------------R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts ------Stone, cla y , and g la ss
p r o d u c t s ----------------------------------------P r im a r y m eta l in d u stries ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts ----------M a ch in ery , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n sp orta tion equipm en t ------------Instrum ents and rela ted
p r o d u c t s ----------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

52. 1
1 4 .0
1 0 .0
7 .5

_
14. 7
1 .0
3 .0

7 .8
5 .9
2 5 .9
12.1

1 9 .8
12. 1
2 4 .2
18. 1

3 .9
1 1 .6
1 5.2
1 6 .4

3 .5
13. 7
1 6 .6
12. 7

1 0 .9
1 1.3
1 .8
1 4 .4

1 .8
5 .9
5 .3
6 .8

.2
3. 7

_
1.1

_
2. 7

-

-

4 .6

1 .6

1 .8

_
.7
.2

_
1 .0

-

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 .4
1.0
6 .2
1 7 .7

2 3 .5
1 9.8
6 .3
1 .5

16.3
6 .0
1 0 .4
3 .3

23. 1
7. 8
1 2.9
4. 1

1 8 .4
1 7.2
17. 1
1 2 .0

9 .1
1 2 .3
1 3 .6
9 .9

4 .4
1 5 .4
8 .6
1 0 .5

1 .6
9 .0
1 1 .8
7. 6

1 .3
5 .2
2 .0
9 .4

.4
7 .5
7 .3

.5
2. 6
8 .9

.3
2 .5
.3
3 .0

.6
2. 1
3. 8

.3
1.2
.8

1 0 0 .0

5. 6

5 .5

8 .3

1 2.2

16.1

1 0 .5

1 1 .0

1 0 .4

6 .4

4 .6

5. 8

.9

.4

2 .4

1 0 0 .0

1 4.9

.8

2 6 .4

32. 6

5 .4

8 .0

7 .2

3 .0

■

“

“

1 .4

.3

~

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

8 .4
7 .4

2. 1
13. 1

4 .4
2 0 .3

1 1.3
3 2 .4

9 .4
1 3 .3

1 5 .9
8 .1

1 3 .4
2 .5

2 3 .9
2 .0

3. 7
.2

3 .8
.6

2. 1
“

1 .0
“

.2

.3
“

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100 . 0
1 0 0 .0

1 4.5
1 1.9
13. 5
18. 5
51.1

7 .7
1 .5
3. 1
2 .9
.8

8 .8
6 .7
11.3
10.3
1 1.6

9 .9
10. 6
1 4.3
2 1 .3
1 1 .4

9 .3
2 9 .4
17.2
19. 7
7 .0

9 .6
17.1
1 4 .6
1 0 .9
7 .7

9 .5
12.1
8 .4
4 .2
4 .5

14. 7
5 .0
7 .9
3 .0
1.1

6 .2
2 .2
3 .4
1 .6
2 .2

4 .8
.5
3 .2
1 .3
.8

1 .6
1 .4
1 .8
2. 7
.3

.5
.2
.5
1 .7
1.1

1 .7
.1
.5
.5
.3

1 .3
1 .3
.2
1 .5

100 . 0

2 2 .3

4 .1

6 .5

1 9 .4

1 2.9

9 .8

9 .3

4 .4

8 .2

.1

.1

1 .8

1. 1

100 . 0

7. 6

1 3 .5

1 4.5

1 1 .9

18. 7

7 .3

11.1

5 .2

5. 1

.9

1 .6

1 Includes in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely .
* L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




.2

1 .6
.6

-

.9

1 .7

Table 16.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Shift Differentials as a P ercen t of
Gross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959

625617 0 - 6 2

P e r c e n t o f w o rk e rs in e sta b lish m en ts w ith—
R eg ion and
in d u stry group

W ork ers
in a ll
es ta b lis h ­
m ents

Shift d iffe re n tia l exp en d itures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll of—
D ifferen tia ls
not
re p orted
sep a ra tely

No shift
d iffe re n tia l
expenditures

Under
1
p e rce n t

z

1
and
under
2
p e rce n t

and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

2 4 .0
2 4 .0
1 7 .4
2 9 .1
2 1 .2

8 .5
6 .6
5 .6
1 1 .8
9 .6

1 .2
1 .4
.6
1 .2
2 .0

0 .4
.7
.2
.3
.3

_

_

_

.2

-

5
p ercen t
and
over

United States 1 -------------------------------N orth ea st ----------------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------—
N orth C e n t r a l----------------------------W est --------------------------------------------

1 00.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1 .7
1 .6
2 .3
1 .3
1 .8

3 9.3
4 4 .4
5 0 .8
2 7 .9
35. 1

2 4 .9
2 1 .3
2 3 .0
2 8 .4
2 9 .9

Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ------------F ood and kind red p r o d u c t s -----------T o b a cco m an u fa ctu res ------------------T ex tile m ill p rod u cts -------------------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
tex tile p ro d u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu res ------------------P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s -------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
rela ted i n d u s t r i e s ---------------- — —
R ubber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p r o d u c t s -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------S tone, c la y , and gla ss
p ro d u cts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s ------------- F a b rica te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t -------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts ----------------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r ie s --------------------— -----------------

100.0
100 .0
100.0
100 .0

.3
3 .1
3 .7
2 .4

7 .8
4 4 .4
5 0 .4
40. 1

2 8 .8
2 9 .4
3 1 .0
3 6.1

3 6 .9
1 7 .6
6 .2
16.1

2 6 .2
5 .3
8. 7
3 .5

100 .0
100 .0
100.0
100.0

-

9 7 .6
71. 7
7 1.9
17.0

1 .9
2 2 .4
22. 1
18.5

.6
3 .6
4 .6
5 0 .7

-

-

1 .8
.4
8 .5

.5
.6

-

-

1 .0
4 .5

-

-

100.0

1 .5

4 7 .8

2 0 .8

1 4 .5

8 .2

2 .8

4 .4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .8

-

-

.1

-

100.0

5 .0

11.9

2 6 .4

5 1 .4

5 .3

-

100.0
1 00.0

1 .6
.5

1 7 .4
9 1 .2

52. 7
7 .2

2 1 .4
1.1

4 .2
-

2 .6
-

-

-

100.0
100.0
100 .0
100 .0
100 .0

1 .8
.4
.8
.4
.3

35.1
8 .8
3 6 .2
2 8 .0
6 .9

3 1 .8
1 5.5
3 0 .8
2 8 .4
2 8 .8

2 9 .3
6 7 .7
1 8 .0
3 1 .5
3 4 .6

1 .8
6 .2
9 .2
1 0 .7
2 6 .5

.2
1 .1
4 .8
.7
2 .3

-

-

.2
.2
.3
.6

-

100 .0

.9

2 6 .6

3 2 .3

2 8 .7

1 1 .3

.

-

-

7 0 .0

2 1 .3

4 .6

2. 6

100.0

1 In clu des in d u stries not shown s ep a ra tely.
* L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




-

(?)
(a )
0. 1

1

1 .0

.
-

1

-

.

5

Table 17.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Prem ium Pay in Cents P e r Hour Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

U nited States 1 _____________________
N orth ea st _____
__ . . ______
N orth C e n t r a l --------------------------- W e s t ............. ............
....................
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ----------F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ----------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res — --------- T e x tile m ill p rod u cts --------------------A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts --------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu res -----------------P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ------------P rin tin g , publish in g, and
a llie d in d u stries —----------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d i n d u s t r i e s ------ -------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts ------- —_ —
L ea th er and leath er p ro d u cts -----Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts
........
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s tries
---------F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts ----- —
M a ch in ery , ex cep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm ent ------- ----Instrum ents and r e la te d
p ro d u cts ---------------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s tries -------------------- - ----- —

See footnotes at end of table.




W o rk e rs
in a ll
e s ta b ­
lish m en ts

P re m iu m pay exp en d itu res p er hour p a id fo r o f—
No p r e ­
m ium pay
expendi­
tures

Under
1
cent

4
and
under
5
cents

5
and
under
6
cents

6
and
under
7
cen ts

7
and
under
8
cen ts

8
and
under
9
cents

9
and
under
10
cents

1
and
under
2
cents

2
and
under
3
cents

3
and
under
4
cents

4 .8
4 .5
7 .6
3 .7
3 .2

5 .4
7.1
7 .5
3 .4
1 .3

6 .3
7 .5
6 .4
5 .2
5 .1

5 .5
6. 1
6 .6
4 .3
5 .3

6 .1
6 .2
6 .1
6 .3
5 .4

5 .8
5 .8
6 .3
4 .7
8. 6

5 .5
3. 8
6 .2
6 .4
6 .9

5 .9
6 .0
5 .7
5 .3
8. 5

5 .2
4. 5
5. 0
6. 3
4. 7

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

6 .5
8 .6
8 .8
3.1
5 .8

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

_

_

1 1.3
.5
2 .2

2 .2
1 7.3
2 .9

7 .8
2 .8
1 7 .4
6 .4

2 .4
4 .4
9 .9
1 4.3

4 .4
3 .4
1 1 .6
9 .3

.2
5 .8
9 .3
10. 6

3 .5
5 .9
8. 7
1 1 .7

1 7 .3
5 .2
9 .7
5. 0

6 .8
6 .9
6 .9

2 8 .5
7 .8
4. 1

6. 3
"
4 .9

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

2 3 .4
18.5
6 .3
1 .5

1 0.5
4 .5
3 .4
1 .2

1 6 .6
3 .7
4 .2
.2

12.1
3 .4
4 .4
1 .9

1 4 .6
8 .2
6 .7
.7

6 .4
3 .1
7 .7
4 .3

5 .6
5 .0
1 4 .4
3 .7

3 .4
10. 7
1 0 .6
2 .9

1 .2
5. 8
9 .5
2 .9

1 .5
8. 7
6 .6
4 .6

1.7
5. 6
6 .2
2.1

100. 0

5 .3

4 .4

3 .8

1 .6

3 .1

2 .2

2. 6

3 .5

4 .1

1 .9

4. 5

4 .5

4. 6

5 .4

8 .6

2 3.9

3 .2
3 .5
4 .1
3. 0
1.1

1 0 0 .0

.8

.1

6 .9

2 .7

.3

100. 0
1 0 0 .0

2.1
1 2.8

.9
9 .5

1 .7
1 9.6

.8
2 5 .7

2 .6
1 0 .8

4 .9
6. 5

4 .2
8. 3

6 .9
1 .4

7 .1
1 .7

6 .1
1 .8

4. 8
1 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

6 .7
1.5
3.1
2 .3
.8

2 .3
1 .0
3 .5
1 .2
■

2 .6
2 .0
3. 1
2 .8
.8

5 .4
5. 3
2 .6
.6

4 .0
2 .7
4 .4
4 .1
8 .5

3 .8
2 .8
7 .2
7. 8
1 .5

4. 5
2 .9
6 .4
9. 3
1 .8

3. 6
4 .2
6. 7
6. 5
8. 3

6 .0
3. 3
5 .9
4 .9
6 .9

4. 8
3. 1
8. 2
7 .4
9 .1

3 .3
2 .4
6 .6
7 .5
8 .8

100. 0

3 .9

3 .4

2 .9

2 .8

7 .8

6 .1

6 .9

8 .5

9. 3

4 .1

2. 7

6. 3

1 1.2

7 .4

7. 3

7 .1

2. 3

4. 3

3. 0

3. 6

100. 0

13.5

7 .4

■

Table 17.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Expenditures for Prem ium Pay in Cents P er Hour Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959“ “ Continued
P e rc e n t o f w o rk e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—
P rem iu m pay expen ditures p e r hour paid fo r o f—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

15
and
under
16
cents

16
and
under
17
cen ts

3 .0
2 .7
3 .3
3. 0
4 .0

3.1
3 .2
2 .6
2 .8
4 .7

2 .4
1 .7
1 .6
3 .7
2 .5

6 .6
4. 1

6 .3
3 .9

-

-

-

1 .0

2 .3

.5

1.1

.2

1 .0

.1
1 .5
3 .6
6 .6

.1
2 .5
3. 0
3 .0

1 .8
.4
7 .0

.3
1.1
2 .9
4 .6

-

3 .0

6 .8

1 .6

1 .5

—

rs -------- --------T9-------and
and
under
under
20
19
cen ts
cents

20
and
under
21
cents

11
and
under
12
cents

12
and
under
13
cents

13
and
under
14
cen ts

U nited States 1 ________ ____________
N orth ea st _______________________
South
. ---->
N orth C en tra l
_ ——
____ _
W est -

4 .3
3 .4
3 .2
5 .4
6 .8

4 .8
4 .7
4 .4
5 .7
2 .8

4 .6
5 .2
3 .7
4 .3
5 .0

4 .0
3 .7
2 .0
5 .6
3 .8

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s -----------F o o d and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ____________
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts --------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ____________
P a p er and a llie d p rod u cts
______
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ____ ____________
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ------------------------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s --------------------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____ —
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u cts --------------------------- --------------------------------P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ____________
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts ----------------M a ch in ery , ex cep t e l e c t r i c a l ----------T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm ent . . .
Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u cts _____ _ __________ ___ _ - . —
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g

.2
4 0
_
5 .9

4 .8
7 .3
8 .7
6 .1

5 .8
3 .3

1 1 .0
5 .2

-

2 .6

-

3 .6
1 .0
4 .0

2. 1
4 .2
4 .6
5 .8

3 .8
4. 0
2 .4

5 .0

2 .4

5 .0

1 1.3

2 .8

3 .8

3 .0

-

.

3 .9

-

1.1

1 .8
.3

7 .2
.4

7 .0

5 .1

7 .7

-

3 .9

4. 3

4 .3

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .5
4. 0
4 .8
5. 1
1 0.6

4 .7
4 .0
3 .7
1 0.9
.9

5 .0
2 0 .2
4 .2
2. 0
4 .8

1 .7
2 .7
4 .5
3 .8
8 .0

5 .4
2 .5
2 .7
1 .5
3 .8

5 .1
4. 6
2 .2
1 .3
4. 0

3. 5
4. 3
2 .4
4 .8
3 .4

6 .9
2 .7
1 .5
2. 0

3 .7
3 .9
.8
3 .0
2. 0

1 .2
6 .4
.7
.7
3 .3

5. 1
2 .3
2 .9
2 .3
1 .7

2 .2

6 .9

2 .6

.2

3. 1

9 .6

.9

7 .8

1 .8

6 .5

1 .2

.5

.9

4 .3

4. 0

5 .2

6. 0

1

2 .9

1 .4

14
and
under
15
cents

17
and
under
18
cen ts

10
and
under
11
cents

.3

21
cents
and
over

2. 1
1 .6
2 .2
2 .4
2 .4

1 .4
1 .0
.7
2 .2
1 .8

1 .8
1.1
1 .4
2 .6
2 .5

1 .2
2 .4

_

_

_

1 .7

1. 1

.7

.1

-

3

1 .7
1 .7
.8
2. 1
1 .9

-

-

-

.5

.4

.1

.3
.4
2 .9

.4

.2
1 .4

1 .7

2. 1
.2
9 .6

4 .8

2 1 .8

2 .7

4 .4

2 .5

4. 3

2 3 .8

.8

1 1.2

4 .1

7

10.6

5 .5

_

-

-

1

.

0

-

6 .6
6 .4
4 .1
8 .7
5 .8

_
4 .4
-

-

-

8 .4
16.5
9 .8
7 .0
8 .2

1 In clu des in d u s trie s not shown sep a ra tely .

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




C
a

Table 18.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Expenditures for Overtim e and Wedcend W ork Prem ium s in Cents P er Hour Paid F or.
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—

R egion and in d u stry group

W ork ers
in a ll
e s ta b lish m en ts

O v ertim e and weekend w o rk p rem iu m exp en d itures p e r hour paid fo r o f—

P r e m iurns not
rep orted
s ep a ra te ly

No
overtim e
prem ium
expenditures

Under
1
cent

1
and
under
2
cents

2
and
under
3
cen ts

3
and
under
4
cen ts

4
and
under
5
cents

5
and
under
6
cents

6
and
under
7
cents

7
and
under
8
cents

3 .9
3 .8
5 .3
3. 7
1 .8

6 .7
6 .6
8 .3
6 .3
5.1

6 .9
9 .3
8 .2
4. 6
3 .3

7 .2
8. 1
8 .5
6 .0
5 .0

6 .7
6 .6
8 .4
5 .7
7 .5

6 .2
6 .7
5. 8
6 .1
5 .7

7 .3
7. 4
6. 5
6. 8
10. 0

5 .5
4. 5
6. 4
5. 7
6 .9

United States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st -----------------------------------S o u t h -------------------------------------------N orth C e n t r a l------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0

1 5 .8
1 2 .4
9 .8
23. 6
1 4.3

7.1
9-3
8 .7
3 .7
7 .4

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ------------F ood and kind red p ro d u c ts ----------T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ------------------T extile m ill p r o d u c t s --------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and fix t u r e s ----------- -------P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries -------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d i n d u s t r i e s -----------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p r o d u c t s -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------Stone, c la y , and g la ss
p rod u cts ----------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l i n d u s t r i e s ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t-------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p r o d u c t s ----------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u stries --------------------------------------

1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

52.1
1 4 .0
1 0 .0
7 .5

1 4.7
1 .0
3 .0

2 .1
4 .2
1 6 .8
4 .0

5 .7
2 .9
1 2 .7
1 1 .4

2 .1
3 .8
1 8 .5
1 1 .4

1 .4
5 .4
7 .2
1 3 .8

1 1 .0
5 .1
1 0 .8
9 .9

6 .8
6. 5
1 4 .3
6. 1

4. 0
8. 7
8 .2

2 .4
7 .9

1 00 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 00 .0

1 .4
1 .0
6 .2
1 7 .7

2 3 .5
1 9.8
6 .3
1 .5

1 0 .5
4 .9
3 .4
2 .3

16.1
2 .0
5 .4
.5

1 2 .9
4 .0
6 .7
3 .1

14. 8
9 .0
7 .7
1 .8

5 .9
3 .0
7 .0
3 .9

5 .0
6. 6
1 3 .8
6 .1

3 .4
1 1 .4
6 .9
5 .9

1 .8
6. 0
10. 4
4.1

1 0 0 .0

5 .6

5 .5

4 .3

4 .7

1. 6

4 .0

3 .2

4 .3

8 .8

5 .4

1 1 .6

4 .3

See footnotes at end o f table.




_

6. 7

1 00 .0

1 4 .9

.8

2 .9

3 .0

20. 7

10. 7

4 .0

7 .7

1 0 0 .0
1 00 .0

8 .4
7 .4

2.1
13.1

1 .2
7 .0

4 .7
1 8 .7

2 .0
2 5 .2

4. 5
8 .5

8.1
6 .5

6 .0
7 .0

3 .0
2 .1

6 .0
1 .6

1 00 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 00 .0

14. 5
1 1.9
1 3 .5
1 8 .5
51.1

7 .7
1 .5
3.1
2 .9
.8

1 .9
1 .9
4 .9
2 .6
-

6 .6
4 .9
5 .3
5 .1
8 .3

3 .5
1 .1
6 .6
6 .6
5 .3

3 .8
3 .6
4 .2
6 .1
4 .3

5 .6
6 .5
7 .5
1 1 .6
6. 7

6 .0
3 .0
8. 5
5 .2
(2 )

3 .9
1 9.2
6. 6
1 3 .4
3 .1

6 .0
2 .9
6 .2
4. 8
5. 0

1 0 0 .0

2 2 .3

4.1

4 .2

2 .5

6 .1

1 0 .8

5 .1

7.1

6. 5

4 .3

8 .8

7 .7

5 .6

2. 7

4 .6

1 00 .0

7 .6

13.5

7 .4

9 .4

9 .7

Table 18.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Overtime and Weekend Work Prem ium s in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts w ith— 1
2

R eg ion and in d u stry group

O v e rtim e and w eekend w o r k p re m iu m exp en d itures p e r hour p a id f o r o f —
---------n -------------------n ---------- --------- n ---------- ----------- T5----------- ---------- T5---------12
and
and
and
and
and
and
under
under
under
under
under
under
13
14
16
17
15
12
cents
cents
cen ts
cents
cents
cen ts

8
and
under
9
cents

-----------9----------and
under
10
cents

10
and
under
11
cents

United States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st ----------- ----------------------S o u t h -------------------------------------------N orth C en tra l ---------------------------W est --------------------------------------------

4 .1
4 .2
4 .8
3 .2
5 .5

4 .0
3 .8
3 .5
4 .5
4 .4

2 .9
2 .9
3 .2
2 .9
2 .6

2 .5
2 .2
2 .2
2 .4
4 .3

2 .5
2 .3
1 .8
2 .3
5 .4

1 .7
1 .6
1.1
2 .2
1 .5

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ------------F o o d and kindred p r o d u c t s -------------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s --------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c ts ------------F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts —---------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries --------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s -----------------------R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts -------------------------L e a th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------S ton e, c la y , and g la ss
p rod u cts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries -----------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in e ry , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion equipm en t ------------Instrum ents and rela te d

2 .6
5 .8

9 .3
8 .4

_
2 .0

.2
5 .6

4 .3
3 .5

_

-

2 .0
1 .3
1 .8
2 .6
2 .4

1 .3
1 .3
1 .0
1 .2
1 .8

0. 7
.8
.7
.7
.7

5 .0
4 .9
3 .8
5 .9
4 .5

_
.3

.3

_
3.1

-

-

.6

1 .4

1 .5
1 .3

2 .5
2 .2
3. 7

1 .1
2 .7
2 .8
2 .3

5 .8
3 .0
.5

.1
1 .8
2 .9
6 .1

.1
.7
4 .8
4 .3

7 .1

4 .0

3. 1

1 .6

5 .2
_

5 .5
3 .6

-

-

-

-

5 .4

3 .6

2. 7

1 .0

1 .5
9 .0
4 .6
4 .4

1 .4
4 .8
4 .3
2 .9

3 .6

2 .1

.9
-

17
cents
and
over

1.1

-

.4

.6

1 .8
.7
6 .1

.3
.6
.4
2 .9

.2
2 .4
.6
1 9 .8

1 .3

1. 5

2 2 .8

.

1 5.5

_

1 .2

3 .6

.6

2 .4

3. 7
1 .6

4 .7
.7

8 .3
.1

5 .9
.4

5. 7
.1

3 .1
-

3 .5
-

-

-

-

1 .9
6 .3
7 .3
1 .3
1 .5

3 .0
6 .0
6. 5
3 .6
2 .8

6 .0
5.1
2 .2
4 .6
2 .0

2 .9
2 .4
1 .4
1 .3
1 .5

7 .2
3 .0
4 .4
1 .2
2 .4

6 .2
3 .3
2 .3
1 .6
.8

4 .9
7 .8
.8
.4
.5

1 .4
2 .1
2 .4
.8
-

1 .2
.2
1. 7
1 .2
-

5 .9
7 .3
4 .5
7.2
3 .8

3 .0
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------------------

3 .6

.

2 .1

.8

3. 1

2 .6

1 .2

5 .8

5 .4

1.1

1 .8

1 .3

3 .0

5 .4

5 .0

.6

.7

-

-

-

6 .8

2 .6

1 In clu d es in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: B ecause o f rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




&

Table 19.

Distribution of Production and Related Workers by Expenditures fo r Shift Differentials in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

R egion and in d u stry group

W ork ers
D iffe r ­
entials
in all
e s ta b lis h ­
not
rep orted
m ents
sepa­
ra tely

No shift
d iffe r ­
ential
expendi­
tures

Shift d iffe re n tia l expen ditures p e r hour paid fo r o f—
Under
1
cent

1
and
under
2
cents

2
and
under
3
cents

3
and
under
4
cents

4
and
under
5
cents

5
and
under
6
cents

6
and
under
7
cents

7
and
under
8
cents

8
and
under
9
cents

9
and
under
10
cents

10
cents
and
over

0 .3
.3
.2
.3
.5

0. 7
1.1
.1
.7
.8

_
-

_
.
.2

.3

.1

1 .3

6 .4

U nited States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st ----------------------------------S o u t h -------------------------------------------N orth C e n tra l ---------------------------W est —.................................................

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 .7
1 .6
2 .3
1 .3
1 .8

3 9 .3
4 4 .4
5 0 .8
2 7 .9
35.1

9 .4
9 .2
9.1
1 0.0
8 .8

1 1 .4
9 .2
11.1
1 2 .9
15.1

1 0.2
9 .8
8 .4
1 1.9
9 .3

8. 7
9 .1
5 .9
9 .5
1 0 .0

8 .2
8 .0
5 .9
1 0 .0
7 .8

4 .3
3. 1
3 .6
6 .2
3 .3

3. 1
2 .3
1 .8
4 .5
3. 8

1 .7
1 .5
.5
2 .2
3 .3

1.1
.4
.3
2 .4
.6

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ------------F o o d and kin d red p r o d u c t s ------------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res -----------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ---------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s -------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries --------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la ted in d u stries -----------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------Stone, cla y , and g la ss
p rod u cts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s -------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e le c t r ic a l -----T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent ------------Instrum ents and rela ted
p rod u cts ----------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

0 .3
3. 1
3. 7
2 .4

7 .8
4 4 .4
5 0 .4
40. 1

7 .4
7.6
11 9
15.2

1 6 .6
1 9 .0
1 5 .0
2 8 .2

1 4 .8
8 .8
1 0.3
5 .9

5 .2
8 .4
3 .2

14.1
.8
8. 7
3 3

1 5 .4
6 .0
1 .0

2 .4
.9
.2

1 6 .0
.7
-

_
.4
.2

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

1 .0
4. 5

9 7 .6
7 1 .7
7 1.9
1 7 .0

1.9
9 .6
11.4
6.1

-

.6
.3
13 0

-

.3
4. 1

2 .0
.9

-

1 1 .7
10. 1
8 .5

.6

-

-

B eca u se of rou nding,




.8
.2
19. 4

-

100. 0

1 .5

47 8

11 7

4. 7

7 .3

3 .2

5 .4

4. 0

4 .2

1 .6

1 0 0 .0

5 .0

11.9

19. 0

-

7. 1

32. 1

2 0 .6

.4

2. 1

-

1 .8

_

_

100. 0
100. 0

1 .6
.5

1 7 .4
9 1 .2

7.1
5. 8

2 2 .5
1 .3

3 7.2
1 .2

8. 7
-

.5
-

2. 1
-

1 .3
-

.

1 .6
-

_
-

_
-

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 .8
.4
.8
.4
.3

35. 1
8 .8
3 6.2
2 8 .0
6 .9

1 4.4
6 .8
15.0
6. 6
4. 8

1 0 .5
5. 7
10. 7
14. 1
15. 7

1 0 .0
8 .4
9 .5
1 6 .5
10. 1

1 9 .9
1 1 .4
7 .2
9 .7
18. 8

6 .8
3 7 .8
3 .5
1 0 .6
1 2 .4

.7
2 .2
2. 7
1 .8
1 1 .4

-

-

-

1 .5
.1
4. 6
8 .8

1 .4
3 .4
4 .9
1 .5

.2
2 .5

2 6 .6

22. 2

9 .0

1 4 .6

4. 5

3 .3

8 .9

9 .8

_

_

7 0 .0

10. 0

7. 6

5 .6

2. 8

2 .0

1.1

.5

1 0 0 .0
100. 0

•9

1 Includes in d u stries not show n sep a ra tely .
N O TE :

-

3 .8
5 .2
2 5 .5

-

-

sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

.5
1 4 .4
5 .5
2 .5
8 .8

.9

-

_
.1

.2
1. 1
2 .9
.3
.6
_

.5

C h ap ter IV .

L e g a lly R eq u ired P a y m en ts

T o ta l L e g a lly R e q u ire d P aym en ts
F r o m the d e p r e s s io n o f the 1930*s the U nited States le a rn e d that, even
in a r ic h and p r o s p e r o u s co u n try th ere are p e r io d s w hen la r g e seg m en ts o f the
popu lation m a y su ffe r lo s s o f in co m e through no fault o f th eir ow n. The S o cia l
S e cu rity A ct w as a fo r m a l re c o g n itio n that the U nited States had p a s s e d fr o m
a ru ra l to an urban in d u str ia liz e d s o c ie t y in w h ich in dividu als w e re su b je ct to
ris k s w h ich they co u ld not m e e t a lon e. It e sta b lish e d the b a s ic co n ce p t o f s o c ia l
re s p o n s ib ility f o r p ro v id in g m ean s f o r sh arin g the r is k s .
A ll the le g a lly r e ­
q u ire d in su ra n ce p r o g r a m s a re in fa c t s o c ia l in su ra n ce through w h ich the w o rk e rs
p o o l the ris k s they sh a re in co m m o n but against w h ich they cannot p r o te c t th em ­
s e lv e s a lon e. W hile the individual w o r k s , both he and his e m p lo y e r m ake c o n ­
trib u tio n s , and he thus e a rn s his p r o te c tio n as he ea rn s his liv in g .
When he
su ffe r s a lo s s o f in co m e through u nem ploym en t, r e tir e m e n t, o r d isa b ility , o r
his fa m ily lo s e s its b rea d w in n er upon his death, paym ents a re m ade as a m a tter
o f righ t.
T h e re is no m ean s t e s t s . 2
1
W orkm en*s co m p e n sa tio n w as the fir s t le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su ra n ce p r o ­
g ra m to b e c o m e law in the United S ta tes.
The F e d e r a l G ov ern m en t p a sse d
the fir s t w o r k m e n s co m p e n sa tio n law o v e r 50 y e a r s ag o and in little o v e r a
decade a lm o st a ll the States and a ll the t e r r it o r ie s had w orkm en*s com p en sa tion
law s p ro te ctin g w o r k e r s .
The law s w e re d esig n ed to r e c o m p e n s e the w o r k e r
fo r in ju r ie s su sta in ed on the j o b . 22 O ld -a g e in su ra n ce and un em ploym en t c o m ­
p en sa tion w e r e b oth p a rt o f the b a s ic S o cia l S ecu rity A ct o f 1935.
T hey w e re
d e sig n e d to in su re the w o r k e r again st a l o s s o f a p o rtio n o f his in co m e when he
re tir e d o r lo s t his jo b .
In 1939, o ld -a g e in su ra n ce b e ca m e o ld -a g e and s u r ­
v iv o r
in su ra n ce (to p ro v id e f o r dependents), and in 1956, d isa b ility p r o v is io n s
w e re added.
The te m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce la w s, w h ich apply to w o r k e rs
in fou r States and in the r a ilr o a d in d u stry , w e re p a s s e d in the 1940* s . T hey
a re intended to p a r tia lly m aintain the w o rk e r *s in com e when he is in ca p a cita ted
b y n o n w o r k -in c u r r e d d is a b ility . 23
When the S o c ia l S e cu rity A ct was p a s s e d in 1935, about 28 oth er co u n ­
tr ie s a lre a d y had s o c ia l s e c u r it y sy ste m s o f fa ir ly b r o a d s c o p e . T hey in clu d ed
22 E u ropea n co u n trie s and A u stra lia , C h ile, Japan, New Z ea la n d , the Union
o f South A fr ic a , and U ruguay.
G erm an y in the 1880*s w as the f i r s t cou n try to
in trod u ce a g overn m en t s o c ia l in su ra n ce p r o g r a m . The G erm a n sy s te m o f s o c ia l
s e c u r it y through s o c ia l in su ra n ce w as soon adopted in C en tra l and E a ste rn E u rope
21 "T w e n ty Y e a rs o f U n em ploym ent In su ra nce in the U . S . A . , 1 9 3 5 -1 9 5 5 ,"
E m p loy m en t S e cu rity R e v ie w , A ugust 1955 (U .S . D epartm en t o f L a b o r , B u reau o f
E m p loy m en t S e c u r ity ), pp. 1 and 2.
W illia m L . M itch e ll, " P a s t and F uture
P e r s p e c t iv e s in S o c ia l S e c u r it y ," S o c ia l S ecu rity B u lletin , A ugust I960 (U .S . D e ­
pa rtm en t o f H ealth, E d u ca tion , and W e lfa re , S o c ia l S e cu rity A d m in istra tio n ),
pp. 1 and 2; and V ic t o r C h ristg a u , " O ld -A g e , S u r v iv o r s , and D isa b ility In su ra n ce
A fte r T w e n ty -F iv e Y e a r s ," p. 20 o f sam e is s u e .
22 State W o rk m e n ^ C om p en sa tion L a w s , B u ll. 161 (R e v is e d M ay I96 0).
(U .S . D epartm en t o f L a b o r , B u reau o f L a b o r Standards, I9 6 0 ), pp . 1 a n d 2.
23 E m p loy m en t S e cu rity R e v ie w , August 1955, op . c i t . , pp. 1 and 9;
M itc h e ll, S o c ia l S e cu rity B u lletin , A ugust I960, o p . c i t . , p . 2; C h ristg a u , S o cia l
S e cu rity B u lle tin , A ugust I96 0, o p . c i t . , pp. 20, 21, and 26; and M a rg a re t Dahm ,
E x p e r ie n ce and P r o b le m s U nder T e m p o r a r y D isa b ility In su ra n ce L aw s (U .S . D e ­
p a rtm en t o f L a b o r , B u rea u o f E m p loy m en t S e cu rity , O cto b e r 1955), p . 1.




47

48

and la te r in W e ste rn E u ro p e .
N ew Z ealan d , A u stra lia , Icela n d , and the Union
o f South A fr ic a , h o w e v e r, b a s e d th eir s o c ia l s e c u r ity s y ste m s on the s o c ia l a s ­
sista n ce p r in c ip le p io n e e r e d b y D en m ark in 1891.
(U nder the s o c ia l a ss is ta n ce
p r in c ip le , s o m e m ean s te s t is u su a lly a pp lied to d eterm in e e lig ib ility fo r b e n e f i t s .)
M o st o f th ese e a r ly s o c ia l s e c u r it y p r o g r a m s ou tside the U nited States p ro v id e d
p e n sio n s in c a s e o f o ld -a g e , in v a lid ity , and death; c a sh and m e d ic a l b en efits in
the even t o f s ic k n e s s ; w o rk a ccid e n t b e n e fits ; and often unem ploym en t b e n e fits . 24
In 1959, e m p lo y e r expen ditu res in the U nited States fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d
in su ra n ce eq u a led 4. 5 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in all
m an u factu rin g in d u strie s.
(See table 2 0 .) The paym ents g e n e ra lly w ent to in ­
su ra n ce fluids and w e r e in addition to the w o r k e r ^ g r o s s p a y . S o c ia l s e c u r ity ,
i. e . , o ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d is a b ility in su ra n ce (OASDI) c o m p r is e d a lm o st h alf
o f the ou tlay— 2. 2 p e r c e n t o f the p a y r o ll. The re m a in d e r w as d istrib u ted am ong
u n em ploym en t co m p e n sa tio n , 1 .4 p e r c e n t; w orkm en*s co m p e n s a tio n , 0 .8 p e r c e n t;
and te m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce , le s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.
T h ese sam e e x ­
p e n d itu re s , when e x p r e s s e d as cen ts p e r hour paid fo r , a v e ra g e d 4 .9 cen ts fo r
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , 3 .2 cen ts fo r u n em ploym en t co m p e n sa tio n , 1 .9 cen ts fo r w o r k ­
m e n ^ co m p e n sa tio n , and 0. 1 cen t f o r te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su ra n ce . The total
w as 10. 1 cen ts p e r hour p a id f o r b y all esta b lish m en ts in m a n u factu rin g.

S o c ia l S e cu rity (O ld -A g e , S u r v iv o r s , and D isa b ility In su ra n ce)
F r o m its in ce p tio n , the o ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d is a b ility in su ra n ce
p r o g r a m has c o v e r e d a ll w o r k e r s in in d u stry and c o m m e r c e e m p lo y e d b y c o m ­
pan ies w ith one o r m o r e e m p lo y e e s .
(L a ter am endm ents exten ded c o v e r a g e to
th ose e m p lo y e d on fa r m s , in p riv a te h ou seh old s, in g ov ern m en t, and in p riv a te
n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s , and to the s e l f-e m p l o y e d .) The p r o g r a m is su p p orted
b y jo in t w o r k e r -e m p lo y e r co n trib u tio n s . When the a ct b e ca m e e ffe c tiv e on Jan­
u a ry 1, 1937, the e m p loy er* s co n trib u tion w as 1 p e r c e n t o f the f i r s t $ 3 ,0 0 0
e a rn e d b y e a ch e m p lo y e e . B oth the rate and the b a s e o f the tax have g ra d u a lly
b e e n r a is e d until in 1959, the y e a r o f this study, it w as 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f the f i r s t
$ 4 ,8 0 0 e a rn e d b y e a ch e m p lo y e e . 25
C om pany expen ditu res in 1959 fo r OASDI a v e ra g e d 2. 2 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s
p a y r o ll fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in a ll in d u stries in m an u factu rin g. The ra tio s by
in d u stry grou p ran ged fr o m 2 .4 down to 1 .9 p e r c e n t, w ith the in d u stry ra tios
a rra y in g th e m se lv e s rou g h ly in in v e rs e re la tio n to in d u stry a v era ge h ou rly e a r n ­
in g s .
The h igh est expen ditu re ra tios— 2 .4 p e r c e n t— w e r e re p o r te d b y the lo w e r
paying t e x tile s , t o b a c c o , and le a th e r in d u stries g ro u p s; the lo w e s t ra tio s b y the
ord n a n ce and the prin tin g and pu blishing in d u stries (2 p e r c e n t) and the pletroleum
prod u cts in d u strie s (1 .9 p e r c e n t). In te r m s o f cen ts p e r hour paid fo r , the r e ­
v e r s e a rra n g e m e n t e x is te d .
L o w e r expen ditu res p e r hour w e re a s s o c ia te d with
the lo w e r paying in d u strie s and h igh er w ith the h igh er paying o n e s . The 3 .7 cents
p e r h ou r, r e p o r te d b y the a p p a rel and oth er fin ish ed te x tile s g rou p , w as the
lo w e s t expen ditu re and the 6 ce n ts , r e p o r te d b y the p r im a r y m eta ls g rou p , w as
the h igh est. The re la tio n sh ip s are a ccou n ted fo r by the nature o f the m eth od o f
con trib u tio n . C on tribu tion s w e r e 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f the w ork er*s g r o s s earn in gs and
the g r e a te r the h o u rly ea rn in gs the g re a te r the con trib u tion p e r hour that cou ld
be e x p e cte d .
Since th ere w as a cu to ff at $ 4 ,8 0 0 , h o w e v e r, the m axim u m that

24 D aniel S. G e r ig , " A Q u a rter C entury o f S o cia l S e cu rity A b r o a d ," S o cia l
S e cu rity B u lle tin , A ugust I960 (U. S. D epartm en t o f H ealth, E du cation , and W e l­
fa r e , S o c ia l S e c u r ity A d m in istra tio n ), pp. 5 9 -6 1 .
25 C h ristg a u , S o cia l S e c u r ity B u lletin , A ugust I960, o p . c i t . , pp. 20, 21,
23, and 27.



49
co u ld be con trib u te d p e r w o r k e r w as $ 120 fo r the y e a r , and this m axim u m w as
a s m a lle r p r o p o r tio n o f the ea rn in gs o f a high paid w o r k e r than o f th ose o f a
lo w p a id w o r k e r ,
(See table 2 0 .)
U n em ploym ent C om pen sa tion
U nem ploym en t co m p e n sa tio n is in su ra n ce against a p o rtio n o f w age lo s s
when the w o r k e r lo s e s his jo b .
F o r the individu al, it p r o v id e s a m ean s fo r
m eetin g his b ills during te m p o r a r y u nem ploym ent.
F o r the com m u n ity, when
th ere is a w ave o f la y o ffs , it h elps to m aintain p u rch a sin g p o w e r in the a re a
and le s s e n s the im p a ct o f la y o ff.
W is co n s in a p p rov ed the f i r s t unem ploym ent
co m p e n sa tio n law in the U nited States on January 28, 1932, when 8 m illio n
A m e r ic a n s — 16 p e r c e n t o f the la b o r fo r c e — w e re u n em p loy ed .
T his a ction w as
the cu lm in a tion o f 10 y e a r s o f le g is la tiv e d is c u s s io n in the State.
F or years,
th ere had b e e n in te r e s t in the U nited States in the s u b je ct, but it took the d e ­
vastatin g d e p r e s s io n o f the 1930!s and the S o cia l S e cu rity A ct o f 1935 to m ake
the p r e s e n t State u n em ploym en t in su ra n ce s y ste m s a r e a lity .
The u n em p loy ­
m en t co m p e n sa tio n p r o g r a m , unlike the o ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d isa b ility in ­
su ra n ce p r o g r a m , is not an e x c lu s iv e F e d e r a l G ov ern m en t s y s te m .
The S o cia l
S e cu rity A ct did not se t up a F e d e r a l s y s te m ; it p ro v id e d a tax in centive fo r
the e sta b lish m e n t o f jo in t F e d e r a l-S ta te s y s te m s .
The a ct le v ie d a 1-p e r c e n t
tax on the 1936 p a y r o lls (2 p e r c e n t on the 1937 p a y r o lls , and 3 p e r c e n t t h e r e ­
a fte r ) o f e m p lo y e r s o f eigh t o r m o r e w o r k e rs in c o m m e r c e and in d u stry , but
p r o v id e d an o ffs e t again st the F e d e r a l tax i f a State p a s s e d an a p p roved u n em ­
p loy m en t in su ra n ce la w .
E m p lo y e r s co u ld take c r e d it up to 90 p e r c e n t o f the
F e d e r a l tax fo r paym ents m ade to an a p p roved State s y s te m .
In the m onths
o f A p r il through A ugust 1935, C a lifo rn ia , M a ss a ch u se tts, N ew H a m p sh ire, New
Y o rk , Utah, and W ashington p a s s e d un em ploym en t com p e n sa tio n law s in a n tic i­
pation o f the p a s sa g e o f the S o c ia l S ecu rity A c t. B y June 30, 1937, when Illin o is
e n a cted its la w , a ll 48 S ta tes, the then t e r r it o r ie s o f A la sk a and H aw aii, and
the D is t r ic t o f C olu m b ia w e r e cou n ted under the F e d e ra l-S ta te s y s te m . 27
The tax o ffs e t p r o v is io n s o f the F e d e r a l a ct r e s u lte d in the States adopting
taxes o f at le a s t 2 .7 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll and the F e d e r a l G o v e rn m e n t^ c o l ­
le c tin g 0 .3 p e r c e n t.
In 1959, the standard rate w as 2 .7 p e r c e n t in a ll States
e x c e p t N orth D akota, but so m e States had p r o v is io n s fo r m ax im u m ra te s above
2.7 p e r c e n t to take c a r e o f reven u e n e e d s . In addition, e x p e r ie n c e -r a tin g s y s te m s
w e r e in e ffe c t in a ll States e x c e p t A la sk a .
U nder th e se , the in dividu al e m ­
p l o y e e s co n trib u tion rate can be re d u ce d b e lo w the standard rate on rhe b a s is
o f his u n em ploym en t e x p e r ie n c e . In 1939, the b a se fo r the tax, under the F e d e r a l
la w , w as changed fr o m total g r o s s p a y to the f i r s t $ 3, 000 e a rn ed b y e a ch w o r k e r .
In 1959, the b a se fo r the State tax w as $ 3 , 000 in a ll e x ce p t s ix S tates.
The
p r o g r a m is a lm o st e n tir e ly e m p lo y e r fin a n ced .
O nly 10 States have e v e r c o l ­
le c t e d con trib u tion s fr o m w o r k e r s ; in 1959 on ly 3 States did s o .
Since the
o r ig in a l e n a ctm en ts, the m in im u m s iz e o f fir m c o v e r e d has b een re d u ce d under
the F e d e r a l as w e ll as under a ll the State l a w s .28

26 E m p loy m en t S e cu rity R e v ie w , A ugust 1955, o p . c i t . , pp. 1, 3, and 4.
27 Ib id ., pp. 1, 6, 9, and 10; "U n em p loym en t In su ra n ce in the USA, 1956—60, M
E m p loy m en t S e cu rity R e v ie w , A ugust I960 (U .S . D epartm en t o f L a b o r , B u reau o f
E m p loy m en t S e c u r ity ), p. T; and C h ristg a u , S o cia l S e cu rity B u lle tin , August I960,
op . c i t . , p . 50.
28 E m p loy m en t S e c u r ity R e v ie w , A ugust I960, op . c i t . , pp. 2, 6, and 7;
C h ristg a u , S o cia l S e cu rity B u lle tin , August I960, op . c i t . , pp. 52 and 56; and
C o m p a riso n o f State U nem ploym en t In su ra nce L aw s as o f January 1, I96 0, BES
N o. U -141 (U .S . D epartm en t o f L a b o r , B u reau o f E m p loy m en t S e cu rity , I96 0),
pp. 17, 18, and 20.




