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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R STATISTIC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner (on leave)
A . F. Hinrichs, A ctin g Commissioner

♦

Earnings and Hours
in Book and Job Printing
January 1942
¥
Prepared in the

DIVISION OF WAGE ANALYSIS
R O B E R T J. M YERS, C hief

Bulletin 7s[o. 726

(Reprinted w ith o u t change from the M o n th ly Labor R e v ie w ,
O ctober and N ovem ber 1942]

U N ITED ST A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
W A SH IN G TO N : 1943

F or sale b y the Superintendent o f Docum ents, U . S. G overnm ent Printing Office
W ashington, D . C. - Price 10 cents




CONTENTS

P a r t 1 .— H o u r l y E a r n i n g s

Page

S u m m a r y ------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d u s t r y ________________________________________________________
P u r p o s e a n d s c o p e o f s u r v e y ___________________________________________________________
H o u r l y e a r n i n g s ___________________________________________________________________________

1
1
5
7

P a r t 2 .— H o u r l y E a r n i n g s b y O c c u p a t i o n
S u m m a r y ___________________________________________________________________________________
O c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e __________________________________________________________________
H o u r l y e a r n i n g s ___________________________________________________________________________
W e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s ____________________________________________________________

18
18
26
30

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

United States D epartment of Labor,
Bureau o f Labor Statistics,
Washington, D. (7., December 7, 194%,
The Secretary of L abor:
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on earnings and
hours in book and job printing, January 1942. The study was con­
ducted under the supervision of Victor S. Baril, and was prepared
by Everette B. Harris, with the assistance of Woodrow C. Linn, in
the Division of Wage Analysis, Robert J. Myers, Chief.
A. F. Hinrichs, Acting Commissioner.
Hon. P rances P erkins,
Secretary of Labor.

n




Bulletin 7s[o. 726 of the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
[Reprinted without change from the M onthly L abor R eview, October and November 1942]

EARNINGS AND HOURS IN BOOK AND JOB PRINTING,
JANUARY 1942
PART 1.—HOURLY EARNINGS
Summary
STRAIGHT-TIME hourly earnings in the printing industry, exclu­
sive of large newspapers, averaged 78.3 cents in January 1942. Male
employees earned an average of 87.0 cents, while woman workers, who
constitute about one-fourth of the labor force, averaged 48.8 cents.
This information is based on a mail questionnaire study by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics covering almost 4,000 firms.
The heterogeneous character of the industry’s labor force is indi­
cated by the extreme variation in earnings, from less than 30 cents to
over $2 an hour. Slightly more than one-tenth of the workers earned
less than 40 cents an hour, while roughly one-third had average earn­
ings of $1 or more an hour. Only 7.0 percent of the males but 22.6
percent of the woman workers averaged less than 40 cents.
Earnings were highest in the gravure branch of the industry; the
small group of skilled workers in this branch averaged $1.24 per hour.
The bookbinding branch, which employed numerous women, paid the
lowest wages, averaging 61.5 cents per hour. The averages in other
branches, studied separately, were as follows: General commercial
printing, 78.4 cents; periodicals, 86.2 cents; books, 81.8 cents; small
newspapers, 66.6 cents; and lithography, 77.2 cents.
Examined from a regional point of view, wages were highest on the
Pacific coast. Workers in large cities enjoyed a substantial wage
advantage over those in the smaller towns, and workers in large plants
received higher wages than those in small shops.

Characteristics of the Industry
The reproduction of words, pictures, figures, and symbols on paper
by the printing processes is one of the great industries of the United
States, in time of war as well as in time of peace. In 1939, according
to the Census of Manufactures, printing, publishing, and allied indus­
tries operated nearly 25,000 separate establishments and employed
about one-third of a million workers.
Wartime necessities have affected the printing industries, par­
ticularly those largely dependent upon advertising. Increases in
Government printing work have failed to compensate for the loss o f
private business.




1

2

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942
PRINTING PROCESSES

The various forms of commercial printing involve a great variety of
operations, many of which fall into two broad classes: operations
essential to the preparation of a patterned surface, such as a type face,
suitable for making the desired impressions; and those operations
involved in the repetitive reproduction of the pattern of words or
symbols on paper or other media. There are, of course, other impor­
tant operations, such as proofreading and bookbinding. All of these
are normally performed by r
1 J pes of workers whose wages
are determined more or less
as most commonly involved
the setting of type by hand or by machine, although engraving, photo­
engraving, and other methods are also widely used. Each recent
decade has brought forth important technological developments in
this field, all of which have influenced the position of the worker.
Wider use of the teletypesetter, by which a central operator can set up
type in distant cities, is anticipated for the future. Recent inventions,
which make practical application of the photoelectric cell, are the^
Howey engraving machine and the Semagraph; the latter operates a
linotype or Intertype machine from typewritten copy.
Actual reproduction processes are of three major types. In order of
importance these are letterpress, lithography (offset), and gravure.
The letterpress method, often called “ relief” printing, is the oldest
and most widely used method in this country. In this process raised
type is used and the ink is applied to the type surface for transfer to
the paper. Letterpress printing may be accomplished on a platen
press, where the impressions are made by flat, even pressure against
a flat type area; on a cylinder press, where a cylinder carrying the
paper rolls across a type area consisting of a stereotyped or electrotyped plate; or on a web-rotary press, used by most newspapers,
1 ’ 1 continuous rolls of paper are run over curved stereotyped
Lithography, a somewhat newer form of printing, has developed
rapidly during recent years. Under this process the printing surface is
a smooth metal plate (usually zinc or aluminum), chemically treated
in such a manner that ink adheres only to the appropriate outlines or
areas. The most popular lithographic equipment now in use is the
“ offset” press which makes use of three principal rollers; one of these
carries the press plate, the second is covered by a rubber blanket which
transfers or offsets the printing to the paper, and the third carries the
paper.
In gravure printing, the parts of the plate by which the impression
is transmitted are recessed; they are filled with ink for each impression,
while the remaining surfaces are kept free of ink by a “ doctor” blade
or other special equipment. While gravure accounts for a relatively
small proportion of all printing, it is tending to come into wider usage
as suitable paper and less expensive presses become available.
A very marked trend away from the “ general” or “ all-round”
printer and print shop has been in evidence during recent years.
Many shops formerly equipped to complete all phases of production
now find it advantageous to send out their composition, binding,
photoengraving, camera work, offset-plate making, stereotyping,
electrotyping, mounting and finishing, or other work. Also there
has been a trend toward specialization of product. Many printers



3

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

now concentrate on a particular line such as labels, advertising pieces,
continuous business forms, manifold forms, folders, menus, tickets, etc.
BRANCHES OF THE INDUSTRY

Of the various printing industries distinguished by the Census of
Manufactures, the newspaper branch is largest by most measures
(table 1). Establishments engaged in newspaper publishing and
printing numbered 6,878 in 1939, employed nearly 100,000 wage
earners, and reported $671,000,000 in value added by manufacture.
General commercial (job) printing establishments numbered nearly
10,000 and employed almost 100,000 workers, but reported only
$324,000,000 in value added by manufacture. Lithography, peri­
odicals, and books were the other leading branches. As is pointed
out below, the study reported in this article excluded large news­
papers and certain other branches reported by the Census, but
included representation of letter shops, which the Census of Manufac­
tures does not classify as printing establishments.
T

1 . —Number of Establishments, Average Number of Wage Earners, Wages, Value
of Products, and Value Added by Manufacture in Printing, Publishing, and Allied
Industries, 1939 1

able

Branch of industry

Num­ Wage
ber of earners
estab­ (average
lish­
ments for year)

All branches................................................. 24,878
General commercial (job) printing...............
Lithography and photolithography.............
Books:
Publishing without printing...... ..........
Publishing and printing......................
Printing without publishing.................
Periodicals:
Publishing without printing.................
Publishing and printing..... ..................
Bookbinding and related work....................
Newspapers:
Publishing without printing.................
Publishing and printing____ ________
Gravure, rotogravure, and rotary photo­
gravure.....................................................
Photoengraving................... .......... ............
Greeting cards (except hand painted).........
Machine and hand typesetting...................
Engraving (steel, copperplate, and wood)...
Electrotyping and stereotyping...................

Wages

Value of
product

Value added
by manu­
facture

324,535 $493,615,659 $2,578,464,382 $1,766,456,764

9,595
749

96.039
26,000

132,944,964
37,929,201

515,435,609
154,394,787

323,701,972
96,708,353

556
150
690

135
6,091
16,547

195,673
8,404,779
25,037,639

109,579,003
39,517,202
87,656,088

74,030,729
27,788,509
55,644,083

1,958
600
1,133

436
20,985
25,690

550,099
33,002,502
29,062,627

266,831,618
202,015,136
102,591,313

150,167,491
144,382,328
72,162,598

431
6,878

260
96,991

363,445
164,355,044

11,963,611
898,225,000

6,648,981
671,047,669

24
694
109
641
436
234

2,623
9,207
7,522
6,244
5,353
4,412

5,436,278
22,568,156
7,264,165
10,424,914
7,156,404
8,919,769

18,614,837
55,619,445
39, 715,439
25,096,497
22,163,638
29,045,159

11,371,501
48,257,775
24,225,293
22,044,421
16,134,287
22,140,774

1Data are from Census of Manufactures.

LOCATION AND SIZE OF PLANTS

The printing industries are scattered throughout the United States,
with a decided concentration, as would be expected, in the most
populous States. The concentration is particularly pronounced in
general commercial (job) printing, in which New York ranks first in
number of establishments (1,823 in 1939), Illinois second (857),
California third (789), and Pennsylvania fourth (705). New York
also leads in number of firms in the books, lithography, and book­
binding branches. The printing and publishing of newspapers is
more widely distributed geographically than are most of the other
branches.



4

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

Certain processes requiring great skill or expensive equipment, such
as gravure, engraving, multicolor work, and the printing and publish­
ing of books, have tended to concentrate in a few large cities. New
York, Chicago, and Philadelphia are the most important of the
great printing centers, but substantial concentrations are found
in other metropolitan areas. A movement toward decentralization,
apparent in recent years, has been felt particularly in the New York
area. This movement has been prompted largely by the desire to
obtain lower-priced labor and has been facilitated by technological
developments within the industry.
Despite a trend toward concentration in the hands of the larger
producers, the printing industry is still composed mainly of relatively
small industrial units. Of the 25,000 establishments reported by the
Census of Manufactures in 1939, only 1 had more than 2,500 wage
earners, only 9 had more than 1,000 wage earners, and only 520 (2
percent) employed more than 100 workers. Almost nine-tenths of all
establishments employed an average of 20 employees or less.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABOR FORCE

Printing-trades workers are predominantly skilled white males.
Fewer than 2 percent of the workers included in the Bureau’s study
were Negroes. Woman workers were found to constitute one-fourth
of the labor force of the total industry but were employed primarily in
the lower-skilled occupations. The proportion of woman workers
varied among the various branches of the industry, ranging from 2.2
percent in the gravure branch to 73.6 percent of the letter-shop
employees. Women comprise slightly more than one-fifth (20.7
percent) of the workers in commercial printing and almost one-half
(46.1 percent) of the bookbinding employees.
Job requirements in the printing trades are unusually high, often
requiring a combination of a good educational background, sound
judgment, and physical strength and skill. Journeyman workers in
many occupations must have several years of experience, and formal
apprenticeships are in common use. Proofreaders, machinists, and
engravers rank near the top in skill requirements. Among the most
numerous of the skilled workers are the compositors, who set up type
by hand or machine, and the pressmen.
Working conditions are relatively favorable. Most branches show
but minor seasonal fluctuations in employment. Few manufacturing
workers have greater job security than the printers.
No attempt was made in the present study to determine the extent
of unionization in the industry. It is well known, however, that
organized labor has long had a profound influence on the printing
industry. It is estimated that over one-third of the total number of
workers are covered by collective agreements, although union organi­
zation is confined mainly to production workers. Most of the many
individual unions in the industry are affiliated with the A. F. of L.
The local unions enjoy a high degree of autonomy; as a result there is
a wide variance in wage scales and shop rules from city to city.
Although the questionnaire used in the Bureau’s survey carried no
inquiry regarding method of wage payment, printing is known to be
predominantly a time-rate industry.




BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

5

Purpose and Scope of Survey
This survey of wages and hours of work in the book and job printing
and related industries was undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics as part of its established program for securing basic information
on the wage structure of American industries. In addition, the survey
was requested by the Wage and Hour Division of the U. S. Depart­
ment of Labor, for use by an industry committee appointed by the
Administrator to consider the appropriate legal minimum wage scale
for the industry group. This is the first comprehensive study of wages
and hours in the printing industry to be made by the Bureau. Infor­
mation regarding union wage rates in certain occupations, however,
has been published annually by the Bureau for many years.
The Bureau’s survey was primarily concerned with seven branches
of the printing industry, namely, commercial printing, lithography,
books, periodicals, bookbinding, small newspapers, and gravure.
There is, of course, much overlapping among these branches. Estab­
lishments engaged in more than one of the specified types of operation
were classified on the basis of major product.
The commercial printing branch includes establishments primarily
engaged in commercial or job printing (letterpress printing). This
branch also includes firms printing newspapers for others. In the
Bureau’s study, firms printing periodicals for others were classified in
the periodicals branch, whereas the Census of Manufactures classifies
them in the general commercial (job) printing industry.
For purposes of the present survey, the lithography branch includes
all firms primarily engaged in lithographing or offset printing, whereas
the Census of Manufactures groups the lithographing of books, pamph­
lets, and greeting cards in other industries.
In the books branch, the Bureau’s definition differs from that of the
Census in that only those establishments engaged primarily in printing
without publishing or in both the printing and publishing of books
are included; firms doing publishing alone are not considered within
the scope of the present survey. Also the Bureau’s classification
includes only those firms printing books by the letterpress method, all
work by the lithograph or gravure processes being classified in those
respective branches.
In the periodicals branch, also, those firms doing publishing only are
excluded from the Bureau’s survey and firms printing periodicals for
others are included in this branch rather than under commercial
printing.
The Bureau’s definition of bookbinding does not differ from that of
the Census. Included in this branch are firms primarily engaged in
the binding of books and pamphlets (chiefly on a contract or custom
basis), in the manufacture of blank books, loose-leaf and similar
devices, and in related work such as paper ruling and cutting.
Binderies operated in conjunction with printing establishments are
not included in this branch but are considered as departments of the
printing firms.
Newspapers, as such, were not included in the survey. However,
those newspaper plants which undertake a sufficient volume of job
printing to be a factor in the commercial field were covered. Specifi­
cally, the survey included newspaper establishments which obtained 20
percent or more of their 1941 total dollar receipts from commercial



6

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

printing.1 In the following discussion such establishments are re­
ferred to as small newspapers.
The gramre branch, as set up by the Bureau, covers firms primarily
engaged in gravure, rotogravure, and rotary photogravure printing,
but does not include establishments concerned solely with the prepa­
ration of plates.
In addition to the above, the Bureau’s survey included a number of
private printing plants operated incidentally in connection with other
industries. Since the list of such plants was incomplete, however,
and the returns were not entirely satisfactory, data regarding these
operations are excluded from the main body of this report.2 Private
printing plants are not considered a division of the general industry
group by the Census of Manufactures, as the printing carried on by
these establishments is of secondary importance. The Census of
Manufactures collects no data for multigraphing, mimeographing, and
addressing done by establishments engaged wholly or chiefly in this
class of work. At the specific request of the Wage and Hour Division,
however, the Bureau has included representation of such establish­
ments, which are presented elsewhere as the “ letter shop” branch.2
Service industries for the printing trade, consisting of establish­
ments doing machine and hand typesetting, photoengraving, electro­
typing, stereotyping, plate making, etc., were excluded from the
Bureau’s survey.
QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS

The basic data for the present survey were obtained largely by
means of mail questionnaires, which were sent to a representative
sample of establishments in the various branches of the industry.
An exception was made in the case of the larger firms (those employing
500 or more workers) which were visited by the Bureau’s trained field
representatives. The questionnaires called for information regarding
the color, sex, occupation, shift, hours, and earnings of each wage
earner during a representative pay-roll period ending about January
i5, 1942.
The sample of plants from which information was sought included
approximately 25 percent of all plants in the covered segments of the
industry. Great care was taken to give appropriate representation
to each branch of the industry, and to the various geographic localities
and sizes of plants. Of the 9,805 companies from which information
was requested, 6,791 (69 percent) made returns. Many of these
firms, however, proved to employ no wage earners, to be out of busi­
ness, or (in a few instances) to be improperly classified in the printing
industry. The number of usable returns was 3,816 (table 2).
An analysis of the returns received revealed a slight overrepresenta­
tion of the largest plants; particularly those with 500 or more wage
earners, which had been visited by the Bureau’s representatives.
The weight of these plants (500 or over) was consequently reduced by
including in the final tabulations only an appropriate random sample
of the workers from such plants. The representation by branch of
the industry and by geographic area is believed to be reasonably
dependable.
1A number of large-city newspapers which met this qualification were excluded from the survey, never­
theless.
2Information regarding these branches is available in mimeographed form and may be obcained from the
Bureau upon request.




BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T

able

2 . —Number of Establishments and of Wage Earners Included in Survey of Printing

Industry, by Branch of Industry, 1942
Number
of estab­
lishments

Branch of industry

All branches................................................................. .

Number of workers
Total

Male

Female

3,816

55,626

41,842

13,784

3,419
2,227
136

All branches, exclusive of letter shops and private
printing plants...... ....................................................
Commercial printing................... ....... ................ .
Lithography......................... ................................ .
Books.................................................................. .
Periodicals........ .................................................... .
Bookbinding............... . ........................................ .
Small newspapers-........................ . ........................
Gravure................................................................. .

51,569
22,314
7,838
7,465
6,895
3,921
2,626
510

39,363
17,699
5,847
5.420
5.421
2,112
2,365
499

12,206
4,615
1,991
2,045
1,474
1,809
261
11

1,377
2,680

2,116

1,014
564

211

643
5

Letter shops................................................................. .
Private printing plants.......... ......................................

201

196

Hourly Earnings
WAGE TRENDS

A brief review of the trend of wages in the printing industry reveals
that when the Bureau’s survey was made printing-industry wages
were near to their highest recorded level.
T

able

3 . — Trend

of Average Hourly Earnings in Specified Branches of the Printing
Industry, 1935-421

Month

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

1942

Book and job printing
January___
February. —
March........
April..........
May...........
June..........
July...........
August.......
September..
October___
November..
December. .

$0,733
.728
.731
.740
.742
.752
.741
.730
.732
.732
.736
.746

$0,743
.740
.750
.750
.748
.742
.731
.726
.747
.743
.745
.742

$0.758
.752
.757
.762
.779
.778
.781
.770
.779
.785
.785
.787

$0,793
.785
.803
.799
.799
.806
.800
.793
.800
.799
.798
.798

$0,799
.802
.811
.805
.802
.809
.802
.797
.805
.801
.806
.809

$0.817
.804
.817
.816
.821
.820
.805
.799
.805
.807
.812
.813

$0,810
.810
.817
.814
.819
.826
.819
.816
.829
.827
.838
.846

$0,849
.843
.857
.860
.866
.869
.866

$1.052
1.057
1.055
1.057
1.066
1.069
1.068
1.070
1.076
1.081
1.084
1.107

$1,086
1.089
1.103
1.108
1.116
1.125
1.128

Newspapers and periodicals
January...
February..
March......
April........
May____
June.........
July.........
August..
October.
November..
December. .

$0,875
.877
.884
.884
.885
.894
.892
.898
.900
.902
.905
.918

$0,903
.903
.908
.912
.918
.923
.920
.921
.932
.935
.934
.949

$0.927
.931
.942
.953
.968
.971
.966
.960
.965
.985
.971
.991

$0,981
.977
.978
.983
.994
.994
.978
.971
.988
.991
.998
1.007

$0,995
.996
.994
.998
1.001
.999
1.001
.998
1.007
1.013
1.016
1.027

$1,018
1.018
1.023
1.029
1.035
1.036
1.033
1.031
1.029
1.026
1.049
1.059

i Based on monthly reports to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figures include extra payments for over*
time work.

The data presented in table 3, based on monthly reports by a large
number of establishments in the major branches of the industry, are
not directly comparable with the wage information obtained as a result
500942—43------2



8

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

of the Bureau’s special study,3but are believed to present a dependable
picture of recent wage movements. These data indicate that wages
have risen slowly but steadily since 1935, both in book and job and
in newspaper and periodical printing. In contrast to the wage trends
in most industries, however, the upward movement was not greatly
accelerated following the outbreak of the war in 1939. Average hourly
earnings were only slightly higher in July 1942 than in January 1942,
the period represented by the Bureau’s study.
HOURLY EARNINGS IN THE INDUSTRY AS A WHOLE

Average hourly earnings, exclusive of extra payments for overtime,
in all branches of the printing industry combined, amounted to 78.3
cents in January 1942 (table 4). The extreme variation in hourly
earnings, from less than 30 cents to over $2, reflects the heterogeneous
character of the industry’s wage structure. No 5-cent wage interval
embraced as many as 10 percent of the workers; the largest number of
workers in any interval (7.9 percent) earned from 50 to 55 cents per
hour. Only 10.7 percent of the workers earned less than 40 cents an
hour, and only 5.0 percent earned less than 35 cents. Somewhat
more than half (59.3 percent) of the workers earned 40 cents but less
than $1 per hour. (See chart 1.)
T

able

4 . —Percentage Distribution of

Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing
Industry, by Average Hourly Earnings, 1942

Average hourly earnings

Com­
Small
Periodi­ Book­ news­
All
mercial Lithog­
branches print­ raphy Books
cals binding papers
ing

Gravure

Under 30.0 conts................. .............
Exactly 30.0 cents________________
30.1 and under 32.5 cents__________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents.... ..............
35.0 and under 37.5 cents.................
37.5 and under 40.0 cents__________
Exactly 40.0 cents.............................
40.1 and under 45.0 cents.... ..............
45.0 and under 50.0 cents.... ......... .
50.0 and under 55.0 cents..................
55.0 and under 60.0 cents.... ..............
60.0 and under 65.0 cents.... ..............
65.0 and under 70.0 cents.... ..............
70.0 and under 75.0 cents.... ..............
75.0 and under 80.0 cents.... ..............
80.0 and under 85.0 cents.... ..............
85.0 and under 90.0 cents...................
90.0 and under 95.0 cents. .................
95.0 and under 100.0 cents. ...............
100.0 and under 105.0 cents________
105.0 and under 110.0 cents. ..............
110.0 and under 115.0 cents.--..........
115.0 and under 120.0 cents..............
120.0 and under 125.0 cents. ..............
125.0 and under 130.0 cents.-...........
130.0 and under 140.0 cents.-............
140.0 and under 150.0 cents. .............
150.0 and under 160.0 cents. ............ .
160.0 and under 170.0 cents...............
170.0 and under 180.0 cents________
180.0 and under 190.0 cents.... ...........
190.0 and under 200.0 cents
200.0 cents and over..........................

0.7
2.5
.5
1.3
3.1
2.6
5.1
4.0
7.2
7.9
5.8
5.7
4.2
3.3
4.1
3.5
3.2
3.0
2.3
3.9
3.1
3.7
2.7
3.1
2.7
3.3
3.1
1.9
.9
.7
.3
.1
.5

0.7
2.9
.5
1.3
3.0
2.4
4.7
3.4
6.4
7.3
4.7
5.6
4.2
3.5
4.6
4.3
3.6
3.7
2.5
4.7
3.4
4.0
3.1
2.9
2.9
3.2
3.0
1.9
.8
.4
.2

0.1
1.4
.2
1.6
2.3
4.1
5.1
5.1
6.7
7.6
7.2
5.6
3.8
3.1
3.5
2.3
2.1
2.3
2.2
3.3
3.2
3.7
2.4
4.0
2.2
3.4
5.0
2.9
1.5
1.2
.4
.2
.3

0.1
2.3
.4
.7
3.3
1.6
3.3
3.4
7.1
6.4
6.1
4.8
3.1
3.3
3.2
2.5
2.8
2.7
2.8
3.9
4.3
5.1
3.8
4.6
4.0
4.6
4.1
2.1
1.0
1.0
.5
.3
.8

0.3
3.7
.4
2.3
4.6
2.7
13.1
5.0
10.3
11.0
8.9
7.1
4.4
2.6
2.8
2.6
1.6
1.5
1.1
2.2
1.4
2.2
1.4
2.1
1.5
2.0
.7
.3
.2

(9.2

0.1
1.7
.7
1.1
3.5
2.4
5.3
4.8
9.6
8.3
5.3
5.1
5.1
2.9
4.2
3.5
3.8
3.2
2.2
3.2
2.2
3.0
2.1
2.5
2.5
3.8
2.8
1.9
1.1
.9
.5
.2
.5

.1

.2
.2
2.5
4.9
3.3
3.7
2.5
7.1
1.8
5.7
9.9
1.8
1.8
1.6
.4
4.1
1.6
5.1
.4
2.2
4.1
2.4
2.4
8.8
2.0
2.7
16.0

Total........................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of plants............................. 3,419
Number of workers........................... 51,569
Averse hourly earnines................... $0.783
i Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

2,227
22,314
$0,784

136
7,838
$0. 772

99
7,465
$0.818

98
6,895
$0,862

211
3,921
$0,615

643
2,626
$0,666

5
510
$1,240

0)

6.1
4.2
1.2
1.9
2.9
2.8
2.5
4.0
5.2
8.6
7.0
8.4
4.8
4.3
6.5
3.7
3.3
2.2
1.9
3.7
3.2
1.9
1.9
2.1
1.6
1.7
.6
.8
.6
.3

0)

0)

0.4
.4

* In addition to their somewhat different scope, the data presented in table 3 include premium payments
for overtime work; such payments are excluded from the hourly earnings figures appearing elsewhere in
this report.




BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

9

This general picture has only limited significance, since the industry
is made up of branches with very different wage levels. Average
hourly earnings by branch ranged from a low of 61.5 cents in the book­
binding division to a high of $1.24 in the gravure branch. Because
of this variance, the earnings of workers in each of the individual
branches merit special analysis.
VARIATIONS BY BRANCH

The extremely high average of $1.24 in the gravure branch per­
tained, of course, to a relatively small number of wage earners. This
was the smallest branch covered by the survey and its labor force
was comprised mainly of highly skilled, specialized workers. More
than one-half (53.8 percent) of the workers had average hourly
earnings of $1 or over, whereas less than 1 percent earned under 40
cents an hour. At the opposite extreme, the 61.5-cent average paid to
workers in bookbinding establishments represented a substantial
number of workers. Bookbinding workers earning less than 40 cents
an hour amounted to 14.0 percent of the total, and a large propor­
tion, 62.3 percent, earned less than 60 cents an hour. Almost fourfifths (79.2 percent) of these workers had average hourly earnings
under 80 cents, while only 14.0 percent earned $1 or more an hour.
Bindery workers as a group embrace a large number of unskilled hand
workers for whom rates are much lower than those of skilled printingtrades workers.
The small-newspapers branch was the second lowest paid, with an
average of 66.6 cents an hour. Earnings of individual workers in this
branch showed considerable concentration in the lower brackets;
almost one-fifth (19.1 percent) of the workers had average hourly
earnings of less than 40 cents and almost one-half (46.4 percent)
averaged less than 60 cents an hour. Only 18.5 percent of the workers
in small newspaper plants earned $ 1 or more an hour. The newspapers
included in the survey were chiefly in small communities and this
fact accounts in part for the rather low average earnings. In many
of these small establishments the proprietor acts as a working foreman
and not only does much of the skilled work himself but also closely
supervises his workers, who may be young or inexperienced. Few of
the small newspapers have collective agreements with trade-unions.
The four remaining branches, commercial printing, lithography,
books, and periodicals, are somewhat similar with regard to wage
structure. Branch averages ranged from 77.2 cents an hour in lithog­
raphy, to 78.4 in commercial printing, 81.8 in books, and 86.2 in
periodicals. The percentage of workers with average hourly earn­
ings of $1 or more was 27.2 in lithography, 30.7 in commercial printing,
33.7 in books, and 40.1 in periodicals. Approximately 10 percent in
each of these branches earned an average of less than 40.0 cents an
hour (8.4 percent in periodicals, 9.5 in lithography, 9.7 in books,
and 10.8 in commercial printing).
The influence of sex, size of plant, and size of city, of course, is also
reflected in the branch averages. The wide dispersion of the earn­
ings of individual workers, moreover, is greatly influenced by the
occupational structure of each branch. Because of the importance of
these factors, they are discussed individually in subsequent sections
of this report. (See chart 2.)



