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Bu 11eti n No. 1533

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS
IN EIGHT METROPOLITAN AREAS
OF THE SOUTH
J U N E 1965

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR/ W Willard Wirtz, Se cretary
.
B UR E AU OF LABOR S T A T I S T I C S /




A r t h ur M. R o s s , C o m m i s s i o n e r

Bull eti n No. 1533

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS
IN EIGHT METROPOLITAN AREAS
OF THE SOUTH

Amarillo, Texas
A s h e v i l l e , North C a r o l i n a
D u r h a m , Nor t h C a r o l i n a
Lake Charles, Louis ia na
Lexington, Kentucky
Monroe, Lo ui s ia na
Tuscaloosa, Alabam a
Wi chi ta Falls, Texas

D ecem ber 1966

UNI TED S T A T E S DE P A R TM E NT OF L A B O R / W . Willard Wirtz, S e c r e t a r y

'ISST'

B u r e a u of Labor S t a t i s t i c s / A r t h u r M . R o s s , C o m m i s s i o n e r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 — Price 40 cents






Preface

This bulletin p r e s e n t s e s tim ates of employee a v erag e
hourly earnings and weekly h o u rs of work in m anufacturing
and selected nonmanufacturing ind u strie s in eight m e t r o ­
politan a r e a s of the South in June 1965. The re s u l ts of
this su rv ey supplem ent those of s im i la r studies m ade in
June 1961 and June 1962. They p e r m it an examination of
wage changes o ccu rrin g during a p eriod when the F e d e r a l
m in im u m wage was i n c r e a s e d fro m $ 1 to $ 1. 25, and a
$ 1 m in im u m wage was estab lish ed and later ra is e d to $ 1 .1 5
for employees (mostly those in larg e retail e n te rp rise s)
brought under the pro visions of the F a i r Labor Standards
Act for the fi rs t time in S eptem b er 1961. The survey,
conducted by the Bureau of L abor S tatistics, was p a rt of
a b ro ad p r o g r a m of studies initiated by the U.S. D ep artm e nt
of L a b o r's Wage and Hour and Public C ontracts Divisions
for continuing a p p ra is a l of F e d e r a l m in im u m wage and m a x ­
im u m hours legislation. In this connection, data fro m the
survey w ere published in the Report Submitted to the C on­
g r e s s in A ccordance With the R e q u irem en ts of Section 4(d)
of the F a i r L abor Standards Act, J a n u a ry 1966.
This study was conducted in the B u re a u 's Division of
National Wage and S alary Income by N o rm a n J. Sam uels,
Chief of the Division, under the g en eral d irection of L. R.
L in s e n m a y e r, A s sis tan t C o m m is s io n e r for Wages and In d u s­
t r ia l Relations. This bulletin was p r e p a r e d by W illiam L.
Dansby, under the su perv ision of Alvin Bauman.




iii

Contents

Page
I n t r o d u c t i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S u m m a r y -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Selected m e tro p o lita n a re a s:
A m a r i l l o , T e x ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A s h e v i l l e , N. C ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
5
12

L a k e C h a r l e s , L a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L e x i n g t o n , K y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M o n r o e , L a --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T u s c a l o o s a , A l a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W i c h i t a F a l l s , T e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

21
25
30
34
39

7

T ables:
C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s
by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , s e l e c t e d
i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A m a r i l l o , T e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A s h e v i l l e , N. C --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D u r h a m , N. C ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L a k e C h a r l e s , L a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L e x i n g t o n , K y ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M o n r o e , L a ------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T u s c a l o o s a , A l a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W i c h i t a F a l l s , T e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y w e e k l y
h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965:
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

A m a r i l l o , T e x ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A s h e v i l l e , N. C ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D u r h a m , N. C ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L a k e C h a r l e s , L a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L e x i n g t o n , K y ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M o n r o e , L a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T u s c a l o o s a , A l a -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W i c h i t a F a l l s , T e x --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55

Appendixes:
A. S c o p e an d m e t h o d of s u r v e y --------------------------------------------------------------------------B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Iy

56
58

Employee Earnings and Hours in Eight Metropolitan
Areas of the South, June 1965
Introduction

T h i s r e p o r t p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s of a J u n e 1965 s u r v e y of e a r n i n g s an d
h o u r s of w o r k f o r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g an d s e l e c t e d n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in e i g h t m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s of t h e South. T h e a r e a s
studied, which a re listed below, a r e d esig n ated as S tan d ard M etrop o litan S ta tis ti­
c a l A r e a s an d h a d p o p u l a t i o n s of b e t w e e n 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 and 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 at th e t i m e of
t h e I 960 c e n s u s .
A m a r i l l o , T e x . ( P o t t e r a n d R a n d a l l C o u n t ie s )
A s h e v i l l e , N. C. ( B u n c o m b e County)
D u r h a m , N, C. ( D u r h a m County)
Lake C h arles, La. (C alcasieu P a rish )
L e x i n g t o n , Ky. ( F a y e t t e County)
M o n ro e, La. (O uachita P a r is h )
T u s c a l o o s a , A l a . ( T u s c a l o o s a County)
W i c h i t a F a l l s , T e x . ( A r c h e r an d W i c h i t a C o u n t ie s )
T h e s u r v e y c o v e r e d a l l m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s , e x c e p t a g r i c u l t u r e and
g o v e r n m e n t , w i th i n t h e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s of m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
I n d u s t r i e s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s u r v e y w e r e p e t r o l e u m an d n a t u r a l g a s p r o d u c t i o n ;
r a i l r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; an d n o n p r o f i t r e l i g i o u s , c h a r i t a b l e , e d u c a t i o n a l , an d
h u m a n i t a r i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e d a t a , w h i c h r e l a t e to a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a y r o l l
p e r i o d in J u n e 1965, a r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m of a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y
e a r n i n g s ( e x c l u s i v e of p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e , an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
h o l i d a y s , and l a t e s h i f t s ) , an d w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k ( i n c lu d in g h o u r s p a i d f o r
s i c k l e a v e , h o l i d a y s , v a c a t i o n s , e t c . ) d u r i n g a s e l e c t e d w e e k in th e s u r v e y m o n t h .
A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of th e s c o p e an d m e t h o d of s u r v e y , a s w e l l a s d e f i n i t i o n s
of t e r m s , a r e p r e s e n t e d in a p p e n d i x A.
S u r v e y s of e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n d u c t e d in t h e s e a r e a s in J u n e 1961 and
a g a i n in J u n e 1962. A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s e w i th t h e 1965 r e s u l t s
p e r m i t s a n a n a l y s i s of w a g e c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g o v e r a 4 - y e a r p e r i o d . W h ile
a l l t h r e e s u r v e y s w e r e t i m e d to e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s of 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to the
F a i r L a b o r S t a n d a r d s A c t of 19 38 (FLSA), th e o p p o r t u n i t y is t a k e n h e r e to e x a m i n e
the b r o a d e r a s p e c t s of a r e a w a g e s t r u c t u r e an d of w a g e c h a n g e o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y
long p e r i o d of t i m e .
Summary

A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in th e
e i g h t S o u t h e r n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y d i f f e r e d by as m u c h as
34 p e r c e n t , r a n g i n g f r o m $ 1 . 6 6 in A s h e v i l l e , to $ 2 . 2 2 in L a k e C h a r l e s in J u n e
1965. A m o n g t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s , h o w e v e r , t h e v a r i a n c e w a s no m o r e t h a n
15 p e r c e n t — f r o m $ 1 . 7 4 to $ 2 a n h o u r . D i f f e r e n c e s in i n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n




2

l a r g e l y a c c o u n t e d f o r th e v a r i a t i o n in e a r n i n g s l e v e l s a n d a r e e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l
in the d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s . E m p l o y e e s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ; a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s g e n ­
e r a l l y h a d the h i g h e s t a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s , f o l l o w e d b y t h o s e in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e ,
a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; a n d , l a s t l y , s e r v i c e s . At t h e
t i m e of th e s u r v e y , t h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k r a n g e d f r o m 40 to 42 h o u r s in a ll
a r e a s e x c e p t D u r h a m , w h e r e th e a v e r a g e w a s 38 h o u r s . D u r i n g th e 4 - y e a r
p e r i o d f r o m J u n e 1961 to J u n e 1965, h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in th e e i g h t a r e a s i n c r e a s e d
f r o m 11 c e n t s in T u s c a l o o s a to 23 c e n t s in L e x i n g t o n .
E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g in L a k e C h a r l e s , t h r e e - f o u r t h s of w h o m w o r k e d
in th e oil r e f i n i n g a n d c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 9 3 a n h o u r, m o r e t h a n
t h o s e in a n y o t h e r a r e a . T h o s e in A s h e v i l l e , w h e r e l a r g e n u m b e r s a r e e m p l o y e d
in th e r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r p a y in g food, t e x t i l e , a n d a p p a r e l i n d u s t r i e s , h a d t h e l o w e s t
a v e r a g e , $ 1 . 7 9 a n h o u r . B y c o n t r a s t , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p a y l e v e l s d i f f e r e d b y only
30 c e n t s a n h o u r a m o n g fiv e o t h e r a r e a s , e x t e n d i n g f r o m $ 2 . 05 to $ 2 . 35.
In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e l o w e r a n d e x t e n d e d
o v e r a n a r r o w e r r a n g e t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . O n ly 35 c e n t s s e p a r a t e d th e
l o w e s t a n d h i g h e s t a r e a p a y l e v e l s — $ 1 . 4 8 in T u s c a l o o s a a n d $ 1 . 8 3 in L e x i n g t o n .
T h i s is a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l v a r i a t i o n w h e n c o m p a r e d w i th t h a t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g
w h e r e t h e r e w a s a s p r e a d of $ 1 . 14 b e t w e e n the l o w e s t a n d t h e h i g h e s t a r e a
a v e r a g e s a n d o n e of 52 c e n t s e v e n w h e n t h e e x t r e m e s ( A s h e v i l l e an d L a k e C h a r l e s )
a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d . T h e n a r r o w e r s p r e a d in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g m a y b e a t t r i b u t e d ,
in p a r t , to r e l a t i v e l y few d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g th e a r e a s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m ­
p l o y e e s a m o n g th e l o w e r a n d h i g h e r p a y i n g n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h e r e a s
h i g h - w a g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e p r e s e n t to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t in s o m e
a r e a s t h a n in o t h e r s .
E m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s e a r n e d l e s s , on t h e a v e r a g e ,
t h a n t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g b y a m o u n t s v a r y i n g f r o m 11 c e n t s a n h o u r in W i c h i t a
F a l l s to $ 1 . 1 4 a n h o u r in L a k e C h a r l e s . B e c a u s e of th e g e n e r a l l y n a r r o w e r
r a n g e in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g p a y l e v e l s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e in a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s b e t w e e n
th e tw o c a t e g o r i e s w a s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r in t h o s e a r e a s w i th th e h i g h e s t m a n u ­
facturing pay levels.
M o r e s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t e d a m o n g th e a r e a s in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s
b y w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k . F o r e x a m p l e , a m o n g s e v e n a r e a s b e t w e e n a n e i g h t h
a n d a fifth of the e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k . In D u r h a m , the
e x c e p t i o n , n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d s u c h h o u r s . F o r t y h o u r s
a w e e k w e r e w o r k e d b y b e t w e e n a f o u r t h a n d a t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s in e v e r y
a r e a b u t L a k e C h a r l e s , w h e r e t h e p r o p o r t i o n w a s t w o - f i f t h s . A w e e k of 48 h o u r s
o r l o n g e r w a s w o r k e d by f r o m a b o u t a fifth o f t h e n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in
D u r h a m to a b o u t t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h o s e in M o n r o e a n d W i c h i t a F a l l s .
At th e t i m e of the s u r v e y , t h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m ­
p l o y e e s r a n g e d f r o m 39 h o u r s in D u r h a m to 44 h o u r s in M o n r o e an d W i c h i t a
F a l l s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k w a s e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s in e a c h of th e a r e a s ,
a p p ly i n g to f r o m t h r e e - t e n t h s to m o r e th a n h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s . L ong w o r k ­
w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) w e r e p r e v a l e n t in a l l a r e a s ; f r o m a b o u t a s ix t h of the
e m p l o y e e s in L a k e C h a r l e s , D u r h a m , a n d A s h e v i l l e , to a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t h i r d in
T u sc a lo o sa , W ichita F a lls , Lexington, and M onroe, w o rk ed such h o u rs. The
i n c i d e n c e of p a r t - t i m e w o r k ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k ) w a s r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i ­
c a n t , a p p ly in g to no m o r e t h a n a b o u t a n e i g h t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s in a n y a r e a
e x c e p t D u r h a m , w h e r e a t h i r d of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k .



3

In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g , the a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k r a n g e d f r o m 38 h o u r s in D u r h a m
to 42 h o u r s in M o n r o e . F r o m a fifth to a t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s , d e p e n d in g
on th e a r e a , w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s d u r i n g t h e w e e k , m a k i n g th i s the m o s t
c o m m o n w o r k w e e k in e a c h a r e a . T he i n c i d e n c e of p a r t - t i m e w o r k a n d long
w o r k w e e k s w a s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l . F r o m a b o u t a s i x t h to a f o u r t h of th e e m ­
p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k , an d f r o m a b o u t a fifth to t h r e e - t e n t h s
w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . T h e s y s t e m a t i c flow of p r o d u c t i o n in m o s t m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s d o e s n o t l e n d i t s e l f to t h e w i d e s p r e a d u s e of p a r t - t i m e l a b o r ,
w h e r e a s in s u c h n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s as c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e t a i l t r a d e ,
and s e r v ic e s , te m p o r a r y em p lo y m en t and re g u la rly scheduled p a r t - t im e w ork a re
a s t a n d a r d p a r t of th e o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s a n d can b e a c c o m m o d a t e d w ith r e l a t i v e
e a s e . E m p l o y e e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e u s u a l l y h a d the l o n g e s t w o r k w e e k a m o n g
the i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s t u d i e d — f r o m 52 to 79 p e r c e n t of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d
l o n g e r t h a n 40 h o u r s . B e c a u s e of the i n d u s t r y fs f u n c t io n a s s u p p l i e r in a n
a r e a ' s e c o n o m i c life , w e e k l y h o u r s of o p e r a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y e x t e n d o v e r 6 d a y s ;
w ith t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e m p l o y m e n t s i z e of t h e a v e r a g e w h o l e s a l e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t , it is often e a s i e r to s c h e d u l e long w o r k w e e k s t h a n to s u p p l e m e n t w ith
p a rt-tim e em ployees.
W a g e C h a n g e s — J u n e 1961 to J u n e 1965
In e a c h of th e e i g h t S o u t h e r n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s s tu d i e d , th e o v e r a l l l e v e l
of e a r n i n g s f o r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s h a s i n c r e a s e d s i n c e J u n e 1961, w h e n
the f i r s t of the t h r e e s u r v e y s in t h e s e a r e a s w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u . T h e
a m o u n t of i n c r e a s e v a r i e d f r o m 11 c e n t s a n h o u r in T u s c a l o o s a to 23 c e n t s an
h o u r in L e x in g t o n . In r e l a t i v e t e r m s , th e i n c r e a s e s r a n g e d f r o m 6 to 9 p e r c e n t
in five a r e a s , w h il e e a r n i n g s in D u r h a m , L e x i n g t o n , an d A s h e v i l l e a d v a n c e d by
11, 13, an d 14 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A v erag e h o urly e a rn in g s for m a n u fa c tu rin g em plo y ees i n c r e a s e d betw een
20 an d 31 c e n t s a n h o u r in s ix of th e a r e a s , an d in f o u r of t h e s e t h e g a in e x ­
c e e d e d 25 c e n t s . T h i s c o m p a r e s w ith a n a t i o n w i d e i n c r e a s e of 25 c e n t s in a v e r ­
a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s (e x c l u d in g o v e r t i m e ) f o r p r o d u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 an d J u n e 1965. 1 In T u s c a l o o s a a n d W i c h i t a F a l l s ,
e a r n i n g s a d v a n c e d b y 11 a n d 6 c e n t s an h o u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o v e r t h e 4 - y e a r
p e r i o d . T h e p r e d o m i n a n t a m o u n t of th e t o t a l i n c r e a s e s i n c e 1961 to o k p l a c e
b e t w e e n 1962 an d 1965 in s e v e n a r e a s ; in th e e i g h t h , T u s c a l o o s a , a b o u t h a l f of
the i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n 1961 and 1962.
C h a n g e s in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s d u r i n g the 4 - y e a r p e r i o d
w e r e m o s t a p p a r e n t a t t h e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s , a l t h o u g h in s e v e n of t h e a r e a s ,
g a i n s w e r e a l s o d i s p l a y e d a t t h e h i g h e r en d of t h e p a y s c a l e . M u c h of t h e c h a n g e
in the l o w e r w a g e i n t e r v a l s c a n no d o u b t b e a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of
p r o v i s i o n s c o n t a i n e d in the 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to th e F L S A w h ic h in S e p t e m b e r of
t h a t y e a r r a i s e d the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m h o u r l y w a g e , a p p ly i n g to m o s t m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s , f r o m $1 to $ 1 . 15, a n d 2 y e a r s l a t e r , to $ 1 . 2 5 . I n c r e a s e s
a t th e h i g h e r p a y l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y u p w a r d s of $ 2 , s e e m e d to b e a c o n s e q u e n c e
of f o r c e s n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w ith m i n i m u m w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r m o s t of
t h e s e e m p l o y e e s w e r e in i n d u s t r i e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e in w h i c h t h e l o w e r p a i d
e m p l o y e e s w e r e found.
* Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909~65 (BLS Bulletin 1312— 1965).
3,




4

T h e e a r n i n g s l e v e l of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s r o s e in a l l e ig h t a r e a s
s i n c e 1961 , bu t t h e i n c r e a s e s g e n e r a l l y w e r e n o t as g r e a t a s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
In fiv e a r e a s t h e a d v a n c e s r a n g e d f r o m 8 to 12 c e n t s ; at th e two e x t r e m e s th e
e a r n i n g s of e m p l o y e e s in L a k e C h a r l e s i n c r e a s e d 2 c e n t s an h o u r , an d t h o s e
in W i c h i t a F a l l s an d L e x i n g t o n , by 17 an d 20 c e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In fiv e
of th e a r e a s , e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s a d v a n c e d to a g r e a t e r d e g r e e d u r i n g t h e 3y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1962 , and in two a r e a s t h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of th e o v e r a l l
i n c r e a s e w a s b e t w e e n 1961 an d 1962. In L a k e C h a r l e s , th e 1965 n o n m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g a v e r a g e d e c l i n e d 8 c e n t s f r o m th e 1962 l e v e l , but s t i l l w a s 2 c e n t s
a b o v e th e 1961 l e v e l .
C h a n g e s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n ­
d u s t r i e s , a s a g r o u p , w e r e l e s s p r o n o u n c e d t h a n t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e
d i f f e r e n c e w a s m o s t a p p a r e n t at the l o w e r p a y l e v e l s , w h e r e t h e r e w a s a c l e a r e r
r e s p o n s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g to m o v e m e n t s of t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e s i n c e
1961. W h ile a s u b s t a n t i a l s e g m e n t of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g g r o u p ( f r o m 58 to
70 p e r c e n t a m o n g the e ig h t a r e a s ) w a s in i n d u s t r i e s s u b j e c t to F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n , the p r e s e n c e of l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s ,
m a i n l y in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s not c o v e r e d by th e l e g i s l a t i o n , t e n d e d to o b s c u r e a d ­
v a n c e s ta k in g p l a c e at t h i s l e v e l .
W h en th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y ,
th e i n f l u e n c e of th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e la w on th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e
e a r n i n g s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e in th e w h o l e s a l e an d r e t a i l t r a d e i n d u s t r i e s .
In fiv e of th e a r e a s , f r o m 27 to 37 p e r c e n t of t h e e m p l o y e e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e
w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d at o r j u s t a b o v e $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r . T h e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to
th e F L S A b r o u g h t m o s t e m p l o y e e s in l a r g e r e t a i l e n t e r p r i s e s u n d e r m i n i m u m
w a g e an d m a x i m u m h o u r s c o v e r a g e f o r th e f i r s t t i m e . T h e e f f e c t s th i s t r a n s i ­
tio n h a d on t h e i r e a r n i n g s a p p e a r e d to be t w o - f o l d . T h e m i n i m u m w a g e f o r
t h e s e e m p l o y e e s e f f e c t i v e S e p t e m b e r 1961 w a s $1 a n h o u r , g o ing to $ 1 . 1 5 in
S e p t e m b e r 1964. T h e r e s u l t of th is c h a n g e in m o s t of th e a r e a s w a s an e n l a r g e ­
m e n t of the c l u s t e r of e m p l o y e e s at th e $1 to $ 1 . 0 5 w a g e i n t e r v a l at th e t i m e
of th e J u n e 1962 s u r v e y , an d a s u b s e q u e n t s h ift to t h e $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 b r a c k e t
d u r i n g the J u n e 1965 s tu d y . T h e c o m p a n i o n o u t c o m e w a s a s u b s t a n t i a l g r o w t h
b e t w e e n J u n e 1962 an d J u n e 1965 in t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s at o r w i th i n
5 c e n t s of $ 1 . 25 an h o u r , th e f i n a l i n c r e m e n t s t i p u l a t e d in the 196,1 a m e n d m e n t s
b u t w h ic h w a s no t to b e c o m e e f f e c t i v e u n ti l S e p t e m b e r 1965, 3 m o n t h s a f t e r the
t i m e of t h e stu d y .
I n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g s f o r i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e e s m a y no t b e th e o n ly f a c t o r
c o n t r i b u t i n g to an i n c r e a s e in a n a r e a ’s w a g e l e v e l . C h a n g e s in th e l a b o r f o r c e
( t u r n o v e r , e x p a n s i o n s o r r e d u c t i o n s in f o r c e , an d c h a n g e s in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s of
e m p l o y e e s w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s ) m a y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s
in e a r n i n g s l e v e l s in an a r e a o r i n d u s t r y f r o m o n e p e r i o d to a n o t h e r w i th o u t
an y a c t u a l c h a n g e in w a g e s . F o r e x a m p l e , an e x p a n s i o n in w o r k f o r c e m i g h t
i n c r e a s e th e p r o p o r t i o n of l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s and l o w e r th e a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s
a r e d u c t i o n in the p r o p o r t i o n of l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s w o u ld h a v e t h e o p p o s i t e
effe c t. S i m i l a r l y , the m o v e m e n t of an e s t a b l i s h m e n t ou t of a n a r e a c o u ld c a u s e
c h a n g e s in th e e a r n i n g s l e v e l , e v e n th o u g h no c h a n g e in w a g e s o c c u r r e d in o t h e r
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e a r e a o r i n d u s t r y . T h u s , f l u c t u a t i o n s o v e r t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y
s m a l l o n e s , in a v e r a g e w a g e s o r th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s s h o u l d b e v i e w e d
w ith s o m e r e s e r v a t i o n .



5

Characteristics

A m o n g the e ig h t a r e a s , A m a r i l l o h a d the l a r g e s t p o p u l a t io n , 1 4 9 ,4 9 3 , a n d
M o n r o e t h e s m a l l e s t , 10 1 ,6 6 3 . N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w i th i n the s c o p e of
th e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y r a n g e d f r o m 1 4 ,4 0 0 in M o n r o e to 2 9 , 6 0 0 in A s h e v i l l e . T h e
d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t by i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e d u r ­
ing a l l t h r e e s u r v e y s in e a c h of the a r e a s .
A l t h o u g h e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s h a s a c h a r a c t e r , t r a d i t i o n s , a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s
of i ts o w n , t h e y p o s s e s s c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s in c o m m o n , a n d in t h i s r e s p e c t a r e
n o t u n li k e o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r , in th e S o u th o r e l s e w h e r e .
T h e t e r m , m e t r o p o l i t a n , i t s e l f a s s u m e s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s i d e f r o m th e
s t r i c t l y t e c h n i c a l d e f i n it i o n . A s a c o n c e n t r a t e d e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c e n t e r , a
m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a no t o n ly is b a s i c a l l y a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g u n it, b u t a l s o , in m u c h
th e s a m e m a n n e r , s u s t a i n s a r e g i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d . It is n o t, th e n , a n a n o m a l y
to find t h a t in the e ig h t a r e a s the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d
th e r e l a t i v e s i z e of e a c h of the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e m u c h th e s a m e
in one as in the o t h e r . R e t a i l t r a d e w a s the p r e d o m i n a n t n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c ­
t iv i t y , in t e r m s of e m p l o y m e n t , in a ll of the a r e a s , w i th p r o p o r t i o n s r a n g i n g
f r o m a t h i r d in A m a r i l l o to m o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s in T u s c a l o o s a , A s h e v i l l e , a n d
W i c h i t a F a l l s . T h e d i v e r s e s e r v i c e s d i v i s i o n ( h o te ls a n d m o t e l s , l a u n d r i e s a n d
dry cleaning e sta b lish m e n ts, m e d ic a l and other health s e rv ic e s , etc.) w as g e n ­
e r a l l y s e c o n d in s i z e to r e t a i l t r a d e a m o n g the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,
e m p l o y i n g r o u g h l y a s i x t h of the e m p l o y e e s in e a c h a r e a . E x c e p t f o r a n o c c a ­
s i o n a l v a r i a t i o n , th e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s in the o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
d i v i s i o n s d id n o t e x c e e d a ten th .
N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d r a w m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d in a r e g i o n o ften p r o v i d e
a n i m p e t u s , a s w e l l a s a d i r e c t i o n , f o r an a r e a ’s r i s e to m e t r o p o l i t a n s t a t u s ,
by f o r m i n g a b a s i s f o r i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h . T h e s e i n d i g e n o u s p r o p e r t i e s a l s o g a v e
an a r e a s p e c i a l i d e n t i ty . C o tto n , t o b a c c o , t i m b e r , i r o n o r e , p e t r o l e u m , a n d
n a t u r a l g a s , e i t h e r s i n g u l a r l y o r in c o m b i n a t i o n , p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in the
e c o n o m i e s of e a c h of th e e i g h t a r e a s s u r v e y e d . In s i x a r e a s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g
i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r f r o m a t h i r d to h a l f of th e a r e a e m p l o y e e s , bu t in tw o,
A m a r i l l o a n d W i c h i t a F a l l s , f o r no m o r e t h a n a fifth. C o n t r i b u t i n g to a s p e c i a l
i d e n t i t y , a s w e l l a s to th e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c life of D u r h a m , L e x i n g t o n , a n d
T u s c a l o o s a , a r e th e m a j o r u n i v e r s i t i e s l o c a t e d in t h o s e a r e a s .
W a g e s an d w a g e c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e , a n d h o u r s of w o r k in t h e s e , a s in a l l
l a b o r a r e a s , a r e i n f l u e n c e d by a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , a m o n g t h e m th e d e m o g r a p h i c
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a b o r f o r c e , s u p p l y of a n d d e m a n d f o r l a b o r , i n d u s t r i a l
c o m p o s i t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l m i x , a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l , F e d e r a l a n d S ta te m i n i m u m
w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n , d e g r e e of u n i o n i z a t i o n , e m p l o y e r p e r s o n n e l p r a c t i c e s , r e g i o n a l
a n d s e c t i o n a l w a g e p a t t e r n s , e tc . B e c a u s e of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , th e e x a c t
i m p a c t on e a r n i n g s o r a n y of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e c a n n o t be i s o ­
l a t e d a n d m e a s u r e d , but th e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by t h e s e f o r c e s a n d the e x t e n t
to w h i c h t h e y i n t e r a c t l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e the w a g e s t r u c t u r e in a n a r e a . U n d e r
t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s , e a r n i n g s a n d h o u r s of w o r k in the s a m e i n d u s t r y m a y d i f f e r
s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m one a r e a to a n o t h e r , a s t h e y do f r o m o n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t to
a n o t h e r w i th i n a n a r e a .
In th e d i s c u s s i o n f o r e a c h a r e a , the g e n e r a l l e v e l of e a r n i n g s is d e s c r i b e d
by u s i n g th e m e a n , the m e d i a n , a n d the i n t e r q u a r t i l e r a n g e . T h e m e a n , d e f i n e d



6

a s th e s u m of a l l th e i n d i v i d u a l h o u r l y e a r n i n g s d iv i d e d b y th e n u m b e r of w o r k ­
e r s , t e n d s to b e c o m e l e s s i n f o r m a t i v e a s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s d e p a r t s
f r o m s y m m e t r y . In t h e s e c a s e s , a u s e f u l m e a s u r e of t h e g e n e r a l w a g e l e v e l
is th e m e d i a n , th e a m o u n t b e l o w a n d a b o v e w h i c h e a r n i n g s f o r 50 p e r c e n t of t h e
e m p l o y e e s a r e foundo T h e i n t e r q u a r t i l e r a n g e o f f e r s a b r o a d e r v i e w of th e
g e n e r a l e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d d e s c r i b e s t h e d e g r e e of d i s p e r s i o n of i n d i ­
v i d u a l e a r n i n g s f r o m t h e p o i n t s of c e n t r a l t e n d e n c y b y d e f i n in g th e r a n g e of
e a r n i n g s f o r th e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t of th e e m p l o y e e s .
T h e d e g r e e to w h i c h e a r n i n g s in e a c h a r e a w e r e d i s p e r s e d a n d t h e r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n one a r e a an d a n o t h e r a r e s h o w n t h r o u g h t h e u s e of th e i n d e x
of d i s p e r s i o n , o b t a i n e d b y d iv i d in g t h e m e a n h o u r l y e a r n i n g s b y th e i n t e r q u a r t i l e
r a n g e of e a r n i n g s . T h e i n d e x f i g u r e of 40 o b t a i n e d f o r A s h e v i l l e , t h e l o w e s t
of th e e i g h t a r e a s , s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d r e l a t i v e l y
n e a r th e m e a n , w h il e a t th e o t h e r e x t r e m e , th e i n d e x of 91 f o r L a k e C h a r l e s
r e v e a l s a m u c h w i d e r d i s p e r s a l of w a g e s . T h e i n d e x e s f o r th e o t h e r s i x a r e a s ,
b y c o m p a r i s o n , w e r e e v e n l y g r o u p e d b e t w e e n 51 an d 60.

