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330.173

ECONOMIC REPORT
OF THE PRESIDENT

Transmitted to the Congress
February 1968

Together With
THE ANNUAL REPORT
of the
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS






Economic Report
of the President

Transmitted to the Congress
February 1968
TOGETHER WITH

THE ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1968

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25







CONTENTS
ECONOMIC REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT

Page
A TIME FOR DECISIONS

3

THE RECORD AND PROBLEMS OF PROSPERITY

4

1967—A Year of Readjustment at Home
1967—A Year of External Problems and Promise
Seven Years of Expansion
The Role of Policy
The Problems of Prosperity

4
5
6
7
8

FISCAL POLICY AND THE OUTLOOK FOR 1968

The
The
The
The

8

Current Economic Situation
Current Fiscal Situation
Role of Fiscal Restraint
Economic Outlook with the Tax Increase

PROBLEMS

AND

PROGRAMS

IN

OUR

INTERNATIONAL

AFFAIRS

8
9
10
11
ECONOMIC
12

The U.S. Balance-of-Payments Deficit
Program for 1968
The Dollar and the International Monetary System
Trade
Aid to Developing Countries
THE RETURN TO PRICE STABILITY

12
14
16
17
18
19

Responsible Wage and Price Behavior
Structural Price Problems
Cabinet Committee on Price Stability
CITIES AND HOUSING

19
20
20
21

EXPANDING INDIVIDUAL OPPORTUNITY.

Employment and Training
Unemployment Insurance
Education
Health
Income Maintenance

22

23
24
24
25
25

CONSUMER PROTECTION

26

OTHER ECONOMIC POLICIES

26

CONCLUSION

27




m

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS*
CHAPTER 1. SUSTAINING PROSPERITY : RECORD AND PROSPECTS . . . .
CHAPTER 2. T H E STRATEGY OF STABILIZATION POLICY

58

CHAPTER 3. T H E PROBLEM OF RISING PRICES
CHAPTER 4. ECONOMIC

DEVELOPMENT

AND

Page
39
96

INDIVIDUAL

OPPOR-

TUNITY

129

CHAPTER 5. T H E INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY

163

APPENDIX A. REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF THE
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS DURING 1967

195

APPENDIX B. STATISTICAL TABLES RELATING TO INCOME, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTION

203

*For a detailed table of contents of the Council's Report, see page 33.




IV




ECONOMIC REPORT
OF THE PRESIDENT




ECONOMIC REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT

To the Congress of the United States:
Most Americans see the economy in terms of a particular job or farm
or business. Yet the welfare of each of us depends significantly on the
state of the economy as a whole.
It was never more necessary for all Americans to try to see the whole
economy in perspective—to realize its achievements, to recognize its problems, to understand what must be done to develop its full potential for
good. For, as a people, we face some important choices.
A TIME FOR DECISIONS
Seldom can any single choice make or break an economy as strong and
healthy as ours. But the series of interrelated decisions we face will affect
our economy and that of the whole free world for years to come.
We face these hard decisions with a confidence born of success. Our
economy has never been stronger and more vigorous than during the
1960's.
Our achievements demonstrate that we can manage our economic
affairs wisely—that we can make sound choices.
If we now choose responsibly, we can look forward—at home—to more
years of healthy prosperity, and of social and economic progress.
If we choose responsibly, and our friends abroad cooperate responsibly, we and they can look forward in confidence to the continuing
smooth and rapid expansion of the mutually rewarding international
exchange of goods and services.
But if we temporize—try to avoid the hard choices before us—we will
soon discover that we have even more difficult choices to make. In six
months or a year, we could find our prices and interest rates rising far
too fast. In a few months we and our friends abroad could face new
uncertainty and turbulence in international financial affairs.
If we wait for the problems to become acute and obvious, then everyone will be ready to act. By then, the tasks could well be much harder.




In the coming weeks and months we must choose
—whether we will conduct our fiscal affairs sensibly; or whether
we will allow a clearly excessive budgetary deficit to go uncorrected by failing to raise taxes, and thereby risk a feverish boom
that could generate an unacceptable acceleration of price increases, a possible financial crisis, and perhaps ultimately a
recession;
—whether as businessmen and workers we will behave prudently
in setting prices and wages; or whether we will risk an intensified wage-price spiral that would threaten our trade surplus
and the stability of our economy for years to come;
—whether we will act firmly and wisely to control our balanceof-payments deficit; or whether we will risk a breakdown in
the financial system that has underpinned world prosperity, a
possible reversion toward economic isolationism, and a spiraling
slowdown in world economic expansion;
—whether we will move constructively to deal with the urgent
problems of our cities and compassionately to bring hope to our
disadvantaged; or whether we are willing to risk irreversible urban
deterioration and social explosion.
I know that Americans can face up to the tasks before us—that we
can run our economic affairs responsibly. I am confident that we will take
timely action to maintain the health and strength of our economy and
our society in the months and years ahead.
THE RECORD AND PROBLEMS OF PROSPERITY
The year 1967 was one of uncertainties and difficulties both in our external and our internal economic affairs. Yet there were reasons for confidence as well as concern, both internationally and domestically.
1967—A YEAR OF READJUSTMENT AT HOME
For the domestic economy, 1967 was a year of readjustment—after the
strains of 1966.
Growth in the first half was at an annual rate of only a little over 1 percent, after correction for price increases. But vigorous growth resumed in
the second half—at a yearly rate of around 4^4 percent.
Last year had to be a year of readjustment because our economy
began the year out of balance. Inventories were excessive, housing was
in a slump, and business spending on new plant and equipment threatened to drop away from a level that seemed too high to be sustained.




Those imbalances no longer exist. That is why our economy is again
advancing so strongly.
Because readjustments were necessary, the gains of 1967 were not as
great as were those of 1966, nor as those anticipated for 1968. Yet it
was a year of important economic progress on most fronts.
During 1967
—an additional 1% million persons found jobs;
—our unemployment rate, at 3.8 percent, matched that of 1966
and was lower than in any previous year since 1953;
—average earnings of factory workers rose by $4.80 a week;
—total employee compensation rose $33 billion;
—farm proprietors' net income dipped, but by yearend had returned to the level of a year earlier;
—total consumer income after taxes climbed $35/ 2 billion;
—industrial production, after dropping almost 2 ^ percent, recovered by December to a new all-time peak; and
—the annual rate of housing starts rose a half million.
During 1967, prices also advanced—more than we would have
wished. Even so, real purchasing power per capita available to consumers after taxes rose 3 percent.
1967—A YEAR OF EXTERNAL PROBLEMS AND PROMISE
The U.S. balance-of-payments deficit—a chronic problem since
1957—worsened in 1967 after several years of substantial improvement.
In important measure this deterioration reflected the fears and uncertainties surrounding the devaluation of the British pound in November.
The same uncertainties also fed a massive wave of private speculation
against gold late in the year. This subsided only after the United States
and other countries in the "gold pool" demonstrated their determination—backed by the use of their monetary reserves—not to allow a change
in the price of gold.
In the absence of strong new action by the United States—and by
the surplus countries of Western Europe—there was danger that the
deterioration of the U.S. payments balance and speculation against gold
and currencies might feed upon and reinforce one another in a way that
could touch off an international financial crisis in 1968.
Even if the dangers were remote, the grave consequences of such a
crisis for the world economy demanded bold and immediate preventive
action. It was taken on January 1. The substance of our measures, plans,
and priorities is discussed later in this Report.




But 1967 saw progress as well as problems on the international front.
For it also brought the culmination of two giant forward steps in world
international economic affairs, both long in gestation:
• In June, the Kennedy Round of negotiations produced agreement on the single most significant multilateral reduction in
world trade barriers in history. It promises further to stimulate
the expansion of international trade, already a major source of
postwar economic growth throughout the world.
• In September, the member nations of the IMF reached agreement on plans to create by deliberate cooperative action a new
form of world reserves, supplemeating gold and the dollar. Once
this plan comes into full operation, the vulnerability of the present
system to speculation should gradually fade away, and so should
any threat of a possible future strangulation of the growth of
world trade and production.
SEVEN YEARS OF EXPANSION

If 1967 stood alone, it would have to be judged a satisfactory year,
despite its problems.
But 1967 must not be seen in isolation—rather as the seventh year of
the longest and strongest economic expansion in our history. The opening
months of 1967 were merely a brief pause in the broad sweep of economic
advance.
Over these seven years
—our total real output of goods and services has increased more
than 40 percent;
—per capita income after taxes and valued in dollars of constant
purchasing power has risen 29 percent;
—10 million more people are at work;
—more than 12 million Americans have moved above the poverty
line.
Over just the past four years
—2J4 million more students are in college;
—5^2 million new homes have been built;
—35 million new cars have been sold;
—use of electricity has risen one-third;
—5 million more families own stock, 23 million more have savings
accounts, and the assets of private pension funds have grown by
$40 billion; and
—35 percent more Negroes have found professional, technical,
and managerial jobs.




Had the path of real output in 1961-67 followed the bumpy path
of 1954-60
—the Nation's total real output over the past seven years would have
been $340 billion lower (valued in today's prices) than it actually
was—this cumulative difference is about equal, in real terms, to
the Nation's total output in 1942.
—the annual rate of output today (valued in today's prices) would
be $120 billion lower than in fact it is—this difference is equivalent to about $ 1,600 a year per person now employed.
Truly, the American people have enjoyed exceptional economic benefits over these seven years. But these striking benefits confer obligations.
• Over this period 8 million more families have achieved yearly
incomes above $10,000. They—and the 6J/2 million who already
enjoyed such incomes in 1960—have a special obligation to the
more than 10 million households still in poverty.
• The seven-year increase of $820 in real per capita income (valued
in today's prices) exceeds the current total average per
capita income in nations with 70 percent of the world's population. This fact makes inescapable the obligation of the American
people for helping to maintain security and for providing economic assistance to the developing world.
I believe that the American people—whose present affluence would
have been beyond the belief of most of us only 20 years ago—accept these
obligations. My policies, at home and abroad, continue to be founded on a
vision of the opportunities and obligations for the wealthy to help the
poor to help themselves.
T H E ROLE OF POLICY

It is far more than coincidence that, during these seven years of
achievement, fiscal and monetary policy have been actively and consciously employed to promote prosperity.
No longer does Federal economic policy rely primarily on the "automatic stabilizers" built into our system, or wait for a recession or serious
inflation to occur before measures are taken.
Fiscal and monetary policies have not been perfectly executed nor
perfectly coordinated in the past few years. But our policies have remained under continuous and coordinated review. And our actions have
been consistently in the right direction, if not always perfectly timed nor
in precisely the right degree.




T H E PROBLEMS OF PROSPERITY

Healthy prosperity has brought exceptional gains in production,
incomes, and jobs.
But prosperity has not solved all of our economic problems, and it
has created some of its own. These are the priority problems facing us
in 1968.
1. First and foremost, we must take the necessary steps to put our
fiscal affairs in order. Unless we do we shall be unable to deal
effectively with the other problems that confront us.
2. We must slow down the wage-price spiral. Although we cannot
achieve stability all at once, we must make progress in 1968
toward our goal of reasonable price stability in a steadily growing,
high-employment economy.
3. We must push forward vigorously to restore equilibrium in our
international accounts. We shall do so in full awareness of our
responsibilities to promote and sustain a strong and expanding
world economy. And we will enlist the cooperation of all other
nations who share those responsibilities.
4. We must deal more effectively with our urban problems. More
and more of our people live in cities. Yet cities threaten to become
less and less livable—unless we take decisive steps to correct:
slum housing; inadequate public services; congestion, noise, and
pollution; inadequate transportation; unplanned sprawl; segregation, discrimination, and deficient job opportunities; crime, delinquency, and alienation.
5. We must continue the struggle to expand the opportunities
available to every citizen—especially our disadvantaged. They require education, training, and adequate health care to prepare
them for useful careers, and freedom from discrimination in
finding jobs and housing. Those unable to work need adequate income protection. The war on poverty must go forward.
FISCAL POLICY AND THE OUTLOOK FOR 1968
T H E CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION

The month-to-month changes of our economic indicators were often
puzzling in 1967. But, when seen in perspective, economic developments
reveal
—a slowdown—though not a decline—in the first half, as we
predicted a year ago; and




8

—a strong and sustained recovery in the second half, as we predicted last January and again in August when I renewed my
request for a tax increase.
• In the second half of last year, the annual rate of our gross
national product advanced by $32l/i billion. In only one
earlier half-year—the second half of 1965—has it advanced
by more.
• The unemployment rate in December was 3.7 percent. In
only 2 months of the last 169 has it been lower.
• Factory orders and shipments of durable goods were at an
all-time high.
• Personal income rose more than $12 billion in November and
December.
• And, disturbingly, the rate of increase in industrial wholesale prices in the second half of 1967 has been exceeded in
only 4 other half-year periods in the past 16 years.
Every prospect is for continued rapid increase of output in the months
ahead. Most experienced observers agree that the pace now is—and in
the months ahead will be—too fast for safety. The gain in gross national
product in the current quarter is generally expected to be one of the
largest in our history—a record we could gladly do without at this time.
T H E CURRENT FISCAL SITUATION

Following the major tax cuts of 1964 and 1965—equivalent to about
$23 billion in today's economy—the booming economy of 1965 and
1966 brought Federal revenues into balance with Federal spending. In
both years there was a small Federal surplus on the comprehensive
national income accounts basis.
The slowdown in economic growth that began in late 1966 dampened the growth of revenues. At the same time, the cost of our commitment to freedom in Southeast Asia was steadily rising.
As a result, the Federal sector account plunged into deficit—$12^2
billion in calendar year 1967.
Sharply rising Federal spending was a strong expansionary force in
the economy between mid-1965 and mid-1967. While housing was still
recovering from the after-effects of tight money, and private demand
was sluggish—during thefirsthalf of last year—the stimulus from Federal
spending was welcome.
Federal spending has not been growing rapidly since mid-1967, nor
will it increase rapidly in the next year and a half. But because of the
already high level of defense outlays, total Federal expenditures are too




large to be piled on top of normal private demand without overheating
our economy. It is because private demand has now returned to normal
after its temporary weakness that we now need new measures of fiscal
restraint.
Without the proposed income tax surcharge and the maintenance of
current excise tax rates, the Federal sector deficit on national income
account would remain close to the level of 1967.
Unless action is quickly taken to expand Federal revenues, a deficit
that large—in combination with a resurgent private economy—would
have these consequences:
• It would speed up a wage-price spiral already turning far
too rapidly.
• It would seriously impair our already difficult international
economic position—by damaging confidence in the dollar,
and by stimulating imports and putting exports at a competitive disadvantage.
• Financing such a deficit would increasingly strain financial
markets, pushing interest rates further above present record
highs, and threatening another financial squeeze and another slump in homebuilding.
T H E ROLE OF FISCAL RESTRAINT

The extraordinary achievements of our economy during the past seven
years were made possible by our willingness to use fiscal and monetary
policies to stimulate adequate expansion of total demand.
Now, however, restraint is essential to our economic health. High
interest rates and tight money can restrain the economy—and will do so
if fiscal policy fails to do it. But the cost of monetary restraint is high
and unfair, imposed primarily on a single industry—homebuilding.
We must demonstrate that we can use fiscal policies flexibly—that we
can raise as well as lower taxes.
I therefore urgently renew my request that the Congress enact a temporary 10-percent surcharge on corporate and individual income taxes.
• For corporations, the surcharge would become effective January
1,1968, and continue through June 30, 1969.
• For individuals the surcharge would become effective on April 1.
The 10-percent increase in withholding tax would continue
through June 30, 1969. Taxpayers in the lower income brackets
would be exempted from any surcharge.
• The legislation should, as I recommended last year, put all corporations on a fully current payments basis, and extend tem-




10

porarily the telephone and automobile excise taxes otherwise
scheduled to drop on April 1,1968.
These measures would increase tax revenues in fiscal year 1968 by
$3 billion, and in fiscal year 1969 by $13 billion.
If future circumstances should permit ending the surcharge before
June 30,1969, it can be promptly repealed.
The surcharge of 10 percent on individual income taxes would reduce
individual incomes by about 1 percent on the average. With the lowincome exemption, the surcharge would add nothing to the taxes of a
family of four with an income of $5,000. It would increase the tax bill
for a family of four making $25,000 by about 2 percent of income.
Effective Federal tax rates on individual income would still remain,
on the average, about 10 percent lower than in 1963.
A tax increase in the form of a surcharge on present taxes has many
advantages:
—it is simple, requiring no additional administrative expense or
inconvenience to the taxpayer;
—it preserves the present progressiveness of the system as it applies
to middle and upper incomes, and the present division between
corporate and personal taxes;
—it is easy to identify and repeal when no longer needed.
T H E ECONOMIC OUTLOOK WITH THE TAX INCREASE

The fiscal policies I am now proposing will
—accomplish a sharp reduction in the Federal deficit on national
income account, and erase it early in 1969;
—encourage balanced economic expansion to continue at a rate appropriate to our rising productive potential;
—permit the unemployment rate to remain below 4 percent for the
third straight year;
—allow credit to remain available, without soaring interest rates,
to meet the needs of housing and other key areas;
—promote a gradual slowing down of price increases;
—in combination with the other measures we are taking, encourage an expansion of our foreign trade surplus.
Even with the surcharge, GNP should increase by some $60 billion,
about 7% percent. With prices rising more than 3 percent, real output
of goods and services in 1968 will be more than 4 percent above 1967.
• Consumer purchases and homebuilding activity will rise strongly.
• Expenditures to expand and modernize productive capacity will
grow at the moderate pace consistent with business needs.




II

• While State and local governments will continue to increase
spending at a fairly rapid rate, Federal purchases will grow by
less than half as much as in 1967.
• There will be further large gains in private incomes, even after
higher taxes and prices.
The economic outlook is thus favorable—assuming fiscal restraint is
forthcoming. Damage has already been done to interest rates, to our
trade surplus, and to the level of prices by the failure of Congress to act
last fall. But it is still not too late to avoid far more serious problems if
action is taken in the next few weeks.
I again urge the Congress to act promptly on my tax proposals.
PROBLEMS AND PROGRAMS IN OUR INTERNATIONAL
ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
T H E U.S.

BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS DEFICIT

On January 1, I announced the main elements of our new balanceof-payments program for 1968. That program deals decisively with the
threat to the dollar that developed in 1967.
Nature of the Problem
It is important to be clear about the nature of our balance-of-payments
problem. The United States has a sizable surplus of exports of goods and
services over imports. Our past overseas investments bring in excellent
and growing earnings, and our new overseas investments are running at
a very high level. There is a small but growing reverse flow of foreign investment here.
We have heavy military expenditures overseas, which are not fully
offset by our allies; and our aid program still accounts for a small outflow of dollars.
Our export sales, our investment return, and the inflow of investment
from abroad are not large enough to finance our imports, our new investments abroad, and our net Government overseas expenditures.
The difference—the deficit—is financed partly by sales of gold and
partly by increased foreign holdings of short-term dollar investments by
foreign businesses, banks, individuals, and governments.
The position of the United States in its international economic affairs
is thus much like that of a wealthy and prosperous businessman whose
liquidity has come under strain.
His commercial operations remain highly successful, with the value of
his sales well in excess of his costs.




12

His large long-term investments in other enterprises are yielding an
excellent return, and he sees an abundance of further opportunities for
profitable investments that will bring large future returns.
Both his income and his net worth are growing strongly every year.
And he does not hesitate to spend freely on the good things of life, while
also making large gifts to worthy causes.
But he has been borrowing extensively at short term to help finance
his long-term investments. Each year, he adds more to his short-term
debts than to his liquid assets. It is in this sense—but only this—that he
has an annual deficit. It is a liquidity deficit. It is not a deficit in his profit
and loss account, nor an overspending of his income.
Some of his short-term creditors—although not really doubting the
strong excess of his assets over his liabilities—are nevertheless getting
a bit concerned about continuing to expand—or even to renew—their
short-term credits.
Should some of them refuse to renew their loans, his situation could become awkward. Other creditors might become nervous and would rush to
present their claims. Financial pressures would extend to other, smaller
businessmen with whom he had strong commercial ties, and whose basic
positions were less sound.
That man—like the United States—needs to pull back for a while to
strengthen his liquidity.
He will want to cut costs and increase sales in his commercial
operations.
He will have to pass up for a while many of his attractive opportunities for profitable long-term investments.
He will need to review the terms of his spending and gifts—to ease
their impact on his cash position.
Most of all, he wants no doubt to arise about his ability to meet his
debts as they come due. He would easily survive a financial crisis with no
major impairment of his income or net worth. But some other businessmen who bought from or sold to him could easily be dragged into
bankruptcy.
Reducing the Deficit
Since 1961, the United States has been making a determined effort to
reduce its liquidity deficit. Through 1965, steady progress had been made.
In 1966 the deficit held even, in spite of the rising overseas costs of
Vietnam. But the deficit increased in 1967—particularly sharply in the
fourth quarter—reversing that progress. The instability generated by
devaluation of the British pound was responsible for a significant part
of the deterioration, but not for all of it.
1

3

284-593 0—68



2

• Overseas defense costs rose despite tight controls on spending.
• The net balance of tourist expenditures shifted further against
the United States.
• Private U.S. capital outflows rose, even though direct investment
was held in check by the voluntary program; and foreign capital
inflows decreased.
• Our trade balance failed to improve as much as we expected,
mainly because of the economic slowdown in Europe.
Some of the steps we might consider to reduce our payments abroad—
such as reverting to high tariffs or quotas—would reverse long-term
policies and, by provoking retaliation, reduce our receipts by as much
as or more than our payments. And many of the other things we could
do would seriously and irresponsibly harm our domestic economy, friendly
countries overseas, or the flow of world trade.
PROGRAM FOR

1968

We have a clear duty to act. And we are taking action—as constructively and responsibly as we can.
Domestic Economic Policies
The avoidance of excessive demand in our economy is crucial to
the strength of the dollar as well as to our domestic prosperity.
If we place too much pressure on our resources, U.S. buyers will turn
abroad for supplies and our imports will soar. And if our prices rise,
we will weaken our export competitiveness and attract even more imports—not just immediately, but for years to come.
That is why the first order of business in defense of the dollar is to pass
the tax bill.
We must also exert every effort to avoid the possible destructive effects
on our trade surplus of strikes or the threat of strikes in key industries.
I urge business and labor to cooperate with the Secretaries of Labor and
Commerce in dealing with this danger to our export surplus.
Direct Balance-of-Payments Measures
In addition to assuring the health of our economy at home, we must
act directly on the key international flows that contribute to our deficit.
Our direct balance-of-payments measures are designed to move us
strongly toward equilibrium—this year. Some measures are temporary
and will be removed as soon as conditions permit. Others are designed
for longer range needs. Several will require congressional action.
We have already put into effect
—a new mandatory program to restrain direct investment abroad,
which will reduce outflows by at least $1 billion from 1967.




14

—a tighter Federal Reserve program to restrain foreign lending by
U.S. banks and other financial institutions, to achieve an inflow
of at least $500 million.
We have begun action to save $500 million on Government expenditures overseas. Negotiations are already underway to minimize the foreign
exchange costs of our essential security commitments abroad. Orders
have already been issued to cut the number of civilian personnel abroad.
We are organizing major efforts to encourage foreign investment and
travel in the United States.
I announced on January 1 that the Secretary of the Treasury would
explore with the Congress legislative measures to help us achieve our
objective of reducing our travel deficit abroad by $500 million this year.
Those explorations are proceeding.
In the meantime, I again ask the American people to defer for the
next two years all nonessential travel outside the Western Hemisphere.
I also announced on January 1
—that we were initiating discussions with our friends abroad on
ways to minimize the disadvantages to our trade from various
nontariff barriers and national tax systems abroad; and
—that we were preparing legislation in this area whose scope and
nature would depend on the outcome of these consultations.
The consultations have been in progress since January 1. When they
are completed, I will announce their outcome, and indicate what if any
legislation we shall seek.
I am asking the Congress for the funds necessary to support long-term
measures to stimulate exports, by
—intensifying promotion of American goods overseas; and
—expanding and strengthening the role of the Export-Import Bank.
Responsibilities of Surplus Countries
As we fulfill our responsibilities, other nations have an equal obligation to act. The balance-of-payments surpluses of our trading partners
in continental Europe are essentially the mirror image of our deficit.
Their constructive adjustments, as well as our own, can contribute to
remedying our mutual imbalance.
For them, as for us, action at home heads the list. The nations of
continental Europe should use theirfiscaland monetary policies to pursue
steady expansion of their domestic economies. Indeed, if they were to
tighten credit and budgets in order to protect their surpluses, then we
could not succeed in our efforts to come into equilibrium in a healthy
world economy. Even worse, a competitive slowdown in world economic
expansion could ensue, to the detriment of all peoples everywhere.




15

Surplus countries can also contribute to a smooth process of adjustment by reducing their barriers to trade, by increasing their economic
assistance to developing countries, by expanding their capital markets to
finance their own investment, by permitting wider access to these capital
markets by other nations, and by meeting their full share of the foreignexchange costs of our collective defense effort.
The world tried competitive beggar-my-neighbor policies in the 1930's
and they ended in chaos. The surplus countries have the obligation to
assure that this does not happen again.
T H E DOLLAR AND THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM

The interests of major nations are also linked together in the international monetary system. For us, there is a special responsibility, since
the dollar is a world currency
—widely used by businesses abroad,
—held along with gold as a reserve asset by foreign central banks.
Our deficits in the past decade have sent more dollars abroad than
businesses there needed to acquire, or than governments have wanted to
hold as reserves. Many of these dollars were used to purchase gold from
the United States.
Speculation generated by the strains on the international monetary
system has caused further drains of gold from international reserves—
much of it from our own.
As a result, U.S. gold reserves have declined to about $12 billion. This
is still ample to cope with foreseeable demands on our gold stock. But
persistent large U.S. deficits would threaten the entire international monetary system.
Our commitment to maintain dollar convertibility into gold at $35
an ounce is firm and clear. We will not be a party to raising its price. The
dollar will continue to be kept as good as or better than gold.
Freeing Our Gold Reserves
I am therefore asking the Congress to take prompt action to free our
gold reserves so that they can unequivocally fulfill their true purpose—
to insure the international convertibility of the dollar into gold at $35
per ounce.
• The gold reserve requirement against Federal Reserve notes is
not needed to tell us what prudent monetary policy should be—
that myth was destroyed long ago.
• It is not needed to give value to the dollar—that value derives
from our productive economy.




16

• The reserve requirement does make some foreigners question
whether all of our gold is really available to guarantee our commitment to sell gold at the $35 price. Removing the requirement
will prove to them that we mean what we say.
I ask speedy action from the Congress—because it will demonstrate to
the world the determination of America to meet its international
economic obligations.
Special Drawing Rights
Through U.S. deficits the dollar has been the major element of the
recent growth of international reserves.
As we move into balance, the world can no longer look to the dollar
for major future additions to reserves.
Neither can it depend on gold. Gold production has been leveling off
in the face of rising industrial use and a steady drain into private hoards.
What is needed is a reserve asset universally acceptable as a supplement
to gold and dollars, that can be created in the amount needed to meet
the desired expansion of world reserves.
The Special Drawing Rights plan agreed on in Rio de Janeiro
last September provides such an asset. This plan will fundamentally
strengthen—and ultimately transform—the international monetary system in the years ahead.
The agreement should be promptly ratified and swiftly activated on an
adequate scale. I will call upon the Congress to approve U.S. participation.
TRADE

The Kennedy Round was completed on June 30, the most successful
multilateral agreement on tariff reduction ever negotiated. Four years
of hard negotiating were required—but the ultimate success was worth
it. A fair bargain was struck. Our farmers and businessmen will get
major benefits as new markets are opened to them.
We will continue to work with our trading partners—in the GATT
and in other bodies—to find new approaches to the liberalization of
world trade, with urgent consideration given to nontariff barriers.
Some would throw away the gains from three decades of liberal
trade policy, retreating into shortsighted protectionism. Mandatory
quotas on American imports would meet prompt retaliation abroad.
All Americans would pay a high price for the benefit of a few.
Protectionism is no answer to our balance-of-payments problem. Its
solution depends on expanding world trade.




17

The Government stands ready to help the few that may be hurt by
rising imports—but in ways that expand trade, strengthen our economy,
and improve our international relations.
Accordingly, I will shortly send to the Congress legislation which will
—provide an extension of unused tariff-reducing authority;
—liberalize the criteria for adjustment assistance to firms and
workers; and
—eliminate the American selling price system of customs valuation.
During the year ahead, opportunities may develop to expand peaceful
trade with the countries of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. I
again urge the Congress to provide the necessary authority for us to
pursue such opportunities should they develop.
The United States has been discussing with other industrial countries
a system of temporary generalized tariff preferences by all developed
countries for all developing countries. Agreement was reached in the
OECD on the general principles of such a system. It will be presented to
the developing countries at the UNCTAD meeting in New Delhi.
We shall continue to consult with Members of Congress and representatives of American industry, agriculture, and labor as these discussions proceed.
AID TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

If economic progress were now to slow down in the developing countries that make up two-thirds of the free world—in the arc of Asia from
Turkey to Korea, in Latin America, and in Africa—our hopes for a
peaceful world would be menaced. In 1968 this means that we should
—approve a prudent AID program;
—quickly agree with other donor countries on a substantially
increased replenishment of funds for the International Development Association;
—extend the Food for Freedom Act;
—authorize the United States to share with other donors in establishing the Special Funds of the Asian Development Bank.
Several less-developed countries have made great strides in the promotion of family planning. We must be prepared to assist their efforts if the
grim race between food supplies and population is to be won decisively.
We can do these things—as in conscience we must—without detriment to our international payments. AID has already made great progress in reducing the impact of its program on the U.S. balance of payments. In 1968 that impact would be reduced by another $100 million,
so that less than 8 percent of AID's dollar expenditures will be for nonU.S. goods and services.




l8

THE RETURN TO PRICE STABILITY
Neither the United States nor any other free industrial nation has
yet learned how to couple steady growth at high employment with reasonable stability of prices.
Our price record since 1960 has been superior to that of any other
major industrial country. Even since mid-1965, we have done better
than in past periods of hostilities—when direct controls were used.
But our recent record has clearly not been good enough. For one
reason, firm discipline with respect to U.S. costs and prices is essential
to a strong balance-of-payments position.
Rising prices are not just a last-year problem or a this- and next-year
problem. They are a persistent, long-term problem for a high-employment economy—one that will not fade away by itself.
We must do what we can to minimize price increases in 1968. But we
must also settle in for a long hard fight aimed toward 1969, 1970—and
1980.
One source of inflationary pressure is a rate of economic expansion
that strains available productive resources. Too much demand will lift
prices and wages all across the line.
Thus the readiness to apply fiscal and monetary restraint when demand
threatens to become too strong must be the fundamental reliance in our
battle to restore and then maintain stable prices.
RESPONSIBLE WAGE AND PRICE BEHAVIOR

But inflationary pressures also arise when labor and business each seek
to expand their claims against the national product—through excessive
wage settlements or unnecessary price hikes—at a faster rate than real
national product is growing.
If labor seeks 80 percent of the total national pie and business 25 percent, the only result can be rising prices. This inflates the pie—but does
not increase its substance.
Whatever the initial source which starts prices rising, the rise tends
to perpetuate itself. Higher prices enlarge labor's wage demands. Faster
wage increases raise costs, which makes prices rise some more. Once a
wage-price spiral has begun, it is exceedingly difficult to slow it down.
In each of the last two years, our price level has risen by about 3 percent, and in the last six months by about 4 percent. With a somewhat
stronger economy in 1968, and with labor unions building the expectation of further price rises into their wage demands, there is danger the
spiral will accelerate. If it does, we face the prospect that the spiral will
still be turning steadily in 1969 and into 1970. The longer it turns the
harder it is to stop.




19

A highly restrictive fiscal and monetary policy could throttle the
economy and create widespread unemployment and idle capacity in
order to dampen upward pressures on wages and prices. But it would
serve the objective of price stability only by sacrificing most of our other
key economic objectives.
Dealing with inflation by creating a recession or persistent slack is
succumbing to the disease—not curing it. The experience of 1957 and
1958—when the unemployment rate reached 7/2 percent and consumer
prices still rose 5 percent—is a clear reminder of the large costs of such
a policy and of its limited effectiveness in halting a spiral in motion. This
is a course which I reject—and which I am confident that the American
people reject.
Therefore, in addition to urging prompt action by the Congress on
my tax proposals, I must again urge—in the strongest terms I know—
that unions and business firms exercise the most rigorous restraint in
their wage and price determinations in 1968.
We must make a decisive turn back toward price stability this year.
This will only be possible
—if the average gain in wages and fringe benefits incorporated
in new labor agreements this year begins to move back toward
parity with our gains in productivity; and
—if businesses absorb cost increases wherever possible, and avoid
any price decision which would, on the average, increase their
margins over labor and materials cost.
STRUCTURAL PRICE PROBLEMS

There are other sources of price increase we can begin to attack in
1968. We should not expect quick results. But, over the longer pull, an
important contribution can be made.
There arc a number of industries in which prices have climbed persistently because of supply bottlenecks in labor, materials, or capacity;
because of backward technology; because of inefficient distribution systems or trade practices; or for other so-called "structural" reasons.
If we regard the battle against rising prices as a long-term task, it is
time to begin to fight on every front where long-term results can be
achieved.
Existing Government organization is not effectively suited to dealing
with the full range and dimensions of the problem of prices.
CABINET COMMITTEE ON PRICE STABILITY

I am therefore establishing a Cabinet Committee on Price Stability,
including the heads of the major relevant departments and offices of




20

Government, coordinated by the Chairman of the Council of Economic
Advisers and served by a small professional staff.
The Committee will focus the attention both of the private economy
and of the Federal Government on the objective of price stability.
It will study and recommend—both for private and for public action—measures which can improve efficiency, remove bottlenecks, and
improve technology in industries which are the source of persistent inflation. And it will give price stability a high priority in the formulation
and administration of all Government programs.
The Committee will work closely with representatives of business,
labor, and the public to seek ideas and initiatives to correct persistent
structural problems that cause prices to rise and to inform them of the
consequences of irresponsible wage and price behavior. It will not, however, become involved in specific current wage or price matters.
Through this new machinery, we seek to achieve a new and more
effective cooperation among business, labor, and government in the
pursuit of price stability in a free market economy.
CITIES AND HOUSING
The American city is in distress, plagued by poverty, unemployment,
and slums; hobbled by inadequate public services, inefficient transportation, pollution, and congestion.
The city is also the source of an unprecedented affluence. Bitter poverty amidst spreading affluence spotlights the problems of the disadvantaged.
Yet that very affluence should be the source of great hope. For general
affluence makes it possible to erase pockets of deprivation. We now have
the means for a massive reconstruction of urban America.
The first step in an effective attack on urban problems came last year
when 63 cities received the first round of Model Cities planning grants.
By the end of this year, many of these cities will be ready to begin work.
This first round will ultimately permit the transformation of 65 blighted
areas, housing 3.7 million people, into decent places to live and work.
I will ask the Congress to fund fully the $1 billion authorization for
the Model Cities program in fiscal year 1969.
Our next step will be to fulfill the commitment of the Housing Act of
1949—to provide every American family with decent housing. Our
goal is to eliminate substandard housing in ten years. This task will
require the full cooperation of labor, business, local government—and
the residents of blighted areas.




21

Too long we have regarded the unemployed slum dweller as a national
burden. The time has come to recognize him as a national resource, and
to offer him a job rebuilding the slums in which he lives.
Our target for fiscal year 1969 is to begin 300,000 new and rehabilitated units—several times the current rate. Rent supplement and
"turnkey" public housing programs will be modified and enlarged to
engage private enterprise on a massive scale.
The expansion of federally assisted housing must not shrink the private
housing market. During the next ten years we will need 20 million housing units in addition to those receiving Federal assistance.
Their production will balloon the need for mortgage money. I will
therefore propose legislation to strengthen the mortgage market and
the financial institutions that supply mortgage credit. I also propose that
current interest rate ceilings on FHA and VA mortgages be lifted to
allow them to compete on equal terms with other assets.
I also urge the Congress to complete action on legislation
—to strengthen regulation of savings and loan holding companies,
—to provide Federal charters for mutual savings institutions.
If we are- to reconstruct the American city, we need knowledge and
innovation as much as men and money. We lead the world in technology. Yet little of its power is directed to the problems of cities.
As afirststep, I have named a panel to establish an Institute for Urban
Development. This Institute will undertake the systematic analysis of
fundamental urban problems for Government agencies.
The agonies of our cities will not yield easily or quickly—nor to simple
solutions. Yet the breadth of our vision must be scaled to the magnitude
of our problem—and our opportunity.
In the coming weeks, I shall send the Congress a message containing
my detailed recommendations.
EXPANDING INDIVIDUAL OPPORTUNITY
America has historically taken pride in being the "land of opportunity." To a far greater extent than any earlier civilization, American
society has provided opportunities for the majority of its citizens to
achieve whatever their ambitions and abilities might permit.
Yet for a minority—steadily diminishing in every generation—opportunity has remained a myth.
The recent experience of prolonged prosperity and high employment
has pried open the doors of opportunity for many who formerly were
shut off from the main circle of abundance. Indeed, sustained prosperity
is the single most important source of expanding opportunity.




22

But even prolonged and general prosperity leaves too many Americans
untouched, unable to share in its rewards.
Despite our prosperity, there are still more than 10 million families
whom we classify as poor. They include about one-seventh of our people.
Many are Negro. But two-thirds are white. Many are old. But nearly
half are children. Many live in urban areas. But about half live in small
towns or in rural areas. Most were born poor.
Regardless of race, age, or where they live, they are not statistics, they
are people. We cannot turn our backs on our fellow Americans who
need help.
I regard it as a primary purpose of government to expand the opportunities for all citizens to share in our economic and social progress. For
most, this means the opportunity for rewarding employment. For millions who are retired, disabled, or otherwise unable to seek active work,
a share in prosperity requires wise and humane programs of income
maintenance and social insurance. For all, it means full access to education and to health care.
America has made great progress in recent years—in the creation
of jobs, the provision of adequate incomes, and the improvement of
health and education. The future holds promise of further advance.
EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING

More Americans entered the labor force last year than in any year
since World War II. And these job seekers were accommodated to a remarkable degree.
• The over-all unemployment rate averaged 3.8 percent, as it did
in 1966. Except for the years of World War II and the Korean
war, this two-year average was the best in four decades.
• The unemployment rate for adult men—both white and Negro—
was the lowest since World War II.
Yet there is no room for complacency in these achievements. The unemployment rate for Negroes, Mexican-Americans, and other minorities
remains distressingly high, and far too many of our teenagers look for
work and fail to find it.
We have already made impressive progress in improving job opportunities—through the Neighborhood Youth Corps, the Job Corps,
our other manpower training and retraining programs, provision of daycare facilities for working mothers, and in many other ways.
Increasingly our efforts are concentrated on the disadvantaged who
have been unable to share in our prosperity. In continuing partnership




23

with State and local governments, we will expand our training and related manpower activities, with special emphasis on an enlarged Concentrated Employment program.
But this year the Federal Government is also seeking a new partnership with private industry to train and hire the disadvantaged. I believe
this partnership can succeed—and must—in providing work opportunities for every American who wants a job and who will make reasonable
efforts to prepare himself to hold it.
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Even when there are enough jobs to go around and manpower is
better matched to jobs, some will inevitably experience unemployment in
our dynamic economy.
Our present unemployment compensation system was designed in
the 1930's. The economy has greatly changed since then, but the unemployment compensation system has not.
In many cases, the man or woman unemployed today lost his job
because his skills have become obsolete, not because his employer lost
his market. That worker needs long-term benefits which can support
him through a substantial period of retraining, guidance, and similar
services—not merely cash benefits which run out at a critical moment.
Further, the benefits provided under many State systems have proved inadequate to current needs.
I am therefore asking the Congress for new legislation to strengthen
the Federal-State unemployment insurance system by increasing coverage, raising benefits, modifying eligibility conditions, increasing the
Federal unemployment tax base and rate, providing federally financed
extended benefits to be triggered by high unemployment; and to link
extended benefits to the training and employment rehabilitation of the
recipients.
EDUCATION

The Federal Government has done more to improve educational
opportunities in the past three years than in all its previous history. In
particular, attention has been focused on providing opportunities for
children to throw off their legacy of poverty. Head Start, the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act, and higher education legislation stand as
landmarks of our progress.
One key program for 1968—based on the Education Professions
Development Act of last year—gives special emphasis to the single most
important element in the educational process—our teachers. We must




24

attract more teachers to work with disadvantaged youth, and help such
teachers develop the new skills and new sensitivities needed to teach the
children from poor families.
I shall propose an Educational Opportunity Act—continuing our efforts to break down the financial barriers which keep young people from
poor families from entering or remaining in college.
HEALTH

Victories in the progress of health care have recently been written in
headlines. Soon a failing heart may no longer be an inevitable prelude
to death. Less dramatic but equally important is that Medicare and
Medicaid have brought the gains of medical research within the reach
of millions.
But this is no time to pause. Our rising standards and our expanding
powers to cure press against present limitations on our ability to supply
medical care.
Much recent effort has centered on the health needs of our older citizens. This was right, for the elderly often combine high medical need with
limited financial resources.
Now we must turn attention to our children. Millions of young Americans today receive inadequate medical attention—both a result and a
cause of poverty. I therefore propose a five-year plan to bring complete
health services to children of low-income families, beginning with prenatal care for mothers, and continuing through the first year of infancy.
The supply of qualified health personnel has lagged behind the
expanding demand. I will shortly propose new measures to increase this
supply.
Last year, medical care prices rose 7 percent, more than twice as fast
as other prices. I shall propose new measures to slow down the spiraling
cost of health care.
INCOME MAINTENANCE

I have recently appointed a Presidential Commission on Income
Maintenance. This distinguished group of citizens, under the chairmanship of Mr. Ben Heineman, has a broad charter to examine every aspect
of our present public welfare and income maintenance programs and
to propose necessary reforms. The Commission will examine a number of
major reforms proposed in recent years—including several varieties of
minimum income guarantees. It will evaluate the costs and benefits of
these proposals in terms of their effects both on the recipients and on the
economy.




25

CONSUMER PROTECTION
The true test of the efficiency of any economic system is its ability to
meet the needs of consumers. The American economy—with its free
markets—has far surpassed alltrthers in meeting this test.
But the market does not always give the consumer the protection he
needs. There is a role, too, for Government action, especially as our wants
and our products become more complex.
Last year the Congress enacted, and I approved, important new legislation to protect our consumers.
Important new measures are being proposed to the Congress for the
protection of consumers. I hope that this Congress will go down in history as the consumer-conscious Congress.
OTHER ECONOMIC POLICIES
1. The Department of Transportation, now one year old, is moving
vigorously toward rationalization and coordination of our transportation
policies. I have asked its Secretary to develop new proposals to improve
air safety and air service.
The number of air passengers has doubled in the past five years and
will more than double again in the next ten. Airway and airport facilities must keep up with this growth. These facilities are costly and benefit
primarily their users—who should pay the necessary costs.
2. Total holdings of our stockpile of strategic and critical materials
now stand at $6.4 billion, of which $3.3 billion exceeds our stockpile
requirements as presently determined. Continuing to carry these excess
materials in the stockpile both imposes an unnecessary burden on our taxpayers and restricts their availability to our industries.
I renew my recommendation that I be given authority to dispose of
many of these excesses, especially of nickel, platinum, beryl ore, magnesium, and castor oil, all currently in short supply in the commercial
market.
3. Accurate, comprehensive, and timely statistics are essential to the
development of sound economic policies by government, business, and
labor.
Our economic statistics are the best and most comprehensive in the
world. But they can be and need to be further improved. The costs will be
exceedingly small relative to the benefits.
To this end, my 1969 budget provides for several new statistical efforts
which can be rapidly and inexpensively translated into improved guides
for public and private decisions.




26

CONCLUSION
A strong and sustained advance of production surely does not mean
we have solved all economic problems—much less that the Nation
is making satisfactory progress toward its broader and more fundamental
goals.
Americans know how to create an expanding abundance. But we are
still learning how to use it wisely and compassionately to further the
self-development and happiness of men, women, and children.
Similarly, merely to achieve a balance in our international payments
would not assure that our international economic relations amply serve
the interests of this Nation and of world progress. We could bring our
balance of payments into equilibrium by means which would weaken our
domestic economy, forfeit our foreign policy objectives, or impair the
vitality of world economic development.
This Administration will never forget that the purpose of our economy
and of our economic policies is to serve the American people—not the
reverse.
Yet this recognition would not justify policies which ignore the dangers
of inflation, economic distortions, and ultimately recession. For these are
equally enemies of our public purposes.
Nor will we forget that balance-of-payments policies should serve the
Nation's basic goals abroad and at home—not the reverse.
Yet this recognition makes it no less necessary to deal firmly and
decisively with our balance-of-payments problem. For a breakdown of
the international financial system would bring incalculable harm not only
to ourselves and free peoples around the world, but even to world peace
and progress.
I am determined that our economic policies in 1968 will be prudent
as well as creative; safe as well as ambitious; responsible as well as
compassionate.
The American people are giving their sons and brothers to fight for
freedom abroad. At home we must support their sacrifice by preserving
a sound economy. I believe that the American people will accept the cost
of doing that
—by paying an extra cent of each dollar of income in taxes,
—by accepting the cutback of lower-priority Federal programs, and
—by limiting the expansion of Federal spending to a few areas
of the most vital priority.
Today the war in Vietnam is costing us 3 percent of our total production. That is a burden a wealthy people can bear. It represents less than
one year's growth in our total output.




27

But one day peace will return. If we plan wisely—as the committee on
post-Vietnam adjustment I announced in my Economic Report last year
has been doing—and act boldly, we will have that 3 percent of output to
add—over a year or two—to our normal 4 percent a year of economic
growth.
If we preserve a healthy economy in the meantime, we will be prepared when our sons and brothers return to take full advantage of that
bonus.
Our obligation to them demands that we do no less.

(LjJ&L
February 1, 1968.




28

THE ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS,

Washington, B.C., January 25, 1968.
T H E PRESIDENT:

SIR: The Council of Economic Advisers herewith submits its Annual
Report, February 1968, in accordance with Section 4(c) (2) of the Employment Act of 1946.
Respectfully,




GARDNER ACKLEY

Chairman.

0

JAMES S.

DUESENBERRY

ARTHUR M. OKUN




CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1. SUSTAINING PROSPERITY: RECORD AND PROSPECTS. . . .

Economic Activity in 1967
Income and Employment
Production
Pattern Within the Year
The Composition of Output
Investment Sectors
Government
Personal Saving
Balance of Saving and Investment
Resource Use in 1967
Prospects and Policies for 1968
Federal Fiscal Program
Economic Outlook
Outlook by Sectors
CHAPTER 2. T H E STRATEGY OF STABILIZATION POLICY

Seven Years of Economic Expansion
Measures of Gains
Realization of Potential
Fiscal Policy in the 1960's
The Heritage of Current Fiscal Policy
Budgetary Actions, 1961-65
Challenges of Prosperity
Monetary Developments
Balanced Expansion, 1961-65
Monetary Policy in 1966-67
Present Tasks of Policy
Inflationary Pressures With No Restraint
The Impact of Monetary Restraint
The Program of Fiscal Restraint
Agenda for Policymaking
Flexibility and Forecasting
Planning for Peace
Impovements in Economic Statistics
Reducing the Vulnerability of the Mortgage Market




33

39

40
40
40
41
45
46
48
48
50
51
53
54
55
55
58

58
5.8
60
62
63
65
68
71
71
74
82
82
83
85
88
88
89
91
92

Page
96

CHAPTER 3. THE PROBLEM OF RISING PRICES

Price Stability and High Employment.
Inflationary Bias in a Prosperous Economy
The Goal of Price Stability
The Recent Record
Price Changes Since 1961
Developments in 1967
Labor Supply and Demand
Prices of Consumer Services
Prices of Industrial Products
Farm and Food Prices
Retail Prices.
Construction
Price and Wage Policy
Direct Controls
Fiscal and Monetary Measures
Improving Market Efficiency
Incomes Policies
Wage-Price Policy for 1968

^

96
97
100
102
103
106
106
Ill
114
116
117
118
119
119
119
120
120
125

CHAPTER 4. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL OPPORTUNITY .

129

The Changing Structure of Opportunities
Changes in the Farm Economy
The Growth of Nonfarm Jobs
Recent Changes in Population Distribution
Implications for Public Policy
Population Distribution and Public Policy
Clarifying Some Issues
The Demography of Poverty
Poverty Among the Aged
Families Headed by Women
Households With a Male Earner
Income Maintenance
Housing
Changes in Housing Quality
The Need for Further Federal Assistance
Education
Education and Economic Opportunity
Education Programs
Health.
Economic Status and Health Care
Measures to Improve Health Care
The Comprehensive Approach to Community Redevelopment.

130
131
134
135
139
139
140
142
143
144
145
147
149
149
151
153
153
156
157
158
159
161




34

CHAPTER 5. THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY

A Year of Major Developments
Adjustment Process
Mutual Responsibilities
Principles of Adjustment
The U.S. Balance of Payments
The Recent Record
The 1968 Program
Prospects for 1968
Long-Term Prospects
The International Monetary System
The Gold-Exchange Standard
Gold Reserves.
Dollars as Reserves
Meeting Reserve Needs
The Rio Agreement
Trade Policies
Kennedy Round
Trade With Less-Developed Countries
Conclusion

Page
163

163
164
164
165
166
167
172
176
177
178
178
179
182
182
183
187
187
191
194

APPENDIXES:

A. Report to the President on the Activities of the Council of
Economic Advisers During 1967
B. Statistical Tables Relating to Income, Employment, and
Production
List of Tables and Charts
Tables
1. Changes in Gross National Product and Federal Sector of the
National Income and Product Accounts Since Second Quarter
1966
2. Disposition of Disposable Personal Income in Selected Periods,
1956-67
3. Gross Saving and Investment in Selected Years of Relatively
High Employment, 1952-67
4. Employment and Unemployment by Demographic and Occupational Groups, Selected Years, 1961-67
5. Measures of Economic Activity During the Current Expansion.




35

195
203

42
49
50
53
59

Page

6. Federal Fiscal Actions in Two Periods Since Fourth Quarter
1960
7. Net Inflow of Household Time and Savings Deposits to Main
Financial Institutions, 1954-67
8. Net Funds Raised by Nonfinancial Sectors, 1961-67
9. Change in Income Tax Liability for a Married Couple With
Two Dependents, 1963-68
10. Price Increases During Periods of High Employment
11. Consumer Price Increases in Major OECD Countries Since January 1961 and June 1965
12. Major Price Trends During Selected Periods Since December
1960
;
13. Wage and Benefit Changes in Collective Bargaining Situations,
1962-67
14. Changes in Average Gross Hourly Earnings, by Industry,
1960-67
15. Changes in Compensation, Productivity, Unit Labor Cost, and
Output Price in the Private Economy Since 1947
16. Changes in Consumer Prices for Services, 1965-67
17. Changes in Medical Care Components of Consumer Prices for
Services, 1950-67
18. Changes in Selected Economic Indicators by Industry Division,
1947-66
'.
19. Number of Farms and Farm Income, by Value-of-Sales Classes,
1959, 1964, and 1966
20. Components of Population Change by Area, 1950-65
21. Number of Poor Households and Incidence of Poverty, 1959
and 1966
22. The Poor and Their Work Experience, 1965-66
23. Occupied Housing Units by Quality, 1960 and 1966
24. Percentage of Males 20-24 Years Old Who Completed High
School, 1960
a
25. Routine Medical Checkups and Number of Physician Visits for
Children, by Selected Age Groups, 1963-64
26. United States Balance of Payments, 1961-67
27. United States Balance of Payments: Capital Transactions,
1961-67
28. Unit Labor Costs in Manufacturing For Selected Industralized
Countries Since 1961
29. Growth of Exports of Less-Developed Countries in Two Selected
Periods




67
73
79
85
97
97
105
108
109
110
112
113
123
133
136
143
146
150
154
158
167
171
177
191

Charts

Page

1. Total Gross National Product and Final Sales
2. Selected Shares of Gross National Product
3. Real Gross National Product After the Recession Troughs of
1954 and 1961
4. Gross National Product, Actual and Potential, and Unemployment Rate
5. Selected Interest Rates
6. Changes in Money Supply, Time Deposits, and Selected Bank
Assets
7. Gross Investment and Saving of Nonfinancial Corporations.. .
8. Consumer Prices
9. Wholesale Prices
10. Food Prices
11. Prices and Unit Labor Costs, 1959-66
12. Changing Farm Structure
13. Average Annual Net Migration by Regions
14. U.S. Balance of International Payments
15. World Monetary Reserves




37

44
47
60
61
72
77
80
103
104
117
124
132
137
168
180




Chapter 1

Sustaining Prosperity: Record and Prospects

T

HE U.S. ECONOMY recorded further progress in 1967. Despite a pronounced inventory adjustment in the first half of the year, expansion
continued through an unprecedented seventh consecutive year. The unemployment rate remained at its lowest level in more than a decade—averaging
3.8 percent for the second straight year. The value of the Nation's total output of goods and services—gross national product (GNP)—rose $42 billion
to a level now estimated at $785 billion; after allowance for price changes,
GNP grew by 2 / 2 percent.
Expansionary fiscal and monetary policies worked to sustain expansion
when private demand was sluggish in the first half of 1967. The rebound
of the second half reflected the contribution of these forces. As 1968 opens,
fiscal policy remains highly stimulative, and it is now overly expansionary
in an economy again growing at a rapid pace. The ready availability of
credit for housing and other high-priority needs is in jeopardy today, after
a rapid rise of interest rates in the second half of 1967.
To avoid a return to severe credit stringency, to promote price stability,
and to safeguard the balance of payments, the President is asking Congress
to make enactment of a tax surcharge the first order of business in 1968.
The outlook for 1968 and its dependence on tax action is set forth in this
Chapter. A more detailed discussion of fiscal and monetary policy—past,
present, and future—is the subject of Chapter 2.
The unsatisfactory price performance of 1966 continued through 1967;
consumer prices again rose nearly 3 percent. The task of decelerating price
and cost increases and of gradually restoring price stability, while maintaining high employment, is a key assignment for economic policy in 1968,
as Chapter 3 makes clear. Poverty in our cities has received increasing
attention. Chapter 4 discusses this and other pressing problems involved in
assuring the opportunities of all Americans to obtain adequate health care,
housing, and education. The balance of payments was a serious problem in
1967, especially in the closing months. The President has set forth a comprehensive new program to deal decisively with our payments deficit. The key
international aspects of our economy are discussed in Chapter 5.




39

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN 1967
Employment expanded in 1967 and the real incomes of American families continued to grow. The purchasing power of the average American—
personal disposable income per capita, corrected for price changes—rose
3.2 percent, less than the 3.9 percent annual rate of the 1961-66 period, although well above the 2.3 percent average yearly advance for the entire
postwar period.
INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT
Most of the income gains of households came from increased employment
and higher wage rates. Incomes from social insurance benefits were also an
important contributor; they rose $5 billion, partly reflecting new and expanded programs of health insurance. Dividends, interest, and rental incomes advanced moderately. The income of farm proprietors, however,
declined $1}4 billion from its record level of 1966.
The civilian labor force registered an unusually large gain of nearly 1.6
million from 1966 to 1967, and the growth of civilian jobs kept pace. The
number of workers on nonfarm payrolls increased by 2.1 million. Manufacturing employment rose only 150,000, the smallest advance since 1963. But
private nonfarm employment outside manufacturing increased about as
rapidly as in 1965 and 1966, with a gain of 1.2 million. Government employment—predominantly State and local—advanced 750,000. The Armed
Forces expanded by an additional 325,000. Total compensation of employees increased $34 billion or 8 percent, reflecting the combination of
higher employment and increased wages and fringe benefits.
Corporate profits fared less well in 1967. For the year as a whole, profits
before tax are now estimated at $80 billion, down nearly $4 billion from
1966 although well above any previous year. The dip in profits interrupted
a sustained six-year advance, which had provided a sharp contrast with the
1950's, when profits did not increase significantly in any two consecutive
years. Profits typically decline in a period of slow expansion partly because
lagging productivity growth tends to raise unit labor costs. In early 1967
the erosion of profits was accentuated as sluggish output and sales followed
a period of particularly rapid growth of capacity and other overhead
elements.
PRODUCTION
The growth of output in 1967 was not impressive by the standards of
recent years. The 2 yi -percent increase in real GNP—total output, after adjustment for price changes—was the smallest since 1961, and far short of the
5j/2-percent yearly average of 1961-66.
Growth rates differed widely among sectors. Industrial production rose
only 1 percent from 1966 to 1967, as manufacturing industries bore the brunt




40

of the inventory adjustment and capital goods slowdown. Durable goods
output was particularly affected. In the breakdown of real GNP by major
product classes, durable goods output rose less than one-half of 1 percent for
the year as a whole, while output of nondurable goods rose 3/2 percent. The
real volume of new structures actually declined from 1966 to 1967. Services
registered the largest yearly gain, an advance of 4l/2 percent in real terms.
PATTERN WITHIN THE YEAR
The annual record for 1967 does not tell the whole story, for there was a
marked change of pace between the first and second halves of the year.
Inventory Adjustment in the First Half
The performance of the economy during the first half of 1967 was dominated by a massive adjustment in the rate of inventory accumulation. In
many respects, the first half of 1967 resembled other periods of inventory
adjustment. But this time the marked reduction in inventory investment
did not cumulate into a decline in over-all economic activity.
An inventory adjustment is generated by excessive growth of stocks in
relation to sales. In a smoothly expanding economy, production and
sales tend to move approximately in parallel, with production exceeding final sales by about 1 percent. This margin allows for the larger
inventories of goods at all stages in the pipeline—raw materials, work-inprocess, and finished products—that are needed as production and sales
advance. When producers are optimistic about sales, they tend to step up
their production. If actual demands fail to live up to expectations, sales fall
below production by an abnormally wide margin, and inventories pile up.
Such a pattern evolved in 1966. Early in that year, demand was advancing
at an unusually rapid pace, led by major increases in defense outlays, an
investment boom, and rising consumer expenditures. Business expectations
were buoyed up by the vigor of demand. Production expanded steadily. But
as the year developed, the optimistic expectations of producers were not completely fulfilled. Final sales slowed down, in part because of monetary and
fiscal policy actions designed to moderate the pace of advance. Residential
construction fell sharply during the course of 1966, reflecting an extreme
shortage of mortgage credit. In the closing months of the year, the end of
the plant and equipment boom and a sudden rise in consumer saving
weakened over-all demand.
As production continued to increase, the rate of inventory accumulation
soared. In the fourth quarter of 1966, inventory investment reached a
record $18.5 billion (annual rate). The absolute level of stocks was not
greatly excessive in relation to final sales, but the rate of inventory investment had to be decreased sharply to limit further accumulation.




41

A sharp reduction in the rate of inventory investment tends to weaken
final sales as well. When firms cut back production to curb the growth of
inventories, the workweek is shortened and some workers are laid off. The
cutback of employment lowers household incomes, thereby dampening consumer buying. Meanwhile, declining operating rates in industry weaken
incentives for business fixed investment. The process tends to feed on itself.
As a result of the initial effort to bring production into line with sales, final
demands slow further, and inventories must be curtailed even more to
restore balance between stocks and sales.
Inventory adjustment was a basic feature of the four postwar recessions:
1948-49, 1953-54, 1957-58, 1960-61. In each of those periods, real GNP
fell between lj/i and 4 percent over a period of two to four quarters, and
the unemployment rate rose to 6 percent or more. But the inventory
adjustment of 1967 did not lead to a recession. Real GNP was virtually
unchanged from the fourth quarter of 1966 to the first quarter of 1967
and then resumed its advance. The unemployment rate remained in a
narrow range close to 4 percent throughout the slowdown.
From the fourth quarter of 1966 to the second quarter of 1967, inventory
investment fell $18 billion to a near-zero rate. In absolute size (although not
as a percentage of total output), this was the largest drop ever over a twoquarter period. Nevertheless, GNP continued to advance, although the pace
slowed markedly, as seen in Table 1.
TABLE 1.—Changes in gross national product and Federal sector of the national income
and product accounts since second quarter 1966
[Billions of dollars, seasonally adjusted annual rates]
Change
Item
1966 II to
1966 1V

Gross national product

1966 IV to
1967 11

1967 II to
1967 IV1

25.4

13.0

4.5

-18.0

8.5

21.0

31.0

24.1

Personal consumption expenditures
Business fixed investment
Residential structures
Net exports
Government purchases of goods and services:

12.2
4.1
-4.9
-1.1

15.9
-1.3
2.2
1.0

11.7
2.3
4.8
-1.3

Federal
State and local...
Federal sector, national income and product accounts:

6.6
4.0

8.0
5.2

2.5
4.1

Change in business inventories.
Final sales

Receipts
Expenditures

7.0

6.9
1.1
2.9

-6.5

42

4.7

!.*9

1 Preliminary.
Note.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.

8.1

10.9

7.2

Surplus or deficit ( - ) .

-.5

13.5

•...*

Defense purchases..
Other purchases
Other expenditures..




32.5

-11.4

1.8
.7
2.2
3.4

An unusually large increase in final sales provided the thrust for continued
expansion. As shown in Chart 1, the $31 billion advance in final sales over
the two quarters represented a marked acceleration from the pace of the preceding three quarters. In fact, the gains in finaj sales in each of the first two
quarters of 1967 had been exceeded only in the booming fourth quarter of
1965 and the first quarter of 1966.
This acceleration in final sales was due mainly to the stimulus provided
by rising Federal expenditures and expansionary monetary policy. As recorded in Table 1, Federal defense purchases (annual rate) rose $6.9 billion
between the fourth quarter of 1966 and the second quarter of 1967. Meanwhile, Federal transfer payments to persons—principally for increased social
insurance and health benefits—rose $ 3 ^ billion. While Federal outlays
advanced rapidly, receipts remained on a plateau, partly because the slowdown of economic activity automatically held down the tax base. The Federal deficit, which had been $3 billion (annual rate) in the fourth quarter
of 1966, rose to a postwar record of nearly $15 billion in the second quarter
of 1967. Federal receipts and expenditures, and the accompanying surplus
or deficit, are cited throughout this Annual Report as they are recorded
in the Federal sector of the national income and product accounts. These
measures are closely comparable to the new concept of the "expenditure
account," described in The Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal
Year 1969.
The strongly expansionary fiscal program supported the growth of personal incomes and hence of consumption. Although the saving rate remained
high during the first two quarters of 1967, consumer outlays increased $16
billion, nearly matching the growth of disposable income.
The easing of monetary policy in the closing months of 1966 was clearly
reflected in the recovery of residential construction in the first half of
1967—a major contrast with its previous rapid decline.
The monetary stimulus during this period came from a deliberately expansionary policy. The fiscal stimulus reflected primarily the continued rapid
expansion of defense purchases and rising outlays from previously enacted
social insurance legislation. But some discretionary fiscal steps to strengthen
expansion were taken—early restoration of the investment tax credit and
a rescheduling of some Federal outlays that had been postponed in the fall
of 1966.
The balance between stocks and final sales improved during the first half
of 1967. Inventory investment bottomed out by midyear with no significant
liquidation of total stocks and with a continued advance in over-all economic activity.
While the avoidance of recession was a major favorable development,
it cannot be read as an indication that the business cycle is dead. On the
contrary, the sharp inventory swing showed the continued vulnerability of
the economy to cyclical forces. It was only because fiscal and monetary
policy were operating in a stimulative direction that the expansion endured.




43

Chart 1

Total Gross National Product and Final Sales
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS*
CHANGE FROM PREVIOUS QUARTER

TOTAL GNP

20

\
/ F I N A L SALES
BSSL,'

15

10

0
I

IV

I

IV

II

1965

I

II

III

IV

1967

1966

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS*

850
LEVEL DURING QUARTER

800

TOTAL GNP

750
FINAL SALES
CHANGE IN BUSINESS
INVENTORIES

700

650

J

I

I

J
IV

I

1965

I
II

1966

•SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.




44

I
III

J

I

IV

1967

I

Rebound in the Second Half
The slowdown ended in the spring. Thereafter, the economy maintained a brisk pace for the remainder of 1967. The only marked departure
from this course occurred during September and October, when major
work stoppages—most notably, the strike at the Ford Motor Company—
held activity back.
As sales kept rising and confidence returned, inventory accumulation was
gradually resumed. This turnaround accounted for most of the difference
in the pace of activity between the first and second halves of the year. Homebuilding outlays continued to rise dramatically, surpassing their 1965 level
in the last quarter of 1967. Business fixed investment showed signs of an
upturn. Final sales increased substantially, but not as rapidly as in the first
half. Federal purchases for defense advanced much more moderately and the
growth of consumer spending slowed. The saving rate rose further, in part
because of the limited availability of new automobiles in the fourth quarter.
GNP rose $32% billion from the second to the fourth quarter. In real
terms, the advance was 4% percent (annual rate). The Ford strike held
down the rise in GNP by an estimated $4 billion and curtailed the annual
rate of real growth by 1 percentage point over this period.
As strikes were settled at Ford and elsewhere, the economy ended the year
on a strong note. Industrial production displayed an especially vigorous
upsurge and finally surpassed its earlier peak of December 1966. According
to preliminary data, the new orders and shipments of durable goods manufacturers rose by 12 percent,and 13 percent, respectively, over the final two
months of 1967, and exceeded the all-time monthly records set in 1966. Over
the same two months, personal income increased by $12 billion and nonfarm
payroll employment rose by 900,000. To a large extent, the extraordinary size
of these gains represented post-strike recovery rather than underlying growth
forces. Nevertheless, the economy was advancing rapidly as 1968 began.
THE COMPOSITION OF OUTPUT
Shifts in the pattern of demand among major sectors of the private
economy in 1967 generally worked toward restoring the balance that had
been upset in 1966. The years 1961-65 had been characterized by a remarkably balanced expansion among the various sectors: Inventories advanced
in line with sales; business fixed investment, though rising rapidly in
1964 and 1965, was geared appropriately to the expansion of markets;
homebuilding rose to a high level, which was maintained for an unusually
long period; net exports advanced strongly; and consumer spending kept
pace with rapidly growing incomes.
In 1966, however, this orderly pattern was interrupted. In particular,
marked imbalances arose in the various areas of investment. Business capital
spending continued to rise rapidly, and began to add to capacity at a rate

45
284-593 0—68



4

exceeding the long-term sustainable growth of demand. Inventory investment
reached record levels, and stocks outpaced sales. Residential construction
declined sharply as the flow of mortgage credit dwindled. Net exports
slipped badly as consumers and business turned to foreign sources for products which the domestic market could not supply.
INVESTMENT SECTORS
The economy became better balanced as the composition of investment
moved toward a more normal pattern (Chart 2).
Business Fixed Investment
Business fixed investment has averaged 9.8 percent of GNP during the
entire post-Korean period. The share rose from the beginning of 1964 to the
end of 1966, ultimately reaching a peak of 10.9 percent. The unusually
sharp increase in plant and equipment expenditures was finally ended by
the slowdown in over-all expansion, the suspension of the investment tax
credit in the fall of 1966, and monetary stringency. Business capital spending
dipped a little for a time, but it remained essentially on a high plateau in
1967. By yearend, its share had fallen to 10.4 percent of GNP.
Inventory

Investment

During the past 15 years, inventory investment has fluctuated markedly
around an average level of 1 percent of GNP. As noted earlier, it accelerated sharply in 1966 to reach the unsustainable rate of 2.4 percent
of GNP at yearend. In the second quarter of 1967, inventory investment was
negligible. It recovered thereafter, reaching a rather normal 1.1 percent
of GNP in the fourth quarter.
Residential Construction
During the period 1961-65, expenditures on residential construction
activity averaged 4.3 percent of GNP, and private nonfarm housing starts
averaged just under 1.5 million units a year. As a result of monetary tightness, homebuilding declined sharply during 1966, with housing starts falling
to an annual rate of 0.9 million units in December. Residential construction
expenditures fell from 3.7 percent of GNP in the first quarter to a low of 2.7
percent in the fourth quarter.
The year 1967 witnessed a steady and spectacular recovery in residential
construction, reflecting renewed availability of mortgage financing and
strong underlying demand. By the fourth quarter, the share of homebuilding
in GNP had increased to 3.5 percent.




Chart 2

Selected Shares of Gross National Product
PERCENT OF G N P

14
DOMESTIC INVESTMENT

8
6

—

„•«•"*

RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES
•••

.x...

- - - . . .
**-....

4
CHANGE IN
BUSINESS INVENTORIES

V A

2

V

s

0

\ /
J

-2

I

_|

I

I

1957

1955

1959

I
1961

I

I

I

I

I
1967

1965

1963

PERCENT OF G N P

1
6
GOVERNMENT PURCHASES AND MET EXPORTS

14
\
FEDERAL PURCHASES

12
10

..

.•"
.•—

.Xe...-"
^^-^^

'Jr

8
.••
.••

*
*

STATE AND LOCAL PURCHASES

6

-

4

-

2

-

NET EXPORTS

_

0
-2

I

I
1955

I I
1957

I

I

I

1959

1961

NOTE.-BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED DATA.
SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.




47

I

I
1963

I

I
1965

I I
1967

Net Exports
Exports of goods and services exceeded imports by an average of 1.1 percent of GNP during the 1961-65 period. Demands for imports rose sharply
in 1966, and the share of net exports in GNP dropped to a low point of 0.6
percent in the fourth quarter of 1966. During the first three quarters of 1967,
net exports recovered somewhat and averaged 0.7 percent of GNP. In the
fourth quarter, however, a disturbing new decline in net exports was registered, as sluggishness of demand abroad held U.S. export sales on a plateau,
while the economic rebound at home generated a renewed growth of imports.
GOVERNMENT
Purchases of goods and services by State and local governments have
risen steadily and rapidly during the post-Korean period, supported in
part by the strong expansion of Federal grants-in-aid. State and local
purchases amounted to 7.5 percent of GNP in 1954, advanced to 9.7
percent in 1961, increased further to 10.4 percent in 1966, and reached
11.1 percent of GNP in the fourth quarter of 1967. The total growth of
State and local purchases has been fairly steady. But employment has
accelerated in recent years, with increases of nearly 600,000 workers in
both 1966 and 1967. State and local payrolls absorbed about two-fifths
of the growth in the total civilian labor force in these two years.
Federal purchases of goods and services have shown much more erratic
movements, reflecting marked shifts in defense requirements. As a share of
GNP, they reached a post-Korean low of 9.7 percent in the second quarter
of 1965, but have been rising since then because of the conflict in Vietnam.
Still, by standards of earlier years, Federal purchases as a share of GNP are
currently not particularly high. In the fourth quarter of 1967, they amounted
to 11.4 percent of GNP, not much different from the 11.1 percent average
share in 1955-61 and far below the 15.7 percent share at the close of the
Korean war.
PERSONAL SAVING
Beginning in the fourth quarter of 1966 and persisting throughout 1967,
individuals have been saving an especially large share of their after-tax incomes, and thus have been spending a reduced share on consumer goods and
services. At current income levels, an increase of 1 percentage point in the
saving rate corresponds to a $5/2 billion reduction in consumer spending.
The ratio of personal saving to disposable personal income was 7.1 percent in
1967. Table 2 shows that this is unusually high by standards of recent years,
although not in comparison with 1956-58. In the analysis of current data,
it must be recognized that revisions in the national accounts have, at times
in the past, markedly changed the initial estimates of the saving rate. But
other statistical evidence also suggests that saving in 1967 was much higher
than in previous years.




48

TABLE 2.—Disposition of disposable personal income in selected periods, 1956-67
(Percent]
Category
Disposable personal income
Personal consumption expenditures.
Durable goods

1956-58
average

Food and beverages..
Other nondurables.-.
Services.

1965

1966

19671

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

91.1

92.2

91.7

91.6

90.3

12.8

13.0

14.0

13.8

13.2

Autos and parts.
Other durables..
Nondurable goods.

1959-64
average

5.4
7.3

5.7
7.3

6.3
7.6

5.9
8.0

5.4
7.9

44.0

42.3

40.5

40.8

39.9

23.9
20.1

22.3
19.9

21.0
19.5

21.0
19.8

20.3
19.6

34.3

37.0

37.3

37.0

37.1

Interest paid and transfer payments
foreigners
_
._.

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.6

Saving..

6.9

5.5

5.8

5.9

7.1

i Preliminary.
Note.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.

A significant part of the rise in the saving rate in 1967 may be attributable
to a decline in the proportion of disposable income spent on automobiles
from an average of 6.0 percent in 1963-66 to 5.4 percent in 1967. The proportion in 1963-66 seems unusually high, and the decline in 1967 may be
partly the backwash of that earlier experience. Moreover, it is quite normal
in light of past performance for a decline in the share of income spent on
autos to be associated with a rise in the saving rate.
A variety of other factors, many of them short run in character, may also
have influenced saving. The recent increase in the saving rate may have
been caused, in part, by the Medicare program introduced in mid-1966.
This program contributed $4 billion to disposable income in 1967. Some part
of these benefits must have covered health care which otherwise would have
drawn down personal saving.
Developments in financial markets may also have affected saving. During
1966 households bought large amounts of bonds; as a result, the growth in
their holdings of liquid assets—such as currency, demand deposits and saving
deposits—was curtailed. During the course of 1967, however, consumers
rebuilt their liquidity at a rapid rate. To a degree, this was accomplished by
a shift in the composition of financial assets away from less liquid types of
securities, but in part the additional liquidity may have been accumulated
through increased saving.
Some economists have also suggested that consumer saving is likely to be
unusually high in the period immediately following an acceleration of prices.
They cite 1948, 1951, and 1952 as precedents.




49

While few of these factors would imply a permanently higher saving rate,
past evidence indicates that a reversion to a more normal rate is most likely
to occur gradually rather than abruptly.
BALANCE OF SAVING AND INVESTMENT
The shift in saving and investment demands in 1967 can also be viewed
in terms of the balance of total investment and saving in the aggregate
economy.
The difference between gross private investment and gross private saving
is, in principle, always matched by the surplus or deficit of Federal, State
and local governments. In fact, a statistical discrepancy generally creeps
into the measurement of these flows and prevents complete realization of the
definitional equality (Table 3).
In 1966, despite its unbalanced composition, gross private investment
amounted to 16.2 percent of GNP, a quite typical share for a full employment year. It exceeded the total saving of individuals and corporations
by a small margin. This small excess of private investment over private
saving was essentially matched by the moderate surplus of State and local
governments. Federal receipts, meanwhile, virtually equalled expenditures;
thus the Federal Government neither drew down nor added to total national
saving.
TABLE 3.—Gross saving and investment in selected years of relatively high
employment, 1952-67
Percent of gross national product
Source or use of saving
1952

1956

1965

19671

1966

Private sector:
Gross investment.
Business fixed investment
Residential structu res
Change in business inventories.
Net foreign investment
Gross saving.
Personal saving
Gross business saving.
Excess of private saving or investment ( - ) . . .

14.9

17.1

16.3

16.2

14.5

9.1
5.0
.9
-.1

10.4
5.2
1.1
.4

10.4
3.9
1.4
.6

10.8
3.3
1.8
.3

10.5
3.1
.6
.3

15.4

16.2

16.2

16.1

16.5

5.2
10.2

4.9
11.3

4.0
12.2

4.0
12.1

4.9
11.5

.5

-.9

-.1

1.9

Government sector:
Federal surplus or deficit (—)
State and local surplus or deficit (—)
Government surplus or deficit (—)
Statistical discrepancy

-1.1
<3)
-1.1
.6

1 Preliminary.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
* Less than —0.05 percent.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




1.4
-.2
1.2
-.3

.2
.2

-1.6
(3)

.4

.4

-1.6

-.3

-.3

-.3

For the year 1967, however, gross private investment amounted to an
unusually low 14.5 percent of GNP. Inventory accumulation, residential
building, and net foreign investment were all below their average shares of
recent years. Meanwhile, personal saving was unusually large as a share
of GNP. While a drop in the share of gross business saving provided a partial
offset, total private saving as a share of GNP still rose in 1967. The resulting
large excess of private saving over private investment implied a comparable
major swing toward deficits in the Government sectors. The surplus of State
and local governments vanished, and the Federal sector recorded a deficit
amounting to 1.6 percent of GNP.
The expansionary fiscal position helped to offset the weakness of private
demand and thus to maintain the economy at essentially full employment.
If fiscal and monetary policies had been less expansionary, the sag in private
demand would have lowered output, employment, and incomes; saving and
investment would then have come into balance at lower levels of economic
activity.
As the 1967 experience demonstrates, under conditions of unusual weakness in private demand, a large Federal deficit at full employment can help
to sustain total demand at an appropriate level. Table 3 also contains the
data for 1952, which was similar to 1967 in this respect. But, under conditions of strong private demand, a similarly expansionary budget would be
inappropriate, causing inflationary pressures and requiring monetary restraint to curb investment demand. Some of the major factors operating to
produce the excess of private saving in 1967 were clearly temporary; these
included the inventory overhang at the beginning of the year and the lingering impact of tight money on residential construction. The relative weakness
of private demand in the first half of 1967 gave way to growing strength in
the latter part of the year, and this is continuing into 1968.
RESOURCE USE IN 1967
Although real GNP increased only 2 / 2 percent from 1966 to 1967, the
average unemployment rate did not rise. The growth of the economy's
supply capabilities generally allows output to increase about 4 percent per
year with constant utilization rates. A growth of actual output much below
that rate would normally be expected to be accompanied by a rise in the
unemployment rate. But this did not occur last year.
Much of the production slowdown early in the year was reflected in a
decline of average hours worked per man rather than in a reduction of
employment. For 1967 as a whole, average hours worked per man in private
nonfarm employment were 1.3 percent below the high level of 1966. Firms
correctly viewed the slowdown as temporary and they were reluctant to
release the skilled labor which had been so difficult to find in 1966.
For the private economy, man-hour productivity appears to have risen only
1.4 percent in 1967. A decline in utilization rates normally holds down the
growth of productivity. Moreover, business firms were apparently still mak-




51

ing up shortages of professional and managerial workers. For example, employment of nonproduction workers in manufacturing grew 1.7 percent in
the first half of the year when output was falling.
Labor Force
The unemployment rate for 1967 as a whole was held down by the
shortened workweek and the slowdown in the rate of productivity growth,
even though the growth of the labor force exceeded normal demographic
trends by a wide margin.
From the fourth quarter of 1966 to the second quarter of 1967, there was
a moderate decline in the number of women in the labor force and the total
civilian labor force grew only slightly. As the pace of economic expansion
quickened in the second half, an unusually large number of women entered
the labor force and the expansion of adult female employment accounted
for over 80 percent of the increase in total civilian employment. This parallel
movement of labor force participation and employment is the chief reason
why the unemployment rate did not rise significantly in the first half nor
decrease notably in the second half.
It should be noted that the unemployment data for 1967 are difficult
to interpret and to compare with former years because of the introduction of an improved questionnaire in the monthly survey of employment.
There is some evidence that the new procedures may result in a measured unemployment rate slightly below that yielded by the old questionnaire. Thus it is possible that, on a strictly comparable basis, unemployment would have registered an increase of about 0.1 percent of the labor
force from 1966 to 1967.
As shown in Table 4, there were only small changes in the demographic
and occupational patterns of unemployment rates in 1967. The unemployment rate of nonwhite men continued the steady decline that has taken place
since 1961—although the rate is still more than twice that for white men.
The unemployment rate increased somewhat for adult females, both white
and nonwhite. It also rose further for nonwhite teenagers, the only group
that has not experienced a significant decline in unemployment since 1961.
The burden of unemployment remains rather heavily concentrated among
nonwhites, who represent 21 percent of the unemployed, but only 11 percent of the employed. Many of these workers suffer particularly from
discrimination, lack of education, and inadequate skills and experience.
Much of the unemployment in other groups stems from short layoffs, voluntary quits, and—particularly in the case of women and teenagers—from
frequent temporary movements into the labor force.
Many workers did have difficulty in finding jobs in 1967, but many employers were still having recruiting problems, even though the labor market
was less strained than in 1966. While there was room for an increase in the
workweek at the end of the year, labor markets were not generally characterized by excess supplies of labor.




52

TABLE 4.—Employment and unemployment by demographic and occupational groups,
selected years, 1961-67
Percentage distribution of employment
status, 1967

Unemployment rate (percent)1
Group
1965

1961
Total

6.7

1966

4.5

3.8

1967

Employ- Unemployment
ment 2

3.8

100.0

100.0

Demographic groups:
6.0

White
Teenagers
Adult males
Adult females .

. . .

4.1

3.3

3.4

89.2

78.6

15.3
5.1
5.7

13.4
2.9
4.0

11.2
2.2
3.3

11.0
2.1
3.8

6.9
53.8
28.6

21.3
29.1
28.1

12.4

Nonwhite
Teenagers
Adult males
Adult females

8.1

7.3

7.4

10.8

21.4

27.6
11.7
10.6

26.2
6.0
7.5

25.4
4.9
6.6

26.4
4.3
7.1

.8
5.8
4.2

6.9
6.5
8.1

3.3
9.2
7.2
2.8

2.3
5.3
5.3
2.6

2.0
4.2
4.6
2.2

2.2
4.4
4.5
2.3

46.0
36.7
12.5
4.8

29.6
49.8
17.3
3.3

Occupational groups:
White collar workers
Blue collar workers
Service workers
Farm workers

1 Number unemployed in each group as percent of labor force for the group.
Distribution by occupational groups relates to experienced workers.
Note.—Data relate to persons 16 years of age and over.
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.

2

Source: Department of Labor.

Capacity Utilization
In contrast with employment of manpower, plant and equipment utilization in manufacturing was markedly reduced in 1967 from the strained
conditions of 1966. Average operating rates fell from more than 90 percent
in 1966 to 85 percent in 1967, as manufacturing capacity grew by 6^2 percent
while output barely increased for the year as a whole. The decline in utilization was limited to the first half of 1967—except in the case of the automobile
industry where output was heavily affected by strikes. From June to December, total manufacturing production increased at an annual rate of 8J/2
percent, outpacing the growth of capacity; at yearend, operating rates were
rising in most manufacturing sectors.
PROSPECTS AND POLICIES FOR 1968
At the end of 1967, the economy was in a strong position to move into
its eighth year of uninterrupted expansion. As noted above, the composition
of demand is now fairly well balanced with that of supply.
Because some slack developed during 1967, real GNP can rise in 1968
by somewhat more than 4 percent without straining resources. But a growth
of demand much above that rate would tend to accelerate the increase of
wages and prices. An excessive rate of growth of demand could also upset




53

the balance among the sectors of the economy by generating a surge of
business investment, and ultimately placing renewed pressures on the capital
goods industries. The financial conditions which would inevitably be associated with such developments would again severely depress homebuilding.
And a new wave of imports would impair the needed improvement in the
U.S. balance of payments.
In 1968, the main objectives of fiscal and monetary policy are to sustain
economic expansion, to maintain reasonable balance between demand and
resources in the economy as a whole and among its major sectors, to promote
a return toward over-all price stability, and to support progress toward
balance-of-payments equilibrium.
FEDERAL FISCAL PROGRAM
Federal expenditures in 1968 are expected to rise by about $15 billion,
considerably less than the $21 billion increase of last year. Defense purchases, including military pay increases, are scheduled to rise only $4 billion
as compared with $12 billion in 1967. The remaining increases in expenditures cover requirements under existing law and provide for high priority
civilian programs. Nondefense purchases, also including pay increases, will
rise $2 billion. Medicaid, manpower training, and housing and community development programs will add to the total of grants-in-aid in 1968.
A scheduled increase in social security benefits in March will add $3
billion to transfer payments for the year 1968. This increase will be offset,
in large part, by a $2 billion rise in payroll taxes, which became effective
January 1. Reflecting continued growth of Medicare health benefits and
ongoing retirement pensions as well as the new social security programs,
total transfers to persons should rise $5 billion.
Excluding the scheduled changes in social security benefits, the remaining expected increase in Federal expenditures is approximately equal to the
normal annual growth of Federal revenues at existing tax rates. Thus, in
the absence of tax rate increases, the Federal deficit would change little
from its estimated level of $12j/2 billion for 1967. It would remain overly
expansionary in relation to the expected growth of private demand.
Accordingly, the President has again asked Congress to enact a temporary
10-percent surcharge on personal and corporate income taxes, effective
April 1 for individuals and January 1 for corporations. The proposed
surcharge will yield an estimated $8 billion of additional revenues in
1968. The President is also recommending the retention of certain excise
taxes, now scheduled to expire in April, in order to avoid a revenue loss of
nearly $2 billion in 1968. With the President's tax program, the Federal
deficit will be reduced to an estimated $5 billion for the calendar year. Thus
the proposed tax changes will eliminate much of the expansionary thrust of
the Federal budget as private demand continues to grow. The President's
tax proposals are discussed in detail in Chapter 2.




54

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
Assuming enactment of the President's fiscal program early in the
current legislative session, GNP for 1968 is expected to approximate $846
billion—given the $785 billion now estimated for 1967. This projection,
of course, is intended to represent the midpoint of a range of possible
outcomes, rather than a precise estimate. After correction for an anticipated
over-all price increase somewhat in excess of 3 percent, the midpoint estimate would imply an increase of somewhat more than 4 percent in real
GNP. With this output increase and an expected growth of 1% percent in
the civilian labor force, the unemployment rate for the year as a whole should
be essentially unchanged from its current level.
Just as it was evident a year ago that 1967 had inherited a slow start
from the conditions which prevailed at the end of 1966, it is equally clear now
that 1968 has inherited a running start from the economic conditions of the
closing months of 1967. Automobile production schedules for the beginning
of 1968 are exceptionally large. The latest surveys of business plans for plant
and equipment and the recent strength of new orders for machinery and
equipment both point to an advance in business investment in the first half.
There is also evidence that a buildup of steel inventories has already begun
in anticipation of labor negotiations. Most of the catchup in automobile
production is expected to be concentrated in the first quarter and the steel
stockpiling in the first half.
Although the rate of advance may be excessive in the early part of 1968,
prompt enactment of the President's tax proposals will insure moderate and
appropriate expansion after midyear.
When the prospective pattern of economic activity is uneven, forecasting involves special uncertainties. One year ago, the Council foresaw an
uneven pattern of activity for 1967, with an advance of $47 billion in GNP
for the year as a whole. The actual gain was $5 billion smaller. Nevertheless, the Council did project a slowdown in the first half, followed by a
marked rebound in the second. Developments during the year generally
corresponded to this pattern.
The ability of economists to forecast is far from perfect, but a projection
carefully distilled from the available evidence is indispensable in the formulation of economic policy.
OUTLOOK BY SECTORS
The over-all outlook can be better understood by examining the major
expenditure categories.
Business Fixed Investment
The recovery of business fixed investment which seems to have begun late
in 1967 is likely to continue at a moderate rate throughout 1968. In the




55

most recent Commerce-SEC investment survey—the results of which are in
substantial agreement with other yearend surveys—business firms in utilities,
airlines, and a few manufacturing sectors including nonelectrical machinery
reported plans for considerable increases in investment in the first half of
1968. Responding to some improvement in operating rates and profits in the
first part of the year, other manufacturing industries—currently planning
little change in outlays for the first half of 1968—may be expected to raise
their investment outlays later in the year. For the year as a whole, the gain
over 1967 is expected to be about $4 or $5 billion.
Business Inventories
For 1967 as a whole, inventory accumulation is estimated at only $5
billion. Inventory accumulation in the first half of 1968—spurred by the
rebuilding of automobile stocks and forward buying of steel inventories—
might run at twice the 1967 rate. The accumulation rate should be approximately normal in the second half of 1968, so that, for the year as a whole, the
net addition to stocks is expected to total several billion dollars above that
of 1967.
Homebuilding
Provided the tax increase is enacted early in 1968, the relief of pressures
on financial markets should be sufficient to permit continued growth in
residential building. Private nonfarm housing starts in 1968 are expected
to exceed l*/2 million for the first time since 1964—a substantial increase
over 1967, though still below the basic demand of our expanding population.
Expenditures on homebuilding and modernization of existing residences
should rise through the year, and, for 1968 as a whole, exceed 1967 outlays
by $5 to $6 billion.
The events of 1967 have shown quite clearly that housing demand is
strong enough to support a high and rising level of building even when
mortgage interest rates are high—provided funds are available at thrift
institutions. Over the past 12 to 15 months, the monetary authorities—as
explained in Chapter 2—have been especially mindful of the need to provide financial support for building activity. If they are able to maintain this
course, residential building will continue to be an important stimulus to
general economic expansion while providing the improved housing capacity
needed in many areas of the country.
Government
Purchases of goods and services by State and local governments should
rise by $8 or $9 billion in 1968. Here, too, part of the expected growth is
dependent on the existence of financial conditions that will permit State
and local governments to carry out planned construction projects.
For the year as a whole, Federal purchases are expected to rise by $6
billion. The quarterly pattern of advance during the year is expected to




56

be fairly smooth, except that the third quarter rate will be enlarged by a
Federal pay increase estimated at $1^4 billion (annual rate). The timing
of this bulge should serve to offset some of the effect on aggregate demand
of the reduction in inventory accumulation expected in the second half of
the year.
Consumption
An expected gain of about $35 billion in disposable income—consumer
income after tax and surtax—should promote a sizable advance in consumer
spending. Recent increases in consumer liquidity should reinforce the gains
in income. Expenditures on household durables should receive particular
support from the continued high level of homebuilding. Another contributing element is the prospective catchup in automobile sales.
For 1968, the consumer sector is clearly an area of particular uncertainty in forecasting private demand. As noted above, the saving rate
has been unusually high for the past five quarters. And the latest evidence indicates that consumers are still spending cautiously. Nevertheless,
the weight of past evidence would suggest that, following a period of
abnormally high saving, the most likely possibility is a gradual decline in
the saving rate.
The saving rate implicit in the projection of an $846 billion GNP is only
slightly below the 7.1 percent rate of 1967. The automobile catchup essentially accounts for the small projected decline. On this basis, consumer spending is expected to rise about $33 billion in 1968.
With the prompt enactment of the President's tax proposals, the prospects outlined above suggest that, while price increases will continue to
be troublesome, the U.S. economy should experience healthy and balanced
economic growth in 1968.




57

Chapter 2

The Strategy of Stabilization Policy

T

HE EMPLOYMENT ACT of 1946 charged the Federal Government with the responsibility to promote "maximum employment, production, and purchasing power." Active pursuit of these goals through the
use of discretionary economic policy over the past seven years has led to new
standards of economic performance. This chapter deals with some of the
lessons of recent economic experience as they apply to the current and foreseeable problems facing the economy.
SEVEN YEARS OF ECONOMIC EXPANSION
Since February 1961 the United States has experienced an unprecedented
period of sustained economic expansion. This long uninterrupted advance
represents a marked contrast with our historical pattern of ups and downs.
During the years from 1854—when the relevant economic records begin—
to I960, there were 26 periods of expansion, averaging 2J/2 years in length.
Each terminated with a relapse into recession or depression. The longest
previous advance was the 80-month expansion that accompanied World
War I I ; and the next longest was the anemic 50-month recovery from the
Great Depression.
MEASURES OF GAINS
The present prosperity has been outstanding in strength as well as in
length (Table 5). Over nearly seven years of expansion, gross national
product (GNP), measured in constant prices, increased 41 percent, an average of 5.2 percent a year. The addition of $231 billion (in 1967 prices) was
greater than the entire real output of the Nation only 30 years ago. All
major expenditure components shared in the increase, with the most marked
advance occurring in business fixed investment.
Over the 6^4-year period, real disposable income per capita—the after-tax
spendable income of the average American, corrected for price changes—
rose 29 percent, a greater gain than that of the preceding 18 years. Civilian
employment increased by 9.4 million jobs. These employment gains outpaced the growth of the labor force and permitted unemployment rates to
decline for all major groups of workers.




58

T A B L E 5.—Measures of economic activity during the current expansion
Percentage
change l

Amount
Series

Unit or base

Total Per year

1961 I

1967 IV

482.6

679.4

40.8

5.2

.do.
-do.
_do_

316.2
44.9
20.9
97.6

433.2
73.2
21.3
140.4

37.0
63.0
1.9
43.9

4.8
7.5
.3
5.5

.do..
.do-

52.2
45.4

74.4
66.0

42.5
45.4

5.4
5.7

103.7

159.2

53.5

6.6

341.8
24.4
1,871

481.8
3 47.1
2,409

41.0
93.0
28.8

5.2
10.6
3.8

Millions of persons.
do

65.7
53.5

75.1
66.8

14.3
24.9

2.0
3.3

Percent 4 ,
do...
.do.
.do-

6.8
5.9
17.2
12.4

4.0
2.4
14.0
7.6

1958=100...

104.3

118.9

14.0

2.0

_do.
1957-59=100.
do

103.8
101.0
103.9

115.7
106.4
117.8

11.5
5.3
13.4

1.6
.8
1.9

Production:
Gross national productPersonal consumption expenditures.
Business fixed investment
Residential structures
Government purchases
Federal
State and local.
Industrial production-

Billions of dollars, 1958 prices 2
.do

1957-59=100.

Income:
Disposable personal income
...
Billions of dollars, 1958 prices 2.
Corporate profits aftertax.
_
_
Billions of dollars2
Per capita disposable personal income.— Dollars, 1958 prices 2
Employment:
Civilian employment
Nonagricultural payroll employment..
Unemployment rate: Total
Males 20 years and over..
Teenagers
Nonwhite-.-.
Prices:
Gross national product deflator
Personal consumption expenditures deflator
Wholesale prices
Consumer prices
1
2

Preliminary.
Annual rates.
31967 IV not available; 1967 III used.
4
Percent of civilian labor force in each group unemployed.
Note.—All data seasonally adjusted except wholesale and consumer prices.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Department of Labor, and Council of Economic Advisers.

The price performance for much of the period was outstanding, although
the record of the past two years is blemished. For the period as a whole, the
over-all GNP price deflator rose 2.0 percent a year, the consumer price index
increased at an average yearly rate of 1.9 percent, and wholesale prices rose
at an annual rate of only 0.8 percent. During the preceding seven years of
slow growth and intermittent recession, the annual rates of increase had
been: 2.2 percent for the GNP deflator, 1.5 percent for consumer prices, and
1.2 percent for wholesale prices.
The steady and sustained growth since early 1961 contrasts sharply with
the record of the preceding seven years. Chart 3 shows the path of real GNP
in the current expansion in comparison with the cyclical path following the
recession trough in 1954. If our real GNP in 1961-67 had plodded and
bumped along as it did in the earlier period, it would have reached $688
billion at the end of 1967 (in end-of-1967 prices). In fact, the actual per-




59

Chart 3

Real Gross National Product
After the Recession Troughs of 1954 and 1961
RECESSION TROUGH = 100

150
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT
IN 1958 PRICES

140

130
1961-67

120

110

100

1

0

I I I I J I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 I 1

6

12

18 24 30

36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78

MONTHS AFTER TROUGH

NOTE.-BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED QUARTERLY DATA.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

formance of the economy topped this by $120 billion—a difference larger
than the current total of Federal purchases of goods and services.
REALIZATION OF POTENTIAL
The large recent gains in output reflect the fact that over-all demand has
caught up and kept up with the economy's rising productive capacity. In
the late 1950's and early 1960's, the Nation was sacrificing the opportunity
to consume and invest a substantial amount of the output it was capable
of producing (Chart 4). Potentially productive men and machines were
idle because of inadequate demand for their services. At the recession trough
in the first quarter of 1961, actual GNP was $50 billion (1958 prices) below
the estimated potential output of the economy at a 4-percent unemployment rate. This "gap" was gradually reduced and finally closed in the last
half of 1965. Since then, actual GNP has fluctuated in a relatively narrow
range around its growing potential—exceeding it somewhat in the boom of
1966 and falling a little short during 1967.




6o

Chart 4

Gross National Product, Actual and Potential,
and Unemployment Rate
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS*(ratio scale)

700
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT
IN 1958 PRICES

650

600 -

550 POTENTIAL!/

/

GP
A

-

500 —
ACTUAL

-

450

1

400
1955

1

1

1957

1

I

1959

1

I
1961

1

1
1963

1
1965

PERCENT

1

1
1967
PERCENT

[]
•—•

GNP GAP AS PERCENT OF POTENTIAL (Left scale)
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE?/ (Right scale)

12

-6

1955

1959

1957

1961

1963

1965

1967

•SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
J/TREND LINE OF 3y2% THROUGH MIDDLE OF 1955 TO 1962 IV, VA°1 FROM 1962 IV TO 1965 IV, AND 4%
FROM 1965 IV TO 1967 IV.
-2/UNEMPLOYMENT AS PERCENT OF CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE; SEASONALLY ADJUSTED.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

6i
284-593 O—68




5

The Nation's potential output has grown by an estimated 28 percent since
early 1961. The rate of increase is currently about 4 percent a year, reflecting a 15/2-percent rise in available man-hours and a 2 J/i-percent rate of
increase in output per man-hour.
Available man-hours grow slightly less rapidly than the labor force. The
recent normal growth trend of the labor force is about 1% percent a year.
This is rapid by previous standards and reflects the high birth rates of the
immediate postwar years. Under steady employment conditions, however,
longer vacations, shorter workweeks, and an increasing employment of parttime workers—mostly women—lead to a decline of about *4 percent in average hours worked per year. This holds the trend of growth in total man-hours
to about 1Y2 percent a year.
As a result of a more skilled and better trained labor force, improved
management and technology, and the enlarged quantity and higher quality
of the capital stock, the Nation experiences growing productivity—as"
measured by output per man-hour. In the postwar era, the trend in the
growth of productivity in the private economy has been somewhat over 3
percent a year. However, improvements in the efficiency of Government
workers are not statistically measured, and are arbitrarily taken at zero.
Therefore, the trend rate of increase in output per man-hour for the total
economy—private and public—is just over 2 J/2 percent a year. The growth
rate of potential output is therefore about 4 percent a year currently. It exceeds the 3 5/2-percent rate estimated for the late 1950's and early 1960's
primarily because the growth of the labor force has accelerated.
The vigorous advance of aggregate demand in recent years has assured
that the economy's great and growing productive potential has been generally realized in actual output and not squandered in idleness.
FISCAL POLICY IN THE 1960'S
The improved and fuller use of our productive capabilities in the 1960's
has been significantly influenced by fiscal and monetary policy. It is no accident that this most successful period of sustained growth in our economic
history has coincided with a new and determined commitment to apply economic policies in active pursuit of the goals of the Employment Act.
The balanced expansion of 1961-65 was strongly supported by stimulative
fiscal measures. Federal tax liabilities were lowered through depreciation
reform, the investment tax credit, a sharp reduction in personal and corporate tax rates, and the reduction or elimination of many Federal excise
taxes. Increases in expenditures during the period provided for the introduction and expansion of high priority social programs and, in 1961-62,
for stepped-up defense needs.
As discussed in detail below, monetary policy played a vital role during this
period in insuring that the growing credit needs of the expanding economy
were adequately met.




62

The rapid expansion of spending for the Vietnam conflict threw the
economy off stride after mid-1965. But the economic strains inherent in the
defense buildup were moderated by adjustments in policy. In particular,
monetary policy played a much more active role in 1966 and 1967 than
in the preceding period.
A review of fiscal policy prior to the 1960's is helpful in understanding
the more recent developments.
THE HERITAGE OF CURRENT FISCAL POLICY
The conscious use of Federal tax and expenditure policy to help promote
high employment and healthy growth dates back at least to the 1930's. Since
World War II, fiscal policy has contributed to the improved record of economic stability both through the greater importance of automatic stabilizers
and the growing use of discretionary policies.
Automatic Stabilizers
Several features of the postwar budgetary system have helped to increase
economic stability passively and automatically. Because the Federal tax
system relies heavily on personal and corporate income taxes, tax liabilities
increase or decrease along with economic activity. A decline in activity reduces incomes, which, in turn, automatically results in reduced tax receipts
even if tax rates are not changed. The fall in after-tax spendable incomes
of individuals and corporations is thus cushioned by the amount of the
decline in tax revenues. As a result, secondary reductions in spending are
smaller than they would otherwise have been, and the ultimate decline in
output and incomes is more limited. The same kind of stabilizing effect
occurs, to a degree, in Federal expenditures, because certain outlays—especially unemployment benefits and welfare payments—automatically increase
in a period of contracting economic activity and thus support consumer
spending.
When economic activity rises, these same stabilizers work in the opposite
direction. Every rise in income leads to higher tax collections which—
given the level of Federal expenditures—restrict further increases in private
spending. To the extent that the rise in private incomes reduces Federal
outlays for unemployment benefits and welfare payments, the dampening
effect is further strengthened.
Automatic fiscal stabilizers are more important now than they were
before World War II. Over much of the postwar period, they have
been the primary reliance of stabilization policy. To a large extent, the
increased strength of the stabilizers simply reflects the higher tax rates in
the postwar period, accompanying the greater importance of defense spending and the enlarged civilian responsibilities of the Federal Government.
The automatic stabilizers were also made more powerful as a result of
structural changes, such as the introduction of unemployment insurance
and the greater reliance on progressive income taxes—receipts from which




63

fluctuate proportionately more in response to income changes than those
from other taxes.
The frequency of recessions from 1948 to 1961 was not notably reduced
from earlier times, which is not surprising. Automatic stabilizers cannot
prevent a decline; they merely help to limit one once it starts. But the automatic stabilizers have helped to make postwar recessions brief and relatively
mild. The workings of the automatic stabilizers created substantial Federal
deficits in each postwar recession, which were accepted by each Administration as a beneficial stabilizing influence.
Discretionary Policies
Discretionary fiscal actions were also used at times to stimulate the economy during recession periods and early stages of recovery. Certain tax rates
were allowed to fall as scheduled at the start of 1954, in full recognition
that this would further unbalance the Federal budget. Increases in Federal
expenditures helped to insure and accelerate recovery in 1958. Although
these actions were taken considerably after the onset of recession, they
played a constructive role in strengthening recovery.
In one major instance, discretionary fiscal actions also were taken to
curb inflationary pressures of excess demand. Three separate legislative
actions to raise corporate and individual tax rates in 1950-51 helped to
restrain a booming Korean defense, economy. Civilian budgetary expenditures were also substantially trimmed. Although most support for these
actions reflected the traditional view that more money was needed simply to
"pay for the war," there were many—both within and outside the Government—who understood fully the role of fiscal policy in stabilizing the
economy.
The discretionary actions that were taken during the decade of the 1950's
seem, in retrospect, to have worked in the right direction. The cases in which
fiscal policy seems to have gone astray involve errors of omission rather
than commission.
A particularly instructive case was the reliance on automatic stabilizers
during the upswing from 1958 to 1960. When the economy is in an inflationary surge, restraint from the automatic stabilizers is a welcome force.
Under some circumstances, however, the expansion of tax revenues that
accompanies economic growth can exert an undesirable restraint. As the
1958-60 period illustrated, it can become a "fiscal drag" preventing the
attainment or maintenance of high employment. Unless there is some combination of higher Federal expenditures and reduction in tax rates equivalent
to the normal growth of revenues, the Federal budget becomes increasingly
restrictive over time.
The possibility of reductions in tax rates was widely advocated and seriously discussed early in 1958, but no action was taken. Although expenditures
rose sharply during the course of that year, they leveled off thereafter and
showed no upward trend from the end of 1958 to mid-1960. Because Federal




expenditures stood still and tax rates were unchanged, the budget began to
exert a significant fiscal drag. For a time, private demand strengthened
enough to keep the economy advancing. But as private demand lost its vigor,
the economy turned down in the spring of 1960, and the fourth postwar
recession began.
BUDGETARY ACTIONS, 1961-65
When the Kennedy Administration took office, the 1960-61 recession had
essentially run its course, cushioned by the automatic stabilizers and by a
prompt shift to a strongly expansive monetary policy. But the Nation's
output was far below its potential and the unemployment rate stood at 6.8
percent, close to a postwar record high.
The Federal sector was in deficit by $*/2 billion (annual rate) in the
fourth quarter of 1960 on the national income account basis (which is the
measure employed throughout this Report). At the same time, however,
tax receipts were being held down by the major shortfall of incomes below
the economy's potential. If, in fact, the economy had been operating
at its potential, there would have been a Federal surplus of an estimated
$13 billion. This hypothetical measure of the "full-employment surplus"
is abstract and imprecise, but it is a useful way of distinguishing between the
passive operation of automatic stabilizers and discretionary shifts in the
budget. If private demand weakens and the economy contracts, thereby
lowering tax revenues, the actual Federal surplus will be substantially reduced (or deficit increased), even with no discretionary changes in expenditures or tax rates. But the full-employment surplus would not thereby be
altered; it would continue to reflect what expenditures and tax yields would
be at potential output levels. On the other hand, higher discretionary expenditures or a reduction in tax rates would be reflected in a lower fullemployment surplus, as well as in an initial decline of the actual surplus.
The huge gap between actual and potential output early in 1961 was a
clear signal that expansionary fiscal actions were needed. If the restraining
impact of the large full-employment surplus continued, the economy's
potential could be realized only through a compensating excess of private
investment over private saving at potential output in an amount larger
than 2 percent of GNP. That would have required extraordinary buoyancy
of private demand, which did not appear to be present or forthcoming.
Expansionary Actions in 1961-62
Significant fiscal steps were taken in 1961 to stimulate the economy. A
liberalization of social security benefits was accelerated and increases in
public assistance were initiated. Advances in defense spending were required
by growing international tensions, and these accomplished a part of the
stimulative job which might otherwise have been carried out by tax cuts or
strengthened civilian programs. The full-employment surplus was brought
down to $9 billion by the end of 1961. Meanwhile, the economy's early re-




65

covery from recession was strong and brisk, narrowing the gap between
actual and potential output by some $15 billion (1958 prices) from the first
to the fourth quarter.
It was expected that this initial stimulus would touch off a strong and
sustained rise in business spending. But after five years of experience with
sluggish markets and excess capacity, businessmen were not prepared to raise
plant and equipment spending far in advance of the growth of demand.
The economy continued to advance but at a much slower pace; progress
toward full employment was interrupted early in 1962. The gap between
actual and potential output remained between $25 and $30 billion (1958
prices) and the unemployment rate hovered around 5 ^ percent.
Two key tax measures were adopted in 1962 to stimulate investment:
depreciation rules were liberalized and an investment tax credit of 7 percent
on machinery and equipment was enacted. These measures were designed
for the long run and were not expected to yield large results immediately.
The tax actions were combined with moderate further increases in Federal
expenditures. Even so, the revenue growth of a normally expanding economy
swung both the full-employment surplus and the actual deficit toward restraint in the second half of 1962.
Tax Reduction in 1964 and 1965
Against this background, President Kennedy announced in August of
1962 his intention to propose a major stimulative tax reduction, along with
important tax reforms. The proposal was subsequently spelled out in the
January 1963 Budget program. This was an unprecedented step; it initiated
a major expansionary fiscal action at a time when the economy was neither
in recession nor threatened by imminent recession, the Federal sector
was in deficit, and Federal expenditures were continuing on an upward
trend. The tax program was based on the diagnosis and forecast that a
substantial further reduction in the Federal full-employment surplus was
needed, given the state of private demand, to produce a sustained and
balanced expansion of output up to the potential level.
The tax proposal was intensively debated in Congress, but action on it
was not completed in 1963. Meanwhile, expenditures grew less rapidly than
either the actual or potential advance of revenues and the budget became
even more restrictive. The march toward full employment was resumed
with the enactment in February of the Revenue Act of 1964—President
Johnson's first major legislative achievement. Individuals received an average cut of one-fifth in their tax liabilities in two stages covering 1964 and
1965. The reduction for corporations was about one-tenth; combined with
the earlier tax measures of 1962, corporate taxes were brought one-fifth
below the level of 1961. When the cut in tax liabilities had become fully
effective in 1965, it totaled $15 billion. (By 1967 the annual saving to taxpayers due to the tax reductions in the 1964 act had grown to more than
$18 billion.)




66

The effects of the tax reduction on private demand were clear and dramatic. An upsurge in consumer spending indicated that most of the extra
take-home pay resulting from tax reduction was being spent in the Nation's
shops and markets. Responding to the vigor of consumer demand, business
investment spending forged ahead. In late 1964 and early 1965 the unemployment rate dropped below 5 percent for an extended period for the first
time in seven years. The estimated gap between actual and potential output
was narrowed to $11 billion (1958 prices) in the first half of 1965. The
gains in income produced a huge rebound in Federal receipts, bringing the
Federal sector into surplus in the first half of 1965.
New stimulative policies were prepared in the spring of 1965 in order to
complete the advance to full employment. In line with the President's
proposals, Congress enacted a major, phased reduction of excise taxes.
The first stage took effect in June 1965, cutting taxes by $1% billion (annual
rate). A retroactive liberalization of social security benefits was enacted.

Summary
The over-all operation of fiscal policy from the end of 1960 to the middle
of 1965 is summarized in Table 6. Expansionary fiscal actions over the
period totaled $38 billion—$25j/i billion through expenditure increases and
$12^4 billion through net tax reductions. A gross total of $155/2 billion of
tax cuts was offset in part by social security tax increases of $3 billion.
If tax rates had remained unchanged, normal revenue growth (calculated
at full employment) over the 4/ 2 -year period would have amounted to
TABLE 6.—Federal fiscal actions in two periods since fourth quarter 1960
[Billions of dollars, seasonally adjusted annual rates]
1960 IV to
1965 II

Item

Federal expenditure increases 2..

1965 II to
1967 IV 1

25.5

48.0

Defense purchases.
Other purchases
OASDHI3 benefits..
All other 2 4

3.5
7.5
5.0
9.5

25.0
1.5
10.0
11.5

Federal tax reductions 5_

12.5

-6.0

Corporate
Personal
OASDHI 3 payroll taxes.
Indirect business

5.5
8.5
-3.0
1.5

-8.5
2.5

Total expansionary actions6

38.0

42.0

Normal revenue growth at full employment.

30.5

27.0

-7.5

-15.0

Change in full employment surplus 7
1
Preliminary.
2
Includes adjustment in unemployment insurance benefits for change in unemployment
3
Old-age, survivors, disability, and hospital and related insurance (OASDHI).
4
Consists of transfers other than OASDHI, grants, interest, and subsidies.
5
Minus sign indicates an increase in tax.
6
Sum of expenditure increases and tax reductions.
7

Normal revenue growth minus expansionary actions.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.




67

rate.

$30/ 2 billion. Because expansionary actions exceeded this "fiscal dividend,"
the full-employment surplus was reduced by $7j4 billion. In contrast, the
actual balance shifted from a fractional deficit to a surplus of nearly $5
billion, reflecting the vigorous advance of private demand.
The precise movements of the budget during the 1961-65 period were
not perfect in size or timing. But they clearly did the job of promoting orderly
progress toward full employment without straining over-all productive capacity or creating serious bottlenecks.
CHALLENGES OF PROSPERITY
As of mid-1965, there was every reason to believe that the record of
orderly progress could be extended. The expansion was characterized by
remarkable balance in all sectors and strong forward momentum. The
fiscal program and monetary policy that ruled at the time seemed appropriate to the economy's needs. The main future task of budgetary policy
appeared to be that of distributing the fiscal dividend—providing for
expenditure increases and tax reductions that, in combination, approximately matched the economy's normal revenue growth along a rising trend
of full-employment GNP.
Nevertheless, the fuller use of resources posed new problems of diagnosis
and policy application. Previously, the risks had been almost entirely on
the side of insufficient demand; and the primary task of policy had been
to provide stimulus. As the unemployment rate fell toward 4 percent, the
economy entered territory that had been uninhabited for nearly a decade.
There were now risks on both sides—not only of inadequate but of excessive
stimulus.
No one could know precisely how fully resources might be used without
unleashing inflationary forces. In 1961, the Council had set an interim
target of a 4-percent unemployment rate, intending to review the possibility of adopting a more ambitious goal in light of the actual operation
of the economy in the neighborhood of 4-percent unemployment.
In the period of slack, excess supply and unused productive capabilities
created buyers' markets. In such circumstances, the human costs of inadequate demand are very large while the risks of price inflation are likely to
be small. As full utilization is attained, the pressures toward higher prices
increase, as Chapter 3 indicates. And, if excess demand becomes widespread
and sellers' markets generally come to prevail, a wage-price spiral and accelerating inflation can result. Finding acceptable and feasible ways to reconcile
high employment with reasonable price stability thus becomes a major challenge to policy in a prosperous economy.
In 1965, the Nation stood ready to face this welcome challenge. However,
the task of stabilization was immensely complicated by the sharp increase
in defense spending after mid-1965.




68

Defense and the Budget, 1965-67
A marked rise in defense spending inevitably creates problems for fiscal
management, especially when the economy is close to full employment. The
additional defense requirements since mid-1965 have absorbed about onefourth of the Nation's growth in real output. Thus, the production available
for private use has continued to rise. Yet the advance in defense spending has
been sufficiently large to dominate the Federal Budget in this period. It
accounts for the fact that we now face the need for tax increases rather than
further opportunities for a welcome tax reduction.
From the middle of 1965 to the end of 1967, the increase in Federal expenditures was $48 billion, as shown in Table 6. Some $25 billion of this
was for defense. Of the $10 billion increase in OASDHI benefits, about $6
billion represented the landmark social decision to provide improved health
care for the aged under social security, and the balance represented normal
growth in the ongoing programs. The $10 billion increase in OASDHI
benefits was more than covered by increased payroll taxes. Other nondefense expenditures increased by $13 billion. Over the same period, normal
growth of Federal revenues at full employment—at constant tax rates—
amounted to about $27 billion. In addition, there were net tax rate increases which added about $6 billion to revenues.
All in all, with the large rise in defense outlays and the high priorities
for certain public civilian programs, the $48 billion increase in expenditures
far outpaced the normal expansion of revenues plus the effect of tax rate
increases. As a result, the Federal budget became very expansionary over
these 2J/2 years, with a drop of $15 billion in the full-employment surplus.
It should be noted that the advance of $13 billion in nondefense expenditures other than for social insurance was only about half the normal growth
of revenues other than from payroll taxes.
Fiscal Policy, 1966-67
A variety of policy measures-—both fiscal and monetary—was adopted
over the 2 5/2-year period to cope with the pressures resulting from the increase in the defense budget. The design of policy actions was made especially
difficult by uncertainties about the future path of defense outlays.
After the exceedingly rapid economic advance during the second half of
1965, the need for restraint in policy was clearly recognized at the beginning
of 1966. An already scheduled rise in payroll taxes for social insurance
amounting to $6 billion (annual rate) took effect at the start of the year.
The President's budgetary program reinforced this restraining influence with
requests for a new graduated withholding system on individual income taxes,
for a reversal of certain scheduled excise tax reductions, and a speedup in
the collection of corporate income taxes. As enacted by the Congress in




69

March, these measures siphoned $ 2 ^ billion (annual rate) from the private
economy. Nevertheless, a large part of the burden of providing restraint fell
on monetary policy.
The effects of tight money were evident in a sharp contraction of homebuilding during the course of 1966, which in turn contributed to a moderation of the over-all economic advance. But business investment spending
proved unresponsive to monetary tightness—at least in the short run—and
continued to advance at a rapid rate during the spring and summer of 1966.
The investment boom put severe strain on the plant capacity and labor
supplies of the machinery and construction industries. There was also danger
that an excessive and unsustainable surge of plant and equipment spending
might set the stage for a subsequent slump in investment demand. Finally,
the investment boom added mightily to the pressures on financial markets
during the spring and summer of 1966.
The dramatic decline in homebuilding, the highly disturbed atmosphere
of financial markets, and the pressures of business fixed investment on capital
goods industries clearly indicated that fiscal policy needed to assume a larger
share of the responsibility for restraining the economy.
In the light of these considerations, the Administration in September 1966
requested a temporary suspension of the investment tax credit, initiated certain cutbacks in Federal spending, and placed stringent limits on net new
issues by Federal agencies. At the same time, the monetary authorities took
various complementary steps to ease the pressure on financial markets, including, in particular, a direct request to member banks to restrict their
business lending. In addition, legislative and other action was taken to moderate the competition for savings—and improve the flow of credit—through
the adoption of new rules governing interest-rate ceilings on time and savings
accounts at banks and thrift institutions.
The suspension of the tax credit was enacted by the Congress in October.
The capital goods boom halted, and business spending on plant and equipment declined slightly during the first half of 1967. The suspension of the
investment credit contributed to this result, but monetary policy and the
other activities cited, as well as the general slowdown of the economy, were
also partially responsible. It can be argued, in retrospect, that investment
demand might have slowed down adequately without suspension of the tax
credit. But the impact of the September fiscal program on financial markets
was clear and beneficial beyond any reasonable doubt.
Long-term interest rates responded quickly to the President's fiscal proposals and declined from the sharp peaks reached during the first week of
September 1966. Subsequently, the Federal Reserve System relaxed its
monetary restraints. As a result of this shift in the mix of stabilization policies, the recovery of homebuilding got a head start of several months.
After the suspension of the investment credit had done its job, the credit
was restored by Congress in the spring of 1967 upon recommendation by
the President.