50

F o r the m o s t p a r t, th ere w as an in v e rs e rela tion sh ip in 1959 betw een
the in d u stry -e x p e n d itu re s ra tio s fo r u n em ploym en t co m p en sa tion and in d u stry a v ­
e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s; as ea rn in gs in c r e a s e d , the ra tio s g e n e ra lly d e clin e d . The
h igh est ratio— 2, 4 p e r c e n t— w as r e p o r te d b y the a p p a rel and oth er fin is h e d tex tile
p ro d u cts in d u str ie s; the lo w e s t— 0 .6 p e r c e n t— b y the p e tro le u m refin in g and r e ­
la te d in d u str ie s.
The ra tio r e p o r te d b y the tra n sp orta tion equipm ent grou p o f
in d u strie s w as som ew h at high r e la tiv e to av era g e h ou rly e a rn in g s , p o s s ib ly r e ­
fle c tin g b oth the a d v e rse e ffe c t , on e x p e rie n ce ra tin g s , o f ir r e g u la r em p loy m en t
in the a u tom ob ile in d u stry , and the som ew h at h igh er con trib u tion ra tes in the
p r in c ip a l States w h ere a u tom ob iles a re p ro d u ce d .
A lthough e m p lo y e r c o n trib u ­
tions are a fix e d p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r fs pay, the am ount o f individual e a r n ­
ings su b je c t to tax is lim ite d . A s a r e s u lt, a fter the poin t o f m axim u m c o n t r i­
bution is r e a c h e d , a d e clin e in the expenditure ra tio can be e x p e cte d as av era g e
ea rn in gs r i s e .
H o w e v e r, the ra tio f o r an in d u stry grou p is a lso in flu en ced b y
the rate o f con trib u tion under e x p e r ie n c e -r a tin g p r o v is io n s , w h ich v a r ie s fr o m
State to State and fr o m e sta b lish m e n t to esta b lish m en t.

W hen e x p e n d itu re s, in te r m s o f cen ts p e r hour p a id f o r , w e re re la te d
to a v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s , no d efin itiv e pattern e m e r g e d . B oth the h igh est and
the lo w e s t ra tes w e r e r e p o r te d b y two o f the h igh er paying in d u stry grou ps—
tra n sp o rta tio n equ ipm en t, 4 .2 cen ts and p e tr o le u m , 1 .7 cen ts— p ro b a b ly r e fle ctin g
d iffe r e n c e s in sta b ility o f e m p loy m en t.
W o rk m e n 1 s C om p en sa tion
The F e d e r a l G overn m en t le d the w ay in granting to w o r k e rs the p r o te c tio n
o f w o r k m e n ^ co m p e n sa tio n in su ra n ce .
In 1908, it p a s s e d a law to c o v e r its
own c iv il e m p lo y e e s .
T h re e y e a r s la te r , w o rk m e n 1s co m p en sa tion p r o te c tio n
b e c a m e law in 10 States and b y 1920, 42 States and the t e r r it o r ie s co u ld be
cou n ted am ong th ose having su ch la w s.
It w as not until 1948, h o w e v e r, that
w o r k m e n ^ co m p e n sa tio n b e c a m e u n iv e rsa l throughout the U nited S t a t e s .2
9

P r i o r to the p a s sa g e o f the w o r k m e n ^ com p e n sa tio n la w s, an in ju red
w o r k e r had to turn to the c o u rts fo r r e d r e s s .
He had to file su it against his
e m p lo y e r and p r o v e that the in ju ry was due to the e m p lo y e r ^ n e g lig e n ce .
In
ju r is d ic tio n s w h ere th ere w e r e no e m p lo y e r s 1 lia b ility la w s, ev en if the e m p lo y e r
w as p ro v e n n eg lig en t he c o u ld e s c a p e dam age paym ents if he p r o v e d that the
in ju ry w as due to the o r d in a r y r is k s o f the w o rk , that it w as ca u se d b y the n e g ­
lig e n c e o f a fe llo w w o r k e r , o r that the e m p lo y e e fs own n e g lig e n ce had con trib u ted
to the in ju ry . W h ere the c o m m o n law had b een r e p la c e d b y e m p lo y e r ls lia b ility
a c t s , the e m p lo y e r rs r e s p o n s ib ility had b een b ro a d e n e d .
E ven in th ese c a s e s ,
h o w e v e r, it often m ean t that the in ju red w o r k e r had to r e s o r t to c o s t ly and tim e
con su m in g n e g lig e n ce s u its, w ith the ou tcom e alw ays in d o u b t .30
A bout h alf o f the w o r k m e n ^ co m p en sa tion law s in the U nited States are
c o m p u ls o r y and the re m a in d e r are e le c tiv e fo r m o s t o f the em p loy m en ts c o v e r e d .
U nder c o m p u ls o r y la w s , the e m p lo y e r is r e q u ire d to p r o v id e his e m p lo y e e s the
p r o te c tio n s o f the law and an in ju re d w o r k e r r e c e iv e s b en efits w ithout having to
initiate c o u r t a ctio n .
The b e n e fits g e n e r a lly inclu d e m e d ic a l s e r v i c e s , m a in ­
ten a n ce, reh a b ilita tio n s e r v i c e s , paym ents fo r d isfig u re m e n t, and death b e n e fits .
U nder e le c tiv e la w s , the e m p lo y e r has the option o f r e je c tin g the a ct, and under
su ch c ir c u m s ta n c e s the w o r k e r w ould have to su e.
F ew e m p lo y e r s , h o w e v e r,

29 State W o rk m e n 1 s C om p en sa tion L a w s , o p . c i t . , p . 1.
30 I b i d ., pp. 1 and 2.




51

r e je c t c o v e r a g e b e c a u se in so doing they lo s e the c u s to m a r y com m on law d e ­
fe n s e s . The m eth od o f in su ra n ce v a r ie s fr o m State to State. It m a y in clu d e in ­
su ra n ce th rou gh a State fund, through p riv a te c a r r i e r , o r through s e lf-in s u r a n c e . 3
1
The net ex p en d itu res o f co m p a n ie s qualifying as s e lf-in s u r e r s a re in clu d ed in
this su r v e y .
E x pen ditu res fo r w o r k m e n ^ com p en sa tion a v e ra g e d 0 .8 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s
p a y r o ll fo r a ll m an u factu rin g in d u stries in 1959. The in d u stry grou p expenditure
r a t io s , when a r r a y e d in a scen d in g o r d e r , in c r e a s e d b y a tenth o f a p e r c e n t fr o m
0 .4 p e r c e n t through 1 .2 percent* and then ju m p ed to 2 .4 p e r c e n t. The 0 .4 p e r ­
cen t w as r e p o r te d b y the t o b a c c o , the ord n a n ce , and the p rin tin g in d u s trie s ; the
1 .2 p e r c e n t r e p r e s e n te d the expen ditu res o f the fu rn itu re and fix tu re s in d u strie s;
and the 2 .4 p e r c e n t the lu m b e r and w ood p ro d u cts in d u s trie s . The m agnitude o f
the in d u stry r a tio s a p p ea red to be a s s o c ia te d m o r e w ith the nature o f the o p e r a ­
tions than w ith any oth er f a c t o r .
On the b a s is o f cen ts p e r hour p aid f o r , the
v a ria tio n s betw een in d u strie s in a v era g e h ou rly ea rn in gs ca u se d a slig h t r e ­
a rra n g em en t o f the o r d e r o f the g ro u p s, but the b a s ic p a ttern did not change.
The to b a c c o in d u strie s s t ill had the lo w e st ex p en d itu res— 0 .6 cen t p e r hour paid
fo r — and the lu m b e r in d u strie s the h igh est— 4 .3 ce n ts.

O ther L e g a lly R e q u ire d In su ra n ce
O ther le g a lly r e q u ir e d b e n efits c o n s is te d a lm o st e n tir e ly o f te m p o r a r y
d is a b ility in su ra n ce .
(The o n ly o th er p r o g r a m re p o r te d to this su rv e y in v olv ed
s m a ll e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to the Ohio D isa b led W o rk m e n ^ R e lie f F u n d .)
T e m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce is the m o s t re ce n t le g a lly r e q u ir e d p r o g r a m o f
in co m e m ain ten an ce fo r the w o r k e r .
It p r o v id e s ca s h b en efits to the w o r k e r
who is unable to w o rk b e c a u se o f n o n w o rk -co n n e cte d illn e s s o r a ccid e n t. T e m ­
p o r a r y d isa b ility law s e x is t o n ly in C a lifo rn ia , New J e r s e y , N ew Y o rk , and Rhode
Isla n d .
(In addition , r a ilr o a d w o r k e rs e n jo y these b en efits through F e d e r a l
le g i s l a t i o n .) The R hode Isla n d law w as en a cted in M ay 1942, the C a lifo rn ia p r o ­
g ra m in M ay 1946, N ew J e rse y * s in June 1948, and N ew Y ork*s in A p r il 1949.
A s in the c a s e o f the oth e r su p p lem en ta ry b en efits s e le c te d fo r study, on ly e m ­
p lo y e r con trib u tion s a re c o v e r e d in this su rv e y . The e m p lo y e r m u st con trib u te
to the te m p o r a r y d isa b ility p r o g r a m in N ew J e r s e y and m a y , under c e rta in c i r ­
c u m s ta n c e s , con trib u te in N ew Y o rk and C a lifo rn ia .
In R hode Isla n d , the p r o ­
g ra m is e m p lo y e e fin a n ced . 32
B e ca u se o f th eir v e r y lim ite d a rea s o f a p p lica tio n , the " o t h e r 1 le g a lly
1
r e q u ir e d paym en ts w e r e not s ta t is tic a lly sig n ifica n t on a national o r in d u stry
b a s is . T h ese paym en ts a v e ra g e d le s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r all
m an u factu rin g in d u s tr ie s .
The o n ly in d u stry grou ps in w h ich they equ aled even
0. 1 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll w e r e a p p a rel, p e tr o le u m , in stru m e n ts, and m i s c e l ­
lan eou s m an u factu rin g in d u str ie s.

3 I b i d ., pp. 2 and 3.
1
32 D ig e st o f One H undred S e le cte d H ealth and In su ra n ce Plains U nder C o l­
le c tiv e B a rg a in in g , E a r ly 1958, BPS B u ll. 1236 (1958), appendix A , pp. 2 4 5 -2 4 7 ;
and D ahm , E x p e r ie n ce and P r o b le m s U nder T e m p o r a r y D isa b ility In su ra n ce L a w s ,
o p . c i t . , pp . 1, 14, and 15.




Table 20.

A verage Expenditures for Legally Required Payments by A ll Establishments, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

U nited States 1
2
N orth ea st
South
N orth C en tra l
W est
_

------

O rd n a n ce and a c c e s s o r ie s ----F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts _ _
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s _
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u stries
R u b b er and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts
L ea th er and lea th er

Cents p e r plant m a n -h o u r

C ents p e r hour p a id fo r

P e r c e n t o f s tra ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll

P e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

U nU nUnUne m - W o rk ­
e m - W o rk ­
e m - W o rk ­
em W ork ­
S o cia l
S o cia l
S o cia l
S o cia l
p lo y - men* s
p i ° y - men* s
p i ° y - men* s
p i ° y - men* s
secu ­
secu ­
secu ­
secu ­
c o m - O ther 1
c o m ­ Othe r 1 T otal
m ent
m ent
m ent
c o m ­ O t h e r 1 T otal
m ent
c o m ­ O th e r1 T otal
T ota l
rity
rity
rity
rity
com ­
com pen­
com penpen­
p en ­
com ­
(OASDI)
(OASDI) p e n ­
(OASDI)
(OASDI)
sation
p e n - sation
pensation
sation
p en ­
sation
sation
sation
sation

4 .7
5 .0
4 .7
4 .2
5 .3

2. 3
2. 3
2. 3
2 .2
2. 3

1 .5
1 .8
1 .4
1. 3
1 .7

0 .9
.9
.9
.7
1 .2

(3 )
0 .1
(3 )
.1

10. 1
1 0.7
8 .2
9 .9
1 2.6

4 .9
4 .8
4. 1
5 .2
5 .4

3 .2
3 .7
2 .5
3 .0
4. 1

1 .9
1 .9
1 .5
1 .7
2 .9

0. 1
.2
(3 )
.2

10.7
1 1 .4
8 .5
1 0.6
13. 3

5 .2
5. 1
4. 3
5 .6
5 .7

3 .4
4 .0
2 .6
3 .2
4. 3

2 .0
2 .0
1 .6
1 .9
3. 1

0. 1
.3
(3)
.2

0
0
0

(3)

3 .8
5 .0
4 .8
5. 1

2. 1
2. 3
2 .4
2 .5

1. 3
1 .5
2 .0
1 .9

.4
1 .2
.4
.7

(*)
*
?)
(3 )

10. 1
1 0 .0
7 .7
7 .9

5 .4
4 .6
3 .9
3 .8

3 .5
2 .9
3 .2
2 .9

1 .2
2. 3
.6
1. 1

(3 )
. 1
(3 )
. 1

1 1 .0
1 0.6
8 .2
8 .2

5 .9
4 .9
4. 1
4 .0

3 .8
3. 1
3 .4
3 .0

1. 3
2 .5
.7
1 .1

(3 )
.1
(3 )
. 1

.5
2 .4
1 .2
.9

. 1
(?)
(3)
(3)

5 .4
6 .7
5 .2
4 .4

2 .4
2 .4
2 .4
2. 3

2 .4
1 .8
1 .6
1 .1

.5
2 .5
1 .2
.9

.1
(?)
?)
(3 )

8 .4
1 1.7
9 .5
9 .2

3 .7
4 .2
4 .4
4 .8

3 .8
3 .2
2 .9
2. 3

.8
4 .3
2 .2
2. 0

.2
(?)
(3 )
. 1

8 .7
12. 1
1 0 .0
9 .8

3 .8
4. 3
4 .6
5. 1

3 .9
3. 3
3 .0
2 .4

.9
4 .4
2. 3
2. 1

(!)
(3)
.i

.4

(3)

3 .5

2. 1

.9

.5

. 1

9 .0

5. 3

2 .4

1 .2

(3 )

9 .6

5 .6

2 .6

1. 3

.i

. 1

9 .0

5 .7

1 .7

1 .4

.2

10. 0

6. 3

1 .9

1. 6

.2

5. 1

2 .9

1 .8

. 1

1 0.6

5 .5

3 .1

1 .9

. 1

4 .5
4 .8
4 .5
4 .0
5. 0

2 .2
2 .2
2 .2
2. 1
2 .2

1 .4
1 .7
1 .4
1 .2
1 .6

0 .8
.8
.8
.7
1 .2

3 .7
4 .7
4 .7
4 .9

2 .0
2 .2
2 .4
2 .4

1 .3
1 .4
1 .9
1 .8

.4
1. 1
.4
.7

5. 3
6 .4
5 .0
4. 1

2.
2.
2.
2.

3
3
3
1

2 .4
1 .8
1 .5
1 .0

3. 3

2. 0

.9

(3 )
0. 1
(3)
.1

.2

1 .9

.6

.5

.1

3 .1

1 .9

.6

.5

2 .2

1. 3

.8

(3)

4 .4

2 .3

1. 3

.8

(3 )

9 .9

5. 1
S ton e, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s ______ —__ __ ___ ___
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s t r ie s ___
F a b r ic a te d m eta l p r o d u c t s __
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t
e l e c t r i c a l _____ -___ ____ ___ —
T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm en t —
In stru m en ts and r e la te d
p r o d u c t s ___________ ________
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u s tries

3 .0
4 .2

2 .4

2 .0

.7

(3)

5 .2

2 .4

2 .0

.8

(3 )

8 .6

4 .0

3. 3

1 .2

(3 )

9 .0

4 .2

3 .5

1 .3

.1

4 .9
4. 3
4 .7

2 .2
2. 1
2 .2

1 .5
1 .4
1 .4

1. 1
.8
1 .0

8

(3)

5. 1
4 .5
4 .9

2. 3
2 .2
2 .3

1 .6
1 .4
1 .5

1 .2
.8
1. 1

(?)
(?)
(3)

1 0 .8
12. 1
11. 3

4 .9
6 .0
5 .2

3 .3
3 .9
3 .5

2 .5
2 .2
2 .5

. 1
(3 )
. 1

1 1 .4
13. 1
1 2 .0

5 .2
6 .5
5 .6

3 .5
4 .2
3 .7

2 .6
2 .4
2 .7

.1
(3 )
.1

4 .0
4. 3

2. 1
2. 1

1. 1
1 .6

.7
.6

(3 )
(3)

4 .2
4 .5

2 .2
2 .2

1 .2
1 .6

.8
.6

(?)
(3 )

1 0 .4
1 1 .4

5 .5
5 .6

2 .9
4 .2

1 .9
1 .6

. 1
. 1

11.1
12. 3

5 .8
6 .0

3. 1
4 .5

2. 0
1 .7

.1
. 1

3 .9

2. 1

1 .2

.5

. i

4. 1

2 .2

1 .2

.5

. 1

9 .2

5 .0

2 .8

1 .2

.2

9 .9

5 .4

3 .0

1. 3

.2

5 .0

2. 3

1 .7

.9

.i

5 .2

2 .4

1 .8

1 .0

. 1

9 .3

4 .2

3 .2

1 .7

. 1

9 .8

4 .5

3 .4

1 .8

.1

1 O ther c o n s is t s a lm o s t e n t ir e ly o f te m p o ra ry d isa b ility in su ra n ce.
2 In clu des in d u stries not show n sep a ra tely .
3 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r 0 .0 5 cen t.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




Table 21.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Legally Required Payments
as a Percent of G ross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
Percent of w orkers in establishments with—
L e g a lly r e q u ire d paym ents as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f—

R e g io n and in d u stry group

in aix
e s ta b ­
lishm ents

1
and
under
2
D ercent

2
and
under
3
D ercent

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
D ercent

5
and
under
6
D ercent

6
and
under
7
D ercent

7
and
under
8
D ercent

3 .7
5 .2
2 .6
1 .5
8 .5

8and
under
9
p e rce n t

9
and
under
10
D ercent

10
and
under
11
p e rce n t

1 .7
1. 1
3 .9
.9
1. 3

0. 3
. 1
.4
.2
1 .5

0 .4
.3
.3
. 1
1 .9

0. 3
.2
.5
.4
-

11
p e rce n t
and
over

U nited States 1 ______ ______________
N orth ea st
S o u th ____________________________
N orth C en tra l
W est

1 00 .0
100.0
100 .0
100 .0
100 .0

0. 3
.2
.3
.5
.3

7 .9
3. 3
7 .4
1 3 .7
5. 1

2 6 .7
1 7.9
27. 3
3 8 .0
18. 0

2 7 .9
2 9 .6
2 8 .2
2 6 .5
2 6 .1

21. 1
2 8 .4
2 1 .2
1 2.7
24. 1

9 .7
1 3.6
8. 1
5 .5
13. 1

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s _______
F o o d and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ______ _____
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts

100 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0
100. 0

4 .6
.4
■

1 2 .4
5 .8
.6

4 7 .2
2 3 .0
3 1 .2
2 2 .6

2 2 .9
2 5 .4
2 6 .2
31. 3

1 2 .8
1 8 .7
2 4 .8
29. 3

*
10.1
1 1 .8
4 .4

_
3 .6
3 .2
“

_

_

_

1 2 .7
2 .6
1 1 .9

.3
“

.2
■

“

100 .0
100 .0
100 .0
100 .0

1 .2
“

.2
1 .0
1. 1
9 .3

12. 3
6 .8
1 8.8
4 1 .9

1 6.7
16. 1
2 9 .8
2 6 .6

4 3 .7
2 1 .7
2 9 .6
1 6 .2

2 0 .2
1 9.6
13. 1
3 .6

4 .4
8 .5
6. 3
2 .4

2 .5
9 .9
1 .1
■

3 .2
. 1

6 .6
~

5 .4
.2
"

100 .0

3 .4

32. 0

3 9.6

1 5.9

8 .5

.1

. 1

-

.4

“

“

100 .0

4 .0

5 9 .5

2 1 .5

7 .8

5 .7

1 .5

“

1 00.0
1 00 .0

“

8. 3
1. 1

3 7 .0
14. 1

24. 0
2 7 .4

1 7.9
3 8 .2

9 .4
1 4.7

2 .8
3. 3

.7
.9

“

-

.3

1 00 .0
100.0
1 00 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0

"

2 .4
7 .4
1 .8
15. 3
9 .0

2 1 .7
3 9.9
2 7 .6
3 3 .2
3 1 .4

33. 0
28. 3
3 6 .2
3 5.7
3 2 .7

2 5 .9
1 2 .7
1 8.9
1 0 .5
1 9.9

7 .7
6 .9
9 .3
2 .5
4 .5

4 .4
1 .8
4 .5
2 .4
.9

3. 3
3. 1
.9
.3
.5

.5
.4
.8

.7
.4
.4

. 3
-

100 .0

-

2 1 .6

2 6 .8

3 6 .8

1 2 .0

2 .8

(2 )

-

"

"

1 6.7

2 9 .6

2 3 .6

1 9.7

8 .5

.9

F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s ________________
P e tro le u m re fin in g and
r e la te d i n d u s t r i e s ______________
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts
L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts ____
Stone, c la y , and g la ss
p rod u cts
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries
F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p rod u cts
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l __ _
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t _______
In strum ents and re la te d
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u stries

100 .0

1. 0

In clu des in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely .
L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.
NOTE:

B eca u se o f rou nding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals,




_

Table 22.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Expenditures for Legally Required Payments in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P ercent o f w orkers in establishments with—

R e g io n and in d u stry group

W o rk e rs
in a ll
e s ta b ­
lish m en ts

L e g a lly re q u ire d paym ents p e r hou r paid f o r o f—
3
and
under
4
cents

4
and
under
5
cen ts

1.6

5
and
under

6

cents

U nited States 1 __ ________ __ _______
N orth ea st
__ __ _
__ _____
South - ___ ____ _
N orth C en tra l
__ __ _____ __
W est ..............................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0 .4
. 1

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s _ .
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s __ _________
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________
A p p a re l and o th er fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts
„
__
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _____
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
__ __ __
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s __ ___ _
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ___
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s t r i e s _______ ____
R u b ber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts _ ___
_ __
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts _____
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s _____ _
— _ __
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries
F a b r ic a te d m eta l p rod u cts
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t _______
In strum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts ___________ __
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing

100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0

_
. 1
.5
■

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.8
1.6
-

3. 1
3 .0
3 .9

8.

100.0

.5

4. 2
1 .4




9 .4
4 .6

7
and
tinder

8

cents

8

and
under
9
cents

10

9
and
under

and
tinder

cen ts

cents

12. 2

10

11

. 3
.1

21.6

3 .4
.4

9 .2
1 .7

11. 3
9 .6
17. 3
12. 2

1.6

1 3.8
1 3.8
1 4 .4
15. 1
8. 3

1 2.7
1 3.9
7. 7
1 4 .4
14. 0

11.5

_
7. 3
2. 3
1 3.9

4 .6
7 .6
2 9 .2
2 5 .8

8 .9
8. 1
27. 5
19. 3

1 8 .4
1 5 .8
2 7 .4
7. 5

17. 5
1 3.7
7 .4
9 .8

17. 1
14.8
5 .2
7. 0

7 .9
3
7. 8
4. 0

2 0 .4
12. 5
9. 1
10. 7

1 5.9

6. 3
11.6

11.2
8.0

1 7 .7

1 3 .2
20. 1

1 2 .4
4 .8
7. 3
1 4 .4

12.8

.6

1.2

2.6

6.8

11.8

13.6

.4
4. 1
1. 5
1. 0
_

1.0

.5
5 .0

12. 0

"

■

100. 0
100.0

1 .9

1 .4
1 .5

7. 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.
-

1

1. 3

2.0

.2

1.6

.4

1 .4
.9

.8

16. 7

6. 0
11.6

6 .5
18.6
10. 9

1 2.9

18.

1

1 7.9

2 3 .7

100. 0

2 0 .9

22. 5

10.8

“

7 .6
1 6.6

8.8

1 2 .9
2 3 .8

2 7 .9
7. 3

9 .8
9 .1

8. 1

10. 1
9 .9
1 1 .4
1 7 .7
8. 1

23. 0

4 .9
.7
5. 0
3 .9

2.6

100. 0

-

1. 1

2.6

11.8

100.0

.7

2. 3

5 .5

7 .6

___________________
See footn ote at end o f table

6

and
under
7
cen ts ....

1 6.5

6. 3

10.6
11. 1

1. 7
9 .2
13. 1
7. 3

13. 3
1 2 .7

17. 3

24. 1

1 0 .9

1 2.7

1

11. 3

1 8.7

19.

0

8 .9

10.8

16.

11.9
13. 0

Table 22.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Expenditures for Legally Required Payments in Cents P er Hour Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
Percent of workers in establishments with—
L e g a lly re q u ire d paym ents p e r hour p a id fo r o f—

11

R e g io n and in d u stry group

and
under

12

U nited States 1
N orth ea st
South
N orth C en tra l
W est
~

. . .

- -

10.2

..................

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ------------F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ------------T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ------------------T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
-----—
A p p a rel and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p r o d u c t s ______________ ——
L u m b er and w o o d p rod u cts -------—
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries
..
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s trie s
_.
-----R u b ber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p ro d u c ts .
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts ---- -—
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u cts ___ —-------------------------— ■
—
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries' ------ --—
F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm en t _
_
In strum ents and re la te d
p r o d u c t s ---------- ----------- ----------- ——
M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s --------------------------------------

1

10. 3
1 2 .4
6 .4
11. 3

12

and
under
13
cents

7 .8
8. 3
4. 1
8 .5
1 1.9

1.8

1 9.5
7. 1
6 .9

7 .2
1 .4

2 .7

2. 0

6 .9
9 .4

5 .9
4 .4
5 .5

5 .0

6.8

2 .4
3 .9
.4
1 .7
3 .4

1 .5
1 .7
. 3
1 .7
2 .5

0 .7
.3
. 1
.7
3. 5

0.6
1.0
. 3
.4

1.2

0 .4
.6
.2
1. 0

.5
.2
.6
6. 3

-

-

.4
“

.1
“

.7
-

.2
“

3 .7
4 .6
1. 0
3. 3
8. 3

3 .5
9 .8
“

8. 7

.8
8. 1

5 .6

6.2
2.8
5 .0
1 1.9

_

18
and
under
19
_c_gnts_____

19
and
under

20

cen ts______

.8

1.8

1.8

1. 3

*
.2

1.6

. 3
3. 4
.6
“

.8

1. 5
2. 3
.2

2. 3
. 1
“

2. 0

7 .2
1 .9

3 .2
6 .4
5 .2
4. 4

3. 1
.7
“

1 .5
"

3 .7

3 .8

.7

.8

.3

.3

.9

1. 2

.
,

20
ancj
over

1 .1

5 .9

1 3.8

.4

.8

12.8
8.6

9 .7
4 .7

3. 1
.9

16.7
1 3.2
1 3 .4
18.9
13. 1

11. 3
26. 3

3. 7
-

6.8

"
2.0
.7

2

.7
.4

.8
.2

.2
.3

.5
3 .7
1. 8
1. 0
4. 3

1.6

.4
.9
1. 7
.8

1.0

1.2

.9

»4

10.2

10.1

6.0

5 .6
13. 1

12.2

6. 2

. 3
5 .8
4 .6
3 .6
4. 3

7 .6

2 .5

1 .9

.3

7 .7

.2

.5

c

.7

5 .7

6 .5

7 .5

4. 1

4. 2
8 .5
2. 5

B e ca u s e o f rou nding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.




17
and
under
18
cents

15
and
under
16
cen ts

In clu des in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely .

N OTE:

16
and
under
17
cen ts

14
and
under
15
cen ts

13
and
under
14
cen ts

1. 3
“
.3

“

10. 2
1. 2
. 1
.4

~
“
.6
.7
.4
.5

.4
.3
1. 5

1. 1
2. 5
.7

1.2

1. 5
.9

.5




C h ap ter V .

P r iv a te W elfare P la n s

T ota l P r iv a te W e lfa re P la n s
In the p r e s e n t study c o v e r in g the y e a r 1959, esta b lish m en ts em p loyin g
92 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in m anu factu rin g r e p o r te d m aking c o n ­
trib u tion s tow a rd s one o r m o r e p riv a te w e lfa r e plans fo r th eir p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s . The p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s in such esta b lish m en ts w as h igh est in the N orth
C en tra l r e g io n (95. 6 p e r c e n t), and lo w e st in the South (89. 3 p e r c e n t).
A m ong
m o s t o f the in d u strie s the p r o p o r tio n s c o v e r e d w e r e equ ally high. In 13 o f the
19 in du stry g rou p s f o r w hich data w e re tabulated s e p a ra te ly , con trib u tion s w e re
r e p o r te d b y e sta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g o v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs in the group
and in 4 oth er g rou p s con trib u tin g e sta b lish m en ts in clu d ed betw een 80 and 90 p e r ­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s .
The lu m b er and the a p p a rel in d u strie s re p o rte d ra tes o f
about 73 p e r c e n t each . The h igh est c o v e ra g e ra tes w e r e in the ord n an ce in d u s­
t r ie s (100 p e r c e n t), p e tro le u m in d u strie s (99. 1 p e r c e n t), and p r im a r y m eta l in d u s­
t r ie s (99.1 p e r c e n t). F o r the s e le c te d p riv a te w e lfa r e plans in clu d ed in this su rv e y ,
ex p en d itu res w e r e r e p o r te d in 1959 b y esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g the follow in g p r o ­
p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s in a ll m an u fa ctu rin g: H ealth, a ccid e n t and life in su ra n ce ,
87. 5 p e r c e n t; p e n sio n s and r e tir e m e n t p la n s, 60. 4 p e r c e n t; y e a re n d and C h ristm a s
b o n u se s , 27. 2 p e r c e n t; su p plem en tal un em ploym en t b e n e fits and s e v e ra n ce pay,
14.1 p e r c e n t ea ch ; sa vin gs and th rift plan s, 2. 7 p e r c e n t; and v a ca tion and h olid ay
funds, 2 .4 p e r c e n t.
(See table 2 7 .)
The co m b in ed ex p en d itu res fo r a ll o f the s e le c te d p riv a te w e lfa r e plans
studied equaled 5. 4 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r p a y r o ll o f a ll e s ta b ­
lish m en ts in m an u factu rin g. O f the tota l, 2.1 p e r c e n t o f p a y r o ll w as fo r health,
a c c id e n t, and life in su ra n ce ; 2.4 p e r c e n t fo r p en sion and re tire m e n t p la n s; 0.5 p e r ­
cen t f o r y e a re n d and C h ristm a s b o n u se s ; 0 .1 p e r c e n t each fo r S U B ,33 and fo r
savin gs and th rift p la n s; le s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t each fo r v a ca tion and h olid ay
funds, and fo r s e v e r a n c e o r d is m is s a l pay; and 0. 2 p e r c e n t f o r p riv a te w e lfa r e
plans that co u ld not b e r e p o r te d se p a ra te ly .
(See table 24. )
Sin ce esta b lish m en ts in m o s t in d u strie s u su a lly r e p o rte d at le a s t one plan,
the a v e ra g e expen ditu re f o r a ll s e le c te d ite m s in th ose esta b lish m en ts a ctu a lly
m aking su ch expen ditu res (5. 7 p e r c e n t) w as only slig h tly h ig h er than the p e r c e n t
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r a ll e sta b lish m e n ts. F o r health, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce ,
w h ich w as r e p o r te d s e p a ra te ly b y esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 85. 7 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k e r s , the expen ditu re ra tio changed only 0. 2 p e rce n ta g e p o in ts. F o r the item s
a v a ila b le to fe w e r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s , h o w e v e r, the sh ift to only th ose e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e s e p a ra te ly had s o m e e ffe c t: The expen ditu re ra tio
fo r p e n sio n and re tir e m e n t plan s r o s e to 3. 6 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll; f o r v a ca tion
and h olid a y funds to 2. 1 p e r c e n t; fo r SUB to 1 .1 p e r c e n t; fo r s e v e r a n c e o r d i s ­
m is s a l pay to 0. 3 p e r c e n t; f o r sa vin gs and th rift p la n s, 2 p e r c e n t; and y e a ren d
and C h ristm a s b o n u se s , 1 .9 p e r c e n t. The e ffe c t w as s im ila r am ong the in d u stry
g rou p s w ith lo w e r p r e v a le n c e r a te s. F o r a p p a re l, the expen ditu re ra tio f o r a ll
s e le c t e d pla n s changed fr o m 3. 2 to 4. 4 p e r c e n t; f o r lu m b er fr o m 2. 4 to 3 p e r ­
cen t, and fo r m is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g in d u strie s fr o m 4. 6 to 5. 5 p e r c e n t o f
g r o s s p a y r o ll.
In using the a v e r a g e s f o r in dividual ite m s , it should b e noted that som e
esta b lish m e n ts did not r e p o r t se p a ra te data f o r each plan. F o r a ll ite m s ex ce p t

33
T h e se w e r e r e p o r te d as com b in ed fig u r e s with s e v e r a n c e pay in so m e
m a jo r in du stry g ro u p s, notably tra n sp orta tion equipm ent.

625617 0 - 6 2 - 5




57

T a b le 23.

A v e ra g e E xp en d itu res and P e rc e n t o f W o rk e rs in E sta blish m en ts W hich Did Not R ep ort S epa ra te E xpenditures f o r S e lected P riv a te W e lfa re P la n s,
by R egion and M anufacturing Industry Group, 1959
A v e ra g e expenditures fo r plans
not re p orted sep a ra te ly

U nited States 1
N orth ea st
S o u t h __,,r--,.r____________ __
N orth C en tra l
W est
_ __

_ -

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ____ ___
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
_ «
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts
_ ....
___
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts _ ________________
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u cts
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries
_ .
P e tro le u m refin in g and r e la te d
in d u stries
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts _____
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u cts , ------- ------------- .— ____ __
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s t r ie s ------------F a b r ic a te d m eta l p rod u cts
M a ch in e ry , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l _ _ _
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ___ ____
In stru m en ts and re la te d
p r o d u c t s _________________________
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u stries

1
2

P ercen t o f gross
p a y r o ll
o f a ll
esta b lish m en ts

Cents p e r hour
p a id fo r
b y all
esta blishm ents

0.2

R eg ion and in d u stry group

0 .4

.3
. 1
, 1
< )
2
1

.2

1.6
(2 )

S evera n ce
and
d is m is s a l
pay

Savings
and
thrift
plans

1.8

1.6

4 .7
1 .5
.9
11. 3

4 .9
1 .9
.9

.5
.5

0 .9
2 .5
.4

0. 1
.2
.2

_

_

_

-

.7
1 .5

1.

11. 3

.8

.2
2. 0
1 3.7

3 .4

.8

11. 1

1 1. 1

1

.2

.2

9 .3

1.0

-

.5
-

2.6

-

.5

.5
“

2.2

2.2

6 .5

9 .5

9 .5

•

.2

.3
.9

1.2
.6

“

.2

-

2.2
. 1
(2 )

(2 )

(2 )
(2 )
.1
(2 )
. 3

(2 )
. 1
. 3
.1
.9

.2
-

-

.6
. 1

(2 )

.6
. 1

-

-

-

.5
“

-

9 .5

2.6

-

~

.2

-

"

-

1

(2 )

11.6
1.0

.5
"

-

.8

-

1.0

1. 3
.5

.2
. 1

In clu des in d u s tries not shown s e p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r l e s s than 0 .0 5 cen t.




Supplem ental
unem ploym ent
b en efits

.3
.4

< )
2
. 1
.

V a ca tio n
and
holid a y
funds

.3
.3
. 1

1.0
(l )

P e n sio n
and
re tire m e n t
plans

4. I

1

.

H ealth,
a ccid e n t,
and life
insu ra n ce

.6

.4
. 1
. 1

(2 )

P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts that d id not re p o rt exp en d itures s e p a ra te ly fo r —

~

1.6

.3

.5

2.6
8.2
5 .6

29.2

~
.5

2.6
8.2
5 .6

29.2

-

59
y e a re n d and C h ristm a s b o n u se s , the U nited States tota ls and so m e o f the re g io n a l
and in du stry grou p a v e r a g e s f o r a ll esta b lish m en ts a r e u n derstated to the extent
o f the ra tio shown in the "p r iv a te plans not r e p o rte d s e p a r a te ly " colu m n . (F o r
only th ose e sta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the ra tio s m igh t have b een h igh er
o r lo w e r if ex p en d itu res f o r th ose unable to re p o r t se p a ra te ly had b een in clu d ed . )
In m any c a s e s , the p r o p o r tio n r e p o r te d as a com b in a tion is an in sig n ifica n t fig u re .
In oth er in sta n c e s, it is la r g e enough to a ffe c t the p r o p e r evalu ation o f som e
ite m o r so m e in d u stry expen ditu re ra tio.
This m ay be illu s tra te d by table 24.
F o r the ord n a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s in d u s trie s , the table show s no ex p en d itu res
fo r SUB and le s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t fo r se v e r a n c e o r d is m is s a l pay. H ow ev er,
the 0. 2 p e r c e n t r e p o r te d in the "p riv a te plans not re p o rte d s e p a r a te ly " colu m n
c o v e r s SUB and se v e r a n c e pay in esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 11. 1 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k e r s in the ord n a n ce g rou p .
In the a p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed p ro d u cts in ­
d u s tr ie s , a lm o s t o n e -th ir d o f the ex p en d itu res fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plans w e r e
r e p o r te d in com b in a tion .
The 1 p e r c e n t com b in ed fig u re in clu d es expen ditu res
fo r health, a c c id e n t, and life in su ra n ce by esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 13. 7 p e rce n t
o f the w o r k e r s in the in du stry g rou p ; ex p en d itu res fo r p e n s io n plans by e s ta b ­
lish m e n ts em p loyin g 11. 3 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s ; fo r v a ca tion and h olid a y funds
b y esta b lish m e n ts em ployin g 9. 3 p e r c e n t; fo r SUB by e sta b lish m en ts em ployin g
1 p e r c e n t; and f o r s e v e r a n c e pay b y esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 2. 6 p e r c e n t.
In
p e tro le u m refin in g and re la te d in d u s trie s , about o n e -s ix th o f the expen ditu res
r e p o r te d f o r p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s w e r e in com b in a tion .
The com b in ed fig u re
o f 2. 2 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll in clu d es health, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce ;
p e n sio n p la n s; and sa v in gs plan r e p o r te d in com b in a tion b y esta b lish m en ts
em p loyin g 9. 5 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in the grou p. In the tra n sp orta tion equ ip ­
m en t g rou p , the expen ditu re r a tio s fo r SUB and s e v e r a n c e pay a re u n derstated
b e c a u s e 0. 3 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll, w hich went into th ese two ite m s , cou ld
not b e r e p o r te d se p a ra te ly b y esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g 29. 2 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k ­
e r s in the grou p.
When tota l ex p en d itu res f o r p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s a r e d iv id ed by the
h ou rs paid fo r by a ll e sta b lish m e n ts in m an u factu rin g, an a v e ra g e o f 12. 1 cen ts
p e r h ou r is obtained. If lim ite d to th ose esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g ex p en d itu res,
the a v e ra g e fo r a ll s e le c t e d pla n s r o s e to 13. 1 ce n ts, with the a v e ra g e s f o r m o s t
o f the in dividu al ite m s in c re a s in g b y a su bstan tially g r e a te r am ount.
The a v ­
e r a g e s r o s e fr o m 4. 7 to 5. 4 cen ts f o r health, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce ; fr o m
5. 4 to 9 cen ts fo r p e n s io n s ; fr o m 0. 1 to 4. 7 cen ts fo r v a ca tio n and h olid a y funds;
fr o m 0. 3 to 3. 2 cen ts fo r SUB; 0. 1 to 0. 7 cent fo r s e v e r a n c e pay; 0. 1 to 5. 5 cen ts
fo r sa v in gs p la n s; and 1 .1 to 4 cen ts fo r C h ristm a s b o n u se s .
H ealth, A c c id e n t,

and L ife In su ra n ce

H ealth, a c c id e n t, and life in su ra n ce in this r e p o r t in clu d es a v a r ie ty o f
b e n e fit p r o g r a m s fo r n o n w o r k -in c u r r e d d is a b ilitie s . (S ince w o r k -in c u r r e d d is a b ili­
tie s a r e c o v e r e d b y w o r k m e n 's co m p en sa tion , th ese plan s a r e , fo r the m o s t p a rt,
lim ite d to d is a b ilitie s fr o m n on occu p a tion a l c a u s e s . ) T h ese in su ra n ce p r o g r a m s
m ay b e fin a n ced e n tire ly by the e m p lo y e r , jo in tly by e m p lo y e r and e m p lo y e e , o r
by the e m p lo y e e a lo n e , but on ly e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s a re in clu d ed in this r e ­
p o r t.
The s c o p e o f the p r o g r a m s v a r ie s with the in dividu al e m p lo y e r and m ay
in clu d e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g b e n e fits :
M e d ic a l and S u rg ica l B e n e fit s .— T h ese plans m ak e a v a ila b le to the e m ­
p lo y e e m e d ic a l c a r e a n d /o r s p e c ifie d s u r g ica l p r o c e d u r e s . G en era lly , a group
in su ra n ce p o lic y is p u rch a se d fr o m a c o m m e r c ia l c a r r ie r , w hich p ay s ca sh
b e n e fits to r e im b u r s e the w o r k e r fo r the p h y sicia n ’ s ch a rg e s up to stipulated
m a x im u m s, o r fr o m a n on p ro fit o rg a n iz a tion such a s B lue Shield, w hich a s ­
su m es a ll o r p a rt o f the c o s t s . Instead o f p u rch a sin g grou p in su ra n ce, the
e m p lo y e r m a y con trib u te to a group p r a c t ic e p rep a y m en t plan, such a s the
Health In su ra n ce P lan o f G re a te r New Y ork o r the K a is e r Foundation Health



60

P lan, o r to union funds, such a s the (ILGW U) D r e s s Join t B oa rd — New Y ork
e m p lo y e e s a s s o c ia t io n fund w hich p ro v id e s m e d ic a l b en efits through its
Union H ealth C enter.
H o sp ita liza tio n . — H ospital b e n e fit plans eith er m ake ca sh paym en ts to r e ­
im b u rse the w o r k e r fo r h o sp ita l ch a rg e s up to a ce rta in am ount, o r a ss u m e
the c o s t s fo r c e r ta in s p e c ifie d h o sp ita l ch a rg e s such as r o o m and b o a rd ,
s e r v ic e s , d ru g s, and su p p lies.
S ick n e ss and A c c id e n t In su ra n ce. — T h ese plans p r o v id e ca sh paym ents,
g e n e r a lly fo r a s p e c ifie d num ber o f w eek s, to com p en sa te w o r k e rs p a rtia lly
fo r l o s s o f w a g es during a b s e n c e s ca u sed b y a ccid e n t o r illn e s s . G e n e ra lly
they c o v e r n o n w o r k -in c u r r e d d is a b ilitie s , but som e plans supplem ent b en efits
paid under w o r k m e n 's com p en sa tion .
F o r the p u rp o se o f this study, s ic k ­
n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce e x clu d e s paym en ts by the e m p lo y e r d ir e c tly to
the w o r k e r under paid s ic k le a v e p r o g r a m s and e m p lo y e r ex p en d itu res fo r
le g a lly r e q u ir e d te m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce.
A c c id e n ta l Death and D ism e m b e rm e n t In su ra n ce. — P r o v id e s ca sh b e n e fits
fo r the lo s s o f one o r m o r e m e m b e r s o f the bod y (e. g . , an eye, a hand, e t c . )
o r fo r a c cid e n ta l death.
L ife In s u r a n c e .— P r o v id e s ca sh b en efits upon the w o r k e r 's death.
G e n e ra lly , fo r a ll o f the a b ove, a group in su ra n ce p o lic y is p u rch a se d through
a c o m m e r c ia l c a r r ie r o r through a n on p rofit org a n iza tion such as B lue Shield fo r
m e d ic a l and s u r g ic a l b e n e fits and Blue C r o s s fo r p re p a id h o sp ita liza tion .
The
e m p lo y e r can a ls o m ak e paym en ts fr o m a s p e c ia l fund m aintained through s e l f in su ra n ce o r con trib u te to a union fund w hich d is b u r s e s b e n e fits.
T h ese plans
m a y b e a d m in iste re d b y an in su ra n ce com pany to w hich the e m p lo y e r pays p r e ­
m iu m s, by the e m p lo y e r en tire ly , by the union e n tirely , or jo in tly by the e m ­
p lo y e r and union. 3*
In re ce n t y e a r s , m any o f the m e d ic a l, s u r g ica l, and h o sp ita liza tio n plans
have b een exten ded to c o v e r dependents o f a ctiv e w o r k e rs and to a l e s s e r extent
r e t ir e d w o r k e r s . S ick n e ss and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce is g e n e ra lly p r o v id e d only to
the a ctiv e w o r k e r s . 3
5
H ealth, a c c id e n t, and life in su ra n ce plan s f o r w hich the e m p lo y e r paid
a ll o r p a rt o f the p r e m iu m s on b e h a lf o f h is p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s g re w during
W o rld W ar II, w hen they w e r e su bstituted fo r d ir e c t w age in c r e a s e s w h ich w e r e

34 H ealth and In su ra n ce P lan s U nder C o lle c tiv e B arg ain in g : S u rg ica l and
M e d ic a l B e n e fits, L ate S u m m er 195% BLS B u ll. 1Z80 (19o0), p. 1; H ealth and
In su ra n ce P lan s Under C o lle c t iv e B argain in g: H osp ita l B e n e fits, E a rly 1959»
B LS B u ll. 1274 (I9 6 0 ), p. 1; H ealth and In su ra n ce P lan s U nder C o lle c tiv e B a r ­
gaining: A c c id e n t and S ick n e ss B e n e fits, F a ll 1958, BLS B u ll. 1250 (1959), p. 1;
A n a ly sis o f H ealth and In su ra n ce P lan s U nder C o lle c tiv e B arg ain in g , Late 1955,
B L S B u ll. 1221 (1957), p^ 3; D ig e s t o f One H undred S e le cte d H ealth and In s u r­
an ce P lan s U nder C o lle c t iv e B a rg a in in g , E a r ly 1958, BLS B u ll. 1236 (1958),
p. 2; and U nion H ealth and W e lfa re P la n s , BLS B u ll. 900 (1947), pp. 2 and 17.
35 BLS B u ll. 1280, o p . c i t . , pp. 4 and 5; BLS B u ll. 1274, o p . c i t . , pp. 1
and 3; and BLS B u ll. 1250, o p . c i t . , p. 1.