Metropolitan area

Approximate
number of
nonsupervisory
Percent of em ployees in—
em ployees
included in
Manufac­
Industries with at least
the survey,
turing
10 percent of the
Population
manufacturing work force
June 1965
industries
(1960 census)

Percent of
nonmanu­
facturing
em ployees
in retail
trade

Am arillo, T e x ---------(Potter and Randall
Counties)

149, 493

21,700

15

Food and kindred products
Printing and publishing
Primary m etal industries

24
14
13

34

Asheville, N. C -------(Buncombe County)

130,074

29, 600

52

Chemicals and allied products
T extiles and textile products
Apparel
N onelectrical machinery

30
17
15
11

42

Durham, N. C ----------(Durham County)

111,995

23,100

44

Tobacco products
T extiles and textile products

46
19

36

Lake Charles, L a-----(Calcasieu Parish)

145,475

15, 400

38

Petroleum refining and
47
related industries
Chem icals and allied products 27

39

Lexington, Ky----------(Fayette County)

131,906

28, 800

34

Nonelectrical machinery
Electrical machinery

37
15

37

Monroe, La--------------(Ouachita Parish)

101,663

14, 400

32

Paper and allied products
40
Chem icals and allied products 20
11
Food and kindred products

39

Tuscaloosa, A la-------(Tuscaloosa County)

109, 047

15, 500

47

Primary metal industries
Paper and allied products
Rubber and rubber products
Lumber and wood products
Food and kindred products

27
20
12
12
10

43

W ichita Falls, Tex---(Archer and W ichita
Counties)

129,638

14,800

20

Food and kindred products
N onelectrical machinery
Apparel
Printing and publishing

28
22
18
11

41




7

Selected Metropolitan Areas
Amarillo, Tex.

T h e A m a r i l l o m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , c o m p r i s i n g P o t t e r an d R a n d a l l C o u n t i e s ,
is s i t u a t e d n e a r t h e c e n t e r of th e T e x a s P a n h a n d l e , A c c o r d i n g to th e I9 6 0 c e n s u s ,
th e a r e a c o n t a i n e d 1 4 9 ,5 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s . A m a r i l l o ’s l o c a t i o n on m a j o r r a i l and
h ig h w a y s y s t e m s an d p r o x i m i t y to p e t r o l e u m an d g a s f i e l d s a r e of p r i m a r y i m ­
p o r t a n c e to t h e a r e a ’s e c o n o m y . S p a r s e r a i n f a l l p r o h i b i t s e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e
in th e a r e a .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 1 , 7 0 0 n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e w i th i n t h e s c o p e of
t h e J u n e 1965 s tu d y . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a b o u t a s i x t h , w a s
t h e s m a l l e s t a m o n g th e e i g h t a r e a s . In th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g g r o u p , r e t a i l t r a d e ,
th e l a r g e s t s i n g l e a c t i v i t y in t e r m s of e m p l o y m e n t in A m a r i l l o , a c c o u n t e d f o r
a t h i r d of t h e e m p l o y e e s , w h il e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l ­
i t i e s and w h o l e s a l e t r a d e t o g e t h e r e m p l o y e d t h r e e - t e n t h s of the w o r k f o r c e . It
s h o u l d be n o te d t h a t r a i l r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of A m a r i l l o ’s
i n d u s t r i a l c o m p l e x , w a s o u t s i d e th e s c o p e of th e s tu d y .
Earnings
A v erag e s tr a ig h t- tim e h ourly earn in g s for all n o n su p e rv iso ry em ployees
w e r e $ 1 . 8 5 in J u n e of 1965 (ta b le 1). M e d i a n e a r n i n g s , t h e a m o u n t b e l o w an d
a b o v e w h ic h 50 p e r c e n t of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e fo u n d, w e r e $ 1 . 6 3 a n h o u r , 22
c e n t s l e s s t h a n th e m e a n . A f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 9
an h o u r , and a n o t h e r f o u r t h r e c e i v e d $ 2 . 2 7 o r m o r e . T h u s , e a r n i n g s of th e
m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t w e r e s p r e a d o v e r a 9 8 - c e n t r a n g e .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . A m a r i l l o ’s m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m p l e x , u n li k e t h o s e in s e v e r a l
of th e a r e a s i n c l u d e d in th e s u r v e y , is c o m p o s e d of m e d i u m an d s m a l l e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s , w h i c h , a s a g r o u p , a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to i n f l u e n c e g r e a t l y the
w a g e l e v e l o r e m p l o y m e n t s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a . A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s w e r e $ 2 . 0 5 . F e w e r t h a n a fifth
of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 an h o u r , w h il e m o r e
t h a n t w o - f i f t h s e a r n e d $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e , and a f o u r t h r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t $ 2 . 50.
T w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e p a i d $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e w e r e in t h e p r i m a r y m e t a l , food
p r o c e s s i n g , an d p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h t o g e t h e r e m p l o y e d a b o u t
h a l f of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e .
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g . N o n m anufacturing em ployees accounted for m o r e than
f o u r - f i f t h s of the e m p l o y e e s i n c l u d e d in th e s u r v e y an d a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 8 1 an h o u r .
O n e out of n in e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s in A m a r i l l o e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1 an
h o u r d u r i n g J u n e 1965 an d s l i g h t l y m o r e t h a n a fifth e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 .
Of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 , m o r e t h a n s e v e n - t e n t h s w e r e in e a tin g
and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s an d m o t e l s , an d l a u n d r i e s . A t e n t h w e r e c l u s t e r e d
at o r j u s t a b o v e $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r . F u r t h e r up the w a g e s c a l e , a t h i r d of the e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r , a n d a b o u t a s i x t h , $ 2 . 50 o r m o r e .
A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s f o r e m p l o y e e s in r e t a i l t r a d e w e r e $ 1 . 5 5 an h o u r , 40 c e n t s
l e s s th a n th e a v e r a g e f o r a ll o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . A l m o s t a fifth
of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1 an h o u r , t h r e e - f o u r t h s of w h o m w e r e in
e a t i n g an d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s . O v e r a fifth of the e m p l o y e e s w e r e in e i t h e r of
two 5 - c e n t w a g e i n t e r v a l s , $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 and $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 , in g r e a t p a r t
r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e la w s a p p l i c a b l e to c e r t a i n
r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s , p r i m a r i l y t h o s e in l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s . A m i n i m u m of $ 1 . 1 5 w a s



8

in e ffe c t in J u n e 1965 an d $ 1 . 2 5 w a s to b e c o m e e f f e c t i v e in S e p t e m b e r 1965. A t
th e h i g h e r l e v e l s of t h e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n , c l o s e to a fifth of th e r e t a i l t r a d e
e m p l o y e e s w e r e e a r n i n g $2 a n h o u r o r m o r e .
E a r n i n g s in t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r i e s
a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 2 5 a n h o u r . N e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e e a r n i n g at
l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r , an d m o r e t h a n a fifth h a d e a r n i n g s e x c e e d i n g $ 3 .
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e f i r m s w e r e $ 1 . 7 3. R e l a t i v e l y
fe w e m p l o y e e s h a d e i t h e r e x t r e m e l y lo w o r h i g h e a r n i n g s — o n ly 1 in 5 d id n o t
e a r n b e t w e e n $ 1. 25 an d $ 2 a n h o u r . E a r n i n g s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a t $ 2 . 66 ,
w e r e t h e h i g h e s t in t h e A m a r i l l o a r e a f o r a s i n g l e i n d u s t r y g r o u p . ( T h i s d i v i s i o n
c o n t a i n e d o n ly 11 p e r c e n t of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , h o w e v e r . ) S e v e n t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r , an d o v e r a t h i r d e a r n e d $ 3 o r
m o r e . E m p l o y e e s in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 8 5
a n h o u r , t h e s a m e a s t h a t f o r a l l e m p l o y e e s s t u d i e d in t h e a r e a . E a r n i n g s f o r
a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 5 0 to $2 a n
h o u r , w h il e a t h i r d e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r .
Hours
T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k f o r a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s d u r i n g th e J u n e 1965
s u r v e y p e r i o d w a s 41 h o u r s ( t a b le 9). T h r e e - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a
4 0 - h o u r w e e k , m a k i n g t h i s t h e m o s t c o m m o n p e r i o d of w o r k in t h e a r e a . N e a r l y
a fifth of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e w o r k i n g p a r t t i m e ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k ) ,
an d c l o s e to a f o u r t h h a d long w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) . B o th p a r t t i m e
and long w o r k w e e k s w e r e m o r e p r e v a l e n t in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h a n in m a n u f a c ­
turing in d u strie s.
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . M a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of 42 h o u r s
during the su rv e y w eek.
F o r t y h o u r s w a s the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k , e n ­
g a g in g a t h i r d of t h e w o r k f o r c e , b u t th e a v e r a g e f o r a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
e x c e e d e d th i s b e c a u s e a f o u r t h h a d long w o r k w e e k s w h i l e o n ly an e i g h t h h a d p a r t tim e em ploym ent.
T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s by w e e k l y h o u r s v a r i e d w i d e l y a m o n g th e
m a j o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a m a j o r i t y of the e m p l o y e e s in
p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g an d p r i m a r y m e t a l s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s , w h il e a m a j o r i t y
of t h o s e in food p r o d u c t s and w o o d p r o d u c t s w o r k e d l o n g e r t h a n 40 h o u r s . P a r t t i m e w o r k did n o t e n g a g e m o r e t h a n a s i x t h of the e m p l o y e e s in a n y of t h e m a j o r
m anufacturing ind u stries.
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s
w a s 40 h o u r s , 2 h o u r s l e s s t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . M o r e e m p l o y e e s , n e a r l y
t h r e e - t e n t h s , w e r e w o r k i n g e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s t h a n f o r an y o t h e r s i n g l e p e r i o d of
t i m e . A b o u t a fifth w e r e p a r t - t i m e ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ) e m p l o y e e s , w h il e
s li g h t l y m o r e t h a n th i s w e r e on long w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) . A l th o u g h
th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u r s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w a s s i m i l a r to t h a t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,
r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of th e f o r m e r w e r e p a r t t i m e , c a u s i n g th e 2 - h o u r
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s of i n d u s t r i e s .
R e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d 40 h o u r s of w o r k d u r i n g the s u r v e y w e e k .
T h e l e n g t h of th e m o s t p r e v a l e n t w o r k w e e k w a s a l s o 40 h o u r s , i n v o l v in g a fifth
of th e e m p l o y e e s . P a r t - t i m e w o r k e n g a g e d a fifth of th e e m p l o y e e s an d w a s
e s p e c i a l l y c o m m o n in g e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e , fo o d , an d m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r e s a n d
in e a t i n g an d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s . W e e k s of at l e a s t 48 h o u r s w e r e w o r k e d b y a f o u r t h
of the r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s ; th e m a j o r i t y of t h o s e w i th long w o r k w e e k s w e r e in e a t i n g
and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , an d at a u t o m o t i v e d e a l e r s and g a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s .



9

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d
41 h o u r s a w e e k . O n e - h a l f of t h e s e w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k . O n ly a te n th
of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d p a r t t i m e , a b o u t h a l f the p r o p o r t i o n w o r k i n g long w e e k s .
E m p l o y e e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e h a d th e l o n g e s t w o r k w e e k as a g r o u p , 45 h o u r s .
L e s s t h a n a t e n t h of t h e s e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d u n d e r 35 h o u r s , a f o u r t h w o r k e d
e x a c t l y 40, and c l o s e to t h r e e - t e n t h s h a d a w o r k w e e k of at l e a s t 48 h o u r s .
E m p l o y e e s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n a v e r a g e d 39 h o u r s . T h r e e - t e n t h s w e r e
on p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t an d a f o u r t h h a d long w o r k w e e k s . Not q u it e a fifth
w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s .
In f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e , r o u g h l y s e v e n - t e n t h s of the e m ­
p l o y e e s w o r k e d f r o m 35 to 40 h o u r s , i n c l u s i v e .
Wage Changes
T h e w a g e l e v e l of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in A m a r i l l o a d v a n c e d 13 c e n t s
an h o u r b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 an d J u n e 1965. A l l b u t 1 c e n t of t h i s r i s e o c c u r r e d
d u r i n g th e 3 - y e a r p e r i o d fo llo w in g J u n e 1962. C h a n g e s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of
i n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s o v e r th e 4 - y e a r p e r i o d r e f l e c t e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e s
at a ll p a y l e v e l s , e x c e p t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 , w h ic h
r e m a i n e d at a b o u t a t e n th . In 1961, n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r ; by 1965, the p r o p o r t i o n h a d d r o p p e d to l e s s t h a n a
fifth. D u r i n g t h i s s a m e t i m e , th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 d e c l i n e d
f r o m 46 to 40 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r up t h e p a y s c a l e , the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $2 an
h o u r o r m o r e i n c r e a s e d f r o m l e s s t h a n t h r e e - t e n t h s to m o r e t h a n a t h i r d , and
th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 2 . 50 i n c r e a s e d f r o m a s e v e n t h to a fifth.
All industries_____
1961

Nonmanufacturing

_____June__________
Average hourly earnings

Manufacturing_____
__________ June__________

_________ June________

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $ 1 .0 0 ------------------Under $1.05 ------------ —
Under $1.15 ----------------Under $ 1 . 2 0 ------------------Under $1.25 ------------ —
Under $1 .3 0 ------------------Under $1. 50 ------------------Under $2. 00 -------------------

11
17
21
25
28
34
46
72

11
16
19
24
27
34
48
70

10
13
14
18
19
28
40
65

(D
4
9
12
13
18
35
67

1
2
7
11
17
43
69

C1)
(M
(M
(!)
4
18
55

12
18
23
27
29
36
47
72

12
19
22
27
30
37
48
70

11
15
17
21
22
32
43
67

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)---------------

221

235

217

28

32

32

192

202

185

Average hourly earnings— $1. 72

$1. 73

$1. 85

$1. 77

$1. 80

$2. 05

$1. 71

$1. 71

$1. 81

( M

< D

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . A m o n g a l l i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s , e a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g
i n c r e a s e d th e m o s t f r o m 1961 28 c e n t s an h o u r . S h a r p c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d at
a ll l e v e l s of th e p a y s c a l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y in th e m i d d l e a n d u p p e r p o r t i o n s . A b r u p t
c h a n g e s at th e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s , w h e r e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t s of m o v e m e n t in th e
F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e u s u a l l y a r e g r e a t e s t , w e r e a l s o of n o te . In J u n e 1961,
13 p e r c e n t of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 25, but th e a d v e n t of t h e $ 1 . 1 5
F e d e r a l m i n i m u m in S e p t e m b e r 1961 an d th e $ 1 . 2 5 b a s e , 2 y e a r s l a t e r , s e r v e d
to r a i s e th e e a r n i n g s of a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s to a m i n i m u m of $ 1 . 25 an
h o u r by J u n e 1965. T h e n e w s t a n d a r d s did no t c o m p r e s s e a r n i n g s a t o r a few
c e n t s a b o v e the m i n i m u m s . F u r t h e r up th e p a y s c a l e , the c h a n g e s w e r e o ft e n
a c u t e . B y 1965, th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 an h o u r h a d d e c l i n e d



10

f r o m m o r e t h a n a t h i r d in 1961 to l e s s t h a n a fifth , w h il e the p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g
at l e a s t $ 2 r o s e f r o m a t h i r d to m o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s . In 1961, 1 o u t of 11
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d $ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r o r m o r e ; 4 y e a r s l a t e r , 1 out
of 4 h a d e a r n i n g s at t h i s l e v e l .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . E a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n c r e a s e d
10 c e n t s an h o u r o v e r th e 1961 an d 1962l e v e l of $ 1 . 7 1 . On th e w h o l e , the
i n c r e a s e s w e r e s p r e a d o v e r a l l l e v e l s of p a y ; h o w e v e r , t h e y v a r i e d a m o n g th e
i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s an d w e r e o fte n c o n c e n t r a t e d at e i t h e r th e l o w e r o r h i g h e r
l e v e l s of th e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n .
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r the l o w e s t p a i d e m p l o y e e s r o s e s o m e w h a t d u r i n g
t h e 4 - y e a r p e r i o d . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r d id not c h a n g e
f r o m th e 1961 l e v e l , w h e r e a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n p a i d a t l e a s t $ 1 b u t l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5
a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 17 p e r c e n t in 1961 to 11 p e r c e n t in 1965, a n d t h e r e w a s
a n a t t e n d a n t r i s e , f r o m 7 to 10 p e r c e n t , in the p r o p o r t i o n p a i d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 25 an d
$ 1 . 3 0 a n h o u r . T h is r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m e l e v a t i o n of e a r n i n g s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h
t h e u p p e r l e v e l s of th e a r r a y ---- the p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g a t l e a s t
$ 2 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m 28 to 33 p e r c e n t , a n d t h o s e r e c e i v i n g at l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 ,
f r o m 15 to 18 p e r c e n t .
In r e t a i l t r a d e , a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s a d v a n c e d 7 c e n t s f r o m the 1961
l e v e l of $ 1 . 4 8 . V i r t u a l l y a ll of the c h a n g e o c c u r r e d a m o n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1. 30 a n h o u r . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r , a b o u t
a fifth, w a s th e s a m e d u r i n g a ll t h r e e s u r v e y p e r i o d s , b u t t h e r e w a s a s u b ­
s t a n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t w i th i n this g r o u p in th e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n 75 c e n t s , w h ic h d e c l i n e d to a b o u t a t h i r d of t h a t of 1961. B e t w e e n
1961 and 1965, t h e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r d e c r e a s e d f r o m
t w o - f i f t h s to l e s s t h a n t h r e e - t e n t h s , an d t h o s e at l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 d e c r e a s e d f r o m
n e a r l y h a l f to a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s . D u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d , th e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m ­
p l o y e e s in th e $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 an d $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 w a g e i n t e r v a l s d o u b l e d , an d
in J u n e 1965 e a c h c o n t a i n e d r o u g h l y an e i g h t h of the r e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s .
M u c h of t h e c h a n g e at th e $ 1 . 1 5 and $ 1. 25 l e v e l s m a y h a v e b e e n in r e s p o n s e
to the i n c r e m e n t s p r o v i d e d in th e a m e n d m e n t s to th e F a i r L a b o r S t a n d a r d s A c t ,
s e t t i n g a m i n i m u m w a g e in l a r g e r e t a i l e n t e r p r i s e s of $ 1 , b e g in n i n g in S e p t e m ­
b e r 1961, an d r a i s i n g it to $ 1 . 1 5 b e g in n i n g in S e p t e m b e r 1964. A m i n i m u m of
$ 1 , 2 5 w a s to b e c o m e e f f e c t i v e in S e p t e m b e r 1965. O n e - t h i r d of th e r e t a i l e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to th e p r o v i s i o n s of the F L S A . T h e r e w a s
l i t t le c h a n g e t o w a r d s th e h i g h e r end of th e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n c e 1961. F o r
e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n s of r e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 1. 30 o r m o r e r a n g e d
b e t w e e n 45 an d 48 p e r c e n t d u r i n g a ll of th e s u r v e y s .




______________ Retail trade
June

Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $1 .0 0
Under $1 .0 5
Under $1.15
Under $1 .2 0
Under $1.25
Under $1 .3 0
Under $1 .5 0
Under $2. 00

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

21
33
40
46
48
54
65
84

20
34
41
46
49
55
67
82

19
25
28
40
41
52
63
82

Number of em ployees (in hundreds)----

72

80

64

Average hourly earnings -------------------

$1. 48

$1 .4 4

$1 .5 5

11

E m p l o y e e s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s r e c e i v e d ,
on th e a v e r a g e , 26 c e n t s an h o u r m o r e in J u n e 1965 t h a n in J u n e 1961. A ll
bu t 6 c e n t s of t h i s i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n th e 1961 an d 1962 s u r v e y s . B e ­
c a u s e of r e l a t i v e l y h ig h a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s in th is i n d u s t r y g r o u p , th e m o s t n o ­
t i c e a b l e c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d a m o n g t h o s e e m p l o y e e s in th e m i d d l e and u p p e r r e a c h e s
of t h e p a y s c a l e .
A 9 - c e n t i n c r e a s e in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e e a r n i n g s o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n 1961 and
1965, m u c h of w h i c h m a y h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t a b o u t by c h a n g e s in th e F e d e r a l
m i n i m u m w a g e to t h e b e n e f i t of l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s . A t t h e t i m e of the f i r s t
s t u d y , a t e n t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r an d c l o s e to a
fifth e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 . By 1 9 62, v i r t u a l l y a l l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t
$ 1 . 1 5 , an d by 1965 at l e a s t $ 1 . 2 5 . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s w i th h o u r l y
e a r n i n g s of l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 d e c l i n e d b y 7 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s in 4 y e a r s , but f r o m
t h i s l e v e l u p w a r d in the d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e r e w a s l i t t le c h a n g e .
A m o n g o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , e a r n i n g s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n
a d v a n c e d 20 c e n t s an h o u r o v e r th e 1961 l e v e l . E i g h t e e n c e n t s of t h i s c a m e
d u r i n g th e 1 - y e a r p e r i o d fo l lo w i n g th e 1961 s u r v e y . E a r n i n g s in f i n a n c e , i n ­
s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e a l s o i n c r e a s e d 20 c e n t s an h o u r ; h o w e v e r , a ll bu t 2 c e n t s
of th i s c h a n g e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e 3 y e a r s fo llo w in g t h e 1962 s tu d y . C h a n g e s
in t h e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n in t h e s e two i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b o r e l it t le r e s e m ­
b l a n c e . B e c a u s e of t h e g e n e r a l l y h ig h w a g e s t r u c t u r e in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
a d v a n c e s in e a r n i n g s a p p l i e d to r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - p a i d e m p l o y e e s . In f i n a n c e , i n ­
s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , the m o s t n o t a b l e c h a n g e s w e r e f o r
e m p l o y e e s at th e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s .

Contract
construction

W holesale
________ trade_______

Finance,
insurance, and
real estate

June
Average hourly earnings

Transportation,
comm unication,
and public utilities
June

June

June

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cum ulative percent)
Under $ 1 .0 0 ------ ----------------Under $ 1 .0 5 -----------------------Under $1. 1 5 -----------------------Under $1. 2 0 -----------------------Under $1. 2 5 -----------------------Under $1. 3 0 -----------------------Under $ 1 .5 0 -----------------------Under $ 2 .0 0 ------------------------

(!)
1
1
1
1
7
13
38

(!)
(1)
1
2
3
7
9
27

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
0)
3
7
30

3
4
4
5
7
13
25
56

3
3
3
5
7
11
18
44

2
2
2
2
2
7
14
41

0)
6
11
16
18
29
46
77

(1)
(1)
1
11
15
25
45
77

(1)
(1)
(1)
1
1
18
39
77

1
6
10
14
17
24
38
80

(1)
1
1
11
13
27
45
81

(1)
(1)
(1)
1
1
10
29
66

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)--------------------

25

19

21

28

30

30

27

30

25

17

21

15

Average hourly earnings------ $2 .4 6 $2. 54 $2. 66 $1.99 $2.19 $2. 25 $1.64 $1.66 $1.73 $1.65 $1.67 $1.85
1 Less than 0. 5 percent.




12

Asheville, N.C.

A s h e v i l l e is l o c a t e d in the m o u n t a i n o u s w e s t c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of N o r t h
C a ro lin a, n e a r the T e n n e s se e b o rd e r. The m e tro p o lita n a r e a , which co n sists
of B u n c o m b e C o u n ty , h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 1 3 0 ,0 0 0 in I9 6 0 . T h e a r e a h a s a l a r g e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n of m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , an d is th e c e n t e r of an i m p o r t a n t a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l r e g i o n t h a t p r o d u c e s an d m a r k e t s p o u l t r y , d a i r y p r o d u c t s , a n d b u r l e y
t o b a c c o . B e c a u s e of its s c e n i c l o c a t i o n and h ig h e l e v a t i o n , A s h e v i l l e is a l s o a
s u m m e r r e s o r t . A b o u t 29, 600 n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e i n c l u d e d in th e
J u n e 1965 s u r v e y . S l i g h t l y o v e r h a l f of t h e s e w e r e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s , the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n a m o n g the a r e a s s t u d i e d . R e t a i l t r a d e w a s th e
m a j o r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y , e m p l o y i n g a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s of th e a r e a ' s w o r k
f o r c e in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
Earnings
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s , as a g r o u p , a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 6 6 a n h o u r at s t r a i g h t t i m e r a t e s in J u n e 1965 ( t a b le 2). T h e m i d d l e h a l f of th e w o r k f o r c e e a r n e d
b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 9 a n d $ 1 . 9 5 , a r a n g e of 66 c e n t s . H a l f of t h e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d
m o r e an d h a l f l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 9 , o n ly 7 c e n t s b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e f o r a ll e m p l o y e e s .
T h u s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s in A s h e v i l l e w a s r e l a t i v e l y s y m m e t r i c a l .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n e d a n a v e r a g e of $ 1 . 7 9
an h o u r . A t w e lf th of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d a t o r j u s t a b o v e th e
$ 1 .2 5 F e d e r a l m in im u m w age, a fourth ea rn e d le s s than $ 1 .5 0 an ho ur, and
n e a r l y h a l f r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 7 5 a n h o u r . F u r t h e r up th e w a g e s c a l e , o v e r
a f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d a t l e a s t $ 2 , b u t l e s s t h a n a t e n t h e a r n e d a s
m u ch as $ 2 .5 0 an hour.
T h e c h e m i c a l s and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y , w h i c h e m p l o y e d t h r e e - t e n t h s
of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , a c c o u n t e d f o r t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s
e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e . A t the o t h e r end of th e p a y s c a l e , a p p a r e l p l a n t s ,
w i th l e s s t h a n a s i x t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s , i n c l u d e d n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e
p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 3 0 and a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n
h o u r . C o n t r i b u t i n g to th e r e l a t i v e s y m m e t r y of t h e a r e a ' s w a g e s t r u c t u r e w e r e
th e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of e a r n i n g s in t h e t e x t i l e s an d m a c h i n e r y i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h e m ­
p l o y e d n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e t o t a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m p l e m e n t . In e a c h , s o m e ­
w h a t m o r e t h a n h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d b e t w e e n $ l o 50 and $ 2 a n h o u r .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g , e m p l o y e e s i n c l u d e d in t h e 1965
s t u d y a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 5 1 an h o u r , 28 c e n t s l e s s t h a n the a v e r a g e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
D i f f e r e n c e s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s b e t w e e n n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g an d m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d at t h e l o w e r t h a n a t th e u p p e r end
of t h e p a y s c a l e . A s i x t h of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e p a i d l e s s
t h a n $1 an d n e a r l y a t h i r d r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r , w h il e a l m o s t a l l
of t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t $ 1 . 2 5 . T h r e e - f i f t h s of th e n o n m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 , w h i c h w a s m o r e t h a n t w i c e the
p r o p o r t i o n of t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g a t th is l e v e l . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s n a r r o w e d
t o w a r d s the h i g h e r end of the w a g e s c a l e . A fifth of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m ­
p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t $2 a n h o u r , o n ly 8 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s b e l o w th e p r o ­
p o r t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , an d a b o u t a t w e l f t h in e a c h g r o u p e a r n e d $ 2 . 5 0 an
h o u r o r m o r e . T h r e e - f o u r t h s of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s
t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r w e r e in e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s an d m o t e l s , l a u n d r i e s
and dry cleaning plants, and m e d ic a l s e rv ic e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts, w hich as a group,
a c c o u n t e d f o r s l i g h t l y o v e r a fifth of t h e t o t a l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t .



13

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in r e t a i l t r a d e w e r e $ 1 . 3 2 . A b o u t 3 , 0 0 0 r e t a i l
t r a d e e m p l o y e e s ( r o u g h l y h a l f t h e i n d u s t r y ’s w o r k f o r c e ) e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1.25 an d
a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of a l l e m p l o y e e s w i th s u c h e a r n i n g s . A b o u t a
t e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d a t e a c h of two 5 - c e n t w a g e i n t e r v a l s ,
$ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 an d $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 . M o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e in th e
f o r m e r i n t e r v a l an d c l o s e to h a l f of t h o s e at t h e l a t t e r w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w h i c h w e r e g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t to th e p r o v i s i o n s of th e F L S A an d w h i c h e m p ] c / e d
o n ly t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e r e t a i l w o r k f o r c e . T h e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e f l e c t , at
l e a s t in p a r t , th e i n f l u e n c e of th e e x i s t i n g l e v e l a n d i m p e n d i n g i n c r e a s e in
t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e a p p l i c a b l e to r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o v e r e d b y th e
a c t . F u r t h e r up t h e p a y s c a l e , n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s
e a r n e d a t l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r , b u t r e l a t i v e l y few , a t e n t h , e a r n e d $2 o r m o r e .
In c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h e m p l o y e d a s e v e n t h of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
e m p l o y e e s , a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s c a m e to $ 1 . 8 5 a n h o u r . V i r t u a l l y n o n e of the
em ployees earn ed le ss than $ 1 .2 5 an hour; h o w ev er, a fourth w e re at or less
t h a n 5 c e n t s a b o v e t h i s p a y l e v e l . T w o - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d $ 2 an
h o u r o r m o r e , an d a s i x t h e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 .
A n e i g h t h of t h e
m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c
h o u r, m o r e than any
the em ployees e a rn e d
l e a s t $ 2 . 50 a n h o u r .

