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EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS IN
NONMETROPOUTAN AREAS OF THE
SOUTH AND NORTH CENTRAL REGIONS




JUNE 1965

Bulletin No. 1552

UNITED

S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF
BUREAU

OF

LABOR

L AB OR

STATISTICS

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS IN
NONMETROPOLITAN AREAS OF THE
SOUTH AND NORTH CENTRAL REGIONS

J U N E 1965

Bulletin No. 1552
June 19 6 7

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 50 cents










Preface
This bulletin presents estimates of employee average
hourly earnings and weekly hours of work in manufacturing
and selected nonmanufacturing industries in nonmetropol­
itan areas of the South and North Central regions in June
1965. Separate information is provided for 15 nonmetro­
politan county areas in the South and 1 in the North Cen­
1
tral region. The results of this survey supplement those
of similar studies made periodically since October I960.
They permit an examination of wage changes occurring
during a period when the Federal minimum wage was in­
creased from $1 to $1. 25, and a $1 minimum wage was
established and later raised to $1015 for employees (mostly
those in large retail enterprises) brought under the pro­
visions of the Fair Labor Standards Act for the first time
in September 1961. The survey, conducted by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, was part of a broad program of studies
initiated by the U. S. Department of Labor’ s Wage and Hour
and Public Contracts Divisions for continuing appraisal of
Federal minimum wage and maximum hours legislation.
In this connection, data from the survey were published
in the Report Submitted to the Congress in Accordance with
the Requirements of Section 4(d) of the Fair Labor Stand­
ards Act, January 1966.
This study was conducted in the Bureau's Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of National
Wage and Salary Income. The analysis was prepared by
William L. Dansby, under the supervision of Alvin Bauman.

iii




Contents
Page
Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Summary-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Southern region-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Earnings----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------Manufacturing-------Hour s--------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing--------- —------------------------------------------------------------Wage changes, 1960—
65---------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
7

Selected southern nonmetropolitan a rea s --------------------------------------------Bartow and Cherokee Counties, Ga------------------------------------------------Beaufort, Tyrrell, and Washington Counties, N. C ----------------------------Chambers and Lee Counties, A la --------------------------------------------------Charlotte and Sarasota Counties, Fla---------------------------------------------Cooke and Grayson Counties, T e x -------------------------------------------------Florence County, S. C -----------------------------------------------------------------Gaston County, N. C--------------------------------------------------------------------Harrison County, W. Va---------------------------------------------------------------Hopkins and Muhlenberg Counties, Ky--------------------------------------------Jones County, M iss--------------------------------------------------------------------Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties, F la --------------------------------------------Loudon and McMinn Counties, Tenn-----------------------------------------------Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties, Md---------------------------Union County, A rk----------------------------------------------------------------------Washington County, Va-----------------------------------------------------------------

8
10
12
14
17
19
22
24
27
29
31
33
36
38
42
44

North Central region-----------------------------------------------------------------------Earnings— -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------------------------------Hours-----------------------------------------------------------------Wage changes---------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing-------------------------------------------------------------------------

46
46
46
47
47
48
49
50

Selected North Central nonmetropolitan a rea s -------------------------------------Alpena County, Mich ------------------------------------------------------------------Barton and Rice Counties, Kans----------------------------------------------------Crawford, Franklin, and Washington Counties, M o ---------------------------Elkhart County, Ind--------------------------------------------------------------------Fayette County, Ind--------------------------------------------------------------------Manitowoc County, W is ---------------------------------------------------------------Marathon County, Wis-----------------------------------------------------------------Portage County, Ohio -----------------------------------------------------------------Sandusky County, Ohio----------------------------------------------------------------Whiteside County, 111------------------------------------------------------------------Winona County, Minn------------------------------------------------------------------

50
51
53
55
58
61
63
65
68
70
71
74




v

Contents— Continued
Page
Tables:
1.

Cumulative percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by
average straight-time hourly earnings, selected major industry
divisions and industry groups, nonmetropolitan areas,
South, June 1965 -----------------------------------------------------------------2. Percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by weekly hours
of work, selected major industry divisions and industry groups,
nonmetropolitan areas, South, June 1965---------------------------------3. Cumulative percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by
average straight-time hourly earnings, selected major industry
divisions and industry groups, selected nonmetropolitan areas,
South, June 1965 -----------------------------------------------------------------4. Percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by weekly hours
of work, selected major industry divisions and industry groups,
selected nonmetropolitan areas, South, June 1965---------------------5. Cumulative percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by
average straight-time hourly earnings, selected major industry
divisions and industry groups, nonmetropolitan areas, North
Central region, June 1965----------------------------------------------------6. Percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by weekly hours
of work, selected major industry divisions and industry groups,
nonmetropolitan areas, North Central region, June 1965------------7. Cumulative percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by
average straight-time hourly earnings, selected major industry
divisions and industry groups, selected nonmetropolitan areas,
North Centralregion,June 1965 ----------------------------------------------8. Percent distribution of nonsupervisory employees by weekly hours
of work, selected major industry divisions and industry groups,
selected nonmetropolitan areas, North Central region,
June 1965--------------------------------------------------------------------------Appendixes:
A. Scope and method ofsurvey-----------------------------------------------------B. Questionnaire-----------------------------------------------------------------------




vi

76
77

78
82

84
85

86

89
91
93

Employee Earnings and Hours in Nonmetropolitan Areas o f the
South and North Central Regions, June 1965
Introduction
This report presents the findings of a June 1965 survey of earnings and
hours of work of nonsupervisory employees in nonmetropolitan areas of the South
and North Central regions. 1
Sixty-six county areas in the two regions were included in the study. Data
for the 26 areas listed below— 15 in the South and 11 in the North Central region—
met Bureau of Labor Statistics publication criteria for separate presentation.
They are not necessarily representative of any other nonmetropolitan areas, but
provide rarely available detailed statistics for small areas.
SOUTH

NORTH CENTRAL

Bartow and Cherokee Counties, Ga.
Beaufort, Tyrrell, and Washington Counties, N. C.
Chambers and Lee Counties, Ala.
Charlotte and Sarasota Counties, Fla.
Cooke and Grayson Counties, Tex.
Florence County, S.C.
Gaston County, N .C .
Harrison County, W. Va.
Hopkins and Muhlenberg Counties, Ky.
Jones County, Miss.
Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties, Fla.
Loudon and McMinn Counties, T enn.
Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties, Md.
Union County, Ark.
Washington County, Va.

Alpena County, Mich.
Barton and Rice Counties, Kans.
Crawford, Franklin, and Washington
Counties, Mo.
Elkhart County, Ind.
Fayette County, Ind.
Manitowoc County, Wis.
Marathon County, Wis.
Portage County, Ohio
Sandusky County, Ohio
Whiteside County, 1 1
1.
Winona County, Minn.

The survey covered all major industry divisions, except agriculture, con­
tract construction, and government, within the broad categories of manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing. Industries excluded from the survey were petroleum and
natural gas production, railroad transportation, and nonprofit religious, chari­
table, educational, and humanitarian organizations. Eating and drinking places
in the retail trade industry group were not covered on a regional basis but were
included in the 26 selected areas.
The data, which relate to a representative
payroll period in June 1965, are presented in the form of average straight-time
hourly earnings (exclusive of premium pay for overtime, and for work on week­
ends, holidays, vacations, etc.) during a selected week in the survey month. A
detailed description of the scope and method of survey is found in appendix A.
Surveys of employee earnings in the two broad geographic regions were
conducted on a selective and recurring basis from October I960 to June 1965.
Data for the regional and selected areas permit an analysis of wage changes be­
tween June 1962 and June 1965 for hll industries within the scope of the studies,
and between October I960 and June 1965 for manufacturing industries. 2 Although
1 See appendix A for definitions of terms.
2 During this time, some minor adjustments were made in data published from the earlier surveys, primarily,
as a result of refinements in universe material. Consequently, some of the data published here for surveys prior to
June 1965 may differ from those previously published.




1

2

each of the surveys was timed to evaluate the effects of 1961 amendments to the
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), the opportunity is taken here to ex­
amine the broader aspects of area wage structure and wage change over a rela­
tively long period of time.
In both the regional and selected area analyses, the general level of earn­
ings is described by using the mean, the median, and the interquartile range.
The mean, defined as the sum of all the individual hourly earnings divided by
the number of workers, tends to become less informative as the distribution of
earnings departs from symmetry. In these cases, a useful measure of the gen­
eral wage level is the median, the amount below and above which earnings for
an equal number of employees are found.
The interquartile range offers a
broader view of the general earnings distribution, and describes the degree of
dispersion of individual earnings around the averages by defining the range of
earnings for the middle 50 percent of the employees. 3

Summary
In June 1965, straight-time hourly earnings for nonsupervisory employees
included in the survey in nonmetropolitan areas averaged $1.64 in the South and
$1.98 in the North Central States. In manufacturing industries in the South, the
average pay was $1. 74, and in the nonmanufacturing industries studied, $1. 50 an
hour. The hourly pay levels for the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industry
groups in the North Central region were $2. 19 and $1.70, respectively.
Employees in southern nonmetropolitan areas worked an average of 41 hours
during a single week in June 1965; those in the North Central areas averaged
40 hours a week.
The average workweek in manufacturing industries in both
regions was 41 hours; but in nonmanufacturing industries average weekly hours
in the South, 41, were 2 more than in the North Central region.
Since June 1962, average earnings in the South increased 15 cents an
hour (10 percent). Advances in manufacturing earnings were greater than those
in the nonmanufacturing group, both in a relative and absolute sense— the 17cent increase in manufacturing equaled 11 percent but that in nonmanufacturing,
11 cents, was an 8 percent rise.
The same was true for the North Central
region.
Earnings for all employees in nonmetropolitan areas of these States
rose 21 cents (12 percent) between June 1962 and June 1965. The pay for those
in manufacturing industries also rose 21 cents, an 11 percent increase, which
was 6 cents and 1 percentage point greater than the increase for those in non­
manufacturing industries.
Among the 15 southern nonmetropolitan areas for which data permit sepa­
rate publication, average hourly earnings ranged from $1. 36 in Beaufort, T yrrell,
and Washington Counties, N. C. , to $2. 33 in Harrison County, W. Va. In 11 other
areas, on the other hand, the average varied no more than 25 cents, from $1.55 to
$1.80. Average weekly hours of work in the selected southern areas ranged from
38 to 43. The average week was 40 hours in five areas and exceeded this level
in eight.
The average wage level increased in all areas between June 1962 and
June 1965, from 8 cents an hour in Hopkins and Muhlenberg Counties, Ky. , to
23 cents in Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties, Fla.
In nine county areas, the
increases ranged from 14 to 18 cents.
In the 11 areas of the North Central region studied separately, employee
earnings ranged from $1.70 in Barton and Rice Counties, Kans. , to $2.60 an
hour in Whiteside County, 111. The average pay level exceeded $ 2 an hour in
The interquartile range was calculated by interpolation within the 5- or 10-cent intervals shown in the tables,
using percentages in tenths rather than percentages rounded to the whole number.




3

six areas and was no more than 4 cents below that level in two others. There
was more sim ilarity between the selected areas in the two regions regarding
weekly hours of work. Such hours among the North Central units ranged from
38 to 42. In five areas, the average was 40 hours.
The average earnings of
employees advanced in each of the 11 areas by from 5 cents an hour in Alpena
County, Mich. , to 25 cents in Crawford, Franklin, and Washington Counties, Mo. ,
and Whiteside County, 111. Among the remaining areas, the increases in seven
were between 13 and 19 cents, and in one, 24 cents.

Southern Region
Earnings
In nonmetropolitan areas of the South, average straight-time earnings of
nonsupervisory employees came to $1.64 an hour in June 1965. Median earnings
were somewhat less— one-half the work force earned more and one-half earned
less than $1.47. Although earnings ranged from less than 75 cents to more
than $3, about seven-tenths of the 3.3 million employees in nonmanufacturing
and manufacturing industries within the scope of the survey earned between $1 and
$2 an hour. The middle half of the work force was spread over a 60-cent range,
from $1.28 to $1.88 an hour. A sixth were clustered at the $1.25 to $1.30
wage interval.
Nonmanufacturing. The 1.4 million nonsupervisory employees engaged in
nonmanufacturing earned an average of $1.50 an hour, 14 cents an hour less than
all employees. This lower pay level results from disproportionate representa­
tion of nonmanufacturing employees among the low paid workers. For example,
all but 5 percent of the employees in southern nonmetropolitan areas who earned
less than $1.25 an hour worked in nonmanufacturing. One-fifth of the nonmanu­
facturing employees were paid less than $1. Almost another one-fifth earned
between $1 and $1.25, and one-eighth had earnings between $1.25 and $1.30.
Thus, one-half the employees in nonmanufacturing earned less than $1.30 an
hour. Not all nonmanufacturing employees were clustered at the lower pay levels.
More than one-fourth earned at least $1.75, and one-tenth, at least $2.50.
Among five nonmanufacturing industry groups for which earnings are shown
separately, hourly pay levels ranged from $1.35 in retail trade to $2.63 in
mining.
Transportation, communication, and public utilities which averaged
$2.05 an hour ranked second in earnings; followed by $1.69 in finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; and $1.57 in wholesale trade.
Retail trade, employing 1 out of 2 nonmanufacturing workers included in
the study, had a dominant influence on the level and distribution of earnings.
Nearly one-fourth of the retail employees had earnings of less than $ 1 an hour,
and one-half earned less than $1.25, accounting for three-fifths and two-thirds
of all nonmanufacturing employees at these levels.
Almost three-tenths of the
employees received at least $1.50 an hour but only about 1 of 10 were earn­
ing more than $2 an hour. Nearly one-fifth of the employees were concentrated
at or just above $1.15 and $1.25 an hour, reflecting, in part, the influence of
Federal minimum wage legislation. In June 1965, one-fifth of the retail em­
ployees were in establishments generally subject to the provisions of the 1961
amendments to the FLSA. Most of these employees, thus, had to be paid at
least $1. 15 an hour at the time of the survey and at least $1.25, 3 months later.
Nearly three-tenths of these employees earned between $1.15 and $1. 20 an hour,
and one-sixth were clustered in the $1.25 to $1.30 wage interval.
By com­
parison, the proportions of employees at these two intervals in retail establish­
ments generally not covered by the act were 5 and 10 percent, respectively.




4

Nine percent of the nonmanufacturing employees were in wholesale trade
establishments where average earnings were $1.57 an hour. One-third of the
employees were clustered at the $1.25 to $1.30 wage interval, more than in
any other industry division, and these accounted for almost one-fourth of all
nonmanufacturing employees at this level.
Three-fifths of the wholesale em­
ployees earned less than $1.50 an hour, and all but one-sixth earned less than
$ 2 an hour.
Average earnings in finance, insurance, and real estate industries were
higher than both trades divisions and exceeded the all nonmanufacturing average
by 19 cents an hour. Almost three-fifths of the employees earned at least $1.50
an hour and one-fifth earned $2 or more.
Most of the higher paid nonmanufacturing employees were in mining, and
the transportation, communication, and public utilities group of industries , where
employees had average hourly earnings of $2.63 and $2.05, respectively. T o­
gether, these two groups accounted for one-sixth of the nonmanufacturing em­
ployment, but for more than two-fifths of those earning $ 2 an hour or more.
Moreover, although only 5 percent of the nonmanufacturing work force were en­
gaged in mining, the industry contained two-fifths of the employees paid $ 3 an
hour or more.
Manufacturing. In manufacturing industries, which employed almost threefifths of the employees included in the study, the pay level was $1.74 an hour.
One out of four employees had earnings of $ 2 an hour or more, but almost onehalf received less than $1. 50 an hour, and 1 out of 5 was concentrated at or near
the $1.25 Federal minimum wage. Six industry groups— food and kindred prod­
ucts, textile m ill products, apparel and related products, lumber and wood prod­
ucts, furniture and fixtures, and paper and allied products---constituted more than
three-fifths of the manufacturing work force.
Except for the paper industry,
nonsupervisory earnings in these groups were from 15 to 36 cents an hour less
than the all-manufacturing level. Employees in other manufacturing industries,
as a group, had somewhat higher earnings, $2.04 an hour. Among the six in­
dustries, the influence of the Federal minimum wage was most apparent in the
food, apparel, lumber, and furniture industries. Having about one-third of the
manufacturing employment, they accounted for almost seven-tenths of those earn­
ing at or just above $1.25 an hour. The higher earnings level of employees in
paper and allied plants is reflected by their position relative to all manufacturing
employees earning at least $ 2 an hour. They constituted only 4 percent of man­
ufacturing employment, but 14 percent of those having such earnings.
Hours
The 3. 3 million southern employees worked an average of 41 hours during
the June 1965 survey week. Slightly over 1 million— or more than three-tenths
of the work force— were concentrated at exactly 40 hours, making this the most
prevalent period of employment at the time of the survey.
Elsewhere in the
distribution of individual hours, 1 out of 4 employees worked at least 48 hours,
but a smaller proportion, 1 of 6, worked less than 35 hours.
Nonmanufacturing. Average weekly hours in nonmanufacturing industries
were also 41, but individual weekly hours were more evenly distributed than in
all industries combined. For instance, nearly one-fifth of the nonmanufacturing
employees worked less than 35 hours a week, and the proportion working 40 hours,
about one-fourth, was smaller than that for all employees studied. A week of
48 hours or more, engaging close to three-tenths of the employees was slightly
more prevalent in nonmanufacturing industries than overall.



5

The more than 700,000 retail trade employees in southern nonmetropolitan
areas worked on the average of 41 hours a week. One-sixth of the employees
were on a 40-hour week, more than any other single schedule. However, the
proportions on part-time employment (fewer than 35 hours) and long workweeks
(48 or more) were larger, a fifth and a third, respectively.
Employees in mining industries worked an average of 42 hours a week.
Although a sizable proportion, one-sixth, worked part time, more employees
were concentrated at points further up the hours scale. Three-tenths of the em­
ployees worked exactly 40 hours and another three-tenths had long workweeks
(48 hours or more).
In transportation, communication, and public utilities in­
dustries, the average workweek was 41 hours. More than one-half of the em­
ployees were on a 40-hour week, and relatively few worked part time (about onetenth) or had long weeks (one-sixth). Wholesale trade employees average 42 hours.
The most common week of work was exactly 40 hours, occupying nearly onefifth of the employees, but a larger proportion, one-third, were clustered in the
intervals at or upwards from 48 hours. Employees in finance, insurance, and real
estate firms worked on the average of 38 hours which was less time than those in
the other nonmanufacturing industries studied separately. Although one-third were
on a 40-hour week, a greater proportion, two-fifths, worked less than this.
Manufacturing. In manufacturing industries, the nearly 1.9 million employ­
ees also worked an average of 41 hours. One out of seven employees worked
part time, but 1 out of 4 had a long workweek.
The length of the single most
prevalent workweek, however, was 40 hours, occupying more than one-third of
the employees.
Among the six industry groups studied separately, the workweek varied from
38 hours in apparel, the only industry having an average of less than 40, to
43 hours in textiles and paper. When examined in 1-hour increments, the most
prevalent period of employment in six of the industries was exactly 40 hours,
the proportions ranging from three-eighths in food to nearly one-half in paper.
In textiles, the exception, 26 percent worked 48 hours but 25 percent worked 40.
Part-tim e employment was negligible in the paper industry, engaging 5 percent
of the employees, but relatively high in food, apparel, and lumber, occupying
more than one-fifth of the employees in each industry.
The incidence of long
workweeks also differed among these industries. Almost 2 out of 5 textile em­
ployees, down to as few as 1 out of 20 apparel employees, worked at least
48 hours during the survey week.
Wage Changes, 1960—
65
Average hourly earnings of nonsupervisory employees within the scope of
the survey in southern nonmetropolitan areas increased 15 cents an hour between
June 1962 and June 1965, going from $1.49 to $1.64. Most of this increase
reflects advances in the pay levels of all but the lowest and highest paid tenths
of the employees surveyed. During both periods about one-tenth of the employ­
ees earned less than $ 1 an hour and another tenth were paid $2.50 an hour or
more. Between these points, however, rather sharp changes are discernible in
the distribution of employees by average hourly earnings. Most notable of these
changes was in the proportion of employees paid less than $1.25 an hour, which
declined from two-fifths to one-sixth. Another change of significance was in the
point on the distribution at which the largest group of employees was found. In
1962, about 1 out of 6 employees in these areas earned between $1.15 and $1. 20 an
hour. In 1965, there was no concentration of employees at this point, but about
1 out of 6 employees had earnings in the $1.25 to $1.30 pay interval.
These
changes take on special meaning when it is recalled that certain changes in the



6

Federal minimum wage under the Fair Labor Standards Act took place between
surveys. About seven-tenths of the employees were covered by the $1.25 an
hour Federal minimum wage which went into operation in September 1963, sup­
planting the $1.15 minimum which had been in operation at the time of the
1962 survey. Thus, although other economic forces were at work in these areas,
there can be little doubt that the sharp increase in the proportion of employees
paid at least the $1.25 minimum, and the large concentration of employees at
of just above the minimum in 1965, as well as the movement of employees from
$1.15 to $1.25 between 1962 and 1965 are in large measure due to the influence
of Federal minimum wage legislation. Changes further up the pay scale resulted
from factors other than Federal law— changes in the supply of or demand for
labor, changes in industrial composition, changes in occupational mix, and col­
lectively bargained or employer instituted wage changes. These factors, however,
did not appear to have as great an influence on the area wage structure as did
minimum wage legislation, using changes in the distribution above the $1. 25 min­
imum as an indicator. Thus, the proportion of employees earning $1.50 an hour
or more increased by 11 percentage points (from 36 to 47 percent), less than
half the increase in the proportion earning $1.25 or more. Changes in the dis­
tribution diminished further up the pay scale.
Nonmanufacturing Nonmanufacturing industries provided jobs for 2 out of
5 employees within the scope of the survey in nonmetropolitan areas of the South.
Average hourly earnings for these employees were $1.50 in June 1965, 11 cents
higher than they had been 3 years earlier.
Except for the highest paid onetenth, who earned at least $2.50 an hour at the time of each survey, employees
throughout the pay scale enjoyed increased earnings. However, the most notable
changes in the distribution took place between $1 and $1.30. For example, the
proportion of employees earning $1. 25 an hour or more increased from somewhat
more than half to slightly more than three-fifths. The changes in the distribution
in this part of the pay scale are partially attributable to the influence of the
$1.25 minimum wage discussed earlier. However, only three-tenths of the non­
manufacturing employees surveyed were subject to the $1.25 minimum in 1965,
so some of the changes in the distribution can be laid to other economic forces.
About 1 out of 2 nonmanufacturing employees was engaged in retail trade.
Employee earnings in retail trade increased from $ 1. 24 to $1. 35 an hour between
June 1962 and 1965. During the same period, hourly earnings in retail trade
increased from $1.67 to $1.85 on a nationwide basis. During the 3 years, the
Federal minimum wage which was applied to large retail enterprises in September
1961 increased from $1 an hour to $1.15 an hour, and was to increase to $1.25
an hour in September 1965. About one-fifth of the retail trade employees were
in establishments which were required to pay at least the established minimum
wage. The influence of the minimum wage on the earnings of these employees,
which is not fully revealed by an examination of the changes in the overall wage
structure in retail trade, is shown in the following tabulation. The decrease in




Average hourly earnings

Percent of employees with
specified earnings
1962

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
$1. 50

$1.05 $1. 15 $1.20 $1.25 $1.30 and over

1965

36
45
51
54
60
28

3
3
32
37
52
33

7

the proportion of employees earning less than $1.25 an hour and the concentra­
tion of 15 percent between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour is an indication that some
employers had already adopted the $1.25 minimum which was to go into opera­
tion 3 months after the survey date.
Retail trade employees who were not within the scope of the Fair Labor
Standards Act also experienced increased earnings, as shown below, but nearly
one-half still earned less than $1.15 an hour in June 1965.
Average hourly earnings

Percent earning less than the
specified amounts
1962

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
$1. 50

$1.00 -■
$1.05 $1. 15 $1.20 $1.25 $1.30 and over

1965

38
51
58
63
65
70
22

29
40
46
51
53
63
27

Manufacturing. Manufacturing employees in southern nonmetropolitan areas
experienced a 25-cent-an-hour increase in average hourly earnings between Octo­
ber I960 and June 1965. Seventeen cents of this increase occurred between
June 1962 and June 1965. Much of this change reflects the improving wages of
the lowest paid manufacturing employees over the 5-year period.
In October I960, when the Federal minimum wage applicable to almost all
manufacturing employees was $1 an hour, nearly one-fifth earned less than
$1.05 an hour; three-tenths, less than $1.15 an hour; and two-fifths, less than
$1.25.
Only about one-sixth of the employees earned as much as $2 an hour.
In June 1962, when the Federal minimum was $1.15 an hour, almost all manu­
facturing employees earned at least that amount, one-fourth earned less than
$1.20 an hour and one-third, less than $1.25. Although there was this notable
increase in earnings for lower paid employees, the proportion paid $ 2 an hour or
more was unchanged. Practically all manufacturing employees earned at least
the $1.25 an hour Federal minimum wage in operation at the time of the June
1965 survey. As had been noted during the earlier surveys, one-fifth of the
employees earned within 5 cents of the minimum.
However, unlike what tran­
spired between the I960 and 1962 surveys, sizable proportions of employees
earning towards the higher end of the pay scale also experienced pay increases.
For example, the proportion of employees earning at least $2 an hour increased
from one-sixth to one-fourth between June 1962 and June 1965.
In these areas in which the influence of the Federal minimum wage on the
overall pay structure was so strong, average hourly earnings in manufacturing
increased by 17 percent over the 5-year survey period. This rise was 21 p er­
cent greater than the nationwide increase of 14 percent in the straight-time pay
level of production workers in manufacturing 4
The structure of wages in manufacturing in southern nonmetropolitan areas
is, of course, a reflection of the interaction of the pattern of earnings d istri­
bution in the component industries. Six of these industries— food, textiles, ap­
parel, lumber, furniture, and paper— together accounting from between threefifths and seven-tenths of the manufacturing employees— were studied separately,
and some interesting relationships revealed.
4

See Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States




(1909-65), BLS Bulletin 1312-3, 1960.

8

Five of the six industries, paper being the exception, had wage levels which
were substantially below the average pay level of the other manufacturing in­
dustries. This reflects the disproportionate representation of lower paid manu­
facturing employees in these five industries, as illustrated in the tabulation below.
Employees in food, textiles, apparel, lumber, furniture

Percent of manufacturing employees

Year
I960 ---------------------------1962 ---------------------------1965 ----------------------------

65
62
58

Percent of manufacturing
employees earning less than
$1.50 an hour
82
78
77

Increases in the Federal minimum wage over the 5 years had a profound
effect on the wage structures in food, apparel, lumber, and furniture.
Large
concentrations of employees were clustered at the $1 minimum in I960 and these
clusters moved up more or less intact as the minimum increased.
However,
there was little increase in the proportions paid $2 an hour or more.
Conse­
quently, what had been relatively narrow earnings distributions in I960 were
further compressed by 1965. This condition was also true, although to a smaller
extent, in textiles.
By contrast, the paper industry, having a wage level sub­
stantially above that of other industries, was characterized by wage increases
for higher paid employees. Thus, every other paper industry employee in these
areas earned less than $2 an hour in I960, but by 1965 only 1 out of 12 had
such earnings although 2 out of 5 earned $2. 50 or more.
As was noted for all manufacturing industries, the pay level of nonsupervisory employees in each of the six selected industries increased at a greater
rate in southern nonmetropolitan areas than for production employees in the
Nation as a whole. In each of the six industries the differential between average
earnings in these areas and in the Nation narrowed. The changes in the Federal
minimum played an important role in improving the relative position of employees
in the five low paying industries, although the improvement for employees in
paper reflects the influence of other factors.

Selected Southern Nonmetropolitan Areas

Data on earnings and hours of work are provided separately for each of
15 nonmetropolitan areas in the South.
The information relates to the desig­
nated areas only and is not to be considered as necessarily representative of
any other areas.
Each of these areas is a relatively small and homogeneous
job market in which economic activity is generally dominated by one or two
industries.
Wages and hours of work in these, as in all labor areas, are in­
fluenced by a variety of factors, including the following: The demographic char­
acteristics of the labor force, supply of and demand for labor, industrial composi­
tion, occupational mix, availability of capital, Federal and State minimum wage
legislation, degree of unionization, employer personnel practices, and regional
and sectional wage patterns.
Because of their interrelationship, the exact im ­
pact of these forces on earnings and hours of work cannot be isolated and meas­
ured, but the pressures they exert and the extent to which they interact largely
determine the wage structure in an area. Under these influences, earnings and
hours of work in the same industry may differ substantially from one area to
another, as they may from one establishment to another within an area.



9

As shown in the following tabulation, populations (i960 census) in the 15 areas
ranged from approximately 50,000 to 100,000, except for the relatively large
Gaston, N. C. (127, 000) and Lake, Pasco, and Polk, Fla. (289,300) areas.
The
number of nonsupervisory employees included in the June 1965 study varied widely
from 4, 900 to 39, 300, but in 11 areas the range was from about 7, 000 to 13, 000.
Manufacturing represented from one-half to four-fifths of the employment studied
in 12 of the areas, but in the 3 remaining areas at least seven-tenths of the
work force was in nonmanufacturing.
Tourism in Sarasota and mining in the
Hopkins and Muhlenberg area largely accounted for the relatively small propor­
tions of employees in manufacturing in these areas. Although a variety of manu­
facturing activities was found in each of the areas, the most common were tex­
tiles, apparel, food processing, lumber, machinery, and paper products.
Retail
trade was numerically the most important nonmanufacturing industry in all but
two of the areas.

Area
Bartow and Cherokee
Counties, Ga --------------------

Population
(1960 census)

Approximate
number of
employees
included in
the survey,
June 1965

Percent of employees in—
Manufacturing
industries

Numerically important
manufacturing industries

Percent of
nonmanufacturing
employees
in retail
trade

51,268

7,000

72

Textile m ill products 48,
apparel 18, food and food
products 17

53

54,022

4,900

51

Apparel 30, lumber 29

54

87,582

13,200

78

Textile m ill products 81

48

Beaufort, Tyrrell, and
Washington Counties, N. C —
Chambers and Lee
Counties, A l a --------------------Charlotte and Sarasota
Counties, F l a -------------------Cooke and Grayson
Counties,Tex ---------------------

89,489

11,700

16

Electrical machinery 42

51

95,603

12,200

49

45

Florence County, S. C ----------

84,438

12,000

54

Gaston County, N. C ------------

127,074

39,300

79

Harrison County, W. V a --------

77, 856

12,400

51

Food and food products 22,
apparel 18, nonelectrical
machinery 14, textile m ill
products 13
Apparel 28, electrical
machinery 16, textile mill
products 14, lumber 14
Textile m ill products 75,
nonelectrical machinery 13
Glass products 62, primary
metals 15

53

49
26

Hopkins and Muhlenberg
Counties, K y---------------------Jones County, M iss--------------Lake, Pasco, and Polk
Counties, F l a --------------------

66,249
59,542

7,000
8,300

14
59

Apparel 38, lumber 23
Paper and allied products 79

25
52

289,307

32,500

30

Food and food products 44,
chemicals and allied
products 17

42

Loudon and McMinn
Counties, T e n n -----------------

57,419

9,100

81

Textile m ill products 30,
paper and allied
products 14

51

Somerset, Wicomico, and
Worcester Counties, M d ----

92,406

16,300

57

48

Union County, A r k ---------------

49,518

6,900

48

Food and food products 50,
apparel 23
Lumber 33, petroleum
refining 21, chemicals and
allied products 17

Washington County (including
Bristol), V a ------------------------

55,220

9,000

58




Nonelectrical machinery 33,
food and food products 15,
apparel 15

40

53

10

The following portion of this report summarizes the level and distribution
of wages, wage changes, and hours of work in each of the selected southern areas.
Bartow and Cherokee Counties, Ga,
Bartow and Cherokee Counties, which lie in the northern part of Georgia,
north of the Atlanta metropolitan area, comprise 877 square miles and contained
a population of 51, 268 at the time of the I960 census. More than seven-tenths
of the 7, 000 employees included in the survey were in manufacturing industries,
prim arily textiles, apparel, and food.
Slightly more than one-half of those in
nonmanufacturing industries were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average straight-time earnings of nonsupervisory employees in
June 19^5 were $1.55 an hour. One-half of the employees earned less and onehalf more than $1.50 an hour. Earnings for the middle 50 percent of the work
force were between $1.31 and $1.70 an hour. Although pay levels in 12 of the
selected areas were higher, the proportion of employees in Bartow and Cherokee
Counties, one-tenth, earning less than $1.25 was next to the smallest recorded.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.51 an hour.
Onefifth received less than $1 and a third less than $1.25 an hour.
On the other
hand, 2 out of 5 employees earned at least $1.50 an hour, and 1 in 5 earned
more than $2. Two-fifths of those at the latter level were employed in the small
(employing one-tenth of the nonmanufacturing work force) but relatively impor­
tant nonmetallic mineral mining industry.
Average earnings of $1.30 in retail trade stores were 45 cents an hour
less than those in other nonmanufacturing establishments.
Nearly one-half of
the retail workers earned less than $1.25 an hour, accounting for more than
three-fourths of the nonmanufacturing work force having such earnings.
Nearly
three-tenths earned at least $1.50, but only one-eighth received $2 or more
an hour.
Earnings in manufacturing industries averaged $1. 57 an hour, 6 cents above
the nonmanufacturing level.
Four-fifths of the employees were concentrated
within a 50-cent earnings interval, $1.25 to $1.75, and nearly one-sixth were
at or near the $1.25 Federal minimum wage. The food and apparel industries
together employed about one-third of the manufacturing work force, but they
accounted for four-fifths of the employees earning the minimum wage and for
three-fifths of those earning less than $1.50 an hour.
Earnings in the area*s
largest industry, textiles, were somewhat higher. Two-thirds of the employees
receiving $1.50 or more were in these mills, which employed about one-half of
the manufacturing employees.
Hours. Nonsupervisory employees worked an average of 41 hours during
a 1-week period in June 1965. More than one-third were employed exactly
40 hours, by far the largest proportion at a single hour*s interval.
One-fifth
of the employees worked 48 hours or longer, and one-sixth were part-time (less
than 35 hours).
Nonmanufacturing employees also averaged 41 hours. Almost three-tenths
were on a 40-hour week, and about the same proportion worked at least 48 hours.
One-fifth of the employees worked less than 35 hours a week.
Employees in
retail trade averaged 40 hours of work a week.
Close to two-fifths worked a
long week (48 hours or more), but approximately one-fifth were either part-time
employees or on a 40-hour week.



11

In manufacturing industries, the average workweek came to 41 hours.
Two
out of five employees worked 40 hours during the survey week.
The proportions
working part time or long weeks were small by comparison, about one-sixth in
each case.
Wage Changes. Average earnings in the area rose 18 cents an hour be­
tween TheJmie~1952 and June 1965 surveys. Changes in the distribution of pay
were noted not only at the lower end of the scale but in the upper reaches as
well. The proportion of employees earning less than $1.25 an hour, largely in
response to the increase in the Federal minimum wage, declined from nearly
two-fifths to only one-tenth. Further up the wage scale, the proportion earning
at least $1.50 rose from one-third to one-half, and the proportion receiving
$2 or more went from 5 to 13 percent.
_____ Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

T o tal1

1962

October

June

June
Average hourly
earnings

1965

1962

Manufacturing

Retail trade

1965

1962

1965

1960

June

1961

March

1962

1964

June
1965

(Cumulative percent)
-------------------— ........ .........
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4
9
13
31
38
47
68
95

5
7
8
9
10
24
50
87

12
26
33
47
50
58
72
92

19
24
28
31
33
46
60
80

16
40
50
58
63
69
81
97

28
34
40
46
48
60
72
88

(2)
12
23
33
38
44
73
96

(2 )
(2 )
3
26
35
46
70
97

( 2)
( 2)
2
22
32
41
66
96

1
1
1
1
1
20
59
95

(2)
(2)
(2)
15
46
90

Number o f employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

74

70

26

20

14

10

47

46

48

49

50

$1.30

$1.38

$1.37

$1.40

$1.47

$1.57

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1. 15
$1.20
$1. 25
$1. 30
$1.50
$2. 00

Average hourly earnings---- $1.37

$1.55

$1.31

$1.51

$1.22

-

2 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

In nonmanufacturing industries, average earnings increased by 20 cents
during the 3-year period.
Employees at most levels of the pay scale shared
in the advance.
The greatest change in the distribution was an increase from
one-half to two-thirds in the proportion earning at least $1.25 an hour.
Much
of this movement resulted from changes in the Federal minimum wage since the
1962 study. A minimum of $1 an hour, applicable mainly to employees in large
retailing organizations (about three-tenths of the areaf s retail work force) rose
to $1. 15 in September 1964 and was to become $1.25,3 months after the 1965
survey period. A $1.15 minimum in effect during 1962 moved to $1.25 for
employees in certain other nonmanufacturing establishments, e. g ., those in the
transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; finance, insurance, and real
estate industries. There were also noticeable changes higher in the wage scale.
The proportions earning at least $1.50 and at least $ 2 an hour rose from 1962
levels of 28 percent and 8 percent to 40 percent and 20 percent, respectively.
The increase of 8 cents an hour in retail trade earnings between 1962 and
1965, was uniformly distributed along the wage scale.
The proportion earning
$1. 15 or more rose from one-half to three-fifths and that earning $1. 25 or more
increased from fewer than two-fifths to more than one-half. Almost three-tenths
of the employees earned at least $1.50 an hour in 1965, compared to one-fifth



12

in 1962; and one-eighth received $ 2 or more where only a small proportion had
such earnings during the earlier survey. The retail wage advance would prob­
ably have been greater had not the proportion of employees earning less than
$ 1 an hour increased from one-sixth to nearly three-tenths. This resulted from
a decline in the total number of retail employees, but the number paid less than
$ 1 increased slightly.
Between October I960 and June 1965 earnings of nonsupervisory employees
in manufacturing industries rose 19 cents an hour. Most of this advance, 17 cents,
occurred since June 1962. Changes at the lower levels of the earnings distri­
bution demonstrate the influence of movements in the Federal minimum wage in
effect during the five surveys ($ 1 in October I960, $ 1. 15 in October 1961 and June
1962, and $1.25 in March 1964 and June 1965). As a result, nearly all em ­
ployees earned at least $1.25 in 1965, whereas almost two-fifths were paid less
than this amount in I960.
There were also significant increases at the middle
levels of the distribution, where the proportion in 1965 earning $ 1. 50 or more
an hour, 54 percent, was double that of I960.
The magnitude of change di­
minished above this level. For example, the proportion earning more than $1.70
rose by only 7 percentage points (17 to 24 percent).
Beaufort, T yrrell, and Washington Counties, N. C.
Beaufort, T yrrell, and Washington Counties are located along the northern
part of North Carolina’ s eastern seaboard. Somewhat sparsely populated, the
area contained 54,022 persons within an area of 1,566 square miles at the time
of the I960 census. The number of employees within the scope of the June 1965
survey, about 4, 900, was the smallest among the 15 selected areas. About
one-half of the employees were in manufacturing industries and one-half of the
nonmanufacturing group were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings of $ 1. 36 for all nonsupervisory em ­
ployees included in the study were the lowest among the 15 individual areas.
Median earnings were 6 cents lower than the average.
The middle one-half of
the work force earned between $1. 18 and $1.51 an hour. Almost one-fourth of
the employees had earnings of or just above $ 1. 25 an hour.
In nonmanufacturing industries, employees averaged $1.45 an hour. Nearly
three-tenths earned less than $1 and one-half less than $1.25. Although threetenths of the employees earned more than $ 1. 50 an hour, only one-tenth received
more than $2.
Earnings in retail trade averaged $1. 19 an hour, which was 26 cents less
than the average for other nonmanufacturing employees. Nearly two-fifths of the
retail employees earned less than $1 and more than two-thirds less than $1.25
an hour, accounting for three-fourths of all nonmanufacturing employees receiving
such earnings.
A ll but one-fifth of the retail employees received less than
$1.50 an hour.
Employees in manufacturing establishments had straight-time earnings of
$1.40 an hour, the lowest average among the selected southern areas. One
out of three earned the $1.25 Federal minimum wage or a few cents above, and
only 1 of 7 received more than $1.55 an hour.
This earnings distribution is
attributable largely to several low wage industries which were the area’ s major
employers. Among them, textiles, apparel, and lumber employed three-fourths
of the manufacturing work force. Most of the 175 employees earning less than
$1.25 an hour were in the food industry, mainly the processing of shellfish
which was not subject to the FLSA at the time of the survey.