61
p ro h ib ite d under w a rtim e w age sta b iliza tion reg u la tion s. 36 The continuation o f
the m o v e m e n t a fte r the w a r r e fle c t e d both c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g and e m p lo y e r
p e r s o n n e l p o lic y . S om e in sigh t into the p a c e at w hich th ese in su ra n ce p r o g r a m s
g re w can b e obtain ed fr o m the B u r e a u 's studies o f c o lle c t iv e barg ain in g a g r e e ­
m en ts in m an u factu rin g and n onm anufacturing in d u stries e x ce p t r a ilr o a d s and
govern m en t.
In 1945, the B u rea u found that about h a lf a m illio n w o r k e r s had
such in su ra n ce c o v e r a g e under c o lle c t iv e b arg ain in g a g re e m e n ts; b y m i d - 1950,
the n u m ber had r is e n to 7. 1 m illio n w o r k e r s ; and in e a r ly 1954, to 11.1 m illio n . 3
7
In 1959, e sta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g 87. 5 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs
in m an u factu rin g r e p o r te d m aking co n trib u tion s fo r health, a ccid e n t, and life in ­
su ra n ce .
The h ig h e st c o v e r a g e w as in the N orth C en tral re g io n (93. 5 p e r c e n t)
and the lo w e st in the South (83. 1 p e r c e n t). A lm o s t a ll in d u strie s r e p o rte d high
p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in fa c t o r ie s w hich con trib u ted , eith er in w hole
o r in p a r t, to the c o s t s o f su ch p la n s. In 10 in d u stry g rou p s the p r o p o r tio n o f
w o r k e r s e x c e e d e d 90 p e r c e n t, in 6 add ition al in d u s trie s , it e x ce e d e d 80 p e r c e n t.
In on ly th re e in du stry g rou p s did the esta b lish m en ts w ith such plans em p loy a
s m a lle r p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s : M is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g in d u s trie s , 76. 2 p e r ­
cen t; the lu m b e r and w o o d p r o d u cts in d u s trie s , 6 0 .7 p e r c e n t; and the a p p a rel
and o th er fin ish e d te x tile p r o d u cts in d u strie s, 55. 3 p e r c e n t.
E m p lo y e r expen ditu res f o r health, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce equaled
2. 1 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in a ll esta b lish m en ts in
m a n u fa ctu rin g. T h e re w e r e s o m e d iffe r e n c e s in the expen ditu re ra tio s b y re g io n ,
ranging fr o m 1 .7 p e r c e n t in the South to 2 .4 p e r c e n t in the N orth C entral re g io n .
The expen ditu re ra tio f o r the N orth east (2 p e r c e n t) is slig h tly u n d erstated b e ­
ca u se expen ditu res fo r th ese in su ra n ce plans w e re r e p o r te d in com b in a tion w ith
oth er plan s b y esta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g 4. 1 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in the re g io n .
E xpen ditu re r a tio s b y in d u stry ran ged fr o m 2. 9 p e r c e n t fo r the ru b b er group and
2. 5 p e r c e n t f o r the fa b r ic a te d m e ta l p ro d u cts g rou p , down to 1.1 p e r c e n t f o r the
p e tr o le u m in d u strie s and 0 .7 p e r c e n t fo r the a p p a rel in d u strie s.
A dow nw ard
36 H ealth *B en efit P r o g r a m s E sta b lish e d T hrough C o lle c tiv e B a rg a in in g ,
1945, BLS B u ll. 841 (1945)7 p. Tj B LS B u ll. 900, op. cit. , p. 13; D ig est o f
S e le c te d H ealth, In su ra n ce, W e lfa r e , and R e tire m e n t P la n s U nder C o lle c tiv e B a r ­
gaining, A ugust 1951. B LS S p e cia l S e r ie s No. 6 (1951). p. 1; and The T e r m in a ­
tion R e p o r t o f the N ational W ar L a b o r B o a r d , op. c it ., pp. 380-3841 The B o a rd
in d ica te d that "P r e m iu m s p a id b y an e m p lo y e r on p o lic ie s o f group life in su ra n ce
w ithout c a s e [ s i c c a s h / s u r r e n d e r value co v e rin g the liv e s o f h is e m p lo y e e s , o r
on p o lic e s o f group h ealth , h o sp ita liza tio n , o r a ccid e n t in su ra n ce co v e rin g h is
e m p lo y e e s , the b e n e fic ia r ie s o f w h ich a re d esig n a ted by such e m p lo y e e do not
con stitu te w a g es and s a la r y . . . "
In d isp u tes o v e r the in trod u ction o r lib e r a liz a ­
tion o f a grou p in su ra n ce pla n , the B o a rd ju d ged each in dividu al c a s e on its
m e r it s . A s a g e n e r a l r u le , it did not o r d e r an e m p lo y e r to institute o r lib e r a liz e
a plan , but a p p rov ed any r e a so n a b le plan that w as v olu n ta rily instituted o r b a r ­
gain ed c o lle c t iv e ly .
37 D ig e st o f S e le cte d H ealth, In su ra n ce, W e lfa re , and R e tire m e n t P la n s
U nder C o lle c tiv e B a rg a in in g , B LS S p e cia l S e r ie s No. 6, op. cit. , B LS B ull. 900,
op. cit. , p . 13; H ealth. In su ra n ce , and P e n s ion P la n s in U nion C o n tra cts. BLS
B u ll. 1187 (1955), pp. 1 and 3; B L S B u ll. 1221, op. c i t . , p . iii.
W ritten c o lle c t iv e ba rga in in g a g reem en ts do not g e n e r a lly e x is t f o r g o v ­
e rn m e n t w o r k e r s . R a ilr o a d w o r k e r s a r e p r o v id e d te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su ra n ce
and re tir e m e n ts b e n e fits b y law . In B u ll. 1187, the B LS r e p o r te d that the health
p r o g r a m n eg otia ted in A ugust 1954 b etw een the n on operatin g r a ilr o a d unions and
the c a r r ie r s w as ex clu d e d fr o m the su rv ey c o v e rin g 1954.
A lthough the m a jo r
a ir lin e unions w e r e in clu d ed in this 1954 study, none in d ica ted the e x is te n ce o f
e m p lo y e r -fin a n c e d h ealth , in su r a n c e , o r p en sion b e n e fits .




62

b ia s , p ro b a b ly a v e r y s m a ll on e, e x is ts in the expenditure ra tio s fo r the te x tile s ,
a p p a re l, p rin tin g, and p e tr o le u m in d u strie s, b e ca u s e som e esta b lish m en ts w e r e
unable to r e p o r t sep a ra te fig u r e s f o r this p r a c t ic e . The low ra tio fo r the a p p a re l
in d u strie s a ls o r e fle c t s , in p a rt, the lo w e r p r e v a le n c e o f health and in su ra n ce
plans in this g ro u p .
When the a p p a rel in d u s tr ie s ' expen ditu res a re c o n s id e r e d
as a p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f only th ose rep ortin g the p r a c t ic e , the e x ­
pen d itu res r a tio r is e s to 1 .6 p e r c e n t.
S im ila rly , above a v e ra g e in c r e a s e s in
the ra tio s a ls o o c c u r in the lu m b e r, fu rn itu re, and m is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu r­
ing in d u strie s.
In g e n e r a l, e m p lo y e r expen ditu res fo r health, a ccid e n t, and life in s u r ­
a n ce w e r e a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f g r o s s p a y r o ll in the n on con trib u tory plans than
in co n trib u to ry pla n s. T his h eld tru e fo r a ll m anufacturing in the U nited States,
fo r ea ch re g io n , and a ll but th re e in du stry g rou p s. F o r plans to w hich both the
e m p lo y e r and e m p lo y e e m ad e co n trib u tion s, e m p lo y e r expen ditu res a v e ra g e d
2. 1 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n -w o r k e r p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts that had such
co n trib u to ry p la n s.
E m p lo y e r expen ditu res fo r n on con trib u tory plans a v e ra g e d
2. 6 p e r c e n t.
A m on g r e g io n s , the N orth C entral re g io n r e p o rte d the h igh est
e m p lo y e r expen ditu re ra tio fo r both the n on con trib u tory and the co n trib u tory
plans— 2. 8 p e r c e n t and 2 .4 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
The s m a lle s t v a ria tio n b e ­
tw een n o n co n trib u to ry and co n trib u to ry plans (2 .4 as a g ain st 2. 2 p e r c e n t) w as
r e p o r te d b y the W est. Its 2. 4 p e r c e n t w as a ls o the lo w e st o f the reg ion a l ra tio s
fo r n o n co n trib u to ry p la n s.
The lo w e st ra tio f o r co n trib u to ry plans w as in the
South w h e re th e re w as a ls o the g r e a te s t d iffe r e n c e b etw een co n trib u to ry and n on ­
co n trib u to ry plan s (1 .6 v e r s u s 2. 6 p e r c e n t). A m ong the in d u s trie s , the p e tro le u m
grou p had the lo w e s t ex p en d itu res ra tio fo r both n on con trib u tory (1 p e r c e n t) and
co n trib u to ry pla n s (1 .1 p e r c e n t).
It w as a ls o one o f the th ree g rou p s that had
lo w e r re la tiv e expen ditu res fo r n on con trib u tory than f o r co n trib u to ry p lan s. The
oth er two in d u strie s w e r e a p p a rel (1 .1 and 1. 6 p e r c e n t) and tra n sp orta tion equ ip­
m en t (2 .1 and 2 .6 p e r c e n t).
The tra n sp orta tion equipm ent g r o u p 's expen ditu re
r a tio r e p r e s e n te d the h igh est o f the in du stry ra tio s fo r co n trib u to ry p la n s. F o r
n on co n trib u to ry p la n s, the h igh est (3. 4 p e rce n t) w as re p o rte d b y the ru b b er grou p.
(See table 25. )
With a few e x c e p tio n s , expen ditu res p e r hour p aid fo r by a ll e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts w e r e found to b e d ir e c t ly re la te d to h ou rly ea rn in g s.
A s earn in gs in ­
c r e a s e d , so did the rate o f expen ditu res p e r h ou r.
The h igh est con trib u tion s
p e r h ou r paid fo r w e r e the 6 .9 cents re p o rte d by the ru b b er group and the
6 .7 cen ts by the p r im a r y m e ta ls grou p. The lo w e st w e r e 2 .5 cents fo r te x tile s ,
2. 3 cen ts fo r lu m b e r, and 1 cen t fo r a p p a rel.
When the v a ria tio n s in trod u ced
b y d iffe r e n c e s in p r e v a le n c e w e r e elim in a ted , and the ra tes w e r e e x p r e s s e d as
cen ts p e r h ou r fo r only th ose re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the ra tes fo r lu m b er and
a p p a re l r o s e to 3 .7 and 2 .4 ce n ts, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
E x pen ditu res p e r h ou r paid fo r by a ll esta b lish m en ts in m anufacturing
re p o rtin g n on co n trib u to ry in su ra n ce w e r e 6. 1 cen ts co m p a re d with 5 cen ts fo r
th ose re p o rtin g co n trib u to ry p la n s.
In a ll fou r re g io n s , and in a ll in d u strie s
e x ce p t a p p a re l, p e tr o le u m , and tra n sp orta tion , the expen ditu re rate w as h igh er
fo r the n o n co n trib u to ry p la n s.
The h igh est ra tes r e p o r te d by in du stry w e r e :
F o r n o n co n trib u to ry in su ra n ce , 8. 6 cents p e r hou r by the ru b b er g rou p ; fo r c o n ­
trib u to ry in su ra n ce , 6. 9 cen ts p e r hour p aid fo r by the tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent
grou p. E sta b lish m e n ts in the ru b b er in d u stries a v e ra g e d 4. 6 cen ts p e r hou r fo r
co n trib u to ry plan s and th ose in the tra n sp orta tion equipm ent in d u stries 5. 6 cen ts
fo r n o n co n trib u to ry p la n s. The lo w e st expenditure rate fo r co n trib u to ry in su ra n ce
w as the 2 cen ts p e r h ou r pa id fo r b y the tex tile g rou p ; f o r n on con trib u tory p la n s,
it w as the 1. 7 cen ts o f the a p p a re l grou p.




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P e n sio n and R e tire m e n t P la n s
One o f the e a r lie s t p e n s io n plans s p o n s o re d by a com p an y fo r its w o r k ­
e r s w as e sta b lish e d in 1874. 38 Seven d e ca d e s p a s s e d b e fo r e p riv a te p en sion s fo r
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s b e c a m e b r o a d ly esta b lish e d in m an u factu rin g in d u strie s.
P e n sio n s w e r e am ong the im p orta n t p ostw a r c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g dem ands o f
m any u n ion s.
The B u r e a u 's a n a ly se s o f c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g a g reem en ts show
that in m i d - 1950, a fte r the in ten sive 1949 union d r iv e , 5. 1 m illio n w o r k e rs had
p e n sio n c o v e r a g e u nder c o lle c t iv e b a rg ain in g a g re e m e n ts. B y 1954, the num ber
had in c r e a s e d to 7. 1 m illio n . 39
E sta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g 6 0 .4 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n la b o r in m anu­
fa ctu rin g , r e p o r te d ex p en d itu res fo r p en sion plan s f o r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in
1959. The p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s e m p loy ed in e sta b lish m en ts w ith p en sion plan
ex p en d itu res v a r ie d w id e ly am ong the re g io n s as fo llo w s : N orth C en tral, 70.5 p e r ­
cen t; N orth ea st, 5 9 .7 p e r c e n t; W est, 5 5 .7 p e r c e n t; and South, 4 7 .3 p e r c e n t.
A m ong the in d u stry g ro u p s, the p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts with
p e n sio n plan p r o v is io n s w as g e n e r a lly g r e a te r am ong th ose in d u stries w ith the
h igh est a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in g s.
F o r ex a m p le, e sta b lish m en ts w ith such plans
in the p e tr o le u m in d u strie s e m p lo y e d 9 6 .4 p e r c e n t o f the in d u s tr ie s ' w o r k e r s ,
w h ile esta b lish m en ts w ith plan s in the lu m b er in d u strie s em p lo y e d 15. 6 p e r c e n t
o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
B y in d u stry , e m p lo y e r ex p en d itu res f o r p e n s io n s ranged fr o m 0. 6 to
5. 7 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts in the g rou p .
A v e ra g e e x ­
p en d itu re ra tio s w e r e h ig h e r am ong the h igh er paying p e tr o le u m , o rd n a n ce, and
p r im a r y m e ta l in d u strie s and lo w e r am ong the lo w e r paying a p p a rel, te x tile s ,
and lu m b e r in d u s tr ie s .
H o w e v e r, w hen the ex p en d itu res w e r e rela ted to the
p a y r o lls o f only th ose re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e se p a ra te ly , the sp rea d n a rro w e d b e ­
tw een the expen ditu re ra tio s o f the lo w e r and h igh er paying in d u strie s, the in ­
d u stry a v e r a g e s ranging fr o m 2. 5 to 6. 5 p e rce n t.
F o r a ll o f m an u factu rin g in the U nited S tates, e m p lo y e r expen ditu re
ra tio s f o r co n trib u to ry p e n sio n p la n s, w h ere such ex p en d itu res w e re re p o rte d ,
w e r e about equal to th ose f o r n o n co n trib u tory p la n s.
E sta b lish m en ts with c o n ­
trib u to ry p e n sio n plan s spent an am ount equal to 3. 6 p e r c e n t o f th eir g r o s s p a y ­
r o ll fo r th ese p la n s, e x ce e d in g the expen ditu re ra tio fo r th ose with non co n trib u tory
plan s b y ju s t 0. 1 p e r c e n t.
The in d u stry g rou p s w e r e about ev en ly d iv id ed b e ­
tw een th ose that spent m o r e f o r co n trib u to ry plans and th ose that spent m o r e fo r
non co n trib u to ry p la n s.
The h igh est ra tio o f expen ditu re fo r co n trib u to ry plans
w as 6. 3 p e r c e n t r e p o r te d b y the p e tr o le u m grou p. T h ose in the p e tro le u m group
that m ain tain ed n on con trib u to ry p e n sion plan s con trib u ted an am ount equal to
3 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e ir g r o s s p a y r o ll.
F o r n o n con trib u tory p e n sion s the to b a c c o
m a n u fa ctu re rs group had the h igh est expen ditu re ra tio — 4. 3 p e rce n t.
T obacco
esta b lish m e n ts w ith co n trib u to ry plan s a v e ra g e d an am ount equal to 3 .2 p e r c e n t
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f th ose w ith such p la n s.
The a p p a rel g rou p , w hich had the
lo w e s t expen ditu re ra tio fo r c o n trib u to ry p e n sio n s (0. 5 p e r c e n t), a ls o had the
lo w e st ra tio f o r the non co n trib u to ry (2 p e r c e n t).
(See table 26. )
P e n sio n
turing a v e ra g e d
w as r e p o r te d b y
r e p o r te d b y the

U nder

expen ditu res p e r h ou r p aid f o r by a ll e sta b lish m en ts in m a n u fa c­
5 .4 cen ts in 1959. The h igh est a v e ra g e — 1 7 .3 cen ts p e r hour—
the p e tr o le u m in d u s trie s .
It w as a lm o s t double the 9. 9 cen ts
next h igh est g ro u p , the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u strie s.
The lo w e st

38 D igest o f S e le cte d H ealth, In su ra n ce, W e lfa re, and R e tire m e n t P lan s
C o lle c tiv e B a rg a in in g , BLS S p e cia l S e r ie s No. 6, op. cit. , p. i.
39 BL.S B u ll. 1187, op. cit. , pp. 1 and 3.




64
a v e ra g e ex p en d itu res w e r e in the a p p a rel in d u s trie s , 1 .5 ce n ts; the te x tile in ­
d u s tr ie s , 1. 3 cen ts; and the lu m b e r in d u s trie s , 1 cent. T h ese expen ditu res su b ­
sta n tia lly u n derstate the c e n t s -p e r -h o u r ex p en d itu res fo r th ose esta b lish m en ts
a ctu a lly con trib u tin g to p e n sio n p la n s. F o r ex a m p le, the a v era g e expenditure fo r
a ll m an u factu rin g w as 9 cen ts p e r h ou r in esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g ex p en d itu res,
c o m p a r e d w ith 5 .4 cen ts fo r a ll e sta b lish m en ts.
The change fo r the p e tro le u m
in d u strie s w as fr o m 17. 3 to 20 ce n ts; and fo r the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries fr o m
9 .9 to 12 ce n ts. A m ong the lo w e r paying in d u s trie s , w h ere the s m a lle s t p r o p o r ­
tion o f w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d b y p e n sion p la n s, in c r e a s e s w e r e la r g e r ; in a p p a re l,
a v e ra g e ex p en d itu res r o s e fr o m 1 .5 cen ts fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts to 5 .7 cen ts f o r
a p p a re l fa c t o r ie s a ctu a lly re p o rtin g p en sion ex p en d itu res; te x tile s fr o m 1 .3 to
4. 3 ce n ts; and lu m b e r 1 to 6. 5 ce n ts.
T h e re w as little d iffe r e n c e , re la tiv e to h ou rs p aid fo r , betw een e x ­
p e n d itu re s b y a ll in d u strie s f o r co n trib u to ry p en sion plan s as co m p a re d with the
n o n co n trib u to ry p la n s.
E x p en d itu res f o r co n trib u to ry plans w e r e 8. 8 cen ts p e r
h ou r p a id fo r by a ll the esta b lish m e n ts in m anufacturing that had such p la n s; and
the expen ditu re rate o f th ose w ith n on con trib u tory plans w as 8. 7 ce n ts. Six in ­
d u stry g rou p s show ed h ig h er expen ditu re ra tes fo r co n trib u to ry p e n s io n p la n s; and
13 g rou p s fo r the n o n co n trib u to ry . The h igh est rate f o r co n trib u to ry plan s w as
the 19. 4 cen ts p e r h ou r p a id f o r r e p o r te d b y the p e tro le u m g rou p ; and the lo w e st
w as the 0 .6 cen t o f the a p p a re l grou p.
F o r n on con trib u tory plans the lo w e st
rate w as a ls o r e p o r te d b y the a p p a rel group (3. 5 ce n ts); and the h ig h est by the
p r im a r y m e ta ls grou p (1 1 .9 ce n ts).
V a ca tion and H oliday Funds
U nder v a ca tio n and h olid a y funds, the e m p lo y e r con trib u tes to a fund
fr o m w h ich v a ca tion and h olid a y pay a re d istrib u ted to the w o r k e r s . An exa m p le
o f such a fund is that e sta b lish e d fo llow in g n eg otiation s in M ay 6, 1944, betw een
the D r e s s J oin t B o a rd o f the In ternational L a d ie s 1 G arm ent W ork ers* U nion and
e m p lo y e rs* a s s o c ia tio n s in the New Y ork d r e s s in du stry. In that y e a r , the e m ­
p lo y e r s a g r e e d to m ak e a 3. 5 -p e r c e n t p a y r o ll con trib u tion to m aintain a health
and w e lfa r e p r o g r a m .
B y the a g re e m e n t, the fund w as to be a d m in iste re d by
the Join t B o a r d w h ich w ould d e te rm in e what p r o p o r tio n o f the fund should be fo r
health b e n e fits and what p r o p o r tio n f o r v a ca tion b e n e fits , and the ru les under
w h ich the m e m b e r s cou ld obtain b e n e f i t s .40
In 1959, e sta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g 2. 4 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s in m a n u fa ctu rin g r e p o r te d con trib u tion s to v a ca tion and h olid a y funds. R e ­
g io n a lly , th ese funds w e r e m o s t p re v a le n t in the N orth east and W est, w h ere
esta b lish m en ts con trib u tin g to funds em p loy ed 5. 2 and 4. 4 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k ­
e r s , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
E sta b lish m en ts in le s s than h a lf o f the in du stry g rou p s r e ­
p o r te d con trib u tion s to such funds, and in a ll c a s e s , th ese w e r e m in o r segm en ts
o f the in dividu al in d u stry grou p. E ven in the a p p a rel in d u s trie s , w h ere v a ca tion
and h olid a y funds a r e co n ce n tra te d , esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g only 18 p e r c e n t o f
the w o r k e r s r e p o r te d such co n trib u tion s.
T h ese funds w e r e a ls o re p o rte d to
so m e extent in the te x tile and the p e tro le u m in d u strie s.
C on tribu tion s b y e m p lo y e r s to v a ca tion and h olid a y funds w e r e so in fr e ­
quently r e p o r te d that, as a p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs
in a ll e sta b lish m e n ts, they w e r e s ta tis tic a lly sig n ifica n t only in the a p p a rel and
the te x tile in d u s tr ie s , equaling 0. 3 and 0. 1 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly . In the a p p a rel
in d u s tr ie s , esta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g 9. 3 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in the group
40

B LS B u ll.




900,

op.

cit. , p.

16.

65

w e r e unable to r e p o r t the p r a c t ic e sep a ra te ly .
When the con trib u tion s a re r e ­
lated to the p a y r o ll o f on ly th ose e sta b lish m en ts that re p o rte d v a ca tion and h olid ay
funds se p a ra te ly , the ra tio in a p p a rel equaled 3. 8 p e r c e n t of g r o s s p a y r o ll.
(See table 2 4 .)
The con trib u tion s to v a ca tion and h olid a y funds w e r e a ls o too sm a ll,
e x ce p t in a few in d u stry g ro u p s, to p ro d u ce sig n ifica n t ra tes in te rm s o f cents
p e r h our pa id fo r b y a ll e sta b lish m e n ts. S ign ifican t fig u r e s w e r e obtainable only
fo r fo u r in d u strie s and so m e o f the g e o g ra p h ic a re a tota ls.
The rate f o r a ll
m an u factu rin g in d u strie s w as 0. 1 cent p e r hou r paid fo r by a ll esta b lish m en ts.
F o r a p p a re l it w as 0 .4 cen t p e r h ou r; and fo r fa b r ic a te d m e ta ls , te x tile s , and
p rin tin g, 0. 1 cen t each . F o r th ose who re p o rte d funds se p a ra te ly , the rate fo r
a p p a re l a v e ra g e d 6 cen ts p e r h ou r.
Supplem ental U n em ploym en t B e n e fits
Supplem ental u n em ploym en t b en efits p ro b a b ly should b e tr a c e d to the
1943 e ffo r t o f the U nited S teel W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a to n egotiate a guaranteed
annual w age plan as p a rt o f its o v e r a ll c o lle c t iv e b arg ain in g a g reem en t with the
s te e l co m p a n ie s.
The N ational W ar L a b or B o a rd r e je c t e d the req u est o f the
union, but re co m m e n d e d that a s p e c ia l c o m m is s io n be appointed to study the
m e r it s o f gu aran teed annual w age plans as an aid in the sta b iliza tion o f e m ­
ploy m en t and the re g u la riz a tio n o f p rod u ction . The s p e c ia l b o a r d 's findings w e r e
con tain ed in the L a tim e r r e p o r t o f January 31, 1 9 4 7 .41
The S te e lw o rk e rs ren ew ed th eir d riv e a fte r the w a r and w e re jo in e d by
the a u tom ob ile and e le c t r ic a l u n ion s. The United A u tom ob ile W o rk e rs , trou b led
b y em p loym en t flu ctu a tion s due to m o d e l ch a n g e o v e rs and oth er fa c to r s in the
a u tom ob ile in d u stry , and hoping to stim ulate m anagem ent e ffo r t to sta b iliz e e m ­
p loy m en t, gave the gu aran teed annual w age top p r io r it y in its 1955 c o lle c t iv e
ba rga in in g n eg otia tion s.
F r o m the p r o p o s a ls o f the union and the c o u n te r p r o ­
p o s a ls o f the F o r d M otor C o .— inclu ding th ose that paym ents should supplem ent
State u n em ploym en t com p e n sa tio n , that entitlem ent b e g ov e rn e d b y State re g u la ­
tio n s, and that the c o m p a n y 's lia b ility b e lim ite d — e m e rg e d the F o rd SUB a g r e e ­
m ent o f June 1955. T his w as fo llo w e d by som ew hat s im ila r a g reem en ts betw een
UAW and the oth er m a jo r a u tom ob ile p r o d u c e r s , betw een the U nited S te e lw o rk e rs
and the p r in c ip a l s te e l and can c o m p a n ie s, and the U nited R u bber W o rk e rs and
the m a jo r ru b b er c o m p a n ie s, and b y a v a ria tion on the F o r d a g re e m e n t, n egotiated
betw een the U nited G la ss and C e r a m ic W o rk e rs and the P ittsb u rg h P la te G la ss and
the L ib b e y -O w e n s -F o r d G la ss C o s . 42
In 1959, e sta b lish m e n ts em ployin g 6 2 .8 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs in the
p r im a r y m e ta l, 43. 8 p e r c e n t in the ru b b er, and 38. 1 p e r c e n t in the tra n s p o rta ­
tion equipm ent in du stry g rou p s r e p o rte d con trib u tion s fo r SUB. E sta b lish m en ts
in 13 oth er in du stry g rou ps a ls o r e p o rte d co n trib u tio n s, but the p r o p o r tio n o f
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in th ese e sta b lish m en ts ranged fr o m on ly 0. 3 to 1 9 .8 p e r c e n t
o f the in du stry grou p em p loy m en t. F o r m anufacturing as a w h ole, 14. 1 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in e sta b lish m e n ts p rov id in g SUB.
(See table 27. )

41 G uaranteed W ages— R e p o rt to the P r e s id e n t by the A d v is o r y B o a r d , O ffice
o f W ar M o b iliz a tio n and R e c o n v e r s io n , M u rry W. L a tim e r, R e s e a r c h D ir e c t o r ,
January 31, 1947.
42 Sum ner H. S lic h te r , J a m e s J. H ealy, and E. R o b e rt L iv e rn a sh , The
Im pact o f C o lle c tiv e B a rga in in g on M anagem ent (W ashington, D. C. ; The B rook in g s
Institution, I960)", pp. 4 5 2 -4 5 3 ; and Supplem ental U nem ploym ent B en efit P lan s
and U n em ploym en t In s u ra n ce , BES Nol U^-172 (U. S. D epartm ent o f L a b o r, B u reau o f E m ploym en t S e cu rity , 1957), pp. 3 -8 and 2 2 -2 3 .




66

The d istin gu ish in g fea tu re of SUB plans is that they g e n e ra lly supplem ent
the am ount the w o rk e r gets under le g a lly re q u ire d unem ploym ent com p en sa tion .
Under m o s t plan s, the w o r k e r is entitled to the d iffe r e n c e betw een h is State u n em ­
ploy m en t co m p e n sa tio n plus any oth er earn in gs and a fix e d p e rce n ta g e o f h is w eek ly
a ft e r -t a x s tr a ig h t-tim e ea rn in gs. F o r exam ple, in the co n tra cts betw een the unions
and the a u tom ob ile, ste e l, and ru b b er com p a n ies, this supplem ental b en efit fig u re
in 1959 w as 65 p e r c e n t o f the a ft e r -ta x stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly w age. The su p p le­
m ent, h ow ev er, m a y b e a fix e d am ount, as under the a g reem en t betw een the S te e l­
w o r k e r s 1 union and the A m e r ic a n and the Continental Can C os. E lig ib ility to r e c e iv e
SUB is u su a lly tied to e lig ib ility to r e c e iv e State unem ploym ent com p en sa tion , a l ­
though in so m e in sta n ce s, as under the s te e l co n tra ct, p aym en ts m a y extend beyond
the p e r io d o f en titlem en t fo r State u n em ploym ent com p en sa tion . The p rin cip a l plans
p r o v id e that the co m p a n ie s a r e not re q u ire d to m ake SUB paym ents to w o r k e rs in
States w h ere SUB a r e c o n s id e r e d w a ges and cannot be c o lle c t e d co n cu rre n tly with
State u n em ploym en t in su ra n ce. In 1959, V irgin ia and N orth C a rolin a had such p r o ­
v is io n s . Supplem ental u n em ploym en t b en efits can be d istin g u ish ed fr o m s e v e ra n ce
pay in that SUB paym en ts g e n e r a lly c o v e r a te m p o ra ry la y o ff, w h erea s s e v e ra n ce
pay u su a lly is f o r a fin a l sep a ra tion . A ls o , SUB is /p a i d in w eek ly in sta llm en ts,
w h e re a s s e v e r a n c e pay is u su a lly a lu m p -su m paym ent. S upplem ental u n em p loy ­
m en t b e n e fits plan s can b e o f the funded type, as under the o r ig in a l F o r d plan,
o r o f the in dividu al tru st a ccou n t type as under the p late g la s s com pan y v a ria tion
o f the F o r d plan. U nder the funded p la n s, the com pan y p a y s into a m a s te r fund,
u su a lly until the fund r e a c h e s a s p e c ifie d am ount.
The w o r k e r has no v e ste d
righ t in the fund and is e lig ib le fo r b en efits only if he is la id o ff by the com pan y.
U nder the in dividu al tru st accou n t a rra n g em en t, an in dividual a ccou n t is set up
fo r each w o r k e r .
The w o r k e r has a v e ste d right in h is a ccou n t and, if he r e ­
sig n s, m a y d ra w any b a la n ce in h is accou n t.
The P ittsb u rg h P la te G la ss Co.
plan is not tied in with State u n em ploym ent com p en sa tion p a y m en ts, and the w o r k e r
has s o m e c h o ic e in the am ount he m ay draw fr o m h is in dividual fund. He m ay
draw during p e r io d s o f illn e s s , as w e ll as lay o ff, and a fte r h is accou n t re a ch e s
$600 the co m p a n y 's con trib u tion is u sed to in c r e a s e h is v a ca tion p a y .43
Supplem ental u n em ploym en t b en efits in 1959 equaled 0. 1 p e r c e n t o f the
g r o s s p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s in a ll m anufacturing in d u strie s in the United
States. The expen ditu re ra tio s w e r e 0. 2 p e r c e n t each in the N orth east and N orth
C en tral r e g io n s , and 0. 1 p e r c e n t each in the W est and South. A m ong the in du stry
g rou p s f o r w h ich data w e r e tabulated s e p a ra te ly , only 3 o f the 13 that had the
p r a c t ic e had expen ditu res that e x c e e d e d 0. 1 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll: The ston e,
c la y , and g la s s group re p o r te d 0. 3 p e rce n t; the ru b b er g rou p , 0. 5 p e r c e n t; and
the p r im a r y m e ta ls g rou p , 0. 7.
The expenditure ra tio fo r the tra n sp orta tion
equipm ent group ca m e to only 0. 1 p e r c e n t, but is s e r io u s ly u n d erstated b e ca u s e
e sta b lish m en ts em p loyin g 29. 2 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e rs w e r e unable to r e p o r t the
p r a c t ic e s e p a r a te ly ;44 th ose that r e p o rte d SUB se p a ra te ly em p loy ed on ly 8. 9 p e r ­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s .
M in or u n derstatem en ts a ls o a re to b e found in som e o f
the oth er g ro u p s. B e c a u se o f the low p r e v a le n c e o f this p r a c t ic e , expen ditu res
as a p e rce n ta g e o f p a y r o ll o f only those rep ortin g the p r a c t ic e s e p a ra te ly w e r e
c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r. F o r a ll m a n u factu rin g, the ra tio r o s e fr o m 0. 1 to 1. 1 p e r ­
cen t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll.
At the in du stry le v e l, the p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f
th ose esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g SUB expen ditu res se p a ra te ly w as 1.7 p e r c e n t fo r

43 S lich te r and o th e r s , op. cit. , pp. 4 5 3 -4 5 4 and 478; and Supplem ental
U n em ploym en t B en efit P la n s and U nem ploym ent In s u ra n ce , BES No. U -1 7 2 ,
op. cit. , pp. 3 -8 and 2 2 -2 3 .
44 E xpen ditu res fo r su p plem en tal un em ploym en t b e n e fits in th ese e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts w e r e co m b in e d with s e v e r a n c e pay in the r e p o r ts . The com b in ed ex p en d i­
ture fo r the in du stry group equ aled 0. 3 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll.



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in stru m en ts; 1 .6 p e r c e n t f o r ston e, cla y , and g la s s ; 1 .5 p e r c e n t fo r fu rn itu re;
1.1 p e r c e n t e a ch f o r tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent and m is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g;
and 1 p e r c e n t o r le s s fo r the rem a in in g 7 grou ps o f the 13 rep ortin g ex p en d itu res.
C om pany con trib u tion s p e r hour paid fo r by a ll esta b lish m en ts in m an u ­
fa ctu rin g a v e ra g e d 0. 3 cent.
The th ree h igh est in d u stry grou p a v e ra g e s w e re
1 .9 cents r e p o r te d by the p r im a r y m eta l in d u strie s, 1.1 cents re p o rte d b y the
ru b b er and p la s t ic s p ro d u cts in d u strie s, and 0. 7 cen t p e r hour fo r the ston e,
cla y , and g la s s in d u strie s. The rate fo r the tra n sp orta tion equipm ent in d u stries
ca m e to on ly 0. 3 cen t, r e fle ctin g the sm a ll am ount that was re p o rte d se p a ra te ly .
S u pplem en tary u n em ploym en t b en efits f o r a ll m an u factu rin g plants re p o rtin g the
p r a c t ic e se p a ra te ly , ca m e to 3. 2 cents p e r hour paid f o r , 2. 9 cents h igh er than
the a v e ra g e fo r a ll e sta b lish m e n ts. A m ong the in du stry grou ps with sig n ifica n t
p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with SUB p la n s, expen ditu res fo r th ose
esta b lish m en ts re p o rtin g them s e p a ra te ly am ounted to 3 .2 cents p e r hour paid
fo r in p r im a r y m e ta ls , 2. 7 cen ts in ru b b er and p la s t ic s p rod u cts, and 3. 3 cen ts
in tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent.
S e v e ra n ce o r D is m is s a l P a y
S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay c o v e r s p riv a te plans d esig n ed to p r o v id e
paym en ts to w o r k e rs ty p ic a lly in c a s e o f p erm a n en t lo s s o f em p loy m en t. Unlike
SUB, the w o r k e r d oes not have to qualify fo r State un em ploym en t com p en sa tion
to r e c e iv e paym ents and the paym ents a r e not re la te d to the am ount r e c e iv e d
under State u n em ploym en t in su ra n ce .
U sually, the paym ent is in a lum p sum .
The plans a re d ir e c te d la r g e ly tow a rds unem ploym ent o c c a s io n e d by the e lim in a ­
tion o f jo b s b e ca u se o f plant shutdown, m ov em en t o f the esta b lish m en t, m e r g e r
o f two esta b lish m en ts o r d ep a rtm en ts, o r te c h n o lo g ic a l change. P aym en ts g en ­
e r a lly v a r y with length o f s e r v ic e and the am ount o f earn in gs o f the e m p lo y e e .45
M o st o f the plans that w e re in stituted betw een 1920 and 1940 a r e attributable to
grow in g e m p lo y e r in te r e s t in good p e rs o n n e l p r a c t ic e s . Many o f the e a r lie r plan s,
h o w e v e r, w e re little m o r e than la y o ff-n o tic e p aym en ts.
D uring W orld W ar II,
the unions b e c a m e in c r e a s in g ly in te re ste d in s e v e r a n c e pay plan s. T his in te re s t
was p ro m p te d , in p a rt, b y a d e s ir e to obtain su p p lem en ta ry b en efits in lieu o f
d ir e c t w age in c r e a s e s
w hich w e re r e s tr ic te d and, in so m e in d u strie s, by the
fe a r o f s e v e r e em p loy m en t d is lo c a tio n a fte r the w a r. 46 New se v e r a n c e p a y plans
re q u ire d W ar L a b o r B o a rd a p p ro v a l b e fo r e they cou ld b e instituted, but the B oa rd
g e n e ra lly a p p ro v e d plans (in p a r tic u la r those d ir e c te d at the re g u la r w ork in g fo r c e
o f an in d u stry as d istin g u ish ed fr o m te m p o ra ry w ar s e r v ic e e m p lo y e e s) w hich
w e re re a so n a b le and w e re not ob v iou s attem pts at circu m v en tin g the w age s t a b ili­
zation p r o g r a m . 47
45 D is m is s a l P a y P r o v is io n s in Union A g re e m e n ts , D e c e m b e r 1944, BLS
B u ll. 808 ( 1945 ), p . 1; S lich te r and o th e rs, op. cit. , p. 478; C o lle c tiv e B a rg a in ­
ing C la u se s: D is m is s a l P a y , BLS B ull. 1216 (1957), p . 1.
46 S lich te r and o th e r s , op. cit. , pp. 463 and 466.
47 The T e rm in a tio n R e p o rt o f the N ational W ar L a b o r B o a r d , op. cit. ,
pp. 391 -3 9 4 .
In the C a rn eg ie Illin o is S teel C o rp ora tion , et a l. , c a s e , fo r e x ­
am p le, the B o a rd found that m o r e e fficie n t fa c ilit ie s had b een built in the s te e l
in d u stry during the w a r and that when the dem and o f w ar p ro d u ctio n fe ll o ff, the
com p a n ies m igh t c lo s e the -less e fficie n t fa c ilit ie s . It d ir e c te d the com pan y and
union to n egotia te the te r m s o f a s e v e ra n ce pay a g re e m e n t, g ivin g p a r tic u la r a t­
tention to the re g u la r w ork in g fo r c e rath er than to e m p lo y e e s that en tered the
in d u stry fo r te m p o r a r y w ar s e r v ic e . H ow ev er, in the C on solid a ted V ultee A i r ­
c r a ft C orp . c a s e , the m a jo r it y o f the B o a rd denied the u n io n s re q u e st b e ­
ca u se n. . . it was known fr o m the sta rt that p ostw a r a ir c r a ft p ro d u ctio n w ould
am ount to on ly a sm a ll p e r c e n ta g e o f w artim e p ro d u ctio n le v e ls ; m o s t o f the jo b s
w e re known to be co m p a r a tiv e ly te m p o ra ry in nature. n



68

A ft e r the w ar the n u m ber o f plans under barg ain in g a g reem en ts in c re a s e d ,
but s e v e r a n c e pay has not b e c o m e a w id esp rea d p r a c t ic e o v e r the w hole o f m an u ­
fa ctu rin g .
A 1944 study by the B ureau o f a sa m p le o f 2, 137 a g re e m e n ts, in ­
cluding 1 ,5 8 4 in m an u factu rin g in d u strie s, in dicated that on ly about 1 a g re e m e n t
in 20 con tain ed a s e v e r a n c e pa y c la u s e .48 In 1955 and e a r ly 1956, when the
B ureau ex a m in ed v irtu a lly a ll a g re em en ts co v e rin g 1 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e w o r k e rs in a ll
in d u strie s e x ce p t ra ilr o a d s and a ir lin e s , it found p r o v is io n s fo r s e v e ra n ce pay
in slig h tly le s s than 16 p e r c e n t o f the a g re e m e n ts, c o v e rin g le s s than o n e -fo u r th
o f the w o r k e r s in v o lv e d . 49
S om e o f the p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in ea ch o f the in d u stry grou ps in 1959
w e r e in e sta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g s e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay. In on ly fo u r o f the
in d u stry grou ps shown, h o w e v e r, did the n um ber o f w o rk e rs so p ro te c te d r e p r e s e n t
a su b sta n tia l p r o p o r tio n o f the w ork f o r c e : P e tro le u m (4 2 .7 p e r c e n t), ru b b er
(4 1 .5 p e r c e n t), tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent (35, 8 p e r c e n t ), and ord n an ce (29. 7 p e r ­
cen t). In the in stru m en ts grou p, the p ro p o rtio n was 17. 5 p e r c e n t and in p r im a r y
m e ta ls 1 7 .2 p e r c e n t. The p r o p o r tio n o f w o rk e rs f o r a ll m anufacturing in d u stries
in the United States was 14. 1 p e r c e n t.
It was 20 p e r c e n t in the N orth C en tral
re g io n , 13. 1 p e r c e n t in the N orth east, and about 9 p e r c e n t in both the W est
and South.
(See table 2 7 .)

E xpen ditu res fo r se v e r a n c e o r d is m is s a l pay w e re sm a ll as a p e rce n ta g e
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll o f p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in a ll esta b lish m en ts.
R eg ion a lly , the
high est p e r ce n ta g e w as in the N orth east (0. 1 p e rce n t), and in d u stria lly the highest
p e r c e n ta g e s w e re in the p e tro le u m in d u stries (0 .4 p e r c e n t), the p a p er in d u stries
(0. 1 p e r c e n t), and the p rin tin g in d u stries (0. 1 p e r c e n t). The ra tio s f o r so m e o f
the in d u stry g rou p s a re u n derstated b eca u se so m e esta b lish m en ts w e re unable to
re p o r t th e ir expen ditu res fo r s e v e r a n ce pay se p a ra te ly ; in p a r tic u la r , this was
so in the fa b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u cts, the tra n sp orta tion equipm ent, and the o r d ­
nance g ro u p s.
When the ra tio s w e re com pu ted as a p e rce n ta g e o f the p a y r o ll
o f on ly th ose re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e se p a ra te ly , the expen ditu re ra tio f o r m an u ­
fa ctu rin g as a w hole b e c a m e 0 .3 p e rce n t.
The South had the h igh est o f the
r e g io n a l expen ditu re ra tio s—0. 5 p e r ce n t—p ro b a b ly due to the co n cen tra tion o f e x ­
p en d itu res in the p e tro le u m in d u strie s; the W est and the N orth C en tral reg ion s
had the lo w e st— 0. 2 p e r c e n t ea ch .
E stab lish m en ts with actual expen ditu res fo r
se v e r a n c e o r d is m is s a l pay had the high est a v era g e expenditure ra tios in p e t r o ­
leu m (0 .9 p e r c e n t), fa b r ic a te d m e ta l p rod u cts and te x tile s ( 0 .7 p e r c e n t each ),
and p a p e r (0. 6 p e r c e n t).
In cen ts p e r h ou r, the s e v e r a n ce pay expen ditu res in a ll in d u stries cam e
to 0. 1 cent on the b a s is o f h ou rs paid f o r by a ll esta b lish m e n ts, and 0. 7 cent
on the b a s is o f the h ou rs o f on ly th ose esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g the p r a c t ic e .
A m on g the in du stry g ro u p s, th ese expen ditu res p e r hou r p aid f o r am ounted, r e ­
s p e c tiv e ly , to 1. 2 cen ts and 2. 8 cen ts p e r hour fo r p e tro le u m , le s s than 0. 05 and
1 .8 f o r fa b r ic a te d m e ta l, 0 .1 and 1.1 f o r te x tile s , and 0 .1 and 1 .4 fo r p a p er.
A gain , it sh ou ld be b o rn e in m in d that the M
all e sta b lish m e n t" ra tes f o r som e
in d u stry grou ps a re u n dersta ted b e ca u se th eir expen ditu res fo r s e v e ra n ce pay
w e re in clu d ed under p riv a te w e lfa r e plans not re p o rte d s e p a ra te ly .

p.