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m ­
u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r i e s , w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 1.99 an
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . T w o - f i f t h s of
m o r e t h a n the a v e r a g e a n d n e a r l y a f o u r t h r e c e i v e d at

T h e e a r n i n g s l e v e l of $ 1 . 5 1 a n h o u r in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , w h i c h e m p l o y e d
f e w e r t h a n a t e n t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , w a s t h e s a m e as t h a t f o r
a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . T h r e e - f i f t h s of the e m p l o y e e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d
w i th i n a 2 5 - c e n t s - a n - h o u r r a n g e , $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 5 0 . M o r e t h a n a t h i r d e a r n e d
b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 5 an d $ 1 . 3 0 an h o u r , a c c o u n t i n g f o r n e a r l y a f o u r t h of a ll n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w i th s u c h e a r n i n g s . R e l a t i v e l y few e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d
m o r e t h a n $ 2 an h o u r .
Hours
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of 40 h o u r s a w e e k at th e
t i m e of th e s u r v e y ( t a b le 10). A t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s ,
m a k i n g t h i s th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k at th e t i m e . A fifth of th e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d long w e e k s of 48 h o u r s o r m o r e , an d s l i g h t l y f e w e r , a s i x t h , w e r e on
p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ) .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . In m a n u f a c t u r i n g , e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d 41 h o u r s of w o r k
d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y w e e k . T h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t p e r i o d of e m p l o y m e n t , e x a c t l y
40 h o u r s , w a s w o r k e d by a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s . A long w o r k w e e k
w a s s e c o n d m o s t c o m m o n , e n g a g in g n e a r l y a fifth of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k
f o r c e , w h il e p a r t - t i m e w o r k p r e v a i l e d f o r a n e ig h th . A 4 0 - h o u r w e e k p r e d o m ­
i n a t e d in m o s t of th e m a j o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , b u t th e i n c i d e n c e of p a r t
t i m e an d long w o r k w e e k s v a r i e d w i d e ly . In t h e c h e m i c a l a n d m a c h i n e r y p l a n t s ,
f o r e x a m p l e , o n ly a t w e l f t h of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , but
n e a r l y a f o u r t h of t h o s e in a p p a r e l p l a n t s h a d s u c h h o u r s . F e w a p p a r e l e m p l o y e e s ,
on th e o t h e r h a n d , w o r k e d as long as 48 h o u r s , bu t w o r k w e e k s of a t l e a s t th i s
d u r a t i o n w e r e c o m m o n a m o n g a t h i r d of the food p r o c e s s i n g , t e x t i l e s , an d m a ­
chinery em ployees.
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k w e e k
w a s 40 h o u r s . A l th o u g h t h i s w a s o n ly 1 h o u r l e s s t h a n t h e a v e r a g e in m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g , th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e e k l y h o u r s f o r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s d i f f e r e d
s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h a t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . C l o s e to a fifth of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g




14

e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s d u r i n g th e J u n e s u r v e y w e e k , a f o u r t h
w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s , a n d a b o u t th e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n h a d a w o r k w e e k l a s t i n g
48 h o u r s o r l o n g e r . T h e r e l a t i v e l y e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s a m o n g p a r t
t i m e , s t a n d a r d , a n d long w o r k w e e k s is a t t r i b u t a b l e in g r e a t p a r t to th e w i d e
v a r i e t y of i n d u s t r i e s t h a t th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y g r o u p c o m p r i s e s .
W h e r e a s a v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s fo r r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s c a m e to 40, o n ly
16 p e r c e n t h a d w e e k s of e x a c t l y th i s d u r a t i o n . S l i g h tly m o r e , 17 p e r c e n t , w o r k e d
48 h o u r s , m a k i n g th is th e m o s t c o m m o n s i n g l e w o r k w e e k a m o n g e m p l o y e e s in
r e t a i l t r a d e . A fifth of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a w e e k of l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ,
w h ile a n e i g h t h of th e r e t a i l w o r k f o r c e w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e .
C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d 38 h o u r s , on th e a v e r a g e , d u r i n g
th e s u r v e y w e e k . O v e r t w o - f i f t h s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 40 h o u r s , an d a b o u t h a l f of
t h e s e w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n 15 an d 35 h o u r s . A b o u t a f o u r t h of th e c o n ­
s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s , h o w e v e r , w o r k e d 40 h o u r s d u r i n g th e s u r v e y w e e k , an d
a b o u t a s i x t h w o r k e d a t l e a s t 48 h o u r s .
H a l f of t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s
w e r e w o r k i n g 40 h o u r s d u r i n g th e s u r v e y w e e k , 1 h o u r l e s s t h a n the a v e r a g e f o r
a l l e m p l o y e e s in t h i s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s w o r k i n g l e s s t h a n 35,
a n d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l — a n i n t h and a s ix t h , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
In w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , th e a v e r a g e w e e k of 42 h o u r s w a s l o n g e r t h a n in a n y
of t h e o t h e r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s . A b o u t t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d
40 h o u r s , and n e a r l y a f o u r t h w o r k e d at l e a s t 48 h o u r s . A w e e k of l e s s t h a n
35 h o u r s p r e v a i l e d f o r o n ly 1 of 9 w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s .
W ag e C h a n g e s
B e t w e e n J u n e of 1961 an d 1965, th e a r e a p a y l e v e l a d v a n c e d 20 c e n t s an
h o u r ; 18 c e n t s of th e i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e 3 - y e a r p e r i o d fo llo w in g th e
J u n e 1962 s u r v e y . D u r i n g th e 4 y e a r s , th e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s p a i d
l e s s t h a n $1 an h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 14 to 8 p e r c e n t , t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n
$ 1 . 1 5 d e c l i n e d f r o m 29 to 12 p e r c e n t , and t h o s e p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 d e c l i n e d
f r o m 37 to 16 p e r c e n t . A t th e s a m e t i m e , th e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
$ 1 . 3 0 o r m o r e w e n t f r o m 56 to 73 p e r c e n t . A t th e h i g h e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l s , th e
p r o p o r t i o n s p a i d at l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m 15 to 23 p e r c e n t . A b o v e
th is p a y l e v e l , th e i m p r o v e m e n t d i m i n i s h e d u n t i l at $ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n 1961 an d 1965 w a s o n ly 3 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s .
_______ All industries________

Manufacturing_______

Nonmanufacturing

____________ June____________ _________ June____________ __________June___________
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

21
31
37
47
51
57
68
84

16
21
24
29
32
46
61
81

(Cumulative percent)
$ 1 . 0 0 ------------------$1.05 ------------------$1.15 ------------------$1. 20 ------------------$1.25 ------------------$1 .3 0 ------------------$1. 50 ------------------$2. 00 -------------------

14
24
29
33
37
44
58
85

11
15
19
30
34
39
58
85

8
10
12
14
16
27
43
77

1
10
14
19
23
32
52
90

1
2
2
15
19
24
48
86

1
1
1
9
26
73

27
39
45
49
52
57
64
81

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-----------------

251

273

296

130

144

155

121

129

141

Average hourly earnings - - $1.46

$1.48

$1.66

$1.52

$1. 58

$1. 79

$1.39

$1. 37

$1. 51

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under




Less than 0. 5 percent.

(M
(M

15

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g a d v a n c e d 27 c e n t s a n h o u r
f r o m 1961, 7 c e n t s m o r e t h a n f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d . T h is r e l a t i v e l y
l a r g e i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t s c h a n g e s , e s p e c i a l l y at th e l o w e r l e v e l s , in t h e d i s t r i ­
b u ti o n of e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s . B e t w e e n J u n e 1961, w h e n 23 p e r c e n t of th e e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 , an d J u n e 1962, d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e the $ 1 . 15
F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e b e c a m e e f f e c t i v e , the p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n the
l a t t e r a m o u n t d e c l i n e d f r o m 14 to 2 p e r c e n t . B e t w e e n 1962 an d 1965, d u r i n g
w h i c h t i m e th e $ 1 . 2 5 m i n i m u m b e c a m e law , th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s th a n
th e n e w s t a n d a r d d e c r e a s e d f r o m 19 to 1 p e r c e n t . T h u s , o v e r a 4 - y e a r p e r i o d ,
a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of n e a r l y a f o u r t h of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s r o s e
f r o m s o m e p o in t b e l o w $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r to at l e a s t t h a t a m o u n t . D u r i n g th e s a m e
s p a n of t i m e , e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 1 . 5 0 o r m o r e a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m h a l f
to n e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s , w h ile t h o s e e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r r o s e f r o m a
t e n t h to a f o u r t h . A p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s e a d v a n c e s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d to f o u r
r o u n d s of " a c r o s s - t h e - b o a r d 1' i n c r e a s e s g r a n t e d b y s o u t h e r n t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y
e m p l o y e r s b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 and J u n e 1965, a f f e c t i n g m a n y e m p l o y e e s in p l a n t s
in A s h e v i l l e . T h e a m o u n t s of t h e i n c r e a s e s , w h i c h c o v e r e d b o th w a g e s an d
fringe benefits, v a rie d by plant but w e re a p p ro x im a te ly 5 p e rc e n t each. They
b e c a m e e f f e c t i v e a r o u n d F e b r u a r y 1962, N o v e m b e r 1963, S e p t e m b e r 1964, an d
b e g in n i n g in J u n e of 1 9 6 5 . 2
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g o E a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n c r e a s e d
12 c e n t s a n h o u r s i n c e 1961. G r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d by e m p l o y e e s
a t th e l o w e r an d m i d d l e l e v e l s of the e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a n at the h i g h e r
l e v e l s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 an h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m 73 to 84 p e r ­
c e n t , t h o s e e a r n i n g $ 1 . 15 o r m o r e f r o m 55 to 76 p e r c e n t , an d t h o s e e a r n i n g at
l e a s t $ 1 . 2 5 f r o m 48 to 68 p e r c e n t . E m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 an h o u r ,
h o w e v e r , s h o w e d a p r o p o r t i o n a t e i m p r o v e m e n t of o n ly 3 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s a f t e r
4 y e a r s , an d t h e r e w a s on ly a s li g h t c h a n g e f u r t h e r u p the w a g e s c a l e .
R e t a i l t r a d e e a r n i n g s a d v a n c e d 5 c e n t s o v e r t h e l e v e l r e c o r d e d in J u n e 1961
and 12 c e n t s o v e r th e J u n e 1962 a v e r a g e , M o s t of th e i n c r e a s e in e a r n i n g s
b e n e f i t e d e m p l o y e e s at the l o w e r p a y l e v e l s . In 1961 an d 1962, o v e r h a l f th e
Retail trade

iu.qe.
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1 .0 0
$1.05
$1.15
$1. 20
$1. 25
$1. 30
$1. 50
$2. 00

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

35
47
52
57
61
66
75
89

28
45
57
63
67
71
84
93

22
29
35
46
50
60
72
91

Number of em ployees (in hundreds)----

54

55

59

Average hourly earnings----------------------

$ 1 .2 7

$1 .2 0

$1.32

^ Current Wage Developm ent (BLS Report Nos. 171, Mar. 1, 1962; 191, Nov. 1, 1963; 201, Sept,
and 210, June 1. 1965).




1 1964;

16

e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r ; in 1965, t h e p r o p o r t i o n d e c l i n e d to
a b o u t a t h i r d . S i m i l a r l y , w h il e t h r e e - f i f t h s to t w o - t h i r d s of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in th e e a r l i e r s u r v e y s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n h a d b e e n r e d u c e d to o n e h a l f in 1965. M a n y of t h e s e e m p l o y e e s , e i t h e r in d i r e c t r e s p o n s e to o r t h r o u g h
th e i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of th e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to th e F L S A , p r e s u m a b l y m o v e d
f r o m l o w e r w a g e l e v e l s into th e $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 and $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 i n t e r v a l s ,
f o r th e p r o p o r t i o n s in e a c h w e r e a b o u t a t e n t h in J u n e 1965, d o u b l e th e a m o u n t
in 1961 an d 1962. T o w a r d th e h i g h e r l e v e l s of th e p a y s c a l e , w a g e c h a n g e s
w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 an d at l e a s t
$ 2 d i f f e r e d b y no m o r e t h a n 3 p e r c e n t a g e p o in t s f r o m th e 1961 l e v e l s .
T h e a v e r a g e w a g e l e v e l a d v a n c e d 12 c e n t s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , and
14 c e n t s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , b e t w e e n 1961 a n d
1965. In b o t h g r o u p s , l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s h a d th e m o s t n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e s
in e a r n i n g s . In e a c h of th e i n d u s t r i e s a b o u t a f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in J u n e 1961, b u t v i r t u a l l y a ll w e r e at t h i s l e v e l o r h i g h e r in
1965. A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in e a r n i n g s a t t h e m i d d l e of
th e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n , th e p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s
e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 i n c r e a s e d f r o m a n in t h to a s i x t h , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s
e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 3 an h o u r o r m o r e i n c r e a s e d f r o m a t w e n t i e t h to a s ix t h .
T h e s h a r p e s t i n c r e a s e in t h e a r e a o c c u r r e d a m o n g th e l o w e r p a i d w h o l e s a l e
t r a d e e m p l o y e e s . In J u n e 1961, a l l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d a t l e a s t $1 an h o u r bu t
a f o u r t h w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n $1 and $ 1 . 0 5 a n h o u r , t w o - f i f t h s h a d e a r n i n g s
of l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 15, an d n e a r l y h a l f r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 0 By 1962, v i r t u a l l y
a l l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 1 . 1 5 b u t a f o u r t h w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n
$ 1 . 1 5 an d $ 1 . 2 0 a l t h o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 h a d b e e n r e ­
d u c e d to b e l o w t w o - f i f t h s . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r a l l b u t 4 p e r c e n t of th e w h o l e s a l e
t r a d e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 1 . 25 an h o u r o r m o r e b u t a t h i r d w e r e g r o u p e d b e t w e e n
$ 1 . 2 5 an d $ 1 . 3 0 . S in c e t h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e o v e r t h e 4 y e a r s in th e p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n i n g $ l o 50 o r m o r e , t h e r e w a s a d e c i d e d c o m p r e s s i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
b e t w e e n $ 1 0 25 to $ 1 . 5 0 o

Contract
construction
1961

W holesale
trade

June
Average hourly earnings

Transportation,
comm unication,
and public utilities
June

June

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cum ulative percent)
Under $ 1 .0 0 ---------------------- Under $ 1 .0 5 ---------------------Under $1. 1 5 ---------------------Under $1. 2 0 ---------------------Under $ 1 .2 5 ---------------------- Under $ 1 .3 0 ---------------------- Under $ 1 .5 0 ---------------------Under $2. 0 0 ----------------------

(1)
16
21
25
27
36
42
56

(1)
3
5
19
21
29
37
62

(1)
1
1
1
1
26
41
59

7
15
20
23
25
29
35
60

1
4
5
14
18
28
38
64

1
1
2
2
3
17
32
58

(1)
26
40
42
48
57
64
86

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-------------------

15

16

19

11

13

17

Average hourly earnings---- -$1 .7 3

$1.78

$1.85

$1.85

$1.82

$1.99




Less than 0. 5 percent.,

68
88

(1)
(!)
1
2
4
40
62
87

12

12

13

$1.43

$1.47

$1.51

(U

1
1
26
37
48

17

Durham, N.C.

T h e D u r h a m m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a l i e s in n o r t h c e n t r a l N o r t h C a r o l i n a a n d is
n o t e d f o r t o b a c c o a n d t e x t i l e p r o d u c t s . D u r h a m is a l s o a l o o s e l e a f t o b a c c o
m a r k e t a n d the s i t e of D u k e U n i v e r s i t y . In I960, th e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , w h ic h
is c o e x t e n s i v e w i th D u r h a m C o u n ty , h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 1 1 2 ,0 0 0 . O v e r 2 3 , 0 0 0
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e w i th i n the s c o p e of the s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d in J u n e
1965. M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of th e e m ­
p l o y m e n t , t w o - t h i r d s of th i s in t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s p l a n t s a n d t e x t i l e m i l l s . R e t a i l
t r a d e d o m i n a t e d th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g g r o u p , e m p l o y i n g m o r e t h a n a t h i r d of th e
w o r k f o r c e . T h is p r o p o r t i o n w a s a b o u t d o u b l e t h a t of th e n e x t l a r g e s t n o n m a n u ­
facturing industry.
Earnings
A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e
$ 1 . 8 3 in J u n e 1965 (tab le 3). T h e m e d i a n p a y r a t e w a s $ 1 . 7 3 a n h o u r . E a r n ­
in g s of the m i d d l e h a l f of the w o r k f o r c e e x t e n d e d f r o m $ 1. 29 to $ 2 . 33 a n h o u r .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . M a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d $2.16 a n h o u r . R e l a t i v e l y
few e m p l o y e e s w e r e at th e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s — a l l but a s ix t h w e r e e a r n i n g a t l e a s t
$ 1. 50 a n h o u r . A l m o s t h a l f of th e l o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s w e r e in th e food p r o c ­
e s s i n g a n d t e x t i l e i n d u s t r i e s . F u r t h e r up the p a y s c a l e , a b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s of
the m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e e a r n e d $ 2 o r m o r e a n d a f o u r t h r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t
$ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r . T h e t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y , w h ic h c o n t a i n e d l e s s t h a n h a l f
of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , a c c o u n t e d f o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g
$2 o r m o r e , a n d o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 an h o u r .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s at $1.58
a n h o u r w e r e 58 c e n t s l o w e r t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . M u c h of the d i s p a r i t y in
e a r n i n g s l e v e l s b e t w e e n th e two g r o u p s r e f l e c t s the g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g r a t h e r t h a n of m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s a t the l o w e r p a y l e v e l s .
F o r e x a m p l e , n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s
t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r w h il e a ll but 2 p e r c e n t of t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n e d at
l e a s t t h a t a m o u n t . S i m i l a r l y , n e a r l y a f o u r t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
e a r n e d $ 2 o r m o r e a n h o u r bu t th i s w a s o n ly a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s of th e p r o p o r t i o n
of m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w i th s u c h e a r n i n g s . M o r e o v e r , a s e v e n t h of the
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s th a n $ 1 a n h o u r , m o s t of w h o m w e r e
e m p l o y e d in e a tin g a n d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s a n d m o t e l s , a n d l a u n d r i e s . A n
e i g h t h of the e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 5 a n d $ 1 . 3 0 w h i c h w a s a b o u t
d o u b le the m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o p o r t i o n at t h i s l e v e l .
E a r n i n g s in r e t a i l t r a d e a v e r a g e d $ 1. 36 an h o u r ; h o w e v e r , t h r e e - f i f t h s of
th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n t h i s a m o u n t , a n d a fifth e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n
h o u r . O n ly a s e v e n t h of the e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d a s m u c h a s $ 2 a n h o u r . R o u g h ly
a n e i g h t h of th e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d a t e a c h of two p a y i n t e r v a l s —
$ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1. 20 a n d $ 1. 25 to $ 1. 30. T h e $ 1 . 1 5 r a t e w a s the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e a p p l i c a b l e to m o s t e m p l o y e e s in l a r g e r e t a i l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t th e t i m e of
th e s u r v e y , w h il e $ 1. 25 w a s th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e t h a t w a s to b e c o m e o b l i g ­
a t o r y in S e p t e m b e r 1965 f o r s u c h e m p l o y e e s , 3 m o n t h s a f t e r the s u r v e y p e r i o d .
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in th e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e ,
a n d r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h t o g e t h e r e m p l o y e d c l o s e to t h r e e - t e n t h s of the
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , v a r i e d by on ly 1 c e n t , a m o u n t i n g to $ 1. 83 a n d
$ 1. 82 r e s p e c t i v e l y , bu t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v id u a l e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s d i f f e r e d
s u b s t a n t i a l l y . A fifth of the c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s c o n c e n t r a t e d a t o r
j u s t a b o v e $ 1 . 2 5 , a n d t w o - f i f t h s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r . A t the h i g h e r




18

p a y l e v e l s , t w o - f i f t h s e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 , a n d a n o t h e r fifth e a r n e d $ 2 . 50 a n h o u r
o r m o r e . In f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h e r e w a s no
s i g n i f i c a n t c l u s t e r i n g of e m p l o y m e n t a b o u t the $ 1. 25 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e , a n d
f e w e r t h a n a f o u r t h e a r n e d u n d e r $ 1. 50 a n h o u r ; on the o t h e r h a n d , f e w e r t h a n
a tenth re c e iv e d $ 2 .5 0 o r m o re .
T ra n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and public u tilities e m plo y ees a v e ra g e d
$ 2 . 0 3 a n h o u r . T h r e e - f o u r t h s of the e m p l o y e e s in t h i s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , w h i c h
a c c o u n t e d fo r a n e i g h t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , e a r n e d a t l e a s t
$ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r , o v e r t w o - f i f t h s a t l e a s t $ 2, a n d n e a r l y a f o u r t h $ 2 . 5 0 o r m o r e .
H ours
T h e c o m b i n e d w o r k w e e k s of a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s c a m e to a n a v e r ­
a g e of 38 h o u r s (tab le 11). D u r h a m w a s the o n ly a r e a a m o n g t h e e i g h t s t u d i e d
w i th an a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k of l e s s t h a n 40 h o u r s . A l th o u g h m o r e t h a n h a l f of th e
w o r k f o r c e w a s e m p l o y e d 40 h o u r s o r l o n g e r d u r i n g the s u r v e y w e e k , a s u b s t a n t i a l
s e g m e n t — c l o s e to t h r e e - t e n t h s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , l o w e r i n g the a v e r a g e
l e n g t h of the w o r k w e e k .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in m a n u f a c t u r i n g w a s 39 h o u r s . O n e t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , t h r e e - t e n t h s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r
w e e k , a n d a s ix t h w o r k e d a t l e a s t 48 h o u r s . N e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s of t h o s e w o r k i n g
l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s w e r e in the t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y , t r a c e a b l e to a l a r g e
g r o u p of c i g a r e t t e p l a n t e m p l o y e e s w ho w o r k e d 32 h o u r s d u r i n g th e s u r v e y w e e k .
T w o - f i f t h s of the e m p l o y e e s w o r k i n g 48 h o u r s o r m o r e w e r e in th e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of
38 h o u r s d u r i n g th e s u r v e y w e e k , th e s a m e a s th e a l l - e m p l o y e e a v e r a g e . T h e
w e e k l y h o u r s w e r e m o r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A f o u r t h of
th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , a fifth e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s (the m o s t
c o m m o n s i n g l e w o r k w e e k ) , a n d a l m o s t a fifth w o r k e d a t l e a s t 48 h o u r s . P a r t t i m e e m p l o y m e n t w a s p r e v a l e n t in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e t a i l t r a d e , a n d s e r v i c e
i n d u s t r i e s , w h i l e long w e e k s w e r e c o m m o n only in r e t a i l t r a d e a n d s e r v i c e s .
R e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s a l s o a v e r a g e d a 3 8 - h o u r w e e k . A b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s of
th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e e i t h e r w o r k i n g p a r t t i m e ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ) o r h a d long
w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) .
In c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h e r e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a n d f l u c t u a t i n g d e m a n d s
f o r l a b o r t e n d to i n f lu e n c e the l e n g t h of the w o r k w e e k m o r e so t h a n in m o s t
o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s c a m e to 35. C l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s of the
e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s . A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n , a fifth, of the
c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s , b u t th e p r o p o r t i o n w o r k i n g m o r e
th a n 48 h o u r s w a s l e s s t h a n a t e n th .
The a v e ra g e w o rk w eek am ong tra n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and public u tili­
t i e s e m p l o y e e s w a s 42 h o u r s . O v e r h a l f th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k ,
a n d f e w e r t h a n a t e n t h w o r k e d p a r t t i m e . A s e v e n t h w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e .
E m p l o y e e s in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e b u s i n e s s e s h a d a w o r k w e e k
of 37 h o u r s on the a v e r a g e . A b o u t h a l f w o r k e d b e t w e e n 35 a n d 38 h o u r s a n d
o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s l e s s t h a n 40 h o u r °




19

Wage C hanges
T h e w a g e l e v e l of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in D u r h a m r o s e 18 c e n t s a n h o u r
b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 a n d J u n e 1965. S e v e n c e n t s of t h i s r i s e o c c u r r e d d u r in g th e
1- y e a r p e r i o d fo llo w in g th e f i r s t s u r v e y , a n d 11 c e n t s o c c u r r e d o v e r the n e x t
3 y e a r s . The in c re a s e affected em plo y ees throughout the pay scale, although
the m a g n i t u d e of c h a n g e v a r i e d by i n d u s t r y d i v i s io n . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s
e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m m o r e t h a n a f o u r t h in 1961 to a
s ix t h in 1965 a lt h o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1 r e m a i n e d c l o s e to a te n th .
E a r n i n g s a l s o a d v a n c e d f o r e m p l o y e e s f u r t h e r up the p a y s c a l e . F o r e x a m p l e , the
p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m t h r e e - t e n t h s to t w o - f i f t h s .
Manufacturing______

All industries______
June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

Nonmanufacturing

June
1961

1962

June
1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $1 .0 0 ------------------Under $1.05 ------------------Under $1.15 ------------------Under $1 .2 0 ------------------Under $1.25 ------------------Under $ 1 . 3 0 ------------------Under $1 .5 0 ------------------Under $2. 00 -------------------

10
18
22
25
27
32
44
71

9
14
18
27
29
33
44
66

8
11
12
15
16
26
38
60

1
5
8
10
12
14
27
58

1
2
3
11
13
15
27
51

1
1
1
2
2
8
17
39

18
30
35
38
41
48
59
82

15
25
31
39
42
48
59
79

14
19
21
26
28
41
54
77

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)---------------

225

246

231

106

113

102

119

133

130

Average hourly earnings-- $1.65

$1. 72

$1. 83

$1. 85

$1. 93

$2.16

$ 1 .4 7

$1.53

$1.58

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n c r e a s e d 31 c e n t s a n
h o u r in 4 y e a r s . R a i s i n g the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e f o r m o s t m a n u f a c t u r i n g
e m p l o y e e s f r o m $ 1 to $ 1. 25 b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965, r a i s e d t h e e a r n i n g s of e m ­
p l o y e e s p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 to a t l e a s t t h a t l e v e l . H o w e v e r , e v e n in 1961 w h e n
th e l o w e r s t a n d a r d w a s in e ff e c t, o n ly a n e i g h t h of the e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n
$ 1. 25 a n h o u r . C h a n g e s h i g h e r in th e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n w e r e m o r e s i g n i f ­
i c a n t . E a r n i n g s of $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e w e r e r e c e i v e d by s l i g h t l y o v e r t w o - f i f t h s
of t h e e m p l o y e e s in 1961, bu t by 1965 the p r o p o r t i o n h a d r i s e n to t h r e e - f i f t h s .
E v e n m o r e p r o n o u n c e d w a s the c h a n g e in the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 ,
w h i c h r o s e f r o m a t w e lf th in 1961 to m o r e t h a n a f o u r t h in 1965. A p o r t i o n
of t h e s e c h a n g e s m a y be a t t r i b u t e d to two g e n e r a l w a g e i n c r e a s e s in the t o ­
b a c c o i n d u s t r y , on e of l l/z p e r c e n t in O c t o b e r 1961, a n d one of 8 V4 p e r c e n t in
N o v e m b e r 1964. 3
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e l e v e l of e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n ­
c r e a s e d 11 c e n t s a n h o u r s i n c e th e J u n e 1961 s u r v e y . I m p r o v e m e n t s o c c u r r e d
a t a l l p a y l e v e l s , b u t t h e y w e r e m o s t s t r i k i n g a t th e l o w e r i n t e r v a l s . A l t h o u g h
t h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e in the p r o p o r t i o n p a i d l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r , th e d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n $ 1 a n d $ 1. 25 c h a n g e d s h a r p l y . F o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 15 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m m o r e t h a n a t h i r d to a fifth , w h il e
th e p r o p o r t i o n p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 w e n t f r o m t w o - f i f t h s to a b o u t a f o u r t h . M o s t
of t h i s c h a n g e to o k p l a c e b e t w e e n J u n e 1962 a n d J u n e 1965, c o i n c i d i n g w ith th e
m i n i m u m w a g e m o v e m e n t f r o m $ 1— e f f e c t i v e a t th e t i m e of the 1961 s tu d y f o r
c e r t a i n n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s — to $ 1. 15 a n d $ 1. 25. F u r t h e r u p th e w a g e
s c a l e , the c h a n g e s w e r e l e s s p r o n o u n c e d . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 2 o r m o r e ,
f o r e x a m p l e , i n c r e a s e d f r o m n e a r l y a fifth to a b o u t a f o u r t h .
3 Current Wage Developm ents (BLS Report Nos. 168, Dec. 1, 1961; and 204, D ec. 1, 1964).




20

T h e l e v e l of e a r n i n g s in r e t a i l t r a d e f l u c t u a t e d b u t d id n o t c h a n g e s u b s t a n ­
t i a l l y o v e r 4 y e a r s — a 4 - c e n t d e c l i n e b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1962 w a s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y
o f f s e t b y a 3 - c e n t i n c r e a s e b e t w e e n 1962 a n d 1965. T h e r e w a s a d e c i d e d i m p r o v e ­
m e n t in e a r n i n g s a t th e l o w e r l e v e l s of th e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r w a s the s a m e in 1965 a s in 1961, but a g r a d u a l r i s e
in e a r n i n g s o c c u r r e d w ith i n th is g r o u p . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n
h o u r , 28 p e r c e n t in 1961, d e c r e a s e d to 21 p e r c e n t , a n d the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 15 d e c l i n e d f r o m 42 to 31 p e r c e n t . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , th e p r o p o r ­
t io n e a r n i n g $ 1 to $ 1. 05 a n h o u r d id not c h a n g e , bu t t h o s e r e c e i v i n g b e t w e e n
$ 1. 15 a n d $ 1 . 2 0 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m 3 to 12 p e r c e n t . T h e s e m o v e m e n t s
c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to th e i n f lu e n c e of c h a n g e s s i n c e 1961 in the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e w h i c h in 1964 s t i p u l a t e d a t l e a s t a $ 1 . 15 r a t e f o r m a n y n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
e m p l o y e e s in l a r g e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . (At the t i m e of th e 1965 s u r v e y , o n e t h i r d of th e r e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to F e d e r a l
m i n i m u m w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n . ) A t o t h e r l e v e l s of the e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n , a s
n o t e d in th e a c c o m p a n y i n g t a b l e , t h e r e w a s l it t l e c h a n g e .