70

As described in Chapter 1, fiscal policy exerted a major expansionary
influence in the first half of 1967 when the economy was particularly
sluggish. The large and growing full-employment deficit, reinforced by an
expansionary monetary policy, helped maintain the forward motion of the
economy. When economic activity strengthened in the second half of the
year, the President called for prompt tax action to moderate the stimulus
of fiscal policy, and initiated a program to curb Federal expenditures. As
Congress adjourned without acting on the proposed tax surcharge, the year
ended with renewed financial strains and with the recovery in homebuilding once again threatened by credit stringency.
MONETARY DEVELOPMENTS
Through nearly five years of economic expansion, monetary policy reinforced expansionary fiscal measures. In 1966, however, monetary policy became a major restraining force. When inflationary pressures diminished late
in 1966, a relaxation of credit policies was initiated and subsequently maintained through most of 1967.
BALANCED EXPANSION, 1961-65
From 1961 until late in 1965, monetary policy was consistently expansionary; it made a major contribution to the advance of the economy by
accommodating growing credit demands at remarkably stable interest rates.
To be sure, short-term interest rates rose during this period, as monetary
policy and debt management actions deliberately sought to keep key shortterm rates in the United States reasonably aligned with those in foreign
money centers so as to limit outflows of interest-sensitive funds. Long-term
rates, however, were only slightly higher in mid-1965 than in early 1961
(Chart 5). Indeed, some important interest rates—those on mortgages and
State and local government bonds—were lower than they had been at the
beginning of the period of expansion.
A policy of monetary ease was indispensable to provide the 60-percent increase in funds raised by businesses, governments, and individuals without
any substantial tightening of availability or increase in long-term rates.
Meanwhile, demands for funds burgeoned mainly because of the invigoration of demands for goods and services that stemmed from an actively
expansionary fiscal policy.
Institutional Changes
During this period, there were significant changes in the character of financial instruments and in the behavior and practices of financial institutions.
In particular, the long-term tendency for businesses to economize in the
holding of demand deposits was reinforced by the development of new money
market instruments, notably the negotiable time certificate of deposit (CD).
Upward revisions in the maximum interest rates which Federal regulations
allowed to be paid on time and savings deposits enabled commercial banks
to attract large inflows of such deposits.




Chart 5

Selected Interest Rates
PERCENT

CONVENTIONAL MORTGAGES
ON NEW HOMES

r

y

\

r

1

j

CORPORATE Aaa BONDS
(New Is sues)

Li

PRIME BANK RATE

\

\

V
NEW MUNICIPAL BONDS

/

\..A...

-

•*»

/

y

/-

\ Vf

3-MONTH TREASURY BILLS
(New Issues)

1 -

I ,

1 I
1960

1961

1962

, 1
1964

1963

1
1965

1
1966

,.,..J
1967

NOTE.-DATA PLOTTED ARE QUARTERLY THROUGH 1964, MONTHLY THEREAFTER.
SOURCES: FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION, BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE
SYSTEM, MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE, AND TREASURY DEPARTMENT.

In addition to promoting the sale—mainly to corporations—of negotiable
CD's of large denominations, the banks also developed various attractive
forms of nonnegotiable certificates of deposit which effectively tapped household savings. While the deposits of savings and loan associations continued to
grow, these institutions encountered increasingly strong competition from the
commercial banks, and their share in the total flow of time and savings
deposits of households declined from 49 percent in 1961 to 33 percent in
1965 (Table 7). Some of these institutions also began to experiment with
special savings certificates of various kinds.
As banks and other financial institutions developed new, more convenient, and higher-yielding forms of liquid assets, they induced a continued
substitution of these new liquid assets for demand deposits in the portfolios
of households and businesses.




72

TABLE 7.—Net inflow of household time and savings deposits to main financial institutions,
1954-67

Type of financial institution

1954-60
annual
average

Total net inflow (billions of dollars)

11.0

17.4

23.4

23.0

23.9

26.4

18.9

36.6

29
16
51
4

36
11
49
4

44
13
40
3

34
14
48
4

34
17
44
5

50
14
33

61
14
20
5

50
15
32
3

Percent of total going to:
Commercial banks
Mutual savings banks
Savings and loan associations
Credit unions

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967 1

1

Preliminary.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

The substitution of new forms of liquid assets for demand deposits was
particularly marked in corporate portfolios. Between the end of 1960 and
the end of 1965, nonfinancial corporations reduced their holdings of demand
deposits and currency by $4 billion and of Treasury securities by $3 billion,
while increasing their holdings of CD's by $17 billion.
Business firms and households were willing to reduce their money holdings
relative to their holdings of other liquid assets, and relative to the volume
of their transactions, only as interest rates on such assets rose. After a brief
decline in 1960, short-term interest rates rose steadily, and by mid-1965
approached the peak levels of 1959. Rates offered on CD's and similar
obligations by banks and thrift institutions also rose.
In the two previous expansions, rising interest rates had induced corporate
treasurers to shift from demand deposits to Treasury bills. In the early 1960}s,
rate increases induced a further shift to CD's. However, the process differed
in important respects from that which occurred in the expansion periods of
the 1950Js. In earlier periods, the rise in short-term interest rates was brought
about through a restricted growth of bank credit. Growth of reserves was
inadequate to permit demand deposits to grow in pace with GNP. And
since demand deposits were then the principal source of funds to the banks,
they were forced to restrict credit.
In the early 1960's—as the use of CD's expanded—bank credit increased
rapidly, even though the expansion of bank reserves and of demand deposits
occurred at a comparatively low rate. Since CD's carried lower reserve
requirements than demand deposits, a given rise in the reserve base permitted more rapid growth of bank credit.
By raising CD ceilings, providing only a moderate growth of bank reserves,
and raising the discount rate in 1963 and 1964, the Federal Reserve was able
to maintain upward pressure on short-term rates without restricting bank
lending. At the same time, the expansion in their time liabilities encouraged
commercial banks to increase their investments in longer term assets (mainly
mortgages and tax-exempt securities). This served to limit upward pressure
on key long-term rates that otherwise might have risen in response to
increased borrowing to finance State and local and private investment. The




73

outcome was consistent with the double objective of encouraging domestic
expansion while preventing an excessive outflow of short-term funds to
foreign markets where interest rates were higher.
The changing financial patterns that emerged during this period thus
played an important part in the support of steady and balanced expansion.
But these same patterns held risks for the future. A significant portion of
the funds secured by financial institutions through aggressive competition
was obtained from interest-sensitive investors who would be quick to withdraw their funds if interest rates elsewhere became relatively more attractive.
Such risks, however, were not particularly serious for the banks, so long as
over-all financial conditions continued to evolve gradually and without sudden changes in interest rate levels. On the other hand, the risks for savings
and loan associations—and, to a lesser extent, for mutual savings banks—
became substantially greater. Such institutions have far less flexibility than
commercial banks in managing their portfolios, which are heavily concentrated in mortgages. Moreover, in an attempt to meet commercial bank competition, they had in some cases engaged in overly aggressive efforts to attract
interest-sensitive funds and had thus become rather vulnerable to changes in
the financial environment.
MONETARY POLICY IN 1966-67
In the latter part of 1965, as defense expenditures turned sharply upward
and business investment spending began to accelerate, credit requirements
mounted at an extraordinary rate. There followed a period of intense and
often uneven pressure on financial markets which differed sharply from the
earlier patterns of orderly adaptation to changing needs.
The period was marked by a steep upward movement in both short- and
long-term interest rates (Chart 5). Indeed, long-term rates reached the
highest level in over 40 years during 1966, and, after receding for a relatively
brief period, advanced substantially further during the course of 1967, in
some cases rising to the highest levels since the 1860's or 1870's.
While, in both 1966 and 1967, rising interest rates reflected unusually
heavy credit demands, the factors giving rise to these demands differed significantly in these two years—as did the direction of monetary policy and the
availability of credit.
The 1966 Credit Squeeze
The response of the monetary authorities to the extraordinary rise in credit
demands in late 1965 was a clearcut shift toward a policy of credit restraint.
This was signified initially by an increase in the discount rate in December
1965. At the same time the ceiling rate on CD's was raised. Thereafter, credit
tightening was reinforced by increasingly limited growth of the reserve base.
Monetary restriction continued until September 1966. By November, monetary policy had clearly shifted in an expansionary direction.




74

During the first half of the year, the nonborrowed reserves of the commercial banks grew at an annual rate of only 2.9 percent. Since banks were
faced with a very strong loan demand, they borrowed reserves from the
Federal Reserve banks. The money supply was thus able to increase at an
annual rate of 4.6 percent. Banks also competed vigorously for CD's and
for consumers' time deposits. While this competition helped to drive up
rates, it also enabled banks to accommodate their loan customers. Total
bank credit increased at an annual rate of 8.6 percent over this period.
To accommodate business demands, banks rationed mortgage lending
and other types of credit, competed strongly for time deposits, and made
inroads into their liquidity through the sale of securities. Even so, bank lending could not fully keep pace with the business demand for funds. Corporations consequently also issued large amounts of new debt securities in an
effort to meet their needs. They were thus brought into increasingly active
open market competition with other seekers of funds, including particularly
the Federal Government and State and local governments. As a result, longterm interest rates rose markedly from late 1965 through mid-1966.
It was only after midyear, however, that monetary stringency reached its
peak. During the summer months, as Federal Reserve actions actually reduced the volume of nonborrowed reserves, the spread between the 5 */2 -percent ceiling rate on CD's and the yield on Treasury bills narrowed. Banks
found it increasingly difficult to replace maturing CD's as corporations
shifted to still higher yielding alternative liquid assets. Although banks increased their borrowings from the Federal Reserve and their sales of securities, it became progressively harder for them to accommodate business loan
demands. Yet, in order to restrict the funds available for bank lending to
business, the Federal Reserve left the ceiling rate on CD's unchanged.
The rise in open market interest rates induced by large corporate and taxexempt security issues and by bank sales of securities attracted an unusually
large share of household savings directly into market issues, at the expense of
the growth of household deposits at banks and thrift institutions. The attraction became particularly strong when short- and medium-term open market
rates rose above the maximum interest rates payable on CD's and savings
accounts.
As was explained in more detail in the Council's 1967 Annual Report, it
was the thrift institutions—and particularly the savings and loan associations—which suffered most severely from this process of "disintermediation".
Because they had only limited scope for raising the rates they offer on deposits, thrift institutions were at a special disadvantage in the ensuing competition for deposits both with open market instruments and with commercial
banks.
By the third quarter of 1966, withdrawals of interest-sensitive deposits
from thrift institutions had become so large that their usually sizable net
inflow of funds was reduced to a trickle.




75

Following the various steps taken by the Administration and the monetary and regulatory authorities in September—when the credit scarcity had
reached acute proportions—a calmer atmosphere was restored in the financial markets. The rate of growth of bank lending to business slowed markedly
in September, and with the moderating level of business activity, continued
low throughout the remainder of the year (Chart 6). At the same time, the
levels of nonborrowed reserves and of demand deposits were further reduced, and banks, in adjusting to lower reserve levels, liquidated a large
volume of security holdings. As monetary restraint was significantly relaxed in November, bank reserve and deposit levels stabilized. By yearend,
a rapid pace of monetary expansion was underway that carried through
into the following year.
In 1966, monetary policies played a major active role in determining the
over-all path of economic activity. Tight credit was clearly the primary factor
accounting for a sharp decline in homebuilding of $6 billion (annual rate)
from the first to fourth quarter. The impact of tight money also extended to
mortgage-financed business construction as well as certain other plant and
equipment expenditures. The ability of tight money to restrain the economy
was clearly demonstrated in 1966, but so were its uneven impact and the
troublesome side effects of a financial squeeze.
The 1967 Experience
The moderation of the rate of economic advance at the end of 1966 produced a setting for monetary and credit developments in 1967 which was—
in several respects—the opposite of that which had prevailed a year earlier.
Plant and equipment expenditures had leveled off following a period of
exceptionally rapid advance and the prospect of a substantial first half
inventory adjustment was clear. This pointed to some moderation in underlying credit demands, although it could be expected that reductions in private
borrowing needs would, to an important extent, be counterbalanced by a
larger Federal deficit.
Further, monetary policy had turned expansionary, in order to help
cushion the inventory adjustment, and to assist actively in the recovery of
homebuilding. The Administration's proposal for a special income tax surcharge in the second half of the year was intended to reduce Government
demands on the capital market, and to give fiscal policy a larger role in
restraining demand.
In a more balanced economic and financial setting, these circumstances
could have been expected to produce a marked easing in money and capital
market pressures, manifested both in greater availability of credit and in
moderation of the pressure on interest rates.
The actual course of financial development proved rather different. Although credit did become more easily available, pressures on the capital
markets remained intense for most of the year, and interest rates resumed
an upward course after only a relatively brief interruption. To a major




76

Chart 6

Changes in Money Supply, Time Deposits,
and Selected Bank Assets
PERCENT C H A N G E PER YEAR!/

MONEY S UPPLY

20

—

10

—

—

15

TIME DEPOSITS ADJUSTED
(AT COMMERCIAL BANKS)

—

—
—

—

P

1967

5

0

—

19611964

H

JAN.AUG.
1966

1965

§1

SEPT.DEC.
1966

vXv'vXv

COMMERCIAL BANK
INVESTMENTS

I

—
I —
1

COMMERCIAL BANK
BUSINESS LOANS

20

15

—

10

—

-5

^AVERAGE ANNUAL PERCENTAGE CHANGE DURING PERIOD; BASED ON SEASONALLY ADJUSTED DATA.
NOTE.-FOR MONEY SUPPLY AND TIME DEPOSITS, BASED ON AVERAGES OF DAILY FIGURES; FOR
INVESTMENTS AND LOANS, ON END-OF-PERIOD DATA.
SOURCE: BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM.

284-593 O—68



77

—
—

extent, these developments could be attributed to the after-effects of the
unusual strains and imbalances which the financial system had experienced
in 1966, as well as to congressional inaction on the President's fiscal program
to correct these imbalances.
Availability and Cost of Credit
Monetary conditions— at least as measured by changes in bank reserves,
money supply, and bank credit—remained easy until very late in the year.
During the first 11 months of 1967, total member bank reserves increased at
an annual rate of 11 percent, nonborrowed reserves by 14 percent, and the
money supply by 7 percent, compared to increases of only 1.2 percent, 0.7
percent, and 2.2 percent, respectively, in the corresponding months of 1966.
Total bank credit, which had shown almost no change in the second half of
1966, expanded at an annual rate of 12 percent during these months. In
March, the Federal Reserve lowered reserve requirements against savings
deposits and the first $5 million of time deposits in member banks, and, in
April, it reduced the discount rate from 4 / 2 to 4 percent.
The changed monetary environment was associated with marked improvements in the liquidity positions of thrift institutions and commercial banks.
With an unusually high rate of financial saving by consumers, and with commercial banks and thrift institutions in a better position to compete effectively against open market instruments, both types of institutions experienced
record inflows of time and savings deposits. Savings and loan associations
were able to step up relatively rapidly their acquisitions of mortgages during
the second and third quarters of the year, thus contributing greatly to the
recovery of the construction industry.
Credit usually becomes cheaper when it becomes more readily available. But in 1967, and particularly during the second half of the year,
there was a marked contrast between the ready availability of credit and
the unusually high level of long-term interest rates.
Both short and long rates had begun to fall sharply in late 1966. Shortterm rates continued to decline until early June, with the rate on 3-month
Treasury bills reaching a low of 3 ^ percent, compared to the peak of
5J/2 percent in the previous September. Declines in other short-term rates
were in the range of 1 */£ to 2 percentage points.
Long-term rates, however, reached their low in late February, when
they stood ^4 to % percentage points below the 1966 highs. They turned
upward in early April and continued to rise, with only occasional interruptions, through the rest of the year. By July, they had regained the levels
of the previous fall. By yearend, they stood at the highest levels in 40 years or
more, with long-term Treasury bonds yielding 5.4 percent, and highest grade
corporate bonds about 6.2 percent. After midyear, short-term rates also
began to move upward, and continued to do so through the remainder of the
year, though they remained below the peaks reached in the fall of 1966
(Chart 5). Thus the spread between long- and short-term rates widened




significantly during the first half of the year, and, in spite of some reduction around midyear, remained relatively large in the second half. The
typical pattern, when interest rates are high and rising, is for short-term
rates to rise relative to long-term rates and, indeed, often to exceed them.
In attempting to explain both the unusual contrast between the relatively
easy availability of credit and the sharp rise of interest rates, and the unusually wide spread between long-term and short-term rates, it is useful to
begin by summarizing the more notable aspects of the demand for funds in
1967.
The Demand for Funds
The total volume of borrowing in 1967 set a new record, 33 percent above
the average of 1961-64 (Table 8). To be sure, the volume of mortgage borrowing remained at the low average level of 1966—although, in sharp contrast with 1966, the movement within the year was strongly upward. Consumer borrowing—while much stronger in the second half than in the first—
also remained low. Bank lending to business fell to about half the 1966
level, and was particularly small in the second half. Corporate and taxexempt bond issues, on the other hand, both reached new record highs.
Federal borrowing, too, was up considerably. State and local securities outstanding rose by $9.8 billion, including an unprecedented $1.3 billion of
industrial revenue bonds. Some of the high 1967 borrowing, however, represented a postponement from 1966.
The Federal Government borrowed $2.7 billion more in 1967 than in
1966. Its borrowing was unusually concentrated in the second half of the
TABLE 8.—Net funds raised by nonfinancial sectors, 1961—67
[Billions of dollars]
1967

1966
Type of credit

All nonfinancial sectors

1961-64
annual
average

1965
Total

First
half L

Second
half i

Total 2

First
half i

Second
half 12

56.0

72.1

71.1

83.5

58.6

74.4

58.1

90.8

46.0

66.0

62.9

72.4

53.4

60.9

60.4

61.5

5.6
4.7
.1
5.6
5.3
13.8
8.1
2.8

9.4
13.6
-.3
7.4
5.4
16.0
9.5
5.0

6.9
10.8
.9
5.9
11.4
12.5
8.5
6.0

8.1
13.2
.7
6.3
13.6
14.6
9.8
6.1

5.8
8.4
1.2
5.5
9.3
10.4
7.2
5.8

5.4
5.6
2.5
9.8
15.1
12.4
7.7
2.4

4.2
8.2
3.9
10.8
14.7
10.7
6.6
1.1

6.5
2.9
1.2
8.9
15.6
14.1
8.8
3.5

U.S. Government..

6.9

3.5

6.7

8.9

4.6

9.4

-7.0

25.7

Rest of world

3.1

1.4

2.4

.5

4.1

4.7

3.6

Private domestic nonfinancial sectors.
Consumer credit
Bank loanss
Commercial paper
State and local obligations
Corporate securities
Home mortgages*
Other mortgages
Other

2.6

1 Seasonally adjusted annual rates.
Preliminary; includes estimate for fourth quarter.
Bank loans not elsewhere classified.
* Mortgages on 1- to 4-family homes.

2
3

Note.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




79

year. The speed-up of corporate tax payments and the unusually large surpluses in Government agency accounts held down Treasury cash needs during
the first half.
The volume of corporate security issues registered a substantial increase
in volume of $3.7 billion in 1967, even though the gap between the flow of
corporate internal funds and corporate expenditures for investment was
smaller than in 1966 (Chart 7). In part, the explanation for the exceedingly
large volume of corporate borrowing in 1967 lies in the events of 1966; in
part it reflected expectations of what might happen in 1968.
Some corporate issues were postponed during the market squeeze of
1966; further postponements may have occurred late in 1966 and early in
1967, as interest rates began to fall, and when many expected that rates
would continue to decline.
A more important legacy from 1966, however, was the lesson that corporations learned about the costs of excessive dependence on commercial
banks. The lesson that bank credit could become very difficult to obtain,
Chart 7

Gross Investment and Saving of
Nonfinancial Corporations
BILLIONS O F DOLLARS
SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES

80

GROSS INVESTMENTJ/

60

GROSS SAVING?/

40

i

i
1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

J/FIXED INVESTMENT PLUS CHANGE IN INVENTORIES.
^/CORPORATE PROFITS AND INVENTORY VALUATION ADJUSTMENT, LESS PROFITS TAX ACCRUALS AND
DIVIDEND PAYMENTS, PLUS CAPITAL CONSUMPTION ALLOWANCES,
SOURCE: BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM.




8o

even by highly credit-worthy borrowers, led many of them to conclude that
a larger part of their debt capital should be obtained at long term. The
impetus this gave to bond issues was strengthened as the expectation began to spread that long-term rates would increase as economic activity
rebounded.
The President's renewed tax proposals of August brought some relief to
credit markets. But, as Congress delayed action, the pressure on rates was
renewed. Each time the prospects for passage of the surcharge seemed to
improve, rates tended to level off; each time the prospects appeared to
worsen, the rise was renewed.
The continuing and increasing prospect of a strongly resurgent economy
without fiscal restraint—and therefore subject to renewed monetary restraint—strengthened the expectation of rising rates and of the possibility
of a renewed squeeze on bank lending. This encouraged corporations to
borrow even at exceedingly high rates.
The Imbalance in Security Markets
The impact of enlarged corporate borrowing on long-term interest rates—
and on corporate rates in particular—was reinforced by the unusual distribution of demand relative to supply. On the demand side of the credit market,
there was a notable bulge of corporate bond issues. On the supply side,
the most notable feature was the large financial surplus of households. The
two did not easily mesh.
Household accumulation of financial assets in 1967 was about 30 percent
higher than in the preceding year, as consumer saving proceeded at an
unusually high rate while outstanding consumer debt increased less than
in 1966. Part of the increase in household financial assets took the form of
contractual increases in pension and life insurance reserves. The bulk of it,
however, went into liquid assets, as did most of the proceeds from the net
sale by households of some $6.7 billion of securities.
The remarkable rise in the demand and thrift deposits of households reflected the higher rate of total financial saving, the unusually low acquisition
of liquid assets during the previous year, and changes in relative yields on
competing forms of financial assets. Declining yields on short-term Treasury
and Federal agency securities in the first part of the year made thrift deposits
relatively more attractive than in 1966. In the second half of the year, the
spread between thrift deposit rates and yields on competing marketable
securities narrowed sharply, but households continued to rebuild liquidity.
However, the flow of savings into deposits began to moderate at yearend.
The bulk of corporate bond issues over the last decade has been purchased
by life insurance companies and private pension funds. In 1967, however,
the volume of corporate bond issues was unusually large relative to the increase in the assets of these institutions. Consequently, corporate bonds had
to be sold to buyers who commanded a limited proportion of the total available funds, and these sales could be made only at sharply rising yields.




8i

Mutual savings banks and State and local government pension funds responded to high and rising yields by increasing their purchases. Higher
interest rates—and the availability of many attractive convertible issues—
apparently also induced households to increase considerably their purchases
of corporate bonds.
The Situation at Yearend
Late in the year, the Federal Reserve slowed the growth of reserves and
the rate of growth of the money supply declined. Inflows of time deposits
also tapered off, while business loans advanced somewhat more rapidly.
During November and December, banks sold Government securities in
significant volume. The devaluation of sterling caused a speculative reaction
in the security markets. After the November rise in the discount rate, shortterm rates increased.
The year ended with interest rates far above year-earlier levels, but with
credit still readily available. There was little evidence that the high rates in
1967 had as yet dampened business investment expenditures to any significant degree. And outlays on residential construction exceeded their 1963-65
average by the fourth quarter. Banks remained relatively liquid, and able to
accommodate their customers without difficulty. Although mortgage markets
had been fearing disintermediation for months, actual inflows into thrift institutions had slowed only moderately. Nevertheless, the spread between rates
on savings deposits and those available on open market securities had narrowed significantly. Any further rise in open-market rates could seriously
endanger the ability of the thrift institutions to finance an adequate level
of residential construction.
PRESENT TASKS OF POLICY
As was emphasized in Chapter 1, the current and prospective economic
climate is such that restraint upon the expansion of demand is vitally
needed. Enactment of the President's fiscal program will provide the needed
restraint, while enabling the economy to advance at a healthy rate. As explained in Chapter 3, price increases in 1968 will still be unacceptably large.
But, with the tax increase, there is the prospect that price increases will
decelerate during the year. In absence of fiscal restraint, however, the economy would be subject to serious inflationary pressures, or serious financial
stringency—and, most probably, some combination of the two. The improved balance among the sectors that was achieved in 1967 would once
again be upset.
INFLATIONARY PRESSURES WITH NO RESTRAINT
In the absence of any added restraint from either higher taxes or monetary policy, the growth of total demand in 1968 would be substantially
greater than the $61 billion forecast given in Chapter 1. The forecast
assumed that the surcharge would withdraw about $6% billion of pur-




82

chasing power (annual rate) from consumers starting in April, and that it
would reduce after-tax corporate profits by $3}/2 billion for the entire year.
Without the withdrawal from personal incomes, consumer spending in
the second quarter and thereafter would be substantially higher than that
contemplated in the forecast given in Chapter 1. Responding to the additional consumer demand, business would attempt to raise output and
employment. The resulting increases in wages, dividends, and other income
payments would swell consumer incomes, and, in turn, lead to still further
additions to consumer expenditures. Rising consumer spending, together
with the failure of corporate tax rates to rise, would add to after-tax profits,
providing both incentives and means for financing more business investment
expenditures than would be the case if the tax increase were enacted. It is
likely, in addition, that the greater consumer and business spending would
lead to more rapid accumulation of inventories.
Thus the interacting forces of consumer and business spending would,
via the well-known multiplier process, generate increases in money income
and total demand that would far exceed the magnitude of the surcharge.
In an economy at substantially full employment, a rapid growth of demand, far in excess of the economy's growth potential, would result primarily
in rising prices and only marginally in additional output. With additional
workers hard to find and employees tempted by alternative opportunities,
wage rates would rise rapidly. To be sure, it might be possible to mobilize
some additional manpower from among the remaining unemployed. Frictionally unemployed workers would find jobs more quickly; some seasonally
unemployed workers would take second jobs; and some poorly qualified
workers would be hired. Nevertheless the number of unfilled jobs would
increase greatly and the recruiting difficulties of employers would be accentuated. The strains in labor supplies would slow productivity growth, and
with accelerating wages, would generate rapidly increasing costs.
As discussed in Chapter 3, an acceleration of wage and cost increases
would provide the impetus to keep the wage-price spiral turning long after
the excessive demand had vanished. The absence of restraint not only
implies a more rapid price rise in 1968, but greatly increases the difficulty of
moving back to price stability in future years. It would, moreover, weaken
our balance of payments by impairing our export competitiveness for years to
come and by generating a rapid rise in imports. Finally, rapid expansion of
demand and soaring profits would be likely to touch off a capital goods boom
in 1969, if not sooner; such a development could sow the seeds of a subsequent collapse of investment in plant and equipment. Whatever additional
gains in output and employment might be obtained during the inflationary
boom would be paid for many times over in such a subsequent bust.
THE IMPACT OF MONETARY RESTRAINT
If there is no tax increase, the Nation would not in fact experience the
unrestrained inflationary pressures outlined above. It is certain that the




83

expansion of demand would be checked to some degree by credit restraint.
In present circumstances, the accompanying further rapid expansion of
credit demand would impose severe strains on financial markets—even
under an expansionary Federal Reserve policy. The competition for liquidity, the imbalances in the flows of funds, and the expectational disturbances
which operated in 1967 would be intensified in 1968. With credit markets
under strain on the one hand, and an economy operating under serious inflationary pressures on the other, the making of credit policy would be
unusually difficult. To the extent that monetary policy accommodated
credit demands in the interest of avoiding strains on the financial markets,
prices and wages would rise more rapidly. To the extent that policy was
aimed at moderating inflationary pressures, the more interest rates would
rise and the more homebuilding would be depressed.
A monetary policy which imposed the same degree of over-all restraint
on demand as the proposed tax increase could do so only at the risk of
creating serious imbalances in the economy. As in 1966, the mortgage markets and the homebuilding industry would, in all probability, be more
seriously restricted than other sectors of the market. They might fare somewhat better than in 1966, since the thrift institutions are now more liquid,
rate ceilings limit bank competition for savings funds, and some interestsensitive deposits have already been withdrawn. On the other hand, both
mortgage lenders and builders are more sensitive than formerly to the
dangers of credit restraint. Signs of increasing credit tightness could lead to
a major restriction of mortgage commitments and an abrupt scaling down of
building plans even before lenders found their resources seriously strained.
Credit restraint would affect other sectors as well. Mortgage-financed
nonresidential construction, small businesses, users of consumer credit, and
State and local capital projects would all feel the pinch. The effects of a
further rise in the general level of long-term interest rates into territory
unknown in this century could restrict investment and retard economic
growth for a long time after the need for restraint had passed.
To be sure, sharply rising interest rates might also reduce our balanceof-payments deficits by attracting funds from abroad. But this would be
only a temporary gain—one that, at best, would continue only so long as
interest rates stayed at a level which disrupted our domestic economy. Moreover, if other major countries allowed their own interest rates to rise to
avoid the loss of funds, they would threaten to throw not merely their own
economies but the world economy into recession.
The actual course of events with no tax increase would probably involve
both an increase in inflationary pressures and a tightening of credit conditions.
After a hard look at the alternatives, it has been and remains the conviction of both the Administration and the Federal Reserve System that the
Nation should depend on fiscal policy, not monetary policy, to carry the main




84

burden of the additional restraint on the growth of demand that now
appears necessary for 1968.
THE PROGRAM OF FISCAL RESTRAINT
The expenditure program in the budget for fiscal year 1969 was reviewed
in Chapter 1. It is a budget consistent with a program of fiscal restraint, but
it cannot alone provide the degree of restraint that is required.
Without new tax legislation, the full-employment deficit would remain
close to its recent $12j/i billion rate. The health of the economy therefore
requires prompt enactment of a temporary surcharge on income taxes,
initially proposed by the President last January, amended last August, and
reaffirmed in the current fiscal program.
Surcharge Proposal
The Administration's tax recommendation calls for a 10-percent surcharge
on the income taxes of corporations, to be in effect from January 1, 1968,
through mid-1969; and on the income taxes of individuals—with low-income
families exempted—to be in effect from April 1, 1968, through mid-1969.
For the year 1968 as a whole, the surcharge on individuals would equal 7.5
percent of annual tax liability. For the average family, a surcharge of 7.5
percent of taxes would amount to approximately three-fourths of 1 percent
of income. Since the surcharge would share the progressive character of our
basic income tax structure, it would take a somewhat larger percentage of
the income of more affluent Americans—e.g., nearly 1 J/i percent for a family
of four with a $25,000 income, as indicated in Table 9. The table also shows
that the surcharge would leave individual tax liabilities well below their 1963
levels.
The recommended form of the tax increase parallels the conclusion of
the Subcommittee on Fiscal Policy of the Joint Economic Committee in
1966 that " . . . a uniform percentage addition . . . to corporate and
TABLE 9.—Change in income tax liability for a married couple with two dependents,
1963-68
Amount of tax liability l

Change in tax
liability

Annual wage income
1963
$5,000...
$7,500._
$10,000..
$15,000..
$25,000.

$420
877
1,372
2,486
5,318

1967

$290
686
1,114
2,062
4,412

1968 2

$290
737
1,198
2,217
4,743

1967 to
1968

1963 to
1968

51
84
155
331

-$130
-140
-174
-269
-575

Change in tax as
percent of
income
1967 to
1968

0.6
.8
1.0
1.3

1963 to
1968
-2.6
-1.9
-1.7
-1.8
-2.3

1
Tax liability computation assumes minimum deduction or deduction equal to 10 percent of income, whichever is
greater.
2 Proposed tax surcharge of 10 percent beginning April 1; equivalent to 7.5 percent increase for the year 1968.
3 No increase for married couples with two dependents whose tax at 1967 rates is $290 or less.
Source: Treasury Department.




personal income tax liabilities . . . to be effective for a stated period,
best satisfies criteria for short-run stabilizing revenue changes."
Obviously, other types of tax increases would also provide fiscal restraint,
but they would be inferior to the proposed surcharge in many respects. Excise
tax increases—if imposed on broad groups of consumer goods and services—
would have a much larger relative impact on the poor. If, on the other hand,
the excises were confined to luxuries, the revenue gain could not be sufficient
to provide adequate fiscal restraint. Moreover, excise taxes have the disadvantage of exerting direct upward pressure on prices.
Another alternative would be to increase revenues via "loophole"-closing
tax reforms. Certain reforms are desirable in themselves to improve equity
and efficiency in the tax structure; these should be enacted on a permanent
basis—not linked to a temporary tax increase designed to meet stabilization
needs. In any case, reforms could not be enacted promptly enough to insure
the needed fiscal restraint in the first half of 1968. Congressional debates on
tax reform have repeatedly demonstrated that legislation in this area can
be enacted only after lengthy consideration. Moreover, because tax reform
measures cannot normally be incorporated into the withholding system, there
would be a further lag in their contribution to revenue and restraint, even
after enactment. Significant additional revenue from reform could not
realistically be provided before the middle of 1969 at the very earliest.
Major reforms would drastically change the situation of taxpayers who had
based important economic decisions on the present law. For this reason,
major reforms probably need to contain transition provisions to avoid imposing large initial losses on the affected taxpayers. This further reduces the
potential of tax reform to meet present revenue needs.
Economic Impact of the Tax Increase
The increase in taxes is intended to moderate the growth of demand and
to allocate a portion of the Nation's extraordinary defense costs broadly and
equitably among individuals and businesses.
As indicated above, the economic effects of a tax increase are the mirrorimage of the expansionary effects accomplished by tax reduction. But a tax
cut enacted when there are ample idle resources, ?s in 1964, has its main
expansionary effect on output, with only a minor impact on prices. Under
present circumstances, however, with rapidly expanding demands and essentially full employment, the main restraining impact of the tax increase will
be on prices, and only secondarily on output.
Under current circumstances, the tax increase will add to Federal
revenues. To be sure, under conditions of widespread slack, raising tax rates
would merely lower employment and production and could even pull down
incomes so much that Federal revenues would actually prove to be smaller.
This is the counterpart of the proposition that, in such an economy, a tax
reduction can actually increase Federal revenues by stimulating a strong economic advance. But, in the present situation, a tax increase of the magnitude




86

proposed will still permit a healthy expansion of employment, output, and
real income. Revenues will rise substantially, as higher effective tax rates are
applied to a rising revenue base.
Of course, an inflation which was not checked by either fiscal or monetary
action might expand the revenue base even more rapidly. But such
extra expansion would primarily reflect higher prices rather than increased
production. Therefore, although revenues might conceivably then rise even
more than with a tax increase, the real purchasing power of those revenues
would not. Federal outlays would have to be increased to maintain the same
real level of public services in the face of higher prices for the items bought
by the Government.
The tax increase works to curb price increases by moderating the pressures
of demand. However, like any other fiscal or monetary measure, it cannot cope immediately with cost pressures already built into the system. To be
sure, some have argued that a rise in the corporate profits tax may in fact add
to cost pressures, by inducing firms to raise prices in order to protect their
profits from the impact of the higher tax. But any firm which was already
taking full advantage of its opportunities to earn profits would have no incentive to raise its prices as a result of a higher corporate tax rate. The price
which results in the largest profits before taxes yields the largest profits after
taxes, regardless of the tax rate.
There may be cases—particularly among firms with substantial market
power—where businessmen typically forego potentially available profits and
aim at a target rate of after-tax return (based on "standard" costs and volume). In such instances—which some economists regard as quantitatively
important—firms might make a one-shot price increase to reestablish the
target after-tax profit when the profits tax rate rises. In such cases, the profits
tax would work like an excise tax—no better and no worse. It would then
reduce the growth of the real spendable incomes and the market demand of
consumers rather than of business firms.
Workers, too, may wish to achieve greater wage increases to compensate
for the downward impact of income tax surcharge on their take-home pay.
But their wishes are not likely to be fulfilled, since firms will also have higher
tax bills to pay, and will be facing less buoyant markets.
In addition to its immediate contribution to the stabilization of prices,
wages, and interest rates—and to the U.S. balance of payments—the tax
surcharge has major implications for the long-term management of stabilization policy. Congressional response in the weeks ahead will demonstrate
the political feasibility of making fiscal policy work in the unpleasant task of
restraint, as well as in the more welcome task of providing tax cuts and added
public programs. The proof that taxes can be raised when necessary will
strengthen the ability of the Nation to resume a long-run policy of tax
reduction when the defense emergency ends.




87

AGENDA FOR POLICYMAKING
Recent experience reveals the benefits and costs, the potentialities and
limitations of policy adjustments. Active discretionary policy is indispensable despite its imperfections. These very imperfections point to the need for
flexibility in policymaking and for improvements in the techniques of
diagnosis and application.
FLEXIBILITY AND FORECASTING
Large and sometimes imperfectly foreseeable increases in defense spending have recently required sizable and frequent adjustments in monetary
and fiscal policies—such as the temporary suspension and early restoration
of the investment tax credit. In a peacetime world, policy moves would
not ordinarily need to be as frequent or as abrupt. Yet policy will not be
able to stand still.
Even in the ideal situation of smoothly rising private demands—when
budgetary policy merely needs to allocate the fiscal dividend of economic
growth—tax adjustments will be called for from time to time. In particular, tax reductions are likely to be a frequent aspect of the annual budget
program. The desirable expansion of Government expenditures will seldom
equal the revenue increase accompanying high-employment growth.
Moreover, private demands will not grow smoothly at all times. Changes
in consumer buying, in technology, in the growth and composition of the
population, and in interregional migration can lead to alterations in the
vigor of private demand. In a full-employment economy, a spurt in the
growth of demand can trigger a burst of inflation, and tendencies toward
sluggishness, if not offset, can cumulate into recession.
Small and temporary fluctuations will not throw the economy off course.
The full-employment path is not a tightrope. Policy action cannot, need
not, and—in view of the cosis—should not try to offset every minor wiggle.
But policy decisions must be alert to major disturbances. And they cannot
be blind to the economic impact of budgetary decisions in social or national
security areas. The shortcomings of our policy record under the Employment Act reflect inaction or inadequate action far more often than excessive
or inappropriate action.
To carry out their tasks, policymakers must have the benefit of accurate
diagnoses of the current state of demand and the best possible forecasts of
prospective demand.
Indeed, forecasting of some kind is indispensable. The Government cannot avoid making fiscal and monetary policy decisions which influence the
future course of the economy. Because policy cannot be devised and implemented instantly, and because its effects on the economy operate with a
lag, decisions are inevitably tied to predictions. Only an illusory escape is
offered by rules which suggest basing decisions on the "facts of the present"
or on holding some particular magnitudes unchanged through time or




changing some magnitudes by specified preordained amounts. Such rules
themselves involve some form of implicit or naive projections. And, for all
their limitations, explicit forecasts carefully prepared by professional experts
are demonstrably superior to implicit forecasts.
The limitations of the economist's ability to predict the future argues for
prudence in policy decisions, flexibility in the use of instruments, and continuing efforts to improve the reliability of forecasting techniques. It also
points up the fact that, to the policymaker, knowledge of the nature and
magnitude of the uncertainties surrounding the projection can be as crucial
as the best-judgment forecast itself.
The Federal Government is currently taking steps to improve the environment in which future policies will be formulated. Three of these steps are
discussed below. First, as directed by the President a year ago, Federal
agencies have been considering economic policies to make full use of the
opportunities afforded by peace, when a welcome cessation of hostilities in
Vietnam occurs. Second, new efforts are being made to improve the quantity
and quality of the economic data so vital in determining the current position
and future prospects of the economy. Finally, serious attention is being given
to certain institutional aspects of the mortgage market, in order to improve
its functioning and to insure more adequate and equitable supplies of credit
for housing.
PLANNING FOR PEACE
When hostilities end in Vietnam, the subsequent reduction of defense
expenditures will free resources to meet additional private and public
wants. But, just as the sharp buildup of war spending has raised stabilization
problems for the economy during the past two years, so too will the cutback
in spending. Further, the reconversion process will be complicated by the
uneven impact of the current defense effort upon various industries, geographical areas, and types of manpower.
Policy will be challenged both to smooth the transition and, most especially, to avoid the economic downturn that a large drop in defense outlays would bring, if not offset by rising demands elsewhere. With the benefit of forward planning efforts now underway, an active use of appropriate
fiscal and monetary measures will be able to meet the welcome challenge
of peace.
The cost of hostilities in Southeast Asia is currently estimated at about
$25 billion annually, a large dollar magnitude, although only some 3 percent of our GNP. In the post-Vietnam adjustment, the precise downward
course of defense spending will depend on many dimensions of our international relations, including the nature of the peace arrangement. The committee working on this problem has studied, and is continuing to study,
what this transition would look like under various assumptions as to the
magnitude and the timing of the phasing down of military activities in Southeast Asia. One such assumption—and it is only an assumption, not a state-




89

ment of policy or a prediction—is that, over a period of time, defense outlays
in real terms would return essentially to the level prevailing in 1963-65. The
major part of the manpower and expenditure reductions associated with
this pattern might be accomplished over a period of approximately 15/2 years
after hostilities cease. This assumes about as rapid a phasing down as could
be reasonably expected on the basis of past experience.
In this case, the Armed Forces might be reduced by roughly 50,000 men
per month over an 18-month period to about 2.6 million, a little below the
pre-Vietnam level. Perhaps a quarter to a third of the discharged veterans
would resume their schooling; the remainder would become full-time participants in the civilian job market. Since the Nation's job market currently
absorbs about lyi million net new entrants a year, an additional 400,000
a year for a time should not pose an insuperable problem if total demand is
strong. A variety of measures to improve the training and placement of returning servicemen is now being explored.
The reduction in the Armed Forces would lower military payrolls by
nearly $5 billion over the 6-quarter period, as measured in 1967 prices.
Other defense purchases—mainly items bought from private business for
procurement, operation, and maintenance—might decline by about $10
billion (1967 prices) over this year-and-one-half interval, and minor further
reductions would continue for an additional year. This illustrative pattern
of demobilization—which, as indicated, is about as rapid as could reasonably be expected—implies a reduction in real outlays for defense amounting
to $15 billion (1967 prices) over a year and a half.
The freed resources would become available for civilian use. But if no
steps were taken to strengthen demands for civilian output, such a sharp
reduction in the Federal contribution to aggregate demand would almost
certainly result in a contraction of economic activity.
During the period of demobilization, fiscal actions would be required to
distribute the fiscal dividend from peace as well as the dividend associated
with economic growth. Over a period of a year and a half, the two might
total more than $30 billion. Thus the requirements and opportunities for
fiscal action in a demobilization period would be large.
If it were still in effect, removal of the temporary surcharge now proposed
by the President would be first on the agenda of possible stimulative measures.
Further tax reductions would be a welcome and effective way to invigorate
private civilian demands. Opportunities would also be provided to progress
more rapidly on urgent social programs. As Chapter 4 makes clear, there
are many areas where added public expenditures could yield a very high
social return. Among them are improvements in educational opportunities
and standards, the extension of health programs, the provision of more
adequate housing, the control of air and water pollution, the promotion of
highway beautification and safety, the elimination of urban blight, and the
development of low-cost rapid transit. Some new programs might be undertaken directly by the Federal Government; others would be made effective




90

through an expansion of grants-in-aid to State and local governments; some
would involve a partnership of public and private enterprise. Other competitors for a share of the peace dividend could include a number of possible
new initiatives in fiscal policy, such as the proposal for a negative income tax
and a variety of proposals for providing broad and flexible grants out of
Federal revenues to States and cities. The analysis necessary to establish
priorities among the various proposals is being pursued by interagency
working groups.
Monetary policy would also have a key role to play. The demobilization
period might provide an excellent opportunity to move toward financial conditions—in terms of both interest rates and availability—that would actively
encourage investment spending in the private sector and assure a vigorous
expansion of housing construction.
IMPROVEMENTS IN ECONOMIC STATISTICS
The Federal statistics recording current economic developments are the
compass by which policymakers must chart their course. The United States
has the most accurate, comprehensive, and detailed economic statistics in the
world, based on information that has consistently improved in accuracy,
speed, and coverage. Yet the need for accurate and timely statistical data to
guide vital policy decisions keeps outrunning the available information.
That need is accentuated by the current state of the economy and the
current aims of policy. Sustaining expansion close to the economy's potential
growth path is a more difficult task than that of merely attempting to moderate wide swings in output. In a slack economy, it was often sufficient for the
indicators merely to point in the right direction. Now more accurate information about the speed of the movement and the distance from full employment is called for. The need for early and careful diagnosis of the extent
and location of inflationary dangers also requires comprehensive information about the price, cost, and productivity performance of various sectors of
the economy. Capital markets and especially the mortgage market have
taken on a key role, calling for more comprehensive data and indicators. The
current importance of our international trade position places added emphasis
on the need for better information about export and import prices.
The President's program for fiscal 1969 includes a number of particularly
urgent improvements in economic statistics. Each improvement has been
recommended because it meets these tests: that it assist current policy formulation, that the proposal be capable of rapid implementation, and that
its costs be moderate, given the present budgetary stringency. These are
the key items in the President's program:
(1) Nonmanufacturing industries—additional information on employment, wages, investments, sales, and other indicators for trade, services, and
finance that will bring the data closer to the coverage and quality of the
data now available for manufacturing industries.




91

(2) Construction—an enlarged effort to collect more accurate and more
timely information on the value of construction activity.
(3) Business investment—extension of coverage of the plant and equipment survey to all nonfarm industries, and collection of separate quarterly
data on business investment in plant, as distinguished from equipment.
(4) International price competitiveness—a better comparison of price
trends of internationally traded goods.
(5) Improved price indexes—covering individual industries systematically, emphasizing actual transactions rather than quoted prices, and developing methods to make more adequate allowance for quality changes in our
measurement of prices.
(6) Quarterly data on national product by industry—a new economic
tableau that will ultimately provide comprehensive information on output,
labor input, prices, and productivity by major sectors on a quarterly basis.
(7) Manufacturing inventories—expanded coverage and increased
detail.
(8) Mortgage flows and commitments—a comprehensive system of quarterly and ultimately monthly statistics.
(9) Bank deposits—more adequate information on ownership and turnover to be collected by the Federal Reserve; and
(10) Securities markets—new information on purchases and sales by
institutional investors, and more comprehensive and accurate data on new
issues and retirements.
The total program of improvements, which involves an annual budget
cost of about $2^4 million, could make a critical difference in guiding decisions involving billions of dollars.
REDUCING THE VULNERABILITY OF THE MORTGAGE MARKET
The recent sharp fluctuations in the availability of mortgage funds have
demonstrated the need for action to reduce the excessive vulnerability of the
mortgage market and the homebuilding industry to variations in monetary
conditions. The basic demand for mortgage financing is expected to grow
rapidly in the next few years, while the ability of thrift institutions to meet
this demand may diminish as commercial banks compete more effectively
for time deposits. Thus, both long-term and cyclical considerations suggest
the need to strengthen the thrift institutions which supply the bulk of mortgage funds and to devise new means of attracting funds into mortgages.
In recent years, savings and loan associations and mutual savings banks
have accounted for about two-thirds of total private mortgage financing.
In earlier periods of tight money, mutual savings banks showed some
sensitivity to monetary conditions, but savings and loan associations had little
difficulty in maintaining the level of their lending activities. In 1966, however,
the flow of funds to both types of institutions declined sharply.




92

Because their funds are primarily invested in mortgages with fairly long
maturities and fixed interest charges, the thrift institutions were unable to
raise their earnings enough to permit payment of interest rates in line with
those available from banks and open market instruments. Earnings of
commercial banks, which carry more diversified portfolios, adjust more
promptly to changes in interest rates. While rate competition among financial institutions has, as noted earlier, been limited since 1966 through
ceilings on the rates paid by both thrift institutions and commercial banks,
thrift deposits remain in competition with corporate bonds and other "open
market" instruments. Moreover, thrift institutions have lacked sufficient
liquidity or "secondary" reserves to permit them to maintain an even flow
of funds into mortgages when the flow of deposits shrinks. The squeeze on
mortgages is intensified when commercial banks and insurance companies
cut back their contributions to that market in such periods in order to take
advantage of higher yielding open market investments or to continue serving
their customers for business loans.
Savings and loan associations would have a stronger basic competitive
position if they held more secondary reserves and more diversified portfolios.
A large part of their funds comes from savers with moderate assets whose
savings are not particularly rate-sensitive. These funds can appropriately be
invested in long-term, relatively nonliquid assets. But when thrift institutions attract funds from rate-sensitive investors, they should hold a sufficient amount of assets which are either liquid or which mature in a shorter
period than mortgages.
The scope for improved portfolio structure of thrift institutions would
be enlarged through the chartering of Federal savings associations (formerly described as the Federal chartering of mutual savings banks). Pending legislation—besides providing the Federal Home Loan Bank Board
with needed additional supervisory powers in this area—would enable the
newly chartered thrift institutions to carry a more diversified asset portfolio
than is now permissible for savings and loan associations. (Such revision
would require some adjustment in the existing tax provisions governing
thrift institutions, which are keyed to portfolio composition.) Adoption of
the legislation would increase the institutions' over-all efficiency and competitive strength. The position of thrift institutions would also be strengthened
by the further development of instruments not redeemable on demand. Such
instruments enable thrift institutions to attract funds from "marginal,"
interest-sensitive investors at premium rates without requiring an across-theboard dividend or interest-rate increase on all other accounts. With the
authorization and encouragement of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board,
the institutions have in the recent past already created a considerable range
of certificate and bonus accounts, with maturities ranging from as little as
six months to more than 14 years.
By using these special instruments to attract interest-sensitive funds without pushing up rates on all accounts, the thrift institutions would be better

93
284-593 0—68



7

able to maintain their competitive position in tight money periods and to
reduce fluctuations in their provision of mortgage funds.
New Sources of Funds
To the extent that thrift institutions shift to more diversified portfolios, the
amount of funds available to the mortgage market will be initially reduced. In the longer run, however, the savings and loan associations will
better serve the mortgage market by maintaining a steadier inflow of
funds and by strengthening their own competitive position. Nonetheless, it is
important that new channels be opened to bring funds into the mortgage
market from other sources. The principal possibilities here lie in the development of techniques for tapping other sources of funds—particularly pension funds and trust accounts. These large institutional investors find it costly
as well as inconvenient to manage a portfolio consisting of many individual
mortgages; to acquire such a portfolio is usually far less attractive than
to purchase corporate or municipal securities—which enjoy a high credit
rating, tend to be carefully tailored to the investor's requirements, and are
easily marketable.
It has been proposed, in this connection, that the FHA be authorized to
issue, for a fee, "full recourse" guarantees for bonds issued against pools of
FHA-guaranteed or VA-insured residential mortgages. Such pools of mortgages would be created by mortgage bankers, individual thrift institutions, or
mortgage bond corporations that might be specially formed to take advantage of the new guarantee. This arrangement would relieve the bond buyer—
but not the mortgage originator or banker—of the already small risk of delays
and costs in exercising the guarantee on the mortgages underlying the bonds.
These obligations would constitute a fairly attractive and marketable outlet
for the funds of institutional investors, capable of competing effectively with
various other open market instruments. This and other proposals for channeling funds from the bond market into the mortgage market are being
actively studied within the Administration.
Reducing Legal Limitations on Interest Rates
Effective implementation of some of the steps cited above may, in practice, prove very difficult unless action is taken to modify or eliminate various
existing legal limitations on interest rate charges or payments. In particular,
the statutory interest rate ceilings on FHA-insured and VA-guaranteed mortgages have impeded the flow of mortgage credit. For an adequate flow,
it is essential that seekers of such credit be able to compete in the capital
market by offering yields comparable to those available from other borrowers.
Because of the ceilings, however, the yields on FHA and VA mortgages
could, during the past two years, be rendered competitive only through the
use of heavy initial discounts on such mortgages. This has meant, in some
cases, a sharp increase in the initial payment required of the FHA home
buyer—generally imposing a much more severe burden on him than is




94

entailed by a somewhat higher interest rate payable over many years, especially after allowing for the partially offsetting tax benefit. More often, it
has forced builders or sellers to absorb a substantially greater part of the
initial financing cost, reducing their incentive to enter into the transaction.
Given the need for allowing effective yields on FHA and VA mortgages
to rise above the present legal ceilings if funds are to flow into such mortgages at all when market rates are high, the lifting of the ceiling proposed
by the President in his Economic Report would clearly be to the benefit of
both buyers and sellers of residential properties. Similarly, it would be desirable if comparable remedial action were taken by the nine States (with 26
percent of the total population) that now set legal maximum interest rates
on conventional mortgages at 6 percent or less. These ceilings are already
inhibiting many lenders from originating or purchasing mortgages in the
States involved.
Conclusion
The measures discussed here would not, of course, entirely insulate the
mortgage market from the effects of tight money. But they would give
mortgage borrowers an opportunity to compete with other borrowers for
the available supply of funds even under tight money conditions. Funds
would, of course, be available to mortgage borrowers only to the extent that
they were willing to pay a competitive rate. Many buyers might still choose
to defer home purchase during a period of monetary restraint, and the
economy is served by such voluntary deferrals when resources are under
strain. There is no reason to insulate the mortgage market completely from
general credit conditions. But homebuyers as well as builders and other
property sellers should not be completely frozen out simply as the result of
existing institutional limitations on the mortgage market.




95

Chapter 3

The Problem of Rising Prices

T

HE MOST IMPORTANT and most gratifying economic development
in 1967 was the maintenance of high employment. The most disturbing
economic news was the continuation of the creeping inflation that began
in 1965.
Neither the United States nor any other major industrial country has
fully succeeded in combining price stability with high employment. Table
10 shows the average rise in U.S. prices during each of the four postwar
periods when the unemployment rate was consistently below 4.5 percent.
The price record of the current period compares favorably with the experience of earlier periods, including that of 1955-57, when the unemployment
rate averaged somewhat higher.
The recent price record of the United States also compares favorably
with that of other major industrial nations. Table 11 shows the average
rate of price increase in the principal member nations of the OEGD over
the past 65/2 years and the past 2 5/2 years. For the period from January 1961
to November 1967, the U.S. record is by far the best. Since June 1965,
however, three countries—Germany, France, and the Netherlands—have
had better price records than the United States. But in each of these countries a slowing down of price increases has been achieved only at the
expense of a loss of jobs, and, in at least the first two, a reduction of
economic growth.
PRICE STABILITY AND HIGH EMPLOYMENT
The problem of rising prices is thus neither new nor confined to the United
States. In some instances both at home and abroad, rapidly rising prices
have reflected pressures on productive capacity from excessive demand,
which ideally could have been moderated by fiscal and monetary restraint.
But industrial economies have also displayed an "inflationary bias"—a
tendency for prices to rise even when over-all demand does not exceed
productive capacity. Since high employment of resources—especially manpower—is obviously a top priority for public policy, it is important that we
learn to control this inflationary bias.




96

TABLE 10.—Price increases during periods of high employmentl
Percentage increase per year 2
Average unemployment
rate (percent)

Period

3.8
3.2
4.1
3.9

January 1947-January 1949
September 1950-November 1953.
May 1955-September 1957
July 1965-December 1967.

Consumer
price index

Wholesale
price index

5.7
1.3
2.8
1.5

5.5
3.2
2.4
2.9

GNP deflator

35.6
3.3
3.4
2.9

1 Periods during which the monthly seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was less than 4.5 percent, except that
beginning of the first period is arbitrarily taken as January 1947.
2 Price change is measured between the month (quarter) prior to the first month (quarter) of the period and the last
month (quarter) of the period.
3 GNP deflator for fourth quarter 1946 is estimated.
Note.—Changes in consumer and wholesale price indexes based on monthly data and changes in the GNP deflator on
seasonally adjusted quarterly data.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Department of Labor, and Council of Economic Advisers.

TABLE 11.—Consumer price increases in major OECD countries since January 1961 and
June 1965
Percentage increase per year
Country
January 1961
to November
1967

June 1965
to November
1967

United States...

1.9

2.8

Belgium.......
Canada.
France
Germany
Italy
Japan
Netherlands.....
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom

3.0
2.3
3.5
2.6
4.4
5.7
3.8
4.1
3.8
3.4

3.3
3.5
2.4
1.7
2.8
4.3
2.7
5.1
4.3
2.8

Sources: Department of Labor and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

INFLATIONARY BIAS IN A PROSPEROUS ECONOMY
There are several sources of inflationary bias in a high-employment
economy, in which output grows in pace with and does not generally strain
productive capacity.
Market Power
The first source of bias, which clearly interacts with and strengthens the
others, lies in the fact that, at high employment of manpower and capital
resources, the competitive pressures which limit the ability of firms and
unions to raise prices and wages are weaker than in a slack economy. Some
firms are likely to attempt to use their market power to widen their
profit margins, and some groups of workers may attempt to raise their
wages relative to wages of others. There is also an increased resistance to
price reductions when costs fall or demand slackens. Wage rates seldom
decline even when unemployment is widespread. But, in a generally strong
economy, many groups of workers try—often successfully—to resist even any
relative reduction in their own wages compared to those of other workers.




97

If a significant number of firms or unions take advantage of their market
power to seek improvements in their profits or relative wages, those who have
to pay higher prices or wages will seek to maintain their absolute positions
by adding their cost increases to their prices, or their cost-of-living increases
to their wages. They may even seek to restore their relative positions by taking
a markup on cost increases or demanding wage increases as large as other
workers obtained.
There are many reasons why the effective market power of large firms
and unions is greater at high levels of resource use than at lower ones.
At high levels of employment and capacity utilization, firms have less reason to fear that, if they raise prices, they will lose customers to competitors.
For their competitors are then not in a position to take on a large volume
of additional business. Similiarly, when profits are high throughout the
economy, there is less of a threat that new firms will enter a particular industry in response to higher prices. In wage bargaining, when union members
are fully employed, organized labor is naturally less concerned that a large
settlement may curtail the growth of employment. Moreover, a firm which
is operating close to capacity is less willing to risk a protracted strike, and
therefore more likely to accede to demands for large settlements, since it
would have difficulty making up for output lost during a work stoppage.
Uneven Pressures of Demand
A second source of bias arises from the fact that—at high but not excessive
over-all employment of manpower and capital resources—the pressures of
demand on supply will not be equal in all sectors of either the product or
labor markets. In some industries, the growth of demand may be so large
that it cannot be immediately matched by additional output. This pulls up
prices even where individual firms possess little or no market power. Likewise, in those labor markets that are particularly tight, the rise of wages tends
to speed up even if workers are unorganized. But the rise in prices and the
faster rise in wages where markets are under pressure is not automatically
offset by price reductions or a slower advance of wages in the rest of the
economy. Moreover, other firms which buy the products which have risen in
price will pass along the cost increase—perhaps with a markup applied—and
other groups of workers will try to match the wage gains secured in the tight
labor markets.
An extraneous reduction of supply in a key sector—e.g., agriculture—can
have similar effects. Prices then rise in that sector without falling elsewhere,
leading to larger wage increases that raise costs and prices generally. Though
these influences may be temporary, the wage and price movements they induce are not reversed fully when the supply problem is overcome.
Temporary Spurts of Demand
The third source of inflationary bias lies in the fact that the growth of
over-all demand is unlikely to be completely smooth, even with the best of




98

fiscal and monetary policies. When demand is already adequate to use most
productive resources, a sudden speedup in the growth of demand may create
temporary upward pressures on prices and costs in a wide range of sectors.
And even if such a spurt in demand is subsequently balanced out by a temporarily reduced growth of demand, costs and prices do not then correspondingly fall. Indeed, the spreading and spiraling effect of the previous cost
and price increases will continue to be felt. Thus, although a spurt of demand in 1965 and 1966 was followed by a balancing slowdown, the wageprice spiral set off by the initial spurt continued to turn in the relatively
slack period of 1967.
Inefficiencies and Bottlenecks
Even in an economy as efficient and progressive as ours, there are a few
industries and labor markets where gross inefficiencies persist—stagnant
technology, weak management, firms of inefficient size, restrictive labor
practices, unnecessarily costly systems of distribution, Government policies
that weaken incentives to economize, avoidable seasonally of production
and employment, inadequate methods for training and recruiting workers,
and similar factors. Prices or wages or both tend to rise faster in these industries than in others* in a high-employment economy this tendency is aggravated. These industries constitute a further source of inflationary bias in the
sense that they offer unexploited opportunities for significant cost reductions.
Workings of the Spiral
Any of these sources—or their interaction—can easily trip off a price-wage
spiral. In such a spiral, rising living costs support demands for wage increases
in excess of productivity gains. The resulting bulge in labor costs is reflected
in prices. Price and wage increases can continue to reinforce each other long
after the initial source of inflation has ceased to operate. Thus, the spiral can
continue to turn more or less on its own momentum. But, unfortunately, one
or another of the basic sources of the bias is likely to provide new motive
power, so long as resources remain adequately utilized.
On the other hand, the circular relationship between wages and prices
can support price stability as well as a spiral. If prices remain stable, the
demand for wage increases is not swollen to cover rising living costs. And
if wage increases remain moderate, costs and prices may remain stable.
But the stability can be broken on the side of either wrages or prices. And
once broken it is difficult to reestablish.
A general rise in prices and wages does not directly reduce total private demands, for the higher prices and wages provide additions to money incomes
sufficient to permit the higher prices to be paid. But the spiral can be curtailed by Government policies. The existence of a wage-price spiral requires
that the rate of growth of aggregate demand in money terms exceed the rate
of growth of real productive capacity. If fiscal and monetary policies should
fail to permit the expansion of demand in money terms necessary to "vali-




99

date" the price rise, real growth would not keep up with the growth of capacity. Unemployment would rise and utilization rates decline. This would lead
to the gradual slowing down and termination of the spiral. Obviously, the
greater the restraint through fiscal and monetary policy, the more quickly the
spiral can be brought under control. But this may require an unacceptably
high level of unemployment.
THE GOAL OF PRICE STABILITY
Since minimum unemployment and high utilization of our productive
resources bring so many obvious benefits to the Nation and to most individuals, the temptation is great to dismiss the accompanying inflationary bias
as a minor inconvenience, a-cost far outweighed by the benefits. Nevertheless, price stability is an important goal because the costs of inflation are
serious and pervasive. Inflation impairs economic efficiency, redistributes
income capriciously, and weakens the Nation's competitiveness in world
markets.
A realistic stabilization policy cannot expect to hold down to zero the
average change of prices of consumer goods and services. From 1961 to
1965, although wholesale prices remained virtually constant and there was
obvious slack in the economy, consumer prices rose between 1 and 1J4
percent each year. Such a moderate rate of price increase, however, does
not represent a significant erosion in the purchasing power of the consumer's
dollar. This is especially true because improvements in quality and the introduction of new goods add to consumption opportunities even when they
are not fully reflected in price indexes as reductions in prices.
Furthermore, the objective of price stability does not aim to hold any
specific price constant. Within a stable average price level, there can and
must be constant adjustments to changing levels and patterns of demand,
to diverse movement of costs in different sectors, and to technological
change. Costs and prices of some items rise; others fall. These relative
price changes attract resources toward those areas where the need is
greatest.
Similarly, price stability is compatible with rising wages. Labor compensation can move up in line with the average growth of labor productivity without adding to the labor costs of output. And the stability of over-all labor
costs is thoroughly consistent with readjustments in the relationships among
wages in different sectors and for different occupations. These changes tend
to be gradual and the disparities self-correcting, as workers—particularly
new entrants—are attracted into the areas where labor is in greatest demand.
The Impairment of Efficiency
Once prices start moving up on a broad front, however, the necessary
relative adjustments of prices and wages become much more difficult. Some
prices respond immediately to changes in underlying economic conditions,
others only after a long delay, but then often with a big change. Thus, while
each change may appear to correct one set of disparities, it creates others;




100

adjustment of the latter, in turn, creates new problems. Relative prices,
wages, and profits cannot achieve the patterns appropriate to the changing
needs of the economy when all of them are ratcheting upward at an uncertain and uneven rate. The efficient allocation and use of resources inevitably suffers. Thus, the objective of price stability is linked to the aim
of economic efficiency.
Arbitrary Redistribution of Income
Inflation has a significant effect on the distribution of income and wealth.
By and large, that impact is haphazard and inequitable from a social point
of view. Some groups in the economy are more vulnerable to inflation than
others; this is why inflation has been described as the "crudest tax."
A particularly significant income shift associated with rising prices takes
place between the active participants in the economy, whose money incomes
adjust more or less to rising prices, and those—such as the retired and disabled—who are not active participants. The money incomes of millions of the
families in the latter group are relatively fixed at any given time and
augmented little, if at all, by rising prices. Many depend on pensions and
other sources of retirement income which come from accumulated savings
in forms that have a fixed money value, such as savings deposits, insurance
policies, or bonds. Some retired persons live on previously accumulated
wealth that has a fixed money value. There are some partial offsets: interest
rates on deposits tend to rise in periods of inflation, and so may the prices
of common stocks and of real estate. But not everybody holds assets that
rise in price or yield. Legislative changes in social security have provided
considerable relief to many retired and disabled individuals at the lower end
of the income range, but not to all. Nevertheless, the inactive members of
the population as a group suffer losses of real income that to them are
significant, even though the corresponding gains of the active group are
relatively small in terms of its income.
To be sure, in a period of inflation, some workers will have the opportunity for wage gains sufficiently large to enhance their real incomes relative
to other workers. Some businessmen do manage to widen their profit margins. Yet, in the ensuing spiral, neither business as a whole nor labor as a
whole is likely to make permanently larger gains in real income as a result
of inflation. Periods of rapid rises in both wage rates and prices have not
significantly altered the long-term distribution of income between labor and
business. Both groups reap their gains in a depreciated dollar, with some
loss to both by sacrificing the smooth functioning of the economy. Most
gains achieved by individual groups of workers are principally at the expense of other workers, and the profit gains of some industries may be obtained largely at the expense of profits in other sectors.
Improvements in the distribution of economic rewards and in equality of
opportunity often occur in.periods of high demand and relatively full employment. It is during such periods that persons with educational, racial,




IOI

locational, age, or physical disadvantages find the greatest opportunities to
move into the mainstream of economic life, and secure their greatest relative gains. But these gains come from full employment, not from the excessive wage and price increases that may accompany it. Our objective is to
achieve the gains while avoiding costly inflation.
Inflation and the Balance of Payments
As Chapter 5 makes clear, rising prices also have important international
implications which—particularly at the present time—can be even more
serious. If our prices rise faster than those of our major competitors, American goods suffer in world markets. An increase in the U.S. surplus of exports
over imports is needed to strengthen our balance of payments and to permit
the eventual relaxation of the restrictions now necessary to maintain our
payments position.
A healthy trade surplus also has a direct and individual meaning for the
pocketbooks of the vast numbers of American workers, businessmen, and
farmers who are engaged in industries exposed to export or import competition. If costs and prices in these industries are not kept in check, markets may
shrink and profits along with markets. Restriction of imports to compensate
for this deterioration would be no answer, since it would lead to retaliatory
curbs on our exports, and thus to reduced markets and job opportunities in
our export industries.
Slowing the Trend of Rising Prices
The social and economic costs of rising prices point to the pressing need
to reestablish and to maintain reasonable stability of the U.S. price level.
It is clear, however, that the current inflationary trend cannot be stopped
abruptly. Yet it is equally clear that the trend must be slowed down. Once
a deceleration is achieved, it can become self-reinforcing. As wage increases
slow down, unit labor costs and prices will move up less rapidly. The successive upward adjustments of wages to prices and of prices to wages can progressively shrink. If price increases slow down in 1968 and reasonable
stability is in the process of being restored, the health and strength of the
U.S. economy will not be seriously impaired by the fact that prices are still
rising. But a new acceleration of price increases could have serious consequences, both domestic and international.
THE RECENT RECORD
The upward movement of prices moderated somewhat during the first
half of 1967, largely reflecting declines in farm prices and the sluggishness of
industrial demand. But the pace stepped up again in the second half. Developments during 1967, and the prospects and problems for the years
immediately ahead, can best be understood in the perspective of the entire
period of economic expansion (Charts 8 and 9).




102

Chart 8

Consumer Prices
1957-59 = 100

130 -

y-

125 -

120 SERVICES

115 -

A L L ITEMS

110
FOOD

^

^

^

105
-^>w

100

COMMODITIES LESS FOOD

II I M I 1 I I 1 1 i i1i i 1 i i i i i 1 i i i i i 1 i i i i i 1 i i i 1 i
I
i

1962

1963

1964

1965

I n

! M ll M i l l

1966

llMM

1967

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

PRICE CHANGES SINCE 1961
For the purpose of such an assessment, the period since 1961 can be
divided into four fairly distinct segments: relative stability—1961 through
mid-1965; acceleration—mid-1965 through September 1966; easing pressures—September 1966 through mid-1967; and renewed rapid advance—
since June 1967 (Table 12).
1961 Through Mid-1965
A remarkable degree of price stability characterized the early years of
the 19605s. Economic activity rose along a balanced and fairly steady path.
Because the margin of underutilized resources had been very large in 1961
and because it was absorbed gradually, significant economic gains did not
upset the stability of prices. Some moderate pressures began to emerge in
1965; many firms were approaching their preferred operating rates, as
expansion of plant and equipment lagged somewhat behind the growth of
output, and profits rose sharply.
The first significant departure from price stability occurred among farm
products. Throughout this period, farm prices had been falling slowly. Early




IO3

Chart 9

Wholesale Prices
1957-59=100

115

110
PROCESSED FOODS AND FEEDS

105

100

95
FARM PRODUCTS

90
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

in 1965 they suddenly reversed direction, reflecting reduced domestic supplies and heavy export demand. Price increases for food at both wholesale
and retail followed promptly.
Mid-1965 Through September 1966
Around mid-1965, the growth of demand for industrial products suddenly accelerated as the direct and indirect consequences of the enlarged
commitment of U.S. forces in Vietnam. Manufacturing output and employment spurted sharply in the last quarter of 1965 and the first quarter of
1966, and continued to rise steadily through most of 1966.
Prices of consumer services began to accelerate, as service firms found it
more difficult to obtain workers. With rising food and service prices and
stronger demands for labor, upward pressures on wages intensified in
both the organized and unorganized sectors. In the industrial area, the
impact of demand on prices was strongest in the defense-related and capital
goods sectors, where shortages of both capacity and skilled manpower were
most pronounced. But prices also advanced in many other areas.
The upward pressures on prices and wages in this period reflected both the
speed of the advance and the high level of resource utilization which
the economy achieved. These pressures tripped off a price-wage spiral.
Rising living costs and tight labor markets combined to enlarge wage increases, and the resulting bulge in unit labor costs and the stronger product




IO4

TABLE 12.—Major price trends during selected periods since December 1960
Percentage change per year
Price group

December
1960 to June
1965

June 1965 to
September
1966

September
1966 to June
1967

June 1967 to
December
1967

0.5

3.1

-0.6

0.9

1.1
.3

6.1
2.1

-4.9
1.0

-3.8
2.7

1.3

2.9

2.2

3.8

1.0

2.3

1.2

3.5

1.5
.7

4.0
1.4

-.6
2.4

1.9
4.1

2.0

4.0

4.2

4.3

1.4

2.6

2.6

4.0

Wholesale prices:
All commodities .
Farm products and processed foods and
feeds
Industrials
Consumer prices:
All items

.

Commodities
Food
Commodities less food
Services
GNPdeflatori

i Based on seasonally adjusted data for quarter containing month indicated.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Department of Labor.

markets generated higher prices. Rising prices in turn served as the basis for
further wage advances, and further wage advances as the basis for price
increases.
September 1966 Through Mid-1967
Largely as a consequence of restrictive monetary and fiscal policies and a
concurrent rise in the personal saving rate, the growth of final demand
slowed in late 1966. A period of inventory adjustment and sluggish overall growth followed in the first half of 1967. The slowdown, combined
with larger supplies, caused prices to fall sharply for most farm products and
some other commodities traded in organized markets. To a degree, these
declines were reflected in lower prices for foods and other commodities
directly processed or fabricated from the less costly raw materials. Price
increases also slowed in most—but not all—other areas.
The rise in prices that did occur in that sluggish period was essentially
a reflection of rising costs rather than of excessive demand. However, these
cost increases originated in the strong demand conditions of 1965 and 1966.
Thus, the price-wage spiral continued to turn, although the initial motive
force had subsided.
Second Half of 1967
As demand advanced with renewed strength in the second half of 1967,
the rate of price increase again stepped up. Demand was not yet pressing on
productive capacity—over-all or in most major sectors. The period of
slow expansion had created enough slack so that production could respond
to increasing demand without significant strain on productive resources.
But costs had continued to rise throughout the period of sluggishness. The
full adjustment of prices to these rising costs had been suppressed or de-




105

layed in the first half year. Later in the year, stronger markets and expectations of renewed expansion led businessmen to raise prices to reflect the
earlier cost increases, thus turning the wage-price spiral another notch.
Because the basic inflationary force in 1967 was rising costs, the pattern
of price and wage changes was rather different from that of 1966, when
excessive demands were the chief inflationary force.
DEVELOPMENTS IN 1967
The rate of increase of prices in 1967 was much the same as in 1966.
To be sure the annual average of wholesale prices barely rose from 1966 to
1967 in contrast with a 3.3 percent increase from 1965 to 1966. However,
the increase in consumer prices slowed only from 2.9 percent in 1966 to 2.8
percent in 1967. The GNP deflator—which covers all output—rose 3.0 percent in 1967 as against 2.7 percent in 1966.
All three price indexes showed a modest deceleration when price changes
are measured during the year (December to December) rather than by
annual averages. For example, during 1967, consumer prices increased 3.1
percent compared with 3.3 percent during 1966. And the GNP deflator registered a 3.1 percent advance during 1967, slightly less than the 3.2 percent
rise during 1966.
Increases in wages and hourly labor compensation continued at high levels
in 1967. Meanwhile, productivity gains lagged, and unit labor costs rose
considerably.
The discussion which follows summarizes the wage and price record of
1967.
LABOR SUPPLY AND DEMAND
Labor markets were generally not as tight in 1967 as they had been in
1966, despite the fact that the over-all unemployment rate was the same in
both years. This conclusion is supported by various measures of labor market tightness, such as hours of work, new hire and layoff rates, help-wanted
advertising, unfilled job openings, and insured unemployment.
Employment showed little change in the first half of the year but surged
ahead in the second half. Most measures of labor market conditions reflected
the changing pace of employment. For example, the number of unfilled nonfarm job openings placed by employers with the U.S. Employment Service
declined 23 percent from September 1966 to July 1967, then moved irregularly upward. Throughout, unfilled openings remained above 1965. Average
hours per week in manufacturing, the help-wanted index compiled by
the National Industrial Conference Board, insured unemployment, and
new hire and layoff rates weakened from the fall of 1966 to mid-1967, then
strengthened during the remainder of the year. All these measures indicated
that labor market conditions eased in 1967; all except the workweek indicated that labor markets were tighter than in any year between the end of
the Korean war and 1966.




106

The unemployment rate, however, did not rise in 1967 though it fluctuated
from month to month. Changes in employment were offset to a remarkable
degree by parallel changes in the labor force. The participation of women in
the labor force varied considerably. When job openings waned in the first
half of the year, growth of the adult female labor force stopped; when
employment opportunities brightened in the second half of the year, the
participation of women rose strongly, accounting for 1.1 million of the
unusually large 1.5 million increase (seasonally adjusted) in the total labor
force.
The rise in demand for labor and in employment during 1967 was
unevenly spread among occupations and sectors, reflecting the pattern of
economic activity. Manufacturing employment, after rising by about 6 percent between 1965 and 1966, declined by nearly 2 percent in the first half of
the year, and at the end of 1967 was still 0.3 percent below a year earlier.
There was also a small reduction in mining employment. But in the service
sectors, employment rose slightly more between 1966 and 1967 than between
1965 and 1966. Employment in the professional, technical, and salaried managerial categories continued to increase rapidly.
On the whole, the balance between the composition of labor demand and
of labor supply improved in 1967. In particular, the metalworking skills
which had been in such short supply in 1966 were no longer so scarce. This
mainly reflected the easing of demand pressures on the industries which are
the largest employers of men with these skills. Total employment actually
declined in 1967 in the machinery and equipment industries.
In part, the easing of shortages also reflected the fact that the structure of
the labor force had another year—and the assistance of greatly expanded
private and public training programs—to adjust to the job requirements of
a high-employment economy.
The number of long-term unemployed declined significantly, indicating
that many previously "hard-core" unemployed were moving into the mainstream of employment.
Moreover, the geographical balance of labor supply and demand also
improved. For example, the number of "major" labor market areas classified
as having "persistent" unemployment fell from 9 in December 1966, to 6
in December 1967. The number of "small" labor market areas with persistent unemployment fell from 60 to 57 and the number of "very small"
labor market areas from 399 to 366 over the same period.
But while specific shortages were reduced and the over-all balance in the
labor market was improved, labor markets remained tighter than they had
been for many years prior to the surge of demand in late 1965 and 1966.
Even in manufacturing, where employment was not growing, labor turnover
remained relatively high. And the continuing rapid growth of demand in the
professional, technical, and managerial occupations produced severe competition for workers with these abilities and skills.




107

Wages
The faster rise in wages that had begun in 1966 continued throughout
1967. Though marked shortages were not widespread, employers continued
to compete to attract or retain experienced, well-qualified workers. Workers
in relatively low-wage industries and occupations continued to have opportunities to move to better jobs, and their wages rose particularly rapidly.
Unions negotiating in 1967 had the background of two years of rising living
costs, low unemployment—especially for adult men—and relatively high
profits to support their negotiating positions. Moreover, in 1967, union bargainers had many more large settlements by other unions—and, in some
cases, large awards to unorganized workers—to point to in support of their
demands. They sought to catch up with—and, if possible, to surpass—the
pattern of wage increases established by other unions in earlier settlements.
Thus, collective bargaining settlements in 1967 averaged about 5}4 percent a year, well in excess of settlements in 1966 and far above those earlier
inthel960's (Table 13).
TABLE

13.— Wage and benefit changes in collective bargaining situations, 1962—67
Median percentage change negotiated or effective during
Type of change
1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967 1

Most important collective bargaining situations, annual rate of
increase over life of contract:2
Wage and benefit changes negotiated during specified
year:3
Equal timing 4
Actual timing 8
Wage changes negotiated during specified year:«
Equal timing

3.5

3.3

4.1
4.5

5.2
5.6

2.5

3.0

3.3

3.9

5.1

2.9

3.0

3.2

3.8

4.8

5.7

2.4
4.0

2.5
3.4

2.0
3.6

4.0
3.7

4.2
5.0

6.4
5.0

2.8

2.9

2.7

3.4

3.6

4.4

2.6
3.5

2.7
3.2

2.0
3.5

3.4
3.4

3.3
3.8

4.0
4.8

All important collective bargaining situations: *
First-year wage adjustments negotiated during specified
year:
All industries
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing-.
idjustments effective during specified year, regardWage adju
less of date of negotiations:8
All industries
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing.

» Based on preliminary data available in early January 1968.
2
Possible increases in wages resulting from cost-of-living escalator adjustments are omitted except for any part of the
escalator increase guaranteed in the contract.
3 The 1964 estimate is based on 20 key contracts which affected 2.25 million workers in 11 major industries. The 1965
estimate covers most settlements affecting 10,000 workers or more in all industries excluding construction, services,
finance, and government. The 1966 and 1967 estimates cover all settlements affecting 5,000 workers or more in all industries
except government.
4
Annual rate of increase assuming equal spacing of wage and benefit changes over life of contract.
5
Annual rate of increase taking account of actual effective dates of wage and benefit changes during contract period.
• The estimates for 1963 to 1965 cover most settlements affecting 10,000 workers or more in ail industries excluding
construction, services, finance, and government. The 1966 and 1967 estimates cover all settlements affecting 5,000
workers or more in all industries except government.
7
All contracts affecting 1,000 or more workers. From 1962 to 1965, construction, services, finance, and government are
excluded. All industries except government are covered in the 1966 and 1967 estimates.
« Includes changes in wage rates negotiated during specified year, plus increases decided upon in earlier years, cost-ofliving escalator adjustments, and no wage changes.
Source: Department of Labor.




108

An important influence on both union and nonunion wage increases in
1967 was the 12-percent increase in the Federal minimum wage and the extension of coverage to millions of additional workers.
As a result of all these factors, wage increases in most sectors—unorganized
and organized—accelerated between 1966 and 1967. Gross average hourly
earnings for nonsupervisory employees in the private nonfarm sector increased 4.7 percent between 1966 and 1967, up from 4.1 percent in 1965-66
(Table 14).
Gross hourly earnings in manufacturing were held down by a decline
in overtime hours. Changes in the proportion of workers in high and low
wage industries—the interindustry "mix"—within manufacturing also held
down the average increase in earnings. Corrected for changes in overtime
and for interindustry mix, average straight-time earnings for production
workers in manufacturing increased 4.6 percent in 1967, considerably above
the 4.0 percent increase in gross average hourly earnings based on actual
employment weights, and far in excess of the 3.3 percent corrected increase
in 1966. The acceleration in wage rates in 1967, therefore, was even more
marked than the table indicates.
As has been the case in each of the last several years, increases in hourly
earnings were largest in low-wage industries. Indeed, every sector shown in
Table 14 with below average wage levels had above average wage increases
(although the reverse was not uniformly true). Even within manufacturing,
T A B L E 14.—Changes in average gross hourly earnings, by industry, 1960—67
Percentage change per year
Industry
1960 to 1964

1964 to 1965

1965 to 1966

1966 to 19671

3.1

3.9
3.8

3.4
4.9

3.9
4.2

4.8
4.9

4.6
5.4

3.3
4.3
3.7
3.6
3.6
4.0
3.9

3.2
4.1
3.6
3.1
4.6
4.9
3.8

3.4
4.2
3.8
4.9
5.5
5.2
5.2

4.3
3.8

5.4
5.6

5.1
5.3

8.4
8.1

2.5

Agriculture.

4.0

3.0
3.1

3.8
3.5
4.2
2.9
3.0
3.6
3.3

Mining
Contract construction
Transportation and public utilities:
Communication
Electric, gas, and sanitary services..
Trucking and warehousing
Local and suburban transportation..
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3..
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Service and miscellaneous:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels...
Laundries and drycleaning plants <_.

4.7

4.2

1.9
3.6

Durable goods
Nondurable goods.

4.1

3.2

2.8
2.8

Manufacturing

3.8

2.9

Total private nonagricultural employees 2

5.2

8.3

8.7

1
Preliminary.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
Includes eating and drinking places.
4
Prior to January 1964, data relate to production workers.

3

Note.—Data are for production workers in manufacturing and mining, for construction workers in contract construction,
and for all nonsupervisory employees in other industries (except as noted).
Sources: Department of Agriculture and Department of Labor.

284-593 0—68



IO9

some of the most notable advances were achieved in such low-wage industries as textiles, apparel, shoes, and furniture.
The faster wage increases for the lowest paid industries reflects the general
tendency for differentials to narrow—at least in percentage terms—when
labor markets are relatively tight. During such periods, many employees
in low-wage industries can find a ready market) for their services in higherpaid sectors, forcing employers to raise wages rapidly in order to retain
their workers. The narrowing of differentials was further reinforced in
1967 by the increase in the level and coverage of the minimum wage.
However, the tendency for wage differentials to narrow was partially
offset in a number of areas by new collective bargaining agreements. There
was considerable variation in the size of new contracts in 1967. One-fifth of
all workers affected by new major settlements received annual increases in
compensation exceeding 6 percent. Particularly large gains were secured by
workers in the automotive, rubber, pulp and paper, railroad, farm imple-ment, and construction industries—all high-wage industries.
Average hourly compensation (which includes wages, fringe benefits, and
employer contributions for social insurance) for all employees in the total
private economy rose 6 percent in 1967 (Table 15). The difference between
the over-all increase in hourly compensation and the increase in hourly

T A B L E 15.—Changes in compensation, productivity, unit labor cost, and output price
in the private economy since 1947
Percentage change per year
Sector and item

1947 to
1966

1961 to
1965

1965 to
1966

1966 to
19671

Total private:
Average hourly compensation2
Output per man-hour
Unit labor cost
Implicit GNP price deflator._.

52
.
34
.
17
.
20
.

44
.
38
.
.
5
12
.

69
.
31
.
37
.
25
.

60
.
14
.
45
.
27
.

49
.
28
.
20
.
22
.

40
.
35
.
.
5
12
.

60
.
26
.
34
.
22
.

58
.
.
9
48
.
33
.

51
.
32
.
18
.
2.0

36
.
46
.
-1.0
.
3

49
.
22
.
27
.
18
.

61
.
.
9
51
.

Private nonfarm:
Average hourly compensation 2.
Output per man-hour
Unit labor cost...
Implicit GNP price deflator
Manufacturing:
Average hourly compensation2..
Output per man-hour
Unit labor cost
Implicit GNP price deflator
1

(3)

Preliminary.
2 Wages and salaries of all employees and supplements to wages and salaries such as employer contributions for social
i nsurance and for private pension, health, unemployment, and welfare funds, compensation for injuries, pay of the military
reserve, etc. Also includes an estimate of wages, salaries, and supplemental payment part of the income of the selfemployed.
3
Not available.
Note.—Data for each sector relate to all persons.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Department of Labor, and Council of Economic Advisers.




IIO

earnings of production workers reflects, in part, a decline in the proportion
of man-hours worked by production workers, whose average pay is lower
than that of supervisory employees. Fringe benefits grew more rapidly than
wages and, in addition, a small increase in 1967 in employer contributions
for social insurance accounts for some of the difference.
Real Income Gains
About half of the 6-percent increase in current-dollar compensation per
man-hour was eroded by the increase in consumer prices. In real terms,
compensation per man-hour rose by 3.2 percent, somewhat less than in 1966,
but above the average gain in recent years. Real weekly earnings of production workers—which do not include employer contributions for social insurance and other fringe benefits—increased less than 1 percent, partly as a
result of lower weekly hours. This was the smallest rise since the late 1950's
(Table B-31).
Productivity, Unit Labor Costs, and Profits
Along with the greater increase in hourly compensation, there was a
marked slowdown in the growth of output per man-hour in 1967. In part,
this reflected the reduced efficiency that occurs when capacity utilization
falls. During the early part of 1967, output per man-hour actually declined, but it more than recovered as expansion resumed. For 1967 as a
whole, output per man-hour for the entire private economy increased about
iy2 percent. For the private nonfarm sector and in manufacturing, the rise
was slightly less than 1 percent.
The large rise in compensation and the small gain in productivity resulted
in an unusually sharp increase in unit labor cost, amounting to 4l/2 percent
for the entire private sector and to 5 percent for manufacturing (Table 15).
Analysis of earlier periods suggests that short-run fluctuations in the growth of
productivity are not as immediately or fully reflected in prices as are changes
in compensation. Thus, business, especially in manufacturing, tends to
absorb higher cost resulting from temporary reductions in productivity, as
well as other cost increases due to reduced capacity utilization. In 1967
this absorption meant a sizable fall in unit profit margins, not fully offset
by a rise in volume. Corporate profits (before taxes) fell about 4j/i percent in 1967 but remained well above 1965 and earlier years. The drop in
profits was largely concentrated in manufacturing.
PRICES OF CONSUMER SERVICES
The importance of service prices is illustrated by the fact that in 1967 they
accounted for nearly half the total rise in the consumer price index. Following an increase of 4.9 percent during 1966, prices of consumer services continued to advance in 1967, though somewhat less rapidly. The 3.9 percent
increase in the cost of consumer services during 1967 remained far in excess




III

TABLE 16.—Changes in consumer prices for services, 1965-67
Percentage change
Type of service

December
1965 to
December
1966

December
1966 to
December
1967

Contribution
to total
change in
1967
(percent)

4.9

3.9

100

Interest and property insurance, and taxes

7.4

3.2

20

Public transportation and labor-intensive services.

6.5

5.8

59

6.4
8.1
5.2
5.9

3.9
7.9
4.8
4.6

4
29
17
9

Consumer prices, all services

Public transportation...
Medical care services..
Skilled labor services K.
Other2
Rent and utilities..

1.0

1.3

Rent
Utilities..

1.6

2.0

7
2

4.4

5.2

12

All other services 3

1
Includes repair and maintenance services, barbers, and beauticians.
2 Includes hotels and motels, domestic services, babysitters, laundries, drycleaning, and shoe repair.
3
Includes postal charges, recreational services, legal and banking services, etc.

Source: Department of Labor.

of the average annual advance of about 2 percent between 1961 and 1965
(Table 16).
The principal source of the modest slowdown in 1967 was a considerably
less rapid increase in the average cost of insurance, finance, and taxes. This,
in turn, reflected the fact that interest costs on new mortgages on homes did
not repeat in 1967 the very sharp 12.4 percent advance recorded in the previous year, although they were rising again as the year ended. Most other
consumer services continued to rise at much the same rate during 1967 as
in the previous year.
In many service occupations, increases in productivity are not nearly rapid
enough to offset increases in wage rates or professional salaries. The available data on average hourly earnings of service employees in some lower
paid industries indicate that they received larger than average wage increases
in 1967 (Table 14). Moreover, shortages of skilled personnel in other services—notably medical care—combined with strong demand to produce
higher than average increases in earnings. So long as these forces continue
to push service industry wages up at a rapid rate, the prices of services will
continue to advance substantially.
Medical Services
Over the years, the cost of medical services has been rising more rapidly
than that of other consumer services (Table 17). The increase accelerated
sharply in 1966 and 1967 when the average price of these services rose at
about 8 percent a year.




112

T A B L E 17.—Changes in medical care components of consumer prices for services) 1950—67
Percentage change per year
Item

December
1965 to
December
1966

December
1966 to
December
1967

1950 to 1960

Consumer prices, all services.
Medical care services

1

Hospital daily service charges..
Physicians' fees

1960 to 1965

3.6

2.0

4.3

3.1

8.1

7.9

6.9
3.4

6.3
2.8

16.5
7.8

15.5
6.1

4.9

3.9

1
Includes items not shown separately.
Source: Department of Labor.

Hospital daily service charges, which had been rising strongly in the
1950's and the early 1960's, spurted in 1966 and 1967.
Between 1960 and 1965, the large annual increase in nonpayroll expense
per patient-day (7.0 percent) and the actual decline of 1.7 percent a year in
the number of patients per hospital employee reflected in part more elaborate and expensive hospital equipment and the increased variety and intensity of care. While measured labor productivity declined, hospital wages
kept pace with other service industry wages, and consequently payroll costs
per patient-day increased rapidly. The result of all these cost pressures
was that hospital daily service charges increased 6.3 percent annually from
1960 to 1965, while all consumer prices were rising at a 1.3 percent rate.
Physicians' fees rose 2.8 percent annually between 1960 and 1965. Combined with a small increase in productivity, this enabled physicians' earnings
to rise about 4.6 percent a year. The demand for physicians' services increases steadily, the most important reason being simply the rising incomes
of their patients. There is a definite tendency for higher-income families to
purchase more physician visits than lower-income families. Another factor
has been the growth of insurance coverage. Even before the introduction of
Medicare, the portion of consumer expenditures on physicians' services that
was covered by insurance more than doubled, from 12 percent in 1950 to
32 percent in 1965.
From December 1965 to December 1966, medical service prices rose 8.1
percent, a sharp increase over the 3.1 percent annual increase from 1960
to 1965. The increase from December 1966 to December 1967 was 7.9 percent. The new elements were the intensification of inflationary pressures
in the economy generally, and the entry into force of Medicare and Medicaid. Hospital daily service charges rose 16.5 percent during 1966 and 15.5
percent during 1967. These price increases must have considerably exceeded the rise in hospital costs. The concurrent enlargement of the insured
hospital clientele—who are less immediately sensitive to price increases because much of their costs are prepaid—made it easier for hospitals to raise
their charges.




Prices for physicians' services moved sharply upward beginning in the first
quarter of 1966, and then tapered off toward the end of 1967. The increase
early in 1966 may have reflected a revision of fee schedules in anticipation
of the introduction of Medicare and Medicaid.
Public Utilities
Prices of utility services have risen much less than those of other major
services (Table 16). Table 18, discussed more fully below, shows that communication and electric, gas, and sanitary services are also the sectors where
output per man-hour has grown most rapidly, and unit labor cost has fallen
rather consistently.
The comparison between price changes and unit labor costs suggests, however, that public utilities have not passed the full benefit of improved productivity on to their customers. Although their capital costs per unit of output
have undoubtedly risen, their profits have increased at an exceptional rate.
In fact, the two utilities sectors are the only ones in Table 18 for which
profits as a share of corporate output increased from 1947 to 1966. These
are, of course, regulated industries, substantially protected from competition.
PRICES OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
Prices in the industrial sectors of the economy reflected with reasonable
fidelity the interplay of the market forces which prevailed during 1967.
During the first half of the year, the influence of rising production costs
was largely masked by the easing of demand pressures, and prices showed
relatively little change; in the second half, with gradually rising demand,
cost pressures were more readily translated into substantial advances in
prices. This pattern is observed in a wide range of manufacturing industries
and in construction.
Industrial Materials
Among the industrial sectors, cost factors were least immediately significant in the case of industrial raw materials. There, the trend of demand in
relation to supply was most dominant. In general, demand pressures eased,
supplies were adequate, and prices moved lower for such materials as hides
and skins, natural rubber, hardwood lumber, and zinc. There were, however,
important exceptions for which supplies were not adequate; some prices,
such as those of sulfur, copper, and nickel, rose sharply.
Nonfood

Manufactures

The imbalance between supply and demand which had characterized
major sectors of the economy between mid-1965 and late 1966 had been
especially marked and widespread in manufacturing industries. By the same
token, these industries were most affected by the easing of demand pressures
in late 1966 and the first half of 1967.
Over-all demand for manufactured products grew more slowly in 1967
than in 1966, yet plant capacity grew about as rapidly. Moreover, the com-




position of demand was better balanced with productive capabilities. The
easing of demand pressures, coupled with the completion of new facilities,
showed up in a notably lower rate of capacity utilization (Table B-38).
In the fourth quarter of 1967, manufacturing output averaged 84 percent
of capacity as compared with 90 percent in the last quarter of 1966. The
strain on available facilities was reduced in almost all industries. By'the end
of 1967, capacity utilization was again rising, but remained generally well
below the rates of 1966.
While demand pressures in 1967 were weaker than in 1966, costs in manufacturing were rising rapidly. In addition to the pervasive rise in unit labor
costs there were also increases in other elements of production cost including
construction and equipment prices, interest costs, and freight rates for rail,
highway, and inland waterway transportation.
During the first half of the year the average price of nonfood manufactures showed little change, rising about 0.5 percent between December 1966
and June 1967. With increasing demand in the second half, manufacturers
in virtually all industries sought to raise prices to compensate for higher costs
and to restore profit margins.
For nonfood manufactures as a whole, prices rose 1.3 percent in the second
half of 1967—more than twice as fast as in the preceding six months.
Differences in the size of price increases among industries reflected the
differing strength of demand, the incidence of increased costs, the extent of
intra- and inter-industry competition as it affected the degree of discretion
available to individual firms, and the degree to which business firms with
discretionary pricing power gave weight to the public interest in their
pricing decisions.
As may have been expected, the effects of changing demand were most
clearly and promptly evident in the less concentrated, highly competitive
industries in which individual manufacturers enjoy little discretion in their
pricing decisions.
In the textile industry, for example, the decline in demand during the first
half was quite severe, partly as a result of heavy overbuying during 1966.
Inventories rose sharply, despite a substantial drop in the operating rate. As
a result, manufacturers had to cut prices in the face of rising labor costs.
The average price of cotton products fell 3 percent between December
and June; synthetics also declined. In the second half, as demand increased
and inventories were gradually worked off, prices rebounded, and prices of
cotton products registered a net advance of 1.5 percent during the year.
In other highly competitive industries, the decline in demand and output
during the first half of the year was not generally reflected in price reductions, but rather in some deferment or moderation of price increases to cover
rising costs. For example, prices were not cut, but indeed raised, for household furniture, apparel, and shoes. In each case, the advance accelerated
in the second half of the year, and, for 1967 as a whole, the rise in prices
exceeded that for all nonfood manufactures. These are all labor-intensive




"5

industries and hence strongly affected by rising wages. They are also lowwage industries which experienced above-average increases in compensation.
In more concentrated industries, in which sellers enjoyed a greater degree
of discretion in their pricing policies, the record varied, in part reflecting
the use made of that discretion.
In the tobacco industry, for example, prices were raised 5.0 percent in
1967, on top of a 4.1 percent boost in 1966. Labor costs are relatively
minor in this industry, and return on equity is among the highest for any
industry group.
An even larger increase was recorded in the rubber industry. In December,
wholesale prices of tires and tubes were 5.1 percent above a year earlier;
those of miscellaneous rubber products were 6.6 percent higher. One element
in the price increase was higher labor costs—the result of a very large settlement granted after a prolonged strike. But price increases appear to have far
exceeded the rise in unit labor costs. Moreover, a sharp decline in the cost
of natural rubber and a small decrease for some types of synthetics offset
some of the higher costs for other materials, labor, and transportation.
In a number of other highly concentrated industries, in which manufacturers ordinarily enjoy significant discretion in their pricing policies, price
increases in 1967 were somewhat smaller, although above the average for
nonfood manufactures. Manufacturers' prices of automobiles were raised
about 2^4 percent late in the year. Prices of electrical machinery rose 2 5/2
percent during 1967. Average prices of steel mill products also rose nearly
2 percent. Steel is less profitable and has slower productivity growth than the
other industries mentioned, but, unlike the others, had the advantage of still
operating under a moderate labor settlement negotiated in 1965.
FARM AND FOOD PRICES
To a far greater extent than for industrial commodities and services, prices
of farm products are very highly responsive to relatively small changes in the
supplies available for domestic consumption. And these supplies are greatly
influenced by weather conditions, Federal farm programs, and developments
abroad that affect the level of U.S. exports.
During 1965 and much of 1966, domestic supplies of several major commodities were curtailed, primarily because of poor weather. In the important
case of hogs, the drop in supply was a consequence of large marketings and
low prices in 1963 and 1964. In the last months of 1966 and all of 1967, supplies of most farm commodities were relatively abundant—the combined result of changes in Federal farm programs, of generally excellent growing
conditions, and of the response by farmers to the higher prices obtained in
1966. (One major exception was cotton, which had the smallest crop since

?
Civilian consumption of food in the United States increased in 1966 and
1967 as both population and incomes grew, while military food purchases
increased from the late summer of 1965 to the end of 1966 and remained




Chart 1 0

Food Prices
1957-59=100

120

115

//v\
CONSUMER

110

PRICES FOR FOOD

AT

HOME

\\ I
1

•

105
•****•

••

1

••*••
••••

*

7\/ \ V
/ ^\

/

<***••

'

\

/

•**

\

A

'

***•.

**

^

\

^

\

/

100
/
/

V

\

- \J

\

f\

1963

~

\

v
y

V

i/

\
/

WHOLESALE PRICES FOR CRUDE
FOODSTUFFS AND FEEDSTUFFS

I I I 1 I I I i i i i I i I I I I I I I i I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 I 1 I I i 1 I1M

1962

V

A

V /

/

K

\A
V

v/

^-^

/
/

WHOLESALE PRICES FOR
CONSUMER FOODS]/

^

90

85

1

V
y«

95

/ -1

\

A

1964

1965

M.IMM.I

1966

M M

1 M 1 II

1967

INCLUDES CONSUMER CRUDE FOODS AND CONSUMER PROCESSED FOODS.
SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

high throughout 1967. Foreign demand was strong during 1965 and 1966 but
weakened in 1967 when larger crops abroad reduced the demand for U.S.
farm products.
As a result of these supply and demand conditions, prices received by
farmers advanced sharply between early 1965 and August 1966, reaching
their highest level since the Korean conflict. They then fell rapidly, and remained below year earlier levels throughout 1967.
RETAIL PRICES
The impact of price increases for nonfood commodities at the manufacturing level on the consumer was aggravated by an appreciable widening
of distributive margins, reflecting rising costs of wholesale and retail distribution. As indicated in Table 14, average hourly earnings of wholesale and
retail employees rose more than those of manufacturing workers. Higher
commercial rents, rising freight rates, and interest charges imposed a further
burden. As a result of these factors, prices at retail generally rose somewhat
faster than those at wholesale for comparable goods. In fact, during the sec-




117

ond half of 1967, retail prices of nonfood commodities were rising at the rate
of 4 percent per year.
In the face of the decline in farm prices in 1967, retail food prices for use
at home rose slightly, and restaurant prices increased sharply. As seen in
Chart 10, the spread between farm and retail food prices widened in 1967.
Unit labor costs rose for food processing and marketing firms as they experienced above-average wage increases. Prices of intermediate goods and services purchased by these firms were also higher. The wider margins also
reflect the long-term trend of improved quality and increased refinements in
processing, preparation, packaging, and distribution of foods available to
consumers.
CONSTRUCTION
The measurement of construction costs presents difficult problems, but
the statistics record an average annual advance of 3.2 percent since 1961.
The rate of increase fluctuated somewhat during the last two years, with a
slowdown in late 1966 and early 1967 when demand eased. As housing starts
recovered, construction costs also resumed their usual trend.
The rise in construction prices thus has generally exceeded the advance in
most other industrial sectors by a substantial margin. This is due principally
to the fact that wages of construction workers have been rising more rapidly
than those of other industrial workers while improvement in construction
practices and techniques has lagged seriously.
While construction activity has been expanding steadily with the exception of the downturn during late 1966 and early 1967, the supply of skilled
workers has not kept pace. Entrance requirements and apprenticeship rules
in some construction unions have not been adequately adjusted to the requirements of a rapidly growing economy. For this and other reasons, the
bargaining strength of unions in the construction industry is generally strong.
At the same time, the resistance of contractors to high wage demands is
reduced by the fact that construction contracts are generally let by bid, with
all contractors in a given area operating under the same wage scales. During 1967, this bargaining strength was reflected in the annual wage increases
of 8 percent or more provided in a number of important construction
settlements.
At the same time, changes in construction techniques which would improve productivity and afford at least a partial offset to rapidly rising wages
have been slow in coming. This has been especially true in many urban areas,
where standards are rigidly controlled under local building codes. These
codes, originally intended to protect the public against inferior design, materials, and workmanship, have been slow to adjust to the opportunities
afforded by new materials and methods. They have thus retarded the advances made possible by developing technology and have preserved high-cost
techniques. Both the smaller specialized contractors and the construction
trade unions have resisted changes in these codes. The latter have been espe-




u8

cially opposed to changes in the allocation of work among different categories
of craftsmen and to the use of prefabricated parts.
PRICE AND WAGE POLICY
The magnitude of the stakes involved in moving promptly toward restoration of reasonable price stability is abundantly clear. It is equally evident
that the steps taken to achieve this objective must not impair our other
essential goals: maintaining high employment; preserving the effectiveness
of free markets in allocating productive resources; and encouraging efficiency and minimizing waste.
The various policies available to improve price stability must be evaluated in the light of all these goals.
DIRECT CONTROLS
The most obvious—and least desirable—way of attempting to stabilize
prices is to impose mandatory controls on prices and wages. While such controls may be necessary under conditions of an all-out war, it would be folly to
consider them as a solution to the inflationary pressures that accompany high
employment under any other circumstance. They distort resource allocation;
they require reliance either on necessarily clumsy and arbitrary rules or the
inevitably imperfect decisions of Government officials; they offer countless
temptations to evasion or violation; they require a vast administrative apparatus. All these reasons make them repugnant. Although such controls may
be unfortunately popular when they are not in effect, the appeal quickly
disappears once people live under them.
FISCAL AND MONETARY MEASURES
Fiscal and monetary policy always plays a central role in price stabilization efforts. When over-all demand threatens to outrun supply, restrictive
fiscal and monetary measures can reduce the growth of demand to keep it in
line with the growth of productive capacity.
Once a wage-price spiral has developed—from whatever source—a sufficiently restrictive fiscal and monetary policy can stop it, but only at the cost
of creating a rather wide margin of underutilization of resources. It is possible
for a spiral to slow down gradually without a retreat from high employment.
But the existence of the spiral makes it particularly important to use fiscal
and monetary restraints to minimize the risk of upsurges in demand which
would give the spiral new momentum.
Most economists believe that the rate of price increase would be significantly lower than it now is if we had attained the present level of unemployment more gradually. Nevertheless, few would disagree that, at the present
level of resource utilization, prices would in any event rise somewhat faster
than in the early 1960's. Clearly, we cannot afford to attempt to achieve
price stability by returning to the unemployment conditions of those years.




"9

Equally clearly, we need to find other policies which will serve to reduce the
rate of price increase that occurs at high levels of employment.
IMPROVING MARKET EFFICIENCY
In its 1967 Report, the Council discussed at some length the possible
contributions to price stability of programs to upgrade labor skills—especially of the disadvantaged groups—and to bring about a closer match between the capacities of the labor force and the needs of a changing economy.
It also discussed efforts to strengthen competition, break bottlenecks, and
raise the rate of productivity gains—especially in sectors where the productivity trend is now low.
Over time, these and similar measures should gradually reduce inflationary
bias and thus permit the economy to achieve higher levels of utilization and
lower rates of unemployment without increasing pressures on the price level.
Such programs are highly important for many reasons. They offer substantial benefits over the long run and are an essential part of our efforts to
combine price stability with full employment.
INCOMES POLICIES
In seeking still further ways to reconcile high employment with reasonable price stability, the governments of most industrial countries have concluded that it is necessary to develop specific policies aimed at the tendency,
under conditions of high employment, for money incomes to rise faster than
production—so-called "incomes policies."
These policies seek to induce industry, labor, and possibly other groups,
to avoid the irresponsible and self-defeating use of market power when the
demand for their products or services increases temporarily. It is recognized
that shifts in relative prices or wages should occur to bring about a needed
reallocation of resources. But incomes policies encourage business and labor
not to take full advantage of every opportunity to charge what the traffic will
bear—in their own longer run interest and in the general interest of the
economy.
The Council's Guideposts
The Council's well-known "guideposts," first presented in January 1962,
represent a form of incomes policy for the United States. The guideposts
do not merely appeal for general restraint, but in addition try to provide
guidance to individual unions and firms as to the specific behavior of wages
and prices which would be consistent with general price stability as well as
with efficient allocation of resources.
The genesis, objectives, and principles of the guideposts were reviewed in
detail in the Council's 1967 Report, and need not here be elaborated. In
general, the wage guidepost calls for increases in hourly compensation to




120

be limited to the trend rate of productivity growth for the economy as a
whole. The price guidepost emails for prices to remain stable in industries
in which the trend gain in productivity approximates the average rate for
the economy; it points to price declines where productivity gains exceed
this average; and it recognizes the need for prices to be increased as required
where the improvement is lower than average.
The Council recognizes that many sellers of commodities and services
have little or no discretion over the prices they can charge. In these cases,
however, the workings of competitive markets may be expected to yield
results similar to those prescribed by the guideposts, so long as the general
movement of wages and prices is consistent with the guideposts. It is also
recognized that many wages are not set by collective bargaining. But, in an
environment of general price stability, these wages may be expected to move
in line with the productivity guidepost, especially since many nonunion
wages are tied more or less automatically to union wages.
There are, of course, many commodities whose price movements are not
directly determined by the domestic wage level or by discretionary decisions of firms with market power. Imports and farm products are the most
important examples. But imports, though significant in some industries, do
not have a major direct impact on the general trend of costs and prices.
And farm prices show no marked long-term trend, although they display
wide short-term fluctuations. To be sure, such fluctuations can cause a temporary bulge in the average level of consumer prices. But that bulge would
not necessarily become permanent if labor unions recognized the nature
of the situation and avoided seeking immediate long-term compensatory
increases.
Thus, if the guideposts were essentially observed by those firms and unions
that possess discretion with respect to prices and wages, the inflationary bias
inherent in a high-employment economy should be largely overcome.
Economic Validity of the Guidepost Logic
In their simplest form, the guideposts rest on three basic propositions:
1. While changes in wage rates in any particular year reflect special
conditions in specific segments of the labor market, they tend to be broadly
similar throughout the economy. Existing wage differentials largely reflect
a whole set of institutional factors and basic differences in skill requirements or other attributes of the job, and it is reasonable that they should
change rather slowly.
2. Price changes in any industry or sector are strongly influenced by unit
labor costs and also reflect the influence of the value of capital used per unit
of output and the prices of materials and services purchased from other industries. For the economy as a whole, the influence of purchased materials
and services essentially cancels out, so that prices depend largely on wages
and returns to capital—profits, interest, and depreciation. If prices move in




121

proportion to unit labor costs, the relative shares of wages and returns to
capital will remain constant. Moreover, since the capital employed per unit
of output shows little trend in most sectors, the rate of return on capital will
remain stable.
3. Simple arithmetic requires that, for the average of unit labor costs in
the entire economy to be stable, it is necessary that the average change in
hourly compensation match, as a percentage, the average change in output
per man-hour in the entire economy; and, for the average of prices to be
stable, the movements of prices should conform to the movements of unit
labor costs.
In defending the first two of these propositions, the Council has frequently
asserted not only that they reflect the ways in which wages and prices
"ought" to behave, but that they basically reflect the way in which wages and
prices tend, in the long run, to behave under free-market conditions. Data
have recently become available which provide additional evidence that, in
fact, they do behave in such a manner.
The data in Table 18 show average annual rates of change in output,
compensation, productivity, unit labor costs, and prices for major sectors of
the nonfarm economy during the postwar period, 1947-66, and for each of
three subperiods: 1947-53, 1953-59, and 1959-66. The beginning and ending years of each of these subperiods were years of relatively high employment, chosen so as to mimimize the influence of cyclical fluctuations. The
prices used are "value-added" prices—that is selling prices adjusted for
changes in the prices of goods and services purchased from other sectors.
These data are subject to qualifications, largely because of difficulties in
the measurement of the real output originating in a sector. Thus in finance,
insurance, and real estate, much of the output is imputed rather than actually sold. In the construction sector, the nature of the available price data
may lead to an understatement of the growth in real output and hence of
output per man-hour. For similar reasons, there may be some understatement
of real output in the service sector. However, any error in the price deflator
would also affect unit labor cost and need not distort the measured difference between the rates of change in price and in unit labor cost.
The three subperiods covered in the table vary markedly in their economic
characteristics. Both the first and the last periods show considerably stronger
growth both in output and in productivity than the middle period. Moreover, with relatively few exceptions, the rate of increase of compensation
declined from the first to the third period, as did the rate of increase in
prices. Yet in each subperiod, and for the postwar period as a whole, the
following facts stand out:
1. Changes in hourly compensation were markedly similar in all sectors.
2. Productivity changes, on the other hand, varied widely among the
sectors. In some sectors, they also varied somewhat among the three time
periods, reflecting longer-term trends or structural changes.
3. For the economy as a whole, the data indicate that, when wages rise




122

TABLE 18.—Changes in selected economic indicators by industry division, 1947-66
Percentage change per year
Industry and period
Outputl

Private domestic nonfarm economy: 3
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966

Output
per
man-hour

Compensation per
man-hour 2

Unit
labor
cost

Implicit
gross product
deflator

4.2
4.8
2.7
4.8

2.8
3.2
2.3
2.9

4.9
6.2
4.4
4.1

2.0
3.0
2.1
1.1

2.2
3.2
2.3
1.3

..

2.2
2.8
1.1
2.8

4.2
5.2
3.2
4.2

4.6
7.6
3.0
3.5

.4
2.3
-.2
-.7

1.7
4.7
1.4
-.6

..

3.4
6.6
2.6
1.3

1.9
3.8
2.5
-.3

5.1
6.7
3.8
4.8

3.1
2.8
1.3
5.0

3.9
4.2
2.4
4.9

Manufacturing:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966

4.4
5.8
1.3
5.8

3.2
3.7
2.3
3.6

5.1
6.8
4.9
3.8

1.8
3.0
2.5
.3

2.0
3.0
2.6
.6

Transportation:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966

2.1
.1
.8
4.9

3.1
1.8
2.8
4.5

5.2
7.2
4.9
3.7

2.0
5.4
2.0
-.8

2.3
6.0
1.3
.1

Communication:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966

7.3
8.5
6.1
7.4

5.3
5.2
5.5
5.3

5.0
5.9
4.9
4.3

-.3
.7
-.5
-1.0

1.6
3.7
1.3
.0

7.3
10.2
6.8
5.2

6.0
7.5
6.2
4.6

5.6
7.1
5.7
4.4

-.4
-.4
-.5
-.2

1.0
1.1
1.5
.6

4.0
3.5
3.7
4.6

2.7
1.9
2.7
3.4

4.4
4.7
4.4
4.3

1.7
2.8
1.6
.9

1.5
1.9
1.6
1.1

4.8
4.7
4.6
4.9

1.9
1.2
2.1
2.3

4.9
5.6
5.2
4.0

2.9
4.3
3.1
1.6

3.1
5 4
2.8
1.5

3.5
2.5
4.0
3.9

1.4
1.1
1.8
1.3

5.1
5.3
5.0
5.0

3.6
4.1
3.1
3.7

3.6
4.C
3.4
3.4

-

Mining:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966
Contract construction:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959.
1959 to 1966

.
..

.

Electric, gas, and sanitary services:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966.
Wholesale and retail trade:
1947 to 1966
.-1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959
1959 to 1966
Services:*
1947 to 1966
1947 to 1953
1953 to 1959_
1959 to 1966

. .