O

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS IN THE PRINTING INDUSTRY
BY AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS AND SEX, 1942
EARNINGS
AD
N
HOURS,
JANUARY
19 42




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS OF WORKERS IN SPECIFIED BRANCHES
OF THE PRINTING INDUSTRY, BY SEX, 1942

BO
OK
AD
N
JB
O
PRINTING

ALL BRANCHES




GRAVURE

PERIODICALS

BOOKS

LITHOGRAPHY

COMMERCIAL
PRINTING

BOOKBINDING

SMALL
NEWSPAPERS

12

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1 942
WAGE DIFFERENCES, BY SEX

Earnings of male employees, who account for more than threefourths (76.3 percent) of the labor force, averaged 87.0 cents an hour
(table 5). This average was substantially greater than that attained
by woman workers, 48.8 cents an hour. An interesting feature of
the wage distributions by sex is the tendency for the earnings of male
workers to concentrate in the upper and intermediate brackets while
the average earnings of woman employees tend to concentrate in the
lower intervals. Thus, well over one-half (59.2 percent) of the male
workers had average earnings of 75 cents or more an hour as against
less than one-twentieth (4.6 percent) of the women. Only 7.0 percent
of the men but more than one-fifth (22.6 percent) of the women
averaged less than 40 cents an hour. Bookbinding, the branch with
the lowest general average, had by far the greatest number of woman
workers (46.1 percent). On the other hand, the smallest proportion
of women (2.2 percent) was found in gravure, the highest-paying
branch.
T a b le 5.—Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing

Industry, by Average Hourly Earnings ana Sex, 1942

Average hourly earnings

Com* |
All
Book- Small
branch­ morcial Lithog­ Books Periodi­ binding | news­
cals
print­ raphy
es
papers
ing

Gra­
vure

Males
Under 30.0 cents...............................
Exactly 30.0 cents_____ __________
30.1 and under 32.5 cents__________
32.5 and under 35.0 cents__________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents...................
37.5 and under 40.0 cents__________
Exactlv 40.0 cents_______________
40.1 and under 45.0 cents.—..............
45.0 and under 50.0 cents..................
50.0 and under 55.0 cents...................
55.0 and under 60.0 cents..................
60.0 and under 65.0 cents...................
65.0 and under 70.0 cents..................
70.0 and under 75.0 cents...................
75.0 and under 80.0 cents...................
80.0 and under 85.0 cents...................
85.0 and under 90.0 cents...................
90.0 and under 95.0 cents..................
95.0 and under 100.0 cents.................
100.0 and under 105.0 cents...............
105.0 and under 110.0 cents...............
110.0 and under 115.0 cents...............
115.0 and under 120.0 cents...............
120.0 and under 12".0 cents...............
125.0 and under 130.0 cents..............
130.0 and under 140.0 cents...............
140.0 and under 150.0 cents..............
150.0 and under 160.0 cents...............
160.0 and under 170.0 cents...............
170.0 and under 180.0 cents...............
180.0 and under 190.0 cents...............
190.0 and under 200.0 cents...............
200.0 cents and over..........................

0.7
1.8
.4
.8
1.8
1.5
3.3
2.1
4.7
5.8
4.2
5.6
4.3
3.8
5.1
4.4
4.0
3.8
3.0
5.0
4.0
4.8
3.5
4.0
3.5
4.3
4.0
2.5
1.2
.9
.4
.2
.6

0.7
2.2
.5
.8
1.9
1.5
2.9
1.9
3.7
5.4
3.6
5.5
4.4
3.9
5.5
5.2
4.4
4.5
3.1
5.9
4.2
5.0
3.9
3.6
3.6
3.9
3.7
2.4
1.0
.5
.3
.1
.3

0.1
1.3
.6
.5
1.9
1.4
3.2
2.4
6.3
6.2
4.5
4.8
5.2
3.6
5.4
4.5
4.9
4.2
2.9
4.2
3.0
4.0
2.8
3.3
3.3
5.1
3.8
2.5
1.4
1.2
.7
.2
.6

0.1
1.0
.2
1.0
1.0
1.4
3.5
1.8
4.9
6.1
5.3
5.2
3.9
3.2
4.4
3.1
2.6
3.0
3.0
4.4
4.3
4.9
3.2
5.2
3.0
4.7
6.8
3.9
2.1
1.6
.5
.3
.4

0.1
.9
.2
.4
1.9
1.0
2.8
2.3
4.3
4.5
3.4
4.9
3.2
3.7
3.6
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.4
4.6
5.4
6.4
4.6
5.8
4.9
5.7
5.1
2.7
1.3
1.3
.6
.4
1.0

0.3
2.3
.2
1.3
2.4
1.6
10.4
2.1
8.8
7.0
5.3
7.7
4.4
4.0
4.8
4.5
2.8
2.7
2.0
3.9
2.7
4.0
25
3.8
2.7
3.7
1.2
.5
.4
0)
0)

5.2
3.6
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.5
1.9
4.0
4.9
8.5
6.9
8.9
5.1
4.6
7.0
3.8
3.6
2.4
2.0
4.0
3.4
2.1
2.1
2.2
1.7
1.9
.7
.9
.7
.3
.1

.2
26
3.4
3.4
3.8
2.6
7.2
1.8
5.8
10.3
1.8
1.8
1.6
.4
4.2
1.6
5.0
.4
2.2
4.2
2.4
2.4
9.0
2.0
2.8
16.5

Total.......................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of workers........................... 39.363
Average hourly earnings................... $0,870

17,699
$0,859

5.847
$0,866

5.420
$0,929

5.421
$0,951

2.112
$0.730

2,365
$0,687

499
$1.249

0.7
5.4
.8
3.2
6.9

0.2
3.0
.8
2.6
8.0

0.2
2.5
.1
3.2
5.8

0.2
7.4
1.2
1.6
8.4

0.3
5.3
.6
3.6
7.1

15.0
10.0
3.1
5.7
6.5

9.1

0.2

.4

Females
Under 30.0 cents...............................
Exactly 30.0 cents_____ __________
30.1 and under 32.5 cents____ _____
32.5 and under 35.0 cent'*__________
35.0 and under 37.5 cents.................

* Less than a tenth of 1 percent.




0.7
4.9
.8
3.0
7.1

13

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T

able

5 . —Percentage Distribution of

Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing
Industry, by Average Hourly Earnings and Sex, 1942— Continued
Com
Small
Periodi­ Book­ news­
All
mercial Lithog­
cals binding papers
branches print* raphy Books
mg

Average hourly earnings

Ora*
vure

Females—Continued
37.5 and under 40.0 cents................. .
Exactly 40.0 cents.............................
40.1 and under 45.0 cents................. .
45.0 and under 50.0 cents..................
50.0 and under 55.0 cents..................
55.0 and under 60.0 cents..................
60.0 and under 65.0 cents..................
65.0 and under 70.0 cents..................
70.0 and under 75.0 cents..................
75.0 and under 80.0 cents..................
80.0 and under 85.0 cents..................
85.0 and under 90.0 cents..................
90.0 and under 95.0 cents..................
95.0 and under 100.0 cents................
100.0 and under 105.0 cents...............
105.0 and under 110.0 cents...............
110.0 and under 115.0 cents...............
115.0 and under 120.0 cents...............
120.0 and under 125.0 cents...............
125.0 and under 130.0 cents...............
130.0 and under 140.0 cents...............
140.0 and under 150.0 cents...............
150.0 and under 160.0 cents...............
160.0 and under 170.0 cents...............
170.0 and under 180.0 cents...............
180.0 and under 190.0 cents...............
190.0 and under 200.0 cents...............
200.0 cents and over..........................

6
.1
1 .0
1

5.9

11.6

5.1
11.7
11.8

10.8

9.3
16.7
14.8
9.1

3.7
1.7

3.4
1.7

4.7
.9
.7

10.0

15.4
14.2

6.0
1
.0
.7
.5
.4

6.0
1
.1
.7
.3
.4

.2

.4
.1
.3

.2

.3

.1
.2
.2

19.6
15.0

8.0
6.0
.6

.4
.1
.2

.2

.1

1 .0
2
1 .2
2
6.7
3.6

2.8
1
.1
.8

1
.6
1
.0
1
.1

.1

.7

.4

12.1

15.7
13.2
6.4
4.4

9.1

1

72.7

1
.1
.5
.4
.2
.1

1
.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

.4
.7
.3
.5
.3
.4

.1

.6
.6

.1

4.0
16.2
8.5

.6

.4

W
.l

.3
.1

0)

9.1
13.9
11.5

.1
.6

.3

.2
.1
.1

3.7
5.1
7.7
17.4
13.4
15.8
4.6
2.7
1.9

11.2

.1

9.1

.1

.1

.1

(0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

12,206
$0,488

Number of workers.........
Average hourly earnings..

(0
100.0

Total..

4,615
$0,485

1,991
$0,475

2,045
$0,504

1,474
$0,520

1,809
$0,472

261
$0,452

$0.570

1
1

i Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

The averages for male workers differed, of course, from branch to
branch. The lowest paid were those in the small-newspapers branch,
whose average hourly earnings amounted to 68.7 cents. In con­
trast, males in the gravure branch had average hourly earnings of
$1,249. In the bookbinding branch, where the work is less exacting
than in other branches, male workers averaged 73.0 cents an hour.
Woman workers’ earnings were lowest in the small-newspapers branch,
where they averaged 45.2 cents an hour, and were highest in the
gravure branch where they averaged 57.0 cents an hour. In the
bookbinding branch, where almost one-half (46.1 percent) of the
workers were women, hourly earnings averaged 47.2 cents for woman
workers. In the remaining branches, their earnings had a spread
of only 4.5 cents, ranging from an average of 47.5 cents an hour in
lithography to 52.0 in periodicals.
REGIONAL WAGE DIFFERENCES

Geographical differences in wages also contribute to the wide dis­
persion in hourly earnings of workers in the various branches of the
industry. Employees of all branches in the Pacific region, the
highest-paid area, averaged 88.2 cents an hour (table 6). This aver­
age was substantially greater than 67.6 cents an hour averaged by
workers in the South, the lowest-wage region. Averages in other
regions ranged from 71.6 cents an hour in the Mountain area to 81.4
cents in the Middle Atlantic States.



14

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

T a b l e 6. —Average Hourly Earnings in Specified Branches of the Printing Industry, by

Region, 1942

Region1

Com­
mer­
AM
cial
branches print­
ing

Lith­
og­
raphy

Books

Peri­
odi­
cals

Book­ Small
bind­ news­
ing
papers

Gra­
vure

Average hourly earnings
All regions.................
Pacific-..............
Mountain...........
Great Lakes........
Middle Atlantic..
New England___
South..................

$0,783
.882
.716
.787
.814
.723
.676

$0,784
.894
.745
.799
.804
.698
.682

$0.772
.921
.704
.764
.792
.746
.657

$0,818
.631
.827
.810
.865
.872
.677

$0,862
1.114
.707
.837
.939
.791
.744

$0,615
.777
.457
.612
.626
.531
.551

$0,666
.663
.678
.689
.723
.678
.544

$1,240*

3,921
88
25
870
2,490
369
79

2,626
144
386
1,117
407
139
433

510*

.920*
1.286
(’)

Number of workers
All regions.................
Pacific.................
Mountain...........
Great Lakes........
Middle Atlantic..
New England_
_
South...............

51,569
3,247
1,262
21,171
16,767
3,710
5,412

22,314
2,315
753
8,541
5,996
1,770
2,939

7,838
553
54
3,840
2,489
201
701

7,465
82
16
4,274
2,248
386
459

6,895
65
28
2,506
2,710
845
741

23
427

1 The States included in the various regions are as follows: Pacific.— California, Oregon, and Washing­
ton. Mountain.—Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Great Lakes.—Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Middle Atlantic.—New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. New
England.— Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Smth.—
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
* Number of plants insufficient to permit presentation of an average.

Variations between regions are emphasized by the distributions
based upon hourly earnings of individuals (table 7). Only 3.0 percent
of the workers in the Pacific region had average hourly earnings of
less than 40 cents whereas such workers in the South amounted to
more than one-fifth (20.6 percent) of the total. The proportion of
workers earning an average of $1 or more an hour did not vary rad­
ically from region to region. The range was from slightly more than
one-fifth (21.1 percent) in the South to almost two-fifths (39.4 per­
cent) in the Pacific area. Distributions in other regions, taking the;
same general pattern, fell between these two extremes.




15

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T

able

7 . —Percentage

Distribution oj Wage Earners in the Printing Industry9 by
l
Average Hourly Earnings and Region, 1942

Average hourly earnings
Under 30.0 cents................
Exactly 30.0 cents..............
30.1 and under 32.5 cents...
32.5 and under 35.0 cents...
35.0 and under 37.5 cents...
37.5 and under 40.0 cents...
Exactly 40.0 cents_______
40.1 and under 45.0 cents...
45.0 and under 50.0 cents.
50.0 and under 55.0 cents...
55.0 and under 60.0 cents.
60.0 and under 65.0 cents...
65.0 and under 70.0 cents...
70.0 and under 75.0 cents...
75.0 and under 80.0 cents. _.
80.0 and under 85.0 cents...
85.0 and under 90.0 cents...
90.0 and under 95.0 cents...
95.0 and under 100.0 cents..
100.0 and under 105.0 cents.
105.0 and under 110.0 cents.
110.0 and under 115.0 cents.
115.0 and under 120.0 cents.
120.0 and under 125.0 cents.
125.0 and under 130.0 cents.
130.0 and under 140.0 cents.
140.0 and under 150.0 cents.
150.0 and under 160.0 cents.
160.0 and under 170.0 cents.
170.0 and under 180.0 cents.
180.0 and under 190.0 cents.
190.0 and under 200.0 cents.
200.0 cents and over.......... .