Average hourly earnings

1961

Under $ 1 .0 0 -----------------------------Under $ 1 .0 5 ------------------------------------Under $ 1 .1 5 ------------------------------------Under $ 1 .2 0 ------------------------------------Under $1. 2 5 ------------------------------------Under $ 1 .3 0 ------------------------------------Under $ 1 .5 0 ----------------------------Under $2. 0 0 -----------------------------Number of em ployees (in hundreds) Average hourly earnings --------------- —

28
36
42
45
47
54
66
85
40
$1 .3 7

Retail trade
June
1962
1965
(Cumulative percent)
21
23
43
28
51
31
55
43
58
46
63
59
71
75
89
86
45
46
$1.33
$1.36

In t h r e e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s , the i n c r e a s e in e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s b e t w e e n 1961
a n d 1965 w a s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t f o r a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . T h e a d v a n c e
in th e f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e g r o u p w a s 25 c e n t s a n h o u r ; in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s , 24 c e n t s an h o u r ; a n d in c o n t r a c t
c o n s t r u c t i o n , 18 c e n t s . In a l l t h r e e , the g r e a t e s t c h a n g e o c c u r r e d a m o n g e m ­
p l o y e e s p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 an h o u r , the p r o p o r t i o n s of w h o m r a n g e d f r o m a
f o u r t h to t h r e e - t e n t h s in 1961, a n d d e c l i n e d to no g r e a t e r t h a n a t w e lf th in 1965.
Contract
construction
June
1962
1965
Average hourly earnings 1961
1
Under $1. 0 0 ----------------------l 1)
7
22
Under $1. 0 5 ----------------------10
28
Under $1. 1 5 ----------------------25
29
Under $ 1 . 2 0 ----------------------27
30
Under $1. 2 5 ----------------------37
42
Under $ 1 .3 0 ----------------------44
46
Under $ 1 .5 0 ----------------------73
69
Under $ 2 .0 0 ------------- -------Number of em ployees
25
25
(in hundreds)------------------Average hourly earnings------ $1. 65 $1. 71
1 Less than 0. 5 percent.




(*>
4
4
8
8
28
41
60
23
$1. 83

Transportation,
comm unication,
and public utilities
June
1962
1965
1961
(Cumulative percent)
1
2
6
1
3
8
4
14
3
5
19
18
20
5
25
10
25
32
24
39
36
64
59
67
12
$1. 79

14
$1.86

16
$2.03

Finance,
insurance, and
real estate
June
1962
1965
1961
4
9
15
22
28
36
52
82

1
7
11
19
22
29
48
76

2
2
2
3
3
8
23
69

12
$ 1 .5 7

15
$1.69

13
$1.82

21

A t o t h e r p o i n t s in th e w a g e s c a l e , the c h a n g e s w e r e m o r e v a r i e d . T h e p r o ­
p o r t i o n of f i n a n c e e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 an h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m
a b o u t a h a l f to a f o u r t h , w h il e t h o s e e a r n i n g $ 2 o r m o r e i n c r e a s e d f r o m a
s i x t h to t h r e e - t e n t h s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 d e ­
c r e a s e d f r o m n e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s to a f o u r t h , w h il e t h o s e w i th e a r n i n g s of $ 2 o r
m o r e r o s e f r o m a t h i r d to t w o - f i f t h s . T h e d e c l i n e f r o m 46 p e r c e n t to 41 p e r c e n t
in th e p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 w a s
r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , bu t th e p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 i n c r e a s e d f r o m a b o u t
a f o u r t h in 1961 to t w o - f i f t h s .

Lake Charles, La.

T h e L a k e C h a r l e s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , c o m p r i s i n g C a l c a s i e u P a r i s h , is s i t u ­
a t e d in s o u t h w e s t e r n L o u i s i a n a b o r d e r i n g on T e x a s , a n d in I9 6 0 c o n t a i n e d a
p o p u l a t i o n of 1 4 5 ,5 0 0 . A l t h o u g h l o c a t e d in l a n d , L a k e C h a r l e s , t h r o u g h th e u s e
of a d e e p w a t e r c h a n n e l to th e G u lf of M e x i c o , f u n c t io n s a s a s h i p p i n g c e n t e r
f o r th e r i c e , c o t to n , oil a n d p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s p r o d u c e d in th e a r e a . A b o u t
1 5 , 4 0 0 n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e w ith in s c o p e of t h e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y .
C l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s of t h e s e w e r e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . N e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s
of t h e e m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w e r e in r e t a i l t r a d e .
Earnings4
*
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d $ 2 . 2 2 an h o u r in J u n e 1965
a g r o u p , w e r e t h e h i g h e s t p a i d a m o n g t h e e ig h t a r e a s s t u d i e d ( t a b le 4).
e a r n i n g s , th e a m o u n t a b o v e an d b e l o w w h ic h h a l f th e e m p l o y e e s lie ,
$ 2 . 0 5 a n h o u r . A f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 1 . 3 0 o r l e s s an d
e a r n e d in e x c e s s of $ 3 . 3 3 an h o u r .

a n d , as
M edian
c a m e to
a fourth

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e c e i v e d an a v e r a g e of $2.93 an
h o u r , 71 c e n t s m o r e t h a n th e a l l - i n d u s t r y a v e r a g e . A ll b u t a s i x t h of t h e e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r an d n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s h a d e a r n i n g s of $ 3 o r
m o r e . T h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - p a y i n g p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g an d p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s
e m p l o y e d t h r e e - f o u r t h s of th e a r e a ’s m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e bu t l e s s t h a n
t h r e e - t e n t h s of t o t a l a r e a e m p l o y m e n t . Y et, e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e two i n d u s t r i e s
a c c o u n t e d f o r v i r t u a l l y a ll of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s an d c l o s e to t w o t h i r d s of t h o s e in the a r e a a s a w h o le who e a r n e d $ 2 . 5 0 an h o u r o r m o r e .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w a g e l e v e l in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,
$ 1 . 7 9~ w a s $ 1. 14 an h o u r l e s s t h a n th e a v e r a g e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , b u t o n ly
4 c e n t s b e l o w t h a t of t h e l e a d i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s t u d i e d . T h u s , th e w id e
s p r e a d in a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s b e t w e e n th e two g r o u p s of i n d u s t r i e s c a n be l a r g e l y
a t t r i b u t e d to a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h e a r n i n g s l e v e l in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A s ix t h of th e
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1 an h o u r . E a t i n g an d d r i n k i n g
p l a c e s , h o t e l s an d m o t e l s , and l a u n d r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r a n e i g h t h of th e n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , but f o r t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e at th is e a r n i n g s le v e l .
T h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an
h o u r an d h a l f r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 . On the o t h e r h a n d , n e a r l y a t h i r d of
th e e m p l o y e e s h a d e a r n i n g s of $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e .




22

R e t a i l t r a d e e a r n i n g s c a m e to $ 1 . 3 5 a n h o u r , 44 c e n t s b e l o w th e a v e r a g e
f o r a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . C l o s e to a f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d
l e s s t h a n $ 1 , h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 , an d t w o - t h i r d s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n
$ 1 .5 0 an hour. A lthough re ta il tr a d e accounted for slightly less than tw o-fifths
of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , it c o n t a i n e d m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s p a id l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r . A n e i g h t h of t h e
em plo y ees w e re c lu ste re d at o r n e a r the $ 1 .1 5 F e d e r a l m in im u m wage a p p li­
c a b l e d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y to m o s t e m p l o y e e s in l a r g e r e t a i l e n t e r p r i s e s . R e l a t i v e l y
few e m p l o y e e s , a n e i g h t h , e a r n e d a s m u c h a s $ 2 an h o u r .
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in th e f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y ,
an d in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , w h i c h t o g e t h e r e m p l o y e d 1 o u t of 7 n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
e m p l o y e e s , w e r e $ 1 . 5 7 an d $ 1 . 6 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n e i g h t h of the f i n a n c e e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an d a b o u t h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r .
A s i x t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 2 an h o u r o r m o r e . In w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , few
e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r , b u t n e a r l y a fifth w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d
at o r j u s t a b o v e th i s l e v e l . A f o u r t h of th e w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s w e r e e a r n i n g
at le a s t $2 an hour.
M o s t of th e h i g h e r p a i d n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e in th e c o n t r a c t
c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r i e s ,
w h e r e e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s r e a c h e d r e s p e c t i v e a v e r a g e s of $ 2 . 9 2 an d $ 2 0 35 a n
h o u r . T h e s e i n d u s t r i e s , a s a g r o u p , a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - t h i r d of t h e n o n m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s , b u t f o r t w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e e a r n i n g m o r e t h a n $ 2 a n h o u r .
N e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s of th e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t
$ 2 an h o u r an d c l o s e to h a l f e a r n e d $ 3 o r m o r e . T h e r e w a s a l a r g e r c o n c e n ­
t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s in l o w e r p a y i n t e r v a l s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . A b o u t a f o u r t h in t h i s s e c o n d g r o u p e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 , bu t
m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s r e c e i v e d at l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r an d t h r e e - t e n t h s e a r n e d a t
le a st $ 3 an hour.
Hours
D u r i n g t h e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y , th e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in L a k e C h a r l e s w a s
41 h o u r s ( t a b l e 12). T h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k , 40 h o u r s , e n g a g e d t w o - f i f t h s
of th e a r e a ' s n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s . O n ly a b o u t a s e v e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s
w e r e w o r k i n g p a r t t i m e ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k ) , w h il e a l a r g e r p o r t i o n ,
m o r e t h a n a fifth, h ad lon g w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . M a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of 42 h o u r s
a w e e k . O v e r h a l f of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s and a s i x t h w o r k e d
48 h o u r s o r m o r e Q O n ly 5 p e r c e n t of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d p a r t t i m e . T h e
d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e e k l y h o u r s in th e m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s , oil r e f i n i n g and p e t r o c h e m i c a l
p r o d u c t s , w a s s i m i l a r to th e a l l - i n d u s t r y s c a l e , e x c e p t t h a t 4 0 - h o u r w e e k s w e r e
m o r e p r e v a l e n t — t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s h a d s u c h h o u r s .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of
40 h o u r s d u r i n g the J u n e s u r v e y w e e k . In c o n t r a s t to m a n u f a c t u r i n g , th e d i s t r i ­
b u ti o n of w e e k l y h o u r s w a s m o r e e v e n l y s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c a l e . N e a r l y a
fifth of th e e m p l o y e e s , f o r e x a m p l e , w o r k e d p a r t t i m e an d m o r e t h a n a f o u r t h
h a d lon g w o r k w e e k s , w h ile o n ly a b o u t a t h i r d w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k .
T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e e k l y h o u r s in r e t a i l t r a d e , w h e r e t h e a v e r a g e w a s
a l s o 40 h o u r s , w a s s i m i l a r to t h a t f o r a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s e x c e p t
t h a t s l i g h t l y f e w e r , a f o u r t h , w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s an d s l i g h t l y m o r e , t h r e e t e n t h s , h a d lon g w o r k w e e k s .




23

C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s a w e e k , on th e a v e r a g e .
N e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k , a l ik e
p r o p o r t i o n w a s e m p l o y e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s , and a f o u r t h w o r k e d at l e a s t 48 h o u r s .
H o u r s of w o r k in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s v a r i e d w i d e l y b y i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y , b u t a v e r a g e d out to 39 h o u r s .
A b o u t a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d p a r t t i m e an d a s i x t h w o r k e d lon g h o u r s ,
b u t a w o r k w e e k of 40 h o u r s e n g a g e d h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s .
E m p l o y e e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e h a d a l o n g e r a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k , 44 h o u r s ,
t h a n t h o s e in th e o t h e r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s . W h ile t w o - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s , a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h p r o p o r t i o n , t h r e e - t e n t h s , w o r k e d
48 h o u r s o r m o r e , and o n ly a t w e l f t h w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s .
T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e w a s a l s o
40 h o u r s . T w o - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k , an d a b o u t a
fifth w e r e e m p l o y e d b e t w e e n 35 and 39 h o u r s . O n ly a t e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , b u t th is w a s a b o u t t w ic e the p r o p o r t i o n h a v in g a
lon g w o r k w e e k .
Wage Changes
E a r n i n g s of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s in L a k e C h a r l e s i n c r e a s e d 17 c e n t s
an h o u r b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 a n d J u n e 1965. T h e a d v a n c e in w a g e s , w h i c h w a s
e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t the p a y s c a l e , w a s g r e a t e r at c e r t a i n p a y l e v e l s t h a n at o t h e r s .
F o r exam ple, the p ro p o rtio n earn in g le ss than $ 1 .2 5 an hour declined fro m
27 p e r c e n t to 19 p e r c e n t , b u t the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r
d e c r e a s e d by o n ly 3 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s — f r o m 37 to 34 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r up th e
p a y s c a l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d o n ly s l i g h t l y ,
f r o m 49 to 51 p e r c e n t , w h il e th e i n c r e a s e in t h o s e r e c e i v i n g at l e a s t $ 3 an h o u r
w a s g r e a t e r , f r o m 23 to 31 p e r c e n t . T h e c h a n g e s in th e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n
w e r e m o r e e v i d e n t at th e l o w e r an d u p p e r p a y l e v e l s t h a n in th e m i d d l e r e a c h e s .
T h is p a t t e r n c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s in th e m o v e m e n t of e a r n i n g s in the
m a n u f a c t u r i n g an d n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y g r o u p s . W ith r e l a t i v e l y few e m ­
ployees earn in g less than $2 an hour, m a n u fa c tu rin g in c r e a s e s w e re n e c e s s a r ily
c o n fin e d to t h e u p p e r p a y l e v e l s , w h e r e a s , in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g l i t t l e o r no
change o c c u r r e d beyond the $ 1 .2 5 level.
All industries_____

_____ Manufacturing______

June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

Nonmanufacturing

June
1965

1961

1962

June
1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

12
18
23
25
27
30
37
51

9
13
16
22
23
27
34
47

10
12
14
17
19
25
34
49

(M
3
6
7
7
10
13
19

(1)
1
4
7
8
10
12
16

(1)
(1)
(!)
(!)
(!)
7
9
17

18
25
31
33
36
39
49
66

13
19
23
29
31
37
46
63

17
20
22
28
30
37
49
68

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-----------------

184

188

154

58

65

59

126

123

95

Average hourly earnings-- $2.05 $2. 15

$2. 22

$ 2 .6 7

$2. 69

$2. 93

$1. 77

$1. 87

$1. 79

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1 .0 0
$1.05
$1.15
$1 .2 0
$1.25
$1. 3 0
$1.50
$2. 0 0

1

Less than 0. 5 percent.




24

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . In 1965, e a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e 26 c e n t s
a n h o u r a b o v e th e 1961 l e v e l . A ll bu t 2 c e n t s of t h i s i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g
th e 3 y e a r s fo llo w in g t h e 1962 s tu d y . B e c a u s e of t h e d o m i n a n c e of h i g h - p a y i n g
i n d u s t r y in th e a r e a , c h a n g e s in t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e e x e r t e d l it t l e i n ­
f l u e n c e on t h e e a r n i n g s of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , of w h o m o n ly 7 p e r ­
c e n t e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in 1961. A t th e u p p e r p a y l e v e l s , h o w e v e r , s i g ­
n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s to o k p l a c e o v e r t h e 4 - y e a r p e r i o d . T w o - t h i r d s of the e m p l o y e e s
w e r e e a r n i n g $ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r o r m o r e in 1961, bu t b y 1965 th e p r o p o r t i o n h a d
g r o w n to t h r e e - f o u r t h s . S i m i l a r l y , th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 3 a n h o u r e x ­
p a n d e d f r o m f e w e r t h a n h a l f in 1961 to n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s by 1965.
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . C h a n g e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s v a r i e d w i d e l y by
i n d u s t r y , t h o u g h t h e o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965 w a s o n ly 2 c e n t s
a n h o u r . L o w e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s b e n e f i t e d m o r e t h a n t h o s e at t h e m i d d l e an d
u p p e r l e v e l s of t h e e a r n i n g s d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n
$ 1 . 1 5 an d $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r d e c r e a s e d by 9 an d 6 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s d u r i n g th e
4 - y e a r p e r i o d , b u t t h e r e w a s l it t l e o r no c h a n g e e l s e w h e r e in th e e a r n i n g s d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n s i n c e 1961.
R e t a i l t r a d e e a r n i n g s r o s e 7 c e n t s s i n c e 1961, p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t i n g i n ­
c r e a s e d e a r n i n g s of e m p l o y e e s at th e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e b e l o w
th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e e s t a b l i s h e d in S e p t e m b e r 1961 f o r e m p l o y e e s of m o s t
l a r g e r e t a i l e n t e r p r i s e s . In J u n e 1961, p r i o r to the e f f e c t i v e d a t e of t h e m i n i ­
m u m w a g e , a b o u t a t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 an h o u r and o v e r
h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 . By J u n e 1962, w h e n a $1 m i n i m u m w a g e w a s
a p p l i c a b l e f o r a b o u t h a l f of t h e L a k e C h a r l e s r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s
e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $1 a n d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 d e c l i n e d to a f o u r t h and t w o - f i f t h s ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y . In J u n e 1965, th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $1 w a s t h e s a m e ,
b u t o n ly a t h i r d h a d e a r n i n g s b e l o w $ 1 . 1 5 , t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e t h e n
a p p l i c a b l e in l a r g e r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n s . A s a r e s u l t of t h e s e c h a n g e s , the p r o ­
p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r r o s e f r o m l e s s t h a n h a l f
in 1961 to m o r e t h a n t w o - t h i r d s in 1965. T h e e l e v a t i o n of e a r n i n g s at t h e l o w e r
p a y i n t e r v a l s r e a c h e d th e $ 1 . 2 5 p o in t b e f o r e l e v e l i n g ( $ 1 . 2 5 w a s to b e c o m e th e
F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e f o r c o v e r e d e m p l o y e e s in S e p t e m b e r 1965, 3 m o n t h s
a f t e r th e s u r v e y p e r i o d ) . W a g e c h a n g e s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a t o t h e r p o i n t s
alo n g t h e w a g e s c a l e .
Retail trade
June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $1 .0 0 -------------------------------------Under $1.05 --------------------------------------Under $1.15 --------------------------------------Under $1 .2 0 -------------------------------------Under $1.25 --------------------------------------Under $1.30 -------------------------------------Under $1 .5 0 -------------------------------------Under $2. 0 0 ------------- ------------------------

34
47
55
57
60
62
73
86

23
34
42
45
46
52
62
80

23
29
32
44
48
55
68
88

Number of em ployees (in hundreds)----

50

43

37

Average hourly earnings----------------------

$1.28

$1 .5 0

$1. 35

T h e w a g e l e v e l a d v a n c e d 23 c e n t s an h o u r in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n an d
30 c e n t s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . B e c a u s e of
g e n e r a l l y h ig h w a g e s p r e v a i l i n g in t h e s e i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , m o s t of the c h a n g e
a f f e c t e d e m p l o y e e s at t h e u p p e r l e v e l s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n . In c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c ­
tio n t h e r e w a s h a r d l y a n y c h a n g e in th e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 3 an




25

h o u r , f o r e x a m p l e . A l th o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m
18 to 5 p e r c e n t , the s h a r p e s t c h a n g e o c c u r r e d in the p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g at
l e a s t $ 3 an h o u r , w h i c h r o s e f r o m 7 to 29 p e r c e n t .
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e e a r n i n g s r o s e 17 c e n t s b e t w e e n 1961 an d 1965. T he s h a r p ­
e s t c h a n g e o v e r the 4 y e a r s w a s a m o n g e m p l o y e e s at the l o w e r p a y l e v e l s ,
a l t h o u g h h i g h e r p a i d e m p l o y e e s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e . In 1961, 36 p e r ­
c e n t of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r ; b y 1965, the p r o p o r t i o n
w a s on ly 3 p e r c e n t . At t h e s a m e t i m e , the p r o p o r t i o n in th e $ 1 . 25 to $ 1 . 30 w a g e
i n t e r v a l i n c r e a s e d f r o m 6 to 19 p e r c e n t . M o s t w h o l e s a l e t r a d e e m p l o y e e s a r e
in f i r m s s u b j e c t to p r o v i s i o n s of the F L S A . F u r t h e r up the w a g e s c a l e , the
p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e a d v a n c e d f r o m 14 to 24 p e r c e n t .
Contract
construction

W holesale
________ trade_______

Finance,
insurance, and
real estate

June
Average hourly earnings

Transportation,
com m unication,
and public utilities
June

June

June

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

7
11
15
20
21
25
43
79

5
5
9
12
13
24
52
84

8

7

(Cum ulative percent)
Under $ 1 .0 0 ---------------------Under $1. 0 5 ---------------------Under $1. 1 5 ---------------------Under $ 1 .2 0 ---------------------Under $ 1 .2 5 ---------------------Under $ 1 .3 0 ---------------------Under $ 1 .5 0 ---------------------Under $2. 0 0 ---------------------Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-------------------

3
4
6
10
26

(1)
2
2
7
8
13
17
28

3
3
3
3
4
7
11
26

3
12
14
17
18
24
30
48

1
3
4
11
12
18
30
48

2
3
3
4
5
10
23
37

1
11
29
32
36
42
62
86

1
4
4
23
34
43
57
79

3
3
22
41
76

4
7
14
19
20
26
47
79

27

26

15

19

21

15

9

10

6

9

(1)
1
1

( 1)

(9
(9

Average hourly earnings---- $2.69 $2. 64 $2.92 $2.05 $2. 11 $2.35 $1.50 $1.60 $1.67 $1.62 $1.62 $1.57
1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Lexington, Ky.

L e x i n g t o n is l o c a t e d in th e c e n t e r of the b lu e g r a s s r e g i o n of e a s t c e n t r a l
K e n t u c k y , a n a r e a n o t e d fo r t h o r o u g h b r e d h o r s e s a n d b u r l e y t o b a c c o . L e x i n g t o n
is a m a j o r l e a f t o b a c c o m a r k e t , a n d i s th e s i t e of th e U n i v e r s i t y of K e n t u c k y ,
a l s o an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of th e a r e a ’s e c o n o m y . In I9 6 0 , the L e x i n g t o n m e t r o ­
p o l i t a n a r e a , w h ic h i n c l u d e s F a y e t t e C o u n ty , h a d 1 3 1 ,9 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s .
Earnings
A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s of th e 28, 800 e m p l o y e e s w i th i n s c o p e of the J u n e 1965 s u r ­
v e y w e r e $ 2 an h o u r , s e c o n d h i g h e s t a m o n g the e i g h t s o u t h e r n m e t r o p o l i t a n
a r e a s s u r v e y e d (tab le 5). E a r n i n g s f o r th e m i d d l e h a l f of th e w o r k f o r c e r a n g e d
f r o m $ 1 . 3 4 to $ 2 . 5 4 a n h o u r . M e d i a n e a r n i n g s c a m e to $ 1 . 8 3 an h o u r .



26

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . O n e - t h i r d of the a r e a w o r k f o r c e w a s e m p l o y e d in m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s of $ 2 . 3 5 w e r e 35 c e n t s a n h o u r
h i g h e r t h a n th e a l l - i n d u s t r y a v e r a g e . A f o u r t h of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
e a r n e d $ 3 an h o u r o r m o r e , a n d m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t $ 2 a n
h o u r . R e l a t i v e l y few e m p l o y e e s , a n e ig h th , r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r ,
n e a r l y h a l f of t h e s e c l u s t e r e d a t th e $ 1. 25 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e . T h e n o n ­
e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d f e w e r t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , b u t a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g $ 2 . 50 a n
h o u r o r m o r e . A f o u r t h of the e m p l o y e e s w e r e in th e e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y a n d
food p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e a b o u t 10 c e n t s a n h o u r
l e s s t h a n the a l l - i n d u s t r y a v e r a g e . H o w e v e r , e a r n i n g s of a t l e a s t $ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r
w e r e r e c e i v e d by a fifth of th e e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y a n d t w o - f i f t h s of th e fo o d
p r o d u c t s e m p l o y e e s . T h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n
$ 1. 50 an h o u r w a s in th e a p p a r e l i n d u s t r y , w h e r e a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s h a d s u c h
e a r n i n g s . T h e t o b a c c o s t e m m i n g a n d r e d r y i n g i n d u s t r y , w h ic h d u r i n g the p e a k
w i n t e r m o n t h s e m p l o y s a s m u c h a s a s ix t h of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e ,
w a s r e p r e s e n t e d in the s tu d y on ly by th e s k e l e t a l f o r c e of y e a r - r o u n d e m p l o y e e s
w o r k i n g at th e t i m e of the s u r v e y .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,
w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r t w o - t h i r d s of th e a r e a e m p l o y m e n t w i th i n the s c o p e of the
s tu d y , w e r e $ 1 . 8 3 , h i g h e r t h a n in a n y o t h e r a r e a . Y et, t h i s l e v e l w a s 52 c e n t s
l e s s t h a n the a v e r a g e f o r L e x i n g t o n ' s m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e . D i f f e r e n c e s in
e a r n i n g s of th e two i n d u s t r y g r o u p s w e r e e v i d e n t a t b o th th e l o w e r a n d u p p e r
l e v e l s of the w a g e s c a l e . M o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r a n d a b o u t h a l f of t h e s e r e c e i v e d l e s s
t h a n $ 1. 25 a n h o u r . A b o u t 12 p e r c e n t of th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n
h o u r , s e v e n - t e n t h s of w h o m w e r e in e a t i n g a n d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s a n d m o t e l s ,
l a u n d r i e s , a n d m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . M o r e o v e r , the p r o ­
p o r t i o n of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 2 an h o u r o r m o r e , a t h i r d ,
w a s o n ly a b o u t h a l f t h a t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
C l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s of the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e in r e t a i l t r a d e ,
w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 1 . 5 9 a n h o u r . N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of th e r e t a i l
e m p l o y e e s , h o w e v e r , e a r n e d l e s s t h a n the a v e r a g e ; a t h i r d h a d e a r n i n g s of l e s s
t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r , an d a s e v e n t h r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r . At th e t i m e
of t h e s u r v e y , a F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e of $ 1 . 15 c o v e r e d a b o u t a t h i r d of th e
a r e a r e t a i l t r a d e w o r k f o r c e , m o s t l y t h o s e in l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s ; $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r
w a s to b e c o m e the m i n i m u m in S e p t e m b e r 1965. R e l a t i v e l y few e m p l o y e e s ,
h o w e v e r , w e r e c l u s t e r e d n e a r t h e s e l e v e l s . A fifth of the e m p l o y e e s in e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to m i n i m u m w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n h a d s u c h e a r n i n g s , 9 p e r c e n t a t
$ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 a n d 10 p e r c e n t a t $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 , an d a b o u t h a l f t h a t p r o p o r t i o n
in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s g e n e r a l l y n o t s u b j e c t w e r e in t h e tw o i n t e r v a l s , 3 p e r c e n t a n d
8 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . E a r n i n g s of $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e w e r e r e c e i v e d by a b o u t
a fifth of the r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s .
A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r in th e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
and tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and public utilities in d u s trie s, w hich to g eth er
a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t a f o u r t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t . In c o n t r a c t
c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 2 . 65 an h o u r , m o r e t h a n t w o - t h i r d s
of th e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r , a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t h i r d e a r n e d
$ 3 a n h o u r o r m o r e . A b o u t the s a m e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , c l o s e to t h r e e - f i f t h s , w e r e e a r n i n g $ 2 a n
h o u r o r m o r e . A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r the i n d u s t r y ( $ 2 . 3 4 ) , h o w e v e r , w e r e
s o m e w h a t l e s s t h a n in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n b e c a u s e of a l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of
e m p l o y e e s at th e l o w e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l — a f o u r t h r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 50 a n h o u r .




27

Hours
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a n a v e r a g e of 41 h o u r s d u r i n g the J u n e
1965 s u r v e y w e e k (tab le 13). T h e m o s t c o m m o n p e r i o d of e m p l o y m e n t , h o w e v e r ,
w a s e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s , e n g a g in g m o r e t h a n a f o u r t h of the e m p l o y e e s . A n o t h e r
f o u r t h h a d a w o r k w e e k of 48 h o u r s o r l o n g e r , a n d a s ix t h w e r e p a r t - t i m e e m ­
p l o y e e s ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w e e k ) .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , 43 h o u r s ,
w a s 2 h o u r s l o n g e r t h a n th e a v e r a g e f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s . O v e r a t h i r d of th e e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e w o r k i n g 40 h o u r s , the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k , a n d a n o t h e r t h i r d
w o r k e d at l e a s t 48 h o u r s . F e w e r t h a n a t e n t h of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s . T w o - t h i r d s of th e e m p l o y e e s in the e l e c t r i c a l m a ­
c h i n e r y i n d u s t r y w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k , w h il e the p r o p o r t i o n s in o t h e r m a j o r
m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s h a v in g a w e e k of t h i s d u r a t i o n w e r e s m a l l e r , r a n g i n g
f r o m a f o u r t h to t w o - f i f t h s . O v e r h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s in the n o n e l e c t r i c a l
m a c h i n e r y i n d u s t r y w o r k e d at l e a s t 48 h o u r s d u r i n g the s u r v e y w e e k , a n d t w o fifth s of the food p r o d u c t s e m p l o y e e s h a d s u c h h o u r s .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , i n d i v i d u a l w o r k w e e k s
a v e r a g e d 39 h o u r s a n d w e r e m o r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r th e h o u r s s c a l e t h a n
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s w o r k i n g l e s s t h a n 35, e x a c t l y 40, a n d 4 8 h o u r s
o r m o r e w e r e r o u g h l y a fifth e a c h .
R e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a s l i g h t l y l o n g e r w e e k on the a v e r a g e ,
40 h o u r s , b u t th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u r s w o r k e d w a s s i m i l a r to t h a t f o r a l l n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . T h e w o r k w e e k of c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s
a v e r a g e d 37 h o u r s . T h e i n c i d e n c e of p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t , a c c o u n t i n g f o r
t h r e e - t e n t h s of the w o r k f o r c e , w a s g r e a t e r t h a n in m o s t of the o t h e r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p s . A s l i g h t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n , a t h i r d , w a s w o r k i n g e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s ,
a n d on ly a s e v e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s h a d long w o r k w e e k s .
E m p l o y e e s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , w o r k e d
an a v e r a g e of 2 h o u r s m o r e a w e e k t h a n t h o s e in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e
p r o p o r t i o n w o r k i n g 40 h o u r s , n e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s , w a s n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r
t h a n in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , bu t o n ly a fifth w o r k e d p a r t t i m e a n d s l i g h t l y m o r e ,
a s ix t h , h a d long w o r k w e e k s .
Wage Changes
T h e a r e a p ay l e v e l a d v a n c e d 3 c e n t s a n h o u r b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 a n d J u n e
1962, a n d 20 c e n t s b e t w e e n th e l a t t e r p e r i o d a n d J u n e 1965, a t o t a l of 23 c e n t s
in 4 y e a r s . T h e c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s a t the h i g h e r p a y l e v e l s
w e r e n e a r l y a s g r e a t a s f o r t h o s e a t th e l o w e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l s . F o r e x a m p l e ,
the p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 d e c r e a s e d f r o m 29 p e r c e n t
in 1961 to 15 p e r c e n t 4 y e a r s l a t e r , w h il e d u r i n g th e s a m e p e r i o d t h e p r o p o r ­
tio n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e r o s e f r o m 33 to 43 p e r c e n t . T h e a r e a - w i d e
p a y l e v e l i n c r e a s e d 3 c e n t s a n h o u r m o r e t h a n t h a t in e i t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h i s o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e r e s u l t e d b e c a u s e of a 3 9 - p e r c e n t e m ­
p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in th e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - p a y i n g m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h i l e
the s i z e of the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e w a s a b o u t the s a m e a f t e r 4 y e a r s .