1
2
3
4

Gross product in constant dollars.
Wages, salaries, and supplements.
Includes government enterprises.
Includes private households, agricultural services, forestry, and fisheries.
Sources: Department of Commerce, Department of Labor, and Council of Economic Advisers.

faster than output per man-hour, prices rise correspondingly with little effect
on the distribution of income. With certain exceptions—notably mining, the
regulated utility industries (as discussed above), and construction—price
movements in the various sectors, and in the several subperiods for a given
sector, conformed closely to the movements of unit labor costs. Moreover,




123

as Chart 11 illustrates, the agreement between changes in unit labor cost
and changes in prices is particularly close for the 1959-66 subperiod.
This analysis thus supports the guidepost conclusions that price stability
can be achieved and maintained only to the extent: (1) that increases in
hourly compensation generally conform to the average economy-wide
improvement of output per man-hour; and (2) that changes in prices in
individual sectors generally conform to changes in unit labor costs in those
sectors.
The former requirement was clearly violated beginning in 1965, and
there have been notable exceptions to the second requirement in a few major
industries throughout the 1960's. The crucial problem for 1968 and the
years ahead is to find means to achieve both requirements without sacrificing
other essential objectives.
Chart 1 1

Prices and Unit Labor Costs, 1959-66
Private Domestic Nonfarm Economy

CONTRACT •
CONSTRUCTION

4 SERVICES

_

2 -

FINANCE, INSURANCE,
TOTAL

A N

•

°R E A L

ESTATE

•

o
a.

WHOLESALE AND
RETAIL TRADE

ELECTRIC, GAS,
AND SANITARY
SERVICES
*

^MANUFACTURING
TRANSPORTATION

COMMUNICATION
•
MINING

1

1

-2

0

1

2

1

1

1

4

UNIT LABOR COSTS-PERCENTAGE CHANGE PER YEAR

SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.




124

WAGE-PRICE POLICY FOR 1968

Meaningful progress toward the restoration of price stability will not be
easy to achieve in 1968. The policy choices must be assessed in the light of
current and prospective pressures on prices and wages.
The basic forces working on wages and prices this year will be similar in
many ways to those at work in 1967. Unemployment and capacity utilization
will show relatively little change.
In the areas not directly affected by the market power of unions and business, the available evidence does not point to a significant net reduction in
price pressures. Farm prices are likely to rise a little instead of declining as
they did in 1967. Strong demand pressures will continue to pull wages up
rapidly in several areas, including engineering, scientific, and technical occupations; State and local governments; and medical and hospital services—
though in some markets supplies may begin to catch up with demands, with
a consequent reduction in wage pressures. Moreover, the 14-percent increase
in the minimum wage in 1968 will have an even greater impact than did the
1967 increases, which mainly restored the minimum wage to a more typical
relationship with the average wage level in the economy.
Responsible Private Decisions
Major union settlements in 1967 provided wage and benefit increases
averaging about 5 ^ percent a year over the life of the contracts, while average hourly compensation in the entire private economy increased by 6 percent. (These two figures are not strictly comparable. Average compensation reflects new and continuing contracts in organized sectors as well as all
compensation in nonunion areas; it also reflects changes in employers' contributions for social insurance. Moreover, it is influenced by shifts in the
composition of the labor force.)
If new collective bargaining settlements reached in 1968 should again
average 5 5/2 percent, the rise in average hourly compensation for the economy as a whole would be appreciably larger than in 1967. One reason is that
the second- and third-year provisions of contracts negotiated in 1966 and
1967 will provide larger increases, on the average, in 1968, than were inherited in 1967 from similar provisions of earlier contracts.
Despite the favorable prospect that productivity gains in 1968 should
exceed those of 1967, the pressure of rising unit labor costs on prices would
continue to be strong in 1968, on the assumption of a 5 / 2 -percent average
for new union settlements. And stronger demand conditions will make it
easier for cost increases to be passed on in prices. Thus, there would be no
prospect of any slowing down in the rate of increase of consumer prices.
In fact, several prominent settlements last year substantially exceeded
6 percent a year, and some unions have already taken this figure as their
target to meet or beat in negotiations during 1968. If new union settlements
were to average even higher in 1968 than in 1967, a clear acceleration of
price increases would be likely in 1968.
125
284-593 f

~




Such an acceleration in 1968—or even a continuance of the 1967 rate of
price increase—would have a major impact on the prospects for prices in
1969 and even 1970. It would push the ultimate restoration of reasonable
stability farther into the future. And as the momentum of the spiral became
built into attitudes, expectations, and practices of business, labor, and consumers, the restoration of stability would not merely be pushed farther into
the future but would become progressively more difficult to achieve.
On the other hand, if the rise of prices slows down in 1968, there is the
clear possibility of restoring reasonable price stability in subsequent years.
Hence, every effort must be made to slow down the rate of price increase in
1968. This surely can only be achieved if the average of new union settlements is appreciably lower than the 5 */s>-percent average of 1967 and if business firms avoid any widening of their gross margins over direct costs and
indeed absorb cost increases to the extent feasible. A decisive slowing down
from the recent rate of price advance could then take place in 1968. This
would be the first step toward our target of essential stability of prices.
The Government will continue in 1968 to urge both business and labor to
exercise the utmost restraint in their decisions. Such restraint will demand
some immediate sacrifices. The rewards of such restraint lie in the assurance
of continued high employment, a steady rise in real compensation, and
healthy expansion of markets, sales, and profits. These gains may be less immediately perceptible than the costs—but no less certain and far greater in
the end.
Productivity Principle
In calling for restraint in wage and price decisions, the Council recognizes that, in 1968, as in 1967, it would clearly be inappropriate to set the
trend of productivity as a numerical target for wage increases. In the face
of the 3-percent increase of consumer prices that occurred during 1967, it
would be patently unrealistic to expect labor to accept increases in money
wages which would represent essentially no improvement in real hourly
income.
Nevertheless, despite the justification for compensation increases in excess
of the productivity trend, such increases are inevitably inflationary. As the
Council stated in its 1967 Report:
"The only valid and noninflationary standard for wage advances
is the productivity principle. If price stability is eventually to be restored
and maintained in a high-employment U.S. economy, wage settlements
must once again conform to that standard."
In the discussion above, the Council has outlined the pattern of price and
wage decisions required in 1968 to begin progress toward the target of price
stability. That target cannot be achieved in 1968. It will be achieved only
when wage settlements once more conform to the productivity standard,
and only when business engages in responsible price-making, which means
that prices in each industry should conform to the trend of unit costs, with no
widening of margins.




126

Government Organization To Promote Price Stability
The discussion of this chapter should make clear that the task of reconciling price stability with high employment will require sustained efforts of
public policy on many fronts. The full resources of the Government should
be enlisted to deal effectively with structural problems that impede economic
efficiency and contribute to inflation.
The machinery of Government policymaking and administration should
be adapted to keep the objective of over-all price stability clearly in focus,
and to give it a high priority in the formulation and administration of
Government programs throughout the entire range of Federal activities.
Consequently, as his Economic Report has indicated, the President has
established a Cabinet Committee on Price Stability, consisting of the
Secretaries of Treasury, Commerce, and Labor, the Director of the Budget,
and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers. The heads of other
agencies will participate in the Committee's work as required. This Committee will be coordinated by the Council Chairman and will be served by
a small professional staff. It will meet on a regular schedule, and hold
special meetings to deal with urgent problems.
Its activities will include the following:
1. The Committee will prepare and publish from time to time studies in
depth of economic conditions in those industries which are a persistent
source of inflationary pressure, either because of inappropriate exercise of
market power by labor or business, or because of inefficient or ineffective
institutional arrangements, trade practices, or market institutions.
2. The Committee will study intensively, and make constructive recommendations concerning all aspects of Government policy that affect prices
in particular sectors, including, among others, policies related to Federal
procurement and construction; manpower and labor market programs;
imports and exports; competition and trade practices; research, development, and technological changes; and the supply of natural resources to
particular markets. Where appropriate, it will develop and coordinate interagency programs to deal with the structural problems of particular industries which make them a source of inflationary bias.
3. The Committee will work with representatives of business, labor, and
the public to enlist cooperation toward responsible wage and price behavior
and structural improvements that promote the achievement of over-all price
stability. However, it will not become involved in specific current wage and
price matters.
4. In line with these objectives, the Committee will shortly begin a series
of conferences both with representatives of business, labor, and the public
interest at large, and with representatives of particular industries or particular segments of labor
—to attempt to reach some consensus on appropriate general standards
to guide private price and wage decisions;




127

—to identify remediable problems that inhibit price stability in particular areas, and attempt to design cooperative programs for private
and governmental action to deal with these problems.
5. The Committee will occasionally recommend to the President and the
Congress suitable legislation which would advance the objective of price
stability in a free market economy.




128

Chapter 4

Economic Development and Individual
Opportunity

T

HE unprecedented prosperity of the past seven years has brought great
economic progress to most Americans. Poverty has been significantly
reduced; educational attainment is rising; the quality of public services has
improved; and far more jobs are available to the previously disadvantaged.
But not all Americans have shared in the Nation's prosperity. About oneseventh of the population remains in poverty. And the plight of the poor is
ever more sharply contrasted with the comfortable standards of living most
Americans enjoy in an era of growing and widening abundance. This contrast has awakened the social conscience of the Nation; at the same time,
the Nation's ability to assist the disadvantaged minority has reached new
heights. The majority of our people have now achieved incomes which
make the elimination of poverty a concrete, realistic, and attainable goal
in our generation. For the first time in any society, the United States can
afford to eliminate poverty; indeed, it cannot afford to do otherwise.
The reduction of poverty has been a continuing process in our society,
fundamentally reflecting the long-term growth of output per worker—which
in turn has derived from progress in technology and management, from a
labor force ever better educated and more adaptable, and from the provision of more and better capital per worker. Economic growth brings great
rewards; but because it comes unevenly it can be a highly disruptive process.
Some industries, some occupations, some regions undergo dramatic expansion; others decline relatively or even absolutely. Whole new industries
and occupations arise; many older ones are completely transformed or disappear entirely.
Many of the structural changes that lie at the heart of progress do
not force individuals to change their occupations or residences. The adjustment comes as sons and daughters take up occupations different from their
parents' or move to new areas. But rapid and uneven change often cannot be fully accommodated in this way. Many individuals are uprooted or
find their livelihoods threatened. Some cannot make the transition which
provides the opportunity for improvement. And even an adjustment occurring between generations often creates hardship when childhood background
and training are inadequate or unsuited to the needs of the new order.




129

Thus the process which has reduced poverty has sometimes created it.
It has redistributed both affluence and poverty, and in many cases has
concentrated them—geographically, occupationally, and by demographic
category. As those able to respond to opportunity have moved out of poverty,
those left behind are increasingly the ones whose opportunities were restricted: the immobile, the aged, the disabled, the handicapped, the broken
family, the poorly educated, the victim of discrimination.
Significant reduction in the number of poor people has occurred only
when the economy is expanding. When economic growth is slow, poverty
diminishes slowly—and often actually increases. The years from 1948
through 1953 saw rapid reduction in poverty, as have the years since 1964.
By contrast, the number of individuals in poverty declined very slowly during the latter half of the 1950's.
The first part of this chapter focuses primarily on the geographical
aspects of the process by which poverty has been both eliminated and redistributed—the transformation of agriculture, the growth of the city, and the
redistribution of opportunity and of poverty within the city.
The second part of the chapter largely abstracts from the geographical
dimensions of poverty. It deals with programs offering solutions to poverty, wherever the poor may be found.
Programs for the reduction of poverty are—and should be—in part the
responsibility of local organizations and units of government. Nevertheless,
even though concentrations of poverty are local, the problem is national
and must be a national responsibility. Indeed, it is a national problem just
because of its concentration. The forces which produce poverty in particular
areas are largely beyond the influence of local governments. And the remedies
needed to lift citizens from poverty cannot be successfully applied by individual communities acting alone.
THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF OPPORTUNITIES
The social scientist needs a yardstick to measure progress in reducing
economic deprivation. For statistical purposes, households are defined as
poor if their income falls below the cost of a certain minimum consumption
standard—$2,185 in current prices for a nonfarm couple under 65 years of
age, $3,335 for a nonfarm family of four, and so on. A reduction in numbers
by this definition is only a rough measure of progress, since social and psychological conditions associated with poverty may persist after incomes rise
above the poverty line. Moreover, the income levels used in the definition
cannot provide for much more than minimum necessities. Nevertheless,
measured changes in the incidence of poverty over time provide a reasonable criterion of achievement, and are employed frequently throughout this
chapter.
Between 1959 and 1966, the number of poor declined sharply from 38.9
to 29.7 million, or from 22.1 to 15.4 percent of the population. Substantial progress was recorded for almost every population group, but the




130

reduction in the number of poor farm households was especially marked.
This progress, though encouraging, should not conceal the magnitude of
the remaining problems nor the fact that they fall with disproportionate
severity on certain groups.
Geographically, poverty is today concentrated in the central cities of our
large metropolitan areas and in certain rural districts. While the proportion
of poor farm households remains above the national average, the great bulk
of rural poverty today is found among the rural nonfarm population. The
distribution and extent of poverty have been influenced by the changing
structure of employment opportunities and the massive internal migrations
encouraged by these changes. One of the most significant of these changes
has occurred in farming.
CHANGES IN THE FARM ECONOMY
The most pervasive influence affecting employment in agriculture has
been a growth of labor productivity substantially in excess of the growth of
markets. Between 1940 and 1966, aggregate production inputs used in farming increased by only 8 percent, while farm output increased by 61 percent.
The over-all ratio of output to inputs increased 50 percent, and the ratio of
output to labor input increased by a spectacular 347 percent.
The demand for farm products has consistently increased less rapidly
than the growth of incomes. Combined with sharp increases in productivity,
this fact has greatly diminished the need for labor resources in farming.
Further, the revolutionary increase in labor productivity could be realized
only through mechanization. Because many machines could be efficiently
utilized only on large farms, the full benefits of mechanization were not
available to farms of smaller size. Since 1940, the number of farms has been
reduced by almost one-half and the average size of farms has more than
doubled (Chart 12). The farm population meanwhile has fallen by almost
two-thirds; after remaining virtually unchanged in the preceding 20 years,
it declined from 30.5 million in 1940 to 11.6 million in 1966.
As a result of the trends in demand and in productivity, the number of
farms with sales valued at $10,000 or more per year has been increasing,
while the number of farms with annual sales under $10,000 has declined
almost one-third since 1959 (Table 19). There is a movement up the income
ladder within farming as some operators of smaller farms acquire additional
resources to expand their sales. But operators of the smallest farms have become increasingly dependent on off-farm employment to supplement their
incomes. Farm incomes are benefited both by Government price-support
operations and by direct payments. These benefits, of course, do little for
farmers who have little to sell. Despite the growing prosperity of large farmers, many small farmers and farmworkers cannot earn a decent income in
farming.
Industrial expansion offered many farmers and farmworkers an opportunity to raise their incomes by accepting nonfarm employment. Several




Chart 1 2

Changing Farm Structure
MILLIONS

ACRES

MILLIONS
:
NUMEJER OF FARMS

7
6

IS

5

$

-1

4

IN

3

S^
I8 %
i^

2

200 -

100 -

1

<

0
1940 50 60 67

1940 50 60 67

1940 50

67

SOURCE: -DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

studies show that movement out of farming is much more closely related to
employment opportunities and income in the nonfarm sectors than to earnings in farming. The experience of the 1960's again confirms this. Rapid
economic growth was accompanied by sharp reductions in the farm
population.
Poverty in the Farm Population
Farm poverty remains a serious problem, especially since most of the farm
poor are ineligible for income maintenance programs as presently organized.
As recently as 1959, 63 percent of all farm families had less than $5,000 in
sales and averaged less than $3,500 of total family income (Table 19). The
number of farmers in this sales class has declined sharply since then, and
their off-farm earnings have increased. Operators of the smaller farms tend
to be older than those of large farms, and have on the average almost 3 years
less of formal education. The remaining poverty on farms is concentrated
among these operators of small farms. By 1966, however, only 600,000 farm
households were in poverty, a sharp drop from 1.8 million in 1959. Much
of the reduction in farm poverty has resulted from migration. Some of those
who moved have become members of the nonfarm poor, but the bulk of the
younger migrants have increased their income potential. It is likely that




132

TABLE 19.—Number of farms and farm income, y value-of-sales
b
Number of farms
Value-of-sales class and year

Thousands of
farms

All farms:
1959
1964
1966

Percentage
distribution

Cash receipts
plus Government payments;
percentage
distribution

classes, 1959, 1964, and 1966
Farm operator family income
Total
income

Realized net
farm income

Off-farm
income

4,097
3,472
3,252

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

$4,844
6,196
7,787

$2,773
3,747
5,049

$2,071
2,449
2,738

2,576
2,030
1,769

62.9
58.5
54.4

13.9
9.3
6.7

3,493
3,860
4,492

1,115
946
1,071

2,378
2,914
3,421

Sales of $5,000-$9,999:
1959
1964
1966

693
530
446

16.9
15.3
13.7

15.5
10.7
7.9

4,705
5,202
5,902

3,160
3,434
3,989

1,545
1,768
1,913

Sales of $10,000-$19,999:
1959
1964
1966

503
488
510

12.3
14.0
15.7

21.5
18.8
17.1

6,413
7,482
8,463

5,091
5,984
6,869

1,322
1,498
1,594

Sales of $20,000 and over:
1959
1964
1966 . .

325
424
527

7.9
12.2
16.2

49.1
61.2
68.3

13,420
17,146
19,791

11,506
14,979
17,539

1,914
2,167
2,252

Sales under $5,000:
1959
1964
1966 . .

Source: Department of Agriculture.

many of the older farmers who left farming remain in poverty. This is
reflected in the fact that, between 1959 and 1966, the number of aged poor
nonfarm households outside metropolitan areas remained nearly constant.
Hired farmworkers are also very likely to be poor. In 1966 there were
757,000 persons who had hired farm work as their primary employment.
They averaged 212 days of farm work and an added 13 days of nonfarmwork
with total wages from both sources averaging $2,102 for the year. The hired
farm work force contains a disproportionate number of nonwhites—27 percent in 1966; this contrasts with 13 percent of non whites in both the total
farm and the total U.S. population.
The largest concentration of low-income farms and farmworkers is in
the South. In 1964, 55 percent of all farms with less than $5,000 in annual
sales—but 44 percent of all U.S. farms—were located in the South. Moreover, in that year more than 53 percent of the hired farmworkers lived in
the South.
Despite the revolution in agricultural technology and the attendant
migration, the transformation of agriculture is not complete. The farm
population will continue to decline, creating serious problems for some rural
communities. The young, rather than the older farmers, will continue to
be the primary migrants. This will leave behind a progressively aging population, especially among the farm poor. As a result, the natural rate of increase
of the farm population will continue to fall. In 1950 the natural increase of
the farm population totaled 392,000 and net emigration came to 1.5 million. By 1966 the natural increase had been reduced to 90,000 and net
emigration to 858,000.




133

THE GROWTH OF NONFARM JOBS

The decline of employment opportunities in farming has been accompanied by a rapid growth of jobs in manufacturing and service industries.
Initially concentrated in or near the large northern cities, these jobs attracted
millions of migrants from rural areas.
During the economic expansions accompanying World War II and the
Korean war, manufacturing employment remained highly concentrated in
the heavily metropolitan areas of the industrialized States of the North—
Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and
Illinois. With less than 40 percent of the U.S. population, these seven States
provided about 55 percent of manufacturing employment in 1953, about the
same share as in 1939 when the national total was approximately half as
large.
The pattern of growth in manufacturing employment changed significantly during the late 1950's. Technological advance in transportation,
construction of interstate highways, expansion of trucking, construction of
long distance pipelines, and the extension of coordinated electric power
grids reduced the advantage of potential manufacturing sites in the large
metropolitan centers. This trend was accelerated by the rapid growth of
industries such as technical instruments, electronics, and small consumer
appliances, whose products have high value per unit of weight and volume
and thus can be shipped at relatively low transport cost. As a result, the
location of industry was increasingly determined by other factors, such as
relative wage rates, labor availability, local taxes, climate, and land costs.
These developments shifted the growth in manufacturing employment
away from the North. Between 1956 and 1966, U.S. manufacturing employment increased 1,840,000 (11 percent). Meanwhile, in the seven industrialized States mentioned above, manufacturing employment increased only
37,000 (less than one-half of 1 percent). By contrast, during the same period,
manufacturing employment grew 465,000 (26 percent) in the West and
1,026,000 (33 percent) in the South.
Nonfarm job opportunities have grown less rapidly in metropolitan
areas—especially in the giant ones—than in the rest of the Nation. From
1962 to 1966, private nonfarm employment grew 5 percent a year or more
in nonmetropolitan counties, regardless of the size of the largest urban
center; in comparison, it rose 4 percent yearly in metropolitan counties. In
the same period, total nonagricultural employment increased less than 3
percent in the 13 largest metropolitan areas.
While these figures show a general relative improvement in nonagricultural employment opportunities in the less densely settled areas, many nonmetropolitan areas were stagnant or declining. Between 1959 and 1964, there
were 1,315 nonmetropolitan counties in which private nonfarm employment
either declined or increased by less than 100 jobs. Large contiguous blocks of
counties with declining populations are found in Appalachia, the northern
portions of the Lake States, the Great Plains, and the Southwest.




134

The process of economic growth has been and continues to be very uneven in rural areas and in smaller cities. These are the areas where, because
of dependence on one or two industries—frequently resource-based industries such as agriculture, forestry, or mining—the greatest adjustments are
needed in response to shifts in the pattern of demand, technological change,
or the exhaustion of resources. This uneven growth has been responsible for
major shifts in population.
REGENT CHANGES IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
In the past ten years, significant changes have occurred in the pattern of
migration and in the growth and distribution of population in the United
States. These changes have both affected and been affected by the changing
pattern of demand and productivity in an expanding economy. They have
served both as an engine whereby poverty has been reduced, and as a force
contributing to its redistribution.
Migration
The shifts in the geographical distribution of jobs noted above have been
paralleled by changes in the pattern of migration. Migration to the North
and to the largest metropolitan areas soared during the economic expansion
of the 1940's and early 1950's, but has slowed markedly in the last ten years.
Since 1960, the 12 largest metropolitan areas (those with more than 1,700,000 population in 1960) have grown only slightly more rapidly than their
natural excess of births over deaths. In the North-Central States, the largest
metropolitan areas grew 1.8 percent a year during the 1950's, but only 1.0
percent a year so far in the 1960's. They are now experiencing more emigration than immigration. In most regions, the metropolitan areas under
250,000 population are growing considerably more rapidly than the largest
ones.
Net domestic migration to metropolitan areas declined from 668,000 a
year during the 1950's to 216,000 a year in the first half of the 1960's. As
Table 20 indicates, during the latter period domestic migration contributed
less to the growth of metropolitan area population than did foreign migration. Metropolitan areas are still growing faster than nonmetropolitan areas,
but the difference in growth rates is narrowing. Furthermore, in the 1960's
the nonfarm population was growing about as fast outside as inside metropolitan areas.
From 1960 to 1965, only the North-Central region lost more migrants—
foreign and domestic combined—than it gained (Chart 13). This was the
result of a large net loss of whites through domestic migration, which was
offset only sightly by the much reduced net domestic immigration of nonwhites. During the same period the Northeast gained population through
migration, although the region experienced a net emigration of domestic
whites. The West continued to receive the largest gains from migration,
and was the only region to gain more domestic migrants than it lost. The




r

35

TABLE 20.—Components of population change by area, 1950-65
Population changes (thousands of persons)
Period and area

Percentage
increase per
year in
population

Net gains from migration
Natural
increase
Total

Foreign i

Domestic 2

1950 to 1960:3
Total
Metropolitan areas <
Nonmetropolitan areas

1.7

25,337

2,660

2,660

2.4
.5

16,336
9,002

8,634
-5,974

1,955
705

1.5

12,626

1,846

1,846

1.7
1.1

8,589
4,037

2,436
-590

1,357
489

6,679
-6,679

1960 to 1965:«
Total
Metropolitan areas *
Nonmetropolitan areas

1,079
-1,079

» Distribution of net foreign migration is estimated to be the same as distribution of gross migration from foreign
countries during 1962-66.
2
Estimated migration among 50 States and the District of Columbia.
3 April 1950 to April 1960.
< Metropolitan areas as defined in 1967.
« April 1960 to July 1965.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Council of Economic Advisers.

South was the only region in which emigration exceeded immigration among
nonwhites. The South's gain through total migration was due to a large inflow of white foreign immigrants, which offset a net outward movement of
both domestic whites and nonwhites.
The growth of the nonwhite population in metropolitan areas averaged
3.9 percent a year in the 1950's, but it slowed to 3.1 percent a year in the
1960's. Nonetheless, this latter rate was about twice as fast as the rate of
increase of the white population, partly because the nonwhite rate of natural
increase was double that of the white. In the 1960's, 32 percent of the increase in nonwhite population in these areas was attributable to migration,
compared with 43 percent in the 1950's. Not since the 1940's has migration
accounted for more than half of the growth of nonwhite population in metropolitan areas.
Racial Distribution Within Metropolitan Areas
Like the European immigrants of earlier times, the Negroes from the South
came to the cities looking for better jobs, housing, and schools for their children. To a greater degree than their immigrant predecessors, Negroes met
severe discrimination in housing. Because most of them were poor, the housing they could afford was usually in the older sections of the metropolitan
area and usually in the central city. And because of discrimination, this area
became a segregated ghetto. The only way in which the segregated but rapidly growing Negro community could obtain additional housing was through
encroachment on the white neighborhoods at the borders of the ghetto.
Racial tensions increased as the process continued. The more affluent whites
moved to the suburbs, where Negroes were largely excluded.




136

Chart 1 3

Average Annual Net Migration by Regions
THOUSANDS OF PERSONS

200
100

0

-100

NORTH CENTRAL

S
OUTH

NONWHITE

-

-

\

w

l:::::::::>::::::

-

TOTAL

i

-

1

P

-200

WEST

NORTHEAST

I

500

I

400
300

I

200

I

100

0
100
1940 to
1950

1950 to
1960

1960 to
1965

1940 to
1950

1950 to
1960

1960 to
1965

NOTE.-DATA FOR PERIOD I960 TO 1965 NOT STRICTLY COMPARABLE WITH OTHER DATA.
SOURCES: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS.

Thus, within metropolitan areas, the nonwhite population has become increasingly concentrated in the central cities while the white, middle- and
upper-income population has become increasingly suburban. Since 1960, the
white population in central cities has declined, while the nonwhite population has grown by 3.6 percent a year. Meanwhile, the growth rate of suburban populations has been 6/ 2 times the rate for central cities, and that
growth has been overwhelmingly among the white population. Less than one
suburbanite in 20 is nonwhite, and the white suburban population is growing more than twice as fast as the nonwhite. Between 1960 and 1966, there
was an exodus of more than 3.5 million whites from central cities. Over the




137

same period, net migration added 1 million to the nonwhite population of
central cities, and natural increase added another 1.5 million. As a result
of these shifts, not only particular city areas or neighborhoods, but entire
cities and counties, are becoming increasingly segregated by race.
Economic Aspects of the Transformation
Businesses, as well as the white middle class, have found suburban locations increasingly attractive. Cheaper land permits manufacturing firms
to construct one- or two-storied buildings, which are usually more efficient.
The suburbs also provide some escape from central city traffic congestion.
Following the shift of population and manufacturing, other industries—
construction, retail trade, and other services—have also grown rapidly in the
suburbs. Employment gains in central cities have been largely limited to
clerical, managerial, and professional positions.
The decline of the central city as a place of employment relative to the
suburbs has been most typical of large northern metropolitan regions. New
York City is a case in point. Between 1956 and 1966, manufacturing employment declined 15 percent in the city but increased 35 percent in the
New York State suburbs. In the city, only financial institutions, State and
local government, and miscellaneous service industries experienced substantial gains in employment.
Redistribution of job opportunities in metropolitan areas has increased
the distance between the residence of the less-skilled, lower-income individual, often a Negro, and the potential jobs available to him. Metropolitan
transit systems characteristically do not provide adequate service between
central city poverty areas and the sites of suburban employment.
Changes in the Distribution of Poverty
Many migrants to the cities in recent decades were poor when they arrived. Yet, as a proportion of all households in metropolitan areas, poor
households declined from 19.6 percent in 1959 to 14.9 percent in 1966. This
seven-year decline in the incidence of poverty in metropolitan areas was
comparable to the reduction from 29.1 percent to 23.6 percent in the incidence of poor households in other nonfarm areas. Thus, metropolitan areas
continue to have less than a proportionate share of the poor; they contain
69 percent of the total nonfarm population but only 56 percent of the nonfarm poor. Within metropolitan areas, poverty is much more common in
central cities than in suburbs. In 1966, the suburban population outnumbered that in central cities by 15 percent, yet there were 9.5 million poor
living in central cities and 5.8 million in suburbs. About two-thirds of the
metropolitan poor are white. While the white poor were distributed about
equally between suburbs and central cities, about four times as many nonwhite poor lived in central cities as in suburbs.




138

IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY
In recent years public interest and concern have increasingly been focused
on the magnitudes and consequences of migration, on the increasing size and
agonizing problems of cities, and on the continuing decline of many rural
communities. In particular, many have suddenly become aware of the fact
that the concentrations of poor families—and particularly of poor Negro
families—in the blighted areas of major cities include large numbers who
are migrants, or the children of migrants, from rural areas. In the light of
these problems, questions are often raised whether the separate decisions of
millions of individuals and business firms, responding to the pull of economic
opportunities or the push from their absence, tend to produce an "optimum"
distribution of population and economic activity: as between rural and
urban areas; as among urban areas of differing size; and as among the
various portions of an urban complex.
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND PUBLIC POLICY
These are surely important questions for our society, and they need to be
studied and discussed. However, there does not appear to be available at the
present time an adequate amount of information to answer them, or even a
satisfactory analytical framework within which their answers can be approached in a tolerably scientific fashion. One may express his own tastes
as to an appropriate population distribution; but since they are only tastes,
they should not be imposed on others.
Presumably there are few who suggest that governments should undertake
to "plan" the distribution of population and economic activity, and to use
compulsion to influence that distribution. But it is properly pointed out that
government policies of many kinds do in fact influence the attractiveness—
economic and otherwise—of various locations, and that these policies could
perhaps be used to influence locational decisions in a manner which would
move us closer to an "optimum" distribution—assuming we knew what
that was.
Many Federal activities have significant impacts on the choices of consumers and businessmen as to where they will locate their homes and places of
business. Among these are the location of Federal installations; the provision
of Federal funds for sewers, water supply, recreation facilities, and housing;
the pattern of Federal support for highways and other transportation facilities
(including intra-urban facilities) ; urban renewal programs; and many
others.
In most cases, the Federal Government does not deliberately seek to influence the pattern of locational decisions. But there are nevertheless important impacts. Indeed, it is hard to conceive how Federal affairs might be
conducted in a way that was "neutral" with respect to locational decisions.
Since Government action is bound to influence location, the locational implications of alternative policies should surely be—and to some extent are—




139

considered in developing and administering Federal programs. A complete
system of priorities, based on a concept of optimum geographical distribution of population is seldom required in order to recognize that the locational implications of one set of policies may be superior to those of another.
This is quite a different matter, however, from developing policy measures
specifically designed to alter existing locational patterns.
CLARIFYING SOME ISSUES
Despite the absence of a complete framework or analytical system for
dealing with locational problems, it seems possible to clarify some of the
issues frequently raised with respect to existing or proposed public policies
that affect location, or that are aimed at the problems of particular local
areas.
(1) In light of the preceding sections, it is clear that any meaningful
discussion of the problems created by migration must take into account
the fact that migration is an essential part of the process by which economic
growth occurs and individual incomes expand. Migration does not simply
redistribute poverty; it also serves to reduce poverty. By far the greatest
part of migration is in response to income opportunities. The population
tends to move from areas where incomes are lower to ones where incomes
are higher. This shift of the population raises incomes for most migrants
and probably, on balance, has a favorable effect on the incomes and job
opportunities of those who do not migrate.
(2) Many problems which appear to be the problems of particular cities
or rural districts are not, in fact, local problems in any meaningful sense.
They represent the local outcroppings of more basic national problems—
reflecting such factors as: an unequal distribution among individuals of
educational opportunities and health services; the impact of technological
change as it affects persons with particular skills or the lack of skills; the
incidence of family instability; and a variety of social tensions associated with
modern living conditions and current individual and social values. Many of
these problems—such as those of education, health, training, income maintenance, and individual disability—have been properly identified, and are
being dealt with, as national problems.
(3) The most difficult and potentially explosive problems of life in urban
centers are those associated with racial antipathies and prejudices. The
economic and social problems of our large cities would be very different
were it not for the housing segregation which confines Negroes—and occasionally other national-origin or ethnic groups—to particular neighborhoods.
Especially serious frictions are created as the frontiers of segregation are
disturbed by population expansion. But racial discrimination is a national
not a local phenomenon. Likewise, patterns of discrimination in employment and business emerge as problems for localities; but, like housing segregation, they are in fact the result of national problems of interracial
attitudes.




140

(4) One striking factor impairing the abilities of some communities to
avoid or solve problems arises from artificial and obsolete political boundaries. Such jurisdictional divisions fracture the social and economic unity of
many of our communities, both urban and rural. For example, the central
cities of urban areas necessarily provide many benefits to outlying areas,
while being unable to assess a reasonable share of the costs of these services
to residents outside the central city. The financial ability of an urban complex
as a whole to solve many of its own problems may not be in question. But
if inappropriate political boundaries allocate the costs unevenly, the financing of essential public services may appear an almost insoluble problem.
(5) The relation between the per capita cost of providing public services and the population size and density of a locality is one element in the
evaluation of the costs and benefits of alternative population distributions.
For some public services, the highest per capita cost occurs in communities
which are of minimum or of maximum density. There are some services
for which the per capita cost may rise steadily throughout most of the range
of progression from fairly low to highest density. These include such services as abatement or control of noise, pollution, or crime; and provision of
adequate outdoor recreational facilities. As the size of a community increases, the per capita cost of such services may—at least beyond some
point—increase steeply. And, of course, there are some services or amenities—such as museums and libraries—for which the average cost declines
almost continuously and without limit as the size of the community increases.
Some research has been done on the cost and efficiency of public services
in communities of various sizes and densities. Much more research is needed
in order to provide effective guidance for community planning.
(6) Substantial research efforts are also needed to appraise the costs and
benefits associated with alternative locational distributions of private production and consumption—the economies and diseconomies of scale, of
agglomeration and association, and of the geographical integration of various production processes, and so on. Although economists understand the
nature of many of these forces, they have not progressed very far in developing the techniques of measurement.
(7) The costs and benefits—both public and private—of alternative
population distributions are not natural constants. Technological and engineering changes arising from the physical, biological, or social sciences can
and will alter them over time. Developments in transportation, pollution
control, and construction can modify the nature of the problems of our
cities. Indeed, technological expertise can and should be consciously marshalled for such purposes.
Despite the many unsettled questions on the implications of alternative
population distributions, social policy does not need to stand still while
awaiting answers. There are many kinds of problems—both in cities and
rural areas—which can be solved, even though we lack an over-all scientific
framework that spells out costs and benefits for all locational issues. Many
141
284-593 0—68



10

of the problems which appear in particular places are, as indicated, national
problems for which national solutions are being pursued. National policy
can direct itself toward helping cities and rural areas meet their particular
problems—of housing, pollution, transportation, health, welfare, education,
crime, social disorganization—wherever these problems may appear. A selected group of these problems—centering around the broader problem of
poverty—is discussed in the subsequent sections of this Chapter.
Much as we may be able to contribute to solving community problems
through these means, segregation and discrimination are fundamental obstacles which must be overcome if we are to make real headway in solving
our urban crisis. Local political boundaries are another obstacle which must
be surmounted. Neither of these problems can be solved by Federal action
alone; indeed, the basic solution of each must be found at the local level.
But the Federal Government can and has contributed to solving the former
problem through national civil rights legislation. And it can and has contributed to the solution of the latter through support and encouragement
for planning on a metropolitan or areawide basis which corresponds more
closely to the economic and social reality of our communities.
THE DEMOGRAPHY OF POVERTY
The decline of poverty and the role of shifting employment patterns in
the decline have been documented. The geographic aspects of the remaining poverty have also been examined. But poverty must be viewed not only
in terms of geography, but in terms of demography. The incidence of poverty
by family type, and the policy issues relevant to each type, are the concern of
this section.
Poverty is not evenly distributed throughout the population. The aged,
nonwhites, and members of households headed by a woman constitute larger
fractions of the poor than of the general population (Table 21). Moreover,
the rate of progress in reducing poverty has varied widely among these and
other groups. Between 1959 and 1966, the number of poor nonfarm households headed by a man declined 20 percent, while the poor nonfarm households headed by women increased by 2 percent. As a result, households
headed by a woman constitute a growing proportion—now nearly half—of
all poor households.
The most impressive reductions in poverty have occurred among households headed by a working-age male. The number of such households declined by one-third between 1959 and 1966 as a direct result of the increasing
availability of good jobs at high wages. While the number of nonfarm households in this group declined 27 percent, there was a drop of two-thirds in
the number of farm households. Among the nonfarm group the decline was
as rapid for nonwhites as for whites.
High employment is essential to further reduction of poverty among
households with an actual or potential wage earner. Yet many poor men of




142

TABLE 21.—Number of poor households and incidence of poverty, 1959 and 1966

Characteristics of head of household

Number of poor households
(millions)l
1959

1966

Incidence of poverty
(percent) 2
1959

1966

11.6

Nonwhite.

2.4

48.9

37.5

1.2

39.7

26.9

.9
.3

36.7
64.4

23.3
51.4

1.2

69.4

60.8

.9
.2

68.1
76.3

58.8
69.9

.6

40.9

20.8

.5

34.7

16.9

.4

White—-

30.5
48.9

1.3

Farm.

37.7

37.8
59.3

1.8

Under 65 years
_
Aged (65 years and over)..

45.2

2.0
2.0

.9
.2

Female head..

4.0

1.1

Under 65 years
Aged (65 years and over).

6.8
24.7

1.2
.2

Male head.

10.2
34.0

1.4

Nonwhite

9.4

2.4
1.5

2.6

Under 65 years
Aged (65 years and over).

13.4

2.2
1.8

Female head

15.3

3.9

4.0

Under 65 years
Aged (65 years and over).

17.6

19.6

3.3
1.7

Male head..

22.5

7.9

5.0

White

10.3

9.0

Nonfarm

.2

85.0

69.7

1

Households are defined here as the total of families and unrelated individuals.
Poor households as a percent of the total number of households in the category.
Note.—Poverty is defined by the Social Security Administration poverty-income standard; it takes into account family
size, composition, and place of residence. Poverty-income lines are adjusted to take account of price changes during the
period.
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
2

working age must first receive training or other special assistance to enable
them to raise their earnings. For those who cannot work, or who—despite
training and other services—still cannot earn enough to emerge from
poverty by their own efforts, adequate income maintenance programs are
needed.
POVERTY AMONG THE AGED
Social insurance is the first line of protection for households in which the
breadwinner retires, is disabled, experiences involuntary unemployment, or
dies leaving dependent survivors. Over 23 million beneficiaries are now
receiving Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI)
payments at an annual rate of more than $27 billion. For the retired aged,
these payments are overwhelmingly the largest single source of income.
The incidence of poverty among aged nonfarm households fell from 46
percent in 1959 to 37 percent in 1966. One reason for the improvement is
that more recent retirees had higher lifetime earnings and therefore were
entitled to larger social security benefits. In addition, a rapidly growing
proportion of the aged receive retirement benefits under private pension




143

plans. Pension recipients and their wives now constitute 18 percent of the
total population, of age 65 or over, up from 7 percent in 1955.
Increases in social security benefits also deserve much of the credit for the
reduction in the incidence of poverty among the aged. The 1967 Social
Security Amendments expanded benefits 13 percent and raised to $55 the
monthly minimum benefit. Together these amendments will reduce the number of the aged poor by 800,000. The 1967 amendments increase income protection for all covered employees—not merely for those of retirement age.
Increased survivor and disability benefits provided for in the 1967 legislation
will reduce poverty among those under age 65 by 200,000.
Social security benefits have had several important side effects. The average retirement age has fallen, and a growing number of aged are now able
to maintain their own households. Between 1960 and 1967, as the proportion
of aged persons receiving social security benefits rose from 64 percent to
82 percent, labor force participation rates for males 65 and over fell from
33 percent to 27 percent. Since 1962, when benefits were made available
to males of age 62-64, the participation rate for this group has declined
even more rapidly than that for males 65 and over.
Further benefit liberalization—particularly higher minimum and widow's
benefits—could sharply reduce poverty among the aged. Had Congress increased the minimum benefit to $70, as requested by the Administration,
while increasing other benefits by 13 percent, an additional 500,000 aged
persons would have been freed from poverty. The additional cost of the $70
minimum benefit would have amounted to less than 10 percent 'of the increase in benefits that was provided—yet it would have increased by about
50 percent the number of individuals lifted out of poverty.
FAMILIES HEADED BY WOMEN
The public assistance program—in particular, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)—is the chief source of help for poor families
with dependent children and headed by women. A majority of such families
is now covered either by AFDC or OASDHI. Benefit levels under AFDC
are established by the States, and are typically too low to lift families out of
poverty.
Nearly all AFDC recipients either are children or are women whose family
responsibilities preclude work outside the home unless child care is provided.
Moreover, until amended in 1967, the law required that AFDC benefits
be reduced by $1 for each dollar of income earned by adult members of the
household. This "100 percent tax rate" was sufficient to discourage all but
the most determined from seeking jobs, since earnings could not add to
income so long as any assistance was received. Under 1967 legislation, a
welfare recipient can earn up to $30 a month without any loss in benefits.
Beyond this level, for every $3 of earned income, welfare benefits are reduced
by $2. Although this is still a tax rate of 66% percent, these changes may encourage some welfare recipients to seek gainful employment. The 1967




i44

legislation also provides for day-care facilities and access to training for
AFDG beneficiaries. Both measures are designed to make employment easier
for poor mothers.
Although the new AFDC rules eliminated some egregious shortcomings
in the welfare program, many recipients cannot participate in training or
seek regular employment. Family responsibilities make employment impractical or unsuitable for many women. Heavy reliance must still be placed
on income maintenance to ameliorate poverty within this group.
HOUSEHOLDS WITH A MALE EARNER
In 1966, there were 10j/2 million persons in poor households headed by
working-age males who were either working regularly at full-time jobs or
actively seeking work.
About 1.5 million male heads of households were poor in 1966 despite
full-time employment—40 hours a week for 50 weeks or more (Table 22).
Rising real wages will continue to reduce poverty among families with a fully
employed male earner. The higher level and broader coverage of the minimum wage will also contribute. The continued industrialization of the South
will give many workers an opportunity to take better-paying jobs. Others
will improve their economic position by migrating. Continued efforts to
eliminate discrimination in promotion will help many, particularly Negroes,
who are poor even when fully employed.
Another 1.5 million heads of poor families worked part time or part of the
year in 1966. There were 700,000 poor male household heads of working age
who did not work at all, but 400,000 of these were disabled. Many who are
poor because of unemployment or low wages could, given training and
opportunity, earn enough to escape poverty.
Training the Disadvantaged
Many of the workers who are earning less than an adequate income are
unskilled, poorly educated, or, as a result of irregular employment and discrimination, have poor work habits. But most of these workers could improve
their earning capacity if they were given remedial attention.
In the last four years, manpower programs tailored to the needs of the
economically disadvantaged have been greatly expanded. During the fiscal
year 1968, close to a million persons, most of whom are disadvantaged, will
be served by the Manpower Development and Training Act, the Job Corps,
and similar programs. A great number of people who need skill training or
work experience have not yet been reached. But the increase in the number
of individuals served does point to the enormous progress made in a relatively short time. Many of the unemployed, although they originally lacked
a marketable skill, responded to regular Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) programs, and have obtained employment.
But there is also a substantial hard core of unemployed workers who need
more than a routine training program. For these workers, conventional train-




145

TABLE 22.— The poor and their work experience, 1965-66
[Millions]
1965

Age and work experience of head of household
Male head
Total poor households*

1966

Female head

Male head

Female head

5.8

5.4

1.9
3.7

2.4
3,0

1.5

.4
.3

Ill or disabled..
Other reasons..

5.6

2.4
3.0

.7

Did not work..

5.4

1.7
4.1

Aged (65 years and over).
Under 65 years

.2
1.3

1.4
.4
.3

.3
1.1

Worked at part-time jobs..

.5

.5

.6

.6

Worked at full-time jobs..

2.8

1.0

2.4

1.0

.7
.4
1.7

.5
.1

.6
.3
1.5

.5
.2
.4

Employed 39 weeks or less..
Employed 40-49 weeks
Employed 50 weeks or more.

i Households are defined here as the total of families and unrelated individuals.
Note.—Poverty is defined by the Social Security Administration poverty-income standard; it takes into account family
size, composition, and place of residence. Poverty-income lines are adjusted to take account of price changes during the
period.
Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

ing programs designed for educated workers with substantial regular work
experience are entirely inadequate. Training must be supplemented with
counseling, health services, work experience, and basic education. Followup
counseling may be necessary to encourage the work habits and self-discipline
required in steady employment. There is growing evidence that on-the-job
training for many disadvantaged workers will prove more successful than
institutional training, but unfortunately employers do not ordinarily make
positions in these programs available to the disadvantaged.
For severely disadvantaged workers, the cost of training, placement, and
supplementary services may run as high as $5,000 per trainee. The cost per
worker ultimately employed is still higher, since many candidates do not complete training or stay on the job after placement. But for those workers who
are successfully trained, the gain from steadier work at higher wages is
great. In addition, the children of these workers find more security and
better preparation for a productive life of their own. The economic benefits
for society as well as for individuals are large.
The business community has hired and trained the poor in the past,
but only on a limited basis. Business and government are coming to realize
that business must play a vastly expanded role in making the hard-core disadvantaged employable. Government training programs alone cannot do
the job—certainly not as rapidly as it must be done.
The President has announced a new program—Job Opportunities in the
Business Sector (JOBS)—to bring the flexibility and imagination of the
private sector into full partnership with Government on the broadest scale




146

possible in order to solve the employment problems of the most deprived
segments of the population. Through this program, private industry will
train and hire 100,000 of the disadvantaged during the next 18 months at a
Federal cost of $350 million.
Another recent innovation, the Labor Department's Concentrated Employment Program (CEP), has focused the efforts of Federal, State, and
local agencies and cooperating private emplyers on the task of employing disadvantaged workers in poverty areas both urban and rural. Continued expansion of CEP, together with the new JOBS program, should permit a
continued reduction in the number of families whose poverty derives from
unemployment.
INCOME MAINTENANCE
Despite the prospective benefits from training programs and further
economic growth, there will still be a need for income maintenance or
income supplements for poor families headed by men of working age. In
1966, more than one-fourth of all the poor and 4 / 2 million poor children
lived in families headed by a man employed throughout the year. An additional 2 l/i million poor persons, including I/3 million children, were in
families headed by men who were normally full-time workers but who
suffered some unemployment.
Concern about the welfare and education of the young has prompted a
number of proposals for providing additional financial support for poor
families with children. Children's allowances are a device used in a great
many countries, including Canada, to provide a flat payment to each
child, regardless of family income. But flat allowances are a costly means
of attacking poverty since most benefits do not go to the poor. Another form
of income supplement—the children's minimum income allowance—would
provide a grant to all poor households with children, with the amount of
the grant diminishing as income rises. Nearly all of these expenditures
would go to trie poor. Moreover, as incomes rose, the cost of such a program
would automatically diminish.
For those who suffer from chronic unemployment, a combination of income maintenance and an opportunity for work and training would appear
to be needed if their poverty is to be eliminated. Many of the chronically
unemployed will be able to lift themselves from poverty if aided by job training and placement. But even after job programs become fully effective, some
may still need income support. And there will always be a residual group
who will not be able to fill regular jobs but who can do some useful work.
The present program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed Parent (AFDC-UP) provides a start in meeting these needs. As
amended in 1967, the program permits States to make federally aided payments to families with an unemployed father. At the end of 1967, only 21




147

States had elected to do so. Even among these States, benefits are often
inadequate and eligibility is severely limited. Only about 60,000 families are
currently benefiting from the AFDC-UP program. Under the 1967 amendments, unemployed beneficiaries are to be assigned to training programs
when there is a reasonable prospect that they can be employed. Those
lacking such prospects are to be assigned jobs with local public agencies.
Eliminating poverty for those who cannot work is mainly a matter of
money. Eliminating poverty for those who can, given training and opportunity, earn a decent living, is a matter of money, organization, the design of effective programs, and cooperation between industry and Government.
Especially difficult problems are involved in any program designed
to eliminate poverty for those who can do some useful work but whose
earning capacity is limited by their abilities or by family responsibilities. An
income maintenance program for any family in this in-between situation
should provide some guaranteed minimum level of support. But it should
also provide an incentive to work by permitting beneficiaries to retain a
substantial fraction of any earnings.
Any income maintenance system runs into a dilemma in meeting these
requirements. For work incentives to be highly effective, benefits probably
cannot be reduced by more than about 50 cents for every dollar earned. If, in
addition, the guaranteed minimum support is high enough to free most
beneficiaries from poverty, payments would have to be made to some people
above the poverty line. For example, if the guaranteed minimum were
$3,000, but the support benefit was reduced 50 cents for every dollar of
earnings, then a man earning $4,000 would still receive $1,000 of his support
payment. The person who was satisfied with $3,000 would then be under
no pressure to seek or accept employment. Yet if the guaranteed minimum
support were lower, many beneficiaries who are willing to work but whose
earning power is low or nonexistent would remain poor.
One possible solution would be to provide a relatively adequate base level
of income support, but require that every recipient whose family responsibilities permitted it must accept training for private employment. If he was
not capable of training, he would be required to accept work on public
service projects. The recent amendments to the Social Security Act moved
in that direction, requiring training for AFDC recipients (although benefit
levels remain low). Such an approach does deal with the problem of the
person uninterested in earning income. But it creates a variety of other
problems. First, the States must make decisions concerning the personal life
of the recipients—such as whether a mother should care for her children
herself or place them in day care and go to work. Second, a difficult administrative problem arises. An overly generous program could generate a large
volume of poorly supervised public employment of high cost but little value,
but an excessively stringent, low-cost program could recreate the 19th
century government workhouse.




148

These conflicts among objectives will not be easily resolved. But our
present welfare system leaves so much to be desired that substantial progress
can be made before these issues become critical. At present, the welfare
system in most States is inadequate on two counts—a low support base
and relatively weak work incentives. Benefit levels and incentive provisions
could both be substantially improved before we would have to face the
choice between generous support for the lazy and the difficulties inherent in
a compulsory work program. Federal-State sharing formulas could be redesigned to reduce the wide disparities in benefits paid by different States.
AFDG recipients could be offered more incentive to work and more training
opportunities without compulsion. AFDC-UP could be extended to all
States and eligibility restrictions could be made less severe. These and related
issues will undoubtedly be considered in greater depth by the new Presidential Commission on Income Maintenance.
A more humane and generous welfare system, continued improvement in
the social security system, expanded training programs for the disadvantaged, and a growing high-employment economy will all contribute to
a continuing reduction in poverty. In addition, efforts to reduce poverty
and to improve economic opportunity must deal with the particular problems caused by inadequacies in housing, education, and health care. These
topics constitute the balance of the chapter.
HOUSING
Most Americans are aware of poverty primarily because they have seen
the houses on the other side of the tracks. One view of a real slum convinces most people that "something ought to be done." Partially because
of government efforts to do something about poor housing, progressively fewer people live in dilapidated housing or occupy homes with
substandard plumbing. Yet urban slums remain, and many rural families
still have pitifully inadequate housing.
CHANGES IN HOUSING QUALITY
Housing statistics are only indicators of progress and of the dimensions
of remaining problems. They cannot adequately describe the pleasures of
better homes or the miseries of densely packed, dirty, and dreary neighborhoods. Most American families now live in adequate housing (Table 23).
But 2 million American families live in dilapidated housing—dwelling units
with structural defects which endanger the health and safety of the inhabitants. In addition, close to 4 million families live in units that lack basic
plumbing facilities, bringing the total of substandard occupied units to 5.8
million.
Substantial progress in housing has been made since 1950. The data collected in the 1950 and 1960 censuses suggest a reduction in the number of




149

TABLE 23.—Occupied housing units, by quality, 1960 and 1966
[Thousands]
1960 2

Quality by area i
Standard units

1966

44,418

2,470
3,284

2,353

Dilapidated

5,754

3,231
5,238

Metropolitan areas
Nonmetropolitan areas.

52,138

8,469

Substandard units.

1,995

1,052
1,301

Metropolitan areas
Nonmetropolitan areas.

8

6,116

Nondilapidated, lacking plumbing..

2,179
3,937

Metropolitan areas
Nonmetropolitan areas.

3,759

8

1

Based on 1960 definitions of quality and metropolitan areas.
2 Because of changes in methodology, data for 1960 in this table are not strictly comparable with 1950 and 1960 census
data mentioned in the text.
3 Not available.
Sources: Department of Commerce and Department of Housing and Urban Development.

occupied substandard units from 15.3 to 9.0 million units. Further improvement since 1960 is indicated by the data in Table 23.
Although a disproportionately large share of poor housing is located in
nonmetropolitan areas, the improvement in the quality of occupied housing in such areas has been much more dramatic than in metropolitan areas.
Part of this relative improvement reflects the migration to urban areas of
poor farm families, many of which abandoned substandard units. It also
reflects the increased availability of sewer and water facilities in rural areas.
Housing Deterioration
Improvement in the housing stock depends on rates of new construction,
demolition, and other losses and deterioration of existing units. Since 1950
new construction has considerably exceeded the increase in the number of
households. The difference has been largely offset by demolitions and other
losses, which totaled 290,000 a year in the 1950's and 360,000 a year in the
1960's. Best available estimates indicate that more than half of these losses
were of substandard units.
Despite these developments, the number of occupied dilapidated units
apparently declined by less than 100,000 a year in the 1950's, and by only
about 60,000 a year in the 1960's. Moreover, virtually all of this decline
occurred outside metropolitan areas. Detailed data for the 1960's are not
available for most areas, but surveys of New York City and some areas in
Los Angeles indicate an actual increase in the number of occupied dilapidated units in those cities. The results suggest that, in large cities, much of
the improvement in housing quality from new building in excess of the rate
of household formation is offset by the deterioration of existing housing.




150

Houses deteriorate with the passage of time, but there is no natural life for
a house. With sufficient expenditure on maintenance, most houses can be
kept in sound condition for a long period of time. The rapid deterioration
of housing in metropolitan areas has many causes, but poverty and racial
segregation surely play major roles. When housing is occupied by families
with adequate incomes, expenditures on maintenance to prevent deterioration are generally considered worthwhile by the owners. But people near the
poverty line can pay little rent, and landlords are unlikely to find it profitable
to undertake more than minimal maintenance. When segregation limits—
even temporarily—the area occupied by a growing minority population,
owners can increase their profits by breaking up apartments for denser occupancy, thereby hastening deterioration. Although owners may differ in their
views on the most profitable maintenance policy, those who fail to provide
adequate maintenance for their buildings blight the neighborhood and
bring down the value of neighboring properties. When a neighborhood becomes sufficiently blighted, all owners find it profitable to mine their
properties—making occupancy as dense as possible and minimizing maintenance expenditure to obtain the largest possible short-term cash flow.
THE NEED FOR FURTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE
In spite of these difficulties, the amount of substandard housing has been
reduced. But the pace of further progress is clearly limited by the rate at
which poverty and segregation can be reduced. As incomes generally rise,
housing standards improve up the line: those with lowest incomes move
into housing vacated by others whose incomes have risen enough to permit a
move into even better housing. Most of the houses occupied today were
originally built for persons in higher income classes than those who now
occupy them. The process of turning over houses to the less affluent by
families who move on to better—often new—housing will no doubt continue
to be an important source of improvement in housing conditions.
But these market processes will work too slowly to provide, by themselves,
a sufficiently large and prompt improvement in the quality of housing for
all Americans. During the coming 10 years, the children of the post-World
War II baby boom will enter the years of peak household formation. New
housing construction for the private market in the next 10 years must total
approximately 20 million units to meet the needs of these new households
and to replace losses and demolitions of standard units. To produce that
many units, new housing construction must average one-third higher than
the current rate.
Yet even a boom of these proportions in private construction will accomplish little reduction in the number of occupied dilapidated units. Progress
will be particularly slow in areas where widespread blight reduces the incentive to build new housing. For a time at least, it will be necessary to augment
the rent-paying capacity of low- and moderate-income families and the




supply of housing available to them if we are to make substantial progress in
improving the quality of housing.
The recently inaugurated rent supplement program is designed for this
purpose. Nearly 40,000 new or rehabilitated housing units are already available, under construction, or committed under the program of rent supplements to low-income families. Private nonprofit or limited profit corporations
offering decent housing to low-income families are paid the difference between the "fair market rent" of a new or rehabilitated housing unit and the
rent paid by the tenant family—25 percent of the family's income.
Programs designed to improve the rent-paying capacity of low- and moderate-income families are very important, but they cannot be expected to
produce a rapid increase in the supply of decent housing. The principal initial effect of a sharp increase in the demand for rental housing will be to
increase rents. It will produce only a gradual response in construction of
low-income housing. The response will be particularly sluggish in the near
future because of the prospects of a strong middle- and upper-income private
housing market.
For this reason the Government must take measures to increase directly
the supply of low-income housing. Subsidized rental units have been provided for many years through the public housing program. The new "turnkey" public housing program turns over to private developers the planning,
site acquisition, and construction functions in creating new public housing.
Local public housing authorities, after approving the public housing plan
and site, promise to purchase the completed building when it is ready for
occupancy. The approach shortens the period from planning to completion
by as much as 3 years, and will double the output of public housing over the
next 2 years. The turnkey approach has recently been expanded to allow privately constructed public housing to be delivered to private management
corporations. This program utilizes the talent in private business, and removes barriers to extended public housing that arise from the shortage of
management personnel in the local public authority.
The below-market interest rate (BMIR) program also draws nonprofit
corporations into providing housing for low- and moderate-income families
by subsidizing interest payments through Federal purchase of mortgages
bearing a very low interest rate.
The Administration has recognized the scale of effort required to put
decent shelter within the reach of every American family within the next
decade. As the first of ten annual steps toward a national goal of 6,000,000
federally assisted housing starts between fiscal years 1969 and 1978, the
President has announced a program to start construction or rehabilitation
of 300,000 housing units for low- and lower-middle income families in the
fiscal year beginning in July 1968. This program will build upon successful
demonstration of new approaches to public housing construction, location,
and management. With greater emphasis on the role of private enterprise,
the program will also require expansion of rent-supplement and interest-




152

subsidy techniques to reduce the monthly rental and mortgage costs of decent housing for low- and middle-income families.
A substantial increase in the scale of Federal housing programs on top of
the inevitable boom in private construction would place considerable strain
upon the resources of the construction industry. A successful program to
eliminate substandard housing must include sweeping measures to hold down
the cost of construction and to increase the supply of manpower to the
industry.
EDUCATION
The United States was among the first countries in the world to commit
itself to free and compulsory elementary and secondary education. The
public school "movement" derived much of its strength from the desire
for equality of opportunity and the traditional American hostility to distinctions based on birth. We have always cherished the image of the poor but
talented youth whose education opens the door to wealth, power, and
prestige. Unfortunately, the evidence indicates that we have not lived up
to this high ideal.
EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
The connection between education and economic achievement is well documented. High school graduates have much higher labor force participation
rates and much lower unemployment rates than do high school dropouts. In
October 1965, 73.5 percent of white high school graduates of June 1965
who were not enrolled in college were employed members of the labor
force. This compares to 49.3 percent for white nongraduates who dropped
out during the 1964-65 school year.
The correlation between education and earnings is partly attributable to
the association of education with other income-producing factors: ability,
parental income, and family social status and connections. Nonetheless,
formal education does increase earning potential. Studies indicate that reasoning ability, mechanical ability, and verbal and arithmetical skills augment earnings. These abilities are influenced by the quantity and quality
of education.
An educational degree confers upon its holder an advantage in the labor
market that goes beyond the skills represented by the degree. Employers
sometimes use diplomas as screening devices for job applicants even where
the skills learned in school are not important for job performance. This is
because it is widely accepted that satisfactory completion of school programs
indicates diligence and responsibility.
In view of the importance of education for earning capacity, the existing
wide variations in educational attainment by race, social class, and place of
residence are disturbing. About 48 percent of all college students come from
families in the highest socioeconomic quartile, while less than 7 percent come
from families in the lowest quartile. In 1960, high school completion rates for




153

males were lower for nonwhites than for whites and lower for rural than
for urban residents (Table 24). Among whites outside the South, completion
rates in rural areas were not far below those in urban areas. However, rural
students who were nonwhite or lived in the South were much less likely
to complete high school than were other groups.
This situation has improved substantially since 1960. The high school completion rate for all nonwhite males aged 20-24 rose from 39.0 percent in 1960
to 52.6 percent in 1966; for white males, it rose from 65.0 percent in 1960 to
78.1 percent in 1966. Rural and urban figures are not available subsequent
to 1960; but metropolitan and nonmetropolitan figures reveal a substantial
advance in all categories, with nonwhites in nonmetropolitan areas registering the greatest progress.
Nonwhites have less financial incentive than whites to complete their
education. First, the lower average incomes of nonwhite families places
greater pressure on the children to find a job, and not to make the sacrifice
of immediate earnings required to continue their education. Second, the
income gains to be expected from completing their education are smaller for
nonwhites. In 1966, among white males over 25, those with one or more
years of college earned 28 percent more than high school graduates. Among
nonwhite males over 25, those who had attended college earned only 14
percent more than high school graduates. These figures probably reflect a
combination of deficiencies in the quality of education available to nonwhites, and more severe discrimination against more highly educated
nonwhites.
Despite the smaller payoff from additional education, young Negro men
have made substantial gains since 1960 in completing college. Between 1960
and 1965, the percentage of Negro males 25-34 years old who had completed
four years of college rose from 3.9 to 7.4. But this remains much below the
white male college completion rate, which, during the same period, rose
from 15.7 to 17.9 percent for the same age group.
TABLE 24.—Percentage of males 20-24 years old who completed high school, 1960
[Percent!
Place of residence
Race and region
Urbanized
areas i
White males:
Total
South
Allother
Nonwhite males:
Total
South
Allother
1

Other urban
areas




Rural
farm

68.0

68.4

58.4

57.1

67.0
68.3

64.3
70.5

53.0
62.5

45.4
64.7

44.9

39.8

31.4

16.1

39.6
48.2

35.2
52.6

26.4
45.7

14.6
33.4

Central cities and urban fringe areas of standard metropolitan statistical areas.

Source: Department of Commerce.

Rural
nonfarm

The academic performances of nonwhite, of rural, and of poor youngsters
are below the national average. A study conducted by the Office of Education, Equality of Educational Opportunity (frequently referred to as the
Coleman Report), revealed that Negro students in the 12th grade
are, on the average, more than 3 years behind whites in verbal facility. But
this disparity is not merely a Negro problem. According to unpublished data
from the Coleman study, rural students—both white and nonwhite—scored
lower than their urban counterparts on verbal facility tests. Another study
of high school graduates found that of students in the lowest socioeconomic
quartile, only 8 percent scored in the highest academic quartile, while of
students in the highest socioeconomic quartile, 44 percent scored in the
highest academic quartile.
The poor academic performance of low-income and minority-group
children has many causes. Family attitudes toward education are very
important. Some educators believe that the years before the child enters
school are the most important for his intellectual development. By the time
children enter school, there are wide discrepancies in the aptitude scores of
children from different social classes.
Another influence on educational performance is the general attitude of
school companions. If students with culturally deprived preschool years are
concentrated in certain schools, they will tend to reinforce each other's
inadequacies.
With large variations in the stimulation provided by parents and companions, equal instruction for all students would inevitably result in lower
educational attainment for culturally deprived children. If equal—or even
nearly equal—educational achievement is society's goal, then disadvantaged
youngsters must receive instruction superior in quality to that received by
middle-class children.
In fact, nonwhite, rural, and poor children, on the average, receive no
better—and, in many cases, much worse—instruction than white, urban,
and middle-class children. In the South, Negro students are still largely taught
by Negro teachers, many of whom in turn had received inferior education.
In many poor communities educational expenditure per pupil, though
perhaps high in relation to community income, is low in comparison with
other areas. Expenditure per pupil tends to be lower in central cities than in
the suburbs; moreover, schools in low-income neighborhoods of central
cities spend less per pupil than schools in middle- and upper-income neighborhoods. In part, this is because ghetto schools frequently have difficulty
retaining their staff and consequently typically have a higher proportion of
inexperienced teachers than other schools within the central city.
It is extremely important to attract—and to retain—competent people into
the teaching of deprived children. The Coleman Report indicates that characteristics of teachers are the most important school-related determinants of
the academic performance of children. Yet the salaries of teachers are
low in comparison with those in other jobs for male college graduates. In




155

1959, the average annual earnings of all white male college graduates aged
35 to 44 exceeded by 59 percent the earnings of white male secondary school
teachers of the same age and with equivalent education. The low relative
salaries of teachers helps to explain why a disproportionately small fraction
of students entering teaching at the elementary and secondary school levels
score above the average for all college students on intelligence tests.
The most important goal of educational policy for the disadvantaged is
the improvement of the academic performance of culturally deprived youngsters. This requires the strengthened teaching of basic skills to children in
preschool, elementary, and secondary education. Another goal is the
removal of the financial barriers that discourage poor but talented
high school graduates from going to college. A third goal is more effective
preparation for employment of those students not planning to go on to
college.
EDUCATION PROGRAMS
In 1965, the Federal Government initiated a massive program of compensatory education for disadvantaged children. This program, Title I of the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act, provides $1.2 billion in the
current fiscal year to school districts for programs for deprived children.
The funds are distributed in proportion to the number of children from
low-income families in each district. In fiscal year 1967, 9 million children
were served at a cost per child of $117.
Another major program serving disadvantaged children is Head Start, a
large-scale, experimental preschool project. Nearly 2 million children have
benefited from the program to date. Evaluation has shown that they have
registered educational, as well as social and health gains; however, the
extent to which the educational gains are permanent is, as yet, unknown.
The Office of Economic Opportunity and the Office of Education are
initiating a new "follow-through" program to determine the best way to
conserve the gains of Head Start.
The success of these and other educational programs for disadvantaged
children calls for the discovery of effective techniques in compensatory
education. There remain many important unanswered questions: What
curricula are most effective; which teacher characteristics are most important; how should new types of equipment, such as educational television,
computerized teaching aids, and language laboratories be employed? Several Federal programs encourage experimentation in and evaluation of new
teaching methods.
The Government has also increased substantially its programs of financial aid for college study to students from low-income families. During
1966-67, the Educational Opportunity Grants, the National Defense Education Act loans, and the College Work-Study programs, provided nearly
700,000 separate loans and grants, averaging $620, to college students, most
of whom were from poor families. This year the Administration is proposing




156

consolidation of these programs to enable colleges to administer the programs
together and to tailor aid more closely to the needs of the particular student.
The Guaranteed Loan program of 1965 began slowly, in part because of
tight money markets, but expanded rapidly during 1966-67. Private loans
averaging $837 were extended to approximately 430,000 students. The
Administration is planning to expand the program further by amendments
permitting lenders to charge a flat service fee for each loan.
The Upward Bound program in the Office of Economic Opportunity has
provided summer school training and financial aid for high school students
from poor families; the program is designed to encourage students with
substantial potential but low achievement to finish high school and go on
to college. In addition, the Administration is proposing a new program of
tutorial and guidance services for low-income college students.
High schools need to revise their curricula in order better to serve the
occupational needs of students not planning to go to college. Schools could
do much more to make their vocational training and job information services
more relevant to contemporary occupational opportunities. For example,
though the percentage of vocational education expenditures devoted to
agriculture has declined in recent years, only a small proportion of those
receiving vocational training in agriculture enter farming. Courses related to
future occupations could be designed so as to capture the interest of nonacademically inclined youngsters. One promising approach is to permit high
school students to receive credit for part-time jobs directly related to school
courses. The Administration is proposing to further these objectives in a
new, consolidated Vocational Education Act stressing State manpower
planning, innovative schoolwork programs, and counseling and occupational
information for all junior high school students.
Efforts to provide adequate supplies of trained educational manpower
underlie all the programs in preschool, elementary, secondary, and vocational education. Summer institutes for teacher training and retraining, student loan forgiveness for those entering teaching, and fellowships for experienced teachers to return to the university for further training have been
financed by the Government in recent years. Under the Education Professions Development Act, passed by Congress in 1967, measures are being
taken to attract qualified people into teaching, to train teachers' aides, and
to strengthen teacher education.
HEALTH
There are striking discrepancies in the health status of Americans of
different races, regions, and income classes. The death rate of nonwhites
is 45 percent higher than that of whites of the same age; life expectancy at
birth is 7 years shorter. For the white population alone, infant mortality
is 10 percent * higher in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan counties
And poor adults suffer considerably more activity-limiting chronic illness,
work loss, and days of restricted activity than other adults of the same age.

157
284-593 0—68



11

ECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH CARE
These health discrepancies are due to various deficiencies in our system
of medical care. For children, the number of physician visits per year varies
sharply with family income (Table 25). And on the occasions when poor
children do see doctors, it is usually for treatment of an obvious ailment, and
rarely to receive a routine medical examination. Medical experts are firmly
convinced that children who do not receive regular checkups and prompt
treatment of ailments run substantially higher risks of being permanently
handicapped.
Adults who are poor are more likely to have serious health problems than
other adults. Ill health is linked with poverty in part because illness leads
directly to decreased earnings. But low earnings—through the inadequate
nutrition and shelter that accompany them—also cause ill health. Thus,
poor health is both a cause and result of poverty; the two constitute a selfperpetuating cycle.
The ill health of the poor adult is not solely the result of inadequate
medical care. In fact, the indigent sick person in most States can go to a free
public clinic for medical attention, and many poor persons receive free or
low-cost care in physicians' offices. As a result, the number of physician
visits per year is not much lower for poor adults than for other adults.
Nonetheless, full equality in the number of visits to physicians would be
insufficient to make poor adults as healthy as the rest of the population.
Moreover, the quality of care available to the indigent may be lower than
that available to middle class, paying patients. Although standards differ
enormously from State to State, clinics serving the poor are often inadequately staffed and equipped, with the usual consequences—long waits,
hurried and fragmented medical attention, and the absence of medical records and continuity of care.
The available statistics on health care and health status by race suggest
that medical care for nonwhites is substandard. Nonwhites suffer considerably higher mortality rates than whites from medically curable illnesses,
such as tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumonia. Infant and maternal morTABLE 25.—Routine medical checkups and number of physician visits for children, by selected age
groups, 1963-64
Percent of children receiving
a routine medical checkup
during the past year

Physician visits per year
by children

Family income
Under
6 years
Under $2,000
$2,000-$3,999
$4,000-$6,999
$7,000-$9,999
$10,000 and over

21.2
34.3
44.9
54.7
64.4

6 to 16
years
12.0
18.4
28.0
36.8
49.7

Note.—Data are based on household interviews during the period July 1963 to June 1964.
Source: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.




158

Under
5 years
3.1
4.6
5.6
6.4

7.5

5 to 14
years
1.2
2.0
2.7

3.0
4.3

tality rates, which are profoundly affected by medical care, are, respectively,
87 percent and 300 percent higher for nonwhites than for whites.
Rural residents obtain fewer medical services than metropolitan residents,
regardless of race. The ratio of doctors to population is substantially lower in
isolated rural counties than in counties located in or near metropolitan areas.
The reluctance of doctors to practice in rural areas is understandable. Because the population is dispersed, doctors have less opportunity to specialize
and to employ advanced medical techniques. They enjoy fewer cultural
attractions and they may earn less. The result is that many rural communities have too few doctors.
MEASURES TO IMPROVE HEALTH CARE
Considerable improvement in the health care of medically deprived groups
has been achieved by governmental finance of medical services for those
too poor to pay for them. Major increases in public funds for this purpose
were approved by the Congress in 1965 under two far-reaching pieces of
legislation. The first, Medicare, provides for the aged a hospital insurance
plan requiring no premium, and offers an optional insurance plan, covering
doctors' fees and other services, in which the premium (currently $3 a month,
but rising to $4 in April 1968) is matched by the Federal Government. About
93 percent of the aged are enrolled in this optional plan. Federal outlays for
benefits under Medicare in fiscal year 1968, estimated at $4.8 billion, will
cover about half the medical care costs of the aged.
The second program, Medicaid, provides matching funds for State medical
services for the poor and medically indigent. Unlike previous Federal aid
through public assistance, Medicaid stipulates minimum standards of benefits for State plans which receive Federal support. Federal funds under the
previous medical assistance legislation are scheduled to terminate in 1970.
The 1965 Medicaid legislation left it to the States to set upper limits to the
incomes of persons eligible for payments. But rapidly rising Federal outlays
caused the Congress, in 1967, to limit Federal reimbursement to payments
made to families with incomes below a ceiling. By 1970, the ceiling in each
State will be one-third above the highest amount ordinarily paid to a family
of the same size under the State program for AFDC.
The 1965 legislation required State plans to provide inpatient and outpatient hospital services, physicians' services, laboratory and X-ray services,
and skilled nursing home services for qualifying adults. Amendments passed
in 1967 continue this requirement for persons receiving cash assistance, but
for the medically indigent, the States can elect to provide any 7 of 14
specified services.
Forty-three States and jurisdictions are expected to have Medicaid plans
by July 1968, and 48 by the end of 1969. Total medical assistance expenditures by Federal, State, and local governments for fiscal year 1968 are
estimated to be $3.6 billion, of which $1.8 billion is from the Federal
Government.




159

Present health care programs probably provide less than the optimum
amount of health care to the young. In fiscal year 1968, less than 10 percent
of the $7.2 billion in health care outlays of the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare were directed toward children and youth under 19.
Health care confers direct economic benefits through the prevention and
cure of ailments which interfere with earning capacity. These benefits are
especially large for children because they have their whole working lives
ahead of them. Inasmuch as the enhancement of earning capacity implies
greater participation in other aspects of life, the noneconomic benefits of
health care expenditures may also be larger for children than for persons
in other age groups.
In recent years the Federal Government programs in the area of maternal
and child health have been expanding rapidly. Mothers and children in lowincome families receive a variety of services under the Maternity and Infant
Care, School and Preschool, Crippled Children, Maternal and Child Health
Services programs, and under the health programs of Head Start and of
Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. These services
include free physical examinations, diagnostic services, and advice on preventive care. The 1967 amendments to Medicaid require States participating
in the Crippled Children's program to make greater efforts toward early
diagnosis and treatment of handicapping illnesses in young children. Treatment of illness is now provided under several of the programs, but eventually
these expenses should be taken care of by Medicaid. In another area, the
unusual barriers to adequate health care for migratory farmworkers are being
attacked through the migrant health program. Finally, the Neighborhood
Health Centers operated by the Office of Economic Opportunity provide
readily accessible, comprehensive, and continuous health care and other
social services to low-income families. Legislation will be proposed to provide,
over the next 5 years, comprehensive medical services to needy mothers and
their infants from the prenatal period through the child's first year.
These Government programs on behalf of groups now medically deprived
will increase the demand for the services of physicians and other types of
medical manpower. If the care received by the rest of the population is not
to be reduced, the supply of these services must be increased. To augment
the number of physicians the Federal Government has been giving large
financial support, under the Health Professions Education Act of 1963, to
medical schools undertaking expansion of their enrollment. Funds for 10
new medical schools have been provided under this program. The annual
number of medical school graduates is expected to rise from 7,900 in 1965
to around 10,000 in 1973.
Increasing the supply of physicians is of highest priority for the longer
run; but to achieve greater efficiency in the short run, emphasis must be
placed on improvement in the utilization of physicians' services. There
appear to be significant efficiency gains from group practice, from the use
of more auxiliary personnel, and from use of more and better equipment,




160

including automated laboratories and other computer-based innovations.
The trend toward group practice is being encouraged by legislation passed
in 1966 which provides Government mortgage insurance for group practice
facilities. The training of increased numbers of auxiliary personnel under
the Allied Health Professions Personnel Training Act of 1966, the Vocational Education Act, and the Manpower Development and Training Act
will also permit greater efficiency in the use of physicians and of other highlevel medical manpower.
THE COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO COMMUNITY
REDEVELOPMENT
The preceding pages have touched on some of the more pressing economic
and social problems facing American communities. They have stressed that
many of these problems are not merely local problems, but rather national
problems which appear in concentrated form in certain communities. In
particular, all are aware that there are large districts, usually within the
central cities of major metropolitan areas, in which the incidence of a
number of these problems is particularly high. Some rural districts show
similar concentrations.
Over the years, the Federal Government has developed programs designed
to share with State and local governments the costs of attacking the problems of the disadvantaged. Typically, each program was designed to deal
with a specific problem. There has been growing recognition, however, that
ill health, inadequate education, absence of motivation, lack of marketable
skills, dilapidated housing, inadequate community and social services, and
crime can interact with one another. By feeding on one another, these problems create blighted districts and areas. The more recent approach has therefore been to undertake a coordinated and simultaneous attack on all the
problems in a particular locality. The Model Cities program is the newest
and most promising illustration of this approach.
The goal of the Model Cities program is to transform a number of the
Nation's most blighted urban areas into redeveloped communities which
will demonstrate the potentalities of the coordinated approach. Last fall,
63 cities were selected to participate in the first round of Model
Cities planning grants. Each city is using its grant to map out a comprehensive program to deal with poor living conditions, unemployment,
and inadequate access to social services in its most blighted area. The plans
must include workable mechanisms to marshal all the resources of Federal,
State, and local governments, voluntary agencies, local business firms, and
residents of the area. These coordinated plans will include a wide variety
of Federal aids—manpower training, urban renewal, federally assisted housing, education, health, and poverty programs. These programs will continue to be available individually on a national basis. But when they are
integrated, and supplemented by local resources, in an approved comprehen-




161

sive program for physical and social redevelopment, the Federal Government
will make available supplemental grants for costs not covered by other Federal programs. The President has requested that the Congress appropriate
for fiscal year 1969 the full $1 billion which is presently authorized for the
Model Cities program.
Somewhat similar efforts have been undertaken to support the coordinated
redevelopment of nonurban communities through the Rural Community
Development Service of the Department of Agriculture and the Economic
Development Administration of the Department of Commerce. Both assist
smaller communities to plan comprehensive approaches to the solution
of community problems in low-income areas.
This Chapter has extensively reviewed the status of the American poor
and the obstacles which must yet be surmounted in our efforts to combat
economic deprivation. Poverty in the United States has been declining at
an appreciable rate. With continued over-all prosperity and with welldesigned comprehensive programs to broaden the opportunities of all our
citizens, poverty can be reduced even more effectively in the future—to the
point where it will survive only as an unpleasant memory.




162

Chapter 5

The International Economy
FT! HE EVENTS OF 1967 dramatized the importance of economic develJL opments around the world to the progress and health of the U.S. economy. They also demonstrated both the need for international cooperation
and the possibilities for achieving it. After highlighting the major developments of 1967, this chapter reviews the principles of balance-of-payments
adjustment, surveys the U.S. balance-of-payments situation and policies in
the light of these principles, and discusses problems and progress in the international monetary system and in the trading relations of the United States
with both developed and developing nations.
A YEAR OF MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS
Developments during 1967 left a lasting imprint on the international
economy. The headlines in the closing months of the year recorded the
strains on the international monetary system generated by the sterling crisis
and the subsequent devaluation of the pound. Anxieties and speculation in
world financial markets contributed to a sharp widening of the U.S. deficit in
the fourth quarter. The U.S. Government responded decisively with a major
program to move our balance of payments strongly toward equilibrium.
Events earlier in 1967 paved the way for strengthening the future expansion of trade and the foundation of the international monetary system. The
completion of the Kennedy Round negotiations marked the most successful
effort toward reducing tariffs ever conducted under the aegis of the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). A major step was also taken
toward the creation of a new form of international liquidity as the Special
Drawing Rights (SDR) plan was agreed upon at the annual meeting of
the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Participating countries in the tariff negotiations displayed the enlightened
statesmanship required to overcome particular interests for the greater general welfare of their own citizens and those of less-developed countries, which
were not required to reciprocate in full. The same spirit ruled in the negotiations on liquidity, where substantial differences were resolved in the interest
of international monetary progress.
During the difficult period preceding and following sterling devaluation,
international consultations were conducted in the best postwar tradition;




163

they permitted Britain to devalue without similar actions by major competing countries which could have denied her the intended and needed
benefits of the move. When nervousness and speculation threatened to
disrupt world finance, the central banks of most major industrial countries
expressed their determination and pledged their resources to defend the
stability of the world monetary system.
The United States and other countries will continue to work cooperatively
toward strengthening the foundation of world finance and expanding the
network of international trade. There is a long agenda of unsolved and
urgent problems. Payments adjustment still challenges the best efforts of
all countries. The United States must insure the effectiveness of its balance-of-payments program and the proper management of its domestic
economy. Meanwhile, countries with balance-of-payments surpluses have
obligations and responsibilities to insure that they too move toward balance.
All member countries of the IMF are called on to render promptly a clear
verdict in favor of the creation of supplemental liquidity through the new
Special Drawing Rights plan—as an unmistakable alternative to a shortage
of reserves or to pressures on the price of gold. The year 1968 will be a
period of testing for international financial cooperation, but it will also be
a time of opportunity.
ADJUSTMENT PROCESS
Countries draw on international reserves, mostly in gold and U.S. dollars,
to meet balance-of-payments needs when their payments to foreigners exceed their receipts. A country's reserve position is weakened when it incurs
such deficits. On the other hand, its reserves will increase with balance-ofpayments surpluses. Thus, reserves change hands as countries have payments
imbalances.
Apart from the flow of gold to private holders, a deficit on the part of
any country tends to have a counterpart in surpluses elsewhere in the
world. Thus a loss of reserves by the United States is usually a gain for
another nation; and an increase in our liabilities to official dollar-holders
represents a gain in dollar reserves by some other nation. During the past
decade, while the U.S. accounts have been persistently in deficit, many countries have had surpluses from time to time. But the European Economic
Community (EEC) alone has had persistent surpluses of the same order
of magnitude as U.S. deficits.
MUTUAL RESPONSIBILITIES
While moderate and clearly temporary deficits or surpluses need not
cause concern, large and prolonged payments imbalances are normally
undesirable for the proper functioning of the international monetary system.
Unilateral actions by deficit countries, if forceful enough, generally can
succeed in moving such countries toward balance. But the payments pattern




164

that results from unilateral action may not always be compatible with
the broad economic objectives that all nations hold—such as high employment, sustained worldwide economic growth, a high degree of freedom
of international trade and capital movements, and an adequate flow of
capital to the less-developed countries.
Indeed, unless special precautions are taken to prevent such an outcome,
much of the burden of corrective measures by any one deficit country could
fall on countries that are already in weak payments positions, causing such
countries to suffer unnecessarily and making it doubtful whether the new
payments pattern could be long sustained. And there is also a danger that
unilateral actions, such as tight monetary policy or restrictive budget measures, could impart a general deflationary bias to the world economy. Likewise, if corrective action is limited to surplus countries, it could in some cases
add unduly to inflationary pressures.
In the light of such considerations, it is now generally recognized that
the interest of all countries can best be served if payments adjustment is
brought about through cooperative efforts by both deficit and surplus countries. Both types of countries bear major responsibility for such adjustments;
both must seek to insure that their actions are mutually compatible and
consistent with the broader aims that they share.
PRINCIPLES OF ADJUSTMENT
The particular policies and combinations of policy instruments that countries should appropriately use to achieve adjustment were outlined in the
Report on the Adjustment Process by Working Party 3 of the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The findings were
described in the Council's 1967 Report. These policies vary, depending on
the circumstances and the particular characteristics of the countries involved. There is no question, however, that deficit countries must seek to
avoid excessive internal demand for balance-of-payments as well as domestic
reasons. Surplus countries, similarly, have a special responsibility to maintain an adequate pace of domestic economic expansion. The Adjustment
Process Report stresses, moreover, that fiscal policy needs to be given a
major role in the achievement of domestic economic balance, and that there
is a special need to avoid inappropriately high levels of interest rates.
There are many situations in which the choice of policies is especially
difficult, because measures taken to satisfy domestic goals may run counter to
international objectives, or vice versa. In such cases it may be necessary to
employ new types and combinations of policy instruments. In particular,
countries whose competitive position and domestic demand levels are satisfactory may have deficits due to excessive capital outflows. Such countries
may find it necessary to use selective measures to limit these outflows. As
the Adjustment Process Report indicated, however, "Wherever possible,
it is desirable that adjustment should take place through the relaxation of




165

controls and restraints over international trade and capital movements by
surplus countries, rather than by the imposition of new restraints by deficit
countries."
The next section outlines the major actions which the United States has
taken to move its payments position decisively toward equilibrium. A number of these actions are clearly of a temporary nature. While they have
been designed to hold the possible damage to individual nations to a minimum, there was no choice but to move, in part, in ways that are restrictive
and thus not fully compatible with the long-run aims of expansion and efficiency of the world economy. Achievement of a viable payments adjustment
consistent with these goals must in part be based on the positive element of
the U.S. program, which aims at a strengthening of the U.S. economic position through appropriate fiscal, monetary, and incomes policies. But it must
also rest on more decisive actions by surplus countries—and particularly
those in the EEC: to assure adequate economic expansion; to encourage
capital outflows and increased aid to less-developed countries; to reduce
barriers to trade; and to share more fully in the cost of the common defense.
THE U.S. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
Current policies of the United States are designed to fulfill our responsibilities in the adjustment process and to the stability of the international
monetary system.
The American dollar is the major reserve asset, other than gold, of world
central banks; and it is the major transaction currency of international business and finance. The ability of the United States to carry out its responsibilities as the major world bank depends on the strength of its reserve position,
which has been slowly diminished by continuing large deficits.
These balance-of-payments deficits arise when the sum of U.S. expenditures abroad on imports, travel, foreign securities and loans, direct investment, and other items exceeds the inflow of such payments by foreigners.
The U.S. balance-of-payments deficit records the change in our reserve
position, measured as the sum of (a) losses in our reserves, and (b) increases
in selected dollar claims of foreigners. The balance is statistically measured
by two alternative concepts, which differ in their treatment of foreign claims.
The liquidity deficit counts increases in the liquid claims on the United
States of all foreigners—private and public—as well as losses in reserves. The
official settlements deficit counts increases in all claims of foreign official
monetary authorities—but not in private holdings of dollars—in addition to
reserve losses.
Many of the transactions which contribute to the deficit involve the acquisition of productive foreign assets. The Nation does not lose wealth by such




166

transactions, but it does sacrifice liquidity—much like an individual drawing
down his bank account to buy promising growth stocks. A nation which
holds its international assets primarily in liquid form loses opportunities for
productive investment. On the other hand, every nation—particularly the
one that serves as the world's bank—needs an adequate margin of liquidity.
THE REGENT RECORD
The United States has had a balance-of-payments deficit almost continually since 1950. During the early part of that period, the entire U.S. deficit was beneficial to the rest of the world because it helped replenish the
depleted reserves of other countries; and it could be tolerated by the United
States because we had started the postwar era in an extremely strong reserve
position.
Beginning in 1958-59, the situation changed. The U.S. deficit increased,
while the acute shortage of dollars abroad was easing. From 1960 to 1965,
the deficit was reduced progressively (Table 26 and Chart 14). But a deficit
TABLE 26.—United States balance of payments, 1961-67
[Billions of dollars]
1967,
Type of transaction

Balance on goods and services.
Balance on merchandise tradeMilitary expenditures, net3
Balance on other services
Remittances and pensions

1961

1962

1964

1965

1966

5.9

8.5

6.9

5.1

5.4

4.4
-2.4
3.1

5.1
-2.3
3.1

6.7
-2.1
3.9

4.8
-2.1
4.2

3.7
-2.8
4.3

4.3
-3.1

-.7

-.8

-.9

-.9

-1.0

-1.0

Government grants and capital, net.

-2.8

-3.0

-3.6

-3.6

-3.4

-3.4

U.S. private capital, net

-4.2

-3.4

-4.5

-6.5

-3.7

-4.2

Foreign nonliquid capital, net
Errors and omissions
BALANCE ON LIQUIDITY BASISPlus: Foreign private liquid capital net3
Less: Increases in nonliquid liabilities to foreign
monetary authorities5
BALANCE ON OFFICIAL RESERVE TRANSACTIONS BASIS
Gold (decrease + ) . .
Convertible currencies (decrease + )
IMF gold tranche position (decrease + )
Foreign monetary official claims (increase + ) -

first 3
quarters x

5.4
-2.6
2.6

5.5

5.0

1963

.7

.7

.3

2.5

-.9

-1.1

-.3

-.9

-.4

-.3

-2.4

-2.2

-2.7

-2.8

1.0

-.2

.6

.7

1.0

-1.3

-1.4

1.6

.1

2.4

.3

.1

.8

-2.0

-1.5

-1.3

.2

.5

.1

.3
-1.3

-2.7

.9
-.1
-.1
.7

.9
(6)

6
1.2

1

~'.3
1.4

1.7
-.3
\\

.6
~!5
-.8

4.1
-1.4
-4.2
-5.1
3.9
-.9
-2.3
«.9
< 1.4
-2.9
*.2
2

Average of the first 3 quarters at seasonally adjusted annual rates, except as noted.
Military expenditures less transfers under military sales contracts.
3Includes changes in Treasury liabilities to certain foreign military agencies during 1961-62 and to international nonmonetary institutions.
4
Average of the first 3 quarters on an unadjusted annual rate basis.
5
Included above under foreign nonliquid capital.
• Less than $50 million.
2

Note.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Department of Commerce.




167

Chart 14

U.S. Balance of International Payments
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

50
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES

40
EXPORTS.

30

1
1959

1

1

1961

I

1

1963

I

I

1965

<
19671/

10
NET CAPITAL FLOWS

U.S. PRIVATE

J

-10

I

1959

I

I

1961

~^^**^

I

I

I

I
1967V

1965

1963

10
BALANCE

OFFICIAL RESERVE TRANSACTIONS BASIS

LIQUIDITY BASIS

1

-10
1959

1

1

1

1
1963

1961

J/FIRST 3 QUARTERS AT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES.
^EXCLUDING OFFICIAL RESERVE TRANSACTIONS.
i/EXCLUDING LIQUID CAPITAL.
SOURCE: DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE.




168

1

|

1965

1
1967J/

continued. The improvement came from automatic adjustment forces, and
from judicious use of policy measures. New measures were required from time
to time as fundamental factors changed. Foreign demands on our capital
markets burgeoned with the return of currency convertibility in Europe.
Trade and direct investment flows were influenced by the creation of the
EEC and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
The improvement in the U.S. balance of payments was arrested in 1966
by the greatly increased foreign exchange costs of the Vietnam war, and
indirectly through the strains placed on our domestic economy. However, the
impact on the payments position was largely offset by the inflow of interestsensitive funds in response to the tightening of domestic money markets. The
liquidity deficit of $1.4 billion in 1966 essentially matched the $1.3 billion
of 1965.
In 1967, the unfavorable forces that had operated in 1966 persisted
while monetary conditions eased, and the deficit widened (Table 26). Measured on the liquidity basis, the deficit was at an annual rate of $2.3 billion
during the first three quarters of the year.
The U.S. payments position in the fourth quarter deteriorated sharply,
reflecting a decline in the merchandise surplus, the British devaluation, and
the foreign exchange and gold speculation which it set off. Preliminary
estimates indicate a liquidity deficit of about $3.6 billion for the year as a
whole. As measured by official settlements, the deterioration in the U.S.
payments position was even more pronounced; the balance shifted from a
$200 million surplus in 1966 to a deficit of about $3 billion in 1967, reflecting the especially marked effect of changing monetary conditions.
While shifts in payments can be readily identified in an accounting sense,
their causes are more difficult to trace. A great deal of caution is required in
making analytical judgments based on the accounts, especially while the
estimates are still provisional.
To assess the underlying forces, cyclical and special factors must be disentangled from trend elements.
Cyclical Forces in 1967
Even though expansion slowed down last year, the American economy was
closer to its high-employment growth path than were our major trading
partners, which on average fell substantially below their normal growth
performance. From 1966 to 1967, industrial production abroad rose rapidly
only in Japan, increased moderately in Italy, sluggishly in Canada, hardly
changed in Britain or France, and declined in Germany. The depth and
persistence of the German recession dampened the total performance of
continental Europe significantly, with cumulative effects on world trade.




169

Cyclical factors affected a number of balance-of-payments accounts,
including merchandise exports and imports, income from investments
abroad, and capital outflows for direct investment.
The U.S. merchandise balance improved during 1967, but the increase
was held down by the sluggish state of demand abroad. Exports gained about
5 percent for the year as a whole, but they declined after midyear, primarily
because of the weakness of demand in some of our largest foreign markets.
Reflecting the slowdown of U.S. economic activity, imports remained at
the level reached in the fourth quarter of 1966 and showed little tendency
to increase until the fourth quarter of 1967. For the year as a whole, they
rose about 4}4 percent. The comparison between 1966 and 1967 demonstrates the sensitivity of imports to the rate of change of U.S. economic
activity and to the degree of pressure on our productive capacities. In 1966,
when rapid expansion and shortages prevailed, imports increased by 6.8 percent of the gain in GNP; in the somewhat more relaxed economic conditions prevailing for most of 1967, imports increased by only about 3 percent
of the advance in GNP.
Income from U.S. direct investments abroad expanded somewhat in 1967
after having increased only slightly in 1966. This disappointing performance
reflected an actual decline in income from investments in Western Europe
during the last two years, despite the further substantial buildup of assets
there. The gradual narrowing of European profit margins that has been
occurring for a number of years was aggravated by the cyclical situation—
a phenomenon not confined to American-owned firms. U.S. income from
private assets other than direct investments and from Government assets
abroad continued to increase, however, about in line with previous years.
Some of the effects of the economic weakness in Europe and the slowdown
in Canada, on the other hand, were favorable to the U.S. payments position. Along with other influences, the cyclical forces contributed to an indicated total drop in U.S. direct investment outflow during 1967 of about
$500 million (Table 27). This was the first decline in the level of outflows
since 1961, although the $3 billion level remained substantially above that of
all years prior to 1965. In addition to the slowdown abroad, the substantial increase of borrowing abroad during the last two years—in response to
the voluntary program—reduced considerably the outflow from the United
States.
Special Factors in 1967
While the payments structure is always influenced by many special factors,
1967 produced a bumper crop. The list of those significant to the U.S. balance of payments includes Expo 67, the Middle East crisis, Vietnam intensification, and sterling devaluation.




170

TABLE 27.—United States balance of payments: Capital transactions, 1961-67
[Billions of dollars]

Type of capital transaction

1967,

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

first 3l

quarters

U.S. private capital, net.
Direct investment
New foreign security issues
Other transactions in foreign securities 2_
U.S. bank claims
Other claims
Foreign nonliquid capital, net.
Direct investment
U.S. securities (excludin
Long-term U.S. bank lis
Other*
Foreign nonliquid capital, net
Plus: Foreign private liquid capital, net 8
Less: Increases in nonliquid liabilities to foreign
monetary authorities 7
Equals: Foreign capital excluding official reserve
transactions, net

-4.2

-3.4

-4.5

-6.5

-3.7

-4.2

-5.1

-1.6
-.5
-.2
-1.3
-.6

-1.7
-1.1
.1
-.5
-.4

-2.0
-1.2
.1
-1.5
.2

-2.4
-1.1
.4
-2.5
-1.0

-3.4
-1.2
.4
.1
.3

-3.5
-1.2
.7
.3
-.4

-2.9
-1.6
.5
-.7
-.3

.3

2.5

3.9

.1
-.4
.2
.4

.1
.9
1.0
.5

.2
1.3
1.1
1.3

2.5
2.4

3.9

.7

.1
.1

.7
1.0

.7

1.0

.1
.3

1.0
-.2

.7
1.6

6.9
3 1.4

1.7

.5

1.3

1.9

.3

4.1

3.3

1 Average of the first 3 quarters at seasonally adjusted annual rates, except as noted.
2
Includes redemptions.
3 Less than $50 million.
4
Includes certain special Government transactions.
5
Includes changes in Treasury liabilities to certain foreign military agencies during 1961-62 and to international nonmonetary institutions.
6
Average of the first 3 quarters on an unadjusted annual rate basis.
7
Included above under foreign nonliquid capital.
Note.—Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Source: Department of Commerce.

Expo. U.S. travel expenditures, which had been increasing on the average about 10 percent a year, jumped about 20 percent (or $500 million) in
1967. The acceleration was accounted for by tourist spending in Canada,
which rose more than 50 percent, reflecting the attraction of Expo 67.
Meanwhile, U.S. receipts from travel expenditures, which has been increasing about 15 percent a year, rose only about 4 percent last year. There
was no increase in receipts from Canadians, who usually contribute onethird of U.S. travel earnings.
Middle East. The Middle East crisis and its aftermath also, on balance,
had some adverse effects. While not of great magnitude, the contrast with
the favorable balance-of-payments consequences of the 1956—57 Suez crisis
is very marked. Net payments increased as the result of lower merchandise
exports to the area, higher payments for transportation, greater personal
remittances, and larger new issues of foreign securities in the U.S. market.
These outweighed the gains in petroleum trade and some increase in earnings of American-owned international oil companies.




171

Southeast Asia. The intensification of the hostilities in Vietnam had an
additional impact on the U.S. balance of payments. U.S. overseas military
expenditures increased further by about $700 million in 1967, to a level
more than $1.4 billion above the plateau prior to mid-1965.
Sterling. The events surrounding the devaluation of sterling had many
immediate consequences for the U.S. balance of payments. Some are easily
identified but others harder to evaluate. Prior to the devaluation, speculation against sterling forced the United Kingdom to liquidate all of its
remaining long-term government-owned assets in the United States, in order
to reconstitute official reserves. This action increased the U.S. liquidity deficit
by about $500 million in the fourth quarter. The deficit may have been
increased further indirectly by the flurry of private gold purchases; it was
also widened to whatever extent funds moved out of the United States for
purposes of speculation or hedging in the period of stress and uncertainty.
In combination, cyclical and special factors account for much of the
deterioration in the U.S. balance of payments during 1967, particularly in
the fourth quarter. However, against the history of a persistent U.S. deficit,
the sterling devaluation and its aftermath posed a threat to the stability of
the dollar and consequently to the stability of the international monetary
system. Thus new U.S. balance-of-payments measures became necessary in
order to strengthen the international monetary system, insure that the 1967
deterioration of the U.S. balance of payments is decisively reversed, and improve the underlying strength of the U.S. payments position enough to
bear the heightened military costs in Southeast Asia.
THE 1968 PROGRAM
The monetary and fiscal measures outlined in Chapters 1 and 2 and the
continued efforts to increase efficiency and to encourage responsible price
and wage behavior discussed in Chapter 3 provide the broad base for
improvement in our international payments position and are an integral
part of our balance-of-payments program. In addition, the President set
forth on New Year's Day a major new program of measures specifically
directed at the balance of payments.
The new program is directed at improvement in five separate areas: (1)
capital outflows for American direct investments abroad; (2) loans to
foreigners by American financial institutions; (3) Government net expenditures abroad; (4) net travel expenditures; and (5) merchandise trade. Most
of the measures included in the program will have an immediate impact on
the balance of payments. Some are intended to be temporary; others are
long term in character. Some have been put into effect by administrative
actions, others require legislation by Congress, and still others require cooperative action by our allies and trading partners.




172

Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
On January 1, 1968, the President issued an Executive order which basically transformed the Commerce Department's previously existing Voluntary
Direct Investment program into a mandatory program with much lower
levels of permitted capital outflows. The voluntary program, which began
in 1965, called on the business community to reduce capital transfers for
direct investment in developed countries; it also sought additional contributions to the balance of payments through such means as expanding exports
and remittances of earnings abroad. The program stressed the desirability of
financing investments abroad through foreign borrowing.
The largest needs for cash by American affiliates abroad are for financing
plant and equipment expenditures. Foreign plant and equipment outlays by
American firms in 1967 were an estimated $10.2 billion, up from $6.2 billion
in 1964. These expenditures are financed out of many sources. In 1966,
capital outflows for direct investment accounted for about 32 percent of the
total; reinvested earnings were 20 percent; long-term borrowings abroad
amounted to 8 percent; short-term borrowings abroad and depreciation
allowances on existing foreign assets represented the remainder—about 40
percent. As had been the case previously, the new program is directed only
at new outflows of funds from the United States and reinvested earnings.
It does not aim to curb plant and equipment expenditures as such, although
they are bound to be affected. Long-term funds borrowed abroad are specifically exempted.
Despite excellent business cooperation with the voluntary program, a
mandatory program is necessary to achieve the large improvement required
in 1968 and to insure equality of burdens among all direct investors.
The new program provides three basic limitations on direct investors: (1)
annual limits are placed on their new direct investment—capital outflow
plus reinvested earnings—in foreign subsidiaries or branches; (2) a minimum share of total earnings from their direct investments must be repatriated—generally equal to the same percentage that they repatriated during
1964-66; and (3) their short-term financial assets held abroad must be
reduced to the average level of 1965-66 and held at or below that level.
The annual limits on direct investment are determined in the following
way:
(1) For less-developed countries, as a group, new capital transfers and
reinvested earnings, in combination, may not exceed 110 percent of
a direct investor's average new direct investment in less-developed
countries in 1965-66.
(2) For developed countries to which U.S. capital inflow is essential—
including Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United
Kingdom, and some oil-producing countries—the maximum permitted allowance is 65 percent of the annual average of capital outflow plus reinvested earnings in 1965-66.
284-593 O-—68




12

(3) For all other countries, principally continental Western Europe,
a moratorium is imposed on any new capital outflows for direct investment. However, a direct investor may normally plow back each
year into his existing direct investments in these countries as a group
the same percentage of his earnings as he reinvested in the years
1964^-66.
The program exempts small direct investments not exceeding $100,000
in the aggregate. It also establishes administrative procedures whereby the
Secretary of Commerce may authorize in exceptional cases direct investments in excess of those allowed under the general rules.
The direct investment program is designed to achieve a $1 billion improvement in the balance of payments. The impact is to be concentrated
on the surplus countries of continental Europe, with a minimum effect on
other countries. It requires an important sacrifice by U.S. international corporations, but it is designed to keep interference in the details of business decisions to a minimum. Normal international trade among affiliate companies
will not be restricted, nor will other usual business transactions be disturbed.
The program is intended to be temporary, subject to relaxation as soon as
world payments conditions permit.
Foreign Credits by Financial Institutions
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System issued new suggested guidelines on foreign credits of financial institutions. The President
gave the Board authority to make the guidelines mandatory if that should
prove necessary. The new guidelines, covering both banks and other financial institutions, represent a major tightening of the program begun in
1965. They aim at a substantial inflow of $500 million in credits subject
to the program in 1968. There was an outflow of such credits of about $400
million in 1967.
Three types of restrictions were placed on the extension of foreign credits
by banks. (1) Ceilings on credits for most large banks were reduced to 103
percent of foreign credits outstanding on December 31, 1964. Priority within the ceiling is to be given to credits for financing American exports and
for supplying capital to less-developed countries. (2) In addition, banks are
called on not to renew at maturity outstanding term loans to developed
countries of continental Europe and not to relend the repayments of such
loans to residents of those countries. (3) Banks are also to reduce the amount
of short-term loans outstanding to developed countries of continental Europe by 40 percent of such credits outstanding on December 31, 1967, bringing them down at a minimum rate of 10 percent a quarter.
Parallel restrictions were also placed upon activities of nonbank financial
institutions such as insurance companies, finance companies, trust companies, and employee retirement and pension funds. It is expected that all
financial institutions will continue to cooperate fully in the program.




174

Government Expenditures Abroad
The impact of the Government's own expenditures abroad will be reduced
as part of the new program while still maintaining essential functions. The
President has directed
—the Secretary of State to negotiate with our NATO allies to minimize
the foreign exchange costs of keeping our troops in Europe;
—the Secretary of Defense to take steps to reduce further the foreign
exchange impact of personal spending by U.S. forces and their dependents in Europe;
—the Director of the Bureau of the Budget and the Secretary of State
to reduce by at least 10 percent the number of Government civilian
personnel working overseas and to curtail overseas travel abroad to
the minimum consistent with the orderly conduct of Government;
and
—the Administrator of the Agency for International Development to
reduce expenditures abroad by $100 million and take measures to
insure that goods exported from the U.S. under AID loans are additional to U.S. commercial exports.
These measures are aimed at saving $500 million in the balance of
payments.
Travel Account
In order to reduce the net travel deficit by $500 million, the President has
asked Americans to defer all nonessential travel outside the Western Hemisphere for two years; he also directed the Secretary of the Treasury to explore
with the appropriate congressional committees legislation to help achieve
that objective. Long-term efforts to attract more foreign visitors to the
United States are being intensified.
Trade Expansion
The new program also includes several long-range measures of improved
export financing and export promotion. Congress will be asked to earmark
$500 million of the Export-Import Bank's lending authority for a new export
expansion program designed to guarantee, insure, and make direct loans for
exports which do not fall under the Bank's existing criteria. The Bank will
also expand and liberalize its rediscount program to encourage private banks
to increase their financing of exports. Congress will also be asked to support
a five-year, $200 million program in the Department of Commerce to promote the sale of U.S. goods abroad. The Department plans to initiate a program of joint export associations to provide direct financial support to
American firms joining together to sell abroad.




175

PROSPECTS FOR 1968
The new program will have a major impact in reducing the U.S. deficit
this year. It should cut private capital outflows by more than $l*/2 billion
from 1967 levels. It aims to reduce net travel outflows by $500 million.
The impact of Government expenditures abroad will be reduced and
American exports stimulated. Moreover, the prompt and decisive action
taken by the United States should help to halt the speculation and anxiety
that led to some short-term capital outflows in the closing months of last
year. Long-term capital outflows in the form of security purchases will
continue to be restrained by the Interest Equalization Tax, which was extended in 1967 with new authority for the President to vary the rate of tax
within specified margins.
The condition of the U.S. domestic economy will have very great importance for the balance of payments. Prompt enactment of the tax surcharge
by the Congress and responsible wage and price decisions by American
labor and management are essential to insure that the growth of imports will
be moderate and that American business firms will have incentives to market
exports actively and competitively.
General business conditions abroad will also have a significant influence on the balance of payments in 1968. As appraised by OECD and
leading private experts, European economic growth is expected to improve
from the disappointing sluggishness of 1967.
To be sure, the new U.S. program will tend to reduce investment demand
and to tighten monetary conditions in Europe. However, most countries on
the continent are in a position to counter this tendency effectively with more
expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Both balance-of-payments conditions and the state of domestic demand call for more stimulative policies on
their part. As indicated in the discussion of the adjustment process, surplus
countries have a world responsibility to manage their economies in such a
way as to insure growth and to encourage expansion.
The possibility of a major improvement in U.S. trade this year, however,
is limited by several factors, including the improvement in the competitive
position of Britain provided by devaluation, the indicated forthcoming bulge
in steel imports in anticipation of a possible strike, and the recent good agricultural harvest in many countries which will limit the growth of exports
of farm products. Furthermore, a number of European countries, including
Germany, the Netherlands, and Austria, are instituting major changes in
their border tax arrangements this year in ways likely to encourage exports
and inhibit imports—contrary to the needs of world payments adjustment.
Diplomatic consultations have been initiated to mitigate the disadvantages to our trade which arise from differences in national tax systems.
The Administration is preparing legislative measures in this area; their
scope will depend on the outcome of these consultations.
Finally, the Common Market at midyear is scheduled to remove all remaining internal tariffs and to complete the adoption of a common external




176

tariff. The consequences of this action on U.S. trade will be moderated,
however, by the simultaneous implementation of the first tariff cuts by the
EEC under the Kennedy Round.
LONG-TERM PROSPECTS
A key element in the balance-of-payments outlook for the long run is our
ability to maintain and improve the competitive position of the United
States. It is difficult to trace the connection between competitive changes
and trade movements, but there is little doubt that an increase in relative
costs—which, in turn, raises relative prices—can impair a country's trade
performance, while reductions in relative costs can enhance its trade surplus.
Empirical evidence on costs is limited to manufactured goods, and even
there it is far from satisfactory. The data do make clear that, during much
of the decade of the 1950's, U.S. costs and prices rose faster than those of
our major competitors. We lost ground in international markets during that
period. Within recent years, however, the situation with respect to costs
was reversed. In manufacturing, U.S. unit labor costs (the largest element
in total costs) declined between 1961 and 1965, while costs in other countries except Canada increased substantially (Table 28). As a result, our
share of foreign markets in manufactured products stabilized, when intraEEC and intra-EFTA trade are excluded. In 1966, our costs increased about
as rapidly as the average of other countries. Comprehensive data are not
yet available for 1967, but our costs continued to rise, probably at a rate
exceeding that of most European countries.
TABLE 28.—Unit labor costs in manufacturing for selected industrialized countries
since 19611
[1961=100]
Country

1962

1964

1963

1965

1966 2

United States.—

99

98

98

97

99

Canada
France
Germany
Italy
Japan
United Kingdom.

99
107
107
107
109
103

98
112
110
118
114
102

97
117
110
123
111
103

99
119
117
120
118
108

103
116
123
118
125
113

* Ratio of wages, salaries, and supplements to production; national currency basis.
2
Preliminary.
Note.—Data relate to wage earners in Italy and to all employees in other countries.
Sources: Department of Labor and Council of Economic Advisers.

Many of our trading partners are facing fundamental structural changes
in their economies. The labor supply situation that permitted the period
of extremely rapid growth in Europe has altered fundamentally. The growth
of the European labor force in the next decade will be much smaller than
in the recent past, and less scope remains for shifting European labor out
of less efficient pursuits, such as agriculture, or out of unemployment into
industrial activity. This will mean greater European demands for labor-




177

saving machinery, in which U.S. producers hold a marked competitive edge;
it may also increase pressures in the European labor market and strengthen
the bargaining power of European workers. Finally, with the elimination
of all tariff barriers this year, internal EEC trade will no longer receive the
further benefit of periodic duty reductions. Therefore, with proper economic management at home, the United States has an excellent opportunity
to strengthen its trade surplus over time.
The development of European capital markets has proceeded at a substantial pace in the past few years, spurred partly by the U.S. voluntary
programs and the Interest Equalization Tax. The new program will provide
added incentives for the mobilization of long-term funds in European capital markets. This should, in the years ahead, tend to moderate the basic
demand for capital from the United States. The recent vast expansion in
U.S. business holdings overseas should also help by increasing the inflow
of earnings, dividends, royalties, and fees in the years ahead.
THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM
Because dollars are used as reserve assets, the U.S. balance of payments
is closely linked to the stability of the entire international monetary system.
THE GOLD-EXCHANGE STANDARD
In major part, existing international monetary arrangements are based
on the rules and institutions developed at the Bretton Woods Conference
in 1944, which established the IMF. The basic principles underlying the
Bretton Woods system call for the convertibility of one currency into another at essentially fixed exchange rates, with fluctuation around declared
parities limited to a narrow range. Changes in parities are to be made only
in cases of fundamental payments disequilibrium and upon prior consultation with the Fund.
Because demands for a nation's currency vary from time to time, and thus
receipts and payments do not balance exactly, a nation needs monetary
reserves to support the value of its currency in a fixed exchange rate system. Under the so-called gold-exchange standard, these "owned" reserves
are held both in gold and in certain foreign currencies. In fact, the dollar is
the principal reserve currency for most nations of the world, although the
pound sterling and the French franc also serve this purpose on a smaller
scale. Currencies are useful as reserve assets because they are convertible
amongst themselves, are claims on the real resources of issuing countries, and
can be held in interest-yielding, but still highly liquid, form. All countries
other than the United States meet their IMF obligations by buying and selling currencies, mostly dollars. The United States meets its basic commitment
under the Fund rules by freely buying and selling gold to foreign monetary
authorities at a fixed price of $35 an ounce. Gold maintains its reserve asset
status by being linked to the dollar and the IMF, and by tradition .




178

Reserves are the main line of defense for any nation which is seeking to
correct a payments deficit through an orderly adjustment. Multilateral
credit facilities serve as a further line of defense. The Fund provides mediumterm credits to assist members in overcoming temporary payments deficits
without resort to unduly restrictive international or domestic measures. This
system has been strengthened by the recent creation of a network of shortterm credit facilities among central banks and by the development of the
General Arrangements to Borrow, which enlists additional resources from
major industrial nations to help the Fund meet large credit needs.
These various credit facilities supplement but are not a substitute for
owned reserves. As has been clearly demonstrated in the past, in a world
of growing trade and payments, nations desire to hold a growing quantity
of monetary reserve assets. In order to increase their reserves, nations aim
for payments surpluses. If successful, the efforts of some countries to attain
surpluses must be reflected in deficits for other countries. Under present
arrangements, such a competitive effort to build reserves can lead to undesirably restrictive actions on domestic economies and on trade and capital flows.
In fact, world trade and output have grown rapidly in recent years. But
monetary reserves have increased slowly. If that sluggish pace continues,
it could inhibit the growth of economic activity. Total world reserves have
grown at an annual rate of 2.7 percent since 1960 (Chart 15), far below the
7.4 percent annual rate of expansion of world trade.
Of the major types of reserves, the dollar has contributed most of the increase in the total stock of monetary reserves. Gold has made very little contribution in the 1960's, and none at all in the past two years. Certain drawing
rights in the IMF, which are created as a byproduct of the credit operations
of the Fund, are automatically available to member nations and are thus
properly classified as reserve assets. These "super gold tranche" reserve assets have achieved some quantitative importance in recent years, but they
are also extinguished through specific credit operations.
A survey of future prospects makes it clear that neither gold nor the dollar
can be counted on to add substantially to total world reserves in the years
ahead.
GOLD RESERVES
Gold constituted 56 percent of total world monetary reserves in 1967
(excluding the Soviet Union and other Communist countries), a decline
from 72 percent in 1948. The supply of newly mined gold has been small
in relation to existing monetary stocks, and a large portion of new supplies
has been absorbed into private uses and holdings.