Pacific

Moun­
tain

Great
Lakes

Middle
Atlan­
tic

0.6
.4
.2

All
regions

3.6
4.4

0.6
2.1
.4
1.2
2.9
2.6
5.1
4.2
7.9
7.8
6.2
5.8
4.2
3.5
3.9
3.5
2.9
3.1
2.2
3.5
2.9
3.4
3.3
3.2
2.8
2.7
3.4
2.0
1.3

0.4
2.2
.4
1.4
3.0
2.8
5.3
3.8
6.8
7.6
5.9
5.3
3.9
3.2
3.7
3.1
3.3
2.4

.5
.7
.6

1.5
1.9
5.1
7.2

6
.2
6
.8
6
.8
1.9
6
.1

3.2
3.0
2.3

3.9
3.5
4.0
2.7
3.8

2
.6

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.9
9.5
5.2
2.4
.7

.8
.2
.1
.2

.5

1
.6

1.8
4.2
2.4
3.7
3.8
4.9
9.8
2.9
6.1
3.5
3.2
3.9
3.8
3.2
2.9
1.7
6.4
5.5
4.4
3.2
2.5
2.3
2.9
.4

.2
.4
.2
.1

2
.1

3.7
2.7
3.6
2.3
4.1
2.9
3.8
3.8

2.0

6.6
1
.2

1.8

.3

2.7
4.7
3.4
4.5
5.0
7.2
7.1
4.7
5.4
3.7
3.4
4.1
3.4
3.3
3.7

.6

3.8
1.8
9.1
4.1
7.2
7.7
5.3
5.8
4.0
4.0
5.7
4.9
4.2
3.5
3.4
4.3
4.9
7.2

2.8
5.1
3.6
3.0
2.2

1
.2

1.4
.9

2.0
2.0
.9

1
.2
.8

.3

1.0

.6

.2

.2
.2

1.2
.2

South

0.1

2
.6
.5

.2

.1

New
Eng­
land

(2
)

1.0

.1

.1
.1

(’)

Total........................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of plants..............
Number of workers............
Average hourly earnings...

3,419
51,569
$0,783

342
3,247
$0,882

219
1,262
$0.716

1,158
21,171
$0.787

913
16,767
$0,814

233
3,710
$0.723

554
5,412
$0,676

1Includes the small newspapers, commercial printing, books, periodicals, bookbinding, lithography,
and gravure branches.
2Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

Within the large commercial printing branch, average hourly
earnings varied from 68.2 cents in the South to 89.4 cents in the
Pacific area (table 8). It is noteworthy that even within a given
region in this one branch the workers show wide variation in average
hourly earnings.

500942— 43----- 3



16

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1 9 4 2

T a b l e 8.— Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners in Commercial Printing Branch of

Printing Industry, by Average Hourly Earnings and Region, 1942
Average hourly earnings

All
regions

Pacific Mountain

0.7
2.9
.5
1.3
3.0
2.4
4.7
3.4
6.4
7.3
4.7
5.6
4.2
3.5
4.6
4.3
3.6
3.7
2.5
4.7
3.4
4.0
3.1
2.9
2.9
3.2
3.0
1.9
.8
.4
.2
0)
.2

0.4
.3
.2
.2
.6
.5
1.3
1.6
4.9
7.9
6.9
7.0
5.9
2.2
4.5
3.2
3.2
3.8
2.7
4.1
2.9
4.0
4.2
4.6
4.5
9.2
5.2
2.5
.6
.6
.1

2.1
4.4
1.5
2.3
3.6
2.0
4.0
2.0
5.0
10.4
2.7
5.4
3.3
2.4
3.5
4.4
3.6
3.9
1.9
7.8
6.8
5.3
3.2
2.3
2.1
2.5
.5
.1
.5
.3
.1

.2

Total...............................

100.0

Number of plants.....................
Number of workers..................
Average hourly earnings...........

2,227
22,314
$0.784

Great
Lakes

Under 30.0 cents.......................
Exactly 30.0 cents................ .
30.1 and under 32.5 cents..........
32.5 and under 35.0 cents..........
35.0 and under 37.5 cents..........
37.5 and under 40.0 cents..........
Exactly 40.0 cents.....................
40.1 and under 45.0 cents..........
45.0 and under 50.0 cents..........
50.0 and under 55.0 cents..........
55.0 and under 60.0 cents..........
60.0 and under 65.0 cents..........
65.0 and under 70.0 cents..........
70.0 and under 75.0 cents..........
75.0 and under 80.0 cents..........
80.0 and under 85.0 cents..........
85.0 and under 90.0 cents..........
90.0 and under 95.0 cents..........
95.0 and under 100.0 cents.........
100.0 and under 105.0 cents.......
105.0 and under 110.0 cents.......
110.0 and unr'er 115.0 cents.......
115.0 and under 120.0 cents.......
120.0 and under 125.0 cents.......
125.0 and under 130.0 cents.......
130.0 and under 140.0 cents.......
140.0 and un^er 150.0 cents____
150.0 and under 160.0 cents___
160.0 and under 170.0 cents.......
170.0 and under 180.0 cents____
180.0 and under 190.0 cents.......
190.0 and under 200.0 cents____
200.0 cents and over..................

Middle
New
Atlantic England

South

0.6
2.5
.3
1.2
3.0
3.5
4.6
4.1
5.9
6.8
4.1
5.5
3.4
3.1
4.9
4.1
4.1
3.0
2.3
5.0
2.8
3.7
2.6
4.0
3.0
3.2
4.0
2.5
1.1
.6
.3
0)
.2

0.1
2.3
.6
.7
3.8
2.2
8.6
3.8
7.2
8.4
4.1
6.8
4.7
3.9
6.7
5.9
5.0
3.4
3.9
5.4
3.4
6.1
.8
.3
.5
.3
.3
.3
.3

.1

0.5
2.2
.6
1.3
2.9
1.9
4.8
3.3
7.0
7.5
5.0
5.1
4.5
3.9
4.0
4.4
3.1
3.9
2.3
3.8
3.4
3.9
4.1
2.9
3.2
2.6
3.2
2.5
1.0
.5
.3
.1
.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

250
2,315
$0,894

105
753
$0,745

728
8,541
$0,799

620
5,996
$0,804

171
1,770
$0,698

353
2,939
$0,682

1.8
7.6
.8
2.4
4.3
3.5
4.9
3.6
6.5
6.7
4.1
5.3
3.6
3.9
4.5
4.3
3.4
4.3
2.9
6.3
4.3
3.1
2.0
.9
2.0
1.8
.7
.3
.1
.1

.1

0)

.1

0)

i Less than a tenth of 1 percent.
SIZE OF COM M UNITY

Average hourly earnings are also affected by size of community.
It will be noted that in all branches combined average earnings rise
gradually from 66.7 cents in the smallest city-size category, under
2,500 population, to 84.9 cents in the largest city classification, 1,000,000 and over (table 9). The same general pattern, although some­
what less regular, is exhibited by the averages in each of the individual
branches.




17

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T

able

9 . —Average Hourly

Size of city (population)

Earnings in Specified Branches of the Printing Industry, by
Size of City, 1942
Com­
All
Book­ Small
branch­ mercial Lithog­ Books Period­ bind­ news­
print­ raphy
icals
ing
es
papers
ing

Gravure

Average hourly earnings
All cities.......................................... $0.783
Under 2,500 ...... ........................
.667
.670
2.500 and under 10,000.................
10.000 and under 50,000...............
.719
.752
50.000 and under 250,000. ............
.790
250.000 and under 1,000,000.........
1.000.000 and over.......................
.849

$0,784
.574
.670
.682
.764
.799
.855

$0,772
.602
.748
.751
.735
.819

$0.818
.623
.633
.721
.794
.812
.863

$0,862 $0,615 $0,666
.509
.811
.872 ' ” . 463'
.597
’
.778
.488
.798
.805
.784
.570
.855
.630
.918
.652
.985
1.037

$1,240
0)
1.018
1.286

Number of workers
All cities........................................... 51,569
Under 2,500................................. 1,929
2.500 and under 10,000................ 3,416
10.000.and under 50,000. ............. 6,469
50.000 and under 250,000 ............ 9,016
250.000 and under 1,000,000......... 11,807
1.000.000 and over....................... 18,932

22,314
320
1,351
3,085
4,001
5,987
7,570

7,838
183
872
1.159
2,287
3,337

7,465
25
112
936
1,418
1,605
3,369

6,895 3,921
906
625 ’ " " 203
’
897
80
1,418
929
1,190
488
1,859 2,221

2,626
675
942
599
91
170
149

510
3
80
427

i Number of plants insufficient to permit presentation of an average.
SIZE OF ESTA B LISH M E N T

A comparison of average hourly earnings by size of establishment
appears in table 10. These data leave little doubt that earnings in
the industry are also closely related to the size of the operating unit.
This relationship is not as obvious in some branches as in others,
however. In the small-newspapers branch the averages by size of
company reveal a definite progression. In most of the remaining
branches a more irregular trend is indicated. If average hourly
earnings vary according to size of establishment in the lithography
branch, that fact is not apparent from the data at hand.
T

able

1 0 . —Average Hourly Earnings

in Specified Branches of the Printing Industry, by
Size of Establishment, 1942

Size of establishment

Com­
All
Book­ Small
branch­ mercial Lithog­ Books Period­ bind­ news­
print­ raphy
icals
ing
es
papers
ing

Gravure

Average hourly earnings
All establishments...........-............... $0,783
.664
1 to 5 workers.............................
.740
6 to 20 workers. ..........................
.804
21 to 50 workers........................
.775
51 to 100 workers.........................
.772
101 to 250 workers.....................
251 to 500 workers.......................
.803
501 to 1,000 workers _________
.888
1,001 workers and over________
.869

$0,784
.699
.760
.812
.818
.806
.667
.949
0)

$0,772
.748
.784
.819
.720
.770
.791
.725

$0.818
.734
.729
.825
.765
.760
.799
.906
.827

$0,862
.678
.808
.854
.735
.852
.817
.917
.949

$0.615
.658
.598
.632
.541
.680
.669

$0,666
.565
.683
.849
1.109

3,921
282
693
795
419
855
877

2,626
1,305
798
384
139

$1,240
0)
0)
0)
(1
)
0)

Number of workers
All establishments............................ 51,569
1 to 5 workers............................. 5,276
6 to 20 workers.......................... 8,106
21 to 50 workers. ........................ 8,803
51 to 100 workers. ....................... 6,302
101 to 250 workers...................... 8.018
251 to 500 workers....................... 7,328
3,712
501 to 1,000 workers _________
1,001 workers and over ___ .. 4,024

22,314
3,458
6,684
5,115
3,421
3,070
471
855
240

7,838
79
421
932
1,025
2,534
2,215
632

7,465
73
340
787
482
572
1,802
1,210
2,199

* Number of plants insufficient to permit presentation of an average.




6,895
76
150
763
756
987
1,563
1,015
1,685

510
3
20
27
60
400

PART 2.—HOURLY EARNINGS B Y OCCUPATION
Summary
IN THE book and job printing industry, as in most other industries,
pronounced differences in the skill requirements of the labor force
are reflected in broad variance in occupational earnings. This is re­
vealed in the returns from a mail questionnaire survey by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics covering almost 4,000 companies in 7 branches of
the industry.
The survey revealed a range in occupational average hourly earn­
ings for males in the larger plants from 36.9 cents for delivery and er­
rand boys to $1,667 for foremen in the plate department. Earnings
of male hand compositors, a key craft in the industry, amounted to
$1,185 an hour in large plants and to 91.6 cents in the small shops.
Male cylinder pressmen in large plants averaged $1,161 -an hour;
offset pressmen, $1,258; and rotary and web-rotary pressmen,
$1,351. Male platen pressmen earned an hourly average of 94.3
cents in large plants as against 76.4 cents in small shops. Woman
hand workers in binderies, one of the lower-paid occupations, earned an
average of 45.9 cents an hour in large plants, exactly 2 cents an hour
more than comparable workers in small establishments.
Workers in the industry were employed an average of 40.1 hours,
male workers averaging 40.6 hours and woman workers, 38.6. Hours
worked did not vary notably among branches of the industry, the range
being from 38.1 hours in the gravure branch to 41.5 hours in the
lithography and books branches.
As a group, wage earners in the industry earned an average of $32.66
a week. The earnings of male workers, $36.76, were almost double
those of woman workers. The wide variations in weekly earnings
found among branches of the industry and among the individual
occupations were due more to differences in hourly earnings than to
differences in weekly hours, as fluctuations in hours of work were not
marked.