28

All industries
1961

Nonmanufacturing

June
Average hourly earnings

Manufacturing
June

______June________

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 . 0 0 ------------------$1.05 ------------------$1.15 ------------------$1.20 ------------------$1.25 ------------------$ 1 . 3 0 ------------------$1. 5 0 ------------------$2. 0 0 -------------------

12
19
23
26
29
35
43
67

10
18
21
26
28
34
43
65

Number o f em ployees
(in hundreds) -----------------

249

Average hourly earnings — $1. 77

8
11
14
15
23
33
57

(1)
2
5
7
9
12
18
46

(1)
1
1
6
8
11
19
44

(1)
(1)
(1)
1
1
6
13
37

16
25
30
34
36
44
53
75

15
25
29
34
37
44
53
74

12
16
18
21
22
32
44
66

261

288

70

77

97

181

184

191

$1. 80

$2. 00

$2. 15

$ 2 .1 7

$2.35

$1.63

$1.64

$1.83

12

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s h a d a n a v e r a g e i n ­
c r e a s e of 20 c e n t s a n h o u r o v e r t h e i r 1961 l e v e l . B e c a u s e of a g e n e r a l l y h ig h
w a g e l e v e l in th e a r e a , r e l a t i v e l y few e m p l o y e e s w e r e a f f e c t e d by c h a n g e s in
th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e , w h ic h r o s e f r o m $ 1 to $ 1. 25 b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 a n d
J u n e 1965. H o w e v e r , the p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in
1961, 9 p e r c e n t , w e r e a ll e a r n i n g a t l e a s t t h i s m u c h by 1965. I n c r e a s e s f u r t h e r
u p th e w a g e s c a l e w e r e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . In 1961, s o m e w h a t m o r e t h a n h a l f of th e
e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e ; by 1965, o v e r t h r e e - f i f t h s h a d s u c h
e a r n i n g s . A t the s a m e t i m e , th e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 3 a n h o u r
o r m o r e m o v e d f r o m a n in t h to n e a r l y a f o u r t h .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,
l i k e w i s e , w e r e 20 c e n t s a n h o u r h i g h e r in J u n e 1965 t h a n in J u n e 1961. C o m ­
p a r e d w ith th e c h a n g e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , t h o s e in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w e r e l a r g e l y
c o n c e n t r a t e d a t the l o w e r w a g e l e v e l s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 15 a n
h o u r d e c r e a s e d f r o m t h r e e - t e n t h s in 1961 to a s i x t h in 1965, f o r e x a m p l e , w h il e
th e i n c r e a s e in the p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g $ 2 o r m o r e , f r o m a f o u r t h to a t h i r d ,
w a s not a s g r e a t .
E a r n i n g s of e m p l o y e e s in r e t a i l t r a d e r o s e 13 c e n t s a n h o u r in 4 y e a r s ,
7 c e n t s l e s s t h a n the a l l - n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g a d v a n c e . M o s t of the i m p r o v e m e n t
a f f e c t e d e m p l o y e e s a t th e l o w e r w a g e l e v e l s , bu t m o d e s t g a i n s a l s o o c c u r r e d a t
the h i g h e r l e v e l s . A t the t i m e of the 1961 s u r v e y , a f o u r t h of the r e t a i l e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r a n d h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25. F o u r
y e a r s l a t e r , the p r o p o r t i o n s b e l o w t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e l e v e l s h a d d e c l i n e d to a
s e v e n t h a n d a t h i r d . M u c h of t h i s c h a n g e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to the i n f l u e n c e of
the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e s t a n d a r d , w h ic h in J u n e 1965 a p p l i e d to a b o u t a t h i r d
of the a r e a ’s r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s , m o s t l y in l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s . T h e i m p l e m e n t a ­
tio n of th e m i n i m u m s ($ 1 in S e p t e m b e r 1961 a n d $ 1 . 15 in S e p t e m b e r 1964),
h o w e v e r , d id not r e s u l t in m a r k e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of e m p l o y m e n t a t t h e s e l e v e l s ,
e x c e p t in J u n e 1962 w h e n th e p r o p o r t i o n a t $ 1 w a s d o u b le the J u n e 1961 p e r c e n t .
A t th e h i g h e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l s , the p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 a n
h o u r a d v a n c e d f r o m a s i x t h to m o r e t h a n a fifth.



29

Retail trade
June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $ 1 . 0 0 --------------Under $1. 05 --------------Under $1.15 --------------Under $1. 20 ------------- Under $ 1 . 2 5 --------------Under $1. 3 0 --------------Under $1.50 --------------Under $2. 0 0 ---------------

25
36
43
47
50
57
67
83

16
37
44
48
52
59
70
85

14
21
24
29
3?
40
55
78

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-------------

67

72

71

Average hourly earnings

$1.46

$1.41

$1 .5 9

W a g e i n c r e a s e s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s , w e r e 63 a n d 49 c e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y
to the r i s e in o v e r a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s s i n c e 1961. In 4 y e a r s , th e
p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ L 50 a n h o u r
d e c r e a s e d f r o m n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s to o n e - t e n t h ; the p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g $ 2 a n
h o u r o r m o r e r o s e f r o m l e s s t h a n h a l f to n e a r l y s e v e n - t e n t h s ; an d the p r o p o r ­
tio n e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 3 a d v a n c e d f r o m a t e n t h to a b o u t a t h i r d . C h a n g e s in the
d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s
i n d u s t r i e s , in c o n t r a s t to c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a f f e c t e d e m p l o y e e s a t a l l l e v e l s
of the p a y s c a l e . C l o s e to a fifth of the e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25 a n
h o u r in 1961; 4 y e a r s l a t e r th e p r o p o r t i o n w a s o n ly a t w e n t i e t h . D u r i n g the
s a m e p e r i o d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t a t o r j u s t a b o v e $ 1. 25 i n c r e a s e d
f r o m 6 to 13 p e r c e n t . T h e c h a n g e s t h a t t o o k p l a c e f u r t h e r up th e w a g e s c a l e
w e r e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . E a r n i n g s of $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e w e r e r e c e i v e d by
a b o u t a t h i r d of the e m p l o y e e s in 1961, bu t by n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e in
1965. S i m i l a r l y , w h il e v i r t u a l l y no e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s e a r n e d a s
m u c h a s $ 3 a n h o u r in 1961, a l m o s t a f o u r t h h a d s u c h e a r n i n g s 4 y e a r s l a t e r .
Transportation,
Contract
com m unication,
_________ construction_________ __________ and public utilities_______
_____________ June_____________ __________________June______________
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
(l)
9
10
10
11
22
29
56

1
5
7
9
9
16
24
51

(1)
(1)
(b
(1)
(1)
7
10
31

2
12
15
17
19
25
33
65

2
2
3
14
18
21
27
55

(1)
1
3
4
5
18
25
42

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-------------------------

30

31

35

21

19

15

Average hourly earnings---------- -

$2.02

$2. 13

$2.65

$1. 85

$1. 96

$2. 34

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1 .0 0 --------------------------$1.05 --------------------------$1.15 --------------------------$ 1 . 2 0 -------------------------$1.25 --------------------------$1. 30 --------------------------$1. 50 --------------------------$2. 00 ---------------------------

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.




30

Monroe, La.

T h e M o n r o e , L o u i s i a n a , m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , c o n s i s t i n g of O u a c h i t a P a r i s h ,
is l o c a t e d in t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t of t h e S t a t e , a n d h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 1 0 1 ,7 0 0
in I9 6 0 . M o n r o e b o r d e r s on one of th e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t n a t u r a l g a s f i e l d s a n d
is th e hub of c o n v e r g e n t p i p e l i n e s . L a r g e r e s e r v e s of t i m b e r in th e r e g i o n
a r o u n d M o n r o e p r o v i d e r a w m a t e r i a l f o r th e i m p o r t a n t p a p e r a n d l u m b e r i n d u s ­
t r i e s in t h e a r e a . Of 1 4 , 4 0 0 e m p l o y e e s i n c l u d e d in t h e J u n e 1965 s tu d y , a b o u t
o n e - t h i r d w e r e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . R e t a i l t r a d e w a s th e l a r g e s t n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t y , a c c o u n t i n g f o r a l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s of t h i s s e g m e n t of the
area* s w o rk fo rce.
E arnings
N o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w i th i n t h e s c o p e of t h e s u r v e y e a r n e d an a v e r a g e
of $ 1 . 7 6 an h o u r a t s t r a i g h t - t i m e r a t e s (tab le 6). E a r n i n g s of t h e m i d d l e h a l f
of th e w o r k f o r c e e x t e n d e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 6 a n d $ 2 . 2 9 a n h o u r , a r a n g e of $ 1 . 0 3
a n h o u r . M e d i a n e a r n i n g s , $ 1 . 5 5 a n h o u r , w e r e 21 c e n t s b e l o w t h e m e a n .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . In m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e $ 2 . 1 6 , 40 c e n t s a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e f o r a l l e m ­
p l o y e e s s t u d i e d . A bo ut a t e n t h of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n
$ 1 . 3 0 an h o u r b u t t h r e e - f i f t h s e a r n e d a t l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r , a n d n e a r l y a t h i r d
received $ 2 .5 0 an hour o r m o re .
T h e p a p e r , p a p e r b o a r d , and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s ,
a n d t h e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s , w h ic h t o g e t h e r e m p l o y e d t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e a r e a ' s
m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , h a d a m a r k e d i n f l u e n c e on the l e v e l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n
of e a r n i n g s . R o u g h ly n i n e - t e n t h s of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 2 an
h o u r o r m o r e w e r e in t h e s e two i n d u s t r i e s . T h e food p r o d u c t s a n d l u m b e r a n d
w o o d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r a fifth of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s ,
b u t f o r o v e r h a l f of t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 50 an h o u r , a n d f o r m o r e t h a n
t w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e p a i d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 30.
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y ­
e e s a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 5 7 an h o u r , 59 c e n t s l e s s t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e i r l o w e r
l e v e l of p a y is a r e f l e c t i o n of the w a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n . A fifth of the e m p l o y e e s
e a rn e d le s s than $ 1 an h o u r, th r e e - te n th s le ss than $ 1 .2 5 , and n e a rly t h r e e fifth s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 50. A s e v e n t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d
in the $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 w a g e i n t e r v a l . M o s t of th e e m p l o y e e s p a i d l e s s t h a n
$ 1 an h o u r w e r e in e a t i n g a n d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s an d th e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s ( p a r ­
tic u la rly hotels and m o te ls , la u n d rie s and dry cleaning esta b lish m e n ts, and m e d ic a l
s e r v i c e s ) . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e s e g r o u p s a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i x t h of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
e m p l o y m e n t b u t f o r t w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e at t h i s e a r n i n g s l e v e l .
R e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s a v e r a g e d $ 1 . 3 5 a n h o u r . T h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r a n d h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1. 25, a c c o u n t i n g
f o r a b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s at t h e s e l e v e l s . O n ly
a n e ig h th of t h e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d a s m u c h a s $ 2 a n h o u r . A b o u t a s ix t h
of the e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d a t o r j u s t a b o v e e i t h e r $ 1 . 15 o r $ 1 . 25 a n h o u r .
(A t h i r d of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e in r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to t h e $ 1 . 15 m i n ­
i m u m a p p l i c a b l e in J u n e 1965, w h i c h 3 m o n t h s fo llo w in g th e s u r v e y r o s e to $ 1 . 25.)
H o u r l y e a r n i n g s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y a s e v e n t h
of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , w e r e h i g h e r t h a n in r e t a i l t r a d e a n d a v e r a g e d
$ 1 . 5 1 an h o u r . R e l a t i v e l y few of the w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n the
$ 1 . 2 5 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e ; h o w e v e r , t h r e e - t e n t h s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d at o r
j u s t a b o v e t h a t p o in t . M o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n
$ 1 . 5 0 , a n d a ll b u t an e i g h t h e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 2 an h o u r .




31

A b o u t 1 ou t of 4 n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w a s e m p l o y e d e i t h e r in the
c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s i n ­
d u s t r i e s , w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 2 . 14 a n d $ 2 . 19 a n h o u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
R o u g h ly h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s in e a c h i n d u s t r y e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r — t h e s e
c o n s t i t u t e d h a l f the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e w ith s u c h e a r n i n g s — a n d in e a c h
a fifth r e c e i v e d $ 3 o r m o r e . T h e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y d id , h o w e v e r ,
h a v e a s i z a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s , a fifth, in th e $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 w a g e
i n t e r v a l , a b o u t d o u b l e the p r o p o r t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s a t th is l e v e l .
Hours
T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w a s 42 h o u r s (tab le 14).
C l o s e to t h r e e - t e n t h s of the a r e a ' s e m p l o y e e s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k , th e m o s t
c o m m o n s i n g l e w o r k w e e k d u r i n g th e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y p e r i o d . A lik e p r o p o r t i o n
w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . P a r t - t i m e w o r k ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ) c o m p r i s e d on ly
a b o u t a n e i g h t h of the e m p l o y e e s .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , 44 h o u r s ,
w a s l o n g e r t h a n t h a t f o r th e a r e a a s a w h o le . M o r e t h a n a t h i r d of th e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d 40 h o u r s (m a k in g t h i s the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k ) a n d a n o t h e r t h i r d
w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . L o n g w o r k w e e k s p r e v a i l e d in t h e p a p e r a n d a l l i e d
p r o d u c t s a n d fo o d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s e m p l o y e d h a l f
th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , but a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e t h a n s e v e n - t e n t h s of t h o s e
w o r k i n g 4 8 h o u r s o r m o r e a w e e k . A t the o t h e r e n d of th e s c a l e of w e e k l y
h o u r s , the l u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y a c c o u n t e d f o r on ly a t e n t h of the
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , b u t f o r n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e g r o u p w o r k i n g p a r t
t i m e . A w e e k of 40 h o u r s w a s a l s o c o m m o n in the l u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c t s
i n d u s t r y , w h ic h a lo n g w ith the c h e m i c a l a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d
t w o - f i f t h s of the e m p l o y e e s w ith s u c h h o u r s , a l t h o u g h o n ly a b o u t a t h i r d of th e
m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e w e r e in t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
c a m e to 42 h o u r s , 2 h o u r s l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . W e e k l y
h o u r s w e r e s o m e w h a t m o r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the h o u r s s c a l e in n o n m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k w a s 40 h o u r s ,
a p p ly i n g to a b o u t a f o u r t h of the e m p l o y e e s , an d the s a m e p r o p o r t i o n w o r k e d
48 h o u r s o r m o r e . P a r t - t i m e w o r k w a s m o r e p r e v a l e n t in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h a n
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , o c c u p y in g n e a r l y a s i x t h of the e m p l o y e e s .
R e t a i l t r a d e e m p l o y e e s h a d a n a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k of 41 h o u r s a t the t i m e
of th e s u r v e y . A fifth of the e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , w h il e a
l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n , t h r e e - t e n t h s , w o r k e d a t l e a s t 48 h o u r s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n
w o r k w e e k w a s 48 h o u r s , e n g a g in g 18 p e r c e n t of the e m p l o y e e s , .1 p e r c e n t a g e
p o in t m o r e t h a n t h e p r o p o r t i o n on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k .
E m p l o y e e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e w o r k e d 46 h o u r s , w h i c h w a s l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e
in a n y o t h e r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . A l m o s t t w o - f i f t h s of the w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . T h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k w a s 44 h o u r s , e n g a g in g
a n e i g h t h of the w o r k f o r c e , w h il e o n ly a fifth w o r k e d 40 h o u r s o r l e s s .



32

A v e r a g e w o r k w e e k s w e r e 40 h o u r s in th e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d th e
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r i e s . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s
of w e e k l y h o u r s in the two g r o u p s w e r e a l s o s i m i l a r , v a r y i n g on ly in d e g r e e .
P a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t d id n o t e n g a g e m o r e t h a n a s e v e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s in
e i t h e r i n d u s t r y , a n d long w o r k w e e k s o c c u p i e d f e w e r t h a n a s i x t h of the e m p l o y ­
e e s . N e a r l y h a l f of t h e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s an d o v e r t w o - t h i r d s of
the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s w e r e w o r k i n g
a 40-hour week.
Wage Changes
B e t w e e n J u n e 1961 an d J u n e 1965, the l e v e l of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e a r n i n g s
r o s e 13 c e n t s a n h o u r . E m p l o y e e s a t th e l o w e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l s a c c o u n t e d f o r
a l a r g e r s h a r e of th e i n c r e a s e t h a n t h o s e at the u p p e r l e v e l s . F o r e x a m p l e , the
p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r d e c r e a s e d f r o m 36 to
22 p e r c e n t , w h il e t h e r e w a s a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e in t h o s e e a r n i n g
$ 2 an h o u r o r m o r e , f r o m 30 to 35 p e r c e n t . M u c h of th e l o w e r l e v e l c h a n g e ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n $1 an d $ 1 . 2 5 , w a s in r e s p o n s e to th e n ew
s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d b y th e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to the F L S A . T h e i n c r e a s e in
the F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e f r o m $1 to $ 1 . 15 in m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d c e r t a i n s e g ­
m e n t s of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ( e . g . , w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ) , a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g a $1 m i n i ­
m u m m a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e to l a r g e r e t a i l e n t e r p r i s e s , b o th e f f e c ti v e in S e p t e m b e r
1961, i n f l u e n c e d the u p w a r d s h ift at t h e s e l e v e l s b e t w e e n J u n e 1961 a n d J u n e
1962. T h e s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e in th e m i n i m u m s , to $ 1 . 2 5 in S e p t e m b e r 1963 f o r
th e f o r m e r g r o u p an d to $ 1 . 15 in S e p t e m b e r 1964 f o r t h e l a t t e r , f u r t h e r e l e v a t e d
the g e n e r a l e a r n i n g s l e v e l w i th i n th e $1 to $ 1 . 2 5 i n t e r v a l , a s s h o w n b y the
c h a n g e in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w a g e s b e t w e e n J u n e 1962 a n d J u n e 1965. T h e p r o ­
p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r , w h i c h c o n s i s t s m o s t l y of e m p l o y e e s in
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t a r e n o t w i th i n r e a c h of c u r r e n t m i n i m u m w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n ,
w as, by co n trast, substantially unchanged a fter 4 y e a rs .
All industries
June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing______
_________ June__________
1965

1961

1962

1965

June
1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 . 0 0 ----------------$1. 05 ----------------$1.15 ----------------$1. 2 0 ----------------$1.25 ----------------$1.30 ----------------$1. 5 0 ----------------$2. 00 -----------------

18
27
32
35
36
41
49
70

14
19
23
34
35
40
48
70

14
16
18
21
22
34
46
65

3
9
13
15
17
18
22
57

2
3
4
12
14
16
22
54

(1)
1
1
2
2
11
21
41

25
35
41
43
45
51
61
76

20
27
32
44
46
52
60
78

20
23
26
29
31
45
58
77

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)---------------

150

166

144

47

55

46

103

110

98

Average hourly earnings - $1.63 $1.69

$1. 76

$1.94

$1.99

$2. 16

$1.49

$1.54

$ 1 .5 7

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e p a y l e v e l in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n c r e a s e d 22 c e n t s an h o u r
d u r i n g t h e 4 - y e a r p e r i o d , r e f l e c t i n g g a i n s b y e m p l o y e e s at all l e v e l s of th e w a g e
s c a l e . V i r t u a l l y a ll th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in 1961, 17 p e r c e n t ,
w e r e e a r n i n g at l e a s t th i s a m o u n t by 1965. T h e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s c l u s ­
t e r e d n e a r th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e c u r r e n t d u r i n g th e t h r e e s u r v e y s d id not



33

c h a n g e s u b s t a n t i a l l y : 6 p e r c e n t e a r n e d $ 1 in 1961; 8 p e r c e n t e a r n e d $ 1 . 15 in
1962; a n d 9 p e r c e n t e a r n e d $ 1 . 2 5 in 1965. F u r t h e r up t h e p a y s c a l e , t h e c h a n g e s
w e re equally as ex ten siv e. The p ro p o rtio n earn in g $ 2 an h o ur o r m o r e advanced
f r o m a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s in 1961 to n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s in 1965, w h il e the p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 2 . 50 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m f e w e r t h a n a fifth to n e a r l y a t h i r d .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . E a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e 8 c e n t s
a n h o u r h i g h e r in 1965 t h a n 4 y e a r s e a r l i e r . A lth o u g h v a r y i n g w i d e l y by i n d i ­
v id u a l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y , m o s t of th e i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t e d c h a n g e s in th e
l o w e r p o r t i o n of th e w a g e s c a l e c l o s e l y fo llo w in g t h e m o v e m e n t of t h e F e d e r a l
m i n i m u m w a g e . B e y o n d t h e $ 1 . 50 l e v e l , t h e r e w a s o n ly s li g h t c h a n g e s i n c e 1961.
T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $1 an h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m a f o u r t h in 1961 to
a fifth in 1965. D u r i n g t h i s s a m e t i m e , th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5
a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 45 to 31 p e r c e n t , an d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n in th e $ 1 . 2 5 to
$ 1 . 3 0 w a g e i n t e r v a l r o s e f r o m 6 to 14 p e r c e n t .
R e t a i l t r a d e e a r n i n g s r o s e 15 c e n t s a b o v e th e 1961 l e v e l , t h r e e t i m e s the
i n c r e a s e r e c e i v e d b y e m p l o y e e s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s o t h e r t h a n r e t a i l
t r a d e ; h o w e v e r , th e c h a n g e in r e t a i l w a g e s b o r e c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s to c h a n g e s
in th e a l l - i n d u s t r y d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d m u c h of the m o v e m e n t in r e t a i l e a r n i n g s w a s
a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e d at t h e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s . F o r e x a m p l e , the p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r , w h i c h e x c e e d e d t w o - f i f t h s in 1961, w a s l e s s t h a n a t h i r d
in 1965. E v e n m o r e p r o n o u n c e d w a s t h e c h a n g e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s
t h a n $ 1 . 15 a n h o u r , w h i c h d e c l i n e d f r o m n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s to l e s s t h a n t w o f ifth s . C h a n g e s a t t h e s e p a y l e v e l s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d , to a g r e a t d e g r e e , to the
1961 a m e n d m e n t s to th e F L S A . F r o m t h i s p o i n t in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , h o w e v e r ,
th e c h a n g e s d i m i n i s h e d ; t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r o r m o r e w a s only
f o u r p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s h i g h e r in 1965 t h a n it w a s in 1961.
_______

Retail trade
June

Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $ 1 . 0 0 ----------------------------Under $1.05 -----------------------------Under $1.15 -----------------------------Under $1 .2 0 -----------------------------Under $1.25 -----------------------------Under $ 1 . 3 0 ------------------------ —
Under $1.50 -----------------------------Under $2. 0 0 ------------------------------

43
52
59
61
62
67
76
87

33
47
58
62
63
68
76
89

31
35
39
46
50
59
72
87

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)----------------------------

39

41

39

Average hourly earnings ------------

$1.20

$1.26

$1. 35

W h o l e s a l e t r a d e e m p l o y e e s e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e w a g e s of
18 c e n t s an h o u r d u r i n g th e J u n e 1961—J u n e 1965 p e r i o d . A lth o u g h t h e r e w e r e
adv an ces at m o s t w age lev els, lo w e r paid em plo y ees re c e iv e d significant in ­
c r e a s e s . In 1961, v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d at l e a s t $1 a n h o u r , the
p r e v a i l i n g F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e , b u t m o r e t h a n a f o u r t h e a r n e d b e t w e e n $1 an d
$ 1 . 0 5 an h o u r . In 1962, v i r t u a l l y a l l e a r n e d a t l e a s t $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r b u t th e
$ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n e d o v e r t w o - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s . In 1965,
v i r t u a l l y a l l e a r n e d $ 1. 25 b u t t h e $ 1. 25 to $ 1. 30 i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n e d n e a r l y t h r e e t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e a d v a n c e d
f r o m a t w e l f t h to an e i g h t h b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965.



34

W ag e i n c r e a s e s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s w e r e 5 a n d 15 c e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965.
C h a n g e s in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s a l s o v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . E a r n ­
in g s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n r o s e m a i n l y at the l o w e r p a y l e v e l s , w h il e in t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , i n c r e a s e s w e r e a p p a r e n t at the
u p p e r l e v e l s a s w e l l. R e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s in b o th i n d u s t r y
g r o u p s w e r e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in 1961 (14 a n d 22 p e r c e n t ) , b u t b y 1965
n e a r l y all e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d t h i s a m o u n t o r m o r e . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r a c t
c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1. 50 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 37 to
26 p e r c e n t , b u t h i g h e r in th e w a g e s c a l e t h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e in 4 y e a r s .
E a r n i n g s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s , on the o t h e r h a n d ,
v a r i e d o n ly s l i g h t l y f r o m 1961 l e v e l s in the $ 1. 50 to $ 2 . 50 i n t e r v a l b u t c h a n g e d
s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the u p p e r p a y l e v e l s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 3 a n h o u r o r
m o r e , f o r e x a m p l e , r o s e f r o m 7 p e r c e n t to 20 p e r c e n t in 4 y e a r s .
Contract
_____ construction_____

W holesale
__________ trade__________

June
Average hourly earnings

T ransportation,
comm unication,
and public utilities
June

June

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965

1961

1962

1965
4)

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$1.00 ------------------$1.05 ------------------$1.15 ----------------$1. 20 ------------------$1. 25 ------------------$ 1 . 3 0 ------------------$1.50 ------------------$2. 0 0 -------------------

1
9
9
13
14
22
37
53

(1)
2
2
17
17
27
34
59

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)-----------------

18

(4)
( 1)

1
2
2
21

26
55

1
10
18
20
22
24
29
50

(M
U)
8
22
23
27
33
57

3
3
3
3
3
14
28
47

4
30
43
51
54
62
74
92

1
2
2
48
56
62
72
90

8
8
38
63
87

19

14

12

11

11

11

13

13

Average hourly earnings — $2. 09 $2.05

$2. 14

$2.04

$2.06

$2. 19

$1.33

$1.39

$1.51

(i)
1

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.

Tuscaloosa, Ala.

T u s c a l o o s a is s i t u a t e d in w e s t c e n t r a l A l a b a m a n e a r a l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r a l
a n d l i v e s t o c k r e g i o n . T h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a c o n s i s t s of T u s c a l o o s a County; in
I960 th e a r e a h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 109, 000. In a d d it i o n to s e v e r a l m a j o r m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , T u s c a l o o s a is the s ite of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l a b a m a .
Earning s
A b o u t 15, 500 n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w e r e w i th i n the s c o p e of the J u n e
1965 s tu d y a n d t h e i r a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s c a m e to $ 1 . 8 3 (tab le 7). M e d i a n
e a r n i n g s w e r e s o m e w h a t l e s s — $ 1. 65 an h o u r . E a r n i n g s of the m i d d l e h a l f of
the w o r k f o r c e e x t e n d e d o v e r the r e l a t i v e l y w id e r a n g e of $ 1 . 11 a n h o u r , f r o m
$ 1. 26 to $ 2. 37.




35

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s of m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s , who r e p ­
r e s e n t e d a b o u t h a l f of th e e m p l o y m e n t s t u d i e d , w e r e $ 2 . 2 1 a n h o u r . C l o s e to
t w o - t h i r d s of th e e m p l o y e e s h a d e a r n i n g s of a t l e a s t $ 2 an h o u r a n d a t h i r d
e a r n e d $ 2 . 5 0 o r m o r e . A t t h e l o w e r end of t h e w a g e s c a l e , a fifth of th e e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 an h o u r , an d a n e i g h t h w e r e c l u s t e r e d at
th e $ 1 . 2 5 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e . T o g e t h e r , t h e food p r o d u c t s , a p p a r e l , an d
l u m b e r an d w o o d p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s e m p l o y e d a b o u t a f o u r t h of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g
w o r k f o r c e , b u t o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r . T h e
r e l a t i v e l y h ig h e a r n i n g s l e v e l in th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y g r o u p c a n b e a t t r i b ­
u te d to the p a p e r an d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s , r u b b e r a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s , an d
p r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h e m p l o y e d n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e w o r k f o r c e
a n d p a i d a n a v e r a g e of $ 2 . 5 7 a n h o u r . W a g e s in t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s a l s o h a d a
m a r k e d e ffe c t o n th e a r e a w a g e s t r u c t u r e . A c c o u n t i n g f o r l e s s t h a n t h r e e - t e n t h s
of t h e a l l - i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t , t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r c l o s e to t w o - t h i r d s of th e
em plo y ees earning $ 2 an h our o r m o r e .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s of
$ 1 . 4 8 a n h o u r w e r e 73 c e n t s l e s s t h a n the m a n u f a c t u r i n g l e v e l . D i f f e r e n c e s
b e t w e e n t h e two i n d u s t r y g r o u p s w e r e a p p a r e n t at a ll p o i n t s a lo n g th e w a g e d i s ­
t r i b u t i o n , an d p a r t i c u l a r l y at t h e l o w e r l e v e l s . C l o s e to a f o u r t h of th e n o n m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 an h o u r . H a l f of t h e s e e m p l o y e e s w e r e
in e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s a n d m o t e l s , and l a u n d r i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e
i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n ly a s i x t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e . T w o fifth s of t h e e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 25 an d a l l b u t a s i x t h w e r e e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 2 an h o u r .
E m p l o y e e s in r e t a i l t r a d e , who c o n s t i t u t e d m o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of t h e n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , e a r n e d $ 1. 20 a n h o u r , on th e a v e r a g e . A t h i r d of th e
r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r , a c c o u n t i n g f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e fifths of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t at t h i s l e v e l , an d c l o s e to t w o - t h i r d s
r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 . A ll b u t a s i x t h of t h e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s
than $ 1 .5 0 an hour. The $ 1 .1 5 and $ 1 .2 5 F e d e r a l m in im u m w a g e s , around
w h ic h a f o u r t h of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e g r o u p e d , m a r k e d l y i n f l u e n c e d r e t a i l e a r n ­
i n g s . T h e f o r m e r r a t e w a s in o p e r a t i o n at t h e t i m e of th e s u r v e y , w h il e th e
h i g h e r m i n i m u m w a s n o t a p p l i c a b l e u n t i l S e p t e m b e r 1 9 65, 3 m o n t h s a f t e r th e
s u r v e y p e r i o d . N e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e a r e a ' s r e t a i l w o r k f o r c e w e r e e m ­
p l o y e d by e n t e r p r i s e s g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of t h e F L S A ; t w o - f i f t h s
of t h e s e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d at o r j u s t a b o v e $ 1 . 1 5 a n d a s i x t h c o n c e n ­
t r a t e d at $ 1 . 25. By c o m p a r i s o n , o n ly a t e n t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
no t c o v e r e d b y F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e l e g i s l a t i o n h a d s u c h e a r n i n g s .
A b o u t a t e n t h of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e
w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 1 . 4 4 an h o u r . C l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s of th e e m ­
p l o y e e s e a r n e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 5 an d $ 1 . 3 0 an h o u r and t h a t g r o u p a c c o u n t e d f o r
m o r e t h a n a t h i r d of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e w i th s u c h e a r n i n g s . O n ly
5 p e r c e n t of th e w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s h a d e a r n i n g s o v e r $ 2 a n h o u r , b u t m o r e
t h a n a t h i r d e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 .
A n e i g h t h of t h e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e e n g a g e d in c o n t r a c t c o n ­
s t r u c t i o n , a n d t h e i r a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s c a m e to $ 2 . 4 7 . M o r e t h a n a t h i r d
of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 3 a n h o u r o r m o r e , t h r e e - f i f t h s h a d e a r n i n g s of a t
l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r , an d aid b u t a s ix t h e a r n e d a t l e a s t $ 1 . 50 an h o u r . M o r e t h a n
t w o - f i f t h s of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e w e r e
in c o n tra c t con stru ctio n.
E m p l o y e e s in t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p e a r n e d a n a v e r a g e of $ 1 . 9 0 an h o u r . T h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s
e a r n e d $ 2 an h o u r o r m o r e an d t w o - t h i r d s r e c e i v e d at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r .
W h ile r e l a t i v e l y fe w of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r a b o u t a
t e n t h h a d e a r n i n g s w h i c h w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 5 a n d $ 1 . 30.