48
12.

L a b o r-M a n a g e m e n t C on tra ct P r o v is io n s , 1 9 4 9 -5 0 , BLS B u ll. 1022 (1951),

49 BLS B u ll.




1216,

op .

cit. , pp.

1 and 2.

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Savings and T h rift P lan s
Savings and th rift plans a re arra n g em en ts under w hich w o r k e r savin gs
a re su p plem en ted b y com pa n y con trib u tion s. In 1959, esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g
76. 3 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in the p e tro le u m refin in g and re la te d in ­
d u strie s m ade con trib u tion s to sa vin gs plans f o r th e ir p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs . F e w e r
than 5 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w e re em p loy ed in esta b lish m en ts con trib u tin g to
su ch plans in e a ch o f the 14 o th er in du stry grou ps in w h ich they w e re re p o rte d .
F o r m an u factu rin g as a w h ole, 2. 7 p e r c e n t o f the w o rk e rs w e re in esta b lish m en ts
con trib u tin g to sa vin gs and th rift p la n s.
(See table 2 7 .)

C om pany con trib u tion s f o r savings and th rift plans equaled 0. 1 p e r c e n t
o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts in m an u factu rin g.
The expenditure
ra tes in the N orth ea st and W est m a tch ed the United States a v e ra g e , w hile the
rate in the South was 0. 2 p e r c e n t and that in the N orth C en tral re g io n was le s s
than 0. 05 p e r c e n t. A m on g the 19 in du stry grou ps studied s e p a ra te ly on ly 2 had
expen ditu res e x ce e d in g 0. 05 p e r c e n t: P e tro le u m (2. 7 p e rcen t) and p a p e r (0. 1 p e r ­
cen t). When con trib u tion s w e re re la te d to the p a y r o ll o f on ly th ose esta b lish m en ts
re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the expen ditu re ratio fo r a ll m an u factu rin g in the United
States r o s e to 2 p e r c e n t.
The expenditure ra tio s in the South and W est w ere
2. 6 and 2. 8 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly , about tw ice that in the N orth C en tral re g io n .
A m on g the in du stry g ro u p s, expen ditu res in to b a cco plants equaled 4. 6 p e r c e n t
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll; p e tr o le u m 3. 9 p e r c e n t; and a p p a rel 2. 3 p e r c e n t.

In te r m s o f cen ts p e r hou r paid fo r by a ll e sta b lish m e n ts, con trib u tion s
to savin gs and th rift plans o v e r the w hole o f m an u factu rin g a v e ra g e d 0. 1 cent
p e r h ou r. R e g io n a lly , they a v e ra g e d 0. 3 cent in the South, 0. 2 cent in the W est,
and 0. 1 cen t in the N orth ea st and the N orth C en tral r e g io n s .
The p e tro le u m
in d u stries con trib u ted 8. 3 cents an hou r, b y fa r the h igh est rate fo r any in d u stry
grou p.
A m on g the oth e r in d u stry g rou p s, 0. 2 cent was re p o rte d b y the p a p er
in d u strie s; 0. 1 cen t by the to b a c c o , the p rin tin g, and the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u s­
tr ie s .
The con trib u tion s o f the rem ain in g in d u stries fo r w hich data cou ld be c o m ­
p a re d , w e re le s s than 0. 05 cen t p e r h ou r. F o r on ly th ose rep ortin g the p r a c t ic e ,
the a v e ra g e f o r a ll in d u strie s r o s e to 5. 5 cents p e r h ou r. In the p e tro le u m in ­
d u s tr ie s , th ose re p o rtin g expen ditu res con trib u ted 1 2 .4 cen ts p e r hour paid fo r .
E sta b lish m en ts in the to b a c c o in d u stries con trib u ted 8. 8 cents p e r hou r, and in
the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u str ie s, 4. 8 cen ts.
Y ea rend and C h ristm a s B on u ses
S p e cia l ca sh bonus paym en ts at the end o f the y e a r o r during the C h r is t­
m a s se a s o n , e x clu d in g r e g u la r ly paid p ro d u ctio n b o n u se s, w e r e r e p o r te d b y e s ta b ­
lish m en ts em p loy in g 27. 2 p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs in m an u factu rin g.
A m on g the r e g io n s , esta b lish m e n ts paying su ch bon u ses em p loy ed fr o m 20 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k e rs in the W est to 3 1 .9 p e r c e n t in the South.
E a ch o f the in d u stry
grou ps had e sta b lish m en ts that paid b on u ses, but the p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e rs e m ­
p lo y e d in th ese esta b lish m en ts ranged fr o m the 3. 3 p e r c e n t in the ord n a n ce grou p
and 10. 2 p e r c e n t in the p e tr o le u m group to 49. 1 p e r c e n t and 49. 6 p e r c e n t, in
the in stru m en ts and the m is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu res groups, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
(See
table 2 7 .)

M a n u fa c tu r e r s 1 y e a re n d bonus paym ents equaled 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s
p r o d u ctio n w o r k e r p a y r o ll o f a ll e sta b lish m en ts. U nlike m o s t o f the o th e r p riv a te
w e lfa r e p la n s, y e a re n d and C h ristm a s b on u ses tended to be an attribu te o f the




70
lo w e r payin g, s m a lle r s iz e , nonunion esta b lish m en ts.
(See Ch. V I .) The e x ­
pen ditu re ra tio s in the re g io n s ranged fr o m 0. 3 p e r c e n t in the W est to 0. 6 p e r ­
cent in the N orth ea st, and b y in du stry, fr o m le s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t to 2. 4 p e r ­
cen t. Only the in stru m en ts and the m is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rers groups r e p o r te d
expen ditu re ra tio s g r e a te r than 1 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll. When the ex p en d itu res
a r e re la te d to the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f on ly th ose re p o rtin g the p r a c t ic e , the ra tio
f o r a ll m an u factu rin g in d u strie s r is e s fr o m 0 .5 to 1 .9 p e rce n t.

1.
0.
of
to

P e r h ou r paid fo r by a ll esta b lish m en ts, bonus expen ditu res cam e to
1 cen ts f o r a ll m an u factu rin g in d u strie s.
The in du stry rates ranged fr o m
1 in ord n a n ce to 5. 5 cents p e r hour in in stru m en ts. On the b a s is o f the h ours
th ose e sta b lish m en ts a ctu a lly re p ortin g the p r a c t ic e , bonus paym ents am ounted
4 cen ts f o r a ll m an u factu rin g.




Table 24.

Average Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans by All Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures;
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll
E sta blish m en ts re p o rtin g expenditures

A ll e sta b lish m en ts
R eg ion and in d u stry group
T otal

Health,
a ccid en t,
and life
in surance

U nited States 3 --------------------------------N orth ea st __ _______
___ ___
S o u th _____________________________
N orth C en tra l
--------------W est ....................................................

5 .4
5. 5
4 .8
5 .8
4 .4

2. 1
2. 0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -----------F ood and k in d red p ro d u c ts _ .
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ---------------------A p p a rel and o th er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts _ __
__ —
_ _
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u c ts _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s -------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s __________________
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s t r i e s ________________
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s -------Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts __ __
------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries _ ---------F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u c ts
M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l -------T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm en t -------------Instrum ents and re la te d

6. 1

2. 3
2. 3

5. 2
5. 6
3. 0

1.7
2. 4
2. 1

1.8

P en sion
S upple­
V acation
and
m ental
and
u n em ­
r e t ir e ­
holid a y
p loym en t
m ent
funds
b e n e fits
plans

2 .4
2. 3
2. 2
2. 7
1. 7
3. 6
2. 3
3 .4

0)
(4
0
(4 )

0. 1
_

(4)
-

1

1. 5

.8

.

3. 2
2 .4
3 .8
5. 0

.7
1. 3
1.9
2. 1

.9

.3

4. 1

1.8

.6
1. 0
2. 2

-

(4 )

0. 1
.2
. 1
.2
. 1
_
-

c>
(4)

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pay

Savings
and
th rift
plans

C)
>
(4

0. 1
. 1
.2

<!>

(4 )
. 1

0. 1

(4)
(4)
0
0
(4)

_

Y earen d
P riv a te
and
plans not
C h ris t­
re p o rte d
m as
se p a ra te ly
bon u ses

0. 5

.6

.5
.4
.3

(4)

T o ta l2

(4)

5 .7
5 .9
5. 2
6. 0
4 .7

2. 3
2. 3
1 .9
2. 5
2. 3

3. 6
3 .7
3 .8
3 .6
3. 0

2

6. 1

5 .4
6. 1
3. 1

2. 3
2. 5
2. 0
1 .7

4.
3.
4.
2.

(4)

. 1
(4 )

4 .4
3. 0
4. 2
5. 0

1. 6
1 .9
2. 3
2. 1

1

4 .4

0. 2
..3
. 1
. 1
.

.5
.3
.5

(4)

1. 0

(4 )
. 1

.3
.5
.7
.5
.7

.

(4)
0
(4)

.

1

See footn otes at end o f table.




.9

1
3
2
5

_
. 1
.9

. 1
.2
.2
.7

2.6
2.8

3. 2
3. 0

1. 5
(4 )

.5
.3
. 1

.6

2. 3
1. 2
1. 5

2. 0

2 .9

.5

.5

1.4

1.9

2.6
1 .4

2.8
-

. 1
4 .6
.1

.

1

2. 2

12. 3

1. 2

6. 5

_

.9

3 .9

. 1
(4 )

6. 5

3. 1

3. 5
3. 1

1. 0
~

(4 )
.2

.4
“

1. 6
1. 0
1. 0
1. 0
1. 1

.3
(4 )
.7
.1
.1

1. 2
1. 6
.8
.6

(4 )

(4 )

.4

1. 1

5. 7

(4 )

~

2 .9
1. 6

2. 5
1. 3

-

.5
-

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )
~

.4
.5

5. 3

2. 1

5. 5
5 .9

2 .4
3. 5
2. 2
2 .7

-

0
0
0
(4)

.3

.3

6. 1
6. 1

2. 1

2 .9

“

.

2 .4

“

7.

1 .9

1. 6

(4)

(4)

0
0
0
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

(4 )
(4 )
. 1

2.8

.3
.7
. 1
. 1
. 1

.5
.2
.5

6. 0

2 .4
2. 5
2 .4
2 .4

1. 1

(4)

6

2. 0

0. 3
.3
.5
.2
.2

2. 7

1. 5

6 .4
3 .4

4.

Savings
and
thrift
plans

(4 )

. i

0

7 .4
M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s tries ______ _____ ____ ___

fo * -

0
0)
(4
. i

(4)

1. 1
1. 1
1. 0
1. 1

1

S e v e r­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pay

. 1
(4 )

12 . 2

6.8

P e n s io n Supple­
and
m ental
r e tir e ­
u n em ­
m ent
p loym en t
plans
ben efits

H ealth,
a ccid e n t,
and life
in su ra n ce

1

“

(4)
(4
)

.6

(4)

3. 7

1.8

5. 6
6.8

2. 2

2. 5

3 .7
4. 0
3. 3
3. 7
3. 3

6

2. 1

4. 0

1 .7

-1

5. 5

2. 3

3. 3

1. 1

.2

5 .8

2 .4
2 .7

2.6

~

.6
1. 7

-4

Table 24.

Average Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans by A ll Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
P e r c e n t o f str a ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll
E sta blish m en ts re p o rtin g e xp e n d itu re s 1 fo —

A ll esta b lish m en ts
R eg ion and in d u stry grou p
T ota l

U nited States 3 _
-----N orth ea st
South ------------- . ----------------N orth C en tra l
W est

5 .6
5 .7
5. 1
6. 1
4 .6

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
—
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ----------T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ________ i----T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ______ ______
A p p a re l and o th e r fin ish ed
tex tile p rod u cts
L u m b er and w o o d p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u stries
R u b b er and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ------- ---------------L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s __________________________
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ----------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s _______
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l — —

6.

Instrum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s ------------------— .—----------

See footn otes at end o f ta b le .




3
5 .4
5 .7
3 .2
3. 3
2 .5
3 .9
5. 3

Health,
accid en t,
and life
insurance

2.2
2. 1
1 .7
2 .5

Supple P en sion
V acation
m ental
and
and
u n em ­
r e t ir e ­
h oliday
p loym en t
m ent
funds
Dlans
b e n efits

2 .5
2 .4
2. 3

2.2

2.8
1.8

2 .4
2 .4
1 .9

3 .7
2 .4
3 .4

1.6
.7
1. 3

.8

.9

.6
1. 1

0

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )
0. 1
_

(4 )
. 1
. 3
(4 )

2.0
2.2

2 .4

4 .4

1 .9

1.6

(4 )

12.6

1. 1

5 .9

Savings
and
th rift
plans

S ever­
P e n s io n Supple Y e a r end
Savings
H ealth,
P riv a te
ance
m ental
and
and
and
a ccid e n t,
plans not
u n em ­
o r d is ­
r e tir e ­
T o ta l2
C h r is t ­ re p o rte d
thrift
and life
p loym en t m is s a l
m ent
m as
plans
in su ra n ce
s e p a ra te ly
bon u ses
plans__ ■kfifiSfitg.. — pay___

-

0 .5

0.2

.5
.4
.4

.3
. 1
. 1
(4 )

(4 )
. 1
(4 )

(4 )
.5
.3
.5

(4 )
. 1

C)
(4 )
.1

.3
.5
.7
.5

1.0

i

(4 )

.7

.

.4

0. 1
.2
. 1
.2
. 1

2.8

.2

2.2

c>
(4 )
0. 1
0

(4 )

c>

4

0

(4 )

£
(4 )

.1
(4 )

(4 )

(4 )

.

(4 )

6.8

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
oav

C)

(4 )
. i

0. 1
.1
.2
(4 )
. 1
-

.6

.2

(4 )

.1

(4 )

1

6. 0
6.2
5. 5

2 .4
2 .4
2. 0

4 .9

2 .4

6. 3
6.

3
5 .7
6. 3
3. 3

2.6
2 .4

2.6
2. 1
1 .7

3 .8
3 .8
4. 0
3 .8
3 .2

1. 1
1.2
1. 1
1. 1

4 .2
3 .4
4. 3

.1
.9

2.6

4. 5
3. 1
4. 3
5 .4

1.6
2. 0
2 .4
2. 3

2.6

1.6

3. 0

6

2. 1

3. 1

1 2.7

1. 3

6.8

4.

3 .2
3. 1

.6

.3

1 .7

3 .2
1. 8

3 .7
3. 1

5 .6
7. 1
5 .8
6. 1
6. 3

2.2

-

c>
4)

5 .9
7 .2

2 .4
2 .5

2 .9

(4 )
(4 )
. i
(4 )
.4

6.0

2 .5
2 .5

(4 )
£
(4 )
(4 )

.5

(4 )
•

. 3
.7

2.6

2 .5
3 .7
2. 3

6. 4

2.6

3 .9
4 .2
3 .5
3 .9
3. 5

7 .8

2. 1

3 .0

•

“

8. 0

2.2

(4 )

5 .7

2 .4

4 .8

1 .9

1 .7

(4 )

.

1

(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

(4 )

2 .5

(4 )

1.2

2 .7

4. 0

.2

6 .9
3. 8

6 .4

.9

‘

1.6

1. 1

. 1
(4 )

"

1. 5

1.8

.4
.5

4

.5

3 .5

(4 )

C
(4 )

.5

4 .2

<!>
(4 )

2.8

2. 3
1. 2
-

(4 )

.5
.3
. 1
.6

-

. 3
(4 )
.7
. 1
. 1

.5
“

2.8

.7

1 .7

-

.2

. 1
4. 7
. 1

1. 1
1. 1
1. 1
1. 2

2 .7
1. 3

•6
.6
.3

. 1
.2
.2

.2
.2

(4 )
.2

1.6

.2
.1
. 1

2. 1
2. 0
2 .7
1 .4
2 .9

1.0

3. 1

3 .4

2 .5

.9

0. 3
. 3
.5

.4

1.2
1 .7
.9
.6

Table 24.

Average Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans by A ll Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued

625617 0 - 6 2

Cents p e r hou r p aid f o r
E sta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g e xp e n d itu re s 1 fo

A ll esta b lish m en ts
R eg ion and in d u stry group
T otal

12 . 1
12. 2

P e n sio n
S upple­
Health,
V acation
and
m ental
a ccid en t,
and
un em ­
r e t ir e ­
and life
h olid a y
ploym ent
m ent
insurance
funds
plans
b e n efits

0.1
. 1

5 .4
5 .2
4. 1

11. 1

6. 3

9. 1
4 .9

4 .8
3 .0
2. 5

5. 1
4. 3
7. 2
11. 1

9 .8
4 .9
5. 5
1. 3
X
1 .5

2. 3
3 .7
4 .7

1 .9
4 .9

(4)

11. 1

4 .8

4 .0

.

3 7.0

3. 2

17. 3

15. 2
5 .6

6 .9
2. 6

6.0
2. 1

11.8
19.2
13. 2
15. 2
1 6.0

4. 6
6 .7
5 .9
6. 2
6 .4

5. 3
9 .9
5. 2
7. 1
7 .4

17. 5

4 .8

6.8

8 .7

----- ---- ------------------- ------

4 .7
4 .4
3 .0
5 .8
5. 3

1 6.7

N orth ea st

3. 5

3 .0

8 .9
14. 3
W est

10.8

T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
—----------- —
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s -------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ------------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s --------Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts
M a ch in e ry , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l ---------

1.0

In strum ents and rela ted

6.6

4 .4

1.0

(4 )

.2

(4 )

.

1

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pav

0. 3
.3
.2
.4
.2

0.1
.1
.1

_
_

.
.

(4 )
.1

1
1

Savings
and
th rift
plan s

0. 1
. 1
.3
. 1
. 2

_
(4 )

(4 )
(4 )

.1
(4 )

0
0

(!>
(4)

.

1

.1
(4 )

(4)
.1

.

(4 )

.

2

.

(4 )

-

1. 2

8.

.

1.1

(4)
(4)

. 1
-

0
n
0

(4 )

-

.7
1 .9
.3
. 3
. 3

-

. 3

.4
-

1

-

M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
(4 )

.

1

(4 )

(4 )

0 .4

1
1.0

.4
.1
. 1

1.0
.8
.

.5
.7
.5
.9

.6

.3
.3
.1

1.6

H ealth,
a ccid e n t,
and life
Insurance

13. 1
1 3 .4
9 .9
1 5 .0
1 1 .9

5 .4
5. 4
3. 6
6. 2
5 .9

1 6 .7

6.

11.8

1 0 .4
5. 1

2

11. 3

1

1.8

.

2

12.0

5.

3

.4

6 .5

(4 )

.9

.

.

1

.8

(4 )

1.1

(4 )

.4
1. 3
1 .4
.9

(4 )

5. 5

(4 )

2. 1

.1
. 3
. 1
.9
-

(4 )

7 .0
5 .7

3
5 .6
3. 5
2 .7
2 .4
3 .7
4 .4
4 .8

2

P e n sio n S upple­
and
m ental
u n em ­
re tir e ­
ploym ent
m ent
plans
ben efits

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pav

Savings
and
thrift
plans

3. 2
3 .4
2 .9
3 .2

0 .7
.7
1. 2
.4
.7

5. 5
5. 3
6. 8
3 .6
8 .7

_
.1

1.6

.3
.5
.3
1. 1

4 .2
(4)

.8

5 .7
6 .5

.4
.4
1 .4

2.9
3 .4
_
3 .4

1

(4)
.2
.1

c>
(4 )

1

1. 1
1. 3
.9

T o ta l2

1. 2
1. 1

(4 )

.

Y earen d
P riv a te
and
plans not
C h ris t­
re p o rte d
m as
se p a ra te ly
b onuses

8. 2

6

9 .0
9 .1
8. 5
9 .4
7 .9

11.1

7 .7
7 .4
4. 3
5 .7

6. 5

2.6

_
.3

8.8
. 1

8. 1

2.0

1 .5

3 .7

_

37. 3

3 .8

20.0

2.8

1 2 .4

1 5 .4
6. 3

7. 3
3. 1

9 .0
5 .4

2 .7
-

. 1
.5

1.0

1 2 .7
19. 4
14. 2

6.8
6.6

9 .0

6.6

9 .8
9 .0

.8
.1
1. 8

2 .7
4 .8
2. 2
1. 5

16.

4 .8
3. 2
2 .9
3 .0
3. 3

1

5. 1

10.0

5 .0

.4

1 .4

10.6

4. 5

7. 2

2.6

.5

1.8

16.0
2
18.

5. 1

6 .7

12.0
8.8

. 3
.2

_

-

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f tab le.




-j
00

-4

Table 24.

Average Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans by A ll Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
Cents p e r plant m a n -h o u r
E sta blish m en ts re p ortin g e x p e n d itu r e s 1 f o r —

A ll esta b lish m en ts
R eg ion and in d u stry group
T ota l

N orth ea st — —------------------------- —
South
N orth C en tra l ■■■---------------- ,
W est
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts — ---- ——
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
— ------- ...
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts —----------- -------- ----P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ............ -—
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s —------- ------- — .....
P e t r o le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ------------------------R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s

Health,
a ccid en t,
and life
in surance

P e n sio n
S upple­
Vacation
and
m en tal
and
u n em ­
r e t ir e ­
holiday
ploym en t
m ent
funds
b en efits
plans

0. 1
. 1

1 .5
1. 1

.5
(4 )

. 1
(4 )

(4)
. 1

2.8

1 2 .4
2 0 .7
14. 1
16. 3
17. 2

4 .8
7. 2
6 .3
6 .9

8.0

1 8 .8

5. 2

7. 2
3. 1

.

3 .0
3. 5
3 .7

(4 )
.2

2

1 2.9

6.0

8 .7

2. 2

1. 6

3.9

3. 2

14. 0

. 1
.5

1. 0

4. 2

2 2 .4

. 1
(4)

(4 )
■

1.0

.2
(4)

1 6 .5
6. 6

7 .8
3. 3

9 .7
5 .8

.7

~

3 .7

.8
.4
.4
1. 5

4 1 .8

ft

.
.

1
1

1. 2

(4)
. 1
.3
. 1

5 .4
7 .4
7 .0
7. 2
7. 1

9 .6
1 3.0
9 .4
10. 6
9 .7

5.
3.
3.
3.
3.

1
5
2
3
5

.9
. 1
1 .9
.4
.2

.
“

7 .4

5 .9

7 .0

4. 6
(4)

7. 3

5 .6
1 0.7
5. 6
7. 6

16. 2

6.0
6.8
6.1

.5

1. 2

1 9 .4

2. 5
3 .8
4. 6
5. 2

9 .3

~

6

7. 3
5 .9
8. 6
12 . 1

7 .9
4 .5

1. 3

6 .4
2. 2

3.

1 .7
(4)
.2
.1

.5

1 4 .0
1 4 .4
1 0 .4

2.0

-

4 1 .4

.

.5
.9
1. 3
1. 2

.9

0 .4
.6
. 3
.4
.1

1

(4 )

4. 2

2.8

.4
.5
.3
1. 2

.4
9 .4

5. 3

.1
1 .7

1. 2
1. 4

-

1

.

5. 1

6.6

0

(4)

1 1 .9

12.0
8. 3

ft

1. 1

2.0

6.8

ft

5. 3
4. 5
7 .5
1 1 .9

5. 3

18. 1
12 . 6
11. 1

5 .9
3 .7

.8

.5
.1
.1

. 1
1.0

(4)

2 .4
3 .9
5 .0

7. 4
3 .9
9 .5

_

1

.

1 .4
.5
.7

(4 )
. 1
(4 )

(4 )

6.0
5. 8

16.0
12 . 6

. 1
. 1
(4 )
.1

_

5. 2
5 .8
1. 3

Savings
and
thrift
plans

0. 8
.8

_
-

10. 6

5 .1
3. 2
2. 6

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pav

3 .5
3 .7
3. 1
3. 5
2 .9

1.0
1. 1

6.8

P e n s io n S upple­
m ental
and
un em ­
r e tir e ­
p loym en t
m ent
b e n efits
plans

9 .7
9 .8
9 .1
10. 2
8 .5

. 3
. 1
.2

0. 2
. 1

T o ta l2

Health,
a ccid en t,
and life
in su ra n ce

5 .8
5 .8
3 .8
6 .7
6. 2

(4 )
.1

18. 1
1 1 .5
9 .6
5 .0

(4 )
(4 )
. 2

Y earen d
P riv a te
and
plans not
C h ris t­
re p o rte d
m as
s e p a ra te ly
b onuses

0. 1
.1
.1

5 .7
5. b
4. 3
7. 1
4 .6

11.8

Savings
and
th rift
plans

0. 3
.4
.2
.4
.2

5 .0
4 .7
3. 2
6. 2
5 .6

1 2 .9
1 3 .0
9 .3
15. 3

9 .1

L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts --------Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts ----------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s trie s —-------- —
F a b rica te d m e ta l p ro d u c ts -----------M a ch in e ry , ex c e p t e l e c t r ic a l --------T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent -------------In stru m en ts and re la te d
p ro d u c ts -----------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g

S ever­
ance
o r d is ­
m is s a l
pay

1

2.0

2

2 .9
“

‘
3. 0
5. 2
2. 3
1. 6

0

(4 )
“

.5
1. 4
1. 5
.9

1.0

1

(4 )

5 .9

■

1 9 .5

5. 5

10.8

5. 2

.4

1. 5

(4)

(4)

2. 2

(4)

11. 2

4 .8

7 .7

2.8

.5

1.9

f t

.4
.4
.3

(4)
.

1

.

.9

.

1 3 .4
2 0 .9
15. 1
17. 2
1 7 .4

.3

1

.

-1

f t
f t

1 G e n e ra lly , the a v e ra g e s f o r "esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g exp en d itu res" f o r va ca tion and holid a y funds and y ea ren d and C h ristm a s b onuses did not m e e t publication
c r it e r ia .
F o r a ll e sta b lish m en ts in the United States, the a vera g es w e r e : V acation and h o lid a y funds— 2. 1 p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll, 2. 2 p e rce n t o f s tr a ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll,
4 .7 cen ts p e r h ou r p a id f o r , and 4 .8 cen ts p e r plant m a n -h ou r; yea ren d and C h ristm a s b onuses— 1 .9 p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll, 2 p e rce n t o f s tr a ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll,
4 cents
p e r h ou r p a id f o r , and 4. 2 cen ts p e r plant m a n -h ou r.
A ve ra g e exp en d itures f o r va ca tion and h olid a y funds, by the a p p a rel group w e r e :
3.8 p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll,
3. 8 p e r c e n t o f s tr a ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll, 6 cen ts p e r hou r paid f o r , and 6. 1 cen ts p e r plant m a n -h o u r.
2 F o r "e s ta b lis h m e n ts re p o rtin g expen ditures fo r the p r a c t ic e " the
d e ta il d o e s not add to the tota l b e ca u se a d iffe re n t p a y r o ll o r h ou rs b a se was used f o r each item ,
and b e c a u s e ite m s w h ich did not m e e t p u b lica tion c r it e r ia a re not shown se p a ra te ly .
3 In clu des in d u s trie s not show n s ep a ra tely.
4 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r 0. 05 cent.
N O TE :

B e ca u s e o f rounding,




sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

Table 25.

Average Expenditures for Health, Accident, and Life Insurance in Establishments Reporting Expenditures by Contributory and Noncontributory Type,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

R egion and in d u stry group

P e rc e n t o f
stra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll

Cents p e r hour paid fo r

Cents p e r plant m an -hour

C ontribu tory

United States 1 ----------------------------------N orth ea st __
. . . . .
—
South ____________________________
N orth C e n t r a l __________________
...........................
W est
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res
. . . .
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ______________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
tex tile p r o d u c t s ______ ___ ________
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u cts _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s _
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u c ts ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _________________
P e tro le u m re fin in g and
r e la te d in d u s trie s . .
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ________________
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts ________ __________________
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries _ ___ __
F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u cts ________
M a ch in ery, e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm ent _.
In strum ents and r e la te d
products
__
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s . . . .

1

N oncon tributory

C ontribu tory

N on con trib u tory

C on tribu tory

N on con trib u tory

C ontribu tory

N oncontributory

2. 1
2. 1
1.6

2.6
2.6
2.6
2. 8

2.2
2. 2

2. 8

5 .0
5. 1
3 .2

6. 1

5. 4
5 .5
3 .4
6. 4

6. 5

2. 7
2. 7
2 .9
2 .5

2.2

2 .4

1 .7
2 .5
2 .3

2.2
2.2

2.6
2. 8
2. 1
2.2

2 .3
2. 3
1 .9
1 .4

2.6

1. 7

1. 1
2 .3

2 .4

1 .9
1 .3

1.6

2 .9

2.2
2. 3

5 .6

6.2

6.0

6 .3
5. 1
7 .3
6. 6

5 .9
4 .6
3 .0
2. 0

7 .3
6. 7
3. 8
3. 8

6. 3

8. 1

4 .9
3 .2
2. 1

7. 2
4 .0
4. 0

2 .4
3. 3
3. 8
4. 3

1. 7
4. 3
5 .3
6 .4

2 .5
3 .4
4 .0
4. 5

1. 7
4 .4
5 .6
6 .9

6.0

5 .9
4. 8
6 .9

2. 1

1 .7

1. 1
2.2
2.6

1 .9

2 .9

1. 8
2.2
2.0

1 .9

2. 1

2. 1

2.2

5. 3

5 .9

5. 7

6. 4

1. 1

1 .0

1. 1

1 .1

3 .4

2. 3

3 .9

2 .4

2.2
1.6

3 .4

2 .3
1. 7

3 .6

2.2

2. 2

4 .6
2. 7

8.6
3 .9

4 .9
2 .9

9 .3
4. 1

2.2

2 .3
3 .0
3 .3
3. 1
2. 1

2 .3
2 .4
2 .3
2 .5
2. 7

5 .4
7. 7
8. 3
8 .4
5. 6

5 .2
7. 2
5. 7
6. 5
7 .4

5. 7
8. 3
8. 8
9 .0

2 .3

2.2
2 .3

2.6

2.6

3. 1

2. 5
3. 1
3 .4
3. 2

2.2

4 .9
6. 6
5 .4

6.0
6 .9

6.0

1 .9

2. 8

2.0

2 .9

4.

8

6.0

5. 1

6 .4

2.2

2 .4

2 .3

2 .5

4. 3

5 .0

4 .6

5. 3

In clu des in d u s tries not shown sep a ra tely.




o
on

O
Os
Table 26.

A verage Expenditures for Pension and Retirement Plans in Establishments Reporting Expenditures by Contributory and Noncontributory Type,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

R eg ion and in d u stry g rou p
C on tribu tory

N oncon tributory

P e rce n t o f
stra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll
C ontribu tory

N on con trib u tory

U nited States 1
N o r t h e a s t --------------_ --- --------------S o u th ----N orth C en tra l
__
W est _

3 .6
3 .4
3 .9
3 .5
3 .9

3 .5
3 .4
3 .7
3 .6
2 .7

3 .8
3 .6
4 .1
3 .7
4 .1

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s -------,----F ood and kin d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ____________
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu res ------------------P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s __________________
P e tro le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s tries --------------- ------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts
_
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts ———
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u cts __
__
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s _____ __
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ___ ____
M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ________
Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u cts
_
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing

3 .5
2 .9
3 .2
1 .0

4 .2
3 .2
4 .3
2 .4

3 .6
3 .1
3 .3

.5
3 .5

2.0
2.8
2.2

2. 1
2 .9

1.1

3 .0

2 .7

.5
3 .8
2 .3
3 .2

2.6

2.8

2.8

2.2

3 .6
3 .6
3 .9
3 .7

2.8
4 .3
3 .3
4 .4
2 .5

Cents p er hour paid fo r
C on tribu tory

8.8

8 .5
8 .9
8 .7
9 .9

8.6
6.8
5 .6
1 .7

.6

N on con trib u tory

8 .7
8 .4

8.1

9 .4
6 .9

11.8
7 .5
7 .5
4 .1
3 .5

Cents p e r plant m an -h ou r
C on tribu tory

9 .5
9 .2
9 .6
9 .4

10.6
9 .2
7 .3

6.1
1.8
.7

N oncon tributory

9 .3
9 .0
8 .7

10.1

7 .5

12.8
8.1
8.0
4 .3
3 .6

6.6

6.6

4 .9

2 .9

6 .3
4 .6
7 .0

6.2

4 .8
7 .5

5 .2
6 .7

3 .0

7 .0

8.1

7 .5

8 .7

2.2

6.2

6 .3

3 .7

6 .5

3 .8

1 9 .4

1 0 .3

21.8

1 1 .4

3 .7
2 .5

3 .4
3 .0

3 .8
2 .5

3 .6
3 .1

8.2

9 .0
5 .3

8.8

9 .7
5 .7

3 .7
4 .3
3 .8
3 .4
2 .7

3 .5
4 .0
3 .2
3 .7
3 .4

3 .9
4 .5
4 .1
3 .6

2.8

3 .7
4 .2
3 .4
3 .9
3 .6

8.6
12.1
10.1
8.8
7 .4

1 1.9
8 .4
9 .8
9 .0

3 .9

3 .9

4. 0

4 .1

9 .5

3 .7

3 .4

3 .9

3 .6

8 .7

In clu des in d u s trie s not shown sep a ra tely




4 .6

8.8

4 .9

9 .3
1 2.9
9 .0

9 .1
1 3 .2
1 0 .7
9 .5

10.6

9 .9

10.2

10.6

7 .2

9 .4

7 .6

8.0

9 .7

Table 27.

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

Percent of Production and Related W orkers in Establishments Reporting Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans
by Region and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P riv a te
w e lfa re
plans

U nited S ta t e s 1
— —
N orth ea st ----------------------------------South _
.
_ __
N orth C e n t r a l ---------------------------W est .
....................

9 2 .0
8 9 .9
8 9 .3
9 5 .6
9 3 .3

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ----------F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res _ >
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________
A p p a rel and o th e r fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts
.
__,
L u m b er and w o o d p r o d u c t s ______
F u rn itu re and fix tu r e s — -_______
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _______
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s
P e tr o le u m re fin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ________________
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts __ ___ __________
L ea th er and le a th e r p r o d u c t s ------S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts .
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s trie s _
. . .
F a b rica te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s ______
M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l -----T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ________
Instrum ents and r e la te d
p ro d u c ts
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s tries
___

100.0
91.6

1

8 6 .5
9 5 .4

H ealth, a ccid en t,
and life in surance

In c o m ­
In c o m ­
bination S epa ra tely bination

1.8

.3
.4

8 5 .7
7 9 .7
82. 3
9 3 .2
8 9 .8

_

100.0

4. 1

.8

.2
-

2.0

.5
.5

5 8 .8
5 6 .3
4 6 .5
70. 0
5 5 .2

_

88.0

.8

.7
-

6 3 .0
7 2 .9
2 9 .6

0 .9
2 .5
-

1 .5
2 .7
.4

.2

Supplem ental un em ­
p loym en t b e n e fits

4 .7
1 .5
.9
1 1.3

.4

4 .0

1.0

_

_

11. 1

-

2.0

-

-

1. 1

4 .3

.2

9 .4
9 .7

6.2
12.1

_

11.1

1 8 .6

_

_

-

-

.8
1.2

1 .5
1 1 .3

2 5 .5
1 5 .6
3 4 .8
7 4 .8

9 .3

8 .7

1.0

-

-

-

1 .3
.5

.5

.4

.5

-

-

-

3. 3
1 .9

-

4 2 .7

9 .5

66.8

10.2

2.6

3 8 .9
1 .5

-

.5
_

3 0 .0
2 5 .0

.5

3 .3
1 4 .6

2 4 .9
12.9
3 1 .3
26. 5

9 9 .1

8 4 .6

9 .5

8 6 .9

-

5 .0

-

9 8 .3

.3
.9

9 4 .2
8 4 .2

1.2
.6

6 6 .5
3 8 .7

-

-

1.6

-

-

4 2 .2
-

.2

.2

.5

.6
.1

1 4 .2
6 0 .2

-

-

-

5 8 .8
8 3 .3
59. 0
72. 1
83. 1

-

-

8 8 .5
9 8 .3
9 0 .4
9 2 .4
98. 1

-

-

-

9 4 .0

-

6 7 .5

-

-

9 6 .8
8 1 .8

7 6 .2

40. 1

.4

-

3 4.8

2 .9

9 .5

5 .6
2 9 .2

2 7.7
3 1 .7
3 2.7
3 3 .3

.6

_

-

2.6
8.2

.3
_
4. 1

-

1 .3

-

1.0

.2

-

-

-

9 .2
6 .4

8 .3

5 0 .8

1 .3

3 .3
2 7 .5
2 6 .8
3 8.9

1 1.9

2.2

-

1 .4
.9

.
_

-

8 5 .5

-

2.6

-

1 .4

2.2

-

.2

10.6

20.0

-

9 2 .8

-

.5
_

7 .9
8 .4

27. 2
2 9 .0
3 1 .9
2 4 .5

.
_
_
_

.5

.6
.1

2.6
2.2
4 .0
2 .3
1 .9

9 8.1

9 2 .1
9 9 .1
9 3 .3
9 4 .6
9 8 .6

0. 1
.2
.2
-

-

.3

9 .2

11.2
8.2

4 1 .6
6 0 .7
8 4 .3
9 6 .9

88.8

4 .9
1 .9
.9

Savings and
th rift plans

11.6
1.0

91.6

-

S e v e ra n ce o r
d is m is s a l pay

6 .5

.8

-

In clu d es in d u s trie s n ot shown s ep a ra tely.




1.6

3 .4

V acation and
h olid a y funds

88. 1

7 2 .8
73. 1

13.7

8 4 .9
8 5 .3

Yearend
and
C h ris tIn c o m ­
In c o m ­
In c o m ­
In c o m ­
m as
S eparately bination Separately bination S epa ra tely bination S epa ra tely bination S eparately
bonuses

P e n sio n and
re tire m e n t p lan s

-

11.6
11.2
8 .9
6 .3

2.2

_
.5

-

2.6
8.2
5 .6
2 9 .2
-

2 .9

1.2

_
-

2.2
6.8
6.6

-

1 .9
2 .7
.5
2 .4

-

-

11.2

1 7 .5

-

.9

49. 1

.2

4 9 .6

2 .4

-

Table 28.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans as a P ercent of
Gross Payroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
Percent of workers in establishments with—

R eg ion and in d u stry group

W o rk e rs No private
in a ll
w elfa re
e s ta b ­
plan
lish m en ts expen di­
tures

P riv a te w e lfa re plan expen ditures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll o f—
Under

1

p ercen t

1
and
under

2

p ercen t

U nited States 1 _____________ _______
N orth ea st ---------- — --------—---------S o u t h ------------ —— ---------------------N orth C e n t r a l ---------------------------W e s t ____________________________
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s . . . --------F ood and k in d red p r o d u c t s ----------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ---------- ------T e x tile m ill p rod u cts ------------------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts — —---------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ---------F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ____________
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , publish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ------------------— —
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s tries —---------------------R u b ber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s --- --------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p ro d u cts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m eta l in d u stries -----— —
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ----------M a ch in e ry , excep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ------------In strum ents and r e la te d
p rod u cts ---------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------------------

1

100. 0
100. 0

8.0
10.1

100. 0

1 0.7
4 .4
6 .7

100.0
100.0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100.0

8 .4
1 3.5
4 .6

6.8
5 .6
1 2.7
4 .1

8.2
2.6
8.8

6 .7
1 5 .6

9 .0
8 .4
2 1 .7

1 0 .3

10.2

10.2

1 1 .7
9 .1
1 1 .5

.9
1 0 .7
4 .4
1 9 .2

2 1 .3

10.6

8 .4
1 5 .2

9 .5

10.6
7 .6

5
and
under

6

p e rce n t

10. 1
11.0
7 .4
1 0.5

6
and
under
7
p e rce n t

9 .1
9 .2
4 .7

7
and
under

8

p re ce n t

10 . 0
9 .4

6.1

1 2.5

11.1

12.1
8.0

1 4 .8
3 .5

1 .3
5 .9
1 9.4
5 .8

12.8

1 5.3

7 .9
14. 0
1 .4

6.1

6 .4

12 . 0
1.8

8.8

1 0 .4

10.2
5 .5

10.2
4 .3
5 .8

8
9
and
and
under
under
10
9
p e rce n t p e rce n t

2 .3

5 .5
5 .2
5 .8
5 .6
5 .4

4 .7
5 .6
3 .9
5 .1
1 .4

3 .8
3 .6
3 .9
4 .3

8.0

6.8
1.8

4 .6

6.8

2 .9

4 .6

2 .9

1 .4

5 .4
18.1
.8

.8

1 .3
.3
1.1
.9

2. 0

2.1

3 .4
.7
2 .9
4 .6

.4
.4
1 .0

2.6
.9
3 .2
1 .4

1.8
.2

1.2
1 .5
.8

3 .4

10.2

9 .5
1 9 .2

1 8.9
17. 3

12.6

7 .6

12.5

1 5 .3

15. 3

1 1 .3

9 .6

2.6

8 .4

1.1

4 .2

1 .7

3. 1

4 .3

5 .1

-

12.8

6 .7

3 .8

7 .1

5 1 .2

9 .2
1 2.9

6 .4
1 6 .3

22 . 1

1 3 .3
2 .5

6.0

4 .4
1 .4

2.6

12. 3
5 .6
1 1.4

9 .7
1 8 .6
7 .0
9 .2

8.8
8.8

6.2
8.0

3 .3
4 .8
5 .5

3 .0
12. 3

7 .5

7 .1
1 8.1
9 .7
15.9
1 7.9

100. 0

7 .2

2.6

5 .7

100. 0

.9

.4

4 .0

2 .7

1.0

100.0

1 .7

3 .5
1 5.7

7 .0
17.3

7 .5
1 0 .5

8.2

5 .8
.9
6 .5

1 2 .7
7 .6
9 .4

6 .9

.3

.9

2.6
3 .7
5 .7

.9

100. 0

11.2

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100.0
100.0

7 .9
.9
6 .7
5 .4
1 .4

1.2
2.6

9 .7
6 .3
7. 5
3 .4
9 .3

100. 0

3 .2

5 .3

9 .3

11.2

5 .6

8.8

8 .7

11.2

1 8 .6

1.1

5 .8

8 .7

1 3 .2

4 .7

8.6

9 .7

8 .4

1 0 .4

3 .2

1 8.2

11

p e rce n t

11

p ercen t
and
over

9 .3
5 .1
6 .7
8 .4

100.0

100.0

10
and
under

12.0

8.0
6.8

In clu des in d u s tries not shown s e p a ra te ly .