Occupational Structure
Craftsmanship is still dominant in the printing industry. Although
technological improvements have increased the effectiveness of semi­
skilled and unskilled workers, the skilled craftsman remains the typ­
ical printing-trades worker. Unions in the industry are organized
primarily along craft lines, and the wage minima which the unions
have established through collective agreements have had much to do
with the wages prevailing in individual occupations.
The various branches of the printing industry display considerable
diversity in occupational structure. This is apparent from table 11, in
which the workers in the larger plants (21 or more wage earners) are
segregated by branch of the industry, department, occupation, and
18



19

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

sex. As would be expected, the composing department is of greatest
relative importance in commercial printing, books, periodicals, and
small newspapers. Only the lithography and gravure branches employ
substantial proportions of their workers in the plate department.
Most workers in bookbinding establishments are, of course, in the
bindery department. Although, in the interest of brevity, much of
the discussion of occupations throughout this article refers to the
industry as a whole, such differences from branch to branch should be
kept clearly in mind.
T

1 1 . —Average Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Priming Plants
Employing 21 or More Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942

able

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

Occupation

Males
Total, males_________________________
Composing department:
All-round printers______ __________
Apprentices_____ _________________
Compositors, hand

Copyholdersl_____________________
Foremen_________________________
Linotype operators________________
Luc low operators............... .................
Machinists .... ... . ..... . ......... „
Monotype casters_________________
Monotype keyboard operators______
Proof-press operators______________
Proofreaders......................... ...............
Stonemen_____ ____ ______ _______
Other workers___________________
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices.___ _________________
Electrotypers____________________
Foremen_________________________
Stereotypers___________
_ _ ____
Other workers..................... ...............
Plate department:
Apprentices................................... ....
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers.......
Engravers____ __
Finishers_________________________
Foremen_________________________
Grainers
____________
_______
Photographers and cameramen______
Plate makers............. .........................
_______
Transferrers and provers
Other workers___ _____ ______ ___
Press department:
Apprentices______________________
Foremen..............................................
Machinists______________ _______
Multilith operators_______________
Press assistants and helpers, .............. .
Press feeders.........................................
Press washers_____________________
Pressmen, cylinder______ __________
Pressmen, gravure ____
Pressmen, offset___________________
Pressmen, platen________ _________
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary____
Overlay cutters __.
Other workers......................................
Bindery department:
Apprentices. __________________
Assistants and helpers_____ _______
Folding-machine operators..................
Foremen . ______________________
Hand workers____________________
Machine feeders___________________
Machine operators_________________
Machinists ____________________
Power cutters_____ _______________
Ruling-machine operators....................
See footnotes at end of table.




Com­
mer­ Lithog­
Peri­ Book­ Small Gra­
All
cial
news­
branches print­ raphy Books odi­ bind­ papers vure 1
ing
cals
ing
$0.916 $0.921 $0,869 $0.938 $0.956 $0.734 $0.943
.818
.619
1.185
.511
1.361
1.212
.931
1.291
1.136
1.246
1.018
1.151
1.112
.523

.907
.603
1.165
.524
1.416
1.225
(2
)
1.235
1.114
1.209
.821
1.100
1.124
.530

.702
1.459
1.592
1.222
.725

.684
1.451
1.443
1.184
.819

(2
)
(2)

.715
1.454
1.432
1.460
1.667
.841
1.372
1.180
1.291
.688
.721
1.485
1.106
.695
.871
.879
.537
1.161
1.584
1.258
.943
1.351
1.102
.649
.589
.504
.981
1.127
.639
.690
.947
1.040
.985
.981

(2
)
• 575 .625
.
1.159 1.276
(2
)
(2
)
1.278 1.334
1.086 1.295
(2
)
(2 ’ I.~3l7'
)
1.121
(2
)
1.224 1.359
(2
)
(2
)
1.051 1.316
1.237 1.113
.538 .498

.668
1.206
.450
1.413
1.188
(2
)
1. 338
1.198
1.255
1.159
1.120
1.055
.551

(2
)
(2
)
1.041
(2
)
(2)
(2)

’ . 523
’
1.044

$1.249
(2
)
(2)

1.325
1.090
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
1.458
(2
)
1.168
.613

.734
1.487
(2
)
1.540
.739

.610
1.169
1.378
1.522
1.602
(2
)
1.185
1.055
1.329
.586

.675
1.369
1.235
1.249
1.565
.817
1.275
1.151
1.210
.612

.650
1.581
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
1.756
1.443
1.568
(2
)

(2
)
1.706
1.880
(2
)
(2)

.635
1.494
1.150
(2
)
.805
.857
.589
1.126
1.123
.968
1.202
(2
)
.610

.684 .908
.851
1.500 1.437 1.548
1.044
(2
)
(2
)
.622
.793
.685 T040' 1.009
.757 1.054 .924
.516
.579
.491
1.131 1.254 1.194
1.512
(2
)
(2
)
1.296 1.407
(2
)
.855 1.024 .836
1.076 1.676 1.554
1.063
(2)
(2
)
.624 .676 .610

.406

(2
)

.594
.496
.895
1.154
.628
.732
.874
(2
)
.982
1.028

.601
.504
.862
1.115
.606
.680
.830
(2
)
.974
.934

.493
.450
.972
.972
.683
.588
.874
.952
.947
.922

(2
)

.698
.555
1.131
1.257
.634
.722
1.064
1.100
1.073
(2)

2.005
(2
)
(2
)
.846

.597
.474
.948
1.162
.598
.725
1.068
(2
)
.983
(2)

(2
)
(2
)
1.266
C)
2
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

1.246
2.129
(2
)

(2)

(2)

(2)
(2)

2.043
C)
2
2.268
1.198

(2)
C)
2

(2
)
(2)

.811
C)
2

(2
)
.672

.562
(2)

1.387
(2)

.984

1.006

(2
)

.814

(2
)
1.623
(2)
(2) ■"<*)“
1.183

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

.756

(2)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

20

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

11.— Average Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Printing Plants
Employing 21 or More Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942—Con.

T able

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS—Continued

Com­
mer­ Lithog­
Peri­ Book­ Small Gra­
All
news­
cial
branches print­ raphy Books odi­ bind­ papers vure
ing
cals
ing

Occupation
.M
aZes—Continued
Shipping and stock department:
Delivery and errand boys....................
Foremen_________________________
Mailers...... ......... ...............................
Shipping clerks.................... ...............
Stock clerks..____ ___________ ____
Truck drivers..................... ........ .......
Other workers_____________ _______
Maintenance department:
Firemen.............. ........... ....... ............
Janitors, watchmen, and service work­
ers.................. ....... .........................
Other semiskilled workers__________
Other unskilled workers.....................
Skilled workers....................................
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant..... ............... ......... ........
Handicapped workers and learners___
Females
Total, females............................................
Composing department:
Apprentices................... ...................
Compositors, hand and machine.........
Proofreaders........................................
Other workers............................... .....
Plate department: All workers..... ............
Press department:
Apprentices.......... ..............................
Press operators and feeders..................
Other workers.............. ......................
Bindery department:
Apprentices........................................
Forewomen............ ........ ...................
Hand workers.................... ................
Machine operators and feeders............
Shipping and stock department:
Mailers...... ........................................ .
Other workers........ ............................
Maintenance department: Maintenance
workers.................... ................... ........
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant........ ................ ........... .
Handicapped workers and learners___

$0.369 $3.376 $0.352
1.091 1.181
(2
)
.894 .528
.779
.770
.755
.737
.708
.679
.638
.714
.685 .764
.550
.532 .515

(2
)

.706
.766
.674
.640
.565

.756

.812

.640

.496
.707
.537
1.126

.494
.702
.512
1.079

.556
.742
.579
1.164

.537

.862
.604

.644

.641

.494

.494

.475

.497
.814
.750
.463
.561

.536
.870
.792
.472
.607

.598
.568
.532

(2
)
(2
)

.462
.565
.526

.454
.540
.502

.520
.547

(2
)
(2
)

.426
.649
.459
.512

.441
.620
.457
.504

.717
.451
.492

.418
.656
.466
.527

.444
.482

.534
.514

.507
.479

.474

(2
)

.469

.518

.507

.481

.499
.359

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

.516
.791
.597
1.142

(2
)
(2
)
1.164

(2
)

.506

.520

.446
.766
.810
.451

.874
.694
.453

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
$0,804

(2
)

.919

.509
.723
.562
1.148

$0.392 $0.375 $0.339
1.083
(2
)
(2
)
.870
.757 1.211
.720
.778
.698
(2
)
8
.764
.743
(2
)
.510
.613
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
840
(2
)
386

(2
)

460
540
420
489
517
484

.458

.481

.536

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
1.661

.361

(2
)

(2
)

.474

.557

.570

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

.667
.464
.504

.460

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

.340

5,075

5,228

1,540

484

499

61
324
5
20
306

2
2
12

17
80

2

5
6
2

11
125

25
12
37
5
52
79
142

126
457
21
20
371
5
22
10
22
12
94
58
94
10
92
8
17
32
4
37
27
8
4

(2
)

NUMBER OF WORKERS

Males
Total, males............................... ...............
Composing department:
All-round printers.............................
Apprentices____ _________________
Compositors, hand...............................
Copyholders........................................
Foremen___
.. . .
Linotype operators ............. ...........
Ludlow operators.................................
Machinists........ ...................... ..........
Monotype casters................................
Monotype keyboard operators ____
Proof-press operators...........................
Proofreaders........ ........................ . .
Stonemen.............................................
Other workers........... .....................
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices..........................................
Electrotypers............................... .......
Foremen________________ _______ _
Stereotypers................ ........................
Other workers................ ................
Plate department:
Apprentices............................ ...........
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers___
Engravers............................................
Finishers................... .....................
Foremen.............................................
Grainers..............................................




9,874

5,417

15
10
200
443
2,096 1,034
48
20
143
76
504
1,363
7
18
26
85
29
55
80
158
11
30
273
97
137
305
393
116

2
37
187
2
11
51
4
4
4
18
2
25
26
34

28,117

33
207
28
167
91

17
35
16
105
33

1
5
1
1

4
75
3
26
24

177
440
162
49
46
50

20
76
49
21
13
3

114
247
74
17
25
45

22
32
5
3
1
2

1

8
1

2

5
3
7
1
1
18
1

1

4
2

13
47
5

1

2

21

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

11.—Average Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Printing Plants
Employing 21 or More Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942—Con.

T a b le

NUMBER OF W ORKERS—C ontinued____________________________

Occupation

Com­
Peri­ Book- Small
mer­ Lithog­
All
news­ Gra­
cial
branches print­ raphy Books odi­ bind­ papers vure
ing
cals
ing

Males—Continued
Plate department—Continued.
37
135
10
211
Photographers and ca-mpra1 *1
™1
24
184
48
101
....... ..
Plate makers
14
36
186
249
Transferrers and provers ...... .........
3
63
420
285
Other workers____________________
Press department:
307
95
70
Apprentices______________________
611
22
174
89
20
Foremen _______________________
13
2
39
17
Machinists______________________
36
12
9
Multilith operators.............................
353
1,790
440
540
Press assistants and helpers...............
1,541
215
708
Press feeders______________________
223
Press washers_____________________
191
42
51
40
2,166 1,012
254
368
Pressmen, cvlinder________________
114
3
7
Pressmen, gravure_________________
Pressmen, offset___________________
611
149
430
27
Pressmen, platen...................... ..........
855
583
123
69
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary____
549
299
20
61
1
12
Overlav cutters................. ..................
20
5
Other‘workers_____ _______________
1,121
145
216
378
Bindery department:
223
15
Apprentices _____________________
80
38
563
Assistants and helpers.........................
59
60
191
Folding-machine operators..................
374
93
46
91
24
164
Foremen..............................................
28
61
Hand workers
..........
1,309
132
445
258
Machine feeders_______________ _
17
218
14
35
Machine operators............... ...............
1,026
124
190
299
Machinists......................... ...............
2
50
8
21
Power cutters_____
1,179
504
274
116
Ruling-machine operators_____ ___
4
130
71
16
Shipping and stock department:
409
105
Delivery and errand boys....... ...........
210
30
Foremen.................. ...........................
49
8
6
15
Mailers .............................. ........ .......
262
32
16
37
Shipping clerks........................... ........
408
189
107
45
Stock clerks........ ............ ...................
293
91
35
130
Truck drivers.......... ............................
263
55
22
117
Other workers....................................
1,213
268
309
348
Maintenance department:
Firemen____ _____________________
67
23
17
12
Janitors, watchmen, and service work­
ers____ _________ _____ _________
1,037
350
206
173
Other semiskilled workers...................
177
62
48
34
Other unskilled workers.......................
381
108
47
91
Skilled workers.................................. .
336
55
102
63
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant......................................
154
24
98
18
Handicapped workers and learners___
75
32
3
Females
Total, females............................................. 10,093 3,298 1.921 1,977
Composing department:
Apprentices..... ......... ..........................
2
33
60
18
Compositors, hand and machine.........
206
43
5
105
Proofreaders.........................................
357
128
28
83
11
Other workers........ ....... ............. .......
219
64
73
Plate department: All workers...................
118
22
82
6
Press department:
Apprentices................ .........................
39
35
2
Press operators and feeders.................
42
286
196
9
Other workers.................................... .
68
43
16
6
Bindery department:
11
Apprentices............. ............................
211
143
17
Forewomen..........................................
89
45
15
12
Hand workers___ _____ _______ ____
5.680 1,902 1,157 1,213
Machine operators and feeders............
1.681
209
446
334
Shipping and stock department:
Mailers.................................................
239
30
40
23
Other workers____ _______________
271
77
100
17
Maintenance department: Maintenance
workers........ ..................... ....................
84
15
6
22
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant________________ _____
459
89
189
25
Han? i>9mv'd workers and lpnrners
1
26
2
5
i Includes 2 plants having fewer than 21 wage earners.
* Number of workers insufficient to permit presentation of an average.