36

H ours
T h e a r e a ’s n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s c o v e r e d b y t h e s u r v e y w o r k e d a n a v ­
e r a g e of 40 h o u r s d u r i n g th e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y w e e k ( t a b l e 15). P a r t - t i m e w o r k
( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s a w eek ) e n g a g e d a s i x t h of the e m p l o y e e s , w h il e a f o u r t h
w e r e e m p l o y e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . T h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k , 40 h o u r s , w a s
s h a r e d b y o v e r a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s i n c l u d e d in th e s tu d y .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w o r k e d 42 h o u r s
a w e e k on th e a v e r a g e . A t h i r d of th e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k , an d
a l m o s t a s m a n y , t h r e e - t e n t h s , h a d lon g w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) . P a r t t i m e w o r k o c c u p i e d o n ly a b o u t an e i g h t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s . T h e r e w a s s u b s t a n t i a l
v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n th e o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e e k l y h o u r s an d t h o s e of i n d i v id u a l
m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . N e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s of the l u m b e r and w ood p r o d u c t s
e m p l o y e e s , f o r e x a m p l e , w o r k e d p a r t t i m e , w h il e c l o s e to h a l f of t h e e m p l o y e e s
in the p a p e r an d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s , an d r u b b e r an d m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s i n d u s t r i e s
h a d lon g w o r k w e e k s . On the o t h e r h a n d , t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e p r i m a r y m e t a l s e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s
c a m e to 39 h o u r s , s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n th e a r e a l e v e l and 3 h o u r s b e l o w t h a t f o r
m a n u f a c t u r i n g . W e e k l y h o u r s w e r e m o r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g th e h o u r s s c a l e
in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . N e a r l y a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s
w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s , f o r e x a m p l e , w h il e a l m o s t as m a n y , a b o u t a fifth
e a c h , w e r e w o r k i n g s t a n d a r d (40 h o u r s ) an d lon g w o r k w e e k s .
T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in r e t a i l t r a d e , 39 h o u r s , w a s t h e s a m e a s t h a t f o r
a l l n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s . I n d iv i d u a l w e e k l y h o u r s w e r e a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d
s i m i l a r l y , e x c e p t t h a t a s i x t h w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s . T h e r e w a s a l a r g e r
c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s in the i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n 40 an d 48 h o u r s .
The
T h r e e out
an d 1 out
hours was
40 h o u r s .
or larger

l e n g t h of th e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e w a s 44 h o u r s .
of five e m p l o y e e s h a d a w o r k w e e k l o n g e r t h a n th e a v e r a g e , t h o u g h ,
of 3 w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l w e e k l y
n o t a b l e fo r th e a b s e n c e of a l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s a t
T h e 9 p e r c e n t h a v i n g a w e e k of t h i s d u r a t i o n , h o w e v e r , w a s a s l a r g e
t h a n a n y o t h e r p r o p o r t i o n alo n g t h e h o u r s s c a l e .

C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s w e r e w o r k i n g an a v e r a g e of 34 h o u r s d u r i n g
th e J u n e s u r v e y w e e k . A s th e a v e r a g e w o u ld i n d i c a t e , p a r t - t i m e w o r k w a s p r e v a ­
l e n t, a c c o u n t i n g f o r c l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s . O n ly a f o u r t h of th e
e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d m o r e t h a n 40 h o u r s a w e e k . E m p l o y e e s in th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r y g r o u p , b y c o n t r a s t , a v e r a g e d 39 h o u r s .
O v e r h a l f of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k ; o n ly a s i x t h w e r e p a r t t i m e ,
an d a b o u t th e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n h a d long w o r k w e e k s .
W ag e C h a n g e s
T h e a r e a n o n s u p e r v i s o r y p a y l e v e l a d v a n c e d 11 c e n t s an h o u r b e t w e e n J u n e
1961 an d J u n e 1965. G a i n s w e r e n o t e d a t th e l o w e r a n d u p p e r p a y l e v e l s , but
t h e r e w a s l i t t l e f l u c t u a t i o n in th e m i d d l e p o r t i o n of th e d i s t r i b u t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e ,
w h ile t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 36 p e r c e n t
in 1961 to 23 p e r c e n t in 1965, t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 d e c l i n e d
by only 2 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s . F r o m th i s l e v e l , th e i n c r e a s e a c c e l e r a t e d s o m e w h a t .




37

T h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e r o s e f r o m 36 to 40 p e r ­
c e n t and t h o s e w i th e a r n i n g s of at l e a s t $ 3 an h o u r a d v a n c e d f r o m 5 p e r c e n t in
1961 to 13 p e r c e n t in 1965.
_____All industries_______ _____ Manufacturing______
June

June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

Nonmanufacturing

1965

1961

1962

June
1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
$1 .0 0 ------------------$ 1 . 0 5 ------------------$1.15 ------------------$ 1 . 2 0 ------------------$1.25 ------------------$1 3 0 .........................
$1. 50 ------------------$2. 00 -------------------

17
28
32
35
36
40
45
64

16
22
24
34
36
41
47
64

13
16
18
22
23
34
43
60

2
12
14
16
17
19
22
43

1
3
3
15
16
19
23
41

1
2
2
2
2
15
21
36

31
43
49
53
55
60
66
84

29
39
43
52
55
61
68
84

23
29
32
40
41
52
63
82

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds) -----------------

150

155

155

73

73

74

77

82

82

Average hourly earnings — $1. 72 $1. 76

$1.83

$2.10

$2. 15

$2.21

$1.36

$1.41

$1.48

Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e i n c r e a s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s o v e r th e 4 - y e a r
p e r i o d , 11 c e n t s an h o u r , w a s t h e s a m e a s t h e a r e a i n c r e a s e , b u t it w a s s p r e a d
m o r e e v e n l y t h r o u g h o u t th e w a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n . In 1961, a s i x t h of th e e m p l o y e e s
e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 25 a n h o u r ; b u t s u b s e q u e n t to th e r i s e in th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e to th i s l e v e l in S e p t e m b e r 1963, th e 1965 s u r v e y fo und v e r y fe w e m p l o y e e s
b e l o w $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r . C o n c u r r e n t l y , t h e p r o p o r t i o n in t h e $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 3 0 w a g e
i n t e r v a l i n c r e a s e d f r o m 2 to 13 p e r c e n t . A s in th e a l l - i n d u s t r y c h a n g e , th e p r o ­
p o r t i o n of m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 c h a n g e d l i t t l e , d e ­
c l i n i n g 1 p e r c e n t a g e p o in t . A t the $ 2 to $ 3 l e v e l s , h o w e v e r , th e g a i n s w e r e
g r e a t e r — th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t the l o w e r a m o u n t a d v a n c e d f r o m 57 to
64 p e r c e n t , w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g the h i g h e r a m o u n t o r m o r e r o s e f r o m
7 to 18 p e r c e n t .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s i n c r e a s e d 12 c e n t s a n h o u r
o v e r th e 19*51 l e v e l , r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g s to v a r y i n g e x t e n t s f o r e m p l o y ­
e e s a t a l l l e v e l s of th e p a y s c a l e . In th e e a r l i e r p e r i o d , t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e
e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 , a n d n e a r l y h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 15 a n h o u r .
F o u r y e a r s l a t e r , t h e s e p r o p o r t i o n s w e r e r e d u c e d to f e w e r t h a n a f o u r t h and
f e w e r t h a n a t h i r d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . D u r i n g th e s a m e p e r i o d , e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
b e t w e e n $1 an d $ 1 . 0 5 a n h o u r d e c r e a s e d by h a lf, f r o m 12 to 6 p e r c e n t , w h ile
t h o s e in th e $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 .2 0 an d $ 1. 25 to $ 1. 30 i n t e r v a l s r o s e f r o m 4 to 8 p e r ­
c e n t an d 5 to 11 p e r c e n t . T o w a r d th e h i g h e r e a r n i n g s l e v e l s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s of
e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 2 , $ 2 . 5 0 , an d $ 3 an h o u r i n c r e a s e d 2 to 4 p e r c e n t ­
age points.
M o s t of th e l o w e r l e v e l c h a n g e in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s w a s l a r g e l y
a t t r i b u t a b l e to w a g e m o v e m e n t in r e t a i l t r a d e , w h e r e a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s i n c r e a s e d
b y 13 c e n t s a n h o u r b e t w e e n 1961 an d 1965. T h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n ­
ing l e s s t h a n $ 1 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m h a l f to a t h i r d d u r i n g th is p e r i o d , an d
t h o s e r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 d e c l i n e d f r o m s e v e n - t e n t h s to l e s s t h a n h a lf. T h e
p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 1 . 15 a n h o u r o r j u s t a b o v e , d u r i n g t h e s a m e t i m e , r o s e f r o m
3 to 14 p e r c e n t . A s i d e f r o m a n i n c r e a s e in th e p r o p o r t i o n at t h e $ 1. 25 to $ 1. 30 i n ­
t e r v a l ( f r o m 4 to 9 p e r c e n t ) , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s at h i g h e r l e v e l s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n



38

in 1965 w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y th e s a m e as t h e y w e r e in 1961. T h u s , m u c h of th e
c h a n g e in r e t a i l e a r n i n g s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d to t h e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to th e F L S A .
___

Retail trade
June

Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1 . 0 0 ----------------------------------$1.05 ----------------------------------$1.15 ----------------------------------$1 .2 0 ------------------------ ---------$1.25 ----------------------------------$1 .3 0 ----------------------------------$1 .5 0 - --------------------------------$2. 00 -----------------------------------

50
62
70
73
74
78
84
94

42
60
66
71
73
76
83
93

34
43
47
61
64
73
82
92

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds) -------------------------------

31

38

36

Average hourly earnings -----------------

$ 1 .0 7

$1. 11

$1 .2 0

C h a n g e s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e e a r n i n g s , w h i c h i n c r e a s e d 11 c e n t s in 4 y e a r s ,
w e r e a l s o c o n fi n e d m a i n l y to th e l o w e r p a y l e v e l s an d c l o s e l y f o llo w e d th e m o v e ­
m e n t s of t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e a p p l i c a b l e to w h o l e s a l e t r a d e d u r i n g t h a t s p a n
of t i m e . In 1961, a b o u t a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d $ 1 a n h o u r o r a few
c e n t s a b o v e , an d c l o s e to t h r e e - f i f t h s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 . One y e a r l a t e r ,
few e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d b e lo w $ 1 . 15 a n h o u r b u t m o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s w e r e m a k i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 0 a n h o u r , an d h a l f e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 . B y 1965, r e l a t i v e l y
few e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 . T h e r e w a s a n a t t e n d a n t i n c r e a s e in t h e
p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r , w h i c h a d v a n c e d f r o m a f o u r t h to a l ­
m o s t tw o-fifths.
T h e a v e r a g e i n c r e a s e of 44 c e n t s a n h o u r f o r e m p l o y e e s in c o n t r a c t c o n ­
s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s r e f l e c t s c h a n g e s t h r o u g h o u t th e p a y s c a l e . T h e p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in 1961, 14 p e r c e n t , w a s r e d u c e d to 4 p e r c e n t in 1965.
T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e r o s e f r o m 45 to 60 p e r c e n t and t h o s e
e a r n i n g $ 3 o r m o r e f r o m 17 to 36 p e r c e n t .
Contract construction

W holesale trade

June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

June
1965

1961

1962

1965

(Cumulative percent)
Under $1. 00
Under $1.05
Under $1.15
Under $1 .2 0
Under $1.25
Under $1 .3 0
Under $1.50
Under $2. 00

(1)
7
10
14
14
23
26
55

2
6
7
13
15
24
30
60

(1)
2
3
3
4
10
18
40

2
26
36
51
57
64
75
92

2
2
5
43
51
58
72
91

1
1
2
4
4
41
63
95

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds) -----------------------------

12

13

11

5

5

8

Average hourly earnings-----------------

$2. 03

$2.03

$2 .4 7

$1.33

$1.39

$1.44




-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

f Less than 0. 5 percent.

39

Wichita Falls, Tex.

W i c h i t a F a l l s l i e s in n o r t h c e n t r a l T e x a s b o r d e r i n g on O k l a h o m a . A r c h e r
and W i c h i t a C o u n t i e s c o n s t i t u t e th e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , w h i c h in I9 6 0 h a d a p o p u ­
l a t i o n of 1 2 9 , 6 0 0 . T h e c r u d e p e t r o l e u m an d n a t u r a l g a s e x t r a c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s
a r e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s of W i c h i t a F a l l s e c o n o m y , c h i e f l y as th e f o c a l p o i n t f o r
the s e r v i c e an d d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r o d u c t s p r o d u c e d in t h e n o r t h T e x a s f i e l d s .
W i c h i t a F a l l s w a s 1 of 2 a r e a s s t u d i e d — A m a r i l l o w a s th e o t h e r — in w h i c h f e w e r
t h a n a t h i r d of th e a l l - i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t w a s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .

In J u n e 1965, a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r th e 1 4 ,8 0 0 n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m ­
p l o y e e s w i th i n th e s c o p e of the s u r v e y w e r e $ 1 . 7 4 ( ta b le 8). E a r n i n g s f o r the
m i d d l e h a l f of th e w o r k f o r c e r a n g e d f r o m $ 1 . 2 7 to $ 2 . 1 6 an h o u r , a s p r e a d of
89 c e n t s , and m e d i a n e a r n i n g s w e r e $ 1 . 5 4 a n h o u r .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h e r e
a fifth of the a r e a w o r k f o r c e w e r e e m p l o y e d , w e r e $ 1 . 8 3 . T h e a m o u n t t h a t
m a n u fa ctu rin g e arn in g s exceeded the a r e a pay level, 9 cen ts, was the s m a lle s t
a m o n g t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n c l u d e d in th e s tu d y . T w o - t h i r d s of W i c h i t a F a l l s
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 2 a n h o u r an d m o r e t h a n a t h i r d l e s s
t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 . A s e v e n t h of th e e m p l o y e e s w e r e p a i d th e $ 1 . 2 5 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e . A t t h e h i g h e r end of t h e p a y s c a l e , th e food p r o d u c t s a n d m a c h i n e r y i n ­
d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t h a l f of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s , b u t f o r m o r e
t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e . M o s t of t h e l o w e r p a i d
e m p l o y e e s w e r e in th e a p p a r e l i n d u s t r y w h i c h e m p l o y e d a s ix t h of t h e w o r k f o r c e .
N e a r l y h a l f of t h e a p p a r e l e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d b e t w e e n $ 1 . 2 5 a n d $ 1 . 3 0 an h o u r ,
and th is g r o u p a c c o u n t e d f o r t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y m e n t w ith
such earnings.
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . B e c a u s e of t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e of e m p l o y m e n t in n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r t h i s g r o u p , $ 1 . 7 2 , an d
t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e a r n i n g s w e r e s i m i l a r to the o v e r a l l a r e a l e v e l s . A f o u r t h
of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r , an d n e a r l y a
s i x t h e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $1 a n h o u r . M o r e t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s of t h o s e e a r n i n g l e s s
t h a n $1 w e r e in e a t i n g an d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s , h o t e l s an d m o t e l s , l a u n d r i e s an d
m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n ly a fifth of th e n o n ­
m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e . T o w a r d s t h e h i g h e r p a y l e v e l s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s in
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g m o r e t h a n $ 2 an d m o r e t h a n $ 2 . 5 0 a n h o u r , t h r e e t e n t h s an d a s i x t h , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e n e a r l y t h e s a m e a s t h o s e in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
A n in t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d in t h e $ 1 . 2 5 to $ 1 . 30
wage interval.
In t e r m s of e m p l o y m e n t , r e t a i l t r a d e w a s th e l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y in th e a r e a ,
c o m p r i s i n g a t h i r d of th e a r e a e m p l o y e e s an d t w o - f i f t h s of t h o s e in n o n m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s of t h e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s a t $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r , h o w e v e r ,
w e re low er than e ithe r the a r e a o r nonm an u factu ring levels. O v er th re e -fifth s
of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 , t w o - f i f t h s r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 an
h o u r , an d c l o s e to a f o u r t h w e r e p a i d l e s s t h a n $1 an h o u r . T h e l a t t e r two
p r o p o r t i o n s e a c h a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of a l l e m p l o y e e s i n c l u d e d
in th e s tu d y a t t h e s e l e v e l s . A s i x t h of t h e r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d
n e a r the $ 1 . 1 5 a n d $ 1 . 2 5 F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e l e v e l s (7 p e r c e n t a t t h e l o w e r
an d 11 p e r c e n t at t h e h i g h e r l e v e l ) , r e f l e c t i n g t h e e x i s t i n g an d a n t i c i p a t o r y e f f e c t s
of th e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to th e F L S A . M o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of th e r e t a i l w o r k
f o r c e w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to th e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e a c t .



40

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e w e r e $ 1 . 7 1 . M o r e t h a n a f o u r t h
of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c l u s t e r e d a t o r j u s t a b o v e $ 1 . 25 a n h o u r . A l th o u g h w h o l e ­
s a l e e m p l o y e e s c o m p r i s e d o n ly a t e n th of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , t h e y
a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s a t t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e .
S e v e n - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 2 a n h o u r .
In t h e f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y g r o u p , the a v e r a g e
p a y l e v e l f o r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s w a s $ 1 . 8 0 a n h o u r . A fifth of t h e
e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r an d n e a r l y t w i c e t h i s p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 5 0 . M o r e t h a n a t h i r d of th e e m p l o y e e s , h o w e v e r , e a r n e d
$ 2 an h o u r o r m o re .
E a r n i n g s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s g r o u p w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r t h a n in th e o t h e r i n d u s t r y
d i v i s i o n s , a v e r a g i n g $ 2 . 2 6 an d $ 2 . 3 1 a n h o u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . N e a r l y h a l f of th e
e m p l o y e e s in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h o s e in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,
co m m u n ica tio n , and public utilities e a rn e d $2 an ho ur o r m o r e , and a fourth
of t h e e m p l o y e e s in e a c h e a r n e d at l e a s t $ 3 a n h o u r . T h e s e g r o u p s e m p l o y e d a
f o u r t h of th e n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e , b u t o v e r h a l f of t h o s e e a r n i n g $ 2 a n
hour or m ore.
Hours
E m p l o y e e s w ith in t h e s c o p e of th e s u r v e y a v e r a g e d 42 h o u r s of w o r k d u r i n g
t h e J u n e 1965 s u r v e y w e e k (ta b le 16). O v e r a f o u r t h o f the e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d
40 h o u r s d u r i n g the s u r v e y w e e k m a k i n g t h i s the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k . A
s i x t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s d u r i n g the w e e k , w h i l e a w e e k
of 48 h o u r s o r l o n g e r e n g a g e d t h r e e - t e n t h s of the w o r k f o r c e .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g . E m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g h a d a l o n g e r a v e r a g e w o r k ­
w e e k , 44 h o u r s , t h a n t h o s e in t h e a r e a a s a w h o le . T h e l e n g t h of th e m o s t
c o m m o n w e e k of w o r k w a s 40 h o u r s , e n c o m p a s s i n g t h r e e - t e n t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e s .
P a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t ( l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s ) e n g a g e d f e w e r t h a n a t e n t h of t h e
e m p l o y e e s b u t long w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) o c c u p i e d t h r e e - t e n t h s of th e
w o r k f o r c e . M o r e t h a n t w o - f i f t h s of t h e food p r o d u c t s a n d m a c h i n e r y e m p l o y e e s
w e r e on long w o r k w e e k s d u r i n g th e s u r v e y w e e k , c o m p r i s i n g s e v e n - t e n t h s of t h e
m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w ith s u c h h o u r s . A s h o r t e r w o r k w e e k w a s p r e v a l e n t in
a p p a r e l p l a n t s , w h e r e t w o - t h i r d s of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s o r l e s s .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e w o r k w e e k in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w a s
3 h o u r s l e s s t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s
w o r k i n g 48 h o u r s o r m o r e a w e e k w a s t h e s a m e as f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s ,
w h il e th e p r o p o r t i o n on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k — a b o u t a f o u r t h — w a s s o m e w h a t s m a l l e r
t h a n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T h e m a j o r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e tw o i n d u s t r y g r o u p s w a s
th e l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s w o r k i n g p a r t t i m e , a s i x t h ,
w h i c h w a s a b o u t tw o a n d a h a l f t i m e s th e p r o p o r t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
T h e a v e r a g e w e e k in r e t a i l t r a d e w a s a l s o 41 h o u r s , b u t i n d i v i d u a l w e e k l y
h o u rs w e re d istrib u te d so m ew h at d ifferently fro m those for all no nm an u factu ring
e m p l o y e e s . T h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n , a s ix t h , w o r k e d l e s s t h a n 35 h o u r s d u r i n g th e
s u r v e y w e e k , b u t f e w e r , a fifth, w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s . A l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n ,
n e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s , w e r e on long w o r k w e e k s (48 h o u r s o r m o r e ) .



41

T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e c a m e to 45 h o u r s . T w o - t h i r d s
of t h e e m p l o y e e s h a d w o r k w e e k s in e x c e s s of 40 h o u r s a n d c l o s e to t w o - f i f t h s
w o r k e d 48 h o u r s o r m o r e . O n e out of f o u r w h o l e s a l e e m p l o y e e s , h o w e v e r , w a s
on a 4 0 - h o u r w e e k .
E m p l o y e e s in t h e f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e g r o u p h a d a w o r k ­
w e e k a v e r a g i n g 40 h o u r s . O v e r a t h i r d of t h e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s ,
m a k i n g t h i s t h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k . P a r t t i m e a n d long w o r k w e e k s w e r e
s h a r e d by a l m o s t e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s , a s ix th , of t h e e m p l o y e e s .
T h e a v e r a g e w o r k w e e k in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s 38 h o u r s , w h il e in t h e
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s g r o u p it w a s 3 h o u r s l o n g e r .
A w e e k of 48 h o u r s o r m o r e e n g a g e d t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s in e a c h
i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , a s ix th , but t h e r e w e r e n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s
h a v in g s t a n d a r d (40 h o u r s ) a n d p a r t - t i m e w e e k s . N e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b lic u t i l i t i e s e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d e x a c t l y 40 h o u r s ,
two a n d a h a l f t i m e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n at t h i s l e v e l in c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h il e
t h e r e v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p l i e d to t h e p r o p o r t i o n s e m p l o y e d p a r t t i m e .
W ag e C h a n g e s
In J u n e 1965, n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s w e r e 11 c e n t s an h o u r
h i g h e r t h a n in J u n e 1962 a n d 15 c e n t s h i g h e r t h a n in J u n e 1961. S in c e t h e e a r l i e r
period, the p ro p o rtio n s earning le s s than $ 1 .2 5 an hour declined f r o m m o r e than
a t h i r d to a p p r o x i m a t e l y a fifth, l a r g e l y b e c a u s e of c h a n g e s in t h e F e d e r a l m i n i ­
m u m w a g e . T h e r e w e r e a l s o i n c r e a s e s , s m a l l e r , h o w e v e r , f u r t h e r up t h e e a r n ­
in g s s c a l e . T h e p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r r o s e f r o m 46 to
54 p e r c e n t , a n d at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r , f r o m 25 to 30 p e r c e n t .
A ll industries______ _____ Manufacturing______
June
Average hourly earnings

1961

1962

Nonmanufacturing

June
1965

1961

1962

June
1965

1961

1962

1965

16
21
27
32
34
44
54
75

15
18
21
24
26
37
48
70

(Cumulative percent)

20
21
33
46
70

(1)
11
16
21
25
29
42
64

1
1
1
14
16
24
42
69

2
16
36
67

18
27
32
35
37
47
56
77

161

148

27

28

29

126

134

119

Average hourly earnings — $1.59 $1.63

$1. 74

$1. 77

$1. 76

$1.83

$1.55

$1.60

$1. 72

Under $ 1 . 0 0 --------------- Under $1.05 ------------------Under $ 1 . 1 5 ------------------Under $ 1 . 2 0 ------------------Under $1.25 ------------------Under $ 1 . 3 0 ------------------Under $1.50 ------------------Under $2. 0 0 -------------------

15
24
29
33
35
44
54
75

14
18
23
29
31
41
53
74

Number of em ployees
(in hundreds) ---------------

153

12
15
17

(M
<J)
i
i

* Less than 0. 5 percent.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g . A l th o u g h m a n u f a c t u r i n g e a r n i n g s r o s e by o n ly 6 c e n t s a n
h o u r b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965, t h e r e w e r e s h a r p g a i n s at t h e l o w e r l e v e l s of t h e
p a y s c a l e . In 1961, a n i n t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s w e r e in t h e $1 to $ 1 . 0 5 w a g e
i n t e r v a l , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e $1 m i n i m u m w a g e in e ffe c t at t h e t i m e ,
an d a f o u r t h of t h e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r . A y e a r l a t e r , a ll
e m p l o y e e s w e r e e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 1 . 1 5 a n h o u r , but a n e i g h t h w e r e in t h e $ 1 . 1 5 to
$1. 20 i n t e r v a l a n d a s i x t h e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r . B e t w e e n 1962 a n d 1965,




42

d u r i n g w h ic h t i m e t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e r o s e f r o m $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 25, v i r t u a l l y
a ll e m p l o y e e s a d v a n c e d to a t l e a s t the l a t t e r a m o u n t an d a s e v e n t h w e r e a t o r j u s t
a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m . O v e r a p e r i o d of 4 y e a r s , t h e n , th e e a r n i n g s of a f o u r t h
of th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k f o r c e r o s e f r o m l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 25 a n h o u r to at l e a s t
t h i s a m o u n t . F u r t h e r up th e w a g e s c a l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r
o r m o r e r o s e f r o m l e s s t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s to n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s , b u t t h e r e w e r e
o n ly m i n o r f l u c t u a t i o n s in the s c a l e b e y o n d t h i s le v e l .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . In n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s a d ­
v a n c e d b y 17 c e n t s a n h o u r in 4 y e a r s , 11 c e n t s m o r e t h a n t h e i n c r e a s e in m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g . U n lik e t h e l a t t e r , n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e e s a t m o s t l e v e l s of th e
w a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d a n i n c r e a s e . W h ile r o u g h l y a s i x t h e a r n e d l e s s
t h a n $1 in 1961, 1962, an d 1965, o v e r t h e 4 y e a r s th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s
t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r d e c l i n e d f r o m 37 to 26 p e r c e n t . T h e r e w a s s o m e w h a t l e s s
m o v e m e n t at t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s of t h e p a y s c a l e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n
e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r a d v a n c e d f r o m f e w e r t h a n a f o u r t h to t h r e e - t e n t h s .
M o v e m e n t of t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e d u r i n g J u n e 1961 to J u n e 19 65
d id n o t g e n e r a t e n o t i c e a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of e m p l o y m e n t a t t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n ­
c r e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n s e a r n i n g b e t w e e n $ 1 . 1 5 a n d $ 1 . 2 0 , an d
$ 1 . 25 an d $ 1 . 30 a n h o u r did n o t v a r y m o r e t h a n 2 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s d u r i n g th e
t h r e e s u r v e y s . T h e e f f e c t s of th e 1961 a m e n d m e n t s to the F L S A w e r e m o r e
d isc e rn ib le when individual no nm an u factu ring in d u strie s a r e ex am in ed s e p a ra te ly .
T h e m o s t n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e a s a r e s u l t of th e a s c e n d i n g F e d e r a l m i n i m u m
w a g e w a s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , w h e r e e a r n i n g s r o s e 12 c e n t s o v e r th e 1961 l e v e l .
T h r e e - t e n t h s of th e e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 in 1961, b u t b y 1965, a ll
e m p l o y e e s e a r n e d t h i s a m o u n t o r m o r e . E l e v e n p e r c e n t of the e m p l o y e e s w e r e
e a r n i n g t h e $1 m i n i m u m , o r j u s t a b o v e , in 1961; 18 p e r c e n t w e r e at t h e $ 1 . 1 5
l e v e l in 1962; w h il e 27 p e r c e n t w e r e c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d t h e $ 1 . 2 5 l e v e l in 1965.
E m p l o y e e s in th e h i g h e r p a y l e v e l a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a n i n c r e a s e , w ith th e p r o ­
p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g at l e a s t $ 2 a n h o u r in w a g e s a d v a n c i n g f r o m l e s s t h a n a fifth
in 1961 to n e a r l y t h r e e - t e n t h s 4 y e a r s l a t e r .
E a r n i n g s in r e t a i l t r a d e a d v a n c e d 22 c e n t s an h o u r d u r i n g J u n e 1961 to
J u n e 1965. A l th o u g h c h a n g e s in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w e r e n o t so s h a r p a s in w h o l e ­
s a l e t r a d e , t h e y c o v e r e d a w i d e r r a n g e . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g
l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 1 5 w a s r e d u c e d f r o m a b o u t h a l f to l e s s t h a n a t h i r d , w h i l e the
p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 1 . 50 o r m o r e a n h o u r r o s e f r o m l e s s t h a n a f o u r t h to n e a r l y
t w o - f i f t h s . T h e r e w e r e a l s o a d v a n c e s f u r t h e r up t h e w a g e s c a l e . T h e p r o p o r ­
t io n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e r o s e f r o m a t e n t h to n e a r l y a fifth. In J u n e
1965 a b o u t 45 p e r c e n t of th e a r e a ’s r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s w e r e in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
s u b j e c t to t h e p r o v i s i o n s of th e F L S A , b u t t h e e f f e c t s of c h a n g e s in t h e m i n i ­
m u m w a g e w e r e no t a s p r o n o u n c e d a s in s e v e r a l of t h e o t h e r a r e a s s t u d i e d .
B e t w e e n J u n e 1961 an d 1962, th e p r o p o r t i o n of r e t a i l e m p l o y e e s p a i d l e s s t h a n
$1 an h o u r d e c l i n e d by o n ly 2 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s , a l t h o u g h th e $1 m i n i m u m
w a g e in r e t a i l t r a d e w e n t into o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g th i s t i m e . C o n c u r r e n t l y , the
c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t $1 to $ 1 . 0 5 a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d f r o m s o m e w h a t m o r e t h a n a n e i g h t h
to a t e n t h . B e t w e e n J u n e 1962 and 1965, d u r i n g w h ic h t i m e the $ 1 . 1 5 m i n i m u m
w e n t into o p e r a t i o n , t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n t h a t a m o u n t d r o p p e d f r o m
c l o s e to h a l f to a b o u t t h r e e - t e n t h s . T h e r e w a s o n ly a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e in th e c o n ­
c e n t r a t i o n a t $ 1 . 1 5 to $ 1 . 2 0 , b u t th e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g a t l e a s t $ 1 . 2 5 an h o u r
i n c r e a s e d f r o m f e w e r t h a n h a l f to t h r e e - f i f t h s . A g a i n , w h il e $ 1 . 2 5 w a s to b e ­
c o m e th e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e f o r r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u b j e c t to t h e F L S A ,
t h e r e w a s o n ly a s m a l l i n c r e a s e in t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s a t o r j u s t ab o v e
t h i s l e v e l . T h u s , it a p p e a r s t h a t c h a n g e s in t h e F e d e r a l m i n i m u m w a g e s e r v e d
m o r e as a s t i m u l a n t in th e g e n e r a l w a g e m o v e m e n t in t h i s a r e a t h a n a s a s p e c i f i c
l e v e l at w h i c h to s e t w a g e s .