Chart 1 5

World Monetary Reserves
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS (end of period)

80

TOTAL RESERVES

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

I
1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967^

J/lNCLUDES IMF GOLD HOLDINGS.
2/DATA ARE FOR END OF THIRD QUARTER 1967.
SOURCE: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

Historical Background
In many respects, the recent decline in the importance of gold is an extension of a trend that began after World War I. That trend, in turn, reversed
the developments of the preceding half century when gold first achieved a
preeminent role.
Following the discovery of important new deposits in the middle of the
19th century, gold replaced silver as the standard of international finance
and became the predominant basis of the monetary system of most major
trading countries. Even in this period, the slow increase in monetary gold
threatened to act as a brake on economic development. However, new dis-




180

coveries, chiefly in South Africa, provided enough additional gold to keep
the system going.
After World War I, the gold standard was transformed into a less rigid
system. Gold holdings were increasingly concentrated in the hands of central
banks, while the public relied increasingly on paper currency and checking
accounts for domestic transactions. Many central banks kept all or part
of their international reserves in the form of claims on "key currencies"—
primarily the pound sterling and the dollar—themselves convertible into
gold. This system is the gold-exchange standard, which, after an interruption during the 1930's, has survived to the present day.
Private Demands
By developing the use of financial claims as reserves, the world has
learned to avoid the constraints imposed by the slow growth of gold stocks.
In the last few years, the importance of this development has become
especially great because gold production has leveled off, while the nonmonetary consumption of gold has increased rapidly. The physical properties
of gold, such as electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion, have
proved to be increasingly attractive in industrial applications. The use of
gold in jewelry and dentistry has more than kept pace with the rise in
world income. Commercial gold consumption in the United States amounted
to $220 million in 1966, and is rising at an annual rate of more than 10
percent. While there are no accurate worldwide data, gold consumption in
industry and the arts appears to be absorbing about $% billion a year. Production of newly mined gold (outside of Communist countries) now amounts
to about $1^2 billion a year, intermittently augmented by Russian gold
sales.
Hoarding and speculation also contribute to the private demand for
gold. Even if it were not illegal, most Americans would find gold an unattractive asset because it earns no interest and is expensive to store safely
or to insure. But many foreigners have reasons for thinking otherwise. Gold
can be more easily carried in emergencies or hidden (especially from the tax
collector) than bulkier assets. Also, in some parts of Asia, gold is the only
asset that a wife may own beyond the control of her husband. Furthermore,
there has also been some net acquisition of gold by private speculators who
were betting on an increase in the price of gold.
Quite apart from speculation, it is clear that gold can supply, at most,
a small fraction of the needed growth in world monetary reserves. The
monetary gold stock could grow no more than 2 percent a year on the basis
of present rates of mining less consumption in industry and the arts. Given
the prospect of growing commercial use, even that rate of growth may not
be achievable over time. Indeed, the world cannot count on any sustained
increase in monetary gold reserves in the long run. In fact, it is possible that,
over time, gold may gradually lose even its present importance as a monetary
reserve asset.




181

DOLLARS AS RESERVES
At the present time, liquid dollar holdings of foreign monetary authorities
amount to about $16 billion and are larger than the U.S. gold stock. The
United States could provide substantial further increases in foreign reserves
only by running continued large deficits. The persistence of such deficits
would impair confidence and thus endanger the link between gold and the
dollar, which is the essence of the gold exchange standard. The U.S. commitment to move toward payments equilibrium is designed to assure the
strength of the link, preserving the high quality of the dollar as a reserve
asset by limiting the increase in the quantity of dollars held abroad.
As another step to insure the strength of the dollar and thus of the gold
exchange standard, the President has proposed legislation to remove the
current "gold cover" requirement on domestic currency.
Removal of the Gold Cover
Under existing legislation, the Federal Reserve System is required to hold
a 25-percent reserve in gold against Federal Reserve note liabilities. Increasing amounts of gold are brought under the gold cover as the volume of
Federal Reserve notes expands to meet the needs of a growing economy. As
a domestic requirement, the gold cover is an anachronism. Appropriate
monetary policy is related to the over-all needs of the economy; and the
Federal Reserve Board exercises its authority in relation to those needs, not
in relation to our gold holdings.
The only real purpose for the United States to hold a gold stock is to
insure the international convertibility of the dollar. The growing amount of
gold needed to satisfy the gold cover requirement is approaching the level of
U.S. gold holdings. While there are provisions permitting the gold stock to
dip below the gold cover requirement, the retention of this statutory limit
serves no useful purpose. And its removal will make unmistakably clear
that our entire gold stock is available to defend the international convertibility of the dollar at its present parity.
MEETING RESERVE NEEDS
In view of the limited possibilities for gold and the dollar to provide
additional international monetary reserves, it is clear that positive action
must be taken to assure the growth in reserves essential to support expanding
world trade.
That need must be met in a more constructive way than by an increase in
the price of gold. As the President has repeatedly stated, the United States
is unalterably opposed to a rise in the price of gold. Such an action would
be both inefficient and inequitable. Its primary impact on reserves would
be achieved by a large "one-shot" write-up of the nominal value of gold
reserves, rather than by an assurance of continued steady growth. It would
stimulate a limited increase in gold production, but only by diverting scarce




182

resources into the production of a commodity for which there is no shortage
in nonmonetary use. It would give unearned windfall gains to major gold
producing nations, such as South Africa and the Soviet Union, while penalizing those countries, such as Japan and Sweden, which have supported
the gold exchange standard by holding reserves in dollars. It would not only
reward speculators but—more important—would encourage them in the
belief that further price rises were inevitable.
In rejecting an increase in the gold price as a means of expanding reserves, the United States can point toward a far more constructive alternative. Just as the gold exchange standard added key currencies as reserve
assets supplementing gold, now the key currencies must be supplemented
by appropriate new reserve assets. The decision to create such new reserve
assets is needed promptly. The threat that total reserves may not grow adequately in the future is a source of strain and uncertainty in the international
monetary system and an encouragement to speculation in gold and foreign
exchange markets.
To encourage the orderly progress of world trade and economic growth,
and to maintain confidence in international monetary arrangements, the
nations of the world must show decisively and promptly their determination to meet the need for growing reserves by creating an adequate supplement to gold and the dollar. The development of a supplemental reserve
asset, backed by the full faith and credit of participating nations, is the ideal
way to solve the problem. Such an asset can be universally accepted as a
supplement to gold and dollars and can be issued in quantities sufficient to
insure adequate growth of total monetary reserves. The outline plan for
international monetary reform, unanimously endorsed at the 1967 annual
meeting of the IMF in Rio de Janeiro, is a major forward step toward a
solution.
THE RIO AGREEMENT
The plan agreed upon in Rio represents the outcome of four years of intensive study and negotiation, involving the major industrial countries in the
so-called "Group of Ten" as well as the wider forum of the Fund. It provides for the establishment, within the IMF, of a new reserve facility for the
creation of Special Drawing Rights (SDR's), designed to "meet the need,
as and when it arises, for a supplement to existing reserve assets." SDR's
will be created by deliberate decision of IMF members and will be distributed to all participants in proportion to their Fund quotas. Countries
receiving these rights will be able to count them as part of their reserves.
Subject to certain rules described below, they can use them to settle balanceof-payments deficits or satisfy reserve needs by drawing on (i.e., exchanging
them for) convertible currencies of other countries. An amendment to the
Fund's Articles of Agreement that will express the new scheme in precise
legal terms is to be prepared by the Executive Directors of the IMF not later




183

than the end of March of this year, and will be submitted to member countries for ratification.
As President Johnson has indicated, the Rio agreement constitutes the
greatest forward step in the improvement of the international monetary
system since the creation of the Fund itself. For the first time in history,
the great majority of the world's nations, comprising all the members of the
IMF, has agreed to cooperate in the conscious and deliberate creation of a
new and permanent reserve asset, in amounts and at a pace systematically
geared to assure adequate growth of total international reserves.
Nature of the New Reserve Asset
Essentially, SDR's are claims giving their holders the unconditional right
to obtain convertible currencies from other members of the Fund to meet
balance-of-payments needs or unfavorable developments in a country's
total reserves. These claims are backed by the obligation of member countries to accept them in exchange for convertible currencies up to certain
limits.
In the design of the new asset, every effort has been made to assure that it
will be a true supplement to existing reserve assets and will, in fact, add to
the total of world reserves. In line with these considerations, SDR's will
carry a gold value guarantee and will be "as good as gold" for the settlement
of international payments. Indeed, since they can be used only for such
settlements, any newly created SDR's constitute a permanent addition to
the world's official monetary reserves. Unlike gold, they cannot be drained
into private hoards, and, unlike super gold tranche drawing rights, they
cannot be extinguished as the by-product of other Fund operations.
The new reserve asset will also have an advantage over gold in bearing
interest; at the same time the rate will be much lower than is available on
dollars and other reserve currencies. And they will, of course, not share the
dollar's unique role of serving simultaneously as a reserve asset and as the
world's principal transactions currency.
While SDR's will have all the essential characteristics of reserve assets,
the framers of the plan realized that it may take some time until participating countries become fully accustomed to this new asset. The plan therefore
places certain limitations on the ability of individual participating countries
to use SDR's and on their obligation to accept them. As the new asset becomes more familiar to the world through experience, it should become
increasingly possible to reduce or even eliminate such limitations.
The initial rules are designed to assure that the new reserve asset will be
smoothly integrated into the monetary system with existing assets. Under
them, the Fund will frequently act as a traffic policeman guiding transfers.
The rules require, first, that SDR's should be used only for balance-ofpayments needs or to meet reserve losses and not merely for the purpose of
shifting from one reserve asset into another.




184

Second, when SDR's are used for the acquisition of convertible currencies, the countries drawn upon should normally be in a solid balance-ofpayments position—as a result of either surpluses or strong reserves. And
the drawings are to be guided toward such countries in a way that will, over
time, provide a more or less proportionate relationship of the new asset to
total reserves. Thus it is assured that the holdings of the new asset will be
widely dispersed among participating nations.
Third, each participating country is obligated to accept SDR's in exchange
for convertible currency only up to the point where its total holdings
are three times the amount of such reserve assets that have been cumulatively allocated to it. This limits the obligation of any individual nation
while insuring ample scope for the effective use of the new asset.
Fourth, countries which have used SDR's in large amounts over an
extended period will have a limited obligation to reconstitute their holdings
over time. The rule provides that, during the first five years of the operation
of the plan, a country's average holdings should be at least 30 percent of
its average allocation over this period. In a very rough way, this requirement can be compared to a minimum average balance that a bank may
require on checking accounts.
Decisionmaking and Distribution
Following ratification of the Rio plan, the activation of the new facility
will require a separate set of decisions. Activation can only occur when the
Managing Director of the Fund, after careful study and upon consultations
with Fund members to assure him of the need for additional reserves, makes
a specific proposal as to the timing and the amount of SDR's to be created.
Final approval of the proposal requires an 85-percent majority of the voting
power of the participating countries, somewhat more than the 80-percent
vote required for quota increases in the Fund. In effect, it gives a veto power
not only to the United States but also to the countries of the Common Market, should they choose to vote as a group.
Since SDR's are designed to assure an adequate over-all growth of international reserves over time, decisions regarding the amount of SDR's to be
created will normally be made for a basic period ahead (such as five years),
with equal amounts to be issued during each of these years. The task of satisfying short-term variations in liquidity needs will thus continue to be left
to such existing mechanisms as the credit facilities of the Fund and the
network of central bank swap arrangements.
The new facility will be universally available to Fund members, without
discrimination—an important principle on which the United States placed
great stress during the course of the negotiations. Under this arrangement,
the United States would receive about $250 million out of each $1 billion
of SDR's created. The share of the Common Market countries as a group
would be about $180 million; of the United Kingdom, $116 million; of




185

Canada and Japan, about $35 million each; of other developed countries.
$107 million; and of the less-developed countries, $280 million.
In effect, the new drawing rights are to be created by the stroke of a pen,
but that stroke will commit the full faith and credit of participating countries behind the asset that they have jointly established. As is true in the case
of domestic money, the general and unconditional acceptability of such
monetary assets reflects confidence in the issuing agent. No one could ask
for a stronger issuing agent than the nations of the IMF banded together.
Paper monetary reserves are by no means new—sterling and dollars have
served as reserves for generations. What will be new is the reliance on a
reserve asset backed by a group of nations rather than a single one and
capable of being created by international decision.
The ratification of the Rio plan is still to come. And the implementation
and actual creation of SDR's are a further step away. Even when they are
created, it will take time for them to become established as a customary usable
reserve asset. But the world is now taking the decisive step of choosing to
travel this route. It is adopting, as a means of meeting the need for growing
reserves, a clear alternative to a rise in the monetary gold price.
The potentialities for this reserve asset are obvious and enormous. It need
not and will not displace gold and the dollar as reserve assets. But it will free
the world from concern about the supply and demand for gold.
While the creation of SDR's will not, in itself, solve the balance-of-payments problems of the United States or any other country, it will enable
countries to increase their reserves without pursuing mutually incompatible
payments goals. Thus, it should facilitate an orderly adaptation of other
countries' payments positions as the United States reduces its deficit, and
contribute to the general health and strength of the international monetary
system.
The Tasks Ahead
The developments of late 1967 have given special urgency to the early
ratification of the SDR facility. Indeed, activation of the facility in the
relatively near future may prove highly desirable to insure that the international monetary system will function with full effectiveness.
Several aspects of the current situation point toward the need for early
action. The world's monetary gold stock actually declined in 1967. There
are indications that inadequate reserve expansion may already be inhibiting
economic growth and the freedom of international transactions. Moreover,
successful implementation of the British devaluation will require a sharp
shift in Britain's payment position from a large deficit to a sizable surplus;
this will in turn call for reductions in surpluses and the incurring of deficits by
other major countries. Additional adjustments in the payments positions and
structures of major surplus countries will also be needed as a counterpart to
improvements in the U.S. balance of payments. These difficult adjustments
will be greatly facilitated if an adequate growth of total world reserves is
assured.




186

TRADE POLICIES
World trade has grown spectacularly in recent years. Between 1953
and 1966 it expanded by almost two and a half times, while world output of primary and manufactured products doubled. The growth of trade
relative to output has been an important factor in making this period the
most prosperous one in recorded history. It was fostered by the progressive liberalization of the commercial policies of the major trading nations.
The United States can take pride in its leading role in this liberalization.
KENNEDY ROUND
The Kennedy Round was the sixth venture at multilateral trade negotiations undertaken by the GATT since its creation in 1947. The growth of
regional trading blocs in Europe and elsewhere introduced a special urgency
and significance to the latest negotiations. The major nations of Europe had
divided themselves into two trading groups, the EEC and the EFT A. Each
group provided for eventual free trade among its members, accompanied
by a continuation of tariffs and other restrictions against nonmembers. While
these organizations have many desirable features, they can pose a threat
to the development of more liberal trading relations among nations that
belong to different groups and between group members and nonmembers
like the United States.
The United States' response to this challenge was the passage of the
Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which became the stimulus for the Kennedy
Round. This act permitted the President greater flexibility in bargaining for
lower tariffs and provided for adjustment assistance to American workers
and business firms that might be injured as a result of tariff concessions. The
negotiations were formally begun in May 1964 and were concluded after
many difficulties on June 30, 1967. Although some problems could not be
adequately overcome within the Kennedy Round, a remarkable degree of
tariff reduction was achieved. The results have been widely and accurately
acclaimed as a major accomplishment.
Features of the Agreement
The agreement includes tariff concessions covering about $40 billion of
world trade; the United States gave concessions on about $8.5 billion of
its imports while concessions by others cover the same amount of U.S.
exports. Tariff reductions of 50 percent were applied to numerous manufactured products and significant but smaller reductions were applied to
many others. For the four largest participants—the United States, the EEC,
the United Kingdom, and Japan—the weighted average reduction of tariffs
on manufactured products was about 35 percent. The U.S. tariff reductions
will generally take effect in five equal annual installments, the first of which
became effective on January 1, 1968. Some of our trading partners took a




187

similar step at the same time, but others will wait until midyear and then
make 40 percent of their reductions.
Certain manufactured products required special negotiations; these included chemicals, cotton textiles, and iron and steel. Chemical products
posed a particularly difficult problem, which was resolved by making two
separate agreements. The first is incorporated in the multilateral tariffreducing agreement providing for a stipulated unconditional reduction of
chemical tariffs by the United States and other countries.
The second is conditional upon legislative action by the United States to
remove the special valuation method now applied by U.S. tariff regulations
on benzenoid chemicals. Under legislation adopted in 1922, when the American chemical industry was still in an "infant" stage, the U.S. tariff rate for
competitive benzenoid chemicals is applied to the price of similar products
made by domestic producers rather than to the actual price of imports. If
the United States adopts the normal valuation practice on these items, certain of its major trading partners will further reduce chemical tariffs and
will also lower some nontariff barriers.
Agricultural products were also considered in the Kennedy Round and
proved to be especially troublesome. However, significant tariff concessions
were finally agreed upon. Those by other nations cover about $870 million
of U.S. exports. Our concessions covered about the same amount of U.S.
imports. The other major accomplishment in agriculture was the negotiation of a grains agreement. It provides for a higher minimum price for wheat
than existed under the old International Wheat Agreement, and involves
an increase of about 15 percent in U.S. export prices. It also provides for a
multilateral food aid program equivalent to 4.5 million tons of cereals a
year, of which the United States would contribute 42 percent.
While these steps are encouraging, the degree of restriction remaining on
international trade in agricultural products—particularly through nontariff
barriers—still greatly exceeds that on manufactured goods. Nevertheless,
the Kennedy Round went further than previous negotiations in the agricultural area. Furthermore, the principle embodied in the food aid agreement may have great significance over the long run, because it recognizes
that responsibility in the international war on hunger extends to all countries, not just to the United States and the other major food exporting
nations. If the world's need for food should outrun supplies in the years
ahead, this agreement could become the pattern for an international
corrective program.
The United States made particular efforts to reduce tariffs on products
of special interest to less-developed countries. It granted concessions on
more than $900 million of such products without attempting to obtain full
reciprocity.
Another element in the Kennedy Round package was the successful
negotiation of an international antidumping code. This accord is consistent
with existing American laws which safeguard our industry, and it commits




188

our trading partners to insure fair procedures to American exporters. Also
as part of the negotiation, a three-year extension of the long-term cotton
textile arrangement was concluded.
Consequences of the Tariff Reductions
The amount of existing trade covered by tariff cuts in the Kennedy Round
does not reflect the potential expansion of trade which is one of the key
benefits of the tariff reductions. New U.S. export opportunities will be
created. Moreover, American producers will experience lower costs as a
result of reduced tariffs on many inputs. The welfare of American consumers will be enhanced by lower prices of goods of both domestic and
foreign origin.
Exports. American exports will be stimulated from two sources. First,
as tariffs abroad are reduced, our exporters will have an opportunity to
compete on a more equal footing in the domestic markets of foreign producers. Second, the tariff advantage in favor of member nations over nonmembers within the EEC and EFTA will be reduced, thereby enabling
American exporters to compete more effectively in these large markets. For
example, because the EEC tariff on pumps and compressors will be reduced
from 12 to 6 percent when the Kennedy Round reductions are completed, German pumps will have only a 6-percent preferential edge over
American pumps in the Dutch market as compared to the 12 percent they
now enjoy.
Inputs. A second major gain from the Kennedy Round will come from
the reduction of American tariffs on materials and components used by
American manufacturers. Both the imported items and the competing domestic materials will be cheaper, and production costs will thereby be reduced. As a consequence, the competitive position of American manufacturers using these inputs will be improved in both export and domestic
markets.
To cite only one example, tariffs on a wide range of steel alloying materials will be progressively reduced. This should reduce the costs of producing alloy steels, and of machine tools, machinery and equipment manufactured from such steels, thus strengthening the competitive position of
our machinery industries in export markets.
Consumer Goods. The Kennedy Round also provides benefit to American consumers from U.S. tariff reductions. Consumers will enjoy reduced
prices on imported goods and also on American products that compete with
imports. If the full reduction is passed on, for instance, the 50-percent drop
in tariffs on wooden furniture is the equivalent of price reductions of 5
to 10 percent. Further, in the climate of more liberal trade, foreign producers will be encouraged to market new products to American consumers.
Adjustment Strains. A full evaluation of the impact of the Kennedy
Round must recognize that there may be some adverse effects as well. The
increases in imports resulting from reduced U.S. tariffs can cause discom-

189
294-593 O—68



13

fort for certain American industries. Imports, however, still amount to only
3 percent of our GNP, and can hardly pose insuperable adjustment problems, even in the short run. The overwhelming majority of American industries that face brisk competition from imports can adjust in stride. American business knows how to respond to shifting domestic and international
competitive pressures, and its responses are generally beneficial to the entire
economy. But a few American industries may need help to meet the competitive challenge; and that aid should be given through temporary Government support to improve efficiency. Adjustment assistance is essential
to meet the limited costs the Kennedy Round may impose in a few areas
while maintaining its large benefits for the entire Nation.
Legislative Tasks
The 1962 act provided for adjustment assistance in cases of injury arising
from tariff reductions, but the legislated criteria for eligibility have proven to
be excessively restrictive. These criteria can and should be liberalized without
opening the door to possible abuse, and the President is asking for the necessary congressional action to this effect.
Assistance for workers includes the payment of readjustment allowances
directly to those who are obliged to seek alternative employment as a result
of tariff reductions. The allowances can also be paid while workers are taking part in on-the-job training. The Government can also provide for testing,
counseling, training, and placement services to promote a swift and smooth
transfer. Adjustment assistance can be provided to injured firms to permit them to adapt their product lines or lower their costs in order to meet
new competitive conditions. Such a solution within the affected firms is
particularly desirable because it avoids dislocation in the employment of
workers and in the use of capital. The offices of the Department of Commerce can make technical assistance available. Financial aid can be provided through loans or loan guarantees. Tax relief is offered through extension of the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code for the carryback and
carryforward of business losses.
A second urgent legislative requirement is the elimination of the American
selling price system. This action is needed to assure the full benefit of lower
chemical tariffs abroad and to win important concessions on certain foreign
nontariff barriers, as well as to provide the United States with a uniformly
rational valuation system.
It is essential that Congress not enact legislation that would reverse or
jeopardize our long-term efforts and policies to promote liberal trade. Bills
were introduced into the Congress in 1967 to impose new legislated quotas
on textiles, apparel, steel, meat and meat products, mink furs, lead and zinc,
groundfish fillets, baseball gloves and mitts, consumer electronic products,
scissors and shears, hardwood plywood, ferro-alloys, potash, flat glass, ball
and roller bearings, and stainless steel flatware. Other bills sought to tighten
restrictions on petroleum and petroleum products and dairy products. The
value of the imports covered by specific bills amounts to over $6 billion. If




190

general quota provisions were adopted along lines proposed in some bills,
$12 billion or more of imports would be affected.
If enacted, quota bills could severely harm our economy in several
ways. Quotas would deprive American producers and consumers of flexible import supplies that help to moderate shortages. Quotas also would
exert upward pressures on prices at a time when price stability is a critical
national objective. Furthermore, protected American industries would be
insulated from competitive forces abroad. Many of these industries need the
invigorating influence of foreign competition, and should not be permitted
to relax behind high protective barriers.
Finally, and perhaps most seriously, our exports would certainly suffer
from quota restrictions on imports. Some exports would be lost simply because importing countries would have less foreign exchange. But more importantly, foreign governments would surely take advantage of their rights
under the GATT to retaliate against whichever American products they may
choose. In the end, we would have sacrificed the interests of more efficient
industries and businesses for the sake of protecting less competitive elements
in the economy; we would have jeopardized the creation of higher paying
jobs in order to preserve low-wage jobs; and we would have traded international cooperation for international economic warfare. A move toward
protectionism would also hurt our balance of payments. The rising trade
surplus counted upon to help achieve payments equilibrium would be impossible in a world of widespread trade restrictions. For all of these reasons,
a liberal commercial policy is the only rational policy for the United States.
TRADE WITH LESS-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
It is of vital interest to the United States and other developed countries
that less-developed countries achieve an adequate rate of economic growth.
Probably the most important way that the developed countries can support this goal is to maintain healthy rates of growth of their own economies.
The higher rate of growth of the industrialized nations in the 1960's as
compared with the 1950's was a major factor in the more rapid growth
of less-developed countries' exports (Table 29). But the developed countries can also promote development of poor nations through their trade and
aid policies.
TABLE 29.—Growth of exports of less-developed countries in two selected periods
Percentage change per year
in export value
Export group

All commodities
Primary products
Manufactured products.
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.




UNCTAD
The United States will soon participate with about 130 other nations in
the second session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in New Delhi. This conference takes as its starting point
the recognition that access to the markets of the industrialized countries is
essential to the economic growth of less-developed countries.
The industrialization of a poor country enlarges its need for foreign
exchange. It generates increased demands for goods which can be produced domestically only at great cost. This is especially true of countries
with small markets, which cannot support the efficient production of many
manufactures, such as basic metals, machinery, and transport equipment.
Only seven less-developed countries have gross national products in excess
of $10 billion—less than the output of the State of Connecticut. But even
the larger less-developed countries must look abroad for their supplies of
most technically complex manufactured goods.
The export performance of less-developed countries depends in part on the
policies followed by these countries themselves. In the area of manufactured
exports, a few developing nations have been quite successful, particularly
in those goods requiring relatively large amounts of unskilled labor. Other
countries could probably follow suit if they pursue well-designed policies to
provide education and training for labor, and to encourage investment in
export-oriented industries.
Realization of the potential also depends on commercial policies of the
developed countries. According to calculations made by the research staff
of the UNCTAD secretariat, the average tariffs on manufactured products
of particular interest to the less-developed countries are somewhat higher
and were reduced somewhat less in the Kennedy Round than the average
rates of duty on other products. Furthermore, some of the manufactured
exports of interest to less-developed countries are restrained by quantitative
restrictions and other nontariff barriers.
In order to improve the access of the less-developed countries to the
markets of the industrial nations, the OECD countries have approved the
outline of a scheme of generalized nonreciprocal tariff preferences to be
granted by all developed member nations to all less-developed countries.
This outline will be presented to the less-developed countries at the meeting
in New Delhi. It is hoped that the task of working out the elements of
such a preferential scheme can then be undertaken. The adoption of a system
of generalized preferences would help to check the proliferation of discriminatory preferences and to keep the world trading community from
fragmenting into preferential trading blocs.
The proposed trade preferences should be viewed as a supplement to
other efforts by advanced nations to assist the development of poor countries. For many countries, economic growth and export capabilities require
foreign aid in the form of developmental capital as well as improved trading




192

opportunities. Foreign aid from the United States and the encouragement
of increased aid by others—particularly countries in balance-of-payments
surplus—is and will continue to be an important aspect of U.S. foreign policy. The replenishment of the capital funds of the International Development Association is currently being negotiated, and the United States hopes
that its resources will be increased substantially.
Stabilizing Export Earnings
The development programs of less-developed countries have often been
hampered by the uncertainties arising from wide variations in earnings
from primary products. The uncertainties can be reduced by commodity
agreements and by special financing arrangements to meet temporary
reductions in export earnings.
Commodity Agreements. Most underdeveloped countries have relied on
primary products for the bulk of their export earnings. A number of these
countries have had unfortunate experiences with their primary product
exports, either because of export instability, or because of slow long-term
growth, or even long-term decline, of export receipts from particular
products.
New exports are frequently not introduced even when the value of
traditional exports is declining. In part, this is because the natural resources
(agricultural land, mineral deposits) on which certain primary exports
are based have few alternative uses. The low skill level of workers and the
technological backwardness of industry make it difficult for these countries
to break into the market for manufactured goods and some primary
products. Exchange rates and monetary policies may also discourage development of new exports. It is encouraging to note, however, that in the
1960's some less-developed countries whose main export products have been
stagnant have achieved high rates of growth of other exports.
Countries experiencing highly fluctuating or declining prices for their
exports have attempted to set up commodity agreements. A typical agreement creates a buffer stock, which purchases the commodity when the
price falls below a predetermined floor, and sells from the stock when the
price rises above a predetermined ceiling. Such agreements can help primary producers achieve more stable prices, although they cannot insure
stable export proceeds for individual countries when supplies vary. The
United States favors commodity agreements designed to stabilize prices
and stands ready to support efforts by less-developed countries to move resources out of the production of commodities in chronic surplus.
Primary producers sometimes attempt through commodity agreements to
raise prices above the long-term equilibrium level. They rarely succeed.
Maintenance of a price above long-run cost requires restrictions on supply;
the necessary export quotas are extremely hard to negotiate and to enforce.




193

Financing. Multilateral financing facilities can help less-developed countries formulate and carry out development plans in the face of export uncertainties. A step in this direction was taken in 1963 when the IMF created its
compensatory finance facility. Under this program, as liberalized in 1966, a
less-developed country may borrow for a term of three to five years, up to 50
percent of its IMF quota when its exports fall below a medium-term trend
for reasons beyond its control. Under new proposals for "supplementary
finance", which will* be discussed at UNCTAD, countries experiencing deep
or protracted shortfalls disruptive of development could receive longer term
loans on concessional terms.
CONCLUSION
The course of international economic relations in the postwar period
justifies a basic optimism about the future, but it also suggests that careful
action is needed if this favorable experience is to continue. The gold exchange standard, reinforced by the Bretton Woods agreements, has proved
to be flexible enough to support a prodigious expansion of world trade, which
was also stimulated by a gradual reduction in tariffs and other restrictions.
Under present circumstances, there is a clear need for a new demonstration of the flexibility of the system. The creation of adequate reserves has
come to depend on a deficit in the U.S. balance of payments which has long
been a matter of concern but which now has to be dealt with decisively. This
will reqjuire a resolute and continuing attack on inflationary pressures in our
domestic economy and various measures in the field of international transactions. The present situation calls for the cooperation of all countries,
especially those with persistent surpluses, in bringing about better equilibrium
in international payments. It is also essential to provide for new reserve assets
to supplement gold and the dollar.
There are still many obstacles to overcome before the international monetary system is fully adapted to the needs of the present and the foreseeable
future, but fortunately there is increasing awareness that these obstacles can
and must be surmounted through multilateral cooperation. The hopes of
the free world depend on our success in meeting this challenge.




194

Appendix A
REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF
THE COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS DURING 1967




195




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
JANUARY 5,

1968.

T H E PRESIDENT.

SIR : The Council of Economic Advisers submits this Report on its activities during the calendar year 1967 in accordance with the requirements
of Congress, as set forth in section 4(d) of the Employment Act of 1946.
Respectfully,
GARDNER ACKLEY, Chairman.




JAMES S. DUESENBERRY.
ARTHUR M.

197

OKUN.




Report to the President on the Activities of the
Council of Economic Advisers During 1967
The year 1967 was one of intensive activity for the Council of Economic
Advisers. The period of economic readjustment between the inflationary
boom of 1966 and the renewed advance that became so clearly evident late
in 1967 demanded careful watch and continuous analysis of the sometimes
uncertain economic signals. Convinced through this watch and analysis that
a second-half recovery was developing along the lines of its forecast of last
January, which threatened to become too exuberant in 1968, the Council
contributed in a major way to the development of the President's fiscal
program of last August, as well as the budgetary program for fiscal year
1969. Late in the year, it participated intensively in developing the balanceof-payments program announced on January 1, 1968.
Throughout the year, its studies contributed to the development and
evaluation of programs to deal with emerging problems in employment
and unemployment, manpower training and utilization, farm problems and
policies, energy resources, environmental protection, income maintenance,
consumer problems, monetary policy and financial markets, tax structure,
export expansion, housing and urban affairs, the war on poverty, budgetary
concepts, stockpile policy, Federal statistics, international economic cooperation, international monetary reform, and many others.
As in earlier years, the Council continued to give leadership to the Government's efforts to induce responsible restraint on the part of business and
labor in price and wage decisions. Although its failures to obtain desired
cooperation were obvious to all, it also had significant successes which must
remain confidential.
COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP

Gardner Ackley, Arthur M. Okun, and James S. Duesenberry continued
to serve as Council members in 1967, with Mr. Ackley as Chairman. Messrs.
Ackley and Duesenberry were on leave from the University of Michigan
and Harvard University, respectively. As the President announced on January 1, Mr. Ackley has been nominated as Ambassador to Italy and will be
leaving the Council shortly. Mr. Okun has been designated to succeed to the
Chairmanship, and Merton J. Peck of Yale University has been nominated
as the new member of the Council.




199

Following is a list of all past Council members and their dates of service:
Position

Name
Edwin G. Nourse
Leon H. Keyserling
JohnD. Clark
Roy Blough
Robert C. Turner..
Arthur F. Burns
Neil H. Jacoby.
Walter W. Stewart
Joseph S. Davis
Raymond J. Saulnier
Paul W. McCracken.
Karl Brandt
Henry C. Wallich
James Tobin
Kermit Gordon
Walter W. Heller
John P. Lewis
Otto Eckstein

_

Chairman
Vice Chairman
Acting Chairman
Chairman
Member
Vice Chairman
Member
Member
Chairman
Member
Member
Member
Member
Chairman
Member
Member
Member
_.. Member
Member
Chairman
Member
Member

Oath of office date
August 9,1946
August 9,1946
November 2t 1949..
May 10, 1956
August 9,1946
May 10,1950
June 29,1950
September8,1952
March 19,1953
September 15,1953
December 2,1953
May 2t 1955
April 4,1955
December 3,1956
December 3,1956
November 1,1958
May 7,1959
January 29,1961
January 29,1961
January 29, 1961
May 17,1963
September 2,1964

Separation date
November 1,1949.
January 20, 1953.
February 11, 1953.
August 20, 1952.
January 20,1953.
December 1,1956.
February 9.1955.
April 29, 1955.
October 31,1958.
January 20,1961.
January 31,1959.
January 20,1961.
January 20,1961.
July 31,1962.
December 27,1962.
November 15,1964.
August 31, 1964.
February 1,1966.

COUNCIL STAFF

At the end of 1967, members of the Council's professional staff were
John F. Burton, Jack W. Carlson, Christopher K. Clague, Thomas F.
Dernburg, Peter P. Dorner, Catherine H. Furlong, Raymond W. Goldsmith, Hendrik S. Houthakker, Saul H. Hymans, Frances M. James, Lawrence B. Krause, David W. Lusher, Carey P. Modlin, Joseph D. Mooney,
Saul Nelson, Roger G. Noll, Frank W. Schiff, and Charles B. Warden, Jr.
Each year a number of staff members who have joined the Council on
a temporary basis return to their posts in private life or in Government.
Those leaving the Council in 1967 were Henry J. Aaron, Shirley M. Almon,
G. Paul Balabanis, Guy Black, Donald E. Cullen, Stanley L. Friedlander,
Stephen M. Goldfeld, David T. Kresge, Wilfred Lewis, Jr., and Alfred
Reifman.
Continuing its practice of asking leading members of the economics profession to assist in the analysis of economic problems, the Council in 1967
called on the following consultants: Henry J. Aaron, James T. Bonnen,
William H. Branson, Richard N. Cooper, John T. Dunlop, Otto Eckstein,
Stephen M. Goldfeld, Kermit Gordon, Walter W. Heller, Myron L. Joseph,
David T. Kresge, Susan J. Lepper, Wilfred Lewis, Jr., Paul W. MacAvoy,
Edwin S. Mills, Richard A. Musgrave, Joseph A. Pechman, Merton J. Peck,
George L. Perry, Melvin Rothbaum, R. Robert Russell, Paul A. Samuelson,
Warren L. Smith, Robert M. Solow, Daniel B. Suits, Charles A. Taff, Paul
J. Taubman, Lester C. Thurow, James Tobin, Robert C. Turner, and
Lloyd Ulman.
The Council continued its graduate student intern program, which was
started in 1961. Those working with the Council for various periods in 1967
were Glenn Brewster, Albert J. Eckstein, Lawrence J. Fulco, James J.




200

Heckman, Dale W. Henderson, Peter Isard, Robert I. Lerman, Stephen
P. Magee, Myron G. Myers, Ralph E. Pochoda, Dennis M. Roth, Richard
L. Schmalensee, Courtenay M. Slater, Earl M. Unger, and Andrew J.
Winnick. Research assistants included Carol S. Burke, Charlotte Fremon,
Claudia D. Goldin, Helen Reynolds, and Elizabeth A. Rothman.
As in the past, the Council received loyal and energetic assistance from
its nonprofessional staff. Members of this staff at the end of 1967 were Dorothy Bagovich, Teresa D. Bradburn, Louis P. Brighthaupt, Gladys R.
Durkin, Catherine Fibich, James W. Gatling, Elizabeth F. Gray, Laura B.
Hoffman, Christine L. Johnson, Bessie M. Lafakis, Betty Lu Lowry, Eleanor
A. McStay, A. Keith Miles, Joyce A. Pilkerton, Earnestine Reid, Gail Roberts, Lucille F. Saverino, Bettye T. Siegel, Daisy M. Sindelar, Nancy F.
Skidmore, Margaret L. Snyder, Carolyn T. Welch, and Elizabeth A. Zea.
COUNCIL ACTIVITIES

The Council of Economic Advisers was established as an agency of the
Federal Government nearly 22 years ago by the Employment Act of 1946.
Under the Act, the Council is charged with the responsibility of analyzing
and interpreting economic developments and of recommending economic
policies that will promote the goals of "maximum employment, production,
and purchasing power."
The Council's chief responsibility is to keep the President fully informed
of economic developments and emerging problems which may affect the
Nation's economy. To meet this responsibility, the Council continuously
reviews economic conditions, undertakes special studies of particular problem areas, and makes recommendations concerning Government programs
and policies. The Council confers regularly with all major Government
agencies having responsibilities in the economic field.
The Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget,
and the Chairman of the Council and their respective staffs (the "Troika")
provide the President with a continuous joint assessment of the economic
and budgetary outlook for the current and subsequent fiscal years. The
heads of the "Troika" agencies and their associates, together with the
Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, meet
periodically as the "Quadriad" with the President to discuss domestic and
international monetary problems.
In addition to its regular and informal consultations with other Government agencies, the Council and its staff in 1967 participated with other agencies in a large variety of more formal committees, task forces, and studies.
The Council and its staff represent the United States in a number of
important international conferences. The Council Chairman heads the U.S.
delegation to the meetings of the Economic Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and mem-




201

bers of the Council and its staff this year participated in a dozen or more
other international meetings under the auspices of the OEGD. The Chairman was a member of the U.S. Cabinet-level delegations which meet
annually with similar delegations of the Canadian and Japanese Governments. The Council also was involved in activities of the U.N. Economic
Commission for Europe.
An important responsibility of the Council is to explain and clarify the
Administration's economic policies, both within the Government and to the
public at large. This is done through numerous speeches, articles, press
briefings, statements, congressional testimony, its Annual Report, and by
assisting the President in the preparation of his Economic Report. The
Council meets frequently and informally with many individuals and groups
both from the United States and abroad, including businessmen, bankers,
labor leaders, government officials, university scholars and students, members of the press corps, and interested private citizens, and more formally
with a number of advisory groups, including the President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy and the Business Council's Liaison
Committee with the Council of Economic Advisers.
The Council prepares two documents for publication. One is the Economic
"Report of the President, together with the Annual Report of the Council
of Economic Advisers. Over 73,000 copies of the 1967 Report were distributed to Members of the Congress, Government officials, the press, depository libraries, or sold to the public by the Superintendent of Documents. The
second is the monthly Economic Indicators. This important compilation of
current economic statistics has been prepared since 1948 at the Council under
the direction of Miss Frances M. James, and is published by the Joint Economic Committee of the Congress. More than 10,000 copies are furnished to
Members of Congress and depository libraries, or sold to the public every
month.




202

Appendix B
STATISTICAL TABLES RELATING TO INCOME,
EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTION




203




CONTENTS
National
B-l.
B-2.
B-3.
B-4.
B-5.

income or expenditure:
Gross national product or expenditure, 1929-67
Gross national product or expenditure, in 1958 prices, 1929-67
Implicit price deflators for gross national product, 1929-67
Gross national product by major type of product, 1929-67
Gross national product by major type of product, in 1958 prices,
1929-67
B-6. Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures by major economic
groups, 1929-67
B-7. Gross national product by sector, 1929-67
B-8. Gross national product by sector, in 1958 prices, 1929-67
B-9. Gross national product by industry, in 1958 prices, 1947-66
B-10. Personal consumption expenditures, 1929-67
B-l 1. Gross private domestic investment, 1929-67
B-12. National income by type of income, 1929-67
B-l3. Relation of gross national product and national income, 1929-67
B-14. Relation of national income and personal income, 1929-67
B-15. Disposition of personal income, 1929-67
B-l6. Total and per capita disposable personal income and personal consumption expenditures, in current and 1958 prices, 1929-67
B-17. Sources of personal income, 1929-67
B-18. Sources and uses of gross saving, 1929-67
B-19. Financial saving by individuals, 1939-67
B—20. Number and money income of families and unrelated individuals,
1947-66

Population, employment, wages, and productivity:
B-21. Population by age groups: Estimates, 1929-67, and projections, 1970-85.
B-22. Noninstitutional population and the labor force, 1929-67
B-23. Civilian employment and unemployment, by sex and age, 1947-67.. .
B-24. Selected unemployment rates, 1948-67
B-25. Unemployment by duration, 1947-67
B-26. Unemployment insurance programs, selected data, 1940-67
B-27. Wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments, 1929-67.
B-28. Average weekly hours of work in selected nonagricultural industries,
1929-67
B-29. Average gross hourly earnings in selected industries, 1929-67
B-30. Average gross weekly earnings in selected nonagricultural industries,
1929-67
B-31. Average weekly hours and hourly earnings, gross and excluding overtime, in manufacturing industries, 1939-67
B—32. Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, total private nonagricultural industries, in current and 1957-59 prices, 1947-67
B—33. Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, in manufacturing
industries, in current and 1957-59 prices, 1939-67
B-34. Indexes of output per man-hour and related data, private economy,
1947-67

205
284-593 0—68



14

page
209
210
212
214
215
216
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
230
231
232
233
234
236
237
238
239
240
242
243
244
245
246
247
248

Production and business activity:
B-35. Industrial production indexes, major industry divisions, 1929-67
B—36. Industrial production indexes, market groupings, 1947—67. . .
B-37. Industrial production indexes, selected manufactures, 1947-67
B-38. Manufacturing output, capacity, and utilization rate, 1948-67
B-39. Business expenditures for new plant and equipment, 1939 and 194568
B-40. New construction activity, 1929-67
B-41. New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929-67
B-42. Sales and inventories in manufacturing and trade, 1947-67. .
B-43. Manufacturers' shipments and inventories, 1947-67
B-44. Manufacturers' new and unfilled orders, 1947-67
Prices:
B-45.
B-46.
B-47.
B-48.
B-49.

Consumer price indexes, by major groups, 1929-67
Consumer price indexes, by special groups, 1935-67
Consumer price indexes, selected commodities and services, 1935-67..
Wholesale price indexes, by major commodity groups, 1929-67
Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing, 1947-67

Money supply, credit, and finance:
B-50. Money supply, 1947-67
B-51. Bank loans and investments, 1929-67
B-52. Selected liquid assets held by the public, 1946-67
B-53. Federal Reserve Bank credit and member bank reserves, 1929-67. . . .
B-54. Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-67
B—55. Short- and intermediate-term consumer credit outstanding, 1929—67.
B-56. Instalment credit extended and repaid, 1946-67
B-57. Mortgage debt outstanding, by type of property and of financing,
1939-67
B-58. Net public and private debt, 1929-67

Page
249
250
251
252
253
254
256
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
266
268
269
270
271
272
274
275
276
277

Government finance:
B-59. Federal budget receipts, outlays, financing, and debt, 1958-69
B-60. Federal budget receipts and outlays, 1958-69
B-61. Relation of the receipt-expenditure account of the Federal Government to the Federal sector of the national income and product
accounts, 1967-69
B—62. Receipts and expenditures of the Federal sector of the national income
and product accounts, 1946-69
B-63. Federal finances under the old concepts, fiscal years 1929-69
B-64. U.S. Government debt, by kind of obligation, 1929-67
B-65. Estimated ownership of U.S. Government obligations, 1939-67
B-66. Average length and maturity distribution of marketable interest-bearing public debt, 1946-67
B-67. Receipts and expenditures of the Government sector of the national income and product accounts, 1929-67
B-68. State and local government revenues and expenditures, selected fiscal
years, 1927-66




206

278
280

282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289

Corporate profits and
finance:
B-69. Profits before and after taxes, all private corporations, 1929-67
B-70. Sales, profits, and stockholders' equity, all manufacturing corporations (except newspapers), 1947-67
B—71. Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders' equity and to sales, all
manufacturing corporations (except newspapers), by industry group,
1947-67
B-72. Sources and uses of funds, nonfarm nonfinancial corporate business,
1956-67
B-73. Current assets and liabilities of United States corporations, 1939-67. .
B-74. State and municipal and corporate securities offered, 1934-67
B-75. Common stock prices, earnings, and yields, and stock market credit,
1939-67
B-76. Business formation and business failures, 1929-67
Agriculture:
B-77. Income from agriculture, 1929-67
B-78. Farm production indexes, 1929-67
B—79. Farm population, employment, and productivity, 1929—67
B-80. Indexes of prices received and prices paid by farmers, and parity ratio,
1929-67
B-81. Selected measures of farm resources and inputs, 1929-67
B-82. Comparative balance sheet of agriculture, 1929-68
International statistics:
B-83. United States balance of payments, 1947-67
B-84. United States merchandise exports and imports, by commodity groups,
1958-67
B-85. United States merchandise exports and imports, by area, 1961-67
B-86. United States overseas loans and grants, by type and area, fiscal years
1962-67
B-87. International reserves, 1949, 1953, and 1962-67
B-88. United States reserve assets: Gold stock, holdings of convertible foreign
currencies, and reserve position in the International Monetary
Fund, 1946-67
B—89. Price changes in international trade, 1959—67
B—90. Consumer price indexes in the United States and other major industrial countries, 1955-67

General Notes
Detail in these tables will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Unless otherwise noted, all dollar figures are in current prices.
Symbols used:
v
Preliminary.
__ Not available (also, not applicable).
* Amount insignificant in terms of the particular unit (e.g., less than
$50 million where unit is billions of dollars).




207

Page
290
291
292
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
304
305
306
308
309
310
311
312
313
314




NATIONAL INCOME OR EXPENDITURE
TABLE B-l.—Gross national product or expenditure, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]

Year or quarter

Total
gross
national
product

Government purchases of goods and services

Personal
consumption
expenditures^

Gross
private
domestic
investment2

Net
exports
of goods
and
services 3

Federal4
Total
Total

National
defense5

Other

State
and
local

1929..

103.1

77.2

16.2

1.1

8.5

1.3

1.3

7.2

1930..
19311932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

90.4
75.8
58.0
55.6
65.1
72.2
82.5
90.4
84.7
90.5

69.9
60.5
48.6
45.8
51.3
55.7
61.9
66.5
63.9
66.8

10.3
5.6
1.0
1.4
3.3
6.4
8.5
11.8
6.5
9.3

1.0

9.2
9.2
8.1
8.0
9.8
10.0
12.0
11.9
13.0
13.3

1.4
1.5
1.5
2.0
3.0
2.9
4.9
4.7
5.4
5.1

1.4
1.5
1.5
2.0
3.0
2.9
4.9
4.7
5.4
1.2

3.9

7.8
7.7
6.6
6.0
6.8
7.1
7.0
7.2
7.6
8.2

1940..
1941..
1942..
19431944..
1945..
19461947..
1948..
1949..

99.7
124.5
157.9
191.6
210.1
211.9
208.5
231.3
257.6
256.5

70.8
80.6
88.5
99.3
108.3
119.7
143.4
160.7
173.6
176.8

13.1
17.9
9.8
5.7
7.1
10.6
30.6
34.0
46.0
35.7

14.0
24.8
59.6
88.6
96.5
82.3
27.0
25.1
31.6
37.8

6.0
16.9
51.9
81.1
89.0
74.2
17.2
12.5
16.5
20.1

2.2
13.8
49.4
79.7
87.4
73.5
14.7
9.1
10.7
13.3

3.8
3.1
2.5
1.4
1.6
.7
2.5
3.5
5.8
6.8

8.0
7.9
7.7
7.4
7.5
8.1
9.8
12.6
15.0
17.7

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

284.8
328.4
345.5
364.6
364.8
398.0
419.2
441.1
447.3
483.7

191.0
206.3
216.7
230.0
236.5
254.4
266.7
281.4
290.1
311.2

54.1
59.3
51.9
52.6
51.7
67.4
70.0
67.8
60.9
75.3

1.7
1.3
*
-2.0
-1.8
-.6
7.5
11.5
6.4
6.1
1.8
3.7
2.2
.4
1.8
2.0
4.0
5.7
2.2
.1

37.9
59.1
74.7
81.6
74.8
74.2
78.6
86.1
94.2
97.0

18.4
37.7
51.8
57.0
47.4
44.1
45.6
49.5
53.6
53.7

14.1
33.6
45.9
48.7
41.2
38.6
40.3
44.2
45.9
46.0

4.3
4.1
5.9
8.4
6.2
5.5
5.3
5.3
7.7
7.6

19.5
21.5
22.9
24.6
27.4
30.1
33.0
36.6
40.6
43.3

I960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..
1965..
1966..
1967*.

503.7
520.1
560.3
590.5
632.4
683.9
743.3
785.1

325.2
335.2
355.1
375.0
401.2
433.1
465.9
491.6

74.8
71.7
83.0
87.1
94.0
107.4
118.0
112.1

4.0
5.6
5.1
5.9
8.5
6.9
5.1
5.0

99.6
107.6
117.1
122.5
128.7
136.4
154.3
176.3

53.5
57.4
63.4
64.2
65.2
66.8
77.0
89.9

44.9
47.8
51.6
50.8
50.0
50.1
60.5
72.6

8.6
9.6
11.8
13.5
15.2
16.7
16.5
17.3

46.1
50.2
53.7
58.2
63.5
69.6
77.2
86.4

1965: I . . .
II..
III.
IV..

662.7
675.4
690.0
708.4

420.2
428.1
436.4
447.8

105.1
105.1
108.2
112.3

6.1
8.2
7.4
6.1

131.3
133.9
138.1
142.3

64.3
65.4
67.6
69.8

48.4
49.2
50.3
52.4

15.9
16.2
17.3
17.4

66.9
68.6
70.4
72.5

1966: I . . .
II..
III.
IV..

725.9
736.7
748.8
762.1

458.2
461.6
470.1
473.8

115.2
118.5
116.4
122.2

6.1
5.4
4.6
4.3

146.5
151.2
157.7
161.7

72.1
74.9
79.5
81.5

55.1
58.4
63.0
65.6

17.1
16.6
16.6
15.9

74.3
76.2
78.1
80.2

1967: I . . . .
II...
III...

766.3
775.1
791.2
807.6

480.2
489.7
495.3
501.4

110.4
105.1
112.2
120.7

5.3
5.3
5.4
4.0

170.4
175.0
178.2
181.5

87.1
89.5
90.9
92.0

70.2
72.5
73.3
74.3

16,8
17! 0
17.6
17.7

83.3
85.4
87.4
89.5

!4
.4
.6
.1
.1
.3
1.3
1.1

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

IV p .

»See Table B-10 for major components.
2See Table B-ll for detailed components.
3 See Table B-6 for exports and imports separately.
« Net of Government sales.
5
This category corresponds closely to the national defense classification in the "Budget of the United States Government for the Fiscal Year ending June 30,1969."
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




209

TABLE B-2.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1958prices, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars, 1958 prices]

Personal consumption
expenditures

Year or
quarter

Total
gross
national
product

Gross private domestic investment
Fixed investment

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Nonresidential
Services

Total

J
Total

Structures

/producers'
durable
equipment

Total

Residential
structures

Change
in businessinventories

1929..

203.6

139.6

16.3

69.3

54.0

40.4

36.9

26.5

13.9

12.6

10.4

3.5

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
19361937..
1938..
1939..

183.5
169.3
144.2
141.5
154.3
169.5
193.0
203.2
192.9
209.4

130.4
126.1
114.8
112.8
118.1
125.5
138.4
143.1
140.2
148.2

12.9
11.2
8.4
8.3
9.4
11.7
14.5
15.1
12.2
14.5

65.9
65.6
60.4
58.6
62.5
65.9
73.4
76.0
77.1
81.2

51.5
49.4
45.9
46.0
46.1
47.9
50.5
52.0
50.9
52.5

27.4
16.8
4.7
5.3
9.4
18.0
24.0
29.9
17.0
24.7

28.0
19.2
10.9
9.7
12.1
15.6
20.9
24.5
19.4
23.5

21.7
14.1
8.2
7.6
9.2
11.5
15.8
18.8
13.7
15.3

11.8
7.5
4.4
3.3
3.6
4.0
5.4
7.1
5.6
5.9

9.9
6.6
3.8
4.3
5.6
7.5
10.3
11.8
8.1
9.4

6.3
5.1
2.7
2.1
2.9
4.0
5.1
5.6
5.7
8.2

-.6
-2.4
-6.2
-4.3
-2.7
2.4
3.1
5.5
-2.4
1.2

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

227.2
263.7
297.8
337.1
361.3
355.2
312.6
309.9
323.7
324.1

155.7
165.4
161.4
165.8
171.4
183.0
203.5
206.3
210.8
216.5

16.7
19.1
11.7
10.2
9.4
10.6
20.5
24.7
26.3
28.4

84.6
89.9
91.3
93.7
97.3
104.7
110.8
108.3
108.7
110.5

54.4
56.3
58.5
61.8
64.7
67.7
72.1
73.4
75.8
77.6

33.0
41.6
21.4
12.7
14.0
19.6
52.3
51.5
60.4
48.0

28.1
32.0
17.3
12.9
15.9
22.6
42.3
51.7
55.9
51.9

18.9
22.2
12.5
10.0
13.4
19.8
30.2
36.2
38.0
34.5

6.8
8.1
4.6
2.9
3.8
5.7
12.5
11.6
12.3
11.9

12.1
14.2
7.9
7.2
9.6
14.1
17.7
24.6
25.7
22.6

9.2
9.8
4.9
2.9
2.5
2.8
12.1
15.4
17.9
17.4

4.9
9.6
4.0
-.2
-1.9
-2.9
10.0
-.2
4.6
-3.9

i950.
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

355.3
383.4
395.1
412.8
407.0
438.0
446.1
452.5
447.3
475.9

230.5
232.8
239.4
250.8
255.7
274.2
281.4
288.2
290.1
307.3

34.7
31.5
30.8
35.3
35.4
43.2
41.0
41.5
37.9
43.7

114.0
116.5
120.8
124.4
125.5
131.7
136.2
138.7
140.2
146.8

81.8
84.8
87.8
91.1
94.8
99.3
104.1
108.0
112.0
116.8

69.3
70.0
60.5
61.2
59.4
75.4
74.3
68.8
60.9
73.6

61.0
59.0
57.2
60.2
61.4
69.0
69.5
67.6
62.4
68.8

37.5
39.6
38.3
40.7
39.6
43.9
47.3
47.4
41.6
44.1

12.7
14.1
13.7
14.9
15.2
16.2
18.5
18.2
16.6
16.2

24.8
25.5
24.6
25.8
24.5
27.7
28.8
29.1
25.0
27.9

23.5
19.5
18.9
19.6
21.7
25.1
22.2
20.2
20.8
24.7

8.3
10.9
3.3
.9
-2.0
6.4
4.8
1.2
-1.5
4.8

I960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964.
1965..
1966..
1967 i

487.7
497.2
529.8
551.0
581.1
616.7
652.6
669.2

316.1
322.5
338.4
353.3
373.7
398.4
418.0
429.9

44.9
43.9
49.2
53.7
59.0
66.4
71.3
72.1

149.6
153.0
158.2
162.2
170.3
178.9
187.7
192.8

121.6 72.4
125.6 69.0
131.1 79.4
137.4 82.5
144.4 87.8
153.2 98.0
159.1 105.6
164.9 96.9

68.9
67.0
73.4
76.7
81.9
89.1
93.0
92.1

47.1
45.5
49.7
51.9
57.8
66.0
72.8
73.0

17.4
17.4
17.9
17.9
19.1
21.9
23.6
21.8

29.6
28.1
31.7
34.0
38.7
44.1
49.2
51.2

21.9
21.6
23.8
24.8
24.2
23.2
20.2
19.2

3.5
2.0
6.0
5.8
5.8
8.8
12.6
4.7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: I
II—III
IV

601.5
609.7
620.7
634.4

389.1
394.1
400.7
409.9

65.0
64.1
66.8
69.5

174.7
178.0
179.3
183.6

149.4 95.9
152.0 95.9
154.6 98.3
156.8 101.6

86.6
87.9
89.6
92.4

62.9
64.5
66.7
69.7

20.4
21.7
21.8
23.6

42.5
42.8
44.9
46.2

23.7
23.4
23.0
22.6

9.3
8.0
8.7
9.2

1966: I
II....
III....
IV....

645.4
649.3
654.8
661.1

416.2
415.2
420.4
420.4

73.0
69.3
71.9
71.1

185.8
187.7
188.8
188.4

157.3
158.2
159.8
160.9

104.0
106.5
103.6
108.4

94.5
93.1
93.0
91.2

71.8
71.7
73.6
74.2

24.2
23.4
23.7
23.0

47.5
48.3
49.9
51.2

22.8
21.4
19.4
17.0

9.5
13.4
10.6
17.2

1967: I
ll_...
Ill—
IV *_.

660.7
664.7
672.0
679.4

424.2
430.6
431.5
433.2

69.7
72.9
72.7
73.0

191.8
193.6
192.8
193.2

162.6 96.9
164.1 91.3
166.0 96.4
167.1 102.9

90.2
90.9
92.9
94.5

73.0
72.6
73.2
73.2

22.9
21.7
21.5
21.2

50.1
51.0
51.7
51.9

17.3
18.3
19.7
21.3

6.7
.4
3.5
8.4

See footnote at end of table.




210

TABLE B-2.—Gross national product or expenditure, in 1958 prices, 1929—67—Continued
[Billions of dollars, 1958 prices]
Net exports of goods and services

Government purchases of goods and
services

Year or quarter
Net
exports

Exports

Imports

Total

Federal i

State and
local

1929

1.5

11.8

10.3

22.0

3.5

18.5

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1.4
.9
.6

10.4
8.9

24.3
25.4
24.2
23.3
26.6
27.0
31.8
30.8
33.9
35.2

4 0
4.3
4.6
6.0
8.0
7.9
12.2
11.5
13.3
12.5

20.2
21.1
19.6
17.3
18.6
19.2
19.6
19.4
20.6
22.7

.3
-1.0
-1.2
-.7
1.9
1.3

.

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

.

.

.
.

.
..

1950
1951
1952
1953..
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965....
1966
1967 v

.

..

-.

.-

7.1
7.3
7.7
8.2
98
9.9
10.0

2.1
4
-2.1
-5.9
-5 8
-3.8
8.4
12.3
6.1
6.4

11 0
11.2
7.8
6.8
7.6
10.2
19.6
22.6
18.1
18.1

8.9
10.8
9.9
12.6
13.4
13.9
11.2
10.3
12.0
11.7

36.4
56.3
117.1
164.4
181.7
156.4
48.4
39.9
46.3
53.3

15.0
36.2
98.9
147.8
165.4
139.7
30.1
19.1
23.7
27.6

21.4
20.1
18.3
16.6
16.3
16.7
18.4
20.8
22.7
25.7

2.7
53
30
1.1
3.0
3.2
5.0
62
2.2
.3

16.3
19 3
18.2
17.8
18.8
20.9
24.2
26.2
23.1
23.8

13.6
14.1
15.2
16.7
15.8
17.7
19.1
19.9
20.9
23.5

52.8
75.4
92.1
99.8
88.9
85.2
85.3
89.3
94.2
94.7

25.3
47.4
63.8
70.0
56.8
50.7
49.7
51.7
53.6
52.5

27.5
27.9
28.4
29.7
32.1
34.4
35.6
37.6
40.6
42.2

43
5.1
4.5
5.6
8.3
6.0
44
3.8

.

9.0
7.9
6.6
7.1
7.1
8.7
9.3
10.5
8.0
8.7

27.3
28.0
30.0
32.1
36.5
37.5
40.8
42.5

23.0
22.9
25.5
26.6
28.2
31.5
36.4
38.7

94.9
100.5
107.5
109.6
111.2
114.3
124.5
138.6

51.4
54.6
60.0
59.5
58.1
57.8
64.7
74.0

43.5
45.9
47.5
50.1
53.2
56.4
59.9
64.6

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
. ..
....

1966: 1
II
Ill
IV.
1967: 1 .
II
III
IV v

..

5.2
6.8
6.4
5.6

33.5
38.9
38.5
38.9

28.4
32.1
32.1
33.3

111.3
112.9
115.3
117.4

56.3
57.1
58.5
59.3

55.0
55.8
56.7
58.0

5.4
4.8
4.1
3.2

1965: 1
||
III
IV

40.3
40.4
41.4
41.2

34.9
35.6
37.3
38.0

119.9
122.7
126.6
129.1

61.2
63.4
66.4
67.8

58.7
59.4
60.1
61.3

4.1
4.1
4.2
2.9

42.4
42.3
42.8
42.7

38.3
38.2
38.6
39.9

135.5
138.7
139.9
140.4

72.3
74.4
75.1
74.4

63.2
64.3
64.9
66.0

1
Net of Government sales.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




211

TABLE B-3.—Implicit price deflators for gross national product, 1929-67
[Index numbers, 1958=100]
Gross private domestic investmentl

Personal consumption
expenditures
Total
gross
national
product^

Year or quarter

Fixed investment
Nonresidential

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Services

Total
Total

Structures

Producers'
durable
equipment

Residential
structures

1929

50.6

55.3

56.4

54.5

56.1

39.4

39.9

35.7

44.6

38.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

49.3
44.8
40.2
39.3
42.2
42.6
42.7
44.5
43.9
43.2

53.6
47.9
42.3
40.6
43.5
44.4
44.7
46.5
45.6
45.1

55.3
49.1
43.2
41.9
44.7
43.7
43.6
45.8
46.7
46.0

51.6
44.1
37.7
38.0
42.7
44.5
44.8
46.4
44.0
43.2

55.7
52.7
48.3
43.6
44.3
44.4
45.0
46.8
47.7
47.7

37.9
35.2
31.6
30.6
33.7
34.3
34.6
37.8
38.2
37.7

38.1
35.8
32.9
31.6
34.9
35.9
35.6
38.8
39.3
38.7

34.0
31.1
27.6
27.9
28.9
30.6
30.2
34.4
33.9
33.1

43.0
41.1
39.1
34.5
38.8
38.7
38.5
41.4
43.0
42.2

37.1
33.6
27.3
27.1
30.1
29.8
31.3
34.3
35.5
35.7

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

43.9
47.2
53.0
56.8
58.2
59.7
66.7
74.6
79.6
79.1

45.5
48.7
54.8
59.9
63.2
65.4
70.5
77.9
82.3
81.7

46.5
50.4
59.3
64.2
71.5
75.9
76.8
82.7
86.3
86.8

43.8
47.7
55.6
62.5
66.2
68.7
74.3
83.6
88.5
85.6

47.9
49.8
52.7
55.3
57.5
58.7
62.7
67.9
72.1
74.3

39.0
42.0
46.5
49.3
51.1
51.5
58.5
66.7
73.9
74.7

40.0
42.7
47.8
49.9
51.0
51.0
56.3
64.5
70.7
72.8

33.9
36.4
41.3
46.8
48.6
49.2
54.4
64.4
71.5
71.2

43.4
46.3
51.5
51.1
51.9
51.7
57.5
64.6
70.3
73.6

36.9
40.3
43.3
47.0
51.6
54.9
59.7
71.7
80.8
78.5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

80.2
85.6
87.5
88.3
89.6
90.9
94.0
97.5
100.0
101.6

82.9
88.6
90.5
91.7
92.5
92.8
94.8
97.7
100.0
101.3

87.8
94.2
95.4
94.3
92.9
91.9
94.9
98.4
100.0
101.4

86.0
93.3
94.3
93.9
94.2
93.6
94.9
97.7
100.0
99.9

76.3
80.0
83.6
87.7
90.0
92.0
94.6
97.3
100.0
103.0

77.5
83.1
85.3
86.6
86.8
89.0
94.0
98.5
100.0
102.6

74.4
80.4
82.6
84.0
84.8
86.7
92.4
97.9
100.0
102.2

72.9
79.3
83.2
84.9
86.0
88.1
93.4
98.6
100.0
102.7

75.2
80.9
82.2
83.5
84.0
85.9
91.8
97.5
100.0
102.0

82.5
88.6
90.8
91.9
90.4
92.9
97.4
99.8
100.0
103.1

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 '

103.3
104.6
105.8
107.2
108.8
110.9
113.9
117.3

102.9
103.9
104.9
106.1
107.4
108.7
111.5
114.4

100.9
100.6
100.8
100.4
100.4
99.5
98.6
100.0

101.2
101.9
102.8
104.0
104.9
106.9
110.6
112.8

105.8
107.6
109.0
110.9
113.1
114.8
118.3
122.5

103.4
103.9
104.9
106.0
107.6
110.0
112.5
116.1

102.9
103.4
104.1
104.5
105.7
107.7
110.2
113.1

104.0
105.6
107.1
108.9
111.1
114.6
118.4
122.8

102.2
102.1
102.3
102.3
103.0
104.2
106.2
108.9

104.5
105.0
106.7
108.9
112.3
116.4
120.9
127.9

1965* 1
II
Ill
IV

110.2
110.8
111.2
111.7

108.0
108.6
108.9
109.2

100.3
100.0
99.0
98.6

105.7
106.6
107.3
107.9

114.0
114.6
115.0
115.6

109.1
110.0
110.2
110.9

107.0
107.4
107.8
108.5

113.3
113.9
115.1
116.1

103.9
104.1
104.2
104.7

114.7
115.4
117.4
118.2

1966: 1
||
III
IV

112.5
113.5
114.4
115.3

110.1
111.2
111.8
112.7

98.0
98.4
98.7
99.4

109.4
110.3
111.0
111.6

116.6
117.8
118.7
119.9

111.4
112.2
112.8
113.7

109.1
109.7
110.4
111.6

116.8
117.7
118.9
120.1

105.1
105.8
106.3
107.7

118.7
120.4
122.0
123.2

1967: 1
II
III
IV v

116.0
116.6
117.7
118.9

113.2
113.7
114.8
115.7

99.5
99.5
100.1
101.0

111.7
112.2
113.3
114.0

120.9
121.9
123.0
124.2

114.4
115.0
116.8
118.2

112.2
112.2
113.2
114.6

121.0
121.5
123.8
125.0

108.2
108.3
108.8
110.3

123.8
126.2
129.9
130.8

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




212

TABLE B-3.—Implicit price deflators for gross national product, 1929-67—Continued
[Index numbers, 1958=100]
Exports and imports 1of
goods and services

Government purchases of goods
and services

Gross national product by
sectors

Year or quarter
Exports

Imports

Total

Federal

State and
local

Private2

General
government

1929

59.5

57.3

38.6

36.0

39.1

51.7

34.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

52.3
41.0
34.7
33.7
40.6
42.3
43.4
46.5
43.8
44.1

49.0
39.3
31.5
28.8
33.6
36.0
36.7
40.7
37.9
38.6

37.9
36.3
33.4
34.5
36.8
37.0
37.6
38.4
38.3
37.9

34.1
34.5
31.9
33.1
37.4
37.0
40.5
40.7
40.5
40.8

38.7
36.6
33.8
35.0
36.6
37.0
35.9
37.1
36.8
36.3

50.4
45.7
40.9
39.9
43.0
43.5
43.4
45.3
44.6
43.9

34.1
34.5
33.7
33.5
34.8
34.7
36.5
36.5
37.4
36.8

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

48.6
53.0
61.5
65.2
69.9
71.3
75.4
87.3
92.7
87.0

40.8
43.0
48.3
51.2
53.2
56.4
64.9
79.4
86.4
82.2

38.5
44 0
50.9
53.9
53.1
52.6
55.8
62.9
68.1
71.0

40.2
46 6
52.5
54.9
53.8
53.1
57.3
65.6
69.8
73.0

37.3
39 2
42.3
44.6
46 1
48.6
53 2
60.4
66.4
68.9

44.7
48.7
55.5
60.9
62.0
62.6
68.2
76.3
81.4
80.6

36.0
34.7
37.3
39.7
43.3
48.3
55.4
58.5
60.8
64.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
195 \
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

84.9
97.0
98.8
95.2
94.3
94.9
97.5
101.3
100.0
98.8

88.7
107.2
103.6
99.1
100.8
100.6
102.5
104.0
100.0
99.3

71.8
78.5
81.0
81.8
84.1
87.1
92.1
96.4
100.0
102.4

72.9
79.4
81.2
81.4
83.5
86.9
91.7
95.8
100.0
102.2

70 8
76.9
80 6
82.8
85 3
87.5
92.7
97.3
100.0
102.6

81.4
87.4
89.0
89.6
90.8
91.6
94.5
97.9
100.0
101.4

67.1
70.5
74.4
76.6
79.5
84.0
88.7
93.3
100.0
104.2

1960
1961.
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967i»

99.9
101.9
100.8
100.6
101.5
104.5
105.4
106.7

101.0
100.1
98.5
99.5
101.5
102.4
104.1
104.3

105.0
107.1
109.0
111.8
115.7
119.4
123.9
127.1

104.2
105.2
105.6
108.0
112.2
115.5
119.1
121.4

105.9
109.4
113.2
116.3
119.5
123.4
129.0
133.8

102.8
103.7
104.7
105.8
107.0
108.9
111.6
114.7

108.6
113.6
116.6
121.5
128.4
133.5
139.2
144.5

1965: 1
II
III
IV

104.6
104.6
104.7
104.1

102.0
101.3
102.7
103.3

117.9
118.7
119.8
121.2

114.3
114.5
115.5
117.6

121.6
122.9
124.2
124.9

108.3
108.8
109.1
109.5

131.4
132.3
134.0
136.4

1966: 1
II
III
IV

104.4
105.0
105.4
106.7

103.2
104.0
104.8
104.3

122.2
123.1
124.6
125.2

117.9
118.3
119.7
120.2

126.6
128.3
129.9
130.8

110.2
111.2
112.0
112.9

137.4
138.1
140.0
141.0

125.8
126.1
127.4
129.3

120.5
120.3
121.0
123.6

131.9
132.9
134.7
135.6

113.5
114.0
115.1
116.1

142.3
143.4
144.5
147.9

....

1967: 1
II
III
IV p.

1 Separate deflators are not available for total gross private domestic investment, change in business inventories, and
net exports of goods and services.
2 Gross national product less compensation of general government employees. See also Tables B-7 and B-8.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




213

TABLE B-4.—Gross national product by major type of product, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]

Goods output
Total
gross
Total
InvenFinal
natory
tional sales change
product
Total Final

Year or
quarter

goods sales

Durable goods

II
c to

Final
Total sales

Nondurable goods

Final
Total sales

Serv- Strucices tures

Gross
auto
product

5.S

54.3

1.7

17.5

16.1

1.4

38.5

38.2

0.3

35.6

11.4

90.7
77. C
60.5
57.2
65.8
71.2
81.2
87.9
85.6
90.1

17
_ 4
-1 1
-2 5
-1 6
—7
1.1
1. 3
2
—9
4

56.1

90.4
75. f
58. C
55.6
65.1
72.2
82.5
90.4
84.7
90.5

46.9
37.4
26.7
27.0
34.4
39.9
45.8
51.5
45.3
49.0

47.3 - . 4
38.6 - 1 . 1
29.2 - 2 . 5
28.6 - 1 . 6
35.1 - . 7
38.8 1.1
44.5 1.3
48.9 2.5
46.2 - . 9
.4
48.6

11.4
7.7
3.6
4.9
7.4
9.3
12.2
13.9
9.9
12.7

12.5
9.0
5.7
5.4
7.3
8.9
11.2
13.1
10.8
12.4

-1.0
-1.2
-2.0
-.5
.1
.3
.9
.8
-.9
.3

35.5
29.7
23.1
22.1
27.0
30.6
33.6
37.6
35.4
36.3

.7
34.8
.1
29.6
23.6 - . 4
23.2 - 1 .
27.8 - . 9
29.9
33.3
!3
35.8 1.8
35.4
36.2

34.2
31.7
27.5
25.7
27.1
28.3
31.0
32.3
33.2
34.0

9.2
6.7
3.8
2.9
3.5
4.0
5.6
6.7
6.2
7.5

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

99.7
124.5
157.9
191.6
210.1
211.9
208.5
231.3
257.6
. . 256.5

97.5
120.1
156.2
192.2
211.1
213.0
202.1
231.8
252.9
259.6

22
4. 5
1. 8
—6
1 0
-1. 0
6.4
—b
4.7
-3. 1

56.0
72.5
93.6
120.4
132.3
128.9
124.9
139.7
154.2
147.5

53.8 2.2
68.0 4.5
91.9 1.8
121.0 - . 6
133.3 - 1 . 0
129.9 - 1 . 0
118.5 6.4
140.1 - . 5
149.4 4.7
150.5 - 3 . 1

16.6
26.8
35.5
54.2
57.9
48.9
36.9
46.0
48.7
47.8

15.4 1.2 39.3 38.4 1.0 35.4
23.8 3.0 45.6 44.2 1.4 40.3
34.5 1.0 58.1 57.4
.7 50.3
54.2
* 66.2 66.8 - . 6 62.5
o
58.5 - . 6 74.4 74.8
71.8
50.2 -1.3 80.0 79.7
.*2 76.5
31.6 5.3 88.0 86.9 1.1 68.0
44.3 1.7 93.7 95.9 -2.2 70.2
48.0
.7 105.5 101.5 4.0 75.7
49.9 -2.1 99.7 100.6 -1.0

8.3
11.8
14.0
8.7
6.1
6.5
15.6
21.4
27.7
28.3

7.2
8.8
11.9

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

284.8
328.4
345.5
364.6
364.8
398.0
419.2
441.1
447.3
483.7

278.0
318.1
342.4
364.1
366.4
392.0
414.5
439.8
448.8
478.9

6. 8
10. 3
3. 1
4
-1. 5
6. 0
4. 7
1. 3
-1. 5
4. 8

162.4
189.7
195.6
204.1
197.1
216.4
225.4
234.6
230.8
249.1

155.6 6.8
179.4 10.3
192.5 3.1
.4
203.7
198.6 - 1 . 5
210.4 6.0
220.7 4.7
233.3 1.3
232.3 - 1 . 5
244.4 4.8

60.4
73.7
74.6
79.4
72.1
85.7
90.3
94.4
83.6
95.6

56.3 4.1 102.0 99.3 2.7 87.0
66.8 6.9 116.0 112.6 3.4 101.2
73.5 1.1 121.0 119.1 2.0 110.8
78.5
.9 124.8 125.2 - . 5 118.8
74.6 -2.5 125.0 124.1 1.0 123.5
82.7 3.0 130.7 127.7 2.9 132.6
87.5 2.8 135.1 133.2 1.9 142.3
93.1 1.3 140.2 140.2
154.2
86.4 -2.8 147.2 145.9 1.3 163.4
93.2 2.3 153.6 151.1 2.4 176.2

35.4
37.5
39.1
41.7
44.2
49.0
51.5
52.3
53.1
58.3

15.4
13.5
12.0
16.3
14.6
21.2
16.9
19.5
14.5
19.1

I960..
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 v

503.7
520.1
560.3
590.5
632.4
583.9
743.3
785.1

500.2
518.1
554.3
584.6
626.6
674.5
729.9
780.0

3.6
2.0
6.0
5. 9
5.8
9.4
13. 4
5. 1

259.6
262.3
284.5
298.6
319.4
346.6
379.6
396.2

256.0 3.6 99.5
260.2 2.0 96.5
278.5 6.0 109.0
292.7 5.9 116.1
313.6 5.8 127.0
337.2 9.4 139.5
366.2 13.4 154.6
391.1 5.1 158.8

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

103.1 101.4

_.

97.4 2.1 160.1 158.6
96.6 - . 1 165.8 163.7
106.2 2.8 175.5 172.2
113.3 2.8 182.5 179.4
122.8 4.2 192.4 190.7
132.8 6.7 207.1 204.4
144.7 9.9 225.0 221.5
155.9 2.8 237.5 235.2

1.5
2.1
3.2
3.1
1.6
2.7
3.5
2.3

187.3
199.5
213.3
226.2
244.2
262.9
287.2
311.0

56.8!
58.3
62.6
65.7
68.8
74.4,
76.5
77.8

21.4
17.9
22.5
25.1
25.8
31.4
29.8
27.7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: L - . . I
II...
Ill—
IV...

662.7
675.4
690.0
708.4

652.0
666.5
680.6
698.5

10.6
8.8
9.4
9.9

336.5
341.7
349.6
359.8

325.9 10.6 138.2 129.6
332.8 8.8 137.0 130.0
340.2 9.4 140.9 133.9
349.9 9.9 142.9 137.9

8.7
7.0
7.1
5.0

198.3
204.7
208.7
216.9

196.3
202.9
206.3
212.0

2.0
1.8
2.3
4.9

254.6
260.1
266.0
271.0

71.6
73.6
74.4
77.6

32.8
30.8
30.6
31.3

1966: I . . . .
II...
Ill —
IV...

725.9
736.7
748.8
762.1

716.0
722.6
737.4
743.6

9.9
14.0
11.4
18.5

369.5
375.7
381.8
391.7

359.6 9.9 150.5 143.2 7.4
361.7 14.0 151.4 141.6 9.7
370.3 11.4 155.7 145.8 9.9
373.2 18.5 161.1 148.3 12.8

219.0
224.4
226.1
230.6

216.4
220.1
224.5
224.9

2.5
4.3
1.5
5.7

276.6
283.5
291.6
296.9

79.9
77.4
75.5
73.5

32.3
29.1
28.2
29.6

1967: l _ . . .
II...
III —
IV P . .

766.3
775.1
791.2
807.6

759.2
774.6
787.4
798.7

7.1
.5
3.8
9.0

388.1
392.1
398.7
406.1

380.9
391.6
394.9
397.1

150.5 3.4 234.2
156.0 - . 6 236.6
157.9 3.5 237.3
159.3 5.1 241.8

230.5
235.5
237.0
237.8

3.7
1.1
.3
4.0

303.1
307.8
313.5
319.7

75.2
75.2
79.0
81.9

25.0
27.8
27.9
30.0

7.1
.5
3.8
9.0

153.9
155.5
161.4
164.4

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




214

TABLE B-5.—Gross national product by major type of product, in 1958 prices, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars, 1958 prices]
Goods output

Year or
quarter

Total
gross
Total
na- Final Inventory
tional sales change
product
Total Final
goods sales

3.5 103.9 100.4

1929

203.6 200.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

183.5
169.3
144.2
141.5
154.3
169.5
193.0
203.2
192.9
209.4

184.1
171.7
150.5
145.9
157.0
167.1
189.9
197.8
195.3
208.2

-.6
-2.4
-6.2
-4.3
-2.7
2.4
3.1
5.5
-2.4
1.2

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946.
1947
1948
1949

227.2
263.7
297.8
337.1
361.3
355.2
312.6
309.9
323.7
324.1

222.3
254.1
293.8
337.3
363.2
358.2
302.6
310.1
319.1
328.1

9.6
4.0
-.2
-1.9
-2.9
10.0
-.2
4.6

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954. . . . . .
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

355.3
383.4
395.1
412.8
407.0
438.0
446.1
452.5
447.3
475.9

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965....
1966....
1967 v

487.7
497.2
529.8
551.0
581.1
616.7
652.6
669.2

90.5
83.2
68.7
68.8
77.9
88.6
102.2
110.2
100.5
110.7

Durable goods

II
3.5

91.1 - . 6
85.7 - 2 . 4
74.9 - 6 . 2
73.2 - 4 . 3
80.5 - 2 . 7
86.2 2.4
99.1 3.1
104.8 5.5
102.9 - 2 . 4
109.5 1.2

4.9 124.0 119.0

Final
Total sales

Serv- Strucices tures

Final
Total sales
2-S

2.7

70.4

69.5

0.8

69.3

24.5
19.2
13.4
13.4
16.7
20.6
.9
26.3 2.4
29.1 1.9
23.4 -2.3
27.0
.6

68.0
67.0
60.4
57.
61.0
67.1
73.5
79.2
79.4
83.0

66.5
66.5
61.5
59.8
63.8
65.6
72.8
75.7
79.5
82.5

1.5
.5
-1.1
-2.7
-2.8
1.5
.7
3.6
-.1
.6

67.7
65.8
61.9
63.0
65.3
68.1
73.3
73.9
74.8
76.9

25.3
20.2
13.7
9.8
11.1
12.8
17.5
19.1
17.7
21.8

88.4
93.4
100.9
101.7
108.
113.7
117.4
112.2
117.1
116.2

86.2
90.3
99.7
102.4
109.3
113.6
116.0
113.8
113.8
117.1

Gross
auto
product

30.3

22.4
16.3
8.3
11.7
16.9
21.5
28.7
31.0
21.1
27.6

-2.1
-3.0
-5.1
-1.7
.2

33.6

30.9

If

Nondurable goods

-3.9

143.4
158.1
187.4
204.8
198.0
172.1
172.2
178.4
174.2

4.9
133.8 9.6
154.1 4.0
187.6 - . 2
206.7 - 1 . 9
201.0 - 2 . 9
162.1 10.0
172.4 - . 2
173.8 4.6
178.1 - 3 . 9

35.6
50.0
57.2
85.6
95.9
84.3
54.7
60.1
61.3
58.0

32.8 2.7
43.5 6.6
54.4 2.9
85.2
.4
97.4 -1.5
87.4 -3.1
46.1 8.6
58.6 1.5
60.0 1.2
61.0 - 3 . 0

2.2 80.0
3.1 89.8
1.2 107.7
- . 6 131.8
- .4 144.0
144.3
L4 113.3
-1.7 106.5
3.3 109.3
- . 9 112.4

23.2
30.5
31.9
17.9
12.4
12.9
27.2
31.2
36.1
37.5

10.3
11.4
14.8

347.0
372.5
391.8
411.8
409.0
431.6
441.2
451.2
448.8
471.1

8.3
10.9
3.3
.9
-2.0
6.4
4.8
1.2
-1.5
4.8

192.6
208.4
214.0
225.4
215.1
236.1
239.0
239.8
230.8
247.7

184.3 8.3
197.5 10.9
210.7 3.3
.9
224.5
217.1 - 2 . 0
229.7 6.4
234.2 4.8
238.5 1.2
232.3 - 1 . 5
242.9 4.8

73.4
84.1
84.6
91.0
81.9
96.5
96.5
96.2
83.6
94.0

68.3 5.2 119.1 116.0 3.1 117.5
76.1 8.0 124.3 121.4 2.9 130.5
83.2 1.5 129.4 127.6 1.8 136.3
89.9 1.2 134.4 134.6 - . 2 140.3
84.8 -3.0 133.2 132.3
.9 141.8
93.0 3.4 139.7 136.7 3.0 147.5
93.5 3.0 142.5 140.7
153.0
95.0 1.2 143.6 143.6
160.1
86.4 -2.8 147.2 145.9 1.3 163.4
91.6 2.4 153.7 151.2 2.5 171.2

45.2
44.4
44.7
47.0
50.2
54.3
54.0
52.6
53.1
57.0

19.1
15.9
13.5
18.7
17.1
24.6
18.6
20.2
14.5
18.5

484.2
495.2
523.8
545.2
575.2
607.8
639.9
664.5

3.5
2.0
6.0
5.8
5.8
8.8
12.6
4.7

256.0
257.3
277.3
289.7
308.6
330.0
353.7
361.

252.6 3.5 97.8
255.3 2.0 94.9
271.3 6.0 107.0
283.9 5.8 114.2
302.8 5.8 124.6
321.2 8.8 136.3
341.0 12.6 150.0
356.7 4.7 150.

95.9
94.9
104.1
111.4
120.4
129.8
140.6
148.0

160.3
167.2
172.5
182.3
191.4
200.4
208.8

1.5
2.0
3.1
3.1
1.7
2.3
3.3
2.2

176.6
184.0
193.7
200.9
210.8
222.3
235.2
245.6

55.0
55.8
58.8
60.4
61.6
64.4
63.7
62.1

21.0
17.5
22.0
24.7
25.5
31.4
30.3
27.8

2.0 158.2 156.7

2.8
2.8
4.1
6.5
9.3
2.5

162.3
170.3
175.6
184.1
193.7
203.7
211.0

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

IV... 634.4 625.2

9.3
8.0
8.7
9.2

321.7
324.9
332.2
341.2

312.4
316.8
323.5
332.0

8.1
6.6
6.6
4.7

187.4
191.7
194.5
201.3

186.1
190.3
192.4
196.8

1.3
1.4
2.1
4.5

216.9
220.8
224.5
226.9

62.9
64.0
64.0
66.3

32.4
30.7
31.0
31.5

1966: I . . . .
II...
III..
IV...

645.4
649.3
654.8
661.1

636.0
635.9
644.2
643.9

9.5
13.4
10.6
17.2

347.9
351.0
354.7
361.1

338.5 9.5 147.5 140.5 7.0
337.6 13.4 147.3 138.0 9.3
344.1 10.6 150.8 141.6 9.2
343.9 17.2 154.2 142.3 11.9

200.4
203.7
203.9
206.9

198.0
199.7
202.5
201.6

2.4
4.1
1.4
5.3

229.7
233.5
237.9
239.8

67.8
64.7
62.2
60.2

33.0
29.7
28.8
29.9

1967: I
II...

660.7
664.7
672.0
679.4

654.0
664.3
668.5
671.0

6.7
.4
3.5
8.4

356.6
359.5
362.9
366.9

349.9
359.1
359.4
358.6

143.6 3.0 210.0
148.9 - . 6 211.2
149.8 3.2 209.8
149.6 4.6 212.8

206.3
210.2
209.5
209.0

3.6
1.0
.3
3.8

242.7
244.4
246.9
248.4

61.3
60.8
62.3
64.1

25.3
28.2
27.9
29.7

1965: I . . . . 601.5 592.2
I I . . . 609.7 601.7
III...

III...
IV p .

620.7 612.0

9.3
8.0
8.7
9.2

6.7
.4
3.5
8.4

134.4
133.1
137.7
139.9

146.6
148.3
153.0
154.1

126.3
126.5
131.1
135.2

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




215

TABLE B—6.—Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures by major economic groups.
1929-67
{Billions of dollars]
Government

Persons
Disposable personal
income

Year or
quarter

Less:
Interest
paid
and
Total i transfer
payments
to foreigners

Equals:
Total
excluding interest
and
transfers

Net receipts

Expenditures

Surplus
or
PerPerdeficit
sonal sonal
(-),
Less:
Tax
conLess: Equals:
nasump- saving and TransTransor
tion
nonfers,
Equals: Total
fers, chases tional
disinextax
interNet
of
ex- intercome
pendi- saving
reest,
rependiest,
goods
and
tures
ceipts and
ceipts tures
and
and
prodor ac- subsubservuct accruals sidies 2
sidies 2 ices
counts

1929..

83.3

1.9

81.4

77.2

4.2

11.3

1.8

9.5

10.3

1.8

8.5

1.0

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

74.5
64.0
48.7
45.5
52.4
58.5
66.3
71.2
65.5
70.3

1.2
.9
.7
.7
.6
.7
.8
.9
.8
.9

73.3
63.1
48.0
44.9
51.7
57.8
65.5
70.3
64.6
69.4

69.9
60.5
48.6
45.8
51.3
55.7
61.9
66.5
63.9
66.8

3.4
2.6
-.6
-.9
.4
2.1
3.6
3.8

1.9
3.1
2.6
2.7
3.1
3.4
4.1
3.2
3.8
4.2

8.9
6.3
6.3
6.7
7.4
8.0
8.8
12.2
11.2
11.2

11.1
12.4
10.6
10.7
12.9
13.4
16.1
15.0
16.8
17.6

1.9
3.1
2.6
2.7
3.1
3.4
4.1
3.2
3.8
4.2

9.2
9.2
8.1
8.0
9.8
10.0
12.0
11.9
13.0
13.3

-.3
-2.9
-1.8
-1.4
-2.4
-2.0
-3.1

2.6

10.8
9.5
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.4
12.9
15.4
15.0
15.4

1940..
194L.
1942..
1943..
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

75.7
92.7
116.9
133.5
146.3
150.2
160.0
169.8
189.1
188.6

1.0
1.1
.8

70.8
80.6
88.5
99.3
108.3
119.7
143.4
160.7
173.6
176.8

3.8
11.0
27.6
33.4
37.3
29.6
15.2
7.3
13.4
9.4

17.7
25.0
32.6
49.2
51.2
53.2
50.9
56.8
58.9
56.0

4.4
4.0
4.4
4.7
6.5
10.4
18.5
17.3
18.8
21.3

13.3
21.0
28.2
44.4
44.7
42.8
32.4
39.5
40.1
34.7

18.4
28.8
64.0
93.3
103.0
92.7
45.5
42.4
50.3
59.1

4.4
4.0
4.4
4.7
6.5
10.4
18.5
17.3
18.8
21.3

14.0
24.8
59.6
88.6
96.5
82.3
27.0
25.1
31.6
37.8

-.7
-3.8

1.0
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.4

74.7
91.6
116.1
132.7
145.5
149.3
158.6
168.0
186.9
186.2

-31.4
-44.1
-51.8
-39.5
5.4
14.4
8.5
-3.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

206.9
226.6
238.3
252.6
257.4
275.3
293.2
308.5
318.8
337.3

2.9
3.1
3.5
4.3
4.6
5.1
5.9
6.4
6.5
7.1

204.1
223.5
234.8
248.3
252.9
270.2
287.2
302.2
312.3
330.3

191.0
206.3
216.7
230.0
236.5
254.4
266.7
281.4
290.1
311.2

13.1
17.3
18.1
18.3
16.4
15.8
20.6
20.7
22.3
19.1

68.7
84.8
89.8
94.3
89.7
100.4
109.0
115.6
114.7
128.9

22.9
19.9
19.0
19.5
21.9
23.4
25.5
28.7
33.0
34.0

45.8
64.9
70.8
74.8
67.8
76.9
83.5
86.8
81.6
95.0

60.8
79.0
93.7
101.2
96.7
97.6
104.1
114.9
127.2
131.0

22.9
19.9
19.0
19.5
21.9
23.4
25.5
28.7
33.0
34.0

37.9
59.1
74.7
81.6
74.8
74.2
78.6
86.1
94.2
97.0

7.8
5.8
-3.8
-6.9
-7.0
2.7
4.9
.7
-12.5
-2.1

I960....
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 v

350.0
364.4
385.3
404.6
438.1
472.2
508.8
544.6

7.8
8.1
8.6
9.7
10.7
11.9
13.1
14.2

342.3
356.3
376.6
394.9
427.4
460.3
495.7
530.4

325.2
335.2
355.1
375.0
401.2
433.1
465.9
491.6

17.0
21.2
21.6
19.9
26.2
27.2
29.8
38.7

139.8
144.6
157.0
168.8
174.1
188.8
213.0
227.3

36.5
41.3
42.8
44.4
46.7
49.7
55.5
63.7

103.3
103.3
114.2
124.3
127.3
139.1
157.5
163.6

136.1
149.0
159.9
166.9
175.4
186.1
209.8
240.0

36.5
41.3
42.8
44.4
46.7
49.7
55.5
63.7

99.6
107.6
117.1
122.5
128.7
136.4
154.3
176.3

3.7
-4.3
-2.9
1.8
-1.4
2.7
3.2
-12.7

-L8
-2.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: I . . . . 456.0
II.__ 464.0
III... 479.4
IV..
489.4

11.4
11.9
12.2
12.4

444.6
452.1
467.2
477.0

420.2
428.1
436.4
447.8

24.5
24.0
30.9
29.3

185.4
188.3
188.3
193.2

48.7
48.0
51.9
50.4

136.7
140.3
136.4
142.8

179.8
182.0
190.0
192.6

48.7
48.0
51.9
50.4

131.3
133.9
138.1
142.3

5.7
6.2
-1.7
.6

497.5
503.3
512.4
522.0

12.6
13.0
13.1
13.5

484.9
490.3
499.3
508.5

458.2
461.6
470.1
473.8

26.6
28.7
29.2
34.6

204.3
210.6
216.3
220.9

53.4
53.1
56.1
59.4

150.9
157.5
160.2
161.5

199.8
204.4
213.7
221.2

53.4
53.1
56.1
59.4

146.5
151.2
157.7
161.7

4.6
6.1
2.6
-.3

1967: I . . . . 532.7
I I . . . 540.0
III . 548.2
IV v. 557. 5

13.8
14.3
14.3
14.5

518.9
525.7
533.9
543.0

480.2
489.7
495.3
501.4

38.8
36.0
38.5
41.6

222.8
223.2
229.3

63.2
63.1
64.4
64.7

159.6
160.1
164.9

233.6
238.1
242.6
246.2

63.2
63.1
64.4
64.7

170.4
175.0
178.2
181.5

-10.8
-15.0
-13.3

1966: I . . .
II...
Ill .
IV..

See footnotes at end of table.




2l6

TABLE B-6.—Gross national product: Receipts and expenditures by major economic groups,
1929-67— Continued
[Billions of dollars]
Business

International

TransNet exports of goods
Gross
Excess
fers to
Gross
naand services
of
forpriTotal Statis- tional
Gross
Excess
trans- income tical
of in- eigners
revate
prodfers
distained domes- vest- by peror reuct
or
crepment
earn- tic insons
Less: Equals: of net ceipts ancy or exings 3 vestand
pendiExNet
Imexment *
Govture
exports ports
ports
ernports
ment

Year
or
quarter

1929
1930
1931... .
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
-.
...
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948.
1949
1950. .
..
1951
1952
1953
1954
...
. ..
1955
. ..
1956
1957
1958
1959.
.. .
1960
..
1961
1962
1963
1964...
1965
1966..
1967*.

11.2
8.6
5.3
3.2
3.2
5.2
6.4
6.7
7.7
8.0
8.4
10.5
11.4
14.5
16.3
17.1
15.1
14.5
20.2
28.0
29.7
29.4
33.1
35.1
36.1
39.2
46.3
47.3
49.8
49.4
56.8
56.8
58.7
66.3
68.8
76.2
83.7
89.7
90.4

16.2
10.3
5.6
1.0
1.4
3.3
6.4
8.5
11.8
6.5
9.3
13.1
17.9
9.8
5.7
7.1
10.6
30.6
34.0
46.0
35.7
54.1
59.3
51.9
52.6
51.7
67.4
70.0
67.8
60.9
75.3
74.8
71.7
83.0
87.1
94.0
107.4
118.0
112.1

-1.8
-4.0
1.6
-.9
-2.7
-6.5
4.6
10.6
10.0
4.6
-16.1
-13.8
-18.0
-6.0
-24.7
-26.2
-16.8
-16.5
-12.5
-21.1
-22.8
-18.1
-11.5
-18.5
-18.0
-13.0
-16.8
-18.4
-17.8
-23.8
-28.3
-21.7

1965: 1
II
Ill
IV

81.9
82.4
84.2
86.2

105.1
105.1
108.2
112.3

-23.2
-22.7
-24.0
-26.1

2.7
3.1
2.9
2.6

35.1
40.7
40.3
40.5

28.9
32.6
32.9
34.4

87.6
88.4
89.5
93.6

115.2
118.5
116.4
122.2

-27.6
-30.1
-26.9
-28.6

3.4
2.9
2.8
2.5

42.0
42.5
43.7
44.0

36.0
37.1
39.0
39.7

-

1966: 1
II
III
IV

-5.1
-1.6
-.3
2.2
1.8
1.9

5.9
0.4
7.0
1.1 - 0 . 8
5.4
4.4
-.7
.3
1.0
-.2
3.6
3.1
.3
-.2
2.1
.2
2.5
-.2
2.0
.2
2.4
.'4
-.4
2.4
.2
.6
3.0
.1
3.1
.1
.2
3.3
.1
.1
3.4
.2
3.5
_ l
3
43
2
46
.2
4.3
3.0
1.3 - 1 . 1
4.4
3.4
-.9
.2
1.1
5.4
1.7 - 1 . 5
.2
3.6
1.3 - 1 . 1
5.9
.2
4.6
*
4.8
.2
.2
4.8
4.4
2.2
.2
6.5
-2.0
5.3
2.1
.3
7.1
-1.8
7.2
1.4
.8
7.9
-.6
14.7
2.9
7.2
7.5 - 4 . 6
19.7
2.6
8.2
11 5 - 8 . 9
16.8
4.5
6.4 - 1 . 9
10.3
15.8
-.5
9.6
6.1
5.6
13.8
12.0
1.8
2.2
4.0
3.7
3.5
18.7
15.1
-.2
2.2
2.5
18.0
15.8
.3
4
25
16.9
16.6
2.1
17.8
.5
15.9
1.8
2.3
19.8
.5
2.5
17.8
2.0
2.4
23.6
19.6
4.0 - 1 . 5
2.3
26.5
20.8
5.7 - 3 . 4
2.4
23.1
.2
20.9
2.2
23.5
2.3
2.4
23.3
.1
23.2
27.2
4.0 - 1 . 7
2.4
23.0
2.6
28.6
5.6 - 3 . 0
2.7
25.1
30.3
5.1 - 2 . 5
2.8
26.4
32.3
5.9 - 3 . 1
8.5 - 5 . 7
2.8
37.1
28.6
39.1
32.2
6.9 - 4 . 1
2.8
43.0
37.9
5.1 - 2 . 2
2.9
45.4
40.4
5.0 - 2 . 0
3.0
Seasonally adjusted annual rates

102.4
91.2
75.1
57.7
55.0
64.5
72.5
81.3
90 5
84.1
89.2
98.7
124.1
159.0
193.6
207.6
208.0
208.4
230.4
259.5
256.2
283.3
325.1
343.3
361.6
362.1
395.9
420.4
441.1
445.8
484.5
504.8
520.8
559.8
590.8
633.7
685.8
745.9
787.3

6.1
8.2
7.4
6.1

—3.5
-5.1
-4.5
-3.4

6.1
5.4
4.6
4.3

-2.7
-2.5
-1.8
-1.8

0.7
-.8
.7
.3
.6
.5
-.2
1.2

-1.0
-.8
.5
-.3
-1.3
-2.0
-2.6
-2.2

103.1
90.4
75.8
58.0
55.6
65.1
72.2
82.5
90.4
84.7
90.5
99.7
124.5
157.9
191.6
210.1
211.9
208.5
231.3
257.6
256.5
284.8
328.4
345.5
364.6
364.8
398.0
419.2
441.1
447.3
483.7
503.7
520.1
560.3
590.5
632.4
683.9
743.3
785.1

666.1
677.7
690.6
708.9

-3.4
-2.3
-.6
-.5

662.7
675.4
690.0
708.4

726.8
738.8
751.9
765.9

-.9
-2.2
-3.2
-3.8

725.9
736.7
748.8
762.1

.6
1.3
1.0
.4
-1.1
-2.0
2.5
3.9
.1
9
-2.0
.3
1.5
3.3
2.2
30
2.7
2.1
-1.1
*
- 1.6
.8

766.3
110.4 - 2 1 . 5
39.9
5.3 - 2 . 5 770.3 - 4 . 0
2.9
45.3
775.1
105.1 - 1 6 . 0
45.1
39.8
5.3 - 2 . 3 777.9 - 2 . 8
3.1
791.2
5.4 - 2 . 3 792.4 - 1 . 2
112.2 - 2 1 . 8
40.2
3.1
45.6
807.6
IVP
4.0 - 1 . 2
120.7
2.8
45.6
41.6
1
Personal income less personal tax and nontax payments (fines, penalties, etc.).
2
Government transfer payments to persons, foreign net transfers by government, net interest paid by government,
and subsidies less current surplus of government enterprises.
3
Undistributed corporate profits, corporate inventory valuation adjustment, capital consumption allowances, and
wage accruals less disbursements.
4
Private business investment, purchases of capital goods by private nonprofit institutions, and residential housing.
See Table B - l l .
5
Net foreign investment with sign changed.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.

1967: 1
II
III

..

88.9
89.1
90.4




217

TABLE B-7.—Gross national product by sector, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]

Gross private product1
Year or
quarter

Total
gross
national
product

Business
Total
Nonfarm 2

Total

Farm

Households

Rest of
the world

Gross
government
product 3

103.1

98.8

95.1

85.4

9.7

2.9

0.8

4.3

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935.._
1936
1937
1938
1939

90.4
75.8
58.0
55.6
65.1
72.2
82.5
90.4
84.7
90.5

85.8
71.2
53.6
50.9
59.5
66.3
75.2
83.5
77.0
82.9

82.4
68.3
51.3
48.9
57.4
64.1
72.9
81.0
74.5
80.3

74.8
62.0
46.8
44.3
52.7
57.1
66.5
72.7
67.9
74.0

7.7
6.3
4.5
4.6
4.7
7.0
6.4
8.3
6.6
6.3

2.7
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.3

.7
.5
.4
.3
.3
.4
.3
.3
.4
.3

4.5
4.7
4.4
4.7
5.6
5.9
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.6

1940
1941
1942....
1943
1944
1945....
1946
1947...
1948
1949

99.7
124.5
157.9
191.6
210.1
211.9
208.5
231.3
257.6
256.5

91.9
115.1
142.8
166.0
177.9
176.8
187.7
214.6
240.1
237.0

89.1
112.2
139.5
162.4
173.8
172.3
182.7
208.6
233.5
230.1

82.6
103.3
126.5
147.2
158.5
156.4
163.9
188.5
210.2
211.4

6.5
8.9
13.0
15.3
15.3
15.9
18.8
20.2
23.3
18.8

2.4
2.5
2.9
3.2
3.7
4.1
4.5
5.1
5.6
5.9

.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.6
.8
1.0
1.0

7.8
9.4
15.1
25.6
32.2
35.2
20.8
16.7
17.4
19.4

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

284.8
328.4
345.5
364.6
364.8
398.0
419.2
441.1
447.3
483.7

263.9
301.0
314.3
332.7
332.4
363.8
382.6
402.0
405.2
439.4

256.3
292.8
305.8
323.6
322.7
352.9
370.8
389.3
391.7
425.0

236.3
269.9
283.7
303.3
303.1
334.1
352.2
370.9
370.9
405.3

20.0
22.9
22.2
20.3
19.6
18.8
18.6
18.4
20.8
19.6

6.4
6.9
7.2
7.8
8.1
9.1
9.8
10.5
11.4
12.2

1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.2

?0.9
27.4
31.2
31.9
32.5
34.2
36.6
39.1
42.1
44.3

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967*

503.7
520.1
560.3
590.5
632.4
683.9
743.3
785.1

456.3
469.2
505.7
532.4
569.4
616.1
666.7
699.7

440.7
452.3
487.4
513.0
548.2
593.4
642.4
673.8

420.2
431.4
466.2
491.5
527.6
569.8
617.6
649.8

20.5
20.9
21.2
21.5
20.6
23.6
24.8
24.0

13.2
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.3
18.5
20.1
21.5

2.4
2.9
3.3
3.4
4.0
4.2
4.2
4.5

47.5
50.9
54.7
58.1
63.0
67.8
76.6
85.4

1929

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: L . . .
II
III..
IV

662.7
675.4
690.0
708.4

597.3
608.8
621.6
637.5

575.3
586.1
598.7
614.6

553.1
562.2
574.6
590.3

22.2
23.9
24.1
24.2

17.6
18.3
18.9
19.2

4.3
4.5
4.1
3.8

65.4
66.5
68.4
70.9

1966: I.

725.9
736.7
748.8
762.1

653.0
661.5
670.6
681.9

629.4
637.6
646.2
656.9

603.3
612.8
621.6
633.0

26.0
24.8
24.6
23.9

19.7
19.7
20.3
20.6

3.9
4.2
4.1
4.4

72.9
75.1
78.2
80.2

766.3
775.1
791.2
807.6

683.9
690.9
705.2
719.0

658.7
665.3
679.0
692.2

635.1
641.9
654.6
667.4

23.6
23.3
24.4
24.8

21.1
21.4
21.2
22.2

4.1
4.2
4.9
4.6

82.5
84.2
86.0
88.7

Ill
IV
1967: I.
III
IV v.....

* Gross national product less compensation of general government employees.
Includes compensation of employees in government enterprises. Government enterprises are those agencies of
government whose operating costs are at least to a substantial extent covered by the sale of goods and services, in contrast
to the general activities of government which are financed mainly by tax revenues and debt creation. Government enterprises, in other words, conduct operations essentially commercial in character, even though they perform them under
governmental auspices. The Post Office and public power systems are typical examples of government enterprises. On the
other hand, State universities and public parks, where the fees and admissions cover only a nominal part of operating costs
are part of general government activities.
3
Compensation of general government employees.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.
2




218

TABLE B-8.—Gross national product by sector, in 1958 prices, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars, 1958 prices]
Gross private product l
Total
gross
national
product

Year or
quarter

Business
Total
Nonfarm 2

Total

Farm

Households

Rest of
the world

Gross
government
product^

1929

203.6

190.9

182.1

165.1

17.0

7.4

1.4

12.7

1930. .
1931
1932
1933 .
1934...
1935
1936
1937 .
1938
1939

183.5
169.3
144.2
141.5
154.3
169.5
193.0
203.2
192.9
209.4

170.1
155.8
131.0
127.5
138.3
152.4
173.1
184.3
172.6
188.7

161.4
147.7
123.8
120.6
131.1
144.9
165.4
176.4
164.6
180.7

145.4
129.2
105.8
103.0
116.6
128.4
150.5
158.5
146.8
162.5

16.1
18.5
18.0
17.5
14.6
16.5
14.9
17.9
17.8
18.2

7.1
6.6
6.0
5.7
6.2
6.4
6.8
7.1
6.8
7.1

1.6
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.0
.8
1.1
.9

13.3
13.5
13.2
14.0
16.0
17.1
19.9
18.9
20 4
20.6

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948.
1949

227.2
263.7
297.8
337.1
361.3
355.2
312.6
309.9
323.7
324.1

205.6
236.6
257.3
272.8
286.9
282.5
275.1
281.4
295.0
294.1

197.1
228.1
248.7
264.9
278.9
274.6
267.0
272.8
286.0
284.7

179.6
209.3
228.0
245.3
259.5
256.5
248.6
255.8
267.0
266.2

17.5
18.8
20.6
19.6
19.4
18.1
18.5
17.0
19.0
18.4

7.6
7.5
7.8
7.2
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.5
7.9
8.2

1.0
.9
.8
.8
.9
.8
.9
1.1
1.2
1.2

21.6
27.2
40.5
64.3
74.4
72.8
37.5
28.6
28.7
30.1

1950
1951
1952
1953 . . .
1954
1955 .
1956
1957
1958
1959

355.3
383.4
395.1
412.8
407.0
438.0
446.1
452.5
447.3
475.9

324.2
344.6
353.2
371.1
366.2
397.2
404.8
410.5
405.2
433.4

314.2
334.5
343.2
360.7
355.4
385.4
392.2
397.5
391.7
419.4

294.9
316.2
324.2
340.7
335.0
364.4
371.4
377.2
370.9
398.3

19.4
18.4
19.0
20.0
20.4
20.9
20.8
20.3
20.8
21.1

8.7
8.8
8.8
9.1
9.2
10.1
10.6
10.9
11.4
11.7

1.3

31.1
38.8
41.8
41.7
40.9
40.7
41.3
41.9
42.1
42.5

487.7
497.2
529.8
551.0
581.1
616.7
652.6
669.2

444.0
452.3
482.9
503.2
532.0
565.9
597.5
610.2

429.5
436.9
466.7
486.6
514.4
547.8
578.9
590.6

407.6
414.8
444.6
463.8
492.1
524.2
556.4
566.5

21.9
22.2
22.1
22.8
22.3
23.6
22.4
24.1

12.2
12.4
12.9
13.2
13.7
14.0
14.7
15.3

2.3
2.9
3.4
3.4
3.9
4.1
4.0

4.3

43.7
44.8
46.9
47.8
49.1
50.8
55.0
59.1

.

1960 .
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966 .
1967 »

1.2
1.3
1,6
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
601.5
609.7
620.7
634.4

551.7
559.4
569.7
582.5

534.1
541.2
551.4
564.3

510.7
517.1
527.7
541.0

23.4
24.0
23.7
23.3

13.4
13.8
14.2
14.4

4.3
4.4
4.0
3.7

49.8
50.3
51.1
51.9

1966:1 .
II
III
IV

645.4
649.3
654.8
661.1

592.3
594.8
599.0
604.2

574.0
576.3
580.2
585.1

550.8
554.4
558.0
562.7

23.2
22.0
22.2
22.4

14.6
14.4
14.8
14.9

3.8
4.1
4.0
4.3

53.1
54.4
55.8
56.9

1967:1
II
III
IV *>.-.-

660.7
664.7
672.0
679.4

602.7
606.0
612.5
619.4

583.6
586.6
592.7
599.4

559.9
563.0
568.4
574.6

23.7
23.6
24.2
24.8

15.1
15.3
15.0
15.5

4.0
4.0
4.8
4.4

57.9
58.7
59.6
60.0

1965: L.
II
III
IV

. .

1 Gross national product less compensation of general government employees.
2 Includes compensation of employees in government enterprises. Government enterprises are those agencies of government whose operating costs are at least to a substantial extent covered by the sale of goods and services, in contrast to the
general activities of government which are financed mainly by tax revenues and debt creation. Government enterprises, in
other words, conduct operations essentially commercial in character, even though they perform them under governmental
auspices. The Post Office and public power systems are typical examples of government enterprises. On the other hand,
State universities and public parks, where the fees and admissions cover only a nominal part of operating costs, are part
of general government activities.
3 Compensation of general government employees.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




219

TABLE B-9.—Gross national product by industry, in 1958prices, 1947-66
[Billions of dollars, 1958 prices]

Year

AgriTotal culture, Congross fores- tract
nacontry,
tional
strucand
product fishtion
eries

Manufacturing

Total

Transporta- Whnla
tion,
sale
comNon- muniDurand
able durable cation, retail
goods goods
trade
and
indus- indus- utilitries
tries
ties

GovFinance,
erninsurment
ance, Servand
All
and
ices govern- other i
real
ment
estate
enterprises

1947
1948
1949

309.9
323.7
324.1

17.9
20.0
19.4

12.9
14.1
14.7

91.8
96.3
90.9

52.3
55.0
50.5

39.4
41.3
40.4

29.6
30.4
28.7

52.7
54.2
55.2

35.6
36.5
37.8

30.6
31.9
32.1

32.4
33.2
34.7

6.7
7.1
10.6

1950
1951
1952 .
1953
1954

355.3
383.4
395.1
412.8
407.0

20.4
19.5
20.2
21.2
21.6

16.2
18.2
18.3
18.9
19.3

105.5
116.2
118.7
128.6
119.5

60.8
69.0
71.5
79.1
71.2

44.7
47.2
47.3
49.5
48.3

30 8
34.3
34.6
35.7
36.4

60.4
61.4
62.9
64.9
65.5

41.0
42.9
44.7
46.8
49.8

33.1
34.0
34.5
35.3
35.4

35.9
43.9
47.2
47.1
46.1

12.1
13.0
14.0
14.3
13.5

1955
1956
1957 . .
1958
1959

438.0
446.1
452.5
447.3
475.9

22.1
22.0
21.5
22.0
22.3

20.8
21.8
21.1
20.7
22.0

133.6
134.1
134.6
123.7
138.9

80.7
79.4
79.6
69.6
79.9

52.9
54.6
54.9
54.0
59.0

38.6
40.5
41.3
40.6
43.3

71.6
73.8
75.1
75.1
80.8

52.7
54.8
57.0
59.2
61.4

38.2
40.2
41.8
42.9
45.1

46.0
46.2
46.9
47.3
47.9

14.4
12.7
13.1
16.0
14.1

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

487.7
497.2
529.8
551.0
581.1

23.1
23.4
23.3
24.0
23.6

21.7
21.4
21.7
21.9
23.3

140.9
140.4
154.6
162.4
173.7

81.0
79.7
90.0
95.6
102.4

59.9
60.7
64.7
66.8
71.3

44.9
46.0
48.9
51.9
54.7

82.3
83.5
88.9
92.8
98.9

64.1
67.1
71.2
74.4
78.3

46.7
48.3
50.8
52.2
54.7

49.2
50.6
52.6
53.9
56.1

14.7
16.3
17.9
17.4
17.8

1965
1966

616.7
652.6

24.9
23.7

23.7
24.1

190.1
206.4

114.4
125.4

75.7
80.9

59.1
63.3

104.7
111.0

82.6
85.9

57.2
59.6

58.0
62.2

16.4
16.2

* Mining, rest of world, and residual (the difference between gross national product measured as sum of final products
and gross national product measured as sum of gross product by industries).
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




220

TABLE B-10.—Personal consumption expenditures, 1929-67

y-

3>
O

a:

:c

ther

o

rans portation

CJ

oo
c

ihold operation

o

f

ousi

ood, excluding alcohoi ic beverages i

u_

otal

otal

t-

ther

ther

o

Services

asoliine and oil

u.

ing and shoes 2

<

Nondurable goods

ture and housed equipment

£ °

H-

Year
or
quarter

utonnobiles and parts

Durable goods

otal

otal personal consump tion
expenditures

[Billions of dollars]

o

1929

77.2

9.2

3.2

4.8

1.2

37.7

19.5

9.4

1.8

7.0

30.3

11.5

4.0

2.6

12.2

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935....
1936
1937
1938
1939

69.9
60.5
48.6
45.8
51.3
55.7
61.9
66.5
63.9
66.8

7.2
5.5
3.6
3.5
4.2
5.1
6.3
6.9
5.7
6.7

2.2
1.6
.9
1.1
1.4
1.9
2.3
2.4
1.6
2.2

3.9
3.1
2.1
1.9
2.2
2.6
3.2
3.6
3.1
3.5

1.1
.9
.6
.5
.6
.7
.8
1.0
.9
1.0

34.0
29.0
22.7
22.3
26.7
29.3
32.9
35.2
34.0
35.1

18.0
14.7
11.4
10.9
12.2
13.6
15.3
16.5
15.6
15.7

8.0
6.9
5.1
4.6
5.7
6.0
6.6
6.8
6.8
7.1

1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7

6.3
5.7
4.8
5.3
7.2
7.9
9.1
9.8
9.5
10.1

28.7
26.0
22.2
20.1
20.4
21.3
22.8
24.4
24.3
25.0

11.0
10.3
9.0
7.9
7.6
7.7
8.0
8.5
8.9
9.1

3.9
3.5
3.0
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.7
3.6
3.8

2.2
1.9
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.7
2.0
1.9
2.0

11.5
10.3
8.6
7.9
8.2
8.7
9.5
10.2
9.9
10.1

70.8
1940
1941
80.6
1 9 4 2 . - . 88.5
99.3
1943
1944
08.3
1945
19.7
1946
43.4
1947
60.7
1948
73.6
1949
76.8

7.8
9.6
6.9
6.6
6.7
8.0
15.8
20.4
22.7
24.6

2.7
3.4
.7
.8
1.0
4.0
6.2
7.5
9.9

3.9
4.9
4.7
3.9
3.8
4.6
8.6
10.9
11.9
11.6

1.1
1.4
1.6
1.9
2.2
2.5
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.2

37.0
42.9
50.8
58.6
64.3
71.9
82.4
90.5
96.2
94.5

16.6
19.2
23.3
27.4
29.9
33.2
39.0
43.7
46.3
44.8

7.4
8.8
11.0
13.4
14.4
16.5
18.2
18.8
20.1
19.3

2.3
2.6
2.1
1.3
1.6
1.8
3.0
3.6

10.7
12.2
14.4
16.5
18.4
20.5
22.1
24.4
25.4
25.4

26.0
28.1
30.8
34.2
37.2
39.8
45.3
49.8
54.7
57.6

9.4
10.2
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.9
15.7
17.5
19.3

4.0
4.3
4.8
5.2
5.9
6.4
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.5

2.1
2.4
2.7
3.4
3.7
4.0
5.0
5.3
5.8
5.9

10.4
11.2
12.3
14.0
15.6
16.8
19.7
21.4
23.3
23.9

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

91.0
06.3
16.7
30.0
36.5
54.4
66.7
81.4
290.1
311.2

30.5
29.6
29.3
33.2
32.8
39.6
38.9
40.8
37.9
44.3

13.1
11.6
11.1
14.2
13.6
18.4
16.4
18.3
15.4
19.5

14.1
14.4
14.3
14.9
15.0
16.6
17.5
17.3
17.1
18.9

3.3
3.6
3.9
4.1
4.2
4.6
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.9

98.1
108.8
114.0
116.8
118.3
123.3
129.3
135.6
140.2
146.6

46.0
52.1
54.7
55.5
56.5
58.1
60.4
63.9
66.6
68.4

19.6
21.2
21.9
22.1
22.1
23.1
24.1
24.3
24.7
26.4

5.4
6.1
6.8
7.7
8.2
9.0
9.8
10.6
11.0
11.6

27.1 62.4
29.3 67.9
30.5 73.4
31.6 79.9
31.5 85.4
33.1 91.4
34.9 98.5
36.7 105.0
37.9 112.0
40.2 120.3

21.3
23.9
26.5
29.3
31.7
33.7
36.0
38.5
41.1
43.7

9.5
10.4
11.1
12.0
12.6
14.0
15.2
16.2
17.3
18.5

6.2
6.7
7.1
7.8
7.9
8.2
8.6
9.0
9.3
10.1

25.4
26.9
28.7
30.8
33.2
35.5
38.6
41.3
44.3
48.0

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964....
1965....
1966....
1967 P..