13
1
3
15

1
1

15
9
10
53

1
1

5
7

15
1
27
8

1

118
34
7
15
418
345
58
468
18
4
54
145
2
241

1
36

ii
6

26

29

10

3

40
141
89
16
131
106
120
8
130
3

48
112
53
34
337
46
289
1
1
146
36

2

36
17
111
25
24
39
168

18
2
28
36
9
25
91

12

9
86
1
9 ........ 5
24

1
1
5

128
1
1

4
7

2

=0
1
1
38
3
1
3
5

3
3
2
24

14

1

240
26
123
93

39
6
7
12

17
1
2

12
6

2
32

1

1

1,441

1,406

39

11

2

7
4
1

1

2
26
3

9

4

23
7
477
273

17
10
907
412

19
3

140
67

6
9

1

32

9

147
2

9
16

7
44
113
70
8

12
3
11

5
4

1

22

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

As a matter of fact, the interbranch differences in occupational
structure are apparent only in part from table 11, in which the establish­
ments studied are classified on the basis of major product. Many
establishments, of course, engage in more than one of the major
branches of production, with a resulting confusion of occupational
structure. Thus, some compositors are employed in plants that en­
gage primarily in lithography. There are more bindery workers in
general commercial printing establishments than there are in
specialized bookbinding shops.
Among the numerically important occupations in the large plants are
compositors of various types, who account for slightly more than oneeighth of the male wage earners studied. Well over one-half (57
percent) of the compositors covered were hand compositors, while
37 percent were linotype operators. The remaining 6 percent con­
sisted of Ludlow operators, monotype keyboard operators, and
monotype casters. In most shops the foreman determines the method
of typesetting to be used on a certain job. Usually the body typo is
set by machine—linotype or monotype—while the large headings and
other display type are set by hand compositors or by a Ludlow
operator, who combines both hand and machine work.
The hand compositor generally stands in front of a type case, selects
the proper characters, and places them in a composing stick which he
holds in one hand. After the stick is filled, the type is transferred
carefully to a tray called a galley. Proofs are then made from these
galleys and are checked and corrected by the proofreader. The
linotype operator sits at a large machine which has a keyboard with
many more keys than a typewriter. As the operator strikes these
keys, characters or matrices are released until a complete line is
formed in. an assembly chamber. These lines are then released and
travel automatically to a casting device where a line of type is formed
from molten metal. These lines are then placed in galleys. Monotype
operators operate a machine which is not only smaller than a linotype
but which also operates on a somewhat different principle. By
striking the keys the operator cuts holes through a strip of paper to
form a perforated roll similar to that used on a player piano. When
this roll of perforated paper is placed on a casting machine by a mono­
type caster operator, compressed air passing through the holes controls
the automatic casting and arranging of the type. There are, of
course, certain other auxiliary workers in the composing room, such as
the stoneman, who assembles the galleys and engravings into an iron
frame called the chase. Woman workers are seldom engaged as
compositors. Only 2 percent of the 10,093 women included in the
survey in large plants were hand or machine compositors. It is
probable, of course, that war conditions will increase the number of
women in these jobs.
In many plants skilled electrotypers and stereotypers duplicate the
type forms on metal plates which are used in place of the original type.
Use of plates is particularly desirable for large editions. Stereotype
plates are used for most newspaper printing; electrotype plates are
generally used for printing periodicals and books. Only slightly more
than 1 percent of all male workers, and no female workers at all, were
found in these two occupations.
Another important occupation in the printing industry is that of
pressmen, who accounted for slightly over 15 percent of all male



BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

23

workers in large plants. Of the several types of pressmen found in the
industry, cylinder pressmen were the most numerous, while platen press­
men ranked second; 50.4 and 19.9 percent, respectively, of all pressmen
in large plants were found in these two occupations. In the other three
classifications of pressmen, namely, offset, rotary and web-rotary,
and gravure, were found respectively 14.2, 12.8, and 2.7 percent of
all male pressmen in large plants. The pressman, with or without the
help of feeders or assistants, is responsible for turning out the printed
page, but his duties vary greatly with the type of press used. The
operation of a hand-fed platen press is relatively simple in contrast
with the job of operating complicated machines such as the large
rotary presses. Women were not often found as press operators.
Because of their small number, they were grouped with woman press
feeders, and the combination group made up less than 3 percent of the
woman workers included in the sample of large plants.
In the bindery department a different situation exists; women
greatly surpass men in numerical importance. Of the 28,117 male
wage earners included in the sample in the large plants, 5,236 (18.6
percent) were in bindery departments. In contrast, 7,661 woman
workers were in the bindery departments, and this total accounted for
more than three-fourths (75.9 percent) of the 10,093 women included
in the sample of large establishments. Within binderies the jobs of
men and women are normally quite distinct, men operating the
heavier machines and women tending and feeding the lighter machines
and performing hand work. This hand work, which occupies a great
majority of the woman workers, includes a large variety of tasks,
such as hand-folding, pasting or tipping by hand, gathering, collating,
and sewing. Although machinery exists for much of this work, part
of it is performed by hand in virtually all binderies. As a general rule,
women perform the various operations in binding, from the folding
through the stitching process. Men are more commonly concerned
with making the covers and backing of books, operating ruling
machines and power cutters, and performing related tasks.
In addition to the production workers, there are in printing estab­
lishments numerous auxiliary and service occupations, such as shipping
clerks, stock clerks, truck drivers, maintenance workers, and plant
clerks. Roughly one-fifth of the men and one-tenth of the women
in large plants were found in these auxiliary and service occupations.
In the small plants (establishments with fewer than 21 wage earners),
data for which are presented in table 12, there is much less specializa­
tion than in large plants. For example, a much larger proportion of
all-round printers, who perform a combination job of composition
and presswork. is found in the small shops.




24

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

T a b l e 12.— Average Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Printing Plants

with Fewer Than 21 Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942
AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

Occupation

Males
Total, males___________________________
Composing department:
All-round printers.................................
Apprentices_______ _________________
Compositors, hand.................................
Foremen______ ____________________
Linotype operators__________________
Ludlow operators................ ..................
Machinists.................... ....... .... ....... .
Monotype casters........... ....... ...............
Monotype keyboard operators________
Proofreaders_______________________
_________________________
Stonemen
Other workers......... ...............................
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices........................................
Stereotypers ______________________
Other workers_______ ______________
Plate department:
Apprentices___ ____________________
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers_____
Engravers_________________________
Foremen_______ ___________________
Photographers and cameramen________
Platemakers_______________________
Transferrers and provers_____________
Other workers___ __________________
Press department:
Apprentices________________________
Foremen................... .... .........................
Mulriiith operators . _______
Press assistants and helpers__________
Press feeders______________________
Pressmen, cylinder__________________
Pressmen, offset___________________
Pressmen, platen_______ ___________
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary______
Other workers______________________
Bindery department:
Apprentices . . ____________________
Assistants and helpers_______________
Foldin?-machine operators___________
Foremen____ _____________________
Hand workers______________________
Machine operators__________________
Power out ters____ _________________
Ruling-machine operators......................
Shipniner and stock department:
Delivery and errand boys____________
Mailers............. ................................. .
Shipping and stock clerks......................
Truck drivers______________________
Other workers..................................... .
Maintenance department:
Janitors, watchmen, and service workers.
Other maintenance workers..................
Miscellaneous: Handicapped workers and
learners_____________________________
Females
Total, females_________________________
Composing department:
Apprentices
_____ _______________
Compositors, hand and machine______
Proofreaders ______________________
Other workers
__ _____ _
Plate department* All workers
Press department:
Apprentices
Press operators and feeders_________ _
Other workers.......................................
See footnote at end of table.




Com­
mer­ Lithog­
Peri­ BookAll
cial
branches print­ raphy Books odicals bind­
ing
ing
$0.753

$0.780

$0,823

$0.780

$0.805

.651
.485
.916
1.034
.847
.951
1.105
(0
.963
.949
.965
.532

.693
.505
.954
1.149
.926
.933
0)
0)
.955
1.019
1.041
.537

0)
0)
.891

0)
.501
.995
0)
.916

(0
(0
.932
(0
.986

0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)

(0
.751
0)

0)
.849

.465
.931
.862
0)
.980
.947
1.040
.550

0)
.826
.860
0)
0)
.937
(0
0)

.463
.983
0)
0)
.982
.972
1.031
.581

.464
1.085
.783
.613
. 585
.908
1.026
.764
.955
.443

.473
1.109
0)
.607
.583
.964
.968
.776
.991
.472

0)

.427
.505
.814
1.005
.608
.806
.860
.001

.379
.462
.664
.995
.536
.778
.861
.926

.362
.689
.610
.571
.433

.358
.867
.622
.5 4
f>
.436

.436

.412
.586

.399
.589

.405

0)

.318

.384

.459

.461

0)

0)

.542
.537
.461
.475

0)

.464
.387

.790

0)
0)

.889
.738
.708
.995
1.063
.768
0)
0)

.470
.363

$0,627

(0
(0
(i)

.599
.427
.719
.813
.714
(0
(')
0)

0)

0)
.734
.531

0)
(0

.642
0)

(0

0)
(0

(0

(0

(0

.410
(0

0)
(i)
0)
.699
.900

(0
(1)

.542
.433
.661

.722
0)
(0

0)

.605
.725
.375

.465
.533
.982
0)
.681
.817
.886
.896

(0
0)
(0
0)
0)
.916
.732

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

.379
(l)
0)

0)
0)
0)

.360
0)
.489

0)

0)

.435

.328
.451
0)
0)
(0

.414

0)

0)
0)

.461
0)

0)

0)

0)

0)

.240

.463

.443

.507

.463

.434

0)

(0

0)
0)
0)

0)

0)

0)
(0

(0

0)
0)
0)
.878

.675
0)
0)

.594
.595
0)
.462
.488 -~(T)—

(0

$0.717

(0

0)
0)
0)
.639
.677
.911
(0
.819
0)

Small
news­
papers

0)

0)

0)

(0
(0
0)
(0

(0

.504
.401

0)
.376

25

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T

1 2 . —Average Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Printing Plants
with Fewer Them 21 Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942—Con.

able

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS—Continued

Com­
mer­ Lithog­
All
Peri­ Book­
cial
branches print­ raphy Books odicals bind­
ing
ing

Occupation

Small
news­
papers

Females—Continued
Bindery department:
Apprentices________________________
Forewomen________________________
Band workers_____________________
M achine operators and feeders________
Shipping and stock department:
Mailers____________________________
Other workers___ __________________
Maintenance depaitment: Maintenance
workers___ _________________________
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant...___________ _________
Handicapped workers and learners____

$0,370 $0,347
.600
0)
.439
.438
.492
.489

$0,423
0)

.440
.432

.474
.417

(0
(0

.392

0)
.480
.286

.503
0)

$0,382
0)
.454
.499

0)
(i)

0)

.495
.250

(’)
0)
$0,399
.462

0)
(0

0)

$0,354
0)
0)
(0

0)
0)

0)
.205

(0

NUMBER OF WORKERS
Male9
Total, males______ _
_________ _____
Composing department:
All round printers__________________
Apprentices_____ __________________
Compositors, hand__________________
Foremen......................................... ......
Linotype operators__________________
Ludlow operators___________________
Machinists...................................... ......
Monotype casters____________ ______
Monotype keyboard operators________
Proofreaders_________________- _____
Stoneriien...............................................
Other workers_____________________
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices___ ____________________
Stereotypers_______________________
Other workers______________________
Plate department:
Apprentices________________________
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers_____
Engravers_ _______________________
_
Foremen................................................
Photographers and cameramen..............
Plate makers______ ________________
Transferrers and provers_____________
Other workers______________________
Press department:
Apprentices________________________
Foremen__________________________
Multilith operators.______ ___________
Press assistants and helpers__________
Press feeders____ _________________
Pressmen, cylinder__________________
Pressmen, offset......................................
Pressmen, platen....................................
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary........
Other workers.........................................
Bindery department:
Apprentices........................... ....... . ..
Assistants and helpers_______ ______
Folding-machine operators___________
Foremen____ ______________________
Hand workers____ _________________
Machine operators__________________
Power cutters.........................................
Ruling-machine operators_______ ____
Shipping and stock department:
Delivery and errand boys____________
Mailers............................. ................ . . .
Shipping and stock clerks______ _____
Truck drivers______________________
Other workers............................... ........
See footnote at end of table.




11,246

7,825

430

345

193

572

1.881

602
326
1,383
193
1,495
16
15
6
31
20
86
100

317
228
1,101
116
865
14
7
2
30
14
57
80

4
2
12

3
15
38
8
42

5
5
22
4
39

4
1
2

1
2
1
2
3
2

3

269
75
208
65
532
2
4
2

2
28
2

2
13

18
31
27
4
22
38
22
24

8
10
22
2
2
10
2
2

10
20
2
2
20
26
20
20

235
55
26
267
510
1,200
120
1,651
98
116

183
44
8
211
424
906
47
1,442
71
78

5

56
69
55
29
223
292
372
117

29
26
20
19
99
133
293
43

420
37
169
59
92

328
18
113
47
54

13

2
2

4

2
23
17

1
1

1

16
18
14
16
69
25
3
8

2
5
2
25
18
19
4
8

14
2

1

3

1

1

1
7
1
2
14
25
46
4
37
4
2
2
6
1
6
11
12
15
1
9
6

1
5
2

35
8

4
14
30

1
2

19
31
202

18
1
1

7

122
19
29

1
1
2
4
4

25
41
28
6
107
141
37
73

4
1
1
1

6
2
3
2
3

42
3
16
5
15

11
13
9
1
6

26

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

T a b l e 12.—Average

Hourly Earnings and Number of Wage Earners in Printing Plant&
with Fewer Than 21 Wage Earners, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex* 1942—Con.
NUMBER OF WORKERS— Continued

Com­
mer­ Lithog­
All
Peri­ Book­ Small
cial
news­
branches print­ raphy Books odicals bind­ papers
ing
ing

Occupation

Males—Continued
Maintenance department:
Janitors, watchmen, and service workers.
Other maintenance workers...................
Miscellaneous: Handicapped workers and
learners________________________ _____
Females
Total, females................ ...........................
Composing department:
Apprentices............................................
Compositors, hand and machine............
Proofreaders_______________________
Other workers........................................
Plate department: All workers.....................
Press department:
Apprentices____ ___________________
Press operators and feeders....................
Other workers______________________
Bindery department:
Apprentices________________________
Forewomen__________________ _____
Hand workers______________________
Machine operators and feeders________
Shipping and stock department:
Mailers.............................. ...................
Other workers_____________________
Maintenance department: Maintenance
workers___ _________________________
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant..........................................
Handicapped workers and learners____

232
37

154
29

13
2

11

6

9
2

39*
4

218

102

3

2

4

1

106-

2,113

1,317

70

68

33

403

222

8
226
61
16
13

3
89
39
12
10

4
7

6
1
1

1

1

5
>
126
ia
3

2
178
12

2
156
10

1

1

6
1

1

1$
1

28
12
1,159
241

13
7
748
137

27
5

1
1
40
11

31
32

18
25

4
4

3

14

9

3

45
35

23
16

21
1

2

9
3

14
4
298
83

3T
2
2
2‘

5
1
1

1

1

1

17

i Number of workers insufficient to permit presentation of an average.