43

Average hourly earnings
Under $ 1 . 0 0 ----------------------------------Under $1.05 ----------------------------------Under $1. 15 ----------------------------------Under $1 .2 0 ----------------------------------Under $1.25 ----------------------------------Under $1.30 ----------------------------------Under $1 .5 0 ----------------------------------Under $2. 00 ----------------------------------Number of em ployees
(in hundreds)
---------------------------Average hourly earnings -----------------

1961
29
44
51
55
57
66
77
89
52
$1.28

Retail trade
June
1965
1962
(Cumulative percent)
23
27
28
37
45
31
38
50
40
52
59
51
62
69
85
81
56
$1 .3 7

49
$1.50

The a v e ra g e pay for finance, in s u ra n c e , and re a l e sta te em plo y ees advanced
24 c e n t s a n h o u r b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1965. A l th o u g h t h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s
e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 2 5 a n h o u r h a r d l y c h a n g e d in 4 y e a r s , t h e r e w a s a c o n ­
s i d e r a b l e m o v e m e n t in w a g e s w i t h i n t h i s l e v e l . T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n
$1 a n d l e s s t h a n $ 1 . 15 a n h o u r e a c h d e c l i n e d by a b o u t half, a n d s o m e of t h e e m ­
p l o y e e s at t h e s e l e v e l s m o v e d to t h e $ 1 . 2 0 to $ 1 . 2 5 i n t e r v a l , w h i c h r o s e f r o m
3 to 9 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r up t h e p a y s c a l e , h o w e v e r , c h a n g e s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l .
T h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g $ 2 a n h o u r o r m o r e i n c r e a s e d f r o m a s i x t h to m o r e t h a n
a t h i r d , a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 2 . 50 a d v a n c e d f r o m 2 to 15 p e r c e n t .
E m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s in t h e c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m ­
m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s i n d u s t r i e s i n c r e a s e d 12 a n d 29 c e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
in 4 y e a r s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n
$ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r d e c r e a s e d f r o m t h r e e - t e n t h s to a fifth, but o n ly m i n o r f l u c t u a t i o n s
t o o k p l a c e at h i g h e r p a y l e v e l s . T h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d p u b lic
utilities group e x p e rie n c e d a s im ila r decline in the p ro p o rtio n earn in g le s s than
$ 1 . 5 0 a n h o u r — f r o m 23 to 13 p e r c e n t , but t h e m a g n i t u d e of c h a n g e at t h e h i g h e r
e a r n i n g s l e v e l s w a s g r e a t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n e a r n i n g at l e a s t
$ 2 a n h o u r i n c r e a s e d f r o m 44 to 61 p e r c e n t , a n d t h o s e e a r n i n g at l e a s t $ 3 , f r o m
6 to 27 p e r c e n t .

Average hourly earnings

Transportation,
Finance,
comm unication,
W holesale
insurance, and
and public utilities ________ trade_______
real estate
June
June
June
1961 1962 1965 1961 1962 1965 1961 1962 1965
(Cumulative percent)
2
12
2
5
(1)
(1)
(i)
(i)
(i)
(1)
1
11
2
16
3
7
(1)
(1)
0)
(1)
1
4
1
15
5
17
7
9
(0
(1)
1
8
6
26
23
9
19
11
(1)
(1)
1
9
10
30
26
22
11
20
(1)
(1)
15
4
15
15
39
36
27
35
27
29
20
23
28
13
54
54
45
46
45
39
52
59
56
39
81
71
85
80
64
80

Contract
construction
June
1961 1962 1965

Under $ 1 .0 0 -----------------------(1)
(1)
Under $1. 0 5 -----------------------2
0)
Under $1. 1 5 -----------------------1
3
Under $1. 2 0 -----------------------2
3
Under $ 1 .2 5 -----------------------3
3
Under $1. 3 0 -----------------------20
23
Under $ 1 .5 0 -----------------------32
30
51
Under $ 2 .0 0 ----------------------53
Number of em ployees
18
15
14
(in hundreds)-------------------15
17
15
11
13
12
11
11
8
Average hourly earnings------ $2 .1 4 $2. 14 $2. 26 $2. 02 $1.97 $2.31 $1 .5 9 $1.60 $1.71 $1.56 $1.65 $1.80
1 Less than 0. 5 percent.




44

Table 1. Average Hourly Earnings: Amarillo, Tex.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A v erag e ho urly e arn in g s

U n d e r $ 0 . 75 --------------------------------------

A ll
ind us­
tries

2

M anufac­
turing
in d u s­
tries
_
( 2)

T otal1

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ransp or­
a ion,
n
C o n t r a c t c ot mt m u n i ­ W hole s a le R e t a i l inFsi u raannccee, ,
c o n s t r u e - c a tio n ,
trad e
and rea l
trade
tio n
e sta te
a n d p u b lic
utilities

3

-

7

_

Under
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 0 . 80
$0 . 85
$ 0 . 90
$0 . 95
$1 .00

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
Under

$1 . 05
$ 1 .1 0
$1 .1 5
$1 .2 0
$1 .2 5

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13
13
14
18
19

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 30
$ 1. 35
$1 . 40
$ 1 .4 5
$ 1. 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

28
30
34
37
40

6
10

14
18

32
34
38
41
43

U nder
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1.
$1.
$1 .
$1 .
$ 1.

55
60
65
70
75

- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

45
48
51
53
55

24
26
32
36
39

49
52
54
56
58

U nder
U nder
Under
Under
U nder

$1 .80
$ 1 .8 5
$ 1 . 90
$ 1 .9 5
$2 . 00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

59
60
63
64
65

43
47
49
52
55

61
63
65

U nder
U nder
U nder
Under
U nder

$2 .
$2.
$2 .
$ 2.
$2.

10
20
30
40
50

---------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------............................................. —

70
73
76
79
81

59
63
67
70
75

U nder
U nder
Under
U nder
U nder

$ 2.
$2 .
$2 .
$2 .
$ 3.

60
70
80
90
00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

84
86
88

89
90

84
89
91
92
93

T o t a l ---------------------------------------

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ---------------------------------A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ----------------

6

7

8

9

0
0

<)
( 2)
( 2)
4

"
_
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
3
3
5

8

9

11
11

15
15
17

21
22

1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

7

8

9

4
10

_
_
_
1
1

18

21

31
37
39

13
14
18
19

o
0
0

( )
( 2)

25
26
28
40
41

( 2)
( 2)

52
55
58
61
63

20

0

1
1

10

18

27
29

6

12

18
18

21

45
51
55
58
61

68

20
21
22

23
27
28
31

70
72
74
75

34
39
42
44
50

33
34
38
40
41

68

67

28
29
29
30
30

69
73
76
77

77
78
80
81
82

55
59
60
64

72
75
78
80
82

36
38
49
51
53

49
53
57
61
63

81
84

85

86

86
88

89
90

70
75
78
85
87

84
87
89
89

58
61
62
64
64

67
70
74
76
78

92
94
94
96
97

92
92
93
93
94

91
94
97
98
98

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

217

32

185

21

30

25

64

15

$ 1. 85

$2 . 05

$ 1 . 81

66

$ 2 . 25

$1 . 73

$ 1. 55

$ 1 . 85

7

66

86

$ 2.

14

Includes nonmanufacturing in d us tri es in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 p er cen t.




-

_

91
91

66

45

Table 2. Average Hourly Earnings: Asheville, N.C.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A v erag e hourly earnin gs

A ll
in d u stries

M anufac­
turing
ind ustries

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$0.
$0.
$0.
$0.
$0.
$ 1.

7 5 ----------------------------------------8 0 ----------------------------------------8 5 ----------------------------------------9 0 ----------------------------------------9 5 ----------------------------------------0 0 -----------------------------------------

3
3
4
8

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )
(2)

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 0 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 10----------------------------------------$ 1. 15----------------------------------------$ 1 . 2 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 2 5 -----------------------------------------

10
10
12

14
16

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 3 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 35----------------------------------------$ 1 . 4 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 4 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 5 0 -----------------------------------------

27
30
34
39
43

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 5 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 6 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 6 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 7 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 7 5 -----------------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

6

7

T o tal1

6
6
8

13
15
16

N onm anu facturing in d u strie s
T ran spo ra i n,
C o n t r a c t c ot mt mo u m - W h o l e s a l e
con stru e trad e
catio n,
tio n
a nd p u b lic
utilities
_
-

(Z )

i

-

-

(2 )
(2 )
(*>

21
22

1
1
1
1
1

9

26

26

46
50
55
58
61

47
51
54
57
60

31
36
40
44
48

$ 1 . 8 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 8 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 9 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 9 5 ----------------------------------------$ 2 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------

65
67
72
75
77

55
59

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

10----------------------------------------2 0 ----------------------------------------3 0 ----------------------------------------4 0 ----------------------------------------5 0 -----------------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$3.

1
1

24
29
32

(2 )
i
i
i

i

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

1
2

R etail
trad e
9

10
12

18

20
22

29
31
35
46
50

3

4

26
35
37
41

17
19
26
30
32

37
49
53
60
62

60
64

65
67
69
71
73

48
48
50
51
52

35
37
43
44
47

54
o5
70
72
76

76
79
80
83
84

66

56
57
58
59
59

50
51
52
54
58

78
79
83
85
87

86

72
73

76
77
79
80
81

87
89
90
91

82
87
90
91
93

80
87
90
92
93

85
87
89
91
92

70
72
79
83
84

64
69
73
75
76

89
92
94
95
95

93
94
94
96
96

6 0 ----------------------------------------70----------------------------------------8 0 ----------------------------------------9 0 ----------------------------------------0 0 -----------------------------------------

95
96
96
97
97

96
97
98
98
99

93
94
95
96
96

90
92
94
94
95

77
78
81
81
83

95
97
97
98
98

97
97
97
98
98

T o t a l -----------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ------------------------------------A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s -------------------

296

$ 1.

66

12

15

21

70
72

155

141

19

17

13

59

$ 1. 79

$ 1. 51

$1 .85

$ 1 .9 9

$ 1. 51

$ 1. 32

Includes nonmanufacturing ind ust ri es in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r ce n t.




68

46
Table 3. Average Hourly Earnings: Durham, N.C.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s . J u n e 1965)

A verag e h o urly earn in g s

A ll
ind ustries

M anufac luring
in d u s tries

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 0 . 7 5 -------- ---------------------------$ 0 . 8 0 ----------------------------------------$ 0 . 8 5 --------------------------------------$ 0 . 9 0 -------------------- -------- ----$ 0 . 9 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 0 0 ------------------- -------------------

2
2

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 0 5 -------------------- ----------------$ 1. 10----------------------------------------$ 1. 15----------------------------------------$ 1. 2 0 ---------- -----------------------------$ 1 . 2 5 -----------------------------------------

11
11
12

15
16

1
1
1
2
2

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 30 ---------------------------- - $ 1 . 3 5 --------------------------------------$ 1 . 4 0 ---------------------------- --------$ 1 . 4 5 ------------------------ ------ —
$ 1 . 5 0 — ------------ ----------------

26
29
33
35
38

8
10

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 5 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1 . 6 0 ---------------------------- --------$ 1. 6 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 70 --------- ------------ ---------$ L 7 5 - -----------------------------------

42
44
47
49
51

20
22

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 8 0 ------------------- ------------------$ 1 . 8 5 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 9 0 ----------------------------------------$ 1. 9 5 ----------------------------------------$ 2 . 0 0 ---------------- ---------------------

53
55
57
59
60

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$ 2.

10 -------------------------------------2 0 -------------------- ------ - —
3 0 ---------- — - ----------------40 ---------------- ------------------50 ----------------------- —

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

T otal1
3
4
5

N onm anu facturing in d u strie s
T ran spo ra i
C o n t r a c t c ot mt mounn, i R etail
con stru e c a tio n ,
trade
tio n
a n d p u b lic
u tilities
(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

20
21

_
(2 )
(2 )
(2 )
4
4
4

41
44
48
52
54

28
32
38
40
41

15
19
24

59
61
64
66
68

48
49
50
52
53

32
34
35
37
39

70
72
73
75
77

64
69
73
79
83

43
50
56

$ 2 . 6 0 ----------------------------------------$ 2 . 7 0 -------------------------- -----------$ 2. 8 0 ---------------------------- --------$ 2 . 90 - ------------------------------------$ 3C00 ------------------- - -

87
89
91
93
93

80
84

T o t a l -----------------------------------------

3
6

7

8

-

1
1
1

13
14
17

10

13
14
19

26
28

8
8

5
7
9
15
19

F in an ce,
insuran ce,
a nd r e a l
e state

-

_
_

1
1
2

21

3
3
4
5
5

28
30
31
43
46

3
3

10
12

59
62

8
10

1
2
2
2
2

66

69
71

14
18
23

32
33
38
39
40

74
77
79
80
81

31
34
39
43
49

57
58
59
60
60

42
44
46
53
59

82
83
85
85
86

55
62
63
67
69

81
83
87
89
90

67
69
77
80
81

64
70
73
76

89
91
94
94
95

74
79
85
89
93

86

86

90
91

92
93
94
95
95

87
90
90
90

79
80
81
82
85

96
97
97
98
98

96
97
98
98
98

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ------------------------------------

231

102

130

23

16

46

13

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s -------------------

$ 1 .8 3

$2 .1 6

$ 1.58

$ 1 .8 3

$ 2 . 03

$1 .3 6

$ 1 . 82

1
2

25
27
29

66

73

I n c lu d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




66

47

Table 4. Average Hourly Earnings: Lake Charles, La.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A verag e h o urly e arn in g s

U nde r
U nder
U nde r
U nder
U nder
U nde r

$ 0 . 7 5 ________________________
$ 0 . 8 0 ________________________
$ 0 . 85 ------------------------------------$ 0 . 9 0 ________________________
$ 0 . 95 ________________________
$ 1 . 0 0 ________________________

A ll
ind ustrie s
5
7
8

9
9

10

M anufac turing
Indus­
trie s
_
-

-

_

U nder
U nd e r
U nde r
U nde r
U nder

$ 1. 0 5 ________________________
$ 1 . 1 0 ..................................................
$ 1 . 1 5 .................................................
$ 1 . 2 0 ________________________
$ 1. 2 5 ________________________

13
14
17
19

U nder
U nder
U nde r
U nde r
U nde r

$
$
$
$
$

1. 3 0 ________________________
1. 3 5 _____________ __________
1 . 4 0 ________________________
1 . 4 5 ________________________
1. 5 0 ________________________

25
28
30
32
34

U nde r
U nder
Unde r
U nde r
U nde r

$
$
$
$
$

1. 55 ________________________
1 . 6 0 ________________________
1 .6 5 ________________________
1. 7 0 .................................................
1. 7 5 ________________________

37
39
41
42
43

12
12

U nder
U nder
U nde r
U nder
U nde r

$ 1 . 8 0 ________________________
$ 1. 8 5 ________________________
$ 1. 9 0 ________________________
$ 1. 9 5 ________________________
$ 2 . 0 0 ________________________

U nd e r
U nde r
U nde r
U nde r
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nd e r

12

-

(Z)
( )
(2 )
7
7

T o tal1
9

11
12

N onm anu facturing in d u s trie s
T ransp orn
a i n,
C o n t r a c t c ot mt mo u n i ­ W h ole s a le R e t a i l i nFsi u raannccee, ,
c o n s tru e - catio n,
trad e
trad e
and rea l
tio n
e state
a n d p u b lic
utilitie s

_

(2 )

3
3
3

1
1
2
2
2

28
30

3
3
3
3
4

3
3
3
4
5

37
41
44
47
49

10
11
11
11

7

10
12

15
18
23

14
15
17
20
21
22

-

2

_
-

_
3
3

13
16
18

20
22

23
29
30
32
44
48

_

4
5
5
5
5
9

12

13

68

24
32
36
46
52

13
13
14

53
55
58
59
61

15
15
18
19

45
48
62

20

27
28
29
30
30

73
75
76
79
80

55
63
67
69
74

44
46
47
48
49

15
16

63
64

21
22

17
17

67
68

26
26
26

32
34
35
36
37

72
73
75
75
76

82
83
85
87
88

76
77
83
83
84

$ 2 . 1 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 2 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 3 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 4 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 5 0 ________________________

51
53
54
57
58

18
19

72
74
75
78
79

28
29
30
44
46

43
49
50
53
54

82
82
89
90

88

91
92
93
94
95

87
94
94
95
97

$ 2 . 6 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 7 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 8 0 ________________________
$ 2 . 9 0 ________________________
$ 3. 0 0 _______________________ _

62
63
65
67
69

29
32
34
37
42

82
83
84
85

59
61
63
69
71

94
95
96
96
97

96
96
97
97
97

99
99
99

86

49
49
51
51
52

100
100

T o t a l -------- --------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

154

59

95

15

15

6

37

7

$ 2 . 22

$ 2 . 93

$ 1 . 79

$2 .9 2

$ 2. 35

$ 1 .6 7

$ 1. 35

$ 1. 57

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) _____________________
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ________—

8

9
9

16

20
21

24

66

Includes nonmanufacturing in du st ri es in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r ce n t.




22

28
36
39
41

66
68

55
60
64
67

48

Table 5. Average Hourly Earnings: Lexington, Ky.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r i v o s r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A verag e ho urly earnin gs

A ll
ind us­
tries

U n d e r $0 . 7 5 --------------------------------------

1

U nder
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder

$0.
$ 0.
$0 .
$0 .
$1 .

80
85
90
95
00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4
5

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1 .05
$ 1 .1 0
$1 .15
$1 . 20
$ 1 .2 5

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11
11
12

U nder
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1.
$ 1.
$ 1.
$ 1.
$ 1.

30
35
40
45
50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 55
$1 . 60
$ 1.65
$1 . 70
$ 1. 75

Under
Under
U nder
U nder
Under

$ 1. 80
$ 1 .8 5
$ 1 . 90
$1 . 95
$ 2 . 00

Under
U nder
Under
U nder
Under
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

M anufac turing
ind us­
tries

6

7

8

14
15

_

n
n

-

( 2)
n

n

T otal1

1

-

-

5
7
9

_

16
17
18

_

(2)
( 2)
( 2)
( )
( 2)

21
22

23
25
29
31
33

6
8
10
12

32
34
38
41
44

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------------

39
41
43
44
46

16
17

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

49
51
53
55
57

$2.
$2 .
$2 .
$2 .
$2 .

10 -------------------------------------20 -------------------------------------30 — ------- -------------------------40 -------------------------------------5 0 --------------------------------------

63

$2 .
$2 .
$2.
S 2.
$3 .

60 -------------------------------------7 0 ------ ------------------------------80 -------------------------------------9 0 -------------------------------------00 ..................................................

T o ta l --------------------------------------N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ---------------------------------A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ---------------

69
72
74

288
$2.

00

-

0

(}
( 2)
7
8

3
4
5
18
19

1

7

8
12

13
14

21

23
24
29
32
40
43
47
49
55

22

51
52
55
56
57

20
20

23
24
24

28
28
29
30
30

63
65
67

27
28
30
32
37

60
62
64
66
66

30
30
31
31
31

31
39
40
42
42

71
73
76
77
78

43
51
55
58

72
75
77
78
80

38
40
42
43
44

46
49
52
58
63

83
85
87

86
88

83

50
58
64
65

66

68

70
73
75
76

91
92
94
95
96

100

100

100

100

100

97

191

35

15

71

$ 2 . 35

$1 .8 3

$2 . 65

$2 . 34

$ 1. 59

13

20
22

24

61

89
90

10
10

Includes nonmanufacturing in d us tri es in addition to those shown se p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 pe rce nt .




1
2

R etail
trad e

9

77
65
80
67
82
70
83
73
_______85____ _________ 76 ___
100

_
-

10
12

i
i

66

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ransp or­
ta tio n ,
C o ntract
c o m m u n i­
co n stru e c a tio n ,
t io n
a n d p u b lic
utilities

23
25

68

69

88

89

49

Table 6. Average Hourly Earnings: Monroe, La.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A verag e hourly earn in g s

Unde r
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nde r
U nder

$ 0 . 7 5 ----------------------------------$ 0 . 80________________________
$ 0. 8 5 _______________________
$ 0 . 9 0 _______________________
$ 0 . 9 5 _______________________
$ 1. 0 0 _______________________

All
m dus tries

M anufac. turing
ind ustries
.

9

-

10
12
12

T otal
13
14
17
18
19

.
_

3
3
3
3
3

16
17
18

1
1
1

23
24
26
29
31

11

21

$ 1. 0 5 _______________________
$ 1 . 1 0 _______________________
$ 1 . 1 5 _______________________
$ 1 . 2 0 _______________________
$ 1. 2 5 _______________________

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$
$
$
$
$

1. 3 0 ----------------------------------1. 3 5 _______________________
1 . 4 0 _______________________
1 . 4 5 _______________________
1. 5 0 _______________________

34
37
42
44
46

15
17

20
21

45
48
53
56
58

U nde r
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1 . 5 5 _______________________
$ 1. 6 0 _______________________
$ 1 . 6 5 _____________________
$ 1 . 7 0 _____________________
$ 1. 7 5 _____________________

50
51
53
55
57

24
25
26
28
29

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1.
$ 1.
$ 1.
$ 1.
$2.

8 0 _____________________
8 5 _____________________
9 0 _____________________
9 5 _____________________
0 0 _____________________

59
61
62
64
65

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

1 0 _____________________
2 0 _____________________
3 0 _____________________
4 0 _____________________
5 0 _____________________

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$ 3.

6 0 _____________________
7 0 _____________________
8 0 _____________________
9 0 _____________________
0 0 ______________ ______

2
2

21

22

1
1

2

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

20

(2 )

-

13
14

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nde r
U nder

T o t a l ______________________

1

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g in d u s t r i e s
T ran spo ra ion ,
C o n t r a c t c ot mt m u n i ­ W h o l e s a l e R e t a i l
c o n stru e - cation,
trad e
trad e
tio n
a n d p u b lic
utilities

2

3

-

1

2
2

_
-

17
19
2'
2b
28
31

.
-

(2 )

35
37
39
46
50

4
4
4

22

-

1
1
8
8

6

7

24
26
26

14
17
24
26
28

38
43
55
59
63

59
63
68

70
72

34
41
51
54

62
63
65
67
69

35
35
38
41
44

29
30
31
31
32

69
71
75
76
78

76
76
78
79
82

55
60
63
75
79

33
34
35
38
41

72
73
74
76
77

53
53
54
54
55

35
36
37
39
47

82
84
87
87

83
83
85
87
87

83
84
87

89

69
73
75
78
80

46
53
58
64

81
82
84
85

61
63
64
65

51
53
57
59
61

91
94
96
96

88

90
91
91
92
92

94
96
96
98
98

84
86
88

88

90
91
92
92

75
76
78
78
79

66

90
91

75
78
81
85
87

70
72
77
80

96
96
98
98
99

93
94
95
95
96

99
99
99
99
99

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ----------------------------

$ 1. 76

68

144

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ________

86

22

66

86

88

46
$2.

98

14

11

13

39

4

16

$ 1. 57

$ 2 . 14

$ 2 . 19

$ 1. 51

$ 1. 35

$ 1. 59

Includes nonmanufacturing in d us tri es in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r ce n t.




F in an ce,
in su ran ce,
and r e a l
e state

50
Table 7. Average Hourly Earnings: Tuscaloosa, Ala.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A verag e ho urly earnin gs

U n d e r $ 0 . 75 --------------------------------------

A ll
indus­
tries

M anufac turing
in d u s­
tries

T o tal1

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ransp or­
n,
C o n t r a c t c ota tio u n i ­ W h o l e s a l e
mm
co n stru c­
c a tio n ,
trad e
tio n
and public
utilitie s

7

1

12

-

8

1
1
1
1
1

15
17

.

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
Under

$0 . 80 -------------------------------------$0 . 85 ------------------- ---------------$ 0 . 9 0 -------------------------------------$0 . 95 -------------------------------------$ 1. 00 -----------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 05 -------------------------------------$ 1 . 1 0 ----- -----------------------------$ 1 . 15 -------------------------------------$1 . 20 -------------------------------------$ 1 . 2 5 --------------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
Under
Under

$ 1. 30 -------------------------------------$ 1. 35 -------------------------------------$ 1. 4 0 ------- --------------------------$ 1 .4 5 -------------------------------------$ 1 . 5 0 --------------------------------------

34
37
40
42
43

U nder
Under
Under
Under
Under

$ 1. 55 -------------------------------------$ 1. 6 0 ---------------- -........................
$ 1 . 6 5 -------------------------------------$ 1. 70 -------------------------------------$ 1. 75 --------------------------------------

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1 .80
$ 1. 85
$ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5
$2 . 00

U nder
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder

$2 .
$2 .
$2 .
$ 2.
$2 .

Under
U nder
U nder
U nder
Under

9

11
12

(2 )
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)

_

20
22

-

2
2
2
2
2

29
30
32
40
41

2
2

15
17
19

20
21

52
54
59
62
63

10
11
12

47
48
50
52
53

24
25
26
27
28

67
69
71
74
75

21
22

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

55
56
57
58
60

29
30
31
32
36

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

65

13
16
17
18

23

_

-

R etail
trad e
16

-

20

23
27
32
34

_

1
1
1
1
1
2

4
4

43
45
47
61
64

29
31
33

41
48
57
60
63

73
76
79
80
82

28
33
34

40
42
47
50
51

73
76
81
85
87

84
85

78
79
80
81
82

36
38
39
40
40

58
59
65
69
71

91
93
94
95
95

89
90
91
92
92

73
76
78

45
50
59
63
67

84
85
88

43
44
47
48
53

72
75
77
77
79

95
96
97
97
98

93
94
95
95
96

$2. 6 0 -------------------------------------$2. 70 -------------------------------------$ 2 . 8 0 -------------------------------------$2 . 90 -------------------------------------$ 3. 00 --------------------------------------

80
82
84
85
87

69
73
75
78
82

89
90
91
91
92

56
56
60
61
64

79
80
80
81
82

98
99
99

100
100

97
97
97
98
98

T o t a l ---------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ----------------------------------

155

74

82

11

7

8

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ----------------

$1 .83

21

$ 1. 48

$2 . 47

$ 1 .9 0

$ 1. 44

10
20
30
40
50

22

23

68

$ 2.

86

87

2

3
4
4
5

3
3
4

16

22

18
18

Includes nonmanufacturing in du st ri es in addition to those shown se p a r a t e l y .
L e s s than 0. 5 p er cen t.




86

87
88

;

36
$ 1.