13

Hours. A ll employees included in the survey worked an average of 38 hours
during a 1-week period in June 1965. This average was the lowest level among
the selected areas, and 1 of only 2 where the average workweek was under
40 hours. The relatively large proportion of employees, three-tenths, working
part time (less than 35 hours) was the key to the area hours levels, even though
the proportion one-fourth working a long week (48 hours or more) was exceeded in
only five other areas. The relatively high part-time component in the area did
not result from conditions in 1 or 2 large establishments or a single industry
group, but from the area’s industrial makeup in general. This was particularly
true for the food, apparel, and lumber industries in manufacturing, and for
wholesale trade, retail trade, and services in nonmanufacturing. Fewer than
one-sixth of the employees worked a 40-hour week, which was also the smallest
proportion among the 15 selected areas.
The average workweek in nonmanufacturing industries was 1 hour less than
that for all employees; however, the distribution of individual weekly hours was
nearly identical.
The only noteworthy difference was the slightly smaller pro­
portion (by 2 percentage points) of nonmanufacturing employees who worked
48 hours or more.
Employees in retail trade establishments also had an average workweek of
37 hours. Three-tenths were employed part-time, while nearly a fourth worked
at least 48 hours. Individual weekly hours were evenly distributed; the largest
concentration of employees at any one hour point along the scale, for example,
was fewer than one-tenth.
Weekly hours of employees in manufacturing industries averaged 39 and were
somewhat longer than the nonmanufacturing level. The proportions of employees
in the major categories of part-time, standard (40 hours), and long workweeks
were, however, substantially the same as those in nonmanufacturing industries,
as well as those for the area as a whole.
Wage Changes. In June 1965, average hourly earnings in the area were
17 cents greater than the $1. 19 level, recorded in June 1962. Changes in the dis­
tribution of earnings among the lower paid employees were acute, and clearly
measure the influence of movements of the Federal minimum wage. In 1962 when
the minimum was $1.25 an hour, one-fourth of the employees were clustered at or
near this point, and three-fifths received less than $1.25.
Three years later
when a $ 1. 25 standard was in effect, the proportion earning less than this amount
had declined to about one-fourth and the concentration of employees at the former
minimum had moved to the new one. There were also increases further up the
wage scale— the proportion earning at least $1.50, more than one-fourth in
1965, was double that of 1962. Changes beyond this point on the wage scale
were progressively smaller. The increase at the $ 1. 80 level, for example, was
only 4 percentage points, compared with 13 at $1.50.
Changes in the earnings of employees in nonmanufacturing industries, which
led to an increase of 15 cents an hour for the group between the 1962 and 1965
survey, were not as sharp as those for the entire area but they covered a wider
range. At the lower levels, the proportion of employees earning at least $1.15
an hour rose from one-half to three-fifths, and that receiving at least $ 1. 25 went
from two-fifths to more than one-half.
Further up the scale, the proportion of
three-tenths earning $1.50 or more in 1965 represented a rise from one-fifth
in 1962. In 1962, only 4 percent of the employees earned $ 2 or more an hour,
but in 1965, 11 percent had such earnings.



14

______ Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Total*

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade
June

1965

1962

1965

____________ Manufacturing
June

October

1962

1965

1960

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

21
29
32
57
61
70
86
97

16
20
23
26
27
50
73
93

36
46
50
58
61
69
81
96

29
36
40
47
48
60
71
89

43
58
65
69
71
77
84
98

39
51
57
66
68
73
81
90

10
40
64
68
71
82
92
97

8
16
19
57
66
74
92
99

6
13
15
55
61
71
91
99

4
5
7
8
10
52
87
99

3
3
6
6
7
40
74
97

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

48

49

24

24

14

13

26

23

24

23

25

Average hourly earnings---- $1.19

$1. 36

$1. 16

$1. 11

$1. 19

$1. 15

$1.20

$1.32

$1.40

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1.15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1. 50
$2. 00

$1.31

$1.22

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.

The earnings of retail trade employees rose 8 cents above June 1962, and
as reflected by the size of the increase, changes in the distribution of earnings
were not as sharp as those for all nonmanufacturing employees.
The greatest
change was an increase from 35 to 43 percent in the proportion of employees
earning $1. 15 or more, which can be attributed, largely, to a change in the
Federal minimum wage governing employees in large retail enterprises. (About
one-fourth of the retail work force was employed in such establishments in 1965. )
In 1962, one-sixth of the retail work force was clustered at the existing $1 mini­
mum; 3 years later this cluster was still one-eighth, but another of about onetenth appeared at $1.15, the new minimum. Changes at other pay levels were
relatively minor.
Average hourly earnings in the area’ s manufacturing establishments in­
creased 25 cents between October I960 and June 1965. Eighteen cents of this
advance occurred during the 3 years following the June 1962 study, which was
1 cent more than the area rise over the same time. Because of the area’ s lowwage manufacturing component, most of the change appeared to have been gen­
erated by the movement of the Federal minimum wage. During each of the five
surveys, the proportion of employees clustered at the minimum in operation at
the time ranged from 30 to 42 percent. The cluster moved up the scale as each
new increment became effective. The change in the minimum from $1 to $1.15
had no observable effect on employees at higher pay levels, for the proportion
of under one-tenth earning more than $1.50 was the same in June 1962 as it
was in October I960. However, in March 1964, 6 months after the $1.25 mini­
mum became operative, the proportion paid $1.50 or more rose to one-eighth,
and then in June 1965 to one-fourth. There was almost no change at the higher
pay levels ($2 and up) since the October I960 survey.

Chambers and Lee Counties, A la.
Chambers and Lee Counties lie in east central Alabama, bordering on
Georgia.
The area covers 1,210 square miles and has a population of 87,582
according to the I960 census. Auburn University is located in Lee County.



15

Nearly four-fifths of the approximately 13,200 employees included in the June
1965 survey were in manufacturing industries. Eight out of every ten manufacturing
employees worked in the area’s textile mills. About one-half of the employees
in nonmanufacturing industries were in retail trade establishments.
Earnings. Average straight-time earnings for all employees were $1.60 an
hour. The middle half of the work force earned between $ 1. 37 to $1. 81 an hour.
Median earnings, at $1.61 were about halfway between these amounts and 1 cent
above the average, reflecting the nearly symmetrical distribution of earnings
above and below the mean.
Average earnings of $1.31 an hour in nonmanufacturing industries were
29 cents less than the all-industry level. Three-tenths of the employees earned
less than $1 and almost one-half, less than $1.25.
Little more than one-fifth
of the employees earned as much as $ 1. 75 an hour.
Employees in retail trade averaged $1.29 an hour, 4 cents an hour less
than other nonmanufacturing employees.
The distribution of earnings in retail
trade closely resembled that for all nonmanufacturing industries, the only note­
worthy difference being the slightly larger concentration of employees at the
lower pay levels.
Fifty-one percent of the retail employees earned less than
$1.25 an hour, for example, compared to 47 percent of the nonmanufacturing
group as a whole.
Average earnings of $1. 68 an hour in manufacturing industries were 37 cents
higher than those in nonmanufacturing industries. The distribution of earnings in
manufacturing was heavily influenced by the wage structure in the textile industry.
Three-fifths of the employees earned between $1.50 and $ 2 an hour, the largest
such concentration among the 15 selected areas. There was no clustering near
the $1.25 Federal minimum wage, but one-fourth of the employees received less
than $1.50 an hour.
Hours. The duration of the workweek in Chambers and Lee Counties, an
average of 43 hours, led the selected southern areas. Nearly three-tenths of
the work force were on a 48-hour week and, altogether, more than two-fifths
worked this number of hours or more.
One-fifth of the employees worked
40 hours and one-eighth were part time (less than 35 hours a week).
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries worked an average of 41 hours
during a single week in June 1965. Nearly one-fourth worked exactly 40 hours,
but almost three-tenths were employed at least 48 hours. One-sixth of the em ­
ployees worked less than 35 hours.
Average weekly hours in the retail trade industry were the same as for
all nonmanufacturing industries, but individual workweeks were distributed dif­
ferently. Almost two-fifths of the retail employees worked at least 48 hours.
The workweek of about one-half of these was exactly 48 hours, making this the
most common period of employment. One-fifth of the employees were on parttime work, and about one-tenth worked 40 hours a week.
The level and distribution of weekly hours in manufacturing industries,
particularly textile m ill products, had a pronounced effect on the structure of
the area’s workweek.
The relatively long average week, 44 hours, resulted
from the large proportion, one-half, working 48 hours or more. One-third of
the manufacturing employees had a week of exactly 48 hours, compared to onefifth on a 40-hour week. Only one-eighth worked less than 35 hours.



16

Wage Changes. Average earnings of $1.60 in June 1965 exceeded the June
1962 level by 16 cents an hour.
Raising the Federal minimum wage to $1.25,
effective in September 1963, contributed to the improved earnings at the lower
pay levels, for the proportion of one-eighth earning less than this amount in
1965 was one-half that of 1962. In a sharper change further up the wage scale,
the proportion of employees earning at least $1.50 advanced from two-fifths to
two-thirds. The 1965 study also revealed that 14 percent of the employees had
earnings of $2 or more, whereas in 1962, only 4 percent of the employees had
such earnings.
______ Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Total *

_____________ June____________

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

___________ Manufacturing
October
1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8
11
13
20
24
32
59
87
96

7
10
11
11
12
18
35
75
86

37
48
52
62
65
70
79
90
93

30
37
42
45
47
59
68
82
86

45
60
67
69
71
75
86
93
96

32
41
44
49
51
61
69
81
85

1
5
9
16
20
23
67
93
99

1
2
3
17
20
24
65
90
98

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

140

132

29

30

14

14

107

111

111

$1.46

$1.51

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 00
$1. 05
$1.15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1. 5 0
$1.80
$2. 0 0

Average hourly earnings---- $1.44

$1.60

$1.16

$1.31

$1.07

$1.29

$1.43

(2)
1
2
9
14
22
54
86
96

(2 )
(2 )
1
1
1
9
35
78
90

105
$1.61

1
1
2
2
6
25
73
86

103
$1.68

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0* 5 percent.

Wage gains in nonmanufacturing industries, which averaged 15 cents an hour
over the June 1962 to June 1965 period, were registered at all levels of the pay
scale.
The proportion of employees earning at least $ 1. 25 an hour rose from
little more than one-third to over one-half and that receiving $1.50 or more
went from one-fifth to one-third. The concentrations at the $1 and $1. 15 levels
in 1962, each about one-tenth, were not as evident in 1965; many of these em ­
ployees, accompanying the change in the Federal minimum wage, moved up to
$1.25.
The proportion at $1.25 rose from 5 to 12 percent.
The earnings of nonsupervisory employees in retail stores advanced 22 cents
an hour, 13 cents more than the increase in the average received by employees
in other nonmanufacturing industries. The magnitude of the retail advance was
reflected throughout the earnings distribution.
The largest change was in the
proportion earning $1. 15 or more, which at 56 percent in June 1965, represented
an increase from the one-third recorded 3 years earlier. The proportion of em ­
ployees earning at least $1.50 an hour more than doubled from the 14 percent
in 1962, and those earning $2 or more an hour went from a relatively small
4 to 15 percent.
Changes in the Federal minimum wage (applicable to about
one-half the area's retail work force, mainly those in large enterprises) had an
apparent effect on the distribution of earnings.
There was a shift in the em ­
ployment concentrations from $ 1 or just above the minimum applicable in June
1962, to the $1.15 and $1.25 levels.
The form er rate was in operation in
June 1965 and the latter was to become effective 3 months later.



17

In June 1965, earnings in manufacturing industries were 25 cents higher
than the level recorded in October I960. Seventeen cents of this advance occurred
since the June 1962 survey. The greater change, by far, in the distribution of
wages was an increase in the proportion earning $ 1. 50 or more. Only one-third
of the employees in I960 were at this level, but three-fourths in 1965 had such
earnings. Further, one-fourth of the employees were earning at least $1.80 an
hour, compared to fewer than one-tenth in I960, and one-seventh had passed the
$2 point whereas only a handful had such earnings nearly 5 years earlier.
At
the lower pay levels, increases in the Federal minimum wage since the October
I960 survey served to bring one-fifth of the employees who earned less than
$1.25 in October I960 to at least this point by June 1965.

Charlotte and Sarasota Counties, F la.
Charlotte and Sarasota Counties, Fla. , are situated on the Gulf of Mexico,
south of Tampa Bay. Within the area’ s 1,291 square miles, there were 89,489
inhabitants at the time of the I960 census. Two-fifths of the population resided
in the city of Sarasota. Nearly 11,700 employees were included in the June
1965 survey, more than four-fifths of whom were in nonmanufacturing industries.
Retail trade accounted for one-half of these, and the services and finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries together for one-third. Because the Sarasota
area is a noted resort, employment in these groups was particularly large.
Earnings. Average earnings for all employees in the two-county area were
$1.67 an hour in June 1965. One-half of the employees earned more and onehalf less than $1.51 an hour. Earnings for the middle 50 percent of the em ­
ployees ranged between $1.24 and $2.01 an hour.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.60 an hour. Only
about one-eighth of the employees were paid less than $ 1, but three-tenths earned
less than $1.25. Almost one-half of the nonmanufacturing force earned at least
$1.50 an hour, and more than one-fifth received $ 2 or more.
Employees in retail establishments averaged $ 1. 53 an hour, which was
14 cents less than other nonmanufacturing workers, but the highest average for
the industry among the selected southern areas.
Two out of every five retail
employees earned at least $1.50, and about one-half of this proportion earned
more than $2 an hour. At the other end of the scale, however, one-sixth of the
employees were paid less than $1 an hour and more than one-third less than $1. 25.
These lower paid retail employees accounted for more than three-fifths of the
nonmanufacturing work force receiving such earnings.
Average earnings of $2.06 an hour for employees in manufacturing indus­
tries were 46 cents an hour higher than those in nonmanufacturing industries.
Three-fourths of the work force earned at least $1.50 an hour, nearly one-half
earned $ 2 or more, and over one-fourth received at least $2.50.
Two-thirds
of the employees who earned $2.50 or more worked in the electrical machinery
industry, which accounted for two-fifths of the manufacturing work force.
Hours. Employees in the area worked an average of 40 hours during the
survey week.
This was also the most common individual workweek, occupying
one-fourth of the employees.
One out of five employees were part time (less
than 35 hours a week), which was about the same proportion that worked a week
of 48 hours or more.



18

The average workweek in nonmanufacturing industries was 39 hours. Nearly
the same proportion (about one-fifth each) worked part time, 40 hours, or a long
workweek, reflecting the relatively uniform distribution of nonmanufacturing em ­
ployees along the hours scale.
Retail trade employees also averaged 39 hours.
The proportions of em ­
ployees in retail trade working less than 35 hours, and 48 hours or more were
similar to those for all nonmanufacturing employees, but fewer, one-sixth, worked
exactly 40 hours.
The average workweek in manufacturing industries was 41 hours.
More
than one-half of the work force was on a 40-hour week.
Only 1 employee in
10 worked part time during the survey week, and a slightly greater proportion,
an eighth, worked at least 48 hours.
Wage Changes. The area pay level in June 1965 was 15 cents an hour
higher than that recorded during the June 1962 study. Changes in the distribu­
tion of earnings were relatively uniform and affected employees at all levels of
pay. The proportion of employees earning less than $1. 15 an hour declined
from 27 percent to 19 percent, and the proportion earning less than $1.25 de­
creased in 3 years from 35 to 25 percent.
The advances further up the wage
scale were of equal degree. The proportion earning at least $1.50 an hour rose
from 44 to 51 percent, and the proportion receiving at least $2 increased from
19 to 26 percent.

______ Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Total1

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade
June

1965

1962

1965

___________ Manufacturing
October

1962

1965

1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 -------------------$ 1 . 0 5 -------------------$ 1 . 1 5 -------------------$ 1 . 2 0 -------------------$1. 25 -------------------$1. 3 0 -------------------$ 1 . 5 0 -------------------$2. 0 0 -------------------$ 2 . 5 0 --------------------

12
21
27
32
35
43
56
81
91

10
16
19
23
25
35
49
74
86

15
26
32
37
40
48
61
85
94

12
19
22
27
30
40
54
78
88

16
28
35
39
42
49
61
84
93

15
22
26
31
36
46
59
80
89

(2)
8
13
14
16
23
41
64
79

3
4
10
13
25
41
70
82

(2)
3
6
9
11
22
35
66
79

(2)
1
1
1
1
9
20
57
71

3
3
4
4
13
25
52
73

Number o f employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

99

117

80

98

40

49

19

18

20

23

19

$2. 20

$2. 06

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

Average hourly earnings---- $1.52

$1.67

$1.45

$1.60

$1.46

$1.53

$1.81

$1. 75

$1.83

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Earnings in nonmanufacturing industries rose 15 cents an hour, also. Be­
cause of the high ratio of nonmanufacturing employment to the total area employ­
ment, changes in the distribution of nonmanufacturing earnings were substantially
the same as for the area as a whole. The largest gains were in the proportions
earning at least $1.15 and at least $1.25, which increased, respectively, from
68 to 78 percent and from 60 to 70 percent.



19

Between 1962 and 1965, earnings in the retail trade industry increased
7 cents an hour.
This rise was somewhat lower than the advance of 23 cents
experienced by other nonmanufacturing employees as a group.
The greatest
improvement was in the proportion of retail employees paid $1.15 or more an
hour, which rose from 65 to 74 percent. Aside from the gain in the proportion
earning at least $ 1. 25 (58 to 64 percent), changes elsewhere in the distribution
were relatively minor.
The increases at the $1.15 and $1.25 levels can be
attributed largely to changes in the Federal minimum wage governing employees
of large establishments subject to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards
Act (FLSA). About one-third of the employees included in the surveys were in
such establishments. The existing minimum in June 1965 was $1. 15, which went
to $ 1. 25, 3 months after the survey period.
The movement of the area's manufacturing pay level, as registered in the
five surveys between October I960 and June 1965, followed an irregular course,
but resulted in an increase of 25 cents an hour.
During the 3 years following
the June 1962 study, average earnings rose 23 cents.
There was considerable
change in the distribution of wages since October I960, reflecting higher earnings
for employees at all levels of the scale.
Although relatively few employees
received less than $1.25 an hour even in I960 when the Federal minimum wage
was $ 1, nearly all of the one-sixth of the work force who had such earnings
then were earning at least $1.25 by 1965. Advances further up the scale were
more striking. The proportion earning at least $1.50 an hour went from threefifths to three-fourths, and that receiving at least $2 rose from about one-third
to nearly one-half.

Cooke and Grayson Counties, Tex.
Cooke and Grayson Counties, T ex., located north of the Dallas—
Fort Worth
area and bordering on Oklahoma, cover 675 square miles and had a population of
95,600 at the time of the I960 census.
The 12,200 employees covered by the
survey were equally divided between the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
industry groups.
Earnings. Average earnings for all employees included in the survey were
$1.61 an hour. One-half earned less and one-half more than $1.45 an hour.
Earnings for the middle one-half of the employees ranged between $ 1. 26 and $ 2 an
hour. Nearly one-sixth of the work force were clustered in the $ 1. 25 to $ 1. 30
wage interval.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $ 1. 39 an hour. Onefourth earned less than $ 1 and more than two-fifths received less than $ 1. 25.
Only one-third of the nonmanufacturing employees earned more than $1.50 an hour.
More than 2 out of every 5 nonmanufacturing employees worked in retail
trade establishments and averaged $ 1. 26 an hour. This relatively low earnings
level, which was 24 cents less than the mean level for employees in all other
nonmanufacturing industries, reflects the distribution of individual pay. Threetenths of the retail employees received less than $ 1 an hour (one-fifth less than
75 cents), and twice this number earned less than $1.25.
Although a sizable
proportion of employees, one-fourth, earned more than $1.50 an hour, the p ro­
portions at successively higher pay levels rapidly diminished— only one-tenth,
for example, earned $2 or more an hour. Little more than one-fifth of the area’ s
retail force were in establishments generally subject to the provisions of the



20

FLSA, as amended in September 1961, but nearly one-fourth were clustered
around either $1.15, the minimum wage in operation at the time of the survey,
or $1.25, the minimum to become effective 3 months after the survey period.
Average hourly earnings in manufacturing industries came to $1.84. Almost
all of the manufacturing employees earned at least $1.25, the Federal minimum
wage, but one-fifth were concentrated within 5 cents of this amount.
On the other
hand, more than three-fifths of the employees earned at least $1. 50 an hour, and
over one-third received at least $2. Two out of three manufacturing employees
were in 1 of 4 industries: Food and kindred products, textiles and textile m ill
products, apparel, and nonelectrical machinery.
The apparel industry, which
employed about one-sixth of the manufacturing force, accounted for one-half of
those earning between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour, but at the higher end of the
pay scale, the food and machinery industries accounted for three-fifths of those
earning $2 or more, although they employed only about one-third of the manu­
facturing complement.
Hours. During the selected week in June 1965, nonsupervisory employees
worked an average of 42 hours. Three out of ten employees were on a 40-hour
week, making this the most prevalent period of employment at the time of the
survey. Only one-seventh of the employees worked part time (less than 35 hours
a week) but the incidence of long weeks (48 hours or more) was substantial, 1 of
3 having such hours.
The average workweeks in nonmanufacturing and manufacturing industries
were 42 and 43 hours, respectively.
The distribution of hours in each closely
resembled that for all industries. For example, in both manufacturing and non­
manufacturing about three-tenths of the employees in each group of industries
worked 40 hours, and one-third were employed 48 or more. The only significant
difference was in the proportions working part time— one-sixth of the nonmanu­
facturing employees worked less than 35 hours during the week, somewhat more
than the one-eighth in manufacturing, which resulted in the slightly lower average
workweek for nonmanufacturing employees.
Although the data for the industry groups indicate a great degree of har­
mony, there were wide differences in hours of work among the major industries
within the groups.
Relatively few retail trade employees, 1 out of 8, worked
a 40-hour week, for example, and nearly one-half worked 48 hours or more.
In
manufacturing, the distribution of hours among employees in the food industry
closely followed that of the group as a whole, but two-fifths of the employees
in textile and textile products m ills worked exactly 48 hours. In apparel plants,
by contrast, two-fifths of the employees worked exactly 40 hours, and only about
one-eighth of the employees worked longer than that. Most of the nonelectrical
machinery employees were either on standard or long workweeks— more than onehalf worked 40 hours and one-fourth worked 48 hours or longer.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, average earnings in
Cooke and Grayson Counties increased from $1.49 to $1.61 an hour. Although
the advance reflects pay increases received by employees at most levels of the
pay scale, the greatest change benefited the lower paid employees. Of particular
note was the decline from two-fifths to less than one-fourth in the proportion of
employees earning less than $1.25 an hour.
For the most part, this change
reflected the movement of the Federal minimum wage from the $1.15 rate in
effect at the time of the 1962 study to $1.25, the cluster of employees at the
form er minimum moving up to the latter.
The increases at other points along
the wage scale were small by comparison, ranging from 3 to 8 percentage points.



21

Nonmanufacturing
A ll industries

T o tal1

Retail trade

_______ June
Average hourly
earnings

June
1965

1962

1962

1965

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1. 15
$1. 20
$1. 25
$1.30
$1.50
$2. 00
$2. 50

.............. .
-------------— ........ .
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number of employees
(in hundreds)------------ - -

16
22
25
37
41
47
59
79
93

13
16
19
22
23
39
52
75
89

30
40
44
51
53
59
69
85
95

26
31
36
43
44
56
66
85
93

39
55
62
65
67
73
82
94
98

31
38
43
56
58
69
77
90
96

116

122

63

63

29

28

$1.33

$1.39

$1. 18

$1. 26

Average hourly
earnings------------------- -$ 1 .4 9

$1.61

Manufa cturing
Total 1
June

October
1960

Food and kindred products

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

June

October
1960

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

-

-

-

-

-

-

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 00
$1.05
$1. 15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1. 50
$2. 00
$2. 50

-------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number of employees
(in hundreds)------------

(2)
13
22
29
33
37
48
75
94

( 2)
1
1
22
28
33
45
70
93

( 2)
1
2
21
27
34
47
72
91

(2)
(2)
( 2)
(2)
(2)
22
37
62
86

50

53

53

58

$1.69

$1.69

Average hourly
earnings--------------------- $ 1 .6 2

$1.85

1
1
1
20
38
64
86

(2)
7
11
11
12
12
16
59
96

(2)
(2)
12
14
16
22
51
94

(2 )
1
8
9
11
13
46
93

7
11
41
82

16
26
52
86

60

12

14

13

16

13

-

$1.84

$1.90

$1. 92

$2. 01

-

$2. 07

_

$1.98

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Average earnings in nonmanufacturing industries rose 6 cents an hour over
the 1962 level. Most of the improvement was in general upgrading of earnings
among employees clustered in the $1 to $1.30 an hour bracket, showing little
change in the proportions earning either less or more than these amounts.
Thus,
the proportion of nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $ 1 an hour de­
clined slightly, from three-tenths to slightly more than one-fourth, but the pro­
portion paid $1.30 or more increased slightly from two-fifths. The proportion
paid at least $1.25 grew from 47 to 56 percent.
Earnings for retail trade employees increased 8 cents an hour between
1962 and 1965, 5 cents more than the advance made by employees in all other
nonmanufacturing industries.
This rise resulted mainly because of a sharper



22

response in retail trade to applications of the 1961 amendments to the FLSA.
(About one-fifth of the retail employees were in establishments generally subject
to provisions of the legislation.) In June 1962, when the minimum was $1, onesixth of the employees were clustered at or near this level, and more than threefifths received less than $1. 15 an hour. Three years later, with a 15-cent in­
crement added, the proportion earning less than the minimum had declined to nearly
two-fifths, and a cluster comprising one-eighth of the employees appeared at or
just above the new standard. At other points on the wage scale changes were
relatively minor.
From October I960 to June 1965, earnings in manufacturing industries rose
22 cents an hour. Between June 1962 and June 1965 the advance was 15 cents,
more than double the increase registered in nonmanufacturing industries over the
same period. The effects of changes in ‘‘he Federal minimum wage on the dis­
tribution of employee earnings were clearly evident in the lower reaches of the
earnings array— more so than in the nonmanufacturing group due to the more
widespread application of the FLSA in manufacturing. (Nearly all manufacturing
employees in the area were in establishments subject to a Federal minimum
wage compared with about three-fifths of those in nonmanufacturing. ) Thus, the
1 out of 3 manufacturing employees who were earning less than $1.25 an hour
in October I960 were all earning at least this amount by June 1965.
About one-fifth of the work force was directly affected by movements of the
Federal minimum wage during this time, stepping up as a group at each incre­
mental change. As these changes were taking place, there were also advances
at the higher pay levels.
The proportion of employees earning $2 or more an
hour advanced from one-fourth in I960 to more than one-third by 1965, and the pro­
portion earning at- least $2. 50, although relatively small, doubled to one-seventh.

Florence County, S. C.
Florence County encompasses 805 square miles in east central South Caro­
lina and has a population of 84,438 (i960 census). The city of Florence is the
county's major urban area. More than one-half of the 12, 000 employees within
the scope of the survey were in manufacturing industries and about the same
proportion of nonmanufacturing employees were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings for all nonsupervisory employees were
$1.46. Median earnings were 8 cents lower. The middle 50 percent of the em­
ployees concentrated between $1.26 and $1.64 an hour.
Nearly one-fifth were
clustered between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1. 32 an hour.
Nearly
three-tenths of the nonmanufacturing employees earned less than $1 and some­
what more than two-fifths less than $1.25 an hour. Earnings for one-eighth of
the employees were concentrated between $1. 25 and $1. 30 an hour. Fewer than
one-third earned more than $1.50 an hour, and only one-eighth received more
than $ 2.
Average earnings of $1.20 an hour for employees in retail trade were
25 cents less than for those in other nonmanufacturing industries. Almost twofifths of the retail employees earned less than $1 an hour and more than onefourth received less than 75 cents.
Three-fifths were paid less than $1.25 an
hour, accounting for seven-tenths of all nonmanufacturing employees below that
level.
One-tenth of the workers were concentrated at each of two 5-cent wage
intervals— $ 1.15 to $1.20 and $1.25 to $ 1. 30 an hour.



23

Average earnings in manufacturing industries, at $1.58, were 26 cents an
hour higher than the average in the nonmanufacturing group. Most of this dis­
parity was attributable to the large proportion of nonmanufacturing employees
earning less than $1. 25 an hour, for beyond this point, the earnings distributions
of the two groups were relatively similar. Almost one-fourth of the employees
earned between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour, reflecting the influence of the Federal
minimum wage in the area*s manufacturing establishments.
Fewer than twofifths of the work force earned more than $1.50, and all but one-seventh were
paid less than $2. The level and distribution of earnings in the area reflected
the somewhat similar wage structures of the four leading industries: Textiles,
apparel, lumber, and electrical machinery, which together employed 70 percent
of the work force.
A ll had relatively large concentrations of employees at or
just above the minimum wage and in none did the proportion earning more than
$1.50 an hour exceed one-third.
Hours. The average workweek among all employees during a single week
in June 1965 was 40 hours.
One-fourth of the employees worked exactly this
number, one-fifth were employed 48 hours or more, and one-sixth were part
time (less than 35 hours).
Average weekly hours in nonmanufacturing industries, although 1 hour less
than the area level, were nevertheless distributed similarly. Slightly more em­
ployees, nearly one-fifth, worked part time, but also, more (almost one-fourth)
had a long workweek.
Retail trade employees worked an average of 39 hours during the survey
week, the same as that for the nonmanufacturing segment as a whole.
The dis­
tribution of individual workweeks, however, differed from the group array. Only
about one-sixth of the retail work force were on a 40-hour week, for example,
but the proportions working part time and long weeks, about one-fourth each,
were somewhat larger than in all nonmanufacturing.
The average workweek in manufacturing establishments was 41 hours. More
than one-fourth of the employees worked 40 hours and one-sixth were employed
48 or more.
Only about one-eighth of the work force were part time.
Wage Changes. Average earnings of all nonsupervisory employees ad­
vanced 15 cents an hour over the 3-year period following the June 1962 survey.
The most important change in the distribution of earnings was in the proportion
paid less than $1. 25 an hour which declined by more than one-half— from 53 per­
cent in 1962 to 22 percent in 1965. In this association, the one-fifth of the em­
ployees concentrated at the 1962 minimum wage of $1. 15 an hour moved up to
$1.25, the base in effect during June 1965. Changes at other levels of the dis­
tribution were smaller by comparison. The proportion receiving more than $1. 50
an hour, for example, increased from one-fourth to one-third.
Earnings in nonmanufacturing industries rose 9 cents an hour between
June 1962 and June 1965, mostly benefiting the lower paid employees. About
the same proportion earned less than $ 1 in 1965 as did in 1962 (29 percent and
34 percent, respectively), but the proportion earning less than $1.25 decreased
considerably, from 58 percent in 1962 to 44 percent in 1965. There was little
change further up the wage scale.
Average earnings of employees in retail trade increased 7 cents an hour
over the June 1962 level. The greatest change was in the proportion of employees
earning at least $1. 15 an hour, which rose from 37 to 54 percent.
This increase



24

______ Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

T o ta l1

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade
June

1965

1962

1965

____________ Manufacturing
June

October

1962

1965

1960

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1. 05
$1. 15
$1.20
$1. 25
$1.30
$1. 50
$1. 80
$2.00

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

17
23
25
44
53
60
75
84
91

14
16
18
20
22
40
66
82
86

34
42
46
55
58
62
72
87
89

29
33
36
42
44
57
69
83
87

44
58
63
68
70
72
79
88
92

38
43
46
56
59
68
77
86
88

(2)
21
32
42
63
71
82
90
93

2
7
8
40
52
61
77
89
92

2
4
6
34
47
59
78
88
93

(2)
1
2
2
3
32
72
87
89

1
1
2
2
2
25
63
81
85

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

101

120

49

56

25

29

49

50

52

54

65

$1.20

$1.29

$1.36

$1.38

$1.49

$1.58

Average hourly earnings---- $1.31

$1,.46

$1.23

$1.32

$1.13

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

appeared to be largely a result of the influence of changes in the Federal minimum
wage applicable to employees in large retail organizations.
(One-sixth of the
employees were in such organizations. ) Fourteen percent of the employees were
clustered at the $1 minimum in effect during the 1962 study; the main clusters,
together accounting for 19 percent in 1965, were either at $1.15 or $1.25, the
existing standard and the base that was to become effective 3 months after the
survey period. Only minor changes were recorded among higher paid employees.
Between October I960 and June 1965, average earnings in manufacturing
industries increased 29 cents an hour, 20 cents of which occurred after June 1962.
Changes in the distribution of earnings at the lower pay levels were striking.
In I960, when the Federal minimum wage was $1, nearly 2 out of 3 employees
earned less than $1. 25 an hour and fewer than one-fifth earned more than $1. 50.
By 1965, almost all manufacturing employees earned at least the $1. 25 minimum
wage, and the proportion receiving more than $1. 50 had doubled. The proportion
of employees earning the minimum wage in operation during the five separate
surveys of the area's manufacturing complex was substantial, ranging from onefifth to one-third. Moving up the wage scale, the proportion earning $ 2 or more
doubled between I960 and 1965, going from 7 to 15 percent.

Gaston County, N, C.
Gaston County, N. C. , which is in the southwestern part of the State bor­
dering on South Carolina, had a population of 127,074 at the time of the I960
census. Gastonia is the chief urban center. The more than 39,300 employees
included in the survey constituted the greatest number among the selected areas.
Four out of five were in manufacturing industries, chiefly in the production of
textile m ill products. About one-half of the 8,000 employees in nonmanufacturing
industries were in retail trade.




25

Earnings. Average earnings in all industries came to $1.59 an hour,
9 cents more than median earnings. One-fourth of the employees earned less than
$1.35 and one-fourth more than $1.74; thus, earnings for the middle 50 percent
of the employees were spread over a relatively narrow band of 39 cents an hour.
Average earnings
Nearly one-third of the
fifths less than $1.50.
earnings of $2 or more

in nonmanufacturing industries were $1.60 an hour.
employees earned less than $1.25 and almost threeOn the other hand, somewhat more than one-fifth had
an hour.

Employees in retail trade averaged $1.33 an hour, 52 cents an hour less
than other nonmanufacturing employees. One-sixth of the retail employees earned
less than $1 and somewhat more than one-half less than $1.25, accounting for
four-fifths of the nonmanufacturing employees with such earnings. Two-fifths of
the retail work force were clustered at 1 of 3 5-cent intervals, $1 to $1.05,
$1.15 to $1.20, and $1.25 to $1.30. The latter two concentrations, to a great
degree, reflect the effects of Federal minimum wage legislation, which in June
1965 was applicable to more than one-fourth of the area's retail employees,
mostly those in large enterprises. A rate of $1. 15 was operative at the time of
the survey, and $1. 25 was to be effective shortly thereafter.
Employees in manufacturing industries were paid an average of $1.59 an
hour, 1 cent less than those in the nonmanufacturing group.
The distribution
of earnings in manufacturing, however, differed substantially. Although nearly
all the employees earned at least $1.25 an hour, three-fifths were concentrated
between this amount and $1.55. Only one-tenth of the employees earned more
than $ 2 an hour, one-half the proportion at this level in nonmanufacturing in­
dustries.
The area's textile industry accounted for three-fourths of the man­
ufacturing work force and strongly influenced both the level and the relatively
narrow range of earnings in manufacturing, as well as in the area.
Hours. During a single week in June 1965, the average workweek for all
employees included in the study was 42 hours. Two-fifths of the work force were
employed at least 48 hours during the week, and one-sixth were part time (less
than 35 hours). The most common period of employment was 48 hours, engaging
23 percent of the employees, 1 percentage point more than the proportion on a 40hour week.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries, by contrast, averaged 38 hours
during the week. Almost one-fourth worked less than 35 hours and a slightly
higher proportion worked exactly 40 hours. About one-sixth of the employees
were employed 48 hours or longer.
The workweek in retail trade establishments was 37 hours, 2 hours less
than the average for employees in other nonmanufacturing industries. The length
of the week is attributable to the relatively large proportion of employees, threetenths, who worked part time.
Fewer than one-sixth of the retail employees
worked a 40-hour week; somewhat more, one-fifth, had a week of 48 hours
or longer.
The average week of 43 hours in manufacturing industries was noticeably
longer than that in nonmanufacturing. Whereas part-time employment was prev­
alent in the latter, a large part of the manufacturing force, 45 percent, worked



26

a long week (48 hours or more) and relatively few, 14 percent, worked less than
35 hours.
The most common workweek, one of 48 hours, occupied more than
one-fourth of the employees, compared with about one-fifth of a 40-hour week.
Wage Changes.
The area's nonsupervisory work force experienced a
12-cent-an-hour increase in earnings between the June 1962 and June 1965 sur­
veys. During the earlier study, one-fifth of the employees earned less than
$1.25 an hour and only one-third earned more than $1.50; 3 years later, fewer
than one-tenth had earnings at the lower level and one-half earned more than
$1.50 an hour.
The advance diminished, however, further up the wage scale.
The proportion earning $2 or more an hour, for example, increased from 8 to
13 percent.
Nonmanuin - ring_____
A ll
industries

T o ta l L

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade

_____________ June____________

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

__________ Manufacturing____________
October
1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
6
7
15
20
30
65
93
92

2
4
5
7
7
17
50
79
87

14
28
35
43
46
51
63
76
81

11
19
24
31
32
42
57
72
78

19
46
56
61
65
69
80
90
94

17
31
38
53
54
64
76
87
90

1
4
10
17
27
42
75
92
96

1
1
11
21
31
70
92
96

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

331

393

58

81

27

39

248

278

Average hourly earnings---- $1.47

$1.59

$1.48

$1.60

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1. 05
$1.15
$1. 20
$1.25
$1.30
$1. 5 0
$1. 80
$2. 00

$1.23

$1.33

$1.39

( 2)

$1.43

( 2)
1
1
9
15
26
65
90
95

(2)

(2)
( 2)
( 2)
(2 )
14
62
87
93

( 2)
e>
r>
1
1
11
48
81
89

273

283

312

$1.47

$1.52

$1.59

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

The increase in nonmanufacturing earnings, 12 cents an hour, was the
same as that for all employees, but most of the gain was limited to the lower
pay levels. The greatest change occurred in the proportion of employees earn­
ing at least $1.25 an hour, which increased from 54 percent in 1962 to 68 p er­
cent in 1965. This shift is compared with an improvement of only 6 percentage
points (37 percent to 43 percent) in the proportion earning more than $1.50.
Earnings in retail trade were 10 cents above the 1962 level. Most of the
change in the distribution of earnings appeared to be through the influence of
the 1961 amendments to the FLSA, which raised the minimum wage for employees
in establishments subject to the provisions of the act from $1, which was op­
erative during June 1962, to $1.15, the minimum in June 1965.
Consequently,
the proportion of employees earning at least $1.15 increased from 44 percent
to 62 percent. There was little change in the proportion earning less than $1 an
hour (almost one-fifth during each survey), but there was a significant change
at or just above the $1 level. In June 1962, more than one-fourth of the retail
store employees were clustered between $1 and $1.05, but by June 1965 the
proportion had been halved. Many of these employees stepped up to the $1.15 and
$1. 25 levels (the latter was to become the minimum 3 months after the 1965 study
period), where one-fourth of the work force was concentrated in June 1965.
Comparatively few changes occurred elsewhere in the earnings distribution.