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




8 .5
9 .2
1 0 .5
1 7.9

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

9 .3
1 2 .4
1 9 .2

1 3 .8
1 5.6

100. 0

11.8

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

8 .5
14.6
1 5.4
9 .0

2 7 .2
2 6 .9
11.9
1.9

100. 0

100.0

9 .8
8 .5
1 5.4
7 .4
10.3

2

and
under
3
p e rce n t

7. 3
7 .3
4 .7
9 .2
1 2.7
1 4 .6

12.2

7. 3

11.0

1 2.3

11.8

6 .7
6 .9
7 .3

■

5 .8

8.2
3 .6
6.1
3 .4
5. 3

2.6
1.2
1.6

6.2

2.6

1.1

13.5

3 .7

2.2

3 .0

6.0
7 .4

5. 5

Table 29.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Health, Accident, and Life Insurance as a P ercent of
Gross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—
W ork ers
in all
e s ta b ­
lishm ents

H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce expen ditures as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll o f—
Insurance
not
re p orted
sepa ra tely

No
insu ra n ce
e xp en d i­
tures

5

U nited States 1
— _
N orth ea st —
- — .
South
,. „
,
N orth C en tra l - _________________
W est -

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res -----------------T e x tile m ill p rod u cts _ _
- _
A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts
_
—
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s -----------------P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ------------P rin tin g , publish in g, and
a llie d in d u s tries __ __
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s trie s R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts
L e a th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s -----Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p rod u cts _______ ... ,r- ____________
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s trie s _ - - F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s _____- —
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u cts - __
- _
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing

100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

1.8

1

2

and
under
p e rce n t

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

and
under
3
p e rce n t

25. 0
2 4 .3
1 4.9
30. 1
32.1

1 4.7
1 3.9

4. 6
4 .2

1 9.7
9 .9

2.2
6.6

2.0

4 .4

2. 5

6 2 .3
2 4 .0
2 5 .3
1 4 .0

9 .4
2 0 .9
9 .6
6 .3

_

.2

9 .2

3 .9

Under

2

p e rce n t

2 3 .6

.3
.4

1 2.5
1 6 .2
1 6.9
6 .5
9 .8

10.1
12 . 0

2 5 .5
2 3 .9
30. 0
2 3 .7
2 8 .2

_

_

2.6

2 5 .5

4 .1

.8

.2

-

2.0

1 3.5

11.1

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

10.2

1 4.9
1 4.7
6 .4

1 2.5
1 1.5
3 4 .9

20.6

4 4 .7
3 9 .3
1 4.9

1 5.3
1 6.5

11.8

10.8

2 9.1
2 5 .2
2 6.1

3 8 .4
3 0 .4

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

p e rce n t

5
and
under
7
p e rce n t

p e rce n t

1.6
1.6

0 .4
.3

0.2
.2

and
under

6

.7

.2
.8

7
and
under

8

.3

.2

( 2)

.4

_

_
.3
.4

3 .8
.5
4 .7

-

.7

.2

.6
.3
.9

.3
.2

( 2)

8 .9
1 7 .0

.1
1 .3
5. 5
4 .5

1 3 .2

2 .6

.6

.3

8
p ercen t
and
over

0. 1
.1

.3
( 2)
.4
-

.2

-

-

2 .5
-

-

100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1 3.7
.5

2.6

1 0.9

1 2 .4
1 9 .6
2 7 .8
3 8 .0

100 .0

2 .2

1 2.3

19.1

2 3 .6

100.0

9 .5

5 .9

39.1

31.1

1 2 .6

1 .9

-

-

-

100.0
100 .0

.3
.9

5 .5
1 4 .9

4 .7
2 0 .8

1 7 .5
32. 3

34. 1
2 1 .8

1 7 .8
6 .3

15. 0
1 .8

3 .9
1 .2

1 .2
-

-

-

1 00 .0
100 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0
100 .0

.2
.1
-

1 1 .3
1 .7
9 .0
7 .5
1 .9

9 .1
5 .8
1 0.5
5 .8
8 .0

2 7 .5
3 6 .9
2 1 .3
2 5 .4
26. 0

3 5 .3
2 9 .0
2 5 .5
3 0 .4
37. 0

14. 0
1 5.9
1 8.9
1 9 .7
2 1 .3

1 .8
7 .2
9 .1
8 .0
3 .8

.4
2 .7
4 .3
1 .8
1 .9

.5
.7
-

.3
.4
.5
-

.2
.5
-

100 .0

-

6 .0

1 6 .4

3 9 .4

1 5.7

1 2.7

6 .6

1 .5

.9

-

.9

2 3 .8

1 3 .0

2 3 .7

1 7 .8

1 2 .8

3 .7

2 .6

.3

1 .7

.6

100 .0

-

.8

.6

12.1

.2

.3
.2

.5
.1

1 In clu des in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




<1

VO

Table 30.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Pension and Retirement Plans as a Percent of
Gross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
Percent of workers in establishments with—
W o rk e rs

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

P en sion and re tire m e n t plan exp en d itu res as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

P lans not
e s ta b ­
sion plan
re p orted
lishm ents
expen di­
separately
tures

__
U nited States 1
_
N orth ea st
_ __
.
South
__
_ _
__
N orth C en tra l
~ _
___ .
W est _

1 00 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s __ ___ __
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u cts
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res _
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s __________ ___
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts _________________
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s _______ —__
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , pu b lish in g, and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _________________
P e tro le u m re fin in g and
re la te d in d u s t r i e s ___
. .
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts —
— .
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ----------M a ch in ery, ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l _____
T ra n sp orta tion e q u ip m e n t _____ __
Instrum ents and r e la te d
p rod u cts __________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u stries

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

Under
1
p ercen t

1
and
under
2
p e rce n t

1 .6
3 .4
.8
.5
.5

3 9 .6
4 0 .3
5 2 .7
2 9 .5
44. 3

6 .5
5.9
7 .8
6 .2
7 .5

9 .2
8 .6
5 .4
1 0 .5
1 5 .6

9 .8
8 .4
9. 1
1 1.3
1 1.9

1 4.3
1 3 .6
7 .9
20. 1
1 0 .2

8 .0
9 .0
4 .9
1 0.6
2 .4

3 .9
4 .1
3 .8
4 .4
2. 1

2. 1
2 .2
3.1
1 .4
1 .9

2 .2
2 .5
1 .2
2 .7
1 .7

_
.7

1 2 .0
3 6 .3
2 7.1
6 8 .9

9 .8
9 .0
8 .9
8 .4

1 4 .6
8 .8
1 9 .6
7. 3

1 .6
1 2.3
8 .5
2 .9

2 6 .5
1 5.2
7 .8
6 .4

1 7.3
8 .3
5 .9
.9

4 .4
3 .3
5 .2
1 .6

2 .4
1 .0
_
1 .6

4. 6
1 .3
6. 0
.4

-

1 .5

10
and
under
11
p e rce n t

11
p e rce n t
and
over

0 .6
.8
.5
.6
(1
2)

1 .0
.4
1 .9
1 .0
.8

0 .4
.3
.4
.6
.2

0 .6
.4
.6
.6
1 .0

_

.
1 .8
8 .7
_

6 .8
.7
.
_

.
1.1
2 .4
_

.4
_
_
1 .3

_
.3
_
.5

_
_
.2
.2

.3
_
-

.5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

1 1.3
_
1 .3
.5

6 3 .2
8 4 .4
6 3 .9
2 4 .7

5 .3
3 .0
4 .5
16.5

5 .4
2 .8
1 5 .3
1 4.7

2 .3
.8
4 .0
13.9

4 .9
5 .8
4 .8
10.1

1 .5
1 .6
4 .0
9 .9

2 .2
.3
.8
5 .2

3. 1
.4
.9
1 .4

.6
_
.2
.4

1 00 .0

2 .2

4 7 .0

11.2

8 .3

1 2 .8

6 .9

6 .0

1 .0

1 .8

1 .3

.3

_

_

1.1

1 00 .0

9 .5

3 .6

3. 3

4 .5

4 .2

9 .3

6 .3

1 5 .6

1 2 .8

7 .6

5 .6

1 .5

6 .8

9 .5

100. 0
1 0 0 .0

1 .2
.6

3 2 .3
6 0 .7

4 .8
.6

8. 3
6 .8

1 0.9
1 6.3

2 1 .5
1 0 .7

1 2.0
2 .6

4. 1

.2
-

4 .1
1 .8

-

_
_

_

.4

-

-

-

.2

4 1 .0
1 6 .7
4 0 .4
2 7 .8
1 6.9

4 .1
5 .8
6 .2
2 .4
8 .3

1 0 .8
5 .8
1 1 .6
1 1.9
14. 1

8.1
2 0 .5
6 .9
1 3.5
6 .4

1 5.9
1 4 .7
1 6 .7
1 7 .4
3 2 .6

6 .9
1 4 .4
6 .1
1 5.5
1 3 .8

7 .5
5 .9
6 .8
3 .8
2 .7

2. 8
2 .2
1 .3
1 .3
2. 3

.4
1 2.7
1 .0
1 .5
.3

.9
.3
1 .0
2 .5
.7

.2
.9
_
2 .1
1 .9

1 0 0 .0

3 2.5

5 .7

1 1 .0

1 7 .8

6 .9

8 .6

2. 3

3 .0

9 .8

.1

2 .1

1 0 0 .0

5 9 .9

8 .9

6. 6

4 .7

8 .9

5 .2

2 .6

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

-

.6
.1
-

1 In clu des in d u s tries not show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




-------5-----5
3
7
8
2
4
------ S-----and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
3
6
5
7
8
4
10
9
p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t p erce n t p e rce n t p e rce n t

-

2 .2

-

.7

1 .0
1.1
.3
-

.2
_
.2
_
-

.2
1.1

Table 31.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Year end and Christmas Bonuses as a Percent of
Gross P ayroll, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts with—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in all
e sta b ­
lishm ents

Y ea ren d and C h ristm a s bonus exp en d itu res as a p e rce n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll o f—
No
bonus
expen di­
tures

Under
1
p ercen t

1
and
under
2
p e rce n t

2
and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

5
6
and
and
under
under
6
7
p e rce n t p e rce n t

U nited States 1 _____________________
N orth ea st —-------------------------------S o u t h ___________ r________________
N orth C e n t r a l __ ___ ___ ___ ___ _
W e s t --------------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 00 .0
1 0 0 .0
100 .0

7 2 .8
7 1 .0
6 8.1
7 5 .5
8 0 .0

13.3
13.9
1 5 .4
1 2.5
9 .3

5 .6
6 .3
7 .6
3 .8
4 .7

3 .3
3 .2
3 .5
3 .6
2 .5

1 .8
2 .3
1 .8
1 .7
.5

1 .4
1 .3
2. 0
1 .2
1 .6

F o o d and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res . .
T e x tile m ill p ro d u cts «
A p p a rel and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s —
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u cts P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s ----------------- -------R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s ------- ------------------------ - _
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l _____
Instrum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts _
M is c e lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s
—

100 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0

7 2 .5
7 3 .2
61.1

1 4.3
2 0 .7
2 6.5

4 .3
.9
6 .6

3 .4
_
3 .0

1 .6
.6
.6

2 .9
3 .8
1.1

1 00 .0
100 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

7 2 .3
6 8 .3
6 7 .3
6 6 .7

1 8.6
11.3
1 1.4
2 0 .5

3 .9
1 0 .8
9 .2
4 .9

2 .3
5 .8
5 .6
2 .9

1 .7
1.1
1 .8
1 .6

.4
.8
3 .1
.5

.5
2 .1

-

1 00 .0

6 5 .2

15.1

5 .8

7 .3

2 .9

1 .7

.6

1 00 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 0 .0
7 5 .0

1 3.7
1 2.8

1 0 .0
5 .5

1 .1
2 .7

3 .5
.6

1 .2
1 .3

100 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0

7 5.1
6 8 .7
7 3.5

9 .9
1 6.3
1 3.6

6 .7
4 .6
4 .6

3 .3
4 .4
1 .5

1 .0
2 .0
3 .2

1 00 .0

5 0 .9

1 1.3

1 0 .8

8 .7

8 .4

1 2 .7

1 0 .7

1 00 .0

5 0 .4

11.1

11.1

1 In clu des in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.
N O TE :

B e ca u s e o f rou n d in g,




sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

0 .5
.5
.4
.6
.6

7
and
under
8
p e rce n t

8
and
under
9
p e rce n t

9
and
under
10
p e rce n t

10
and
under
11
p e rce n t

11
p e rce n t
and
o ve r

0 .3
.3
.6
.4
-

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
0 .1
-

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
-

0. 3
.5
.2
.3
( 2)

_

_

_
0 .9
_

.2
-

0 .2
( 2)
.3
.3
.6

0 .4
.7
.1
.2
.2

.7
_
.2

.3
-

-

-

_

_

.7

-

-

.3

_
1 .0

_
-

.5

.2
.9
.3
.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .2

.1

_

.2

-

-

.3
.6

.2
1 .2

-

_
.3

_

2 .4
2 .7
1 .1

.5
.2
.4

( 2)
.5
-

( 2)
.2
-

.1
.2
1 .8

(2)
.1

-

.8
.1
.2

.4

.1

.2

.2

_

_

-

8 .9

3 .4

.5

_
1 .0

.2

_
_
.1
.2

-

.6
-

-

Table 32.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for P rivate W elfare Plans in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts with—
W o rk e rs

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

No p riva te
w elfa re
e s ta b ­
plan
lish m en ts
expen di­
tures

P riv a te w e lfa re plan exp en d itu res p e r hou r paid f o r o f—
Under
1
cent

1
and
under
2
cents

2
and
under
3
cents

4
and
under
5
cents

5
and
under
6
cents

4 .9
4 .4
9 .3
3 .4
2 .5

3 .9
3 .6
4 .1
3 .6
5 .6

5
and
un der
7
cen ts

7
and
under
8
cents

4 .3
3 .9
5.1
4 .1
4 .3

4 .0
4 .4
2. 6
4 .0
5 .6

3. 8
3 .6
3 .0
4 .2
4 .5

4 .2
4 .3
3 .0
4 .2
6 .3

4 .3
4 .0
2 .9
4. 1
9 .6

8
and
under
9
cents

9
and
under
10
cents

1U
and
under
11
cents

r

-

jj

and
under
12
cen ts

12
and
under
13
cents

3 .6
4 .0
3 .6
2 .8
4 .6

2 .8
3 .6
1 .2
2 .8
3 .0

3 .2
2. 6
2 .2
3 .6
5 .7

United States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st ----------------------------------South--------------------------------------------N orth C en tra l ---------------------------W est --------------------------------------------

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

8 .0
10.1
1 0 .7
4 .4
6 .7

Ordnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ------------F ood and kindred p r o d u c t s ------------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ------------------T extile m ill p rod u cts --------------------A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts --------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu res ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries --------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
rela ted in d u stries -----------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------Stone, cla y , and gla s s

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

_
8 .4
1 3.5
4 .6

_
6 .8
3 .2
1 0 .7

2 .6
2 .9
5.1
13.2

5 .4
4 .8
6 .8
1 2 .9

5 .0
6 .3
2 .2
14.1

_
3 .8
3 .3
1 1 .8

1 .3
4 .8
1 3 .4
2 .5

1 .2
3 .6
10. 1
6 .5

.4
3. 1
3 .4

5 .6
.5
1 .7

6 .3
4 .1
4 .5
4 .2

1 5 .7
1 .3
9 .3
4 .5

»
1 .5
2 .2
.7

_
3 .6
1 .3
.9

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

2 7 .2
2 6 .9
1 1.9
1 .9

1 0 .0
7.1
.8
2 .0

6 .5
10.3
5 .7
3.1

10. 8
9 .2
9 .7
5. 7

3 .6
6 .2
11. 7
2 .6

2 .3
6 .3
3 .9
4 .2

3 .9
8 .3
6 .1
4 .0

4 .4
6 .0
7 .9
6 .2

3. 7
4 .0
2 .9
5 .3

4 .3
1 .8
5 .0
8 .7

4 .9
3 .0
6 .2
6 .0

3 .8
.4
7 .2
7 .7

4 .4
3 .8
3 .9

1 .2
1 .9
2 .4
5 .2

1 0 0 .0

7 .2

2. 1

3.1

2 .0

6 .9

6 .4

1 .3

6 .2

5 .4

6 .4

7 .4

6 .2

1 .6

5 .4

1 .8

.3

3. 7

.4

_

.

.

1 .6

3 .1

_

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s -----------M a ch in ery , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent ------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p rod u cts ----------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u stries -------------------------------------

See footn ote at end o f ta b le.




3 .9
2 .4
9 .6
2 .4
2. 7

4 .3
3 .8
8 .4
2 .3
4 .3

5 .4
5 .9
9 .0
2. 8
4 .8

and
under
4
cents

-

1 0 0 .0

.9

_

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1 .7
11.2

2 .2
8 .1

1.3
1 2.6

4. 7
9 .9

5 .4
5. 7

2. 7
7 .5

1 .7
3 .9

5 .5
3 .9

5. 7
10. 7

4 .5
9 .0

1.1
5 .2

1 .0
1 .9

1 .9
1 .0

4 .3
1. 1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 .9
.9
6 .7
5 .4
1 .4

2 .5
.1
3 .0
2 .2

4 .9
.8
3 .8
.7
.5

6 .3
3 .3
2 .9
2 .2
.4

4 .6
2. 8
3 .2
1 .3
3. 1

3 .8
1 .9
2 .4
2 .0
2 .4

3 .8
3. 7
6 .4
2. 1
5 .8

4 .4
1 .8
3 .0
1 .9
2 .4

1 .9
1 .0
2 .5
6 .1
4 .4

4. 8
.9
4 .9
5. 8
4 .1

3 .2
2. 5
5 .6
4 .0
7. 1

4 .5
.6
3 .6
3 .2
3 .4

2 .3
3 .1
2 .5
5 .5
2 .6

2. 8
1. 1
2 .9
1.1
4 .2

5 .0

4 .4

4. 1

1 .3

6 .3

3 .3

3 .8

2 .2

2 .3

3 .6

8 .4

1 .6

3 .9

3 .2

8. 1

4 .5

6 .6

4 .4

1 .9

6 .3

2. 7

1 .3

1 .5

5 .2

-

1 0 0 .0

3 .2

.5

1 0 0 .0

18.2

4 .3

.8

Table 32.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for P rivate W elfare Plans in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959~~Continued
P ercent of workers in establishments with—
P riv a te w e lfa re plan exp en d itu res p e r hour p aid f o r o f—

R egion and in d u stry group

13
and
under
14
cents

14
and
under
15
cents

15
and
under
16
cents

16
and
under
17
cents

17
and
under
18
cents

18
and
under
19
cents

19
and
under
20
cen ts

20
and
under
21
cents

21
and
under
22
cen ts

22
and
under
23
cents

23
and
under
24
cents

24
and
under
25
cents

25
and
under
26
cents

26
and
under
27
cents

27
cents
and
o ve r

United States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st ----------------------------------S o u t h -------------------------------------------N orth C en tra l ---------------------------W est ........................................-..........

2 .6
2 .9
1 .7
2 .8
2 .8

3 .6
4 .5
2 .6
3 .2
4 .2

2 .9
3 .6
2. 1
3 .0
1 .9

3 .3
3 .6
2. 7
4 .2
.7

1 .9
1 .7
1 .0
2 .4
3 .3

2 .5
2. 1
1 .2
3 .9
1 .6

2. 1
1 .4
1.1
3. 7
1 .7

3 .0
2 .7
1 .9
4 .1
2 .0

2 .2
2 .0
1 .4
3 .6
.1

2 .5
1 .9
.6
4 .6
1 .9

1 .5
1 .3
1 .2
2. 1
1 .0

1 .5
1. 7
1 .6
1 .4
.9

0 .9
.9
.2
1 .5
.4

1 .3
.8
1.2
2 .2
.6

7 .5
8 .3
4 .6
8 .8
6. 7

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -----------F o o d and kin d red p r o d u c t s -----------T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res ------------------T ex tile m ill p rod u cts -------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts ---------F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts -----------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries --------------------------P e tro le u m re fin in g and
rela ted in d u stries -----------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s tic s p rod u cts -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p rod u cts ------Stone, cla y , and g la ss
p ro d u cts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries -----------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s -----------M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent -----------Instrum ents and re la te d

7 .2
1 .6

5 .9
6 .0
4 .7
-

7 .8
3 .8
2. 7
2 .0

_
5 .4

3 .6
2. 8

3. 1
2 .3

2 .4
1 .3

-

-

1 .0

■

4. 7
3 .0
-

_
1 .4
2 .0
“

■

9 .3
.9
8. 7
.2

4 .4
.6
5 .0
.2

_
1 .0

-

_
3 .4
1.1
-

_
2. 7

-

1 3 .5
3 .3
.4
~

.4

-

-

.3

-

4 .5
.5
2 .1
5. 1

2 .0
2 .3
2 .9
3 .2

.6
.9
1 .0
6 .2

.5
1 .2
.4
2 .9

3 .3

5 .5

2. 3

2 .5

“

2 .2

.8

2 .5
.7

2 .3
1 .2

8 .5
3 .6
3 .2
3 .5
.8

.4

-

.6
.8
.5

.7
.6
.3

.1
.8
-

.2
1 .2
.9

.3
.8
.8

.3
2 .2
.2

■

1 .4

2 .0

1 .3

2. 8

_

1 .3

.4

5 .5

"

.8

.1

4 .7

3 .9

3 .0

1. 1

5 .1
.2

1 .2
1 .5

2 .3
.5

2 .3
.7

1 .8
.3

1 7 .7

1 .9
1 .0

2 .8
1 .9

4 .4
1. 7
2 .9
1 .6
8.1

3 .4
7. 7
2 .2
3. 1
.7

4 .8
.9
1 .5
7 .8
.9

1 .5
3 .0
.9
4. 7
.8

.5
7 .0
2 .5
4 .2
4 .0

2 .1
3. 5
3 .1
3 .3
6 .0

1 .2
3 .6
5 .4
4 .6
6 .2

.9
5. 7
5 .6
1 .7
5 .3

5 .8
M is c e lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u stries -------------------------------------

.9
2. 1
.8
5 .5

.6
1. 6

5 .8

5 .5

1. 7

2 .4

.8

5 .2

.6

.7

2 .1

9 .5

1 .8

1 .8

3 .3

3 .2

.7

.5

1 Inclu des in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely.
N O TE :

B e ca u s e o f rounding,




sum s o f individual item s m a y not equal to ta ls.

.9

-

“
-

2 .8
1 .2
4 .9

■

2 .2

1.1

1 .5

3. 1

5 9 .8

1 .5

3 .4
-

-

2 .6

9 .0
-

.7
2 .3
6 .6
9 .4
4 .9

.3
5 .2
2 .9
1 .5
2 .2

1 .8
1 .2
1 .4
2. 7
3 .0

.9
.9
1 .2
2 .2
2 .5

.7
9 .0
.5
.7
1 .9

1 0.5
2 0 .3
6 .6
7. 8
8. 8

.1

5 .9

■

■

-

1 5 .6

.3

2. 8

7.2

1 .5

00
Table 33.

Distribution o f Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Health, Accident, and L ife Insurance in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts w ith—

R e g io n and in d u stry group

N orth ea st
----- ---------- ----------S o u t h ________
— — _______
N orth C en tra l
— _____ __ -

__ . _

O rd nance and a c c e s s o r i e s --------- .
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts ----------T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s -------------------A p p a rel and o th er fin ish ed
tex tile p r o d u c t s __________________
L u m b er and w o o d p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ___________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s -------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d indi\Bf»*ies . ir ..
....
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s tries ----------------------R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts -----------------------L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ------S ton e, c la y , and g la s s
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s -------------F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ------------M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n eq u ip m en t-------------Instrum ents and re la te d

W o rk e rs
in all
not
e s ta b rep orted
lish m en ts
sepa­
ra tely

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1
and
Under
under
1
cent
2
cen ts

2
and
under
3
cen ts

3
and
under
4
cen ts

4
and
under
5
cen ts

5
and
under
6
cen ts

5
and
under
7
cen ts

7
and
under
8
cen ts

10
and
under
11
cen ts

11
and
tinder
12
cen ts

12
and
under
13
cen ts

13
cents
and
over

5 .5
3. 3
13.1
3 .5
4 .2

8 .7
7 .6
17. 5
5 .4
5 .2

9 .9
10.7
1 3.8
6 .9
8 .7

8 .9
7. 3
8 .0
11. 5
7 .6

8 .7
9 .1
6 .6
8 .6
1 2 .2

1 0 .4
1 0 .4
6 .8
11.6
1 3 .9

8. 3
7 .8
5 .1
1 0 .0
1 0.8

7. 1
7 .8
3. 3
8 .8
6 .4

6. 3
5. 5
2 .4
8 .8
9. 3

4 .4
4 .1
2 .0
6 .4
3 .8

2 .8
2 .6
1 .4
4. 1
1 .7

1 .6
1. 1
1. 3
2. 3
1. 1

1. 5
.8
.6
2 .7
1 .8

1 .8
1. 5
.4
2 .6
2. 9

.2

14.9
14.7
6 .4

2 .6
7 .4
8 .5
20. 0

7 .2
1 6 .2
2 5 .2

5 .4
9 .7
2 1 .7
14.6

7. 3
9 .6
7 .2
1 2 .4

1 6 .4
6 .2
4. 0
5 .6

9 .6
1 0.8
20. 4
4. 1

1 5 .4
6 .5
3. 1
2 .9

17. 7
5 .9

11. 1
5 .5

.4
2 .8

4. 3
1 .4

4 .6

1 .5

2 .6

9 .7
5 .8
4 .1
2 .0

1 .5

.4

-

-

.2

9 .0
7 .8
5 .8
3.6

12.6
1 2 .4
12.6
7. 3

6 .7
1 1 .0
11.2
16.8

5. 3
5. 0
1 7.5
1 4 .4

5 .1
6. 6
3 .7
1 5.8

.2
3. 6
6 .4
12. 1

.3
7. 4
1 3 .2
6 .4

.7
2. 2
4. 8
9 .7

.8
3 .6
3 .4
3 .9

.6
1. 0
1. 7
1 .4

"
“
1. 5
2. 3

. 3
“
.7
2. 1

1 0.2

1 0 .0

1 0 .2

9 .9

1 0 .0

9 .4

6 .2

3 .3

4 .0

2. 0

*
“
.7
.5

•£
1* 0
.7

.8

-

2 .0

-

"

3. 9
.5

8 .0
.3

3. 6
.2

6. 9
.2

3 .7
3 .9
6 .5
5 .9
1 1.9

.5
5 .7
2 .5
6 .8
3 .5

.7
4 .7
4. 0
2 .7
.2

.2
4 .9
1. 3
.8
1 .7

.4
2 .9
6 .7
3 .9
1 .7

1 .7

3. 3

1 .8

.6

1 .4

.9

2. 1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

13.7
.8
.5

4 4 .7
39. 3
1 4.9
2 .6

1 0 0 .0

2 .2

12. 3

3 .0

6 .5

1 0 0 .0

9 .5

5 .9

-

2 2 .8

16. 3

9 .5

9 .6

8 .5

7 .1

2. 1

8 .7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

. 3
.9

5 .5
1 4.9

10.5

4 .2
1 6 .0

1 2 .4
2 1 .7

8. 7
18.6

4 .7
6 .5

4. 1
3 .5

5. 6
3. 3

5. 2
1. 3

20. 3
. 3

6. 7
1 .4

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

.2

11. 3
1 .7
9 .0
7 .5
1 .9

2 .8
.9
4. 3
2 .4
2 .8

7 .0
3 .7
6 .2
2 .2
1 .6

1 0.5
5 .6
6. 1
5 .5
5 .9

8. 3
3. 3
8 .0
9 .4
8. 5

16. 3
7 .2
8. 0
8 .6
11. 3

1 1 .5
26. 3
1 2.6
15. 1
11. 3

11.1
1 6.2
7 .2
5. 1
1 6.8

1 0 .7
6 .5
11. 0
1 2.8
7 .6

4 .7
6 .6
6 .2
11.1
1 3 .4

6 .0

2 .7

9 .5

10.8

1 2 .4

1 7.9

1 2.7

4 .7

5 .9

8 .7

-

1 0 0 .0

.6
. 1

2 3 .8

4 .!

1 2.9

1 5.0

B e ca u s e o f rou nd ing, su m s o f individual item s m a y not eq ual totals*




9
and
under
10
cen ts

1 2.5
1 6 .2
1 6.9
6 .5
9 .8

1 In clu des in d u stries not show n s e p a ra te ly .
N O TE :

8
and
under
9
cen ts

1 .8
4. 1
.8
.3
.4

1 0 0 .0
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
industr ' ft8
_-T n
- __

H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life in su ra n ce exp en d itu res p e r hour p a id fo r o f —
No
insurance
exp en d itures

9 .2

1 0 .8

4 .4

3 .4

5. 0

2 .1

“

4 .4

1 .2

.7

Table 34.

Distribution o f Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Pension and Retirem ent Plans in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m e n ts with—

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in all
e sta b ­
lishm ents

P e n sio n and re tire m e n t plan exp en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r o f—
Plans not
re p orted
separately

No p en sion plan
expen di­
tures

1
Under

1

cent

and
under

2

cents

U nited States 1
N orth ea st South
N orth C en tra l __
W est .

—
. . .

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s __ ______
F o o d and k in d red p rod u cts
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res .
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
. .
A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p rod u cts
D u m ber and w ood p ro d u cts
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s
—
P e tro le u m re fin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s __
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p rod u cts .
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts -----S ton e, cla y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts .
P r im a r y m eta l in d u s trie s . _
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts
M a ch in ery , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u c ts —
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u stries

100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.6
3 .4

.8
.5
.5

3 9 .6
4 0 .3
5 2 .7
2 9 .5
4 4 .3

12.0

2 .5

2.1

4 .2

2.1
2.2

3 .7
4. 0
2 .3
4 .4
3 .4

4. 0

3 .9

5 .2
3 .6

.3
3 .8
7 .3
5 .0

10 . 0

2.0
2.8

1 .5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1 1.3
1 .3
.5

6 3 .2
8 4 .4
6 3 .9
2 4 .7

1 .5

8.0

1 .7
4 .2
5 .4

100. 0

2.2

4 7. 0

3 .2

-

3 .7

1.2

2.6

5 .5
5 .2
4 .1
7 .1
4 .4

4 .6
5 .1
8 .5
1 .4

1 .3
6 .5
.5
1 .9

-

3 .5
6 .4

8 .4
5 .4
5 .1

1 .5

1 .1
.6

4 .5

1.2
6.6

5 .5

5 .9
5 .6

9 .0

1 .3
8 .3

1 .5
2 .4
5 .9

5 .1

2 .5

2.8

3 .1

3 .3

3 .2

1 .7

2.2

4 .8

.1

.3

2 .9

3 .3
8 .5

10.1

4 .3

4 .9
6. 8

2 .5

1.1

2.2
1.6

5 .5
2 .3
1 .5

5. 6
4 .0
1 .4
4 .3
4 .3

9 .7
5 .4
3 .0
1 0.5
1 1.3

100.0
100.0

1.2
.6

3 2 .3
6 0 .7

1.6

2 .9

■

1.6

.2

1 .7

.6
.6
2.1

2.8

2.1

1 .5

1 .7
3 .7
1 .7
3 .7

4 .2

.1
-

4 1 .0
1 6 .7
4 0 .4
2 7 .8
1 6.9

-

3 2 .5

3 .3

1.0

4 .9

3 .5

5 9 .9

3 .7
4 .2
3 .0
3 .9
2 .3

2.1

1 .4

100.0

4 .4
5 .5
3 .9
3 .8
4 .0

8

cents

2 .5
1 .7

3 .6

100 . 0

4 .6
5 .6
3 .2

3 .9
3 .5
3 .0
4 .5
5 .7

6

cen ts

and
under
9
cents

1.6

3 .0

9 .5

.6

2 .9
4 .8
8 .7

7
and
under

10.1

100.0

-

2.6

8

b
and
under
7
cents

5
and
under

3 .7
5 .1

1 .3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4
and
under
5
cen ts

3 .1
2 .7
2 .4
3.1
5 .4

3 6 .3
2 7.1
6 8 .9

.7
4 .9
7 .4
4. 0

3
and
under
4
cen ts

3 .0
3 .4
3 .9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.7

2

and
under
3
cen ts

1.6

1.2

-

3 .5

1 .1

2.8

3 .6

1 .1

2.8

-

4. 0

2 .7
3 .3
2 .9
4 .2

9 .5

1 .3

2.6

.6
7 .2

4 .0
3 .4

3 .4

5 .2
2 .5
4 .6
3 .6
3 .9

8.1

3 .3
1 .9
3 .3
7 .6
3 .9

5 .8

4 .9

5 .4

4 .2

3 .7

10.0

2 .3

1 .7

5 .1

1 .5

2 .3

4. 3

5 .3

3. 0

2.8
1.2

12.0

See footn ote at end o f ta b le.




8

Table 34.

Distribution o f Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Pension and Retirem ent Plans in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
Percent of workers in establishments with—
P en sion and re tire m e n t plan exp en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r o f—

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

10

11

9
and
under

and
under

and
under

cen ts

cents

cents

7 .5
3 .7

3 .6
3 .7
1 .9
5 .1
1 .9

3 .3
2 .3
1 .9
5 .3
2 .5

18.1

_

1 .3

4 .4
.4

10

United States 1 ---------------------------------N orth ea st _______________________
S o u t h ____________________________
N orth C e n t r a l __________________
W e s t ....................................................
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s __
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res ___________
T e x tile m ill p rod u cts _____________
A p p a re l and other fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts
__
.
L u m b er and w ood p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ____________
P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c t s ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s _________ __ ______
P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s t r i e s ________________
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s _________________
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s _____
Stone, cla y , and g la s s
p rod u cts __________________________
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ________
F a b rica te d m eta l p r o d u c t s ----------M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ____ __
Instrum ents and r e la te d
p ro d u cts —
___
—
_
__
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s trie s
__
—
_
__

4 .5
2 .7

2.8

6.6
.2

1.0

11

12

1 .4
3 .7

.8

1 .3

12

and
under
13
cents

2 .3

2.2
1.2

3. 3

1.1

7 .9

1.2

B eca u se o f rou nding,




14
and
under
15
cen ts

2. 1
2 .3

1.6
2. 0

.4

1 .4
1 .4
.9

1.8
2.6
2.2
3 .3

-

1.1
.2

.5

3 .2
-

1 0 .5
.4
-

15
and
under

16

cen ts

1 .4
1 .4

.6
2.2

16
and
under
17
cen ts

17
and
under
18
cen ts

0 .7

0 .5
.5
.1
.7
.3

0 .9
.5

1.1

.5

.4
.5
.3

_

_

_

.8

.6

-

18
and
under
19
cen ts

.4

.6

_

2 .4

1 1 .1
1.8

1.8
.8

.1
1 0.7
-

4. 1
-

-

.4
.5

.3
-

2 .7

.3

3. 0

9 .4

3 8.5

.8
1.0

1.0
2. 0

-

.7

.4
.2
.3

3 .2

3 .0

-

1 .5

-

2 .5

.2

.2

3 .6

5 .5

_

1.1

6 .9

5 .2

2 .5

.8

.8

3 .3
-

5 .6

-

1.1

3 .0

-

1.0

.5

1 .7
-

-

1 .3
3 .5
6. 0
3 .4
1 0 .5

5 .1
4 .6
5 .2
4 .6

1 .5

2 .9

2.0
2 .9
2 .3
1 .7
1 .3

2. 3
7. 3

1 .7
1 .7
.9
.1

.7
.1

2.6
.3

3 .4

-

.2

3. 3

8.2

6.1
6.1

6.0
6. 0

1 .3
1 .3
3 .3
4 .5
3 .7

1 .5

.9

.2

7 .7

.3

.6

8.0
5 .6

2.1

sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals

.2

-

.4
1 .5
4 .4

1 .3

20

cents

20
cents
and
over

3 .7
3 .8
2 .4
4 .5
3 .7

1 .4
2 .7
5 .3

16 . 0
.2

19
and
under

0 .4
.4
.4
.3

3 .1
2 .4

In clu des in d u s trie s not shown s e p a ra te ly .
N O TE :

13
and
under
14
cents

.8

.8
1.0

1.2
1.6
.8

2 .5
.7
.3
-

1 .3

-

.

2.2

.7

1

.
-

1

.2
.2

.4
-

2.1

2.8

-

-

1.0

.7

1 .7
.3
.5
.1

1 .9
1 3 .8
1.9
4 .9
3 .9

.7

.

1

1 1.7

.2
.8

.5

.6

Table 35.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Expenditures for Yearend and Christmas Bonuses in Cents P er Hour Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts with—

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in a ll
No
bonus
esta b ­
lishm ents expen di­
tures

Y e a re n d and C h ristm a s bonus exp en d itu res p e r hour paid fo r o f—
Under

1

cen t

1

2

and
under

and
under
3
cen ts

2

cen ts

United S ta te s 1
__ __ _ __ _____
N orth ea st
__ „
„ __
South
__ _
N orth C en tra l _
_ _ __
W e s t ---------------------------------------------

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7 2 .8
7 1 .0
68. 1
7 5 .5
8 0 .0

10.2

F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res _
___
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s _________ —______
L u m b er and w ood p ro d u cts ____ __
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
___________
P a p er and a llie d p ro d u c ts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s _
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts _ _ _ _
F a b rica te d m eta l p rod u cts
M a ch in ery, ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
Instrum ents and r e la te d

100.0
100.0
100.0

7 2 .5
7 3 .2
61. 1

1 0 .7
1 7.5
1 6 .5

3 .8
3 .1
1 3.0

2. 7
3 .0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7 2 .3
6 8 .3
6 7 .3
6 6 .7

1 4.5
5 .5
4 .9
7. 1

5 .3
9 .2
9 .6
1 3.5

3 .3
7 .9
6 .3
2 .4

100.0

6 5 .2

3. 1

9 .0

100.0
100.0

7 0 .0
7 5 .0

6.1

6 .4

7 .4
7 .8

100.0
100.0
100.0

75. 1
6 8 .7
7 3 .5

5 .0
5 .4
4 .2

8 .9
3 .1

6. 8

100.0

5 0 .9

5. 1

6 .7

100.0

5 0 .4

8.2

6 .5

M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s ________________________

1
2

6 .9
7 .6

5. 1
3. 7

6 .3
6 .3
8. 8
5 .7
3 .2

6.6

3 .4
2 .9
4. 1
3 .2
4 .2

3
and
under
4
ce n ts

4
and
under
5
cen ts

5
and
under

2 .5
3 .5
2 .4
1. 7

1.6
1. 8

1 .3
.8
.8

2.0

1. 6
.9
3. 5

.2

B eca u se o f rou nding,




1.2
.6
.3

2.2
1.2
1.
3.
.

1
8
1

.2

4 .4
1. 8
2 .3

2. 7
1 .4
. 8
1 .4

2 .9

7. 1

2. 8

4 .4
4 .0
3 .2
3 .3

1. 1
1. 3
1.6

7
and
under

8

cen ts

0. 7

1.0

8

cen ts

cen ts

cents

and
under
13
cen ts

0. 7
.7
.4
.5
1 .9

0 .5
.4

0 .4
.4
( 2)
.8

0 .3

0.2

.3
-

.4
.8
-

2 .9
.7

. 8
.7

1.0

.2
1.2

.7

-

.2

1.6

2 .9
“

2.0

2 .4

1 .5

1. 8

4. 7
1. 8

.8
1. 1

2 .3

1 .3
.7

1 .3

2.0

2. 3
3 .0
1 .9

.7

1 .5
.9

2. 1
1 .7

.5
1 .5
.9

1.0

3. 1

3 .9

3 .7

6.2

2 .9

.

3 .5

9 .3

1.6

6.2

9 .0

2 .4

sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

12

and
under

1 .5
1 .4

.6

11

and
under

,9
.4

.2

10

9
and
under

and
under
9
cen ts

.4
.7
-

In clu des in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.
L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE:

1 .5
1. 3
1. 5

6

cen ts

6

and
under
7
cen ts

10

.6

.5
.4

1.0

11

12

.6

.2

( 2)
.3
.3

. l
_
.4
( 2)

.5
-

_
-

.2

-

-

.6

-

.9
-

13
cen ts
and
over

1.2
1.6
.9

1.0
.9
. 7
_
-

.3
2. 1

_
_
-

.2
1.0

8

■

3 .3

.4

-

■

1. 1

"

.

■

.

.9
.4

■

.6
1.2

1. 1

.2
1 .4
2 .3

1.0

.9

.2

.3
1 .5
-

.5
.7
.9

.
-

2 .5

6 .4

1.0

-

-

.2

9. 1

1. 1

1.2

.2

8

8

.5

.2

.4

.2
1

1. 3
.9

_
.3

1. 1
.6

.2




C h ap ter V I.

V a ria tio n s in E x p e n d itu re s on B a s is o f S e le c t e d C h a r a c te r is t ic s

In trodu ction
T o d e te rm in e what re la tio n sh ip s e x is te d betw een ex p en d itu res and ce rta in
s e le c te d e sta b lish m en t c h a r a c t e r is t ic s , such as a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs and
esta b lish m en t s iz e , the esta b lish m e n ts w e r e g rou p ed on the b a s is o f the s e le c te d
c h a r a c t e r is t ic s and sep a ra te expen ditu re ra tio s w e r e com pu ted .
The ra tio s
r e p r e s e n t the re la tio n sh ip b etw een ex p en d itu res fo r each supplem ent by e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts w ith the given c h a r a c t e r is t ic and the p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts with
the g iven c h a r a c t e r is t ic (w hether o r not they had e x p en d itu res).
F o r m o s t s u p p le m e n ts ,50 a v e ra g e expen ditu re ra tio s w e r e h ig h er fo r the
c la s s e s o f e sta b lish m en ts exh ibitin g th ese c h a r a c t e r is t ic s :
(1) H igher a v e ra g e
h o u rly ea rn in g s; (2) la r g e r s iz e in te r m s o f em p loy m en t; (3) a m a jo r ity o f e m p lo y ­
e e s c o v e r e d b y c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts; and (4) m e tro p o lita n a re a l o c a ­
tion . H o w e v e r, it is d iffic u lt to a s c e r ta in the re la tiv e con trib u tion o f the individual
c h a r a c t e r is t ic to the le v e l o f ex p e n d itu res, not only b e ca u s e esta b lish m en t r e ­
m u n era tion p o lic ie s w e r e in flu en ced by a n u m ber o f oth er fa c t o r s , but a ls o b e ­
ca u se th ese c h a r a c t e r is t ic s a r e g e n e ra lly in te rre la te d . M o r e o v e r , the o rd e rin g
o f e sta b lish m en ts into p a r tic u la r g rou pin gs m ay re su lt in a co n ce n tra tio n o f p a r ­
tic u la r in d u strie s in so m e g r o u p s, and it m ay not b e p o s s ib le to a b s tra ct the
in du stry in flu en ce fr o m the grou p le v e l.
V a ria tion s b y A v e r a g e H ou rly E arn in gs
F req u en t r e fe r e n c e has b e e n m ade in this r e p o r t to the rela tion sh ip b e ­
tw een the le v e ls o f expen ditu re and in du stry a v e ra g e h o u rly ea rn in g s. G e n e ra lly ,
it w as found that in te rin d u stry v a ria tio n s in ex p en d itu res (w hether m e a s u re d in
cen ts p e r hou r o r p e r c e n t o f p a y r o ll) w e r e h ighly c o r r e la t e d with v a ria tio n s in
a v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in gs. T o c la r ify the rela tio n sh ip , each esta b lish m en t in the
su rv e y w as c la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g to its p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs
into a low , m ed iu m , o r high ea rn in gs grou p. The a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs g ro u p s,
each containing a p p ro x im a te ly o n e -th ird o f the esta b lish m e n ts , w e r e : U nder $ 1 . 60
an h ou r, $ 1 .6 0 and under $ 2 .2 0 an h ou r, and $ 2 .2 0 o r m o r e . A lthough data so
b r o a d ly g rou p ed have m any lim ita tio n s fo r d eta iled a n a ly sis o f re la tion sh ip s (fo r
e x a m p le , so m e in d u strie s have none o r few esta b lish m en ts in one o r the oth er
g r o u p s ), they do p r o v id e a g e n e ra l fra m e w o rk fr o m w hich som e co n clu s io n s
m a y b e draw n.
A ll m a jo r su p p lem en ta ry ex p en d itu res— ex ce p t th ose le g a lly re q u ire d —
r e p r e s e n te d in c re a s in g p r o p o r tio n s o f p a y r o ll in each su cce e d in g h ig h er earn in gs
g rou p . P a id le a v e am ounted to 3. 4 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll in the low earn in gs
g rou p , 5. 1 in the m id d le g rou p , and 6. 8 p e r c e n t in the high earn in gs g rou p .
The
p e rce n ta g e in c r e a s e d equ ally b etw een each grou p and w as tw ice as m uch in the
high as in the low g rou p . Thus, the low earn in gs group o f esta b lish m en ts p aid fo r
ju s t under 2 w eek s o f le a v e and the high earn in gs grou p w e ll o v e r 3 w e e k s. P r e ­
m iu m pay lik e w ise in c r e a s e d in a s im ila r p r o g r e s s io n , risin g fr o m 3. 2 p e r c e n t

50
E x ce p t le g a lly re q u ir e d paym ents when c o n s id e r e d in te r m s o f p e r c e n t o f
g r o s s p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m e n ts in the c la s s .

625617 O -6 2 - 7




89

90

in the lo w ea rn in gs grou p to 4. 7 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll in the high ea rn in gs
g ro u p . Unlike the oth er p r a c t ic e s , e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s fo r the m a jo r le g a lly
r e q u ir e d p r o g r a m s r e a c h a c e ilin g o f individual e m p lo y e e earn in gs b ey on d w h ich
su ch con trib u tion s c e a s e .
C on seq u en tly , the p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll d e clin e d
fr o m 5. 5 p e r c e n t in the lo w ea rn in gs grou p to 4. 1 p e r c e n t in the high ea rn in gs
g rou p .
The s e le c t e d p riv a te w e lfa r e con trib u tion equaled 2 .7 p e rce n t o f g r o s s
p a y r o ll in the low w age g ro u p , 4. 3 p e r c e n t in the m id d le , and 6. 3 p e r c e n t in
the high w age g ro u p . The p r o g r e s s io n w as m o s t p ron ou n ced fo r p en sion and r e ­
tire m e n t p la n s, fo r w h ich e m p loy ers* con trib u tion s am ounted to 0 .6 p e r c e n t in the
lo w ea rn in gs g ro u p , ris in g to 3 p e r c e n t in the high earn in gs g ro u p . (See table 3 6 .)

The re la tio n sh ip o b s e r v e d betw een le v e l o f ex p en d itu res and earn in gs
g rou p s m e a s u r e d in p e rce n ta g e te r m s w as m o r e m a rk e d ly apparent when m e a s u re d
in c e n t s -p e r -h o u r t e r m s . F o r e a ch hour p aid f o r , p aid le a v e ex p en d itu res w e re
fo u r tim e s as g re a t in the high ea rn in gs grou p as in the lo w , r is in g fr o m 4 .6 cen ts
to 18. 7 cen ts an h ou r. P r e m iu m pa y in c r e a s e d fr o m 4. 3 cen ts to 12. 8 cen ts an
h ou r; le g a lly r e q u ir e d p a y m en ts, fr o m 7 .4 to 1 1 .4 cen ts an h ou r; and the s e le c te d
p riv a te w e lfa r e plans fr o m 3 .6 to 1 7 .3 c e n ts .