Hourly Earnings
If it were necessary to choose one occupation, the rates for which
were to be used for making comparisons between plants, regions,
branches, or cities, the one key craft would undoubtedly be that of*
hand compositor. The male workers in this occupation earned an
average of $1,185 in the large plants, the earnings ranging from $1,041
in bookbinding shops to $1,276 in the books branch. These figures,,
like other hourly earnings presented in this article, represent straighttime earnings, and are not influenced by premium payments for over­
time work. Hand compositors averaged $1,165 an hour in the
commercial printing branch and $1,044 an hour in small newspaper
establishments. Higher-paid male wage earners in composing de­
partment occupations of large plants were foremen ($1,361), ma­
chinists ($1,291), monotype keyboard operators ($1,246), and linotype
operators ($1,212) (table 11). In small plants male hand compositors
earned an hourly average of 91.6 cents (table 12), or 26.9 cents less
than comparable workers in large establishments.
Woman compositors, hand and machine, earned an hourly average o f
81.4 cents in large plants, 54.2 cents in small plants. Earnings for
women in this occupation in both large and small plants were thus
substantially less than for men. It should be pointed out, however,
that in this occupation, as in most occupations in which both man and
woman workers are employed, the differences do not always reflect



BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

27

accurately wage differences for equal work, since the classifications
4ised are broad enough to permit considerable difference in type of
work and degree of responsibility.
Average hourly earnings of proofreaders, a skilled occupation in
the composing department in which women outnumbered men,
amounted in the large plants to $1,151 for men and to 75 cents for
women; in small shops the averages were 94.9 and 53.7 cents,
respectively.
In the electrotype and stereotype department where only male
workers were found, electro typers in the large plants averaged $1,459.
The earnings of workers in this occupation varied only slightly from
branch to branch ($1,487 in periodicals, $1,458 in books, and $1,451
in commercial printing). Electro typers were not found in the small
shops. Stereotypers, another skilled occupation in the same depart­
ment, earned $1,222 an hour in large plants and 75.1 cents in small
plants.
Hourly earnings were particularly high in the plate department.
Among the higher-paid occupations in this department in large plants
were foremen ($1,667), finishers ($1,460), artists ($1,454), engravers
($1,432), and photographers and cameramen ($1,372). Grainers,
who earned 84.1 cents an hour, and apprentices, who averaged 71.5
-cents, were among the lower-paid workers.
In the important press department, gravure pressmen in large plants
were the highest-paid male workers ($1,584). Other male workers in
this department who averaged more than $1 an hour were foremen
($1,485), rotary and web-rotary pressmen ($1,351), offset pressmen
($1,258), cylinder pressmen ($1,161), machinists ($1,106), and overlay
cutters ($1.102). Among the lower-paid occupations were press feeders
(87.9 cents), press assistants and helpers (87.1 cents), apprentices
(72.1 cents), multilith operators (69.5 cents), and press washers (53.7
cents). As in the other departments, hourly earnings in the press
department of small plants were substantially lower than in large
plants.
Bindery workers, as a group, were considerably lower paid than
composition and pressroom wage earners. Only two occupations in
this department had average earnings of more than $1 an hour—
iforemen who earned $1,127 an hour in large plants and $1,005 an hour
in small shops and machinists who earned $1,040 an hour in large
plants. As a group, woman bindery workers received relatively low
earnings. Average earnings in the large plants amounted to 64.9
►
cents an hour for forewomen, 51.2 cents for machine operators and
feeders, 45.9 cents for hand workers, and 42.6 cents for apprentices.
In the same four occupations in the small shops bindery women
-earned between 2 and 6 cents less than in large plants.
Average hourly earnings for the auxiliary workers employed in the
shipping and stock department, the maintenance department, and in
miscellaneous other occupations were, on the whole, lower than those
of the production workers. By and large, their duties call for much
less skill. The organization of the work force along craft lines, with
very little unionization of these auxiliary workers, may also account
in part for these lower rates.
Substantial differences are apparent in the occupational averages
presented for the various branches. In the gravure branch, the occu­
pational earnings of male workers in large plants varied from a low of
.53.6 cents an hour for janitors, watchmen, and service workers to a



28

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

high of $2,268 for transferrers and provers. By comparison, in the
bookbinding branch, where the lowest level of earnings was found, the
range in occupational average hourly earnings for male workers in the
large plants was from 36.1 cents an hour for handicapped workers and
learners to $1,211 for mailers. Substantial variations in average
hourly earnings are found within most of the occupations listed. These
differences are, on the whole, more pronounced in the skilled than in
the unskilled occupations, and are greater for men than for the women.
OCCUPATIONAL EARNINGS BY REGION AND BY CITY

Regional variations in earnings are clearly reflected in the occu­
pational data presented in table 13 for the commercial-printing branch
of the industry. Because of the limited number of plants in the
other branches studied, it was not practical to present regional data
for each branch. It is believed that the variations indicated for the
commercial branch are much the same as in the other branches.
T a b l e 13.— Number of Wage Earners and Average Hourly Earnings in Selected Occupa­

tions in the Commercial-Printing Branch of the Printing Industry, by Region, 1942
All regions
Occupation

Number Average Number Average Number Average
hourly
hourly
hourly
of
of
of
workers earnings workers earnings workers earnings

Males:
$0,700
327
All-round printers__ ____ __________
Bindery workers__________________
.836
Compositors, hand________________
2,135
1.056
35
1.451
Electrotypers____________________
1.034
Linotype operators________________
1.248
Machinists, composing____________
33
110
1.139
Monotype keyboard operators
______
651
.739
Press assistants and helpers________
.754
Press feeders_____________________
1,132
1.049
1,918
Pressmen, cylinder________________
1.085
Pressmen, offset__________________
196
2,025
.831
Pressmen, platen_________________
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary.......
1.162
370
Stereotypers_____________________
118
1.146
Stonemen________________________
194
1.099
3,233
Females: Bindery workers____________
.461
Great Lakes
Occupation

Males:
All-round printers.......................
Bindery workers.........................
Compositors, hand......................
Electrotypers...............................
Linotype operator?..................
Machinists, composing.............. .
Monotype keyboard operators...
Press assistants and helpers....... .
Press feeders..............................
Pressmen, cylinder..................... .
Pressmen, offset......................... .
Pressmen, platen..... ...................
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary
Stereotypers.................................
Stonemen................ ...................
Females: Bindery workers................

$0,885
45
168
1,809 .966
1.197
258

Middle
Atlantic

$0,589
.843
.963
0)
.90S
0)
.994
.744
.575
.958
.991
.777
0)
(0
(1)
.473

27
70
74
2
69
2
10
2S
24
45
14
72
2
1
5
103

158
1,369 1.276
1.355
10
6
0)
.746
49
.778
68
131
1.138
1.215
20.
.968
173
1.211
124
1.322
37
1.162
14
.563
418
New
England

South

Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­
ber of age ber of age ber of age ber of age
work­ hourly work­ hourly work­ hourly work­ hourly
earn­
earn*
earn­
ers
ers
ers earn­
ers
ings
ings
ings
ings
$0,743
732 .848
788 1.094
30 1.492
403 1.003
7
0)
48 1.219
175 .748
506 .846
755 1.058
1.118
.899
102

30
64
1,461

1.200

1.067
1.143
.455

56 $0,694
465 .836
561 1.059
3
0)
423 1.083
1.338
11
19 1.174
305 .784
346 .716
621 1.105
34 1.071
552 .815
100 1.201
37 1.238
79 1.129
577 .441

* Number of workers insufficient to permit presentation of an average.




Mountain

Pacific

35 $0,658
129 .730
173 .894
62
1
12
21

83
166

6

232
23
7
23
296

.849
0)
.966
.576
.634
.926
0)
.736
.903
(0
.903
.434

76 $0,608
245
.754
.948
281
254

2

15
73
105
200

36
307
19

6

9
378

.948
0)
1.044
.581
.597
.919
1.036
.727
.864
<> A
*
0) '
.415

29

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

Occupational average hourly earnings were generally highest in the
Pacific region, next highest in the Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic
areas, and lowest in the New England States. The earnings of lino­
type operators, for example, averaged $1,276 in the Pacific region,
$1,083 in the Middle Atlantic States, $1,003 in the Great Lakes area,
94.8 cents in the South, 90.8 cents in the Mountain area, and 84.9
cents in the New England States. In a number of occupations,
however, the averages for the New England area were higher than the
corresponding averages for the South; and in a few instances they
were higher than the corresponding averages for the Mountain area.
All-round printers, cylinder pressmen, platen pressmen, rotary and
web-rotary pressmen, press feeders, and female bindery workers all
earned more in the New England States than in the South.
Examination of the data presented in table 14 for 5 selected occupa­
tions in 16 widely scattered cities reveals considerable variation in
earnings from city to city. For example, the earnings of male hand
compositors varied from 95.4 cents an hour in Baltimore to $1,356 in
Chicago, and those of male bindery workers varied from 78.7 cents in
Washington, D. C., to $1,262 in Seattle. The factors contributing to
these differences are undoubtedly numerous. Among them are the
extent of unionization, the high degree of autonomy of the union
locals, and variation in size of establishments among cities. In
general, however, the wages paid to workers in the printing industry
in the respective cities are consistent with the wages paid in the same
cities to workers in other industries. It should be pointed out that,
for purposes of table 14, the printing industry was limited to the
following branches: Commercial printing, lithography, books, peri­
odicals, and bookbinding. In determining the average hourly earnings
by city of such key occupations as hand compositors, linotype opera­
tors, pressmen, bookbinders, and bindery women it was desirable to
exclude the small-newspaper and gravure branches and confine the
analysis to those branches considered within the jurisdiction of the
book and job division of the international craft organizations.
T a b l e 14.— Number of Wage Earners and Average Hourly Earnings in Selected

Occupations in the Printing Industryby Selected City, 1942
Compositors,
hand, male
Selected city

Baltimore, Md......................
Boston, Mass.........................
Chicago, 1 1
1 ............................
Cleveland, Ohio....................
Detroit, Mich.......................
Indianapolis, Ind..................
Los Angeles, Calif.................
Minneapolis, Minn...............
New York, N. Y ...................
Philadelphia, Pa...................
Pittsburgh, Pa......................
St. Louis, Mo........................
St. Paul, Minn......................
San Francisco, Calif..............
Seattle, Wash........................
Washington, D. C............... .

Linotype
operators,
male

Pressmen,
male

Bindery
workers,
male

Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­
ber of age ber of age ber of age ber of age ber of age
work­ hourly work­ hourly work­ hourly work­ hourly work­ hourly
earn­
earn­ ers
earn­
earn­ ers earn­
ers
ers
ers
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings
32
77
304
39
60
30
72
44
341
259
12
109
46
79
33
33

$0,954
.989
1.356
1.152
1.254
1.118
1.054
1.115
1.204
1.173
1.009
1.091
1.092
1.354
1.310
1.278

24
33
114
10
106
12
32
19
300
115
17
42
10
47
18
34

$1,002
1.072
1.243
1.039
1.411
1.141
1.121
1.087
1.236
1.186
1.221
1.127
1.073
1.339
1.477
1.268

117
171
734
73
108
70
170
81
910
401
35
193
89
119
38
57

$0,856
.925
1.279
1.130
1.166
1.046
.964
1.055
1.146
1.161
.900
1.017
1.063
1.281
1.196
1.140

97
93
809
19
71
51
84
40
971
370
18
117
40
62
1
1
32

* Includes commercial printing, lithography* books, periodicals, and bookbinding.




Bindery
workers,
female

$0,961
.844
.862
.981
1.017
.933
.891
.879
.884
.883
.822
.802
.946
1.187
1.262
.787

102 $0,400
187
.456
1,607
.474
39
.483
167
.540
100
.465
216
.542
81
.490
911
.497
401
.483
17
.454
210
.462
82
.486
109
.658
21
.672
59
.525

30

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

Weekly Hours and Earnings
WEEKLY HOURS

Wage earners in the printing industry worked an average of 40.1
hours during the sample week studied in Januarv 1942. Male
workers averaged 2 hours more per week than female workers, the
respective averages being 40.6 and 38.6 hours (table 15).
T a b l e 15.—Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing

Industry, by Weekly Hours and Sex, 1942
All branches
Weekly hours actually
worked

Under 16 hours................
16 and under 20 hours___
20 and under 24 hours......
24 and under 28 hours......
28 and under 32 hours
32 and under 36 hours
36 and under 40 hours..
Exactly 40 hours___ ____
40.1 and under 44 hours...
44 and under 48 hours .
48 and under 52 hours
52 and under 56 hours___
56 hours and over.............
Total......................

Commercial
printing

Lithography

Books

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
3.3
1.7
1.1
2.1
2.0
5.0
7.3
40.8
9.4
12.6
8.1
3.4
3.2

3.1
1.7
1.0
2.0
1.7
4.9
6.7
40.4
9.9
12.4
8.2
4.1
3.9

4.0
1.8
1.4
2.5
3.0
5.5
9.1
41.8
7.8
13.2
7.9
1.1
.9

3.8
1.9
1.4
2.2
2.0
5.3
6.9
43.4
8.7
13.0
6.5
2.3
2.6

3.7
1.8
1.3
2.1
1.8
5.1
6.6
43.4
9.5
12.3
6.6
2.7
3.1

4.1
2.4
1.7
2.6
2.5
6.0
8.1
43.2
5.7
15.8
6.0
1.0
.9

1.4
1.1
.6
1.5
2.3
4.6
7.8
36.3
13.4
13.9
8.3
4.6
4.2

1.2
1.0
.5
1.2
1.9
4.2
6.8
34.8
13.6
14.6
9.1
5.7
5.4

2.1
1.5
.8
2.2
3.5
5.7
10.7
41.3
12.7
11.6
5.7
1.3
.9

2.7
1.8
.8
2.0
1.6
4.2
6.5
42.8
5.9
10.5
10.3
7.1
3.8

2.2
2.0
.6
2.1
1.1
4.4
5.6
42.5
6.8
9.3
9.9
9.1
4.4

4.1
1.2
1.2
1.9
2.9
3.8
8.8
42.9
3.7
13.9
11.6
1.8
2.2

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Number of workers.......... 51,569 39,363 12,206 22,314 17,699 4,615 7,838 5,847 1,991 7,465 5,420 2,045
Average weekly hours___ 40.1 40.6 38.6 39.4 39.6 38.3 41.5 42.3 39.2 41.5 42.2 39.7
Periodicals
Under 16 hours.................
16 and under 20 hours.......
20 and under 24 hours......
24 and under 28 hours___
28 and under 32 hours___
32 and under 36 hours.......
36 and under 40 hours.......
Exactly 40 hours________
40.1 and under 44 hours...
44 and under 48 hours......
48 and under 52 hours. __
52 and under 56 hours.
56 hours and over.............