325.2
335.2

45.3
44.2
49.5
53.9
59.2
66.0
70.3
72.1

20.1
18.4
22.0
24.3
25.8
29.9
29.8
29.3

18.9
19.3
20.5
22.2
25.0
27.0
29.9
32.0

6.3 151.3
6.5 155.9
6.9 162.6
7.5 168.6
8.5 178.7
9.1 191.2
10.6 207.5
10.8 217.5

70.1
72.1
74.4
76.5
80.5
86.0
93.0
96.4

27.3
27.9
29.6
30.6
33.5
36.1
40.3
42.8

12.3
12.4
12.9
13.5
14.0
15.1
16.2
17.5

41.6
43.5
45.7
48.0
50.6
54.0
58.0
60.8

128.7
135.1
143.0
152.4
163.3
175.9
188.1
202.1

46.3
48.7
52.0
55.4
59.3
63.6
67.1
71.3

20.0
20.8
22.0
23.1
24.3
25.7
27.0
28.2

10.8
10.6
11.0
11.4
11.6
12.6
13.6
14.7

51.6
54.9
58.0
62.5
68.1
74.0
80.4
87.7

355.1
375.0
401.2
433.1
465.9
491.6

.8

1.9

2.1
2.1
2.2

4.4

5.0

1.9

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965:1.
II.
Ill
IV

420.2
428.1
436.4
447.8

65.2
64.2
66.1
68.6

30.4
29.2
29.8
30.3

25.8
26.1
27.3
28.9

9.0
8.8
9.1
9.4

184.6
189.8
192.4
198.0

82.9
85.3
86.4
89.4

34.6
35.6
36.2
37.8

14.3
15.1
15.3
15.7

52.8
53.8
54.4
55.1

170.4
174.2
177.8
181.2

61.9
63.2
64.2
65.3

24.7
25.5
26.1
26.5

12.0
12.5
12.8
13.1

71.8

1966: I..
II
III
IV

458.2
461.6
470.1
473.8

71.6
68.2
70.9
70.6

31.4
28.5
29.8
29.6

29.4
29.1
30.6
30.6

10.8
10.6
10.5
10.4

203.2
207.1
209.5
210.3

91.5
93.3
93.6
93.5

39.5
39.8
41.0
40.8

15.8
16.2
16.3
16.6

56.3
57.8
58.5
59.5

183,5
186.3
189.8
192.9

66.2
66.5
67.4
68.5

26.1
26.9
27.4
27.7

13.2
13.5
13.7
14.0

78.0
79.4
81.3
82.7

1967: L. 480.2
II. 489.7
II 495.3
IVP 501.4

69.4
72.5
72.7
73.7

27.3
29.7
29.9
30.2

31.4

10.7
10.9
10.8
10.9

214.2
217.2
218.5
220.2

95.2
96.0
96.6
97.7

41.5
43.2
43.7
42.9

17.1
17.5
17.5
17.8

60.4
60.5
60.7
61.8

196.6
200.0
204.1
207.5

69.6
70.6
71.9
73.2

27.8
28.1
28.1
28.9

14.4
14.6
14.8
15.1

84.8
86.6
89.2
90.3

31.9
32.1
32.6

1
2
3

Quarterly data are estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Includes standard clothing issued to military personnel.
Includes imputed rental value of owner-occupied dwellings.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics (except as noted).

221
284-593 0—68



73.1

74.7
76.3

T A B L E B—11.—Gross private domestic investment, 1929—67
[Billions of dollars]
Change in
business
inventories

Fixed investment

Year or
quarter

Total
gross
private
domestic
investment

Nonresidential

Total

Structures

Residential structures
Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

Total
Total

Total

Nonfarm

Total

Nonfarm

0.2

Nonfarm

Farm

Nonfarm

1929..

" 16.2

14.5

10.6

5.0

4.8

5.6

4.9

4.0

3.8

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

10.3
5.6
1.0
1.4
3.3
6.4
8.5
11.8
6.5
9.3

10.6
6.8
3.4
3.0
4.1
5.3
7.2
9.2
7.4
8.9

8.3
5.0
2.7
2.4
3.2
4.1
5.6
7.3
5.4
5.9

4.0
2.3
1.2
.9
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.4
1.9
2.0

3.9
2.3
1.2
.9
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.4
1.8
1.9

4.3
2.7
1.5
1.5
2.2
2.9
4.0
4.9
3.5
4.0

3.7
2.4
1.3
1.3
1.8
2.4
3.3
4.1
2.9
3.4

2.3
1.7
.7
.6
.9

2.2
1.6
.7

1.2
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.9

'.S
1.1
1.5
1.8
1.9
2.8

1940..
1941.
1942..
1943..
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

13.1
17.9
9.8
5.7
7.1
10.6
30.6
34.0
46.0
35.7

11.0
13.4
8.1
6.4
8.1
11.6
24.2
34.4
41.3
38.8

7.5
9.5
6.0
5.0
6.8
10.1
17.0
23.4
26.9
25.1

2.3
2.9
1.9
1.3
1.8
2.8
6.8
7.5
8.8
8.5

2.2
2.8
1.8
1.2
1.7
2.7
6.1
6.7
8.0
7.7

5.3
6.6
4.1
3.7
5.0
7.3
10.2
15.9
18.1
16.6

4.6
5.6
3.5
3.2
4.2
6.3
9.2
14.0
15.5
13.7

3.4
3.9
2.1
1.4
1.3
1.5
7.2
11.1
14.4
13.7

3.2
3.7
1.9
1.2
1.1
1.4
6.7
10.4
13.6
12.8

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
19581959..

54.1
59.3
51.9
52.6
51.7
67.4
70.0
67.8
60.9
75.3

47.3
49.0
48.8
52.1
53.3
61.4
65.3
66.5
62.4
70.5

27.9
31.8
31.6
34.2
33.6
38.1
43.7
46.4
41.6
45.1

9.2
11.2
11.4
12.7
13.1
14.3
17.2
18.0
16.6
16.7

8.5
10.4
10.5
11.9
12.3
13.6
16.5
17.2
15.8
15.9

18.7
20.7
20.2
21.5
20.6
23.8
26.5
28.4
25.0
28.4

15.7
17.7
17.6
18.6
18.0
21.2
24.2
25.9
22.0
25.4

19.4
17.2
17.2
18.0
19.7
23.3
21.6
20.2
20.8
25.5

I960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..
1965..
1966..
1967 v

74.8
71.7
83.0
87.1
94.0
107.4
118.0
112.1

71.3
69.7
77.0
81.3
88.2
98.0
104.6
107.0

48.4
47.0
51.7
54.3
61.1
71.1
80.2
82.5

18.1
18.4
19.2
19.5
21.2
25.1
27.9
26.8

17.4
17.7
18.5
18.8
20.5
24.4
27.2
26.1

30.3
28.6
32.5
34.8
39.9
46.0
52.3
55.7

27.7
25.8
29.4
31.2
36.3
41.9
47.8
51.3

22.8
22.6
25.3
27.0
27.1
27.0
24.4
24.5

1.7

1.8

-.4
-1.1
-2.5
-1.6
-.7
1.1
1.3
2.5
-.9
.4

-.1
-1.6
-2.6
-1.4
.2
.4
2.1
1.7
-1.0

2.2
4.5
1.8
-.6
-1.0
-1.0
6.4
-3.1

1.9
4.0
.7
-.6
-.6
-.6
6.4
1.3
3.0
-2.2

18.6
16.4
16.4
17.2
19.0
22.7
20.9
19.5
20.1
24.8

6.8
10.3
3.1
.4
-1.5
6.0
4.7
1.3
-1.5
4.8

6.0
9.1
2.1
1.1
-2.1
5.5
5.1
.8
-2.3
4.8

22.2
22.0
24.8
26.4
26.6
26.4
23.8
23.9

3.6
2.0
6.0
5.9
5.8
9.4
13.4
5.1

3.3
1.7
5.3
5.1
6.4
8.4
13.7
4.7

~4i7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

1965: I
II
III.....
IV....

105.1
105.1
108.2
112.3

94.4
96.3
98.8
102.4

67.3
69.3
71.9
75.7

23.1
24.7
25.1
27.3

22.4
24.0
24.4
26.7

44.1
44.6
46.8
48.3

40.4
40.7
42.6
43.8

27.2
27.0
26.9
26.8

26.6
26.5
26.4
26.2

0.5
.5
.5
.5

10.6
8.8
9.4
9.9

10.1
7.9
7.9
8.7

1966: I
II
III.....
IV....

115.2
118.5
116.4
122.2

105.3
104.5
104.9
103.7

78.3
78.7
81.2
82.8

28.3
27.5
28.2
27.7

27.6
26.8
27.4
26.9

50.0
51.2
53.1
55.1

45.5
46.9
48.7
50.1

27.0
25.8
23.7
20.9

26.5
25.3
23.2
20.4

.5
.5
.5
.5

9.9
14.0
11.4
18.5

9.6
14.4
12.0
19.0

1967:

110.4
105.1
112.2
120.7

103.3
104.6
108.4
111.7

81.9
81.5
82.8
83.8

27.7
26.3
26.6
26.5

26.9
25.6
25.9
25.8

54.2
55.2
56.2
57.3

50.0
50.6
51.9
52.9

21.4
23.1
25.6
27.9

20.9
22.5
25.0
27.4

.6
.6
.6
.6

7.1
.5
3.8
9.0

7.3
.6
3.4
7.5

II
III
IV P...

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




222

TABLE B-12.—National income by type of income, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]
Compensation of
employees

Corporate profits
and inventory
valuation
idjustment

Business and professional income

Income Rental
inSupInNet
of
plecome Inven- farm come
Corpo- Inven- interOf
rtf
est
Wages ments
of
tory
protory
perand
to
unin- valuvalupriesala- wages Total corpo- ation tors 3 sons Total profits ation
ries
and
rated adjustbefore adjustsalaenter- ment
taxes *
tavoc 4 ment
ries 2
prises
50.4
0.7
8.8
0.5
4.7
9.0
0.1
6.2
5.4 10.5
10.0

Total
national
income i

Total

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

75.4
59.7
42.8
40.3
49.5
57.2
65.0
73.6
67.4
72.6

46.8
39.8
31.1
29.5
34.3
37.3
42.9
47.9
45.0
48.1

46.2
39.1
30.5
29.0
33.7
36.7
41.9
46.1
43.0
45.9

.7
.6
.6
.5
:6
.6
1.0
1.8
2.0
2.2

7.6
5.8
3.6
3.3
4.7
5.5
6.7
7.2
6.9
7.4

6.8
5.1
3.3
3.9
4.8
5.5
6.8
7.2
6.7
7.6

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

81.1
104.2
137.1
170.3
182.6
181.5
181.9
199.0
224.2
217.5

52.1
64.8
85.3
109.5
121.2
123.1
117.9
128.9
141.1
141.0

49.8
62.1
82.1
105.8
116.7
117.5
112.0
123.0
135.4
134.5

2.3
2.7
3.2
3.8
4.5
5.6
5.9
5.9
5.8
6.5

8.6
11.1
14.0
17.0
18.2
19.2
21.6
20.3
22.7
22.6

8.6
11.7
14.4
17.1
18.3
19.3
23.3
21.8
23.1
22.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

241.1
278.0
291.4
304.7
303.1
331.0
350.8
366.1
367.8
400.0

154.6
180.7
195.3
209.1
208.0
224.5
243.1
256.0
257.8
279.1

146.8
171.1
185.1
198.3
196.5
211,3
227.8
238.7
239.9
258.2

7.8
9.6
10.2
10.9
11.5
13.2
15.2
17.3
17.9
20.9

24.0
26.1
27.1
27.5
27.6
30.3
31.3
32.8
33.2
35.1

25.1
26.5
26.9
27.6
27.6
30.5
31.8
33.1
33.2
35.3

-1.1
-.3
.2
-.2
*
-.2
-.5
-.3

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 p . . . .

414.5
427.3
457.7
481.9
518.1
562.4
616.7
649.6

294.2
302.6
323.6
341.0
365.7
393.9
435.7
469.6

270.8
278.1
296.1
311.1
333.7
359.1
394.6
423.7

23.4
24.6
27.5
29.9
32.0
34.9
41.1
45.9

34.2
35.6
37.1
37.9
40.2
41.9
43.2
43.6

34.3
35.6
37.1
37.9
40.3
42.3
43.6
43.9

Year or
quarter

51.1

1929

.8
.6
.3
-.5
-.1
*
-.1
*
.2
-.2
*
-.6
-.4
2
-!i
-.i
-1.7
-1.5
-.4
.5

4.3
3.4
2.1
2.6
3.0
5.3
4.3
6.0
4.4
4.4

4.8
7.0
3.8
2.0
2.7 - 1 . 3
2.0 - 1 . 2
1.7
1.7
1.7
3.4
1.8
5.6
2.1
6.8
2.6
4.9
2.7
6.3

3.7
-.4
-2.3
1.0
2.3
3.6
6.3
6.8
4.0
7.0

3.3
2.4
1.0
-2.1
-.6
-.2
-.7
*
1.0
-.7

4.9
5.0
4.6
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5

4.5
6.4
9.8
11.7
11.6
12.2
14.9
15.2
17.5
12.7

2.9
3.5
4.5
5.1
5.4
5.6
6.6
7.1
8.0
8.4

9.8
15.2
20.3
24.4
23.8
19.2
19.3
25.6
33.0
30.8

10.0
17.7
21.5
25.1
24.1
19.7
24.6
31.5
35.2
28.9

-.2
-2.5
-1.2
-.8
-.3
-.6
-5.3
-5.9
-2.2
1.9

3.3
3.2
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.2
1.5
1.9
1.8
1.9

-A

13.5
15.8
15.0
13.0
12.4
11.4
11.4
11.3
13.4
11.4

9.4
10.3
11.5
12.7
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.8
15.4
15.6

37.7
42.7
39.9
39.6
38.0
46.9
46.1
45.6
41.1
51.7

42.6
43.9
38.9
40.6
38.3
48.6
48.8
47.2
41.4
52.1

-5.0
-1.2
1.0
-1.0
-.3
-1.7
-2.7
-1.5
-.3
-.5

2.0
2.3
2.6
2.8
3.6
4.1
4.6
5.6
6.8
7.1

*
*
*
*
-.1
-.4
-.4
-.3

12.0
12.8
13.0
13.1
12.1
14.8
16.1
14.8

15.8
16.0
16.7
17.1
18.0
19.0
19.4
20.1

49.9
50.3
55.7
58.9
66.3
74.9
82.2
79.1

49.7
50.3
55.4
59.4
66.8
76.6
83.8
80.1

.2
-.1
.3
5
-!5
-1.7
-1.6
-1.0

8.4
10.0
11.6
13.8
15.8
17.9
20.2
22.4

j

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965:1 — II...
ML.
IV...

544.9
555.3
566.5
582.8

381.5
388.6
397.2
408.4

347.7
354.2
362.0
372.4

33.8
34.5
35.2
36.0

41.4
41.7
42.0
42.5

13.6
15.0
15.2
15.3

18.6
18.9
19.1
19.2

72.6
73.4
74.9
78.7

74.0
75.6
75.8
80.8

-1.4
-2.1
-.9
-2.2

17.1
17.6
18.2
18.8

1966: ! . . .

600.3
610.4
622.1
634.1

420.8
430.7
441.2
450.2

381.3
390.2
399.6
407.4

39.5
40.5
41.6
42.7

42.8
43.3
43.3
43.4

17.1
16.0
15.9
15.1

19.2
19.3
19.4
19.6

81.1
81.3
81.9
84.6

83.7
83.6
84.0
83.9

-2.6
-2.3
-2.2
.7

19.3
19.8
20.4
21.1

1 9 6 7 : 1 . . . . 636.4
I I . . . 641.6
I I L . 653.4
IV p.

459.1
463.4
472.6

414.7
418.3
426.2

IIL.
IV..

44.4 43.2
19.8 78.1
79.0
21.6
14.6
45.2 43.4
22.1
20.0 78.3
78.9
-.7
14.3
46.4 43.8
22.7
20.2 79.2
80.0
15.0
23.3
47.6 44.1
483.2 435.6
20.4
15.2
1 National income is the total net income earned in production. It differs from gross national product mainly in that it
excludes depreciation charges and other allowances for business and institutional consumption of durable capital goods,
and indirect business taxes. See Table B-13.
2
Employer contributions for social insurance and to private pension, health, and welfare funds; compensation for
injuries; directors' fees; pay of the military reserve; and a few other minor items.
3
Includes change in inventories.
< See Table B-69 for corporate tax liability and profits after taxes.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




223

T A B L E B—13.—Relation of gross national product and national income, 1929—67
[Billions of dollars]

Gross
national
product

Year or quarter

Less:
Capital
consumption
allowances

Plus:
Subsidies
Equals:
less
Net
current
surplus
tional of govprodernuct
ment
enterprises

Less:
Indirect business taxes

Total

Federal

State
and
local

Business
transfer
payments

Statistical
discrepancy

Equals:
National
income

1929

103.1

7.9

95.2

-0.1

7.0

1.2

5.8

0.6

0.7

86.8

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

90.4
75.8
58.0
55.6
65.1
72.2
82.5
90.4
84.7
90.5

8.0
7.9
7.4
7.0
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.2
7.3
7.3

82.4
68.0
50.7
48.6
58.2
65.4
75.4
83.3
77.4
83.2

-.1

7.2
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.8
8.2
8.7
9.2
9.2
9.4

1.0
.9
.9
1.6
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.2
2.3

6.1
6.0
5.8
5.4
5.6
6.0
6.4
6.8
6.9
7.0

.5
.6
*7
.6
.6
.6
.6
.4
.5

— 8
.7
.3
6
.5
-.2
1.2
*
.6
1.3

75 4
59.7
42.8
40 3
49 5
57.2
65.0
73 6
67.4
72.6

99.7
124.5
157 9
191.6
210.1
211.9
208 5
231.3
257.6
256.5

7.5
8.2
98
10.2
11.0
11.3
9.9
12.2
14.5
16.6

92.2
116.3
148.1
181.3
199.1
200.7
198.6
219.1
243.1
239.9

.4
.1

10.0
11.3
11.8
12.7
14.1
15.5
17.1
18.4
20.1
21.3

2.6
3.6
4.0
4.9
6.2
7.1
7.8
7.8
8.0
8.0

7.4
7.7
7.7
7.8
8.0
8.4
9.3
10.6
12.1
13.3

.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.6
.7
.8

1.0
-11
-2.0
2.5
3.9
1
.9
-2.0
.3

81 1
104.2
137 1
170.3
182.6
181.5
181 9
199.0
224.2
217.5

284.8
328.4
345.5
364.6
364.8
398.0
419 2
441.1
447.3
483.7

18.3
21.2
23.2
25.7
28.2
31.5
34.1
37.1
38.9
41.4

266.4
307.2
322.3
338.9
336.6
366.5
385.2
404.0
408.4
442.3

.2
.2
-.1
-.4
-.2
-.1
.8
.9
.9

23.3
25.2
27.6
29.6
29.4
32.1
34.9
37.3
38.5
41.5

8.9
9.4
10.3
10.9
9.7
10.7
11.2
11.8
11.5
12.5

14.5
15.8
17.3
18.7
19.7
21.4
23.6
25.5
27.0
28.9

.8
.9
10
?
.1
1.2
4
5
8

1.5
3.3
2.2
3.0
2.7
2.1
-1.1
*
1.6

241 1
278.0
291.4
304.7
303.1
331.0
350 8
366.1
367.8
400.0

503 7
520.1
560 3
590.5
632.4
683.9
743 3
785.1

43 4
45.2
50 0
52.6
56.1
59.9
63.5
67.0

460.3
474.9
510 4
537.9
576.3
624.0
679.8
718.1

.2
1.4
1.4
.8
i.3
1.2
2.2
1.8

45.2
47.7
51.5
54.7
58.4
62.2
65.1
69.7

13.5
13.6
14.6
15.3
16.1
16.5
15.9
16.6

31.7
34.1
36.9
39.4
42.3
45.7
49.2
53.1

1.9
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

—1.0
-.8
.5
-.3
— 1.3
-2.0
—2.6
-2.2

414 5
427.3
457 7
481.9
518.1
562.4
616.7
649.6

-

. .

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

. .

T

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967*

*
*
.3
.4
*
.1
.2
.5

.2
.7
.8
.9
-.2
-.1
-.1

7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: 1
II
Ill
IV.

662.7
675.4
690.0
708.4

58.3
59.3
60.5
61.6

604.4
616.1
629.5
646.8

1.3
1.3
1.1
1.2

61.8
61.8
62.2
63.1

17.5
16.5
15.7
16.3

44.3
45.2
46.4
46.7

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

-3.4
-2.3
-.6
-.5

544.9
555.3
566.5
582.8

1966: 1
II
III
IV

725.9
736.7
748.8
762.1

62.4
63.1
63.9
64.7

663.6
673.6
684.9
697.4

1.4
2.0
2.7
2.6

62.9
64.7
65.9
67.0

15.2
15.9
16.2
16.3

47.7
48.7
49.8
50.6

2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8

-.9
-2.2
-3.2
-3.8

600.3
610.4
622.1
634.1

1967: 1
II. - .
III
IV *

766.3
775.1
791.2
807.6

65.5
66.4
67.6
68.6

700.8
708.7
723.6
739.0

2.3
2.0
1.6
1.5

67.9
69.1
70.2
71.4

16.2
16.5
16.7
17.0

51.7
52.6
53.5
54.4

2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8

-4.0
-2.8
-1.2

636.4
641.6
653.4

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




224

T A B L E B—14.—Relation of national income and personal income, 1929—67
[Billions of dollars]

Plus:

Less:

Year or quarter

National
income

Corporate
profits
and inventory
valuation
adjustment

Contri- Wage
Govbutions accruals ernment
less
for
transfer
social
dispayments
insur- burseto perance
ments
sons

Equals:

Interest
paid
Government
(net)
and by
consumers

Dividends

Business
transfer Personal
payincome
ments

1929.
1930.
1931
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936
1937.
1938.
1939.

86.8

10.5

0.2

0.9

2.5

5.8

0.6

85.9

75.4
59.7
42.8
40.3
49.5
57.2
65.0
73.6
67.4
72.6

7.0
2.0
-1.3
-1.2
1.7
3.4
5.6
6.8
4.9
6.3

.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
'.S
1.8
2.0
2.1

1.0
2.1
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.9
1.9
2.4
2.5

1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9

5.5
4.1
2.5
2.0
2.6
2.8
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8

.5
.6
.7
.7
.6
.6
.6
.6
.4
.5

77.0
65.9
50.2
47.0
54.0
60.4
68.6
74.1
68.3
72.8

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943
1944.
1945.
1946
1947.
1948.
1949

81.1
104.2
137.1
170.3
182.6
181.5
181.9
199.0
224.2
217.5

9.8
15.2
20.3
24.4
23.8
19.2
19.3
25.6
33.0
30.8

2.3
2.8
3.5
4.5
5.2
6.1
6.0
5.7
5.2
5.7

2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
3.1
5.6
10.8
11.1
10.5
11.6

2.1
2.2
2.2
2.6
3.3
4.2
5.2
5.5
6.1
6.5

4.0
4.4
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.6
5.6
6.3
7.0
7.2

.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.6
.7

78.3
96.0
122.9
151.3
165.3
171.1
178.7
191.3
210.2
207.2

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
19571958.
1959
I960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.
1965.
1966
1967

241.1
278.0
291.4
304.7
303.1
331.0
350.8
366.1
367.8
400.0

37.7
42.7
39.9
39.6
38.0
46.9
46.1
45.6
41.1
51.7

6.9
8.2
8.7
8.8
9.8
11.1
12.6
14.5
14.8
17.6

14.3
11.5
12.0
12.8
14.9
16.1
17.1
19.9
24.1
24.9

7.2
7.6
8.1
9.0
9.5
10.1
11.2
12.0
12.1
13.6

8.8
8.6
8.6
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.3
11.7
11.6
12.6

.8
.9
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

227.6
255.6
272.5
288.2
290.1
310.9
333.0
351.1
361.2
383.5

414.5
427.3
457.7
481.9
518.1
562.4
616.7
649.6

49.9
50.3
55.7
58.9
66.3
74.9
82.2
79.1

20.7
21.4
24.0
26.9
27.9
29.7
38.2
43.0

26.6
30.4
31.2
33.0
34.2
37.2
41.2
49.1

15.1
15.0
16.1
17.6
19.1
20.4
22.3
24.1

13.4
13.8
15.2
16.5
17.8
19.8
21.5
22.8

1.9
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

401.0
416.8
442.6
465.5
497.5
537.8
584.0
626.3

0.2

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

1965: I...
IIIII.
IV..

544.9
555.3
566.5
582.8

72.6
73.4
74.9
78.7

29.1
29.4
29.8
30.4

36.0
35.3
39.4
37.9

19.9
20.3
20.6
20.9

18.7
19.4
20.2
20.9

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

520.3
530.1
544.6
556.1

1966: I...
II..

600.3
610.4
622.1
634.1

81.1
81.3
81.9
84.6

36.6
37.4
38.9
39.8

39.7
39.2
41.3
44.7

21.4
22.0
22.4
23.2

21.4
21.6
21.6
21.2

2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8

567.8
577.3
589.3
601.6

636.4
641.6
653.4

78.1
78.3
79.2

42.2
42.5
43.3
44.1

48.1
48.6
49.6
50.1

23.7
23.9
24.2
24.7

22.2
23.1
23.4
22.4

2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8

612.9
619.1
631.0
642.1

I.
V
1967: L
II._
III
V

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




225

TABLE B-15.—Disposition of personal income, 1929-67
Percent of disposable
personal income

Less: Personal outlays

Year or
quarter

Personal
income

Less:
Personal
tax
and
nontax
payments

Equals:
Disposable
personal
income

Total

Equals:
PerPerPersonal Interest sonal
sonal
contransfer saving
sump- paid by
paycontion
ments
expend- sumers to foritures
eigners

Personal
outlays

Total

Billions of dollars

Consumption
expenditures

Personal
saving

Percent

1929....

85.9

2.6

83.3

79.1

77.2

1.5

0.3

4.2

95.0

92.7

5.0

1930.....
1931.....
1932....
1933....
1934....
1935....
1936
1937
1938
1939....

77.0
65.9
50.2
47.0
54.0
60.4
68.6
74.1
68.3
72.8

2.5
1.9
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.9
2.3
2.9
2.9
2.4

74.5
64.0
48.7
45.5
52.4
58.5
66.3
71.2
65.5
70.3

71.1
61.4
49.3
46.5
52.0
56.4
62.7
67.4
64.8
67.7

69.9
60.5
48.6
45.8
51.3
55.7
61.9
66.5
63.9
66.8

.9
.7
.5
.5
.5
.5
.6
.7
.7
.7

.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

3.4
2.6
-.6
-.9
.4
2.1
3.6
3.8
.7
2.6

95.4
95.9
101.3
102.0
99.3
96.3
94.6
94.7
98.9
96.3

93.8
94.4
99.8
100.6
98.0
95.2
93.3
93.4
97.6
95.0

4.6
4.1
-1.3
-2.0

1940.....
1941....
1942....
1943
1944
1945
1946....
1947....
1948....
1949....

78.3
96.0
122.9
151.3
165.3
171.1
178.7
191.3
210.2
207.2

2.6
3.3
6.0
17.8
18.9
20.9
18.7
21.4
21.1
18.6

75.7
92.7
116.9
133.5
146.3
150.2
160.0
169.8
189.1
188.6

71.8
81.7
89.3
100.1
109.1
120.7
144.8
162.5
175.8
179.2

70.8
80.6
88.5
99.3
108.3
119.7
143.4
160.7
173.6
176.8

.8
.9
.7
.5
.5
.5
.8
1.1
1.5
1.9

.2
.2
.1
.2
.4
.5
.7
.7
.7
.5

3.8
11.0
27.6
33.4
37.3
29.6
15.2
7.3
13.4
9.4

94.9
88.2
76.4
75.0
74.5
80.3
90.5
95.7
92.9
95.0

93.6
86.9
75.7
74.4
74.0
79.7
89.6
94.6
91.8
93.8

5.1
11.8
23.6
25.0
25.5
19.7
9.5
4.3
7.1
5.0

1950....
1951....
1952....
1953....
1954....
1955....
1956....
1957....
1958....
1959....

227.6
255.6
272.5
288.2
290.1
310.9
333.0
351.1
361.2
383.5

20.7
29.0
34.1
35.6
32.7
35.5
39.8
42.6
42.3
46.2

206.9
226.6
238.3
252.6
257.4
275.3
293.2
308.5
318.8
337.3

193.9
209.3
220.2
234.3
241.0
259.5
272.6
287.8
296.6
318.3

191.0
206.3
216.7
230.0
236.5
254.4
266.7
281.4
290.1
311.2

2.4
2.7
3.0
3.8
4.0
4.7
5.4
5.8
5.9
6.5

.5
.4
.4
.5
.5
.5
.6
.6
.6
.6

13.1
17.3
18.1
18.3
16.4
15.8
20.6
20.7
22.3
19.1

93.7
92.4
92.4
92.8
93.6
94.3
93.0
93.3
93.0
94.4

92.3
91.0
90.9
91.1
91.9
92.4
91.0
91.2
91.0
92.3

6.3
7.6
7.6
7.2
6.4
5.7
7.0
6.7
7.0
5.6

I960....
1961
1962
1963
1964....
1965....
1966

401.0
416.8
442.6
465.5
497.5
537.8
584.0
626.3

50.9
52.4
57.4
60.9
59.4
65.6
75.2
81.7

350.0
364.4
385.3 '
404.6
438.1
472.2
508.8
544.6

333.0
343.3
363.7
384.7
411.9
445.0
479.0
505.8

325.2
335.2
355.1
375.0
401.2
433.1
465.9
491.6

7.3
7.6
8.1
9.1
10.1
11.3
12.4
13.4

.5
.5
.5
.6
.6
.7
.6
.8

17.0
21.2
21.6
19.9
26.2
27.2
29.8
38.7

95.1
94.2
94.4
95.1
94.0
94.2
94.1
92.9

92.9
92.0
92.2
92.7
91.6
91.7
91.6
90.3

4.9
5.8
5.6
4.9
6.0
5.8
5.9
7.1

1967P

3.'7
5.4
5.3
1.1
3.7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: I . . . .
II...
III —
IV..

520.3
530.1
544.6
556.1

64.3
66.1
65.2
66.7

456.0
464.0
479.4
489.4

431.6
439.9
448.5
460.1

420.2
428.1
436.4
447.8

10.8
11.2
11.5
11.7

0.6
.7
.7
.7

24.5
24.0
30.9
29.3

94.6
94.8
93.6
94.0

92.1
92.3
91.0
91.5

5.4
5.2
6.4
6.0

1966: I . . . .
II...
Ill —
IV...

567.8
577.3
589.3
601.6

70.4
74.1
76.9
79.6

497.5
503.3
512.4
522.0

470.9
474.6
483.2
487.4

458.2
461.6
470.1
473.8

12.0
12.3
12.5
12.9

.6
.7
.6
.6

26.6
28.7
29.2
34.6

94.7
94.3
94.3
93.4

92.1
91.7
91.7
90.8

5.3
5.7
5.7
6.6

1967: I . . .
II...
III..

612.9
619.1
631.0
642.1

80.2
79.1
82.8
84.6

532.7
540.0
548.2
557.5

493.9
504.0
509.6
515.9

480.2
489.7
495.3
501.4

13.1
13.3
13.5
13.8

.7
1.0
.8
.7

38.8
36.0
38.5
41.6

92.7
93.3
93.0
92.5

90.1
90.7
90.4
89.9

7.3
6.7
7.0
7.5

Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




226

TABLE B—16.—Total and per capita disposable personal income and personal consumption
expenditures, in current and 1958 prices, 1929-67
Disposable personal income

Year or quarter

Total (billions
of dollars)
Current
prices

1958
prices

Personal consumption expenditures

Per capita
(dollars)
Current
prices

Total (billions
of dollars)

1958
prices

Current
prices

1958
prices

Per capita
(dollars)
Current
prices

Population
(thousands) *

1958
prices
1,145

121,875

130.4
126.1
114.8
112.8
118.1
125.5
138.4
143.1
140.2
148.2

634
567
487
389
364
406
437
483
516
492
510

1,059
1,016
919
897
934
985
1,080
1,110
1,079
1,131

123,188
124,149
124,949
125,690
126,485
127,362
128,181
128,961
129,969
131,028

70.8
80.6
88.5
99.3
108.3
119.7
143.4
160.7
173.6
176.8

155.7
165.4
161.4
165.8
171.4
183.0
203.5
206.3
210.8
216.5

536
604
656
726
782
855
1,014
1,115
1,184
1,185

1,178
1,240
1,197
1,213
1,238
1,308
1,439
1,431
1,438
1,451

132,122
133,402
134,860
136,739
138,397
139,928
141,389
144,126
146,631
149,188

1,646
1,657
1,678
1,726
1,714
1,795
1,839
1,844
1,831
1,881

191.0
206.3
216.7
230.0
236.5
254.4
266.7
281.4
290.1
311.2

230.5
232.8
239.4
250.8
255.7
274.2
281.4
288.2
290.1
307.3

1,259
1,337
1,381
1,441
1,456
1,539
1,585
1,643
1,666
1,758

1,520
1,509
1,525
1,572
1,575
1,659
1,673
1,683
1,666
1,735

151,684
154,287
156,954
159,565
162,391
165,275
168,221
171,274
174,141
177,073

1,883
1,909
1,968
2,013
2,123
2,232
2,317
2,391

325.2
335.2
355.1
375.0
401.2
433.1
465.9
491.6

316.1
322.5
338.4
353.3
373.7
398.4
418.0
429.9

1,800
1,824
1,902
1,980
2,088
2,226
2,366
2,469

1,749
1,755
1,813
1,865
1,945
2,047
2,123
2,159

180,684
183,756
186,656
189,417
192,120
194,592
196,920
199,118

1929..
19301931..
1932..
1933..
19341935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

83.3

150.6

683

1,236

77.2

139.6

74.5
64.0
48.7
45.5
52.4
58.5
66.3
71.2
65.5
70.3

139.0
133.7
115.1
112.2
120.4
131.8
148.4
153.1
143.6
155.9

605
516
390
362
414
459
518
552
504
537

1,128
1,077
921
893
952
1,035
1,158
1,187
1,105
1,190

69.9
60.5
48.6
45.8
51.3
55.7
61.9
66.5
63.9
66.8

19401941..
1942..
19431944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

75.7
92.7
116.9
133.5
146.3
150.2
160.0
169.8
189.1
188.6

166.3
190.3
213.4
222.8
231.6
229.7
227.0
218.0
229.8
230.8

573
695
867
976
1,057
1,074
1,132
1,178
1,290
1,264

1,259
1,427
1,582
1,629
1,673
1,642
1,606
1,513
1,567
1,547

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
19551956..
19571958..
1959-

206.9
226.6
238.3
252.6
257.4
275.3
293.2
308.5
318.8
337.3

249.6
255.7
263.3
275.4
278.3
296.7
309.3,
315.8
318.8
333.0

1,364
1,469
1,518
1,583
1,585
1,666
1,743
1,801
1,831
1,905

1960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..
1965..
1966..
1967 p.

350.0
364.4
385.3
404.6
438.1
472.2
508.8
544.6

340.2
350.7
367.3
381.3
407.9
434.4
456.3
476.0

1,937
1,983
2,064
2,136
2,280
2,427
2,584
2,735

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

1965: I . .
II.
III
IV

456.0
464.0
479.4
489.4

422.2
427.2
440.2
448.2

2,354
2,388
2,459
2,502

2,179
2,199
2,258
2,291

420.2
428.1
436.4
447.8

389.1
394.1
400.7
409.9

2,169
2,204
2,239
2,289

2,008
2,029
2,056
2,096

193,734
194,269
194,941
195,594

1966: I . .
II.
III
IV

497.5
503.3
512.4
522.0

451.8
452.6
458.4
463.2

2,537
2,560
2,598
2,639

2,304
2,302
2,324
2,341

458.2
461.6
470.1
473.8

416.2
415.2
420.4
420.4

2,337
2,348
2,384
2,395

2,122
2,112
2,132
2,125

196,096
196,629
197,216
197,834

1967: l .
II.
III
IV

532.7
540.0
548.2
557.5

470.6
474.9
477.5
481.8

2,686
2,716
2,749
2,787

2,373
2,388
2,394
2,409

480.2
489.7
495.3
501.4

424.2
430.6
431.5
433.2

2,421
2,463
2,484
2,507

2,139
2,165
2,164
2,166

198,356
198,852
199,425
200,006

i Population of the United States including Armed Forces overseas. Annual data are for July 1; quarterly data are for
middle of period, interpolated from monthly data.
Sources: Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics and Bureau of the Census) and Council of Economic
Advisers.




227

TABLE B-17.—Sources of personal income, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]

Wage and salary disbursementsl

Year or quarter

Total
personal
income

Commodityproducing
industries
Total
Total

Manufacturing

Distributive
industries

Service
industries

Proprietors'
income

Government

Other
labor
income 1

Business
and
professional

Farm 2

1929..

85.9

50.4

21.5

16.1

15.6

8.4

4.9

0.6

9.0

6.2

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

77.0
65.9
50.2
47.0
54.0
60.4
68.6
74.1
68.3
72.8

46.2
39.1
30.5
29.0
33.7
36.7
41.9
46.1
43.0
45.9

18.5
14.3
9.9
9.8
12.1
13.5
15.8
18.4
15.3
17.4

13.8
10.8
7.7
7.8
9.6
10.8
12.4
14.6
11.8
13.6

14.5
12.5
9.8
8.8
9.9
10.7
11.8
13.2
12.6
13.3

8.0
7.1
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.9
6.5
7.1
6.8
7.1

5.2
5.3
5.0
5.1
6.1
6.5
7.9
7.5
8.2
8.2

.6
.5
.5
.4
.4
.5
.6
.6
.6
.6

7.6
5.8
3.6
3.3
4.7
5.5
6.7
7.2
6.9
7.4

4.3
3.4
2.1
2.6
3.0
5.3
4.3
6.0
4.4
4.4

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

78.3
96.0
122.9
151.3
165.3
171.1
178.7
191.3
210.2
207.2

49.8
62.1
82.1
105.6
116.9
117.5
112.0
123.0
135.3
134.6

19.7
27.5
39.1
48.9
50.3
45.8
46.0
54.3
61.0
57.7

15.6
21.7
30.9
40.9
42.9
38.2
36.5
42.5
47.2
44.7

14.2
16.3
18.0
20.1
22.7
24.8
31.0
35.2
37.6
37.7

7.5
8.1
9.0
9.9
10.9
12.0
14.4
16.1
17.9
18.6

8.4
10.2
16.0
26.6
33.0
34.9
20.7
17.4
18.9
20.6

.7
.7
.9
1.1
1.5
1.8
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.0

8.6
11.1
14.0
17.0
18.2
19.2
21.6
20.3
22.7
22.6

4.5
6.4
9.8
11.7
11.6
12.2
14.9
15.2
17.5
12.7

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957..
1958.
1959.

227.6
255.6
272.5
288.2
290.1
310.9
333.0
351.1
361.2
383.5

146.7
171.0
185.1
198.3
196.5
211.3
227.8
238.7
239.9
258.2

64.6
76.1
81.8
89.4
85.4
92.8
100.2
103.8
99.7
109.1

50.3
59.4
64.2
71.2
67.6
73.9
79.5
82.5
78.7
86.9

39.9
44.3
46.9
49.8
50.2
53.4
57.7
60.5
60.8
64.8

19.9
21.7
23.3
25.1
26.4
28.9
31.6
33.9
35.9
38.7

22.4
28.9
33.1
34.1
34.6
36.2
38.3
40.4
43.5
45.6

3.8
4.8
5.3
6.0
6.3
7.3
8.4
9.5
9.9
11.3

24.0
26.1
27.1
27.5
27.6
30.3
31.3
32.8
33.2
35.1

13.5
15.8
15.0
13.0
12.4
11.4
11.4
11.3
13.4
11.4

I960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964..
1965..
1966..

401.0
416.8
442.6
465.5
497.5
537.8
584.0
626.3

270.8
278.1
296.1
311.1
333.7
359.1
394.6
423.7

112.5
112.8
120.8
125.7
134.1
144.5
159.3
167.1

89.7
89.8
96.7
100.6
107.2
115.6
128.1
134.3

68.1
69.1
72.5
76.0
81.2
86.9
93.9
100.8

41.5
44.0
46.8
49.9
54.1
58.3
63.5
69.5

48.7
52.2
56.0
59.5
64.3
69.3
77.9
86.3

12.0
12.7
13.9
14.9
16.6
18.6
20.8
23.2

34.2
35.6
37.1
37.9
40.2
41.9
43.2
43.6

12.0
12.8
13.0
13.1
12.1
14.8
16.1
14.8

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
520.3
530.1
544.6
556.1

347.7
354.2
362.0
372.4

140.7
142.4
145.2
149.7

112.4
113.8
116.4
119.7

84.4
86.2
87.6
89.6

55.8
57.6
59.3
60.7

66.8
67.9
69.8
72.5

17.9
18.4
18.9
19.4

41.4
41.7
42.0
42.5

13.6
15.0
15.2
15.3

1966: I.

567.8
577.3
589.3
601.6

381.3
390.2
399.6
407.4

154.2
158.0
161.0
164.1

123.1
126.9
129.7
132.6

91.3
93.0
94.9
96.5

61.4
62.9
64.3
65.5

74.3
76.4
79.4
81.4

20.0
20.5
21.1
21.7

42.8
43.3
43.3
43.4

17.1
16.0
15.9
15.1

1967:

612.9
619.1
631.0
642.1

414.7
418.3
426.2
435.6

165.7
164.8
167.4
170.6

133.1
132.6
134.6
136.9

98.7
99.6
101.7
103.2

67.0
68.8
70.2
72.0

83.4
85.0
86.9
89.8

22.2
22.9
23.6
24.3

43.2
43.4
43.8
44.1

14.6
14.3
15.0
15.2

1965: I.
III.
IV.

See footnotes at end of table.




228

T A B L E B—17.—Sources of personal income,

1929—67—Continued

[Billions of dollars]

Transfer payments
Year or
quarter

Rental
ncome Diviof per- dends
sons

Personal
interest
income

Total

Old-age
and survivors
insurance
benefits

State
unemployment insurance
benefits

Veterans'
hpnpfitc
Uvllclllo

Less:
Personal
contributions
Other for social
insurance

Nonagricultural
personal
income 3

1929

5.4

5.8

7.2

1.5

0.6

0.9

0.1

77.6

1930....
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

4.8
3.8
2.7
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.6
2.7

5.5
4.1
2.5
2.0
2.6
2.8
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8

6.8
6.7
6.3
5.7
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.6
5.5
5.5

1.5
2.7
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.4
3.5
2.4
2.8
3.0

.6
1.6
.8
.5

.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.6
.6
.6

70.8
60.8
46.7
43.2
49.8
53.9
63.0
66.7
62.6
66.9

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

2.9
3.5
4.5
5.1
5.4
5.6
6.6
7.1
8.0
8; 4

4.0
4.4
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.6
5.6
6.3
7.0
7.2

5.4
5.5
5.3
5.3
5.6
6.3
6.8
7.5
7.9
8.5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959...

9.4
10.3
11.5
12.7
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.8
15.4
15.6

8.8
8.6
8.6
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.3
11.7
11.6
12.6

1960
1961
1962
1963.........
1964
1965
1966
1967 v

15.8
16.0
16.7
17.1
18.0
19.0
19.4
20.1

13.4
13.8
15.2
16.5
17.8
19.8
21.5
22.8

*
*

*
0.4
.4

!5
1.9
.6
.5
.5

.9
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.8
1.9
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.0

3.1
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.6
6.2
11.3
11.7
11.2
12.4

*
0.1
.1
.2
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7

.5
.3
.3
.1
.1
.4
1.1
.8
.8
1.7

.5
.5
.5
.5
.9
2.8
6.7
6.7
5.8
5.1

2.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.7
3.1
3.7
4.1
4.9

.7
.8
1.2
1.8
2.2
2.3
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2

72.3
87.^
111.0
137.3
151.2
156.4
161.0
173.0
189.4
191.3

9.2
9.9
10.6
11.8
13.1
14.2
15.7
17.6
18.9
20.7

15.1
12.5
13.0
14.0
16.0
17.3
18.5
21.4
25.7
26.6

1.0
1.9
2.2
3.0
3.6
4.9
5.7
7.3
8.5
10.2

1.4
.8
1.0
1.0
2.0
1.4
1.4
1.8
3.9
2.5

4.9
3.9
3.9
3.7
3.9
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.6

7.9
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.9
8.7
9.4

2.9
3.4
3.8
4.0
4.6
5.2
5.8
6.7
6.9
7.9

210.9
236.4
254.1
271.9
274.7
296.4
318.5
336.6
344.3
368.5

23.4
25.0
27.7
31.4
34.9
38.4
42.4
46.5

28.5
32.4
33.3
35.3
36.7
39.7
43.9
51.9

11.1
12.6
14.3
15.2
16.0
18.1
20.8
25.7

2.8
4.0
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.2
1.8
2.1

4.6
4.8
4.8
5.0
5.3
5.6
5.7
6.6

10.0
10.9
11.2
12.2
12.9
13.8
15.6
17.5

9.3
9.6
10.3
11.8
12.5
13.4
17.9
20.4

385.2
400.0
425.5
448.1
480.9
518.4
563.1
606.4

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: I.

II
Ill
IV

18.6
18.9
19.1
19.2

18.7
19.4
20.2
20.9

37.0
37.9
38.8
39.7

38.6
37.8
42.0
40.5

16.7
16.6
20.4
18.6

2.4
2.2
2.2
2.0

5.5
5.6
5.7
5.7

14.1
13.4
13.7
14.1

13.1
13.3
13.5
13.8

502.3
510.5
524.8
536.1

1966: I
II
Ill

19.2
19.3
19.4
19.6

21.4
21.6
21.6
21.2

40.7
41.9
42.8
44.3

42.4
41.9
44.0
47.5

19.4
19.6
21.0
23.2

2.0
1.6
1.8
1.8

5.9
5.4
5.4
6.3

15.1
15.3
15.8
16.2

17.1
17.3
18.4
18.7

545.9
556.5
568.5
581.4

19.8
20.0
20.2
20.4

22.2
23.1
23.4
22.4

45.2
46.0
46.9
48.0

50.8
51.4
52.4
52.9

24.7
25.6
26.2
26.4

2.1
2.1
2.2
1.9

6.5
6.5
6.6
6.7

17.6
17.0
17.4
17.9

20.0
20.2
20.5
20.8

593.1
599.6
610.9
621.8

IV

1967: I
II
III

1 The total of wage and salary disbursements and other labor income differs from compensation of employees in
Table B-12 in that it excludes employer contributions for social insurance and the excess of wage accruals over
wage disbursements.
2
Includes change in inventories.
3 Nonagricultural income is personal income exclusive of net income of unincorporated farm enterprises, farm wages,
agricultural net interest, and net dividends paid by agricultural corporations.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




229

TABLE B-18.—Sources and uses of gross saving, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]
Gross private saving and government surplus or deficit,
national income and product accounts
Government surplus
or deficit ( - )

Private saving

Year or quarter
Total
Total

Gross investment

Personal
saving

Gross
business
saving

Total

Federal

State
and
local

Statistical
dis-

Total

Gross
private
domestic investment

Net
foreign
investment i

17.0

16.2

0.8

0.7

10 3
5.6
1.0
1 4
3.3
6.4
8.5
11.8
6.5
9.3

.7
.2
.2
.2
.4
-.1
-.1
.1
1.1
.9

-.8
.7
.3
.6

ancy

1929

16.3

15.3

4.2

11.2

-0.2

11.8
5.1
.8
.9
3.2
6.6
7.2
11.9
7.0
8.8

12.1
8.0
2.5
2.3
5.6
8.6
10.3
11.5
8.7
11.0

3.4
2.6
-.6
- 9
.4
2.1
3.6
3.8

3
-2.1
-1.5
-1 3
-2.9
-2.6
-3.6
-.4
-2.1
-2.2

- 6
-.8
-.3

2! 6

8 6
5.3
3.2
3 2
5.2
6.4
6.7
7.7
8.0
8.4

1.0
3
-2.9
-1.8
-1.4
-2.4
-2.0
-3.1
.3
-1.8
-2.2

1.2

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

.5
.6
.5
.7
.4
2
()

11 0
5.8
1.1
1 6
3.8
6.4
8.4
11.8
7.6
10.2

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948 .
1949

13.6
18.6
10.7
5.5
2.5
5.2
35.1
42.0
49.9
35.9

14.3
22.4
42.0
49.7
54.3
44.7
29.7
27.5
41.4
39.0

3.8
11.0
27.6
33.4
37.3
29.6
15.2
7.3
13.4
9.4

10.5
11.4
14 5
16 3
17.1
15.1
14.5
20.2
28.0
29.7

-.7
-3.8
-31.4
-44.1
-51.8
-39.5
5.4
14.4
8.5
-3.2

-1.3
-5.1
-33 1
-46.6
-54.5
-42.1
3.5
13.4
8.4
-2.4

.6
1.3
18
2.5
2.7
2.6
1.9
1.0
.1
-.7

14.6
19.0
9 6
3.5
5.0
9.1
35.2
42.9
47.9
36.2

13.1
17.9
9.8
5.7
7.1
10.6
30.6
34.0
46.0
35.7

1.5
1.1
-.2
-2.2
-2.1
-1.4
4.6
8.9
1.9
.5

1.0
.4
-1.1
-2.0
2.5
3.9

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

50.4
56.1
49 5
47.5
48.5
64.8
72 7
71 2
59 2
73.8

42.5
50.3
53 3
54.4
55.6
62.1
67.8
70 5
71.7
75.9

13.1
17.3
18 1
18.3
16.4
15.8
20 6
20 7
22.3
19.1

29.4
7.8
9.1
6.2
5.8
33.1
35 1 - 3 . 8 - 3 8
36 1 - 6 . 9 - 7 . 0
39.2 - 7 . 0 - 5 . 9
2.7
4.0
46.3
47 3
4.9
5.7
2.1
49 8
49 4 - 1 2 . 5 - 1 0 . 2
56.8 - 2 . 1 - 1 . 2

—1.2
-.4
W
l
-1.1
-1.3
-.9
-1.4
-2.3
-.8

51.8
59.5
51 6
50.5
51.3
66.9
71.6
71.2
60.7
73.0

54.1
59.3
51.9
52.6
51.7
67.4
70.0
67.8
60.9
75.3

-2.2
.2
-.3
-2.1
-.5
-.5
1.5
3.4
-.2
-2.3

1.5
3.3
2.2
3.0
2.7
2.1
-1.1
*
1.6
-.8

77 5
75.5
85.0
90.5
. 101.0
113.5
122.7
116.5

73.9
79.8
87.9
88.7
102.4
110.8
119.5
129.2

17.0
21.2
21.6
19.9
26.2
27.2
29.8
38.7

3.7
3.5
56 8
58.7 - 4 . 3 - 3 . 8
66.3 - 2 . 9 - 3 . 8
68.8
1.8
76.2 - 1 . 4 - 3 . 0
83.7
2.7
1.4
3.2
.3
89.7
90.4 -12.7 - 1 2 . 6

.2
-.5
.9
1.2
1.7
1.2
2.9
-.1

76.5
74.7
85.5
90.3
99.7
111.5
120.2
114.1

74.8
71.7
83.0
87.1
94.0
107.4
118.0
112.1

1.7
3.0
2.5
3.1
5.7
4.1
2.2
2.0

-1.0
-.8
.5
-.3
-1.3
-2.0
-2.6
-2.2

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 *

.
..

(3)

-.2
1.2
*
.6
1.3

.9
-2.0
.3

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: 1
II
III
IV

112.0
112.5
113.3
116.2

106.3
106.3
115.0
115.6

24.5
24.0
30.9
29.3

81.8
82.3
84.1
86.3

5.7
6.2
-1.7
.6

4.5
4.9
-3.2
-.4

1.2
1.2
1.5
1.1

108.6
110.2
112.7
115.8

105.1
105.1
108.2
112.3

3.5
5.1
4.5
3.4

-3.4
-2.3
-.6
-.5

1966: 1
II
III
IV

118.7
123.1
121.3
127.9

114.1
117.0
118.7
128.2

26.6
28.7
29.2
34.6

87.5
88.3
89.5
93.6

4.6
6.1
2.6
-.3

2.2
3.2
-.7
-3.3

2.4
2.9
3.3
3.0

117.8
121.0
118.1
124.0

115.2
118.5
116.4
122.2

2.7
2.5
1.8
1.8

-.9
-2.2
-3.2
-3.8

1967: 1
II
III
IV v

116.9
110.1
115.7

127.7
125.1
129.0

38.8
36.0
38.5
41.6

88.9 - 1 0 . 8 - 1 1 . 9
89.1 - 1 5 . 0 - 1 4 . 7
90.4 - 1 3 . 3 - 1 3 . 2

1.0
-.2
-.1

112.9
107.3
114.5
121.9

110.4
105.1
112.2
120.7

2.5
2.3
2.3
1.2

-4.0
-2.8
-1.2

1 Net exports of goods and services less net transfers to foreigners.
2 Surplus of $32 million.
3 Deficit of $41 million.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




230

TABLE B—19.—Financial saving by individuals, 1939—67l
[Billions of dollars]
Private
insurance
and
U.S. Other
sav- Gov- rate pension
ings
and
rebonds ment3 other serves
Securities

Year or quarter

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952 .
1953..
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1952
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967P

1965:1
I
I
II
I
IV
1966:1II
III
I
V
1967:1
II
Il
l

Total

Currency Savand
ings
bank shares
deTotal
posits

3.0

3.0

2.9

2.9
4.8
10.9
16.2
17.5
19.0
10.6
2.0
-1.8
-1.4

oo

27.1
35.9
38.4
35.0
13.2
50
.
.5
1.6
-.3
81
10.4
9.0
85
.
5.2
12.2
15.0
19.7
14.0

-0.8

0.7

.3 - . 4
2.6
.4
.3 10.3
.6 14.1
.9 15.7
9.9
1.1
1.2 - 1 . 4
2.2
1.3
3.0
1.3
2.3
1.6

.9
2.8
8.0

0.1

-0.9

GovLess: Increase in
erndebt
Non- ment
ininsursured ance
penand
sion pen- Mort- Con- Secugage
rities
funds sion debts sumer loans7
debts
re- 4
serves
0.3

0.5

0.8

-0.2

-0.6

1.5

0.1

.4
2.3
3.3
11.1
4.6
11.8
4.2
6.9
1.0 - 2 . 6
2.0 - . 2
.5
1.6
.1
1.5

-.4
-.5
*
-.3
-.7
-1.2
.2
.4
.9
.7

1.6
1.9
2.2
2.6
2.9
3.2
3.1
3.5
3.3
3.5

.1
.1
.1
.2
.6
.9
.3
.3
.4
.6

.3
.3
.7
1.3
2.3
3.1
2.5
1.7
2.0
1.8

.9
.3 - . 1
-.5
.7 - . 5
1.2
3.4
.1
2.0
3.4
.2
-1.1
.2
.6
3.7
6.2
.3
3.2
5.2 - . 1
4.4
5.3 -1.9
-1.1
1.1
11.0
10.2

.7
1.6
2.1
1.2
.6
2.3
2.0
2.7
2.6
1.0

3.7
3.8
4.4
4.5
4.7
5.0
5.0
4.6
4.8
4.9

.9
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.7
3.1
3.2
3.6

-.6
1.7
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.0

6.5
7.0
6.1
7.2
8.3
12.0
10.6
8.1
8.2
12.5

3.7
1.0
4.4
3.7
1.0
6.2
3.3
2.5
.2
6.1

.2
-.3
.6
.4
.9
.6
-.8
-.1
.4
.2

.1
-.9
1.0
-.6
.7 -1.5
1.6 -2.4
5.1
3.6 - ! 4
1.7
12.3
.1
-.3

4.8
5.2
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.6
6.8
7.6

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.9
5.6
6.2
7.0

3.2
3.2
3.7
4.0
4.5
4.8
5.0
5.5

10.9
10.9
12.5
14.5
15.5
15.9
12.7
9.7

4.2
1.5
5.0
6.9
7.5
9.0
6.5
3.3

.3
1.0
1.1
.9
.1
.1
.5

.9
1.0
.8
.7
.1 - 3 . 0
- . 4 -1.0
-.1
.1
.2
.5
3.1
2.3
3.9
2.8
4.7
2.4
3.9
2.6

-.2
-.1
.3
.6
1.4
1.5
-2.3
-.8
.4
.3

3.5
5.9
7.0
4.7
5.4
3.4
4.8
4.8
10.2
4.1

1.7
2.3
3.3
4.0
4.7
5.2
5.3
5.2
6.4
7.2

6.3
18 9
22.1
23.0
30 0
29.8
29.8
47.8

2.4
9.5
17.7
18.4
19.4
23.3
12.5
28.9

8.2 - 1 . 0
9.2
1.1
9.9
-.4
11.7
.5
11.4
6.1
9.4
3.9
4.5 14.5
11.8
.7

-.2
.8
.4
1.2
.9
.6
.6
.9

5.7
6.0
10.1
7.9
5.4
7.2
8.7
8.5
11.5
. 10.0
16.0
10.?

1.9
5.0
8.0
8.4

2.1
2.7
1.4
3.4

.9
1.8
.7
.5

.2
.1
.1
.2

.7
1.4
.9
.7

.3
-.3
-.4

1.9
1.7
1.9
2.2

1.4
1.3
1.3
1.7

1.0
1.3
1.3
1.3

3.9
3.4
4.1
4.5

-.3
3.5
2.4
3.4

-.1
.7
-2.0
1.5

-1.6
4.7
3.4
5.9

1.4
1.1
-.5
2.6

4.9
3.3
4.7
1.6

.1
.2

4.3
2.2
3.9
1.9

.5
1.0
.8
-.6

1.9
1.5
1.5
1.9

1.3
1.5
1.3
2.2

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

4.4
3.0
2.6
2.7

-.4
2.6
1.6
2.8

-.4
.5
-1.1
1.5

5.5
8.4
10.6
4.5

2.5
4.0
2.0
3.3

1.2

2.0
1.5
1.9
2.1

1.6
1.5
1.8
2.0

1.1
1.4
1.4
1.5

1.8 - 1 . 9
1.6
1.9
2.5
1.1
2.2
3.7

-.2
-1.2
1.6
.6

-1.6
-4.6
3.5
3.4

'.2

.2 - 1 . 1
.2 - 4 . 4
.3
3.2
.2
2.1

1 Individuals' saving, in addition to personal holdings, covers saving of unincorporated business, trust funds, and nonprofit institutions in the forms specified.
2 Includes shares in savings and loan associations and shares and deposits in credit unions.
3 "Other government" includes U.S. Government issues (except savings bonds), State and local government securities,
and nonguaranteed Federal agency issues.
* Includes civil service, railroad retirement, and State and local retirement systems.
5
Mortgage debt to institutions on one- to four-family nonfarm dwellings.
6 Consumer debt owed to corporations. Policy loans on Government and private life insurance have been deducted
from those items of saving.
7 Change in bank loans to brokers, dealers, and others for the purpose of purchasing or carrying securities.
Note.—In addition to the concept of saving shown above, there are other concepts of individuals' saving, with varying
degrees of coverage, currently in use. The personal saving estimates of the Department of Commerce are derived as the
difference between personal i ncome (after taxes) and personal outlays. For a reconciliation of the two series, see Securities
and Exchange Commission "Statistical Bulletin," August 1967, and "Survey of Current Business," July 1967.
The flow-of-funds system of accounts of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System includes estimates of
gross saving and net financial investment of households.
Source: Securities and Exchange Commission.




231

TABLE B-20.—Number and money income of families
and unrelated individuals,1947-66
Families^

Median
income (1966
prices)

Number
(millions)
1947
1948
1949

With incomes under $3,000
(1966 prices)

Total

Year

Number
(millions)

Percent of
total

37.2
38.6
39.3

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964 . . . .

.

1965
1966

4,479
4,636
4,760
5,161
5,036

11.5
10.8
10.3
9.8
10.6

28.9
26.7
25.3
23.9
25.3

5,377
5 727
5,727
5,708
6,041

9.8
9.0
9.1
9.3
8.9

22.8
20.7
20.9
21.0
19.7

6,174
6,243
6,404
6,637
6,871

8.9
9.0
8.5
8.3
7.8

19.5
19.4
18.1
17.5
16.4

48.3
48.9

--

28.9
29.7
31.0

45.5
46.3
47.0
47.4
47.8

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

10.8
11.5
12.2

42.9
43.5
43.7
44.2
45.1

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

$4,401
4,299
4,230

39.9
40.6
40.8
41.2
42.0

.

7,154
7,436

7.5
7.0

15.5
14.3

Unrelated individuals 2
With incomes under $1,500
(1966 prices)

Total

Number
(millions)
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954 .
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964

Median
income (1966
prices)

Number
(millions)

Percent of
total

8.2
8.4
9.0

-

1965
1966

1,448
1,496
1,740
1,710
1,484

4.8
4.6
4.4
4.5
4.9

51.5
50.1
45.7
46.9
50.4

1,610
1,720
1,773
1,730
1,773

4.8
4.5
4.7
5.0
4.9

48.0
46.1
45.0
46.0
44.9

1,908
1,916
1,896
1,919
2,080

4.8
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.8

43.2
42.5
41.8
41.3
40.0

12.1
12.4

.

51.6
53.0
51.2

11.1
11.2
11.0
11.2
12.1

-.

4.2
4.5
4.6

9.9
9.8
10.4
10.9
10.9

.

$1,437
1 395
1,457

9.4
9.1
9.7
9.5
9.7

...

2,222
2,270

4.5
4.6

36.9
36.7

1 The term "family" refers to a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together;
all such persons are considered members of the same family.
2 The term "unrelated individuals" refers to persons 14 years of age and over (other than inmates of institutions) who
are not living with any relatives.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




232

POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT, WAGES, AND
PRODUCTIVITY
TABLE B-21.—Population by age groups: Estimates, 1929-67, and projections, 1970-85
[Thousands of persons]
Age (years)

July 1

Total
Under 5

5-13

14-19

20-24

25-44

45-64

Estimates:

65 and
over

1929

121,767

11,734

22,131

13,796

10,694

35,862

21,076

6,474

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

123,077
124,040
124,840
125,579
126,374

11,372
11,179
10,903
10,612
10,331

22,266
22,263
22,238
22,129
21,964

13,937
13,980
14,015
14,070
14,163

10,915
11,003
11,077
11,152
11,238

36,309
36,654
36,988
37,319
37,662

21,573
22,031
22,473
22,933
23,435

6,705
6,928
7,147
7,363
7,582

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

127,250
128,053
128,825
129,825
130,880

10,170
10,044
10,009
10,176
10,418

21,730
21,434
21,082
20,668
20,253

14,296
14,442
14,558
14,680
14,748

11,317
11,375
11,411
11,453
11,519

37,987
38,288
38,589
38,954
39,354

23,947
24,444
24,917
25,387
25,823

7,804
8,024
8,257
8,508
8,764

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

132,122
133,402
134,860
136,739
138,397

10,579
10,850
11,301
12,016
12,524

19,936
19,674
19,427
19,319
19,246

14,770
14,682
14,534
14,381
14,264

11,690
11,807
11,955
12,064
12,062

39,868
40,383
40,861
41,420
42,016

26,249
26,718
27,196
27,671
28,138

9,031
9,288
9,584
9,867
10,147

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

139,928
141,389
144,126
146,631
149,188

12,979
13,244
14,406
14,919
15,607

19,326
19,625
20,118
20,990
21,634

13,942
13,597
13,447
13,171
13,006

12,036
12,004
11,814
11,794
11,700

42,521
43,027
43,657
44,288
44,916

28,630
29,064
29,498
29,931
30,405

10,494
10,828
11,185
11,538
11,921

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

152,271
154,878
157,553
160,184
163,026

16,410
17,333
17,312
17,638
18,057

22,424
22,998
24,501
25,701
26,887

12,839
12,727
12,807
12,986
13,230

11,680
11,552
11,350
11,062
10,832

45,673
46,103
46,494
46,786
47,002

30,849
31,362
31,884
32,393
32,941

12,397
12,803
13,203
13,617
14,076

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

165,931
168,903
171,984
174,882
177,830

18,566
19,003
19,494
19,887
20,175

27,925
28,929
29,672
30,651
31,767

13,501
13,981
14,795
15,337
15,816

10,714
10,616
10,603
10,756
10,969

47,195
47,380
47,441
47,336
47,192

33,507
34,058
34,591
35,109
35,663

14,527
14,937
15,387
15,805
16,248

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

180,684
183,756
186,656
189,417
192,120

20,364
20,657
20,746
20,750
20,670

32,985
33,296
33,943
34,606
35,301

16,217
17,566
18,483
19,075
19,812

11,116
11,408
11,889
12,620
13,154

47,134
47,061
46,969
46,933
46,881

36,208
36,756
37,316
37,868
38,438

16,659
17,013
17,311
17,565
17,863

1965
1966
1967

194,592
196,920
199,118

20,404
19,811
19,191

35,889
36,544
36,965

20,637
21,582
21,697

13,679
14,063
15,197

46,807
46,855
47,077

39,015
39,601
40,194

18,162
18,464
18,796

1970: Series A . . .
Series D_._.

208,615
204,923

21,317
17,625

37,224
37,224

23,136
23,136

17,261

48,276

41,817

19,585

1975: Series A . . .
Series D

227,929
215,367

27,210
18,323

37,884
34,209

25,132
25,132

19,299

53,881

43,364

21,159

1980: Series A . . .
Series D . . .

250,489
227,665

31,040
20,736

45,215
32,695

24,621
24,621

20,997

62,374

43,180

23,063

1985: Series A . . .
Series D . . .

274,748
241,731

33,288
23,030

53,497
35,933

26,894
21,699

21,068

72,083

42,940

24,978

Projections:l

i Two of four series projected by the cohort method and based on different assumptions with regard to completed
fertility, which moves gradually toward a level of 3,350 children per 1,000 women for Series A and 2,450 children per
1,000 women for Series 0. For further explanation of method of projection and for additional data, see "Population Estimates, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 381," December 1967.
Note.—Data for Armed Forces overseas included beginning 1940.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




233

TABLE B-22.—Noninstitutional population and the labor force, 1929-67
Civilian labor force

Year or month

Noninstitutional
population

Total
labor
force
(including
armed
forces)

Employment
Armed
forces
Total
Total

Agricultural

Nonagricultural

Unemployment

Thousands of persons 14 years of age and over

Total
labor
force as
percent
of noninstitutional
population

Unemployment
as percent of
civilian
labor
force

Percent

49,440

260

49,180

47,630

10,450

37,180

1,550

3.2

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

50,080
50,680
51,250
51,840
52,490

260
260
250
250
260

49,820
50,420
51,000
51,590
52,230

45,480
42,400
38,940
38,760
40,890

10,340
10,290
10,170
10,090
9,900

35,140
32,110
28,770
28,670
30,990

4,340
8,020
12,060
12,830
11,340

8.7
15.9
23.6
24.9
21.7

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

53,140
53,740
54,320
54,950
55,600

270
300
320
340
370

52,870
53,440
54,000
54,610
55,230

42,260
44,410
46,300
44,220
45,750

10,110
10,000
9,820
9,690
9,610

32,150
34,410
36,480
34,530
36,140

10,610
9,030
7,700
10,390
9,480

20.1
16.9
14.3
19.0
17.2

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

100,380
101,520
102 610
103,660
104,630

56,180
57,530
60,380
64,560
66,040

540
1,620
3,970
9,020
11,410

55,640
55,910
56,410
55,540
54,630

47,520
50,350
53,750
54,470
53,960

9,540
9,100
9,250
9,080
8,950

37,980
41,250
44,500
45,390
45,010

8,120
5,560
2,660
1,070
670

56.0
56.7
58.8
62.3
63.1

14.6
9.9
4.7
1.9
1.2

1945
1946
1947

105,530
106,520
107,608

65,300
60,970
61,758

11,440
3,450
1,590

53,860
57,520
60,168

52,820
55,250
57,812

8,580
8,320
8,256

44,240
46,930
49,557

1,040
2,270
2,356

61.9
57.2
57.4

1.9
3.9
3.9

Thousands of persons 16 years of age and over

Percent

1947
1948
1949

103,418
104,527
105,611

60,941
62,080
62,903

1,591
1,456
1,617

59,350
60,621
61,286

57,039
58,344
57,649

7,891
7,629
7,656

49,148
50,713
49,990

2,311
2,276
3,637

58.9
59.4
59.6

3.9
3.8
5.9

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

106,645
107,721
108,823
110,601
111,671

63,858
65,117
65,730
66,560
66,993

1,650
3,100
3,594
3,547
3,350

62,208
62,017
62,138
63,015
63,643

58,920
59,962
60,254
61,181
60,110

7,160
6,726
6,501
6,261
6,206

51,760
53,239
53,753
54,922
53,903

3,288
2,055
1,883
1,834
3,532

59.9
60.4
60.4
60.2
60.0

5.3
3.3
3.0
2.9
5.5

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

112,732
113,811
115,065
116,363
117,881

68,072
69,409
69,729
70,275
70,921

3,049
2,857
2,800
2,636
2,552

65,023
66,552
66,929
67,639
68,369

62,171
63,802
64,071
63,036
64,630

6,449
6,283
5,947
5,586
5,565

55,724
57,517
58,123
57,450
59,065

2,852
2,750
2,859
4,602
3,740

60.4
61.0
60.6
60.4
60.2

4.4
4.1
4.3
6.8
5.5

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

119,759
121,343
122,981
125,154
127,224

72,142
73,031
73,442
74,571
75,830

2,514
2,572
2,828
2,738
2,739

69,628
70,459
70,614
71,833
73,091

65,778
65,746
66,702
67,762
69,305

5,458
5,200
4,944
4,687
4,523

60,318
60,546
61,759
63,076
64,782

3,852
4,714
3,911
4,070
3,786

60.2
60.2
59.7
59.6
59.6

5.5
6.7
5.5
5.7
5.2

1965
1966
1967

129,236
131,180
133,319

77,178
78,893
80,793

2,723
3,123
3,446

74,455
75,770
77,347

71,088
72,895
74,372

4,361
3,979
3,844

66,726
68,915
70,527

3,366
2,875
2,975

59.7
60.1
60.6

4.5
3.8
3.8

1966: Jan..
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
JuneJuly.
Aug..
Sept.
OctNov..
Dec.

130,285
130,436
130,599
130,749
130,925
131,083

76,458
76,702
77,043
77,812
78,459
80,727

2,890
2,924
2,974
3,008
3,045
3,099

73,568
73,778
74,069
74,804
75,414
77,628

70,340
70,676
71,083
72,077
72,620
74,038

3,449
3,478
3,645
4,020
4,097
4,704

66,891
67,198
67,439
68,055
68,523
69,333

3,228
3,102
2,986
2,729
2,794
3,591

58.7
58.8
59.0
59.5
59.9
61.6

4.4
4.2
4.0
3.6
3.7
4.6

131,236
131,419
131,590
131,772
131,949
132,121

80,838
80,665
78,982
79,488
79,895
79,642

3,135
3,178
3,229
3,279
3,322
3,390

77,703
77,487
75,750
76,209
76,573
76,252

74,655
74,666
73,248
73,744
73,995
73,599

4,580
4,308
4,186
4,114
3,815
3,360

70,076
70,359
69,063
69,630
70,180
70,239

3,048
2,821
2,505
2,466
2,577
2,653

61.6
61.4
60.0
60.3
60.5
60.3

3.9
3.6
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.5

See footnotes at end of table.




234

TABLE B-22.—Noninstitutional population and the labor force,

1929-67—Continued

Civilian labor force
Noninstitutional
population

Year or month

Total
labor
force
(including
armed
forces)

Employment
Armed
forces
Total
Total

Agricultural

Nonagricultural

Unemployment

Thousands of persons 16 years of age and over

Total
labor
force as
percent
of noninstitutional
population

Unemployment
as percent of
civilian
labor
force

Percent

1967: Jan..
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
June

132,295
132,448
132,627
132,795
132,969
133,168

78,706
79,107
78,949
79,560
79,551
82,464

3,386
3,418
3,436
3,449
3,456
3,444

75,320
75,689
75,513
76,111
76,095
79,020

72,160
72,506
72,560
73,445
73,637
75,391

3,335
3,281
3,410
3,721
3,825
4,395

68,826
69,225
69,149
69,724
69,812
70,996

3,160
3,183
2,954
2,666
2,457
3,628

59.5
59.7
59.5
59.9
59.8
61.9

4.2
4.2
3.9
3.5
3.2
46
.

July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct..
Nov.
Dec.

133,366
133,645
133,847
134,045
134,224
134,405

82,920
82,571
80,982
81,595
81,582
81,527

3,449
3,459
3,456
3,463
3,469
3,469

79,471
79,112
77,526
78,132
78,113
78,057

76,221
76,170
74,631
75,181
75,218
75,338

4,516
4,378
3,931
4,033
3,759
3,545

71,705
71,792
70,700
71,148
71,460
71,793

3,250
2,942
2,895
2,951
2,894
2,719

62.2
61.8
60.5
60.9
60.8
60.7

41
.
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.5

Seasonally adjusted

78,245
78,050
78,091
78,349
78,194
78,767

75,355
75,126
75,117
75,341
75,149
75,668

72,410
72,341
72,266
72,542
72,253
72,730

4,144
4,155
4,113
4,199
3,902
3,981

68,266
68,186
68,153
68,343
68,351
68,749

2,945
2,785
2,851
2,799
2,896
2,938

3.9
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.9
3.9

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

78,905
79,247
79,268
79,360
79,934
80,154

75,770
76,069
76,039
76,081
76,612
76,764

72,846
73,141
73,195
73,199
73,897
73,893

3,926
3,935
3,886
3,779
3,892
4,011

68,920
69,206
69,309
69,420
70,005
69,882

2,924
2,928
2,844
2,882
2,715
2,871

3.9
3.8
3.7

1967: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

80,473
80,443
79,959
80,189
79,645
80,681

77,087
77,025
76,523
76,740
76,189
77,237

74,255
74,137
73,747
73,910
73,289
74,147

4,015
3,890
3,855
3,890
3,652
3,727

70,240
70,247
69,892
70,020
69,637
70,420

2,832
2,888
2,776
2,830
2,900
3,090

3.7
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.0

80,954
81,160
81,259
81,460
81,576
82,051

77,505
77,701
77,803
77,997
78,106
78,582

74,489
74,718
74,625
74,630
75 083
75,681

3,856
3,992
3,676
3,707
3,829
4,264

70,633
70,726
70,949
70,923
71,254
71,417

3,016
2,983
3,178
3,367
3,023
2,901

3.9
3.8
4.1

1966: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

-

July...
Aug...
Sept...
Oct....
Nov...
Dec...

3'. 5
3.7

4.31
3.9 |
3.7J

Mote —Labor force data in Tables B-22 through B-25 are based on household interviews and relate to calendar week
including the 12th of the month. For definitions of terms, area samples used, historical comparability of the data, comparability with other series etc., see "Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor Force," February 1968.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




235

T A B L E B—23.—Civilian employment and unemployment, by sex and age, 1947—67
[Thousands of persons 16 years of age and over]
Employment
Males

Unemployment
Females

Females

Males

Year or
month
Total
Total

20
16-19 years
years and
over

Total

20
16-19 years
years and
over

Total
Total

20
16-19 years
years and
over

Total

20
16-19 years
years and
over

1947.
1948.
1949.

57,039 40,994 2,218 38,776 16,045 1,69114,354 2,311 1,692
58,344 41
2,345 39,382 16,618 1,683 14,937 2,276 1,559
57,649 40;
2,124138,803 16,723 1,58815,137 3,637 2,572

270 1,422
619
255 1,305
717
352 2,219 1,065

144
152
223

475
564
841

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

58,920 41 ,580 2,186139,394 17,340 1,517 15,824 3,288 2,239
59,962 41,780 2,156 39,626 18,182 1,611 16,570 2,055 1,221
_,
60,254 41
41,684 2,106 39,578 18,
18,570 1,612 16,958 1,883 1,185
•1,181 42,431 2,135 40,296 18,750 1,584 17,164 1,834 1,202
10,"" 41
,110 ",620 1,985 39,634 18,490 1,49017,000 3,532 2,344

318
191
205
184
310

1,922 1,049
1,029
834
980
698
1,019
632
2,035 1,188

195
145
140
123
191

854
689
559
510
997

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

62,171
53,802
54,071
53,036
54,630

42,621
._,
43,380
43,
43,357
.,
"\423
42,
;,
43, 466

2,095 40,526 19,!
1,550
2,164 41,216 20,),422
2,117 41,239 20,;
), 714
2,012 40,411;
20,613
2,198 41,267 21,164

1,548 18,002
1,654 18,767
1,663 19,052
1,57019,043
1,64019,524

2,852
2,750
2,859
4,602
3,740

1,854
1,711
1,841
3,098
2,420

274
269
299
416
398

1,580
1,442
1,541
2,681
2,022

998
1,039
1,018
1,504
1,320

823
176
832
209
197
821
262 1,242
256 1,063

I960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

1,904
15,778 43,
65,746 43:
1,656
66,702 44,177
67,762 44,
"1,657
59,305 45,474

2,360 41,543 21 ,874
2,314 41,342 22;
!,090
2,362 41,815 22! 525
!,
2,406 42,251 23,105
2,587 42,886 23,831

1,769
1,793
1,833
1,849
1,929

3,852
4,714
3,911
4,070
3,786

2,486
2,997
2,423
2,472
2,205

425
479
407
500
487

2,060
2,518
2,016
1,971
1,718

1,366
1,717
1,488
1,598
1,581

286
349
313
383
386

1965.
1966.
1967.

088 46,340 2,918 43,422 24,
895 46,919 3,252 43,667 25,
372 47,479 3,186 44,293 26,

20,105
20,296
20,693
21,257
21,903

2,118 22,630 3,366 1,914
2,469 23,507 2,875 1,551
2,496 24,397 2,975 1,508

1,368
1,175
1,216
1,195

479 1,435 1,452
432 1,119 1,324
448 1,059 1,468

395 1,056
404
919
390 1,078

Seasonally adjusted
23,150
23,112
23,070
23,139
23,142
23,271

2,945
2,785
2,851
2,799
2,896
2,938

1,625
1,549
1,596
1,500
1,532
1,593

448
411
444
420
449
449

1,177
1,138
1,152
1,080
1,083
1,144

1,320
1,236
1,255
1,299
1,364
1,345

393
355
383
419
425
423

927
881
872
880
939
922

23,422
23,556
23,994
2,484 23,891
2,608 24,278
2,610 24,167

2,924
2,928
2,844
2,882
2,715
2,871

1,587
1,543
1,516
1,489
1,473
1,537

441
409
435
420
387
448

1,146
1,134
1,081
1,069
1,086
1~~

1,337
1,385
1,328
1,393
1,242
1,334

438
437
384
400
375
362

899
948
944
993
867
972

2,594 24,128
2,605 24,057
2,557 23,834
2,635 24,002
3,128 ._,
, _ . . 2,466 23,773
3,292 44,158 26,699 2,605 24,094

2,832
2,888
2,776
2,830
2,900
3,090

1,426
1,452
1,413
1,472
1,563
1,619

414
468
376
424
464
461

1,012 1,406
986 1,438
1,037 ,363
1,048 ,358
1,099 ,337
1,158 ,471

313
422
335
337
380
388

1,093
1,014
1,028
1,021
957
1,083

2,513 24,421
2,448 24,558
2,365 24,781
2,378 24,827
2,442 25,093
2,441 25,348

3,016
2,983
3,178
3,367
3,023
2,901

1,519
1,539
1,471
1,678
1,604
1,436

424
459
430
540
521
423

1,095
1,080
1,041
1,138
1,083
1,013

402
445
437
424
378
393

1,095
999
1,270
1,267
1,041
1,072

1966: Jan... '2,410 ,876 3,256 43,620 25,534
Feb... '2,3414 ,
46,849 3,204 43,645 25,492
Mar... '2,266 46,859 3,242 43,617 25,407
Apr... 72,542 47,016 3,285 43,731 25,526
May... 72,253 46,736 3,112 43,624 25,517
June.. 2,730 46,960 3,345 43,615 25,770
July.. 72,846 46,917
...
Aug.. 73,141 . . .
Sept.. '3,195 46,769
Oct... 73,199 46,824
Nov.. 73,897 47, " *
7,011
D e c . 73,893 47,
7,116
1967: Jan...
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
JuneJuly..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

3,340 43,577 25,929
3,348 43i 688 26,105
3,114 43,655 26,426
3,170 43,654 26,375
3,300 43,711 26,886
3,218 43,898 26,777

,533
74,255 47,
',477
74,137 47\
,358
73,747 47,
,273
73,910 47,
,050
73,289 47,
74,147 47,448

i,934
3,21 44,338 26,
3,23 44,479 27,,006.
3,04 44,435 27,146
•,375 27,205
3,050 44;
,480 27, 535
3,068 44,
",
3,094 44,798 27 7 8 9

2,507
2,549
2,432

26,722
3,306 44,227 L_,
~
3,239 44,238 26, 662
3,348 44,010 26, 389
3,181 44,092 26, 637

,555
74,489 47,
,712
74,718 47,
74,625 47,479
,
'V25
74,630 47
,548
75,083 47!
75,681 47,892

2,384
2,380
2,337
2,387
2,375
2,499

Note.-See Note, Table B-22.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




236

,497
,444
1,707
1,689
1,419
1,465

TABLE B-24.—Selected unemployment rates, 1948-67
[Percent]
By sex and age

Year or month

All
workers

Both
sexes,
16-19
years

Men,
20
years
and
over

Women, 20
years
and
over

By color

White

Nonwhite

By selected groups

Experienced
wage
and
salary
workers

Married
men*

Fulltime
workers 2

Bluecollar
workers 3

Labor
force
time lost'

4.2
8.0

1948.
1949.

3.8
5.9

9.2
13.4

3.2
5.4

3.6
5.3

3.7
6.2

3.4

5.4

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

5.3
3.3
3.0
2.9
5.5

12.2
8.2
8.5
7.6
12.6

4.7
2.5
2.4
2.5
4.9

5.1
4.0
3.2
2.9
5.5

9.9

4.6
1.5
1.4
1.7
4.0

5.0
2.6
2.5

5.0

5.6
3.2
2.9
2.6
6.2

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

4.4
4.1
4.3
6.8
5.5

11.0
11.1
11.6
15.9
14.6

3.8
3.4
3.6
6.2
4.7

4.4
4.2
4.1
6.1
5.2

3.9
3.6
3.8
6.1
4.8

8.7
8.3
7.9
12.6
10.7

4.8
4.4
4.6
7.2
5.7

2.6
2.3
2.8
5.1
3.6

3.8
3.7
4.0
7.2

1960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

5.5
6.7
5.5
5.7
5.2

14.7
16.8
14.7
17.2
16.2

4.7
5.7
4.6
4.5
3.9

5.1
6.3
5.4
5.4
5.2

4.9
6.0
4.9
5.0
4.6

10.2
12.4
10.9
10.8
9.6

5.7
6.8
5.6
5.5
5.0

3.7
4.6
3.6
3.4
2.8

1965.
1966.
1967.

4.5
3.8
3.8

14.8
12.7
12.9

3.2
2.5
2.3

4.5
3.8
4.2

4.1
3.3
3.4

8.1
7.3
7.4

4.3
3.5
3.6

5.2

7.2
3.9
3.6
3.4
7.2
5.8
5.1
6.2
10.2
7.6

5.1
5.3
8.1
6.6

5.5
4.9

7.8
9.2
7.4
7.3
6.3

6.7
8.0
6.7
6.4
5.8

2.4
1.9
1.8

4.3
3.5
3.5

5.3
4.2
4.4

5.0
4.2
4.2

6.7

Seasonally adjusted

May."."."."""
June

3.9
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.9
3.9

13.0
12.1
12.9
12.9
13.7
13.0

2.6
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.6

3.9
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.9
3.8

3.5
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.4

6.9
6.8
7.3
7.1
7.4
7.5

3.6
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.7
3.7

1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.9

3.4
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.7

4.3
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.3
4.3

4.3
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.3
4.7

July..
Aug_.
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

3.9
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.5
3.7

13.1
12.5
12.9
12.7
11.4
12.2

2.6
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

3.7
3.9
3.8
4.0
3.4
3.9

3.4
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.1
3.3

7.5
8.0

7.2

7.4
6.9
7.6

3.5
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.5

2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.7

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.3

4.5
4.4
4.1
4.0
4.2
4.2

4.5
4.2
4.2
4.1
3.8
4.1

1967: Jan...
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
June.

3.7
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.0

11.0
13.2
10.7
11.6
13.1
12.6

2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.6

4.3
4.0
4.1
4.1
3.9
4.3

3.3
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.5

6.6
7.1
7.4
7.3
7.8
7.8

3.5
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.8

1.7
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.9
2.0

3.1
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.9

4.2
4.1
4.2
4.6
4.6
4.7

4.1
4.0
4.1
4.0
3.8
4.5

July..
Aug_.
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

3.9
3.8
4.1
4.3
3.9
3.7

12.6
13.7
13.8
15.1
14.0
12.8

2.4
2.4
2.3
2.5
2.4
2.2

4.3
3.9
4.9
4.8
4.0
4.1

3.5
3.5
3.6
3.8
3.4
3.3

7.2
6.9
7.9
8.8
7.3
6.9

3.7
3.6
4.0
4.1
3.6
3.5

1.8
2.0
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.7

3.6
3.6
3.8
3.9
3.6
3.3

4.7
4.4
4.6
4.9
4.4
4.3

4.3
4.3
4.6
4.7
4.1
4.1

1966:Jan
Feb
Mar

1 Married men living with their wives. Data for 1949 and 1951-54 are for April; 1950, for March.
2 Data for 1949-61 are for May.
3 Includes craftsmen, operatives, and nonfarm laborers. Data for 1948-57 are based on data for January, April, July,
and October.
* Man-hours lost by the unemployed and persons on part time for economic reasons as a percent of potentially available
labor force man-hours.
Note.—See Note, Table B-22.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

284-593(



237

TABLE B-25.— Unemployment by duration, 1947-67
Duration of unemployment
Year or month

Total unemployment

4 weeks
and under

5-14
weeks

15-26
weeks

Over
26 weeks

Thousands of persons 16 years of age and over
1947
1948
1949

2,311
2,276
3,637

1,300
1,756

1950
1951 .
1952..
1953
1954

3,288
2,055
1,883
1,834
3,532

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

669

193

116

1,194

428

256

1,450
1,177
1,135
1,142
1,605

1,055

425

357

1,116

495

317

2,852
2,750
2,859
4,602
3,740

1,335
1,412
1,408
1,753
1,585

815

366

336

1,396
1,114

469

571

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

3,852
4,714
3,911
4,070
3,786

1,719
1,806
1,659
1,751
1,697

1,176
1,376
1,134
1,231
1,117

503

454

728
534
535
491

804
585
553
482

1965
1966
1967

3,366
2,875
2,975

1,628
1,535
1,634

983
804
893

404
295
271

351
241
177

. . .

574
516
482

805
891

166
148
132

301
321
785

137
84
78

232
239
667

Seasonally adjusted

Mar
Apr

May

June

. . .

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

1967: Jan
Feb

Mar
Apr
May

June

.

July

Aug

Sept
Oct.

.

. .

Nov
Dec

1,481
1,450
1,494
1,536
1,604
1,653

764
738
796
667
854
816

340
327
316
333
262
263

299
267
267
257
276
223

1,592
1,576
1,523
1,493
1,397
1,562

882
891

228
254

218
208

831
900
789
760

291
293
287
269

202
224
197
227

2,832
2,888
2,776
2 830
2,900
3,090

Feb

2,945
2,785
2,851
2,799
2,896
2,938
2,924
2,928
2,844
2,882
2,715
2,871

1966:Jan

1,542
1,678
1,633
1 468
l'371
1,649

787

282

203

3 016
2,983
3,178
3,367
3,023
2,901

1,805
1,660
1,889
1,847
1,586
1,471

876
946
945

265
231
278

170
210
159

1,153
918

313
310

176
177

Note.—See Note, Table B-22.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




238

771
827
900
877
919

954

249
259
251
271
298

261

190
177
185
143
146

192

TABLE B—26.— Unemployment insurance programs, selected data, 1940-67
State programs

All programs

Year or month

Covered
employ-1
ment

Insured Total
unem- benefits Insured
paid
ployunem(milment
ploy(weekly lions
ment^
of dolaverage) 23 lars) 2 4

Thousands
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954..
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965..
1966
1967*
1966: Jan..
Feb..
MarApr..
MayJune.
July..
Aug__
Sept..
Oct...
NovDec.
1967: Jan..
Feb..
MarApr..
May..
June.
July..
Aug..

24,291
28,136
30,819
32,419
31,714
30,087
31,856
33,876
34,646
33,098

534.7
358.8
350.4
80.5
67.2
1,785.5
1,328.7
2,269.8
1,467.6
862.9
1,043.5
1,050.6
2,291.8
1,560.2
1,540.6
1,913.0
4,290.6
2,854.3

46,334
46,266
47,776
48,434
49,637
51,580
54,739

2,071
2,994
1,946
71,973
1,753
1,450
1,129
1,268

3,022.8
4,358.1
3,145.1
3,025.9
2,749.2
2,360.4
1,890.9
2,236.9

51,952
52,129
52,885
53,796
54,323
55,549

1,739
1,679
1,381
1,112
916
842
1,001
980
802
799
955
1,313
1,631
1,654
1,603
1,423
1,197
1,071
1,245
1,123
956
953
1,068
1,338

226.6
230.2
240.0
166.4
136.0
123.5

55,705
56,034
56,109
55,911
55,984
56,482
*>54,678
*54,659
P55, 097
P55,591

*55,985
8 57,017

Nov.

Exhaustions 5

Unadjusted

Weekly average, thousands

1,331
842
661
149
111
720
2,804
1,793
1,446
2,474
1,605
1,000
1,069
1,067
2,051
1,399
1,323
1,571
3,269
2,099

34,308
36,334
37,006
38,072
36,622
40,018
42,751
43,436
44,411
45,728

Initial
claims

574.9
2,878.5

121.0
152.0
114.3
100.4
122.6
166.4
235.8
230.9
270.1
210.5
193.1
165.4
155.3
184.0
132.3
133.0
146.5
180.0

1,282
814
649

214

105
589
1,295
997
980
1,973
1,513
969
1,044
990
1,870
1,265
1,215
1,446
2,526
1,684
1,908
2,290
1,783
M,806
1,605
1,328
1,061
1,206
1,644
1,590
1,301
1,044
862
793

164
122
36
29
116
189
187
200
340
236
208
215
218
304
226
227
270
371
281
331
350
302
7 297
268
232
203
227
329
239
11
7
166
152
156

947

249

928
755
753
903
1,254
1,558
1,583
1,533
1,360
1,142
1,019
1,184
1,060
894
889
997
1,259

173
145
166
208
299
300
267
239
244
188
186
288
187
158
180
208
278

147

Insured unemployment as percent of covered
employment

Benefits paid

Total
(millions of
Seasondolally ad- lars) *
justed

Average
weekly
check
(dollars) e

Percent
518.7
344.3
344.1
79.6
62.4
445.9
1,094.9
775.1
789.9
1,736.0
1,373.1
840.4
998.2
962.2

5.6
3.0
2.2
.5
.4
2.1
4.3
3.1
3.0
6.2
4.6
2.8
2.9
2.8
5.2
3.5
3.2
3.6
6.4
4.4

2,026.9

1,350.3
1,380.7
1,733.9
3,512.7
2.279.0
2,726.7
3,422.7
2,675.4
2,774.7
2.522.1
2,166.0
1,771.3
2,101.8

4.8
5.6
4.4
4.3
3.8
3.0
2.3
2.5

3.7
3.6
2.9
2.3
1.9
1.8

2.6
2.6
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2

2.1
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.7
3.3
3.4
3.3
2.9
2.4
2.1
2.4
2.2
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.6

2.4
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.2

212.7
217.2
225.5
155.5
126.1
114.4
113.8
143.1
106.5
93.7
114.8
157.6
224.8
219.5
257.5
200.6
183.6
156.1
147.3
172.8
122.6
122.1
134.9
160.0

10.56
11.06
12.66
13.84
15.90
18.77
18.50
17.83
19.03
20.48
20.76
21.09
22.79
23.58
24.93
25.04
27.02
28.17
30.58
30.41
32.87
33.80
34.56
35.27
35.92
37.19
39.75
41.20
39.32
39.66
39.83
39.37
38.85
38.71
39.05
40.65
39.68
39.84
40.57
41.39
41.70
41.97
42.07
41.81
40.99
39.99
40.10
41.08
40.10
40.70
41.19
41.50

1 Includes persons under the State, UCFE (Federal employee, effective January 1955), and RRB (Railroad Retirement
Board) programs. Beginning October 1958, also includes the UCX program (unemployment compensation for ex-servicemen).
2 Includes State, UCFE, RR, UCX, UCV (unemployment compensation for veterans, October 1952-January 1960), and
SRA (Servicemen's Readjustment Act, September 1944-September 1951) programs. Also includes Federal and State
programs for temporary extension of benefits from June 1958 through June 1962, expiration date of program.
3 Covered workers who have completed at least 1 week of unemployment.
4 Includes benefits paid under extended duration provisions of State laws, beginning June 1958. Annual data are net
amounts and monthly data are gross amounts.
5
Individuals receiving final payments in benefit year.
6
For total unemployment only.
7
Programs include Puerto Rican sugarcane workers for initial claims and insured unemployment beginning July 1963.
s Preliminary; June 1967 is latest month for which data are available fnr all programs combined. Workers covered
by State programs account for about 87 percent of the total.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security.




239

TABLE B-27.—Wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments, 1929-67
[All employees; thousands of persons]

Year or
month

Total
wage
and
salary
workers

Manufacturing

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Mining

Contract
construction

Transportation
and
public
utilities

Wholesale
and
retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and
real
estate

Service
and
miscellaneous

Government

Federal

ate
and
local

1929

31,339

10,702

1,087

1,497

3,916

6,123

1,509

3,440

533

2,532

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

29,424
26,649
23,628
23 711
25,953

9,562
8,170
6,931
7,397
8,501

1,009
873
731
744
883

1,372
1,214
970
809
862

3,685
3,254
2,816
2,672
2,750

5,797
5,284
4,683
4 755
5,281

1,475
1,407
1,341
1 295
1,319

3,376
3,183
2,931
2 873
3,058

526
560
559
565
652

2,622
2,704
2,666
2 601
2,647

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939...

27 053
29,082
31,026
29,209
30,618

9,069
9,827
10,794
9,440
10,278

4,715

5,564

897
946
1,015
891
854

912
1,145
1,112
1,055
1,150

2,786
2,973
3,134
2,863
2,936

5,431
5,809
6,265
6,179
6,426

1,335
1,388
1,432
1,425
1,462

3,142
3,326
3,518
3,473
3,517

753
826
833
829
905

2 728
2,842
2,923
3,054
3,090

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

32,376
36,554
40,125
42,452
41,883

10,985
13,192
15,280
17,602
17,328

5,363
6,968
8,823
11,084
10,856

5,622
6,225
6,458
6,518
6,472

925
957
992
925
892

1,294
1,790
2,170
1,567
1,094

3,038
3,274
3,460
3,647
3,829

6,750
7,210
7,118
6,982
7,058

1,502
1,549
1,538
1,502
1,476

3,681
3,921
4,084
4,148
4,163

996
1,340
2,213
2,905
2,928

3,206
3,320
3,270
3,174
3,116

1945
1946
1947 . .
1948
1949

40,394
41,674
43,881
44,891
43,778

15,524
14,703
15,545
15,582
14,441

9,074
7,742
8,385
8,326
7,489

6,450
6,962
7,159
7,256
6,953

836
862
955
994
930

1,132
1,661
1,982
2,169
2,165

3,906
4,061
4,166
4,189
4,001

7,314
8,376
8,955
9,272
9,264

1,497
1,697
1,754
1,829
1,857

4,241
4,719
5,050
5,206
5,264

2,808
2,254
1,892
1,863
1,908

3,137
3,341
3,582
3,787
3,948

1950
1951.. .
1952
1953
1954

45,222
47,849
48,825
50,232
49,022

15,241
16,393
16,632
17,549
16,314

8,094
9,089
9,349
10,110
9,129

7,147
7,304
7,284
7,438
7,185

901
929
898
866
791

2,333
2,603
2,634
2,623
2,612

4,034
4,226
4,248
4,290
4,084

9,386
9,742
10,004
10,247
10,235

1,919
1,991
2,069
2,146
2,234

5,382
5,576
5,730
5,867
6,002

1,928
2,302
2,420
2,305
2,188

4,098
4,087
4,188
4,340
4,563

1955
1956
1957
1958 .
1959 .

50,675
52,408
52,894
51,363
53,313

16,882
17,243
17,174
15,945
16,675

9,541
9,834
9,856
8,830
9,373

7,340
7,409
7,319
7,116
7,303

792
822
828
751
732

2,802
2,999
2,923
2,778
2,960

4,141
4,244
4,241
3,976
4,011

10,535
10,858
10,886
10,750
11,127

2,335
2,429
2,477
2,519
2,594

6,274
6,536
6,749
6,806
7,130

2,187
2,209
2,217
2,191
2,233

4,727
5,069
5,399
5,648
5,850

54,234
. . 54,042
55,596
56,702
58,332

16,796
16,326
16,853
16,995
17,274

9,459
9,070
9,480
9,616
9,816

7,336
7,256
7,373
7,380
7,458

712
672
650
635
634

2,885
2,816
2,902
2,963
3,050

4,004
3,903
3,906
3,903
3,951

11,391
11,337
11,566
11,778
12,160

2,669
2,731
2,800
2,877
2,957

7,423
7,664
8,028
8,325
8,709

2,270
2,279
2,340
2,358
2,348

6,083
6,315
6,550
6,868
7,249

60,832
63,982
66,066

18,062
19,186
19,336

10,406
11,256
11,325

7,656
7,930
8,012

632
625
613

3,186
3,292
3,265

4,036
4,151
4,262

12,716
13,211
13,676

3,023 9,087
3,102 9,545
3,228 10, 072

2,378
2,564
2,719

7,714
8,307
8,897

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967*

See footnotes at end of table.




240

TABLE B-27.—Wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments,

1929-67—Continued
[All employees; thousands of persons]

Manufacturing
Year or
month

Total
wage
and
salary
workers

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Mining

Contract
construction

Transportation
and
public
utilities

Wholesale
and
retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and
real
estate

Service
and
miscellane-

ous

Government

Federal

State
and
local

Seasonally adjusted
1965: J a n . . .
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June._

59,484
59,778
60,048
60,186
60,453
60,692

17,661
17,726
17,797
17,860
17,902
18,004

10,096
10,149
10,194
10,253
10,288
10,360

7,565
7,577
7,603
7,607
7,614
7,644

637
637
635
634
633
632

3,131
3,166
3,180
3,118
3,159
3,175

3,938
3,984
4,015
4,020
4,025
4,033

12,429
12,488
12,550
12,591
12,685
12,723

2,988
2,996
2,999
3,003
3,010
3,015

8,889
8,929
8,967
9,008
9,042
9,063

2,344
2,338
2,342
2,344
2,347
2,355

7,467
7,514
7,563
7,608
7,650
7,692

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

60,928
61,132
61,319
61,553
61,933
62,319

18,103
18,172
18,222
18,305
18,445
18,556

10,441
10,512
10,543
10,588
10,680
10,770

7,662
7,660
7,679
7,717
7,765
7,786

632
631
623
628
631
631

3,136
3,175
3,188
3,207
3,251
3,334

4,041
4,052
4,068
4,076
4,082
4,093

12,766
12,780
12,828
12,857
12,907
12,956

3,024
3,031
3,040
3,048
3,054
3,062

9,115
9,136
9,162
9,186
9,238
9,293

2,374
2,375
2,378
2,389
2,397
2,410

7,737
7,780
7,810
7,857
7,928
7,984

62,503
62,889
63,296
63,427
63,616
June.. 64,069

18,646

18,834
18,940
19,037
19,121
19,268

10,859
10,989
11,071
11,140
11,206
11,293

7,787
7,845
7,869
7,897
7,915
7,975

633
630

635
592
626
628

3,308
3,312
3,389
3,340
3,250
3,305

4,087
4,109
4,118
4,125
4,146
4,157

12,996
13,034
13,081
13,107
13,148
13,199

3,063
3,067
3,080
3,083
3,088
3,103

9,319
9,371
9,421
9,445
9,471
9,522

2,428
2,451
2,475
2,498
2,521
2,575

8,023
8,081
8,157
8,200
8,245
8,312

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

64,180
64,345
64,394
64,694
65,014
65,251

19,242
19,371
19,337
19,422
19,498
19,526

11,290
11,395
11,401
11,457
11,485
11,496

7,952
7,976
7,936
7,965
8,013
8,030

629
630
625
623
621
623

3,307
3,273
3,260
3,239
3,241
3,291

4,144
4,126
4,184
4,190
4,212
4,218

13,232
13,259
13,279
13,354
13,406
13,416

3,112
3,114
3,118
3,120
3,132
3,144

9,568
9,611
9,619
9,675
9,744
9,781

2,595
2,595
2,597
2,617
2,616
2,653

8,351
8,366
8,375
8,454
8,544
8,599

1967: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June..

65,564
65,692
65,749
65,653
65,639
65,903

19,558
19,507
19,445
19,331
19,238
19,285

11,507
11,482
11,434
11,322
11,283
11,285

8,051
8,025
8,011
8,009
7,955
8,000

625
624
624
620
617
619

3,311
3,352
3,313
3,276
3,192
3,187

4,242
4,247
4,246
4,212
4,267
4,266

13,515
13,541
13,557
13,572
13,609
13,648

3,152 9,840
3,165 9,883
3,179 9,946
3,194 9,973
3,205 9,987
3,227 10,035

2,667
2,673
2,685
2,688
2,698
2,747

8,654
8,700
8,754
8,787
8,826
8,889

July..
Aug...
Sept..
Oct__.
Nov*.
Dec*.

65,939
66,190
66,055
66,243
66,929
67,128

19,169
19,318
19,142
19,169
19,418
19,469

11,218
11,351
11,149
11,143
11,358
11,380

7,951
7,967
7,993
8,026
8,060
8,089

623
606
601

3,231
3,223
3,238
3,236
3,299
3,350

4,292
4,283
4,262
4,251
4,288
4,289

13,647
13,664
13,719
13,776
13,909
13,910

3,234
3,253
3,264
3,270
3,290
3,302

10,074
10,130
10,161
10,199
10,301
10,335

2,759
2,746
2,715
2,712
2,698
2,692

8,910
8,967
8,953
9,033
9,129
9,184

1966: J a n . . .
Feb...
Mar..
AprMay..

597
597
597

Note.—Data in Tables B-27 through B-33 are based on reports from employing establishments and relate to full- and
part-time wage and salary workers in nonagricultural establishments who worked during, or received pay for, any part of
the pay period which includes the 12th of the month.
Not comparable with labor force data (Tables B-22 through B-25), which include proprietors, self-employed persons,
domestic servants, and unpaid family workers, and which count persons as employed when they are not at work because
of industrial disputes, bad weather, etc.
For description and details of the various establishment data, see "Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on
the Labor Force," February 1968.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




241

TABLE B-28.—Average weekly hours of work in selected nonagricultural industries, 1929-67

Year or month

Total
nonagricultural
private i

Manufacturing

Total

NonDurable durable
goods
goods

Contract
construction

Retail
trade

1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

44.2
42.1
40.5
38.3
38.1
34.6
36.6
39.2
38.6
35.6
37.7

32.5
34.7
33.8
37.2
40.9
39.9
34.9
37.9

41.9
40.0
35.1
36.1
37.7
37.4
36.1
37.4

43.4

1940...
1941...
1942...
1943...
1944...
1945...
1946...
1947...
1948...
1949...
1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...
1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959...
1960...
1961 —
1962...
1963...
1964...
1965...
1966.1967 v.

38.1
40.6
43.1
45.0
45.2
43.5
40.3
40.4
40.0
39.1
40.5
40.6
40 7
40.5
39.6
40.7
40.4
39.8
39.2
40.3
39.7
39.8
40.4
40.5
40.7
41.2
41.3
40.6

39.2
42.0
45.0
46.5
46.5
44.0
40.4
40.5
40.4
39.4
41.1
41.5
41.5
41.2
40.1
41.3
41.0
40.3
39.5
40.7
40.1
40.3
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.0
42.1
41.2

37.0
38.9
40.3
42.5
43.1
42.3
40.5
40.2
39.6
38.9
39.7
39.5
39.7
39.6
39.0
39.9
39.6
39.2
38.8
39.7
39.2
39.3
39.6
39.6
39.7
40.1
40.2
39.7

43.2
42.8
41.8
40.9
41.0
40.9
41.3
3 40.3
40.2
40.4
40.4
40.4
39.8
39.1
39.2
39.0
38.6
38.1
38.1
38.2
38.0
37.6
37.4
37.3
37.0
36.6
35.9
35.3

40.3
40.0
39.4

39.8
39.9
39.9
39.6
39.1
39.6
39.3
38.8
38.5
39.0
38.6
38.6
38.7
38.8
38.7
38.8
38.7
38.2

38.2
38.1
37.7
37.4
38.1
38.9
37.9
37.2
37.1
37.5
37.0
36.8
37.0
36.7
36.9
37.0
37.3
37.2
37.4
37.6
37.6

Seasonally adjusted

Wholesale
trade

Bituminous
coal
mining

41.6
42.9
43.1
42.3
41.8

38.1
33.3
28.1
27.0
29.3
26.8
26.2
28.5
27.7
23.3
26.8

41.3
41.1
41.4
42.3
43.0
42.8
41.6
41.1
41.0
40.8
40.7
40.8
40.7
40.6
40.5
40.7
40.5
40.3
40.2
40.6

40.5
40.5
40.6
40.6
40.6
40.8
40.8
40.4

27.8
30.7
32.4
36.3
43.0
42.0
41.3
40.3
37.7
32.3
34.7
34.9
33.8
34.1
32.3
37.3
37.5
36.3
33.3
35.8
35.8
35.9
4 37.0
4 38.9
4 39.2
4 40.2
4 40.6
4 40.9

Class I
railroads

43.7
44.3
45.8
47.0
48.7
48.9
48.5
46.0
46.4
46.2
43.7
40.8
41.0
40.6
40.6
40.8
41.9
41.7
41.7
41.6
41.9
41.7
42.3
42.6
42.9
43.5
43.6
43.9

Telephone
communication

38.8
38.9
39.1
39.5
40.1
40.5
41.9
42.3
2 41.7
39.4
37.4
39.2
38.5
38.9
39.1
38.5
38.7
38.9
39.6
39.5
39.0
38.4
39.2
39.6
39.4
39.9
40.0
40.2
40.4
40.6
39.2

Unadjusted

38.7
1966: Jan....
41.4
42.7
39.9
42.3
40.1
37.6
36.2
40.9
41.0
44.7
40.6
38.9
Feb—.
40.9
40.9
41.6
42.4
40.5
38.1
36.2
44.3
40.3
40.8
38.9
Mar.—
41.5
41.5
42.3
40.3
38.4
36.0
43.1
40.1
40.7
33.0
38.7
Apr—.
41.5
42.4
40.4
37.5
36.0
44.1
40.3
40.7
41.7
38.6
May41.4
42.2
40.3
36.3
35.9
44.8
40.7
40.8
42.2
38.7
June...
41.3
42.1
40.3
37.5
36.0
37.8
41.2
38.7
July...
41.2
43.4
41.9
40.2
36.0
40.9
40.7
38.7
Aug...
44.7
41.2
40.8
41.4
42.2
40.2
37.2
36.1
40.9
38.8
Sept...
44.0
41.2
40.7
41.4
42.3
40.1
37.7
35.9
40.8
38.6
Oct..42.9
42.5
40.7
41.3
42.1
40.1
37.5
35.7
41.5
38.6
Nov...
44.2
39.5
40.6
41.3
42.1
40.2
37.4
35.6
39.9
38.4
Dec...
43.7
42.1
40.6
41.0
41.7
39.9
38.1
35.6
39.5
38.4
41.0
41.7
35.5
41.1
1967: Jan....
40.0
38.2
40.7
43.1
39.8
38.2
40.5
44.1
40.0
Feb....
40.3
41.0
39.5
37.6
35.3
38.8
38.2
40.5
43.7
39.7
Mar....
40.4
41.1
39.5
37.4
35.3
39.1
40.4
41.9
38.0
40.1
Apr....
40.5
41.0
39.8
37.4
35.1
38.9
40.3
44.1
38.0
40.5
May....
40.3
41.0
39.5
36.4
35.2
39.4
40.5
43.9
38.1
41.7
June...
40.3
40.9
39.5
37.4
35.4
41.4
35.4
40.4
37.5
38.2
41.0
40.5
39.6
July....
39.6
38.2
40.5
39.0
Aug....
41.1
40.7
41.3
39.7
37.5
35.5
38.4
40.3
39.7
Sept...
40.6
40.8
41.6
39.9
38.3
35.4
38.0
40.3
39.7
Oct....
40.3
40.7
41.3
39.7
37.1
35.1
38.3
40.3
39.3
Nov "..
41.7
40.7
41.2
40.1
39.4
35.2
37.9
40.1
Decp_.
40.8
41.3
40.0
37.3
35.0
* In addition to industries shown separately, total includes other mining; other transportation and public utilities;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.
2
Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
3
Beginning 1947, data include eating and drinking places. Comparable figure excluding eating and drinking places is
41.0 hours for 1947.
4
Eleven-month average; excludes data for July.
Note.—Hours and earnings data in Tables B-28 through B-33 relate to production workers in manufacturing and mining,
to construction workers in contract construction, and generally, to nonsupervisory employees in other industries. See Table
B-31 for unadjusted weekly hours in manufacturing. See also Note, Table B-27.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




242

TABLE B-29.—Average gross hourly earnings in selected industries, 1929-67
Total
nonYear or month agricultural
private

Manufacturing

Total

NonDurable durable
goods
goods

Contract
construction

Retail
trade

Wholesale
trade

Bituminous
coal
mining

$0,659
.662
.626
503
.485
.651
.720
.768
.828
.849
.858

$0,730

$0.774
.816
.822

$0.241
.226
.172
129
.115
.129
.142
.152
.172
.166
.166

Class I
railroads

Telephone
communication

Agriculture 2

$0.560
.546
.509
.441
.437
.526
.544
.550
.617
.620
.627

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

$0,492
.467
.550
.571
.580
.667
.679
.691

$0,412
.419
.505
.520
.519
.566
.572
.571

$0,484

$0,610
.628
.658
.674
.688

.716
.799
.937
1.048
1.105
1.099
1.144
1.278
1.395
1.453

.590
.627
.709
.787
.844
.886
.995
1.145
1.250
1.295

$1. 541
1.713
1.792

.494
.518
.559
.606
.653
.699
.797
4.838
.901
.951

.711
.763
.828
.898
.948
.990
1.107
1.220
1.308
1.360

.854
.960
1.030
1.101
1.147
1,199
1.357
1.582
1.835
1.877

.733
.743
.837
.852
.948
.955
1.087
1.186
1.301
1.427

.827
.820
.843
.870
.911
3.962
1.124
1.197
1.248
1.345

.169
.206
.268
.353
.423
.472
.515
.547
.580
.559

1.572
1.73
1.83
1.88
1.93
1.96
2.12
2.26
2.44
2.54

1.398
1.49
1.59
1.68
1.76
1.82
1.86
1.95
2.05
2.18

.561
.625
.661
.672
.661
.675
.705
.728
.757
.798

19401941..
1942194319441945..
1946..
1947..
19481949..

$1,131
1.225
1.275

.655
.726
.851
.957
1.011
1.016
1.075
1.217
1.328
1.378

195019511952..
1953..
1954..
1955.
19561957..
1958..
1959-

1.335
1.45
1.52
1.61
1.65
1.71
1.80
1.89
1.95
2.02

1.440
1.56
1.65
1.74
1.78
1.86
1.95
2.05
2.11
2.19

1.519
1.65
1.75
1.86
1.90
1.99
2.08
2.19
2.26
2.36

1.347
1.44
1.51
1.58
1.62
1.67
1.77
1.85
1.91
1.98

1.863
2.02
2.13
2.28
2.39
2.45
2.57
2.71
2.82
2.93

.983
1.06
1.09
1.16
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.37
1.42
1.47

1.427
1.52
1.61
1.70
1.76
1.83
1.94
2.02
2.18

1.944
2.14
2.22
2.40
2.40
2.47
2.72
2.92
2.93
3.11

1960..
19611962..
19631964..
1965..
19661967*

2.09
2.14
2.22
2.28
2.36
2.45
2.55
2.67

2.26
2.32
2.39
2.46
2.53
2.61
2.72
2.83

2.43
2.49
2.56
2.63
2.71
2.79
2.90
3.00

2.05
2.11
2.17
2.22
2.29
2,36
2.45
2.57

3.08
3.20
3.31
3.41
3.55
3.70
3.88
4.09

1.52
1.56
1.63
1.68
1.75
1.82
1.91
2.01

2.24
2.31
2.37
2.45
2.52
2.61
2.73
2.88

3.14
3.12
6 3.12
«3.15
5
3. 30
5 3.49
8 3.65
5 3.75

2.61
2.67
2.72
2.76
2.80
3.00
3.09

2.26
2.37
2.48
2.56
2.62
2.70
2.79
2.88

.818
.834
.856
.880
.904
.951
1.03
1.12

1966: J a n . . .
Feb...
Mar..
Apr—
May..
June..

2.50
2.50
2.51
2.53
2.54
2.55

2.67
2.68
2.68
2.70
2.71
2.71

2.85
2.86
2.87
2.88
2.88
2.89

2.40
2.41
2.41
2.43
2.44
2.45

3.79
3.83
3.80
3.82
3.84
3.83

1.88
1.88
1.88
1.89
1.90
1.91

2.67
2.68
2.69
2.72
2.73
2.73

3.53
3.54
3.52
3.43
3.72
3.71

3.09
3.13
3.05
3.08
3.08
3.07

2.76
2.78
2.77
2.77
2.77
2.78

1.06

July..
Aug..