27

Nonsupervisory employees in manufacturing industries received a 20-cent
increase in average hourly earnings between October I960 and June 1965, 12 cents
of which came between June 1962 and June 1965. Gains at the low end of the
earnings distribution seemed to be mainly in response to increases in the Federal
minimum wage (more than one-fourth of the employees earned less than $1. 25 an
hour in I960, whereas almost all earned at least $1.25 in 1965). The most
striking advances took place further up the wage scale, reflecting the movement
of wages in the textile industry.
The proportion earning $1.40 or more rose
from 37 to 75 percent, that earning $1.50 or more rose from 25 to 52 p er­
cent, and that earning at least $1.60 went from 19 to 35 percent. A major
portion of the manufacturing advances can be attributed to four rounds of "acrossthe-board" increases granted by southern textile industry employers since the
October I960 survey. The amounts of the increases, which covered both wages
and benefits, varied by company but were approximately 5 percent each and
became effective around February 1962, November 1963, September 1964, and
beginning in June 1965. 5

Harrison County, W. Va.
Harrison County is located in north central West Virginia and covers
418 square miles. About one-third of the area's population, 77,856, reside in
Clarksburg. Manufacturing industries accounted for one-half of the 12,400 em­
ployees included in the survey. The mining and retail trade industries each em­
ployed about one-fourth of the nonmanufacturing work force.

Earnings. Average hourly earnings of $2.33 for all employees were the
highest among the areas studied separately in the South.
The median earnings
level, $2.36, reflects a nearly symmetrical distribution of earnings above and
below the mean. The middle half of the employees earned between $1.61 and
$2.90 an hour. Two out of every five employees studied worked in either the
bituminous coal mining or glass manufacturing industries, contributing to this
area's relatively high wage level.
Average earnings of $2.02 an hour in nonmanufacturing industries were
the second highest among the selected southern areas. One-third of the em­
ployees earned more than $2.50 and one-fourth received $3 or more. At the
lower end of the wage scale, on the other hand, one-fifth of the employees earned
less than $1.25. The bituminous coal mining industry averaged $3.05 an hour
and accounted for two-thirds of the nonmanufacturing employees earning $3 or
more an hour. Most of the area's lower paid employees were in retail trade,
which accounted for three-fifths of the nonmanufacturing employees earning less
than $1.25 an hour.
Manufacturing earnings, which averaged $2. 63 an hour, were higher than in
any other southern area. A ll but one-sixth of the employees earned at least $ 2 an
hour and one-fifth earned more than $3. Seven out of eight employees worked
in the high paying glass, primary metals, and electrical machinery industries.

5 Current Wage Developments, Nos. 171 (March 1, 1962), 191 (November 1, 1963), 201 (September 1, 1964),
and 210 (June 1, 1965).




28

Hours. Area employees averaged, as a group, 40 hours of work during
the survey week. Nearly one-half of the force worked a 40-hour week, making
this the most common period of employment. Relatively few employees worked
part time (fewer than 35 hours) or long weeks (48 hours or more), one-eighth
and one-sixth, respectively.
The average workweek in nonmanufacturing industries was 41 hours, 1 hour
more than that of the area as a whole. The longer average week is attributable
to the larger proportion of two-fifths of nonmanufacturing employees working more
than 40 hours compared with three-tenths of the all-industry group. One-eighth
of the nonmanufacturing force was employed part time and one-third worked
exactly 40 hours. One-fifth had a week of 48 hours or more.
Employees in mining worked an average of 41 hours a week and those in
retail trade an average of 40. The distribution of individual hours in the two
groups was similar— in each, one-seventh worked less than 35 hours and onefourth were on a 40-hour week, but about one-fifth were employed 48 hours
or more.
Average weekly hours in manufacturing industries came to 40. A 40-hour
week was most common, engaging 3 out of every 5 employees.
Only one-tenth
and one-seventh of the work force had respective weeks of less than 35 hours or
48 hours or more.
Wage Changes. The earnings level in Harrison County rose 17 cents an
hour between June 1962 and June 1965. Changes in the distribution of earnings
reflected improvements all along the pay scale, especially among the higher paid
employees. The greatest growth was in the proportion earning $2. 50 an hour or
more, which went from 44 to 54 percent in 3 years. Increases of almost this
magnitude occurred at lower points on the scale.
The proportion earning less
than $1. 25, for example, fell from one-fifth to about one-tenth.




______ Nonmanufacturing
x
Total______
Retail trade

A ll
industries
June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

___________ Manufacturing____________

_____________ June____________

1965

1962

1965

1962

October

1965

1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$1.00 -------------------$1.05 -------------------$1.15 -------------------$ 1 . 2 0 --------------------$1. 25 --------------------$1. 30 -------------------$1.50 -------------------$2. 00 -------------------$2. 50 --------------------

8
13
14
18
19
23
27
44
66

7
8
9
10
11
15
20
36
56

16
24
27
32
34
40
47
63
73

14
17
18
21
22
30
37
56
67

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

128

124

66

61

Average hourly earnings — $2.16

$2. 33

$1. 81

$2.02

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

_

_

-

-

-

-

(2)
( 2)
8
12
30
36

-

_

_

-

-

-

( 2)
( 2)
3
4
5
8
27
62

(2)
( 2)
(2)
4
5
6
8
27
64

-

-

-

-

5
5
12
20

( 2)
1
2
3
3
3
5
12
54

4
8
17
53

2
4
17
46

14

13

55

51

52

54

63

$2.74

$3.05

$2. 52

$2.44

$2. 44

$2.53

$2. 63

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

-

29

Average earnings of employees in nonmanufacturing industries increased
21 cents since June 1962, as a result of increases at almost all levels of the
pay scale.
The major part of the advance among the lower paid employees
centered on changes in the Federal minimum wage. The proportion of employees
earning less than $1. 15 an hour declined from 27 to 18 percent, and the pro­
portion receiving less than $1.25 dropped from 34 to 22 percent.
The form er
rate, up from $ 1 in 1962, was prim arily applicable to the one-fourth of the retail
employees who worked in large organizations subject to the provisions of the FLSA,
but the latter, 10 cents higher than in 1962, applied to about four-fifths of the
other nonmanufacturing employees. Increases in the earnings of mining employ­
ees, whose average rose 31 cents an hour, contributed much to the change at the
higher levels of the distribution. Here, the proportion of employees earning at
least $2 an hour increased from 37 to 44 percent and that receiving $2.50 or
more, from 27 to 33 percent.
In the mining industry itself, the proportion of
employees earning $2 an hour or more went from 70 to 88 percent, and that
earning $3 or more increased from 58 to 75 percent.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries rose 19 cents an hour be­
tween June 1962 and June 1965, more than offsetting an earlier decline in the
level.
Because of high prevailing wages in the area, nearly all of the advance
concerned employees earning more than $2 an hour. The proportion at this level
increased from 73 percent in 1962 to 83 percent in 1965. The most noticeable
change, however, occurred at an even higher level, where the proportion earning
at least $2. 50 an hour rose from 36 to 54 percent in 3 years.

Hopkins and Muhlenberg Counties, Ky.
Located in the highlands of west central Kentucky, Hopkins and Muhlenberg
Counties contain a population of 66, 249 (i960 census) within a 1, 037 square mile
area.
Nonmanufacturing industries accounted for 86 percent of the work force
included in the study, the largest such proportion among the 15 selected areas.
About one-half of these were employed in the bituminous coal mining industry.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings for all nonsupervisory employees in­
cluded in the study were $2. 18. The median wage level, the amount above and
below which one-half the work force are found, was 39 cents an hour less than
the average. As the relationship between the average and median suggests, twofifths of the employees earned more than $3 an hour, but about the same pro­
portion earned less than $1.50.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $2.28 an hour, highest
among the selected southern areas. Although nearly one-fourth of the employees
earned less than $1. 25 an hour and about one-half less than $2 more than twofifths received over $3 an hour.
Nine out of ten employees at the latter wage
level were in the bituminous coal mining industry, where the average straighttime pay was $3. 15 an hour. (Excluding this group from the tabulations lowered
the nonmanufacturing pay level to $1.49 an hour.)
Earnings in retail trade, the area's second largest employer, averaged
$1.19 an hour. Two-fifths earned less than $1 and nearly two-thirds less than
$1.25. Seven-tenths of all nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $1.25
were in retail establishments, although this industry employed only one-fourth
of the employees.




30

Average earnings in manufacturing were $1. 54 an hour.
Seven out of ten
employees earned between $1.25 and $1.75 an hour, and 1 of 4 were concen­
trated at or just above the $1.25 minimum wage. Fewer than one-sixth of the
employees earned as much as $2. The relatively low paying food, apparel, and
lumber and wood products industries accounted for about three-fourths of the
manufacturing employees.
Hours. A ll employees averaged 40 hours of work during a selected week
in June 1965. One-fifth were employed part time (less than 35 hours) and almost
three-tenths worked exactly 40 hours, the most common workweek. A fourth of
the employees had a workweek of at least 48 hours in duration.
Nonmanufacturing employees also averaged 40 hours of work. Because of
this group*s employment dominance, the distribution of weekly hours was similar
to that for all employees. For the same reason, workweeks among miners, who
averaged 40 hours, were structured along the scale in substantially the same
manner as the all-employee array. Although retail trade employees worked an
average of 40 hours, too, individual weekly hours were arrayed differently from
those of the nonmanufacturing division as a whole. Slightly more than one-fifth
worked fewer than 35 hours, but fewer (one-seventh) worked a standard 40-hour
week and a larger proportion, one-third, had weeks of 48 hours or more.
Employees in manufacturing industries averaged 41 hours of work during
the survey week. The most common workweek, by far, was 40 hours, engaging
more than two-fifths of the employees. About one-eighth of the employees were
part time and about one-tenth worked a long week (48 hours or more).
Wage Changes. The area pay level rose 8 cents an hour between June 1962
and June 1965. These were advances at the lower and higher ends of the wage
scale but, in line with the area's industrial makeup, little or no change occurred
at the middle levels. For example, the proportion of employees earning $1. 25 an
hour or more increased from seven-tenths to four-fifths, and the proportion r e ­
ceiving over $3 an hour went from about one-fourth to nearly two-fifths, but the
proportions earning at least $1.50 (three-fifths) and at least $2 (one-half) r e ­
mained almost constant.
Noilmanufacturing_____________
industries
Average hourly
earnings

Total1

Mining

Retail trade

____ ___________________________________________________________
1962

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

___________Manufacturing____________
. . 9 * obejc_ .

1960

1961

June

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)

(2)
( 2)
2
5
13
14
15

41
55
62
66
69
72
81
92
97
98

39
46
49
61
63
70
78
92
97
99

1
27
48
50
54
71
83
98
100
100

1
5
8
34
39
50
63
80
86
99

4
5
8
36
41
54
64
78
88
99

(2 )
(2)
1
1
35
62
89
97
99

2
3
5
5
5
32
56
85
94
99

34

29

14

15

9

13

13

9

10

$2.95

$3.15

$1. 17

$1. 19

$1. 24

$1.56

$1.54

$1.52

$1.54

$ 1 . 0 0 ----------$1.05 ----------$ 1 . 1 5 ----------$ 1 . 2 0 ----------$ 1 . 2 5 ----------$ 1 . 3 0 -----------$1. 5 0 ----------$ 2 . 0 0 ----------r
$2. 5 0 -----------$3. 0 0 -----------

12
16
18
26
29
33
39
48
54
73

12
15
16
20
21
30
39
53
59
61

14
18
20
24
26
28
34
42
47
67

14
17
18
23
23
30
36
48
53
55

-

-

2
2
3
3
5
9
41

Number of employees
(in hundreds)----------

76

70

63

60

Average hourly
earnings----------------- $2.10

$2.18

$2.21

$2. 28

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under




-

-

-

-

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

-

31

A 7-cent wage increase was registered in nonmanufacturing industries.
Changes in the earnings distribution revealed only slight advances among the
lower paid employees (the proportion earning less than $1 an hour was 14 p er­
cent in both 1962 and 1965, and the proportion earning less than $1. 25— 26 p er­
cent in 1962— declined but 3 percentage points), and even slight declines along
the middle reaches of the scale.
The only substantial gain was in the pro­
portion earning $ 3 an hour or more, mainly in mining, which rose from 33 to
45 percent.
Earnings in the mining industry increased 20 cents above the 1962 level.
The movement of a large segment of employees from just below to a point above
$3 an hour (three-tenths earned between $2.80 and $3 an hour in 1962) resulted
in the proportion having such earnings rising from 59 to 85 percent.
Retail trade employees, on the other hand, experienced an increase of
2 cents during the 3-year period. The gain, though small and strictly confined
to the lower pay levels, represented a sizable relative advance for these em­
ployees. The proportion, fewer than two-fifths, earning $1.15 an hour or more
in 1962 increased to more than one-half by 1965. The influence of the Federal
minimum wage, although fewer than one-tenth of the retail employees were in com­
panies subject to the provisions of the FLSA, thus, appears to have been con­
siderable. Further, the same proportion, about one-seventh, of employees who
were clustered at the $1 Federal minimum wage in 1962 moved up to $1.15 by 1965.
Average earnings for manufacturing employees in June 1965 were 30 cents
higher than the level recorded in October I960. This advance was compressed
into a single year period between October I960 and October 1961, when the aver­
age rose 32 cents, only to decline 2 cents from that time to June 1965. Changes
at the upper levels of the pay scale from 1961 to 1965, seemed to represent a
period-to-period fluctuation that is often inherent in distributions of relatively
small numbers of employees, but those at the lower levels were clear and sus­
tained, and apparently strongly influenced by changes in the Federal minimum
wage. Thus, by March 1964 when the minimum was $1.25, nearly all employees
were earning at least that amount compared to fewer than one-half in October I960,
when the minimum was $1, and to only about three-fifths as late as June 1962
when the base was $1.15. The concentration of employees stepping up the pay
scale through the FLSA's influence was sizable, ranging from one-fourth to onethird of the work force at the time of each of the four surveys after October I960.

Jones County, M iss.
Jones County encompasses 706 square miles in southeastern Mississippi,
and contains a population of 59,542 (I960 census), almost one-half of whom re ­
side in Laurel. Three-fifths of the 8, 300 employees included in the study were
in manufacturing industries. Slightly more than one-half of the nonmanufacturing
employees were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings of all nonsupervisory employees were
$1.80, and median earnings were 1 cent an hour more. One-fourth of the em­
ployees earned less than $1.28 an hour and another one-fourth received more
than $ 2. 34 an hour.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.41 an hour. More
than one-fourth of the employees received less than $1 and about two-fifths less
than $1. 25. Approximately one-third earned $ 1.50 or more.



32

Employees in retail trade establishments averaged $1.15 an hour, which
is next to the lowest average earnings among the 15 selected southern areas.
Over one-fourth of the employees received less than 75 cents an hour, and twofifths received less than $1 an hour. A ll but one-third earned less than $1.25,
accounting for approximately three-fourths of all nonmanufacturing employees
receiving such earnings. More than one-half of the employees earning at least
$1.15 an hour were in establishments subject to the provisions of the FLSA,
although they employed only one-third of the work force.
Average earnings of $2. 07 an hour in manufacturing industries were 66 cents
higher than in the nonmanufacturing group and, by contrast, one-third highest
among the 15 southern areas.
Relatively few employees, one-eighth, were at
the $1.25 minimum wage, and all but one-fifth earned at least $1.50 an hour.
Almost two-thirds of the employees earned at least $2, and one-fifth earned more
than $2.50 an hour.
The lumber and wood products industry employed more
than three-fourths of the manufacturing work force and nearly all of those earn­
ing $ 2 an hour or more.
Hours. The average workweek in all industries was 42 hours during the
June survey period. Four out of five employees worked 40 hours or more.
The
most common workweek, one of exactly 40 hours, occupied one-third of the work
force, and more than one-fourth worked 48 hours or more. Only one-eighth of
the employees were part time (less than 35 hours).
Nonmanufacturing employees averaged 41 hours a week. One-third were
on a 40-hour week, and one-fifth worked 48 hours or more.
One-eighth were
employed on a part-time basis.
Although average weekly hours in retail trade were the same as those for
all nonmanufacturing employees, individual workweeks were distributed differently.
Larger proportions of retail employees, one-sixth, were part time and one-fourth
had long workweeks. On the other hand, fewer (one-fourth) worked the standard
40-hour week.
The average week of 43 hours in manufacturing industries was longer than
that in nonmanufacturing industries, but the hours were sim ilarly distributed in
some respects.
The proportions working part time and 40 hours were nearly
identical; however, the larger proportion, three-tenths, of manufacturing em­
ployees working 48 hours or more raised the group average.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965 average earnings of all
nonsupervisory employees increased from $1.60 to $1.80 an hour. There were
significant changes at the lower and higher levels of the wage scale, but those
at the middle level were relatively minor, which is reflective of the area’ s in­
dustrial composition. Mainly through the influence of Federal minimum wage
legislation the proportion of employees, one-sixth, earning less than $1.25 an
hour in 1965 was one-half that of 1962. Adjunctive to this change, the propor­
tion of employees, 12 percent, at the $1.15 minimum wage in 1962 moved as a
group to the $1.25 level. The proportion of employees earning $1.50 or more
increased, going from 54 to 62 percent, but sharper advancements occurred
further up the scale.
The proportion earning at least $2 an hour rose from
26 to 45 percent and that earning $2.50 or more went from 6 to 15 percent.



33

Nonmanufacturing______
A ll
industries

Total*______

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade

June

1965

1962

1965

___________ Manufacturing
October

1962

1965

1960

June

1961

March

Tune

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1.15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1. 50
$2. 0 0
$2. 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.................
--------------------

10
15
18
30
33
37
46
74
94

11
13
13
16
17
29
38
55
85

25
36
41
49
52
56
67
85
92

27
31
32
40
42
53
65
83
91

28
43
49
51
53
55
69
87
95

41
45
45
60
63
69
79
92
96

2
17
21
25
28
30
36
77
98

2
3
4
18
22
26
34
71
97

1
1
3
18
21
25
32
68
96

( 2)
4
5
5
5
19
26
34
88

(2)
(2)
( 2)
(2)
13
20
37
81

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

91

83

36

34

19

17

56

56

55

47

49

Average hourly earnings----

$1.60

$1.80

$1.36

$1.41

$1.30

$1. 15

$1.66

$1. 73

$1. 76

$1.95

$2. 07

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Nonmanufacturing employees, as a group, experienced an average gain in
earnings of 5 cents an hour in the 1962 to 1965 period.
This small advance,
compared with that for the rest of the area, is attributable to a decrease in the
earnings level in retail trade (which accounts for about one-half the nonman­
ufacturing work force).
The decline in the average was brought about by an
increase in the number of employees earning less than $1 an hour, coupled
with the loss of some at the higher earnings levels. Earnings in other nonman­
ufacturing industries rose 24 cents.
Earnings in manufacturing industries increased 41 cents an hour from Octo­
ber I960 to June 1965. During the last 3 years, they rose 31 cents anhour.
Employees at all levels of the wage distribution shared in the advance. At the
lower levels, the main agent of the increase seemed to be the FLSA, as amended
in 1961, which served to raise the minimum wage from $1 in I960 to $1.15 in
1961 to $1.25 in 1963. Through its operation, the three-tenths of the work force
earning less than $1.25 in I960 were all at the new rate or higher by 1965.
As each new increment went into effect, the employees clustered within 5 cents
of the previous minimum, ranging in size from 13 to 15 percent of the work force,
stepped up the scale intact. Gains at the higher pay levels were even more
impressive. The proportion earning $ 2 an hour or more increased from fewer
than one-fourth in I960 to more than three-fifths by 1965. At the time of the
first survey in the area, only 2 percent of the manufacturing employees earned
as much as $2.50 an hour but by 1965, nearly 1 out of 5 had such earnings.

Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties, F la.
Lake and Pasco Counties are located in the central portion of the Florida
peninsula and Polk County to the west bordering on the Gulf of Mexico.
The
area adjoins the Tampa—
St. Petersburg complex. According to the I960 census,
the three counties contained 289,307 persons within an area of 3,608 square



34

miles, by far the largest of the selected areas in both categories. The area’ s
economy is varied, and has three major and distinct sources: The growing,
processing, and distributing of citrus fruits and their byproducts; tourism; and
phosphate mining, prim arily for use in manufacturing fertilizers.
Lakeland
(Polk County), having a population of over 40,000, is the largest city. About
three-tenths of the 32,500 employees included in the study were in manufacturing
industries. Retail trade accounted for more than two-fifths of the nonmanufac­
turing workers and mining for one-sixth.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings of all nonsupervisory employees were
$1.72, which is 14 cents more than median earnings.
The middle half of the
work force earned between $1.29 and $2.09 an hour.
The nearly 23,000 employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1. 68
an hour. Approximately one-fourth of these earned less than $1.25, but more
than one-half received $1.50 an hour or more, and three-tenths had earnings of
at least $2. Two-thirds of the employees earning less than $1.25 were in retail
trade, although the mining industry accounted for over two-fifths of those earn­
ing $ 2 an hour or more.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries were $1.81 an hour. Seven
out of every ten employees earned at least $1.50 an hour, and 3 of 10 received
$2 or more. About one-sixth were concentrated at the $1.25 Federal minimum
wage.
Two-fifths of those earning $2 or more were employed in the chemical
industry which employed only one-sixth of the manufacturing work force.
The food and food processing industry (mainly canning and packaging) ac­
counted for more than two-fifths of the manufacturing employees included in the
study. Their average hourly earnings, $1.58, were 41 cents less than in other
manufacturing industries. The proportion of employees, one-sixth, clustered at
the minimum wage ($1.25 to $1.30 an hour) was not extreme; however, the
middle one-half of the work force concentrated within the relatively narrow band
of $1.40 to $1.72 an hour. Only one-tenth earned as much as $2 an hour.
Hours. The length of the average workweek in the area was 42 hours during
the June 1965 survey period. One-sixth of the employees worked part time (less
than 35 hours), and one-fourth worked the standard 40-hour week.
The area’ s
relatively long average workweek resulted from the 1 in 3 who worked 48 hours
or more.
Long weeks were prevalent throughout the area, as reflected by the aver­
age hours worked by employees in the two major industry segments— 42 in non­
manufacturing industries and 43 in manufacturing.
There were also marked
similarities in the manner in which individual weekly hours were distributed
within the two groups.
In each, fewer than one-sixth of the employees worked
part time, about one-fourth were on a 40-hour week, and about one-third worked
48 hours or more. Most (more than seven-tenths) of the nonmanufacturing em­
ployees having a long workweek were either in retailing or the phosphate mining
industries which together accounted for less than three-fifths of the work force.
Long workweeks were typical in the food and food processing industry, which
was in a period of relatively high production during June 1965. Average weekly
hours for all food employees were 45; however, more than two-fifths of the com­
plement worked longer than 48 hours; the largest concentration of employees along
the hours scale, one-sixth, was at the interval between 50 and 51 hours. This
industry accounted for about three-fifths of the manufacturing employees on a long
workweek, but for only one-fourth of those working the standard 40-hour week.
By contrast, the chemical industry, one-sixth of the work force, accounted for
one-third of the employees on a 40-hour week.




35

Wage Changes. Average earnings in all industries within the scope of the
survey rose 2$ cents an hour between June 1962 and June 1965, reflecting in­
creases received not only by the lower paid but the higher paid employees as
well. The most noticeable portion of the advance centered around the points on
the pay scale involved in the movements of the Federal minimum wage during
this period. The proportion of employees earning less than $1.25 fe ll in 3 years
from 2 out of 5 to only 1 of 6. In 1962, about one-eighth of the area work force
was clustered at each of two 5-cent wage intervals— $1—
$1.05 and $ 1. 15— 1. 20.
$
By 1965, the only noticeable cluster, one-eighth, was at $1.25—
$1.30 and only
one-sixth of the employees were paid less than $1. 25. Moving up the wage scale,
the proportion of employees earning at least $1.50 an hour increased from twofifths to nearly three-fifths, and that of employees earning $2 or more, from onesixth to three-tenths.
Manufacturing___________________________
A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

June
Average hourly
earnings
1962
1965

Total1

June
1962

October

1965

1960

_______

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

Food and kindred products
October
1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

( Cum ulativei percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 .0 0 --$1.05 —
$1.15 —
$1.20 —
$1. 25---$1.30 —
$1.50 —
$2.00 —

9
20
24
36
40
45
61
83

8
10
12
15
16
28
42
71

14
30
34
42
46
51
61
82

12
15
17
21
23
33
47
71

Number o f em­
ployees (in
hundreds)------

342

325

222

Average hourly
earnings-------- $1.47

$1. 72

$1.45

(2 )
9
17
22
25
33
53
80

1
2
3
17
21
29
47
75

1
2
4
22
28
35
61
83

1
2
2
3
3
17
42
79

227

76

89

120

$1.68

$1.61

$1.67

$1.56

(2 )
(2 )
(2)
15
31
70

(2)
8
15
21
24
33
67
96

1
3
4
22
26
34
68
94

2
3
6
27
33
40
78
96

2
3
4
4
4
17
47
94

(2)
16
35
92

130

98

32

37

67

76

43

$1.69

$1.81

$1.40

$1.43

$1.38

$1.53

$1.58

-

_
_
_

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.

Hourly earnings of employees in nonmanufacturing industries increased
23 cents over the 3 years. The most prominent change in the distribution of earn­
ings was the reduction in the proportion of employees earning less than $1. 25 an
hour— the 1965 level (23 percent) being one-half that of 1962. Declines of some­
what diminishing magnitude occurred at each step of the wage scale down to the
$1 level, below which there was little change.
Toward the top of the scale,
the proportion of employees earning at least $1.50 rose from two-fifths to more
than one-half, and that earning at least $2 from one-sixth to nearly three-tenths.
Average earnings of nonsupervisory employees in manufacturing industries
rose 20 cents an hour between October I960 and June 1965, despite a 5-centan-hour decline in the wage level between October I960 and June 1962. Sea­
sonality of the citrus industry plus survey timing was responsible partly for the
sporadic changes in earnings in the area.
The October I960 and 1961 studies
were performed during the off-season for much of this key industry when com­
panies maintain only skeletal forces (usually relatively high paid maintenance
and office workers) on the payroll. The three later surveys, on the other hand,




36

took place during periods of full production when the work force included the
usually lower paid seasonal employees. Thus, between October I960 and October
1961 the manufacturing earnings level increased 6 cents, fell 11 cents below this
level by June of the following year, but was higher during the succeeding sur­
veys.
Changes in the distribution of earnings reflect not only the advancing
Federal minimum wage ($1 in effect in October I960, $1.15 the following year,
to $1.25 in March 1964), but also the other factors that influence the wage level
in an area. As a result, practically all employees earned at least $1.25 an
hour by June 1965 (1 out of 4 did not receive that amount in I960), and the p ro­
portions earning $1.50 and $2 or more advanced from less than one-half to
seven-tenths, and from one-fifth to three-tenths, respectively.
Employees in the food and food processing industry registered an 18-cent
increase in hourly earnings between October I960 and June 1965. During the
period from October I960 to June 1962, however, the level declined 2 cents,
but rose 20 cents between that time and June 1965. In addition to the sea­
sonal and survey timing influences already mentioned, an extreme freeze in the
winter of 1962 greatly affected the size of the 1964 and 1965 citrus crops and,
ultimately, that of the processing industry work force.
These factors notwith­
standing, changes in the distribution of earnings raised the industry earnings level
over the 5-year period. The proportion earning less than $1. 25 an hour fluctuated
from one-fourth to one-third between the I960 and 1962 surveys, when the Federal
minimum wage was at $ 1 and $1.15, respectively, to a point where nearly all
employees earned at least this amount by the time of the 1964 and 1965 studies.
The proportion earning at least $1.50 an hour also gained strikingly. From onefifth to one-third of the employees had such earnings during the three early sur­
veys, but the proportion grew to more than one-half in 1964, and then to nearly
two-thirds by 1965. As the proportion of employees receiving $2 an hour or
more did not exceed one-tenth during any of the surveys, the concentration of em­
ployment within the $1.50 to $2 wage interval doubled to 57 percent between
I960 and 1965.
Loudon and McMinn Counties, Tenn.
Loudon and McMinn Counties lie in the hilly eastern portion of Tennessee
and extend over 675 square miles. At the time of the I960 census, the area
had a population of 57,419. Lenoir City and Loudon are the chief urban centers.
Of the estimated 9,100 workers surveyed, four-fifths were in manufacturing.
More than two-fifths of these were employed by the textile and the paper and
paper products industries. One-half of the nonmanufacturing employees were
engaged in retail trade.
Earnings. Average earnings of $1. 64 for all employees within scope of the
survey were 20 cents an hour more than median earnings. One-fourth of the
employees earned at least $1.83 and a like proportion less than $1.29 an hour.
One out of five employees earned between $1. 25 and $1. 30 an hour.
Average earnings of $1. 23 an hour in nonmanufacturing industries were the
lowest among the selected southern areas. One-third of the employees earned
less than $1 and one-half less than $1. 25 an hour. Less than one-fourth received
more than $1.50 an hour. About two-thirds of those receiving earnings below
$1 and below $1.25 were in retail trade.
Employees in manufacturing industries averaged $1.74 an hour, 51 cents
more than those in nonmanufacturing establishments. Although most of the em­
ployees received at least the $1.25 minimum wage, earnings for more than onefifth were concentrated at or just above the minimum, and more than one-half
earned less than $1.50. One-fourth of the employees were paid $2 an hour or
more. Over one-half of these were in the paper and paper products industries.



37

Three-tenths of the manufacturing work force was employed in textile m ills,
where average earnings came to $1.45 an hour. Approximately 1 of every
3 employees was clustered at or near the minimum wage and the earnings of
2 of 3 were within the relatively narrow range of $1. 25—
$1. 50. These proportions
accounted for about two-fifths of the manufacturing employees receiving such earn­
ings. Only one-fifth of those paid more than $1.50 an hour were in textile mills.
Hours. During the survey period, the average week of work in the area
was 40 hours.
Contributing to this level was the relatively large proportion,
more than two-fifths, who worked exactly 40 hours. Part-tim e work (fewer than
35 hours) and long hours (48 or more) occupied about equal proportions, onesixth, of the work force.
The average workweek in nonmanufacturing industries, at 42 hours, was
longer than that for all employees. One-fourth of the employees were clus­
tered at the 40-hour point on the scale and slightly more than this worked at
least 48 hours. One-sixth of the employees were part time. Three-fourths of
those having a long workweek and two-thirds of those working part time were
in retail trade.
Because of a preponderance of employment in manufacturing, the average
workweek in this group of industries, 40 hours, and the distribution of hours
closely resembled that of all employees. Over two-fifths of the employees worked
exactly 40 hours and one-seventh were employed either part time or long
weeks.
The distribution of hours in the textile industry was much the same,
except that relatively fewer employees, 8 percent, worked a long week and r e ­
latively more, nearly one-fifth, worked fewer than 35 hours. The latter factor
lowered the average hours in textile mills to 38.
Wage Changes. Earnings in the area rose by 15 cents an hour between
June 1962 and June 1965. As a result of the increase in the Federal minimum
wage from $1.15, applicable during the 1962 survey, to $1.25 an hour, the pro­
portion of employees earning at least the latter rate went from 55 to 89 percent,
but the group of employees concentrated at the existing minimum remained at
about 1 out of 5 during each survey. The proportion of employees earning $1.50
or more also increased, going from one-third to more than two-fifths; however,
changes in earnings at higher levels of the wage scale were relatively minor.
_______________________________Manufa cturi ng___________________________
A ll
industries

Nonmanufa cturi ng

June

June

Average hourly
earnings
1962

1965

1962

_______________ Total_________________
June

October

1965

1960

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

________ Textile mill products
June

October
1960

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$1. 00 —
$1. 05 —
$1.15 —
$1.20 —
$1.25 —
$1.30 —
$1.50 —
$2.00 —

9
12
14
37
45
53
66
83

6
8
10
10
11
30
58
79

38
48
53
63
69
75
82
91

32
40
46
49
51
62
77
93

(2)
22
37
43
48
54
63
80

1
2
3
32
41
48
62
79

1
2
3
30
39
48
62
80

(2)
(2)
I
1
1
30
54
75

(2)
(2)
1
1
1
23
54
75

1
34
58
66
72
77
87
97

1
3
5
45
57
65
81
95

2
4
5
43
56
66
83
97

(2)
( 2)
1
2
3
42
72
97

1
1
2
3
3
34
67
94

Number of em­
ployees (in
hundreds)----

93

91

20

18

65

71

73

68

73

26

26

26

22

22

Average hourly
earnings------ $1.49

$1.64

$1.14

$1.23

$1.52

$1.59

$1.58

$1.71

$1.74

$1.21

$1.32

$1.31

$1.41

$1.45

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.




38

Earnings of employees in nonmanufacturing industries increased 9 cents an
hour during the 3 years following the 1962 study, which was somewhat less than
the overall area advance. This smaller advance can be attributed partially to the
smaller proportion of nonmanufacturing employees (fewer than one-half) than of
those in manufacturing (nearly all) that were in establishments subject to Federal
minimum wage legislation. Changes in the distribution of earnings at the $1„25
level were, therefore, less marked among the nonmanufacturing employees, yet
the proportion earning at least this amount did rise from fewer than one-third to
nearly one-half.
There were improvements all along the scale to the $ 2 point
but they were minor in comparison.
Between October I960 and June 1965, average wages of nonsupervisory
employees in manufacturing industries increased 22 cents an hour, 16 cents of
which occurred since June 1962.
Changes in the minimum wage, which went
from $1 in effect during the I960 study, to $1.15 during those in 1961 and 1962,
and then to $1.25 in 1964 and 1965 served to raise the earnings of nearly onehalf of the work force from some point below to at least the $1.25 level. The
proportion of employees at or just above the existing minimum ranged from
22 to 29 percent during the five surveys. Although these rather abrupt changes
focused attention at the lower levels, advances also occurred further up the wage
scale. The proportion earning $1.50 an hour or more increased from less than
two-fifths in I960 to almost one-half by 1965, and that part receiving at least
$2 rose from one-fifth to one-fourth.
The level of earnings in the area’ s textile m ills rose 24 cents an hour be­
tween October I960 and June 1965. In relative terms, the advance was about
20 percent compared with approximately 8 percent among the other manufacturing,
industries. The most striking changes occurred prim arily through the influence
of Federal minimum wage legislation. In I960, when the minimum was $1,
more than seven-tenths of the textile employees earned less than $1.25 an hour
and one-third were concentrated near the minimum; a year later when $1.15 was
the base in operation, the proportion of employees earning less than $1.25 had
dropped to less than three-fifths, but the cluster at the minimum had enlarged to
two-fifths. Practically all employees received the $1.25 minimum in March 1964
and two-fifths were at just above it.
By 1965, the proportion of employees at
the $1.25 to $1. 30 level had declined somewhat to fewer than one-third.
The rising wage floor between October I960 and June 1962 appeared to have
little influence on earnings further up the scale; the proportions earning $1.50 or
more rose from 13 to 17 percent. By March 1964, however, the proportion paid
at least $1.50 had increased to 28 percent and a year later to 33 percent. There
was little or no change in the proportions at higher pay levels.

Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties, Md.
Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties lie in the eastern shore region
of Maryland between the Atlantic Ocean and the Chesapeake Bay and cover 1,195
square miles. In I960, the area’ s population was 92,406; Salisbury, in Wicomico
County, is the largest urban center.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings of the approximately 16,300 employees
included in the survey were $1.59, which is 20 cents more than median earnings.
Earnings for the middle half of the work force were distributed over a 50-cent
range, from $1.28 to $1.78. One-sixth of the employees were clustered in a
single 5-cent wage interval, $1.25 to $1.30 an hour.



39

More than two-fifths of the employees included in the survey were in non­
manufacturing industries where the average pay level was $1.65 an hour. Indi­
vidual earnings were fairly broadly distributed along the scale; one-fourth earned
less than $1.25, almost one-half earned at least $1.50, and another one-fourth
received $2 or more.
Almost one-half of the nonmanufacturing employees were in the retail trade
industry. Average hourly earnings for these employees, $1.45, were 39 cents
less than the level in other nonmanufacturing industries. One-sixth of the retail
employees earned less than $1 an hour and more than one-third received less
than $1.25, the proportions at these respective levels accounting for four-fifths
and seven-tenths of the nonmanufacturing employees with such earnings. Fewer
than one-third of the employees earned more than $1.50 an hour. A sizable
proportion, 18 percent, was clustered at $1.25 to $1.30 an hour, at or just
above the Federal minimum wage for employees in large enterprises which was
to become effective 3 months after the time of the survey. Relatively few em­
ployees, on the other hand, were concentrated at the $1.15 minimum rate in
existence for establishments covered by the minimum wage law. About onefourth of the retail work force were in such establishments.
Wholesale trade establishments employed nearly one-sixth of the nonmanu­
facturing work force and paid an average of $1.62 an hour. One out of five of
these employees earned $2 an hour or more, and 3 out of 5 earned at least
$1.50. One-fifth of the employees earned less than $1.30 an hour, about onehalf of whom earned at least $1. 25.
The 9,200 employees in manufacturing industries earned $1.54 an hour.
This average, 11 cents an hour lower than that for the area's nonmanufacturing
employees and next to the lowest among the 15 selected southern areas, is in­
dicative of the large concentration of employees at the lower end of the wage
scale.
One-half of the work force earned between $1.25 and $1.40 an hour
(1 out of 5 were at or just above the $1.25 Federal minimum wage).
Less
than one-sixth of the employees had earnings of as much as $ 2 an hour.
One-half of the manufacturing employees were in the food industry, prim arily
vegetable canning and seafood and poultry processing.
Earnings for these em­
ployees, which averaged $1.44 an hour, were spread over a very narrow range—
almost three-fifths received between $1.25 and $1.40 an hour, the greater part
of which were in the $1.30 to $1.35 wage interval.
Contributing to the rela­
tively low pay level in this industry were the 1 out of 8 who earned less than
$1.25 an hour. (Certain industries, in this case seafood processing, were not
subject to Federal minimum wage legislation in June 1965.)
Average earnings in the apparel industry, which accounted for about onefourth of the manufacturing employees, were also $1.44 an hour.
Two out of
every five employees earned the $1.25 minimum wage or just above, and all but
one-third earned less than $1.50 an hour.
Hours. The average workweek for all employees was 39 hours. Although
one-sixth of the employees worked at least 48 hours and almost three-fifths
worked 40 hours or more, the relatively large proportion of part-time employees,
one-fourth, lowered the area average. (The average fell beneath 40 in only one
other selected southern area.) Nearly one-fourth worked exactly 40 hours, mak­
ing this the most common workweek among all employees.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged 39
the same number of weekly hours as all employees; their
distributed similarly. About the same proportion, one-fifth,
time, on a standard week of 40 hours, or had a week of 48 hours



hours, which is
hours were also
was either part
or more.