V a ria tio n s b y S ize o f E sta b lish m en t
T o d eterm in e w hether th ere w e re re la tiv e v a ria tio n s in ex p en d itu res fo r
su p p lem en ta ry re m u n e ra tio n p r a c t ic e s b y s iz e o f esta b lish m e n t, th ree s iz e c la s s e s
w e r e u sed — under 100 e m p lo y e e s , 100 to 499 e m p lo y e e s , and 500 e m p lo y e e s
or m ore.

W ith few e x c e p tio n s , expen ditu re ra tio s v a r ie d d ir e c t ly w ith s iz e c la s s
o f e sta b lish m e n t.
E xpen ditu res f o r p a id le a v e b y e sta b lish m en ts in the s m a ll
s iz e c la s s equ aled 4. 3 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r p a y r o ll o f a ll e s ta b ­
lish m en ts in the s iz e c l a s s ; in the m ed iu m s iz e c l a s s , it w as 5. 3 p e r c e n t, and
in the la r g e size , 7 p e r c e n t.
(See table 3 7 .)

A s s iz e o f e sta b lish m e n t in c r e a s e d , total p re m iu m pay ex p en d itu res r o s e
fr o m 3 .7 p e r c e n t to 4 .1 p e r c e n t and then to 4 .7 p e r c e n t. The r is in g ra tio s fo r
total p re m iu m s a re attribu table e n tir e ly to ex p en d itu res fo r sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls . The
lo w e r ra tio s fo r o v e r tim e p re m iu m s that appear in the la r g e s iz e c la s s e s a re e x ­
p la in a b le b y the in a b ility o f so m e o f the la r g e esta b lish m en ts to r e p o r t th eir p r e ­
m iu m paym en ts b y ty p e.
If p re fn iu m s not re p o r te d s e p a ra te ly w e re added to
the o v e r tim e e x p e n d itu re s, the expen ditu re ra tios in the th ree e sta b lish m en t s iz e
c la s s e s w ou ld p r o b a b ly b e c o m e n e a r ly id e n tica l.
F o r p re m iu m s in p a r tic u la r ,
the expen ditu re ra tio s a re h igh ly re la te d to the nature o f the in d u stry fs o p e r a tio n s .
T o the exten t that c o n tin u o u s -p r o c e s s in d u s trie s , fo r e x a m p le , a re co n ce n tra te d
in a p a r tic u la r s iz e c l a s s , th ey w ou ld in c r e a s e the expen ditu re ra tio fo r the c la s s .

The expen ditu re r a tio s f o r the sum o f the p riv a te w e lfa r e plans w e r e
a lso d ir e c t ly re la te d to e sta b lish m e n t s iz e , ris in g fr o m 3 .4 to 4 .6 to 6 .6 p e r c e n t,
but the re la tio n sh ip f o r y e a re n d and C h ristm a s b on u ses ran cou n ter to that fo r
the o th e r p la n s. T o a g re a t exten t, the paym en t o f y e a re n d bon u ses app ears to
b e a c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f the s m a ll e sta b lish m en t s iz e c l a s s .




91

In co n tr a s t to the totals fo r the oth er c a te g o r ie s o f su p p lem en ts, total
ex p en d itu res fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d paym ents d e clin e d fr o m 5 .2 p e r c e n t fo r the
under 100 e m p lo y e e grou p to 4. 1 p e r c e n t fo r the 500 e m p lo y e e o r m o r e g rou p .
Although a ll the le g a lly r e q u ir e d ite m s had a ten den cy to d e clin e w ith in c r e a s e s
in the s iz e c l a s s , m o s t o f the d e clin e in the total expen ditu re w as attributable
to w o r k m e n ^ co m p e n sa tio n w h ich fo r the la r g e s iz e c la s s w as le s s than h alf that
in the s m a ll s iz e c la s s .
In te r m s o f cen ts p e r hour p a id fo r b y a ll esta b lish m en ts in the s iz e
c la s s , the p attern o f re la tio n sh ip w as s im ila r , but the in c r e a s e s betw een s iz e
c la s s e s w e r e m u ch m o r e p ro n o u n ce d .
F o r p a id le a v e , ex p en d itu res a v e ra g e d
8 .6 cen ts p e r hour fo r esta b lish m e n ts w ith under 100 e m p lo y e e s and ju s t o v e r
tw ice as m u ch fo r th ose w ith 500 e m p lo y e e s o r m o r e . P re m iu m p ay expen ditu res
v a r ie d fr o m 7. 4 to 1 1 .8 cen ts p e r hour and those fo r p riv a te w e lfa re plans show ed
the g r e a te s t d iffe r e n c e — 6. 7 cen ts co m p a re d to 1 6 .5 c e n ts . E m p lo y e r c o n trib u ­
tions f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d paym en ts d e clin e d in sig n ifica n tly (fr o m 10. 3 cents to
1 0 .2 c e n ts ), w ith r is in g s o c ia l s e c u r ity con trib u tion s eq u a lizin g the e ffe c t o f d e ­
clin in g w ork m en *s co m p e n sa tio n c o s t s .
V a ria tio n s on B a sis o f C o lle c tiv e B argain in g A g reem en ts
T o d eterm in e w h eth er th ere w e re d iffe r e n c e s in ex p en d itu res fo r su p p le ­
m e n ta ry b e n e fits b etw een r e la tiv e ly o r g a n iz e d and u n org a n ized e sta b lish m e n ts ,
resp on d en ts w e re a sk ed to r e p o r t w hether a m a jo r ity o f th eir e m p lo y e e s w e re
c o v e r e d b y c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g reem en t o r w hether none o r a m in o rity w ere
under su ch a g re e m e n ts.
E x ce p t f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d p a y m en ts, av era g e ex p en d itu res w e re r e la ­
tiv e ly h igh er fo r the c la s s o f e sta b lish m en ts w ith a m a jo r ity o f e m p lo y e e s under
c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts.
The expenditure ra tio s fo r the totals v a r ie d
fr o m 6 .5 to 4 .5 p e r c e n t o f g r o s s p ro d u ctio n w o rk e r p a y r o ll fo r p aid le a v e , fr o m
4. 4 to 4. 1 p e r c e n t f o r p re m iu m p a y , and 5. 8 to 4. 3 p e r c e n t fo r p riv a te w e lfa re
p la n s.
F o r total p r e m iu m s , the slig h tly h igh er ratio fo r esta b lish m en ts w ith a
m a jo r it y c o v e r e d b y a g re e m e n ts re s u lts e n tir e ly fr o m the r e la tiv e ly h igh er e x ­
pen d itu re fo r sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls . A m ong the p riv a te w e lfa re p la n s, on ly y ea r end
and C h ristm a s b on u ses w e re a h igh er expen ditu re ratio in the n on u n ion ized e s ta b ­
lish m e n t g ro u p . E xp en d itu res f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su ra n ce w e re 4. 4 p e r c e n t o f
the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f a ll esta b lish m en ts w ith a m a jo r ity o f w o r k e rs c o v e r e d b y
c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts and a slig h tly h igh er p r o p o r tio n (4 .8 p e rce n t)
o f p a y r o ll o f th ose w ith none o r ju s t a m in o rity c o v e r e d . (See table 3 8 .)
In cen ts p e r hour p a id f o r , the d iffe r e n c e s betw een the two esta b lish m en t
c la s s ific a t io n s w e r e even m o r e m a rk e d .
The c la s s w ith e sta b lish m en ts w ith a
m a jo r it y o f e m p lo y e e s c o v e r e d b y a g reem en ts had h igh er re la tiv e expen ditu res
fo r the tota ls fo r e a ch o f the su pplem ent g ro u p s. The g r e a te s t v a ria tio n s w e re
f o r tota l p a id le a v e (1 5 .9 and 8 .4 cen ts p e r h ou r, r e s p e c t iv e ly ), and fo r the sum
o f the p riv a te w e lfa r e plan s (14. 1 and 8. 1 c e n ts ). S m a lle r d iffe r e n c e s app eared
f o r p re m iu m pa y (1 0 .7 c o m p a r e d to 7 .7 cen ts p e r hou r) and fo r le g a lly re q u ire d
paym en ts (1 0 .6 c o m p a r e d w ith 8 .9 cen ts p e r h ou r).
V a ria tio n s on B a s is o f L o c a tio n in M etrop olita n and N on m etrop olita n A re a s
The e sta b lish m e n ts re p o rtin g to the su rv e y w e re c la s s ifie d as to lo ca tio n
a c c o r d in g to the Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a s d efin ed b y the O ffice o f
S ta tistica l S ta nd ards, B u rea u o f the B u d g e t.51

51 F o r fu rth er in fo rm a tio n , se e Ch. VIII, S u rv ey M ethods and D e fin ition s.




92

The d iffe r e n c e s betw een e sta b lish m en ts in m e tro p o lita n and n o n m e tr o ­
polita n a re a s w e re le s s than they w e re when the esta b lish m en ts w e re g rou p ed on
the b a s is o f the th ree s e le c t e d c h a r a c te r is tic s a lre a d y co n s id e r e d .
F o r p a id
le a v e , the ra tio w as 6. 3 p e r c e n t o f the g r o s s p a y r o ll o f all the esta b lish m en ts in
m e tro p o lita n a rea s c o m p a r e d to 5. 1 p e r c e n t fo r those in n on m etrop olita n a r e a s ;
fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plans the r e s p e c t iv e ra tios w e re 5 ,8 and 4 0 6 p e r c e n t. P r e ­
m iu m pa y expen ditu re ra tio s w e r e a lm o st id en tica l in both a re a s— 4. 3 p e r c e n t
in m e tr o p o lita n c o m p a r e d to 4 .4 p e r c e n t in n on m etrop olita n — w hile fo r le g a lly
r e q u ir e d paym ents the n on m etrop olita n a rea s w e re slig h tly h igh er— 4 .7 p e r c e n t
as again st 4 .4 p e r c e n t.
(See table 3 9 .)

In te r m s o f cen ts p e r hour p aid f o r , the d iffe r e n c e s w e re m o r e p r o ­
n ou n ced than when e x p r e s s e d as p e rce n ta g e o f p a y r o ll, and the rates w e re h igher
in the m e tro p o lita n a re a s fo r a ll m a in c a te g o r ie s o f ex p e n d itu re s. The a v era ge
ex p en d itu res w e r e : P a id le a v e — m e tro p o lita n a re a s 1 4 .9 c e n ts , n on m etrop olita n
a re a s 9 .9 c e n t s ;p r e m iu m pa y— m e tro p o lita n 10.2 c e n ts , n on m etrop olita n 8.6 ce n ts;
le g a lly r e q u ir e d paym en ts— 1 0 .4 cen ts and 9. 2 ce n ts ; and p riv a te w e lfa re plans—
1 3 .4 cen ts and 8 .9 ce n ts .




Table 36.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries
by Average Hourly Earnings G roup ,1 1959

625617 O -6 2

P e rc e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll

P e rc e n t o f s tr a ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll

L ow

S ick l e a v e ___________ ___________
H o lid a y s

M ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e s s ,
v otin g , and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----P re m iu m p a y _______________________
D a ily o v e r t im e , w eek ly
o v e r tim e , and w eeken d w o r k ___
____ _ _ _
H olid a y w o r k
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls ________________
P re m iu m p a y not r e p o rte d
s e p a ra te ly ___
_______
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d p a y m e n t s ________
O ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d i s ­
a b ility in su ra n ce (s o c ia l
s e c u r i t y ) _______________________
U n em p loym en t com p en s a tion —_
W orkm en* s com p en sa tion -------O th er, in clu d in g te m p o r a r y
d is a b ility in s u r a n c e ________ ___
P riv a te w e lfa r e plans _ _ _ _ _
H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life
i n s u r a n c e _____________ _________
P e n s io n and re tire m e n t p la n s __
V a ca tion and h olid a y f u n d s ------Supplem ental u n em p loym ent
b en efits __ ____
___ _
S ev era n ce o r d is m is s a l p a y ____
Savings and th rift p l a n s ___ __ __
Y ea ren d and C h ristm a s
b on u ses ____ ________
____ , ,ir
_-_
P riv a te w e lfa r e plans not
re p o r te d s e p a r a t e l y __________

Cents p e r plant m an -h ou r

H ou rly ea rn in g s group—

P r a c t ic e

P a id l e a v e
V a c a t io n s

Cents p e r h ou r p aid fo r

M iddle

H igh

3 .4

5 .1
3 .0
.1

6.8

2.0
.1
1 .3

2.0

4 .1
.3
2 .3

L ow

M iddle

H igh

L ow

M id d le

H igh

L ow

M iddle

High

3 .5

5 .4
3. 1
. 1

7. 1
4 .3
.3
2 .5

4 .6
2 .7
. 1
1 .7

9 .8
5 .7
.3
3 .9

1 8 .7

4 .7

1 0.4

20. 1
12.1

2.1
.1

1 .3

2.1

11.2
.8
6 .5

2.8
. 1
1.8

6.0

.3
4. 1

.9
7 .0

(2)

(2 )

.

1

(2 )

(2 )

1

(2 )

4 .1

.2

(2 )

1

.2

3 .2

4 .0

4 .7

3. 3

4 .1

4 .9

4 .3

7 .6

12.8

4 .5

8.0

1 3.8

2.8
.2

2 .4
. 1
1. 1

2 .9
(2)

3 .2

<M

3. 1
. 1
.5

2.6
. 1
1 .1

3 .8
. 1
.3

5 .9
.1

6 .7
.4
3 .0

3 .9
. 1
.3

6.2
.1
1 .1

7. 3
.4
3 .2

1

.3

1.0

.2

. 3

1.0

.2

.6

2 .7

.2

.6

2 .9

5 .5

5 .0

4. 1

5 .7

5 .2

4. 3

7 .4

9 .5

1 1 .4

7 .7

10.1

12.2

2 .4

2. 3

2. 1
1.2

2 .4

2 .4
1 .7

2.2

3 .2
2 .9

4 .4
3. 1
1 .9

5 .7
3 .4

3. 3
3 .0
1 .4

4 .7
3 .3

6.2

.

2.1
1.0

1.6
1.0

.7

.2

2.2
1.0

.1
.6

1.0

.

1. 3

.8

1.2

1 .1

2.0

3 .7

2.2

(2 )

(2 )

(2 )

(2 )

< )
2

.

1

(2 )

.

(2 )

.

2 .7

4. 3

6. 3

2.8

4 .5

6.6

3 .6

8 .3

17. 3

3 .7

8 .7

18.6

1.2
.6

1.8
1.6

1 .3

.8
.1

3 .5
3 .1
. 1

8.2
. 1

1 .7
.9
.1

3 .7
3 .3

(2)

2 .4
3 .1
< )
2

6 .4

(2)

1 .9
1 .7
(2 )

1 .7

(2)

2 .3
3 .0
(2 )

6 .9
8 .9
.1

(2 )
(2 )
(2)

(2 )
<*)
(2)

.2

(*)
2)
(2 )

<*)
(2 )
(2 )

.2

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

.1
.3

(2 )

(2 )

(2 )
. 1

(2 )
(2 )
(2)

.6

(2 )
. 1

(2 )

(2)

. 1
. 3

.6

.7

.4

.6

.7

.4

.8

1. 3

1. 1

.9

1 .3

1.2

1

.2

.2

.1

.2

.2

.2

.3

.5

.2

.3

.6

.

.6

1

2.0

.

.1

2

1

.1

2

.

1

.6

1 The esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g to the s u rv e y w ere d ivid ed into 3 g r o u p s, e a ch containing a p p ro x im a te ly o n e -t h ir d o f the e sta b lish m e n ts. The lo w e r average h ou rly
ea rn in g s grou p in clu d ed esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g tinder $ 1 .6 0 p e r h ou r; the m id d le th ird , $ 1 .6 0 and under $ 2. 20; the high er ea rn in gs e sta b lish m en ts, $ 2.20 o r m o r e .
* L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r 0 .0 5 cen t.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 37.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries
by Establishment Size Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll

P e rc e n t o f stra ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll

C ents p e r h ou r p a id f o r

Cents p e r plant m an -h ou r

E sta blish m en ts with—

P r a c t ic e
U nder 100
e m p loy ees

100-499
em p loy ees

500
o r m o re
em p loy ees

P a id le a v e - --------- ----V a ca tion s
_ ------ -------------- __
S ick le a v e -----------------------------------H olida y s _________________________
M ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e s s ,
v otin g , and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----

4 .3
2 .4
. 1
1 .7

5 .3
3 .2
.1

2.0

7 .0
4 .2
.3
2 .4

(1)

< )
l

.

P r e m iu m p a y _______________________
D a ily o v e r tim e , w eek ly
o v e r t im e , and w eek en d w o rk —
------ . — ----H olida y w ork —
------Shift d iffe re n tia ls
—
P r e m iu m pay not re p o rte d
s e p a ra te ly
_ _ ___________

3 .7

4. 1

4 .7

3 .9

3. 3
. 1
.2

2 .9
.1

2.2
. 1

3 .5
. 1

.4

1. 1

.

.4

1. 2

.3

.8

2.8

.4

.9

3. 0

L e g a lly r e q u ire d p a y m e n t s ------------O ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d i s ­
a b ility in su ra n ce (s o c ia l
s e c u r it y ) _ — ----------------- ----U nem ploym ent com p en sa tion —
W o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t i o n ______
O th er, in clud ing te m p o r a r y
d isa b ility i n s u r a n c e ___________

5 .2

4 .8

4. 1

5 .4

5 .0

4. 3

10. 3

9 .6

10.2

1 0.7

10.2

11 . 0

2. 2
1.6

2. 1

2.2

.6

2. 3
1.7
1 .3

2 .3

1. 3

1 .4

.6

4 .4
3. 3
2. 5

4 .5
3. 1
1 .9

5. 3
3 .3
1 .5

4 .6
3 .4

4 .7
3. 3
2. 1

5 .7
3 .5

1. 3

2.2
1.6
1.0

1

(l )

(l )

.

1

(l )

<‘ )

.

3 .4

4 .6

6. 6

3. 5

4 .8

6 .9

6. 7

9 .2

1 6 .5

7. 0

9 .7

17.8

1 .4
.9
. 1

2.0
1.8

2 .4
3. 3
(*)

1 .5
.9
. 1

2. 1

.2

4 .0
3 .6
(M

6.0
8.2

3 .0

1 .9
(‘ )

2 .5
3 .4
(l )

2.8

4. 2
3 .8
(*)

8.8

(l )

1

.2

(M

.

1

.2

(!>
(l >

(l )
.1

(1)

i

<!>
(l )

(*)
.1

(M
. 1
. 1

. 1
(l )
.1

.6
. 1
.2

.5

.4

.7

.6

.4

1 .4

1. 1

.2

.

1

.2

.4

.

2

P r iv a te w e lfa r e plan s _____________
H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life
in s u ra n ce _______________________
P e n s io n and re tire m e n t p lan s —
V a ca tion and h olid a y f u n d s ------S upplem ental u n em p loym en t
b e n e fits ____ r
____________ T . . . r-,r
.
S e v e ra n c e o r d is m is s a l p a y ____
S avings and th rift p l a n s ________
Y ea ren d and C h ristm a s

.

.

2

(!)
(*)
. i
.7

P r iv a te w e lfa r e plan s not
r e p o rte d s e p a r a t e l y -----------------

1

.

2

.6

.

.

1

1

1 .3

.

2

U nder 100
em p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p loy ees

500
o r m ore
e m p lo y e e s

4 .5
2 .5

.2
1.8

5 .5
3 .3
.1
2. 1

7. 3
4 .4
.3
2 .5

n

n

.2

.

2

L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r 0 .0 5 cen t.

NOTE: B ecause o f rounding, sums o f individual items may not equal totals.




U nder 100
e m p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p lo y e e s

500
o r m ore
e m p lo y e e s

8.6

10.6

1 7 .6

4 .9
.3 *
3 .4

6 .3
.3
4 .0

10.6
.8
6.0

U nder 100
e m p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p lo y e e s

9 .0
5. 1
.3
3 .6

11.2
6 .7
.3
4. 3

1

(l )

(l )

.2

(*)

(M

4 .2

4 .9

7 .4

8.1

11.8

7 .8

8. 6

3. 1
.1

2. 3
. 1
1 .3

6.6
. 1

5 .9

5. 5
.3
3 .2

6 .9
. 1
.4

6.2
.2

.

.6

1.6
1.0

.4

1

1 .7

.2
1.2

.

1

.

1

(M

2.6
.

1

1.8
.2

1. 3

.

1

500
o r m ore
em p loy ees

18.9
1 1.4
.9
6 .4

.2
12.7

6. 0
.3
3 .4

1.6
.

1

6 .4
(M

1
1

. 1
(‘ )
. 1

.
.

1.0

1 .4

1. 2

1. 1

.5

.5

.

2

.5

(l )

.
.

.6
1
2

Table 38.

Average Expenditures fo r Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries
by Collective Bargaining Agreem ent Coverage, 1959
P e rc e n t o f g r o s s p a y r o ll

P e r c e n t o f stra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll

Cents p e r hour p a id fo r

C ents p e r plant m an -h ou r

E sta blish m en ts with—
P r a c t ic e
M a jo rity
cov ered

N one o r
m in o rity
cov ered

M a jo rity
covered

None o r
m in o rity
covered

M a jo rity
covered

None o r
m in o rity
covered

4 .7
2 .7
.3
1 .7

1 5 .9
9 .6
.5
5 .7

8 .4
4 .8
.5
3 .0

M a jo rity
cov ered

None o r
m in o rity
co v e r e d

8.8

P a id le a v e
V a ca tio n s
S ick l e a v e ________________________
H olida y s
M ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e s s ,
v otin g , and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------

6 .5
3 .9

(‘ )

(l )

(l )

(M

.1

P re m iu m p a y
D a ily o v e r t im e , w eek ly
o v e r t im e , and w eek en d w o r k —.
H olid a y w o r k
Shift d iffe re n tia ls
P r e m iu m s not r e p o r te d
s e p a r a te ly

4 .4

4 .1

4 .6

4 .3

1 0 .7

7 .7

1 1.5

8.0

2 .4

3. 3

.1

3 .4

.1

.4

5 .8
. 3
2 .5

6.1
. 1
.8

6.2

.4

2 .5
. 1
1. 1

6 .4
. 1

.9

.4

.9

.4

2.1

.7

2. 3

.7

L e g a lly r e q u ir e d paym ents
O ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and d i s ­
a b ility in su ra n ce (s o c ia l

4 .4

4 .8

4 .6

5 .0

10.6

8 .9

1 1 .4

9 .3

2. 1

2.2
1.6
1.0

2.2

2. 3

5 .2
3 .4
1 .9

4 .2
2 .9

5 .6
3 .7

2.0

4 .3
3 .0
1 .9

.

1

.1

U n em p loym en t co m p e n s a tio n — .
W orkm en* s co m p e n s a tio n -------O th e r , in clud ing te m p o ­
r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e _____
P riv a te w e lfa r e p lan s
H ealth, a ccid e n t, and life
P e n s io n and r e tire m e n t p la n s __
V a c a tio n and h olid a y fu n d s _____
S upplem ental u n em p loym en t
S ev era n ce o r d is m is s a l p a y -----S avings and th rift p la n s _________
Y e a r end and C h ristm a s
b on u ses
_____
P r iv a te w e lfa r e plan s not
r e p o r t e d s e p a ra te ly

1

.2

2 .3

.1
1.0

1 .4

.8

4 .5

6 .9
4 .1

.3

.2

2.6
1.6

2 .4

1 .5

.8

1.8

1

.3
2 .7

.

1

.8

(M

(l )

(l )

.1

5 .8

6.1

4 .5

14.1

8.1

15. 1

8 .4

2. 3
2 .7
(*)

1 .5

1.6

2 .4

2.8

1.6

2.8

6.0

(l )

(M

1 .7
(M

5 .6
6 .5

3 .0
3. 1
(l )

.2
1

(?)
)
n

(M
.i

.2

1.1

.2

<M

(l )

.

.2

.1

.4

1

.

5 .0
.5
3 .2

4 .3

3 .0
C)
1

.

7 .0

.1

. 1
.2

(*)
(l )
. 1

.5

n

.1
.2

(M
(M
. i

. 3

1.2

.6

2.1

.6

2.2

.2

(M

.6

il )

.6

(l )

B e ca u s e o f rounding, sum s o f individual item s m a y not equal to ta ls.




1

.6
6.1

(*)

L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r 0 .0 5 cen t.

NOTE:

1.6
1.0

.

17. 1
1 0 .3

(!)
)

'O

On

Table 39.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration P ra ctices in Manufacturing Industries
by Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan A rea Location, 1959

P e r c e n t o f g r o s s p a y ro ll
P r a c t ic e

P e rc e n t o f
stra ig h t-tim e p a y ro ll

M etrop olita n

N onm etropolitan

M etrop olitan

N on m etrop olita n

6 .3
3 .7
.3
2 .3

5. 1
3. 1

6.6

.2
1. 8

3 .9
.3
2 .4

5 .3
3 .2

____

(*)

(*)

.

.
D a ily o v e r tim e , w eek ly
o v e r tim e , and w eeken d w o r k __
H oliday w o r k _
_
_
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ________________
P re m iu m s not r e p o rte d
se p a ra te ly
_
_ _ _

4 .3
2 .5
.1
.9

L e g a lly re q u ire d p a y m e n t s ________
O ld -a g e , s u r v iv o r s , and
d is a b ility in su ra n ce
(s o c ia l s e c u r i t y ) _______________
U nem ploym ent com p en s a tion ___
W ork m en ’ s c o m p e n s a t i o n ______
O th er, including t e m p o ­
r a r y d isa b ility i n s u r a n c e _____

P a id l e a v e ___________________________
---V a ca tion s
S ick lea v e __
M ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e s s ,
votin g , and p e rs o n a l le a v e
P r e m iu m p a y

P riv a te w e lfa re p l a n s ______________
H ealth, a c c id e n t, and life
in su ra n ce
. . . .
P e n s io n and re tire m e n t p l a n s __
V acation and h olid a y f l u i d s _____
Supplem ental u n em p loym ent
b e n e fits
,.. _
S evera n ce o r d is m is s a l p a y -----Savings and th rift p l a n s ________
Y ea ren d and C h ristm a s

C ent 8 p e r hour paid fo r
M etrop olita n

N on m etrop olita n

1 4 .9

9 .9

.2
1. 8

5 .4

.3
3 .4

1

(*)

.

4 .4

4 .5

4 .6

10.2

3. 1
. 1
.7

2.6
. 1

3 .2
. 1
.8

2.2

.5

.

.6

4 .4

4. 7

4 .6

2. 1

2.2

2.2

1 .4

.8

1 .5
.9

1 .5
.8

1

(*)

•1

5 .8

4 .6

5 .9

4.

.

.

8

8

1

5. 8
.3

6.0
.

1

8.6
6.0
.2

M etrop olita n

1 5.9
9 .4

.6

5 .7

N onm etropolitan

10. 3
6 .3
.3
3 .6

1

•1

10. 8

9. 1

6.2

6 .3

.

.2

1 .4

.3
2 .3

1 .5

1 .9

1.0

2.0

1. 1

4 .9

1 0 .4

9 .2

11. 1

9 .7

2 .3

1.6
1.0

5. 1
3 .4
1 .9

4 .4
2 .9
1. 8

5 .4
3 .6

4 .6
3. 1
1 .9

(M

.

1

(*)

.

1

(*)

1 3 .4

8 .9

1 4.3

9 .4

5. 1

3 .7
3 .9
(M

5 .4
6 .4
. 1

8

2.0

3. 8
4. 1
(l )

1

1 .9

2 .5
(‘ )

2.0

2.2
2.6

2.0
2. 1

(l )

(l )

(l )

6.0
.1

. 1
(l )
. 1

.1
(l)
.1

.2
(*)
. 1

. 1
(*)
.1

. 1
.2

(M
. i

. 1
.2

(l )
.1

.5
P riv a te w e lfa r e p lan s not
r e p o r te d s e p a ra te ly

2.2

.9

8.8
.6

Cents p e r plant m an -h ou r

.5

.5

.5

1.2

1.0

1.2

1.0

.2

(*)

.2

(M

.5

.

L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t o r 0 .0 5 cen t.

NOTE: B ecause o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




.4

.2

i

.4

.6

.2

.

1

C h ap ter V II.

C o m p o s itio n o f P a y r o ll H ours

P r e v io u s se c tio n s o f this r e p o r t have in d ica ted the w id e sp re a d o b s e r v ­
an ce o f paid le a v e p r a c t ic e s fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs and the p r o p o r tio n o f p a y r o ll
d o lla r s su ch p r a c t ic e s r e p r e se n t. E qually sig n ifica n t is the p ro p o rtio n o f p a y r o ll
h ou rs they r e p r e se n t. A s the m agnitude o f p aid le a v e h ou rs g re w , total p a y r o ll
h ou rs b e c a m e le s s a c c u r a te as a m e a s u re o f the la b o r input fa c to r o f p rod u ction .
In 1959, plant h ou rs (i. e. , tota l h ou rs paid f o r m inus le a v e h ou rs p aid fo r ) a v ­
e ra g e d 94. 1 p e r c e n t o f the total h ou rs fo r w hich p ro d u ctio n w o r k e rs w e r e paid in
m an u factu rin g. E x ce p t fo r the South (in w hich plant h ou rs a v e ra g e d 95. 5 p e r c e n t),
the plant hour r a tio s in ea ch o f the b r o a d e c o n o m ic re g io n s studied w e r e about the
sa m e as the ra tio fo r the U nited States as a w h ole.
Im portant d iffe r e n c e s e x ­
is te d , h o w e v e r , am ong the m a jo r in du stry g rou p s. R a tios o f plant h ou rs to total
h ou rs pa id fo r ran ged fr o m a high o f 97. 1 p e r c e n t in the lu m b er and w ood p r o d ­
u cts group to a low o f 89. 3 p e r c e n t in the p e tro le u m in d u stries grou p.
(See
table 4 0 .)
The te r m plant h o u rs, as u sed in this su rv e y , c o v e r s a ll the h ou rs
spent at the plant, in clu din g su ch nonw ork tim e as paid r e s t p e r io d s , paid lunch
p e r io d s , and standby o r re p o rtin g tim e .
P a id lea v e h ou rs a re d efin ed as the
nu m ber o f h ou rs f o r w h ich pay w as r e c e iv e d rath er than the tim e absent fr o m
the plant.
If a w o r k e r did not r e c e iv e fu ll pay fo r an a b se n ce , paid lea v e h ou rs
r e p r e s e n te d the m a n -h o u rs equ ivalent to the pay r e c e iv e d .
F o r a ll m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts in 1959, th e r e fo r e , h ou rs at the
plant a ccou n ted fo r 94. 1 p e r c e n t, and paid lea v e h ou rs 5. 9 p e r c e n t o f tota l p a y ­
r o l l h o u r s.
O f the 5 .9 p e r c e n t fo r paid lea v e h o u rs, 3 .4 p e rce n t w e r e fo r
va ca tion , 0. 2 p e r c e n t fo r s ic k le a v e , 2 .2 p e rce n t fo r h o lid a y s , and the re m a in d e r
fo r m ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e ss, votin g, and p e rs o n a l le a v e .
P a id v a ca tion h ou rs
a ccou n ted fo r m o r e than h a lf o f a ll the paid lea v e h ou rs in each o f the in du stry
grou ps e x ce p t ord n a n ce (49 p e rce n t) and as m u ch as 69 p e rce n t in te x tile s .
The B ureau m ad e an id e n tica l su rv e y o f the c o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h ou rs
in m an u factu rin g in 1958. B e fo r e attem pting in du stry group c o m p a ris o n s betw een
1958 and 1959, it should be noted that the in du stry grou ps a re not e n tire ly c o m ­
p a ra b le , as the in du stry c la s s ific a t io n fo r the 1958 study w as b a se d on the 1945
ed ition o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual, w h erea s in the 1959 study,
it w as b a se d on the 1957 edition .
(See Ch. VIII, S urvey M ethods and D efin ition s,
fo r fu rth er deta ils on c la s s ific a t io n c h a n g e s .) At the a ll-m a n u fa ctu rin g le v e l,
w h ere c o m p a r is o n s a re m o r e fe a s ib le , c o n s id e r a b le sta o ility w as found betw een
y e a r s in the r a tio s , w ith plant h ou rs in 1958 av era gin g 94 p e rce n t o f total h ou rs
paid fo r and paid le a v e h ou rs including 3 .6 p e rce n t fo r v a ca tio n s, 2 .2 p e rce n t
fo r h o lid a y s , 0 .2 p e r c e n t fo r s ic k le a v e , and le s s
than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t fo r
oth er le a v e . 52
A s a p e rce n ta g e o f tota l p a y r o ll h ou rs in 1959, v a ca tion s ranged fr o m
1 .8 p e r c e n t in the lu m b er grou p to 5 .5 p e rce n t in the p e tro le u m grou p. A lthough
so m e paid s ic k lea ve h ou rs w e r e r e p o r te d in each o f the industry g rou p s, they
e x c e e d e d 1 p e r c e n t o f the p a y r o ll h ou rs on ly in ord n a n ce (1. 1 p e rce n t) and p e ­
tr o le u m (2. 2 p e r c e n t).
P a id h o lid a y s w e r e the se co n d m o s t im portan t paid le a v e
p r a c t ic e , ran gin g fr o m 2 .8 p e r c e n t o f p a y r o ll h ou rs in p etro le u m down to 1 p e r ­
cen t in the te x tile s and lu m b er in d u strie s.
(See table 4 0 .)

52

C o m p o s itio n o f P a y r o ll H ou rs in M anufacturing,

( 1960).




97

1958, BL»S B u ll.

1283

98

A lthough paid lea ve p r a c t ic e s w e r e w id e sp re a d , they w e re not u n iv e rs a l.
M anufacturing e sta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g no paid le a v e em p loy ed 4. 2 p e r c e n t o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s .
T h is d oes not im p ly that 95. 8 p e rce n t o f the w o r k e rs a c ­
tu ally w e r e paid fo r le a v e , but on ly that they w e re in esta b lish m en ts that had
such p r a c t ic e s .
M o st v a ca tion plans have som e l e n g t h -o f-s e r v ic e e lig ib ility r e ­
qu irem en ts w h ich, in any sin g le y e a r , ex clu d e som e s h o r t -t e r m w o r k e rs fr o m
v a ca tio n .
In the South, esta b lish m en ts with no paid lea v e em p loy ed 10 p e rce n t
o f the w o r k e r s , w h e re a s in the N orth C en tra l re g io n , such plants had only 1 p e r ­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s .
Som e esta b lish m en ts in all but th ree o f the m a jo r indu stry
g rou p s (ord n a n ce, p e tro le u m , and p r im a r y m e ta ls) had no paid lea v e in 1959; in
on ly two in d u strie s w e r e substantial p ro p o rtio n s o f the w o r k e rs em p loy ed in th ese
e sta b lish m e n ts :
17.1 p e r c e n t in a p p a rel and 2 2 .8 p e rce n t in lu m b e r.
(See
table 4 1 .)
The d istrib u tio n o f p ro d u ction w o r k e rs a cco rd in g to e sta b lish m e n t-p a id
le a v e r a tio s ranged fr o m under 1 p e rce n t to m o r e than 11 p e r c e n t. A m a jo r ity
o f w o r k e r s in a ll m an u factu rin g w e r e em p loy ed in esta b lish m en ts in w hich the
ra tio s w e r e betw een 4 and 8 p e r c e n t. In m o s t indu stry g rou p s, the d istrib u tion s
w e r e equ ally w ide, although so m e in d u stries had la r g e co n ce n tra tion s o f w o r k e rs
w ithin v e r y n a rro w lim its , o th e rs had le s s con cen tra tion , and s till o th e rs had
co n ce n tra tio n s in w id e ly se p a ra te d in te rv a ls . F o r ex a m p le, n e a rly a th ird o f the
w o r k e r s in the pap er in d u strie s w e r e em p lo y e d in plants with a paid le a v e ra tio
o f 6 to 7 p e r c e n t. In the fu rn itu re and fix tu re s in d u strie s, about o n e -s e v e n th o f
the w o r k e r s w e r e found in each o f the fou r in terv a ls betw een 3 and 7 p e rce n t.
In ord n a n ce , h o w e v e r, about o n e -fo u rth o f the w o r k e rs w e re found in the 5 - to
6 -p e r c e n t in te rv a l and in the 9 - to 10-p e r c e n t in te rv a l.
Although som e o f this
v a ria tio n in d istrib u tio n r e fle c t s the re la tiv e p re v a le n ce o f the individual le a v e
p r a c t ic e s , v a ca tion s w e r e the m o s t im p orta n t con tribu tin g fa c t o r .
A ls o u n d e r­
lyin g so m e o f the d iffe r e n c e s am ong the m a jo r industry grou ps is the re la tiv e
h om og en ity o f the w age and b en efit p r a c tic e s in the in d u stries c o m p r is in g the
g rou p .
F o r ex a m p le, in the fo o d group a re found the re la tiv e ly con ce n tra te d
m ea tp a ck in g in d u strie s and the w id e ly d iv erg en t sea son a l canning o p e r a tio n s . Such
d iffe r e n c e s a re h igh ligh ted in the lu m b er group w h ere, fo r ex a m p le, o n e -fo u r th o f
the w o r k e r s w e r e in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no v a ca tio n s .
M ost o f th ese, h o w ­
e v e r , w e r e p ro b a b ly e m p lo y e d in the lu m b erin g op e ra tio n s o f the South; v irtu a lly
a ll the w e ste rn o p e ra tio n s have v a ca tion p r a c t i c e s .53
W ithout ex ce p tio n , paid le a v e h ou rs con stitu ted a la r g e r p ro p o rtio n o f
p a y r o ll h ou rs in esta b lish m en ts in the la r g e - s iz e c la s s than in the s m a ll.
L a rg e
esta b lish m e n ts w e r e defin ed as th ose with 500 o r m o r e w o r k e r s and s m a ll e s ta b ­
lish m en ts as th ose with fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y e e s . O v e ra ll, 7. 1 p e rce n t o f p a y r o ll
h o u rs w e r e paid le a v e h ou rs in the la r g e esta b lish m en t c la s s and 4. 1 p e rce n t in
the sm a ll. S om e o f this d iffe r e n c e is attributable to the in du stry m ix betw een the
s iz e c l a s s e s . N e v e r th e le s s , d iffe r e n c e s w e r e found in each o f the in d u stry g rou p s,
in so m e g ro u p s, quite su bstan tial d iffe r e n c e s .
F o r ex am p le, in ap p a rel, lu m b er,
and ru b b e r, the p r o p o r tio n o f p a y r o ll h ou rs re p re s e n te d by total paid lea v e h ou rs
in the la r g e plants c la s s w as m o r e than tw ice as high as in the sm a ll plants c la s s .
On the oth er hand, the d iffe r e n c e s w e r e sm a ll in such in du stry grou ps as te x tile s ,
fu rn itu re, and p e tro le u m .
S ep a ra tely, v a ca tion h ou rs and h olid a y h ou rs g e n e ra lly
con stitu ted a la r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f p a y r o ll h ou rs in the l a r g e - s iz e c la s s than in
the sm a ll, but so m e e x ce p tio n s w e r e found.
In p etro le u m , both the v a ca tion
h o u rs ra tio and the h olid a y h ou rs ra tio w e r e h igh er in the s m a ll esta b lish m en t
c la s s than in the la r g e e sta b lish m en t c la s s .
In te x tile s , the a v e ra g e v a ca tion

53 See W age S tru ctu re : W est C oa st S aw m illing, July 1959, BL«S R e p o rt
156 (I9 6 0 ), p. 34; and W age S tru ctu re: Southern S a w m ills, A p r il 1957, BL»S
R e p o r t 130 (1958), p. 32.




le a v e hou r ra tio w as h igh er in the la r g e r e sta b lish m e n ts c la s s (1.7 v . 2 .8 p e rce n t),
but the h olid a y le a v e ra tio w as h ig h er in the s m a lle r esta b lish m en ts c la s s (1 .4 v.
0 .9 p e r c e n t).
Although the v a ca tio n hour ra tio s w e r e h igh er in the la r g e r s iz e
c la s s , the h o lid a y r a tio s w e r e the sam e in both s iz e c la s s e s in the fu rn itu re,
p a p er, and prin tin g in du stry g ro u p s.
(See table 4 5 .)
D iffe r e n c e s w e r e a lso found in le a v e hou r ra tio s betw een esta b lish m en ts
in w h ich a m a jo r ity o f the w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by c o lle c t iv e b arg ain in g a g r e e ­
m en ts and th ose in w h ich none o r a m in o rity w e re c o v e r e d by such a g re e m e n ts.
O v e r a ll, the paid le a v e h ou rs a ccou n ted fo r 6. 7 p e rce n t o f p a y r o ll h ou rs in union
plants and v a r ie d sligh tly am ong the re g io n s — fr o m 6. 3 p e r c e n t in the W est to
6 .8 p e r c e n t in the N orth C e n tra l.
The a v era g e f o r the nonunion plants w as
4. 2 p e r c e n t but v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly am ong the r e g io n s — fr o m 2. 8 p e rce n t in the
South to 5. 3 p e r c e n t in the N orth ea st.
In each in du stry grou p, paid lea v e h ou rs
r e p r e s e n te d a h ig h er p r o p o r tio n o f p a y r o ll h ou rs in the esta b lish m en ts in w hich
a m a jo r ity o f w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by c o lle c t iv e ba rg a in in g a g re e m e n ts. A m ong
the in d u strie s tabulated se p a ra te ly , lea ve hour ra tio s in the union plaints ran ged
fr o m 3 .9 p e r c e n t in a p p a rel to 1 1 .3 p e rce n t in p e tro le u m .
The range aimong the
nonunion plants w as 1 .8 p e r c e n t in lu m b er to 7 .7 p e rce n t in o rd n a n ce.
The
ra n g es do not in d ica te the v e r y w ide d iffe r e n c e s that p r e v a ile d in s o m e in du stry
g ro u p s.
In the lu m b er grou p, fo r ex a m p le, the ra tio fo r the union plants w as
4 .5 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d w ith 1 .8 p e r ce n t in the nonunion p lan ts.
In ston e, cla y ,
and g la ss p ro d u cts the ra tio s w e r e 6 p e rce n t and 3 p e rce n t.
The sam e r e la tio n ­
sh ips h eld fo r v a ca tio n and h o lid a y lea v e hour r a tio s , ex ce p t in to b a c c o w h ere
both types o f esta b lish m en ts had the sam e ra tio (2 p e rce n t) f o r paid h olid a y
h ou rs.
(See table 4 6 .)
The r a tio s o f v a ca tio n and h olid a y h ou rs p ro v id e a g en era l guide to the
a v e ra g e length o f v a ca tion and n u m ber o f h o lid a y s .
H ow ev er, th ese v a ry fo r
in dividu al w o r k e r s .
The su rv e y data p e rm itte d tabulation o f the d istrib u tion o f
w o r k e r s by the length o f v a ca tio n a ctu ally paid fo r in 1959, and by the num ber
o f paid h o lid a y s a ctu a lly o b s e r v e d in that y e a r .
In a ll o f m an u factu rin g, o f the
p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g v a ca tion pay, 5. 1 p e rce n t r e c e iv e d le s s than 1 w e e k l s
pay, 2 6 .6 p e r c e n t r e c e iv e d 1 but le s s than 2 w eek s, 4 5 .5 p e rce n t r e c e iv e d
2 but le s s than 3 w e e k s, 2 0 .4 p e r c e n t r e c e iv e d 3 but le s s than 4 w e e k s, and
2 .4 p e r c e n t r e c e iv e d 4 w eek s o r m o r e .
At le a s t o n e -th ir d o f the w o r k e r s r e ­
c e iv e d 3 o r m o r e w eek s o f v a ca tio n pay in the prin tin g, p e tro le u m , ru b b er, and
p r im a r y m e ta ls in du stry g rou p .
T w o -fifth s o r m o r e o f the w o r k e rs r e c e iv e d
le s s than 2 w eek s o f v a ca tion pay in the te x tile , a p p arel, lu m b er,
fu rn itu re,
le a th e r, and m is c e lla n e o u s m an u facturing in du stry g ro u p s. (See table 4 7 .) A l ­
though the n u m ber o f paid h o lid a y s o b s e r v e d in 1959 ran ged fr o m V day to 11 o r
2
m o r e d a y s, n e a rly tw o -fifth s o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in plants w hich had 7 d ays.
N e a rly o n e -fift h w e r e in plants w hich had 6 d a y s.
(See table 4 8 .)







Table 40.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours, as a Percent of Total Hours Paid F or
by Region and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959

R eg ion and in d u stry group

T otal hours
paid fo r

U nited States 3 -------------------------------N orth ea st - ------------ - ----------South
— ------ ----N orth C en tra l
-------- - —
W est
............................