2.71
2.70
2.75
2.75
2.76
2.77

2.88
2.88
2.93
2.94
2.94
2.96

2.46
2.45
2.47
2.48
2.49
2.50

3.85
3.89
3.97
3.96
3.96
3.99

1.91
1.90
1.93
1.94
1.95
1.94

2.73
2.73
2.76
2.77
2.79
2.80

3.70
3.74
3.76
3.75
3.76

3.09
3.05
3.09
3.10
3.12
3.14

2.77
2.76
2.79
2.80
2.82
2.89

1.01

Nov..
Dec...

2.56
2.55
2.60
2.60
2.60
2.59

1967: Jan...
Feb...
MarApr...
MayJune..

2.61
2.62
2.62
2.63
2.64
2.66

2.78
2.79
2.79
2.80
2.81
2.82

2.96
2.96
2.96
2.97
2.99
2.99

2.51
2.53
2.54
2.55
2.55
2.56

4.02
4.00
3.99
3.99
4.02
4.02

1.97
1.98
1.98
2.00
2.00
2.01

2.81
2.83
2.84
2.86
2.87
2.88

3.79
3.71
3.72
3.76
3.73
3.75

3.19
3.26
3.17
3.23
3.19
3.21

2.86
2.88
2.87
2.87
2.88
2.89

1.14

July..
Aug._
Sept..
Oct._Nov v.
Dec p.

2.68
2.68
2.71
2.71
2.72
2.71

2.82
2.82
2.85
2.85
2.87
2.90

3.00
3.00
3.03
3.03
3.05
3.08

2.57
2.57
2.61
2.61
2.62
2.64

4.08
4.10
4.18
4.21
4.20
4.22

2.01
2.01
2.03
2.05
2.05
2.03

2.89
2.88
2.93
2.93
2.94
2.95

3.25

2.88
2.87
2.90
2.90
2.89

1.10

3.74
3.76
3.75
3.74

2.09

.945

T67~

'.998

1 For coverage, see footnote 1, Table B-28.
Weighted average of all farm wage rates on a per hour basis.
3 Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
4
Beginning 1947, data include eating and drinking places. Comparable figure excluding eating and drinking places is
$0,901 for 1947.
8 Eleven-month average; excludes data for July.
Note.-See Note, Tables B-27 and B-28.
Sources: Department of Labor (Bureau of Labor Statistics) and Department of Agriculture.
2




243

TABLE B—30.—Average gross weekly earnings in selected nonagricultural industries, 1929-67

Year or month

Total
nonagricultural
private i

Manufacturing

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

1929..

$24.76

$26.84

23.00
20.64
16.89
16.65
18.20
19.91
21.56
23.82
22.07
23.64

24.42
20.98
15.99
16.20
18.59
21.24
23.72
26.61
23.70
26.19

21.40
20.09
17.26
16.76
17.73
18.77
19.57
21.17
20.65
21.36

1940..
1941..
1942
1943..
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

$45.58
49.00
50.24

24.96
29.48
36.68
43.07
45.70
44.20
43.32
49.17
53.12
53.88

28.07
33.56
42.17
48.73
51.38
48.36
46.22
51.76
56.36
57.25

21.83
24.39
28.57
33.45
36.38
37.48
40.30
46.03
49.50
50.38

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

53.13
57.86
60.65
63.76
64.52
67.72
70.74
73.33
75.08
78.78

58.32
63.34
67.16
70.47
70.49
75.70
78.78
81.59
82.71
88.26

62.43
68.48
72.63
76.63
76.19
82.19
85.28
88.26
89.27
96.05

1960.
1961.
1962.
1963..
1964..
1965.
1966..
1967 %

80.67
82.60
85.91
88.46
91.33
95.06
98.69
101.99

1966: J a n . .
Feb..
MarApr..
May..
June..

Retail
trade

Wholesale
trade

$22.47

1930..
1931..
1932
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

Contract
construction

Bituminous
coal
mining

Class I
railroads

Telephone
communication

$25.11
22.04

$21.01

$26.75
25.19
25.44
25.38
26.96
28.36
28.51
28.76

17.59
13.58
14.21
17.45
18.86
21.89
22.94
19.78
22.99

$31.90

$30.03
31.74
32.14

$58.87
65.27
67.56

21.34
22.17
23.37
24.79
26.77
28.59
32.92
3 33.77
36.22
38.42

29.36
31.36
34.28
37.99
40.76
42.37
46.05
50.14
53.63
55.49

23.74
29.47
33.37
39.97
49.32
50.36
56.04
63.75
69.18
60.63

32.47
34.03
39.34
41.49
46.36
46.32
50.00
55.03
60.11
62.36

32.67
32.88
34.14
36.45
38.54
2 40.12
44.29
44.77
48.92
51.78

53.48
56.88
59.95
62.57
63.18
66.63
70.09
72.52
74.11
78.61

69.68
76.96
82.86
86.41
88.91
90.90
96.38
100.27
103.78
108.41

39.71
42.82
43.38
45.36
47.04
48.75
50.18
52.20
54.10
56.15

58.08
62.02
65.53
69.02
71.28
74.48
78.57
81.41
84.02
88.51

67.46
74.69
75.04
81.84
77.52
92.13
102.00
106.00
97.57
111.34

64.14
70.93
74.30
76.33
78.74
82.12
88.40
94.24
101. 50
106.43

54.38
58.26
61.22
65.02
68.46
72.07
73.47
76.05
78.72
85.46

89.72
92.34
96.56
99.63
102.97
107.53
112.34
114.90

97.44
80.36
100.35
82.92
104.70
85.93
108.09
87.91
112.19
90.91
117.18
94.64
122. 09 98.49
123.60 102.03

113.04
118.08
122.47
127.19
132.06
138.38
145.89
153.78

57.76
58.66
60.96
62.66
64.75
66.61
68.57
70.95

90.72
93.56
96.22
99.47
102.31
106.49
111.38
116.35

112.41
112.01
114.46
121.43
128.91
140.26
148.44
153.72

108.84
112.94
115.87
118.40
121.80
130.80
135.65

89.50
93.38
98.95
102.40
105.32
109.08
113.27
112.90

96.25
96.50
97.14
97.41
98.04
99.20

110.00
110.95
110.95
111.24
112.47
112.74

119.99
120.69
121.11
121. 54
121.82
122.54

95.52
96.88
96.88
96.96
98.33
99.23

138.34
139.41
143.26
141.34
142.46
146.69

67.30
67.30
67.12
67.47
67.64
69.14

108.94
109.08
109.48
110.43
111.11
111.38

144.73
144.79
146.08
113.19
155.12
156.56

131.94
139.91
135.12
132.75
135.83
137.54

110.12
112.87
111.63
111.08
111.63
113.15

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
Nov..
Dec.

99.84
99.71
100.88
100.62
99.84
99.97

111.38
111.78
114.13
113.85
113.99
114.40

119.81
120.96
123.94
124.07
123.77
124.62

99.14
99.23
99.54
99.94
100.10
100.25

150.15
149.77
152.05
152.46
144.14
148.83

70.48
70.11
69.09
68.87
68.64
69.65

112.20
111.38
112.33
112.74
113.27
114.52

148.03
152.44
154.09
159.80
148.13
158.30

134.11
136.34
135.96
132.99
137.90
137.22

114.12
112.33
114.11
114.24
117.03
115.31

1967: J a n . .
Feb..
MarApr..
May..
June_

99.70
99.30
99.56
99.41
100.06
101.88

113.42
111.88
112.44
112.56
113.52
114.49

122.84
120.77
121.36
121.18
122.89
123.19

99.65
99.18
100.08
100.22
100.73
101.63

149.14
143.60
146.83
147.23
149.54
153. 56

69.15
69.10
69.30
69.80
69.80
71.56

114.09
114.05
114.74
115.26
115.66
116.64

155.77
148.40
147.68
150.78
151.07
156.38

137.49
143.77
138. 53
135.34
140.68
140.92

112.97
114.62
111.36
112.22
112.03
113.87

103.18
103.45
104. 06
103.25
103.63
103.25

113.65
114.77
116.57
116.28
116.81
119.19

122.40
123.30
126.05
125.44
125.66
128.44

102. 03 157.90
102.80 159.08
104.66 162.60
104.14 160.40
105.06 160.86
106.13 154.03

72.96
72.96
71.66
71.55
71.34
71.66

117.62
116.64
118.08
118.08
118.48
119.18

157.00
153.71
152.66
151.13
155.96

134.55

114.05
111.93
115.13
115.13
113.58

July...
Aug...
Sept..
Oct....
Nov p..
Dec p..

1 For coverage, see footnote 1, Table B-28.
2 Nine-month average, April through December, because of new series started in April 1945.
3 Beginning 1947, data include eating and drinking places. Comparable figure excluding eating and drinking places is
$36.94 for 1947.
Note.—See Note, Tables B-27 and B-28.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




244

T A B L E B—31.—Average weekly hours and hourly earnings, gross and excluding overtime, in
manufacturing industries, 1939—67
Durable goods manufacturing industries

All manufacturing industries
Average
weekly
hours
Year or month

Average
weekly
hours

Average hourly
earnings

Average
hourly
earnings

Nondurable goods manufacturing industries
Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings

Excluding
overtime
ExExExExExExand
cludcjudcludcludcludcludinter- Gross ing Gross ing Gross ing Gross ing
Gross ing Gross ing
overover- indusoveroveroverovertime
time
time try shift
time
time
time
(195759=100)

1939.

37.7

$0,627

19.40
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

38.1
40.6
43.1

.655

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

40.5
40.6
40.7
40.5
39.6
40.7
40.4
39.8
39.2
40.3

1960...
1961...
1962...
1963...
1964...
1965...
1966—
1967 v.

. 726 $0. 691
).
.851
.793
.957
.881
1.011
.933
1.016 2.949
1.075 1.035
1.217 1.18
1.328 1.29
1.378 1.34

45.0
45.2
43.5

40.3
40.4
40.0
39.1

$0,691

37.4

133.4
137.5
U0.8
143.7
145.5
150.4
57.8
63.2
66.1

39.2
42.0
45.0
46.5
46.5
44.0
40.4
40.5
40.4
39.4

.716
. 799
.937
.048
.105
. 099
.144
.278
.395
.453

$0.
L762
.872
.966
1.019
21.031
1.111
1.24
1.35
1.42

37.0
38.9
40.3
42.5
43.1
42.3
40.5
40.2
39.6
38.9

.590
627 $0,613
.684
.709
.748
.787
.798
.844
.886 2.841
.995 .962
1.145 .11
1.250 .21
1.295 .26

38.0
37.9

1.519
1.65
1.75
1.86
1.90
1.99
2.08
2.19

37.6
38.0

2.26
2.36

1.46
1.59
1.68
1.79
1.84
1.91
2.01
2.12
2.21
2.28

39.7
39.5
39.7
39.6
39.0
39.9
39.6
39.2
38.8
39.7

37.2
37.0
36.6
37.0

1.347
1.44
1.51
1.58
1.62
1.67
1.77
1.85
1.91
1.98

.92

32.2

37.9

$0.571

37.6
37.5
37.2
37.6

1.56
1.65
1.74
1.78
1.86
1.95
2.05
2.11
2.19

1.39
1.51
1.59
1.68
1.73
1.79
1.89
1.99
2.05
2.12

68.2
73.6
77.4
81.6
84.3
86.9
91.5
96.2
100.2
103.5

41.1
41.5
41.5
41.2
40.1
41.3
41.0
40.3
39.5
40.7

39.7
39.8
40.4
40.5
40.7
41.2
41.3
40.6

37.3
37.4
37.6
37.7
37.6
37.6
37.4
37.2

2.26
2.32
2.39
2.46
2.53
2.61
2.72
2.83

2.20
2.25
2.31
2.37
2.44
2.51
2.59
2.72

106.6
109.6
112.3
115.2
118.0
121.1
125.1
130.9

40.1
40.3
40.9
41.1
41.4
42.0
42.1
41.2

37.7
38.0
38.1
38.2
38.1
38.1
37.8
37.7

2.43
2.49
2.56
2.63
2.71
2.79
2.90
3.00

2.36
2.42
2.48
2.54
2.60
2.67
2.76
2.88

39.2
39.3
39.6
39.6
39.7
40.1
40.2
39.7

36.7
36.8
36.9
36.9
36.8
36.9
36.8
36.5

2.05
2.11
2.17
2.22
2.29
2.36
2.45
2.57

1.99
2.05
2.09
2.15
2.21
2.27
2.35
2.47

1966: Jan..
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May_.
June.

41.2
41.4
41.4
41.2
41.5
41.6

37.5
37.6
37.5
37.3
37.5
37.6

2.67
2.68
2.68

2.70
2.71
2.71

2.56
2.56
2.56
2.58
2.58
2.58

123.3
123.5
123.8
124.3
124.5
124.8

42.1
42.2
42.2
42.2
42.3
42.4

38.0
38.0
37.9
37.9
37.9
38.0

2.85
2.86
2.87
2.88
2.88
2.89

2.72
2.72
2.73
2.74
2.74
2.75

39.8
40.2
40.2
39.9
40.3
40.5

36.7
36.9
36.9
36.6
36.9
37.0

2.40
2.41
2.41
2.43
2.44
2.45

2.31
2.31
2.32
2.33
2.34
2.34

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
NovDec.

41.1
41.4
41.5
41.4
41.3
41.3

37.2
37.4
37.3
37.3
37.4
37.6

2.71
2.70
2.75
2.75
2.76
2.77

2.59
2.58
2.61
2.62
2.64
2.65

124.9
124.9
126.0
126.5
127.0
127.6

41.6
42.0
42.3
42.2
42.1
42.1

37.5
37.7
37.7
37.7
37.8
38.0

2.88
2.88
2.93
2.94
2.94
2.96

2.75
2.74
2.78
2.79
2.80
2.82

40.3
40.5
40.3
40.3
40.2
40.1

36.8
37.0
36.6

2.46
2.45
2.47

36.7
36.8
36.8

2.48
2.49
2.50

2.35
2.34
2.37
2.37
2.39
2.40

1967: Jan..
Feb..
Mar..
Apr_.
May_.
June.

40.8
40.1
40.3
40.2
40.4
40.6

37.4
36.9
37.1
37.1
37.2
37.3

2.78
2.79
2.79
2.80
2.81
2.82

2.67
2.68
2.69
2.70
2.70
2.71

128.4
129.0
129.4
129.9
130.2
130.5

41.5
40.8
41.0
40.8
41.1
41.2

37.8
37.4
37.6
37.6
37.8
37.8

2.96
2.96
2.96
2.97
2.99
2.99

2.84
2.84
2.85
2.86
2.87
2.88

39.7
39.2
39.4
39.3
39.5
39.7

36.7
36.3
36.4
36.4
36.5
36.6

2.51
2.53
2.54
2.55
2.55
2.56

2.42
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.46
2.46

40.3 37.1 2.82 2.71
40.8 37.5
130.8
40.7
37.3 2.82 2.71
37.7
41.1
131.1
37.7
40.9
37.2 2.85 2.73
41.6
131.9
37.7
40.8 37.3 2.85 2.74
41.4
132.3
37.7
Nov v..
40.7
37.3 2.87 2.76
41.2
133.1
38.0
Dec p . .
41.1 37.5 2.90 2.78
41.7
133.6
1 Annual average not available; April used.
2 Eleven-month average; August 1945 excluded because of VJ Day holiday
Note.—See Note, Tables B-27 and B-28.
See Table B-28 for seasonally adjusted average gross weekly hours.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

3.00
3.00
3.03
3.03
3.05
3.08

2.88
2.88
2.89
2.90
2.93
2.95

39.7
40.0
40.1
39.9
40.1
40.2

36.6
36.7
36.5
36.5
36.8
36.8

2.57
2.57
2.61
2.61
2.62
2.64

2.47
2.47
2.50
2.50
2.52
2.53

1.440

July...
Aug....
Sept...
Oct....




245

period.

31
40
46
53
58
62
72

TABLE B-32.—Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, total private nonagricultural
industries, in current and 1957-59 prices, 1947-67
Average spendable weekly earnings1
Average gross weekly
earnings
Year or month
Current
prices

1957-59
prices2

Workers with no
dependents
Current
prices

1957-59
prices -

Workers with three
dependents
Current
prices

1957-59
prices2

1948
1949

$45.58
49.00
50.24

$58.59
58.47
60.53

$39.16
43.11
44.15

$50.33
51.44
53.19

$44.64
48.51
49.74

$57.38
57.89
59.93

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

53.13
57.86
60.65
63.76
64.52
67.72
70.74
73.33
75.08
78.78

63.40
63.93
65.57
68.41
68.93
72.58
74.70
74.83
74.56
77.62

46.02
48.68
50.07
52.45
53.76
56.27
58.63
60.47
61.83
64.52

54.92
53.79
54.13
56.28
57.44
60.31
61.91
61.70
61.40
63.57

52.04
55.79
57.87
60.31
60.85
63.41
65.82
67.71
69.11
71.86

62.10
61.65
62.56
64.71
65.01
67.96
69.50
69.09
68.63
70.80

80.67
82.60
85.91
88.46
91.33
95.06
98.69
101.99

78.24
79.27
81.55
82.91
84.49
86.50
87.26
87.70

65.59
67.08
69.56
71.05
75.04
78.99
81.19
83.50

63.62
64.38
66.00
66.59
69.42
71.87
71.79
71.80

72.96
74.48
76.99
78.56
82.57
86.30
88.55
90.98

70.77
71.48
73.05
73.63
76.38
78.53
78.29
78.23

1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
AprMay..
June..

96.25
96.50
97.14
97.41
98.04
99.20

86.71
86.47
86.73
86.59
87.07
87.87

79.29
79.49
79.99
80.20
80.70
81.58

71.43
71.23
71.42
71.29
71.67
72.26

86.61
86.81
87.32
87.53
88.04
88.96

78.03
77.79
77.96
77.80
78.19
78.80

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

99.84
99.71
100.88
100.62
99.84
99.97

88.12
87.62
88.41
87.88
87.12
87.16

82.07
81.97
82.86
82.66
82.07
82.17

72.44
72.03
72.62
72.19
71.61
71.64

89.47
89.37
90.30
90.09
89.47
89.58

78.97
78.53
79.14
78.68
78.07
78.10

1967: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
JuneJuly..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov*.
Dec p.

99.70
99.30
99.56
99.41
100.06
101.88

86.92
86.50
86.57
86.22
86.56
87.83

81.76
81.46
81.66
81.54
82.04
83.42

71.28
70.96
71.01
70.72
70.97
71.91

89.16
88.84
89.05
88.93
89.45
90.90

77.73
77.39
77.43
77.13
77.38
78.36

103.18
103.45
104.06
103.25
103.63
103.25

88.57
88.49
88.86
88.87
87.97
87.35

84.40
84.61
85.07
84.45
84.74
84.45

72.45
72.38
72.65
71.87
71.94
71.45

91.93
92.15
92.63
91.99
92.29
91.99

78.91
78.83
79.10
78.29
78.34
77.83

1947..

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 v

* Average gross weekly earnings less social security and income taxes.
2 Earnings in current prices divided by the consumer price index.
Note.—"Total private" consists of manufacturing; contract construction; retail and wholesale trade; mining; transportation and public utilities; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.
See also Note, Tables B-27 and B-28.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




246

TABLE B—33.—Average weekly earnings, gross and spendable, in manufacturing- industries, in
current and 1957-59 prices, 1939-67
Average spendable weekly earnings *
Average gross weekly
earnings
Year or month

Current
prices

Current
prices

1957-59
prices 2

Worker with three
dependents
Current
prices

1957-59
prices2

$23.64

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967 *
1966- Jan
Feb

Mr
a

Apr

May
June
July
Aug
SeDt

.-

Oct
Nov
Dec
1967: Jan . .

Feb
Mar.

Apr

May....
June

.

.

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov*-.
Dec»

.

$23.40

$48.35

50.12
54.50
55.99
59.62
61.97
58.72
54.87
54.11
55.57
56.88

24.71
29.19
36.31
41.33
43.76
42.59
42.79
47.58
52.31
52.95

50.64
56.90
63.93
68.54
71 39
67.93
62.93
61.16
62.42
63.80

58.32
63.34
67.16
70.47
70.49
75.70
78.78
81.59
82.71
88.26

69.59
69.99
72.61
75.61
75.31
81.14
83.19
83.26
82.14
86.96

50.26
52.97
55.04
57.59
58.45
62.51
64.92
66.93
67.82
71.89

59.98
58.53
59.50
61.79
62 45
67.00
68.55
68.30
67.35
70.83

56.36
60.18
62.98
65.60
65.65
69.79
72.25
74.31
75.23
79.40

67.26
66.50
68.09
70.39
70 14
74.80
76.29
75.83
74.71
78.23

87.02
88.62
91.61
93.37
95.25
97.84
99.33
98.80

72.57
74.60
77.86
79.82
84.40
89.08
91.57
93.28

70.39
71.59
73 87
74.81
78.08
81.06
80.96
80.21

80.11
82.18
85.53
87.58
92.18
96.78
99.45
101.26

77.70
78.87
81.15
82.08
85.27
88.06
87.93
87.07

99.10
99.42
99.06
98.88
99.88
99.86

89.79
90.51
90.51
90.73
91.67
91.87

80.89
81 10
80.81
80.65
81.41
81.37

97.58
98 34
98.34
98.57
99.55
99.77

87.91
88 12
87.80
87.62
88.41
88.37

111.38
111.78
114.13
113.85
113.99
114.40

.-

$48.29

24.46
27.96
31.80
35.95
37.99
36.82
37.31
42.10
46.57
47.21

110.00
110.95
110.95
111.24
112.47
112.74

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

$23.37

51.15
57.47
64.58
71.43
74.55
70.49
63.71
63.20
63.39
64.92

89.72
92.34
96.56
99.63
102.97
107.53
112.34
114.90

..

$48.84

24.96
29.48
36.68
43.07
45.70
44.20
43.32
49.17
53.12
53.88

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

1957-59
prices2

Worker with no
dependents

98.31
98.22
100.03
99.43
99.47
99.74

90.84
91.14
92.93
92.72
92.82
93.13

80.18
80.09
81.45
80.98
80.99
81.19

98.68
99.00
100.88
100.65
100.76
101.09

87.10
86.99
88.41
87.90
87.92
88.13

113.42
111.88
112.44
112.56
113.52
114.49

98.88
97.46
97.77
97.62
98.20
98.70

92.16
91 00
91.42
91.51
92.24
92.97

80.35
79 27
79.50
79 37
79.79
80.15

100.08
98 86
99.30
99 40
100.16
100.93

87.25
86 11
86.35
86 21
86.64
87.01

113.65
114.77
116.57
116.28
116.81
119.19

97.55
98.18
99.55
98.96
99.16
100.84

92.34
93.19
94.55
94.33
94.73
96.54

79 26
79.72
80.74
80.28
80.42
81.68

100 27
101.16
102.61
102. 37
102.80
104.71

86.07
86.54
87.63
87.12
87.27
88.59

„ gross weekly earnings less social security and income taxes.
Earnings in current prices divided by the consumer price index.
Note.—See Note, Tables B-27 and B-28.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

2




247

TABLE B-34.—Indexes of output per man-hour and related data, private economy, 1947-67
[1957-59=1001

Output per man-hour
Nonfarm industries
Year

Total
private

Farm
Total

Manufacturing

Man-hours2

Output i

Nonmanufacturing

Nonfarm industries
Total
private

Farm
Total

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Nonfarm industries
Total
private

Total

Manufacturing

Nonma nufacturing

90.1
91.3
87.7

95.8
95.1
86.6

87.4
89.5
88.2

91.2 93.8
95.6 101.0
97.1 102.7
99.1 107.7
95.4 98.4

90.0
93.2
94.5
95.2
94.0

101.6 119.6 99.4 103.8
103.3 114.2 102.0 105.3
101.8 105.1 101.4 103.6
97.5 97.6 97.5 95.2
100.7 97.2 101.1 101.2

97.4
100.6
100.4
98.5
101.0

101.5
100.0
101.9
102.5
104.3

100.9
98.2
102.2
103.2
105.2

102.8
102.5
104.3
105.7
108.2

77.3 111.2 110.9
70.0 115.0 117.8
68.0 116.1 117.2

111.4
113.7
115.7

Farm

Establishment basis 3
1947... 69.0
1948... 72.0
1949... 74.2

49.8
58.0
56.5

74.1
76.5
79.5

72.3
76.4
79.3

75.1
76.3
79.6

67.6
70.8
70.6

82.1
91.8
88.9

66.8
69.8
69.7

69.3
72.7
68.7

65.6
68.3
70.2

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...

64.4
64.7
70.3
79.6
83.7

84.4
86.3
87.0
89.6
91.6

85.0
86.9
87.3
90.2
91.8

84.1
85.6
86.7
88.8
91.5

77.9
82.8
84.8
89.1
87.9

93.7
88.9
91.8
96.6
98.6

77.0
82.5
84.5
88.8
87.4

79.7
87.8
89.7
97.1
90.3

75.7 97.0 145.6
79.8 100.1 137.5
81.9 100.6 130.6
84.5 101.5 121.4
86.0 97.8 117.8

80.3
82.7
84.3
87.8
89.9

1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959...

93.9 84.4 95.7 97.2 94.7 95.4
94.1 88.0 95.2 96.2 94.3 97.2
96.9 93.3 97.2 98.2 96.7 98.6
99.8 103.0 99.7 98.1 100.6 97.3
103.4 104.8 103.1 103.7 102.9 104.1

1960...
1961...
1962...
1963...
1964...

105.0
108.6
113.8
117.9
122.5

110.7
119.4
122.2
133.1
135.5

104.4
107.4
112.3
115.7
120.0

105.5
107.9
114.3
118.9
124.7

103.9
107.4
111.5
114.3
118.0

106.6
108.6
116.0
120.8
127.8

101.0 95.1
100.5 97.1
98.1 98.6
100.5 97.2
101.9 104.2

100.9 92.2
101.3 94.9
101.7 97.1
93.4 99.1
104.9 103.9

105.8
107.2
106.8
110.1
107.7

106.4
106.0
116.8
122.7
131.2

106.7
108.7
116.5
121.4
128.8

106.8
110.1
116.3
120.8
127.7

98.0 164.8
98.4 158.4
95.1 157.3

1965... 126.3 147.5 123.3 129.5 120.0 135.9 114.0 137.1 143.6 133.8 107.6
1966... 130.2 154.6 126.4 132.3 123.2 143.5 108.2 145.4 155.9 140.1 110.2
1967*. 132.0 171.2 127.6 133.5 124.5 146.5 116.4 148.2 156.5 144.0 111.0

95.6
89.8
87.4
82.7
79.5

102.2
101.2
103.7
104.9
107.3

Labor force basis4
1947..
1948..
1949..

67.9
70.2
71.9

49.8
58.0
56.1

72.9
74.5
76.8

67.6
70.8
70.6

82.1
91.8
88.9

66.8
69.8
69.7

99.6 164.8
100.8 158.2
98.2 158.6

91.6
93.7
90.8

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

78.5
82.1
84.5
1.4
90.8

64.1
64.3
69.9
79.1
83.3

82.4
85.7
87.5
90.4
92.8

77.9

93.7

77.0
82.5
84.5
88.8
87.4

99.2
100.9
100.4
100.8
96.8

93.4
96.3
96.6
98.2
94.2

1955.. 94.7 84.0 96.7
1956.. 94.6 87.5 95.9
1957.. 97.2 93.3 97.7
1958.. 99.4 103.1 99.2
1959.. 103.4 104.7 103.1

95.4
97.2
98.6
97.3
104.1

101.0 95.1
100.5 97.1
98.1 98.6
100.5 97.2
101.9 104.2

100.7 120.3 98.3
102.7 114.9 101.2
101.4 105.2 100.9
97.9 97.5 98.0
100.7 97.3 101.1

103.8
105.9
111.4
114.4
118.4

106.6
108.6
116.0
120.8
127.8

105.8
107.2
106.8
110.1
107.7

106.7
108.7
116.5
121.4
128.8

102.0
101.2
102.7
103.5
105.6

95.6
89.4
87.3
82.5
79.3

135.9 114.0 137.1
143.5 108.2 145.4
146.5 116.4 148.2

108.9
111.0
111.4

77.2 112.8
70.1 116.1
68.3 116.7

I960..
1961—
1962..
1963..
1964..

104.5
107.3
113.0
116.7
121.0

110.7
119.9
122.3
133.5
135.8

1965.. 124.8 147.7 121.5
1966.. 129.3 154.4 125.2
1967* 131.5 170.4 127.0

82.8
84.8
89.1
87.9

91.8
96.6
98.6

146.2
138.3
131.3
122.1
118.3

102.8
102.6
104.6
106.1
108.8

* Output refers to gross national product in 1958 prices.
2 Hours worked by all persons in private industry engaged in production, including man-hours of proprietors and unpaid
family workers.
3 Man-hours estimates based primarily on establishment data.
4
Man-hours estimates based primarily on labor force data.
Note.—For information on sources, methodology, trends, and underlying factors influencing the measures, see Bureau
of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, Bulletin No. 1249 "Trends in Output per Man-Hour in the Private Economy,
1909-58" December 1959.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




248

PRODUCTION AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY
T A B L E B—35.—Industrial production indexes, major industry divisions,

1929—67

[1957-59=100]
Total industrial
production

Year or month

Manufacturing
Mining
Total

Durable

Utilities

Nondurable

1929

38.4

38.6

38.2

38.3

54.2

12.7

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935.
1936
1937
1938
1939

32.0
26.5
20.7
24.4
26.6
30.7
36.3
39.7
31.4
38.3

31.7
25.9
19.9
23.7
26.0
30.6
36.4
39.7
30.5
37.9

28.4
19.5
11.9
15.5
18.8
24.1
31.2
35.2
22.6
31.4

34.8
32.8
28.9
32.8
33.8
37.4
41.6
44.1
39.1
44.9

47.0
40.3
33,6
38.5
40.3
43.7
50.3
56.7
49.0
53.8

13.1
12.5
11.7
11.5
12.2
13.2
14.9
16.4
16.5
18.3

1940.
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946...
1947
1948
1949

43.9
56.4
69.3
82.9
81.7
70.5
59.5
65.7
68.4
64.7

43.8
58.3
73.1
88.7
86.3
73.0
60.0
66.4
68.9
65.1

40.0
57.7
79.9
102.9
100.9
78.2
54.7
64.3
67.0
60.9

47.3
57.6
63.7
70.7
68.2
65.6
64.8
67.2
69.5
68.3

60.1
64.8
67.0
69.0
74.2
73.0
72.2
79.9
84.0
74.5

20.3
22.8
25.6
28.3
30.1
30.6
31.8
36.5
40.8
43.4

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954...
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

74.9
81.3
84.3
91.3
85.8
96.6
99.9
100.7
93.7
105.6

75.8
81.9
85.2
92 7
86.3
97.3
100.2
100.8
93.2
106.0

74.1
83.5
88.5
99 9
88.4
101.9
104.0
104.0
90.3
105.6

76.0
78.5
80.0
83.6
83.6
91.6
95.4
96.7
96.8
106.5

83.2
91.3
90.5
92.9
90.2
99.2
104.8
104.6
95.6
99.7

49.5
56.4
61.2
66.8
71.8
80.2
87.9
93.9
98.1
108.0

108.7
109.7
118.3
124.3
132.3
143.4
156 3
157.8

108 9
109.6
118.7
124.9
133.1
145.0
158 6
159.5

108 5
107.0
117.9
124.5
133.5
148.4
164 8
163.8

109.5
112.9
119.8
125.3
132.6
140.8
150.8
154.2

101.6
102.6
105.0
107.9
111.5
114.8
120.5
123.4

115.6
122.3
131.4
140.0
151.3
160.9
173.9
183.9

.

.

.

1960
1961 . . .
1962
1963
1964
1965....
1966
1967*.

Seasonally adjusted
150.7
152.4
153.8
153 9
155.4
156.5

152.9
154.7
156.0
156 5
157.8
158.7

157.8
160.2
161.6
162 5
164.0
164.9

146.8
147.8
148.9
148.9
149.9
151.0

118.1
118.2
120.4
115.4
120.0
121.6

165.9
168.5
169.6
171.2
171.8
173.3

July
Aug
Sept
Oct.
Nov
Dec

157.2
157.8
158.1
159.4
159 1
159.5

159.4
160.0
160 4
161.8
161 5
161.7

165.8
166.4
167.2
168.9
167 7
167.7

151.5
152.0
151.9
152.8
153.6
154.1

122.1
121.9
121.1
121.9
121.6
123.8

175.0
176.3
178.0
178.9
178.5
179.4

1967: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

158.2
156.6
156.4
156.5
155 6
155.6

160 1
158.5
158.2
158.2
157 2
157.0

165.5
162.9
162.6
162.5
162.2
161.5

153.4
152.9
152.6
152.8
151.1
151.4

123.2
122.4
121.5
122.0
120.2
123.8

180.6
180.5
181.9
182.7
182.7
183.2

156 6
158.1
156.8
156.6
159.3
161.6

157 6
159.4
158.1
158.1
160.9
163.6

162 5
163.6
161.1
160.8
164.4
168.3

151.5
154.0
154.2
154.7
156.5
157.7

128.0
127.8
124.3
121.2
123.7
123.7

184.1
184.8
184.8
187.6
188. C
188. C

1966: Jan.
Feb
Mar
Apr
May._
June

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec p

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




249

TABLE B-36.—Industrial production indexes, market groupings, 1947-67
[1957-59=1001
Final products

Year or month

Total
industrial
production

Consumer goods l
Total
Total

Materials
Equipment

Automotive
products

Home
goods

Total,
including
defense

Total
Business

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

1947..
1948..
1949..

65.7
68.4
64.7

64.2
66.6
64.5

67.1
69.2
68.8

69.4
72.6
72.0

68.8
71.7
66.3

55.4
58.3
52.0

69.9
72.6
63.5

67.0
70.2
64.8

68.2
71.0
64.2

64.9
68.2
64.2

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

74.9
81.3
84.3
91.3
85.8

72.8
78.6
84.3
89.9
85.7

78.6
77.8
79.5
85.0
84.3

90.6
80.1
72.1
91.3
85.0

91.4
78.7
78.8
90.2
86.0

56.4
78.4
94.1
100.5
88.9

68.0
83.1
94.1
96.6
85.1

76.9
83.8
84.3
92.6
85.9

79.5
87.8
88.9
100.7
88.4

73.3
78.8
79.0
84.1
83.3

1955..
1956.1957..
1958..
1959..

96.6
99.9
100.7
93.7
105.6

93.9
98.1
99.4
94.8
105.7

93.3
95.5
97.0
96.4
106.6

118.3
97.8
105.2
86.7
108.1

97.3
100.9
96.6
92.8
110.7

95.0
103.7
104.6
91.3
104.1

91.9
104.7
105.3
89.8
104.9

99.0
101.6
101.9
92.7
105.4

104.7
105.3
104.8
90.0
105.1

93.0
97,7
98.9
95.4
105.7

1960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..

108.7
109.7
118.3
124.3
132.3

109.9
111.2
119.7
124.9
131.8

111.0
112.6
119.7
125.2
131.7

123.2
111.8
131.1
141.2
145.1

110.8
112.2
122.2
129.6
141.1

107.6
108.3
119.6
124.2
132.0

110.2
110.1
122.1
128.3
139.1

107.6
108.4
117.0
123.7
132.8

106.6
104.8
114.1
121.2
131.2

108.7
112.2
120.0
126.3
134.4

1965..
1966..
1967 P.

143.4
156.3
157.8

142.5
155.5
158.2

140.3
147.5
148.2

167.2
163.0
149.3

154.8
168.9
166.1

147.0
172.6
179.5

156.7
181.2
182.7

144.2
157.0
157.5

144.3
156.9
151.9

144.1
157.2
163.2

Seasonally adjusted

150.7
152.4
153.8
153.9
155.4
156.5

150.0
151.8
152.7
153.2
154.0
155.3

144.6
145.9
146.5
146.8
146.7
147.3

168.1
167.9
170.0
168.2
160.7
162.1

166.8
165.7
164.1
168.9
169.6
168.0

161.5
164.5
166.2
166.9
169.8
172.6

170.5
173.7
175.4
175.9
178.3
181.4

150.8
152.5
154.4
154.4
157.0
158.1

149.9
152.5
154.9
156.4
157.9
158.1

151.6
152.5
153.9
152.2
156.2
158.2

Nov..
Dec.

157.2
157.8
158.1
159.4
159.1
159.5

155.3
156.0
156.6
158.7
159.0
159.6

146.4
146.5
146.9
149.3
149.2
149.8

153.3
145.8
150.7
168.5
162.8
162.6

168.0
168.7
168.1
170.0
169.4
168.1

174.3
176.3
177.4
179.0
180.0
180.7

182.7
184.4
185.7
187.2
187.8
188.9

158.9
159.2
159.6
159.7
159.0
159.2

158.8
159.2
159.1
159.1
157.8
156.8

159.0
159.3
160.1
160.3
160.2
161.6

1967: Jan..
Feb..
MarApr_.
May..
June.

158.2
156.6
156.4
156.5
155.6
155.6

158.1
157.0
157.1
157.3
156.3
156.8

148.0
146.1
146.6
147.1
146.0
146.9

147.0
135.7
144.6
151.3
145.8
151.2

168.0
164.1
162.7
158.9
158.5
156.6

179.9
180.3
179.6
179.2
178.5
178.1

186.9
186.6
184.4
183.5
182.1
181.3

157.9
155.8
155.5
156.0
154.6
154.9

154.2
151.3
151.5
151.0
149.7
148.9

161.6
160.4
159.7
161.1
159.6
161.1

156.6
158.1
156.8
156.6
159.3
161.6

157.1
158.2
157.0
156.5
159.6
161.4

147.1
148.6
147.0
147.4
149.7
152.2

155.2
161.1
142.1
145.2
152.8
171

157.3
163.4
164.1
166.3
171.2

178.4
178.9
178.6
176.0
180.9
181.2

180.8
180.6
179.8
176.5
182.7
183

156.1
157.9
156.7
156.6
159.3
161.6

149.7
151.8
148.5
148.9
152.2
156

162.6
164.2
165.2
165.2
166.5
168

1966 Jan...
Feb...
Mar_.
Apr__.
May_.
JuneJuly..
Aug..
s

July—
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
Nov..
Dec p
1

Also includes apparel and consumer staples, not shown separately.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




250

T A B L E B—37.—Industrial production indexes, selected manufactures, 1947—67
[1957-59=100]
Durable manufactures

Year or
month

FabriPricated
mary metal
metals products

Nondurable manufactures

Machinery

Transportation
equipment

Instruments
and related
products

Clay,
glass
and
lumber

Textile,
Furni- apparel,
ture
Paper
and
and
and
miscel- leather printing
laneous products

Chemical,
petroleum,
and
rubber
products

Foods,
beverages,
and
tobacco

1947
1948
1949

90.7
94.3
79.4

75.9
77.2
69.8

65.3
66.5
59.0

42.9
46.9
47.1

53.7
55.2
49.2

75.8
79.7
72.3

73.5
77.4
71.6

81.0
84.5
80.6

66.7
69.4
69.3

47.5
50.8
49.4

80.7
80.0
80.8

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

99.9
108.7
99.3
112.5
91.3

85.4
91.2
89.0
100.3
90.2

72.7
83.0
92.1
100.5
87.7

56.4
62.9
73.1
91.7
83.8

57.3
65.7
78.1
85.3
82.9

87.7
92.0
89.3
92.7
89.6

83.7
80.2
82.4
89.7
86.8

89.1
87.4
89.5
90.7
86.9

76.7
79.4
77.7
82.6
85.0

60.7
67.4
69.9
75.2
74.7

83.6
85.4
87.3
88.2
89.8

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

118.4
116.4
112.2
87.5
100.4

98.3
98.8
101.5
92.9
105.5

96.5
107.1
104.2
88.8
107.1

102.0
97.4
106.4
89.5
104.0

88.7
95.4
98.0
92.1
109.9

100.7
102.0
97.5
94.1
108.5

97.9
101.0
97.6
93.3
109.0

95.5
98.0
96.9
95.0
108.1

92.5
97.1
97.8
97.0
105.2

86.8
91.4
95.6
95.5
108.9

93.1
96.6
96.7
99.4
103.9

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

101.3
98.9
104.6
113.3
129.1

107.6
106.5
117.1
123.4
132.7

110.8
110.4
123.5
129.2
141.4

108.2
103.6
118.3
127.0
130.7

116.5
115.8
123.0
130.2
136.4

105.7
104.5
109.3
114.4
121.1

113.3
114.1
124.5
129.1
138.4

107.5
108.4
115.1
118.5
125.2

109.0
112.4
116.7
120.1
127.5

113.9
118.9
131.2
141.8
152.5

106.6
110.2
113.3
116.8
120.8

1965
1966
1967*

137.6
142.7
132.6

147.8
163.0
161.6

160.5
183.8
183.4

149.2
166.9
165.9

151.4
176.5
184.7

127.6
132.9
130.9

151.8
165.0
162.4

135.8
141.6
138.9

135.3
146.4
149.7

164.6
181.9
189.2

123.4
128.1
131.4

Seasonally adjusted
1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar_..
Apr...
May...
June..

131.2
137.0
141.8
142.5
145.3
147.3

157.7
161.6
161.7
161.4
162.9
161.8

174.2
176.2
176.1
178.1
180.5
182.7

163.0
163.8
165.4
165.5
164.9
165.9

166.8
169.4
171.9
173.7
176.4
176.5

134.7
135.0
136.1
136.8
135.6
133.1

158.4
161.6
162.9
163.5
166.7
167.0

138.9
140.1
141.4
142.6
143.1
142.4

141.7
142.7
144.2
143.5
146.6
148.3

175.7
176.3
177.4
177.9
179.3
181.0

125.8
127.2
128.0
126.9
126.4
127.6

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct....
Nov...
Dec...

147.8
148.0
146.6
145.0
140.5
137.6

162.1
163.1
163.1
164.2
164.7
168.7

186.7
188.7
190.0
191.1
189.8
190.3

164.8
163.7
166.3
172.6
170.6
169.1

177.0
177.4
179.5
181.8
183.2
184.6

131.7
130.2
129.2
129.5
129.1
128.8

163.5
167.1
165.9
166.0
167.1
168.1

141.4
141.3
141.4
142.3
142.2
142.2

149.6
148.6
147.2
147.9
148.5
147.4

181.8
183.6
185.1
186.3
188.5
188.6

128.2
128.9
128.1
128.6
128.9
131.2

1967: Jan....
Feb...
Mar...
Apr...
May...
June..

132.6
131.9
129.2
129.1
128.9
129.0

166.7
165.0
162.9
161.0
160.8
160.8

190.3
186.8
184.5
182.1
180.5
177.5

162.6
157.5
162.6
165.7
167.5
169.3

186.2
183.4
185.8
185.2
185.3
184.1

128.6
128.9
128.4
129.8
127.8
126.7

166.3
163.9
162.4
162.9
162.3
161.5

140.3
137.6
135.5
135.5
135.3
134.8

148.4
148.7
149.5
149.9
149.1
149.4

187.1
186.5
186.8
186.4
182.2
183.0

131.0
131.5
131.1
131.8
130.9
131.3

July...
Aug...
Sept...
Oct....
Nov...
Dec v..

129.6
129.3
129.2
131.6
134.8
142

159.8
159.1
158.1
158.1
159.6
161

180.0
182.8
182.2
179.6
183.2
183

170.8
171.9
159.2
159.3
165.7
177

182.9
183.2
183.1
183.2
185.4
186

127.3
126.7
129.6
131.4
134.7
137

159.1
159.9
161.4
160.9
161.4
163

135.3
137.6
139.1
140.6
141.9
143

148.6
150.3
148.5
148.5
150.2
151

184.0
189.5
191.2
190.9
195.3
198

130.9
131.0
130.4
131.1
130.8
131

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




251

TABLE B-38.—Manufacturing output, capacity, and utilization rate, 1948-67
Utilization rate 2
Output

Capacity i

Period

Total
1957-59 output=100

Advanced
products

Primary
products

Percent

68.9
65.1

76.8
81.1

89.7
80.2

87.9
80.3

92.2
80.0

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

75.8
81 9
85.2
92.7
86.3

84.3
87 4
92.7
98.4
103.3

90.4
94 0
91 3
94.2
83.5

87.3
91 0
91.9
94.1
83.8

94.8
98 1
90.4
94.4
83.0

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

97.3
100.2
100 8
93 2
106.0

108.4
114.3
120 7
125.8
130.1

90.0
87.7
83 6
74.0
81.5

87.8
86.0
82.3
73.6
81.0

93.2
90.1
85.3
74.6
82.1

108.9
109.6
118.7
124.9
133.1

134.9
139.6
144.4
149.8
155.6

80.6
78.5
82.1
83.3
85.7

81.1
78.9
82.5
83.1
84.4

80.0
78.1
81.6
83.6
87.4

145 0
158.6
159.5

164.0
175.0
186.5

88.5
90.5
85.1

87.6
90.5
85.8

89.7
90.5
84.0

1948
1949

. .

_

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

. .

1965
1966
1967*

. . .

Seasonally adjusted
103.1
108.4
112.3
115.0

IV
1963:

I— .

II

III

IV
1964:

1

II

III

. . .

. .

IV
1965: 1

II

III

.

.

IV
1966:

1

II
III
IV

1967:

. .

I v
II v
III v
IV p

.

72.1
77.7
80.9
81.7

142.4
143.7
145.1
146.4

82.0
82.4
82.4
81.8

81.4
82.8
83.3
82.5

82.7
81.9
81.1
80.7

147.8
149.1
150.5
151.8

82.0
83.9
83.7
83.7

82.2
82.9
83.6
83.7

81.7
85.2
83.9
83.8

153.3
154.9
156.4
158.0

84.5
85.7
86.3
86.2

83.8
84.7
84.9
84.4

85.5
87.1
88.3
88.8

141.4
143.5
146.1
148.9

.

76.3
78.2
79.7
81.3

129.4
132.5
134.7
135.9

IV

1962- 1
II
Ill

74.5
78.0
80.2
81.5

121.3
124.9
126.0
127.2

II
III

137.9
139.0
140.1
141.2

116.6
118.6
119.7
119.9

1961: 1

160.1
162.7
165.3
167.9

88.5
88.4
88.5
88.6

87.2
87.1
87.4
88.7

90.2
90.1
90.1
88.5

154.5
157.7
159.9
161.7

170.6
173.5
176.4
179.3

90.5
90.9
90.6
90.0

90.3
90.5
90.6
90.6

90.9
91.4
90.6
89.1

158.9
157.5
158.4
160.9

182.2
185.1
187.9
190.8

87.1
84.9
84.1
84.3

87.8
86.2
85.2
84.2

86.0
83.1
82.5
84.4

1
For description and source of data see "A Revised Index of Manufacturing Capacity," Frank de Leeuw, Frank E.Hopkins,
and Michael D. Sherman, "Federal Reserve Bulletin," November 1966, pp. 160571615. See also McGraw-Hill surveys on
"Business Plans for New Plants and Equipment" for data on capacity and operating rates.
2 Output as percent of capacity; based on unrounded data.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (output) and sources in footnote 1 (capacity and utilization
rate).




252

TABLE B-39.—Business expenditures for new plant and equipment, 1939 and 1945-68
[Billions of dollars]
Manufacturing

Transportation

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Mining

Total

Year or quarter

Total i

Railroad

Other

Public
utilities

Commercial
and
other 2

1939

5.51

1.94

0.76

1.19

0.33

0.28

0.36

0.52

2.08

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

8.69
14.85
20.61
22.06
19.28

3.98
6.79
8 70
9.13
7.15

1.59
3.11
3.41
3.48
2.59

2.39
3 68
5.30
5.65
4.56

.38
.43
.69
.88
.79

.55
.58
.89
1.32
1.35

.57
.92
1.30
1.28
.89

.50
.79
1.54
2 54
3.12

2.70
5.33
7.49
6.90
5.98

20.60
25.64
26 49
28.32
26.83

7.49
10.85
11 63
11.91
11.04

3.14
5.17
5.61
5.65
5.09

4.36
5.68
6.02
6.26
5.95

.71
.93
.98
.99
.98

1.11
1.47
1.40
1 31
.85

1.21
1.49
1 50
1.56
1.51

3.31
3.66
3.89
4.55
4.22

6.78
7.24
7.09
8.00
8.23

28.70
35.08
36 96
30.53
32.54

11.44
14.95
15 96
11.43
12.07

5.44
7.62
8.02
5.47
5.77

6.00
7.33
7.94
5.96
6.29

.96
1.24
1.24
.94
.99

.92
1.23
1.40
.75
.92

1.60
1.71
1 77
1.50
2.02

4.31
4.90
6.20
6.09
5.67

9.47
11.05
10.40
9.81
10.88

35.68
34.37
37.31
39.22
44.90

14.48
13.68
14 68
15.69
18.58

7.18
6.27
7.03
7.85
9.43

7.30
7.40
7.65
7.84
9.16

.99
.98
1.08
1.04
1.19

1.03
.67
.85
1.10
1.41

1.94
1.85
2 07
1.92
2.38

5.68
5.52
5.48
5.65
6.22

11.57
11.68
13.15
13.82
15.13

51.96
60.63
61.48

22.45
26.99
26.84

11.40
13.99
13.78

11.05
13.00
13.07

1.30
1.47
1.43

1.73
1.98
1.55

2.81
3.44
3.88

6.94
8.41
9.59

16.73
18.36
18.20

1950 .
1951
1952
1953
1954 .

- .

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965..
1966
1967 3

.

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

49.00
50.35
52.75
55.35

||
III
IV

1966: 1
II
III

IV
1967: 1

II

|||_
IV 3

.

.

1968: i s
11 3

20.75
21.55
23.00
24.15

10.40
10.80
11.75
12.45

10.40
10.70
11.25
11.70

1.25
1.30
1.25
1.35

1.75
1.55
1.70
1.95

2.55
2.70
3.00
3.00

6.80
6.85
6.75
7.30

15.85
16.40
17.00
17.55

58.00
60.10
61.25
62.80

1965' 1

25.60
26.80
27.55
27.75

13.15
13.85
14.35
14.50

12.45
12.95
13.20
13.25

1.40
1.55
1.45
1.45

1.75
2.00
1.85
2.35

3.30
3.50
3.40
3.50

8.25
8.30
8.55
8.50

17.70
17.95
18.45
19.25

61.65
61.50
60.90
62.05

27.85
27.00
26.15
26.55

14.20
13.75
13.50
13.75

13.70
13.25
12.65
12.80

1.40
1.30
1.45
1.50

1.80
1.55
1.40
1.45

3.05
3.90
4.10
4.45

9.20
9.70
9.80
9.60

18.30
18.05
17.95
18.50

65.05
65.85

27.75
28.40

14.60
15.00

13.15
13.40

1.60

1.50

4.75
37^45

11.15

18.35

1

Excludes agriculture.
Commercial and other includes trade, service, finance, communications, and construction.
Estimates based on anticipated capital expenditures reported by business in late October and November 1967. The
quarterly anticipations include adjustments, when necessary, for systematic tendencies in anticipatory data.
Note.—Annual total is the sum of unadjusted expenditures; it does not necessarily coincide with the average of seasonally
adjusted figures.
These figures do not agree precisely with plant and equipment expenditures included in the gross national product
estimates of the Department of Commerce. The main difference lies in the inclusion in the gross national product of investment by farmers, professionals, institutions, and real estate firms, and of certain outlays charged to current account.
These series are not available for years prior to 1939 and for 1940 to 1944.
Sources: Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics) and Securities and Exchange Commission.
3
3

284-593 0—68



17

253

TABLE B-40.—New construction activity, 1929-67
[Value put in place, millions of dollars]

Private construction

Year or month

Total
new
construction

Residential
building
(nonfarm)

Public construction

Nonresidential building and
other construction

Total

Total

Total i

New
housing
units

Total

Commercial 2

Industrial

Others

State
Fedand
erally locally
owned owned 4

1929

10,793

8,307

3,625

3,040

4,682

1,135

949

2,598

2,486

155

2,331

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

8,741
6,427
3,538
2,879
3,720
4,232
6,497
6,999
6,980
8,198

5,883
3,768
1,676
1,231
1,509
1,999
2,981
3,903
3,560
4,389

2,075
1,565
630
470
625
1,010
1,565
1,875
1,990
2,680

1,570
1,320
485
290
380
710
1,210
1,475
1,620
2,270

3,808
2,203
1,046
761
884
989
1,416
2,028
1,570
1,709

893
454
223
130
173
211
290
387
285
292

532
221
74
176
191
158
266
492
232
254

2,383
1,528
749
455
520
620
860
1,149
1,053
1,163

2,858
2,659
1,862
1,648
2,211
2,233
3,516
3,096
3,420
3,809

209
271
333
516
626
814
797
776
717
759

2,649
2,388
1,529
1,132
1,585
1,419
2,719
2,320
2,703
3,050

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945 .
1946

8,682
11,957
14,075
8,301
5,259
5,809
12,627

5,054
6,206
3,415
1,979
2,186
3,411
10,396

2,985
3,510
1 715
885
815
1,276
4,752

2,560
3,040
1,440
710
570
720
3,300

2,069
2,696
1,700
1,094
1,371
2,135
5,644

348
409
155
33
56
203
1,153

442
801
346
156
208
642
1,689

1,279
1,486
1,199
905
1,107
1,290
2,802

3,628
5 751
10,660
6,322
3,073
2,398
2,231

1,182
3,751
9,313
5,609
2,505
1,737
865

2,446
2,000
1,347
713
568
661
1,366

New series 5
1946
1947
1948.
1949

14,308
20,041
26,078
26,722

12,077
16,722
21,374
20,453

6,247
9,850
13,128
12,428

4,795
7,765
10, 506
10,043

5,830
6,872
8,246
8,025

1,153
957
1,397
1,182

1,689
1,702
1,397
972

2,988
4,213
5,452
5,871

2,231
3,319
4,704
6,269

865
840
1,177
1,488

1,366
2,479
3,527
4,781

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958.
1959

33,575
35,435
36,828
39,136
41,380
46,519
47,601
49,139
50,153
55,305

26,709
26,180
26,049
27,894
29,668
34,804
34,869
35,080
34,696
39,235

18,126
15,881
15,803
16,594
18,187
21,877
20,178
19,006
19,789
24,251

15, 551
13,207
12,851
13,411
14,931
18,242
16,143
14,736
15,445
19,233

8,583
10,299
10,246
11,300
11,481
12,927
14,691
16, 074
14,907
14,984

1,415
1,498
1,137
1,791
2,212
3,218
3,631
3,564
3,589
3,930

1,062
2,117
2,320
2,229
2,030
2,399
3,084
3,557
2,382
2,106

6,106
6,684
6,789
7,280
7,239
7,310
7,976
8,953
8,936
8,948

6,866
9,255
10,779
11,242
11,712
11,715
12,732
14,059
15,457
16,070

1,624
2,981
4,185
4,139
3,428
2,769
2,726
2,974
3,387
3,724

5,242
6,274
6,594
7,103
8,284
8,946
10,006
11,085
12,070
12,346

. . 53,941

55,447
59,576
62,755

38,078
38,299
41,707
43,859

21,706
21,680
24,292
25,843

16,410
16,189
18,638
20,064

16,372
16,619
17,415
18,016

4,180
4,674
4,955
5,200

2,851
2,780
2,949
2,962

9,341
9,165
9,511
9,854

15,863
17,148
17,869
18,896

3,622
3,879
3,913
3,970

12,241
13,269
13,956
14,926

59,667
63,423
66,200
71,912
74,371
74,680

41,798
44,057
45,810
49,840
50,446
49,560

24,292
26,187
26,258
26,266
23,815
23,597

18,638
20,385
20,354
20,351
17,964
17,902

17,506
17,870
19,552
23,574
26,631
25,963

5,144
4,995
5,396
6,745
6,890
6,971

2,842
2,906
3,565
5,128
6,703
6,126

9,520
9,969
10,591
11,701
13,038
12,866

17,869
19,366
20,390
22,072
23,925
25,120

3,913
4,010
3,905
4,022
3,881
3,369

13,956
15,356
16,485
18,050
20,044
21,751

1960
1961
1962
1963

..

...

New series 6
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
-.-.
1967 7

See footnotes at end of table.




254

TABLE B-40.—New construction activity, 1929-67— Continued
[Value put in place, millions of dollars]

Private construction

Year or month

Total
new
construction

Residential building (nonfarm)
Total
Total i

New
housing
units

Public construction

Nonresidential building and other
construction

Total

Commercial 2

Industrial

Total
Others

State
Fedand
erally locally
owned owned4

Seasonally adjusted annual rate;>
77,175
77,588
78,427
76,949
75,183
74,540

53,085
53,342
53,896
52,512
51,617
51,476

26,787
26,614
26,334
25,915
25,576
24,859

20,726
20,482
20,328
20,112
19,842
19,067

26,298
26,728
27,562
26,597
26,041
26,617

7,468
6,996
7,490
6,793
6,350
6,662

6,397
6,610
6,578
6,798
6,718
7,022

12,433
13,122
13,494
13,006
12,973
12,933

24,090
24,246
24,531
24,437
23,566
23,064

4,316
4,136
4,382
4,119
3,754
3,999

19,774
20,110
20,149
20,318
19,812
19,065

Sept
Oct
Nov....
Dec...

73,088
73,369
73,981
72,255
71,987
72,169

50,492
50,456
50,107
47,883
47,096
46,410

24,137
23,356
22,678
21,587
20,324
19,844

18,216
17,422
16,831
15,857
14,640
14,177

26,355
27,100
27,429
26,296
26,772
26,566

6,763
6,916
7,078
6,685
6,689
7,027

7,012
7,154
6,895
6,673
6,876
6,469

12,580
13,030
13,456
12,938
13,207
13,070

22,596
22,913
23,874
24,372
24,891
25,759

3,768
3,723
3,694
3,579
3,702
3,679

18,830
19,190
20,180
20,793
21,189
22,080

1967: Jan
Feb_...
Mar..-_
Apr..._
May....
June

74,836
74,9%
73,084
71,961
73,904
72,374

48,334
47,960
46,906
46,042
47,813
48,052

19,928
20,278
20,829
21,130
22,107
22,885

14,034
14,335
14,959
15,463
16,542
17,318

28,406
27,682
26,077
24,912
25,706
25,167

7,925
7,697
7,194
6,926
7,093
6,683

7,130
7,054
6,097
5,579
6,006
5,886

13,351
12,931
12,786
12,407
12,607
12,598

26,502
27,036
26,178
25,919
26,091
24,322

3,794
3,435
3,477
3,061
3,224
3,104

22,708
23,601
22,701
22,858
22,867
21,218

73,399
74,392
76,295
76,910
N O V P . . . 77,189

49,151
50,170
51,726
52,195
52,064

23,652
24,619
25,306
25,971
26,575

17,989
18,932
19,644
20,330
20,938

25,499
25,551
26,420
26,224
25,489

6,739
6,437
6,731
6,991
6,860

6,154
6,011
6,577
6,240
5,592

12,606
13,103
13,112
12,993
13,037

24,248
24,222
24,569
24,715
25,125

3,481
3,362
3,406
3,336
3,526

20,767
20,860
21,163
21,379
21, 599

1966: Jan
Feb....
Mar....
Apr....
May..-June.-.
July
Aug

July....
Aug
Sept....
Oct

* Total includes additions and alterations and nonhousekeeping units not shown separately.
Office buildings, warehouses, stores, restaurants, and garages.
Farm, institutional, public utilities, and all other private.
Includes Federal grants-in-aid for State and locally owned projects.
New series in 1946 reflects differences due to the new higher level series of housing starts and farm construction expenditures and the reduced level value in place series for public utilities. See "Construction Report C30-61 (Supplement)"
for a description of the differences.
6
New series differs from old in that it reflects differences in 1962 due to the introduction of new series for private nonresidential buildings and differences in 1963 due to the introduction of new series for State and locally owned public
construction. See "Construction Report C30-65S" for a description of the differences.
7
Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
2
3
4
5




255

TABLE B-41.—New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929-67
[Thousands of units]
Housing starts
Private and
public i

Proposed
home construction s

Private i
Total (farm and nonfarm)

Year or
month

Total
(farm
and
nonfarm)

Nonfarm

Type of
structure 2

Nonfarm

Government
home programs

Total

Total
One
family

Two or
more
families

FHA3

VA

New
private
housing
AppliReunits
cations quests
authorfor
for
ized *
FHA
VA
comap:
mit)raisments 3 als

1929.

509.0

509.0

1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.

330.0
254.0

330.0

134.0
93.0
126.0

254.0
134.0
93.0
126.0

1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.

221.0
319.0
336.0
406.0
515.0

215.7
304.2
332.4
399.3
458.4

13.2
48.8
57.0
106.8
144.7

6 20.6
47.8
49.8
131.1
179.8

1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.

602.6
706.1
356.0
191.0
141.8

529.6
619.5
301.2
183.7
138.7

176.6
217.1
160.2
126.1
83.6

231.2
288.5
238.5
144.4
62.9

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

326.1
023.2
268.5
362.1
466.1

324.9
1,015.2
1,265.1
1,344.0
1,429.8

38.9
67.1
178.3
216.4
252.6

78.8
91.3
160.3
71.1
90.8

56.6
121.7
286.4
293.2
327.0

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

951.9
491.0
503.9
437.6
550.5

1,908.1
1,419.8
,445.4
,402.1
,531.8

328.2
186.9
229.1
216.5
250.9

191.2
148.6
141.3
156.5
307.0

397.7
192.8
267.9
253.7
338.6

164.4
226.3
251.4
535.4

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959.

646.0
349.1
,553.5

223.9
382.0
531.3

,626.6
,324.9
1,174.8
1,314.2
282.5 1,494.6

268.7
183.4
150.1
270.3
307.0

392.9
270.7
128.3
102.1
109.3 1,208.3

306.2
197.7
198.8
341.7
369.7

620.8
401.5
159.4
234.2
234.0

1960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

1,296.0
1,365.0
1,492.4
1,642.0
1,561.6

,274.0
, 336.8
,468.7
,614.8
,534.7

257.4
338.6
471.4
589.6
557.8

1,230.1
1,284.8
1,439.0
1,582.9
1,502.3

225.7
198.8
197.3
166.2
154.0

74.6
83.3
77.8
71.0
59.2

998.0
1,064.2
1,186.6
1,334.7
1,285.8

242.4
243.8
221.1
190.2
182.1

142.9
177.8
171.2
139.3
113.6

1965.,
1966.
1967i

1,509.6 ,487.5 1,472.9
1,196.2 ,172.8 1,165.0
1,322.0 1,299.0 1,291.8

509.1 1,450.6
386.5 1,141.5
448.7 1,268.4

159.9
129.1
141.9

49.4 1,239.8
971.9
36.8
52.5 1,080.9

188.9
153.0
167.2

102.1
99.2
124.3

New series

,516.8

,234.3

1,252.1
994.7
1,313.0
974.4
1,462.7
991.3
1,610.3 1,020.7
1,529.3
971.5
963.8
778.5
843.1

Monthly totals, unadjusted

May"."."
June...

81.9
79.0
122.4
143.0
133.9
123.8

80.9
77.5
120.2
140.7
130.6
121.5

79.4
76.2
118.1
140.9
130.0
120.6

46.6
50.4
83.2
94.3
84.7
79.8

32.8
25.8
34.9
46.6
45.3
40.8

78.5
74.8
115.9
138.6
126.7
118.2

10.2
10.2
15.6
13.9
12.8
12.2

2.8
2.2
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.9

76.0
73.1
117.8
114.1
107.0
95.0

13.6
13.8
17.7
16.0
12.8
13.0

5.9
5.4
9.1
10.1
9.4

July...
Aug...
Sept—
Oct....
Nov...
Dec...

100.1
103.7
91.9
79.1
75.1
62.3

98.4
101.5
89.7
77.0
73.7
61.1

99.3
101.8
89.1
76.6
72.8
60.2

69.1
69.4
59.4
53.5
50.2
37.9

30.2
32.4
29.7
23.1
22.6
22.3

97.6
99.6
86.9
74.4
71.4
58.9

10.6
11.5
8.7
8.3
8.1
6.9

3.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.0
2.5

77.4
79.3
65.9
61.3
56.1
48.9

10.6
11.6
13.0
9.9
8.7
12.5

8.5
10:4
8.9
9.1
7.0
6.6

1966: Jan....,
Feb...
Mar....

See footnotes at end of table.




256

TABLE B-41.—New housing starts and applications for financing, 1929-67—Continued
[Thousands of units]
Housing starts

Total (farm and nonfarm)

Year or
month
Total
(farm
and
nonfarm)

Proposed
home construction 5

PrLvate»

Private and
public i

Nonfarm

Type of
structure 2

Nonfarm

Government
home programs

New
private
housing
units
authorized *

Total

Total
One
family

Two or
more
families

FHA3

VA

Applications
for
FHA
commitments 3

Requests
forVA
appraisals

Monthly totals, unadjusted
1967:Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

61.7
63.2
92.9
115.9
134.2
131.6

60.4
62.0
90.7
114.2
131.9
129.6

59.1
61.4
91.5
113.7
132.0
125.4

40.1
40.3
66.6
79.8
87.3
87.6

19.0
21.1
24.9
33.9
44.7
37.8

57.7
60.2
89.2
112.0
129.7
123.4

8.6
8.3
11.1
11.1
14.8
14.3

3.1
2.9
3.9
41
.
4.7
5.2

54.8
53.9
86.4
93.7
105.1
109.1

10.1
10.7
16.6
14.8
16.0
16.3

7.1
7.7
10.3
11.0
10.9
12.8

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

126.1
130.2
125.8
137.0
120.0
83.4

124.9
126.5
123.4
134.6
118.3
82.5

125.3
127.4
121.9
135.4
118.2
80.5

82.3
83.7
78.2
81.7
69.1
46.2

43.0
43.7
43.7
53.7
49.1
34.3

124.0
123.6
119.5
133.1
116.5
79.5

12.3
13.9
12.6
14.1
11.7
9.4

4.8
5.6
4.8
5.3
4.5
3.6

91.8
104.9
97.6
105.8
94.5
83.3

12.7
17.1
14.6
15.3
12.9
10.2

12.2
11.6
10.8
12.5
9.5
7.9

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1966: Jan—
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
MayJune.

1,433
1,408
1,430
1,377
1,262
1,185

913
990
981
892
820
771

520
418
449
485
442
414

1,403
1,381
1,400
1,356
1,232
1,161

11
8
177
187
151
128
121

50
37
42
35
35
40

1,268
1,206
1,271
1,193
1.104
960

214
179
160
168
133
127

72
92
111
98
90

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

1,079
1,108
1,048
845
975
931

725
719
694
597
686
633

354 1,061
389 1,088
354 1,020
248
824
289
956
298
910

117
113
96
94
107
105

37
31
33
34
36
37

930
852
740
718
719
761

124
119
11
5
122
135
203

99
106
104
119
103
104

1967: Jan...
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
June.

1,111
1,149
1,094
1,116
1,274
1,233

806
802
774
759
839
849

305
347
320
357
435
384

1,079
1,132
1,067
1,099
1,254
1,214

150
139
130
125
143
143

52
48
50
50
49
52

942
894
928
1,028
1,033
1,109

157
135
152
162
160
166

107
104
103
125
108
135

July..
Aug_.
SeptOct—
Nov..
Dec.

1,369
1,407
1,445
1,496
1,587
1,256

862
875
923
913
951
788

507
532
522
583
636
468

1,356
1,381
1,415
1,478
1,564
1,241

139
139
147
152
154
149

52
55
55
57
54
56

1,093
L. 127
i; 159
1,212
1.158
,362

150
176
178
181
194
168

145
124
129
155
136
126

1
Military housing starts, including those financed with mortgages insured by FHA under Section 803 of the National
Housing Act, are included in publicly financed starts but excluded from total private starts and from FHA starts.
2 Not available prior to 1959 except for nonfarm for 1929-44.
3 Units are for 1-4 family housing.
4
Data beginning 1963 cover approximately 12,000 permit-issuing places. Data for 1959-62 are based on reports from
approximately 10,000 places. In 1963, the additional 2,000 permit-issuing places accounted for almost 50,000 new privately
owned housing unit authorizations.
5
Units in mortgage applications or appraisal requests for new home construction.
• FHA program approved in June 1934: all 1934 activity included in 1935.
7
Monthly estimates for September 1945-May 1950 were prepared by Housing and Home Finance Agency.

Sources: Department of Commerce (Bureau of the Census), Department of Housing and Urban Development, Federal
Housing Administration (FHA), and Veterans Administration (VA), except as noted.




257

TABLE B-42.—Sales and inventories in manufacturing and trade, 1947-67
[Amounts in millions of dollars]
Total manufacturing
and trade

Manufacturing

Sales »

Inventories 2

Inventories 2

1947...
1948...
1949—

35,260
33,788

52,507
49,497

1.42
1.53

1950—
1951...
1952...
1953—
1954...

38,596
43,356
44,840
47,987
46,443

1955—
1956...
1957...
1958
1959—

51,694
54,063
55,879
54,233
59,661

1960...
1961...
1962...
1963...
1964...
1965...
1966...
1967 *..

Merchant wholesalers

Retail trade

Year or month
Ratio 3 Sales i

Ratio 3

Sales i

15,513 25,897
17,316 28,543
16,126 26,321

1.58
1.57
1.75

6,514

59,822
70,242
72,377
76,122
73,175

1.36 18,634 31,078
1.55 21,714 39,306
1.58 22,529 41,136
1.58 24,843 43,948
1.60 23,355 41,612

1.48
1.66
1.78
1.76
1.81

79,516
87,304
89,052
86,922
91,891

1.47
1.55
1.59
1.60
1.50

26,480
27,740
28,736
27,280
30,219

45,069
50,642
51,871
50,070
52,707

1.62
1.73
1.
1.84
1.70

60,746 94,747
61,106 95,813
65,594 100;
1,627
68,692 105,578
73,459 111,051
" 528 120,896
135,549
88J338 139,685

1.56
1.54
1.50
1.49
1.47
1.46
1.48
1.56

30,796
30,884
33,308
34,774
37,129
40,279
44,037
45,100

53,814
55,087
57,753
60,147
62,944
68,015
77,897
82,100

1.76
1.74
1.70
1.69
1.64
1.61
1.64
1.79

Inventories 2

Ratios

Sales 1

Inyentories2

Ratio 3

10,200 14,241
11,135 16,007
11,149 15,470

1.26
1.39
1.41

7,695 9,284
8,597 9,886
8,782 10,210
9,052 10,686
8,993 10,637

12,268
13,046
13,529
14,091
14,095

19,460
21,050
21,031
21,488
20,926

1.38
1.64
1.52
1.53
1.51

9,893
10,513
10,475
10,257
11,491

11,678
13,260
12,730
12,739
13,879

15,321
15,811
16,667
16,696
17,951

22,769
23,402
24,451
24,113
25,305

1.43
1.47
1.44
.43
.40

11,656
11,988
12,674
13,382
14,527
15,595
16,979
17,127

14,120
14,488
14,936
16,048
16,977
18,274
20,691
21,111

18,294
18,234
19,613
20,536
21,802
23,654
25,306
26,111

26,813
26,238
27,938
29,383
31,130
34,607
36,961
36,474

.45
.43
.38
1.39
1.40
1.40
1.42
1.39

7,957
7,706

Seasonally adjusted
1966: J a n . .
Feb..
Mar.
Apr
May.
May
June..

84,727 121,570
84,530 122,542
122,'
86,991 123,630
85,455 124,700
85,426 126,179
86,957 127,584

1.43
1.45
1.42
1.46
1.48
1.47

42,665
42,702
44,121
43,540
44,071
44,125

68,594
69,040
69,648
70,346
71,103
71,949

1.61
1.62
1.58
1.62
.61
.63

16,981
16,779
17,334
16,966
16,880
17,438

18,231
18,580
18,881
19,008
19,149
19,310

1.07
.11
.09
.12
.13
.11

25,081
25,049
25,536
24,949
24,475
25,394

34,745
34,922
35,101
35,346
35,927
36,325

1.39
1.39
1.37
1.42
1.47
1.43

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec___

86,678 128,714
86,995 130,043
86,775 130,839
87,066 132,392
86,699 133,856
87,875 135,549

1.48
1.49
1.51
1.52
1.54
1.54

44,327
44,206
44,091
44,487
44,393
45,511

.65
68
70
70
73

16,989
17,217
16,981
17,029
16,696
16,9%

19,444
19,742
19,600
19,924
20,226
20,691

.15
.15
.17
.21
.22

25,362
25,572
25,703
25,550
25,610
25,368

36,312
36,191
36,355
36,680
36,734
36,961

1.43
1.42
1.41
1.44
1.43
1.46

1967: J a n - _
Feb—
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June..

87,386 136,590
86,299 136,780
87,458 137,093
86,833|l37,351
87,6111137,428
88,549 137,076

1.56
1.58
1.57
1.58
1.57
1.55

44,460
43,932
44,866
43,943
44,945
44,888

72,958
74,110
74,884
75,788
76.896
77.897
78,886
79,394
79,708
80,330
80, 578
80,390

.77
.81
.78
.83
1.79
1.79

17,239
16,897
16,853
16,972
16,769
17,117

20,780
20,742
20,859
20,785
20,587
20,599

.21
.23
.24
.22
.23
.20

25,687
25,470
25,739
25,918
25,897
26,544

36,924
36,644
36,526
36,236
36,263
36,087

1.44
1.44
1.42
1.40
1.40
1.36

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov p_
Dec p.

88,991 137,405
89,295 138,187
88,785 138,129
87,996 138,643
90,777 139,668

1.54
1.55
1.56
1.58
1.54

45,402
45,675
44,723
44,712
46,848

80,897
81,370
81,176
81,481
82,083

1.78
1.78
1.82
1.82
1.75

17,145
17,198
17,330
17,195
17,462

20,511
20,789
20,810
20,945
21,111

.20
.21
.20
.22
1.21

26,444
26,422
26,732
26,089
26,467
26,343

35,997
36,028
36,143
36,217
36,474

1.36
1.36
1.35
1.39
1.38

1 Monthly average for year and total for month.
2 Seasonally adjusted, end of period.
3 Inventory/sales ratio. For annual periods, ratio of weighted average inventories to average monthly sales; for monthly
data ratio of inventories at end of month to sales for month.
* where December data not available, data for year calculated on basis of no change from November.
Note.—The inventory figures in this table do not agree with the estimates of change in business inventories included
in the gross national product since these figures cover only manufacturing and trade rather than all business, and show
inventories in terms of current book value without adjustment for revaluation.
Source: Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics and Bureau of the Census).




258

TABLE B-43.—Manufacturers* shipments and inventories, 1947-67
[Millions of dollars]
Shipments i

Inventories 2
Durable goods industries

Year or month
Total

DuraNonble
durable
goods goods
indus- industries
tries

1947..
1948..
1949..

15,513
17,316
16,126

6,694
7,579
7,191

1950..
1951..
1952..
19531954..

18,634
21,714
22,529
24,843
23,355

8,845
10,493
11,313
13,349
11,828

9,789
11,221
11,216
11,494
11,527

1955..
19561957..
1958..
1959-

26,480
27,740
28,736
27,280
30,219

14,071
14,715
15,237
13,572
15,544

196019611962..
19631964-

30,796
30,884
33,308
34,774
37,129

15,817
15,532
17,184
18,071
19,231

1965..
19661967 3

40,279 21,020
44,037 23,006
45,100 23,000

MateWork
Finrials
in
and
ished
sup- process goods
plies

Total
Total

Nondurable goods industries

Total

Materials
Work
Finand
in
ished
sup- proces: goods
plies

8,819 25,897 13,061
9,738 28,543 14,662
8,935 26,321 13,060

12,836
13,881
13,261

31,078
39,306
41,136
43,948
41,612

15,539
20,991
23,731
25,878
23,710

15,539
18,315
17,405
6,206 18,070
6,040 17,902

8,317
8,167

2,472
2,440

7,409
7,415

12,409
13,025
13,499
13,708
14,675

45,069
50,642
51,871
50,070
52,707

26,405 9,194 10,756
30,447 10,417 12,317
31,728 10,608 12,837
30,095 9,847 12,294
31,839 10,585 12,952

6,348
7,565
8,125
7,749
8,143

8,556
8,971
8,775
8,671
9,089

2,571
2,721
2,864
2,800
2,928

7,666
8,622
8,624
8,498
8,857

14,979
15,352
16,124
16,704
17,898

53,814
55,087
57,753
60,147
62,944

32,360
32,646
34,326
36,028
38,412

12,780 9,190 21,454 9,113
13,225 9,088 22,441 9,511
14,129 9,593 23,427 9,770
14,857 10,292 24,119 9,769
15,933 10,791 24, 532 9,619

2,935
3,120
3,304
3,479!
3,522

9,353
9,707
10,246
10,871
11,391

8,966 10,720
7,894 9,721

10,286
10,234
10,571
10,879
11,688

18,664
20,195
20,143
19,975
20,868

19,258 68,015 42,324 12,943 18,109 11,272 25,691 9,964
21,032 77,897 50,037 14,802 22,263 12,972 27,860 10,501
22,100 82,100 53,500 14,800 24,700 14,000 28,600 10,500

3,862 11,865
4,333 13,026
4,600 13,500

Seasonally adjusted
1966: J a n . . .
Feb—
Mar...
AprMay..
June..

42,665
42,702
44,12L
43,540
44,071
44,125

22,307
22,433
23,238
22,708
22,915
22,898

20,358
20,269
20,883
20,832
21,156
21,227

68,594
69,040
69,648
70,346
71,103
71,949

42,589
42,884
43,273
43,779
44,275
45,003

12,951
13,004
12,988
13,146
13,298!
13,507

18,285'
18,468
18,807
19,141
19,302
19,693

11,353
11,412
11,478
11,492
11,675
11,803

26,005
26,156
26,375
26,567
26,828
26,946

10,028
10,072
10,153
10,309
10,439
10,562

3,876
3,877
3,893
3,913
3,991
4,044

12,101
12,207
12,329
12,345
12,398
12,340

July..
Aug...
Sept..
Oct . .
Nov__
Dec..

44,327
44,206
44,091
44,487
44,393
45,511

23,031
22,874
22,971
23,451
23,237
23,715

21,296
21,332
21,120
21,036
21,156
21,796

72,958
74,110
74,884
75,788
76,896
77,897

45,790
46,814
47,568
48,352
49,310
50,037

13,653
13,997!
14,309!
14,465
14,599
14,802

20,235
20,698
20,949'
21,446!
21,934
22,263

11,902
12,119
12,310
12,441
12,777
12,972

27,168
27,296
27,316
27,436
27,586
27,860

10,506
10,615
10,579
10,542
10,571
10,501

4,062
4,126j
4,169
4,251
4,253
4,333

12,600
12,555
12,568
12,643
12,762
13,026

1967: J a n . . .
Feb...
Mar...
Apr...
May..
June..

44,460
43,932
44,866
43,943
44,945
44,888

23,060
22,622
23,137
22,269
22,900
23,052

21,400
21,310
21,729
21,674
22,045
21,836

78,886
79,394
79,708
80,330
80,578
80,390

50,620
51,079
51,216
51,593
51,784
51,809

14,880
14,856
14,748
14,721
14,576
14,485

22,643
22,967
23,140
23,423!
23,5921
23,704

13,097
13,256
13,328
13,449
13,616
13,620

28,266
28,315
28,492
28,737
28,794
28,581

10,609
10,553
10,637
10,712
10,767
10,778

4,349
4,349
1,355
t,346
,366
,421

13,308
13,413
13,500
13,679
13,661
13,382

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov * Dec p.

45,402
45,675
44,723
44,712
46,848

23,192
23,633
22,949
22,311
23,654
25,175

22,210
22,042
21,774
22,401
23,194

80,897
81,370
81,176
81,481
82,083

52,346
52,784
52,572
52,918
53,505

14,536
14,668
14,597
14,718
14,779

24,139
24,215
24,143
24,370
24,719

13,671
13,901
13,832
13,830,
14,007

28,551
28,586
28,604
28, 563
28,578

10,661
10,729
10,719
10,586
10,551

i,362
i,412
i,429
,539
4,553

13,528
13,445
13,456
13,438
13,474

year and total for month.
2 Book value, seasonally adjusted, end of period.
3 Where December data not available, data for year calculated on basis of no change from November.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




259

TABLE B-44.—Manufacturers'

new and unfilled orders, 1947-67

[Amounts in millions of dollars]
New orders1
Durable goods
industries

Year or month
Total

Total

Machinery and
equipment

Unfilled orders 2

Nondurable
goods
industries

Total

Durable
goods
industries

Nondurable
goods
industries

Unfilled orders-shipments ratio 3

Nondurable
goods
industries

Total

Durable
goods
industries

3.42

4.12

0.96

3.63
3.87
3.35

4.27
4.55
4.00

1.12
1.04
.85

1947..
1948..
1949..

15,256
17,692
15,614

6,388
8,126
6,633

8,868
9,566
8,981

34,415
30,717
24,506

28,532
26,601
20,018

5,883
4,116
4,488

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

20,110
23,907
23,203
23,533
22,313

10,165
12,841
12,061
12,105
10,743

2,084
1,770

9,945
11,066
il,142
11,428
11,570

43,055
69,785
75,649
61,178
48,266

36,838
65,835
72,480
58,637
45,250

6,217
3,950
3,169
2,541
3,016

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

27,423
28,383
27,514
26,901
30,679

14.954
15,381
14,073
13,170
15,951

2,499
2,870
2,566
2,354
2,878

12,469
13,002
13,441
13,731
14,728

60,004
67,375
53,183
48,882
54,494

56,241
63,880
50,352
45,739
50,654

3,763
3,495
2,831
3,143
3,840

I960..
1961..
1962..
1963..
1964..

30,115
31,061
33,167
35,036
37,697

15,223
15,664
17,085
18,300
19,803

2,791
2,854
3,090
3,326
3,706

14,892
15,397
16,082
16,736
17,895

46,133
48,343
46,784
49,796
57,044

43,401
45,173
44,094
46,676
53,958

2,732
3,170
2,690
3,120
3,086

2.52
2.44
2.36
2.45

3.01
2.94
2.85
2.96

.76
.65
.66
.61

1965..
1966..
1967«.

41,023
45,182
45,300

21,728
24,153
23,200

4,140
4,731
4,700

19,295
21,029
22,100

66,068
79,917
81,800

62, 534
76,415
78,500

3,534
3,502
3,300

2.61
2.95
2.98

3.16
3.62
3.68

.64
.58
.54

Seasonally adjusted
1966: Jan...
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
MayJune.

43,986
44,129
45,833
45,064
45,321
45,833

23,578
23,741
24,888
24,197
24,276
24,593

4,450
4,584
4,587
4,788
4,845
4,753

20,408
20,388
20,945
20,867
21,045
21,240

67,388
68,814
70,527
72,049
73,297
75,009

63,803
65,110
66,762
68,250
69,609
71,308

3,585
3,704
3,765
3,799
3,688
3,701

2.65
2.71
2.69
2.78
2.79
2.86

3.21
3.28
3,25
3.37
3.40
3.50

0.65
.68
.66
.68
.64
.64

July..
Aug_.
SeptOct—
Nov..
Dec.

45,625
44,842
46,318
45,243
44,052
45,845

24,371
23,512
25,274
24,244
23,027
23,960

5,092
4,813
4,906
4,816
4,647
4,603

21,254
21,330
21,044
20,999
21,025
21,885

76,310
76,942
79,170
79,923
79,581
79,917

72,651
73,286
75,591
76,382
76,170
76,415

3,659
3,656
3,579
3,541
3,411
3,502

2.83
2.89
2.97
3.00
2.99
2.95

3.49
3.54
3.64
3.67
3.67
3.62

.61
.62
.61
.60
.58
.58

1967: Jan...

43,408
43,527
43,700
43,849
45,738
46,087

22,072
22,329
22,065
22,226
23,857
24,263

4,545
4,242
4,315
4,443
4,607
4,794

21,336
21,198
21,635
21,623
21,881
21,824

78,863
78,455
77,290
77,194
77,988
79.188

75,427
75,131
74,060
74,016
74,973
76,185

3,436
3,324
3,230
3,178
3,015
3,003

2.95
2.99
2.90
3.00
2.95
3.03

3.64
3.68
3,58
3.73
3.69
3.74

.57
.57
.55
.54
.49
.52

July..
Aug..
SeptOct...

45,977
45,900
45,274
45,782
47,088

23,715
23,726
23,416
23,381
23,843
26,111

4,853
5,058
4,665
4,614
4,872
5,133

22,262
22,174
21,858
22,401
23,245

79,764
79,985
80,537
81,610
81,849

76,710
76,801
77,268
78,340
78, 526

3,054
3,184
3,269
3,270
3,323

2.98
2.96
3.07
3.12
2.98

3.71
3.63
3.78
3.88
3.68

.50
.54
.57
.55
.54

Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
June..

Dec*-

1 Monthly average for year and total for month.
2 Seasonally adjusted, end of period.
3 Ratio of unfilled orders at end of period to shipments for period. Annual figures relate to seasonally adjusted data
for December.
<Where December data not available, data for year calculated on basis of no change from November.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




260

PRICES
TABLE B-45.—Consumer price indexes, by major groups, 1929-67
For city wage earners and clerical workers
[1957-59=100]
All
items

Year or month

59.7

1929

Housing
Food
Total

Rent

Apparel
and
upkeep

Transportation

Medical Personal
care

care

Reading Other
and
goods
recreaand
services
tion

85.4

55.6

55.3
54.1
49.2
43.6
42.1
46 1
46.5
46.9
49.3
49.0
48.3

49.4
49.8
50.6
51.0
49.8

49.4
49.6
50.0
50 2
50.2

42.6
43.2
45.7
46 7
46.5

50 2
51.0
52.5
54 3
54.4

52 7
52.6
54.0
54 5
55.4

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

58.2
53 0
47.6
45.1
46 6
47 8
48.3
50.0
49 1
48.4

52.9
43.6
36.3
35.3
39 3
42.1
42.5
44.2
41.0
39.9

56.3
57.1
59.1
60.1
59.7

83.1
78.7
70.6
60.8
57 0
56.9
58.3
60.9
62 9
63.0

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

48 8
51.3
56.8
60.3
61.3
62.7
68.0
77 8
83.8
83.0

40.5
44.2
51.9
57.9
57.1
58.4
66.9
81 3
88.2
84.7

59.9
61.4
64.2
64.9
66.4
67.5
69.3
74.5
79.8
81.0

63.2
64.3
65.7
65.7
65.9
66.1
66.5
68 7
73.2
76.4

48.8
51.1
59.6
62.2
66.7
70.1
76.9
89 2
95.0
91.3

49.5
51.2
55.7
55.5
55.5
55.4
58.3
64.3
71.6
77.0

50 3
50.6
52.0
54.5
56.2
57.5
60.7
65 7
69.8
72.0

46 4
47.6
52.2
57.6
61.7
63.6
68.2
76 2
79.1
78.9

55.4
57.3
60.0
65.0
72.0
75.0
77.5
82.5
86.7
89.9

57 1
58.2
59.9
63.0
64.7
67.3
69.5
75 4
78.9
81.2

83.8
90.5
92.5
93.2
93.6
93.3
94 7
98.0
100.7
101.5

85.8
95.4
97.1
95.6
95.4
94.0
94 7
97.8
101.9
100.3

83.2
88.2
89.9
92.3
93.4
94.1
95.5
98.5
100.2
101.3

79.1
82.3
85.7
90.3
93.5
94.8
96.5
98.3
100.1
101.6

90.1
98.2
97.2
96.5
96.3
95.9
97 8
99.5
99.8
100.6

79.0
84.0
89.6
92.1
90.8
89.7
91 3
96.5
99.7
103.8

73.4
76.9
81.1
83.9
86.6
88.6
91 8
95.5
100.1
104.4

78.9
86.3
87.3
88.1
88.5
90.0
93 7
97.1
100.4
102.4

89.3
92.0
92.4
93.3
92.4
92.1
93.4
96.9
100.8
102.4

82.6
86.1
90.6
92.8
94.3
94.3
95.8
98.5
99.8
101.8

103 1
104 2
105.4
106.7
108.1
109 9
113 1
116.3

101 4
102 6
103.6
105.1
106.4
108 8
114 2
115.2

103 1
103.9
104.8
106.0
107.2
108 5
111 1
114.3

103 1
104 4
105.7
106.8
107.8
108.9
110 4
112.4

102 2
103 0
103.6
104.8
105.7
106.8
109 6
114.0

103 8
105.0
107.2
107.8
109.3
111.1
112 7
115.9

108 1
111.3
114.2
117.0
119.4
122.3
127 7
136.7

104 1
104 6
106.5
107.9
109.2
109.9
112 2
115.5

104.9
107.2
109.6
111.5
114.1
115.2
117.1
120.1

103.8
104.6
105.3
107.1
108.8
111.4
114.9
118.2

111.0
111 6
112.0
112.5
112.6
112.9

111.4
113 1
113.9
114.0
113.5
113.9

109.2
109 4
109.6
110.3
110.7
111.1

109.7
109 8
109.9
110.1
110.2
110.2

107.3
107 6
108.2
108.7
109.3
109.4

111.2
111 1
111.4
112.0
112.0
112.2

124.2
124 5
125.3
125.8
126.3
127.0

110.4
110 8
111.0
111.6
112.0
112.2

115.7
115.9
116.6
116.8
116.8
117.0

113.4
113.6
113.8
114.3
114.7
114.9

113.3
113.8
114.1
114.5
114 6
114.7

114.3
115.8
115.6
115.6
114 8
114.8

111.3
111.5
111.8
112.2
112 6
113.0

110.3
110.6
110.7
111.0
111 2
111.3

109.2
109.2
110.7
111.5
112 0
112.3

113.5
113.5
113.3
114.3
114 5
113.8

127.7
128.4
129.4
130.4
131 3
131.9

112.5
112.7
113.0
113.3
113.4
113.7

117.2
117.4
117.5
118.0
118.3
118.4

115.3
115.5
115.7
115.9
116.0
115.9

June

114 7
114.8
115.0
115.3
115 6
116.0

114 7
114.2
114.2
113.7
113 9
115.1

113 1
113.3
113.3
113.6
113 9
114 1

111 4
111.7
111.8
111.9
112 1
112 2

111.3
111.9
112.6
113.0
113 8
113.9

113.4
113.8
114.2
115.1
115.5
115.7

132.9
133.6
134.6
135.1
135.7
136.3

113.8
114.1
114.4
114.9
115.0
115.3

118.5
118.6
118.9
119.4
119.6
119.7

116.2
116.3
116.4
116.6
116.7
116.9

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

116 5
116.9
117.1
117.5
117.8
118.2

116 0
116 6
115.9
115.7
115.6
116.2

114 3
114 7
115.0
115.3
115.5
116.0

112 4
112 6
112.8
113.0
113.2
113.5

113.7
113.8
115.1
116.0
116.6
116.8

116.2
116.4
116.8
117.7
118.3
117.9

136.9
137.5
138.5
139.0
139.7
140.4

115.5
116.1
116.4
116.5
116.9
117.2

119.8
120.0
120.5
121.4
122.0
122.2

117.8
118.8
119.7
120.3
121.0
121.4

.-

..

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.

.-

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

-

1966: Jan_.

Feb

Mar..

Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct

Nov
Dec
1967: Jan

Feb
Mar.
Apr

May

.
.

Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




26l

TABLE B-46.—Consumer price indexes, by special groups, 1935—67
For city wage earners and clerical workers
[1957-59=100]
Commodities
All
items

Year or month

All
items
less
food

All
items
less
shelter

All
commodities

Services

Commodities less food
Food
All

Durable

Nondurable

All
services

Rent

All
services
less
rent

47.8
48.3
50.0
49.1
48.4

52.5
53.0
54.9
55.5
55.1

46.1
46.7
48.2
46.8
46.0

45.0
45.6
47.4
45.6
44.7

42.1
42.5
44 2
41.0
39.9

50.2
50.8
53.0
53.0
52.1

47.1
47.8
50.8
51.7
50.6

48.8
49.2
51 2
50.9
50.1

52.2
52.8
54 4
55 4
55.5

56.9
58.3
60 9
62.9
63.0

49.3
49.0
49 5
49 9
49.9

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

48.8
51.3
56.8
60.3
61.3
62.7
68.0
77.8
83.8
83.0

55.3
56.9
60.9
62.6
65.0
66.5
69.4
75.8
81.3
82.1

46.3
49.1
55.3
59.5
60.5
62.1
68.4
79.4
85.6
84.1

45.1
48.2
55.2
60.1
60.8
62.6
69.4
83.4
89.4
87.1

40.5
44.2
51.9
57.9
57.1
58.4
66.9
81.3
88.2
84.7

52.4
55.0
61.2
63.8
67.3
70.0
74.4
83.9
90.3
89.0

50.2
53.6
60.9
62.9
68.7
73.9
77.3
83.8
89.9
91.2

50.6
52.8
58.4
60.9
64.0
66.3
71.1
81.7
88.0
86.3

55.7
56.4
58.2
59 3
60.7
61.5
62.7
65.3
69.4
72.6

63.2
64.3
65.7
65 7
65.9
66.1
66.5
68.7
73.2
76.4

50 0
50.6
52.8
55 2
57 9
59.1
61.2
64 3
68.0
71.4

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

83.8
90.5
92.5
93.2
93.6
- - . . 93.3
94.7
98.0
100.7
101.5

83.1
88.4
90.5
92.3
92.8
93.1
94.7
97.9
100.1
102.0

84.7
91.8
93.6
93.9
93.9
93.4
94.7
97.8
100.7
101.5

87.6
95.5
96.7
96.4
95.5
94.6
95.5
98.5
100.8
100.9

85.8
95.4
97.1
95.6
95.4
94.0
94.7
97.8
101.9
100.3

88.9
95.6
96.4
96.6
95.6
94.9
95.9
98.8
99.9
101.2

92.2
99.2
100.5
99.8
97.3
95.4
95.4
98.5
100.0
101.5

86.2
92.7
93.2
94.0
94.4
94.4
96.5
99.1
99.8
101.0

75.0
78.9
82.4
86.0
88.7
90.5
92.8
96.6
100.3
103.2

79.1
82.3
85.7
90.3
93.5
94.8
96.5
98.3
100.1
101.6

73.4
77.8
81.5
84.9
87 4
89.4
91.9
96.1
100.2
103.6

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

103.1
104.2
105.4
106.7
108.1
109.9
113.1
116.3

103.7
104.8
106.1
107.4
108.9
110.4
113.0
116.8

103.0
104.2
105.4
106.7
108.0
109.6
112.9
115.9

101.7
102.3
103.2
104.1
105.2
106.4
109.2
111.2

101.4
102.6
103.6
105.1
106.4
108.8
114.2
115.2

101.7
102.0
102.8
103.5
104.4
105.1
106.5
109.2

100.9
100.8
101.8
102.1
103.0
102.6
102.7
104.3

102.6
103.2
103.8
104.8
105.7
107.2
109.7
113.1

106.6
108.8
110 9
113.0
115.2
117.8
122.3
127.7

103.1
104.4
105.7
106.8
107.8
108.9
110.4
112.4

107.4
110.0
112 1
114 5
117.0
120.0
125.0
131.1

111.0
111.6
112.0
112.5
112.6
112.9

111.1
111.3
111 6
112.2
112.5
112.8

110.8
111.4
111.9
112.4
112.4
112.6

107.4
108.0
108.4
108.8
108.8
109.0

111.4
113.1
113.9
114.0
113.5
113.9

105.3
105.4
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.4

101.9
101.8
102.0
102.3
102.5
102.6

108.0
108.3
108.6
109.0
109.3
109.5

119.5
119.7
120.1
121.1
121.5
122.0

109.7
109.8
109.9
110.1
110.2
110.2

121.8
122.0
122.5
123.6
124.1
124.8

113.8
114.1
114.5
114.6
114.7

113.2 113.1 109.3
113.4 113.6 109.8
113.8 113.9 110.0
114.4 114.3 110.3
114 8 114 4 110 2
114.9 114.3 110.1

114.3
115.8
115.6
115.6
114.8
114.8

106.7
106.6
107.0
107.6
107.8
107.7

103.0
103.0
102.7
103.5
103.5
103.1

109.7
109.6
110.5
110.9
111.3
111.4

122.6
123.0
123.5
124.1
124.7
125.2

110.3
110.6
110.7
111.0
111.2
111.3

125.5
125.9
126.5
127.1
127.7
128.3

114.7
114.8
115.0
115.3
115.6
116.0

114.8
115.2
115.4
115.9
116.3
116.5

114.2
114.3
114.6
114.8
115.1
115.6

109.9
109.9
110.0
110.2
110.5
111.0

114.7
114.2
114.2
113.7
113.9
115.1

107.3
107.6
107.8
108.4
108.7
108.9

102.7
102.8
102.9
103.4
103.9
104.1

111.0
111.5
111.8
112.4
112.7
112.7

125.5
125.9
126.3
126.6
127.0
127.4

111.4
111.7
111.8
111.9
112.1
112.2

128.8
129.2
129.5
130.0
130.4
130.8

. . . . 116.5

116.8
117.1
117.7
118.2
118.7
118.9

116.1
116.5
116.7
117.1
117.5
117.7

111.5
111.9
112.0
112.4
112.6
112.9

116.0
116.6
115.9
115.7
115.6
116.2

109.1
109.4
110.0
110.6
111.1
111.1

104.4
104.7
104.8
105.7
106.0
106.1

112.8
113.2
114.1
114.5
115.2
115.2

127.7
128.2
128.7
129.1
129.6
130.1

112.4
112.6
112.8
113.0
113.2
113.5

131.2
131.7
132.3
132.7
133.2
133.8

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

.

1966: Jan

Feb
Mar
Apr

May.
June

. . 113.3

July
.
Aug
Sept
Oct . .

Nov
Dec
1967: Jan...

Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept

..

Oct
Nov
Dec

116.9
117.1
117.5
117.8
118.2

Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




262

TABLE B—47.—Consumer price indexes, selected commodities and services, 1935-67
For city wage earners and clerical workers
[1957-59 = 100]
Nondurable commodities less food

Durable commodities

Year or
month

Services less rent

NonHouse- Trans- MedHouse- House
hold porta- ical
Apparel durables
Used hold
fur- Total comless
Total servcare Other*
tion
modcars dura- nishices
food
serv- servities
bles
ings
less
and
ices
ices
rent
apparel

Total

New
cars

.

47.1
47.8
50.8
51.7
50.6

40 3
40 6
41.4
43 4
42.4

51.2
52 1
56.7
56 7
55.6

48.0
48 8
52.8
52 4
51.3

48.8
49.2
51.2
50.9
50.1

46.7
47.2
49.8
49 4
48.6

51.4
51.9
53.2
53 1
52.4

49.3
49.0
49.5
49.9
49.9

46.6
46.2
45.9
46.2
46.4

46.3
46.5
47.1
47.2
47.3

42.5
45.7

..

50.2
53.6
60.9
62.9
68.7
73.9
77.3
83.8
89.9
91 2

67.9
74.2
81 2

54.9
58.7
65.7
68 2
74.6
80 3
84.9
93.9
99.9
97.2

50.9
54.4
61.9
63.6
69.1
73 9
80.6
93.4
99.1
95.7

50.6
52.8
58.4
60.9
64.0
66.3
71.1
81.7
88.0
86.3

49.2
51.7
60.4
63.2
67.6
71.2
78.5
90.9
96.5
92.7

52.9
54.7
57.8
60.2
61.9
63.1
65.8
74.9
81.8
81.9

50.0
50.6
52.8
55.2
57.9
59.1
61.2
64.3
68.0
71.4

46.3
46 6
49.1
49.1
49.0
49 1
50.1
51.7
57.7
64.2

47.3
47.6
49.0
51.6
53.7
55.2
58.4
63.3
67.6
70.1

92.2 81.8
99.2 85.7
100.5 93.1
99.8 94.0 108.4
97.3 92.5 92.2
95 4 89 2 87 2
95.4 91.7 83.9
98.5 96.5 94.0
100.0 99.6 97.4
101.5 103.9 108.8

98.4
107.8
105.0
103.8
101.0
98 3
97.9
99.6
100.3
100.2

96.3 86.2
106.8 92.7
104.2 93.2
103.7 94.0
101.9 94.4
100 0 94 4
98.9 96.5
100.5 99.1
99.8 99.8
99.8 101.0

91.6
100.2
99.1
98.0
97.5
97 0
98.6
99.7
99.7
100.6

82.5 73.4
87.6 77.8
89.3 81.5
91.6 84.9
92.5 87.4
92 8 89 4
95.1 91.9
98.8 96.1
99.9 100.2
101.3 103.6

100.9
100.8
101.8
102.1
103.0
102.6
102.7
104.3

102.5
102.5
102.1
101.5
101.2
99.0
97.2
98.1

101.6
105.6
115.2
116.6
121.6
120.8
117.8
121.5

100.1
98.9
98.8
98.5
98.4
96.9
96.8
98.2

100.1
99.5
98.9
98.5
98.4
97.9
98.8
100.8

102.6
103.2
103.8
104.8
105.7
107.2
109.7
113.1

102.0
102.6
103.0
104.0
104.9
105.8
108.5
113.0

102.8
103.3
104.2
105.3
106.2
108.0
110.3
113.1

1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar...
Apr.
May...
June..

101.9
101.8
102.0
102.3
102.5
102.6

97.4
97.2
97.1
97.4
97.0
96.8

114.8
114.0
115.4
117.4
117.5
118.2

96.1
96.1
96.2
96.4
96.7
96.7

97.6
97.8
98.0
98.3
98.5
98.6

108.0
108.3
108.6
109.0
109.3
109.5

106.2
106.5
107.1
107.6
108.3
108.3

July...
Aug...
Sept..
Oct...
Nov...
Dec. .

103.0
103.0
102.7
103.5
103.5
103.1

96.7
95.8
94.4
98.4
99.3
98.6

120.3
122.1
120.1
120.8
119.3
114.2

96.9
97.0
97.3
97.4
97.6
97.7

98.8
98.9
99.3
99.5
99.9
100.0

109.7
109.6
110.5
110.9
111.3
111.4

1967: Jan...
Feb..
Mar...
AprMay...
June..

102.7
102.8
102.9
103.4
103.9
104.1

97.6
97.3
97.2
97.0
96.9
96.8

113.0
114.0
115.9
118.8
121.4
122.4

97.6
97.7
97.8
98.0
98.1
98.0

99.7
100.0
100.3
100.6
100.6
100.7

104.4 97.0 124.8
104.7 96.9 125.2
104.8 96.1 126.2
105.7 101.1 126.0
106.0 101.4 125.6
106.1 101.3 124.8

98.1
98.2
98.4
98.7
98.8
99.1

100.8
100.8
101.2
101.5
101.8
102.1

1935
1936
1937...
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943..
1944....
1945
1946....
1947
1948 .
1949
1950....
1951
1952
1953....
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964 .
1965
1966
1967

..

.

July...
Aug...
Sept..
Oct...
Nov...
Dec...

90.4
95.7
100.8
103.6

68.4 71.7
74.8 75.3
80.1 80.1
85.2 83.0
88.9 85.5
89 1 88 0
90.5 91.4
94.8 95.3
100.8 100.0
104.3 104.8

93.5
97.2
100.2
102.6

107.4
110.0
112.1
114.5
117.0
120.0
125.0
131.1

108.0
109.2
110.6
113.0
114.8
117.0
121.5
127.0

107.0
109.5
111.2
112.4
115.0
119.3
124.3
128.4

109.1
113.1
116.8
120.3
123.2
127.1
133.9
145.6

106.2
109.7
112.6
115.3
118.5
121.8
126.5
131.5

109.1
109.3
109.4
109.8
110.0
110.1

121.8
122.0
122.5
123.6
124.1
124.8

117.9
118.1
118.5
120.2
120.9
121.7

122.5
122.6
122.6
123.0
123.0
123.2

129.5
129.9
130.8
131.4
132.1
133.0

123.8
124.1
125.0
125.5
125.9
126.4

108.1
107.9
109.7
110.4
110.9
111.2

110.6
110.5
111.0
111.2
111.5
111.6

125.5
125.9
126.5
127.1
127.7
128.3

122.1
122.4
123.0
123.5
124.2
124.9

125.0
125.3
125.5
125.9
126.1
126.5

133.9
134.7
136.2
137.4
138.6
139.4

126.7
127.1
127.5
128.2
128.5
128.9

111.0
111.5
111.8
112.4
112.7
112.7

110.1
110.7
111.5
111.9
112.7
112.8

111.6
111.9
112.0
112.7
112.6
112.7

128.8
129.2
129.5
130.0
130.4
130.8

125.1
125.5
125.6
126.0
126.5
126.7

126.9
127.2
127.4
127.6
127.7
128.1

140.6
141.6
142.9
143.6
144.4
145.2

129.1
129.4
129.7
130.3
130.8
131.3

112.8
113.2
114.1
114.5
115.2
115.2

112.6
112.7
114.1
115.1
115.7
115.9

113.0
113.4
114.1
114.2
114.8
114.7

131.2
131.7
132.3
132.7
133.2
133.8

127.0
127.5
128.1
128.4
128.6
129.1

128.3
128.8
128.9
129.2
130.0
130.4

146.0
146.7
148.0
148.7
149.6
150.4

131.6
131.9
132.4
133.1
133.9
134.3

1

Includes the services components of apparel, personal care, reading and recreation, and other goods and services.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




263

TABLE B-48.— Wholesale price indexes, by major commodity groups, 1929-67
[1957-59=100]
Industrial commodities
All commodities

Year or month

Farm
products

Processed
foods and
feeds

Total

Textile
products
and
apparel

Hides,
skins,
leather,
and
related
products

Fuels and
related Chemicals
products, and allied
products
and
power

52.1

63.9

51 7

67 8

56 6

61 5

47.3
39.9
35.6
36.1
41.0
43.8
44.2
47.2
43.0
42.2

54.0
39.6
29.4
31.3
39.9
48.0
49.4
52.7
41.9
39.9

48.1
42.4
39 7
40.2
44.2
44.0
44.9
48.1
46.1
46.0

60.3
49.8
41.2
48.6
54.7
53.3
53.7
57.3
50.1
52.3

52 0
44.7
38 0
42 0
44.9
46.5
49 5
54.3
48.2
49.6

58 2
50.0
52 1
49.3
54.3
54.5
56 5
57.5
56.6
54.2

46 6
48.8
50.9
51 2
53 6
51.0
50.7

43.0
47.8
54.0
56.5
56.9
57.9
66.1
81.2
87.9
83.5

41.3
50.1
64.6
74.8
75.3
78.3
90.6
109.1
117.1
101.3

92.6
99.1
90.0

46.8
50.3
53.9
54.7
55.6
56.3
61.7
75.3
81.7
80.0

55.4
63.7
72.8
73.1
73.9
75.1
87.3
105.7
110.3
100.9

52.3
56.1
61.1
61.0
60.5
61.3
70.7
96.5
97.5
92.5

53.2
56.6
58 2
59.9
61.6
62.3
66.7
79.7
93 8
89.3

51.6
56.1
62 3
63.1
63.8
64 2
69.4
92.2
94 4
86.2

86.8
96.7
94.0
92.7
92.9
93.2
96.2
99.0
100.4
100.6

106.4
123.8
116.8
105.9
104.4
97.9
96.6
99.2
103.6
97.2

93.2
103.5
102.3
97.6
99.3
95.0
94.8
97.6
102.5
99.9

82.9
91.5
89.4
90.1
90.4
92.4
96.5
99.2
99.5
101.3

104.8
116.9
105.5
102.8
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.8
98.9
100.4

99.9
114.8
92.8
94.1
89.9
89.5
94.8
94.9
96.0
109.1

90.2
93.5
93.3
95.9
94.6
94.5
97.4
102.7
98.7
98.7

87.5
100.1
95.0
96.1
97.3
96.9
97.5
99.6
100.4
100.0

100.7
100.3
100.6
100.3
100.5
102.5
105.9
106.1

96.9
96.0
97.7
95.7
94.3
98.4
105.6
99.7

100.0
101.6
102.7
103.3
103.1
106.7
113.0
111.7

101.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
101.2
102.5
104.7
106.3

101.5
99.7
100.6
100.5
101.2
101.8
102.1
102.1

105.2
106.2
107.4
104.2
104.6
109.2
119.7
115.8

99.6
100.7
100.2
99.8
97.1
98.9
101.3
103.6

100.2
99.1
97.5
96.3
96.7
97.4
97.8
98.4

1966: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

104.6
105.4
105.4
105.5
105.6
105.7

104.5
107.4
106.8
106.4
104.5
104.2

111.5
113.0
112.2
111.5
111.8
112.0

103.5
103.8
104.0
104.3
104.7
104.9

101.9
102.0
102.1
102.2
102.2
102.2

116.0
117.8
118.7
120.6
122.8
122.9

100.5
100.3
99.9
100.0
100.4
101.5

97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.7
97.6

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

-.

106.4
106.8
106.8
106.2
105.9
105.9

107.8
108.1
108.7
104.4
102.5
101.8

113.8
115.7
115.5
113.9
112.6
112.8

105.2
105.2
105.2
105.3
105.5
105.5

102.4
102.4
102.2
102.2
102.1
101.8

122.7
121.2
119.9
118.7
117.5
117.3

101.4
102.0
102.2
102.6
102.7
102.4

97.9
97.9
98.0
97.9
98.0
98.2

. . .

106.2
106.0
105.7
105.3
105.8
106.3

102.6
101.0
99.6
97.6
100.7
102.4

112.8
111.7
110.6
110.0
110.7
112.6

105.8
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0

102.0
102.0
101.8
101.8
101.6
101.6

117.9
118.0
116.9
115.7
115.2
115.6

102.6
103.4
103.7
103.3
104.4
104.0

98.4
98.5
98.5
98.8
98.8
98.5

106.5
106.1
106.2
106.1
106.2
106.8

102.8
99.2
98.4
97.1
96.4
98.9

113.1
112.1
112.7
111.7
110.9
111.5

106.0
106.3
106.5
106.8
107.1
107.4

101.5
101.7
102.0
102.2
103.0
103.8

115.2
114.4
114.4
114.8
115.4
116.0

103.9
104.7
104.5
103.0
102.8
102.6

98.3
98.0
97.9
98.2
98.2
98.4

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

--

1940 . .
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

- -

I960 .
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

1967* Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

-.

-.

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

See footnotes at end of table.




264

TABLE B-48.—Wholesale price indexes, by major commodity groups}
[1957-59=100]

1929-67— Continued

Industrial commodities—ContinuecJ

Year or month

Pulp,
Metals
paper,
and
and
metal
allied
products
products

Machinery and
equipment

Transportation
FurniNonme- equipture and
ment:
Misceltallic
houseMotor
laneous
mineral vehicles products
hold
durables products
and
equipment^

Rubber
and
rubber
products

Lumber
and
wood
products

1929

57.6

26.4

44.1

56.4

53.4

42.8

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

50 4
42.8
37.1
39 0
45.5
45.8
49.4
58.1
57.1
59.3

24 1
19.6
16 9
20 0
23.5
22.6
23.6
27.9
25.4
26.1

39 7
35.7
32.8
33 6
37.1
37.0
37.8
43.2
41.6
41.2

46.2

55 5
51.1
45.0
45 1
49.0
48.6
49.3
54.7
53.4
53.2

53 2
49.7
46.5
49 2
52.6
52 6
52.7
53.9
52.2
51.2

40 3
38.3
37 3
35 6
37 5
36.0
35.7
38 2
40.8
40.0

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

55.3
59.6
69.4
71.3
70 4
68.3
68.6
68.3
70.5
68.3

28.9
34.5
37.5
39.7
42.8
43.4
49.7
77.4
88.5
81.9

75.3
78.6
75.2

41 4
42.2
42.8
42.7
42.7
43.4
48.5
60 2
68.5
69.0

46.3
47.1
47.8
47.4
47.1
47.2
51.9
60.0
65.1
68.2

54.4
57.8
62.5
62.1
63 8
63.9
67.8
77.8
82.5
83.8

51.2
52.4
54.5
54.7
55.8
58.1
61.8
69.1
74.7
76.7

41.3
44.2
48.2
48.2
48 5
49.4
57.2
65 5
72.4
77.4

80 3
83.6
85.2

83.2
102.1
92.5
86.3
87.6
99.2
100.6
100.2
100.1
99.7

94.1
102.5
99.5
99.4
97.6
102.3
103.8
98.5
97.4
104.1

77.1
91.3
89.0
88.7
88.8
91.1
97.2
99.0
100.1
101.0

72.7
80.9
81.0
83.6
84.3
90.0
97.8
99.7
99.1
101.2

70.5
78.8
78.9
80.7
82.1
84.6
91.5
97.9
100.0
102.1

85.6
92.8
91.1
92.9
93.9
94.3
96.9
99.4
100.2
100.4

78.6
83.5
83.5
86.9
88.8
91.3
95.2
98.9
99.9
101.2

77.0
81.1
85.8
85.4
85.6
88.2
93.2
97.2
100.3
102.5

86.6
91.7
91.2
93.6
94.4
94.5
95.8
98.6
100.6
100.8

99.9
96.1
93.3
93.8
92.5
92.9
94.8
97.0

100.4
95.9
96.5
98.6
100.6
101.1
105.6
105.4

101.8
98.8
100.0
99.2
99.0
99.9
102.6
104.0

101.3
100.7
100.0
100.1
102.8
105.7
108.3
109.5

102.9
102.8
102.9
103.1
103.8
105.0
108.2
111.8

100.1
99.5
98.8
98.1
98.5
98.0
99.1
101.0

101.4
101.8
101.8
101.3
101.5
101.7
102.6
104.3

101.0
100.8
100.8
100.0
100.5
100.7
100.8
102.1

101.7
102.0
102.4
103.3
104.1
104.8
106.8
109.2

93.7
94.1
94.3
95.4
95.4
95.4

102.8
103.7
105.6
108.4
109.6
107.7

101.2
101.3
101.8
102.3
102.7
103.0

107.0
107.5
108.0
108.2
108.4
108.7

106.0
106.5
106.9
107.2
107.8
108.1

98.3
98.4
98.4
98.6
98.9
98.9

102.0
102.1
102.1
102.3
102.4
102.5

100.5
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.9
100.7

105.4
105.4
106.5
106.7
106.8
106.9

95.1
95.1
94.7
94.6
95.0
95.0

106.6
106.2
105.9
104.8
103.0
102.5

103.2
103.2
103.1
103.1
103.0
103.0

108.8
108.5
108.4
108.6
109.0
109.0

108.3
108.5
108.9
109.4
110.2
110.7

99.0
99.1
99.2
99.7
100.3
100.4

102.7
102 7
103.0
103.2
103.3
103.3

100.7
100.5
100.1
101.7
101.7
101.7

107.1
107 1
107.1
107 2
107.4
107.5

95.6
95.8
95.9
95.9
95.8
95.8

102.6
103.6
103.6
104.1
104.2
104.7

103.1
103.3
103.6
103.9
103.9
103.9

109.4
109.6
109.4
109.1
108.9
108.9

111.1
111.2
111.5
111.6
111.6
111.6

100.4
100.4
100.6
100.6
100.8
100.8

103.6
103.7
103.8
103.9
103.8
103.9

101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.4

107.9
108.0
107.7
108.0
108.0
109.6

95.8
105.3
104.1
109.0
97.8
104.0
109.2
106.1
108.7
104.1
98.2
Sept
109.6
98.8
107.3
109.8
104.3
Oct
106.7
99.1
104.6
110.5
Nov
104.8
99.2
107.6
111.0
Dec
* Index for total transportation equipment not available.
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

111.6
111.8
111.9
112.2
112.6
113.2

100.9
101.0
101.2
101.7
102.0
102.1

104.2
104.5
104.7
104.9
105.1
105.3

101.3
101.3
101.5
103.7
104.0
104.0

109.7
110.0
110.2
110.5
110.6
110.7

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

.