40

Retail trade employees averaged 38 hours during the survey week. Three
out of ten employees worked part time, but nearly the same proportion, onefourth, had weeks of at least 48 hours.
The single most prevalent period of
employment, 40 hours, occupied one-sixth of the force.
Hours of work in the wholesale trade industry, 41 a week, were somewhat
longer than the average.
This long working period can be attributed to the
smaller proportion of wholesale employees having a workweek of less than
35 hours (about 1 out of 10). The proportion working exactly 40 hours and those
having a long workweek, about one-fourth in each category, did not differ sub­
stantially from the concentrations at these levels in the all-nonmanufacturing
distribution.
The average workweek for employees in manufacturing industries was
1 hour less than that for nonmanufacturing employees. This was one of only two
selected areas having a large concentration of part-time manufacturing em­
ployees— almost three-tenths had a workweek of less than 35 hours. A week of
exactly 40 hours, however, was the most common one, engaging one-fourth of
the work force. A relatively small proportion, fewer than one-sixth, worked
long hours.
Employees in the two predominant manufacturing industries, food processing
and apparel, had workweeks of 38 and 37 hours, respectively. Both industries
had substantial proportions on part-time work, one-third in food and one-fourth
in apparel. More than one-fifth of the employees in food processing establish­
ments had weeks of at least 48 hours, but almost none of those in apparel plants
had such hours. On the other hand, nearly two-fifths of the latter group worked
a 40-hour week compared with only about one-tenth of the form er.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, the area wage level
rose 15 cents an hour.
The sharpest gain was in the proportion of employees
earning at least $1.25 an hour, which advanced from 53 to 85 percent.
Coin­
cident to this change, one-sixth of the work force at the $1.15 minimum wage
in 1962 moved up to $1.25, the standard in June 1965. Other than an increase
in the proportion earning $1.50 or more, which rose from 31 to 41 percent,
changes at other levels of the distribution were relatively minor.




____________ Nonmanufacturing_______________
Wholesale
Total*
trade
Retail trade

A ll
industries

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 -------------------$1.05 --------------------$1.15 --------------------$1. 20 --------------------$1.25 -------------------$1.30 -------------------$1.50 -------------------$ 2 . 0 0 --------------------

7
13
16
33
47
57
69
86

5
8
10
13
15
32
59
81

14
26
31
37
39
47
59
80

10
16
18
23
25
38
53
76

( 2)
( 2)
2
20
27
37
56
89

4
5
6
9
9
21
40
79

17
34
39
45
47
55
66
85

17
25
28
33
36
54
69
84

Number o f employees
(in hundreds) -----------------

140

163

56

70

4

10

37

34

Average hourly earnings----

$1.44

$1.59

$1.50

$1.65

$1.50

$1.62

$1.41

$1.45

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

41

__________________________________Ma nufacturi ng__________________________________
T o ta l1
_____________
October
Average hourly
earnings
1960 1961

June
1962

March June
1964

1965

Food and kindred products
October
1960

1961

_____________ Apparel

June March

June

1962

1965

1964

June March '[une

October
1960

1961

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00----- $1.05 —
$1. 15 —
$1.20 —
$1.25 —
$1.30 —
$1.50 —
$2. 00----

Number o f em­
ployees (in
hundreds) ------

( 2)
25
40
57
66
72
80
94

1
4
5
37
53
65
76
92

1
4
5
30
52
63
76
90

1
1
2
4
4
27
66
86

1
2
3
6
7
27
64
85

(2)
16
31
61
78
82
91
98

3
8
10
38
62
77
87
98

2
5
8
25
61
78
88
97

1
3
4
7
8
21
82
95

3
4
5
11
13
24
77
94

1
48
70
79
82
87
95
98

(2)
1
1
42
57
64
82
98

( 2)
4
5
41
57
65
84
98

(2)
2
2
2
46
76
95

( 2)
(2)
2
3
4
43
66
95

91

94

84

81

92

43

48

38

37

46

18

22

22

18

22

Average hourly
earnings........ $1.28

$1.37 $1.40

$1.52 $1.54

$1.21 $1.27

$1.29 $1.38

$1.44 $1.13

$1.31 $1.30

$1.41 $1.44

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Earnings in nonmanufacturing industries also increased 15 cents during the
3-year period, resulting mainly from a general elevation among employees at
the lower pay intervals. Although the concentration of employees receiving less
than $1 an hour was relatively unchanged, the proportions at each step of the
scale to the $1.25 level were lower by 10 to 14 percentage points.
The p ro­
portion of employees earning at least $1. 25 an hour was raised from three-fifths
to three-fourths. During this time, the largest cluster of employment at a single
wage interval, one-eighth, moved from $ 1 $1.05 to $1.25—
—
$1.30.
The increase in retail trade earnings since 1962 was only 4 cents an hour,
but there were noticeable improvements among employees earning between $1 and
$1.25.
The proportion of employees, one-sixth, earning less than $1 an hour
did not change in 3 years but the proportion clustered at or just above $1 declined
by one-half (from 17 to 8 percent), reducing the proportion earning less than
$1.05 from one-third to one-fourth.
Uniform increases of 11 to 12 percentage points were registered from this
point to the $1.25 level of the wage scale, where the advance slowed. However,
as a consequence the proportion earning at least $1.25 an hour rose from 53 to
64 percent, the cluster of employees that had been at $1 in 1962 shifted to $1. 25.
The latter rate was to become the Federal minimum wage in large retail enter­
prises 3 months after the survey period, but there was no large concentration at
the $1.15 rate in effect at the time.
Acute changes in earnings at the lower pay levels contributed to an increase
of 12 cents in average earnings in the wholesale trade industry. The proportion
of employees earning less than $1.25 decreased from more than one-fourth to
less than one-tenth, and in line with a change in the Federal minimum wage
from $1.15 to $1.25, the concentration at the lower level moved to the higher.
There were substantial increases further up the scale, also.
The proportion
earning at least $1.50 went from somewhat more than two-fifths to three-fifths,
and even the proportion paid $2 or more an hour doubled, from one-tenth to
one-fifth.
In almost 5 years, October I960 to June 1965, the average pay level in
manufacturing industries increased 26 cents an hour. Employees all along the
pay scale shared in the gain, but the most acute changes took place at the lower



42

levels. As the Federal minimum wage rose during this period, each new standard
provided a successively higher earnings base for those employees subject to the
FLSA.
Through this influence the proportion of employees earning less than
$1. 25, 2 out of 3 in October I960 when the minimum wage was $1, fell to about
1 of 20 by March 1964 and June 1965, when the $ 1. 25 minimum was in operation.
The cluster of employees earning at or less than 5 cents above the minimums
moved up as a group after each change, ranging in size from one-fifth to nearly
one-third of the work force. Further up the wage scale, the proportion of em­
ployees earning at least $1.50 increased from 20 to 36 percent, and the propor­
tion receiving at least $ 2 an hour more than doubled, going from 6 to 15 percent.
Average wages in the food processing and apparel industries varied in their
advance from 23 and 31 cents an hour, respectively, since October I960, yet
there were similarities in the changes in the earnings distribution.
The pro­
portions earning more than $ 2 an hour were more or less the same in 1965 as
in I960; at the middle and lower portions of the array, however, the change was
often sharp. In October I960, about 4 out of 5 employees in each industry earned
less than $1.25 an hour and fewer than 1 of 10 received as much as $1.50. At
the time of the 1965 survey, having the $1.25 minimum wage generally appli­
cable, these proportions had decreased to 13 percent of the food processing em­
ployees (not all of which were in establishments subject to the FLSA provisions)
and 4 percent of those in apparel plants, and earnings of at least $1.50 were
received by nearly one-fourth of the form er and one-third of the latter group.
The concentrations of employment at the Federal minimum rates varied in the
two industries; during 4 of the 5 studies between 11 and 17 percent of the food
employees were clustered at the $1, $1.15, or $1.25 bases (in 1961, 28 p er­
cent earned the newly installed $1.15 minimum), although this incidence was
much greater among employees in apparel manufacturing, ranging between 36 and
47 percent during all of the surveys.

Union County, A rk .
Union County lies in the south central portion of Arkansas, bordering on
Louisiana, and covers an area of 1,052 square miles. About one-half the area*s
population of 49,518 (I960 census) reside in El Dorado. Approximately 6,900
employees were within the scope of the survey. Slightly less than one-half the
employees surveyed were in manufacturing, seven-tenths of whom were employed
in the lumber and wood products, chemicals, and petroleum refining industries.
Two-fifths of the employees in the nonmanufacturing industry group were in
retail trade.
Earnings. Average earnings for all employees included in the survey were
$1.79 an hour. Median earnings were substantially lower, $1.46 an hour, re ­
flecting the concentrations of employees at the lower end of the pay scale. The
middle half of the work force was spread over a relatively wide range of $1. 26 to
$ 2. 36 an hour.
Average earnings in nonmanufacturing industries were $1.47 an hour. Onefourth of the employees earned less than $1 and two-fifths less than $1.25. One
out of seven concentrated between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour. More than threefifths of the nonmanufacturing employees received less than $1.50 an hour. The
distribution of earnings in retail trade industry had a depressing effect on the
overall nonmanufacturing pay level.
For example, this industry accounted for
about one-half of the employees having earnings of less than $1.25 and $1.50
an hour, but for only one-fourth of those earning more than $1.50.



43

Employees in manufacturing industries averaged $2.12 an hour, which was
next to the highest among the 15 selected areas. There were large concentrations
of employees at the lower pay levels, however. One out of five clustered around
the $1.25 Federal minimum wage, and twice this proportion earned less than
$1.50 an hour. Most of these employees were in the lumber and wood prod­
ucts industry, although it accounted for only one-third of the manufacturing work
force. At the higher pay levels, more than two-fifths of the employees earned
$2 or more, and one-fourth received at least $ 3 an hour.
The chemical and
petroleum industries, accounting for less than two-fifths of the force, employed
nearly nine-tenths of those earning at least $2, and almost all who earned in
excess of $2.50 an hour.
Hours. The average workweek for all nonsupervisory employees during a
selected week in June 1965 was 41 hours. Two out of every five employees worked
40 hours a week, and 1 o f 4 w o r k e d 48 hours or more.
Only one-eighth
of the area’ s work force was part time (less than 35 hours).
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries also averaged 41 hours of work
during the survey week. The most common workweek, 40 hours, occupied onefourth of the employees, but three-tenths worked 48 hours or more. More than
one-half of the employees working long hours were in the retail trade industry.
One out of six nonmanufacturing employees was working part time during the
selected week.
Average hours in manufacturing, 41, were the same as in nonmanufacturing
industries; however, the distribution differed substantially. A 40-hour week,
engaging over one-half of the work force, dominated in most industries, par­
ticularly the chemical and petroleum group where all but a handful worked such
hours. Long weeks (48 hours or more) were worked by one-sixth of the manu­
facturing employees, nearly two-thirds of whom were in the lumber and wood
products industry. Part-tim e work was rare in manufacturing plants.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and 1965, the area earnings level rose
9 cents an hour, prompted, in great part, by an increase in the Federal minimum
wage in September 1963. This change, from $1.15 to $1.25 an hour, affected
1 out of 6 employees, who were concentrated at or just above the $1. 15 minimum
in 1962. As a result, the proportion earning less than $1. 25 declined by one-half,
from two-fifths to one-fifth. Changes at other pay levels were relatively minor.
A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

June

1965

1962

Manufa cturi ng
October

1965

1960

June

1961

March

Tune

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 . 0 0 --------------$1.05 -------------------$1. 15 -------------------$1. 2 0 -------------------$1.25 -------------------$1.30 -------------------$ 1 . 5 0 ------------------$2. 00 -------------------$2. 50 -------------------$3. 00 --------------------

15
19
22
38
41
46
55
68
79
87

13
15
17
20
21
37
52
68
78
85

30
37
42
49
51
55
64
81
93
98

25
28
32
37
39
53
63
78
91
95

17
26
32
34
37
42
47
61
80

1
2
2
26
32
38
47
55
66
79

1
2
2
27
33
38
45
55
66
78

25
38
53
61
73

1
1
1
1
20
40
58
64
74

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

71

69

35

36

34

37

36

35

33

Average hourly earnings---- $1. 70

$1. 79

$1.47

$2.00

$2.00

$2. 16

$2 . 1 2




1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

$1.38

$2.01

i l)

(1
)
(*)
(*)
2

44

Nonmanufacturing employees experienced an average hourly increase of
9 cents, also, during the 3-year period. Again, the 1961 amendments to the
FLSA appear to have provided the main impetus for the wage change. The new
minimums, $1.15 applying in large retail enterprises and $1.25 in other in­
dustries subject to the provisions of the act (two-fifths of the employees in
total), raised the proportions of employees earning at least $1.15 and $1. 25 from
three-fifths to two-thirds and from one-half to three-fifths, respectively.
By
contrast, there was only a few percentage points change at other levels of the
pay scale.
Earnings in manufacturing industries advanced 12 cents an hour between
October I960 and June 1965. A ll but 1 cent of this, however, took place during
the 3-year period since June 1962. Because the area’ s industrial complex has
sizable concentrations of both relatively high wage and low wage industries, there
were noticeable changes at the extreme ends of the earnings distribution, but
little or none at the middle levels. The proportion earning less than $1.50 an
hour remained constant at about two-fifths over the nearly 5-year span, but the
proportion earning less than $1.25, one-third at the time of the I960, 1961, and
1962 studies, had their earnings elevated by an ascending Federal minimum wage
to at least the $1.25 point by March 1964. As a result, the earnings of twofifths of the work force were compressed from a spread of 50 cents to one of
25 cents. No other noteworthy change occurred unt i 1 t he $3 level, where the
proportion earning at least this amount increased from one-fifth to one-fourth.

Washington County, Va.
Washington County, including the independent city of Bristol, is situated
in southwestern Virginia, bordering on Tennessee. The area covers 579 square
miles and in I960 had a population of 55,220. Nearly three-fifths of the 9,000 em­
ployees included in the survey were in manufacturing industries; nonelectrical
machinery employed a third of these, and food processing and apparel together
accounted for three-tenths. More than one-half of the nonmanufacturing em­
ployees were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average earnings for all employees were $1. 65 an hour. Median
earnings came to $1.55, although the middle half of the work force earned be­
tween $1.27 and $2 an hour.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.37 an hour. More
than one-fourth of these earned less than $1 and nearly one-half received less
than $1.25 an hour. Only three-tenths of the employees received as much as
$ 1.50 an hour.
Earnings in the retail trade industries were $1.18 an hour, 40 cents an
hour less than the average received by all other nonmanufacturing employees.
The lower level of retail pay reflects the distribution of individual earnings.
One out of three employees earned less than $1 and 2 out of 3 received less
than $1.25. Retail trade accounted for only one-fifth of all employees included
in the study, but for three-fourths of those earning less than $1. 25.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries were $1.84 an hour. Seven
out of ten employees received at least $1. 50 an hour, and 1 of 3 at least $2. The
food processing and apparel industries employed half the workers earning less
than $1.50 an hour, and the machinery industry employed somewhat more than
half of those earning $2 or more.



45

Hours. During the June 1965 survey week, the average period of employ­
ment among all employees was 41 hours.
The most common workweek was
40 hours, occupying three-tenths of the employees. Nearly one-fifth of the work
force was employed 48 hours or more and one-sixth worked less than 35.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged 41 hours of work. A l­
most one-fifth of the employees worked a 40-hour week, making this the most
common period of employment. More than one-fourth, however, worked at least
48 hours. About one-sixth of the nonmanufacturing employees were part time
(fewer than 35 hours a week).
The average workweek in retail trade was also 41 hours but the distribution
of retail employees along the hours scale differed substantially from that of
nonmanufacturing employees as a whole. Less than one-tenth were employed
exactly 40 hours, for example, although the proportions working fewer than
35 hours, one-fifth, and 48 hours or more, one-third, were larger.
In manufacturing industries the average workweek was 40 hours, and almost
two-fifths of the employees had such hours.
Relatively small proportions of
one-eighth worked part time or had long weeks.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965 the area earnings level
rose 14 cents an hour. Most of the increase, as reflected by changes in the
distribution of earnings, occurred among employees at the lower pay levels.
The proportion of employees clustered in the $1 to $1.25 interval, declined from
one-fifth in 1962 to one-tenth in 1965, boosting the proportion earning at least
$1. 25 an hour from two-thirds to four-fifths. There were also increases further
up the pay scale.
The proportion earning $1.50 an hour or more moved from
45 to 55 percent; however, from this level upward, the changes were minor.

______ Nonmanufacturing_____
A ll
industries

Total

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Retail trade

_____________ June____________

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

___________ Manufacturing___________
October
1960

June

1961

March

June

1962

1964

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$1.00------------------$1.05------------------$1. 15-----------------$1.20------ -----------$1.25............ .......
$1.30— ................
$1.50........ ...........
$2.00------------------$2.50.............. —

15
19
21
30
34
41
55
79
92

11
13
14
18
20
30
45
75
91

32
42
46
55
57
64
72
88
92

27
31
34
41
46
55
70
86
93

35
52
59
70
72
77
82
93
95

34
38
42
56
65
70
81
94
98

1
4
13
18
22
26
37
71
97

(2)
( 2)
1
13
18
26
41
74
93

(1
2)
(2)
1
10
16
22
40
72
92

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
9
35
68
88

(2)
(2 )
1
1
12
28
66
90

Number o f employees
(in hundreds)---------------

84

90

38

38

15

20

42

47

46

40

52

$1.69

$1.70

$1.72

$1.81

$1.84

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

Average hourly earnings---- $1.51

$1.65

$1.26

$1.37

$1.17

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.




$1.18

_

46

The pay level in nonmanufacturing industries increased 11 cents an hour
in 3 years, prim arily resulting from gains for the lower paid employees. Move­
ments of the Federal minimum wage appear to have been largely responsible for
the changes. For example, the proportion of employees, 46 percent, earning
less than $1.15 an hour in 1962 declined to 34 percent in 1965, and that part
receiving less than $1.25 decreased from 57 to 46 percent.
The clusters of
employees at or just above the existing minima also moved up. One-fifth of
the employees earned either $1 (the minimum for retail establishments subject
to the law) or $1.15 (the minimum for other subject establishments) in 1962; by
1965, a similar proportion grouped near the $1.15 and $1.25 levels (the new
minima).
There was almost no change at higher pay levels.
Average earnings in retail trade hardly changed d u r i n g
t he 3-year
period; however, there were significant changes in the distribution of individual
pay that paralleled the movement of the Federal minimum wage.
The largest
cluster of employees in a single 5-cent wage interval in 1962 was the 17 percent
earning between $1 and $1.05 an hour; in 1965, the largest concentration, 14 p er­
cent, was at $1.15 to $1.20.
This movement raised the proportion of retail
employees receiving at least $1.15 an hour from two-fifths to nearly three-fifths.
About one-half of the area's retail work force were in establishments generally
subject to the provisions of the FLSA.
The changes elsewhere in the earnings
distribution were minor.
Earnings in manufacturing industries rose 15 cents an hour between October
I960 and June 1965.
The most obvious overall wage change over the span of
almost 5 years stemmed from increases in the Federal minimum wage, which
moved from $1 at the time of the October I960 study, to $1.15 in effect during
the October 1961 and June 1962 surveys, to $1.25 in March 1964 and June 1965.
Although there was no concentration at the $1 level in I960 (this minimum
had been operative for 4 years), each of the subsequent studies found about onetenth of the employees at the respective $1.15 and $1. 25 standards. As a result,
the 1 out of 5 employees who earned less than $1.25 in I960, were earning at
least $1.25 by June 1965. There were also gains among the higher paid manu­
facturing employees during this period.
The proportion paid $1.50 an hour
or more increased from 63 to 72 percent, and the proportion earning $2.50 or
more rose from 3 to 10 percent.

North Central Region
Earnings
In nonmetropolitan areas of the North Central region, nonsupervisory em­
ployees averaged $1.98 an hour during the June 1965 survey week. Median
earnings were 12 cents less than the average. The middle half of the work force
earned between $1. 38 and $2.45 an hour. Nearly seven-tenths of the 2. 3 million
employees within the scope of the survey had earnings of at least $1. 50 an hour
and all but one-eighth earned at least $1.25, although the latter proportion
amounted to more than a quarter of a million employees.
Two-fifths of the
employees received $2 or more, and close to one-fourth earned at least $2.50.
Nonmanufacturing. Average earnings in nonmanufacturing industries which
accounted for roughly 1 million employees, were $1.70 an hour. One-fourth of
the nonmanufacturing employees earned less than $1.25 an hour, accounting for
nearly all of those in the region with such earnings; almost one-half earned less
than $1.50 an hour. On the other hand, about one-fourth of the employees,
more than 250, 000, had earnings of at least $2 an hour.



47

One-half of the nonmanufacturing work force were in retail trade, where
average earnings were $1.59 an hour.
The distribution of retail earnings was
similar to that for all nonmanufacturing employees, except that slightly larger
proportions were concentrated at the lower pay levels.
Most of the employees
earning less than $1.30 an hour (more than two-fifths had such earnings) were
concentrated in three 5-cent wage intervals— 9 percent at $1 to $1.05, 6 percent
at $1.15 to $1.20, and 12 percent at $1.25 to $1.30.
The relatively large
cluster at or just above $1.25 an hour, in some part, reflected the influence
of an approaching change in the Federal minimum wage, which in September
1965, 3 months following the survey period, was to raise the minimum hourly
wage of nearly one-fourth of the region's retail employees (mostly in large
enterprises) to $1.25.
Further up the wage scale, more than two-fifths of
the employees earned at least $1.50 an hour, but less than one-fifth earned
$ 2 an hour or more.
Among other nonmanufacturing industries, separate tabulations are provided
for wholesale trade and finance, insurance, and real estate, which together em­
ployed one-sixth of the work force.
Employees in the form er averaged $1.76
and those in the latter, $1.69 an hour. Nearly two-thirds of the employees in
wholesale trade, earned between $1.25 and $2 an hour, and one-eighth were
concentrated at or near the Federal minimum wage of $1.25. More of the em­
ployees in finance, insurance, and real estate, nearly three-fourths, earned
between $1.25 and $2 an hour, and about the same proportion as in wholesale
trade were clustered at or just above $1.25.
Manufacturing. In manufacturing industries , which employed slightly more
than one-half of the employees included in the study, average hourly earnings
were $2.19 an hour, 49 cents more than the average in nonmanufacturing. D if­
ferences in the distributions of earnings for the two industry groups were evident
throughout the pay scale. Three out of five employees in manufacturing earned
$2 or more and 3 out of 10 earned at least $2.50 an hour. Earnings of less
than $1.50 an hour were received by a relatively small proportion of employees,
one-sixth. Because of the generally high level of manufacturing earnings, only
6 percent of the employees were clustered at or just above the $1.25 Federal
minimum wage.
Nearly one-half of the manufacturing work force were employed in five in­
dustries: Food and kindred products, primary metals, fabricated metal products,
nonelectrical machinery, and electrical machinery, each accounting for from
8 to 12 percent of the total.
Except for the food and kindred products group,
average earnings in these industries were from 14 to 30 cents an hour higher
than the all-manufacturing level.
Hours
The 2. 3 million nonsupervisory employees worked an average of 40 hours
during the June 1965 survey week.
Along the scale of hours, one-sixth of
the employees worked less than 35 hours, close to one-third worked exactly
40 hours, making this the most common workweek, and one-fourth worked
48 hours or longer.
The two broad industry categories into which the employees were grouped—
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing— varied both in average weekly hours and
in the distribution of individual hours.
Employees in manufacturing industries



48

worked an average of 41 hours, 2 hours longer than those in nonmanufacturing.
The shorter average workweek for the latter group is explained by the differences
in the distribution of individual weekly hours. More employees in each industry
group were clustered at exactly 40 hours than at any other interval, but the
proportion in manufacturing was 38 percent compared with only 23 percent in
nonmanufacturing. On the other hand, a smaller proportion of manufacturing
employees worked part time (less than 35 hours) than did those in nonmanufactur­
ing, 13 and 25 percent, respectively. The proportions in each group having long
workweeks (48 hours or more) were more similar; 26 percent of the employees
in nonmanufacturing and 21 percent of those in manufacturing had such hours.
Employees in retail trade also worked 39 hours, on the average, during
the survey week. Because one-half of the nonmanufacturing employees included
in the study were in retail establishments, the distribution of their weekly hours
had considerable influence on the overall nonmanufacturing array, particularly
at the lower and upper ends of the hours scale. The proportions of retail em­
ployees having a workweek of 48 hours or more, and those working less than
35 hours during the survey week, nearly three-tenths each, were greater than
those of all nonmanufacturing employees.
Nonetheless, the largest concentra­
tion of employees at a single point in the hours scale was at 40; this proportion,
one-sixth, however, was somewhat smaller than the one for all nonmanufacturing
industries.
The average workweek for wholesale trade employees, 45 hours, was 6 hours
longer than the average for all nonmanufacturing employees. Although a week
of exactly 40 hours was worked by slightly more than one-fifth of the employees,
making this the most prevalent single workweek, over two-fifths worked 48 hours
or more, accounting for the relatively long average week for the industry as a
whole.
Few employees worked part time. In contrast, employees in finance,
insurance, and real estate establishments worked 35 hours a week on the average.
Somewhat more than one-fifth worked part time, one-third worked from 35 to
less than 40 hours, and one-fourth worked exactly 40 hours.
Thus, only onefifth worked more than 40 hours during the week.

Wage Changes
Average straight-time hourly earnings of nonsupervisory employees in the
North Central region rose 21 cents over the June 1962 level. The increase was
distributed over all levels of the pay scale.
The movement of earnings among
the lower paid employees was largely in response to increases in the Federal
minimum wage during this period. At the time of the 1962 survey, the minimum
wage, which covered most manufacturing employees and certain nonmanufacturing
groups, was $1.15 an hour; by 1965, it was $1.25. M oreover, employees in
large retail enterprises (nearly one-fourth of the retail work force) were subject
to the provisions of the Fair Labor
Standards Act, as amended in 1961.
In
1962, the minimum wage for such
employees was $1 an hour and in 1965 at
least $1.15. Under these influences, the proportions of employees earning less
than $1.15 an hour declined from
16 percent to 9percent between 1962 and
1965, and those earning less than $1.25 an hour declined from 26 to 12 percent
over the same span of time. At the higher wage levels, the proportion of em­
ployees earning at least $1.50 an hour rose from 58 to 69 percent, and the
proportion earning at least $2 an hour went from 34 to 44 percent, as is shown
in the following tabulation.



49

_______________________ Nonm a nufa cturi ng______________________
Finance, inWholesale
surance, and
1
7
Total
trade
Retail trade
real estate

A ll
industries
June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

June

1965

1962

June

1965

1962

June______

1965

1962

1965

June
1962

Manufacturing
October

1965

1960

June
1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
2
7
13
16
23
26
31
42
66
85
95

1
4
7
9
11
12
20
31
56
77
91

5
14
26
32
37
40
47
59
81
90
96

3
9
16
20
23
25
36
49
74
86
93

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------- 2,288

2,302

1,107

1,018

113

Average hourly
earnings--------------- $1.77

$1.98

$1.55

$1.70

$1.56

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0.75------------$1.00-----------$1.05----------$1. 15-----------$1.20-----------$1.25-----------$1.30-----------$1.50-----------$2.00-----------$2. 50-----------$3.00------------

(2)
4
8
13
28
32
40
54
81
94
98

(2)
1
5
7
7
7
19
38
72
89
97

5
15
32
39
43
46
54
65
85
94
97

3
9
18
22
28
31
43
57
82
92
97

1
1
6
8
16
19
29
49
80
90
96

( 2)
2
3
4
5
6
19
42
78
92
97

103

686

518

71

73

1,092

1,181

1,284

$1.76

$1.48

$1.59

$1.66

$1.69

$1.94

$1.98

$2. 19

(2)
1
5
10
12
14
17
26
53
83
96

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )
1
9
12
16
26
52
79
95

( 2)
(2)
1
1
1
1
7
17
41
69
89

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Nonmanufacturing. Between 1962 and 1965, nonsupervisory employee earn­
ings in nonmanufacturing industries increased 15 cents an hour. A comparison
of the distribution of earnings for the two periods reveals a general upward
progression of wages; employees at the lower pay levels experienced the greatest
change. For example, the proportions of employees earning less than $1. 15 and
less than $1.25 declined, respectively, from nearly one-third to one-fifth, and
from two-fifths to one-fourth.
From this point beyond $2 an hour on the pay
scale, there were improvements of from 7 to 11 percentage points over the
1962 earnings levels; however, at the $2.50 level, the difference narrowed to
4 percentage points.
Earnings in retail trade increased 11 cents an hour during the period
between surveys, 4 cents less than the gain in other nonmanufacturing industries.
Because of the disproportionate number of retail employees at the lower pay
levels (three-fifths of the nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $1. 50 an
hour in June 1965 were in retail trade), changes in the distribution of earnings
between $1 and $1.50 an hour were similar to the all-industry change.
The
influence of changes in the Federal minimum wage applicable to employees in
large retail enterprises were, however, more evident in the retail trade d istri­
bution.
Between June 1962 and June 1965 the minimum wage for employees
within the purview of the law rose from $1 to $1„ 15 an hour and is reflected
by a decline from 39 to 22 percent in the proportions of employees paid less
than $1. 15. Evidently some employers adopted the $1. 25 minimum before legally
required to do so— the 1961 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act pro­
vided for a September 1965 effective date— for the proportion paid less than this
amount also decreased substantially, from 46 to 31 percent, and there was an
increase, from 8 to 12 percent, in the proportion of employees at or just above
$ 1. 25. In 3 years, then, the proportion of retail employees earning at least
$ 1. 25 an hour increased from 54 to 69 percent. Although there was a noticeable
increase at the middle levels— the proportion earning $ 1.50 an hour or more ad­
vancing from 35 to 43 percent—changes were relatively minor at higher pay levels.



50

The earnings of wholesale trade employees increased 20 cents an hour since
the 1962 study. Although there was a noticeable advance in the proportion of em­
ployees earning $1.50 or more an hour, from slightly less than one-half to some­
what more than three-fifths, the most striking increases occurred at lower pay
levels. Chiefly because of the influence of the Federal minimum wage, the pro­
portion of employees earning less than $ 1. 25 an hour declined from nearly onethird to fewer than one-tenth, raising the proportion who earned between $1. 25 and
$2 an hour from one-half to nearly two-thirds. Elevating the minimum wage to
$ 1. 25 resulted in some clustering of earnings near this level, but the impetus
continued past the $2 pay level. The proportion of wholesale employees earning
$ 2 or more, for example, increased from one-fifth to nearly three-tenths.
Average hourly earnings in finance, insurance, and real estate rose only
3 cents an hour between 1962 and 1965, but there were important changes in the
distribution of employee earnings. The proportion of employees earning less than
$ 1. 25 an hour declined from one-fifth to one-twentieth and those earning less
than $1.50 declined from one-half to about two-fifths. Further up the pay scale,
however, the changes since 1962 were relatively small.
Manufacturing. In relating the advance of earnings in manufacturing in­
dustries, comparable data are available for an October I960 survey, as well
as for those conducted in June of 1962 and 1965, allowing comparison of wage
changes over a 5-year period. At the time of the I960 study, the average pay
level for nonsupervisory employees was $ 1. 94 an hour, in June 1962 it was
$1.98, and by June 1965 it had risen to $2.19, for an overall increase of
25 cents an hour. Except for a reduction in the proportion of employees earning
less than $1.15 an hour (the Federal minimum wage in October I960 was $ 1 an
hour, rising to $1.15 in September 1961), which affected less than one-tenth of
the employees, the distribution of employee earnings in June 1962 was similar
to that for the October I960 study. Between June 1962 and June 1965, however,
there were changes at all key levels of the earnings array.
At the lower pay
levels, the increase in the Federal minimum wage "flo o r" from $ 1. 15 to $ 1. 25 an
hour resulted in virtually all of the employees who earned less than $ 1. 25 in
I960, 14 percent, earning at least this rate of pay by 1965. Further up the
pay scale, the proportion of employees receiving at least $ 1. 50 an hour rose
from three-fourths to more than four-fifths, and those receiving $ 2 an hour or
more from slightly less than one-half to nearly three-fifths in 3 years.
The
progression continued at the higher earnings levels as well— the proportion of
employees earning $2.50 an hour or more rose from one-fifth to three-tenths
between 1962 and 1965, and nearly doubled between I960 and 1965.

Selected North Central Nonmetropolitan Areas

This portion of the report presents the level and distribution of earnings
and hours of work in each of 11 selected nonmetropolitan areas, listed on page 51,
in the North Central region. As indicated in the section on the selected South­
ern areas, such information should not be considered as representative of any
other area. Populations (according to the I960 census) among the areas ranged
from 24,454 in Fayette County, Ind. , to 106,790 in Elkhart County, Ind. Ex­
cept for Elkhart County, the number of employees included in the survey did
not exceed about 16, 000, and the range in eight areas was between 4, 300 and
10, 700. Manufacturing industries employed between one-half and four-fifths of
the work force in all but one area. A wide variety of manufacturing activities
was found; machinery (electrical and nonelectrical), fabricated metal products,
transportation equipment, rubber products, and paper products were among the
more prevalent. Retail trade was the largest nonmanufacturing industry in each of
the areas, employing from two-fifths to more than three-fifths of the work force.



51

Area

Population
(1960 census)

Approximate
number o f
employees
included in
the survey,
June 1965

________ Percent of employees in— ___________
Manufacturing
industries

Numerically important
manufacturing industries

Percent of
nonmanu­
facturing
employees
in retail
trade

28,556

4,600

61

Glass products 40, non­
electrical machinery 21,
paper products 20

52

46,277

4,300

22

Transportation equipment 41

51

71,559

10,500

57

39

Elkhart County, I n d -------------

106, 790

32,000

73

Fayette County, In d -------------

24,454

5,900

80

Manitowoc County, W is --------

75,215

16,300

75

Marathon County, W i s ----------

88,874

14,500

59

Portage County, O h i o ----------

91,798

10,700

62

Sandusky County, O h i o ------

56,486

8,900

66

Whiteside County, 1 1 ----------1

59,887

10,400

72

Winona County, M i n n ----------

40,937

6,900

48

Leather products 53,
apparel 15
Transportation equipment 21,
fabricated metal products 13,
electrical machinery 8,
nonelectrical machinery 8,
rubber products 6, chemicals 8
Electrical machinery 55,
fabricated metal products 20
Fabricated metal products 32,
nonelecteical machinery 18,
furniture 16
Paper and allied products 29,
electrical machinery 15,
nonelectrical machinery 12
Rubber products 31, non­
electrical machinery 19
Electrical machinery 38,
fabricated metal products 15,
glass products 14
Fabricated metal products 37,
primary metals 27,
mechanical instruments 19
Food and food products 22

Alpena County, M i c h ----------

Barton and Rice Counties ,
K ans----------------------------------Crawford, Franklin, and
Washington Counties, M o ----

48

58
63

43

63
58

59

51

Alpena County, Mich.
Alpena County is located in the northeastern part of the Michigan peninsula,
bordering on Lake Huron.
The area had 28, 556 inhabitants at the time of the
I960 census, within an area of 568 square miles.
About one-half of the popu­
lation resided in the city of Alpena. The June 1965 survey covered 4, 600 nonsupervisory employees, three-fifths of whom were in manufacturing industries.
Three industries— glass, machinery, and paper---employed four-fifths of the man­
ufacturing work force.
Retail trade was predominant in the nonmanufacturing
group, accounting for roughly one-half of the employees.
Earnings. Average earnings for all employees were $2. 29 an hour. Median
earnings, however, were higher than the average by 24 cents, suggesting a rela ­
tively unsymmetrical distribution of earnings around the mean. The middle half
of the work force earned between $1.67 and $2.89, a spread of $1.22 an hour.
Nonmanufacturing employees earned, on the average, $1. 71 an hour. Nearly
three-tenths of the employees earned less than $1.25 an hour, slightly more
than one-half earned less than $1.50, and about seven-tenths earned less than
$2. Close to one-fifth of the employees were clustered in the $1 to $1. 05 hourly
pay interval and one-tenth earned between $1.25 and $1.30. Earnings in retail
trade influenced the level and distribution of nonmanufacturing pay; this industry
accounted for seven-tenths of the employees paid less than $1. 25 an hour, for
example, but for fewer than two-fifths of those receiving $ 2 or more.



52

The pay in manufacturing industries, averaging $2.67 an hour, was in
sharp contrast to that in nonmanufacturing, and was largely responsible for the
area's high earnings position (third) among the 11 selected areas. A ll but onefourth of the employees received at least $2. 50 an hour, and one-fifth earned
$ 3 or more.
The relatively wide dispersion of individual earnings noted for
the area was traceable, for the most part, to the concentration of employees
in the $2. 50 to $3 pay range, particularly in the paper, glass, and machinery
plants.
The proportion of employees in these industries with such earnings
ranged from more than one-half to seven-tenths.
Hours. Nonsupervisory employees in the area worked an average of 41 hours
during the June 1965 survey week.
The most common period of employment
was 40 hours; somewhat more than three-tenths of the employees had this work­
week.
Long workweeks (48 hours or more) were also prevalent; one-fourth of
the work force had such hours.
Relatively few employees, slightly fewer than
one-sixth, worked part time (under 35 hours).
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries had an average workweek of
39 hours, and individual weekly hours were fairly evenly distributed. The pro­
portions working part time, 40 hours, and 48 hours or more were within a
general range of from one-fifth to one-fourth. Two-thirds of the part-time em­
ployees were in retail trade.
In manufacturing industries, the average week was 3 hours longer than that
in the nonmanufacturing group. There were also noticeable differences in the way
individual workweeks were distributed. More than three-fifths of the work force
were either on a 40- or 48-hour week (about two-fifths at the former and nearly
one-fifth at the latter). Part-tim e work was relatively rare, with fewer than a
tenth of the employees having such hours, compared to the nearly three-tenths
who worked 48 hours or more.
Wage Changes. Average earnings among nonsupervisory employees in­
creased by 9 cents an hour from June 1962 to June 1965.
There was almost
no change in the distribution of earnings at levels below $1.50 an hour, but the
gains further up the wage scale were widespread. The proportion of employees
earning $2.50 an hour or more advanced from two-fifths to one-half, and the
proportion paid at least $3 rose from one-twentieth to nearly one-sixth.