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

O rd n a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s -----------F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ----------T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s -------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s --------------------------L u m b er and w o o d p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ----------------P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s -------------------------P e tr o le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s t r i e s -----------------------R u b b er and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts _ — — ----L ea th er and le a th e r p r o d u c t s ------Stone, cla y , and g la ss
p ro d u c ts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m e ta l i n d u s t r i e s -----------F a b rica te d m e ta l p rod u cts
----M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t -----------In stru m en ts and rela ted
p ro d u c ts ---------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m anufacturing
in d u s trie s _ ---------------- -

P a id le a ve h ou rs

1

P lant hours
T otal

V acation s

3 .4
3. 5

H olidays

2.2

S ick le a v e

0. 2
.2
.2
.2

O th er1
2

0)
(4

94. 1
9 3 .8
9 5 .5
9 3 .6
94. 3

4. 5
6 .4
5 .7

2.8

3 .8
3. 2

2 .4
1 .4
2. 3
2. 1

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0

9 2 .2
94. 2
94. 5
9 6 .4

7 .8
5 .8
5. 5
3 .6

3 .8
3 .4
3. 3
2. 5

2 .7
2. 0
2. 0
1. 0

9 6 .4
97. 1
9 5 .4
9 3 .7

3 .6
2 .9
4 .6
6. 3

1 .9

1.8

1 .7
1. 0

2 .7
3 .9

1.8

0

2. 3

. i

(4 )
. 1

100.0

9 3 .7

6. 3

4. 0

2. 2

.

2

(4 )

100. 0

89. 3

1 0.7

5. 5

2.8

2. 2

.

100. 0
100. 0

9 3 .6
9 4 .8

6 .4
5. 2

4. 0
2 .9

2. 3
2. 2

. 1
(4 )

. 1
(4 )

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

9 4 .9
9 2 .5
94. 2
9 3 .4
93. 0

5. 1
7. 5
5 .8

1 .9

7. 0

3. 1
4. 8
3 .4
4. 0
4. 0

2.6

. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
.4

100. 0

93. 2

6.8

3.

6

2. 6

.5

.

1

2. 2

.

1

.

1

100.0
100.0

100.0

9 4 .8

5 .9

6.2

6.6

5. 2

2 .9

1 In clu des only lea ve fo r w h ich the e m p lo y e r m ad e paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r .
d istrib u te b e n e fits to w o r k e rs a r e excluded.
2 In clu des m ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e ss, voting, and p e rs o n a l le a ve .
3 In clu des in d u stries not shown sep a ra tely.
4 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

2.6
2. 3
2 .4

n

4

.4

(4 )

1. 1

0. 1

.4
.2
(4 )

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

(4 )

£)
o

2

o

(4 )

0)
(4
(4 )

E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds that

Table 41.

Distribution o f Production and Related W orkers by Paid Leave H ou rs1 as a P ercen t of Total Hours Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts with—
—

R egion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in a ll
e sta b ­
lishm ents

P a id le a ve h ou rs as a p e rce n t o f total h ou rs p aid fo r o f—
No paid
lea ve

U nder

1

p e rce n t

1
and
under

2

p e rce n t

U nited States 1 ____ _________________
2
N o r t h e a s t _______________________
S o u t h ____________________________
North f!«ntral ...
W e s t --------------------------------------------

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s _______
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts
, .
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ____________
Textile m ill products
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
textile products ....
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s _____________
P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts _
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s .
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
related industries
R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
plastics products
L ea th er and lea th er p r o d u c t * _____
Stone, c la y , and g la s s
products
P r im a r y m eta l i n d u s t r i e s ________
F a b r ic a te d m eta l p ro d u cts
M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l _____
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u i p m e n t ________
Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u c ts _
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
in d u s tries — _

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4 .2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

22. 8
1.6
. 1

5. 1
5. 1
3 .5
1. 1

11. 1

100.0

1 .3

100.0

1
2

1. 8
1 .3
4. 8

4 .2
4 .3

10.0
1.0

.6
1.2

2 .3

4 .4
3 .2
9 .7
1 .9

6.0

_

_

3 .0
5 .3
4. 1

_
5. 1

8.0

2

and
under
3
p e rce n t

4 .9
4 .9
7 .9
2 .5
7 .4

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

8 .3

6.0

1 5 .8
5 .0

11.6

_

.3

7
and
under

8

p e rce n t

11.2
11.0
10. 8
11.2
12.2

1 3.0
1 2 .4
9 .9
1 6.3
1 0 .7

1 8 .2
1 6.5
1 2 .4
2 3 .9
1 6 .6

10.6

24. 7
9 .2
14. 1
1 1 .9

5 .2
1 6 .9
30. 7
5 .2

1 7.9
1 4.6
1 3.3
2 .9

5 .5
8. 1
4 .9
1. 1

22. 8

8.8

2. 1
1.2

1 .5
_

6

8

p e rce n t

1 4 .4
15. 8
7 .2
1 8 .5

and
tinder
9
p e rce n t

8 .3
1 1 .9
3. 1
8 .5

6.0

9
and
under

10

' 10" '
and
under

11

p e rce n t p e rce n t

7. 1

6. 7
4 .9
7 .2
1 2.9

2 .4
3 .9
1. 7
1. 7
.9

11
p e rce n t
and
over

1 .9

2. 1
1 .9
1. 7

1.6

4 .4
1. 8
16. 1

2 5 .9

9 .0
8 .4
5 .6
1 5 .4

13. 1
1 9.3
1 6.2
3 .5

1 3 .4
13. 8
12 . 8
10. 1

7 .4
1 5.0
1 5 .9

1 2 .4
5 .6

5 .0
1 .3

3 .2

.5

1 0 .4
1 3.9
8. 1
3 .4

3 0 .6

2 6 .3

6.0

2.0

.2

1.6

2. 7

4 .0

10.2

1 9 .4

2 3 .9

1 5 .7

1 2 .4

-

.3

-

2.2

1.2

.4

8

2. 7

2 .4

7. 7

1 8.0

14.0

5 0 .3

100.0
100.0

3 .9
3 .7

.4
1. 8

3 .0

2. 7
5 .4

7 .4
7 .6

6.6
23. 8

6.0
20.6

1 9.0
1 6.6

1 7.5
10. 7

2 1 .3

6.8

1 1 .4
1. 1

.5
_

.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4 .7
-

2. 8

4 .5

9 .0
3. 8
6 .3
5 .7
3 .2

1 4 .7
9 .5
2 1 .4
1 3.3
1 0 .3

2 0 .5
1 7 .2

13. 1
12 . 8
1 9 .9

7 .5
9 .5

_
27. 8

.6
8. 1

.5
1. 7

.6

4. 7
.8
3 .4
2. 8

1 7.3

2.2

2 7 .2
2 8 .2

20.0
1 8.6

8 .3
1 7.9

1 0.9
9 .0

.9
1 .4
3 .0

.2
1. 8
1.0

10. 8

1 .3

1.0

17. 1

-

.9

-

1.0

100.0

.

100.0

2.0

-

1

6 .9
1 2 .9
9 .6

12.1

1.8
.2

2 .9
1. 1
.9

8.2
11.8

.6

8.6
12.0
6.8
6 .4

.

16.0

21.6

6.6

6. 8

7 .9
4. 1
_
_

6 .7
3 .5

.5

_
_
.9
1 .7

_
_
2. 1
.3

5 .7

2. 1

6 .5
4 ,5
_

1.6

.9
~

.5

2.0

3. 7

1 8.5

12.2

1 2.5

2 3 .6

9 .3

4. 7

1. 8

3 .5

6. 1

11. 1

1 8 .4

2 3 .3

10. 7

14. 5

6 .5

1 .7

In clu des on ly le a v e fo r w hich the em p loy er m ade paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r .
In clu des in d u s trie s not shown s ep a ra tely.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




5
and
under

5
and
under
7
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

_

.2

.

8

.3

.4

E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds that distrib u te b en efits to w o r k e rs a re excluded.

102

Table 42.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Paid Vacation H ou rs1 as a P ercent of Total Hours Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e rc e n t o f w o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts w ith—

R egion and in d u stry grou p

W o rk e rs
in a ll
No paid
estab>
lish m en ts vacations

P aid va ca tion hours as a p e rce n t o f total hou rs paid fo r o f—

2
Under

1

p e rce n t

U nited States 1 --------------------------------2
N orth ea st -----------------------------------South -------------------------------------------N orth C en tra l ---------------------------W est ____________________________

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -----------F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts -----------T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ------------------T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ---------------------A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts ---------------------------L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s
-------------------------P e tro le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s trie s
----------------------R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts -------------------------L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts -----Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts ---------------------------------------P r im a r y m eta l in d u s trie s ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u c ts ----------M a ch in ery , ex ce p t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent ------------Instrum ents and re la te d
p ro d u c ts ---------------------------------------M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
in d u s trie s --------------------------------------

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

1

6.6
9 .3
1 1.7
1. 7
3 .0

6. 1

5. 1
9 .4

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

3 4 .8
2 4 .6
4 .2

100.0

1 .7

.2

100.0

.3

100.0
100.0

3 .9
5 .0

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

5 .9

.2

2 .7
1 .3

100.0

In clu des on ly va ca tion h ou rs fo r

6 .7
5.

1 6 .7

6.6
12.0

.3
1 2.3
3 .2

1.2
8

4. 7

6. 1

6.6

19.2

and
under
3
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

5
and
under

6

p e rce n t

1 6.4
1 5.4
1 6.9
16.3
19.0

24. 1
2 1 .5
2 4 .2
2 6 .3
25. 1

23. 1
24. 8
1 3.2
29. 8
1 5 .4

10.0
10. 8

3 6 .9
1 4 .4
9 .7
25. 7

18. 1
2 1 .4
2 3 .6
3 3 .0

3 4 .0
2 2 .7
4 1 .0
6 .4

3 .4
8 .3
5 .3

10. 8

20.2

11.0

7. 1

11. 8
7 .3

1.0
.
-

8

1 0 .4
5 .0

2.6

2 8 .2
2 1 .4
1 5.4

1 4 .4
2 6 .2
2 3 .9

3 .9
1 0.9
3 6 .9

13. 1

1.0

6 .5

12.3

2 2 .5

3 1 .5

2 1 .5

1 4 .6

4 3 .6

1 .9

2. 1
4. 1
.8
2 .5

3 .8

.

8

4 .9
5 .3
2 .9
5 .0
7 .6
7 .4
7 .0
.4

.6

7
and
under

8

p e rce n t

8

and
under
9
p e rce n t

1.2

0. 1

1. 7
1. 1
.9

(3 )
.2

.2

9
and
under

10

10
and
under

11

p e rce n t p e rce n t

11

p ercen t
and
over

gi
(J )
0. 1
~

(3 )
(3 )
“

(3 )
r
(3 )
■
"

.2

"

-

.2

-

-

-

“
-

■
■
0. 3

1.2
-

-

‘

*

1 .4
.2

*
~

1. 8

1.0

-

-

-

-

25. 1

7 .7

-

-

-

-

-

•

0. 3
.2

-

.3

~
“

■

“

"

-

-

-

.4
2. 3
1 .9

'

1 1.5
29. 7

1 6 .4
2 6 .2

20. 7
16. 8

1 9.9
3 .7

1 4.2
.6

"

12.0

20.6

26. 1
1 7.3
27. 1
2 5 .3
2 9 .4

20.0

10.2

1 7.5
27. 5
3 1 .9
40. 1

1 8 .7
5 .0
1 6.3
1 0 .4

.7
2 3 .5
3. 1
3. 8
5 .3

.5
9. 1
.2
.4

.5
”

3 2 .3

16.

8

1 7.3

1.6

-

-

14. 1

4 .2

.2

5 .4

7 .5
2 3 .4
1 1 .4
7. 8

1. 1

6.6

23.

3. 7

8

.5

4. 1

2.2

6

and
under
7
p e rce n t

1 5 .7

11.2

5 .4

8.6
6.8

19.

8

3 0 .2

24.

8

w h ich the e m p lo y e r made paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r.

w o r k e r s a r e exclu d ed .
2 In clu des in d u s tries not show n sep a ra tely .
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.

NOTE: Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

1 5 .7
18. 1
2 6 .3
5 .6

1.0

•2.9

2

p e rce n t

1 0 .4
9 .0
1 5.9

3 .2

2.2

1.2
.2

100.0

and
under

1.2

’

■

E m p loy er con trib u tion s to funds w h ich d istrib u te va ca tio n b e n efits to

Table 43.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers by Paid Holiday H ou rs1 as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts w ith—

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in all
establishm ents

P a id holid a y hours as a p e rce n t o f tota l hou rs p a id f o r o f —

1

2

p e rce n t

No paid
h o lid a ys

Under

1

p e rce n t

and
under
3
p e rce n t

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

4
and
under
5
p e rce n t

16. 3
13.6
20. 5
1 6 .5
16.6

50. 0
4 8 .8
32. 76 1 .4
5 1 .9

1 6.2
23. 7
5 .5
1 5 .0
16. 1

1. 5
3. 3

0. 1
. 1
. 1

.5
.7

(3 )

2. 1
17. 0
15. 7
1 7.9

66. 0
20. 1

7 8 .8
42. 3

1 4.9
14. j

4. 2
3. 3

3 .9

1. 0

20. 3
2 4 .4
19. 7
1 6.6

3 3.2
22. 1
4 6 .8
73. 0

1 2 .4
2. 3

.5

10.8
6. 7

and
under

2

United States 1
2
N o rth e a s t___________ _____
_____ ____ _ _____ __
South
N orth C en tra l
W e s t ................................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

1 0 .9
7 .2
2 9 .2
3. 8
9 .4

O rd nance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s ________
Tobacco manufactures
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
___
_ T
_
A p p a re l and o th e r fin ish ed
tex tile p r o d u c t s __________________
L u m b er and w o o d p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s _____ ______
P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s ________________
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ________________
R u b b er and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ________________
L ea th er and le a th e r p r o d u c t s _____
S ton e, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts _________________________
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries
__ _
F a b r ic a te d m e tail p r o d u c t s _______
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n eq u ip m en t_________
In stru m en ts and re la te d
p rod u cts
______
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u stries __________ _ _ _

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

13. 1
5 .9
38. 1

10. 0
11. 2
19. 0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2 5 .5
4 1 .8
1 7 .8

8. 0

1.0

9 .4
3 .9
2 .7

100.0

5 .9

6.6

22. 3

49. 5

1 2.7

3. 1

100.0

_

7 .5

8.6

4 3 .8

3 4.6

5. 5

100.0
100.0

6.

1.6

10.8
1 5.7

7 4 .6
5 3 .2

6. 0
1 7 .9

.3
1. 3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1 1 .4
.7
5 .6
3 .9
1 .4

.6
2.6
1. 0
.6

2 6 .9
1 5 .0
1 6.9
1 5.6
7 .6

4 9 .9
4 7 .4
5 5 .7
5 7 .5
7 0 .9

5 .6
3 5.7
1 9 .0

.9

100.0

.7

2.2

12 . 1

100.0

8 .9

6. 5

1 6 .7

5
p e rce n t
and
over

_

3
8 .4

5. 1
3 .2
11. 5
2 .9
5. 3

_

3 .5
5. 3

1 In clu des on ly h olid a y lea ve fo r w hich the em p lo y e r m ade paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r .
re exclu d ed .
2 In clu des in d u stries not shown s ep a ra tely.
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

1.2

.6

.

1

.

1

1. 0

.5

.6
.2

(*)

20.6
1 7.2

1. 5
2. 3

(3)

6 5 .6

1 5.9

2.6

.

48. 1

1 4 .9

4 .9

9

E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds w h ich distrib u te h oliday benefits to w o r k -

NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sums o f individual items may not total 100.

103




Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Paid Sick Leave H ou rs1 as a Percent of Total Hours Paid F or,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts with—

R e g io n and in d u stry group

W ork ers
in a ll
e s ta b ­
lishm ents

P a id s ic k le a v e h ou rs as a p e rce n t o f tota l h ou rs p a id f o r o f —
No paid
s ic k le a v e
exp en d i­
tu res

1

U nder

and
under

1

p e rce n t

2

p e rce n t

U nited States 1 --- ---------------------------2
N orth ea st ---------------------------------South _ ------------------- ---------------N orth C en tra l __________________
W est __ _______________ ________

100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

7 7 .4
7 6 .9
7 7 .2
8 1 .8
6 3 .9

O rd nance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res ___________
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
____ ___
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s __________________
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s _______
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ________
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s . ----------------- —
P e t r o le u m refin in g and
r e la te d in d u s trie s ______________
R u b b er and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts _______________
L ea th er and le a th e r p rod u cts ____
S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s _________ _____________
P r im a r y m eta l in d u stries
____ _
F a b rica te d m e ta l p rod u cts _______
M a ch in e ry , ex c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p orta tion e q u ip m e n t ________
In strum ents and rela ted
p ro d u c ts __________________________
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
in d u s trie s ________________________

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

1
2
3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2

and
under
3
p e rce n t

6.2

2.2
2.8
.8

1 6 .8

4 .7
4. 5
6. 0
1 5.9

3 9 .6
60. 3
5 4 .2
9 2 .2

16. 1
2 5 .0
4 0 .8
7 .4

8 7 .0

89.6

1 3 .4
14. 1
1 5.0

10.8

3 .0

3
and
under
4
p e rce n t

0 .7
1. 1
.4

.6

4
p e rce n t
and
over

0. 1
.2
_
-

2 .7

.7

2 2 .5
1 1 .4
5 .0
.3

1 5 .2
1 .9
(3)

1 .5
_
-

6 .7
_
-

11.8

.8

9 .7
9 .1

.7
.5
4 .9

.3
.7

_
_
.3

-

•

-

_

8 9 .7
8 1 .9

12.6

100.0

7 4 .9

19.1

5 .3

.7

100.0

8.8

5 .7

2 6 .4

2 4 .6

100. 0
100.0

9 0 .6
88. 1

7 .7

10.8

1 .7
1. 1

-

-

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0

8 9 .3
9 2 .4
8 6 .5
8 5 .6
6 5 .5

5 .2
1 1 .5
10. 5
1 4 .8

2 .4

2.0

_
_

1.8

.2

. 1
_

10.0

.9

2 .5
9 .6

.6

100.0

5 6 .6

1 5 .5

2 6 .4

1 .4

.

100.0

7 8 .5

1 6 .2

4 .7

.6

8.6

In clu des on ly s ic k lea ve fo r w hich the e m p lo y e r m ad e paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r .
In clu des in d u stries not shown sepa ra tely.
L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.

NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal 100.

.2

3 4 .5

-

-

1

.
_
-

104




Table 44.

Table 45.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours as a Percent of Total Hours Paid F or by Establishment Size, Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P a id le a v e h ou rs
P lant hou rs
T otal

2

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

1

V acations

H olidays

E sta blish m en ts with—
Under 100
em p loy ees

100-499
em p loy ees

500
o r m ore
e m p lo y e e s

U nder 100
e m p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p lo y e e s

500
o r m ore
e m p lo y e e s

U nder 100
e m p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p lo y e e s

500
o r m ore
e m p lo y e e s

U nder 100
e m p lo y e e s

100-499
e m p loy ees

500
o r m o re
em p loy ees

U nited States 3 ____________________ _
2
1
N orth ea st
_ __
South
__ —
.
_
N orth C e n t r a l __
_ _ W est

9 5 .9
9 5 .7
9 7 .3
9 5 .3
9 6 .0

9 4 .7
9 4 .1
9 6 .1
9 4 .1
9 4 .7

9 2 .9
9 2 .4
94. 1
9 2 .8
9 2 .7

4. 1
4 .3
2 .7
4 .7
4 .0

5 .3
5 .9
3 .9
5 .9
5 .3

7. 1
7 .6
5 .9
7 .2
7. 3

2.2
2.2
1.6
2.8
2. 1

3. 1
3 .3
2 .5
3 .5
3 .0

4 .3
4 .4
3 .8
4 .4
4. 1

1 .7
1 .9
.9

2.0

1 .7

2.1

O rd nance and a c c e s s o r ie s
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts ______
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu res
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s _____________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p r o d u c t s --------------------------L u m b er and w o o d p ro d u c ts --- -----F u rn itu re and fix tu re s
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _____ __
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s trie s —____
P e t r o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s trie s .
R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts
L e a th e r and le a th e r p ro d u c ts -----S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts
. . . . .
P r im a r y m e ta l i n d u s t r i e s ________
F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s _______
M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ________
In strum ents and re la te d
p ro d u c ts
_
__ _. ._
M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s --------------------------------------

94. 1
9 5 .9
9 4 .9
9 6 .9

9 4 .7
9 4 .7
9 5 .7
9 6 .5

9 2 .0
9 2 .0
9 3 .9
9 6 .3

5 .9
4. 1
5. 1
3. 1

5 .3
5 .3
4 .3
3. 5

8.0
8.0
6. 1

3 .3
2 .3
2 .9
1 .7

2 .5
3 .2
2 .7
2 .5

3 .9
4 .6
3 .6

2 .5
1 .5

1.6

2 .5
1 .9
1 .5

1 .4

1.0

2 .7
2 .7
2. 3
.9

9 7 .4
9 8 .0
9 5 .7
9 4 .7

9 5 .9
9 6 .4
9 5 .6
9 4 .1

9 4 .4
9 5 .7
9 4 .6
9 3 .1

2.6
2.0

5 .6
4 .3
5 .4
6 .9

1. 1

3 .2
2 .7
3 .6
4 .4

.8
1.8
2. 2

1 .7

2 .4

2 .4
2 .9

2 .4
2 .3
2 .5
3 .5

1 .4

4. 3
5 .3

4. 1
3 .6
4 .4
5 .9

1 .9
2 .3

1.6
1.8
2. 2

9 4 .3

93. 3

9 3 .1

5 .7

6 .7

6 .9

3 .5

4. 1

4 .7

2. 1

2 .3

2. 1

8 9 .0

9 1 .8

88.8

11.0

8. 2

11.2

6.0

4 .4

5 .6

3. 1

2.2

2.8

9 6 .6
9 5 .3

94. 5
9 4 .9

9 2 .3
9 4 .2

3 .4
4 .7

5 .5
5. 1

7 .7
5 .8

1 .7

2.6

3. 1
2 .9

5. 1
3 .4

1.6
2.0

2 .3

2 .5
2 .4

9 6 .5
9 4 .6
9 5 .7
9 5 .2
9 5 .9

9 4 .8
9 3 .7
9 4 .1
9 3 .4
94. 1

9 3 .3
9 1 .9
9 3 .2
9 2 .6
9 2 .7

3 .5
5 .4
4 .3
4 .8
4. 1

5 .2
6 .3
5 .9

8. 1
6.8

6 .7

2.0

1 .9
1. 6

2.6

2. 3
2 .7
2 .7

7 .4
7. 3

4 .2
5 .4
4. 1
4 .6
4 .2

1 .4
2 .4

5 .9

3. 1
3 .8
3 .4
3 .9
3 .4

2.0

2 .9
2 .4
2 .7
2. 3

2 .4

2.6
2. 6

9 4 .8

9 3 .9

9 2 .6

5 .2

6. 1

7 .4

2.8

3. 3

3 .9

2. 1

2 .5

2. 7

9 5 .6

94. 5

93. 1

4 .4

5 .5

6 .9

2 .4

2 .7

4. 1

1 .9

2 .4

2 .7

1
2

3

6.6

3 .7

1.2

2.8

1.8

1.8

2 .4
1 .3
2 .3

1.2

2.2

2 .5
2 .4

2. 5
2 .7

1.8
2. 6
2 .4

In clu des on ly le a v e f o r w hich the em p lo y e r m ade paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r .
E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds that d istrib u te b e n e fits to w o rk e rs a re excluded.
In clu des v a ca tio n s , s ic k le a v e , h olid a y s, and m ilita ry , ju r y , w itn e s s, votin g, and p e rs o n a l le a v e .
In clu des in d u s trie s n ot shown sep a ra tely .




Table 46.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours as a Percent of Total Hours Paid F or by Collective Bargaining Agreement Coverage,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P a id le a ve hou rs 1
T o t a l13
2

R e g io n and in d u stry grou p

V a ca tio n s

H olida y s

E sta blish m en ts with—
M a jo rity
cov ered

N orth ea st
South
_
_ —
N orth C e n t r a l ______________ ___
W est
.............................
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ______
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu res . . .
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts
A p p a re l and other fin ish e d
te x tile p r o d u c t s _______ _______ __
L u m b e r and w o o d p rod u cts
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ___________
P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u cts
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries
P e tr o le u m re fin in g and
re la te d in d u s trie s
R u b b er and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u cts
L ea th er and le a th e r p ro d u c ts ____
S ton e, c la y , and g la s s
p rod u cts
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u stries
M a ch in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ____
T ra n s p o rta tio n equipm en t
In stru m en ts and re la te d
p i*o ducts
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s ------------------- ----------- -----

None o r
m in o rity
covered

M a jo rity
covered

None o r
m in o rity
cov ered

M a jo rity
cov ered

None o r
m in o rity
cov ered

M a jo rity
covered

9 3 .3
9 3 .4
9 3 .4
9 3 .2
9 3 .7

9 5 .8
9 4 .7
9 7 .2
95. 3
95. 3

6 .7
6 .6
6 .6
6 .8
6. 3

4 .2
5. 3
2 .8
4. 7
4 .7

3 .9
3 .8
4 .0
4. 1
3 .6

2 .4
2 .8
1 .9
2 .7
2 .4

2 .5
2 .6
2 .2
2 .5
2 .2

1 .5
2. 1
.8
1 .8
1.9

92. 1
9 3 .2
94. 3
9 5 .3

92. 3
9 6 .7
9 4 .9
9 7 .0

7 .9
6 .8
5 .7
4 .7

7 .7
3. 3
5. 1
3 .0

3 .9
4 .0
3 .4
2 .8

3 .6
2 .0
3. 1
2 .4

2 .7
2 .4
2 .0
1 .9

2 .7
1. 1
2 .0
.6

9 6 .1
9 5 .5
94. 0
9 3 .5

9 6 .8
9 8 .2
9 7 .2
9 4 .4

3 .9
4 .5
6 .0
6 .5

3 .2
1 .8
2 .8
5 .6

1 .9
2 .7
3 .5
4. 0

1 .8
1 .2
1 .7
3 .2

1 .9
1 .8
2 .5
2. 3

1.2
.6
1. 1
2. 1

None o r
m in o rity
c o v e re d

9 3 .0

9 4 .6

7 .0

5 .4

4 .5

3. 3

2. 3

1 .9

8 8 .7

9 3 .1

11. 3

6 .9

5 .8

3 .7

2 .9

1 .9

9 2 .6
94. 1

9 6 .1
9 5 .9

7 .4
5 .9

3 .9
4. 1

4 .7
3. 3

2. 1
2 .4

2 .5
2 .6

1 .7
1 .7

9 4 .0
9 2 .2
9 3 .7
9 2 .9
9 2 .8

9 7 .0
9 4 .9
9 5 .2
9 4 .6
9 3 .4

6 .0
7 .8
6 .3
7 .1
7 .2

3 .0
5. 1
4 .8
5 .4
6 .6

3 .7
5 .1
3 .8
4 .4
4 .2

1 .8
2 .9
2 .6
3 .0
3 .0

2 .2
2 .7
2 .5
2 .6
2 .6

1. 1
2. 1
2 .0
2 .0
2 .5

9 2 .9

9 3 .4

7. 1

6 .6

3 .7

3 .5

2 .8

2 .5

9 3 .7

9 5 .6

6 .3

4 .4

3 .5

2 .4

2 .6

1 .9

1 In clu des o n ly lea v e fo r w h ich the e m p lo y e r m ade paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r . E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds that distrib u te b e n e fits to w o r k e rs a re exclu d ed .
2 In clu des v a c a tio n s , s ic k le a v e , h olid a y s, and m ilita ry , ju ry , w itn e s s, votin g , and p e rs o n a l le a v e .
3 In clu des in d u s tries not show n s e p a ra te ly .







Table 47.

Distribution o f Production and Related Workers Receiving Vacation Pay 1 by Number of Weeks o f Vacation Pay,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs r e c e iv in g va ca tio n p a y o f —
A ll w o r k e rs
r e c e iv in g
va ca tio n
pay

R eg ion and industry group

U nited States 1
2
Northeast
South
N orth C entral
W est ___ .

_
__

Ordnance and accessories
Food and kindred products _ .. .
Tobacco manufactures
__
Textile m ill products
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
textile products
L u m b e r and w ood p r o d u c t s ______
Furniture and fixtures
P a p e r and a llie d p rod u cts _______
P rin tin g , p u blishing, and
a llie d ind u stries ------------- ---------P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d industries _ _ _ _ . . .
R u b b er and m is ce lla n e o u s
plastics products
-----L e a th e r and lea th er p r o d u c t s ____
S ton e, c la y , and g la ss
products
-------P rim a ry metal industries
Fabricated metal products
M a ch in e ry , ex cep t e l e c t r i c a l -----Transportation equipment
In stru m en ts and rela ted
products
M is ce lla n e o u s m anufacturing
industries

U nder
1
w eek

1
and
under
2
w eeks

2
and
under
3
w eeks

3
and
under
4
w eeks

4
w eeks
and
over

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 .1
5 .8
4 .3
4. 1
7 .8

2 6 .6
2 6 .5
3 8 .4
2 0 .4
2 6 .7

4 5 .5
4 3 .4
4 2 .2
4 8 .7
48. 3

2 0 .4
2 1 .7
1 3 .2
24. 1
1 5 .2

2 .4
2 .5
2. 0
2 .7
2 .0

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

5 .2
3 .7
1 6.8
5 .3

2 3 .8
2 4 .2
1 3 .5
49. 5

5 2 .2
4 4 .6
44. 1
4 0 .9

1 5.5
2 0 .6
2 5 .6
4. 1

3. 3
6 .9
(3)
.1

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

4. 1
8 .4
5 .7
3 .5

42. 3
4 1 .7
4 1 .8
2 2 .6

5 2 .3
3 8 .8
4 0 .8
4 2 .7

1 .2
1 0 .6
1 0.6
2 5 .2

(3)
.5
1 .1
6 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 .5

1 4 .2

4 0 .8

3 7 .9

1 .6

1 0 0 .0

.7

1 .4

30. 3

4 4 .7

2 2 .9

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 .7
7 .2

1 7 .4
4 3 .2

3 9 .9
4 1 .4

2 9 .6
7 .4

7 .5
.7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

4 .2
2 .8
4 .8
5 .6
4 .8

28. 3
2 2 .9
2 8 .7
1 8 .2
1 8 .2

4 9 .9
40. 3
4 8 .2
4 4 .9
5 3 .4

1 5 .7
33. 3
1 7 .5
2 8 .7
23. 3

1 .9
.7
.7
2 .6
.4

1 0 0 .0

8 .0

2 2 .9

4 9 .2

17. 3

2 .6

1 0 0 .0

7 .0

3 6 .8

4 4 .6

1 0 .0

1 .7

1 Includes on ly va ca tion s fo r w h ich the e m p lo y e r m ade paym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r . E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds
w h ich distrib u te va ca tion b en efits to w o r k e r s a re e x clu d ed . Data a re in te rm s o f the nu m b er o f w eeks eq uivalent to the p a y
r e c e iv e d . W here va ca tion ben efits a re a p e rce n ta g e o f the w o r k e r* s annual e a rn in g s, the p a y w as c o n v e rte d to equivalent w e e k s .
2 Inclu des in d u stries not shown s e p a ra te ly .
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 48.

R eg ion and in d u stry grou p

W ork ers
in a ll
e s ta b lish m en ts

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Number of Days o f Paid Holidays,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in esta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g —
No paid
h olidays

P a id h o lid a y s o f —
lk

IV 2 days

2 days

2V2 days

3 days

1. 1
.3
4 .4
.2
. 1

-

0 .7
.3
2. 3
. 1
.5

( 3)
0. 1
( 3)

1 .9
.6
4. 3
1. 8
1 .8

_

_

_

_

_

1. 5
.8
1 0.8

-

.4
6. 1
3 .5

-

1. 1
.9
1. 5
-

-

1 day

4 days

4 l/2 days

0. 1
. 1
.2
(3)

1 .6
.9
2. 5
1 .6
2. 3

0 .2
.4
.2
.2
-

_

_

_

-

-

.8
1 .8
2. 7

-

1 .6
2 .6
2 .4

-

7 .7
2 .7
6 .5

.5
2 .9
1. 3
.6

-

2. 2
8. 1
2 .9
-

.2
.2
-

1 .6
3 .8
3. 1
.9

.9
2 .9
.2

13.4
9 .8
5 .3
2 .0

.2

2. 3

1 .8

3 .2

.9

9 .3

“

.3

~

1 .2

“

2 .2

.5

“

1 .6

-

.3
2. 1

-

.6
8 .9

-

.2
. 3

“

2 .4
.2
1 .6
2. 5
. 5

“

4. 3
1. 3
2. 8
4 .6
1.6

-

1 .6

-

3 .0

U nited States 2 ______________________
N orth ea st ______________________
South
__________________________
N orth C en tra l ___________ _____
W est ____________________________

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ------------F ood and k in d red p ro d u c ts _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ------------------T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts _____________
A p p a re l and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u cts — ________________
L u m b er and w ood p r o d u c t s ----------F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u stries -------------------------P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u stries _ --------------------R u b ber and m is ce lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts _ __
L ea th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts -----S tone, c la y , and g la s s
p ro d u c ts
__ —
____
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries __ __ __
F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u c ts _ __ __
M a ch in ery , e x cep t e l e c t r i c a l ------T ra n s p orta tion equipm ent __ _ —
Instrum ents and rela ted

1 00 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

13. 1
5 .9
38. 1

-

100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0

25. 5
4 1 .8
17.8
1.0

.3
*

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

5 .9
“

■

■

-

100. 0
1 0 0 .0

6 .3
8 .4

“

“

-

.
-

.6

-

.2

-

-

-

.4

.

-

10.9
7 .2
2 9 .2
3. 8
9 .4

See footn otes at end o f tab le.




.

0

1 0 0

M is ce lla n e o u s m an ufacturing
-------------in d u s tries ----------- __ —

1 0 0

.

0

.7

1 0 0

.

0

0
0
0
0

<3)
0. 1
( 3)

_

1 1.4
. 7
5 .6
3 .9
1.4

100.
100.
100.
100.

8 .9

3V2

.9

day

-

1

-

.3
.3
. 1
"

-

-

-

.

“

~

-

3 .8
.7
.5
5. 2
1 .6

-

-

-

-

1

1. 5

3

.

3

days

-

.

-

1

.4

5 days

5 .2
3 .8
10. 0
3 .8
4 .8

9 .1

Table 48.

Distribution of Production and Related W orkers by Number of Days of Paid Holidays,
Region, and Manufacturing Industry Group, 1959— Continued
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e rs in e sta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g —
P a id h olid a ys o f—

R e g io n and in d u stry group
5l/z days

United States 2
- —
N orth ea st
South
N orth C e n t r a l ------ ---------------------W est
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ________
F o o d and k in d red p ro d u c ts _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s -------------- __
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts -------------------A p p a rel and oth er fin ish ed
te x tile p ro d u c ts ____________ -____
F u rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ------------------P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts ------------P rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and
a llie d in d u s t r i e s _________________
P e tr o le u m refin in g and
re la te d in d u s t r i e s -------------- ------R u b ber and m is c e lla n e o u s
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts ________________
L ea th er and le a th e r p r o d u c t s ------Stone, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c t s __ ________________________
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tries ------------F a b rica te d m eta l p ro d u c ts _______
M a ch in ery , e x c e p t e le c t r ic a l
T ra n sp orta tion equipm ent ------------Instrum ents and rela ted
p rod u cts _
---------------- _
M is ce lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
________________________
in d u stries

0 .7
1 .5

.2

.4
. 1

_

6 days

19. 0
18. 3
16.2
20. 3
23. 1

6V2 days

1 .5
1 .7
.5
1 .9
1 .7

_

7 days

7 V2

3 7 .8
3 3 .2
22. 3
5 3 .2
3 6.7

days

2.0
4 .3

.2

6.8

9 .8
1 5 .8

.8
_
-

1.2
1.0

3 7 .0
1 9.6

62. 8
1 8 .4
4 3 .2
9 .5

15. 6
2 2 .4
4. 0

5 .2
.7
4 .2
1 .4

1 2.4
2 .3
2 2 .9
5 8 .2

4 .6
2. 3
.5

.8
.3
3. 5

-

25. 1
27. 1
26. 3
20. 8

~

3 1 .6

2 .9

1 7.8

4 .9

.
-

1

5 .9

.6
.8

3 .7

20. 2

_
.3

8V2 days

9 days

9V2 days

1.2

2. 1
4. 7
( 3)
.9

0. 3
.7
-

3 .0
.1

.2
.2

2.6

.4
.2

.2

.8

_

_

3 .4
2. 0

.
-

. 1
.8

1

IOV2 days

11 days
and o v e r

3 .7

(J)
( 3)

0.8
1. 8

.4

( 3)

10 days

1.6
.2

1.6

_
.3
.2

1 4 .2
3 .8
.4

_

_

-

4. 3
_
“

.4
2 .7
.4

-

.4

10.2

.9
.9

1 .1

. 1
1. 3

4 .0

1 .7

1 .9

.3

8 .4

■

1 .9

8

1 .4

-

5 .9

-

77.

~

-

5 .4

1 .9

4 .9

.3

1 5.6
3 1 .3

1 .4
3 .7

68.2

.8

.4
1 .7

.9

2 .7

.5
“

-

26. 3

4 .9
11. 5

~

■

.3
.5
.3

2 9 .9
16. 7
19. 1

1.6

2. 2
1. 1

3. 0
3 .9

11.8

.7
1 .4

7 .0
1 3 .6

1.0
.8

1. 0
.9
3 .4

.5

.3

5. 2
2 .5

-

38. 1
7 4 .4
44. 6
5 4 .4
7 4 .6

.4

"

.4
( 3)
-

1

17. 0

6.2

36. 3

1. 1

1 5.7

.7

1.8

.4

6. 0

.8

2 5 .8

1.6

2 6 .5

1 .5

1 4 .0

.5

-

.

12.2

5. 1

-

1. 1
1. 1

2.6
. 1

5. 3
3 .4

4. 1

.8
.2

1 .7

1.2

3 .4

2.8

E m p lo y e r con trib u tion s to funds w h ich distrib u te holid a y b en efits to the w o rk e rs

sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

109




11. 1
1 3.5

.9

1.0

1 In clu des on ly h olid a y s fo r w hich the em p loy er m ade p aym ent d ir e c t to the w o r k e r.
a re exclu d ed .
2 In clu des in d u s tries not shown sep a ra tely.
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.
N O T E : B e ca u s e o f rounding,

8 days




C h ap ter VIII.

Survey M ethods and D e fin it io n s

S cope o f S u rvey and In du stry C la s s ific a tio n
T his study o f expen ditu res fo r s e le c te d su p p lem en ta ry rem u n era tion
p r a c t ic e s fo r p ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s c o v e r s a ll e sta b lish m en ts having one o r m o r e
pa id e m p lo y e e s and p r im a r ily en gaged in m a n u factu rin g, as d efin ed in the 1957
ed ition o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual p r e p a r e d b y the O ffice
o f S ta tistica l S ta ndards, U.S* B u rea u o f the B udget.
M anufacturing is defin ed
to include th ose esta b lish m e n ts en gaged in the m e ch a n ica l o r ch e m ica l tr a n s ­
fo r m a tio n o f in o rg a n ic o r O rganic su b stan ces into new p r o d u ct s , and u su a lly d e ­
s c r ib e d as p la n ts, f a c t o r ie s , o r m i lls , w h ich c h a r a c t e r is t ic a lly use p o w e r d riv en
m a ch in es and m a te r ia ls handling equ ipm ent. E sta b lish m en ts engaged in a s s e m ­
blin g com p on en t p a rts o f m a n u fa ctu red p rod u cts are a lso c o n s id e r e d m anufacturing
if the new p ro d u ct is n eith er a stru ctu re n or oth er fix e d im p ro v e m e n t. Although
the d efin ition in clu des, in m anufacturing, ce n tra l o ffic e s o f m anufacturing e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts and a u x ilia ry units o p e r a te d p r im a r ily fo r the u se o f the m anufacturing
esta b lish m e n ts o f the c o n c e r n ra th er than fo r pu b lic u s e , su ch as la b o r a t o r ie s ,
w a r e h o u s e s , and r e p a ir sh o p s, th ose o ffic e s o r units w e re in clu d ed in this su rv e y
o n ly if they e m p lo y e d p ro d u ctio n and re la te d w o r k e r s .

E x clu d ed fr o m the SIC M anual d efin ition o f m anufacturing are p r o c e s s in g
on fa r m s i f the raw m a te r ia ls are grow n on the fa rm and i f the m anufacturing
is on a s m a ll s c a le w ithout the e x te n siv e u se o f p a id la b o r ; the d r e s s in g and
b e n e ficia tin g o f o r e s , and the b re a k in g , w ashing, and gradin g o f c o a l; and fa b r i ­
catin g o p e ra tio n s p e r fo r m e d at the site o f co n stru ctio n b y c o n t r a c t o r s .
A ls o
e x clu d e d a re a s s e m b lin g , g ra d in g , and p re p a rin g fru its and v eg e ta b le s fo r m a rk et;
sh ellin g and ro a stin g n uts; and e sta b lish m en ts p r im a r ily en gaged in s e llin g , to
the g e n e ra l p u b lic , p ro d u cts p r o d u ce d on the sa m e p r e m is e s fr o m w hich they are
s o ld , su ch as b a k e r ie s , can dy s t o r e s , ic e c r e a m p a r l o r s , shade sh op s, and cu sto m
t a ilo r s .
M anufacturing a ctiv itie s c a r r ie d on b y g overn m en t a g e n c ie s , su ch as
navy y a r d s , a re e x clu d e d , but g o v e rn m e n t-o w n e d p r iv a te ly o p e ra te d fa c ilitie s
are in clu d ed.
The c la s s ific a t io n o f the in dividual in du stry g rou p s a lso fo llo w s the 1957
SIC M anual.
The ta b les b y in d u stry g e n e ra lly show sep a ra te data f o r 19 o f the
21 m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p s.
The in du stry c la s s ific a t io n sy stem u sed fo r this study d iffe r s fr o m that
u sed fo r the study d e s c r ib e d in the r e p o rt, C om p osition o f P a y r o ll H ours in M anu­
fa ctu rin g , 1958, BLS B ull. 1282, in that the c la s s ific a t io n in the la tter study was
b a se d on the 1945 edition o f the SIC M anual.
The p r in c ip a l changes betw een the
1945 and 1957 edition s o f the SIC M anual w e re the tr a n s fe r fr o m trad e to m an u ­
fa ctu rin g o f m ilk p a ste u riz a tio n pla n ts; r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te esta b lish m en ts; and
ap p a rel, knitting, and lea th er jo b b e r s o r c o n v e r te r s .
W ithin the m anufacturing
d iv is io n th ere a lso w e re ch an ges such as the tr a n s fe r o f cok e oven s fr o m old
m a jo r grou p 29, p ro d u cts o f p e tro le u m and c o a l, to m a jo r group 33, p r im a r y
m e ta l in d u strie s; and o f m is c e lla n e o u s p la s t ic s p ro d u cts fr o m m a jo r group 39,
m is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g in d u str ie s, to new m a jo r group 30, ru bber and
m is c e lla n e o u s p la s t ic s p ro d u cts.
S u rvey c o v e r a g e extended to the 50 States and the D is tr ic t o f C olum bia.
Data re la te to the ca len d a r y e a r 1959, and w e re lim ite d to p ro d u ctio n and r e ­
lated w o r k e r s on ly.




I ll

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C o lle c tio n o f Data
Data w e re c o lle c t e d p r im a r ily b y m a il q u estio n n a ire .
A co p y o f the
q u estion n a ire is con ta in ed in the appendix. B u rea u re p re s e n ta tiv e s c o lle c t e d the
data, b y p e r s o n a l v is it , fr o m la r g e m ultiunit e m p lo y e r s and fr o m a sam p le o f
the n on respon d en ts to two m a il r e q u e s ts .
Sam pling P r o c e d u r e
The su rv e y w as con d u cted on the b a s is o f a highly s tr a tifie d p ro b a b ility
sa m p le .
D ata w e re ob ta in ed fr o m e sta b lish m e n ts , s e le c te d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
in d u stry , lo c a tio n , and esta b lish m en t s iz e .
The sam p le d esig n w as such as to
p e r m it p re se n ta tio n o f data f o r m a jo r in d u stry g rou ps (2 -d ig it SIC c o d e s ) on a
n ation al le v e l, and fo r fou r b r o a d re g io n s on the a ll-m a n u fa ctu rin g le v e l.
In a ll c a s e s , the lis t s o f esta b lish m en ts fr o m w h ich the sam p le w as s e ­
le c t e d w e r e th ose m ain tain ed b y the State a g e n cie s a d m in isterin g the u n em p loy ­
m ent co m p e n sa tio n la w s. T h e se lis ts show the em p loy m en t, in du stry c l a s s i f i c a ­
tion , and lo c a tio n o f a ll m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts c o v e r e d b y th ose law s in
e a ch State.
Since a n u m ber o f States do not include under su ch law s e s ta b lis h ­
m en ts w ith fe w e r than fo u r e m p lo y e e s , the sam p le did not in clude su ch units.
(See
M ethod o f E stim a tio n f o r trea tm en t o f the em p loy m en t in su ch e s ta b lis h m e n ts .)
W ithin e a ch in d u s tr y -r e g io n a l g rou p in g, the sam p le w as so s e le c te d as
to y ie ld the m o s t a ccu ra te e stim a te s p o s s ib le w ith the r e s o u r c e s a v a ila b le . T his
w as done b y including in the sa m p le a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e than o f sm a ll
esta b lish m e n ts— in g e n e r a l, an e s ta b lis h m e n ts ch an ce o f in clu sio n w as rou g h ly
p r o p o rtio n a te to its e m p loy m en t s iz e .
The in itia l s o lic it a t io n s , both b y m a il and p e r s o n a l v is it s , in clu d ed som e
7 ,4 0 0 e sta b lish m e n ts . A dd ition al p e r s o n a l v is its w e re m ade to so m e 600 e s ta b ­
lish m en ts out o f about 2 ,9 0 0 n on respon d en ts to the two m a il r e q u e s ts .
In a ll,
u sa b le r e p lie s w e re ob ta in ed fr o m about 4 ,4 0 0 esta b lish m en ts em p loy in g som e
3 .5 m illio n p e r s o n s .
M eth od o f E stim a tio n
Data fo r e a ch sa m p le e sta b lish m en t w e re w eigh ted in a cco rd a n ce w ith the
p r o b a b ility o f s e le c t io n o f that e sta b lish m en t. F o r in sta n ce, w h ere 1 e s ta b lis h ­
m en t out o f 10 w as s e le c t e d in a r e g io n -s iz e -in d u s t r y c l a s s , it w as c o n s id e r e d
as re p re se n tin g it s e lf as w e ll as 9 oth er e sta b lish m e n ts , i . e . , it w as g iv en a
w eigh t o f 10. T h u s, if the e sta b lish m en t had 2, 000 h ours o f v a ca tio n le a v e , and
100, 000 hou rs o f p a id h ou rs o f a ll c l a s s e s , it w ould con trib u te 20, 000 v a ca tion
h ou rs and 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 total h ou rs to the fin al e stim a te .