.

-

.
.

1966: Jan

...

..

Feb
Mar

Apr

May
..
June „

...

July.

Aug

Sept

.

-.

Oct
Nov
Dec
1967: Jan
Feb

Mar
Apr
May
June

.

. .

July

Aug




265

TABLE B—49.—Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing, 1947—67
[1957-59=100}
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components *
Crude materials
Materials and components for
manufacturing
Year or month

All
commodities
Total

Foodstuffs
and
feedstuffs

Nonfood
materials,
except
fuel

Total

Fuel

Materials
for food
manufacturing

Total

Mate- Materials
rials
for non- for
durable durable
manu- manufactur- facturing
ing

Materials
and
Com- components ponents
for for conmanu- struction
facturing

1947
1948
1949..

81.2
87.9
83.5

100.8
110.5
95.6

113.0
122.2
101.5

86.5
96.2
87.5

73.6
87.0
86.5

76.5
82.7
79.4

75.5
81.5
78.0

102.6
105.8
91.0

94.0
99.5
90.7

58.8
66.4
68.2

63.0
68.0
69.3

69.6
77.0
77.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954.

86.8
96.7
94.0
92.7
92.9

104.2
119.6
109.9
101.5
100.6

108.9
126.0
118.6
106.2
106.2

100.0
115.3
99.9
95.6
93.8

86.1
87.7
88.3
91.4
87.3

83.0
93.0
90.3
90.8
91.3

81.8
92.7
88.8
90.2
90.4

94.7
105.5
101.4
101.6
100.7

95.2
110.3
99.3
98.5
96.9

72.1
80.1
80.3
83.9
85.7

71.9
81.6
81.8
83.3
83.7

81.2
88.8
88.2
89.7
90.1

93.2
96.2
99.0
100.4
. . 100.6

96.7
97.2
99.4
101.6
99.0

96.2
94.2
98.4
104.2
97.4

99.1
102.8
101.4
97.6
101.0

87.1
93.3
98.6
99.8
101.6

93.0
97.1
99.4
99.6
101.0

92.6
96.9
99.3
99.7
101.0

97.5
97.9
99.7
102.0
98.3

97.3
98.8
100.1
99.1
100.8

90.0
95.7
98.8
99.5
101.8

87.4
95.4
99.1
99.9
101.1

93.7
98.5
99.1
99.1
101.8

100.7
100.3
100.6
100.3
100.5

96.6
96.1
97.1
95.0
94.1

96.2
94.9
96.8
94.0
91.9

96.8
97.9
97.4
96.2
97.8

102.5
102.3
101.8
103.0
102.5

101.0
100.3
100.2
100.5
100.9

101.0
99.8
99.2
99.4
100.4

99.5
102.6
100.5
105.5
104.0

100.8
98.6
98.0
97.1
97.8

101.9
100.5
100.4
100.5
102.5

100.6
99.6
98.8
98.8
99.7

101.1
99.7
99.3
99.6
100.6

1965
1966
1967

102.5
105.9
106.1

98.9
105.3
99.6

98.3
107.2
101.2

99.8
101.9
95.5

103.3
106.4
110.3

102.2
104.8
105.6

102.0
104.0
104.7

106.6
111.3
109.2

98.7
99.5
99.0

104.6
106.6
108.0

101.3
104.9
107.9

101.4
104.1
105.4

1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar__
AprMay..
June..

104.6
105.4
105.4
105.5
105.6
105.7

105.2
107.5
106.9
106.3
105.7
105.6

106.8
109.6
108.3
107.5
106.5
106.0

102.2
103.8
104.6
104.5
104.5
105.1

105.6
105.9
105.2
104.0
105.0
105.3

103.4
103.8
103.9
104.3
104.8
104.9

102.8
103.2
103.4
103.7
104.1
104.1

109.7
111.1
110.8
110.1
109.8
110.0

98.9
99.0
99.2
99.4
99.7
100.0

105.5
105.8
106.1
106.6
106.8
106.7

102.5
102.9
103.3
104.1
104.8
105.0

102.3
102.7
103.4
104.3
104.8
104.5

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov-_
Dec—

106.4
106.8
106.8
106.2
105.9
105.9

107.8
107.4
106.1
103.6
101.1
100.8

109.1
111.2
109.9
106.2
102.5
102.3

105.7
100.2
98.9
98.2
97.6
97.4

105.5
106.2
107.0
108.1
108.9
109.7

105.4
105.8
105.6
105.3
105.3
105.4

104.4
104.8
104.6
104.3
104.4
104.5

111.9
114.8
113.6
111.6
111.2
110.9

100.2
100.1
99.8
99.5
99.2
99.2

106.6
106.9
106.8
106.8
107.0
107.1

105.1
105.4
105.5
105.9
106.6
107.1

104.5
104.6
104.6
104.5
104.3
104.3

106.2
106.0
105.7
105.3
105.8
106.3

101.9
100.8
99.7
98.0
100.6
101.4

104.2
102.7
101.3
99.2
103.1
104.2

97.0
96.5
95.7
94.6
94.7
95.1

109.4
109.3
109.4
110.2
110.3
109.8

105.6
105.5
105.5
105.5
105.3
105.4

104.7
104.8
104.6
104.6
104.4
104.4

110.1
109.0
108.7
108.1
109.1
110.2

99.3
99.3
99.1
99.1
98.9
98.6

107.6
107.9
107.7
107.7
107.4
107.4

107.5
107.6
107.9
107.9
107.6
107.5

104.4
104.7
104.8
104.9
104.8
104.9

106.5
106.1
106.2
106.1
106.2
106.8

101.7
99.5
98.5
97.9
96.5
98.6

104.7
101.4
99.9
99.1
96.1
98.3

94.6
94.5
94.3
94.2
95.9
98.4

110.2
110.3
111.0
110.9
111.3
111.5

105.4
105.4
105.7
105.7
105.9
106.3

104.4
104.5
104.7
104.8
105.2
105.6

110.2
109.9
110.0
108.6
108.0
108.1

98.4
98.4
98.4
98.8
99.3
99.8

107.5
107.7
108.2
108.4
108.8
109.3

107.5
107.9
108.0
108.1
108.6
109.1

105.2
105.5
106.3
106.2
106.3
106.8

1955
1956..
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961.
1962
1963
1964

.

1967: Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
May."..
June..
July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

See footnotes at end of table.




266

TABLE B-49.—Wholesale price indexes, by stage of processing, 1947-67—Continued
11957-59=1001
Special groups of industrial
products

Finishec1 goods
Consumer finished goods
Year or month

Total
Total

Foods

Other
nondurable
goods

Durable
goods

Producer
finished
goods

Crude
materials 2

InterConmediate
sumer
materials, finished
supplies, goods exand com- cluding
ponents3
foods

1947
1948
1949

80.1
86.4
84.0

86.1
92.6
88.3

90.7
99.0
91.0

86.5
92.0
88.2

75.9
81.1
83.2

61.8
67.4
70.7

79.2
92.5
84.0

73.4
79.8
77.8

83.1
88.4
86.5

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

85.5
93.6
93.0
92.1
92.3

89.8
98.2
97.0
95.4
95.3

92.8
104.2
103.3
97.9
97.1

89.6
96.5
94.1
95.0
95.3

84.1
89.7
90.4
91.1
91.8

72.4
79.5
80.8
82.1
83.1

93.6
102.9
93.1
92.4
88.0

81.4
91 2
88.3
89.4
89.8

87.8
94 2
92 9
93.7
94.1

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

92.5
95.1
98.6
100.8
100.6

94.7
96.1
98.9
101.0
100.1

94.7
94.5
97.8
103.5
98.7

95.8
97.7
99.9
99.3
100.8

92.8
95.9
98.7
100.1
101.3

85.6
92.0
97.7
100.2
102.1

96.6
102.3
100.9
96.9
102.3

92.5
97.0
99.6
99.4
101.0

94 8
97.1
99.5
99 6
100.9

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

101.4
101.4
101.7
101.4
101.8

101.1
100.9
101.2
100.7
100.9

100.8
100.4
101.3
100.1
100.6

101.5
101.5
101.6
101.9
101.6

100.9
100.5
100.0
99.5
99.9

102.3
102.5
102.9
103.1
104.1

98.3
97.2
95.6
94.3
97.1

101.4
100.1
99.9
99.6
100.2

101.3
101.2
101.0
101.0
100.9

1965
1966
1967

103.6
106.9
108.2

102.8
106.4
107.0

104.5
111.2
109.5

102.8
104.8
107.2

99.6
100.2
101.7

105.4
108.0
111.5

100.9
104.5
100.0

101.5
103.6
104 8

101.6
103.2
105 2

105.6
106.3
106.4
106.3
106.2
106.4

105.2
106.0
106.1
105.9
105.6
105.7

109.5
111.5
111.5
110.7
109.6
109.5

103.9
104.0
104.1
104.3
104.5
104.9

99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100.2
100.1

106.2
106.6
106.8
107.0
107 6
107.9

104.0
105 7
106.6
106.1
105 9
106.5

102.4
102 6
102.9
103.4
103 8
103.9

102.4
102 4
102.5
102.8
103 0
103.2

107.0
107.5
108.1
107.8
107.8
107.6

106.4
107.1
107.8
107.2
107.0
106.6

111.2
112.8
114 5
112.2
111.3
110.5

105.0
105.2
105 4
105.5
105.7
105.5

100.2
100.1
100.0
100.9
101.2
101.3

108.1
108.3
108 4
109.1
109.8
110.2

106.4
103.3
102 8
102.8
102.7
101.6

104.0
104.2
104 1
104.1
104.1
104.1

103.3
103.4
103 5
103.9
104.1
104.0

1967: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

107.7
107.6
107.2
107.0
107.6
108.4

106.6
106.5
106.0
105.7
106.4
107.4

110.3
109.3
107.9
106.9
108.5
110.9

105.8
106.3
106.4
106.4
106.9
107.2

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0

110.5
110.6
110.7
110.8
111.1
111.2

101.4
101.1
100.2
99.3
99.4
99.4

104.4
104.6
104.6
104.7
104.6
104.5

104.2
104.5
104.5
104.6
104.8
104.9

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

108.7
108.3
108.7
108.6
108.9
109.3

107.7
107.2
107.6
107.2
107.5
107.9

111.5
109.6
110.5
108.8
109.1
110.1

107.4
108.0
108.0
107.8
107.9
108.0

101.1
101.2
101.4
102.8
103.0
103.0

111.2
111.4
111.6
112.6
113.0
113.4

99.0
99.0
99.5
99.4
100.6
101.3

104.5
104.6
104.9
105.0
105.3
105.7

105.1
105.5
105.6
106.0
106.1
106.2

.

1966*Jan

Feb
Mar
Apr

May
June
July
Aug
Sept

Oct
Nov
Dec

...

1 Includes, in addition to subgroups shown, processed fuels and lubricants, containers, and supplies.
Excludes crude foodstuffs and feedstuffs, plant and animal fibers, oilseeds, and leaf tobacco.
Excludes intermediate materials for food manufacturing and manufactured animal feeds.
Note.—For a listing of the commodities included in each sector, see Table 2B, "Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes,"
1963 (BLS Bulletin 1513).
Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
2
3




267

MONEY SUPPLY, CREDIT, AND FINANCE
TABLE B-50.—Money supply, 1947-67
{Averages of daily figures, billions of dollars]

Year and month

Total
money
supply
and
time
deposits
adjusted

Money supply

Total

CurDerency mand
com- deposit
pocomnent^ ponent 2

Time
deposits
adjust-

Total
money
supply
and
time
deposits
adjusted

Money supply
Time

Total

Seasonally adjusted

deCurDeposits
rency mand
adcom- deposit justed 3
pocomnent 1 ponents

U.S.
Government
demand
deposits «

Unadjusted

1947: Dec.
1948: Dec.
1949: Dec.

148.5
147.5
147.6

113.1
111.5
111.2

26.4
25.8
25.1

86.7
85.8
86.0

35.4
36.0
36.4

151.0
150.0
150.0

115.9
114.3
113.9

26.8
26.2
25.5

89.1
88.1
88.4

35.1
35.7
36.1

1.0
1.8
2.8

1950:
1951:
1952:
1953:
1954:

152.9
160.9
168.5
173.3
180.6

116.2
122.7
127.4
128.8
132.3

25.0
26.1
27.3
27.7
27.4

91.2
96.5
100.1
101.1
104.9

36.7
38.2
41.1
44.5
48.3

155.6
163.8
171.7
176.3
183.6

119.2
125.8
130.8
132.1
135.6

25.4
26.6
27.8
28.2
27.9

93.8
99.2
103.0
103.9
107.7

36.4
38.0
40.9
44.2
48.0

2.4
2.7
4.9
3.8
5.0

1955: Dec.
1956: Dec.
1957: Dec.
1958: Dec.
1959: D e c .

185.2
188.8
193.3
206.5
209.3

135.2
136.9
135.9
141.1
141.9

27.8
28.2
28.3
28.6
28.9

107.4
108.7
107.6
112.6
113.1

50.0
51.9
57.4
65.4
67.4

188.2
191.7
196.0
209.3
212.2

138.6
140.3
139.3
144.7
145.6

28.4
28.8
28.9
29.2
29.5

110.2
111.5
110.4
115.5
116.1

49.6
51.4
56.7
64.6
66.6

3.4
3.4
3.5
3.9
4.9

1960:
1961:
1962:
1963:
1964:

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

213.9
228.1
245.2
265.2
285.9

141.1
145.4
147.4
153.0
159.3

28.9
29.6
30.6
32.5
34.2

112.1 72.9
115.9 82.7
116.8 97.8
120.5 112.2
125.1 126.6

216.8
231.2
248.2
268.2
289.2

144.7
149.4
151.6
157.3
164.0

29.6
30.2
31.2
33.1
35.0

115.2 72.1
119.2 81.8
120.3 96.7
124.1 111.0
129.1 125.2

4.7
4.9
5.6
5.1
5.5

1965: D e c .
1966: D e c .
1967: Dec p.

313.7
329.0
365.3

166.8
170.4
181.5

36.3
38.3
40.4

130.5 146.9
132.1 158.6
141.1 183.8

317.3
332.7
369.0

172.0
175.8
187.2

37.1
39.1
41.2

134.9 145.2
136.7 156.9
146.0 181.8

4.6
3.4
5.0

1966: Jan...
Feb..
MarApr..
May..
JuneJuly..
Aug..
Sept.
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

315.5
316.6
319.0
322.3
323.6
324.5

167.9
168.3
169.2
170.5
170.2
170.6

36.6
36.7
36.9
37.1
37.3
37.4

131.4
131.6
132.3
133.4
132.9
133.2

147.5
148.3
149.8
151.8
153.4
5154.0

320.4
316.4
318.1
323.9
320.9
323.1

173.0
167.7
167.8
171.5
166.7
168.6

36.5
36.4
36.5
36.8
37.0
37.3

136.5
131.3
131.2
134.7
129.7
131.4

147.4
148.7
150.4
152.4
154.2
«154.4

3.8
5.1
4.5
3.0
7.1
6.1

325.7
327.1
327.9
327.7
327.5
329.0

169.9
170.1
170.5
170.1
170.1
170.4

37.7
37.8
37.9
38.0
38.1
38.3

132.3
132.4
132.6
132.1
132.0
132.1

155.7
156.9
157.4
157.6
157.4
158.6

324.2
324.5
327.1
327.6
327.6
332.7

168.0
167.0
169.7
170.5
171.5
175.8

37.8
37.8
37.9
38.1
38.5
39.1

130.1
129.2
131.8
132.4
133.0
136.7

156.2
157.4
157.4
157.1
156.1
156.9

8.0
5.1
4.3
4.8
3.7
3.4

1967: J a n . .
Feb..
Mar_.
AprMay.
June.

331.1
335.0
339.2
340.8
344.4
348.6

170.3
171.5
173.1
172.7
174.5
176.2

38.5
38.7
38.9
39.1
39.2
39.3

131.8
132.8
134.2
133.6
135.3
136.8

160.8
163.5
166.1
168.1
170.0
172.4

336.0
334.6
338.7
342.4
341.9
347.3

175.3
170.6
171.9
173.6
171.1
174.3

38.5
38.3
38.5
38.7
38.9
39.3

136.8
132.3
133.4
134.9
132.2
135.1

160.7
164.0
166.7
168.8
170.8
173.0

4.1
5.0
4.9
4.8
6.5
3.9

July.
Aug..
Sept.
Oct..
Nov.
Dec*

352.5
356.3
358.2
361.1
363.7
365.3

177.9
179.1
179.2
180.3
181.2
181.5

39.5
39.6
39.8
39.9
40.0
40.4

138.4
139.6
139.5
140.3
141.2
141.1

174.6
177.2
178.9
180.8
182.5
183.8

351.0
353.6
357.3
360.8
363.6
369.0

175.8
175.9
178.4
180.6
182.5
187.2

39.6
39.6
39.8
40.0
40.4
41.2

136.2
136.2
138.6
140.6
142.1
146.0

175.1
177.7
178.9
180.3
181.1
181.8

5.6
4.3
5.0
6.2
5.2
5.0

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

1 Currency outside the Treasury, the Federal Reserve System, and the vaults of all commercial banks.
2 Demand deposits at all commercial banks, other than those due to domestic commercial banks and the U.S. Government, less cash items in process of collection and Federal Reserve float, plus foreign demand balances at Federal Reserve
banks.
s Time deposits adjusted are time deposits at all commercial banks other than those due to domestic commercial banks
and the U.S. Government.
4
Deposits at all commercial banks.
5
Effective June 1966, balances accumulated for payment of personal loans are reclassified for reserve purposes and are
excluded from time deposits reported by member banks. The estimated amount of such deposits at all commercial banks
($1.1 billion) is excluded from time deposits adjusted thereafter.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




268

TABLE B-51.—Bank loans and investments, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]
Weekly reporting large
commercial
banks3

All commercial banks
Investments

End of year or month 1

1929«
1930s
1931 55
1932 5
1933
1934 5
1935
1936
1937.
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943..
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948

Total loans
and investments 2
49.4
48.9
44.9
36 1
30.4
32.7
36 1
39.6
38.4
38.7
40.7
43.9
50.7
67.4
85.1
105.5
124.0
114.0
116.3
114.2

.

....

Loans 2

U.S. Government securities

4.9
35.7
5.0
34.5
6.0
29.2
21.8
6.2
7.5
16.3
10.3
15.7
13.8
15.2
16.4
15.3
14.2
17.2
16.4
15.1
17.2
16.3
17.8
18.8
21.7
21.8
19.2
41.4
19.1
59.8
21.6
77.6
26.1
90.6
31.1
74.8
38.1
69.2
42.4
62.6
Seasonally adjusted

Other
securities
8.7
9.4
9.7
8.1
6.5
6.7
7.1
7.9
7.0
7.2
7.1
7.4
7.2
6.8
6.1
6.3
7.3
8.1
9.0
9.2

Business loans4

5.1
4.2
4.7
5.3
7.1
6.3
6.4
6.5
7.3
11.3
14.7
15.6

15.6
9.2
62.3
41.5
113.0
1948.
118.7
42.0
66.4
10.3
13.9
1949
..
17.9
12.4
51.1
124.7
61.1
1950
1951
130.2
56.5
60.4
13.4
21.6
1952
133.1
62.8
62.2
14.2
23.4
143.1
66.2
62.2
14.7
23.4
1953.
153.1
69.1
67.6
16.4
22.4
1954..
157.6
80.6
60.3
16.8
26.7
1955
1956
161.6
88.1
57.2
16.3
30.8
166.4
91.5
56.9
17.9
31.8
1957.
1958
...
181.2
95.6
65.1
20.5
31.7
185.9
107.5
57.9
20.5
30.7
1959
32.2
20.8
59.8
113.8
194.5
1960
209.6
120.5
65.2
23.9
32.9
1961.
1962 6 . . .
227.9
134.1
64.5
29.2
35.2
19636
246.2
149.7
61.5
35.0
38.8
1964
267.2
167.7
60.7
38.7
42.1
294.4
192.4
57.3
44.8
3 53.1
1965...
7 310.2
7 207.8
53.7
7 48.7
60.7
1966
1967 6
344.4
224.0
60.0
60.4
65.8
52.9
45.0
57.4
297.0
194.6
1966: Jan
Feb .
298.6
196.7
56.5
45.5
53.6
Mar
300.1
198.4
56.0
45.7
55.2
302.1
200.6
55.3
46.2
55.0
Apr.
May
303.7
202.3
54.1
47.3
56.0
7 306.8
7 203.4
54.9
7 48.5
57.8
June
58.7
48.5
54.5
204.5
307.5
July
Aug. .
309.9
205.8
48.0
56.0
58.3
309.4
206.2
48.3
54.9
59.4
Sept
308.9
207.2
48.4
53.4
59.5
Oct
Nov
309.3
207.5
48.4
53.4
60.0
Dec
310.2
207.8
48.7
53.7
60.7
60.3
49.9
54.2
210.4
314.4
1967: Jan .
318.0
211.0
51.1
55.9
60.4
Feb
Mar
321.4
211.3
52.3
57.8
62.0
213.5
53.6
56.1
62.3
323.2
Apr
May
324.6
213.5
55.0
56.1
61.8
56.3
55.4
63.8
213.9
June
325.6
63.7
56.5
58.8
217.1
332.4
July
218.2
61.8
57.3
62.2
Aug. . . .
337.3
Sept
339.5
220.2
61.6
57.7
63.4
221.8
62.3
58.6
63.1
Octp .
342.6
Nov v . .
222.3
61.8
60.2
63.7
344.3
Dece
344.4
224.0
60.0
60.4
65.8
1 Data are for last Wednesday of month (except June 30 and December 31 call dates used for all commercial banks).
2
Adjusted to exclude interbank loans beginning 1948.
3 Loans by weekly reporting large commercial banks beginning 1965 and formerly weekly reporting member banks. See
"Federal Reserve Bulletin," March 1967.
,. .
< Commercial and industrial loans and prior to 1956, agricultural loans. Beginning July 1959, loans to financial institutions excluded. Prior to 1943, published data adjusted to include open market paper.
5
June data used because complete end-of-year data not available.
6
Commercial bank data are estimates for December 31.
7 Effective June 1966, balances accumulated for paymen1 of personal loans (about $1.1 billion) are excluded from loans
at all commercial banks, and certain certificates of CCC and Export-Import Bank totaling about $1 billion are included in
other securities rather than in loans.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.


284-593 0—68

269
-18

TABLE B-52.—Selected liquid assets held by the public, 1946-671
[Billions of dollars, seasonally adjusted]
Time deposits
End of year or month

Total

Demand
deposits
and
currency 2

Commercial
banks 3

Mutual
savings
banks

Postal
savings
system

Savings
and
shares

U.S.
Government
savings
bonds*

U.S.
Government
securities
maturing
within
1 year4

1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

239.1
246.2
254.1
262.1

108.5
112.4
110.5
110.4

33.9
35.3
35.9
36.3

16.9
17.8
18.4
19.3

3.3
3.4
3.3
3.2

8.5
9.7
11.0
12.5

48.6
50.9
53.4
55.0

19.4
16.6
21.6
25.5

1950..
1951..
1952.
1953.
1954.

271.4
281.0
296.0
311.5
320.3

115.5
120.9
125.5
127.3
130.2

36.6
38.2
41.2
44.6
48.2

20.1
20.9
22.6
24.4
26.3

2.9
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.1

14.0
16.1
19.2
22.8
27.2

55.8
55.4
55.7
55.6
55.6

26.4
26.8
29.3
34.4
30.6

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

332.5
343.2
356.0
373.1
393.9

133.3
134.6
133.5
138.8
139.7

49.7
52.0
57.5
65.4
67.4

28.1
30.0
31.6
33.9
34.9

1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
.9

32.0
37.0
41.7
47.7
54.3

55.9
54.8
51.6
50.5
47.9

31.6
33.2
38.8
35.6
48.8

1960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964.

399.2
424.6
459.0
495.4
530.5

138.4
142.6
144.8
149.6
156.7

73.1
82.5
98.1
112.9
127.1

36.2
38.3
41.4
44.5
49.0

.8
.6
.5
.5
.4

61.8
70.5
79.8
90.9
101.4

47.0
47.4
47.6
49.0
49.9

41.9
42.6
46.8
48.1
46.1

1965...
1966...
1967 P.

573.0
601.7
648.8

164.0
168.6
180.3

147.1
159.6
182.5

52.6
55.2
59.9

.3
.1

109.8
113.4
123.8

50.5
50.9
51.9

48.6
53.9
50.5

1966: Jan...
Feb_.
Mar..
Apr...
May..
JuneJuly..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

578.5
577.6
585.6
587.1
585.9
s 589.5

164.8
162.7
167.0
166.4
163.7
166.5

149.2
149.4
151.1
152.5
153.6
M53.9

52.8
53.0
53.1
53.1
53.3
53.6

.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2

109.9
110.7
111.6
111.1
111.3
111.5

50.5
50.3
50.3
50.4
50.4
50.4

51.1
51.0
52.1
53.3
53.3
53.4

588.6
592.9
594.5
596.2
600.6
601.7

164.3
167.0
166.1
166.0
168.0
168.6

156.1
156.6
156.7
156.6
158.3
159.6

53.7
53.9
54.2
54.6
54.8
55.2

.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1

110.9
111.4
112.3
112.2
113.0
113.4

50.6
50.6
50.5
50.6
50.6
50.9

52.8
53.3
54.5
56.0
55.8
53.9

1967: Jan...
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
June-

605.1
604.7
615.1
613.2
619.7
620.6

166.9
165.8
171.0
168.6
172.9
173.7

163.6
165.3
167.6
168.6
170.7
172.4

55.5
55.9
56.3
56.8
57.4
57.8

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

113.7
114.8
116.3
117.1
118.0
118.9

51.0
50.9
51.0
51.1
51.1
51.2

54.2
51.7
52.9
50.9
49.5
46.5

July...
Aug...
Sept...
Oct....
Nov.-.

623.0
630.2
635.3
638.1
645.7
648.8

171.9
174.1
176.2
175.7
177.8
180.3

174.7
177.2
178.1
180.1
183.7
182.5

58.4
58.7
58.9
59.5
59.9
59.9

.1
.1
.1

119.9
121.0
122.4
123.0
123.7
123.8

51.3
51.3
51.4
51.4
51.5
51.9

46.7
47.8
48.2
48.3
49.1
50.5

Dec p..

1 Excludes holdings of the U.S. Government, Government agencies and trust funds, domestic commercial banks, and
Federal Reserve banks. Adjusted wherever possible to avoid double counting.
2 Agrees in concept with the money supply, Table B-53, except for deduction of demand deposits held by mutual savings
banks and savings and loan associations. Data are for last Wednesday of month.
3
Time deposits at all commercial banks other than those due to domestic commercial banks and the U.S. Government
(same concept as in Table B-50). Data are for last Wednesday of month, except that June 30, and December 31 call
data are used where available.
< Excludes holdings of Government agencies and trust funds, domestic commercial and mutual savings banks, Federal
Reserve banks, and beginning February 1960, savings and loan associations.
s Effective June 1966, balances accumulated for the payment of personal loans (about $1.1 billion) are excluded from
time deposits at all commercial banks and from total liquid assets.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




270

T A B L E B—53.—Federal Reserve Bank credit and member bank reserves, 1929—67
[Averages of daily figures, millions of dollars]

Reserve Bank credit outstanding
Year and month
Total

U.S.
Government securities

Member
bank
borrowings

Member bank reserves

All
other,
mainly
float

Total

Required

Excess

Member
bank free
reserves
(excess
reserves
less borrowings)

1929: Dec.

1,643

446

801

396

2,395

2,347

48

-753

1930: Dec.
1931: Dec.
1932: Dec.
1933: Dec.
1934: Dec.
1935: Dec.
1936: Dec.
1937: Dec.
1938: Dec.
1939: Dec.

1,273
1,950
2,192
2,669
2,472
2,494
2,498
2,628
2,618
2,612

644
777
1,854
2,432
2,430
2,430
2,434
2,565
2,564
2,510

337
763
281
95
10
6
7
16
3

292
410
57
142
32
58
57
47
47
99

2,415
2,069
2,435
2,588
4,037
5,716
6,665
6,879
8,745
11,473

2,342
2,010
1,909
U,822
2,290
2,733
4,619
5,808
5,520
6,462

73
60
526
1766
1,748
2,983
2,046
1,071
3,226
5,011

-264
-703
245
671
1,738
2,977
2,039
1,055
3,219
5,008

1940: Dec.
1941: Dec.
1942: Dec.
1943: Dec.
1944: Dec.
1945: Dec.
1946: Dec.
1947: Dec.
1948: Dec1949: Dec.

2,305
2,404
6,035
11,914
19,612
24,744
24,746
22,858
23,978
19,012

2,188
2,219
5,549
11,166
18,693
23,708
23,767
21,905
23,002
18,287

3
5
4
90
265
334
157
224
134
118

114
180
483
659
654
702
821
729
842
607

14,049
12,812
13,152
12,749
14,168
16,027
16.517
17,261
19,990
16,291

7,403
9,422
10,776
11,701
12,884
14,536
15,617
16,275
19,193
15,488

6,646
3,390
2,376
1,048
1,284
1,491
900
986
797
803

6,643
3,385
2,372
958
1,019
1,157
743
762
663
685

1950: Dec.
1951: Dec.
1952: Dec.
1953: Dec.
1954: Dec.
1955: Dec.
1956: Dec.
1957: Dec.
1958: Dec.
1959: Dec.

21,606
25,446
27,299
27,107
26,317
26,853
27,156
26,186
28,412
29,435

20,345
23,409
24,400
25,639
24,917
24,602
24,765
23,982
26,312
27,036

142
657
1,593
441
246
839
688
710
557
906

1,119
1,380
1,306
1,027
1,154
1,412
1,703
1,494
1,543
1,493

17,391
20,310
21,180
19,920
19,279
19,240
19,535
19,420
18,899
M8,932

16,364
19,484
20,457
19,227
18,576
18,646
18,883
18,843
18,383
18,450

1,027
826
723
693
703
594
652
577
516
482

885
169
-870
252
457
-245
-36
-133
-41
-424

1960:
1961:
1962:
1963:
1964:
1965:
1966:
1967:

Dec..
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec*

29,060
31,217
33,218
36,610
39,873
43,853
46,864
51,268

27,248
29,098
30,546
33,729
37,126
40,885
43,760
48,891

87
149
304
327
243
454
557
238

1,725
1,970
2,368
2,554
2,504
2,514
2,547
2,139

19,283
20,118
20,040
20,746
21,609
22,719
23,830
25,256

18,527
19,550
19,468
20,210
21,198
22,267
23,438
24,915

756
568
572
536
411
452
392
341

419
268
209
168
-2
-165
103

1966: Jan..
Feb..
Mar.
Apr..
June..

43,449
43,116
42,943
43,339
43,891
44,498

40,626
40,635
40,398
40,629
41,129
41,672

402
478
551
626
722
674

2,421
2,003
1,994
2,084
2,040
2,152

22,750
22,233
22,160
22,528
22,487
22,534

22,392
21,862
21,855
22,170
22,117
22,212

358
371
305
358
370
322

-44
-107
-246
-268
-352
-352

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec...

45,737
45,348
45,631
45,604
46,087
46,864

42,221
42,280
42,735
42,837
43,347
43,760

766
728
766
733
611
557

2,750
2,340
2,130
2,034
2,129
2,547

23,090
22,655
23,240
23,333
23,251
23,830

22,682
22,317
22,842
23,031
22,862
23,438

408
338
398
302
389
392

-358
-390
-368
-431
-222
-165

1967: Jan—
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
MayJune.

46,802
46,587
46,524
46,902
47,323
47,547

44,066
44,215
44,620
45,082
45,699
45,844

389
362
199
134
101
123

2,347
2,010
1,705
1,686
1,523
1,580

24,075
23,709
23,405
23,362
23,284
23.518

23,702
23,351
22,970
23,053
22,914
23,098

373
358
435
309
370
420

-16
-4
236
175
269
297

JulyAug..
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec p.

48,590
48,210
48,147
48,993
49,752
51,268

46,807
46,612
46,398
47,367
48,010
48,891

87
89
90
126
133
238

1,696
1,509
1,659
1,500
1,609
2,139

23,907
23,791
24,200
24,608
24,738
25,256

23,548
23,404
23,842
24,322
24,337
24,915

359
387
358
286
403
341

272
298
268
160
270
103

* Data from March 1933 through April 1934 are for licensed banks only.
2 Beginning December 1959, total reserves held include vault cash allowed.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




271

TABLE B-54.—Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-67
[Percent per annum]
Corporate
bonds
(Moody's)

U.S Government securities
Year or month
3-month
Treasury
bills i

9-12
month
issues 2

3-5
year
issues 3

Taxable
bonds4

Aaa

Baa

Average
High- rate on Prime
Fedgrade
shorteral
FHA
comterm
municReserve
new
ipal
bank
Bank
home
cial
mortbonds
loans
disgage
(Stand- to busi- paper,
count
yields 5
ard & nessrate
Poor's) selected months
cities

0

1929

4.73

5.90

4.27

1930
1931
1932. .
1933
1934

4.55
4.58
5 01
4.49
4.00

5.90
7.62
9 30
7.76
6.32

4.07
4.01
4 65
4.71
4.03

3.60
3.24
3 26
3.19
3.01

5.75
4.77
5 03
5.80
4.96

3.41
3.07
3.10
2.91
2.76

4.75
4.33
4.28
3.91
3.61

2.50
2.10
2.36
2.06
1.86

2.1
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.4

.75
.81
1 03
1.44

4.34

1 402
.879
.515
.256

..

1935
1936
1937..
1938
1939

2.66
2.12
1.29
1 11
1.40

.137

143
.447
.053
.023

.83
.59

.

.014
.103

.50

326

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

2.46
2.47
2.48

2.84
2.77
2.83
2.73
2.72

.73

5.16
3.04
2.11
2.82
2.56
1.54

.76
.75
94
.59

0)

C)

5.85
3.59
2.64
2 73
1.73
1.02

1.50
1.50
1.33
1.00
1.00

.56
.53
.66
.69
.73

1.00
1.00
8 1.00
8 1.00
8 1.00

.81

.373
.375

0.75
.79

1.46
1.34
1.33

375
.375
594
1.040
1.102

81
.82
88
1.14
1.14

1.18
1.16
1 32
1.62
1.43

2.37
2.19
2 25
2.44
2.31

2.62
2.53
2 61
2.82
2.66

3.29
3.05
3 24
3.47
3.42

1.67
1.64
2.01
2.40
2.21

2.2
2.1

1.49

8 1.00
8 1.00
1.00
1.34
1.50

1950
1951
1952
1953 .
1954

1 218
1.552
1 766
1.931
.953

1 26
1.73
1 81
2.07
.92

1.50
1.93
2.13
2.56
1.82

2.32
2.57
2 68
2.94
2.55

2.62
2.86
2.96
3.20
2.90

3.24
3.41
3.52
3.74
3.51

1.98
2.00
2.19
2.72
2.37

2.69
3.11
3.49
3.69
3.61

1.45
2.16
2.33
2.52
1.58

1.59
1.75
1.75
1.99
1.60

4.17
4.21
4.29
4.61
4.62

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959..

1.753
2.658
3.267
1 839

1.89
2.83
3.53

3.405

2.90
4.33

2.84
3.08
3.47
3.43
4.08

3.06
3.36
3.89
3.79
4.38

3.53
3.88
4.71
4.73
5.05

2.53
2.93
3.60
3.56
3.95

3.70
4.20
4.62
4.34
9 5.00

2.18
3.31
3.81
2.46
3.97

1.89
2.77
3.12

2.09
4.11

2.50
3.12
3.62

2.16
3.36

4.64
4.79
5.42
5.49
5.71

I960
1961
1962 .
1963
1964

2.928
2.378
2.778
3.157
3.549

3.55
2.91
3.02
3.28
3.76

3.99
3.60
3.57
3.72
4.06

4.02
3.90
3.95
4.00
4.15

4.41
4.35
4.33
4.26
4.40

5.19
5.08
5.02
4.86
4.83

3.73
3.46
3.18
3.23
3.22

5.16
4.97
5.00
5.01
4.99

3.85
2.97
3.26
3.55
3.97

3.53
3.00
3.00
3.23
3.55

6.18
5.80
5.61
5.47
5.45

1965
1966
1967

3.954
4.881
4.321

4.09
5.17
4.84

4.22
5.16
5.07

4.21
4.65
4.85

4.49
5.13
5.51

4.87
5.67
6.23

3.27
3.82
3.96

5.06
6.00
io 6.00

4.38
5.55
5.10

4.04
4.50
4.19

5.46
6.29
6.55

3.828
3 929
3.942
3.932
3 895
3.810

3 87
3 97
4.03
4.00
3 99
3.98

4.06
4 08
4.12
4.12
4 11
4.09

4.14
4 16
4.15
4.15
4 14
4.14

4.43
4 41
4.42
4.43
4 44
4.46

4.80
4.78
4.78
4.80
4 81
4.85

3.06
3.10
3.18
3.17
3.19
3.26

4.25
4.27
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00

5.45
5.45
5.45
5.45
5.45
5.45

3.831
3.836
3.912
4 032
4.082
4.362

3.96
4.00
4.11
4 18
4.29
4.66

4.10
4.19
4.24
4.33
4.46
4.77

4.15
4.19
4.25
4.28
4.34
4.43

4.48
4.49
4.52
4.56
4.60
4.68

4.88
4.88
4.91
4.93
4.95
5.02

3.26
3.25
3.36
3.42
3.47
3.56

5.00

4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38
4.38

4.00
4.00
4.00

5.27

4.65

5.44
5.44
5.45
5.46
5.49
5.51

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

--..

1965'Jan

Feb
Mar
May"
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct

Nov
Dec

See footnotes at end of table.




272

2.1

2.5
2.68

4.97
4.99

4.00
4.00
4.42

TABLE B-54.—Bond yields and interest rates, 1929-67—Continued
[Percent per annum]
Corporate
bonds
(Moody's)

U.S. Government securities
Year or month
3-month
Treasury
bills i

9-12
3-5
Taxable
month
year
4
issues 2 issues3 bonds

Aaa

Baa

Average
Highrate on
FedPrime
grade
shorteral
communicterm
Reserve
meripal
bank
Bank
cial
bonds
loans
dis(Stand- to busi- paper,
count
ard &
nessrate
Poor's) selected months
cities

1966: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

1.596
1.670
1.626
i1.611
1.642
1.539

4.83
4.92
4.96
4.87
4.90
4.94

4.89
5.02
4.94
4.86
4.94
5.01

4.43
4.61
4.63
4.55
4.57
4.63

4.74
4.78
4.92
4.96
4.98
5.07

5.06
5.12
5.32
5.41
5.48
5.58

3.52
3.63
3.72
3.59
3.68
3.77

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

1.855
1.932
5.356
5.387
5.344
5.007

5.17
5.52
5.80
5.57
5.45
5.10

5.22
5.58
5.62
5.38
5.43
5.07

4.75
4.80
4.79
4.70
4.74
4.65

5.16
5.31
5.49
5.41
5.35
5.39

5.68
5.83
6.09
6.10
6.13
6.18

3.94
4.17
4.11
3.97
3.93
3.83

1967: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

i1.759

1.554
1.288
3.852
3.640
5.480

4.71
4.64
4.35
4.03
4.09
4.40

4.71
4.73
4.52
4.46
4.68
4.96

4.40
4.47
4.45
4.51
4.76
4.86

5.20
5.03
5.13
5.11
5.24
5.44

5.97
5.82
5.85
5.83
5.96
6.15

3.58
3.56
3.60
3.66
3.92
3.99

1.308
1.275
1.451
1.588
1.762
5.012

4.98
5.10
5.21
5.32
5.55
5.69

5.17
5.28
5.40
5.52
5.73
5.72

4.86
4.95
4.99
5.19
5.44
5.36

5.58
5.62
5.65
5.82
6.07
6.19

6.26
6.33
6.40
6.52
6.72
6.93

4.05
4.03
4.15
4.31
4.36
4.49

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

-

5.55
5.82

6.30
6.31
M

6.13
5.95

5.95
5.%

FHA
new
home
mortgage
yields s

5.62
5.70

4.82
4.88
5.21
5.38
5.39
5.51

4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50

5.63
5.85
5.89
6.00
6.00
6.00

4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50

6.45
6.51
6.58
6.63

5.73
5.38
5.24
4.83
4.67
4.65

4.50
4.50
4.50
4.10
4.00
4.00

6.77
6.62
6.46
6.35
6.29
6.44

4.92
5.00
5.00
5.07
5.28
5.56

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.18
4.50

6.51
6.53
6.60
6.63
6.65
6.77

6.00
6.32

6.81

1
Rate on new issues within period. Issues were tax exempt prior to March 1,1941, and fully taxable thereafter. For the
period 1934-37, series includes issues with maturities of more than 3 months.
2
Certificates of indebtedness and selected note and bond issues (fully taxable).
3
Selected note and bond issues. Issues were partially tax exempt prior to 1941, and fully taxable thereafter.
4
First issued in 1941. Series includes bonds which are neither due nor callable before a given number of years as follows: April 1953 to date, 10 years; April 1952-March 1953,12 years; October 1941-March 1952, 15 years.
5
Data for first of the month, based on the maximum permissable interest rate (6 percent beginning October 1966) and,
thru July 1961, 25-year mortgages paid in 12 years and, thereafter, 30-year mortgages paid in 15 years.
6
Treasury bills were first issued in December 1929 and were issued irregularly in 1930.
7
Not available on same basis as for 1939 and subsequent years.
s From October 30, 1942, to April 24, 1946, a preferential rate of 0.50 percent was in effect for advances secured by
Government securities maturing in 1 year or less.
9
Beginning 1959, series revised to exclude loans to nonbank financial institutions.
10
Beginning February 1967, series revised to incorporate changes in coverage, in the sample of reporting banks, and
in the reporting period (shifted to the middle month of the quarter).

Note.—Yields and rates computed for New York City except for short-term bank loans.
Sources: Treasury Department, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Moody's Investors Service, Standard & Poor's Corporation, and Federal Housing Administration.




273

TABLE B-55.—Short- and intermediate-term consumer credit outstanding, 1929-67
[Millions of dollars]
Instalment credit
End of year or month

Total
Total

Automobile
paper

Addendum:
Policy
loans by
life inOther 2 surance
companies 3

Noninstalment credit

Repair
Other
conand
sumer moderngoods ization
paper loans *

Personal
loans

Total

Charge

ac-

counts

1929

7,116

3,524

1,384

1,544

27

569

3,592

1,996

1,596

2,379

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

6,351
5,315
4,026
3,885
4,218
5,190
6,375
6,948
6,370
7,222

3,022
2,463
1,672
1,723
1,999
2,817
3,747
4,118
3,686
4,503

986
684
356
493
614
992
1,372
1,494
1,099
1,497

1,432
1,214
834
799
889
1,000
1,290
1,505
1,442
1,620

25
22
18
15
37
253
364
219
218
298

579
543
464
416
459
572
721
900
927
1,088

3,329
2,852
2,354
2,162
2,219
2,373
2,628
2,830
2,684
2,719

1,833
1,635
1,374
1,286
1,306
1,354
1,428
1,504
1,403
1,414

1,496
1,217
980
876
913
1,019
1,200
1,326
1,281
1,305

2,807
3,369
3,806
3,769
3,658
3,540
3,411
3,399
3,389
3,248

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

8,338
9,172
5,983
4,901
5,111
5,665
8,384
11,598
14,447
17,364

5,514
6,085
3,166
2,136
2,176
2,462
4,172
6,695
8,996
11,590

2,071
2,458
742
355
397
455
981
1,924
3,018
4,555

1,827
1,929
1,195
819
791
816
1,290
2,143
2,901
3,706

371
376
255
130
119
182
405
718
853
898

1,245
1,322
974
832
869
1,009
1,496
1,910
2,224
2,431

2,824
3,087
2,817
2,765
2,935
3,203
4,212
4,903
5,451
5,774

1,471
1,645
1,444
1,440
1,517
1,612
2,076
2,381
2,722
2,854

1,353
1,442
1,373
1,325
1,418
1,591
2,136
2,522
2,729
2,920

3,091
2,919
2,683
2,373
2 134
1,962
1,894
1,937
2,057
2,240

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967*
1966: Jan..
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct..
Nov_
Dec.
1967: Jan..
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct..
Nov.
Dec 4

21,471
22,712
27,520
31,393
32,464
38,830
42,334
44,970
45,129
51,542
56,028
57,678
63,164
70,461
78,442
87,884
94,786
99,100
87,027
86,565
87,059
88,184
89,092
90,070
90,650
91,483
91,639
91,899
92,498
94,786
93,479
92,517
92,519
93,089
93,917
94,813
95,115
95,684
95,886
96,094
96,802
99,100

14,703
15,294
19,403
23,005
23,568
28,906
31,720
33,867
33,642
39,245
42,832
43,527
48,034
54,158
60,548
68,565
74,656
77,900
68,314
68,279
68,827
69,543
70,209
71,194
71,862
72,640
72,829
73,073
73,491
74,656
74,015
73,598
73,591
73,840
74,290
75,051
75,348
75,889
76,039
76,223
76,680
77,900

6,074
5,972
7,733
9,835
9,809
13,460
14,420
15,340
14,152
16,420
17,688
17,223
19,540
22,433
25,195
28,843
30,961
31,300
28,789
28,894
29,248
29,597
29,908
30,402
30,680
30,918
30,793
30,852
30,937
30,961
30,689
30,530
30,527
30,635
30,852
31,208
31,364
31,455
31,296
31,237
31,217
31,300

4,799
4,880
6,174
6,779
6,751
7,641
8,606
8,844
9,028
10,630
11,525
11,857
12,605
13,856
15,593
17,693
19,834
21,200
17,566
17,386
17,450
17,597
17,732
17,959
18,165
18,390
18, 564
18,714
18,945
19,834
19,649
19,426
19,369
19,376
19,442
19,580
19,607
19,755
19,914
20,042
20,340
21,200

1,016
1,085
1,385
1,610
1,616
1,693
1,905
2,101
2,346
2,809
3,139
3,191
3,246
3,405
3,532
3,675
3,751
3,700
3,634
3,603
3,597
3,602
3,642
3,677
3,711
3,755
3,771
3,770
3,772
3,751
3,703
3,666
3,648
3,636
3,670
3,696
3,711
3,743
3,742
3,746
3,748
3,700

2,814
3,357
4,111
4,781
5,392
6,112
6,789
7,582
8,116
9,386
10,480
11,256
12,643
14,464
16,228
18,354
20,110
21,700
18,325
18,396
18,532
18,747
18,927
19,156
19,306
19,577
19,701
19,737
19,837
20,110
19,974
19,976
20,047
20,193
20,326
20,567
20,666
20,936
21,087
21,198
21,375
21,700

6,768
7,418
8,117
8,388
8,896
9,924
10,614
11,103
11,487
12,297
13,196
14,151
15,130
16,303
17,894
19,319
20,130
21,200
18,713
18,286
18,232
18,641
18,883
18,876
18,788
18,843
18,810
18,826
19,007
20,130
19,464
18,919
18,928
19,249
19,627
19,762
19,767
19,795
19,847
19,871
20,122
21,200

3,367
3,700
4,130
4,274
4,485
4,795
4,995
5,146
5,060
5,104
5,329
5,324
5,684
5,871
6,300
6,745
7,144
7,600
6,107
5,505
5,393
5,670
5,860
5,908
5,888
5,973
5,993
6,107
6,199
7,144
6,472
5,824
5,809
5,923
6,231
6,334
6,346
6,368
6,387
6,471
6,614
7,600

3,401
3,718
3,987
4,114
4,411
5,129
5,619
5,957
6,427
7,193
7,867
8,827
9,446
10,432
11,594
12,573
12,986
13,600
12,606
12,781
12,839
12,971
13,023
12,968
12,900
12,870
12,817
12,719
12,808
12,986
12,992
13,095
13,119
13,326
13,396
13,428
13,421
13,427
13,460
13,400
13,508
13,600

2,413
2,590
2,713
2,914
3,127
3,290
3,519
3,869
4,188
4,618
5,231
5; 733
6,234
6,655
7,140
7,678
9,117
7,728
7,775
7,862
7,964
8,062
8,174
8,276
8,435
8,658
8,849
8,986
9,136
9,250
9,341
9,444
9,537
9,615
9,695
9,735
9,808
9,875
9,933
9,996

1 Holdings of financial institutions only; holdings of retail outlets are included in "other consumer goods paper."
2
Single-payment loans and service credit.
3 Year-end figures are annual statement asset values; month-end figures are book value of ledger assets. These loans
are not included in consumer credit series.
« Preliminary; December by Council of Economic Advisers.
Sources: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and Institute of Life Insurance (except as noted).




274

T A B L E B—56.—Instalment credit extended and repaid, 1946—67
[Millions of dollars]
Automobile

Total

Other consumer
goods paper

Repair and modernization loans

Extended

Personal
loans

Year or month

Extended

Extended

Repaid

Extended

Repaid

Extended

Repaid

1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

8,495
12,713
15,585
18,108

6,785
10,190
13,284
15,514

1,969
3,692
5,217
6,967

1,443
2,749
4,123
5,430

3,077
4,498
5,383
5,865

2,603
3,645
4,625
5,060

423
704
714
734

200
391
579

3,026
3,819
4,271
4,542

2,539
3,405
3,957
4,335

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

21,558
23,576
29,514
31,558
31,051

18,445
22,985
25,405
27,956
30,488

8,530
8,956
11,764
12,981
11,807

7,011
9,058
10,003
10,879
11,833

7,150
7,485
9,186
9,227
9,117

6,057
7,404
7,892
8,622
9,145

835
841
,217
,344
,261

717
772
917
1,119
1,255

5,043
6,294
7,347
8,006
8,866

4,660
5,751
6,593
7,336
8,255

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

38,972
39,868
42,016
40,119
48,052

33,634
37,054
39,868
40,344
42,603

16,734
15,515
16,465
14,226
17,779

13,082
14,555
15,545
15,415
15,579

10,642
11,721
11,807
11,747
13,982

9,752
10,756
11,569
11,563
12,402

,393
,582
,674
,871
2,222

1,316
1,370
1,477
1,626
1,765

10,203
11,051
12,069
12,275
14,070

9,484
10,373
11,276
11,741
12,857

I960..
19611962..
1963..
1964..

49,560
48,396
55,126
61,295
67,505

45,972
47,700
50,620
55,171
61,121

17,654
16,007
19,796
22,292
24,435

16,384
16,472
17,478
19,400
21,676

14,470
14,578
15,685
17,102
19,473

13,574
14,246
14,939
15,850
17,737

2,213
2,068
2,051
2,198
2,204

1,883
2,015
1,996
2,038
2,078

15,223
15,744
17,594
19,703
21,393

14,130
14,967
16,206
17,883
19,630

1965..
1966..
1967 1

75,508
78,896
81,200

67,495
72,805
78,000

27,914
28,491
27,200

24,267
26,373
26,900

21,454
23,502
25,700

19,355
21,361
24,300

2,238
2,136
2,100

2,096
2,060
2,100

23,902
24,767
26,200

21,777
23,011
24,700

Re

Repaid

Seasonally adjusted
1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June..

6,544
6,492
6,673
6,505
6,472
6,675

5,947
5,954
6,024
5,974
5,979
6,126

2,340
2,340
2,479
2,302
2,298
2,419

2,115
2,135
2,216
2,145
2,159
2,211

1,983
1,957
1,959
1,958
1,933
1,944

1,778
1,781
1,708
1,729
1,784
1,767

176
171
183
180
186
189

176
174
176
175
172
176

2,045
2,024
2,052
2,065
2,055
2,123

1,878
1,864
1,924
1,925
1,864
1,972

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
Nov..
Dec...

6,732
6,689
6,578
6,522
6,657
6,433

6,168
6,087
6,103
6,142
6,213
6,112

2,383
2,431
2,387
2,378
2,461
2,297

2,238
2,223
2,213
2,244
2,255
2,225

2,050
1,995
1,958
1,941
1,947
1,928

1,803
1,792
1,784
1,820
1,836
1,796

189
187
175
166
166
159

174
172
168
169
169
161

2,110
2,076
2,058
2,037
2,083
2,049

1,953
1,900
1,938
1,909
1,953
1,930

1967: Jan..
Feb..
Mar..
Apr..
May..
JuneJuly..
Aug..
Sept.
Oct..
Nov..
Dec*.

6,501
6,497
6,510
6,606
6,554
6,823

6,221
6,281
6,246
6,393
6,361
6,531

2,240
2,177
2,199
2,217
2,238
2,338

2,202
2,217
2,193
2,235
2,219
2,281

2,031
2,099
2,049
2,095
2,032
2,081

1,882
1,915
1,899
1,968
1,948
1,995

157
169
169
170
180
190

167
176
170
179
178
184

2,073
2,052
2,093
2,124
2,104
2,214

1,970
1,973
1,984
2,011
2,016
2,071

6,776
6,929
6,973
6,942
7,032
7,075

6,551
6,585
6,689
6,631
6,614
6,675

2,266
2,285
2,322
2,321
2,305
2,350

2,228
2,240
2,280
2,301
2,240
2,250

2,147
2,212
2,234
2,165
2,242
2,250

2,074
2,079
2,106
2,093
2,105
2,125

175
175
166
171
180
175

175
171
178
170
177
175

2,188
2,257
2,251
2,285
2,305
2,300

2,074
2,095
2,125
2,067
2,092
2,125

i Preliminary; December by Council of Economic Advisers.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (except as noted).




275

TABLE B-57.—Mortgage debt outstanding, by type of property and of financing, 1939-67
[Billions of dollars]
Nonfarm properties
Multi-family and
commercial properties 2

1- to 4-family houses
End of year
or quarter

All
properties

Government underwritten

Total
Total

Total

FHA
insured

VA
guaranteed

Conventional *

Total

Multifamily

Commercial
properties

Farm
properties

1939

35.5

28.9

16.3

1.8

1.8

14.5

12.5

5.6

7.0

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

36.5
37.6
36.7
35.3
34.7

30.0
31.2
30.8
29.9
29.7

17.4
18.4
18.2
17.8
17.9

2.3
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.2

2.3
3.0
3.7
4.1
4.2

15.1
15.4
14.5
13.7
13.7

12.6
12.9
12.5
12.1
11.8

5.7

6.9

5.9

7.0

6.4

5.8
5.8
5.6

6.7
6.3
6.2

6.0
5.4
4 9

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

35.5
41.8
48.9
56.2
62.7

30.8
36.9
43.9
50.9
57.1

18.6
23.0
28.2
33.3
37.6

4.3
6.1
9.3
12.5
15.0

4.1
3.7
3.8
5.3
6.9

0.2
2.4
5.5
7.2
8.1

14.3
16.9
18.9
20.8
22.6

12.2
13.8
15.7
17.6
19.5

5.7

6.4

4.8

6.1
6.6
7.5

4.9
5.1
5.3

8.6

7.7
9.1
10.2
10.8

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

72.8
82.3
91.4
101.3
113.7

66.7
75.6
84.2
93.6
105.4

45.2
51.7
58.5
66.1
75.7

18.9
22.9
25.4
28.1
32.1

8.6
9.7
10.8
12.0
12.8

10.3
13.2
14.6
16.1
19.3

26.3
28.8
33.1
38.0
43.6

21.6
23.9
25.7
27.5
29.7

10.1
11.5
12.3
12.9
13.5

11.5
12.5
13.4
14.5
16.3

6.1

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

129.9
144.5
156.5
171.8
190.8

120.9
134.6
146.1
160.7
178.7

88.2
99.0
107.6
117.7
130.9

38.9
43.9
47.2
50.1
53.8

14.3
15.5
16.5
19.7
23.8

24.6
28.4
30.7
30.4
30.0

49.3
55.1
60.4
67.6
77.0

32.6
35.6
38.5
43.0
47.9

14.3
14.9
15.3
16.8
18.7

18.3
20.7
23.2
26.1
29.2

10.4
11.1
12.1

1960
1961
1962
1963 _
1964

206.8
226.3
248.6
274.3
300.1

194.0
212.4
233.4
257.4
281.2

141.3
153.1
166.5
182.2
197.6

56.4
59.1
62.2
65.9
69.2

26.7
29.5
32.3
35.0
38.3

29.7
29.6
29.9
30.9
30.9

84.8
93.9
104.3
116.3
128.3

52.7
59.3
66.9
75.3
83.6

20.3
23.0
25.8
29.0
33.2

32.4
36.4
41.1
46.2
50.4

12.8
13.9
15.2
16.8
18.9

1965
1966 P
1967*

326.3
347.3
369.1

305.1
324.0
344.1

213.7
224.1
235.9

73.1
76.0

42.0
44.8

31.1
31.2

140.6
148.1

91.4
99.9
108.1

37.0
39.5
42.8

54.4
60.4
65.4

21.2
23.3
25.0

1964:1
II
III—
IV.--.

279.4
286.5
293.4
300.1

262.1
268.4
274.9
281.2

185.4
189.8
193.9
197.6

66.6
67.3
68.4
69.2

35.7
36.3
37.4
38.3

31.0
30.9
31.1
30.9

118.8
122.5
125.4
128.3

76.7
78.7
81.1
83.6

29.8
30.9
32.1
33.2

46.9
47.8
49.0
50.4

17.3
18.1
18.5
18.9

1965:1
ll_...
III.—
IV....

305.3
312.5
319.5
326.3

285.9
292.3
298.8
305.1

200.7
205.1
209.6
213.7

70.1
70.7
72.0
73.1

39.0
39.7
40.9
42.0

31.1
31.0
31.1
31.1

130.6
134.4
137.5
140.6

85.2
87.2
89.3
91.4

34.0
34.9
36.0
37.0

51.1
52.3
53.3
54.4

19.5
20.2
20.7
21.2

1966:l»-_--

332.3
338.8
343.5
347.3

310.5
316.3
320.5
324.0

216.9
220.2
222.4
224.1

74.1
74.6
75.4
76.0

43.0
43.7
44.4
44.8

31.1
30.9
31.0
31.2

142.7
145.7
147.0
148.1

93.7
96.1
98.2
99.9

37.8
38.5
39.1
39.5

55.8
57.6
59.1
60.4

21.8
22.5
23.0
23.3

350.7
356.2
362.4
369.1

327.0
332.0
337.8
344.1

225.5
228.3
232.1
235.9

76.4
77.2
78.3

45.2
45.7
46.6

31.2
31.5
31.7

149.0
151.1
153.8

101.5
103.7
105.7
108.1

40.2
41.0
41.8
42.8

61.3
62.7
63.9
65.4

23.7
24.2
24.6
25.0

l|p._ll|p_._
IVP...

1967:|p_...
l|p__ll|p__.
IVP...

1

6.6
6 5

5.6
6.7
7.2
7.7
8.2
9.0

9.8

Derived figures.
2 Includes negligible amount of farm loans held by savings and loan associations.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, estimated and compiled from data supplied by various
Government and private organizations.




276

TABLE B-58.--Net public and private debt, 1929-67l
[Billions of dollars]
Private

End of
year 2

Total

FedState
eral
and
Govlocal
erngovment
ernand
agency ment2

Individual and noncorporate

Corporate

Nonfarm
Total
Total

Longterm

Shortterm

Total

Farm3
Tnfal
1 Old 1

Mortgage

CommerConcial
and sumer
financial ^

1929..

190.9

16.5

13.2

161.2

88.9

47.3

41.6

72.3

12.2

60.1

31.2

22.4

6.4

1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934..

191.0
181.9
174.6
168.5
171.4

16.5
18.5
21.3
24.3
30.4

14.1
15.5
16.6
16.7
15.9

160.4
147.9
136.7
127.5
125.1

89.3
83.5
80.0
75.9
75.5

51.1
50.3
49.2
47.9
44.6

38.2
33.2
30.8
29.1
30.9

71.1
64.4
56.7
50.6
49.6

11.8
11.1
10.1
9.1
8.9

59.3
53.3
46.6
41.5
40.6

32.0
30.9
29.0
26.3
25.5

21.6
17.6
14.0
11.7
11.2

5.8
4.8
3.6
3.5
3.9

1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..

174.7
180.3
182.0
179.6
183.2

34.4
37.7
39.2
40.5
42.6

16.0
16.2
16.1
16.0
16.3

124.2
126.4
126.7
123.1
124.3

74.8
76.1
75.8
73.3
73.5

43.6
42.5
43.5
44.8
44.4

31.2
33.5
32.3
28.4
29.2

49.4
50.3
50.9
49.8
50.8

8.9
8.6
8.6
9.0
8.8

40.5
41.7
42.3
40.9
42.0

24.8
24.4
24.3
24.5
25.0

10.8
11.2
11.3
10.1
9.8

4.9
6.1
6.7
6.3
7.2

1940..
1941..
1942..
1943..
1944..

189.9
211.6
259.0
313.6
370.8

44.8
56.3
101.7
154.4
211.9

16.5
16.3
15.8
14.9
14.1

128.6
139.0
141.5
144.3
144.8

75.6
83.4
91.6
95.5
94.1

43.7
43.6
42.7
41.0
39.8

31.9
39.8
49.0
54.5
54.3

53.0
55.6
49.9
48.8
50.7

9.1
9.3
9.0
8.2
7.7

43.9
46.3
40.9
40.5
42.9

26.1
27.1
26.8
26.1
26.0

9.5
10.0
8.1
9.5
11.8

8.3
9.2
6.0
4.9
5.1

1945..
1946..
1947..
1948..
1949..

406.3
397.4
417.4
433.6
448.4

252.7
229.7
223.3
216.5
218.6

13.7
13.6
14.4
16.2
18.1

139.9 85.3
154.1 93.5
179.7 108.9
200.9 117.8
211.7 118.0

38.3
41.3
46.1
52.5
56.5

47.0
52.2
62.8
65.3
61.5

54.6
60.6
70.8
83.1
93.7

7.3
7.6
8.6
10.8
12.0

47.4
53.0
62.3
72.4
81.8

27.0
32.5
38.8
45.1
50.6

14.7
12.1
11.9
12.9
13.9

5.7
8.4
11.6
14.4
17.3

1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..

490.3
524.0
555.2
586.5
612.0

218.7
218.5
222.9
228.1
230.2

20.7
23.3
25.8
28.6
33.4

250.9
282.2
306.5
329.8
348.4

142.1
162.5
171.0
179.5
182.8

60.1
66.6
73.3
78.3
82.9

81.9
95.9
97.7
101.2
100.0

108.8
119.7
135.5
150.3
165.6

12.3
13.6
15.2
16.9
17.6

96.6
106.2
120.4
133.6
147.9

59.4
67.4
75.2
83.8
94.6

15.8
16.2
17.8
18.4
20.8

21.4
22.6
27.4
31.4
32.5

1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..

672.3
707.5
738.9
782.6
846.2

231.5
225.4
224.4
232.7
243.2

38.4
42.7
46.7
50.9
55.6

402.5
439.4
467.8
499.1
547.4

212.1
231.7
246.7
259.5
283.3

90.0
100.1
112.1
121.2
129.3

122.2
131.7
134.6
138.4
154.0

190.4
207.7
221.1
239.5
264.1

18.8
19.5
20.3
23.3
23.0

171.6
188.2
200.8
216.2
241.1

108.7
121.3
131.6
144.6
160.8

24.0
24.4
24.3
26.5
28.7

38.9
42.5
44.8
45.1
51.5

I960.. 890.2
1961.. 947.7
1962.. 1,016.7
1963.. 1,089.5
1964.. 1,166.4

241.0
248.1
257.5
262.4
269.4

60.0
65.0
73.7
79.5
85.2

589.2
634.6
685.5
747.6
811.8

302.8
324.3
348.2
376.1
407.7

139.1
149.3
161.2
174.4
192.9

163.6
175.0
187.0
201.7
214.8

286.4
310.3
337.3
371.5
404.1

25.1
27.5
30.2
33.2
36.0

261.4
282.8
307.1
338.3
368.1

174.5
190.4
206.3
225.5
244.4

30.8
34.8
37.6
42.3
45.4

56.0
57.7
63.2
70.5
78.4

1965.. 1,257.6
1966.. 1,344.9
19675. 1,430.3

272.5
278.7
289.9

890.0 451.2
95.1
100.9
965.2 497.2
110.1 1,030.3 533.0

211.3
232.4
261.4

239.9
264.8
271.6

438.8
468.0
497.3

39.3
42.1
45.4

399.5
425.9
451.9

263.2
278.5
294.0

48.3
52.6
58.8

87.9
94.8
99.1

1
Net public and private debt outstanding is a comprehensive aggregate of the indebtedness of borrowers after elimination of certain types of duplicating governmental and corporate debt. For a further explanation of the concept, see "Survey
of 2Current Business," October 1950.
Data for State and local government debt are for June 30.
3
Farm mortgages and farm production loans. Farmers' financial and consumer debt is included in the nonfarm categories.
4
Financial debt is debt owed to banks for purchasing or carrying securities, customers' debt to brokers, and debt owed
to 5life insurance companies by policyholders.
Estimates.
Note.—Revisions for 1929-39 and 1955-57 in the consumer credit data of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System have not yet been fully incorporated into this series.
Sources: Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics and Bureau of the Census), Treasury Department,
Department of Agriculture, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and Federal Home Loan Bank Board.




277

GOVERNMENT FINANCE
TABLE B-59.—Federal

budget receipts, outlays, financing, and debt, 1958-69
[Millions of dollars; fiscal years]
Actual

Description
1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

99,656
104,660
-5,004

106,578
111,465
-4,887

Receipts, expenditures, and net lending: i
Receipt-expenditure account:
Receipts
Expenditures (excludes net lending)
Expenditure deficit ( - )

79,617
81,177
-1,560

79,048
89,693
-10,645

92,481
90,385
2,096

94,393
96,717
-2,324

6,520
4,976
1,544

7,859
5,201
2,659

8,310
6,427
1,882

7,869
6,671
1,198

9,621
7,271
2,351

9,646
9,791
-145

79,617
82,720
-3,103

79,048
92,352
-13,304

92,481
92,268
213

94,393
97,915
-3,522

99,656
107,011
-7,355

106,578
111,320
-4,742

Budget financing: *
Borrowing from the public
Reduction in cash balances, etc
Total budget financing

6,607
-3,504
3,103

8,331
4,973
13,304

1,777
-1,990
-213

1,143
2,379
3,522

9,453
-2,098
7,355

5,971
-1,229
4,742

Outstanding debt, end of year: l
Gross a mount outstanding
Held by the public

279,147
225,972

286,666
234,303

289,243
236,080

290,991
237,223

301,074
246,676

308,488
252,647

Loan account:
Loan disbursements
Loan repay me nts
Net lending
Total budget:
Receipts
Expenditures and net lending
Budget deficit ( - )

See footnotes at end of table.




278

TABLE B-59.—Federal budget receipts, outlays, financing, and debt, 1958-69—Continued
[Millions of dollars; fiscal years)
Actual

Estimate

Description
1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

112,702
118,122
-5,420

116,855
116,718
137

130,901
130.740
161

149,591
153,238
-3,647

155,830
169,856
-14,026

178,108
182,797
-4,689

10,237
9,693
545

10,911
9,662
1,249

14,628
10,796
3,832

17,787
12,611
5,176

20,869
15,091
5,779

20,372
17,106
3,265

112,702
118,667

116,855
117,966
-1,111

130,901
134,572
-3,671

149,591
158,414
-8,823

155,830
175,635
-19,805

178,108
186,062
-7,954

5,965

3,953
-2,842
1,111

6,031
-2,360
3,671

3,551
5,272
8,823

20,840
-1,035
19,805

8,000
-46
7,954

314,377
255,625

320,806
259,578

329,473
265,609

341,343
269,160

369,993
290,000

387,167
298,000

Receipts, expenditures, and net lending:1
Receipt-expenditure account:
Receipts
Expenditures (excludes net lending)..
Expenditure deficit ( - )
Loan account:
Loan disbursements
Loan repayments
Net lending
Total budget:
Receipts
Expenditures and net lending
Budget deficit ( - )
Budget financing: *
Borrowing from the public
Reduction in cash balances, etc
Total, budget financing
Outstanding debt, end of year: *
Gross amount outstanding
Held by the public

-5,965

2,978
2,987

i Data represent results of preliminary adjustments to new budget concepts used in the "Budget of the United States
Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30,1969" and may be revised later.
Sources: Treasury Department and Bureau of the Budget.




279

TABLE B-60.—Federal budget receipts and outlays, 1958-69
[Millions of dollars; fiscal years]
Actual
Description
1958
Receipts.
I ndividual income taxes
Corporation income taxes
Employment taxes
Unemployment insurance
Premiums for other insurance and retirement
Excise taxes
Estate and gift taxes
Customs
Other receipts

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

79,617

79,048

92,481

94,393

682
10,638
1,393
781
777

36,719
17,309
8,821
2,131
79
6
10,578
1,333
925
463

40,715
21,494
11,248
2,668
768
11,676
1,606
1,105
1,200

99,656
45,571
20,523
12,835
3,337

106,578

41,338
20,955
12,679
2,904
11,860
1,896
982
913

873
12,534
2,016
1,142
825

47,588
21,579
14,746
4,112
944
13,194
2,167
1,206
1,042

4,119

5,330

5,309

6,508

5,654

7,099

34,724
20,074
8,624
1,924

MEMORANDUM:
(Excluded above; offset against expenditures)
Interfund and intergovernmental transactions
Proprietary receipts from the public
Expenditures.
National defense
International affairs and finance
Space research and technology
Agriculture and agricultural resources
Natural resources
Commerce and transportation
Housing and community development
Health, labor, and welfare
Education
Veterans benefits and services..
Interest
General government
Special allowances
—
Undistributed adjustments to amounts
above
Net lending.
National defense
I nternational affairs and finance
Agriculture and agricultural resources
Natural resources
Commerce and transportation
Housing and community development
Health, labor, and welfare
Education
Veterans benefits and services
General government
.Total expenditures and net lending.

81,177

89,693

90,385

96,717

104,660

111,465

44,461
2,912
89
2,541
1,203
2,922
-36
15,763
375
5,076
6,936
1,010

46,667
2,790
145
4,718
1,233
4,367
30
18,019
550
5,183
7,070
1,159

45,848
3,310
401
2,893
1,084
4,643
21
19,105
659
5,063
8,299
1,332

47,532
3,242
744
2,877
1,626
4,929

51,179
4,034
1,257
3,491
1,736
5,193
160
23,963
842
5,378
8,321
1,653

52,275
4,279
2,552
4,398
1,607
5,516
193
25,677
953
5,666
9,215
1,799

-2,076

-2,239

-2,272

2,659

1,882

-2,547
2,351

1
433
472
3
56
165

-12
418
700
6
71
1,064

-7
-235
457
11
27
1,078

165
261
-12

180
245
-14

204
363
-15

-2,506
1,198
-41
127
462
18
74
64
*
201
296

-2,666

1,544

231
248

288
-146
-11

82,720

92,352

92,268

97,915

107,011

111.320

See Note at end of table.




280

157
22,368
740
5,392
8,108
1,508

528
648
21
193
490

-145
-64
-95
731
18
145
-1,012

TABLE B-60.—Federal budget receipts and outlays, 1958-69—Continued
[Millions of dollars; fiscal years]

Actual

Description

Estimate

1964

1967

1968

116,855

130,901

149,591

155,830

178,108

48,697
23,492
16,959
4,045

48,792
25,461
17,358
3,819

55,446
30,073
20,662
3,777

61,526
33,971
27,823
3,652

67,700
31,300
29,730
3,660

80,900
34,300
34,154
3,594

1,006
13,731
2,394
1,252
1,126

Individual income taxes
Corporation income taxes
Employment taxes
Unemployment insurance
Premiums for other insurance and retirement
Excise taxes
Estate and gift taxes
Customs
Other receipts

1966

112,702

Receipts

1965

1,079
14,570
2,716
1,442
1,617

1,126
13,061
3,066
1,767
1,923

1,853
13,719
2,978
1,901
2,168

2,049
13,848
3,100
2,000
2,443

2,275
14,671
3,400
2,070
2,744

6,655

6,761

7,592

6,588
4,948

7,415
4,430

8,241
4,617

118,122

116,715

130,740

153,238

169,856

182,797

53,682
4,434
4,171
4,545
2,042
6,283
151
27,201
1,109
5,552
9,810
2,072

49,586
4,196
5,091
4,032
2,140
7,043
116
28,143
1,309
5,634
10,358
2,231

56,771
4,343
5,932
2,764
2,167
6,789
442
33,194
2,449
5,707
11,285
2,316

70,095
4,110
5,424
3,156
2,113
7,308
578
39,512
3,602
6,366
12,548
2,452

76,491
4,330
4,804
4,412
2,416
7,695
698
46,396
4,157
6,798
13,535
2,618
100

79,792
4,478
4,574
4,474
2,483
7,996
1,428
51,945
4,364
7,131
14,400
2,827
1,950

-2,931

-3,164

-3,421

-4,022

-4,591

-5,049

545

1,249

3,832

5,176

5,779

3,265

-31
-283
642
23
139
-301
2
225
129

-3
-21
777
16
275
-147
19
229
88
16

-1
100
911
19
193
1,984
32
376
214
5

-3
540
1,221
19
138
1,708
572
445
532
2

-2
716
899
16
158
3,257
21
384
370
-40

-4
675
1,135
125
1,355
-538
335
211
-37

118,667

117,966

134,572

158,414

175,635

186,062

1969

MEMORANDUM:
(Excluded above; offset against expenditures)
Interfund and intergovernmental transactions
Proprietary receipts from the public
ExpendituresNational defense
International affairs and finances
Space research and technology
Agriculture and agricultural resources
Natural resources
Commerce and transportation
Housing and community development
Health, labor, and welfare
Education
Veterans benefits and services
I nte rest
General government
Special allowances
Undistributed adjustments to amounts
above
Net lending.
National defense
International affairs and finance
Agriculture and agricultural resources
Natural resources
Commerce and transportation
Housing and community development
Health, labor, and welfare
Education
Veterans benefits and services
General government
Total expenditures and net lending.

}

Note.—New budget concepts in the "Budget of the United States Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30,1969,"
are used in this table.
Sources: Bureau of the Budget and Treasury Department.




281

T A B L E B-61.—Relation of the receipt-expenditure accounts of the Federal Government to the Federal
sector of the national income and product accounts, 1967—69
[Billions of dollars; fiscal years]
1967
actual

Receipts and Expenditures

1968
estimate

1969
estimate

RECEIPTS
Total receipts, budget.

149.6

178.1

1.9
1.2
2.2

2.0
1.2
1.1

147.6

161.1

182.5

153.2

169.9

182.8

1.7
1.1
-.4
-1.4
-.8
1.6

Federal sector, national income and product accounts, receipts..

155.8

1.7
1.1
-4.8

Employer share, employee retirement..
Other netting and grossing.
Adjustment to accruals
Other

1.9
1.2
.3
-1.7
-.7
.2

2.0
1.2
.4
-2.1
-.5
1.1

155.1

171.1

185.0

EXPENDITURES
Total expenditures, budget..
Employer share, employee, retirement._.
Other netting and grossing
Defense timing adjustment..
Lending in the expenditure account...
Dollar expenditures to finance agricultural exports.
Other
Federal sector, national income and product accounts, expenditures...

Note.—See Special Analysis B, "Budget of the United States Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1969,"
for description of these categories.
Sources: Bureau of the Budget and Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics).




282

T A B L E B-62.—Receipts and expenditures of the Federal sector of the national income and
product accounts, 1946—69
[Billions of dollars]
Receipts

Year or quarter

Fiscal year:
1946....
1947
1948
1949
1950..
1951..
1952..
1953..
1954..
1955..
1956..
1957..
1958..
1959..
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
19681
19691

Total

Expenditures

Indirect
Per- Cor- busi- Consonal poness tributax
rate
tax tions
and
and
for
non- profits non- social Total
tax
tax
actax insurreceipts cruals ac- ance
cruals

16.9
18.8
20.0
16.3
42.0 16.5
60.8 23.2
65.1 28.8
69.3 31.4
65.8 30.3
67.2 29.7
75.8 33.6
80.7 36.7
77.9 36.3
85.4 38.2
94.8 42.5
95.3 43.6
104.2 47.3
110.2 49.6
115.5 50.7
120.6 51.3
132.9 57.5
147.6 64.6
161.1 71.0
182.5 83.8
38.4
42.7
43.6
40.0

Calendar year:

8.3
10.6
11.2
11.0
11.9
21.5
19.3
19.7
17.3
18.7
21.1
20.6
17.8
21.5
22.3
20.3
22.9
23.5
25.7
27.8
31.0
31.4
34.3
37.2

7.4
7.9
7.9
8.0
8.2
9.5
9.7
10.7
10.4
10.0
10.8
11.7
11.6
11.9
13.2
13.3
14.2
15.0
15.6
16.9
15.8
15.9
17.1
18.1

5.8
5.5
4.6
4.8
5.5
6.6
7.3
7.5
7.8
8.7
10.2
11.7
12.2
13.8
16.7
18.1
19.9
22.1
23.5
24.5
28.6
35.7
38.7
43.4

55.5
29.5
50.9
39.6
42.4
44.6
66.0
75.8
74.2
67.3
69.8
76.0
83.1
90.9
91.3
98.0
106.4
111.4
116.9
118.3
131.9
155.1
171.1
185.0

Transfer
payments
Purchases
of
goods
and
services

40.1
13.0
13.2
19.3
19.0
25.1
46.6
56.1
53.2
43.9
45.2
47.7
50.7
54.7
52.7
55.5
60.9
63.4
65.7
64.3
71.7
84.5
92.8
99.4

To
per-

Grantsin-aid
to State
and
To
local
foreign- governers
ments
(net)

8.3
1.8
8.7
2.6
5.0
8.1
11.3 4.3
8.1
3.1
8.5
2.6
9.3
2.1
1.7
10.5
2.1
12.1
1.8
12.8
1.9
14.4
1.7
17.8
1.8
19.8
1.8
20.6
2.1
23.6
25L1 2.1
26.4
2.1
27.3
2.2
28.3
2.1
31.7
2.3
37.7
2.1
44.9
49.9

0.9
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.2
3.7
4.7
6.2
6.8
6.9
7.6
8.4
9.8
10.9
12.7
15.4
18.0
20.0

Net
interest
paid

3.7
4.2
4.2
4.3

4.4
4.6
4.8
4.8
5.0
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.7
5.9
7.0
6.8
6.8
7.5
8.1
8.5
9.0
10.1
10.7
11.2

Surplus
or
Subsi- deficit
dies
less
curnarent tionsural
plus
inof
come
gov- and
ern- prodment uct
enter- acprises counts
2.1
.7

'.S
1.0
1.3
1.1
.9
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.3
3.2
3.8
3.6
3.8
4.1
4.5
5.3
4.6
4.5

-17.1
13.2
12.7
.4
-.5
16.2
-1.0
-6.5
-8.5
-.1
6.0
4.7
-5.1
-5.5
3.5
-2.7
-2.1
-1.2
-1.4
2.3
.9
-7.5
-10.0
-2.5

3.5
39.1 17.2
7.8
5.5
9.2
2.2
8.6
35.6
17.2
1.1
4.2
1.6
13.4
43.2 19.6 10.7
1.9
7.8
5.1
1.7
4.2
.6
29.8
12.5 8.8
8.4
43.3 19.0 11.8
3.8
2.0
4.3
.7
8.0
4.5
7.6
34.9
16.5
38.9 16.1
5.1
2.2
4.4
.8 - 2 . 4
9.8
8.0'
4.9
8.7
41.3
20.1
49.9 18.1 17.0
9.1
2.3
5.9
40.8
18.4 10.8
3.6
4.5
1.2
8.9
64.0 26.1 21.5
6.2
8.5
2.5
7.1
57.8
37.7
3.1
4.7
1.3
9.4
_.
67.2 31.0 18.5 10.3 7.4
8.8
2.6
71.0
51.8
2.1
4.7
1.0 - 3 . 8
70.0 32.2 19.5 10.9
9.5
2.8
7.4
77.0
57.0
2.0
4.9
.8 - 7 . 0
63.8 29.0 17.0
2.9
8.1
69.7
47.4 11.5
1.8
5.0
1.1 - 5 . 9
9.7
72.1 31.4 20.6 10.7
3.1
9.3
68.1
44.1 12.4
2.0
4.9
1.5
4.0
77.6 35.2 20.6 11.2 10.6
3.3
71.9
45.6 13.4
1.9
5.3
2.4
5.7
81.6 37.4 20.2 11.8 12.2
4.2
79.6
49.5 15.7
1.8
5.7
2.6
2.1
78.7 36.8 18.0 11.5 12.4
5.6
88.9
53.6 19.5
1.8
5.6
2.7 -10.2
89.7 39.9 22.5 12.5 14.8
6.8
91.0
53.7 20.1
1.8
6.4
2.1 - 1 . 2
1960
96.5 43.6 21.7 13.5 17.7
3.5
1.9
6.5
7.1
2.5
53.5 21.5
93.0
1961
98.3 44.7 21.8 13.6 18.2 102.1
2.1
7.2
6.6
3.8 -3.8
57.4 24.9
1962
106.4 48.6 22.7 14.6 20.5 110.3 63.4 25.5
7.2
4.0 - 3 . 8
2.2
8.0
114.5 51.5 24.6 15.3 23.1 113.9
1963
7.7
3.6
2.2
9.1
64.2 27.0
115.0 48.6 26.4 16.1 23.8 118.1
1964
8.3
4.2 - 1 0
2.2
10.4
65.2 27.8
124.8 53.8 29.3 16.5 25.2 123.4
1965
8.7
4.3
1.4
2.2
11.2
66.8 30.3
143.2 61.7 32.3 15.9 33.3 142.9
9.5
5.4
1966
2.3
14.8
77.0 33.7
151.5 66.5 30.7 16.6 37.7 164.1
5.2 -12.6
1967*
2.2
15.8 10.4
89.9 40.7
Calendar quarSeasonally adjusted annual rates
ter:
1965: I . . . . 123.4 52.9 28.3 17.5 24.7 118.9
4.4
4.5
2.0
10.4
8.6
64.3 29.2
II...
124.9 54.5 28.9 16.5 24.9 119.9
4.9
65.4 28.4
2.4
10.7
8.6
4.3
III..
123.4 53.3 29.0 15.7 25.3 126.6
67.6 32.5
2.2
11.3
8.7
4.2 - 3 . 2
IV..
127.6 54.6 30.9 16.3 25.8 128.0
-.4
69.8 30.9
2.0
12.2
8.9
4.4
1966: j
137.0 57.7 32.2 15.2 31.9 134.8
2.2
72.1 32.5
2.8
13.8
9.1
4.6
if.".".' 141.6 60.9 32.2 15.9 32.5 138.4
3.2
74.9 31.9
2.3
14.6
9.4
5.3
ML.
145.6 63.1 32.4 16.2 34.0 146,3 79.5 33.7
-.7
2.2
15.3 9.6
6.0
I V . . . 148.6 65.2 32.3 16.3 34.7 151.9
81.5 36.9
1.9
15.6 10.0
5.9 - 3 . 3
1967: I . . . . 149.1 65.5 30.3 16.2 37.0 160.9
87.1 40.0
2.2
15.6 10.4
5.6 -11.9
I I . . . . 148.1 64.0 30.3 16.5 37.2 162.8
89.5 40.3
2.0
15.3 10.4
5.3 -14.7
152.7 67.5 30.6 16.7 38.0 165.9
III..
90.9 41.2
2.3
16.0 10.5
5.0 -13.2
IV p.
69.0
17.0 38.6 167.5
92.0 41.4
2.1
16.4 10.7
4.9
i Estimates.
Note.—Includes the transactions of the trust accounts and excludes certain financial transactions. Corporate profits
taxes are included in receipts on an accrual basis; expenditures are timed with the delivery; and CCC guaranteed pricesupport crop loans financed by banks are counted as expenditures when the loans are made, not when CCC redeems them.
See Table B-61.
Sources: Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics) and Bureau of the Budget.
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959




283

TABLE B-63.—Federal finances under the old concepts,fiscalyears 1929-69
[Millions of dollars]
Cash receipts from and payments
to the public

Administrative budget

Fiscal year
Net
receipts

1929
1930
1931 .
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939 .

Cash
receipts

Cash
payments

Excess of
receipts
or of payments (—)

.

.

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

..

..

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

..

..

.-

3,127

734

16,931

3,320
3,577
4,659
4,598
6,645
6,497
8,422
7,733
6,765
8,841

738
-462
-2,735
-2,602
-3,630
-2,791
-4,425
-2,777
-1,177
-3,862

16,185
16,801
19,487
22,539
27,734
32,824
38,497
41,089
42,018
45,890

5,137
7,096
12,547
21,947
43,563
44,362
39,650
39,677
41,375
37,663

9,055
13,255
34,037
79,368
94,986
98,303
60,326
38,923
32,955
39,474

-3,918
-6,159
-21,490
-57,420
-51,423
-53,941
-20,676
754
8,419
-1,811

47,800
50,200
43,537
43,531
45,357
41,576

94,000
95,200
61,738
36,931
36,493
40,570

-46,100
-45,000
-18,201
6,600
8,864
1,006

48,497
55,332
76,991
140,796
202,626
259,115
269,898
258,376
252,366
252,798

36,422
47,480
61,287
64,671
64,420
60,209
67,850
70,562
68,550
67,915

.

3,861
4,058
3,116
1,924
1,997
3,015
3,706
3,997
4,956
5,588
4,979

...

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968»
1969» . . .

Expendi- Surplus or
tures
deficit ( - )

Gross
public
debt at
end of
year and
guaranteed
issues

39,544
43,970
65,303
74,120
67,537
64,389
66,224
68,966
71,369
80,342

-3,122
3,510
-4,017
-9,449
-3,117
-4,180
1,626
1,596
-2,819
-12,427

40,940
53,390
68,011
71,495
71,626
67,836
77,087
82,105
81,892
81,660

43,147
45,797
67,962
76,769
71,858
70, 537
72,546
80,006
83,472
94,752

-2,207
7,593
49
-5,274
-232
-2,702
4,542
2,099
-1,580
-13,092

257,377
255,251
259,151
266,123
271,341
274,418
272,825
270,634
276,444
284,817

77,763
77,659
81,409
86,376
89,459
93,072
104,727
115,849
118,575
135,587

76,539
81,515
87,787
92,642
97,684
96, 507
106,978
125,718
137,182
147,363

1,224
-3,856
-6,378
-6,266
-8,226
-3,435
-2,251
-9,869
-18,607
-11,776

95,078
97,242
101,865
109,739
115,530
119,699
134,479
153,596
158,823
181,146

94,328
99, 542
107,662
113,751
120,332
122,395
137,818
155,142
175,981
188,725

750
-2,300
-5,797
-4,012
-4,802
-2,696
-3,337
-1,546
-17,157
-7,579

286,471
289,211
298,645
306,466
312, 526
317,864
320,369
326,733
351,599
363,540

» Estimates.
Note.—The old concepts in this table are those used in budgets of the U.S. Government for years prior to fiscal 1969.
Sources: Bureau of the Budget and Treasury Department.




284

TABLE B-64.—U.S. Government debt, by kind of obligation, 1929-57
{Billions of dollars]
Interest-bearing public debt
Gross
public
debt and
guaranteed
issues *

End of year or month

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
...
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1966- Jan

.

..
..
-.

,-

-

. .

. .

.

.

-.

.

.
.

Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June .
July
Aug.
Sept
Oct...
Nov
Dec
1967: Jan
Feb....
Mar
Apr....
May

...

..

.

.-

.

. . .
...

.

.

..
.

.

.

..

June
July

Aug
Sept
Oct..
Nov
Dec

.

.
. ..
.

Marketable public
issues
Short-

term
issues 2

16.3
16.0
17.8
20.8
24.0
31.5
35.1
39.1
41.9
44.4
47.6
50.9
64.3
112.5
170.1
232.1
278.7
259.5
257.0
252.9
257.2
256.7
259.5
267.4
275.2
278.8
280.8
276.7
275.0
283.0
290.9
290.4
296.5
304.0
310.1
318.7
321.4
329.8
345.2
322.4
323.7
321.5
320.1
322.8
320.4
319.8
324.9
325.2
327.4
329.9
329.8
329.4
330.1
331.5
328.3
331.4
326.7
331.2
336.4
336.4
341.0
345.6
345.2

1

3.3
2.9
2.8
5.9
7.5
11.1
14.2
12.5
12.5
9.8
7.7
7.5
8.0
27.0
47.1
69.9
78.2
57.1
47.7
45.9
50.2
58.3
65.6
68.7
77.3
76.0
81.3
79.5
82.1
92.2
103.5
109.2
120.5
124.6
121.2
115.5
110 4
118.9
131.2
113.5
114.5
112.0
111 9
111.8
107.2
107.2
110.8
111.3
114.8
118 1
118.9
119.7
120.2
120 9
118.1
118.8
113.3
117.6
120.9
121 3
126.0
130.8
131.2

Treasury
bonds
11.3
11.3
13.5
13.4
14.7
15.4
14.3
19.5
20.5
24.0
26.9
• 28.0
33.4
49.3
67.9
91.6
120.4
119.3
117.9
111.4
104.8
94.0
76 9
79.8
77.2
81.8
81.9
80.8
82.1
83.4
84.8
79.8
75.5
78.4
86.4
97.0
104 2
99.2
95.2
104.2
103.2
103.1
103 1
102.0
101.9
101.9
100.6
100.5
100.5
99 2
99.2
99.1
99.1
99 0
99.0
97.9
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.3
97.3
95.3
95.2

Nonmarketable
public issues
United
States
savings
bonds

0.2
.5
1.0
1.4
2.2
3.2
6.1
15.0
27.4
40.4
48.2
49.8
52.1
55.1
56.7
58.0
57.6
57.9
57.7
57.7
57.9
56.3
52.5
51.2
48.2
47.2
47.5
47.5
48.8
49.7
50 3
50.8
51.6
50.3
50.3
50.4
50 4
50.5
50.5
50.6
50.6
50.6
50.7
50 8
50.8
50.8
50.9
51.0
51.1
51.1
51.2
51.3
51.4
51.4
51.5
51.6
51.6

Investment
bonds 3

Special
issues *

0.6
.8
.4
.4
.4
.6

16
1.0
1.0
1.0
13.0
13.4
12.9
12.7
12.3
11.6
10.3
9.0
7.6
6.2
5.1
4.4
3.7
3.4
28
2.7
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

.6
2.2
3.2
4.2
5.4
7.0
9.0
12.7
16.3
20.0
24.6
29.0
31.7
33.9
33.7
35.9
39.2
41.2
42.6
43.9
45.6
45.8
44.8
43.5
44.3
43.5
43.4
43.7
46.1
46.3
52.0
57.2
44.4
45.8
46.0
44.9
48.8
51.1
50.7
53.2
53.1
51.9
52.5
52.0
51.3
51.5
52.1
51.6
55.2
56.2
56.2
58.3
57.7
57.2
57.4
57.2

Total includes non-interest-bearing debt, fully guaranteed securities (except those held by the Treasury), Postal Savings
bonds, prewar bonds, adjusted service bonds, depositary bonds. Armed Forces leave bonds, Rural Electrification Administration series bonds, foreign series certificates and notes, foreign currency certificates, notes and bonds, Treasury certificates, and U.S. retirement plan bonds, not shown separately. Not all of total shown is subject to statutory debt limitation.
2
Bills, certificates of indebtedness, and notes.
3 Series A bonds through September 1965 and, beginning April 1951, series B convertible bonds.
* Issued to U.S. Government investment accounts. These accounts also held $18.8 billion of public marketable and
nonmarketable issues on December 31, 1967.
Note.—See Note, Table B-66.
Source: Treasury Department.

284-593 O—68


285
-19

TABLE B-65.—Estimated ownership of U.S. Government obligations, 1939-67
[Par values,i billions of dollars]

Gross public debt and guaranteed issues 2

End of year or
month
Total

Held
by U.S.
Held
Governby
ment Federal
invest- Reserve
ment
banks
accounts

Held by "the public"

Total

Mutual
savings
State
Combanks
Other
and
Indimercial and in- corpo- 4 local viduals «
banks 3 surance rations govern5
comments
panies

Miscellaneous
investors 7

0.4
2.5
38.6
9.4
0.7
6.5
2.2
10.1
15.9
47.6
50.9
41.1
.7
.5
2.2
2.0
10.1
10.6
7.6
17.3
64.3
52.5
.9
.7
2.3
4.0
11.9
13.6
9.5
21.4
112.5
94.0
2.3
1.0
6.2
10.1
15.8
23.7
12.2
41.1
170.1
141.6
4.4
2.1
11.5
16.4
21.2
37.6
16.9
59.9
232.1
191.6
7.0
4.3
18.8
21.4
28.0
53.3
21.7
77.7
278.7
227.4
9.1
6.5
24.3
22.2
34.7
64.1
27.0
90.8
259.5
205.2
8.1
6.3
23.3
15.3
36.7
64.2
30.9
74.5
257.0
200.1
8.4
7.3
22.6
14.1
35.9
65.7
34.4
68.7
252.9
192.2
8.9
7.9
23.3
14.8
32.7
65.5
37.3
62.5
257.2
198.9
9.4
8.1
18.9
16.8
31.5
66.3
39.4
66.8
256.7
196.8
20.8
39.2
61.8
10.5
66.3
19.7
29.6
259.5
193.4
42.3
23.8
10.6
64.6
9.6
20.7
61.6
26.3
267.4
45.9
196.9
24.7
11.7
65.2
11.1
19.9
25.5
63.4
48.3
275.2
201.0
13.2
64.8
12.7
21.5
25.9
25.1
63.7
49.6
13.9
63.5
14.4
278.8
19.1
204.2
24.1
24.9
69.2
51.7
15.6
65.0
15.4
23.2
23.1
280.8
204.3
24.8
62.0
54.0
16.1
65.9
16.3
18.7
21.3
276.7
197.8
24.9
59.5
55.2
16.6
64.9
16.6
17.7
20.2
275.0
195.5
24.2
59.5
54.4
16.6
63.7
16.5
18.1
19.9
283.0
202.3
26.3
67.5
53.7
22.1
69.4
18.0
21.4
19.5
290.9
210.6
26.6
60.3
290.4
55.1
27.4
207.9
24.2
66.1
18.7
18.1
62.1
18.7
296.5
54.5
28.9
213.1
25.0
65.9
19.0
17.5
67.2
18.5
304.0
55.6
30.8
217.6
28.0
66.0
20.1
17.6
67.2
18.6
310.1
58.0
33.6
218.5
29.2
68.2
21.1
17.1
64.3
18.7
318.7
60.6
37.0
221.1
31.2
69.8
21.2
16.8
64.0
18.2
321.4
61.9
40.8
218.7
31.4
72.1
22.9
15.8
60.8
15.8
329.8
68.8
44.3
216.8
30.5
74.6
25.0
14.3
57.5
14.9
.345.2
76.0
49.1
220.1
32.3
73.9
24.3
12.9
63.7
13.0
322.4
31.8
1966: J a n . . .
221.9
73.1
23.7
60.0
40.6
15.9
60.9
16.6
323.7
31.7
Feb...
73.4
24.7
40.2
221.9
61.7
15.8
58.7
17.6
31.5
321.5
74.5
24.4
Mar...
40.7
219.2
15.7
57.0
61.7
15.9
31.3
320.1
74.1
25.1
40.7
Apr...
15.4
57.0
15.9
218.9
60.5
30.8
73.9
25.3
322.8
41.5
15.2
55.1
May..
16.4
216.8
64.5
30.0
73.1
24.5
42.2
320.4
14.8
54.8
14.2
June..
211.5
66.7
29.7
73.4
319.8
25.1
July..
66.4
42.4
53.8
211.0
14.7
14.3
30.0
73.9
324.9
25.0
Aug...
55.0
69.3
42.5
213.1
14.6
14.5
30.1
74.7
325.2
25.2
Sept..
54.8
213.2
14.6
69.2
13.8
42.9
31.1
75.4
327.4
25.2
Oct...
55.3
216.4
14.4
14.9
68.0
43.0
30.7
75.3
329.9
25.1
Nov...
55.5
217.1
14.4
16.0
68.9
43.9
30.5
74.6
329.8
25.0
Dec...
57.5
216.8
14.3
14.9
68.8
44.3
31.4
74.9
24.8
329.4
14.0
57.8
1967: J a n . . .
14.7
68.2
43.5
217.6
31.0
74.6
25.0
14.7
330.1
13.9
57.4
Feb...
69.6
44.0
216.6
30.9
74.0
25.1
14.1
331.5
13.7
58.1
Mar...
70.7
44.9
215.9
31.1
72.7
25.2
12.9
328.3
13.3
57.2
Apr...
70.4
45.5
212.4
30.5
71.9
25.1
13.6
331.4
13.?
56.4
May..
74.6
46.1
210.8
28.8
70.9
25.0
11.1
326.7
12.9
55.5
June..
75.8
46.7
204.2
30.3
70.8
24.7
11.9
12.9
58.3
331.2
46.8
July...
75.5
208.9
30.5
71.4
25.1
12.4
13.0
60.2
336.4
46.6
77.2
212.6
Aug...
30.9
72.5
24.9
10.7
13.0
61.1
336.4
46.9
76.4
213.1
s e
31.8
73.0
24.6
11.8
12.9
63.6
341.0
47.4
75.9
217.7
32.8
73.6
24.5
13.2
12.9
63.5
345.6
48.9
76.2
220.5
Nov...
32.3
73.9
24.3
13.0
12.9
63.7
345.2
49.1
76.0
220.1
Dec 8..
1
United States savings bonds, series A-F and J, are included at current redemption value.
2 Excludes guaranteed securities held by the Treasury. Not all of total shown is subject to statutory debt limitation.
3 Includes commercial banks, trust companies, and stock savings banks in the United States and Territories and island
possessions; figures excjude securities held in trust departments. Since the estimates in this table are on the basis of par
values and include holdings of banks in United States Territories and possessions, they do not agree with the estimates
in 4Table B-51, which are based on book values and relate only to banks within the United States.
Exclusive of banks and insurance companies.
8
Includes trust, sinking, and investment funds of State and local governments and their agencies, and of Territories
and possessions.
8
Includes partnerships and personal trust accounts.
7
Includes savings and loan associations, nonprofit institutions, corporate pension trust funds, dealers and brokers,
and investments of foreign balances and international accounts in this country. Beginning with December 1946, the international accounts include investments by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International
Monetary Fund, the International Development Association, the Inter-American Development Bank, and various United
Nations' funds, in special non-interest-bearing notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Government. Beginning with June 30,
1947, includes holdings of Federal land banks.
8 Preliminary estimates by Council of Economic Advisers.
Note.-See Note, Table B-€6.
Source: Treasury Department (except as noted).

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947..
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965...
1966
1967 8

o c?!:-.




286

TABLE B—66.—Average length and maturity distribution of marketable interest-bearing
public debt, 1946-67
Maturity class
End of year or month

Amount
outstanding

Average length
Within
1 year

1 to 5
years

5 to 10
years

10 to 20
years

20 years

Millions of dollars

Years

Months

Fiscal year:
1946—
1947...
1948...
1949—

189,606
168,702
160,346
155,147

61,974
51,211
48,742
48,130

24,763
21,851
21,630
32, 562

41,807
35, 562
32,264
16,746

17,461
18, 597
16,229
22,821

43,599
41,481
41,481
34,888

1950—
1951—
1952...
1953—
1954...

155,310
137,917
140,407
147,335
150,354

42,338
43,908
46,367
65,270
62,734

51,292
46,526
47,814
36,161
29,866

7,792
8,707
13,933
15,651
27,515

28,035
29,979
25,700
28,662
28,634

25,853
8,797
6,594
1,592
1,606

1955...
1956—
1957—
1958...
1959...

155,206
154,953
155,705
166,675
178, 027

49,703
58,714
71,952
67,782
72,958

39,107
34,401
40,669
42, 557
58,304

34,253
28,908
12,328
21,476
17,052

28,613
28,578
26,407
27,652
21,625

3,530
4,351
4,349
7,208

I960—
1961—
1962...
1963...
1964...

183,845
187,148
196,072
203, 508
206,489

70,467
81,120
88,442
85,294
81,424

72,844
58,400
57,041
58,026
65,453

20,246
26,435
26,049
37,385
34,929

12,630
10,233
9,319
8,360
8,355

7,658
10,960
15,221
14,444
16,328

11
1
0

1965...
1966—
1967...

208,695
209,127
210,672

87,637
89,136
89,648

56,198
60,933
71,424

39,169
33,596
24,398

8,449
8,439
8,425

17,241
17,023
16,797

4
11
7

1966:Jan..
Feb..
Mar..
May"
June.

217,656
217,690
215,150
215,004
213,764
209,127

96,461
94,226
91,704
91,820
92,231
89,136

60,608
62,893
64,306
64,076
62,453
60,933

35,013
35,008
33,607
33,603
33,600
33,596

8,444
8,443
8,442
8,441
8,440
8,439

17,131
17,120
17,092
17,065
17,040
17,023

10
11
11
10
11
11

July..
Aug..
Sept.
Oct..
Nov..
Dec.

209,108
211,402
211,771
215,313
217,239
218,025

89,138
92,238
92,642
96,656
104,398
105,218

60,932
62,957
62,952
62.495
59,459
59,447

33,592
30,783
30,774
30,771
28,008
28,005

8,439
8,437
8,436
8,435
8,434
8,433

17,007
16,987
16,967
16,957
16,940
16,923

10
11
10

1967: Jan..
Feb..
Mar.
Apr..
May.
June.

218,796
219,245
219,914
217,127
216,650
210,672

106,021
101, 549
102,242
99,670
95, 524
89,648

59,434
66,717
66,722
66,541
70,238
71,424

28,002
25,655
25,650
25,645
25,641
24,378

8,432
8,431
8,430
8,428
8,426
8,425

16,908
16,893
16,870
16,843
16,819
16,797

July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct..
Nov..
Dec.

214,968
218,258
218,637
223,271
226,081
226,476

93,957
95,040
95, 442
100,208
102,158
104,363

71,433
76,244
78,198
78,088
77,320
78,159

24,376
21,793
19, 840
19,837
21,487
18,859

8,423
8,422
8,421
8,419
8,418
8,417

16,780
16,758
16,737
16,719
16,697
16,679

10
4
9
3
7

Note.—All issues classified to final maturity except partially tax-exempt bonds, which were classified to earliest call
date (the last of these bonds were called on August 14,1962, for redemption on December 15,1962).
The concept of the public debt in this table is that used in budgets of the U.S. Government for years prior to fiscal 1969.
Detail for the new concept are not yet available.
Source: Treasury Department.




287

T A B L E B-67.—Receipts and expenditures of the government sector of the national income and product
accounts, 1929-67
[Billions of dollars]
Total government

Federal Government *

Surplus or
deficit

Calendar year or quarter

Surplus or
deficit

Receipts

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965.
1966
1967 v

.

1965: 1
II
III
IV
1966: 1

....

Expenditures

national
Reincome ceipts
and
product accounts

11.3
10.8
9.5
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.4
12.9
15.4
15.0
15.4
17.7
25.0
32.6
49.2
51.2
53.2
50.9
56.8
58.9
56.0
68.7
84.8
89.8
94.3
89.7
100.4
109.0
115.6
114.7
128.9
139.8
144.6
157.0
168.8
174.1
188.8
213.0
227.3

. .

State and local
government

10.3
11.1
12.4
10.6
10.7
12.9
13.4
16.1
15.0
16.8
17.6
18.4
28.8
64.0
93.3
103.0
92.7
45.5
42.4
50.3
59.1
60.8
79.0
93.7
101.2
96.7
97.6
104.1
114.9
127.2
131.0
136.1
149.0
159.9
166.9
175.4
186.1
209.8
240.0

1.0
-.3
-2.9
-1.8
-1.4
-2.4
-2.0
-3.1
.3
-1.8
-2.2
-.7
-3.8
-31.4
-44.1
-51.8
-39.5
5.4
14.4
8.5
-3.2
7.8
5.8
-3.8
-6.9
-7.0
2.7
4.9

185.4
188.3
188.3
193.2
204.3
210.6
216.3
220.9
222.8
223.2
229.3

179.8
182.0
190.0
192.6
199.8
204.4
213.7
221.2
233.6
238.1
242.6
246.2

5.6
6.3
-1.7
.6
4.5
6.2
2.6
-.3
-10.8
-14.9
-13.3

Expenditures

national
income
and
product accounts

3.8
1.2
2.6
3.0
.3
2.8
2.0
-2.1
4.2
1.7
3.2
2.7
4.0
-L3
3.5
6.4
-2.9
4.0
6.5
-2.6
5.0
8.7
-3.6
7.0
7.4
6.5
8.6
6.7
8.9
-2.2
10.0
-1.3
8.6
20.5
-5.1
15.4
56.1 - 3 3 . 1
22.9
85.8 - 4 6 . 6
39.3
95.5 - 5 4 . 5
41.0
84.6 -42.1
42.5
35.6
3.5
39.1
29.8
13.4
43.2
34.9
8.4
43.3
41.3
-2.4
38.9
49.9
9.1
40.8
64.0
6.2
57.8
67.2
-3.8
71.0
70.0
-7.0
77.0
63.8
-5.9
69.7
72.1
4.0
68.1
77.6
5.7
71.9
81.6
2.1
79.6
78.7
88.9 - 1 0 . 2
-12.'5
89.7
-1.2
91.0
-2.1
93.0
3.5
96.5
3.7
102.1
-3.8
98.3
-4.3
110.3
-3.8
106.4
-2.9
113.9
114.5
1.8
118.1
115.0
-1.4
123.4
124.8
2.7
L4
142.9
143.2
3.2
164.1 -12.'6
151.5
-12.7
Seasonally adjusted annual rates
123.4
124.9
123.4
127.6
137.0
141.6
145.6
148.6
149.1
148.1
152.7

118.9
119.9
126.6
128.0
134.8
138.4
146.3
151.9
160.9
162.8
165.9
167.5

4.5
4.9
-3.2
-.4
2.2
3.2

Surplus or
deficit
Receipts

Expenditures

national
income
and
product accounts

7.6
7.8
7.7
7.3
7.2
8.6
9.1
8.6
9.1
9.3
9.6
10.0
10.4
10.6
10.9
11.1
11.6
12.9
15.3
17.6
19.3
21.1
23.3
25.2
27.2
28.8
31.4
34.7
38.2
41.6
46.0
49.9
53.6
58.6
63.4
69.5
75.1
84.7
91.6

7.8
8.4
8.5
7.6
7.2
8.1
8.6
8.1
8.4
9.0
9.6
9.3
9.1
8.8
8.4
8.5
9.0
11.0
14.3
17.4
20.0
22.3
23.7
25.3
27.0
29.9
32.7
35.6
39.5
44.0
46.8
49.6
54.1
57.6
62.2
67.8
73.9
81.8
91.7

-0.2
-.6
-.8

72 4
74.1
76.2
77.8
81.1
83.6
86.0
87.9
89.3
90.4
92.6

71.3
72.8
74.7
76.8
78.8
80.6
82.7
84.9
88.3
90.6
92.7
95.1

-A
.5
.4
.6
1.3
1.8
2.5
2.7
2.6
1.9
1.0
.1
-.7
-1.2
-.4
j

-1.1
-1.3
-.9
-1.4
-2.3
-.8
.2
-.5
1.2
1.7
1.2
2.9
-.1
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.1
2.4
2.9
3.3
3.0
1.0

Ill
-13
IV
-11.9
1967: 1
II
-14.7
-13.2
III
....
-.1
IV v
1 See Note, Table B^62.
2
Surplus of $32 million.
3 Deficit of $41 million.
Note.—Federal grants-in-aid to State and local governments are reflected in Federal expenditures and State and local
receipts and expenditures. Total government receipts and expenditures have been adjusted to eliminate this duplication.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




288

TABLE B-68.—State and local government revenues and expenditures, selectedfiscalyears 1927—66
[Millions of dollars]
General revenues by source -

Fiscal yearl
Total

Property
taxes

Sales
and
gross
ceipts
taxes

Individual
income
taxes

General expenditures by function -

Corpo- ReveAll
nue
ration
other
from
net
Federal reveincome
nue s
taxes Government

Total

Education

Highways

Public
welfare

All
otheri

1927

7,271

4,730

470

70

92

116

1,793

7,210

2,235

1,809

151

3,015

1932
1934
1936
1938

7,267
7,678
8,395
9,228

4,487
4,076
4,093
4 440

752
1,008
1,484
1,794

153
218

79
49
113
165

232
1,016
948
800

1,643
1,449
1,604
1,811

7,765
7,181
7,644
8,757

2,311
1,831
2,177
2,491

1,741
1,509
1,425
1,650

444
889
827
1,069

3,269
2,952
3,215
3,547

1940
1942
1944
1946
1948

9,609
10,418
10,908
12,356
17,250

4 430
4 537
4 604
4 986
6,126

1,982
2,351
2,289
2,986
4,442

224
276
342
422
543

156
272
451
447
592

945
858
954
855
1,861

1,872 9,229
2,123 9,190
2,269 8,863
2,661 11,028
3,685 17,684

2,638
2,586
2,793
3,356
5,379

1,573
1,490
1,200
1,672
3,036

1,156
1,225
1,133
1,409
2,099

3,862
3,889
3,737
4,591
7,170

1950
1952
1953
1954

20,911
25,181
27,307
29, 012

7 349
8,652
9 375
9 967

5,154
6,357
6,927
7,276

788
998
1,065
1,127

593
846
817
778

2,486
2,566
2,870
2,966

4,541
5,763
6,252
6,897

22,787 7,177
26,098 8,318
27,910 9,390
30,701 10, 557

3,803
4,650
4,987
5,527

2,940 8,867
2,788 10,342
2,914 10,619
3,060 11,557

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

31,073
34,667
38,164
41,219
45,306

10 735 7,643
11 749 8,691
12 864 9,467
14 047 9,829
14 983 10,437

1,237
1,538
1,754
1,759
1,994

744
890
984
1,018
1,001

3,131 7,584
3,335 8,465
3,843 9,252
4,865 9,699
6,377 10,516

33,724
36,711
40,375
44,851
48,887

11,907
13,220
14,134
15,919
17,283

6,452
6,953
7,816
8,567
9,592

3,168
3,139
3,485
3,818
4,136

12,197
13,399
14,940
16,547
17,876

1960
1961
1962
1963

50,505
54,037
58,252
62,890

16 405
18,002
19 054
20,089

11,849
12,463
13,494
14,456

2,463
2,613
3,037
3,269

1,180
1,266
1,308
1,505

6,954
7,131
7,871
8,722

51,876
56,201
60,206
64,816

18,719 9,428
20,574 9,844
22,216 10,357
23,776 11,136

4,404
4,720
5,084
5,481

19,324
21,063
22,549
24,423

1962-63 5.
1963-64 5.
1964-65 s.
1965-66 s.