A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

Tune
Average hourly
earnings

1962

________Manufacturing

Tune

1965

1962

October

1965

1960

Tune

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00 .....................
$1.05 --------------------$ 1 . 1 5 --------------------$1.20 -------------------$1.25 -------------------$1. 30 -------------------$ 1 . 5 0 --------------------$2. 00 -------------------$2. 50 -------------------$3.00 ---------------------

2
6
8
9
10
13
17
33
61
95

1
8
9
10
11
16
21
32
49
85

5
15
20
23
27
32
43
69
83
94

2
20
23
26
28
39
51
71
85
92

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

42

46

15

Average hourly earnings----

$2. 20

$2.29

$1.75

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

_

P)
P)

H)
0)

1
1
2
3
5
15
61
98

1
1
1
2
3
16
57
98

1
1
1
2
3
12
48
97

(*)
(I)
(I)
1
1
2
8
26
80

18

30

27

31

28

$1.71

$2.33

$2.39

$2. 49

$2.67

P>
1

53

Nonmanufacturing earnings declined 4 cents from the June 1962 level.
The
decrease appears to have stemmed from an addition of low paid employees rather
than from any change in the area’s economy.
Most of the 300 workers added
to the nonmanufacturing work force between June 1962 and June 1965 were paid
less than $1.50 an hour.
At the same time, there were also small gains in
the number of those earning more than $1. 50 and more than $ 2 an hour.
The increase in the area earnings level was, thus, almost entirely attrib­
utable to pronounced gains in the pay of manufacturing employees.
Between
June 1962 and June 1965, their earnings level increased 18 cents an hour, and
over the span from October I960 to June 1965 it was 34 cents. Since the pro­
portion earning less than $2 an hour was slightly less than one-sixth even in
October I960, changes were concentrated at the higher pay levels.
The most
striking was an increase from two-fifths in I960 to nearly three-fourths in 1965 in
the proportion paid $2.50 an hour or more.
At the time of the first survey,
2 percent of the employees earned more than $3 an hour; by 1965, this propor­
tion had grown to 20 percent.

Barton and Rice Counties, Kans.
Located in central Kansas, Barton and Rice Counties cover an area of
1,613 square miles and contain 46,277 inhabitants (I960 census). This was the
only selected area in the North Central region in which nonmanufacturing in­
dustries accounted for as many as four-fifths of the employees included in the
study.
In addition, the exclusion of the petroleum and natural gas industry, a
major source of employment in the area, from the scope of the survey, materially
reduced the employment level recorded in the survey.
Earnings. The area’s 4,300 nonsupervisory employees averaged $1.70 an
hour at straight-time rates in June 1965, the lowest average among the 11 areas
shown separately. Median earnings were $1. 62, and those for the middle 50 per­
cent of the work force covered a range of 91 cents, $1.25 to $2. 16 an hour.
In nonmanufacturing industries, employees averaged $1.59 an hour. One
out of six earned less than $1 an hour and nearly one-third were paid less than
$1. 25. Slightly fewer than one-half of the employees earned more than $1. 50 an
hour, which was roughly twice the proportion who earned more than $2.
The
level and distribution of earnings in the retail trade industry had a pronounced
effect on wages in nonmanufacturing, as well as in the area as a whole.
Ac­
counting for a little over one-half of the nonmanufacturing work force and twofifths of the area employment, retail establishments employed three-fourths
of those earning less than $1.25 and about two-thirds of those paid less than
$1.50; by contrast, this industry accounted for only one-fourth of the nonmanu­
facturing employees receiving more than $2, and less than one-sixth of those in
the area with such earnings. Many of the higher paid nonmanufacturing em­
ployees were in the transportation, communication, and public utilities industry
group, which, with one-fifth of the work force, accounted for more than onehalf of the employees earning $2 or more.
Average earnings of $2.09 an hour for manufacturing employees were
50 cents an hour higher than the level for nonmanufacturing employees. Seventenths of the employees earned more than $2 an hour, and almost three-fifths
earned between $2 and $2.50. Manufacturing industries employed barely more
than one-fifth of the area work force, but accounted for well over two-fifths of
those paid $2 an hour or more.



54

Hours. Average weekly hours of work during a single week in June 1965,
42, were greater than in any other selected North Central area. The prevalence
of long workweeks was largely responsible for the high average— almost 2 out
of 5 employees were employed at least 48 hours during the survey week. Onesixth of the employees worked a 40-hour week, and the same proportion worked
on a part-time basis (less than 35 hours).
Although the average workweek in nonmanufacturing industries, 41 hours,
was slightly less than the area level, the distribution of individual weekly hours
was substantially the same.
Two-thirds of those working 48 hours or more
were in retail trade.
The average workweek in manufacturing industries was 45 hours, the longest
for this industry group among the 11 selected areas. Somewhat more than twofifths of the employees worked 48 hours or longer, and all but one-eighth worked
at least 40 hours a week.
Wage Changes. The area pay level rose 13 cents an hour between June
1962 and June 1965. The position of employees at the lower pay levels hardly
changed during this time, and although most of the increase was among those
at the middle and upper reaches of the distribution, the change was not pro­
nounced. The largest gain, for example, and the only one exceeding 10 percent age points, was in the proportion earning $ 2 an hour or more, which rose from
slightly fewer than one-fourth to somewhat more than one-third.
A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

_______ Manufacturing_______

June

1965

1962

October

1965

1960

June
1962

1961

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1. 05
$1. 15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1.50
$2. 00
$2. 50

16

13
19

19
23
26
32
34

17
24
27
30
32
40
53
75

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

27
29
40
50
76
91

23
25
32
43
65

8
6

46
57
79
90

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

43

43

35

34

Average hourly earnings----

$1.57

$1. 70

$1.51

$1.59

2
0
2
2

2
1

8
6

-

3
3
4
5

8
16
54
92

6
$1. 89

1
2
2

1
1
1

5

4
4

6
6
1
1

6

59
94

14
61
93

7

7

$1.89

$1.87

_

1
1
1
1
5
7
29

8
6
1
0
$2.09

Earnings in nonmanufacturing industries increased 8 cents an hour in
3 years, and only slight changes were noted in the earnings distribution.
The
proportionate advance reached 6 percentage points at two levels— that earning
$1.30 or more increased from 54 to 60 percent, and that earning $ 3 or more
went from 2 to 9 percent.
In manufacturing industries, the employee earnings level was relatively
stable from October I960 to June 1962 but between the latter period and June
1965, it increased 22 cents an hour. That this increase was nearly three times
the increase recorded in nonmanufacturing industries reflects the changes that



55

took place in the distribution of earnings. In I960, and as late as the 1962 sur­
vey, fewer than one-half of the manufacturing employees earned as much as
$ 2 an hour; by 1965, 7 of 10 had such earnings. There were also improvements
for lower and higher paid employees between I960 and 1965— the proportion
earning less than $1.50 decreased from one-sixth to fewer than one-tenth, and
the proportion receiving at least $2.50 rose from slightly under one-tenth to
one-seventh.

Crawford, Franklin, and Washington Counties, Mo.
Crawford, Franklin, and Washington Counties lie in east central Missouri,
and contained a population of 71,559, according to the I960 census.
Close to
three-fifths of the area work force was in manufacturing establishments, roughly
one-half of which was in the leather and leather products industry, prim arily
footwear.
Retail trade employed two-fifths of the nonmanufacturing employees.
Earnings. There were about 10, 500 nonsupervisory employees within the
scope of the June 1965 survey and their average earnings came to $1.82 an
hour, next to the lowest among the 11 North Central areas tabulated separately.
The middle half of the work force earned between $1. 34 and $2. 19 an hour.
The median wage was $1.67, 15 cents less than the average.
This was the
only area having as many as 12 percent of the employees clustered within 5 cents
of the $1.25 Federal minimum wage which applied in manufacturing and much
of nonmanufacturing.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.86 an hour, 4 cents
an hour more than the area pay level.
This was the highest nonmanufacturing
average recorded among the 11 selected areas and the only one where nonmanu­
facturing employees had an average pay advantage over those in manufacturing.
One-fourth of the employees earned less than $1.28 an hour and the same pro­
portion received more than $2.50; thus, the middle 50 percent of the work force
were distributed over a relatively wide range of $ 1. 22 an hour. The high wage
component was attributable to the level of earnings in the area's metal mining
industry, which employed only one-fifth of the nonmanufacturing force, but ac­
counted for seven-tenths of those earning more than $2.50 an hour.
With an average hourly wage level of $1.44, retail trade accounted for a
large portion of the lower paid nonmanufacturing employees. One-fifth earned less
than $ 1 an hour and nearly twice this proportion received less than $ 1. 25, rep­
resenting more than seven-tenths of all nonmanufacturing employees with such
earnings.
Nearly one-fifth of the retail work force, on the other hand, was
paid $ 2 an hour or more.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries, at $1.80 an hour, were the
lowest for this industry group in the 11 North Central selected areas. Although
virtually all of the factory workers earned at least $1.25, one-sixth earned
between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour, accounting for three-fourths of all employees
in the area concentrated at or just above the Federal minimum wage. About
two-fifths of the employees earned less than $ 1. 50 an hour, and seven-tenths
less than $2. Only about one-tenth earned as much as $2.50.
More than one-half of the manufacturing work force were employed in the
leather and leather products industry, where average earnings were $1.66 an



56

hour.
This was 30 cents less than the level for all other manufacturing em ­
ployees.
One-fifth of the leather employees had earnings at or just above the
$1.25 minimum wage, and a little more than two-fifths were paid less than
$1.50. These respective proportions represented two-thirds and three-fifths of
all manufacturing employees at these pay levels.
By contrast, the proportion
earning $2 or more, nearly one-fifth, accounted for only one-third of the em ­
ployees with such earnings.
Close to one-half the employees paid $2 or more
were in the fabricated metal products and nonelectrical machinery industries,
although, together, these industries accounted for only one-sixth of the work force.
Hours. Employees in the area worked an average of 40 hours a week.
A 40-hour week was also the most common single period of employment, en­
gaging 1 out of 3 employees. Almost one-sixth worked less than 35 hours, and
about one-fourth worked 48 hours or longer.
Nonmanufacturing employees had a slightly longer average workweek,
41 hours. One-fifth worked part time (less than 35 hours) and somewhat more
than one-fifth worked 40 hours; however, it was the proportion working 48 hours
or more, close to two-fifths, that raised the average workweek in nonmanufac­
turing above the area level.
Long weekly hours were prevalent in the metal
mining and quarrying industries; employing three-tenths of the w ork force, they
provided nearly three-fifths of the employees working at least 48 hours. Twothirds of the area work force having workweeks of 48 hours or more were in
nonmanufacturing industries.
Employees in retail stores had an average week of 39 hours, which was
3 hours less than that for all other nonmanufacturing employees. The relatively
large proportion working part time, close to one-fourth, contributed to the in­
dustry's lower average workweek. A little more than one-fifth of the retail
employees worked a 40-hour week, and roughly one-fourth were employed at
least 48 hours.
The average workweek in manufacturing industries was 40 hours. Almost
two-fifths of the employees worked exactly this number of hours during the survey
week; those working less than 35 hours and those working 48 hours or more
each accounted for somewhat fewer than one-sixth of the work force.
These
proportions would have been smaller in the part-time and larger in the standard
and long workweek categories had it not been for the influence of weekly hours
in the leather footwear industry. The 2 out of 5 footwear employees who worked
less than 40 hours a week (compared to 1 of 7 in other manufacturing industries),
dropped the industry's average workweek to 38 and although close to three-tenths
worked a 40-hour week, fewer than one-tenth were employed 48 hours or more.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, average earnings of
nonsupervisory employees rose 25 cents an hour.
The proportion earning less
than $ 1. 25 dropped from three-tenths to about one-tenth, the most striking change
in the distribution of earnings.
This was prompted, in large part, by a raise
in the Federal minimum wage from $1. 15 to $1.25 in September 1963, attendant
to which the cluster of employees at the previous standard, 17 percent, moved
to the higher step on the scale. Substantial increases also occurred among em ­
ployees earning more than $1.50, $2, and $2.50 an hour.
These proportions
advanced, respectively, from roughly two-fifths to three-fifths, one-fifth to onethird, and one-tenth to one-sixth.



57

Ma nufa cturi ng

Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Total1

Retail trade

_____________________ June_____________________
Average hourly
earnings
1962
1965
1962
1965
1962
1965

Leather

Total1
October
1960

June

1961

1962

October

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

6
9
10
26
31
39
56
81
91

5
6
8
8
9
21
37
68
83

17
24
25
32
34
44
55
76
87

11
15
17
19
21
27
36
64
75

25
40
44
49
52
60
67
85
95

20
28
33
35
38
48
57
81
94

(2)
13
27
32
37
42
59
85
94

( 2)
(2)
(2)
24
32
39
58
85
94

(2)
(2)
(2)
22
28
36
57
84
93

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
16
38
70
89

(2)
13
26
33
39
46
64
92
98

(2)
(2)
(2)
27
34
41
62
90
97

(2)
(2)
(2)
25
32
39
62
88
96

(2)
21
45
81
94

Number of em­
ployees (in
hundreds)----

101

105

36

46

17

18

54

60

65

59

29

35

36

31

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1.15
$1.20
$1.25
$1.30
$1.50
$2.00
$2.50

Average hourly
earnings------ $1.57 $1.82

$1.57

$1.86

$1.35

$1.44

$1.52

$1.56

$1.59

$1.80

$1.42

$1.49

$1.51

-

$1.66

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.

2

In nonmanufacturing industries, the average wage increase was 29 cents
an hour. Increases in the Federal minimum wage, with respect to the lower
level wage movement, contributed much toward the overall advance, but growth
of the area's mining industry, which resulted in a greater number of relatively
high paid employees, probably contributed more. For example, while the number
of employees earning less than $1.25 an hour declined by one-fifth, the number
of those earning $ 2 or more almost doubled. Relatively, the decrease was from
34 to 21 percent, and the increase was from 24 to 36 percent. Moreover, about
four-fifths of the 1,000 additional employees within scope of the 1965 survey
had earnings of at least $2 an hour. Changes in the middle reaches of the
earnings distribution also were notable. The increase in the proportion earning
between $1.50 and $2, from one-fifth to nearly three-tenths, meant a 70 percent
numerical increase above the June 1962 level.
Earnings in retail trade increased 9 cents an hour over the June 1962 av­
erage, which was 20 cents less than the increase for the nonmanufacturing in­
dustry group, as a whole, and 27 cents less than the advance in nonmanufacturing
industries other than retail trade. There was, however, considerable im prove­
ment in the earnings of lower paid employees. Slightly fewer than one-half
received as much as $ 1. 25 an hour in June 1962, but 3 years later a little more
than three-fifths earned this amount or more.
Although less than one-tenth of
the retail work force were in establishments subject to the provisions of the
FLSA, nearly one-sixth were clustered at or just above the $1 minimum opera­
tive in June 1962. There was no such concentration at $1. 15, the standard in
effect in June 1965, but one-tenth of the employees were at or near $1.25, the
minimum which was to become effective shortly after the survey period.
The
proportion of employees earning $1.50 an hour or more rose from one-third to
somewhat more than two-fifths, but the changes from this point upwards along
the wage scale were minor.
Hourly earnings in manufacturing industries advanced 28 cents between
October I960 and June 1965. From June 1962 to June 1965, the increase was
21 cents, or 8 cents less than the increase in nonmanufacturing industries over



58

the same span of time. Changes at the lower pay levels were more striking in
manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing because of the almost blanket application
of Federal minimum wage laws. In October I960, 13 percent of the employees
earned between $1 and $1.05 an hour ($1 was the minimum wage at the time)
and 37 percent earned less than $ 1. 25. By June 1965, virtually all employees
were paid at least $1.25, the then applicable base rate, and 16 percent earned
between this amount and $1.30.
Major changes in manufacturing were not r e ­
stricted to the lower levels, but they did not extend as high along the wage scale
as they did in the nonmanufacturing group.
The proportion receiving $ 1. 50 or
more rose from 41 to 62 percent, and that proportion receiving $2 or more
doubled, going from 15 to 30 percent.
Beyond this level, however, changes
were relatively small.
Average earnings of employees in the leather footwear industry increased
by 24 cents an hour since October I960. The influence of a rising Federal mini­
mum wage on the distribution of earnings was pronounced. Thirteen percent of
the employees were concentrated at the 4-year old $ 1 minimum in October I960,
26 percent were at $1. 15 in October 1961, and 21 percent had earnings of or
just above $1.25 in June 1965.
Thus, the 39 percent of the work force who
were paid less than $ 1. 25 in I960 were all earning at least this amount in
1965.
There was also a substantial growth in the proportion earning $ 1. 50 or
more— from 36 percent in I960 to 55 percent nearly 5 years later— and the
proportion paid at least $ 2 in 1965, 19 percent, was more than twice that of I960.
There was little change further up the scale, however.

Elkhart County, Ind.
Elkhart County, Ind. , located in the northern part of the State, bordering
on Michigan, was the most populous of the 11 selected North Central areas, con­
taining 106,790 inhabitants (I960 census) within 468 square miles. Approximately
32, 000 nonsupervisory employees were included in the study, twice the number
in the next largest area. Nearly 3 out of every 4 employees were in manufac­
turing industries. Slightly more than one-third were concentrated in two indus­
tries, transportation equipment and fabricated metal products.
However, the
area’ s diversified industrial complex also included as important employers, the
furniture, chemicals, rubber and plastics products, nonelectrical and electrical
machinery, and musical instruments manufacturing industries. Almost one-half
of the nonmanufacturing employees were in retail trade and nearly one-sixth were
in whole s ale tr ade.
Earnings. The Elkhart area had the second highest pay level among the
11 in the region for which separate data are shown, $2.34 an hour.
Median
earnings were 4 cents lower, indicating a relatively symmetrical distribution of
earnings around the mean. One-fourth of the employees earned less than $ 1. 75 an
hour and the same proportion earned more than $2.76.
Thus, the middle half
of the work force had earnings within a $1.01 range.
The 8,500 employees in nonmanufacturing industries averaged $1.85 an
hour, 49 cents an hour less than the average for all employees, but, nevertheless,
this average for this industry group was exceeded in only one other of the se­
lected North Central areas.
A ll but one-fifth earned at least $1.25 an hour,
and almost three-fifths received $1.50 or more.
Further up the wage scale,
a little more than one-third of the employees received at least $ 2 an hour, and
one-fifth were paid $2.50 or more.




59

Retail trade employees earned an average of $ 1. 74 an hour. Close to
three-tenths earned less than $1.25 an hour, accounting for seven-tenths of the
nonmanufacturing and somewhat more than two-thirds of all employees in the
area with such earnings. Retail trade continued to influence the distribution of
pay further up the scale, employing three-fifths of those in nonmanufacturing and
more than two-fifths of all employees earning less than $1.50 an hour (the in­
dustry accounted for only one-eighth of the area work force).
On the other hand,
a substantial segment of the retail employment was represented at the higher
pay levels; close to three-tenths earned $2 an hour or more and one-sixth
$2.50 or more.
Average hourly earnings in wholesale trade, at $2.05, were 24 cents higher
than the average for all other nonmanufacturing industries. A ll but one-sixth of
the employees earned at least $ 1. 50 an hour and almost one-half received $ 2 or
more.
Although the proportions of employees tapered off sharply above the
$2 level, nearly one-fifth earned $2.50 an hour or more.
Employees in manufacturing averaged $2.52 an hour, 67 cents above the
level for nonmanufacturing employees. Somewhat more than three-fourths earned
at least $ 2 an hour, about one-half $2.50 or more, and one-fifth at least $3.
This distribution of earnings was attributable to the generally high wage levels
that prevailed in most of the area’ s manufacturing industries.
Five of these—
chemicals, fabricated metal products, electrical machinery, transportation equip­
ment, and muscial instruments— employed somewhat more than one-half of the
work force and accounted for nearly three-fourths of the employees paid $2. 50 or
more and four-fifths of those with earnings which exceed $ 3 an hour.
Hours. Nonsupervisory employees averaged 40 hours of work during a single
week in June 1965. Roughly one-fourth of the employees were clustered at
40 hours, one-sixth worked less than 35 hours and one-fifth worked 48 hours
or more.
Nonmanufacturing employees averaged 37 hours of work a week.
Three
out of ten worked part time (less than 35 hours), which was the main factor
influencing the level of weekly hours for the group. Close to one-fifth of the
employees worked either a 40-hour week, and the same proportion worked at
least 48 hours.
In retail trade, the average week was 36 hours. One-third of the work
force worked less than 35 hours a week, accounting for close to three-fifths of
all nonmanufacturing employees with such hours. Workweeks of at least 48 hours
in duration occupied one-sixth of the retail employees; only one-eighth worked
a 40-hour week.
Hours in wholesale trade establishments, an average of 38 hours a week,
were generally longer than in retail stores.
Fewer employees, nearly onefourth, were part time; larger proportions than in retail trade clustered at
40 hours and at the 48 hour and over level, one-sixth and one-fifth, respectively.
Employees in manufacturing industries worked an average of 42 hours during
the June 1965 survey period.
This longer workweek, compared with that in
nonmanufacturing, reflects the distribution of weekly hours. The most common
workweek was exactly 40 hours, engaging 3 out of 10 employees, and only 1 of
5 worked less than 40 (the proportion in nonmanufacturing was about double this).
The incidence of weeks in excess of 40 hours was not substantially greater than
in nonmanufacturing but a larger proportion, a little over one-fifth, worked
48 hours or more.




60

Wage Changes. The average pay level in Elkhart County increased by
24 cents an hour between the June 1962 and June 1965 surveys. Because of the
area’ s relatively high pay level, the magnitude of wage change was greater at
the higher than at the lower end of the pay scale. For example, the proportion
of employees paid less than $1.25 an hour, 5 percent in 1965, was down from
10 percent in 1962, whereas those earning $2.50 or more in 1965, 41 percent,
represented a marked growth from the 26 percent who had such earnings 3 years
earlier.
Aside from an increase in the proportion earning at least $3, 9 to
16 percent, other changes in the distribution of earnings were relatively minor.
______________ Nonm a nufa cturi ng_____________
A ll
industries

Wholesale
trade

Total1

____ _________
Average hourly
earnings

____ Lis®____

1962

1962

1965

1965

Retail trade

June
1962

June

1965

1962

Manufacturing
October

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
5
7
9
10
14
20
43
74
91

2
3
4
5
5
9
14
35
59
84

11
21
29
31
33
41
49
72
87
95

6
11
14
17
20
28
38
65
81
91

1
4
8
10
11
26
33
62
84
94

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

259

320

67

85

Average hourly earnings----

$2. 10

$2. 34

$1.68

$1.85

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00
$1.05
$1. 15
$1. 20
$1. 25
$1.30
$1.50
$2. 00
$2. 50
$3. 00

(2)
( 2)
( 2)
1
1
4
16
53
81
93

15
29
39
42
44
52
59
78
90
95

8
15
18
25
28
39
48
72
84
92

9

13

34

41

178

180

193

235

$1.84

$2. 05

$1.60

$1.74

$2.21

$2.21

$2. 26

$2. 52

( 2)
1
2
2
4
5
11
34
76
91

( 2)
( 2)
1
3
4
5
12
35
74
91

<2)
(2)
( 2)
2
2
4
10
33
69
90

(2 )
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2 )
2
5
23
51
81

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

The 17-cent-an-hour increase in nonmanufacturing employee earnings, as
compared with that for all employees, benefited most those at the lower and
middle reaches of the pay scale. The proportion earning less than $1.15 declined
by one-half (29 to 14 percent) between June 1962 and June 1965, and that earn­
ing less than $1.25 decreased by about as much, going from 33 to 20 percent.
The earnings improvement continued up the scale to the $1.50 point before
diminishing noticeably, bringing the proportion earning more than this amount
from 51 to 62 percent.
By contrast, the proportion earning $ 2 or more rose
only 7 percentage points, from 28 to 35.
Retail trade employees experienced an advance in average earnings of
14 cents an hour during the 3-year period. Although this increase was not as
large as that for the nonmanufacturing group as a whole, substantial im prove­
ments were recorded at the lower pay levels. The proportions earning less than
$1 and $1. 15 were each one-half the respective 1962 levels of 15 and 39 p er­
cent. Concurrently, the proportion earning at least $ 1. 25 increased from 56 to
72 percent. To a great extent, changes in the Federal minimum wage applicable
in large retail enterprises influenced the flow of earnings at these levels (over
one-third of the area's retail employees were in establishments subject to the
1961 amendments to the FLSA).
In June 1962, 14 percent of the retail work



61

force were concentrated at or just above the existing $ 1 minimum wage; by
1965, the proportion at this level had yielded to clusters of 7 and 11 percent at
$1. 15 and $1.25, representing the effective minimum and one that was to be­
come operative 3 months after the June survey period.
Further up the scale,
the proportion of employees receiving at least $1.50 an hour rose from twofifths to slightly more than one-half, but the change narrowed to only 6 points
at the $2 level, 22 to 28 percent.
Earnings in wholesale trade increased 21 cents an hour between June
1962 and June 1965.
Changes in the distribution were sharp.
The proportion
paid less than $1.30 an hour went from one-fourth to one twenty-fifth, and the
proportion earning less than $1.50, one-sixth, was one-half what it had been in
1962. Even at higher levels, noticeable changes occurred.
For example, even
though nearly two-fifths of the employees earned at least $2 an hour in 1962,
nearly one-half had such earnings in 1965.
Over a nearly 5-year period, from October I960 to June 1965, average
hourly earnings in the area’s manufacturing industries advanced 31 cents.
Be­
tween the I960 and 1962 surveys, average earnings rose only 5 cents, but during
the next 3 years the increase was 26 cents.
This was somewhat more than the
17-cent rise in nonmanufacturing earnings over a similar span of time and was
not exceeded by a manufacturing group in any other selected North Central area.
The area’s wage level was generally high even in I960 when all but one-third of
the manufacturing work force earned at least $ 2 an hour, and one-fourth re­
ceived more than $2.50.
This alignment did not noticeably change through the
October 1961 and June 1962 studies, during which time average earnings rose
only 5 cents an hour above the October I960 level.
The June 1965 study, how­
ever, revealed substantial changes in the distribution of earnings. The propor­
tion paid at least $2 had risen to more than three-fourths, and the proportion
earning at least $2. 50, to one-half.
An important change contributing to the
overall average increase in manufacturing during this time was the emergence of
a sizable proportion of employees earning more than $3 an hour; this proportion
rose to one-fifth in 1965, twice the amount during any of the earlier surveys.
Fayette County, Ind.
Fayette County is located in the southeastern part of Indiana near the Ohio
border.
With a population of 24,454 (I960 census) and an area of 215 square
miles, it was the smallest in both measures of the North Central areas shown
separately.
The area’s chief urban center is Connersville.
Four-fifths of the
5,900 nonsupervisory employees covered by the scope of the survey were in
manufacturing industries. The electrical machinery industry employed somewhat
more than one-half of the manufacturing work force. Retail trade was the largest
nonmanufacturing industry, accounting for nearly three-fifths of the employees
in this group.
Earnings. Average straight-time hourly earnings for all employees were
$2.20 an hour. The median below and above which 50 percent of the individual
earnings fell, was $2.35. The middle half of the work force had earnings that
were tightly grouped between $2.05 and $2.46 an hour.
The pay level for nonmanufacturing employees was $1.49, the lowest aver­
age for this industry group among the 11 selected North Central areas.
Close
to one-fifth of the employees earned less than $ 1 an hour, a little more than
two-fifths were paid less than $1.25, and about three-fifths earned under $1.50,
All but one-fifth received less than $ 2 an hour.
Retail trade accounted for



62

seven-tenths of the nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $ 1 an hour,
about four-fifths of those paid less than $1.25, and almost three-fourths of
those below $1.50.
The average pay level in manufacturing industries was $2.37 an hour,
88 cents more than that for nonmanufacturing employees. Nine-tenths of the
work force earned between $2 and $ 3 an hour, and nearly one-half this propor­
tion was compressed within the $2.30 to $2.40 pay interval.
Hours. The length of the average workweek during the June 1965 study
period was 40 hours. Somewhat more than one-half of the employees worked
exactly that many hours a week.
Both part-time (35 hours or less) and long
(48 hours or more) workweeks were relatively uncommon, each engaging no
more than one-eighth of the employees.
Although nonmanufacturing employees averaged nearly the same number
of hours a week, 39, as did all employees, there were significant differences
in the way individual hours were distributed.
Only one-sixth worked a 40-hour
week, and one-fourth were employed on a part-time basis.
This concentration
toward the lower end of the hours array, however, was balanced by the relatively
large proportion, close to one-fourth, working 48 hours or more a week.
In manufacturing, average weekly hours were 40. Slightly more than threefifths of the employees were on a 40-hour week and fewer than one-tenth worked
part-time or long weeks.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, the average pay level
in the area increased 13 cents. A comparison of the overall earnings distributions
for the two periods revealed significant changes only within the $2 to $2.50 pay
range, which was almost wholly attributable to the wage movement within the
manufacturing industry group (earnings in the nonmanufacturing industries ad-*
vanced by only 1 cent an hour during the 3-year period, with little change in
the distribution). A 4 -cent gain in manufacturing earnings from October I960
to June 1962 was accomplished with relatively little variation in the way indi­
vidual earnings were distributed, but the 9-cent increase over the next 3 years
was accompanied by striking changes in the array. As a result, the proportion
paid $2.30 an hour or more almost doubled, going from one-half to four-fifths.
There was almost no change at levels beyond this, however.




A ll
industries

Nonmanufactoring

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

________ Manufacturing________

June
1965

1962

October
1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

( Cumulati ve percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 -------------------$1.05 -------------------$1.15 -------------------$1.20 -------------------$1.25 -------------------$ 1 . 3 0 -------------------$ 1 . 5 0 -------------------$2.00 -------------------$2. 5 0 -------------------$ 3 . 0 0 --------------------

4
7
9
10
11
13
17
32
78
98

4
6
6
7
8
9
13
23
80
98

18
28
35
37
39
45
57
74
92
98

18
30
32
37
42
47
58
82
92
96

_

.

(* )
(M
1
1
2
5
22
79
97

(* )
C1)
1
1
2
4
21
76
99

(* )
(M
1
1
2
3
18
73
98

(M
1
9
77
98

Number of employees
(in hundreds) -------------------

49

59

13

11

34

35

36

47

Average hourly earnings---- $2.07

$2. 20

$1.49

$2. 24

$2. 24

$2. 28

$2.37

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

$1.48

i 1)

(M
(!)
i 1)
(l )

63

Manitowoc County, Wis.
Manitowoc County, Wis. , which is situated on Lake Michigan north of M il­
waukee, has an area of 589 square miles.
The area contained 75,215 inhab­
itants at the time of the I960 census, roughly two-fifths of whom resided in the city
of Manitowoc. Manufacturing industries accounted for three-fourths of the 16, 300
employees included in the June 1965 survey. The fabricated metal products in­
dustry was the area’s largest, employing one-third of the factory work force; the
furniture and fixtures and the nonelectrical machinery industries together ac­
counted for another one-third.
Somewhat more than three-fifths of the nonman­
ufacturing employees were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings for all nonsupervisory employees in
June 1965 were $1.98. Median earnings were $1.92, indicating a nearly sym­
metrical distribution of earnings around the mean. One-fourth of the employees
earned less than $1.53 and another one-fourth earned more than $2.42 an hour;
thus, earnings for the middle half of the work force were spread over a range
of 89 cents.
Nonmanufacturing employees averaged $1.60 an hour, 38 cents less than
the all-industry average.
Three factors, all bearing on minimum wage laws,
appeared to influence the distribution of earnings at the lower pay levels: A
State of Wisconsin minimum wage of $ 1. 10 an hour for women and minors became
effective in September 1964; a Federal minimum wage of $1. 15 applied to large
retail establishments in June 1965, and was to rise to $1.25, 3 months later;
and a $1.25 Federal minimum was operative in most transportation, communi­
cation, public utilities, wholesale trade, finance, and insurance establishments.
Largely as a result of these forces, one-sixth of the employees earned within
5 cents of $1. 10 an hour, and close to one-tenth were clustered at each of the
two Federal minima.
Two-fifths of the nonmanufacturing work force, however,
earned more than $1.50 an hour and one-fifth earned at least $2.
Average earnings in retail trade were $1.41 an hour at the time of the
1965 survey.
This pay level was 51 cents less than the average for all other
nonmanufacturing employees.
Although nearly all retail employees received at
least $1 an hour, the pay for somewhat more than one-half was under $1. 30.
As in the whole group of nonmanufacturing industries, this clustering stemmed,
to a large degree, from the State and Federal minimum wage laws operative
or anticipated at the time of the survey. Retail trade alone, however, accounted
for nearly four-fifths of the nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $1.30
an hour, a somewhat higher proportion than the industryfs employment ratio.
Moreover, all but one-third of the employees were paid less than $1. 50 an hour,
and earnings for only one-tenth exceeded $2.
The average hourly pay level for manufacturing employees, $2.10, was 50
cents higher than that for nonmanufacturing employees. All but one-tenth earned
more than $1.50 an hour, slightly more than one-half received at least $2, and
one-fourth were paid $2.50 or more. Similar pay structures in 2 of the 3 p ri­
mary manufacturing industries (fabricated metal products and furniture and fix­
tures), which employed nearly two-fifths of the employees studied, contributed to
the area’s nearly identical mean and median pay levels.
Average earnings in
these industries varied by only 10 cents an hour, and in each, roughly fourfifths of the employees earned between $1.50 and $2.50 an hour, and few earned
less than $1.50 or more than $3.
Hours. The average number of hours worked by all nonsupervisory em­
ployees during the June 1965 survey week, 38, was the lowest recorded along



64

with one other selected area. This was attributable, in great part, to the com­
paratively large proportion of employees, close to one-fourth, who worked part
time (less than 35 hours a week).
The proportion working exactly 40 hours,
however, was nearly two-fifths, making this the most prevalent period of em­
ployment. Relatively few employees, 1 out of 8, were employed 48 hours or more.
The area's somewhat high part-time component stemmed from the nonman­
ufacturing industry group, where the average workweek was only 31 hours. Onehalf of the employees worked less than 35 hours, accounting for more than onehalf of all employees in the area with such hours (although nonmanufacturing
industries employed only one-fourth of the work force). Two-fifths of the nonman­
ufacturing employees worked 40 hours or longer; one-half of them were divided
equally between a 40-hour week and a week of 48 hours or more.
A workweek of 28 hours was the average for employees in retail trade.
Three out of five were part time, or about four-fifths of all nonmanufacturing
employees with a week of this duration. Only three-tenths of the retail em­
ployees worked 40 hours or more.
In manufacturing industries, a week of 40 hours was both the average and
the most prevalent period of employment. Somewhat more than two-fifths of the
work force had such hours. In marked contrast to the nonmanufacturing industry,
only about one-seventh of the employees were part time, but long weeks (48 hours or
more) were of similar prevalence, occupying close to one-sixth of the work force.
Wage Changes. From June 1962 to June 1965 the hourly pay level of nonsupervisory employees increa^ec^by 17 cents. Changes in the distribution of pay
during the 3-year period were not distinct at any level; rather, they reflected
a general upward progression of earnings in the area.
For example, the pro­
portion of employees earning less than $1.25 an.,hour declined by 8 percentage
points, 15 to 9 percent, which was nearly the same as the increase in the pro­
portion earning $2 or more, which went up 8 percentage points, from 36 to 44
percent.
An increase in the proportion receiving at least $2.50 an hour, from
12 to 21 percent, was perhaps the most significant change since 1962.




________ Nonm anufa during
A ll
industries

T o ta l1
June

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

1965

Retail trade
June

1962

1965

1962

________ Manufacturing______
October

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$1. 00 --------------------$1.05 --------------------$ 1 . 1 0 .......... ...........
$1.15 --------------------$1. 20 ------------------$1.25 - .............. —
$ 1 . 3 0 --------------------$1.50 -------------------$2. 00 -------------------$2. 50 - -------- ----------

5
8
8
9
12
15
18
29
64
88

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

152

Average hourly earnings---- $1. 81

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

18
28
29
33
38
40
47
57
79
90

1
5
5
22
30
35
44
55
81
89

20
34
35
40
45
47
55
62
83
95

2
8
8
26
38
44
55
66
89
97

1
5
7
8
9
11
13
22
58
93

(2)
( 2)
(2)
1
5
8
10
19
61
92

163

41

40

25

25

100

107

$1.98

$1. 58

$1.60

(2)
1
1
5
7
9
12
21
56
79

$1.53

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

$1.41

$1.88

$1.89

(2)
(2)
(2)
1
3
5
8
19
58
88

_
-

2
10
48
75

111

123

$1.92

$2.10

65

The earnings of nonmanufacturing employees, as a group, rose only 2 cents
an hour above the level recorded in June 1962. A decrease in average earnings
in the retail trade industry, which accounted for three-fifths of the nonmanufac­
turing work force, held the overall gain to this amount; excluding the retail
group, the average increase for all other industries was 26 cents.
As a con­
sequence, there was little change in the distribution of earnings at levels above
$1.25 an hour, but noticeable gains occurred among lower paid employees.
Partly as a result of State and Federal minimum wage laws application, prac­
tically no employees earned less than $ 1 an hour in June 1965, whereas 1 out
of 6 had such earnings in June 1962. Similarly, where 29 percent were paid
less than $1. 10 previously, only 5 percent were in 1965.
The decline of 8 cents an hour in retail trade earnings was attributable to
the loss of a group of high paid employees (the proportion earning $2 or more
an hour dropped from 17 to 11 percent), which was no offset by any substantial
improvements at the lower end of the pay scale. In June 1962, one-fifth of the
retail employees earned less than $1, one-third received less than $1.10, and
two-fifths were paid less than $1. 15 an hour.
The $1. 10 State minimum wage
for women and minors and the $1. 15 Federal minimum wage were in operation
at the time of the June 1965 survey, and nearly all employees earned at least
$1 an hour, fewer than one-tenth did not receive at least $1. 10, and the pro­
portion under $1. 15 was reduced to one-fourth.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries increased 22 cents an hour
between the October I960 and June 1965 surveys.
From June 1962, alone, the
advance was 18 cents. The implementation of the $1.25 Federal minimum wage,
which was effective in 1965, served to bring the proportions earning less up to
at least this amount.
Even in I960 when the minimum was $1, only one-tenth
had been earning less than $1.25. Changes at the higher wage levels, however,
were more far reaching. Increases in the proportion earning $1.50 or more and
$2 or more were of similar magnitude, the form er going from 78 to 90 percent
and the latter from 42 to 52 percent, but in the most significant advance, the
proportion receiving straight-time pay of $2.50 or more rose from 7 percent in
I960 to 25 percent nearly 5 years later.