A ll e stim a te d totals d e r iv e d fr o m su ch w eighting p r o c e d u r e s w e re fu rth er
a dju sted in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the le v e l o f g r o s s m a n -h o u rs fo r 1959, as r e p o r te d
in the B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics m on th ly em p loy m en t s e r i e s . F o r in sta n ce, if
an in d u s tr y -r e g io n c la s s had an e stim a te d g r o s s m a n -h o u rs o f 900, 000 as d e r iv e d
fr o m the w eighting p r o c e s s , and the co rre s p o n d in g m a n -h o u rs as r e p o r te d in
the e m p loy m en t s e r ie s w as 990, 000, data fo r that in d u s tr y -r e g io n w as m u lti­
p lie d b y 1 .1 .
Data fo r esta b lish m e n ts w ith 1 to 3 e m p lo y e e s , w h ich w e re not in clu d ed
in the sa m p le , w e re im pu ted to the esta b lish m en ts w ith 4 to 10 e m p lo y e e s in
the sa m e in d u s tr y -r e g io n c l a s s .
The fo r m e r a ccou n ted fo r l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t
o f m an u factu rin g em p lo y m e n t.




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No a ssu m p tion has b een m ade that the n on respon d en ts w e re s im ila r to
the resp on den ts in th eir expen ditu res fo r the s e le c te d item s studied.
In o r d e r
to m in im iz e the b ia s o f n o n re sp o n s e , the sam p le retu rn s obtained by p e rs o n a l
v is its to the n on respon d en ts in the m a il qu ery w e re w eigh ted to r e p re s e n t all
oth er n on respon d en ts in the sa m e in d u s t r y -r e g io n a l-s iz e c la s s e s .
R ep ortin g P r o b le m s
The su rv e y attem pted to c o lle c t sep a ra te data by estab lish m en t, p r a c t ic e ,
and c la s s o f e m p lo y e e (p rod u ction w o r k e r).
H ow ev er, as a ll com p a n ies do not
keep r e c o r d s in such a m an n er as to be able to fu rn ish b ook fig u re s in this d e ­
ta il, som e a p p roxim a tion s o f b o o k fig u re s had to be a cce p te d .
Tw o types of
e stim a te s w e r e u sed h e r e .
F ir s t , w h ere r e c o r d s w e r e kept only fo r a b r o a d e r
group o f e m p lo y e e s than p ro d u ctio n and re la te d w o r k e r s , in the sam p le e s ta b lis h ­
m en t, the p r o rata sh a re fo r the e m p lo y e e s in clu d ed in the su rv ey w as estim a ted
(b a sed on em p loy m en t, m a n -h o u r s , o r p a y r o ll, w h ich e v e r w as m o st a p p ro p ria te ).
S econ d , e stim a te s w e r e m ade in c e rta in c a s e s w h ere r e c o r d s w e re not kept o r
su m m a riz e d fo r s p e c ific p r a c t ic e s . In these c a s e s , e stim a te s w e re m ade fr o m
c o lla t e r a l data.
F o r ex a m p le , the expen ditu res fo r h olid ay pay m ight be e s t i­
m ated b y m u ltip lyin g the n u m ber o f h ou rs paid fo r h olid ay lea ve by a v era g e
h ou rly e a rn in g s. It should b e noted that any e r r o r in the u se, w h ere n e c e s s a r y ,
o f estim atin g p r o c e d u r e s w ould have to be in the sam e d ir e c tio n in each ca se
(o v e rsta te m e n t o r u n dersta tem en t o f actu al v a lu e s) to have a cu m u lative e ffe c t
on the a c c u r a c y o f the r e s u lts . A n a ly sis o f the data fr o m two s im ila r su rv ey s
p r o v id e d e v id en ce con v in cin g enough to su p port a cce p ta n ce o f the assu m p tion of
m in im u m r is k in such e stim a te s . In BLS B u ll. 1186 (page 46), the B ureau stated,
’ ’V irtu a lly no sig n ifica n t d iffe r e n c e w as r e fle c te d by the a v e ra g e s fo r actual f i g ­
u re s and fo r a ll rep o rtin g esta b lish m en ts com b in ed ; that is , the in clu sion of e s ­
tim ated fig u r e s had only a n e g lig ib le e ffe c t on o v e r a ll data. " BLS B ull. 1283
contains the statem ent (page 25), that ’ ’the d iffe r e n c e in le v e l o f paid leave b e ­
tw een esta b lish m en ts supplying a ctu al and th ose p rov id in g estim a ted fig u re s is
g e n e ra lly sm a ll on a re g io n a l b a s is , and w ithin m o s t in du stry d iv is io n s . "
P ro d u ctio n W o rk e rs
The defin ition o f ’ ’p ro d u ctio n and rela ted w o r k e r s ” as u sed in this re p o rt
is b a s e d on the standard d efin ition adopted by the O ffice o f S ta tistica l Standards,
U. S. B u reau o f the B udget, and is id e n tica l with that in the B u re a u ’ s m onthly
em p loy m en t, h o u r s, and earn in gs s e r ie s .
The te rm in clu d es w ork in g fo re m e n
and a ll n o n s u p e rv is o r y w o r k e r s (including leadm en and tr a in e e s ) engaged in fa b r i­
catin g, p r o c e s s in g , a s s e m b lin g , in sp ectin g , r e c e iv in g , sto rin g , handling, p a c k ­
ing, w a reh ou sin g , shipping, tru ck in g, hauling, m ain ten an ce, r e p a ir , ja n ito ria l,
w atchm an s e r v ic e s , p ro d u ct d ev elop m en t, a u x ilia ry p ro d u ctio n fo r p la n t’ s own
u se (e. g. , p ow erp la n t), r e c o r d k e e p in g , and oth er s e r v ic e s c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d
w ith the ab ove p ro d u ctio n o p e ra tio n s. The te rm ex clu d es e m p lo y e e s engaged in
the fo llo w in g a c t iv it ie s :
E x e cu tiv e , s u p e r v is o r y (above the w ork in g fo re m a n
le v e l), p u rch a sin g , fin a n ce , a ccou n tin g , le g a l, p e rs o n n e l, c a fe te r ia , m e d ic a l,
p r o fe s s io n a l, te ch n ica l,
s a le s ,
s a le s -d e liv e r y (e. g. , rou tem en ), a d v e rtisin g ,
c r e d it, c o lle c t io n , and in in sta lla tion and s e r v ic in g of own p r o d u cts , routine o ffic e
fu n ction s, and f o r c e -a c c o u n t c o n stru ctio n e m p lo y e e s on the p a y r o ll who a re en ­
gaged in co n str u c tio n c f m a jo r additions o r a ltera tion s to the plant and who a re
u tiliz e d as a sep a ra te w o rk f o r c e .
Standard M etro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a s
E sta b lish m en ts w e r e c la s s ifie d as bein g lo ca te d in o r ou tside o f Standard
M e trop olita n S ta tistica l A r e a s on the b a s is o f the Standard M etrop olita n S ta tistica l
A r e a s m anual o f the O ffice o f S ta tistica l Standards, U. S. B u reau o f the Budget.
625617 0 -6 2 -9




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In v e r y g e n e ra l t e r m s , a Standard M etrop olita n S ta tistica l A r e a is an in teg ra ted
e c o n o m ic and s o c ia l unit with a r e c o g n iz e d la r g e population n u cleu s. E ach a re a
m u st contain at le a st 1 city o f at le a s t 5 0 ,0 0 0 inhabitants and at le a s t 75 p e r c e n t
o f the la b o r f o r c e o f the a r e a m u st be in the n o n a g ricu ltu ra l la b o r f o r c e .
The
a r e a w ill in clu d e the county o f such a ce n tra l city and ad jacen t cou n ties that a re
found to b e m e tro p o lita n in c h a r a c te r and e c o n o m ica lly and s o c ia lly in tegra ted
with the county o f the ce n tra l city.
B ro a d E c o n o m ic R eg ion s
The r e g io n s u se d in this study a r e : N orth ea st— C on n ecticu t, M aine,
M a ss a ch u se tts, New H a m p sh ire, New J e r s e y , New Y o rk , P en n sy lva n ia , Rhode
Island, and V erm on t; South— A la b a m a, A rk a n sa s, D ela w a re, D is tr ic t o f C olu m bia,
F lo r id a , G e o r g ia , K entucky, L ou isia n a , M arylan d , M is s is s ip p i, N orth C a rolin a ,
O klahom a, South C a rolin a , T e n n e s s e e , T e x a s, V irg in ia , and W est V irg in ia ; N orth
C en tra l— Illin o is , Indiana, Iowa, K a n sas, M ich igan , M in nesota, M is s o u r i, N ebrask a,
N orth D akota, O hio, South D akota, and W iscon sin ; and W est— A la sk a , A riz o n a ,
C a lifo rn ia , C o lo r a d o , H aw aii, Idaho, M ontana, N evada, New M e x ic o , O reg on , Utah,
W ashington, and W yom ing.

G r o s s P a y r o ll
G r o s s p a y r o ll c o v e r s the total am ount paid to p ro d u ctio n and rela ted
w o r k e r s during 1959.
It in clu d e s pay fo r o v e r tim e , standby tim e , h o lid a y s ,
v a ca tio n s , s ic k le a v e , and oth er le a v e paid by the esta b lish m en t d ir e c tly to the
w ork er.
A ls o in clu d ed a re b o n u ses not paid re g u la rly each pay p e r io d (e. g. ,
C h ristm a s b o n u se s ) and pay not ea rn ed during the y e a r (e. g. , r e tr o a c tiv e pay and
d is m is s a l pay). A ll paym en ts a re p r io r to such d ed u ction s as e m p lo y e e s ' s o c ia l
s e c u r ity co n trib u tio n s, w ithholding ta x es, group in su ra n ce , union d u es, and savin gs
b on d s. It fo llo w s the defin ition o f g r o s s pay that is u sed fo r the F e d e r a l in co m e
tax w ithholding fo r m .
S tr a ig h t-T im e P a y r o ll
S tra ig h t-tim e p a y r o ll is the g r o s s p a y r o ll le s s p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e
and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, paid h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts.
H ours P a id F o r
H ours p a id fo r in clu d e s the total num ber o f m a n -h o u rs fo r w hich pay w as
given in 1959. (T o ta l m a n -h o u r s a re the m a n -h o u rs that a re re la te d to the g r o s s
p a y .) T hey in clu d e plant m a n -h o u r s (i. e. , m a n -h o u rs spent at the esta b lish m en t
during re g u la r w ork d a y s as w e ll as during h olid a y and v a ca tion p e r io d s that w e re
not taken), m a n -h o u rs paid fo r standby o r rep ortin g tim e , and the m a n -h o u rs
equ ivalen t to pay fo r tim e spent away fr o m the plant during paid h o lid a y s , paid
v a ca tio n s , e tc.

P lan t H ours
P lant h ou rs a re the h o u rs p aid fo r le s s the h ou rs o f paid lea ve (i. e. , v a ­
ca tio n s; s ic k le a v e ; h o lid a y s ; and m ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e ss, v otin g , and p e r s o n a l
le a v e ). They in clu d e a ll h o u rs spent at the w ork p la c e , including such n on w ork ­
tim e as paid r e s t p e r io d s , paid lunch p e r io d s , and standby o r rep ortin g tim e.




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P a id L eave
P a id lea ve expen ditu res in clu d e only paym ents m ade by the com pan y d i­
r e c t ly to the w o r k e r ; e m p lo y e r paym ents to union o r oth er v a ca tion funds w e re
tre a te d as p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.
S im ila rly , com pany p aym en ts to in su ra n ce
c a r r ie r s o r s p e c ia l funds, w h ich pay health and s ick n e s s b e n e fits to w o r k e r s ,
w e r e c la s s ifie d as p riv a te w e lfa r e plans rath er than paid s ic k lea v e. In the few
States w h ere te m p o r a r y d isa b ility in su ra n ce is re q u ire d by law , com pan y paym ents
m ade d ir e c t ly to w o r k e r s under s e lf-in s u r a n c e p r o v is io n s o f the law w e r e c o n ­
s id e r e d le g a lly re q u ire d paym en ts rath er than s ick lea ve pay. The h ou rs o f paid
le a v e in clu d e m a n -h o u rs o r m a n -h o u r equivalents o f the pay given to the w o rk e r
d ir e c t ly b y the com pan y fo r v a c a tio n s , h o lid a y s , s ic k le a v e , and m ilita r y , ju r y ,
w itn e ss, votin g, o r p e r s o n a l le a v e .
M an-hour equ ivalen ts w e re d eterm in ed by
dividin g the am ount o f the paym en t fo r the item by a v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs.

P r e m iu m P a y
P r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e in clu d es only the pay above the reg u la r
str a ig h t-tim e ra te s.
T hus, if o v e rtim e w as com p en sa ted at the rate o f tim e
and o n e -h a lf, only the h a lf tim e w as re p o rte d .
P re m iu m pay fo r w ork on a
paid h olid a y e x clu d e s the re g u la r stra ig h t-tim e pay fo r the w ork p e r fo r m e d and
the h olid a y pay the w o r k e r w ou ld have r e c e iv e d if he had not w ork ed . Only the
e x tra pay w as r e p o rte d .
S h ift-d iffe re n tia l paym en ts in clu d e only the ex tra pay
ab ove the re g u la r h o u rly ra tes fo r the day shift. They c o v e r not only d iffe re n tia ls
paid in the fo r m o f h igh er h o u rly r a te s , but s p e c ia l p aym en ts to la te -s h ift w o r k ­
e r s fo r m e a l p e r io d s and fo r any oth er h ou rs not w o rk e d by them but paid fo r
(e. g. , if la t e -s h ift w o r k e r s r e c e iv e 8 h o u r s ’ pay fo r 7 V2 h o u r s ’ w o rk , co m p a re d
with 8 h o u r s ’ w o rk fo r the day sh ift, total ex p en d itu res fo r the h alf h o u r ’ s pay
w e r e re p o r te d as sh ift d iffe r e n tia l).
E xpen ditu re R a tios (R a tes) fo r A ll E sta b lish m en ts v e r s u s R atios (R ates)
fo r E sta b lish m en ts w ith E x pen ditu res fo r the P r a c t ic e
E xpen ditu re ra tio s fo r ’ ’a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts ” re p re s e n t the expen ditu res
fo r the su pplem en t d ivid ed by the p a y r o ll fo r a ll esta b lish m en ts— both th ose with
and w ithout ex p en d itu res—w h e re a s the ra tio s fo r "e sta b lish m e n ts with expen ditu res
fo r the p r a c t i c e ” re la te the sam e expen ditu res to the p a y r o ll of only th ose who
re p o r te d actu al expen ditu res fo r the supplem ent.
The fo r m e r m e a su re can be
re la te d to p u b lish ed data fo r en tire in d u stries o r r e g io n s , such as a v era g e h ou rly
ea rn in gs shown in the BLS m onthly s e r ie s .
The la tter m e a s u re is u sefu l fo r
d eterm in in g what is spent on the a v e ra g e by fir m s that a ctu a lly have the p r a c t ic e .
The expen ditu re ra tes (cen ts p e r h ou r paid fo r , and c e n t s -p e r -p la n t m an -h ou r)
r e p r e s e n t the sam e ex p en d itu res d ivid ed by the co rre s p o n d in g m a n -h o u rs .
P r a c t ic e s C o v e re d
The data re la te only to the s e le c te d p r a c t ic e s ite m iz e d in the ta b les.
G e n e ra lly , th ose om itted eith er w e r e not co m m o n ly a p p lica b le to p ro d u ctio n w o r k ­
e r s in m an u factu rin g o r w e r e p r a c t ic e d la r g e ly on an in fo rm a l b a s is w hich p r e ­
clu ded v a lid m e a su re m e n t. Although som e o f the om itted p r a c t ic e s m ay o c c a s io n
im porta n t expen ditu res in p a r tic u la r p lan ts, the s e le c te d expen ditu res fo r w hich
data a re p r e s e n te d con stitu te the m a jo r elem en ts o f su p p lem en tary e m p lo y e e r e ­
m u n eration in the b r o a d in du stry g rou p s shown in the ta b le s.
A m ong the e x ­
clu ded p r a c t ic e s w e r e in -p la n t n on w ork tim e paid fo r (r e s t p e r io d s , etc. ), stock
bonus p la n s, p ro fit-sh a rin g plans, and som e oth er ir r e g u la r p aym en ts.







A p p e n d ix
Budget Bureau No. 4 4 -R U 2 7
Approval expires December 31, 1960

BLS 2669
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

Your report will be
Held in confidence

EXPENDITURES FOR SELECTED SUPPLEMENTARY EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION PRACTICES
IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, 1959
I.

ESTABLISHMENT IDENTIFICATION:

Location of establishment for
which information is desired if
different from mailing address.
Many employers in the United States are financing plans for their em ployees' health, welfare, security,
and leisure, as well as for benefits provided under legally required plans. These employer expenditures have
become important additions to wages and salaries and, in many ca se s, represent substantial elements o f cost to
the employer and income to the employee. Under an authorization by the Congress, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
is making its first comprehensive survey of the extent and amount of these expenditures. The results o f these
surveys will be widely used for general economic analysis. Individual employers will find them equally useful
for comparing their own level of expenditures with those prevailing in their industry. The statistical summaries
will be published in a form that will not d isclose any information relating to an individual company and no data
will be published by company name.

II.

MAJOR PRODUCT:
What product or group of products, in terms of value, constituted the greatest proportion of the establishment's
production? _______ __________ __ _____________________________________________________________________________________
(An “ establishment” is generally defined as a single physical location where business is conducted or where serv­
ic e s or industrial operations are performed; for example, a factory, mill, store, mine, or farm. Where a single physical
location comprises two or more units which maintain separate payroll and inventory records and which are engaged in
distinct or separate industrial activities, each such unit shall be treated as a separate establishment. An establish­
ment is not necessarily identical with the business concern or firm, which may consist o f one or more establishments.
It is also to be distinguished from organizational subunits, departments, or divisions within an establishm ent.)

HI. AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT:
Enter the average number o f employees (full-time and part-time) during 1959*
(Derive the average as follow s: For each month o f 1959, obtain the total number o f persons who worked or received
pay for the pay period ending nearest the 15th o f the month. Sum the totals for the 12 months. Divide the sum by 12.)
A. All employees _____________________________ B. Production and related workers only ______________________________

IV. GROSS PAYROLL:
Enter all wages and salaries, prior to all payroll deductions, in 1959.
(You may use the definition o f gross pay that is used for the Withholding Tax form.)
A. All employees $ ___________________________B. Production and related workers only $
Subsequent items refer only to PRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKERS.

If your establishment did not employ any o f these workers in 1959, do not answer any o f the following questions. Just
sign this form on the bottom of page 4 and return it in the enclosed self-addressed envelope which requires no postage.

V.

TOTAL MAN-HOURS:
Enter the total number o f man-hours for which production and related workers received pay in 1959.




FOR OFFICE USE ONLY
Schedule
number

Reg.

State

City
size

SIC
code

117

Est.
size

Weight

Special
charac.

118

Data should be reported, in the items which follow, only for PRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKERS in the
establishment identified in Item I on the first page. If company records are not so maintained, please prorate
the combined figures on the company books. Proration may be made on the basis of employment, man-hours,
payroll, or other appropriate means. If a reasonable method of prorating a combined figure cannot be found, enter
the combined figure and do the following:
For a figure relating to more than one establishment, indicate in the “ Remarks” section the establishments
that are included.
For a figure that covers more than production workers, please indicate in the “ Remarks” section what other
categories of workers are included.
For a figure combining data for several lines, bracket the lines included in the combined figure or explain in
the “ Remarks” section which lines are included.
IF NO MAN-HOURS OR EXPENDITURES WERE INVOLVED DURING 1959 FOR A GIVEN ITEM, ENTER
“ None” IN THE APPROPRIATE SPACE. PLEASE DO NOT LEAVE ANY LINES BLANK.

VI. PAID LEAVE:
Report payments made directly to the worker by the establishment, for the following leave
items and the man-hours equivalent to these payments. If a worker received both pay in lieu
o f vacation or holiday leave and pay for work, report here only the payments in lieu o f time
o ff and the man-hours o f leave paid for. (If a worker did not receive full pay for an excused
absence, report only the man-hours equivalent to the pay received. To determine man-hours
equivalent, divide the worker’ s total pay for the excused absence by his straight-time hourly
rate.)
A. Number of man-hours paid for in 1959:
1. Paid vacations

--------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------

2. Paid sick leave --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Paid holidays -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Paid military, jury, witness, or voting leave -----------------------------------------------------5. Paid personal leave (specify) ____________________________________________________

B. Expenditures during 1959:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$

2. Paid sick leave ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Paid vacations

$

3. Paid holidays ------------------------4.

Paid military, jury, witness, or voting leave — --------—---------------------------------

$
$

5. Paid personal leave (specify) ________________________________________________ _

--------------------------------------------------------

$

VII. PREMIUM PAY :
Report total expenditures for premium pay only. For overtime and weekend work, it is the
pay above the regular straight-time rates. For shift differential, it is the premium above the
regular rates for the day shift. For holiday work report only the premium pay for the work on
a paid holiday; exclude the regular straight-time pay for the work performed and the holiday
pay the em ployee would have received i f he had not worked.
A. Premium pay for daily overtime, weekly overtime, and weekend w o r k ------- -----------B. Premium pay for holiday work

$

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$

C. Differential for shift work -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

S

VIII. LEGALLY REQUIRED PAYMENTS:




Report net expenditures for 1959 for employee benefit programs required by law.
A. Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance -------------------------------------------------------

%

B. Unemployment Compensation —
1. Payments to State government ------------------------------------------------------------------------

$

2. Payments to Federal governm ent---------------------------------------------------------------------

$

C. Workmen’ s Compensation Insurance (report net payments) ------------------------------------

S

D. Other, including State Temporary Disability Insurance (specify) ___________________

______________________________________________

$

119

IX. PRIVATE WELFARE PLANS:
Exclude payments already reported under Item VI, Paid L eave, and Item VIII, Legally
Required Payments. For payments to insurance carriers report only net expenditures ( i .e .,
premiums les s rebates, refunds, and dividends received in 1959, unless they go to purchase
additional insurance). Only the em ployees contributions should be reported.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Health (including medical and surgical), accident, and life insurance-------------------Pension and retirement plans (including pay-as-you-go p l a n s ) -----------------------------Vacation and holiday funds --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Supplemental unemployment benefits ------------------------------------------------------------------Severance or dism issal pay ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Savings and thrift p l a n s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yearend and Christmas bonuses (cash bonuses only) -----------------------------------------

$

$
$
$

$
$
$

REMARKS
If any part of this report includes data for more than one establishment, indicate the location, major product, and
average employment during 1959 for each of these establishments and the items in which combined data were
entered.
Major
Average
Establishment location
product
employment
Items

If any line in Items II through IX contains data for other than production workers, indicate which employee groups
are included and the items in which combined data were entered.
Other employee groups included

Items

IF ANY ESTIMATED DATA ARE INCLUDED IN ANY OF THE ITEMS, IDENTIFY THE ITEM AND INDICATE
THE METHOD OF APPROXIMATION. _________________________________________________________________________

X.

PLANT PRACTICES AND POLICIES, 1959:
The following information is needed for the interpretation o f the data you have reported. NO COMPUTATIONS ARE
NECESSARY, with the exception of the question on vacations.

A. Paid vacations:




Report the number o f production and related workers,
who were on the payroll at any time during 1959 re­
ceiving vacation pay directly from the establishment.
I f vacation benefits were determined as a percentage
o f the worker’ s annual earnings: 2% or slightly more
is to be considered equivalent to 1 w eek’ s vacation;
4% or slightly more to 2 w eek s’ vacation; etc.

Number of weeks
paid for
(or equivalent)

Less than 1 week --------1 but less than 2 weeks
2 but less than 3 weeks
3 but less than 4 weeks
4 weeks or m o re ------------

Report
number of
workers

120

X.

PLANT PRACTICES AND POLICIES, 1959: — Continued
B. Paid holidays observed during 1959:
Report number o f paid holidays.
1. Full day holidays -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Half day holidays ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------

(Indicate whether Items C through G applied to a majority o f the production and related workers.)
C. Sick leave paid by the establishment directly to the worker (noninsured):
Did the establishment have a definite and formal paid sick leave plan? -------------------D. Health, accident, and life insurance:
1. Did the establishment finance any part of —
a. Life in su ran ce?-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------b. Accidental death and dismemberment in s u r a n c e ? ---- —--------------- -------------——
c . Hospitalization insurance? — --------------- ---------------------------------------------------------d. Sickness and accident insurance? -------------------------------------------------------------------e. Medical insurance? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------f. Surgical in su ran ce?---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------g. Other (specify)? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YES

YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

2. If “ Y E S ," did the employees contribute to the payments for the cost of any of
the above benefits? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E. Pension or retirement plans:
1. Did the establishment finance any part of a pension or retirement plan?-—
2. If "Y E S ,” did the employees contribute to the payments for the cost of
this plan? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YES

YES
YES

Z3

□
□
□
n
□
□

NO

NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO

□

NO

□
□

NO
NO

□
□
□
□
□
Z3
□
□
□
□
□

F. Vacation and holiday funds:
Did the establishment contribute to a union or other fund which provided —
1. Vacation b e n e fits ? -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------2. Holiday benefits? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YES
YES

□
□

NO
NO

□
□

G. Collective bargaining agreements:
Did collective bargaining agreements cover the majority of the workers in the
establishment? ------------------------- -------- — -------------------------------------------------------------

YES

Z2

NO

□

H. Standard workweek:
How many hours were there in the standard workweek (rather than the hours actually
worked) for the majority in each o f the following em ployee categories? What was
the average number o f persons employed in each category in 1959?
1. Nonsupervisory workers:
a. Production and related workers --------------------------------------------------------------------b. Clerical and other nonsupervisory workers -----------------------------------------------------

Number of
hours
per week

Average
number of
employees

2. Executive, professional, and supervisory employees
I.

Shift differentials:
Report the premium, above the regular hourly rate for the day shift, paid for work in the 2d, 3d, and other shifts,
( i s e the definition o f shift differential given in the instructions [or Item Vll-C. Thus, i f late shift workers receive
8 hours' pay for 7% hours' work, compared to 8 hours' work for the day shift, report the V hours' pay as the
2
differential rate.)
Rate of shift differential
Shift

Cents per
hour

Percent of
earnings

Other
(specify)

Evening (2d shift) ---------------------Night (3d s h ift)-------------------------Other (e .g., 4th, relief, e t c . ) -----Specify

Name of authorizing official

Do you want a copy of the Bureau’ s report for this survey? —




Title

Date

Y es

lJ

No

,~ ]

121

INSTRUCTION
SHEET

Expenditures on Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration
Practices in Manufacturing Industries, 1959

BLS 2669
G E N E R A L

IN STR U C TIO N S

P le a s e Lim it the R eport to the Establishm ent Identified on the F o r m :
In the ca se pf com panies with m ore than one establishm ent, it is p r e fe r r e d that
a separate rep ort be prepa red fo r the establishm ent identified in Item I o f the
questionnaire fo rm . If individual establishm ent re co rd s a re not maintained, plea se
assign to the individual establishm ent its proportionate share of the com bined
figu re.
Should a com pany find it n ecessa ry to rep ort com bined fig u res, plea se
indicate in the "R em a rk s" section which item contains data fo r m o re than one
establishm ent and which establishm ents are included.
P le a s e R eport Separate F ig u res fo r Each Item :
If separate data are not available fo r individual item s, p lea se p rora te the c o m ­
bined figure among the item s to which it rela tes. If reporting of a com bined figure
cannot be avoided, p lea se bracket (or otherw ise indicate) the lin es included in the
com bined figu re.
IF NO MAN-HOURS OR EXPENDITURES WERE INVOLVED
DURING 1959 FOR A GIVEN ITEM . ENTER "NONE" IN THE A PPRO PRIATE
SP A C E . P le a s e do not leave any spaces blank.
What to R eport as P roduction and Related W ork ers:
Include w orking forem en and all n onsupervisory w ork ers, both fu ll-tim e and p a rttim e, engaged in fabricatin g, p ro ce ss in g , a ssem blin g, inspecting, receiv in g,
storing, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping, trucking, hauling, maintenance,
rep air, ja n itoria l, watchman s e rv ice s , product developm ent, auxiliary production
fo r plant’ s own use (e. g . , pow erplant), recordkeepin g and other s e rv ice s clo s e ly
a ssocia ted with the above production operations.
If production w ork ers are not ca rrie d separately on the com pany books, plea se
assign to them their proportionate share o f the com bined fig u re s.
Should it be
im p ossib le to p rora te the com bined fig u res, please indicate in the "R em a rk s"
section which item s contain data fo r other than production w ork ers and what
other em ployee ca teg ories are included.
A ll E m p loyees:
Include, in addition to production and related w ork ers, the em ployees engaged in
the follow ing activities: F a ctory supervision (above the working forem en level),
execu tive, purchasing, finance, accounting, lega l, p erson n el, ca feteria s, m ed ica l,
p ro fe s s io n a l, techn ical, sa les, sales d elivery (e. g . , routem en), advertising,
cred it, collection , and in installation and servicin g o f own products, routine
o ffice function, and fo rce -a c co u n t con stru ction em ployees on your p a yroll engaged
in con stru ction of m a jor additions o r alterations to the plant who are u tilized as
a separate w ork fo r c e .

IN S T R U C T IO N S

III.

FOR

PAG E

1

A vera ge E m ploym ent:
F o r each ca teg ory o f em ployee, d erive average em ploym ent as follow s: Obtain
the total num ber of p erson s on the p a yroll who w orked o r receiv ed pay fo r any
part of the p a y roll period ending n earest the 15th of each month of 1959.
Sum
the totals obtained fo r each o f the 12 months of 1959.
D ivide the sum by 12.

IV.




G ross P a y r o ll:
R eport the total amount paid to em ployees during 1959. Include pay fo r ov ertim e,
standby tim e, h olidays, vacations, and sick leave, paid by the establishm ent
d ire ctly to the em ployee. A ls o include bonuses not paid regu larly each pay p eriod
( e . g . , C hristm as bonuses) and pay not earned during the year (e. g . , retroa ctiv e
pay, d is m is sa l pay).
A ll paym ents should be shown p r io r to such deductions as
em p loyees’ S ocia l Secu rity contributions, withholding taxes, group insurance, union
dues, and savings bonds.
You m ay follow the definition of g ro s s p a y roll that is
used fo r the Withholding Tax form .

122

V.

Total M an -H ou rs:
R eport the total num ber of m an -h ou rs fo r which pay was given in 1959. (Total
m an -h ou rs a re the m an -h ou rs that are related to the g ro s s p a y roll rep orted in
Item I V - B . ) This should include plant m an -h ou rs (i. e . , m an -h ou rs spent at the
plant during regu lar workdays as w ell as during holiday and vacation p eriod s
that w ere not taken), m an -h ou rs paid fo r standby o r reporting tim e, and the
m an -h ou rs equivalent to pay fo r tim e spent away from the plant during paid h o li­
days, paid vacations, etc.
To determ ine the m an -h ou rs equivalent to the pay receiv ed , divide the paym ent
fo r the item by the e m p lo y e e ^ average hourly earnings.
F o r exam ple, if a
w ork er who is regu la rly paid $2 an hour was given $5 fo r a day’ s absence fo r
ju ry duty, the m an -h ou rs equivalent to the pay rece iv e d would be 2 */2 hours (i. e. ,
$5 4- $ 2 ).
S im ila rly, if a w orker receiv ed a day’ s sick leave at half his regu lar
rate of pay, the m an -h ou rs equivalent would be 4, even though the w orker was
absent fro m w ork 8 h ours. Do not con vert overtim e o r other prem iu m paid hours
to stra igh t-tim e equivalent h ours.
IN STR U C TIO N S

VI.

FOR

PAG E

2

P aid L ea ve:
This section is intended to m ea su re, fo r selected item s, the extent to which
em p loyees w ere granted paid leave during 1959.
F o r each type of excu sed
absence listed , rep ort total paym ents m ade d ire ctly to the em ployee by the e s ­
tablishm ent and the m an -h ou rs equivalent to the paym ents m ade. If an em ployee
did not re ce iv e full pay fo r an excu sed absence, rep ort only the m an -h ou rs equiv­
alent to the pay receiv ed . (T o determ ine the m an -h ou rs equivalent to the pay r e ­
ceived , divide the em p loyee’ s total pay fo r the excu sed absence by his stra igh ttim e hourly e a rn in g s .)
1.

P aid v a ca tion s. — R eport total vacation paym ents made by the establishm ent
d ire ctly to the em ployees during 1959, and the total m an -h ou rs equivalent to
those paym ents, whether vacations w ere taken o r not. If an em ployee w orked
during his vacation p eriod , and was given both pay fo r w ork and pay in lieu of
vacation, rep ort h ere only the paym ents in lieu of vacation and the m an -h ou rs
equivalent to them.
If em p loyees who left the com pany w ere paid fo r unused vacation, rep ort the
paym ents made and the m an -h ou rs equivalent to the paym ent.
Exclude contributions to union o r other vacation funds.
p orted in Item IX -C , Vacation and H oliday Funds.

These are to be r e ­

2.

3.

P aid m ilita ry , ju ry , w itness, and voting le a v e .----R eport total paym ents m ade,
by the establishm ent, d ire ctly to the em ployees during 1959 and the m an -h ou rs
equivalent to these paym ents fo r m ilita ry, ju ry , w itn ess, o r voting leave.

5.




P aid h olid a y s.— R eport total holiday paym ents m ade by the establishm ent d i­
re ctly to the em ployees during 1959, and the total m an -h ou rs equivalent to
these paym ents, whether the h olidays w ere taken o r not. F o r em ployees who
w orked on a paid holiday, and re ce iv e d both pay fo r w ork and pay in lieu o f
tim e off, rep ort only the holiday pay the w ork er would have re ce iv e d if he had
not w orked and the m an -h ou rs equivalent of this holiday pay.
E xclude the
regu lar stra ig h t-tim e pay fo r w ork actually p erfo rm e d and prem iu m pay for
w ork on a holiday. (P rem iu m Pay is d e s crib e d in Item V II-B on page 3. )

4.

VII.

P aid sick le a v e . — R eport total sick leave paym ents m ade, by the esta b lish ­
m ent d ire ctly to the em ployees during 1959 and the m a n -h ou rs equivalent to
these sick leave paym ents. Paym ents made d ire ctly to the em ployee under
self-in s u ra n ce p rov ision of State Tem porary D isability Insurance laws should
be rep orted in Item VIII-D, Other L egally R equired Paym ents.

P aid p erson a l le a v e .— R eport total paym ents m ade, by the establishm ent, d i­
re ctly to the em p loyees during 1959 and the m an -h ou rs equivalent to these
paym ents fo r leave granted fo r p erson a l reasons such as death in the fam ily.

P rem iu m P a y :
F o r the pu rpose o f this section it is n e ce ss a ry to distinguish between the regu lar
h ourly rates fo r w ork during the n orm al day hours and the extra amounts paid for
w ork after the regu lar day h ou rs, on h olidays, etc. Only the prem iu m pay is to
be rep orted h ere. R eport total prem iu m pay expenditures during 1959 fo r each
type o f w ork listed ; do not rep ort the rate o f pay.

123

VII.

P rem iu m P a y ;— Continued
A.

P rem iu m pay fo r daily ov ertim e, w eekly overtim e, and weekend w ork . —
Include only pay above the regu lar hourly ra tes.
Thus, if an em ployee,
who receiv ed $ 1 .5 0 an hour for stra ig h t-tim e, was paid an additional
$0. 75 an hour as prem iu m fo r ov ertim e, the overtim e expenditures r e ­
ported h ere should include only the $0. 75 overtim e prem iu m .
Include
prem iu m pay fo r Saturday and Sunday or fo r 6th and 7th days as such.

B.

P rem iu m pay fo r holiday w ork .— F or the purpose o f this question, it is n e c ­
es s a ry to distinguish between the extra pay fo r w ork on a holiday, the p a y ­
m ent at the regu lar hourly rate fo r w ork p erform ed , and the holiday pay the
em p loyee would have receiv ed if he had not w orked. Total expenditures fo r
h olidays which w ere w orked should be refined as follow s to obtain expendi­
tures fo r prem iu m pay.
Exclude regu lar stra igh t-tim e pay fo r w ork actually p erform ed .
Exclude
the holiday pay the w orker would have receiv ed if he had not w orked. The
balance is the prem iu m fo r w ork on h olidays, which should be rep orted h ere.
EXAMPLE: Employee was paid double-time for work on a paid holiday. That is, his regular straight-time
pay for work performed and the holiday pay he would have received if he had not worked. In this
case, no expenditure for premium pay would be reported here.
EXAMPLE: Employee was paid double-time and one-half for work on a paid holiday. That is, his regular
straight-time pay for work performed, the holiday pay he would have received i f he had not worked,
and an extra half-time as a holiday premium. In this case, only the expenditures on the onehalf time should be reported here.
EXAMPLE: Employee was paid triple-time for work on what would have been a paid holiday. One-third o f
this pay should be reported as expenditures for premium pay.

•

EXAMPLE: Employee was paid time and one-half for work on an unpaid holiday. That is, he would have
received no pay i f he had not worked. In this case, the expenditures on the one-half time should
be reported as premium pay for work on a holiday.

C.

D ifferen tial fo r shift w ork. — Include only shift prem iu m pay above regu lar
hourly rates fo r the day shift. This co v e rs not only d ifferen tia l paid in the
fo rm o f a higher hourly rate, but sp ecia l paym ents to late shift w ork ers fo r
m ea l p eriod s and fo r any other hours not w orked by them but paid fo r (e. g . ,
if late shift w ork ers re ce iv e 8 h ou rs1 pay fo r l l h hours* w ork, com pared
with 8 hours* w ork fo r the day shift, total expenditures for the 1/z h ou r's pay
should be rep orted as shift differential).

VIII. L egally R equired P aym ents:




R eport the net lia b ility in cu rred by the establishm ent fo r the yea r 1959 (rather
than the amount paid during 1959) fo r em ployee benefit p rogra m s that are r e ­
quired by law. (F or exam ple, rep ort S ocia l S ecu rity tax paym ents fo r the fourth
quarter o f 1959 even though they w ere paid jn_ the fir s t quarter o f I960. Exclude
paym ents fo r the fourth quarter of 1958 even though they w ere paid _in the fir s t
quarter o f 1959.) E xclude em ployee contributions to the paym ents fo r the benefits.
A.

Old A g e, S u rvivors, and D isability In su ran ce.— R eport the liability in cu rred
fo r

19^9 r a t h e r t h a n t h e a m o u n t p a i d d u r i n g

1959.

E x clu d e a m ou n ts d e d u cte d

fro m em ployees* pay.
B.

Unemployment Com pensation.— R eport separately paym ents to State g ov ern ­
ments and to the F ed era l governm ent.

C.

W orkm en's Com pensation In su rance.----R eport net expenditures during 1959
fo r insurance prem iu m s (i. e . , prem iu m s le s s refunds) and paym ents to
State funds.
If under State laws you r com pany qualifies as a s e lf-in s u r e r , rep ort the total
net expenditures m ade during 1959 fo r W orkm en's Com pensation benefits that
are requ ired by law. Do not include costs of m ed ica l and fir s t aid s e r v ic e s
n orm a lly supplied by the establishm ent.

D.

Other, including State T em pora ry D isability In su rance. — Sp ecify each other
lega lly requ ired progra m fo r which expenditures w ere m ade.
Include total
paym ents m ade to insurance c a r r ie r s , to State or other funds, o r d irectly
to the em p loyee, fo r those benefits requ ired by law which have not been
accounted fo r elsew h ere in this section.

VIII.

L eg ally R equired P a ym en ts:— Continued
E xam ples of item s to be included h ere are:
State T em porary D isability In su ra n ce.— These laws co v e r w ork ers in the
States of C alifornia, New J e rs e y , New Y ork, and Rhode Island, and in
the ra ilroa d industry throughout the country. Include paym ents made by
the establishm ent, d ir e ctly to w ork ers, under s elf-in su ra n ce p r o v ision s
o f the law.
R ailroad retirem en t b en efits.
R ailroad unem ploym ent in su ra n ce.
IN STR U C TIO N S

IX.

FOR

PAG E

3

P riva te W elfare P la n s:
Exclude paym ents already rep orted under Item
L egally Required P aym ents.
F or paym ents to
net expenditures (i. e . , prem iu m s le s s rebates,
in 1959, unless they go to pu rch ase additional
contributions to the paym ents.

VI, P aid L eave, and Item VIII,
insurance c a r r ie r s rep ort only
refunds, and dividends receiv ed
in su rance).
Exclude em ployee

A.

Health (including m ed ica l and su rg ica l), accident, and life in su ra n ce.— R eport
net expenditures fo r insurance prem iu m s and paym ents to w elfare funds. E x ­
clude adm inistrative expenses in cu rred by the em p loyer and em ployee c o n tr i­
butions to the paym ents fo r the plan.

B.

P en sion and retirem en t pla n s.— R eport prem iu m s paid by the em p loyer to an
insurance c a r r ie r , le s s dividends or other cre d its; em p loyer paym ents into
an irre v o ca b le trust fund; and em p loyer paym ents to p en sion ers under p a y a s -y o u -g o plans. Paym ents fo r past s e rv ice lia b ility as w ell as cu rren t s e r v ­
ic e cred its should be reported.
E xclude adm inistrative costs in cu rred by the em p loyer and em ployee co n ­
tributions to the paym ents fo r the plan.

C.

Vacation and holiday funds. — R eport total paym ents during 1959 to separate
funds (such as union funds) which, are given the resp on sib ility fo r disbursing
vacation and holiday benefits to em p loyees. E xclude em ployee paym ents into
such funds.

D.

Supplemental unem ploym ent b en efits.— This item c o v e rs plans which are d e ­
signed p r im a rily to provide benefits which supplem ent lega lly requ ired un­
em ploym ent com pensation benefits.
R eport paym ents during 1959 to sep a ­
rate funds and net expenditures fo r insurance prem iu m s (i. e. , total prem iu m s
le s s dividends and other refunds receiv ed in 1959). Expenditures fo r s e v e r ­
ance pay plans should be rep orted in Item IX -E .

E.

S everan ce o r d is m is sa l pay.— This item co v e rs plans which are designed to
p rovid e paym ents in ca se o f lo s s of em ploym ent.
These plans a re also
r e fe r r e d to as term ination o r la yoff pay plans.
N orm ally, they p rovide
lu m p-su m paym ents.
R eport paym ents made
em p loyees o r to funds
separated em p loyees.
unem ploym ent benefit
m ental Unemployment

F.

by the establishm ent during 1959, d ir e ctly to separated
which are resp on sib le for making such paym ents to
Paym ents to plans which are p rim a rily supplem ental
sch em es, should be rep orted in Item IX -D , Supple­
Benefits.

Savings and thrift pla n s.— Under these plans, em ployee savings are supple­
mented by em p loyer con tribu tion s.
R eport cash paym ents, made by the establishm ent during 1959, to a separate
fund o r to em ployee accounts. Exclude in terest cred ited to the em ployee*s
account.
A lso exclude paym ents m ade in the form of stock and paym ents
m ade under arrangem ents which are p rim a rily p rofit-sh a rin g plans o r pen ­
sion plans.
Paym ents to funds which are p r im a rily designed to provide
pen sion o r retirem en t benefits are to be rep orted in Item IX -B , P en sion
and R etirem en t P lans.

G.

Y earend and Christm as b on u ses.— R eport sp ecia l bonus paym ents made at the
end o f the yea r or during the Christm as season. Include only cash paym ents.
E xclude regu la rly paid bonuses (such as w eekly and monthly production
bonu ses), bonuses in the fo rm o f m erch a n dise, and bonus paym ents m ade
under arrangem ents which a re p rim a rily p ro fit-s h a rin g plans.

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F LA B O R
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 625617