62,269
68,443
74,000
83,036

19 833
21 241
22 583
24 670

14,446
15,762
17,118
19,085

3,267
3,791
4,090
4,760

1,505 8,663 14,555 63,977
1,695 10,002 15,952 69,302
1,929 11,029 17,251 74,546
2,038 13,120 19,363 82,843

11,150
11,664
12,221
12,770

5,420
5,766
6,315
6,757

23,678
25,586
27,447
30,029

1

11,634
12,563
13,489
14,850

23,729
26,286
28,563
33,287

Fiscal years not the same for all governments. See footnote 5.
2 Excludes revenues or expenditures of publicly owned utilities and liquor stores, and of insurance-trust activities.
Intergovernmental receipts and payments between State and local governments are also excluded.
3 Includes licenses and other taxes and charges and miscellaneous revenues.
* Includes expenditures for health, hospitals, police, local fire protection, natural resources, sanitation, housing and
urban renewal, local parks and recreation, general control, financial administration, interest on general debt, and other
unallocable expenditures.
s Data for fiscal year ending in the 12-month period through June 30. Data for 1963 and earlier years include local government amounts grouped in terms of fiscal years ended during the particular calendar year.
Note.—Data are not available for intervening years.
See Table B-58 for net debt of State and local governments.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




289

CORPORATE PROFITS AND FINANCE
T A B L E B—69.—Profits before and after taxes, all private corporations, 1929—67
[Billions of dollars]

Corporate profits (before taxes) and
inventory valuation adjustment

Corporate profits
after taxes

CorpoTransrate
portaproftion,
All
its
comDur- Nonother beable dur- muniinfore
able
goods goods cation, dus- taxes
Total
and
intries
induspublic
tries dus* utilities
tries
Manufacturing

Year or
quarter

1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
19581959.
1960.
1961196219631964.
1965.
1966.
1967

All
industries

10.5
7.0
2.0
-1.3
-1.2
1.7
3.4
5.6
6.8
4.9
6.3
9.8
15.2
20.3
24.4
23.8
19.2
19.3
25.6
33.0
30.8
37.7
42.7
39.9
39.6
38.0
46.9
46.1
45.6
41.1
51.7
49.9
50.3
55.7
58.9
66.3
74.9
82.2
79.1

1.8
1.2
.5
.2

2.6
5.2
1.5
3.9
*
1.3
- . 5 -1.0
-.4 -.4
.3
1.1
.9
2.1
1.7
3.2
1.7
3.8
.8
2.3
1.7
3.3
3.1
5.5
6.4
9.5
7.2
11.8
8.1
13.8
7.4
13.2
4.5
9.7
2.4
9.0
5.8
13.6
7.5
17.6
8.1
16.2
20.9 12.0
24.6 13.2
21.6 11.7
22.0 11.9
19.9 10.5
26.0 14.3
24.7 12.8
24.0 13.3
9.3
19.3
26.3 13.6
24.4 12.0
23.3 11.4
26.6 14.1
28.8 15.8
32.7 17.8
38.7 22.2
43.1 24.4
39.0 21.0

2.6
2.4
1.3
.5
*
.8
1.1
1.5
2.1
1.6
1.7
2.4
3.1
4.6
5.7
5.9
5.2
6.6
7.8
10.0
8.1
8.9
11.4
9.9
10.1
9.4
11.8
11.9
10.7
10.0
12.7
12.4
11.9
12.5
13.0
14.9
16.5
18.7
18.0

.4
.4
.7
.8
.5
1.0
1.3
2.0
3.4
4.4
3.9
2.7
1.8
2.2
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.6
5.9
5.8
5.9
7.0
7.5
7.9
8.5
9.5
10.1
11.2
11.9
12.0

37.5
37.7
38.6
41.0
42.7
42.5
42.7
44.4
39.6
38.9
38.2

15.9
16.0
16.5
17.4
18.3
18.5
18.8
19.2
18.4
17.8
17.7

10.6
10.9
11.2
12.0
11.7
12.0
11.8
12.0
11.7
11.9
12.1

3.4 10.0
1.9
3.7
.2 - . 4
-.9 -2.3
1.0
-.8
2.3
.3
3.6
.9
6.3
1.7
6.8
2.2
4.0
2.1
7.0
2.0
3.0 10.0
3.7 17.7
5.1 21.5
6.2 25.1
6.7 24.1
6.7 19.7
8.5 24.6
9.9 31.5
12.5 35.2
11.6 28.9
12.7 42.6
13.5 43.9
13.3 38.9
12.6 40.6
13.4 38.3
15.2 48.6
15.6 48.8
15.8 47.2
15.9 41.4
18.4 52.1
17.9 49.7
19.1 50.3
20.5 55.4
20.6 59.4
23.5 66.8
25.0 76.6
27.2 83.8
28.1 80.1

Corporate
tax
liability i

DiviTotal dend
payments

1.4
8.6
.8
2.9
.5 - . 9
.4 - 2 . 7
.5
.4
.7
1.6
1.0
2.6
1.4
4.9
1.5
5.3
1.0
2.9
1.4
5.6
2.8
7.2
7.6 10.1
11.4 10.1
14.1 11.1
12.9 11.2
10.7
9.0
9.1 15.5
11.3 20.2
12.5 22.7
10.4 18.5
17.8 24.9
22.3 21.6
19.4 19.6
20.3 20.4
17.7 20.6
21.6 27.0
21.7 27.2
21.2 26.0
19.0 22.3
23.7 28.5
23.0 26.7
23.1 27.2
24.2 31.2
26.3 33.1
28.3 38.4
31.4 45.2
34.5 49.3
33.0 47.2

Undistributed
profits

Corporate
capital
consumption
allow-2
ances

Profits
plus
capital
consumption
allowances 3

5.8
5.5
4.1
2.5
2.0
2.6
2.8
4.5
4.7
3.2
3.8
4.0
4.4
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.6
5.6
6.3
7.0
7.2
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.9
9.3
10.5
11.3
11.7
11.6
12.6
13.4
13.8
15.2
16.5
17.8
19.8
21.5
22.8

2.8
-2.6
-4.9
-5.2
-1.6
-1.0
-.2
.4
.6
-.2
1.8
3.2
5.7
5.9
6.6
6.5
4.4
9.9
13.9
15.6
11.3
16.0
13.0
11.0
11.5
11.3
16.5
15.9
14.2
10.8
15.9
13.2
13.5
16.0
16.6
20.6
25.4
27.8
24.4

4.2
4.3
4.3
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
4.2
5.0
5.4
6.1
6.4
4.7
5.8
7.0
7.9
8.8
10.3
11.5
13.2
15.0
17.4
18.9
20.8
22.0
23.5
24.9
26.2
30.1
31.8
33.9
36.5
39.0
41.4

12.8
7.2
3.5
1.3
4.2
5.2
6.3
8.5
8.9
6.6
9.3
11.0
14.4
15.2
16.4
17.2
15.4
20.2
26.0
29.7
26.5
33.7
31.8
31.0
33.5
35.5
44.4
46.1
46.8
44.3
52.0
51.6
53.5
61.3
64.8
72.3
81.7
88.3
88.6

18.7
19.4
20.2
20.9
21.4
21.6
21.6
21.2
22.2
23.1
23.4
22.4

25.0
25.2
24.6
26.8
27.8
27.6
27.8
28.2
24.2
23.4
23.6

35.2
36.0
36.9
37.8
38.3
38.7
39.2
39.8
40.3
40.9
41.8
42.5

78.9
80.6
81.7
85.5
87.5
87.9
88.6
89.1
86.7
87.4
88.8

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: I.

IV.
1966: I . . . .
II...Ill
IV...
1967: L . . .
II.—
III

72.6
73.4
74.9
78.7
81.1
81.3
81.9
84.6
78.1
78.3
79.2

21.6
21.6
22.1
23.7
24.3
24.0
23.9
25.3
21.1
21.1
20.5

24.5
24.8
25.2
25.6
26.7
26.8
27.3
28.2
26.9
27.5
28.9

74.0
75.6
75.8
80.8
83.7
83.6
84.0
83.9
79.0
78.9
80.0

30.3
30.9
31.1
33.1
34.5
34.5
34.6
34.6
32.5
32.5
32.9

43.7
44.6
44.8
47.7
49.2
49.2
49.4
49.3
46.5
46.5
47.1

1
Federal and State corporate income and excess profits taxes.
2 Includes depreciation and accidental damages.
s Corporate profits after taxes plus corporate capital consumption allowances.
Note.—Beginning 1962 data reflect the new depreciation guidelines issued by the Treasury Department July 11,1962,
and the investment tax credit provided in the Revenue Act of 1962.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




290

TABLE

B-70.—Sales, profits, and stockholders' equity, all manufacturing corporations (except
newspapers), 1947-67
[Billions of dollars]
All manufacturing
corporations

Year or
quarter

Profits
Sales
(net)

Before
taxes

After
taxes

Nondurable goods
industries

Durable goods industries

Stockholders' Sales
equity * (net)

Profits
Before
taxes

Profits
Stockholders' Sales
After equity i (net) Before After
taxes
taxes taxes

Stockholders'
equity *

1947
1948
1949

150.7
165.6
154.9

16.6
18.4
14.4

10.1
11.5
9.0

65.1
72.2
77.6

66.6
75.3
70.3

7.6
8.9
7.5

4.5
5.4
4.5

31.1
34.1
37.0

84.1
90.4
84.6

9.0
9.5
7.0

5.6
6.2
4.6

34.0
38.1
40.6

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954..

181.9
245.0
250.2
265.9
248.5

23.2
27.4
22.9
24.4
20.9

12.9
11.9
10.7
11.3
11.2

83.3
98.3
103.7
108.2
113.1

86.8
116.8
122.0
137.9
122.8

12.9
15.4
12.9
14.0
11.4

6.7
6.1
5.5
5.8
5.6

39.9
47.2
49.8
52.4
54.9

95.1
128.1
128.0
128.0
125.7

10.3
12.1
10.0
10.4
9.6

6.1
5.7
5.2
5.5
5.6

43.5
51.1
53.9
55.7
58.2

1955....
1956
1957
1958
1959

278.4
307.3
320.0
305.3
338.0

28.6
29.8
28.2
22.7
29.7

15.1
16.2
15.4
12.7
16.3

120.1
131.6
141.1
147.4
157.1

142.1
159.5
166.0
148.6
169.4

16.5
16.5
15.8
11.4
15.8

8.1
8.3
7.9
5.8
8.1

58.8
65.2
70.5
72.8
77.9

136.3
147.8
154.1
156.7
168.5

12.1
13.2
12.4
11.3
13.9

7.0
7.8
7.5
6.9
8.3

61.3
66.4
70.6
74.6
79.2

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

345.7
356.4
389.9
412.7
443.1

27.5
27.5
31.9
34.9
39.6

15.2
15.3
17.7
19.5
23.2

165.4
172.6
181.4
189.7
199.8

173.9
175.2
195.5
209.0
226.3

14.0
13.6
16.7
18.5
21.2

7.0
6.9
8.6
9.5
11.6

82.3
84.9
89.1
93.3
98.5

171.8
181.2
194.4
203.6
216.8

13.5
13.9
15.1
16.4
18.3

8.2
8.5
9.2
10.0
11.6

83.1
87.7
92.3
96.3
101.3

1965
1966
1965: I
II
III.—
IV....

492.2
554.2

46.5
51.8

27.5
30.9

211.7 257.0
230.3 291.7

26.2
29.2

14.5
16.4

105.4 235.2
115.2 262.4

20.3
22.6

13.0
14.6

106.3
115.1

114.9
124.0
121.5
131.9

10.7
12.3
11.0
12.5

6.2
7.2
6.6
7.5

205.4
209.7
213.6
218.1

60.0
66.0
62.0
69.0

6.1
7.2
5.8
7.1

3.3
4.0
3.3
4.0

102.2
104.6
106.4
108.2

54.9
58.0
59.4
62.9

4.6
5.1
5.2
5.4

2.9
3.2
3.3
3.5

103.2
105.1
107.2
109.9

1966: I
II
III....
IV

129.9
141.0
137.8
145.5

12.4
14.0
12.3
13.1

7.2
8.4
7.4
7.9

222.4
228.6
233.4
236.8

68.0
75.4
71.1
77.3

7.0
8.2
6.5
7.5

3.8
4.6
3.7
4.2

110.0
114.2
117.1
119.3

61.9
65.6
66.7
68.2

5.4
5.8
5.8
5.6

3.4
3.7
3.7
3.7

112.4
114.3
116.3
117.5

1967: I
11....

137.0
145.1
141.5

11.4
12.6
11.0

6.7
7.6
6.7

240.9
245.6
249.7

71.1
77.0
72.6

6.2
7.2
5.4

3.4
4.1
3.1

121.6
123.7
126.0

65.9
68.2
68.9

5.2
5.4
5.6

3.3
3.5
3.6

119.3
121.8
123.6

1

Annual data are average equity for the year (using four end-of-quarter figures).
Note.—For explanatory notes concerning compilation of the series, see "Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing
Corporations," Federal Trade Commission and Securities x
and Exchange Commission.
: J
:
Data are not necessarily comparable frr
"— J— x- - L
classifications, sampling procedures, etc.:
visions is contained in the following issue
first quarter 1959, and first quarter 1965.
Comparability for certain industries was affected by changes noted in the following reports: fourth quarter 1952, first
quarter 1955, second quarter 1960, third quarter 1960, fourth quarter 1965, and second quarter 1966.
Sources: Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.




291

TABLE B—71.—Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders' equity and to sales, all manufacturing corporations (except newspapers), by industry group, 1947—67
t)urable goods

All

manufactur-

Electrical

ing

Ma

corMoma- rIYI3- Fabhin
poraAir- chin- cninritor
tions Total vehi- craft
ery,
ery cated
(exdurcles
and equip- (ex- metal
cept able i and parts ment, cept prodnewsequipand elec- ucts
trical)
papment
supers)
plies

Year or
quarter

Primary
iron

and
steel

in-

dustries

industries

rri-

mary
nonfar
rerrous
metal
inin
dustries

Miscella-

Lum-

Dri

Stone,
clay,

and

glass
prod-

ucts

Fur

rur-

ber
and

In-

neous
stru- manments ufacand turing
re-

wood
products
(ex- lated
fjy
tures cept prodfurni- ucts
ture)

niture
and
TIX-

(including
ordnance)

Ratio of profits after Federal taxes (annual rate) to stockholders' equity—percent 2
1947
1948
1949

15.6
16.0
11.6

14.4
15.7
12.1

16.4
19.9
22.1

19.0
16.1
13.6

15.7
16.3
11.6

17.6
17.0
10.4

12.0
14.7
10.0

12.4
14.2

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

15.4
12.1
10.3
10.5

16 9
13.0
11.1
11.1
10.3
13.8
12.8
11.3

25 3
14.3
13.9
13.9
14.1
21.7
13.1
14.2

20 9
14.0
13.7
13.1
12.4
12.3
11.4
12.5
10 2
12.5

14 1
13.0
11.3

16 0
13.4
10.1

14 3
12^3

9.8
8.6

9.8
7.6

10.7

10.3
12.6
10.7
6 9

10.0
10.7

9.7

8.0

13.5
12.7
11.4
7 2

15 1
13.8
11.6
11.1
10.4
15.5
16.4

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

9.2
8.9

9.9
12.6
12.3
10.9

8.6

10.4

8.0

8.2

9.3
7 3

8.1

10.4

14.5

8.1

8 5

13.5
11.4
16.3
16.7
16.9
19.5
15.9

7 3

9 5

12.7
11 3
12.2
15.2
14.4

10.0
10 1
11.2
13.5
14.8

7.8
9.1

5.9
7.9

9 6
12.5
14.1
15.0

8 3
10.1
13.2
14.7

7 0
8 8
9 8
10.2

14.6
15.9
12.7
14.4

14.3
15.5
14.6
14.6

14.4
17.0
14.8
14.0

13.9
16.6
15.6
12.8

9.1

11 7
12.5
12.4

12 2
12.8
11.9

12 3
15.2
12.2

12 7
14.2
11.7

8.1
9.6

9 8
10.3
11.6
. 13.0
13.4

10.1
11.7
13.8
14.2

1966:1
II
III
IV

13.0
14.7
12.7
13.4

14.0
16.2
12.6
14.1

20.6
19.7

1967:1
II
Ill

11.2
12.4
10.8

11.2
13.2

12.5
16.4

9.8

3.8

. .

17.7
13 2

8.5

5.5

17.8

9.8

8.9

7 5

5 6

8.0

7 2
6 1

5.4

12.2

9.7

10.0
7 9

7.9
6.0

14.0
15.0
13.1

18.0
15.9

22.9
19.2

8.1

9.1

15 2
11.3

17 5
11.9

8.6
8.2
6.0
9.2

8.5
7.1
6.3

7.9

17 7
14.2
11.7
11.8
12.5
15.6
14.9
12.4
10 2
12.7

7 l

9 9

6 5

3 6

10.1
13.4
14.2

9.9

10.1
10.0

12.4
15.9
14.5
14.1

14.6
11.2

8.1

9.3
6 0

7.1
7.5
7 6

9.8

11.9
14.8

8.9
8.9

8 7
9 6
10.3

9.9
5.9

14.0
16.2
13.6
15.2

12.9
12.3

13 7
12.8

3 3

7.8

10.4

8.4
9.4

11.6

8.5
6.3
8.9
4.9
7.9
8.3

10.6
12.0
12.4

11.1

8.7
4.7
5 7

9.4

4.1
5.6

8 2

8.1
6.2
5 5

8.6

10.5

14.4
14.0
12.1

14.0
12.2

16 7
13.2
11.6
11.4
12.3
12.5
12.4
12.0
10.6
13.1

12 3

11.6
10.6
12.0
12.1
14.4
17.5
20.9

9.2
9.9

10.7
15.4

17.6
20.5
22.0
23.2

12.2
13.4
15.7
19.6

15 7
16.9
18.7

12.8
12.5
13.2

7.7
7.8
7.1

6.3
5.6
3.6

8.6
6.1
4.8
4.6
5.5
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.4
6.5
5.9
5.4
5.9
6.0
7.2
8.6
9.5
8.5
9.3

5.6
3.7
2.7
2.9
2.8
3.1
3.6
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.4
3.3
3.6
3.8
4.9
4.2
4.3
5.1
5.7
4.2
4.1

7.2
9.7
7.0
8.2
7.5
8.5

11.6

7.7
8.2
9.3

9 4

8.8
9.5

Profits after taxes per dollar of sales—cents

6.7
7.0
5.8

1950
1951.
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1966:

1967:

.

.

.
1
II
III..IV
1
II
III..-

6.7
7.1
6.4

6.0
6.9
7.9

6 3

7 2

7.4
7.1
5.1

6 6

7.6
6.5

8.9
9.0
6.9

7.9
8.6
8.6

6.0
5.5
3.3

11.4

7.3
6.4

7.1
4.8

7.7
5.3

8.3
4.7

7 2

5.0

7.3
5.5

6 8

7 9

10.2

7.8

10.1

5.8

4 3
4 3

1947
1948
1949

4 5
4 2

4 7

4 5
4 1

4 8
4 2

3 6

4 7
5 3
5 3

6 7
6 3

5.1
3.4
2.7
2.6
2.1
2.9
3.4
2.6
2.0
2.7
2.1
1.6
2.3
2.4
2.9
3.7
3.9
3.6
4.2
3.9
3.7
3.2
3.5
3.6

9.4
5.5
4.1
3.5
3.4
5.4
3.9
2.3
2.8
4.2
1.7
1.9
2.5
3.3
3.9
4.0
3.8
3.3
5.2
4.1
2.5
2.4
3.4
4.0

4.5
5.4
5.3
4.8
4.2
4.8
4.4
4.3
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.9
5.4
5.5
4.9
5.2
4.7

4.6
5.7
5.2
4.8
3.9
4.8
4.0
3.9
4.4
4.5
5.1
5.7
5.6
5.6
6.2
5.2
5.4
4.8
5.3
4.3

3.9
5.1
6.9
5.2
5.4 ~~2.~9~
2.4
4.0
6.3
1.6
1.4
5.9
5.5
1.8
2.4
6.9
6.9
2.3
7.0
2.6
7.2
3.3
6.2
3.0
7.3
3.1
7.1
3.2
2.8
2.7
6.4
2.9
5.3
2.6
6.3
2.5
1.9
2.6

5.9
5.7

4.5
4.4
3.8
4.2
3.8
4.4
3.5
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.2
4.8
4.8
4.8
5.1
4.9
4.6
4.2
4.4
4.2

4.4
5.1
5.4
4.8
3.7
4.8
3.9
4.1
4.5
4.7
5.8
6.2
6.4
6.3
6.9
6.4
5.9
5.7
6.3
5.5

5.0
4.0

3.1
3.8
4.0
3.6
3.1
3.2
2.4
2.5
3.1
3.2
3.7
4.5
4.9
4.8
5.3
5.1
4.2
4.6
4.9
4.2

See footnotes at end of table.




292

7.2
6.7
6.6
5.4
5.4
5.1
4.6
3.9
4.8
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.4
6.4
5.4
5.8
4.8
4.8
3.9

6.6
8.3
9.3
6.6
4.7
5.8
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.3
6.5
7.3
8.2
8.0
8.5
7.7
8.4
8.1
7.7
5.3

7.1
6 6
6 5

7.4
8.6
8.2
7.5
6.8
7.9
6.6
5.8
5.6
5.3
5.6
5.9
5.6
3.9
6.8
6.5
4.9
2.3
5.4
5.7

9.9
5.9

10.1

9.9
8.0
7.9
8.8

4.2

TABLE B-71.—Relation of profits after taxes to stockholders* equity and to sales, all manufacturing corporations {except newspapers), by industry group, 1947—67—Continued
Nondurable goods industries

Year or
quarter

Total
nondurable^

Food
and
kindred
products

Tobacco
manufactures

Textile
mill
products

Apparel
and
related
products

Paper
and
allied
products

Printing
and
publishing
(except
newspapers)

Chemicals
and
allied
products

Petroleum
refining

Rubber
and
miscellaneous
plastic
products

Leather
and
leather
products

Ratio of profits after Federal taxes (annual rate) to stockholders ' equity—percent 2
1947
1948.
1949
1950
1951
1952. .
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959.
1960.
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1966: I . . . . .
II....
III...
IV....
1967: 1
II....
III...

16.6
16.2
11.2
14.1
11 2
9.7
9.9
96
11.4
11.8
10 6
92
10.4
9.8
9.6
99
10.4
11.5
12.2
12.7
12.1
13.1
12.8
12.7
11.2
11.6
11.7

17 6
12.8
11.8
12.3
81
76
8.1
81
8 9
9.3
87
87
9 3
87
8.9
8 8
9 0
10 0
10.7
11 2
10.0
11.2
12.3
11.1
9.4
10.3
11.7

10 1
13 6
12.6
11.5
9 5
84
9.4
10 2
11 4
11 7
12 5
13 5
13 4
13 4
13 6
13 1
13 4
13 4
13.5
14 1
12.1
14.8
15.3
14.0
12.1
14.7
15.8

19 5
18 7
7.6
12.7
8 2
42
4.6
18
57
58
4 2
35
7 5
58
5 0
6 2
61
8 5
10 9
10 1
9.4
10.9
10.4
9.5
5.9
7.1
7.8

18 9
12.1
7.5
10.1
29
44
5.1
4 5
6 1
81
6 3
49
86
77
72
9 3
77
11 7
12 7
13 3
11.0
13.8
14.6
13.6
9.6
8.6
14.4

22 0
16 4
10.7
16.2
13 9
10 5
10.1
99
11 5
11 6
8 9
81
9 5
85
7.9
81
81
9 3
9 4
10 6
10.2
11.3
10.0
11.0
9.0
9.5
8.6

17 2
14 7
11.4
11.5
10 3
91
9.4
9 2
10 2
13 0
11 7
9 0
11 4
10 6
8 5
10 3
9 2
12 6
14 2
15 6
15.0
15.6
16.4
15.3
12.1
13.5
14.1

15 9
15 8
13.2
17.8
12 2
10 9
10.7
11 6
14 7
14 2
13 3
11 4
13 7
12 2
11.8
12 4
12 9
14 4
15.2
15 1
15.2
16.6
14.7
13.9
13.0
13.7
12.2

15 2
13 3
13.4
12 7
13 4
13.9
12 5
10 0
9 8
10 1
10.3
10 1
11 3
11 4
11.8
12 4
12.2
12.2
12.1
13.2
12.6
12.3
12.1

12.4
12.3
8.7
16.9
14 8
11.1
11.3
10 6
13 2
12.2
11 1
91
11 0
9.1
9.3
96
9 2
10.6
11.7
12 2
11.0
13.3
11.9
12.5
9.3
9.0
9.2

14.0
10.4
6.2
10.9
21
5.8
6.0
59
8.5
7.2
7 0
5.7
8.5
6.3
4.4
6.9
6.9
10.5
11.6
12.9
13.2
12.7
12.6
13.1
12.8
7.9
12.1

Profits after taxes per dollar of sales—cents
1947.
4.4
4.3
6.7
8 8
4.2
4 1
8 2
10 7
61
46
1948
3.3
6.8
4.7
85
8.8
3.3
5.2
83
5.2
31
3.8
2.2
1949
5.4
4.5
3.3
5.1
4.1
8.2
2.1
6.5
1950
5.8
3.7
6.5
3.4
5.8
2.8
8.8
4.5
10.3
4.9
1951
4.5
6
4.5
.6
2 0
3 8
37
6 5
3 4
6 6
ii i
1.8
1952
3.6
4.1
10.1
6.1
3.2
1.0
57
3.3
1.9
19
1953..
4.3
10.4
3.8
1.8
2.0
1.2
54
3 4
6.1
3.7
2 2
1954
1 i
4.0
1.9
4.4
21
10 6
6 8
42
10
56
34
1955. .
4.4
2.5
5.1
8.3
2.3
11.1
4.8
1.3
26
6 1
3.6
4.4
2.1
1956
11.6
5.3
2.4
8.0
5.0
1.6
4.2
2.6
6.1
1957.. .
10.6
4.2
2.0
4.9
5.0
2.2
5.2
19
13
3.7
7.6
1958
3.5
1.7
4.4
9.5
2 2
54
47
7 0
10
31
16
4.0
2.2
1959.. .
9.5
4.9
2.4
5.4
5.2
4.0
7.9
1.5
3 0
1960
1.6
3.6
4 8
9.9
2 3
7 5
5 5
2 5
1 4
50
3 6
3.8
1.1
1961..
4.7
2.3
2.8
10.3
5.7
4.7
7.3
21
1.3
1962
4.7
3.7
1.8
9.7
2 3
7 4
3 4
57
2 4
16
46
1.8
4.9
10.8
3.6
1963.
7.5
2.4
5.9
1.4
4.5
3.2
2.3
1964
4.1
2.6
5.4
10.9
7.9
2.7
2.1
5.1
5.9
4.3
3.1
1965. .
5.5
4.8
7.9
11.1
4.3
2.8
2.7
59
3.8
4.9
2.3
4.4
3.0
1966
7.8
11.2
5.6
2.7
2.4
5.4
5.1
5.9
3.6
4.0
3.1
1966: 1
5.5
5.1
8.0
11.1
5.4
3.4
2.1
2.6
5.3
II....
5.7
2.8
6.2
2.5
3.9
5.6
5.1
8.2
11.0
4.6
3.C
III...
5.6
2.9
6.3
2.5
3.7
5.0
5.5
7.6
11.2
4.4
3.C
IV...
5.5
2.6
5.8
3.4
2.4
5.4
4.9
7.4
11.4
4.5
3.0
3.2
1967: 1
3.7
5.1
11.2
1.8
2.4
4.8
5.1
6.9
2.3
4.3
II....
5.2
2.5
5.8
2.7
1.7
4.9
4.6
7.0
10.9
3.4
2.1
III...
5.2
2.8
6.4
2.9
2.8
4.5
4.9
6.5
10.7
3.6
3.0
1 Includes certain industries not shown separately.
2
Annual ratios based on average equity for the year (using four end-of-quarter figures). Quarterly ratios based on equity
at end of quarter only.
Note.—Ratios based on data in millions of dollars.
For explanatory notes concerning compilation of the series, see "Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing Corporations," Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission. See also Note, Table B-70.
Sources: Federal Trade Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.




293

TABLE B—72.—Sources and uses ojfunds, nonfarm nonfinancial corporate business, 1956-67
[Billions of dollars]
Source or use of funds

1958

1956

1957

Sources, total

47.2

42.0

Internal sources1

28.9

30.6

Undistributed profits L . 13.2 11.8
Corporate inventory
valuation adjustment. -2.7 -1.5
Capital consumption
18.4 20.3
allowances1

8.3

External sources.
Stocks
Bonds
Mortgages
Bank loans, n.e.c...
Other loans
Trade debt
Profits tax liability.
Other liabilities....
Uses, total.
Purchases of physical assets.
Nonresidential fixed
investment
Residential structuresChange in business
inventories
Increase in financial assets 2..
Liquid assets
Demand deposits and
currency
Time deposits
U.S. Government
securities
Open-market papers-

1959

1960

42.2

55.5

29.5

35.0
12.6

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

47.3

54.7

63.3

65.9

70.2

88.5

97.7

34.4

35.6

41.8

43.9

50.5

55.7

60.3

59.8

10.0

10.2

12.4

13.6

18.3

22.1

24.2

20.5

1966

1967

92.4

-.3

-.5

.2

-.1

.3

-.5

-.5 -1.7

-1.6

-.8

21.4

22.9

24.2

25.4

29.2

30.8

32.8

35.3

37.7

40.1

12.7

20.5

12.9

19.1

21.5

22.0

19.7

32.6

2.5
4.6
1.8
.1
6. 6
*
1.2
1.9

.6
4.6
2.9
2.5
.7
4.4
1.1
4.7

~3.9
3.5
2.9
.5
6.0
1.5
4.0

1.4
4.0
3.3
3.6
1.3
3.4
.9
1.8

32.7
*
5.4
3.2
9.3
1.3
7.3
2.0
4.2

37.4

2.4
2.1
2.2
2.3
1.6
3.0
3.6
6.3
5.7
3.5
1.2
.4
.4
1.2
.7
3.0
4.4
1.3
1.1 - . 6
.3
1.0
*
3.1
'.5 4*. 3 4.9
5.7
2.4 -2.2
-2.0 -2.1 -2.6
3.6
4.0
2.4
2.2
3.9
43.2 40.0 42.1 54.4 45.2

1.2
10.2
2.1
7.6
2.1
7.7
-.4
6.8

1.7
15.0
3.5
6.1
1.8
4.2
-4.6
4.9

18.3

11.4

55.0

61.7

65.8

66.9

88.0

94.9

89.9

35.9

34.7

27.3

36.9

39.2

37.0

44.7

46.7

53.5

63.6

75.4

72.5

30.7

33.4

28.4
1.4

31.1
1.7

34.9
1.3

33.2
2.2

37.0
3.0

38.6
3.7

44.0
3.6

52.2
3.7

60.4
2.7

62.4
3.7

4.9

.6 -2.5

41
.

3.0

1.5

4.7

4.3

59
.

7.7

12.3

6.4

7.2

5.3

14.8

17.4

6.1

18.0

16.9

19.1

13.4

24.4

19.5

17.4

-4.2

-.1
*
*

2.5

4.3

.6

.7

11
.

2.9

- . 8 - 2 . 5 -1.9
3.2
3.9
3.9

.7
-.7

.7
4.0

.5 - 1 . 4 -2.1 -1.2
1.4
.7
.8 2.3

-2.7
1.0

.1
*
-4.5
.1

-.4
.3

.4
.2
Consumer credit
7.5
2.6
3.4
2.5
Trade credit
Other financial assets...
Discrepancy (uses less
-4.1 -1.9
sources).

5 6 -3.9
.

3.5

41
.

1.5 -1.0 - . 5
.9 - . 4
1.3
* 6.6 -5.4
.4
.1
.7

1.7
1.9

-.9
3.7

-.2
.1

.5
.9

.2
6.3
3.7

.1
10.0
4.6

.9
8.2
4.1

7.9
3.4

.8
7.2
3.3

-.1 -1.1 -2.0

.3 -1.6

8'. 5
4.8

1.0
9.1
2.5

-.1 - 3 . 3

1.2
13.7
8.2

1.1
10.9
5.6

1.1
7.6
5.8

-.5 -2.8

-2.5

!The figures shown here for "internal sources," "undistributed profits," and "capital consumption allowances"
differ from those shown for "cash flow, net of dividends," "undistributed profits" and "capital consumption allowances"
in the gross corporate product table in the national income and product accounts of the Department of Commerce for
the following reasons: (1) these figures include, and the statistics in the gross corporate product table exclude, branch
profits remitted from foreigners net of corresponding U.S. remittances to foreigners; and (2) these figures exclude, and
the gross corporate product figures include, the internal funds of corporations whose major activity is farming.
2
Includes some categories not shown separately.
Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




294

TABLE B-73.—Current assets and liabilities of United States corporations, 1939—67
[Billions of dollars]

Cur
Current assets

Receivables
from
U.S.
Govern-1
ment

Advances
Fedand
Notes
eral
preand
inpayaccome
ments, counts
tax
U.S.
Pay- liabiliable
Govties
ern- 1
ment

U.S.
Cash
Govon
hand ernTotal and
ment
in securibanks ties

End of year
or quarter

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

Current liabilities

Notes
Other
and
Incuracrent Total
vencounts tories
asreceivsets -'
able

Net
Other workcurrent capital
liabilities

54.5

10.8

2.2

22.1

18.0

1.4

30.0

21.9

1.2

6.9

24.5

60.3
72.9
. 83.6
93.8
97.2

13.1
13.9
17.6
21.6
21.6

2.0
4.0
10.1
16.4
20.9

0.1
.6
4.0
5.0
4.7

23.9
27.4
23.3
21.9
21.8

19.8
25.6
27.3
27.6
26.8

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.4

32.8
40.7
47.3
51.6
51.7

0.6
.8
2.0
2.2
1.8

22.6
25.6
24.0
24.1
25.0

2.5
7.1
12.6
16.6
15.5

7.1
7.2
8.7
8.7
9.4

27.5
32.3
36.3
42.1
45.6

2.7
.7

23.2
30.0

26.3
37.6

2.4
1.7

45.8
51.9

.9
.1

24.8
31.5

10.4
8.5

9.7
11.8

51.6
56.2

44.6
48.9
45.3

1.6
1.6
1.4

61.5
64.4
60.7

13.2
13.5
14.0

62.1
68.6
72.4

1945
1946
1947
1948.. .
1949
\"_

97.4
108.1

21.7
22.8

21.1
15.3

123.6
133.0
133,1

25.0
25.3
26.5

14.1
14.8
16.8

1950....
1951
1952
1953
1954

161.5
179.1
186.2
190.6
194.6

28.1
30.0
30.8
31.1
33.4

19.7
20.7
19.9
21.5
19.2

1.1
2.7
2.8
2.6
2.4

55.7
58.8
64.6
65.9
71.2

55.1
64.9
65.8
67.2
65.3

1.7
2.1
2.4
2.4
3.1

79.8
92.6
96.1
98.9
99.7

.4
1.3
2.3
2.2
2.4

47.9
53.6
57.0
57.3
59.3

16.7
21.3
18.1
18.7
15.5

14.9
16.5
18.7
20.7
22.5

81.6
86.5
90.1
91.8
94.9

1955
224.0
1956
237.9
1957
244.7
1958...
255.3
1959
V. 277.3
1960
289.0
306.8
1961
New series 3
1961
304.6
1962
" 326.5
1963
351.7
1964
372.2
1965
406.6

34.6
34.8
34.9
37.4
36.3

23.5
19.1
18.6
18.8
22.8

2.3
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.9

86.6
95.1
99.4
106.9
117.7

72.8
80.4
82.2
81.9
88.4

4.2
5.9
6.7
7.5
9.1

121.0
130.5
133.1
136.6
153.1

2.3
2.4
2.3
1.7
1.7

73.8
81.5
84.3
88.7
99.3

19.3
17.6
15.4
12.9
15.0

25.7
29.0
31.1
33.3
37.0

103.0
107.4
111.6
118.7
124.2

37.2
41.1

20.1
20.0

3.1
3.4

126.1
135.8

91.8
95.2

10.6 160.4
11.4 171.2

1.8
1.8

105.0
112.8

13.5
14.1

40.1
42.5

128.6
135.6

40.7
43.7
46.5
47.3
49.7

19.2
19.6
20.2
18.6
16.5

3.4
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.9

133.3
144.2
156.8
169.9
187.9

95.2
100.7
107.0
113.5
125.7

155.8
170.9
188.2
202.2
226.5

1.8
2.0
2.5
2.7
3.1

110.0
119.1
130.4
140.3
158.0

14.2
15.2
16.5
17.0
18.8

29.8
34.5
38.7
42.2
46.6

148.8
155.6
163.5
170.0
180.1

439.6

49.8

15.2

4.5

202.6 143.2

24.2 250.2

4.4

173.7

18.8

53.3

189.4

377.3
385.2
394.4
406,6

44.7
46.1
46.0
49.7

18.1
15.9
15.6
16.5

3.3
3.2
3.6
3.9

173.2
178.4
183.7
187.9

116.5
118.8
122.5
125.7

21.4
22.7
22.9
22.9

205.1
210.5
216.6
226.5

2.8
2.9
3.1
3.1

141.7
146.4
150.7
158.0

16.6
15.9
16.9
18.8

44.0
45.3
45.9
46.6

172.2
174.7
177.8
180.1

412.1
421.8
429.5
439.6

47.3
48.1
47.3
49.8

16.7
15.0
14.3
15.2

3.9
4.0
4.2
4.5

190.8
196.7
201.1
202.6

129.2
133.4
138.3
143.2

24.3
24.6
24.4
24.2

229.3
234.7
241.5
250.2

3.3
3.5
4.0
4.4

158.3
164.0
167.8
173.7

18.9
16.5
17.7
18.8

48.8
50.8
52.1
53.3

182.7
187.1
188.0
189.4

440.2
441.1
448.9

46.9
47.4
48.8

14.1
11.3
10.6

4.4
4.6
4.7

202.6 146.8
204.9 147.9
208.9 149.9

25.4 248.5
24.9 248.2
26.0 252.6

4.9
5.4
5.7

171.2
174.6
176.1

18.4
12.5
13.3

54.1
55.7
57.4

191.7
192.8
196.3

1966
1965: I.
II
III
IV
1966: I
II
III
IV
1967: I...
II

38.3
42.4
43.0

12.9
14.7
17.8
19.6
22.9

10.7
11.5
9.3

37.6
39.3
37.5

1
Receivables from and payables to U.S. Government do not include amounts offset against each other on corporations'
books or amounts arising from subcontracting which are not directly due from or to the U.S. Government. Wherever possible,
adjustments have been made to include U.S. Government advances offset against inventories on corporations' books.
2
Includes marketable securities other than U.S. Government.
3 Generally reflects definitions and classifications used in "Statistics of Income" for 1961.

Note.—Data relate to all United States corporations, excluding banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, and beginning with the new series for 1961, investment companies. Year-end data through 1964 are based on
"Statistics of Income" (Treasury Department), covering virtually all corporations in the United States. "Statistics of
Income" data may not be strictly comparable from year to year because of changes in the tax laws, basis for filing returns,
and processing of data for compilation purposes. All other figures shown are estimates based on data compiled from many
different sources, including data on corporations registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Source: Securities and Exchange Commission.




295

TABLE B—74.—State and municipal and corporate securities offered, 1934^67l
[Millions of dollars]
Corporate securities offered for cash Qtota
and
municiYear or quarter

curities
offered
for cash
(principal
amounts)

Proposed uses of net proceeds 4

Sross proceeds 3

1
^lew money
Total

Common
stock

Preferred
stock

Bonds
and
notes

Total
Total

Plant
and
equipment

Working
capital

Retire- Other
ment
purof se- poses
curities

1934

939

397

19

6

371

384

57

32

26

231

95

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1 232
1,121
908
1 108
1,128

2 332
4,572
2,310
2 155
2,164

22
272
285
25
87

86
271
406
86
98

2 225
4,029
1,618
2 044
1,980

2,266
4,431
2,239
2,110
2,115

208
858
991
681
325

111
380
574
504
170

96
478
417
177
155

1 865
3,368
1,100
1,206
1,695

193
204
148
222
95

1,238
956
524
435
661

2,677
2,667
1,062
1 170
3,202

108
110
34
56
163

183
167
112
124
369

2,386
2,390
917
990
2,669

2,615
2,623
1,043
1 147
3,142

569
868
474
308
657

424
661
287
141
252

145
207
187
167
405

1,854
1,583
396
739
2,389

192
172
173
100
96

795
1,157
2,324
2 690
2,907

6 011
6,900
6,577
7 078
6,052

758
397
891 1 127
779
762
614
492
425
736

4 855
4,882
5,036
5,973
4,890

5 902
6,757
6,466
6,959
5,959

1,080
3,279
4,591
5,929
4,606

638
2,115
3,409
4,221
3,724

442
1,164
1,182
1,708
882

4 555
2,868
1,352
307
401

267
610
524
722
952

3,532
3,189
4,401
5,558
6,969

6,361
7,741
9,534
8,898
9,516

811
1,212
1,369
1,326
1,213

631
838
564
489
816

4,920
5,691
7,601
7,083
7,488

6,261
7,607
9,380
8,755
9,365

4,006
6,531
8,180
7,960
6,780

2,966
5,110
6,312
5,647
5,110

1,041
1,421
1,868
2,313
1,670

1,271
486
664
260
1,875

984
589
537
535
709

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

5,977
5,446
6,958
7,449
7,681

10,240
10,939
12,884
11,558
9,748

2,185
2,301
2,516
1,334
2,027

635
636
411
571
531

7,420
8,002
9,957
9,653
7,190

10,049 7,957
10,749 9,663
12,661 11,784
11,372 9,907
9,527 8,578

5,333
6,709
9,040
7,792
6,084

2,624
2,954
2,744
2,115
2,494

1,227
364
214
549
135

864
721
663
915
814

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

7,230
8,360
8,558
10,107
10,544

10,154
13,165
10,705
12,211
13,957

1,664
3,294
1,314
1,012
2,679

409
450
422
343
412

8,081
9,420
8,969
10,856
10,865

9,924 8,758
12,885 10,715
10,501 8,240
12,049 8,898
13,792 11,233

5,662
7,413
5,652
5,340
7,003

3,097
3,303
2,588
3,558
4,230

271
868
754
1,526
754

895
1,302
1,507
1,625
1,805

11,148 15,992 1,547
11,089 18,074 1,939
14,241 24,650 1,940

725
574
890

13,720 15,801 13,063
15, 561 17,841 15,806
21,820 24,260 22,110

7,712
12,430
16,050

5,352
3,376
6,060

996
241
330

1,741
1,795
1,820

..

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

. .

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

.

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

1965
1966
1967

...

.

P

1965: 1
II...
III
IV

2,746
2,991
2,758
2,653

3,007
5,043
3,912
4,030

297
665
231
353

132
255
151
187

2,578
4,123
3,529
3,490

2,972
4,977
3,869
3,982

2,427
4,164
3,177
3,296

1,520
2,324
2,104
1,763

907
1,840
1,073
1,533

234
188
336
237

311
625
356
449

1966: 1
II
III
IV

2,870
3,177
2,434
2,609

5,094
5,115
4,197
3,669

519
975
171
274

215
115
143
101

4,359
4,025
3,883
3,294

5,036
5,046
4,143
3,617

4,320
4,644
3,663
3,179

3,258
3,668
2,907
2,597

1,062
976
756
582

51
72
52
67

665
331
428
371

1967: 1
II
III
IV v

4,046
3,799
3,038
3,357

5,464
6,208
6,832
6,140

298
518
447
680

92
208
231
360

5,074
5,482
6,154
5,110

5,403
6,109
6,716
6,030

5,076
5,672
5,943
5,420

3,808
4,265
4,329
3,650

1,268
1,407
1,614
1,770

39
51
133
100

287
386
64C
50C

» These data cover substantially all new issues of State, municipal, and corporate securities offered for cash sale in the
United States in amounts over $100,000 and with terms to maturity of more than 1 year.
2 Excludes notes issued exclusively to commercial banks, intercorporate transactions, sales of investment company issues,
and issues to be sold over an extended period, such as offerings under employee-purchase plans.
3 Number of units multiplied by offering price.
* Net proceeds represents the amount received by the issuer after payment of compensation to distributors and other
costs of flotation.
Sources: Securities and Exchange Commission, "The Commercial and Financial Chronicle," and "The Bond Buyer."




296

TABLE B—75.—Common stock prices, earnings, and yields, and stock market credit, 1939—67
Stock market credit

Standard & Poor's common stock data

Price index 1

Year or month

Total
(500
stocks)

Industrials
(425
stocks)

Public
utilities

(50
stocks)

Railroads
(25
stocks)

Dividend
yield 2
(percent)

Price/
earnings
ratio 3

Customer credit (excluding
U.S. Government
securities)

Total

Net
debit
balances «

Bank
loans
to
"others"5

Bank
loans to
brokers
and
dealers6

Millions of dollars

1941-43=10
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.
1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.
1960.
1961.
1962.
1963.
1964..
1965..
1966.
1967.

12.06
11.02
9.82
8.67
11.50
12.47
15.16
17.08
15.17
15.53
15.23
18.40
22.34
24.50
24.73
29.69
40.49
46.62
44.38
46.24
57.38
55.85
66.27
62.38
69.87
81.37
88.17
85.26
91.93

11.77
10.69
9.72
8.78
11.49
12.34
14.72
16.48
14.85
15.34
15.00
18.33
22.68
24.78
24.84
30.25
42.40
49.80
47.63
49.36
61.45
59.43
69.99
65.54
73.39
86.19
93.48
91.09
99.18

16.34
15.05
10.93
7.74
11.34
12.81
16.84
20.76
18.01
16.77
17.87
19.96
20.59
22.86
24.03'
27.57
31.37
32.25
32.19
37.22
44.15
46.86
60.20
59.16
64.99
69.91
76.08
68.21
68.10

9.82
9.41
9.39
8.81
11.81
13.47
18.21
19.09
14.02
15.27
12.83
15.53
19.91
22.49
22.60
23.96
32.94
33.65
28.11
27.05
35.09
30.31
32.83
30.56
37.58
45.46
46.78
46.34
46.72

5.59
6.82
7.24
4.93
4.86
4.17
3.85
4.93
5.54
6.59
6.57
6.13
5.80
5.80
4.95
4.08
4.09
4.35
3.97
3.23
3.47
2.98
3.37
3.17
3.01
3.00
3.40
3.20

1966: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June..
July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
Nov..
Dec...
1967: Jan...
Feb...
Mar..
Apr...
May..
June..

93.32
92.69
88.88
91.60
86.78
86.06
85.84
80.65
77.81
77.13
80.99
81.33
84.45
87.36
89.42
90.96
92.59
91.43

99.56
99.11
95.04
98.17
92.85
92.14
91.95
86.40
83.11
82.01
86.10
86.50
89.88
93.35
95.86
97.54
99.59
98.61

74.50
71.87
69.21
70. 06
68.49
67.51
67.30
63.41
63.11
65.41
68.82
68.86
70.63
70.45
70.03
71.70
70.70
67.39

53.68
54.78
51.52
52.33
47.00
46.35
45.50
42.12
40.31
39.44
41.57
41.44
44.48
46.13
46.78
45.80
47.00
48.19

3.02
3.06
3.23
3.15
3.30
3.36
3 37
3.60
3.75
3.76
3.66
3.59
3.51
3.36
3.29
3.24
3.19
3.19

July..
Aug..
Sept..
Oct..
Nov..
Dec.

93.01
94.49
95.81
95.66
92.66
95.30

100.38
102.11
103.84
104.16
100.90
103.91

67.77
68.03
67.45
64.93
63.48
64.61

49.91
50.43
49.27
46.28
42.95
43.46

3.15
3.11
3.07
3.07
3.18
3.09

4.05

13.80
10.24
8.26
8.80
12.84
13.66
16.33
17.69
9.36
6.90
6.64
6.63
9.27
10.47
9.69
11.25
11.50
14.05
12.89
16.64
17.05
17.09
21.06
16.68
17.62
18.08
17.08
14.92

16.31
14.71
13.92
14.74
17.86
17.01

17.81

1,374
976
1,032
968
1,249
1,798
1,826
1,980
2,445
3,436
4,030
3,984
3,576
4,537
4,461
4,415
5,602
5,494
7,242
7,053
7,705
7,443
10,347

942
473
517
499
821
1,237
1,253
1,332
1,665
2,388
2,791
2,823
2,482
3,285
3,280
3,222
4,259
4,125
5,515
5,079
5,521
5,329
7,883

353
432
503
515
469
428
561
573
648
780
1,048
1,239
1,161
1,094
1,252
1,181
1,193
1,343
1,369
1,727
1,974
s 2,184
2,115
2,464

715
584
535
850
1,328
2,137
2,782
1,471
784
1,331
1,608
1,742
1,419
2,002
2,248
2,688
2,852
2,214
2,190
2,569
2,584
2,614
3,398
4,352
4,754
4,631
6 4,277
4,501
5,082

7,726
7,950
7,823
7,991
7,905
8,001
7,870
7,811
7,525
7,302
7,352
7,443
7,345
7,415
7,808
7,969
8,085
8,333

5,551
5,753
5,645
5,835
5,768
5,770
5,667
5,609
5,355
5,169
5,217
5,329
5,290
5,349
5,718
5,819
5,926
6,166

5 2,244
2,270
2,243
2,225
2,206
2,235
2,203
2,202
2,170
2,133
2,135
2,115
2,055
2,066
2,090
2,150
2,159
2,167

6 4,095
3,621
3,864
4,542
4,380
4,652
3,686
4,179
3,545
3,268
3,106
4,496
4,672
4,045
4,484
4,385
4,075
3,813

8,800
8,869
9,162
.9,534
.9,432
10,347

6,603
6,607
6,825
7,009
7,055
7,883

2,197
2,262
2,337
2,423
2,442
2,464

4,195
4,685
4,814
4,670
4,296
5,082

1
Annual data are averages of monthly figures and monthly data are averages of daily figures.
2 Aggregate cash dividends (based on latest known annual rate) divided by the aggregate monthly market value of the
stocks in the group. Annual yields are averages of monthly data.
3
Ratio of quarterly earnings (seasonally adjusted annual rate) to price index for last day in quarter. Annual ratios are
averages of quarterly data.
4
As reported by member firms of the New York Stock Exchange carrying margin accounts. Includes net debit balances
of all customers (other than general partners in the reporting firm and member firms of national exchanges) whose combined accounts net to a debit. Balances secured by U.S. Government obligations are excluded. Data are for end of period.
3 Loans by weekly reporting member banks (weekly reporting large commercial banks beginning 1965) to others than
brokers and dealers for purchasing or carrying securities except U.S. Government obligations. Data are for last Wednesday
of period.
« Loans by weekly reporting member banks (weekly reporting large commercial banks beginning 1965) for purchasing
or carrying securities, including U.S. Government obligations. Data are for last Wednesday of period.

Sources: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Standard & Poor's Corporation, and New York Stock
Exchange.




297

TABLE B-76.—Business formation and business failures, 1929-67
Business failures l

Year or month

1929
1930
1931
1932
1933 3
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939 3
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958 .
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

Index
of net
business
formation
(1957-59 =
100)

123.1
96.7
102.3
102.8
108.0
103.5
99.8
107.6
103.2
98.3
97.1
104.6
99.8
95.4
98.0
100.6
104.5
106.0
105.5

New
business
incorporations
(number)

Amount of current
liabilities (millions
of dollars)

Number of failures
Business
failure
rate^

132,916
112,638
96,101
85,491
92,925
83,649
92,819
102,545
117,164
139,915
141,163
137,112
150,781
193,067
182,713
181,535
182,057
186,404
197,724
203,797
200,010

Liability size
class

Liability size
class
Total

Under $100,000
and
$100,000 over

103.9
121.6
133.4
154.1
100.3
61.1
61.7
47.8
45 9
61.1
69.6
63.0
54 5
44.6
16.4
65
4.2
5.2
14.3
20.4
34.4
34.3
30.7
28.7
33.2
42.0
41.6
48.0
51.7
55.9
51.8
57.0
64.4
60.8
56.3
53.2
53.3
51.6
49.0

22,909
26,355
28,285
31,822
19,859
12,091
12,244
9,607
9 490
12,836
14,768
13,619
11,848
9,405
3,221
1 222
809
1,129
3,474
5,250
9,246
9,162
8,058
7,611
8,862
11,086
10,969
12,686
13,739
14,964
14,053
15,445
17,075
15,782
14,374
13,501
13,514
13,061
12,364

22,165
25,408
27,230
30 197
18,880
11,421
11,691
9,285
9 203
12,553
14,541
13,400
11 685
9,282
3,155
1 176
759
1,002
3 103
4,853
8,708
8,746
7,626
7,081
8,075
10,226
10,113
11,615
12,547
13,499
12,707
13,650
15,006
13,772
12,192
11,346
11,340
10,833
10,144

744
947
1,055
1 625
979
670
553
322
287
283
111
219
163
123
66
46
50
127
371
397
538
416
432
530
787
860
856
1,071
1,192
1,465
1,346
1,795
2,069
2,010
2,182
2,155
2,174
2,228
2,220

50.7
44.1
50.2
47.4
45.8
49.4
52.3
60.8
56.6
57.2
55.6
52.4
54.9
57.1
49.7
52.1
48.6
48.6
43.2
49.3
49.1
47.4
42.2
43.2

1,084
946
1,226
1,106
997
1,077
1,017
1,249
1,042
1,150
1,112
1,055
1,191
1,216
1,216
1,160
1,100
1,047
843
1,017
913
949
881
831

916
800
1,037
924
847
885
879
999
867
957
919
803
1,003
995
981
966
917
850
708
793
758
782
718
673

168
146
189
182
150
192
138
250
175
193
193
252
188
221
235
194
183
197
135
224
155
167
163
158

Total

Under $100,000
and
$100,000 over

261.5
483.3
668.3
303.5
736.3
354.2
928.3
432.6
457.5
215.5
334.0
138.5
310.6
135.5
203.2
102.8
183 3 101.9
246.5
140.1
182.5
132.9
166.7
119.9
100.7
136.1
100.8
80.3
45.3
30.2
14.5
31.7
11.4
30.2
15.7
67.3
63.7
204.6
93.9
234.6
161.4
308.1
151.2
248.3
131.6
259.5
131.9
283.3
167.5
394.2
211.4
462.6
449.4
206.4
562.7
239.8
615.3
267.1
728.3
297.6
692.8 . 278.9
938.6
327.2
1,090.1
370.1
1,213.6
346.5
321.0
1,352.6
1,329.2
313.6
1,321.7
321.7
1,385.7
321.5
1,265.2
297.9

221.8
364.8
382.2
495.7
242.0
195.4
175.1
100.4
81.4
106.4
49.7
46.8
35.4
20.5
15.1
17.1
18.8
51.6
140.9
140.7
146.7
97.1
128.0
151.4
226.6
251.2
243.0
322.9
348.2
430.7
413.9
611.4
720.0
867.1
1,031.6
1,015.6
1,000.0
1,064.1
967.3

Seasonally adjusted
1966: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May .
June
July.
Aug
Sept
Oct.
Nov
Dec
1967: Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct.
Nov
Dec

109.1
109.6
109.6
107.6
106.8
106.2
104.8
103.9
102.7
103.3
100.6
101.4
102.2
103.2
103.3
104.0
105.7
109.0
108.4
110.3
110.2
110.3
112.9

18,087
17,451
17,266
17,057
16,644
16,577
16,074
16,343
15,764
16,233
16,206
16,583
16,703
15,987
16,244
16,760
17,627
17,799
16,072
17,388
18,409
17,908
18,621

103.2
95.5
103.5
110.1
96.4
123.6
69.9
178.1
129.2
108.0
106.7
161.5
108.2
113.5
119.3
103,8
93.4
104.6
72.6
108.9
93.9
81.6
70.0
195.4

27.1
24.2
28.6
26.1
23.9
26.5
26.2
30.7
25.4
29.6
29.0
24.2
30.2
29.3
28.7
27.8
27.1
24.7
20.8
23.7
22.2
22.5
21.3
19.6

76.0
71.3
74.8
84.1
72.5
97.1
43.6
147.4
103.8
78.4
77.8
137.2
77.9
84.1
90.6
76.1
66.3
80.0
51.7
85.2
71.8
59.1
48.7
175.8

1
Commercial and industrial failures only. Excludes failures of banks and railroads and, beginning 1933, of real estateinsurance, holding, and financial companies, steamship lines, travel agencies, etc.
2
Failure rate per 10,000 listed enterprises.
3
Series revised; not strictly comparable with earlier data.
Sources: Department of Commerce (Bureau of the Census) and Dun & Bradstreet, Inc.




298

AGRICULTURE
TABLE B—77.—Income from agriculture, 1929-67
Income received from farming
Personal income
received by total
farm population

Net to farm
operators

Realized gross

Year or
quarter
From
From
nonall
farm
farm
sources sources1 sources2

ProducCash tion ex- Exclud- Includreceipts penses ing net ing net
Total 3
from
inven- inventory
markettory
ings
change change4

Net income per
farm, including
net inventory
change
Current
prices

1967
prices»

Dollars

Billions of dollars
1929

13.9

11.3

7.7

6.3

6.2

945

1,969

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

5.4
7.7
7.2
9.0
7.2
7.4

3.2
5.4
4.6
6.2
4.7
4.8

2.2
2.3
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.6

11.5
8.4
6.4
7.1
8.6
9.7
10.8
11.4
10.1
10.6

9.1
6.4
4.7
5.3
6.4
7.1
8.4
8.9
7.7
7.9

6.9
5.5
4.5
4.4
4.7
5.1
5.6
6.2
5.9
6.3

4.5
2.9
1.9
2.7
3.9
4.6
5.1
5.2
4.2
4.3

4.3
3.3
2.0
2.6
2.9
5.3
4.3
6.0
4.4
4.4

651
506
304
379
431
775
639
905
668
685

1,447
1,297
921
1.115
1,134
1,987
1,638
2,262
1,758
1,851

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

7.6
10.1
14.1
16.5
16.6
17.2
20.0
21.1
23.8
19.5

4.8
6.8
10.1
12.1
12.2
12.8
15.5
15.8
18.0
13.3

2.8
3.3
3.9
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.6
5.3
5.8
6.2

11.1
13.9
18.8
23.4
24.4
25.8
29.5
34.1
34.7
31.6

8.4
11.1
15.6
19.6
20.5
21.7
24.8
29.6
30.2
27.8

6.9
7.8
10.0
11.6
12.3
13.1
14.5
17.0
18.8
18.0

4.2
6.1
8.8
11.8
12.1
12.8
15.0
17.1
15.9
13.6

4.5
6.5
9.9
11.7
11.7
12.3
15.1
15.4
17.7
12.8

706
1,031
1,588
1,927
1,950
2,063
2,543
2,615
3,044
2,233

1,858
2,578
3,452
3,778
3,545
3,619
4,037
3,534
3,903
2,938

20.4
22.7
22.1
19.8
18.4
17.6
17.8
17.7
19.5
18.1

14.1
16.2
15.4
13.4
12 5
11.4
11.2
11 0
12.8
11.0

6.3
6.5
6.7
6.4
5.9
6.2
6.6
6.6
6.7
7.0

32.3
37.1
36.8
35.0
33.6
33.1
34.3
34.0
37.9
37.5

28.5
32.9
32.5
31.0
29.8
29.5
30.4
29.7
33.5
33.5

19.4
22.3
22.6
21.3
21.6
21.9
22.4
23 3
25.2
26.1

12.9
14.8
14.1
13.7
12.0
11.2
11.9
10 7
12.7
11.4

13.7
16.0
15.1
13.1
12 5
11.5
11.4
11 3
13.5
11.5

2,421
2,946
2,896
2,626
2,606
2,463
2,535
2,590
3,189
2,795

3,144
3,549
3,448
3,126
3,102
2,932
2,982
2,943
3,583
3,106

18.7
19.0
19.2
18.7
18.0
20.3
21.3
20.1

11.4
12.1
12.2
12.0
11.2
13.4
14.4
13.2

7.2
6.9
7.0
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.9
6.9

37.9
39.6
41 1
42.1
42.4
44.8
49.7
48.9

34.0
34.9
36.2
37.2
37.1
39.1
43.2
42.5

26.2
27.0
28 5
29.6
29.4
30.9
33.3
34.4

11.7
12.6
12.5
12.5
13.0
13.9
16.4
14.5

12.0
12.9
13 1
13.1
12.2
14.9
16.2
14.9

3,043
3,389
3,562
3,671
3,510
4,413
4,988
4,705

3,381
3,724
3,872
3,947
3,774
4,645
5,090
4,705

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

.

.
..

1960 .
1961
1962
1963
1964
...
1965
1966
1967 v

...
.

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1966: 1

II

III

IV
1967: L .
II

III
IV v

49 5
49.5
50.0
49.9

43 3
43.1
43.3
43.2

32 6
33.1
33.5
34.0

16 9
16.4
16.5
15.9

17 3
16.2
16.1
15.3

5,320
4,980
4,950
4,710

5,480
5,080
5,000
4,760

49.3
49.1
49.2
48.1

42.6
42.4
42.9
42.1

34.3
34.5
34.4
34.2

15.0
14.6
14.8
13.9

14.8
14.5
15.2
15.4

4,670
4,580
4,800
4,860

4,720
4,580
4,750
4,810

1

Net income to farm operators including net inventory change less net income of nonresident operators plus wages
and salaries and other labor income of farm resident workers less contributions of farm resident operators and workers
to 2social insurance.
Consists of income received by farm residents from nonfarm sources, such as wages and salaries from nonfarm employment, nonfarm business and professional income, rents from nonfarm real estate, dividends, interest, royalties,
unemployment compensation, and social security payments.
3 Cash receipts from marketings, Government payments, and nonmoney income furnished by farms.
4
Includes net change in inventory of crops and livestock valued at the average price for the year.
5
Income in current prices divided by the index of prices paid by farmers for family living items on a 1967 base.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




299

TABLE B-78.—Farm production indexes, 1929-67
[1957-59 = 1001

Crops
Year

Farm
output »

Livestock and products

Hay Food Vege- Fruits
Feed
Total 2 grains and grains tables and
forage
nuts

Cotton

ToOil
bacco crops Total 3

Meat
animals

Dairy Poultry
prod- and
ucts eggs

1929...

62

73

62

79

68

73

75

120

88

13

63

62

75

44

1930...
1931...
1932...
1933...
1934...

61
66
64
59
51

69
77
73
65
54

56
63
73
56
33

66
72
74
69
64

74
79
63
47
45

74
75
76
73
80

73
92
75
76

71

113
138
105
105
78

95
89
58
80
63

14
14
13
11
13

64
65
66
67
61

63
66
67
70
59

76
78
79
79
78

45
44
44
44
41

1935...
1936...
1937...
1938...
1939...

61
55
69
67
68

70
59
81
76
75

60
38
67
65
65

82
66
75
81
75

55
54
74
77
63

81
75
82
81
81

90
70
93
84
96

86
101
154
97
96

76
68
91
80
110

21
16
18
22
29

59
63
62
65
70

53
60
58
63
71

78
79
79
81
82

41
44
44
45
48

1940...
1941...
1942...
1943...
1944...

70
73
82
80
83

78
79
89
83
88

66
71
81
74
78

86
86
93
91
90

69
79
83
72
88

83
84
89
97
92

93
99
98
84
98

102
88
105
93
100

84
73
81
81
113

34
37
56
60
50

71
75
84
91
86

72
76
87
97
88

84
89
92
91
92

49
54
62
71
71

1945...
1946...
1947...
1948...
1949...

81
84
81
88
87

85
89
85
97
92

75
82
63
91
80

93
87
84
84
83

92
95
111
107
92

94
105
91
97
94

89
106
101
92
98

74
97
122
131

114
134
122
115
114

54
52
55
67
61

86
83
82
80
85

84
82
81
79
83

95
94
93
90
93

74
69
68
67
74

1950...
1951...
1952...
1953...
1954...

86
89
92
93
93

89
91
95
94
93

81
75
79
77
81

89
92
90
92
92

86
85
109
100
88

96
89
90
95
93

98
100
97
98
99

82
124
124
134
111

117
135
130
119
130

71
65
63
63
71

88
92
92
93
96

89
95
95
94
98

93
92
92
97
98

78
81
82
84
87

1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959...

96
97
95
102
103

96
95
93
104
103

86
85
93
101
106

98
94
101
102
97

83
87
82
121
97

96
102
98
102
100

99
103
94
102
104

120
108
89
93
118

127
126
96
100
104

78
92
91
111
98

99
99
97
99
104

103
100
96
98
106

99
101
101
100
99

86
94
95
101
104

1960...
1961...
1962...
1963...
1964...

106
107
108
112
112

108
107
107
112
109

109
99
100
110
97

103
102
105
105
105

115
106
98
102
114

103
110
108
108
103

S8
109
98
102
111

116
116
121
125
124

112
119
134
135
129

105
122
123
128
128

102
106
107
111
113

103
106
108
114
116

101
103
104
103
105

104
112
111
115
118

1965...
1966...
1967 P..

115
113
117

115
112
116

111
111
124

112
110
115

117
118
134

110
110
112

110
122
100

121
78
62

107
107
116

153
165
171

111
114
117

111
116
118

103
100
100

124
131
139

71

1 Farm output measures the annual volume of farm production available for eventual human use through sales from
farms or consumption in farm households. Total excludes production of feed for horses and mules.
2 Includes production of feed for horses and mules and certain items not shown separately.
3 Includes certain items not shown separately.
Source: Department of Agriculture,




300

T A B L E B—79.—Farm population, employment, and productivity, 1929—67
Farm population
(April l ) i
Number
(thousands)

Year

As percent of
total
population 2

Farm employment
(thousands) *

Farm output

Family Hired
workers workers

Total

Per
unit of
total
input

Crop
production
per
acre *

Per man-hour
Total

Crops

Livestock

Livestock
production
per
breedunit

ndex, 1957-59=10C

1929

30,580

25.1

12,763

9,360

3,403

63

28

28

48

69

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

30,529
30,845
31,388
32,393
32,305

24.8
24.9
25.1
25.8
25.5

12,497
12,745
12,816
12,739
12,627

9,307
9,642
9,922
9,874
9,765

3,190
3,103
2,894
2 865
2,862

63
69
69
65
59

28

27

47

64

70

30
30
28

30
30
27

47
47
46

72
68
61

27

27

43

51

70
69
68
62

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

. . . . 32,161
31,737
31,266
30,980
30,840

25.3
24.8
24.2
23.8
23.5

12,733
12,331
11,978
11,622
11,338

9,855
9,350
9,054
8,815
8,611

2,878
2,981
2,924
2,807
2,727

69
62
73
74
72

31

31

44

66

29
33
35

28
33
35

46
46
48

56
76
73

35

34

50

74

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

30, 547
30,118
28 914
26,186
. . . . 24,815

23.1
22.6
21.4
19.2
17.9

10,979
10,669
10,504
10,446
10,219

8,300
8,017
7,949
8,010
7,988

2,679
2,652
2,555
2,436
2,231

72
75
82
79
82

36

37

50

76

39
42
42
44

39
43
41
44

51
56
58
56

77
86
78
83

75
80
81
78
75

1945.
1946
1947
1948
1949

24,420
25,403
25,829
24,383
24,194

17.5
18.0
17.9
16.6
16.2

10,000
10,295
10,382
10,363
9,964

7,881
8,106
8,115
8,026
7; 712

2,119
2,189
2,267
2,337
2,252

82
85
82
88
86

46
49
50
56
57

46
50
50
57
57

58
59
61
62
66

82
86
82
92
85

79
78
79
82
86

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

23,048
21,890
21,748
19,874
19,019

15.2
14.2
13.9
12.5
11.7

9,926
9,546
9,149
8,864
8,651

7,597
7,310
7,005
6,775
6,570

2,329
2,236
2 144
2,089
2,081

85
86
89
90
91

61
62
68
71

63
61
67
69

68
72
74
76

84
85
90
89

86
89
89
93
92

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

19,078
18,712
17,656
17,128
16,592

11.5
11.1
10.3
9.8
9.4

8,381
7,853
7,600
7,503
7,342

6,345
5,900
5,660
5,521
5,390

2,036
1,953
1,940
1,982
1,952

94
96
96
103
101

80

77

85

91

86
91
103
106

83
90
105
105

89
92
100
108

92
93
105
102

93
95
96
10G
104

I960..
1961
1962
1963
1964

15,635
14,803
14,313
13,367
12,954

8.7
8.1
7.7
7.1
6.7

7,057
6,919
6,700
6,518
6,110

5,172
5,029
4,873
4,738
4,506

1,885
1,890
1,827
1,780
1,604

105
106
107
110
109

115
120
127
135

114
119
124
132

113
120
127
137

109
113
116
119

105
108
108
111
112

1965
1966
1967 v

12,363
11,595
11,000

6.4
5.9
5.5

5,610
5,214
4,953

4,128
3,854
3,693

1,482
1,360
1,260

112
108
109

155

146

159

122

161
167

151
173

170
176

120
121

111
118
121

...

74

142

73

133

80

147

88

116

68

69
70
71
75
75

1 Farm population as defined by Department of Agriculture and Department of Commerce, i.e., civilian population
living on farms, regardless of occupation.
2 Total population of United States as of July 1 includes Armed Forces abroad.
o farmwork on all farms. These data, published by the Department of Agriculture, Statistical
3 Includes r
persons doing ._
fan
Reporting Service, differ from those on agricultural employment by the Department of Labor (see Table B-22) because of
differences in the method of approach, in concepts of employment, and in time of month for which the data are collected.
For further explanation, see monthly report on "Farm Labor," September 10,1958.
h.

. •

A

•

• • rr

r

> t

_ • _ • * .

Sources: Department of Agriculture and Department of Commerce (Bureau of the Census).

284-593 0—68



301

T A B L E B—80.—Indexes of prices received and prices paid byfarmers, and parity ratio, 1929—67
[1957-59=100]
Prices received by farmers
Crops
Year or month

All
farm
prod-

Feed grains
and hay

Al
l

Food
crops * grains
Total

Feed
grains

Livestock and products

OilCotbeart n bacco ing
o
crops

To-

All
livestock
and
products^

Meat
mals

Dairy Poultry
ucts and
eggs

1929 .

61

61

55

74

77

57

35

62

62

50

65

102

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937..
1938
1939

52
36

52
34
26
32
44
46
49
53
36
37

44
27

67
46

68
44
28
36
60
70
68
84
45
44

40
24
19
26
39
38
38
36
27
28

29
20
18
22
32
35

52
38

43
30

55
43

81
62

1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948 .
1949

42

54
58
73
97
109
104
131
171
170
109

32
43
60
64
66
69
91
105
104
94

28

6 80
8 82
e 86
6 98
114
119
103

41
48
65
84
89
91
102
118
114
100

77
78
82

48
32
19
25
45
55
52
56
42
42
45
60
80
88
97
100
114
158
153
106

77
76
82
94
111
122
106

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

107
125
119
105
102
96
95
97
104
100

104
119
120
108
108
104
105
101
100
99

123
147
150
132
130
116
116
105
97
98

108
129
119
102
105
104
103
101
97
102

83
90
89
89
91
90
93
96
100
104

120
148
129
122
133
109
111
106
98
96

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

99
99
101
100
98
103
110
104

99
102
104
107
107
105
105
100

1966' Jan 15
Febl5
Mar 15
Apr 15
May 15
June 15

. .

109
112
112
110
109
109

103
105
104
106

July 15
Augl5
Sept 15
Oct 15
Nov 15
Dec 15

. .

27
29
37
45

47
5
1
40
39

5
1
66

.

1967- Jan 15
Feb 15
Mar 15 .
Apr 15 . ...
May 15
June 15
July 15
Aug 15
Sept 15
Oct 15
Nov 15
Dec 15

2
1

3
1

31
43
46

36
60
68

5
1
57

65
7
9

35
34

45
46

40

54

4
6
57
70
78
8
1
95
18
2
18
1
13
0
16
0
15
1
16
1
11
1
10
1
17
0
16
0
16
0
98
9
6
96
99
17
0
16
0
90
77
87
84
8
1
82
8
1
80
82
8
9
96
94
93
89
8
9
90
88
85
8
9
87
8
9

58
72
96
18
0
16
0
17
2
11
6
12
6
12
1
12
2
13
4
17
4
10
3
18
2
16
1
15
1
15
0
97
96
95
98
14
0
15
0
10
1
14
1
10
1
11
1
12
1
10
1
10
1
11
1
11
1
15
1
18
1
10
2
16
1
15
1
18
1
17
1
16
1
17
1
15
1
15
1

94
94
96
102
103
108
112
108

97
100
104
104
100
94
82
73

103
109
109
102
101
106
114
114

93
112
108
113
112
116
128
121

108
109
107
108
110
110

86
87
89

111
112
113

117
121
119

14
1
17
1
19
1
14
1
13
1
15
1
15
1
14
1
15
1
14
1
14
1

92
92
95
96
6
9
69
73
7
1
7
1
64
67
66
66
64
65

13
1
13
1
13
1
14
1
16
1
17
1
16
1
15
1
16
1
15
1
16
1
16
1
15
1
15
1

115

11
2
14
2
18
2
18
3
18
4
13
3
18
2
18
2
19
2
18
2
15
2
16
2
15
2
14
2

17
1
13
1
10
1
10
1
11
1
16
1
16
1
114
10
1
19
0
19
0
17
0
15
0
12
0
18
0

68

115

122

98

11
1
12
1
12
1
10
1
17
0
16
0
15
0
14
0
13
0
11
0
14
0

17
0
18
0
10
1
17
0
15
0
104
13
0
13
0
11
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
99

105

102

85

106

101

79

112

111

16
0

10
0

116

115

33
4
1
36
31

32
5
1
66
72
74
78

125

20

33
34
40
45

5
1

27
32
44

19
22
38

46
49

38
42

43
41

37
36

45
43

69
61

42

35

47

6 81 6 104
107 106
117 117
101
98

62
77
96
121
112
126
127
141
153
140

108
130
119
104
97
90
88
94
106
100

110
133
115
94
92
80
76
89
109
102

97
112
118
104
96
96
99
101
99
100

118
144
130
140
113
121
112
10?
108
90

98
98
99
95
91
101
113
107

96
97
101
94
88

101
101
99
99
100
102
114
119

101
92
92
92
90
92
10?
84

108
108
108

101
108
111
103
95

5
3
66

4
9
5
1

4
6
5
5
60 63
66 6 77
62
6
67 6 89

108

14
0
16
1
19
0
10
2
14
2
13
2
19
1
17
1
17
1
15
1
19
1
15
1
11
1
15
0
15
0
17
0
17
0
15
0
14
0
14
1

115

16
0
104
14
0
12
1
18
1
15
2
17
2
16
2
15
2
11
2
19
1
17
1
13
1
12
1

110

116

114

14
1

114
118

112

47
56
74

73
70

97
103
106
101
13
0

10
0
9
6
90
9
1
8?
80
78

84

97
100

80

79
82

14
0

13
0
103
97

7
1

69
88

16
1
111
111

17
1

115
114

10
1

104
104

110
107

112
107

122
125

84
77

13
0
15
0

12
0
14
0

7
9
80

97
11
0

93
97

98
8
9

12
1
15
1

14
1
15
1

14
0
15
0

13
0
13
0

15
2
15
2

77
82

105
101

See footnotes at end of table.




28

302

18
1

8
1

T A B L E B-80.—Indexes of prices received and prices paid by farmers, and parity ratio, 1929—67—
Continued
[1957-59=100J
Prices paid by farmers

Year or month

All
items,
interest,
taxes,
and
wage
rates
(parity
index)

Commodities and services
FamAll
All
items living
items production 1
items

Production items

Feed

Motor
vehicles

Farm
machinery

Inter- Taxes3 Wage
ests
rates*

Parity
ratio «

Fertilizer

1929
56
43
55
54
68
36
85
116
32
56
50
113
52
43
1930
35
51
61
83
57
30
43
108
42
1931
43
35
44
43
75
24
56
37
101
1932
38
40
34
38
32
66
18
51
38
90
38
1933
39
38
37
34
61
44
15
43
80
44
1934
40
52
36
43
69
38
17
43
74
1935
46
41
45
53
37
18
68
36
43
68
1936
46
42
55
45
38
20
64
36
45
64
1937
50
43
48
62
39
22
67
36
43
60
1938
47
44
45
47
42
22
67
38
42
58
1939
46
43
77 85
44
47
40
22
66
37
42
81 (88)
47
1940
43
45
50
40
64
38
22
56
45
93 (98)
1941
50
43
54
48
42
64
38
54
26
52
57
1942
46
66
45
55
71
51
38
34 105 (109)
58
1943
63
48
78
47
61
45 113 (116)
76
46
37
61
1944
66
49
87
51
64
77
54 108 (110)
43
37
64
1945
67
49
86
53
66
79
41
62 109 (111)
39
71
1946
73
51
100
55
72
79
40
66 113 (115)
43
83
1947
85
58
118
85
63
88
42
72 115 (116)
48
88
1948
95
67
125
71
92
96
76 110 (111)
43
56
85
91
1949
78
76
88
103
98
74 100 (100)
45
60
94
1950
78
78
105
94
90
87
49
86
65
73 101 (102)
104
1951
118
83
83
54
100
100
68
81 107 (108)
96
94
104
1952
86
87
126
100
102
59
71
87 100 (101)
98
95
97
87
1953
114
86
74
88 92 (93)
96
103
63
95
94
97
1954
87
86
113
77
88
89 (89)
96
102
68
95
94
1955
96
87
87
95
106
101
74
81
89
94
95
95
1956
92
89
96
103
100
92
87
83
95
96
98
1957
96
96
98
101
100
91
96
93
98
99
100
1958
100
100
101
99
100
100
99
100
100
100
102
1959
104
104
101
100
100
105
109
107
102
101
1960
102
101
107
102
102
100
101
98
120
109
117
101
110
1961
103
102
101
102
98
100
125
110
131
1962
103
111
105
105
100
100
114
103
103
145
132
104
1963
109
113
104
100
104
162
107
139
116
104
1964
103
111
116
99
104
103
182
147
119
107
105
1965
105
119
113
104
100
106
125
206
156
110
107
1966
108
124
117
109
100
109
135
232
166
114
110
1967
110
130
122
111
109
100
178
259
146
117
112
1966: Jan 15....
112
107
108
107
105
232
165
127
Feb 15...
108
112
108
109
106
232
165
127
Mar 15.
108
122
116
100
109
105
232
165
113
110
127
Apr 15...
108
100
109
105
232
165
86)
138
114
110
May 15...
108
116
109
106
232
165
(85)
138
114
110
Junel5._
108
124' 100
118
109
165
(85)
106
232
138
114
110
114
110
July 15...
109
110
109
232
165
135
114
111
Augl5...
110
109
111
232
165
135
117
Sept 15...
115
126 100
111
111
110
113
232
165
135
119
Oct 15
110
109
115
112
111
232
165
140
118
Nov 15...
110
109
111
232
165
115
140
111
118
110
109
126 100
113
232
166
140
115
111
Dec 15...
116
111
110
111
113
178
261
75 (80)
137
1967: Jan 15...
116
111
110
111
112
261
178
74 (80)
137
Feb 15...
116
111
110
119
127 100
111
112
74 (79)
261
178
137
Mar 15...
116
111
110
101
111
112
72 (77)
261
178
146
Apr 15...
117
112
110
110
74 (79)
111
121
261
178
146
May 15...
117
112
74 (80)
111
121
130 101
111
110
261
178
146
June 15..
118
113
July 15..
112
111
109
178
148 74 (80)
261
117
113
Aug 15...
110
111
107
178
257
148 75 (80)
117
113
Sept 15..
110
122
132 100
111
107
178
257
148 73 (78
118
113
Oct 15...
110
124
112
106
257
178
152
73 (78
117
114
124
Nov 15...
109
105
257
111
178
152 73 (78
118
114
110
Dec 15...
112
106
100
257
178
152
73 (79
1
Includes items not shown separately.
- Interest payable per acre on farm real estate debt.
3 Farm real estate taxes payable per acre (levied in preceding year).
4
Monthly data are seasonally adjusted.
5
Percentage ratio of prices received for all farm products to parity index, on a 1910-14=100 base. The adjusted parity
ratio (shown in parentheses in the table) reflects Government payments made directly to farmers.
6
Includes wartime subsidy payments.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




303

T A B L E B-81.—Selected measures offarm resources and inputs
, 1929-67
Crops
harvested
(millions 1
of acres)
Year
Total

Index numbers of inputs (1957-59 = 100)

Livestock
breeding
Excluunits
sive of (1957use for
feed for 59 =
horses 100)2
and
mules

Manhours
of
farm
work
(billions)

Total

Farm
labor

MechaniFarm
cal
power
real
estate 3 and
machinery

Fertilizer
and
lime

Feed,
seed,
and
livestock
purchases 4

Miscellaneous

1929

365

298

92

23.2

98

218

92

38

21

27

76

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

369
365
371
340
304

304
303
311
281
247

92
93
95
98
98

22.9
23.4
22.6
22.6
20.2

97
96
93
91
86

216
220
213
212
190

91
89
86
87
86

40
38
35
32
32

21
16
11
12
14

26
23
24
24
24

76
78
79
76
69

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

345
323
347
349
331

289
269
295
301
286

86
90
87
87
93

21.1
20.4
22.1
20.6
20.7

88
89
94
91
94

198
192
208
193
194

88
89
90
91
92

33
35
38
40
40

17
20
24
23
24

23
31
29
30
37

66
68
68
70
72

1940
1941
1942.
1943
1944

341
344
348
357
362

298
304
309
320
326

95
94
104
117
114

20.5
20 0
20.6
20.3
20.2

97
97
100
101
101

192
188
194
191
190

92
92
91
89
88

42
44
48
50
51

28
30
34
38
43

45
46
57
63
64

73
74
75
76
76

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

354
352
355
356
360

322
323
329
332
338

109
107
104
98
99

18.8
18.1
17.2
16.8
16.2

99
99
99
100
101

177
170
162
158
152

88
91
92
95
95

54
58
64
72
80

45
53
56
57
61

72
69
73
72
69

76
77
78
74
82

345
344
349

326
326
334
335
335

102
103
103

101
104
103

142
143
136

97
98
99

86
92
96

85
88
88

99

97

102

125

100

98

68
73
80
83
88

72
80
81

104

15.1
15.2
14 5
14.0
13.3

330
315
316
317
318

106
104
101
99
100

12.8
12.0
11.1
10.5
10.3

102

120

101
99
99

113
104
99

100
99

97

90
91
94
97
109

86
91
93

102

100
99
100
100
100

319
299
291
296
297

97
98
99
100
101

9.8

101

92

294
291
304

100
97
97

9.5
9.1
8.8
8.4
7.9
7.5
7.4

101
101
102
103
103
105
107

89
85
83
79
74
70
70

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

....

348
....

346

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

340

1960
1961
1962
1963.
1964

324

1965
1966
1967 v

324
324
324
324

303
295
300
301
298
295
308

100

103

131

100
100
101
101
102
100
99
98

99
99
101
100

97
97
99
101
101
104
108

110
116
124
141
155
164
185
200

1 Acreage harvested (excluding duplication) plus acreages in fruits, tree nuts, and farm gardens.
2
Animal units of breeding livestock, excluding horses and mules.
3 Includes service buildings and improvements on land.
* Nonfarm inputs associated with farmers' purchases.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




304

80

82

101
106
109

123
121
124
123
124
128
126

91
91
94
98
95
100
105
106
109
113
115
120
124
127
135

TABLE B-82.—Comparative balance sheet of agriculture, 1929-68
[Billions of dollars]
Assets

Claims

Other physical assets
Beginning of
year
Total

1929

MaHousechinhold
DeReal
ery
furnish- posits
estate Liveand Crops 2 ings
and
stock i motor
and
curvehiequip- rency
cles
ment
48.0

68.5

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

6.6
6.5
4.9
3.6
3.0
3.2

3.4
3.3
3.0
2.5
2.2

3.5
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.1

ProReal
Invest- Total estate Other prietors'
ment
U.S.
debt debt equisavings in coties
bonds operatives

3.2

47.9
43.7
37.2
30.8
32.2
33.3
34.3
35.2
35.2
34.1

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

Financial assets

2.2
2.4
2.6
3.0
3.2

9.8
2.5

4.0

3.6

0.6

68.5

9.6
9.4
9.1
8.5
7.7

5.0

53.9

7.6
7.4
7.2
7.0
6.8

1940
1941.
1942
1943
1944

52.9
55.0
62.9
73.7
84.6

33.6
34.4
37 5
41.6
48.2

5.1
5.3
7 l
9.6
9.7

3.1
3.3
4.0
4.9
5.4

2.7
3.0
3.8
5.1
6.1

4.2
4.2
4.9
5.0
5.3

3.2
3.5
4.2
5.4
6.6

.2
.4
5
1.1
2.2

.8
.9
9
1.0
1.1

52.9
55.0
62 9
73.7
84.6

6.6
6.5
64
6.0
5.4

3.4
3.9
4 1
4.0
3.5

42.9
44.6
52 4
63.7
75.7

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

94.2
103.5
116.4
127.9
134.9

53.9
61.0
68.5
73.7
76.6

9.0
9.7
11.9
13.3
14.4

6.5
5.4
5.3
7.4
10.1

6.7
6.3
7.1
9.0
8.6

5.6
6.1
7.7
8.5
9.1

7.9
9.4
10.2
9.9
9.6

3.4
4.2
4.2
4.4
4.6

1.2
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9

94.2
103.5
116.4
127.9
134.9

4.9
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.3

3.4
3.2
3.6
4.2
6.1

85.9
95.5
107.9
118.6
123.5

132.5
151.5
167.0
164.3
161.2

75.3
86.6
95.1
96.5
95.0

12.9
17.1
19.5
14.8
11.7

12.2
14.1
16.7
17.4
18.4

7.6
7.9
8.8
9.0
9.2

8.6
9.7
10.3
9.9
9.9

9.1
9.1
9.4
9.4
9.4

4.7
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.7

2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9

132.5
151.5
167.0
164.3
161.2

5.6
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.7

6.8
7.0
8.0
8.9
9.2

120.1
138.4
152.3
148.2
144.3

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

165.1
169.6
177.9
185.8
202.5

98.2
102.9
110.4
115.9
124.4

11.2
10.6
11 0
13.9
17.7

18.6
19.3
20.2
20.2
22.1

9.6
8.3
8.3
7.6
9.3

10.0
10.5
10.0
9.9
9.8

9.4
9.5
9.4
9.5
10.0

5.0
5.2
5 1
5.1
5.2

3.1
3.3
3 5
3.7
4.0

165.1
169.6
177.9
185.8
202.5

8.2
9.0
9.8
10.4
11.1

9.4
9.8
96
10.0
12.6

147.5
150.8
158 5
165.4
178.8

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

203.5
203.9
212.4
220.7
230.0

129.9
131.4
137.4
143.6
152.3

15.6
15.6
16.4
17.3
15.8

?2.3
22.0
22.5
22.7
24.1

7.8
8.0
8.7
9.2
9.9

9.6
8.9
9.1
9.0
8.8

9.2
8.7
8.8
9.2
9.2

4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.2

4.4
4.7
5.0
5.3
5.7

203.5
203.9
212.4
220.7
230.0

12.1
12.8
13.9
15.2
16.8

12.8
13.4
14.8
16.6
18.1

178.6
177.7
183.7
188.9
195.1

1965
1966
1967
1968 v

'38.5
255.7
?69.5
281.2

161.3
172.2
182.0
191.5

14.4
17.5
18.8

25.5
27.1
28.9

8.9
9.7
10.0

8.6
8.6
8.5

9.6
10.0
10.3

4.2
4.1
4.0

6.0 238.5
6.5 255.7
7.0 269.5
281 2

18.9
21.2
23.3
25.0

18.6
20.4
22.4
24 9

201.0
214.1
223.8
231 3

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

....

67.7

22.0

1 Beginning with 1961, horses and mules are excluded.
2
Includes ail crops held on farms and crops held off farms by farmers as security for Commodity Credit Corporation
loans. The latter on January 1,1967, totaled $447 million.
Source: Department of Agriculture.




305

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICS
TABLE B-83.—United States balance of payments, 1947-67
[Millions of dollars]
Exports of goods and services

Year or quarter
Total

Merchandise^

Military
sales

Income on
investments
Private

Imports of goods and services

Other
services

Total

Merchandise^

66 2,620 8,208
102 2,256 10,349
98 2,226 9,621

5,979
7,563
6,879

Government

Balance Remiton
tances
Miliand
tary Other goods penand
ex- serv- serv- sions
pend- ices
ices
itures

1947
1948
1949

19,737 16,015
16,789 13,193
15J770 12,149

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

13,807
18,744
17,992
16,947
17,759

10,117
14,123
13,319
12,281
12,799

1,484
1,684
1,624
192 1,658
182 1,955

109
198
204
252
272

2,097
2,739
2,845
2,564
2,551

12,028
15,073
15,766
16,561
15,931

9,108
11,202
10,838
10,990
10,354

576
1,270
2,054
2,615
2,642

2,344
2,601
2,874
2,956
2,935

1,779
3,671
2,226
386
1,828

-533
-480
-571
-644
-633

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

19,804
23,595
26,481
23,067
23,489

14,280
17,379
19,390
16,264
16,295

200
161
375
300
302

2,170
2,468
2,612
2,538
2,694

274
194
205
307
349

2,880
3,393
3,899
3,658
3,849

17,795
19,628
20,752
20,861
23,342

11,527
12,804
13,291
12,952
15,310

2,901
2,949
3,216
3,435
3,107

3,367
3,875
4,245
4,474
4,925

2,009
3,967
5,729
2,206
147

-597
-690
-729
-745
-815

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964

27,325
28,631
30,350
32,426
37,099

19,489
19,954
20,604
22,071
25,297

335
402
656
657
747

3,001
3,561
3,948
4,151
4,929

349
380
471
498
460

4,151
4,334
4,671
5,049
5,666

23,324
23,122
25,305
26,573
28,637

14,732
14,510
16,187
16,992
18,621

3,069
2,981
3,083
2,936
2,861

5,523
5,631
6,035
6,645
7,155

4,001
5,509
5,045
5,853
8,462

-697
-722
-778
-891
-896

1965
1966
1967

844 5,376
39,147 26,244
43,039 29,168
847 5,650
45,603 30,716 1,173 5,969

512 6,171 32,203 21,472 2,921 7,810
595 6,779 37,937 25,510 3,694 8,733
643 7,101 40,203 26,367 4,249 9,587

6,944
5,102
5,400

-1,024
-1,010
-1,364

4
,
5 2 5,724 28,928 18,676 2,684 7 568 6,1 4
7

1,036
1,238
1,297

455 1,774 11,529
799 1,987 6,440
621 2,121 6,149

-728
-631
-641

Seasonally adjusted annual rates
1965: L .
II.
Ill
IV.

35,072
40,720
40,320
40,476

22,512
27,520
27,244
27,700

8 0 5,424
4
768 5,656
920 5,312
848 5,112

1966: I . .
II.
Ill
IV.

42,044
42,472
43,652
43,988

28,812
28,724
29,528
29,608

836
888
824
840

1967: I . .
II.

45,444 30,704 1,356 5,692
45,448 30,868 1,344 5,544
45,916 30,576
820 6,672

5,264
5,528
5,776
6,032

592 6,184 32,556 21,900 2,844 7,812
584 6,260 32,932 22,224 3,016 7,692
300 6,516 34,396 23,088 3,140 8,168

8,164
7,388
6 080
,

-928
-1,200
-996
-972

8,444
8,516
8 916
,
9 056

6 056
,
5,412
4,604
4,336

-964
-980
-1,112
-984

620 7,072 40,016 26,648 4,180 9 188
644 7,048 40,152 26,232 4,280 9 640
664 7,184 40,440 26,220 4,288 9 932

5,428
5,296
5,476

-1,056
-1,580
-1,456

612
612
572
584

See footnotes at end of table.




306

6,520
6,720
6,952
6,924

35,988
37,060
39,048
39,652

24,100
24,900
26,320
26,720

3,444
3,644
3,812
3,876

TABLE B-83.—United States balance of payments, 1947-67—Continued
[Millions of dollars]

Year or
quarter

U.S. private capital,
net
U.S.
Government
grants
Direct Other Shortand
capi- invest- longterm
ment
tal,
term
net a

Balance
Foreign
capital,
net 2

Errors
and
unreOfficorded
cial
Litrans- quidity reserve
actions basis 3 transactions
basis *

Changes in selected liabilities (decrease ( - ) ) «
To foreign
official holders«

Liquid

Nonliquid

Changes
in gold
convertible currencies,
and
To
IMF
other
gold
foreign
tranche
holdposition
(increase
())

1947.
1948.
1949.

-6,121
-4,918
-5,649

-749
-721
-660

-49
-69
-80

-189
-116
187

-432
-361
44

949
1,193
786

4,210
817
136

-3,315
-1,736
-266

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.

-3,640
-3,191
-2,380
-2,055
-1,554

-621
-508
-852
-735
-667

-435
-437
-214
185
-320

-149
-103
-94
167
-635

181
540
52
146
249

-11
500
627
366
191

-3,489
-8
-1,206
-2,184
-1,541

1,758
-33
-415
1,256
480

1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959.

-2,211
-2,362
-2,574
-2,587
-1,986

-241
-823
-1,951
-603
-2,442 - 8 5 9
-1,181 -1,444
-1,372
-926

-191
-517
-276
-311
-77

297
615
545
186
736

515 - 1 , 2 4 2
568 - 9 7 3
578
1,184
511 - 3 , 3 6 5
423 - 3 , 8 7 0

182
-869
-1,165
2,292
1,035

1960.
1961 .
1962.
1963
1964.

-2,769
-2,780
-3,013
-3,581
-3,560

-1,674
-1,599
-1,654
-1,976
-2,435

1965.
1966.
1967 i

-3,375 -3,418 -1,078
753
-3,446 -3,543 - 2 5 7
-413
-4,249 -2,885 -1,144 -1,023

- 8 5 6 -1,349
-1,025 -1,556
-1,227
-544
-1,695 - 7 8 5
-1,961 -2,146

365 - 9 2 2 -3,901 - 3 , 4 0 3
707 - 9 0 4 -2,370 - 1 , 3 4 7
1,021 -1,053 -2,203 - 2 , 7 0 5
689 - 2 8 5 -2,671 - 2 , 0 4 4
685 - 9 4 9 -2,800 - 1 , 5 4 9

• 1,448
0 681
»456
1,673
1,075

254

278
2,512
3,897

-18
-1,595

- 4 1 5 -1,335 - 1 , 3 0 4
- 3 0 2 -1,357
225
- 9 1 5 -2,283 - 2 , 8 9 7

Seasonally adjusted annual rates

303

308
1,083
214
620
1,554

2,145
606
1,533
378
171

100
802

131
2,384

1,222
568

Quarterly totals unadjusted

1965:1....
II —
ML.
IV...

3,312
3,860
2,880
3,448

-4, 832 -2,640
372
-3, 456
-2, 512 -1,360
-2, 872 -684

844
1,528
332
308

1
,240
-300
-820
992

212 -3,272 -3,336
956
796
-452
828
-980 -1,828
-440 -1,036 -3,664

-861
-107
253
697

1966:1....
II —
IIL.
IV...

3,900
3,952
3,036
2,896

-2,536 -1,008
-4,024 -276
-3,600
-20
-4, 012
276

-380
-240
-108
-924

1 060
,
4,364
1 504
,
3,120

-932 -2,604 -1,772
-792 -488 - 7 0 0
1,108 -660 3,444
-72
-592 -1,676

-852
54
-598
-199

25
263
111
403

45
7
2
7
1,211
671

424
68
82

1967:1
II
III

4,804 -2, 488 -724 -616
4,052 -2, 592 -688 -1,268
3,892 -3, 576 -2,020 -1,184

3 292 -1,148 -2,116 -7,260
4,908 -2,212 -2,188 -3,312
616 -2,544 l f "
3,492

-78
547
281

333
562
118

-711
94
1,302

1,027
-419
-375

201
-23
-16 -149
-18
712
1 7 -633
5

842
68
41
271

1 Adjusted from customs data for differences in timing and coverage.
2 Includes certain special Government transactions.
3 Equals changes in liquid liabilities to foreign official holders, other foreign holders, and changes in official reserve assets
consisting of gold, convertible currencies, and the U.S. gold tranche position in the IMF.
* Equals changes in liquid and nonliquid liabilities to foreign official holders and changes in official reserve assets consisting of gold, convertible currencies, and the U.S. gold tranche position in the IMF.
5
Includes short-term official and banking liabilities, foreign holdings of U.S. Government bonds and notes, and certain
nonliquid liabilities to foreign official holders.
o Central banks, governments, and U.S. liabilities to the IMF arising from reversible gold sales to, and gold deposits with
the U.S. Data for years before 1960 include estimates of official transactions in marketable U.S. Government bonds and
notes.
7
Private holders; includes banks and international and regional organizations, excludes IMF.
•Not reported separately.
9
Includes change in Treasury liabilities to certain foreign military agencies; excluding these changes, data ($ millions)
are 1,258 (I960), 741 (1961), 918 (1962). Includes changes in liabilities to international nonmonetary institutions.
10
Average for the first 3 quarters on a seasonally adjusted annual rates basis.
Note.—Data exclude military grant-aid and U.S. subscriptions to International Monetary Fund.
Source: Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics.




307

TABLE B—84.—United States merchandise exports and imports, by commodity groups, 1958—67
[Millions of dollars]

Merchandise exports i
Total, including reexports 2

Year or quarter

Merchandise imports
Gross
merchandise
trade
surplus,
Food, Crude
seabever- mate- Manufac- sonally
ages,
rials
tured
adand to- and goodse
justed 7
bacco fuels «

General imports 3

Domestic exports

Total*
Food, Crude
Seabever- mate- Manufacsonally Unad- Total 2 * ages,
rials
Seatured
adjusted
and
and togoods 6 sonally Unadjusted
bacco fuels s
adjusted
justed

1958
1959

16,373 16,208
16,418 16,234

2,688
2,852

3,051 11,546
2,996 11,171

13,262
15,629

3,550
3,580

4,062
4,580

5,283
7,090

3,111

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

19,635
20,190
20,973
22,427
25,690

19,434
19,944
20,703
22,143
25,338

3,167
3,466
3,743
4,188
4,637

3,942
3,863
3,355
3,774
4,336

12,559
12,748
13,655
14,259
16,388

15,019
14,716
16,392
17,140
18,684

3,392
3,455
3,674
3,863
4,022

4,380
4,303
4,640
4,692
4,976

6,847
6,523
7,626
8,066
9,096

4,616
5,474
4,581
5,287
7,006

1965
1966
1967 v

26,700 26,357
29,379 28,944
30,942 30,555

4,520
5,186
4,713

4,274 17,388
4,403 19,108
4,723 20,752

21,366
25,542
26,816

4,013
4,589
4,701

5,385 11,238
5,674 14,413
5,337 15,717

5,334
3,837
4,126

2,331
2,897
2,752
3,258

923
1,484
1,495
1,354

1965:1
II
Ill

IV
1966:

1

II
III
IV

1967:1

II
III

IV v

789

4,666
5,456
5,425
5,736

4,609
5,486
5,370
5,901

828
1,027

1,202

3,766
4,718
4,151
4,753

1,246

1,293
1,388
1,302
1,402

1,023
1,086
1,027
1,267

4,643
4,888
4,531
5,046

6,021
6,336
6,592
6,661

5,894
6,334
6,545
6,769

1,112
1,165
1,112
1,200

1,410
1,438
1,456
1,370

3,184
3,517
3,765
3,947

1,173

1,159
1,202
1,125
1,233

5,200
5,454
4,836
5,297

6,688
6,593
6,542
7,102

6,620
6,583
6,404
7,209

1,212
1,125
1,100
1,264

1,385
1,347
1,254
1,360

3,812
3,846
3,780
4,280

1,087
1,184
1,233

5,589
6,940
6,920
7,090

5,593
7,130
6,481
7,496

5,522
7,044
6,391
7,400

846
1,163
1,177
1,334

916
1,170

7,194
7,257
7,439
7,500

7,078
7,435
7,025
7,841

6,978
7,305
6,919
7,742

1,252
1,257
1,310
1,367

7,775
7,777
7,775
7,688

7,685
7,967
7,276
8,014

7,588
7,867
7,178
7,922

1,129
1,157
1,134
1,295

986

912

921
847
839

586

1 Beginning I960, data have been adjusted for comparability with the revised commodity classifications effective in 1965.
2 Totals exclude Department of Defense shipments of grant-aid military supplies and equipment under the Military
Assistance Program.
3 Total arrivals of imported goods other than intransit shipments.
4 Total includes commodities and transactions not classified according to kind.
5
Includes fats and oils.
« Includes machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, metals, and other manufactures. Export data for these
items include military grant-aid shipments.
7 Exports, excluding military grant-aid, less general imports; quarterly data seasonally adjusted.
Note.—Data are as reported by the Bureau of the Census. Export statistics cover all merchandise shipped from the U.S.
customs area, except supplies for U.S. Armed Forces. Export values are f.a.s. port of export and include shipments under
Agency for International Development and Food for Peace programs as well as other private relief shipments. Import
values are defined generally as the market value in the foreign country, excluding the U.S. import duty and transportation
costs such as ocean freight and marine insurance.
Because of revisions, subgroups do not include all data in the totals.
Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of International Commerce.




308

TABLE B—85.—United States merchandise exports and imports, by area, 1961—67
[Millions of dollars]
JanuaryNovember

Area

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966
1966

1967

Exports (including reexports
and special category shipments): Total

20,999

21,700

23,347

26,508

27,478

30,320

27,603

28,751

Developed countries
Developing countries

13, 563
7,303

13,985
7,589

15,124
8,056

17,202
8,966

18,315
9,023

20,010
10,112

18,257
9,164

19,400
9,169

3,826
3,847
7,237
133
4,652
445

4,251
3,692
8,171
167
5,448
565
1,053

4,915
4,292
9,096
340
5,802
804
1,259

5,643
4,274
9,224
140
6,012
956
1,229

6,661
4,769
9,805
198
6,733
805
1,349

6,077
4,315
8,979
182
6,094
730
1,226

6,551
4,306
9,178
182
6,588
852
1,094

859

4,045
3,679
7,633
125
4,676
519
1,023

14,716

16,392

17,140

18,684

21,366

25,542

23,302

24,394

Developed countries
Developing countries

8,909
5,719

10,250
6,035

10,807
6,242

11,895
6,676

14,068
7,144

17,590
7,762

15,987
7,144

17,218
7,005

Canada
Other Western HemisphereWestern Europe i
Eastern Europe
Asia
Australia and Oceania
Africa
Unidentified countries 2 . . . .

3,270
3,725
4,062
81
2,583
320
672
3

3,660
3,931
4,544
79
2,960
440
754
24

3,829
4,021
4,731
81
3,192
502
777
7

4,239
4,151
5,208
99
3,620
440
917
10

4,832
4,371
6,155
137
4,528
453
878
12

6,125
4,704
7,678
179
5,276
594
979
7

5,497
4,321
6,994
161
4,871
551
899

6,431
4,232
7,292
162
4,916
529
825
7

Canada
Other Western Hemisphere
Western Europe i
Eastern Europe
Asia
Australia and Oceania
Africa
.
General imports: Total

1

Includes Finland, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey.
Consists of certain low-valued shipments and some uranium imports, not identified by country.
Note.—Developed countries include Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and the Republic of
South Africa. Developing countries include rest of the world except Communist areas in Eastern Europe and Asia and
unidentified countries.
2

Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of International Commerce.




309

TABLE B-86.—United States overseas loans and grants, by type and area, fiscal years 1962-67
[Millions of dollars]
Net obligations and loan authorizations
Type of program and fiscal
period

Total economic and military
loans and grants: 1
1962-66 average.
Loans
Grants
1967 2
Loans
..
Grants
Total economic loans and grants:
1962-66 average
Loans..
Grants
1967
Loans
Grants
Developed countries: 1
1962-66 average
Loans
Grants
1967
Loans
Grants
Less developed countries:3
1962-66 average
Loans.
Grants
1967
Loans
Grants
Economic loans and grants for
less developed countries, by
program:

Total

Near
East
and
South
Asia

Latin
America

Vietnam

East
Asia

Africa

Europe

Other
and
nonregional

6,255
2,647
3,607
6,938
3,749
3,188

1,998
1,243
756
1,673
1,107
566

1,213
730
483
1,486
990
496

510
*
511
542
-1
542

942
200
742
996
293
702

430
169
261
421
206
215

590
245
344
986
856
130

572
60
511
834
297
537

4,702
2,510
2,192
5,290
3,046
2,244

1,668
1,224
443
1,251
994
258

1,125
720
404
1,398
973
425

308
308
542
-1
542

526
194
332
588
292
297

407
169
238
388
200
188

239
187
52
503
490
13

429
16
413
620
100
520

74
46
28
322
314
8

3
1
1
100
100

165
141
24
181
176
5

427
15
412
520

63
63

140
110
30
520
512
8
4,562
2,400
2,162
4,771
2,535
2,236

98
98

1,668
1,224
443
1,251
994
258

1,125
720
404
1,398
973
425

308
308
542
-1
542

462
130
332
490
194
297

407
169
238
388
200
188

520

Agency for International
Development:
255
2
212
241
222
557
2,301
811
1962-66 average
*
292
244
184
1967.. - . . . : : : " "
467
556
2,249
506
Food for Freedom:
68
139
118
52
187
790
176
1,532
1962-66 average
43
165
6
138
70
75
535
1967
1,031
Export-Import Bank longterm loans:
34
44
19
117
1962-66 average
57
270
176
64
14
497
196
947
1967
4
Other economic programs:
119
275
34
21
9
1962-66 average
459
185
25
44
276
543
1967
14
Addendum—Repayments and
interest on economic and military loans:5
21
524
258
128
3
36
239
1962-66 average
1,208
31
581
53
367
52
341
166
1967
1,591
1
Includes military loans and grants averaging $1,553 million for 1962-66 and totaling $1,647 million in 1967. Of these
amounts, $431 million and $695 million, respectively, were to developed countries; and $1,122 million and $952 million,
respectively, were to less developed countries. Military loans and grants include grant-aid and credit assistance under
the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) on a delivery basis, direct military loans by the Export-Import Bank, and military grants
under other acts. FAA military data are from the Department of Defense.
2
The 1967 data for military loans and grants under the Foreign Assistance Act and several minor economic programs
under "Other" are preliminary.
3
Countries have been classified "less developed" on the basis of the standard list of less developed countries used
by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. On this
basis, "less developed" countries include all countries receiving U.S. loans or grants except the following which are
considered "developed": Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Republic of South Africa, and all of Europe except Malta,
Spain, and Yugoslavia.
4
Includes capital subscriptions and contributions to the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Development Association, and the Asian Development Bank (1962-66 average for the three recipients, $214 million; 1967,
$374 million); and Peace Corps (1962-66 average, $72 million; 1967, $105 million).
5
Data for certain programs from Department of Commerce (Office of Business Economics) and Department of Defense.
Source: Agency for International Development (except as noted).




310

TABLE B-87 .—International reserves, 1949, 1953, and 1962-67
[Millions of dollars; end of period]
1967
1949

Area and country

1953

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966
September

December

All countries

45,515

51,780

62,905

66,275

68,500

70,245

71,615

72,185

Developed areas

37,240

41,390

54,510

56,890

58,995

59,465

60,205

60,040

26,024

23,458

17,220

16,843

16,672

15,450

14,881

14,649

14,830

United Kingdom

1,752

2,670

3,308

3,147

2,316

3,004

3,100

2,733

2,695

Other Western Europe..
Austria
Belgium
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Scandinavian countries (Denmark,
Finland, Norway,
and S w e d e n ) . . _
Spain
Switzerland
Other2_

6,460
92
978
580
196

10,515
325
1,144
829
1,773
768
1,232

27,240
1,081
1,753
4,049
6,956
4,068
1,946

29,490
1,229
1,940
4,908
7,650
3,619
2,102

32,335
1,317
2,192
5,724
7,882
3,824
2,349

33,625
1,311
2,304
6,343
7,429
4,800
2,416

34,965
1,333
2,320
6,733
8,028
4,911
2,448

35,685
1,439
2,551
6,750
8,014
5 445
2,475

1,484
2,530
6,994
8,155
5,460
2,619

537

1,026
150
1,768
1,500

1,610
1,045
2,871
1,861

1,875
1,147
3,074
1,946

2,380
1,513
3,120
2,034

2,324
1,409
3,244
2,045

2,340
1,205
3,324
2,326

2,391
1,108
3,156
2,356

1,902

2,547

2,603

2,881

3,027

2,693

2,682

2,709

892

2,022

2,058

2,019

2,152

2,119

2,047

2,030
2,307

United States

Canada
Japan
Australia, New Zealand,
and South Africa

x%
1,225
1,197

(0
1,582

1,952

2,175

2,748

2,773

2,205

2,448

2,244

Less developed areas 3

8,280

10,390

8,395

9,385

9,505

10,780

11,415

12,145

Latin America
Middle East
Other Asia
Other Africa

2,775
1,475
3,395
4 290

3,400
1,200
3,840
1,800

2,230
1,775
2,795
1,505

2,715
2,250
3,085
1,255

2,845
2,315
3,055
1,220

3,280
2,675
3,380
1,385

3,165
2,845
3,830
1,510

2,238
3,555

3,280
3,270
3,955
1,575

1 Not available separately.
2 In addition to other Western European countries, includes unpublished gold reserves of Greece and an estimate of
gold to be distributed by the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold.
3 Includes unpublished gold holdings not allocable by area.
< Estimate.
Note.—Includes gold holdings, reserve positions in the International Monetary Fund, and foreign exchange of all countries
except U.S.S.R., other Eastern European countries, Communist China, Cuba (after March 1964), and Indonesia (after July
1965).
Beginning 1959, when most of the major currencies of the world became convertible, data exclude known holdings of
inconvertible currencies, balances under payments agreements, and the bilateral claims arising from liquidation of the
European Payments Union.
Source: International Monetary Fund, "International Financial Statistics."




TABLE B-88.—United States reserve assets: gold stock, holdings of convertible foreign currencies,
and reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, 1946-67
[Millions of dollars]

End of year or month

Gold stock 1

Total reserve
assets

Total 2

Treasury

Convertible
foreign
currencies 3

Reserve
position in
International 4
Monetary Fund

1946
1947
1948

1949

20,706
24,021
25,758
26,024

20,706
22,868
24,399
24,563

20,529
22,754
24,244
24,427

1,153
1,359
1,461

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

24,265
24,299
24.714
23,458
22,978

22,820
22,873
23,252
22,091
21,793

22,706
22,695
23,187
22,030
21,713

,445
,426
,462
,367
,185

1955
1956
1957
1958

1959

22,797
23,666
24,832
22,540
21,504

21,753
22,058
22,857
20,582
19,507

21,690
21,949
22,781
20,534
19,456

,044
,608
,975
,958
1,997

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

19,359
18,753
17,220
16,843
16,672

17,804
16,947
16,057
15,596
15,471

17,767
16,889
15,978
15,513
15,388

116
99
212
432

1,555
1,690
1,064
1,035
769

1965
1966
1967

15,450
14,882
14,830

M3,806
13,235
12,065

5 13,733
13,159
11,982

781
1,321
2,345

5 863
326
420

1966: Jan..
Feb_.
Mar_.
Apr..
May..
June.

15,224
14,962
15,026
14,916
14,905
14,958

M3,811
13,811
13,738
13,668
13,582
13,529

5 13,732
13,730
13,634
13,632
13,532
13,433

639
377
559
522
628
722

5 774
774
729
726
695
707

July_.
Aug_.
Sept..
Oct...
Nov..
Dec.

15,148
15,015
14,876
14,880
14,715
14,882

13,413
13,319
13,356
13,311
13,262
13,235

13,332
13,259
13,258
13,257
13,159
13,159

1,093
1,299
1,148
1,213
1,108
1,321

642
397
372
356
345
326

1967: Jan..
Feb..
Mar.
Apr..
May..
June.

14,196
13,998
13,855
13,906
13,943
14,274

13,202
13,161
13,184
13,234
13,214
13,169

13,157
13,107
13.107
13,109
13,109
13,110

645
480
314
315
363
738

349
357
357
357
366
367

July..
Aug..
Sept.
Oct..
Nov..
Dec.

14,224
14,605
14,649
14,927
15,438
14,830

13,136
13,075
13,077
13,039
12,965
12,065

13.108
13,008
13,006
12,905
12,908
11,982

719
1,162
1,200
1,509
2,092
2,345

369
368
372
379
381
420

1
Includes gold sold to the United States by the International Monetary Fund with the right of repurchase which
amounted to $800 million on December 31,1967.. Beginning September 1965 also includes gold deposited by the IMF to
dlllUUIIlCU Ivl « O U IIIIIIIUII Ull L/GlrGIIIUGI J l , 1 J U /
P U
UGgllllllllg O J
„
-,
ginning O J
mitigate the impact on the U.S. gold stock of purchases by foreign countries for gold subscriptions on increased IMF
quotas. Amount outstanding was $233 million on December 31,1967. The United States has a corresponding gold liability
to 2the IMF.
Includes gold in Exchange Stabilization Fund.
3 Includes holdings of Treasury and Federal Reserve System.
4
In accordance with Fund policies the United States has the right to draw foreign currencies equivalent to its reserve
position in the Fund virtually automatically if needed. Under appropriate conditions the United States could draw additional amounts equal to the United States quota.
5
Reserve position includes, and gold stock excludes, $259 million gold subscription to the Fund in June 1965 for a US.
quota increase which became effective on February 23, 1966. In figures published by the Fund from June 1965 through
January 1966, this gold subscription was included in the U.S. gold stock and excluded from the reserve position.
Note.—Gold held under earmark at Federal Reserve Banks for foreign and international accounts is not included in
the gold stock of the United States.
Sources: Treasury Department and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.




312

TABLE B-89.—Price changes in international trade, 1959-67
[1958=1001
1967
Area or commodity class

1960

1959

1962

1961

1963

1964

1965

1966
Third
quarter

Unit value indexes by area
Developed areas

99
102

100
103

101
104

101
105

102
104

103
104

104
104

106
104

106
106

100
102

101
101

103
105

102
107

102
105

103
104

106
106

107
105

3 105
3 104

98
99

95
97

93
95

95
97

97
97

97
97

99
97

99
97

95
96

Exports
Terms of trade».

93
95

91
93

94
97

101
103

101
102

is

Total:

3 100
3 98

111
109

104
104

101
102

102
102

103
100

104
100

106
103

3 106
3 100

United States 2
Exports
Terms of trade»
Developing areas

Total:
Exports
Terms of trade
Latin America
Exports
Terms of trade L
Southern and Eastern Asia

4

Exports
Terms of trade l .

106
108

World export price indexes5

97

97

95

94

100

103

100

101

98

93

91

90

90

103

106

99

100

99

Coffee, tea, and cocoa..
Cereals
—

83
97

77
96

72
98

70
103

73
102

87
105

80
101

OOO

80
108

Other agricultural commodities •_

105

107

103

99

103

105

104

105

99

Fats, oils, and oilseeds..
Textile fibers
Wool
Rubber

100
98
106
134

94
104
108
141

97
105
107
107

89
101
106
102

95
112
127
95

98
116
131
91

108
105
110
93

105
106
115
99

89
100
99
85

94
97

93
98

92
100

92
99

92
96

94
104

96
110

97
110

95
102

Manufactured goods: Total »...

99

101

102

102

103

104

106

108

109

Nonferrous base metals»_.

111

114

110

109

110

135

155

178

153

Primary commodities: Total.
Foodstuffs

Minerals
Metal ores..

* Terms of trade indexes are unit value indexes of exports divided by unit value indexes of imports.
2 Includes foreign trade of Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.
3 Data are for second quarter 1967.
* Excludes Japan.
1
Data for manufactured goods are unit value indexes.
8
Includes nonfood fish and forest products.
Note.—Data exclude trade of Communist areas in Eastern Europe (except Yugoslavia) and Asia.
Sources: United Nations and Department of Commerce (Bureau of International Commerce).




313

TABLE B-90.—Consumer price indexes in the United States and other major industrial countries,
1955-67
[1960==100]
Period

United
States

Canada

Japan

France

Germany

Italy

Netherlands

United
Kingdom

90.5
91.9
95.1
97.7
98.5

90.9
92.3
95 2
97.7
98.8

92.7
93.0
95 9
95.5
96.5

75.5
76.9
79 0
90.9
96.5

91.4
9S.7
9916
97.7
98.6

91.2
94.3
95 5
98.2
97.8

88
89
95
97
98

87.8
92.1
95 6
98.5
99.0

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964..

100.0
101.1
102.2
103.5
104.9

100.0
100.9
102.1
103.9
105.8

100.0
105.3
112.5
121.1
125.7

100.9
103.3
108.3
113.5
117.4

100.0
102.3
105.4
108.5
111.1

100.0
102.1
106.9
114.8
121.6

100
101
103
107
113

100.0
103.4
107.8
110.0
113.6

1965
1966.._
19671

106.6
109.7
112 8

108.4
112.4

116.4

134.1
140.9
146.4

120.3
123.5
126.9

114.9
118.9
120.6

127.1
130.1
134.4

119
126
129

119.0
123.7
126.7

104.5
104.7
105.0
105.4

105.0
105.6
106.2
106.3

122.4
125.1
126.1
128.8

116.3
116.6
117.5
118.2

110.3
110.9
111.3
111.8

119.1
120.5
122.5
124.3

110
114
114
114

111.3
113.4
114.3
115.3

105.6
106.4
106.8
107.4

107.2
103.0
108.9
109.4

131.5
134.1
134.1
136.7

119.1
120.4
120.6
121.2

113.0
114.4
115.6
116.2

125.7
126.5
127.7
128.5

115
120
120
120

116.4
119.3
119.8
120.6

IV

108.2
109.3
110.3
111.2

110.9
112.1
113.1
113.7

139.1
140.9
141.0
142.4

122.2
123.1
123.8
124.6

117.8
119.2
119.0
119.5

129.4
129.7
130.1
131.2

123
128
126
126

121.4
123.8
124.2
125.2

1
II..
Ill
IV 2

111.4
112.1
113.3
114.3

114.2
115.8
117.6
117.8

145.0
144.9
145.6
150.0

125.7
126.1
127.0
128.6

120.3
121.0
120.7
120.2

133.1
133.9
134.9
135.5

127
131
130
129

125.9
126.9
126.3
127.5

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

1964:

I

II
III..
IV
1965:

II

III

IV
1966:

1967:

1
II .
Ill

.

1

Eleven month average except United States.
For other than United States, data are averages of October and November.
Sources: Department of Labor and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

2




314
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1968

O—284-593














Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102