Marathon County, Wis.
Marathon County covers 1,584 square miles and has a population of 88, 874
(I960 census).
Wausau, with over 30, 000 inhabitants, is the major urban area.
Approximately 14, 500 nonsupervisory employees were within the scope of the
June 1965 survey.
Three-fifths of these were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries, the largest of which were paper and allied products, and electrical
machinery, and nonelectrical machinery.
Retail trade accounted for more than
two-fifths of the nonmanufacturing work force.
Earnings. Average earnings for all nonsupervisory employees were $1.96
an hour. Median earnings were only 3 cents an hour less.
The middle half
of the work force earned between $1.48 and $2.39 an hour.
In the nonmanufacturing industries covered by the survey, employees aver­
aged $1.74 an hour, 22 cents an hour less than the area average.
One-fifth of
the employees earned less than $1.25 an hour, but nearly all were paid at least
the $1. 10 State minimum wage which applied to women and minors.
The twofifths of the nonmanufacturing work force who earned less than $1.50 an hour



66

accounted for two-thirds of all the employees in the area with such earnings.
On the other hand, straight-time wages of at least $2 an hour were paid to some­
what more than one-fourth of the employees.
Retail employees averaged $1.60 an hour, 25 cents an hour less than all
other nonmanufacturing employees. Slightly more than one-fourth of the retail
employees earned less than $1.25 an hour, somewhat more than one-half less
than $1.50, and all but one-fifth less than $2. More than one-half of the non­
manufacturing work force earning less than $1.50 an hour, but only one-third
of those receiving $2 or more, were in retail trade.
Fifteen percent of the
retail employees were clustered at or within 5 cents of the State minimum wage
of $1. 10 applicable to women and minors, and 13 percent were at or within
5 cents of $ 1. 25, which was to become the Federal minimum wage for large retail
establishments 3 months after the survey period. As a result of these concen­
trations, somewhat more than one-third of the retail employees earned between
$1.10 and $1.30 an hour.
Manufacturing employees earned $2.12 an hour, on the average, during
June 1965. All but nearly one-sixth earned at least $1.50 an hour, three-fifths
received $2 or more, and one-fourth earned $2. 50 or more. Most of those at
the higher pay levels were in the paper and allied products, and nonelectrical
machinery industries, which together accounted for two-fifths of the manufacturing
work force, and for three-fifths of the employees earning more than $ 2 an hour
and three-fourths of those receiving $2.50 or more.
Hours. The average workweek for all employees was 40 hours.
This was
also the most common individual week, engaging three-tenths of the work force.
Nearly one-fourth of the employees worked 48 hours or longer, and one-seventh
were employed less than 35 hours during the June 1965 survey week.
In nonmanufacturing industries, employees worked an average of 37 hours
a week. Nearly one-fourth worked part time (fewer than 35 hours) and about onefifth worked exactly 40 hours. All told, 2 out of 3 employees in nonmanufacturing
establishments were employed 40 hours or less.
Average weekly hours in retail trade were also 37, but individual work­
weeks were distributed differently. Nearly one-third worked part time, a little
more than one-seventh were on a 40-hour week, and more than one-fifth worked
48 hours or more.
The proportion employed on a part-time basis accounted
for two-fifths of all those in the area with such hours, although retail trade
accounted for only one-sixth of the work force.
At 42 hours, the average week in manufacturing industries was 5 hours
longer than that in nonmanufacturing. In contrast to the latter industry group,
fewer than one-tenth of the manufacturing employees worked fewer than 35 hours,
one-third worked 40 hours, and somewhat more than one-fourth were employed
at least 48 hours.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 arid June 1965, the area!s hourly wage
level increased by 17 cents an hour.
Changes in the distribution of earnings
were slightly more pronounced at the lower than at the upper end.
The pro­
portion of employees earning less than $1.25 an hour fell from one-fifth to fewer
than one-tenth; the decline was prompted to a great extent by a change in the
Federal minimum wage in September 1963. Wisconsin!s minimum wage enact­
ment in September 1964, in the same manner contributed to bringing virtually
all employees to at least $1. 10 an hour, whereas one-tenth had earnings below
this level in June 1962. At the higher wage levels, the proportion of employees
earning $2 or more rose from slightly fewer than two-fifths to close to one-half,
and that earning at least $2.50, doubled, going from one-tenth to one-fifth.




67

Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Retail trade

June
Average hourly
earnings

Total1
June

June

1962

1965

1962

1965

1962

________Manufacturing
October

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 --------------------$1.05 --------------------$ 1 . 1 0 --------------------$1.15 --------------------$ 1 . 2 0 -------- -----------$1.25 --------------------$ 1 . 3 0 --------------------$ 1 . 5 0 --------------------$ 2 . 0 0 ........ .............
$2. 5 0 ---------------------

5
8
9
10
17
20
24
36
62
89

1
1
1
6
7
8
13
27
53
80

12
17
19
22
33
37
44
59
83
93

2
4
4
14
16
19
27
43
73
88

20
28
31
37
42
44
51
65
88
96

3
3
3
18
21
26
39
53
80
94

(2)
2
3
5
7
9
11
23
56
91

(2)
( 2)
( 2)
(2)
4
6
9
19
49
88

(2)
(2 )
(2)
3
5
8
17
45
87

(2)
(2 )
1
3
15
40
75

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

128

145

58

60

23

26

75

71

70

86

Average hourly earnings----

$1. 79

$1.96

$1.52

$1.74

$1.46

$1.60

$1.,90

$1.98

$2. 01

$2.12

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

-

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

The 22-cent-an-hour increase in average earnings for nonmanufacturing
employees over the 3-year period ending June 1965 was greater than that expe­
rienced by all employees. Substantial changes took place throughout the dis­
tribution. For example, almost all employees earned at least $ 1 an hour in 1965,
whereas, 3 years earlier nearly one-eighth earned less than this amount.
The
proportion earning less than $1.25 was nearly halved from almost two-fifths.
Even the proportion at or above the $2 level rose from one-sixth to somewhat
more than one-fourth.
Average earnings in retail trade rose 14 cents an hour in 3 years, reflect­
ing increases which benefited low paid employees more than those at the higher
levels.
The State and Federal minimum wages figured prominently in the change
that occurred in the distribution of earnings since June 1962. At that time, 31
percent of the retail employees were paid less than $1. 10, 37 percent less than
$1. 15, and 44 percent less than $1.25 an hour. By June 1965, the $1. 10 State
minimum, which was effective in September 1964 and applied to women and
minors, contributed to raising nearly all employees to at least this level. Coupled
with this, a Federal minimum of $1. 15, applying to roughly three-tenths of the
employees (mainly those in large enterprises), became operative in 1964 and was
to rise to $1.25,3 months after the survey period, helped lower the proportions
earning less than those rates to 18 percent and 26 percent.
There was a rela­
tively large advance in the proportion earning $1.50 or more, from 35 to 47
percent, but increases at successive steps up the scale from that point were pro­
gressively smaller.
The manufacturing pay level advanced 22 cents between October I960 and
June 1965. One-half of this increase was recorded since the June 1962 survey.
The most significant changes in the distribution were sharp rises in the pro­
portions paid at least $2 and at least $2.50 an hour— from somewhat more than
two-fifths to three-fifths at the lower level and from one-tenth to one-fourth at
the higher.
The advance did not carry beyond $3; the proportion at this level
was virtually unchanged from the I960 level.



68

Portage County, Ohio
Situated in northeastern Ohio between Akron and Youngstown, Portage County
has a population of 91, 798 (I960 census) in an area of 504 square miles.
Man­
ufacturing industries employed three-fifths of the nonsupervisory work force in­
cluded in the survey. The rubber and plastics products industry, accounting for
three-tenths of the manufacturing employment, was the area's largest.
Retail
trade employed three-fifths of those in the nonmanufacturing industry group.
Earnings. The approximately 10,700 employees within the scope of the
study averaged $2. 14 an hour. Median earnings were 5 cents above the average.
The middle 50 percent of the work force earned between $1. 59 and $2. 64 an hour.
In nonmanufacturing industries, employees averaged $1.85 an hour, and
although this was 29 cents less than the average for all employees, it was the
second highest level recorded for this industry group among the 11 selected areas.
Earnings were distributed over a wide range---two-fifths of the employees earned
less than $1*50 and one-half this proportion were paid less than $1.25; on the
other hand, roughly the same respective proportions earned at least $2 and at
least $2.50 an hour. Moreover, 1 out of 8 employees had earnings of $3 or
more.
Four-fifths of the employees earning less than $1.25 and three-fourths
of those paid less than $1.50 were in retail trade establishments; the trans­
portation, communication, and public utilities industry group, employing onetenth of the nonmanufacturing work force, accounted for one-half of those re­
ceiving $3 or more.
Earnings in manufacturing industries were $2.33 an hour, 48 cents more
than the average in nonmanufacturing. Fewer than one-tenth of the employees
had earnings of less than $1. 50 an hour and all but one-fourth were paid at least
$2.
Close to two-fifths of the employees earned $2.50 or more, but only onetenth earned as much as $3 an hour.
Employees in the rubber and plastics products industry earned an average
of $2. 21 an hour in June 1965, 18 cents less than the average for all other man­
ufacturing employees.
Their lower level of earnings stemmed not so much from
the presence of large numbers of lower paid employees, but from a relatively
smaller representation in the upper reaches of the wage distribution.
For ex­
ample, roughly two-fifths of the manufacturing work force earning less than $2
an hour were in this industry, compared with only about one-fourth of those paid
more than this amount. Nevertheless, close to two-thirds of the rubber and
plastics products employees earned at least $2 an hour, and slightly more than
one-fourth at least $2.50.
Hours. During a single week in June 1965, nonsupervisory employees in
Portage County worked an average of 40 hours a week, but only 1 out of 4 had
a workweek exactly of this duration. A similar proportion worked 48 hours or
longer, however, and about one-fifth were part time (fewer than 35 hours a week).
Part-tim e work occupied nearly three-tenths of the nonmanufacturing work
force and contributed to this group's somewhat lower average workweek of 37
hours.
A 40-hour week was the most common period of employment although
only one-sixth of the employees had such hours.
About one-fifth of the work
force worked 48 hours or more during the week.
The proportion of 40-hour and part-time employees in manufacturing was
nearly the reverse of that in nonmanufacturing, resulting in longer average weekly



69

hours, 42, in this industry group.
Three-tenths of the employees worked ex­
actly 40 hours; only one-seventh worked fewer than 35 hours. About one-fourth
were employed 48 hours or more. Employees in the rubber and plastics products
industry had an average week of 41 hours and were arrayed along the scale in
substantially the same manner as the manufacturing group as a whole.
Wage Changes. In June 1965, the area’s average pay level was 19 cents
an hour more than in June 1962. Changes were registered throughout the dis­
tribution. At the lower pay levels, the proportion earning less than $1.25 an
hour declined from nearly one-fifth to less than one-tenth, and that receiving
less than $1.50, decreased from almost three-tenths to one-fifth.
Further up
the wage scale, the proportions paid at least $2 and $2.50 each advanced 8 p er­
centage points above their respective 1962 levels of 52 and 23 percent.

Manufacturing
A ll
i industries

Nonmanufacturing

1962

1965

1962

1965

1960

October

June

October

June

June
Average hourly
earnings

Rubber

Total1

1961

1962

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

-

-

(Cumulative percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 --------------------$1.05 --------------------$1. 15 --------------------$ 1 . 2 0 --------------------$1.25 --------------------$1.30 — ............ —
$1.50 --------------------$2. 0 0 --------------------$2. 5 0 --------------------$3. 0 0 ---------------------

10
14
16
18
19
23
29
48
75
95

4
6
7
8
8
14
21
40
69
89

22
32
38
41
42
48
55
74
85
96

10
16
19
20
22
32
41
62
79
88

<2)
1
2
3
4
6
9
35
75
96

<2)
( 2)
1
2
3
6
30
72
95

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
1
2
4
9
29
70
95

2
9
27
62
90

1
3
4
6
13
47
89
98

1
2
4
10
44
85
96

<2)
2
2
4
13
41
84
96

( 2)
9
36
73
93

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

89

107

38

41

46

49

51

66

14

15

16

21

Average hourly earnings----

$1. 95

$2.14

$1.59

$1..85

$2.17

$2. 24

$2.24

$2.33

$2. 02

$2. 12

$2.13

$2.,21

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

The hourly pay level for employees in nonmanufacturing establishments has
increased 26 cents since June 1962. The relatively wide range of earnings among
this group of employees was matched by the broad scope of changes in the dis­
tribution. At the extremes of the wage scale, for example, the proportion paid
less than $ 1 an hour was somewhat more than one-fifth in 1962 and just one-tenth
in 1965; the proportion earning $3 or more rose from only a few percent in 1962
to one-eighth 3 years later. Elsewhere, the proportion receiving less than $1.25
an hour in 1965, a little more than one-fifth, was one-half the size of that in
1962, and the proportion of the work force paid at least $1.50 increased from
somewhat less than one-half to three-fifths.
From October I960 to June 1965, average earnings in manufacturing in­
dustries increased 16 cents an hour, 9 cents of which occurred after June 1962.
The main advance in manufacturing earnings was among employees receiving
more than $2.50 an hour; this proportion rose from one-fourth in I960 to nearly
two-fifths by 1965.



70

Employees in the rubber and plastics products industry had an increase in
average earnings of 19 cents an hour between I960 and 1965.
The proportion of
employees earning $2 an hour or more increased from somewhat more than onehalf to nearly two-thirds, but the most important change occurred further up the
scale where the proportion earning $2. 50 or more rose from one-tenth to slightly
more than one-fourth.
Sandusky County, Ohio
Sandusky County is situated in north central Ohio bordering Lake Erie.
According to the I960 census, the area had a population of 56,486 within an area
of 410 square miles.
Fremont is the countyfs largest urban center.
About
8,900 nonsupervisory employees, two-thirds of whom were in manufacturing in­
dustries, were covered by the June 1965 study.
The production of electrical
machinery accounted for nearly two-fifths of the factory workers.
Close to 3 out
of 5 employees in the nonmanufacturing industries studied were in retail trade.
Earnings. Average hourly earnings for all employees were $2. 15 an hour,
13 cents less than median earnings. The lower fourth of the work force earned
less than $1.55 and the higher fourth $2.72 or more; thus, earnings for the
middle 50 percent of the employees were distributed over a relatively wide range
of $1.17 an hour.
Straight-time earnings for nonmanufacturing employees, at $1.73 an hour,
were 42 cents less than the all-employee average. Three-tenths of the employees
earned less than $1. 25 an hour and almost one-half earned less than $1. 50. On
the other hand, 3 out of 10 were paid $2 or more.
At $2. 37 an hour, the pay level in manufacturing was 64 cents higher than
the average in nonmanufacturing industries. Individual earnings also were more
concentrated; the middle 50 percent of the employees were distributed over a
78-cent range ($1.99 to $2.77), compared with a range of $ 1 for those in nonman­
ufacturing ($1. 17 to $2. 17). Somewhat more than two-fifths of the manufacturing
force earned at least $2. 50 an hour, yet less than one-tenth earned more than $3.
This compression, as well as the generally high overall manufacturing wage level,
was largely generated by earnings in the electrical machinery industry. More
than seven-tenths of the employees in this industry were paid between $2.50 and
$3 an hour, accounting for the same proportion of all employees with such
earnings. This was particularly significant since the industry represented only
two-fifths of manufacturing work force.
Hours. The average number of hours worked during a selected week in
June 1965 was 39.
Two out o f every five employees worked exactly 40 hours,
making this the most common period of employment. Almost as many employees
worked 48 hours or more as were employed on a part-time basis (less than
35 hours) during the week, roughly one-sixth in each instance.
Average weekly hours in nonmanufacturing industries, at 37, reflected a
larger proportion of part-time work than in the all-industry group.
Close to
three-tenths of the employees worked fewer than 35 hours, and only one-fifth
were on a 40-hour week.
The incidence of long weeks (48 hours or more),
however, was similar to that in all industries; one-sixth of the nonmanufacturing
employees were clustered at this interval.
Longer workweeks were the rule in manufacturing industries, where the
average was 40 hours, 3 more than in nonmanufacturing. A little over one-half
the work force was on a 40-hour week, and more than one-half of these were in
the electrical machinery industry. Only one-tenth of the employees worked part
time, slightly less than the one-seventh who were employed 48 hours or more.



71

Wage Changes. In June 1965, the average pay level in the area exceeded
that for June 19o2 by 18 cents an hour.
Changes in the distribution of hourly
earnings were fairly uniform along the scale as the proportions of employees earn­
ing at least $ 1. 25, $2, and $2. 50 an hour each increased by 7 percentage points.
A ll
industries

Nonmanufacturing

June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

_______ Manufacturing_______

June

1965

1962

October

1965

1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00 -------------------$ 1 . 0 5 -------------------$1.15 -------------------$ 1 . 2 0 --------------------$1.25 -------------------$1.30 -------------------$1.50 -------------------$2.00 -------------------$2. 50 -------------------$3. 0 0 ---------------------

5
10
12
15
17
21
27
47
72
97

3
6
8
9
10
14
22
40
65
93

15
27
33
39
42
48
56
77
89
97

8
17
23
27
30
37
49
69
85
94

(M
2
3
4
6
8
14
32
68
95

(M
<M
O)
3
4
7
15
35
67
97

<n
(i)
p>
2
3
6
12
31
63
97

3
8
25
55
93

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

83

89

29

31

54

49

54

59

Average hourly earnings----

$1.97

$2.15

$1.53

$1.73

$2.17

$2.15

$2.21

$2.37

-

{')
i 1)

(1)
i 1)

* Less than 0. 5 percent.

Between June 1962 and June 1965, earnings in nonmanufacturing industries
increased 20 cents an hour. Most of the wage movement was concentrated near
the lower and middle reaches of the pay scale, the degree of change narrowed
upwards from the $2 level.
The proportion of employees earning at least
$1.25 advanced from slightly fewer than three-fifths to seven-tenths and that
receiving $1.50 or more went from slightly more than two-fifths to one-half.
The proportion paid $2 or more rose to three-tenths in 1965, whereas, slightly
fewer than one-fourth had such earnings in 1962, and the change in the pro­
portion earning $2.50 or more was only 4 percentage points.
Earnings in manufacturing industries advanced 20 cents an hour between
the October I960 and June 1965 surveys. Since June 1962, the increase was
16 cents, 4 cents less than the nonmanufacturing gain during the same period.
Because of the high prevailing wage level in the manufacturing industry group,
the significant advances were among employees earning more than $2 an hour.
The proportion at this level rose from nearly two-thirds to three-fourths, but
the proportion paid $2.50 or more changed even more, increasing from fewer
than one-third to somewhat more than two-fifths of the work force. There was
little change above this point.

Whiteside County, 11 .
1
Whiteside County is located in the northwestern part of Illinois on the
Mississippi River, adjacent to Iowa. In I960, the area had a population of 59, 887
within an area of 690 square miles. More than seven-tenths of the 10,400 em ­
ployees within the scope of the June 1965 survey were in manufacturing industries.



72

Earnings. Among the 11 selected North Central areas, average employee
earnings in Whiteside, at $2.60 an hour, were highest.
The mid-point in the
distribution of earnings was only 5 cents less than the average, indicating a r e l­
atively symmetrical array around the mean. Somewhat over one-third of the em ­
ployees earned more than $ 3 an hour, one-half received at least $2.50, and all
but one-sixth were paid more than $1.50.
Employees in nonmanufacturing industries earned $1.71 an hour, on the
average, 89 cents less than the area level. One-fourth earned less than $1.25
an hour and somewhat more than two-fifths received less than $1.50, accounting
for over four-fifths of all employees in the area with such earnings.
Roughly
7 out of the 10 nonmanufacturing employees in these intervals were in retail trade,
which employed three-fifths of the work force. At the higher pay levels, close
to three-tenths were paid at least $2 an hour and almost one-sixth earned $2.50
or more.
Of these, retail trade employed only two-fifths at the form er level
and one-fourth at the latter.
High wages in Whiteside County’ s manufacturing
plants tended to overshadow the level of earnings among nonmanufacturing em ­
ployees; actually, theirs was comparable to the levels in four other selected
areas and 22 cents an hour higher than the lowest.
Employees in manufacturing industries were paid an average of $2.95 an
hour, the highest for this industry group among the North Central areas tab­
ulated separately (averages for the second and third highest areas, by way of
comparison, were 28 cents and 43 cents less).
A ll but one-sixth of the work
force earned at least $2 an hour, nearly two-thirds received more than $2.50,
and one-half earned $ 3 or more.
The primary metals, fabricated metal prod­
ucts, and mechanical instruments industries together employed a little more than
four-fifths of the manufacturing work force. Each of these industries had a high
wage structure and together they set a pattern not only of earnings in the man­
ufacturing segment, but because of a relatively small nonmanufacturing component,
in the area as a whole.
Hours. The length of the average workweek for all nonsupervisory em ­
ployees was 41 hours. Two out of five were on a 40-hour week and nearly onefourth worked 48 hours or more. Part-time employment (less than 35 hours a week)
was negligible, engaging only one-eighth of the work force.
Nonmanufacturing employees averaged 36 hours a week.
Three-tenths
worked on a part-time basis, one-sixth worked exactly 40 hours, and close to
one-fourth had a long week (48 hours or more).
More than three-fifths of the
employees working less than 35 hours a week were in this industry group, which
employed slightly fewer than three-tenths of all employees in Whiteside.
The average workweek in manufacturing industries was 43 hours, 7 more
than in nonmanufacturing industries.
Nearly one-half of the employees worked
40 hours during the survey week and one-fourth worked 48 hours or more. Fewer
than one-tenth worked part time. Manufacturing accounted for about nine-tenths
of those employees working 40 hours a week but for less than two-fifths of those
employed on a part-time basis.
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, average hourly earnings
of the area's nonsupervisory work force increased 25 cents an hour. Changes in
the distribution of earnings m irrored the influence of the area's high paying man­
ufacturing industries on the overall wage structure. For example, at no level of
the wage scale below $2.50 an hour did the change, all in the form of increases,
exceed 6 percentage points, but from this point upward the change was nearly



73

twice as great.
Thus, while the portion earning at least $2 went from 61 to
67 percent, the proportion earning at least $2.50 went from 40 to 51 percent,
and that receiving $3 or more, from 26 to 37 percent.
A ll
industries
June
Average hourly
earnings

1962

Nonmanufacturing
June

1965

1962

________ Manufacturing
Oc tober

1965

1960

___ June____
_

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)

0)

$1.00 .....................
$1.05 -------------------$1. 15 -------------------$ 1 . 2 0 .......... - .........
$1. 25 -------------------$1.30 -------------------$1. 50 -------------------$2.00 -------------------$2. 50 -------------------$ 3 . 0 0 ------ --------------

5
8
10
11
12
14
20
39
60
74

2
4
5
6
7
11
16
33
49
63

17
27
31
35
37
42
55
76
88
96

8
15
18
23
24
35
45
72
85
92

1
1
1
1
2
5
34
61
79

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

90

104

27

29

Average hourly earnings----

$2. 35

$2.60

$1.57

$1.,71

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

_

1
2
4
26
49
68

(I )
(*)
(1)
1
1
2
5
23
48
65

(*)
(1)
(I)
(*)
1
4
18
35
51

60

61

63

75

$2. 41

$2.65

$2. 69

$2. 95

(M
(*>
(M

1

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

In June 1965, the pay level for nonmanufacturing employees was 14 cents
an hour higher than the average in June 1962.
There were changes throughout
the distribution of hourly earnings, the most significant of which were at the lower
levels.
The proportions earning less than $1 and less than $1.15 were much
smaller in 1965 than they were 3 years earlier, with the form er dropping from
17 to 8 percent, and the latter from 31 to 18 percent. These changes coincided
with the movement of the Federal minimum wage; a $1 minimum operative in large
retail trade organizations at the time of the 1962 survey became $1.15 prior to
June 1965, and was to increase further to $1.25, 3 months later.
In certain
other nonmanufacturing industries the $1. 15 standard effective in June 1962 rose
to $1.25.
Partially as a result, the proportion of employees earning at least
$1.25 rose from 63 to 76 percent. Also, the largest concentration at a single
5-cent wage interval, 10 percent, moved from the $1 to $1.05 interval in 1962 to
the $1. 25 to $1. 30 an hour interval in 1965. Further up the pay scale the pro­
portion earning $1.50 or more increased from 45 to 55 percent, but the advance
diminished in the higher reaches of the distribution— at the $2 level, the change
was only 4 percentage points.
The advance in Whiteside County1 manufacturing pay level between October
s
I960 and June 1965 was 54 cents an hour, pacing all selected North Central areas
for this industry group (Alpena County, where the increase was 20 cents less than
this, was second). On a relative basis, the 22-percent gain was also the largest.
Since June 1962, the manufacturing increase was 26 cents, nearly twice the amount
received by the area’ s nonmanufacturing work force over the same period of time.
Since all but one-third of the employees earned more than $2 an hour even in
I960 (all but one-sixth had such earnings in 1965) most of the change in the earn­
ings distribution occurred at levels further up the scale.
There was a sharp
rise in the proportion of employees earning $2. 50 or more, going from two-fifths
in I960 to nearly two-thirds in 1965. The increase in the proportion paid at least
$3 an hour, which went from one-fifth to one-half, was equally as substantial.



74

Winona County, Minn.
Winona County is located on the Mississippi River, in the southeastern
corner of Minnesota and borders on Wisconsin. A population of 40,937 (I960
census), three-fifths of whom reside in the city of Winona, was contained within
a 623-square-mile area, Slightly more than one-half of the 6,900 employees
included in the June 1965 survey were in nonmanufacturing industries.
This
was 1 of only 2 selected North Central areas where employment in manufac­
turing industries did not predominate. Retail trade employed one-half of the non­
manufacturing work force, and the food, textiles, chemical, and fabricated metal
products industries together accounted for three-fifths of that in manufacturing.
Earnings. Employees earned an average of $1.84 an hour in June 1965,
11 cents more than the median. Earnings for the middle 50 percent of the em­
ployees were distributed over a 92-cent range between $1.34 and $2.26 an hour.
Nonmanufacturing employees averaged $1.72 an hour. One-eighth of the
employees earned less than $1 an hour and close to one-fourth were paid less
than $1.25.
One out of seven were clustered in the $1.25 to $1.30 wage in­
terval. One-half of the nonmanufacturing work force, however, earned at least
$1.50 and close to three-tenths earned $2 or more.
Average hourly earnings for retail employees were $1. 39 an hour, 33 cents
an hour less than the overall nonmanufacturing average.
Their lower earnings
level m irror the distribution of retail pay. Three-tenths earned less than $1.25
an hour (one-half of them had earnings below $1) and nearly one-fourth had
earnings concentrated between $1.25 and $1.30 an hour. Only one-third of the
employees received more than $1.50. Retail trade accounted for nearly seventenths of all nonmanufacturing employees earning less than $1.25 an hour, and
seven-tenths of those below $1.50.
In manufacturing, the average pay level stood at $1.98 an hour, and al­
though this was next to the lowest level for this industry group among the areas
shown separately, it was 26 cents an hour higher than the average in nonman­
ufacturing industries in the area. A ll but one-fifth of the employees earned more
than $1.50 an hour, and two-fifths earned at least $2. One out of seven man­
ufacturing employees received more than $2.50 an hour.
Hours. Employees in Winona County worked 38 hours a week, on the aver­
age. A workweek of 40 hours was fairly standard in the area, engaging onethird of the employees. One-fifth of the employees worked less than 35 hours
a week; the proportion was slightly greater than that working 48 hours or more.
In nonmanufacturing industries within the scope of the survey, employees
averaged 36 hours of work a week, 2 less than the area average. Contributing
to this lower level were the nearly three-tenths of the employees who worked
part time (less than 35 hours).
This group of industries accounted for seventenths of all employees in the area working part time.
Close to one-fourth
worked a 40-hour week, and one-sixth worked 48 hours or longer.
In retail trade, the average week was 35 hours. A little more than onethird of the retail employees worked less than 35 hours a week, and one-sixth
were employed for 40 hours, and about the same proportion worked 48 or more.
Manufacturing employees had the longest average workweek, 41 hours.
Somewhat more than two-fifths worked 40 hours a week, accounting for almost
two-thirds of all employees with such hours. Only one-eighth of the manufacturing
work force was employed on a part-time basis and one-fifth had long workweeks
(48 hours or more).
Wage Changes. Between June 1962 and June 1965, the average pay level
increased from $1.71 to $1.84 an hour, a 13-cent-an-hour rise.
The pro­
portion of employees earning less than $1.25 an hour in 1965, one-eighth, was



75

one-half the proportion recorded 3 years earlier. At the same time, the pro­
portion at or just above $1.25 more than doubled, going from one-twentieth to
slightly more than one-tenth. Many of these movements were probably in r e ­
sponse to a change in the Federal minimum wage, which went from $1.15 to
$1.25 in September 1963.
Changes at other levels of the earnings distribution
showed increased wages, but they were relatively small.
Nonmanufacturing______
A ll
industries
Average hourly
earnings

Total 1

June
1962

Retail trade

________Manufacturing_______

_____________ June____________

1965

1962

1965

1962

1965

October
1960

June

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 .0 0 .......................

$1.05............ ...........
$1.15 — -------- ---------$1. 20.......................
$1.25---------------------$1.30-------------------- $1.50— ........ .........
$2.00---------------------$2. 50----------------------

7
10
12
18
23
28
40
70
90

7
9
10
12
12
23
35
66
85

15
23
28
32
38
44
53
80
91

13
17
19
22
23
37
50
72
84

17
28
36
39
47
53
62
85
97

16
21
24
29
31
55
68
88
95

1
4
9
11
13
16
32
66
90

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
12
15
19
35
67
90

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
7
11
15
30
62
89

-

( 2)
7
19
59
86

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-------------------

67

69

29

36

15

19

36

38

38

33

Average hourly earnings----

$1.71

$1.84

$1.56

$1.72

$1.49

$1.39

$1. 77

$1.78

$1.84

$1.98

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.

The earnings of nonmanufacturing employees rose 16 cents an hour during
the 3-year period. In 1962, nearly one-sixth of the employees were paid less
than $1 an hour and almost two-fifths had earnings of less than $1.25. By 1965
the proportion earning less than $1 had not changed substantially, but that below
$1.25 had dropped from nearly two-fifths to slightly below one-fourth. Further
up the wage scale, approximately one-half of the nonmanufacturing employees
earned $1.50 or more during both survey periods; however, the proportion
receiving $2 or more rose from one-fifth to nearly three-tenths.
The level of earnings in retail trade during the June 1965 survey period
was 10 cents an hour below that registered in June 1962, reflecting the fact that
most of the 400 employees added to the work force during the 3 years were paid
less than $1.50 an hour.
There were, still, significant changes in the d istri­
bution. At the time of the earlier survey, one-tenth of the work force were
clustered at or near $1, the minimum wage applicable in large retail organi­
zations subject to the FLSA (about one-fourth of the area employees were in such
establishments) and close to one-half received less than $1.25. Three years later,
the proportion earning less than $1. 25 had decreased to three-tenths, and close to
one-fourth of the employees were concentrated at the $1.25 to $1.30 wage interval.
The minimum wage applicable to employees subject to the provisions of the FLSA
was $1.15 in June 1965 (relatively few were clustered near this level, however)
and $1. 25 was to become the minimum 3 months after the survey period.
Average earnings in manufacturing industries rose 21 cents an hour be­
tween October I960 and June 1965. Comparisons of the results of the four sur­
veys conducted during this period reveal a steady flow of wages upward from the
lower reaches of the wage scale, but relatively little change at the higher levels.
One-eighth of the work force who earned less than $1.25 in I960 were all earn­
ing at least $1.25 by 1965, and the proportion paid at least $1.50 an hour rose
from nearly two-thirds to four-fifths. On the other hand, the proportion earning
$2 or more only increased from one-third to two-fifths.



Table 1.

Average hourly earnings

Under $0. 75-------------------Under $1.00 --------------------

Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, Selected Major
Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Nonmetropolitan A r e a s , South, June 1965

All
industries

Total1

Mining

Nonmanufacturing
Trans­
Wholesale
portation
trade
and public
utilities

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Total1

Food and
kindred
products

Textile
mill
products

>4

0)

Manufacturing
Apparel
Lumber
and
and wood
related
products
products

Furniture
and
fixtures

4
9

9
20

(*)
(2)

1
3

1
2

1
0
2
4

1
1

(*)
(2)

(2)
2

_
(2)

g)
(2)

(2)
1

_
(2)

Paper and
allied
products
_

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1.05-------------------$1.10-------------------$1. 15-------------------$1.20-------------------$1.25--------------------

1
2
1
2
1
3
1
6
1
7

27
2
8
30
36
3
7

(2)
(2)
1
1
1

4
5
5
5
6

4
5
5
8
8

3
3
3
5
3
8
47
5
0

2
3
4
5
6

1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
5
6

(?)
(?)
(2)
(?)
(2)

(?)
(2)
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
3

(2)
(?)
(?)
(?)
(2)

-

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.30 - -------------$1.35-------------------$ 1.40-------------------$ 1.45-------------------$1.50--------------------

33
38
44
49
53

50
5
3
57
6
0
6
2

9
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
7

1
7
2
0
2
5
2
9
3
1

4
1
46
5
3
5
8
6
1

6
0
6
3
6
7
7
0
7
2

2
1
2
5
3
0
3
7
4
1

2
1
2
7
3
5
40
46

3
9
46
58
6
3
6
5

9
1
6
2
3
3
1
40

44
5
4
6
4
7
2
7
7

47
6
4
7
2
7
7
8
0

2
6
44
5
6
6
6
7
3

1
1
2
3
3

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 55-------------------.
$ 1 60-------------------.
$1. 65-------------------$1. 70-------------------$ 1 75-------------------.

58
6
2
6
5
68
70

66
6
8
7
1
7
2
7
4

2
0
2
0
2
2
2
3
2
4

3
5
37
3
9
4
1
4
3

6
6
6
8
7
1
7
2
7
5

7
6
7
8
8
0
8
1
8
3

47
52
5
8
6
1
6
5

5
3
57
6
1
6
4
6
7

7
2
7
5
7
8
8
1
82

5
1
6
0
6
7
7
2
7
7

82
8
5
8
9
9
1
9
3

8
7
89
9
0
9
1
9
3

7
9
8
3
86
8
8
9
1

4
4
5
5
5

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1.80-------------------$1. 85-------------------$ 1 90-------------------.
$ 1 95-------------------.
$2. 00--------------------

7
2
74
76
7
8
7
9

76
7
8
80
8
1
82

2
6
27
2
8
2
9
3
1

48
5
2
56
5
9
6
0

7
7
7
9
8
1
8
2
8
3

84
8
6
8
7
8
8
8
9

6
9
7
2
7
5
7
7
7
9

6
9
7
1
7
3
7
5
7
6

84
8
5
8
7
88
8
9

80
8
3
86
88
90

94
95
96
97
9
7

9
4
95
96
96
9
7

9
2
9
3
94
95
9
5

6
6
7
7
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10-------------------$2. 20-------------------$2. 30-------------------$2. 40-------------------$2. 50--------------------

82
84
86
88
89

8
5
87
88
89
90

36
3
8
3
9
40
42

6
4
6
6
6
8
7
0
7
1

87
8
9
9
1
9
3
94

9
2
9
3
94
9
5
95

8
4
88
90
92
93

8
0
8
3
8
5
87
8
8

9
2
9
3
9
4
95
96

94
97
9
9
9
9
10
0

9
8
99
9
9
99
10
0

9
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

97
97
9
8
98
98

9
2
3
3
4
46
5
7

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 60-------------------$2. 70-------------------$2. 80-------------------$2. 90-------------------$3. 00--------------------

90
9
1
92
93
94

9
1
92
92
9
3
94

43
4
5
47
49
50

7
3
7
4
7
6
7
8
8
1

96
97
97
98
98

96
9
7
9
7
9
8
9
8

9
5
96
96
9
7
9
8

90
9
1
92
93
94

9
7
98
9
9
9
9
9
9

10
0
100
10
0
100
10
0

10
0
100
10
0
10
0
10
0

9
9
10
0
10
0
10
0
100

9
9
99
9
9
10
0
10
0

6
4
7
0
7
5
7
9
8
3

Total----------------------

100

100

100

10
0

100

10
0

100

10
0

10
0

100

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

-

Number of employees
(in thousands)-----------------

3,289

1,398

6
8

15
5

13
2

704

8
9

1,891

209

429

239

16
4

8
3

6
9

Average hourly earnings----

$1.64

$1.50

$2.63

$2.05

$1. 5
7

$1. 3
5

$1. 6
9

$1. 7
4

$ 1.50

$1.59

$1.40

$1. 3
8

$1.45

$2. 5
4

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash (-) indicates no workers.




Table 2.

Percent Distribution of Nonaupervisory Employees by Weekly Hours of Work, Selected Major Industry Divisions
and Industry Groups, Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965

Weekly hours of work

Nonmanufacturing
Transportation
Wholesale
and public
trade
utilities

All
industries

Total1

Mining

4
1
2
9
3
1
7
4
8
9
1
7

6
1
3
8
26
7
6
7
8
20

4
1
3
9
29
9
1
7
7
24

4
7
5
5
6
6
2
3
3
1
4

8
1
0
5
1
9
6
1
0
1
2
4
28

Under 1 ____ _________ _____ ____________
5
1 and under 35______________________ ____ ..
5
3 and under 40_
5
______ ______ _
40______ ______ _______________________
---Over 40 and under 44-------- ------ — ---------

Finance,
insurance, and
real estate

7
1
4
6
1
7
7
6
8
8
2
6

5
1
1
24
3
3
1
1
2
7
2
5

o
o

Over 44 and under 48------- --- ----- —----------48__ ___ ______ ____ _ _______ _____________ „
_

Retail
trade

10
0

100

100

100

100

100

Number of employees (in thousands)------- ——

, 8
3 29

1,398

68

15
5

13
2

704

89

Average weekly hours------- ------ —
------ ------ -

4
1

4
1

42

4
1

42

4
1

3
8

Total1

Food and
kindred
products

Textile znill
products

Manufacturing
Apparel
and related
products

Lumber
and wood
products

Furniture
and
fixtures

Paper
and allied
products

2
1
2
1
0
3
4
7
3
8
1
0
1
4

6
1
5
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
9
4
2
7

1
1
0
9
2
5
5
2
9
2
6
1
3

2
1
9
1
7
3
7
8
5
7
1
3

3
20
1
0
2
7
7
3
1
0
2
1
8

1
1
5
20
23
1
1
5
1
2
3
1
1

(2)
5
2
48
1
0
1
2
2
1
1
1
100

Total-------

------ ---- ----- —
------

Under 1
5
1 and under 3 _ , , ,
5
8
__
. ---- --3 and under 40___
5
--------- ------------------40 --Over 40 and under 44________ _
----44
.........................................
Over 44 and under 48__ ________ _____ _ _____
4 8 ........................................... ..........
Over 48
_____________ .
n
.u
,
Total..................... _ .................. ...

10
0

10
0

100

10
0

100

100

Number of employees (in thousands).________

1,891

209

429

239

16
4

83

69

4
1

4
1

43

3
8

40

40

43

Average weekly hours___

__ ___ __

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms.




Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 3. Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-time Hourly Earnings,
Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965

Average hourly earnings

-4
00

Chambers and Lee
Charlotte and Sarasota
Beaufort, Tyrrell, and Washington
Bartow and Cherokee
Counties, Fla.
Counties, Ala.
.
Countie s, N. C
Counties, Ga.
Nonmanu­
NonmanuNonmanu­
Nonmanu­
All
fac?turing
All
facturing
ManufacManufacfacturing
ManufacAll
All
Manufacfacturing
turing industries
turing
turing industries Total1 Retail
Retail
turing industries Total1 Retail
industries Total 1 Retail
Total1 trade
trade
trade
trade

Under $0. 75---------------------------

3

1
2

1
8

-

5

1
0

1
4

(2)

4

2
0

1
9

-

5

6

9

-

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0. 80--------------------------$0. 85--------------------------$0. 90--------------------------$0. 95--------------------------$ 1 00--------------------------.

4
4
5
5
5

1
3
1
5
1
6
1
7
9
1

2
0
2
2
24
2
5
2
8

_
-

5
6
1
4
1
5
1
6

1
1
1
1
2
5
2
7
2
9

1
5
1
5
3
5
3
7
3
9

(2)
(2)
2
3
3

5
6
6
6
7

2
2
2
5
2
7
2
9
3
0

2
1
2
5
2
7
3
0
3
2

_
-

6
7
8
1
0
1
0

7
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
5

-

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 05--------------------------$ 1 10--------------------------.
$ 1 15--------------------------.
$1. 20--------------------------$ 1 25--------------------------.

7
8
8
9
1
0

24
2
7
2
8
3
1
3
3

3
4
3
9
4
0
4
6
4
8

_
(2)
(2)
(2)

2
0
2
1
2
3
2
6
2
7

3
6
3
8
4
0
47
4
8

5
1
5
4
5
7
6
6
6
8

4
4
6
6
7

1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
2

3
7
3
8
4
2
45
4
7

4
1
42
44
4
9
5
1

2
2
2
2
2

1
6
1
8
1
9
2
3
2
5

1
9
2
0
2
2
2
7
3
0

2
2
24
2
6
3
1
3
6

3
3
3
4
4

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 30--------------------------$1. 35--------------------------$1. 40--------------------------$1. 45--------------------------$1. 50---------------------------

24
2
8
40
46
50

46
4
9
54
5
7
60

6
0
6
5
6
8
7
0
7
2

1
5
2
0
3
4
4
1
4
6

5
0
5
8
64
64
7
3

60
64
6
8
7
0
7
1

7
3
7
6
7
9
80
8
1

4
0
5
3
6
0
6
7
74

1
8
2
2
2
9
3
2
35

5
9
62
65
6
7
6
8

6
1
6
3
6
6
6
8
6
9

6
1
1
1
8
2
2
2
5

3
5
3
8
42
4
6
4
9

4
0
42
4
7
5
0
54

46
4
9
5
2
5
5
5
9

1
3
1
5
2
0
24
2
5

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 55--------------------------$1. 60--------------------------$1. 65--------------------------$1 70--------------------------.
$ 1 75--------------------------.

5
7
64
7
1
75
7
9

64
6
8
7
0
7
2
7
5

7
7
80
8
1
8
3
84

5
4
6
3
7
1
7
6
80

80
83
85
86
88

7
5
7
8
7
9
8
1
8
3

8
3
85
8
6
87
8
8

86
8
8
90
9
1
92

4
1
4
9
5
7
6
3
7
0

7
3
75
7
6
7
8
7
9

74
7
5
7
5
7
7
7
9

32
42
5
1
5
9
6
7

5
4
5
7
60
6
2
64

5
9
62
65
6
7
6
9

6
3
6
6
70
72
74

3
0
3
2
3
3
3
6
3
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 80--------------------------.
$ 1 85--------------------------.
$1. 90--------------------------$ 1 95--------------------------.
$2. 00---------------------------

8
1
82
85
86
87

7
6
7
8
7
9
80
80

8
5
8
7
8
8
8
8
8
8

82
84
8
7
8
9
90

90
9
1
92
93
93

86
8
7
8
8
8
9
8
9

8
8
90
90
90
90

94
94
95
9
6
9
7

75
7
9
8
1
84
86

82
84
84
8
6
8
6

8
1
8
3
8
3
84
85

7
3
7
8
80
83
86

6
7
6
9
7
1
7
3
74

7
2
7
3
7
5
7
7
7
8

7
5
7
6
7
8
7
9
80

44
4
6
4
9
5
2
5
2

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10--------------------------$2. 20--------------------------$2. 30--------------------------$2. 40--------------------------$2. 50---------------------------

9
1
93
95
96
96

8
3
86
8
7
8
8
8
9

9
1
92
9
3
94
95

94
96
9
8
9
9
9
9

95
96
97
97
98

9
2
93
9
5
95
9
6

94
95
95
96
9
6

9
8
99
9
9
9
9
9
9

90
94
9
6
96
9
7

90
9
1
92
92
9
3

8
9
9
1
9
1
92
9
3

90
95
9
7
98
98

7
9
8
1
84
85
86

82
84
8
6
8
7
8
8

84
86
8
8
8
9
89

6
2
64
6
9
72
7
3

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 60--------------------------$2. 70--------------------------$2. 80--------------------------$2. 90--------------------------$3. 00---------------------------

9
7
9
7
98
99
9
9

9
1
9
1
93
9
7
9
7

9
6
9
6
9
7
9
8
9
8

9
9
9
9
10
0
10
0
10
0

98
99
99
9
9
99

9
7
9
7
9
8
9
8
9
9

9
6
98
9
8
9
8
9
8

9
9
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0

98
98
98
9
9
9
9

94
95
95
96
96

94
94
94
95
96

9
9
9
9
9
9
100
10
0

8
8
90
9
1
92
9
3

90
9
1
92
9
3
94

9
1
92
93
93
94

7
9
82
85
86
8
7

Total-----------------------------

100

100

10
0

10
0

100

10
0

100

10
0

100

100

100

100

10
0

10
0

100

100

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-----------------------Average hourly earnings-----------

70
$1 5
. 5

2
0
$1. 5
1

1
0
$1. 3
0

5
0
$1 5
. 7

4
9
$1. 3
6

2
4
$1. 3
1

1
3
$1. 1
9

2
5
$1 4
. 0

132
$ 1 60
.

3
0
$1. 3
1

1
4
$1. 2
9

13
0
$1. 6
8

17
1
$1. 6
7

9
8
$1. 60

4
9
$1. 5
3

1
9
$2. 0
6

See footnotes at end of table.




_

-

Table 3. Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings,
Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965-— Continued

Average hourly earnings

Cooke and Grayson
Florence County, S. C
.
Gaston County, N. C
Harrison County, W. Va.
.
Counties, Tex.
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
Manufac­
facturing
facturing
facturing
facturing
turing
All
All
All
ManufacManufac ManufacFood and industries
industries Total1 Retail
tur ing
Total 1 Retail turing industries Total 1 Retail turing industries Total1 Mining Retail
Total1 kindred
trade
trade
trade
trade
products
8

1
5

1
9

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0 80--------------------------.
$0. 85--------------------------$0. 90--------------------------$0 95--------------------------.
$ 1 00--------------------------.

9
1
0
1
1
1
3
1
3

1
7
2
0
2
2
2
5
2
6

2
2
2
5
2
6
30
3
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 05--------------------------.
$ 1 10--------------------------.
$ 1 15--------------------------.
$ 1 20--------------------------.
$1. 25---------------------------

1
6
1
7
1
9
2
2
2
3

3
1
3
3
3
6
4
3
44

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 30--------------------------$ 1 35--------------------------.
$ 1.40--------------------------$1.45------- ------------------$ 1 50--------------------------.

3
9
4
3
4
6
5
0
5
2

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 55-------- ■
.
-----------------$ 1 60--------------------------.
$ 1 65--------------------------.
$1. 70--------------------------$1. 75---------------------------

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

Under $0 75--------------------------.

-

-

.

_

9

2
0

2
7

-

1

3

3

-

4

8

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4

2
2
24
2
6
2
8
2
9

2
9
3
1
3
3
3
7
3
8

.
(2)
1
1

1
1
2
2
2

4
4
8
1
0
1
1

6
7
1
2
1
6
1
7

_
<*)
( )
(*)
(2)

5
6
6
7
7

1
0
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
4

-

1
7
1
7
1
8
2
1
2
2

"
_
“

3
8
3
9
4
1
5
0
5
3

1
5
1
6
1
7
1
9
2
0

3
0
3
1
3
3
3
5
3
7

5
5
5
5
5

6
0
64
6
7
6
7
6
9

2
2
2
4
4

60
65
7
0
74
7
7

24
25
2
6
2
7
2
9

40
4
2
44
45
4
9

8
8
8
8
8

7
5
7
6
7
9
8
0
82

7
8
9
1
0
1
0

8
7
8
8
8
9
90
90

8
1
84
8
7
88
8
9

3
1
3
2
3
3
35
3
6

5
0
5
1
5
3
54
5
6

9
9
1
0
1
1
1
2

8
5
8
6
8
7
8
7
8
8

1
2
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7

8
1
8
3
85
86
8
7

9
1
93
93
93
94

92
94
95
9
7
9
8

42
45
4
8
5
2
5
6

60
62
64
6
6
6
7

1
7
1
7
1
9
2
0
20

9
1
9
3
94
9
5
9
6

2
6
2
9
3
2
3
8
4
6

97
97
98
9
8
98

89
90
9
1
9
1
92

96
96
97
97
9
8

9
9
99
9
9
100
10
0

60
65
70
7
5
7
8

6
9
7
1
7
3
75
7
6

2
2
24
2
5
2
5
2
5

9
6
9
7
9
7
9
8
9
8

5
2
60
6
9
7
5
80

10
0

100

100

100

100

100

10
0

100

10
0

100

65
$1. 5
8

393
$1. 5
9

8
1
$1.60

3
9
$1.33

312
$1. 5
9

124
$2. 3
3

6
1
$2. 0
2

1
3
$3. 0
5

1
6
$1. 2
8

6
3
$2. 6
3

3
8
3
9
4
3
5
6
5
8

_
-

1
6
1
7
1
8
2
0
2
2

3
3
35
3
6
42
44

4
3
44
4
6
5
6
5
9

1
1
2
2
2

4
4
5
7
7

1
9
2
0
24
3
1
3
2

3
1
34
3
8
5
3
54

(2)
( )
(2)
1
1

8
9
9
1
0
1
1

5
6
5
8
6
1
64
6
6

6
9
7
1
74
7
5
7
7

2
0
2
7
3
1
3
5
3
8

1
6
2
3
2
6
2
6
2
6

4
0
4
6
5
4
5
8
6
6

5
7
60
64
6
7
6
9

6
8
70
7
3
7
5
7
7

2
5
34
45
5
1
6
3

1
7
2
5
3
1
3
7
5
0

4
2
45
5
1
54
5
7

64
6
8
7
2
74
7
6

1
1
1
9
2
5
3
3
4
8

5
6
5
9
6
0
6
2
64

6
9
7
2
7
3
7
5
7
7

7
9
8
1
82
8
3
85

4
1
4
5
4
7
4
8
5
1

2
6
2
7
2
8
2
8
2
9

7
1
7
3
7
6
7
8
80

7
1
7
3
7
6
7
9
80

7
8
7
9
80
82
84

70
7
3
7
6
7
8
7
9

60
65
6
9
7
3
76

6
1
6
3
65
6
8
70

80
8
1
83
85
86

$1 80--------------------------.
$ 1 85--------------------------.
$ 1 90--------------------------.
$ 1 95--------------------------.
$2. 00---------------------------

6
7
6
8
7
1
7
3
7
5

80
8
1
8
3
84
8
5

8
7
8
7
8
9
90
90

5
3
5
5
5
8
6
1
6
4

3
1
3
8
40
45
5
2

82
8
3
84
85
86

83
84
85
86
8
7

86
8
6
8
7
87
8
8

8
1
82
84
84
8
5

7
9
82
84
86
8
7

7
2
7
3
7
5
7
7
7
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10--------------------------$2. 20--------------------------$2 30--------------------------.
$2. 40--------------------------$2. 50---------------------------

7
9
82
85
8
8
8
9

8
8
8
9
90
92
9
3

9
3
94
95
96
96

6
9
7
4
7
9
8
3
8
6

5
8
6
6
7
3
8
1
8
6

8
9
9
1
92
9
3
94

90
92
9
3
94
94

90
93
94
95
96

8
8
8
9
90
9
3
93

90
92
93
95
96

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2 60--------------------------.
$2. 70--------------------------$2. 80--------------------------$2. 90--------------------------$3. 00---------------------------

92
9
3
95
9
6
9
7

94
94
9
5
9
6
9
7

9
7
97
9
8
9
8
9
8

89.
9
2
94
9
6
9
7

90
95
9
7
9
7
9
8

95
95
9
6
9
7
9
7

95
96
9
7
9
7
9
7

9
6
9
7
9
8
9
8
9
8

95
95
9
6
9
7
9
7

Total------------------- ----------

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

100

100

10
0

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-----------------------Average hourly earnings----------

12
2
$1 6
. 1

2
8
6
0
6
3
$1.39 $1.26 $1. 84

1
3
$1. 9
8

12
0
$1 4
. 6

5
6
2
9
$1.32 $1.20




2
0
2
5
2
8
3
2
3
3
3
5

_
_
-

.
_
_
(2)
1
1
1

See footnotes at end of table.

-

_

Table 3* Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervieory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings,
Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965-— Continued

ISopkins an Muhlenberg’
cl

Average hourly earnings

TEoucfon an ^M cM irar
Lake, "PascoTa^ r s t r
Jones County, Miss,
Counties, Tenn,
Counties, Fla,
Manufac­
Manufac­
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
turing
turing
facturing
facturing
All
All
All
All
ManufacManufacFood and industries facturing
Textile
industries Total1 Mining Retail turing industries Total1 Retail turing industries facturing Total1 kindred
Total1
mill
trade
trade
products
products

-

-

4

2
1

-

-

-

_
-

5
6
6
6
6

2
5
2
8
3
0
3
2
3
2

.
(2)
(2)
(2)

(*>
(2)
1

(2)

8
9
1
0
1
0
1
1

40
4
3
4
6
4
9
5
1

(2)
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
3
3

1
5
1
9
2
3
2
8
3
1

1
6
2
2
2
5
3
1
3
5

3
0
3
8
44
5
1
5
8

62
6
8
7
2
7
6
7
7

2
3
3
1
3
8
4
5
54

3
4
4
6
5
4
6
2
6
7

5
2
54
5
8
5
9
6
1

3
8
44
5
0
5
4
5
7

4
7
5
7
6
7
74
7
7

6
3
65
6
9
7
1
7
3

8
1
83
8
6
8
8
8
9

5
9
6
1
6
5
6
7
6
9

7
3
7
7
8
3
85
8
7

6
3
65
6
7
69
7
1

6
3
65
6
7
6
9
7
1

6
2
64
6
7
6
9
70

85
8
7
8
9
9
1
92

7
4
7
6
7
7
7
8
7
9

8
9
90
92
9
3
9
3

7
0
7
2
7
3
74
7
5

8
8
90
92
9
3
94

3
8
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1

76
7
9
82
85
86

7
6
80
82
85
86

7
5
7
9
82
84
86

95
96
98
9
9
99

8
3
84
8
6
8
7
90

9
5
95
9
6
9
6
9
7

80
82
84
85
8
8

9
8
9
9
10
0
10
0
10
0

9
7
98
9
8
9
8
9
9

8
7
9
1
94
9
7
99

8
9
9
1
9
3
94
96

8
9
90
93
94
95

8
9
92
9
3
95
9
7

100
100
100
100
100

9
1
92
9
3
94
94

9
7
9
7
9
8
9
9
9
9

8
9
9
1
9
2
9
3
9
3

10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0

10
0

100

100

100

10
0

100

10
0

100

10
0

10
0

34
1
7
$1. 4 $1.15
1

4
9
$2. 0
7

325
$ 1 72
.

227
$1, 6
8

9
8
$1 8
. 1

4
3
$1. 5
8

9
1
$1. 64

1
8
$1. 2
3

7
3
$1. 74

2
2
$1. 4
5

7

8

-

2
0

-

8

2
0

2
8

-

5

7

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0. 80----- — --------------$0.85-------- --------- *-------$0.90--- -------------- -------$0.95— ----------------------$1. 00---------------------------

9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
2

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
14

_
.
-

2
5
3
0
3
2
3
5
3
9

2
2
2
2
2

9
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
3
2
5
2
7
2
7

3
1
3
4
3
7
3
9
4
1

-

5
6
7
7
8

8
9
9
1
0
1
2

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 05— ---- «----------- —
$1. 10— ----- ----- — ------$1. 15--------------------- -----$1. 20............................
$ 1 25—------------------ -----,

1
5
1
5
1
6
2
0
2
1

1
7
1
7
1
8
2
3
2
3

(2)
(2)

4
6
4
7
4
9
6
1
6
3

3
3
5
5
5

1
3
1
3
1
3
1
6
1
7

3
1
3
1
3
2
40
42

45
4
5
4
5
60
6
3

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
5
1
6

1
5
1
6
1
7
2
1
2
3

(*)
( )
(2)

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 30—---------- ------ -----$1. 35—-----------------------$1.40---------- -------- ------$1.45---- — ---------- -------$ 1 50------ — --------- — .
—
---

3
0
3
2
3
5
3
8
3
9

30
3
1
3
3
35
3
6

2
3
4
4
5

70
73
7
5
7
6
7
8

3
2
3
9
44
5
3
5
6

2
9
3
1
3
4
3
7
3
8

5
3
5
5
5
9
64
6
5

6
9
70
75
7
8
7
9

1
5
1
5
1
7
1
9
2
0

2
8
3
1
3
6
3
9
42

3
3
3
7
4
1
45
4
7

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 55----------------- -------—
$1.60—---- —----------- -—$1.65--------------------------$1. 70--------------------------$1.75------ ------ —----------

42
43
45
4
7
48

39
40
4
1
43
44

7
7
1
0
1
1
1
2

80
8
3
84
8
6
86

6
3
6
6
7
0
7
4
7
6

40
4
3
44
4
7
4
9

6
7
6
9
7
2
7
3
74

8
1
83
8
3
85
86

2
2
2
5
2
6
2
9
3
1

4
8
5
1
5
5
5
8
60

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1,80------- -------- ----------$1. 85-------- -----------------$1.90--------------- -----------$1.95------ — *-------------- $2. 00---------------- ------—

50

5
1
5
2
5
3
53

46
46
47
47
48

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
3

8
8
8
9
9
1
9
1
92

80
8
1
83
84
85

50
5
1
5
3
54
5
5

7
6
78
80
8
1
83

8
8
8
9
90
90
92

3
1
3
3
3
5
3
6
3
7

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10----- ------- —--------- $2. 20-------------- ------ ——
$2. 30------------------- -------$2. 40—------------------------$2. 50------------ -------------

5
6
5
7
5
8
59
5
9

50
52
5
2
5
3
5
3

1
3
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4

95
95
96
96
97

9
1
92
93
94
94

5
7
6
6
72
7
9
85

8
6
8
7
8
9
90
9
1

93
94
96
9
6
96

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2 60—
.
------ —
—-——-----$2, 70--- ---- -------- --------$2.80------------ —------- —
$2. 90-------------- ------------$3. 00----------- ---------------

60
60
6
1
6
1
6
1

54
54
55
5
5
55

1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5

9
7
98
9
8
9
9
9
9

98
98
9
8
9
8
9
9

8
9
9
1
94
95
9
7

92
92
9
3
9
3
93

Total----- --------- —
—------ —

100

100

100

100

100

100

10
0

60
1
5
2
9
5
$2. 28 $3. 1 $1.19

1
0
$ 1 54
.

83
$1. 80

Under $0. 75-------------------- ——-

Number of employee#
-----------—
(in hundreds) —------ —
Average hourly earnings--—------See footnotes at end of table.




70
$2. 1
8

_

_

Table 3. Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings,
Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965-— Continued

Average hourly earnings

All
industries

Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester
Counties, Md.
Manufac­
Nonmanu­
turing
facturing
Food and
Wholesale Retail
Total1
Total1 kindred
trade
trade
products

Union County, Ark.

Apparel

All
industries

Nonmanu­
facturing

Under $0. 75---------------------------

3

6

4

1
0

(2)

(2)

-

6

1
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0. 80--------------------------$0.85-—----------------------$0. 90--------------------------$0. 95--------------------------$1. 00---------------------------

3
4
4
5
5

6
8
8
1
0
1
0

4
4
4
4
4

1
0
1
3
1
4
1
6
1
7

(2)
(2)
1
1
2

1
1
2
2
3

_
(2)
(2)

8
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3

1
5
1
9
2
1
2
3
2
5

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 05--------------------------$1. 10--------------------------$1. 15--------------------------$1. 20............................
$1. 25-------------- -------------

8
9
1
0
1
3
1
5

1
6
1
7
1
8
2
3
2
5

5
5
6
9
9

25
2
7
2
8
3
3
3
6

2
2
3
6
7

4
4
5
1
1
1
3

(2)
(2)
2
3
4

1
5
1
6
1
7
20
2
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 30--------------------------$1. 35--------------------------$1. 40--------------------------$1.45--------------------------$1. 50---- ----------------------

3
2
43
5
2
5
6
5
9

3
8
4
1
4
6
5
0
5
3

2
1
2
4
3
0
3
6
4
0

54
5
7
62
6
6
6
9

2
7
45
5
7
6
1
64

24
5
3
6
9
7
3
7
7

4
3
4
8
5
6
62
66

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 55--------------------------$ 1 60--------------------------.
$1 65--------------------------.
$1. 70--------------------------$1. 75---------------------------

65
6
7
70
7
1
7
3

5
8
60
6
3
65
67

5
1
5
4
5
9
6
4
6
4

72
74
7
6
7
7
7
9

70
7
3
75
7
7
7
8

80
83
84
85
87

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1. 80--------------------------$1.85--------------------------$1. 90--------------------------$1.95--------------------------$2. 00---------------------------

7
6
7
7
7
9
80
8
1

6
9
7
1
74
75
7
6

6
7
7
3
7
6
7
8
7
9

8
1
82
83
83
84

8
1
82
83
84
85

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10--------------------- -----$2 20--------------------------.
$2. 30--------------------------$2.40------------ -------------$2. 50---------------------------

85
87
89
90
93

8
1
84
85
86
8
8

8
3
8
8
9
0
9
1
9
2

87
89
90
9
1
9
3

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 60--------------------------$2. 70--------------------------$2. 80--------------------------$2.90--------------------------$3. 00---------------------------

94
95
96
96
9
7

90
9
1
92
93
93

94
9
5
9
6
9
7
9
8

Total-----------------------------

100

100

Number of employees
(in hundreds)-----------------------Average hourly earnings-----------

163
$1. 5
9

7
0
$1 6
. 5

Manufac­
turing

Washington County, Va.
Nonmanu­
facturing
All
Manufac industries Total1
Retail
turing
trade
7

1
6

2
0

-

8
9
1
0
1
1
1
1

1
9
2
1
24
2
5
2
7

24
2
7
2
8
3
0
3
4

2
8
30
3
2
3
7
3
9

1
1
1
1
1

1
3
1
4
1
4
1
8
2
0

3
1
3
2
34
4
1
4
6

3
8
4
1
42
5
6
65

(2
)
1
1
1
1

3
7
4
1
4
7
5
0
5
2

5
3
54
5
8
60
63

2
0
2
6
3
6
3
9
40

3
0
34
3
9
43
45

5
5
6
0
6
3
6
7
70

7
0
75
7
7
7
9
8
1

1
2
1
6
2
1
2
6
2
8

7
8
82
8
6
8
8
90

5
6
5
7
60
6
1
62

6
7
6
8
6
9
70
70

44
46
4
9
5
1
52

50
5
2
5
5
5
7
5
9

74
7
6
7
7
7
9
80

84
85
86
8
7
88

3
2
3
6
3
9
4
1
4
3

90
9
1
92
94
94

92
9
3
94
94
95

64
65
66
6
8
6
8

7
3
74
7
6
7
8
7
8

54
5
5
55
5
7
5
8

62
6
7
70
72
75

8
1
83
84
85
86

8
9
90
9
2
93
94

4
8
5
5
6
0
6
3
6
6

88
90
92
93
96

9
6
9
7
9
7
98
98

9
7
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9

7
1
72
73
7
6
7
8

82
84
85
89
9
1

5
9
60
6
1
62
64

80
82
86
88
9
1

89
90
92
92
9
3

96
96
9
7
9
8
9
8

7
3
7
7
8
1
8
6
90

95
96
96
97
97

9
7
98
98
9
9
99

9
9
9
9
99
9
9
9
9

10
0
10
0
100
10
0
10
0

7
9
8
1
82
83
85

92
92
9
3
94
95

66
6
8
6
9
7
1
74

94
95
96
97
9
7

94
95
95
95
9
5

98
9
9
99
9
9
9
9

9
3
9
5
9
7
9
8
9
8

10
0

100

100

100

10
0

100

100

100

100

10
0

100

100

1
0
$1. 6
2

34
$1. 4
5

92
$1. 54

46
$1. 44

2
2
$1. 44

6
9
$1. 7
9

3
6
$1. 4
7

3
3
$2. 1
2

90
$1. 65

3
8
$1. 3
7

2
0
$1 1
. 8

5
2
$1. 84

-

-

_
-

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms. Beacuse of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Dash (-) indicates no workers.

-

.
-

Table 4.

Weekly hours of work

8

Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Weekly Hours of Work, Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups,
Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965

BeauCort, Tyrrell, and Washington
Bartow and Cherokee
Counties, N. C.
Counties, Ga.
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
facturing
facturing
Manufac AH
All
turing industries Total1 Retail
turing
industries Total1 Retail
trade
trade

Chambers and Lee
Charlotte and Sarasota
Counties, Ala.
Counties, Fla.
Nonmanu­
Ndhmanufacturing
facturing
All
ManufacAll
Manufacindustries Total1 Retail
turing industries Total1 Retail
turing
trade
trade

Under 1 _______________________
5
1 and under 35______ ____ __
5
3 and under 40_________ __
5
40
Over 40 and under 44___________
44 _________
_______________
Over 44 and under 48___________
48___________ _________________
Over 48 __ ______ ___________

3
1
5
9
3
6
6
3
7
5
1
6

7
1
2
5
2
8
8
6
5
1
2
8

0
1
1
1
5
1
9
7
5
7
1
3
6

2
1
6
1
0
3
9
6
2
8
6
1
2

6
2
4
1
4
1
5
6
3
8
5
1
9

9
2
1
1
2
1
5
7
4
1
0
3
1
9

1
2
1
7
1
5
7
7
3
1
4
3
2
1

4
2
7
1
6
1
4
5
2
6
7
1
9

2
1
1
5
2
0
5
3
8
2
9
1
6

4
1
3
8
2
4
7
6
1
0
1
3
1
5

5
1
4
7
1
1
1
1
0
1
5
1
8
2
0

1
1
1
4
1
9
4
3
8
3
4
1
6

5
1
5
1
1
2
5
7
7
1
1
7
1
3

5
1
7
1
2
2
0
7
8
1
1
8
1
3

5
1
8
9
1
7
4
1
1
1
5
7
1
3

2
8
6
5
2
8
1
9
3
1
1

Total------------------------------

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

Number of employees
(in hundreds) __ ____________
Average weekly hours___________

70
41

2
0
41

1
0
40

5
0
4
1

49
3
8

2
4
3
7

1
3
3
7

2
5
3
9

12
3
43

3
0
4
1

1
4
4
1

13
0
44

17
1
40

9
8
3
9

49
3
9

1
9
41

Cooke and Grayson
Nonmanu­
facturing
All
industries Total1 Retail
trade

Gaston County, N. C.
Harrison County, W. Va.
Florence County, S. C.
NonmamjNonmanu­
Nonmanu­
Manufac facturing
facturing
turing
facturing
ManufacAll
All
All
ManufacManufac­
Food and industries
turing
Total1 Retail turing industries Total1 Retail turing industries Total1 Mining Retail
Total1 kindred
trade
trade
trade
products

3
1
1
8
2
9
7
3
6
1
1
2
1

5
1
2
6
2
8
8
3
5
1
3
2
0

5
1
3
6
1
2
1
0
4
3
2
0
2
6

2
1
0
9
3
1
7
2
7
1
0
2
3

1
8
3
3
1
9
3
1
0
4
3
2

4
1
3
1
3
2
6
1
1
2
1
2
6
1
4

7
1
3
1
1
2
5
7
3
1
1
6
1
7

9
1
4
1
2
1
6
8
3
1
2
8
1
9

1
1
3
1
5
2
7
1
4
1
1
2
6
1
2

3
1
3
6
2
2
6
2
9
2
3
1
6

7
1
6
1
0
2
7
1
0
4
9
8
1
0

1
0
2
1
9
1
5
1
2
4
1
0
8
1
1

2
1
2
5
2
1
5
2
9
2
7
1
8

3
9
1
0
48
7
3
5
8
9

4
9
1
1
3
5
1
1
5
7
9
1
0

2
1
1
1
1
2
4
2
0
3
1
0
4
1
5

3
1
1
1
1
2
5
1
3
1
1
6
1
7
4

2
9
1
0
59
3
1
3
6
7

____________ _____

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

Number of employees
(in hundreds)__________________
Average weekly hours---------------

12
2
42

6
3
42

2
8
43

6
0
4
3

1
3
44

10
2
4
0

5
6
3
9

2
9
3
9

6
5
4
1

393
42

8
1
3
8

3
9
3
7

312
43

14
2
40

6
1
41

1
3
41

1
6
40

6
3
40

Under 15_______________________
1 and under 35________________
5
35 and under 40--- ----------------40_____________________________
Over 40 and under 44---------------44........................ ...................
Over 44 and under 48---------------48_ _________ __________________
Over 48___ — ________________
Total

See footnote , at end of table.




Table 4.

Weekly hours of work

1 and under 35________ ______
5
40_
_

________________

44
4
ft
Over 48

_
_

Total____________________
Number of employees
(in hundreds)__________________
Average weekly hours __ ---------

Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Weekly Hours of Work, Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups,
Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, South, June 1965— Continued

Hopkins and Muhlenberg
Counties, Ky.
Nonmamlfacturing
All
industries Total1 Mining Retail
turing
trade
5
1
5
1
0
2
8
8
3
8
8
1
6

7
0
40

6
0
40

1
1
3
6
43
6
6
1
5

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

2
9
40

10
0

8
1
4
9
1
4
7
5
1
1
1
0
2
3

10
0

6
1
5
1
1
2
5
8
2
7
9
1
7

10
0

4
1
9
1
3
2
7
8
(2
)
6
7
1
4

Loudon and McMinn
Lake, Pasco, and Polk
Jones County, Miss.
Counties, Term.
Counties, Fla.
Nonmanu­
Manufac­
Manufacturing
facturing
NonNon
turing
All
All
All
Manufacmanu­
manu­
industries Total1 Retail
turing industries facturing Total1 Food and industries facturing Total1 Textile
mill
kindred
trade
products
products
!
1
2
3
2
3
4
1
2
2
6
3
1
3
1
0
1
1
1
8
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
5
2
0
1
4
1
1
1
0
7
8
1
2
1
4
8
7
9
9
47
47
3
3
42
3
2
3
3
2
7
2
4
1
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
3
6
1
0
4
1
0
1
1
7
1
1
1
4
5
9
9
1
2
3
i
1
2
1
3
5
3
9
1
3
3
8
5
1
2
5
8
8
8
5
5
8
7
1
7
1
4
7
3
8
1
3
1
8
6
6
6
4
1
4
1
3
2
4
43
1
0
1
7
2
5
1
5
2
6
2
9

1
5
40

1
0

8
3
42

3
4
4
1

1
7
41

49
43

32
5
42

22
7
42

9
8
43

43
45

9
1
40

1
8
42

7
3
40

2
2
3
8

1
0

41

Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties, Md.
Nonmanufacturing
All
industries
T n e-r 1
Td
ft
___
1 and under 3
5
5
____ _ __
_
3 and under 40
5
_
__ __
40
____________
Over 40 and under 44---------------44

. _______

Over 44 and under 48___________
_____ _ ______
Over 48________________________

4S

Total

-------------------------

Number of employees

( in h u n d r e d s )
_
__
Average weekly hours---------------

Total1 Wholesale
trade

See appendix for definitions of terms




Manufac turing

(2)

1
0
1
4

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

2
2
3
7

6
9
4
1

3
6
41

3
3
41

9
0
41

38
41

2
0
41

5
2
40

1
6

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

7
0
3
9

1
0
4
1

3
4
3
8

9
2
3
8

46
3
8

4
9
8
3
9
5
5
6

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE:

Retail
trade

1
1
2
1
5
3
8
8
1
1
2
3
1
0

10
0

13
6

Total1

3
1
7
1
1
7
1
8
5
5
1
5
1
9

2
2
4
2
5
3
7
6
1
4

10
0

industries

3
1
3
1
0
1
9
1
5
6
7
1
0
1
7

8
2
7
1
5
1
1
9
(2
)
8
4
1
8

6

N onmanufacturing
A1
1

turing

2
1
3
1
3
3
0
1
1
3
1
0
6
1
3

5
2
3
1
7
2
5
8
1
7
3
1
2

6

Nonmanu
facturing

1
7
9
5
5
6
2
4
4
1
3

8
2
1
1
2
1
8
7
2
6
1
1
1
5

1
6
1
6
2
0
8
3
9

All
industries

Washington County, Va.

5
1
1
7
2
5
5
8
8
1
5
1
5

2
9
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
0
8
3
2
3

5
2
0
1
7
2
3
8
2
8
5
1
3

3
9

Retail
trade

Union County, Ark.

Manufacturing
Food and
Apparel
Total1
kindred
products

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 5.

Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, Selected Major
Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Nonmetropolitan Areas, North Central Region, June 1965

Average hourly earnings

Under $0. 75------------------------------------------Under $1. 00-------------------------------------------

All
industries

Nonmanufacturing
Total1

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

Manufacturing

1
4

3
9

(2)
1

3
9

(2)
2

(2)
(2)

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 05------------------------------------------.
$1. 10------------------------------------------$ 1 15------------------------------------------.
$1. 20 .........................
$1. 25-------------------------------------------

7
8
9
1
1
1
2

1
6
1
7
2
0
2
3
2
5

5
6
7
7
7

1
8
1
9
2
2
2
8
3
1

3
4
4
5
6

1
1
1
1
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 30------------------------------------------.
$1.35
......... - $1.40------------------------------------------$1.45----$1.50-------------------------------------------

2
0
2
3
2
6
2
9
3
1

36
3
9
43
46
49

1
9
2
5
2
9
3
6
3
8

43
47
5
1
55
5
7

1
9
24
3
1
37
42

7
1
1
1
3
1
6
1
7

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 55------------------------------------------.
$ 1 60----- — —
.
— ------ -------—
--------------$ 1 65------------------------------------------.
$ 1 70------------------------------------------.
$ 1 75.............................................
.

36
3
8
4
1
4
3
45

5
5
5
7
6
0
6
2
6
5

46
49
5
3
5
7
6
0

6
4
66
6
9
7
1
7
3

5
0
5
3
57
6
0
64

2
1
2
3
2
5
2
8
3
0

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.80..........
$ 1 85------------------------------------------.
$1. 90------------------------------------------$1.95- —
........................
$2. 00---------------- ■-------------------------

48
5
0
5
2
5
4
5
6

6
7
6
9
7
1
7
3
7
4

6
3
66
6
8
7
1
7
2

7
6
7
8
80
8
1
8
2

6
8
7
1
7
5
7
7
7
8

3
2
3
4
36
3
9
4
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 10---------------- -------------------------$2. 20------------------------------ -----------$2. 30------------------------------------------$2.40------------------------------------------$2. 50------- ------------------------------------

6
1
6
5
6
9
7
3
7
7

7
8
8
1
84
8
5
86

7
7
8
2
84
8
7
8
9

86
8
8
9
0
9
1
92

84
86
8
8
9
1
92

48
53
58
6
4
6
9

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 60------------------------------------------$2. 70------------------------------------------$2. 80------------------------------------------$2.90-------------•
----------------------------$3. 00-------------------------------------------

8
0
8
3
86
8
9
9
1

88
90
9
1
92
9
3

9
1
93
9
5
96
97

94
9
5
9
5
96
97

9
3
94
9
5
96
97

7
4
78
8
3
86
89

Total---------------------------------------------

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

100

Number of employees (in thousands)------------

2,302

1,018

13
0

518

7
3

1,284

Average hourly earnings---------------------------

$1.98

$1. 7
0

$1.76

$1.59

$1.69

$2. 1
9

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 6. Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Weekly Hours of Work, Selected Major
Industry Divisions and Industry Groups, Nonmetropolitan Areas, North Central Region, June 1965

Nonmanufacturing
Weekly hours of work

Under 15--- -------- ---------- —-— -------------- —
—
1 and under 35 —
5
------— ---- —— —
—
--- ------- ---3 and under 40---- ——-—--------- -------- ---- --5
40 - ——----- — ----- -- — _________ _
__
Over 40 and under 44-—---- ----------------- -----44--------------------- ------ ----------------------------Over 44 and under 48---------------- — ---------—
48 ------------------------------------------------- ------Over 48 —-— — —— —— ----- ---------------- -— — — —

All
industries

Total1

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Manufacturing

4
1
3
9
3
2
7
3
8
7
1
7

8
1
7
8
2
3
7
4
7
6
20

4
8
5
22
5
4
0
1
4
39

8
2
0
7
1
6
6
6
7
7
2
2

9
1
3
3
3
26
1
1
1
5
1

Total_____________________

100

10
0

100

100

10
0

10
0

Number of employees (in thousands)---- --------

2,302

1,018

13
0

518

73

1,284

Average weekly hours---- —-——
—---------------

40

3
9

45

3
9

3
5

4
1




1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

l

2
1
1
9
3
8
8
2
1
0
7
1
4

Table 7.

Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups,
Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, North Central Region, June 1965

Crawford, Franklin, and
Elkhart County, Ind.
Washington Counties, Mo.
______________ k___
Nonmanu­
Manufac­
Nonmanu­
All
facturing
turing
All
Nonmanu­ Manufac­
facturing
Nonmanu­ Manufac­
All
All
industries Total1 Wholesale Retail
industries facturing turing industries facturing turing industries Total1 Retail
Total1 Leather
trade
trade
trade
Barton and Rice
Counties, Kans.

Alpena County, Mich.

Average hourly earnings

Under $ 0 75___________________
.
Under $ 0 80___________________
.
Under $0. 90___________________
Under $ 0. 95___________________
Under $ 1 00___________________
.