20

51

Table 8. Average Hourly Earnings: Wichita Falls, Tex.
( C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

A verag e ho urly earnin gs

A ll
in d u s­
tries

M anufac­
turing
ind ustries

U n d e r $0 . 75 -------------------------------------

5

-

U nder
Under
U nder
U nder
U nder

$0. 80
$ 0 . 85
$ 0. 90
$ 0 . 95
$ 1 . 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8

_

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$ 1. 05
$ 1. 10
$1 .15
$1 . 20
$1 .25

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

20
21

U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1 .3 0
$1 . 35
$1. 40
$1 .4 5
$ 1. 50

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------

33
36
40
43
46

Under
U nder
U nder
U nder
Under

$1. 55
$ 1.60
$ 1. 65
$ 1. 70
$1 . 75

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Under
U nder
U nder
U nder
U nder

$1. 80
$ 1. 85
$1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5
$2 . 00

U nder
U nder
U nder
Under
Under
U nder
Under
Under
U nder
U nder

9

10
11
12

15
16
17

T otal1

N on m anu facturing in d u s trie s
T ransp orn,
n
C o n t r a c t c ota tio u n i ­ W h o le s a le R e t a i l i nFsiu raannccee, ,
m
c o n s t r u c ­ cm tio n ,
a
trad e
and rea l
trad e
tio n
and pu blic
estate
utilities

6

-

-

-

11

1

9

_

_

_

17
19

1
1

-

11

( 2)
(2 )

18

_

24
26

1
1
1

13
14
15

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

4
5
5

-

28
29
31
38
40

7
7
9

11
20

27
32
36
41
45

51
54
57
60
62

29
29
33
37
39

55
56
60
62
63

66
68

71
73
75

41
44
46
48
54

64

77
77
79
80
81

56
60
61
64
64
66

23

20
21

-

28
32
36

37
40
43
46
48

15
16
19

20
20

52
54
57
59
61

42
45
49
51
52

54
56
59
61
63

42
42
44
45
46

22

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

63
65
67
69
70

58
60
63

65

66
68

67

69
70

50
52
52
52
52

30
32
35
37
39

$2 . 10
$2 .20
$2 .30
$ 2. 40
$ 2. 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

73
76
79
81
83

72
74
78
79
84

74
77
79
82
83

57
58
61
62
62

49
53
58
61
64

74
79
82
87

83
85
87

88

89

71
74
79
85

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$3.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

86
88

88

86

1
1
2

16

22

66

4

21
22

6

7
9
13
16
19

24
27

66
68

70
71

88

89
91
92

92
95
96
97

88

65
67

89
90

67
69
73
74
74

68

69
73

95
95
96
97
98

91
92
93
93
94

91
92
95
96
96

T o t a l --------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) --------------------------------

148

29

119

14

15

12

49

8

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s ---------------

$ 1. 74

$ 1.83

$ 1. 72

$ 2 . 26

$2 . 31

$ 1 . 71

$ 1. 50

$ 1 . 80

60
70
80
90
00

87

Includes nonmanufacturing in d us tri es in addition to those shown s e pa r at el y .
L e s s than 0. 5 pe rc en t.




52

Table 9. Weekly Hours of Work: Amarillo, Tex.
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)
A ll
ind ustrie s

W e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k

4
14
7
29
9

U n d e r 15 ___________________________
15 a n d u n d e r 3 5 ___________________
35 and u n d e r 40 _
40
O v e r 40 and u n d e r 44
__
4 4 ____________________________________
O v e r 44 a nd u n d e r 4 8 _____________
4 8 ____________________________________
O v e r 48
_

6

9
7
16

T o t a l _________________________

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ____________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s ___________
1

M anufac turing
ind ustrie s

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g in d u s t r i e s
T ransporta tio n ,
C o n t r a c t c o m m u n i - W h o le s a le R e t a i l
con stru e - c a tio n ,
trad e
trad e
tio n
a n d p u b lic
utilities

T o tal1
5
14
7
29
9

2
11
8

32
10

5

7
19

2

4
7
3
23

9
7
______19__ _______15__

1

6
10

9

100

100

100

217

32

185

21

42

40

39

41

16
9
19

8

2

14

11

60
9

1

10
6
10
10

15

2

100

100

100

25

64

15

40

38

7
19
______ 2 7 ___

30

41

6

7
4
26

50
9
4

8

6

8
6

3
7

8
22

F inan ee.
in su ran ce ,
and r e a l
estate

100

45
1 ___________
_

1
1

_

I n c l u d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

Table 10.

W eek ly Hours o f W o rk :

Asheville, N.C.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

W e e k ly h o u r s of w o r k

U n d e r 1 5 _____________________________
15 a n d u n d e r 3 5 ____________________
35 a n d u n d e r 4 0 ------------------------------40________________________________ _____
O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 44 _____________
4 4 ______________________ ______________
O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 4 8 ______________
4 8 ______________________ ____________
O v e r 48 ______________________________
T o t a l __________________________
N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) _____
A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s ____________

A ll
ind ustrie s
3

12

M anufac turing
in d u stries
1
11

13
33
7

16
41
5

9
9

7

2

1

T o ta l1
5
13

10

25
8

3

8

11
11

100

100

296
40

12

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ran spo rtation,
C o ntract
c o n s t r u e - c o m m u n i - W holedsa le
t ra e
catio n,
tio n
a n d p u b lic
utilitie s
7

22

15
26
6
2
8

6
2
6
2

2
8
8

6

10

13
9
16
9

11
1

15
17

28
9

2

3
13

15

24

100

100

100

100

100

155

141

19

17

13

59

41

40

38

41

42

40

______ n ____ _______ 13___ ___

Includes nonmanufacturing indus tries in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .




2

9
7
51

R etail
trad e

_ 1 2 ____

53

Table 11. Weekly Hours of Work: Durham, N.C.
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)
A ll
industries

W e e k ly h o u r s of w o r k

U n d e r 15 --------------------- -----------------------i 5 and u n d e r 3 5 --------------------------------35 nd u n d e r 40 --------------------------------40 ----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 and u n d e r 4 4 -----------------------4 4 -----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 44 an d u n d e r 4 8 -----------------------4 8 -----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 8 -------------------------------------------------

4
24

T o ta l ------------------------------------------

M a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u stries

T o tal1
7
18
16

1

31
7
30
7

12

24
9
1
7
7

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ran spo ra i
C o n t r a c t c ot mt mounn, i R etail
co n stru c­
catio n.
trad e
tion
a nd p u b lic
u tilitie s

1

5
9

6

60
14
7

13

1
8
2

13

14
1

9

11
10
1
8
10

18

1
2

1

4

8

13

1
8

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
( in h u n d r e d s ) -------------------------------------

231

102

1 30

23

16

46

13

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s -----------------------

38

39

38

35

42

38

37

1

11

6

20

5
53
9

10
21

9

2
8

2

10

26

20
11
2

F in an ce
in s u r a n c e .
and r al
esi at e

I n c l u d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

Table 12.

W eekly Hours o f W ork :

Lake Charles, La.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

W e e k ly h o u r s of w o r k

A ll
ind ustries

U n d e r 15 ---------------------------------------------15 a n d u n d e r 35 ---------------------------------35 a n d u n d e r 40 ---------------------------------40 ----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 4 4 -----------------------4 4 ----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 4 8 -----------------------48 ----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 8 -------------------------------------------------

7
40
9
4
5
9
13

4

10

M anufac­
turing
in d u stries
1

4
5
54
14
4
3
5
11

T otal1

6

13
8

32
5
3
7

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ranspora i
n
C o n t r a c t c otm tmoun ,i - W h o le s a l e R e t a i l i nFsiu raannccee, ,
con stru e - c atio n ,
n
trad e
trad e
and re a l
tio n
and p u b lic
estate
utilitie s
8
20
2

29
7
3

12
11

4
50
3
1
1
2

2
6

5
14

10
2

25
4
4
9
19
11

5

100

100

3
38
5
5

15

8
2
22

14

30

11

8

2
8

19
41
14
1

9
1

T o t a l ------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) -------------------------------------

154

59

95

15

15

6

37.

7

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s -----------------------

41

42

40

40

39

44

40

40

1 Includes nonmanufacturing in d us tr ie s in addition to those shown s e p a r a t e l y .




54

Table 13. Weekly Hours of Work: Lexington, Ky.
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s by w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)
A ll
in d u s­
tries

W e e k ly h o u r s of w o r k

M anufac­
turing
in d u s­
tries

U n d e r 15 ---------------------------------------------15 a n d u n d e r 35 ---------------------------------35 a n d u n d e r 40 — ----------------------------40 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 44 ----------------------44 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 48 ----------------------48 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 48 ------------------------------------------------

3
14

16
17

T o t a l -----------------------------------------

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) ------------------------------------------------------

5
17
13

36
7
3

15

T o tal1

7

27
9
3

A v e ra g e w eek ly h o u rs
1

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ranspor­
ta tio n ,
C o ntract
c o m m u n i­
co n stru e c a tio n ,
tio n
a n d p u b lic
utilitie s

R etail
trad e

24

14

5
15

22
10
2

32
9

38
9

18

8

3

15

2
12

4
1

16

13
13

100

100

100

100

100

288

97

191

35

15

71

41

43

39

37

39

40

1

10

6

8
11

6

10

11

11

3

2

1

9

8

6

12

11

I n c l u d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

Table 14.

W eekly Hours o f W o rk :

Monroe, La.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k ,
s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)

W e e k ly h o u r s of w o r k

A ll
Indus­
trie s
3

M a n u fa c turing
ind ustries

T ota'i 1
4

U n d e r 15 ---------------------------------------------15 a n d u n d e r 35 ---------------------------------35 a n d u n d e r 40 ---------------------------------40 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 4 4 -----------------------4 4 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 48 ----------------------48 --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 48 ------------------------------------------------

29
9
7

5
35
7
3

27
9

T o t a l -----------------------------------------

10
6

1
8

11
6

N onm anufacturing in d u strie s
T ransp orn
C o n t r a c t c ota tio u ,n i ­ W h o l e s a l e R e t a i l
m
c o n s t r u c ­ cm tio n ,
a
trad e
trad e
tio n
a n d p u b lic
u tilities
3

11
6

3

8

(2)
5
3

48

68

9

2

8
2

19

6
11

24

8
8
11

16

13

8

100

100

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) -----------------------------------

144

46

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s --------------------

42

44

8
11

8
2
11

9
13

5
15
7
17
11
8

8

19
31
11

15

1

4

20
1

9

36

7
18
13

100

100

100

100

100

98

14

11

13

39

4

42

40

40

46

41

38

2

I n c l u d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




( 2)

F inance,
in s u ran ce ,
and rea l
e state

1
6

55

Table 15. Weekly Hours of Work: Tuscaloosa, Ala.
( P e r c e p t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s . J u n e 1965)
A ll
in d u s tries

W e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k

U n d e r 1 5 ____________________________
15 a n d u n d e r ________________________
35 a n d tin d e r 4 0 ____________________
4 0 __________ ________________________
O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 44 _____________
4 4 _____________________________________
O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 4 8 __ _ ______
4 8 ______________________________________
O v e r 4 8 ______________________________

4
14
8

M a n u f ac turing
ind ustries

T otal1
7
17

1
11
6

10

20

5
5
25

_ __

100

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) _____________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s _____________

T otal

1
2

_________ __

4
9
5

1

7
9
5
53
5
(2 )
5

10

27
15

10
20
8
6

34
13

27

N onm anu facturing in d u s trie s
T ransp oro
C o n t r a c t c ot a t im n ,n i - W h ole sa le
m u
c o n s tru e - catio n,
trade
tio n
and public
utilitie s

22
12

R etail
trad e
7
18

2

9

11

8
16

9
7

1
26
2

33

9
9
14
5
14

100

100

100

11

7

8

35

34

39

44

39

3
5

13
4
15

4

1
16

100

100

100

155

74

82

40

42

39

2

I n c l u d e s n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s t h a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

Table 16.

W eekly Hours o f W o rk :

W ichita Falls, Tex.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s b y w e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k , s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , J u n e 1965)
A ll
indus tries

W e e k l y h o u r s of w o r k

U n d e r 15___ ________________________
15 a n d u n d e r 35
35 a n d u n d e r 4 0 ____________________
4 0 ...........................................................................
O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 44 _____________
44 __
O v e r 44 a n d u n d e r 48 _____________
4 8 _____________________________________
O v e r 48
__ _
T o tal _ _

___

_

N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s
(in h u n d r e d s ) _ ___ _____________
A verag e w eek ly h o u rs _ _

3

12
6

27
8

5
9
9

M anufac turing
in d u s tries

T otal1

2

4
14

10

26
7
5
9

5
7
30
5

11

6

N on m anu facturing in d u strie s
T ransp ora i
n
C o n t r a c t c otmtmounn, i - W h ole s a l e R e t a i l i nFsiu raannccee, ,
co n stru e - c atio n ,
and rea l
trad e
trad e
tio n
estate
and pu blic
utilities
4

1

9

22

9
24
13
4
7

1

59

23

17

3
3
5

12

7
15
4
34

8

6

4
13
5

20
6

5
8

21

10
20

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

148

29

119

14

15

12

49

8

42

44

41

38

41

45

41

40

-

16
23

2

13
14
35
7
5
5
7

5
25

Includes nonmanufacturing industries in addition to those shown separately.




3

6
2

11

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope o f S u rvey
The s u rv e y o f s e le c te d m e tro p o lita n a re a s in the South w ith populations b etw een 100, 000
and 150,000 (a c c o rd in g to the I960 cen su s) included the fo llo w in g :
A m a r illo , T e x . (P o t t e r
and R an d all C o u n ties); A s h e v ille , N. C. (B uncom be C ounty); Durham , N. C. (D u rham C ounty);
L a k e C h a rle s , L a . (C a lc a s ie u P a r is h ); L ex in g to n , Ky. (F a y e tte C ounty); M o n ro e, L a . (O u achita
P a r is h ); T u s c a lo o s a , A la . (T u s c a lo o s a C ounty); and W ic h ita F a lls , T e x . (A r c h e r and W ic h ita
C ou n ties).
Included w e r e esta b lish m en ts w ith one o r m o r e e m p lo y e e s , and a u x ilia r y units
a ffilia te d w ith and s e r v in g the v a rio u s esta b lish m en ts (i. e. , w a reh o u ses, c e n tra l o ffic e s ,
la b o r a to r ie s , p o w erp la n ts, etc. ) w ith in each o f the a re a s .
M a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n s w ith in
the scope o f the s u rv e y w e r e :
(1) M in in g (e x c e p t p e tro le u m and n atu ral g a s ); (2) c o n tra ct
co n stru ctio n ; (3) m an u factu rin g; (4) tra n s p o rta tio n (e x c e p t r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , e le c t r ic ,
gas, and s a n ita ry s e r v ic e s ; (5) w h o le s a le tra d e ; (6) r e t a il tra d e ; (7) fin a n ce, in su ra n ce, and
r e a l esta te ; and (8) s e r v ic e s (e x c e p t n o n p ro fit r e lig io u s , c h a rita b le , edu cation al, and hu m ani­
ta ria n o r g a n iz a tio n s ).
M a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n s exclu d ed w e r e a g ric u ltu re and govern m en t.
A l l n o n s u p e rv is o ry e m p lo y e e s , ex c e p t ou tside s a le s p e rs o n s in in d u stries oth er than
r e t a il tra d e , w e r e inclu ded in the study. The ea rn in gs data r e la te to p a y r o ll p e rio d s ending
n e a re s t June 15, 1961, and June 15, 1962, and, in the la te s t su rv e y , in clu din g June 12, 1965.
The hou rs data p e rta in on ly to the June 1965 p e rio d .
Sam ple D esig n
State a g e n c ie s w hich a d m in is te r the un em ploym en t in su ran ce law s fu rn ish ed lis ts o f a ll
esta b lish m en ts c o v e r e d by th ese law s in each a re a , show ing lo c a tio n , em p lo ym en t, and in ­
d u stry c la s s ific a tio n .
F r o m th ese lis t s , a sam p le o f esta b lish m en ts w as s e le c te d , using a
s tr a tifie d sam ple d esig n w ith v a r ia b le sam p lin g ra tio s based on optim u m a llo c a tio n depending
on kind o f in d u s tria l a c tiv ity and em p lo ym en t s iz e . T o obtain an a p p ro p ria te d e g r e e o f a c ­
cu ra cy at m in im u m co st, the sam p le w ith in each m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n co n s is te d o f a g r e a te r
p ro p o rtio n o f la r g e than o f s m a ll esta b lis h m e n ts . G e n e ra lly , each e s ta b lis h m e n ts chance o f
b ein g in clu ded in the sam ple w as rou gh ly p ro p o rtio n a te to its em p lo ym en t s iz e .
Although
sep a ra te sa m p les w e r e p re p a re d fo r the 1961, 1962, and 1965 s u rv e y s , a su bstan tial p r o ­
p o rtio n o f the la r g e r esta b lish m en ts w as in clu ded in a ll th ree s u rv e y s .
M ethod o f C o lle c tio n
P r im a r y data fo r 1961 and 1962 used in the tabulations w e r e obtained la r g e ly by m a il
q u estio n n a ire. L a r g e units w e r e v is ite d by the Bureau*s fie ld e c o n o m is ts , as .w e re a sam p le
o f the nonrespondents to the m a il q u estio n n a ire. P r im a r y data fo r 1965 w e r e obtain ed la r g e ly
through p e rs o n a l v is it s by B ureau fie ld eco n o m ists to the sa m p le esta b lis h m e n ts .
E s tim a tin g P r o c e d u r e s
The p r o b a b ility o f the u nitl s in clu sio n in the sam p le d e te rm in e d the w eig h tin g fo r each
sam p lin g unit. F o r ex a m p le, when 1 out o f 4 esta b lish m en ts in an in d u s tr y -s iz e c la s s w as
s e le c te d fo r study, data fo r this esta b lish m en t w e r e g iv e n a w e ig h t o f 4, thus re p re s e n tin g
the esta b lish m en t studied and the 3 not studied.
T h e r e fo r e , e s tim a te s b ased on the e s ta b ­
lish m en ts studied r e la te to a ll esta b lish m en ts in the in d u stry grou ps w ith in the a re a . Data
fo r esta b lish m en ts w ith 1 to 3 e m p lo y e e s , w hich w e r e not inclu ded in the State lis tin g s , w e r e
im puted to the esta b lish m en ts w ith 4 to 10 e m p lo y e e s . T o m in im iz e the b ias o f n o n resp on se,
data obtained fr o m a sam ple o f the nonrespondents to the m a il qu estio n n a ire w e r e w eig h ted
to r e p re s e n t a ll o th er nonrespondents.
The advance planning n e c e s s a r y to m ake a w a ge s u rv e y r e q u ir e s the u se o f lis ts o f
esta b lish m en ts a s s e m b le d c o n s id e ra b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied. C on sequ en tly,
the s u rv e y did not include esta b lish m en ts new to the u n iv e rs e subsequent to the c o m p ila tio n
o f e sta b lish m en t lis tin g s .
In addition, the la ck o f p r e c is e in fo rm a tio n fo r esta b lish m en ts
w ith fe w e r than fou r e m p lo y e e s m ak es it n e c e s s a r y to r e g a r d w ith r e s e r v a tio n s m a ll e m p lo y ­
m en t changes based on sa m p les.




56

57

D e fin itio n o f T e r m s
E a rn in g s D a ta .
F o r pu rp oses o f this study, ea rn in gs data r e la te to s tr a ig h t-tim e
h o u rly ea rn in g s, exclu d in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e w o rk , and fo r w o rk on w eeken ds,
h o lid a y s, and la te s h ifts .
C o s t - o f- liv in g and in c e n tiv e p aym en ts, such as those re s u ltin g
fr o m p ie c e w o rk o r p rod u ction bonus s y s te m s , a re c o n s id e re d p a rt o f the w o r k e r 1s re g u la r
pay, but nonprodu ction p aym en ts, such as C h ris tm a s o r y e a re n d bonuses, a re not so c o n ­
s id e re d . E a rn in g s o f w o r k e r s not paid on an h o u rly b a s is w e r e c o n v e rte d to an h o u rly ra te
by d ivid in g the to ta l s tr a ig h t-tim e ea rn in gs re p o rte d by the num ber o f paid hours du rin g the
p a y r o ll p e rio d .
G roup a v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in gs published in this b u lletin (e x c e p t fo r r e t a il
tra d e ) w e r e obtained by d iv id in g the sum o f the h o u rly ea rn in gs by the num ber o f in d ivid u als
r e p re s e n te d in the group to ta l. Group a v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r r e t a il tra d e w e r e obtained
by d ivid in g the sum o f the h o u rly ea rn in gs by the num ber o f hours w o rk e d . T h is p ro c e d u re
w as u sed b ecau se o f the w id e v a r ia tio n o f w o rk schedu les fo r r e t a il e m p lo y e e s .

E s ta b lis h m e n t.
An e sta b lish m en t
w h e re bu sin ess is conducted.
B ecau se
b a sis (as op p osed to an in d u stry b a s is ),
r e p o rtin g unit lo c a te d w ith in the s p e c ifie d
r e p a ir shops, and la b o r a to r ie s , w e r e also

is g e n e r a lly d efin ed as a sin g le p h y s ic a l lo c a tio n
the s u rv e y w as conducted on a m e tro p o lita n a re a
data w e r e re q u e s te d fo r a ll e s ta b lish m en ts o f the
a re a . A u x ilia r y units, such as w a re h o u s e s , o ffic e s ,
inclu ded in the s u rv e y as p a rt o f the r e p o rtin g unit.

H ou rs o f w o rk a re fo r a 1 -w eek p e r io d and include hours paid fo r v a ca tio n s, h o lid a y s ,
s ic k leave, and o th er paid le a v e . G roup a v e r a g e w e e k ly hours w e r e ob tain ed by d iv id in g the
sum o f the w e e k ly hours by the num ber o f in d ivid u als in the grou p tota l.

In du stry G ro u p s.
The in d u stry groups u sed in this s u rv e y a re c o m p le te ly d efin ed in
the 1957 ed itio n o f the Standard In d u s tria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual
p re p a re d by the B ureau
o f the Budget.

M e tro p o lita n a r e a s , as used in this study, r e fe r to those c ity and county a re a s defin ed
by the B ureau o f the B udget as Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s in 1961.
Included
a re cou nties containing at le a s t one c e n tr a l c ity w ith a population o f 50, 000 o r m o r e , as w e ll
as those ad jacen t cou nties that a re found to be m e tro p o lita n in c h a ra c te r and e c o n o m ic a lly
and s o c ia lly in te g ra te d w ith the county containing the c e n tra l c ity . F o r a m o r e d e ta ile d d e ­
s c rip tio n o f m e tro p o lita n a re a s , see the pam phlet, Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s ,
p re p a re d by the B ureau o f the B udget in 1961.

N o n s u p e rv is o ry E m p lo y e e s . Included in this group a re e m p lo y e e s b elow the s u p e r v is o r y
le v e l, such as m in e r s , prod u ction w o r k e r s , o ffic e and c le r ic a l w o r k e r s , in sid e s a le s p e rs o n s ,
rou tem en , re p a irm e n , m ain ten an ce w o r k e r s , in s ta lla tio n m en, c a fe t e r ia e m p lo y e e s , cu sto d ia l
w o r k e r s , t r u c k d r iv e r s , etc . E xclu d ed fr o m this group a re ou tside s a le s p e rs o n s , e x e c u tiv e s ,
p r o fe s s io n a ls , and s u p e r v is o r s .




Appendix B. Questionnaire
BLS 2837

Budget Bureau No. 44-R1167. 2
Approval expires May 31, 1966

(Rev. ’65)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU O F LABOR S I
■ics

Your report w ill be
held in confidence.

W a s h in g t o n ,

D.C.

2

ID E N T IF IC A T IO N :
Schedule
City
number Reg- State size

SIC

Est.
size

Wgt.

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS,
SELECTED AREAS

Spec.
char.

This report should cover all establishments of your
company located in the county or area designated
to the left. Include auxiliary units such as ware­
houses, offices, repair shops, and research labora­
tories, etc. Do not report data for any establish­
ment located outside of the designated county.

I. T Y P E O F B U SIN E SS: ___________________________________________________________________________
In d ica te y o u r m a jo r b u s in e s s a c tiv ity (e. g. , m in in g , m a n u fa c tu r in g , w h o le sa le
tr a d e , e tc . ) and y o u r p r in c ip a l p ro d u c t or s e r v ic e b a s e d on v a lu e of s a le s or
r e c e ip ts ( e . g . , cru d e p e tr o le u m , s e a m le s s h o s ie r y , g r o c e r ie s , e t c .) . T y p ic a l
e x a m p le s of p r o p e r e n tr ie s a r e: M ining— c o a l; m a n u fa c tu r in g — te x tile m a c h in e r y ;
b an k in g; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p s; g e n e r a l b u ild in g c o n tr a c to r ; e tc .
2. P A Y R O L L P E R IO D C O V E R E D BY TH E SU R V E Y :
T h e in fo r m a tio n r e q u e s te d sh o u ld c o r r e sp o n d to y o u r p a y r o ll p e r io d (w e e k ly , b i­
w e e k ly , o r m o n th ly ) w h ich in c lu d e s Ju n e 12, 1 9 6 5 .
In d ica te th e d a te s fo r th e p a y r o ll p e r io d u se d :
F r o m _______________________________________, 1965 t o ___________________________ ________ , 1965.

3. E M P L O Y M E N T IN E S T A B L ISH M E N T S C O V E R E D BY TH IS R E PO R T :




A . T o ta l n u m b er of e m p lo y e e s ______________________________________________ _____________ .
Enter total number of employees (full-time and part-time) who received pay for any part of the payroll period.
DO NOT INCLUDE proprietors, members of unincorporated firms, or unpaid family workers.

B . N u m b er of n o n su p e r v iso r y e m p lo y e e s --------------------------------------------------- -------------------- .
Enter total number of employees (full-time and part-time) below the supervisory level who received pay for any
part of the payroll period. Working supervisors who spend less than 20 percent of their time at supervisory duties
should be classified as nonsupervisory. Include such employees as miners, production, office, and technical em­
ployees, salespersons (including telephone sales), routemen, repairmen, maintenance and installation men, cafeteria
employees, waiters, custodial employees, truckdrivers, etc. DO NOT INCLUDE outside salesmen, executive, ad­
ministrative, professional, and supervisory employees.

D o yo u w an t a cop y of th e B u r e a u 's r e p o r t on th is s u r v e y ? ___Y es □

N o n

N am e and title of p e r s o n fu r n ish in g d a t a ___________________________________________________
(Please type or print)

58

59

4. EA R N IN G S AND HOURS O F N O N SU P E R V ISO R Y E M P L O Y E E S :
IN ST R U C T IO N S
(P le a s e rea d c a r e fu lly to a v o id c o r r e s p o n d e n c e )
E a rn in g s and h o u rs sh ou ld be r e p o r te d s e p a r a te ly fo r ea ch e m p lo y e e u n le s s th e s e d ata
a r e id e n tic a l fo r tw o e m p lo y e e s or m o r e . E x clu d e p r e m iu m p ay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r
w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts . Do n ot r e p o r t a g g r e g a te e a r n in g s and
h o u rs fo r s e v e r a l w o r k e r s . F o r c o n v e n ie n c e of r ep o r tin g fo r e m p lo y e e s p aid on o th er
than an h o u r ly b a s is (e. g. , s a la r y , in c e n tiv e ), c o lu m n s 5 and 6 a r e p r o v id e d . In­
s tr u c tio n s fo r r e p o r tin g the n e c e s s a r y d ata in ea ch co lu m n a r e lis te d b e lo w . T he e x ­
a m p le s r e fe r r e d to a r e sh ow n on th e e n c lo s e d s h e e t.
Colum n (1)— Indicate w hether the em ployee is m ale (M) or fem ale (F).
Colum n (2)— Use a separate line for each em ployee and enter " 1 ," unless two em ­
ployees or m ore of the sam e sex worked the sam e num ber of hours during the se­
lected w eek, and received identical hourly or salary rates. D ata are to be reported
C om plete colum ns 1, 2, and 3 for all individually for each em ployee whose earnings were based entirely or in part on com ­
nonsupervisory em ployees covered by m issions, bonuses, or incentives.
this report. (See exam ples 1—4. )
C olum n (3)— Enter the num ber of hours worked during the w eek of June 6-1 2, 1965.
Include hours paid for sick leave, holidays, vacations, etc. These hours should re­
late to a 1-w eek period regardless of the length of the payroll period.
All em ployees

Hourly rated em ployees
Use colum n 4 to report earnings of em ­
ployees paid on an hourly basis. (See
exam ple 1. )

Colum n (4)— Enter the base (straight-tim e hourly) rate. Prem ium paym ents for over­
tim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts should be excluded. This
colum n m ay also be used to report earnings of em ployees paid on an incentive or
salary basis if average straight-tim e hourly earnings are available.

Colum n (5)— Enter for each em ployee the to tal straig h t-tim e salary and/or incen­
tive earnings for the payroll period (w eekly, biw eekly, or sem im onthly) w hich in­
cludes June 12, 1965. Include straight-tim e pay for overtim e, but exclude over­
Use columns 5 and 6 to report earnings tim e prem ium .
of em ployees paid on a salary or incen­
tive basis. (See exam ples 2, 3, and 4. ) Colum n (6)— Enter the num ber of hours worked during the payroll period (w eekly,
biw eekly, m onthly, or sem im onthly) w hich corresponds to the earnings reported in
colum n 5. Include hours paid for sick leave, holidays, vacations, etc.
Salaried or incentive em ployees

C o m p le te th e s e c o lu m n s fo r a ll
n o n su p e r v iso r y e m p lo y e e s
Pi
S ex
(M or F)

1

(2)
N u m b er
of
e m p lo y e e s




(3)
H ou rs
w o rk ed
d u rin g
the w e ek
Ju n e 6—12,
1965

U s e th is
co lu m n fo r
n o n su p e r v iso r y
e m p lo y e e s
p aid on an
h o u rly b a s is
(4)
S tr a ig h t-tim e
h o u rly r a te

U s e th e s e co lu m n s for
n o n s u p e r v is o r y e m p lo y e e s
p aid o th er than on an
h o u rly b a s is
(5)
S tr a ig h t-tim e
s a la r y o r
in c e n tiv e
e a rn in g s fo r
p a y r o ll p e rio d
w h ich in c lu d e s
June 12, 1965

(6)
H ou rs
w o rk ed
d u rin g
p a y r o ll
p e r io d

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1966 O - 241-312