(2
)

-

6

8

-

2

3

8

-

-

(2)

1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
2
2
2

_
-

8
1
0
1
2
1
3
1
3

1
0
1
3
1
5
1
6
1
7

_
-

3
3
4
5
5

6
8
9
1
0
1
1

1
2
1
6
1
7
2
0
2
0

_
0
0
(2
)

_
-

1
1
1
1
2

3
4
4
5
6

8

(2
)
(2)
(2)
(2
)
1

1
9
1
9
2
1
2
3
2
5

2
4
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
2

1
1
1
1
1

6
7
8
8
9

1
5
1
5
1
7
1
9
2
1

2
8
2
9
3
3
3
5
3
8

(2)
(2
)
0
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

3
3
4
5
5

(2)

_

Manufac turing

1

-

()
()
(2
)
(2
)

4
5
6
8
8

(2
)
(2
)
0
( )
(2
)

1
1
1
2
1
4
1
7
2
0

0
()
(2)
1
1

1
5
1
5
1
8
2
5
2
8

(2
)
0
(2
)

(2
)
0

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 05___________________
.
$ 1 10___________________
.
$ 1 15___________________
.
$ 1 20___________________
.
$ 1 25___________________
.

9
1
0
1
1

2
0
2
1
2
3
2
6
2
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 30___________________
.
$ 1 35___________________
.
$ 1 40___________________
.
$ 1 45___________________
.
$ 1 50___________________
.

1
6
1
7
1
9
2
0
2
1

3
9
43
46
49
5
1

1
1
2
2
2

3
2
3
4
3
8
4
1
43

40
43
47
5
1
5
3

5
5
5
5
7

2
1
2
6
3
0
3
5
3
7

2
7
2
9
3
3
3
5
3
6

48
5
0
5
4
5
5
5
7

1
6
2
4
2
9
3
5
3
8

2
1
2
9
3
5
41
45

9
1
0
1
2
1
3
1
4

2
8
3
0
3
4
3
6
3
8

4
5
1
0
1
5
1
6

39
41
44
46
48

2
3
4
5
5

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 55___________________
.
$ 1 60_____________ ____
.
$ 1 65--------------------------.
$ 1 70___________________
.
$ 1 7 __________________
. 5

2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7

5
5
5
6
5
8
6
1
6
3

3
3
3
4
4

47
48
5
2
5
4
5
6

5
8
5
9
6
3
6
4
66

1
0
1
2
1
4
1
8
1
9

42
45
49
5
3
5
5

3
9
42
46
5
2
5
4

6
1
6
4
6
6
7
2
7
4

4
4
48
5
1
5
4
5
7

5
1
5
6
6
0
6
4
6
7

1
7
1
8
2
1
2
3
2
5

44
46
49
5
1
5
4

2
6
2
7
3
3
3
5
40

52
5
4
5
7
59
6
1

7
8
1
1
1
3
1
4

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 80___________ ______
.
$ 1 85___________________
.
$ 1 90--------------------------.
$ 1 95--------------------------.
$2. 00----------- -------------

2
8
2
9
3
1
32
32

6
6
6
7
6
9
7
0
7
1

4
5
7
7
8

5
8
6
1
6
2
6
4
6
5

6
9
7
1
7
2
7
4
7
5

2
2
2
5
2
6
2
8
2
9

5
8
6
1
6
3
6
6
6
8

5
6
5
9
6
1
6
3
6
4

7
5
7
7
7
8
7
9
8
1

6
0
6
2
6
5
6
8
7
0

7
0
7
4
7
7
7
9
8
1

2
8
3
0
3
1
3
3
3
5

5
8
6
0
6
2
6
4
6
5

43
46
48
5
1
5
3

6
6
69
7
0
7
1
7
2

1
7
1
9
2
0
2
2
2
3

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 2 10___________________
.
$ 2 20--------------------------.
$2. 30------- ----------------$2. 40___________________
$ 2. 50___________________

3
5
38
41
44
49

7
3
7
8
8
0
8
2
8
5

1
0
1
2
1
6
2
0
2
6

7
0
7
8
8
1
8
5
8
6

7
9
8
2
8
4
8
6
86

3
6
6
7
7
2
8
1
8
6

7
3
7
5
7
8
8
1
8
3

6
8
7
0
7
2
7
4
7
5

8
7
9
0
9
2
9
2
9
4

7
6
7
9
8
3
8
7
8
9

8
5
8
8
9
0
9
2
9
4

4
1
45
5
0
5
4
5
9

7
0
7
4
7
7
7
9
8
1

6
1
6
8
7
4
7
8
8
1

7
7
8
0
8
2
83
8
4

3
0
3
4
40
45
5
1

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 2 60___________________
.
$2. 70------ -------------------$ 2 8 __________________
. 0
$ 2 90------- --------------- ~
.
$ 3 0 0 ............................
.

5
3
6
1
69
76
8
5

8
6
8
8
8
9
9
0
9
2

3
1
43
5
6
6
7
8
0

8
9
9
0
9
1
9
2
9
2

8
7
8
8
9
0
9
0
9
1

9
3
9
6
9
6
9
7
9
9

8
5
8
7
8
8
9
0
9
2

7
8
8
0
8
2
8
4
8
7

9
6
9
7
9
7
9
7
9
7

9
1
9
2
9
3
9
5
9
6

9
5
9
7
9
7
9
8
9
9

6
5
7
1
7
8
8
1
8
4

8
4
8
7
8
9
9
0
9
1

8
4
8
8
9
1
9
3
9
3

8
7
89
9
0
9
1
92

5
8
6
6
7
3
7
8
8
1

Total_________________ ___

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

Number of employees
(in hundreds)----- ----------------Average hourly earnings -----------

46
$2.29

1
8
$1 7
. 1

2
8
$2. 6
7

43
$1 7
. 0

34
$1. 5
9

1
0
$2 0
. 9

15
0
$1 8
. 2

46
$1 8
. 6

1
8
$ 1 44
.

5
9
$1 8
. 0

3
1
$1 6
. 6

320
$2. 3
4

8
5
$1 8
. 5

1
3
$2. 0
5

41
$1 7
. 4

235
$2. 5
2

See footnotes at end of table.




8

0

(2)

Table 7.

Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups,
Selected Nonmetropolitan A r e a s , North Central Region, June 1965— Continued

Fayette County, Ind.

Average hourly earnings

Manitowoc County, Wis.
Marathon County, Wis.
Portage County, Ohio
Nonmanu­
Nonmanu­
All
All
Nonmanu­ Manufac­
facturing
ManufacAll
All
Manufac­
facturing
Nonmanu­ Manufacturing
Retail
industries facturing turing
industries Total1
turing
industries Total1
turing
industries facturing Total1
Retail
Rubber
trade
trade

Under $0. 75............................

2

8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0. 80............................
$0. 85___________________
$0. 90___________________
$0. 95___________________
$ 1 00___________________
.

2
3
3
3
4

1
1
1
4
1
6
1
7
1
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 05 ___________________
.
$ 1 1 ..........................
. 0
$ 1 1 ..........................
. 5
$ 1 20___________________
.
$ 1 2 ............................
. 5

6
6
6
7
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 3 ............................
. 0
$ 1 3 ..........................
. 5
$ 1 40____ _______________
.
$1.45 ____ ______ ______
$ 1 50___________________
.

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

-

-

(2
)

(2
)

1

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
1

1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
3

1

3

-

-

2
3
3
4
4

5
7
8
9
1
0

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

1
1
6
7
8

4
4
1
4
1
6
1
9

3
3
1
8
2
1
2
6

_
_
_
_
_
(2
)
(2
)
1

.
_
.
_
-

6
6
7
8
8

1
6
1
6
1
9
2
0
2
2

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

5
5
5
9
6
2
6
5
6
6

2
4
7
8
1
0

1
3
1
5
1
9
2
3
2
7

2
7
2
8
3
3
3
9
43

3
9
40
44
48
5
3

3
6
1
0
1
2
1
5

1
4
1
6
1
7
1
9

2
1

3
2
3
4
3
6
38
41

2
4
5
7
9

(2
)
1
2
6
9

6
3
6
5
6
8
69
7
2

7
4
7
6
7
9
7
9
8
3

1
5
1
8
2
2
2
4
2
7

3
1
3
3
3
6
3
9
42

49
5
1
5
5
5
8
6
0

5
9
6
0
6
4
6
6
6
8

1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
29

2
4
2
5
2
7
2
8
30

45
46
48
5
0
5
3

1
1
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6

1
1
1
4
1
6
1
7
1
9

42
45
48
5
3
5
6

7
5
7
5
7
7
7
9
8
1

8
5
8
6
8
7
8
8
8
9

3
1
3
5
39
44
48

45
47
49
5
1
5
3

6
5
6
7
6
8
7
1
7
3

7
3
7
3
7
5
7
7
8
0

3
1
3
3
3
5
38
40

3
3
3
5
38
3
9
40

5
6
57
6
0
6
1
6
2

1
8
2
1
2
4
2
5
2
7

2
3
2
8
3
2
3
4
3
6

1
2
1
7
2
0
6
2
7
7

6
2
6
6
7
0
7
4
7
9

8
4
8
6
8
7
8
8
89

9
2
9
4
9
5
9
6
9
7

5
5
6
0
6
4
7
0
7
5

59
6
4
7
0
7
6
8
0

7
8
8
1
8
5
8
7
8
8

8
5
8
9
9
2
9
3
9
4

46
5
2
6
0
6
8
7
5

46
5
1
5
7
6
2
6
9

6
7
7
1
7
4
7
6
7
9

3
3
38
46
5
3
6
2

43
48
5
6
6
2
7
3

9
4
9
4
9
5
9
6
9
6

8
5
8
9
9
4
9
5
9
8

8
3
8
7
9
2
9
5
9
6

9
1
9
2
9
2
9
3
9
5

9
8
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9

8
0
8
5
9
2
9
5
9
6

8
5
8
9
9
2
9
4
9
5

8
9
9
1
9
2
9
4
9
5

9
4
9
5
9
6
9
7
9
7

8
1
8
7
9
1
9
4
9
6

7
3
7
8
8
2
8
6
89

8
2
8
4
8
6
8
7
8
8

6
8
7
4
7
9
85
9
0

8
0
8
7
9
0
9
2
9
3

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

5
9
$2. 2
0

1
1
$1.49

47
$2. 3
7

13
6
$1 9
. 8

40
$1. 6
0

2
5
$1.41

13
2
$2. 1
0

15
4
$1 9
. 6

6
0
$1 7
. 4

2
6
$1 6
. 0

8
6
$2. 1
2

17
0
$2. 1
4

41
$1. 8
5

6
6
$2. 3
3

2
1
$2 2
. 1

(2
)

(2
)

(2)

-

(*)
(*)•
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
2
2

_
_
_
-

3
0
3
0
3
2
37
42

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

1
1
5
7
9

5
5
2
2
30
3
5

8
8
2
6
3
8
44

9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3

47
5
1
5
4
5
7
5
8

(2
)
(2
)
1
1
1

1
2
1
4
1
7
1
9
2
1

44
47
5
0
5
3
5
5

$ 1 5 ....... ______ ___
. 5
$ 1 6 _______________
. 0
$ 1 65___________________
.
$ 1 70............................
.
$ 1 75............................
.

1
4
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9

6
3
6
6
6
8
7
2
7
5

2
3
4
5
6

2
7
3
0
3
3
3
5
3
8

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 80 ..........................
.
$1.85 ..........................
$1.90 ..........................
$ 1 95 ..........................
.
$2. 00......................... ...

2
0
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
3

7
8
7
9
7
9
8
0
8
2

6
7
7
8
9

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 1 _________________
0
$2. 2 ..........................
0
$2. 30___________________
$2. 40............................
$2. 50 ..........................

2
7
3
1
3
4
6
8
8
0

8
8
8
9
9
0
9
1
9
2

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$2. 6 ..........................
0
$2. 70............................
$2. 8 ............................
0
$2. 9 ..........................
0
$3. 00............................

8
6
9
0
9
4
9
6
9
8

Total............... ...............
Number of employees
(in hundreds) __
____ ._ ____
Average hourly earnings ____ _.
See footnotes at end of table.




_

_

_

-

_

_

_

Table 7.

Cumulative Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Average Straight-Time Hourly Earnings, Selected Major Industry Divisions and Industry Groups,
Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, North Central Region, June 1965— Continued

Whiteside County, 1 1
1.

Sandusky County, Ohio
Average hourly earnings

All
industries

Nonmanu­
facturing

Manufac­
turing

All
industries

Nonmanu­
facturing

Manufac­
turing

All
industries

Winona County, Minn.
Nonmanu­
facturing
Retail
Total1
trade

Manufac­
turing

......................

1

2

-

1

2

-

(2)

(2)

(2
)

*

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$0.80 ..........................
$0. 8 ..........................
5
$0. 90 ..........................
$0. 95............................
$ 1 00_____ __ „ __ ____
.

1
1
2
3
3

2
3
6
7
8

_
-

1
1
2
2
2

5
5
8
8
8

_
-

2
3
5
6
7

3
5
1
0
1
2
1
3

2
5
1
1
1
5
1
6

-

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 05
.
$1 1
. 0
$1 1
. 5
$ 1 20
.
$ 1 25
.

..........................
..........................
..........................
__ ----__ ----..........................

6
6
8
9
1
0

1
7
1
8
2
3
2
7
3
0

(2
)
n

(2
)
(2
)

2

4
4
5
6
7

1
5
1
6
1
8
2
3
2
4

(2
)
( )
( )
( )
(2
)

9
9
1
0
1
2
1
2

1
7
1
7
1
9
2
2
2
3

2
1
2
1
2
4
2
9
3
1

(2
)

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 30___________________
.
$ 1 35___________________
.
$ 1 4 0 ..........................
.
$ 1 45
.
........................
$ 1 5 0 ..............
.

1
4
1
6
1
9
2
0
22

3
7
40
44
46
49

3
3
5
7
8

1
1
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
6

3
5
3
7
40
43
45

1
2
3
3
4

2
3
2
6
2
9
3
2
3
5

3
7
41
44
47
5
0

5
5
59
6
2
6
6
6
8

7
9
1
3
1
5
1
9

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 55 ..........................
.
$ 1 60 ..........................
.
$ 1 65............................
.
$ 1 70 ..........................
.
$ 1 75............................
.

2
5
2
7
29
30
3
1

5
3
5
5
5
8
6
0
6
2

1
0
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5

1
7
1
9
2
1
2
3
2
4

5
0
5
3
5
7
5
9
6
1

5
6
7
9
1
0

3
9
43
46
49
5
1

5
6
5
9
6
2
6
4
6
6

7
3
7
5
78
8
1
8
4

2
1
2
5
2
9
3
3
3
4

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 80............................
.
$ 1 8 ..........................
. 5
$ 1 90 ..........................
.
$ 1 95............................
.
$2. 00
......................

33
35
37
39
40

6
4
6
5
6
6
6
7
6
9

1
7
1
9
2
2
2
4
2
5

2
6
2
9
3
0
3
2
3
3

6
4
6
6
6
9
7
0
7
2

1
2
1
4
1
5
1
7
1
8

5
3
5
6
59
6
3
6
6

6
8
6
9
7
0
7
2
7
2

8
5
8
6
8
7
8
8
8
8

3
7
41
46
5
4
5
9

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 2. 1
0
..................
$ 2. 2 ..........................
0
$2. 30--------------------------$2.40--------------------------$2.50 ..........................

44
48
5
1
58
6
5

7
3
7
6
8
0
8
3
8
5

2
9
3
3
3
6
46
5
5

3
6
38
43
45
49

7
6
7
8
8
3
8
4
8
5

2
0
2
2
2
7
3
0
3
5

7
1
7
3
7
7
8
0
8
5

7
5
7
6
7
8
8
2
8
4

9
0
9
1
9
2
9
4
9
5

6
6
6
9
7
5
7
9
8
6

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 2. 60 ..........................
$ 2 7 ......................
. 0
$ 2 80............................
.
$ 2. 90 ..........................
............
$3.00 ____ — —

69
7
4
8
4
87
9
3

8
8
9
0
9
2
9
3
9
4

6
0
6
5
7
9
8
4
9
3

5
1
5
3
5
6
6
0
6
3

8
5
8
7
89
9
2
9
2

3
8
40
44
47
5
1

8
8
9
0
9
0
9
1
9
3

8
6
8
7
8
8
89
9
1

9
7
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9

9
0
9
2
9
3
9
4
9
5

100

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

8
9
$2. 1
5

3
1
$1 7
. 3

5
9
$2. 3
7

14
0
$2. 6
0

2
9
$1 7
. 1

7
5
$2. 9
5

6
9
$1 8
. 4

3
6
$1 7
. 2

1
9
$1 3
. 9

3
3
$1 9
. 8

Under $0. 75

Total

__ — ----- — —

Number of employees
(in hundreds)__________________
Average hourly earnings -----------

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash (-) indicates no workers.




Table 8.

Percent Distribution of Nonsupervisory Employees by Weekly Hours of Work, Selected Major Industry Divisions
and Industry Groups, Selected Nonmetropolitan Areas, North Central Region, June 1965

Crawford, rankiin, and
Elkhart County, Ind.
Washington Counties, Mo.
Nonmanufacturing
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
All
Manu­
Nonmanu­
All
All
Nonmanu­ Manu­
All
industries facturing facturing industries facturing facturing industries Total1 Retail
Total1 Leather industries Total1 Wholesale Retail
trade
trade
trade
Barton and Rice
Counties, Kans.

Alpena County, Mich.

Weekly hours of work

Under 1 —
5
__ ----- —
1 and under 35___________
5
_
35 and under 40 _ _ _ _ _ _
40 __.....................................
Over 40 and under 44_____ _ _____ _
44________ _
______
Over 44 and under 48____________
48 .
....................
Over 48
...............................
Total

.

—

________

Number of employees (in hundreds)..
Average weekly hours___________

3
1
2
8
3
4
1
0
3
6
1
4
1
1

6
1
9
1
3
2
1
1
1
3
5
7
1
5

(2)
7
4
42
1
0
2
6
1
9
9

5
1
1
7
1
7
8
5
1
0
8
3
0

5
1
3
7
1
8
9
4
8
1
0
2
6

3
6
4
1
4
6
6
1
6
2
43

100

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

1
8
3
9

2
8
42

43
42

3
4
41

46
4
1

5
1
2
5
2
6
5
2
9
1
9
1
8

6
1
7
8
22
3
4
1
4
7
20

2
1
4
1
4
3
7
8
1
9
4
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
28
1
0
1
7
3
6

100

10
0

100

10
0

10
0

1
0
45

15
0
40

46
41

1
8
3
9

5
9
40

Manitowoc County, Wis.

Fayette County, Ind.

Nonmanu­ Manu­
All
All
industries facturing facturing industries
Under 1 _____________
5
1 and under 35_ ____
5
_
35 and under 40__ ____
40____________________
Over 40 and under 44_
44____________________
Over 44 and under 48_
48____________________
Over 48__________ ___

3
1
3
1
0
3
2
7
1
9
1
0
1
4

2
1
1
8
5
3
8
1
7
2
9

7
1
9
1
4
1
6
9
2
1
0
2
2
1

(2)
8
7
62
7
1
6
2
6

11

3
9

47
40

9
20
1
1
1
8
1
0
4
1
0
5
1
3

9
1
5
6
1
7
9
9
1
5
1
2
1

1
0
24
1
2
1
2
1
2
5
9
6
1
1

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

3
1
3
8

320
40

8
5
3
7

1
3
3
8

4
1
3
6

235
42

2
1
40
1
0
6
7
3
4
1
9

2
1
2
8
45
7
2
1
2
3
1
1

4
1
0
1
3
2
9
8
4
1
1
8
1
5

2
5
28

13
2
40

15
4
40

2
1
0
9
3
0
1
0
2
1
4
2
20

Portage County, Ohio

Marathon County, Wis.

40
3
1

13
6
3
8

4
1
3
1
0
2
7
1
0
3
1
3
3
1
8

Nonmanufacturing
ManuAll
facturing industries
Retail
Total
trade

1
8
3
2
1
0
1
2
7
3
8
1
9

6
1
7
8
3
7
7
2
1
1
2
1
0

5
9
40

Nonmanufacturing
Retail
Total
trade

Manufacturing

All
Manu­
Nonmanu­
facturing industries facturing

8
1
6
20
22
8
4
7
4
1
2

9
23
1
0
1
5
6
6
8
6
1
6

2
6
8
3
4
8
3
1
4
1
0
1
7

60

2
6
3
7

42

Manufacturing
Total1

Rubber

8
21
10

2
12
12

2
12

25
9
4

1
8
9
7

2
9

8

6

8

8

1
7

1
4

7
1
8

17
0
40

4
1
3
7

66

21

42

4
1

4
1
5
11

8
2
10

1
7
3
1
7
2

5
11

1
3

Total_____________________
Number of employees (inhundreds)..
Average weekly hours___________

Sandusky County, Ohio
All
industries
Under 1 _____ ___________________
5
1 and under 35__________ _______
5
3 and under 40__________________
5
40
...
_
_____
Over 40 and under 44______ _____
44 .
_________
__ _
Over 44 and under 48............. - __
48_______________________________
Over 48
— __ _ —
Total
Number of employees (inhundreds)..
Avoragf*
Vim
irs
...

Nonmanu­
facturing

3
7

Whiteside County, 1 1
1.
Manu­
facturing

All
industries

Nonmanu­
facturing

Winona County, Minn.

Manu­
facturing

All
industries

Nonmanufacturing
Retail
trade

Total1

Manufacturing

4
1
3
8
40
9
3
9
5
1
0

8
20
1
3
1
9
7
4
1
2
5
1
2

2
9
6
52
1
0
2
6
5
9

3
1
0
8
40
5
3
7
1
0
1
4

1
0
20
1
4
1
7
4
6
5
9
1
4

1
6
6
49
5
2
7
1
0
1
4

7
1
4
9
3
3
1
0
3
8
6
1
2

1
0
1
9
1
2
23
1
1
3
7
6
1
0

1
0
25
1
0
1
6
9
2
1
0
4
1
4

2
1
0
5
43
9
2
1
0
6
1
4

10
0

10
0

100

100

10
0

10
0

10
0

100

10
0

10
0

8
9
3
9

3
1
3
7

5
9
40

14
0
41

2
9
3
6

7
5
43

69
3
8

3
6
3
6

1
9
3
5

3
3
4
1

1 Includes industries in addition to those shown separately.
2 Less than 0 5 percent.
.
NOTE: See appendix for definitions of terms.




86

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of S u rv e y
The s u rv e y c o v e re d e sta b lish m e n ts w ith one o r m o re e m p lo yees lo cated in a r e a s of
the South and N orth C e n tra l re g io n s of the United S tate s w hich w e r e c la s s ifie d a s n o n m e tro ­
p o litan in I9 6 0 (se e D efinition of T e rm s).
A u x ilia ry units a ffilia te d w ith and s e rv in g the
v a r io u s e sta b lish m e n ts (i. e. , w a re h o u s e s , c e n tra l o ffic e s, la b o r a to rie s , and p ow erp lan ts)
w e re a ls o included. M ajo r in d u s try d iv is io n s w ithin the scope of the s u rv e y w e r e : (1) Mining
(excep t p e tro le u m and n a tu ra l gas); (2) m an u factu rin g ; (3) tra n s p o rta tio n (excep t ra ilro a d s ),
com m unication, e le c tr ic , gas, and s a n ita ry s e r v ic e s ; (4) w h o le sa le tra d e ; (5) r e t a il tra d e
(eating and drin kin g p la c e s w e re not c o v e re d on a re g io n a l b a s is , but w e re c o v e re d in 26 a r e a s
fo r w hich data a r e p re s e n te d s e p a ra te ly ); (6) fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and
(7) s e r v ic e s (excep t n o n p ro fit re lig io u s , c h a rita b le , ed ucation al, and h u m an itarian o rg a n i­
zatio n s).
M ajo r in d u stry groups excluded w e r e a g ric u ltu re , c o n tra c t co n stru ctio n , and
g o vern m en t. The 1957 edition of the Stan d ard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual p re p a re d by
the B u re a u of the Budget w as used in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry .
The data r e la te to a ll n o n s u p e rv is o ry em p lo y ee s (excep t o utside sale sp e o p le in in d u s trie s
o th er than r e t a il trad e ) and r e f le c t a v e ra g e h o u rly earn in g s and w e e k ly h o u rs of w o rk fo r
a p a y r o ll p e rio d including June 12, 1965.
Sam ple D esign
The sam p ling p ro c e d u re adopted fo r th is study o rig in ate d w ith a s im ila r study conducted
in O ctober I9 6 0.
F o r th at study, the sam p ling p ro c e d u re c o n sisted of two stag es.
F ir s t,
a l l n o n m etro p o lita n cou n ties in the South and N orth C e n tra l re g io n s w e r e s tra tifie d by lo cation ,
m a jo r in d u stry , and em p loym en t.
A s a re s u lt, s tra ta w e re d evelo p ed fo r a r e a s in w hich
the p red o m in an t econom ic a c tiv ity , in te rm s of em ploym ent, w as a g ric u ltu re , c o a l m ining,
m a c h in e ry m an u factu rin g , te x tile m an u factu rin g , food p ro c e s s in g , etc.
Equal em p loym en t
size of s tra ta w as m ain tain ed as n e a rly a s p o s s ib le .
F ro m each stra tu m , one sam pling
unit, w hich w as a sin gle county o r a group of contiguous cou n ties, w a s selec te d , w ith p ro b ­
a b ility p ro p o rtio n a te to its em p lo ym en t s iz e , to re p re s e n t the e n tire stra tu m .
T h irty -fiv e
n o n m etro p o litan a r e a s in the South, and 31 in the N orth C e n tra l re g io n w e re chosen fo r study.
The second stage in v o lv e d the s e le c tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts in each of the 66 sam pling
unit a r e a s .
State a g e n c ies w hich a d m in is te r the u nem ploym ent in su ra n c e law s fu rn ish e d
e sta b lish m e n t lis tin g s showing lo cation , em p loym en t, and in d u s try c la s s ific a tio n s . E sta b ­
lish m e n ts w ith fe w e r than fo u r em p lo y ee s, h o w e v er, w e re not included b ecau se th e se la w s
in m any S tates do not c o v e r such e sta b lish m e n ts.
F ro m th e se lis t s , a ll e sta b lish m e n ts
w ith in the scope of the s u rv e y em ploying 20 w o rk e rs o r m o re and o n e -fifth of th o se e m ­
ploying fe w e r than 20 w o rk e r s w e re s e le c te d in each of the sam pling a r e a s .
The sam p le d esig n and re s p o n s e p e rm itte d the p re s e n ta tio n of data s e p a ra te ly fo r
26 of the a r e a s in ad dition to the com p osite re g io n a l data.
F o r the June 19 6 5 s u rv e y , a s tra tifie d sam p le d esign , w ith v a r ia b le sam pling ra tio s
depending on in d u stry d iv is io n and em p loym en t s iz e , w as again used in each of the 66 sam p le
a r e a s o rig in a lly s e le c te d in I960.
The re g io n a l e stim a te s fo r r e t a il tra d e w e re a p ro d u ct of the Bureau*s nationw ide
r e t a il tra d e s u rv e y conducted in June 19 6 5, and thus re la te to a r e a s c la s s ifie d a s n o n m e tro ­
p olitan a t the tim e of the s u rv e y ra th e r than in I960, as w as the c a se w ith o th er in d u s trie s .
R e ta il tra d e in the 26 a r e a s w as tre a te d in the sam e m an n er a s oth er in d u stry groups.




91

92

M ethod of Data C o llectio n
P r im a r y data used in the tab u latio n s fo r the 26 a r e a s shown s e p a ra te ly w e re c o lle c te d
p e rs o n a lly by the B u re a u ’ s fie ld eco n o m ists through v is it s to sam p le e sta b lish m e n ts. Data
fo r the o th er a r e a s included in the re g io n a l tab u latio n s w e r e obtained la r g e ly by m a il q u e s ­
tio n n a ire s, although data fo r a sam p le of non resp on den ts to the m a il q u estio n n aire w e re a ls o
c o lle c te d by p e rs o n a l v is it .
M ethod of E stim atio n
Data c o lle c te d fo r each unit in the sam p le w e re w eigh ted ac c o rd in g to the p ro b a b ility
of se lec tin g th at unit fro m the u n iv e rs e .
Thus, if 1 e sta b lish m e n t out of e v e r y 5 w as s e ­
lected , it w as c o n sid ered a s re p re s e n ta tiv e of i t s e lf and 4 o th e rs and w as given a w eigh t
of 5. Since e sta b lish m e n ts w ith fe w e r than 4 e m p lo yees w e re not included on the u n em p lo y­
m ent in su ra n c e lis tin g s , data fo r such e sta b lish m e n ts w e re im puted to th o se w ith 4 to 19 e m ­
p lo y e e s.
Data obtained by p e rs o n a l v i s it to a sam p le of the non resp on den ts to the m a il
q u e stio n n aire w e r e w eighted to re p re s e n t a ll n on resp o n den ts.
R egion al e s tim a te s fo r a ll in d u s trie s excep t r e t a il tra d e w e re obtained by w eighting
each s e t of- sam p le a r e a data a cco rd in g to the p ro b a b ility of selec tin g th at a r e a .
The w eight
of the sam p le a r e a is the ra tio of the em p loym en t in a l l a r e a s in the s tra tu m to the e m ­
p lo ym en t in the sam p le a r e a a t the tim e the sam p le of a r e a s w as selec te d .
R egional e s ­
tim a te s fo r r e t a il tra d e w e re d e riv e d fro m the B u re a u 's nationw ide s u rv e y in th at in d u stry .
The e stim a te s of em p loym en t le v e ls and p e rio d -to -p e rio d changes a r e su b ject to som e
e r r o r b ecau se esta b lish m e n t lis tin g s w e re com p leted in advance of the s u rv e y date and, t h e r e ­
fo re , e sta b lish m e n ts w hich b ecam e p a r t of the u n iv e rs e subsequent to the com p ilatio n of the
lis tin g s w e re not included in the s u rv e y . In addition, th e re w as no p re c is e in fo rm a tio n fo r
e sta b lish m e n ts w ith fe w e r than fo u r e m p lo y ee s. T h e re fo re , s m a ll em p loym en t changes m u st
be re g a rd e d w ith som e re s e rv a tio n .
D efinition of T e rm s
w o rk ,

E arn in gs data re la te to s tra ig h t-tim e e arn in g s, excluding p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e
and fo r w o rk on w eeken d s, h o lid a y s, and la te sh ifts.

Hours data a r e fo r a 1-w e e k p e rio d and include h o u rs paid fo r v a c a tio n s,
sick le a v e , etc.

h o lid a y s,

N on m etrop olitan a r e a s , a s u sed in th is re p o rt, r e f e r s to th ose c itie s and county a r e a s
not defined a s Stan d ard M etro p olitan S ta tis tic a l A r e a s by the B u rea u of the Budget in I9 6 0.
N on m etrop olitan a r e a s a r e th ose w hich a r e not in te g ra ted econom ic and s o c ia l units and do
not contain a re c o g n iz e d la rg e population n u cleu s.
They exclu de cou n ties containing c itie s
w ith populations of 50, 000 o r m o re a s w e ll as th ose a d jac en t cou n ties w hich a r e m e tr o ­
p olitan in c h a ra c te r and e c o n o m ica lly and s o c ia lly in te g ra te d w ith such cou n ties.
For a
m o re d e taile d d e sc rip tio n of m e tro p o lita n a r e a s , see Stan d ard M etro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s ,
p re p a re d by the B u rea u of the Budget in 1964.
A few of the a r e a s c o v e re d by th is study w e re c la s s ifie d a s m e tro p o lita n subsequent
to the O ctober I9 6 0 s u rv e y . H ow ever, in o rd e r to m ain tain p e rio d -to -p e rio d c o m p a ra b ility ,
such a r e a s w e re kept w ith in the scope of the s u rv e y .
N o n su p e rv iso ry em p lo yees include such w o rk e r s as m in e rs , p ro d u ctio n w o rk e r s , o ffice
and c le r i c a l w o rk e r s , s a le s p e rs o n s , ro u tem en , re p a irm e n , m ain ten an ce w o rk e r s , in s ta lla tio n
m en, c a fe te ria em p lo y ee s, cu sto d ial w o rk e r s , tr u c k d r iv e r s , etc. W orking s u p e r v is o rs who
spend le s s than 20 p e rc e n t of th e ir tim e a t s u p e r v is o ry d u ties a r e a ls o c la s s ifie d a s n on­
s u p e rv is o ry .
Excluded fro m th is group a r e outside s a le s p e rs o n s (excep t th ose in r e t a il
tra d e ), fo rc e -a c c o u n t c o n stru ctio n w o rk e r s , e x e c u tiv e s, p ro fe s s io n a ls , and s u p e r v is o rs .
R eg io n s.
The South in cludes the fo llow in g S ta te s : A lab a m a,
F lo rid a , G eo rg ia , K entucky, L ouisian a, M arylan d , M is s is s ip p i, N orth
South C a ro lin a , T en n essee, T exas, V irg in ia , and W est V irg in ia . The
in clu d es the S tate s of Illin o is, Indiana, Iowa, K a n sa s, M ichigan,
N eb raska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and W iscon sin .




A rk a n s a s , D e law are ,
C a ro lin a , O klahom a,
North C e n tra l re g io n
M innesota, M iss o u ri,

Appendix B. Questionnaire
BLS 2837

Budget Bureau No. 44-R1167. 2
Approval expires M ay 31, 1966

(Rev. ’65)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BU R E AU O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S

Your report w ill be
held in confidence.

W

a s h in g t o n

D.C.

,

2 0 212

ID E N TIFIC ATIO N :
Schedule
number

R eg-

State

City
size

SIC

Est.
size

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS,
SELECTED AREAS

Spec.
char.

Wgt.

This report should cover all establishments o f your
company located in the county or area designated
to the left.
Include auxiliary units such as w are­
houses, offices, repair shops, and research labora­
tories, etc. Do not report data for any establish­
ment located outside o f the designated county.

1.

TYPE

OF

B U S I N E S S : ________________________________________________________________________________

Ind icate y o u r m a j o r b u s i n e s s ac tivit y (e. g. , m in in g , m a n u fa c t u r i n g , w h o l e s a l e
t r a d e , etc. ) and y o u r p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t o r s e r v i c e b a s e d on v a l u e of s a l e s o r
r e c e i p t s (e. g. , cr u d e p e t r o l e u m ,
sea m le s s ho siery, g r o c e rie s ,
etc .).
Typical
e x a m p le s of p r o p e r en t ri e s a r e :
M inin g— coal ; m a n u fa c t u r i n g — textile m a c h i n e r y ;
ba nking; au t o m o b ile r e p a i r sho ps; g e n e r a l bu ilding c o n t r a c t o r ; etc.

2.

PAYROLL

P ER IO D

COVERED

BY

THE

SURVEY:

T h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d sho uld c o r r e s p o n d to y o u r p a y r o l l p e r i o d ( w e e k l y , b i ­
w e e k l y , o r m o n t h l y ) which inc lu des June 12, 1965.
Indicate the date s f o r the p a y r o l l p e r i o d u se d:
F r o m _________________________________________ , 1965 t o _____________________________ _________ , 1965.

3.

EMPLOYMENT
A.

IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S

COVERED BY

T H IS

REPORT:

T o t a l n u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------- .

Enter total number o f e m p lo y e e s (fu ll-tim e and part-tim e) who received pay for any part o f the payroll period.
DO N O T INCLUDE proprietors, members o f unincorporated firms, or unpaid fam ily workers.

B.

N u m b e r of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p lo y e e s

____________________________________

______________ .

Enter total number o f employees (fu ll-tim e and part-tim e) below the supervisory level who received pay for any
part o f the payroll period. Working supervisors who spend less than 20 percent o f their time at supervisory duties
should be classified as nonsupervisory. Include such employees as miners, production, office, and technical em ­
ployees, salespersons (including telephone sales), routemen, repairmen, maintenance and installation men, cafeteria
employees, waiters, custodial employees, truckdrivers, etc.
DO N O T INCLUDE outside salesmen, executive, ad­
ministrative, professional, and supervisory employees.

Do you want a copy of the B u r e a u ' s
Name




r e p o r t on this s u r v e y ? ___ Y e s |

|

and title of p e r s o n f u r n i s h i n g d a t a _______________________________________ _
(Please type or print)

93

No |

j

94




4.

E AR N IN G S

AND

HOURS

OF

NO N SU PE R V ISO R Y

EMPLOYEES:

IN S T R U C T IO N S
(Please

read

c a r e f u l l y to av o id c o r r e s p o n d e n c e )

E a r n i n g s and h o u r s should be r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r each e m p lo y e e u n le s s these data
a r e iden tic al f o r two e m p lo y e e s o r m o r e .
E x c lu d e p r e m i u m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r
w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , and late sh ift s.
Do not r e p o r t a g g r e g a t e e a r n i n g s and
h o u r s f o r s e v e r a l w o r k e r s . F o r co nv enien ce of r e p o r t in g f o r e m p l o y e e s pa id on other
than an h o u r ly b a s i s (e. g. , s a l a r y , i nc entive), co lu m ns 5 and 6 a r e p r o v i d e d .
In­
str u ct io n s f o r r e p o r t in g the n e c e s s a r y data in each co lu m n a r e lis te d b e l o w .
The e x ­
a m p l e s r e f e r r e d to a r e shown on the e n c lo s e d sheet.

Column (1)—Indicate whether the employee is male (M) or female (F).
Column (2)—Use a separate line for each employee and enter "1," unless two em­
ployees or m
ore of the same sex worked the same num
ber of hours during the se­
lected week, and received identical hourly or salary rates. Data are to be reported
Complete colum 1, 2, and 3 for all individually for each employee whose earnings were based entirely or in part on com­
ns
nonsupervisory employees covered by m
issions, bonuses, or incentives.
this report. (See examples 1 4. )
—
Column (3)—Enter the number of hours worked during the week of June 6-12, 1965.
Include hours paid for sick leave, holidays, vacations, etc. These hours should re­
late to a 1-week period regardless of the length of the payroll period.
All employees

Hourly rated employees
Use column 4 to report earnings of em­
ployees paid on an hourly basis. (See
example 1.)

Column (4)—Enter the base (straight-time hourly) rate. Premium paym
ents for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts should be excluded. This
column may also be used to report earnings of employees paid on an incentive or
salary basis if average straight-time hourly earnings are available.

Column (5)—Enter for each employee the total straight-time salary and/or incen­
tive earnings for the payroll period (weekly, biweekly, or semimonthly) which in­
cludes Jun 12, 1965. Include straight-time pay for overtime, but exclude over­
e
Use colum 5 and 6 to report earnings time premium.
ns
of employees paid on a salary or incen­
tive basis. (See examples 2, 3, and 4. ) Column (6)—Enter the num
ber of hours worked during the payroll period (weekly,
biweekly, m
onthly, or semimonthly) which corresponds to the earnings reported in
column 5 Include hours paid for sick leave, holidays, vacations, etc.
.
Salaried or incentive employees

C o m p le t e these co lu m ns f o r all
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p lo y e e s

(i)

S ex
(M or F)

(2)

(3J

Num ber
of
e m p lo y e e s

Hours
worked
during
the w e e k
June 6—12,
1965

U s e this
co lumn fo r
nonsupervisory
e m p lo y e e s
pa id on an
ho u r ly b a s i s
(4)

Straight-tim e
h o u r ly rate

U s e these co lu m n s for
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p lo y e e s
pa id other than on an
h o u r ly b a s i s
(5)
Straight-tim e
salary or
inc en tive
earnings for
pa y ro ll period
w h ic h in c lu d es
June 12, 1965

(6)
Hours
worked
during
payro ll
period

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1967 O - 267-187