3.7 3.2
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
2.2
2.3
1.7
1.5
5.9
5.9
8.6 8.1
40.4 41.2
12.2 11.3
9.3
9.7
7.6
7.3
2.1
2.5
3.7 4.6

5.4
1.6
.7
2.6
2.4
5.9
10.4
38.2
15.7
7.9
8.5
.5
.2

Bookbinding
3.1
2.6
1.4
1.5
1.1
.9
2.0
1.6
2.8
1.6
3.9
2.7
7.4
5.9
42.2 41.5
6.8
7.8
13.8 14.9
10.7 11.5
2.3
3.5
2.4 4.1

3.6
1.5
1.4
2.6
4.1
5.3
9.2
42.8
5.7
12.6
9.8
1.0
.4

Small newspapers
6.4
1.9
1.8
2.5
2.3
4.2
5.8
29.6
9.0
18.7
12.4
2.8
2.6

6.0
1.9
1.6
2.2
2.0
3.8

5
.5

30.0
9.0
19.7
12.5
3.0
2.8

10.0
1.5
3.1
5.7
5.0
6.9
8.0
28.8
8.4
9.6
11.9
1.1

Gravure
5.2 36.3
5.9
2.5
2.6
.6
.6
3.7
3.6 ■'O
2.7
2.8
16.3 16.1 27.3
15.5 15.6 9.1
19.7 19.7 18.2
8.2 8.4 ___
f
7.3
7.4
9.4
9.6
4.4
4.3
3.9
4.0

Total....................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of workers.......... 6,895 5,421 1,474 3,921 2,112 1,809 2,626 2,365
Average weekly hours___ 39.7 40.2 38.2 40.2 41.4 38.7 39.3 39.7

261
35.6

510
38.1

499
38.4

11
23.5

Examination of the distribution of individual hours reveals that
two-fifths of all wage earners (40.8 percent) worked exactly 40 hours
per week and that somewhat more than one-third (36.7 percent)
worked in excess of 40 hours per week. The longer hours of the latter
group of workers were about offset by the shorter hours worked by
slightly more than one-fifth (22.5 percent) of the workers. Not all of
the workers on shorter hours, of course, should be considered part-time
workers, as a standard workweek of less than 40 hours is not uncom­
mon in this industry.




31

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

Average hours worked per week did not vary notably among
branches of the industry. The shortest week, 38.1 hours, was found
in the gravure branch and the longest, 41.5 hours, was in the lithogra­
phy and books branches. On the whole, the longest hours worked were
found in the maintenance and in the shipping and stock departments.
For example, in the composing department of large plants, the range
in the average weekly hours of male workers was from 37.0 for copy­
holders to 42.0 for proof-press operators, whereas in the maintenance
department average weekly hours varied from a low of 43.6 for other
unskilled workers to a high of 47.1 for firemen. The hours worked
by woman workers show comparatively little variation.
WEEKLY EARNINGS

As a group, printing-trades workers earned an average of $32.66 a
week in January 1942 (table 16). These earnings are gross figures,
including premium earnings for overtime work. Individual weekly
earnings varied widely; the averages ranged from less than $10 to
more than $100. Many part-time workers, of course, are to be found
in the lower-wage brackets.
T able

16.—Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing
Industry, by Weekly Earnings and Sex, 1942
Commercial
printing

All branches

Lithography

Books

Weekly earnings
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male
Under $10.00___________
$10.00 and under $12.50___
$12.50 and under $15.00_
_
$15.00 and under $17.50—
$17.50 and under $20.00__
$20.00 and under $22.50.—
_
$22.50 and under $25.00_
$25.00 and under $27.50__
$27.50 and under $30.00__
_
$30.00 and under $32.50_
$32.50 and under $35.00_
_
$35.00 and under $37.50_
_
$37.50 and under $40.00_
_
$40.00 and under $42.50.__
$42.50 and under $45.00._
$45.00 and under $47.50_
_
$47.50 and under $50.00___
$50.00 and under $52.50.__
$52.50 and under $55.00—
$55.00 and under $57.50__
$57.50 and under $60.00__
$60.00 and under $62.50__
$62.50 and under $65.00__
$65.00 and under $67.50.__
$67.50 and under $70.00.__
$70.00 and under $75.00_
_
$75.00 and under $80.00_
_
$80.00 and under $85.00__
$85.00 and under $90.00_
_
$90.00 and under $95.00
$95.00 and under $100.00—
$100.00 and over________
Total____________

4.5
3.0
4.6
7.9
7.0
8.2
5.8
6.1
4.5
5.5
3.9
4.4
3.4
4.6
3.4
4.1
3.2
3.2
1.9
2.1
1.6
1.5
.9
.8
.7
.9
.6
.4
.3
.2
.2
.6

3.5
2.2
2.8
4.7
4.6
5.8
4.6
5.9
4.7
6.3
4.6
5.6
4.3
5.9
4.3
5.2
4.2
4.1
2.5
2.8
2.0
2.0
1.2
1.1
.9
1.2
.8
.5
.4
.3
.2
.8

8.0
5.6
10.6
17.8
14.9
15.4
9.5
6.9
3.9
2.6
1.6
.8
.6
.4
.4
.3
.2
,i
.i
.i

(i)

0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
»

4.8
3.4
4.4
7.2
7.0
7.6
5.2
6.0
4.5
6.2
4.2
5.0
3.8
5.3
3.3
4.3
3.2
3.5
1.8
2.2
1.5
1.4
.9
.8
.6
.7
.4
.3
.1
.1
.1
.2

3.8
2.7
2.9
4.6
4.4
5.8
4.2
5.9
4.8
7.1
4.9
6.1
4.7
6.5
4.2
5.4
4.0
4.5
2.2
2.8
1.8
1.7
1.1
.9
.7
.9
.5
.3
.1
.2
.1
.2

8.5
6.1
10.1
17.3
17.1
14.9
8.9
6.7
3.5
2.8
1.6
.8
.6
.4
.2
.2
0)
0)
.2
.1
0)

0)
0)
0)

0)

0)

(1)

2.2
2.2
5.9
8.2
7.6
9.3
5.6
5.9
4.7
5.1
4.0
4.3
3.0
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.0
2.9
2.0
2.3
1.4
1.8
.9
1.1
.7
1.2
.9
.7
.4
.3
.3
.7

1.5
4.4
1.4
4.6
3.0 14.4
4.0 20.1
5.0 15.2
5.9 18.6
5.1
7.1
5.6
6.9
5.0 3.9
6.3
1.4
5.0
1.2
5.6
.5
4.0
.1
5.6
.4
4.8
.2
4.8
.2
4.0
.1
3.8
.3
2.7
.1
3.1
1.8
.1
2.4 _ _
1.2
1.4
.1
1.0
.1
1.6
1.1 __ __
.9
.6
.4
.5
.9

3.7
2.2
4.7
8.7
6.1
7.2
6.4
5.5
4.3
4.7
3.3
3.4
3.2
4.3
3.7
3.4
3.5
2.7
2.0
2.7
2.3
2.4
1.4
1.2
.9
1.3
.9
.5
.6
.4
.4
2.0

2.3
1.5
2.5
5.0
4.6
4.9
4.0
5.1
4.1
4.9
3.5
4.3
4.0
5.7
4.8
4.5
4.7
3.7
2.7
3.7
3.1
3.2
2.0
1.6
1.2
1.7
1.2
.8
.9
.5
.5
2.8

7.2
4.1
10.5
18.9
9.9
13.4
12.6
6.6
4.6
4.2
2.9
1.2
1.2
.4
.6
.4
.2
0)
.1
.3
.4
.1

0)

.1
.1

0)
0)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Number of workers....... . 51,569 39,363 12,206 22,314 17,699 4,615 7,838 5,847 1,991 7,465 5,420 2,045
Average weekly earnings~ $32.66 $36.76 $19.41 $31.84 $35.16 $19.11 $33.55 $38.47 $19.10 $36.05 $41.82 $20.77
>Less than a tenth of 1 peicent.




32

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

T able 16.—Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners in Specified Branches of the Printing
Industry, by Weekly Earnings and Sex, 1942—Continued
Bookbinding

Periodicals

Small
newspapers

Gravure

Weekly earnings
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Total Male male Total Male male Total Male male. Total Male male
Under $10.00___________
$10.00 and under $12.50__
$12.50 and under $15.00.__
$15.00 and under $17.50.__
$17.50 and under $20.00.__
$20.00 and under $22.50_
_
$22.50 and under $25.00.__
$25.00 and under $27.50.__
$27.50 and under $30.00__
$30.00 and under $32.50__
$32.50 and under $35.00_
_
$35.00 and under $37.50__
$37.50 and under $40.00.__
$40.00 and under $42.50.__
$42.50 and under $45.00.__
$45.00 and under $47.50.__
_
$47.50 and under $50.00_
$50.00 and under $52.50_
_
$52.50 and under $55.00__
$55.00 and under $57.50_
_
$57.50 and under $60.00__
$60.00 and under $62.50__
$62.50 and under $65.00__
$65.00 and under $67.50__
$67.50 and under $70.00__
$70.00 and under $75.00__
$75.00 and under $80.00__
$80.00 and under $85.00__
$85.00 and under $90.00__
$90.00 and under $95.00__
$95.00 and under $100.00—
$100.00 and over________
Total____________

4.3
2.2
3.3
6.4
6.6
7.0
5.4
5.6
4.2
4.5
3.5
4.3
3.6
4.0
4.4
5.7
4.7
4.3
2.9
2.3
2.3
1.5
.9
.9
.9
1.1
.9
.6
.4
.3
.2
.8

2.8
1.6
2.3
4.2
3.7
4.9
4.0
5.2
4.1
4.9
4.1
5.3
4.4
4.8
5.3
7.2
5.8
5.4
3.7
2.9
2.8
1.8
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.1
.7
.5
.3
.3
1.1

9.9
4.7
6.8
14.4
17.2
14.8
10.3
7.3
4.7
2.8
1.1
.9
.8
.8
.9
.6
.5
.3
.1
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

5.9
3.9
7.3
12.6
10.2
12.4
8.4
6.9
4.7
3.9
2.8
3.1
1.8
3.6
1.6
2.5
1.8
1.8
1.2
1.0
.5
.6
.2
.4
(0
.4
1
.1
.1
(0
.2

4.1
7.8
1.7
6.4
3.9 11.3
8.0 18.3
7.4 13.5
8.3 17.5
7.7
9.3
6.1
7.8
5.3 4.0
5.6
1.9
4.4
1.0
5.4
.4
3.2
.2
6.4
.2
.2
2.8
4.7 ___
3.3
.1
3.2
2.3
1.8
.9
1.0
.1
.4 ___
.7 ___
(0
.8 ___
.1
.1
.1
0)
.3

10.2
5.6
3.4
6.2
5.3
7.8
7.0
9.8
5.7
8.4
4.8
5.1
3.4
4.5
2.9
2.9
1.8
1.6
1.0
.6
.6
.6
.3
.1
.1
.2
.1

8.7 24.4
4.6 14.7
2.7 10.3
5.7 10.3
4.8 10.0
7.9 6.9
6.6 10.3
10.7 3.1
6.0
2.7
9.3
.8
5.1
1.9
5.6
1.1
3.6
1.1
5.0
.4
3.1
.8
3.2
.4
1.9
.4
1.7
1.1
.7
.6
.6
.4
.3 ___
.1
.1
.2
.1

0)

0)

0)

0)

5.3
1.2
2.2
1.2
2.2
2.2
1.2
4.3
3.3
4.7
4.9
3.7
3.1
2.7
2.5
5.8
4.7
3.3
2.5
2.7
2.2
2.9
1.8
.6
5.5
5.7
5.9
2.5
2.5
1.6
2.0
3.1

4.4
1.0
2.2
.6 ”
2.0
2.2
1.2
4.4
3.4
4.8
5.0
3.8
3.2
2.8
2.6
5.9
4.6
3.4
2.6
2.8
2.2
3.0
1.8
.6
5.7
5.8
6.0
2.6
2.6
1.6
2.0
3.2

45.5
9.1
27.2
9.1

9.1

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Number of workers.......... 6,895 5,421 1,474 3,921 2,112 1,809 2,626 2.365 261 510 499
11
Average weekly earnings.. $35.66 $39.84 $20.32 $25.56 $31.41 $18.72 $26.64 $27.79 $16.20 $49.80 $50.60 $13.37
i Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

It is evident that the wide dispersion in individual earnings is to
a large extent due to sharp differences in the earnings of man and
woman workers, which averaged $36.76 and $19.41, respectively.
It will be recalled that male workers not only had much higher
average hourly earnings than women, but also worked longer hours.
The weekly earnings of woman workers were largely confined to the
lower wage brackets, while those of male workers were widely dis­
tributed among the intermediate and upper brackets. Approxi­
mately two-thirds of all woman workers earned between $15 and
$27.50, and less than one-eighth earned $27.50 or more. In contrast,
only one-fourth of the male workers earned between $15 and $27.50
and two-thirds earned $27.50 or more.
Occupation tends to determine the general level of weekly earnings.
Although in the large plants certain of the highly skilled occupations
had average weekly earnings in excess of $75, such earnings were by
no means typical (table 17). Earnings ranging from an average of
$40 to $60 a week were common for most of the skilled workers, and
only the unskilled workers and apprentices found less than $30, on
the average, in their weekly pay envelope. Weekly earnings in
small plants were substantially lower than in large plants.




33

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING
T able

17.—Average Weeldy Earnings of Wage Earners in Large and Small Printing
Plants, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942
PLANTS EMPLOYING 21 OR MOKE WAGE EARNERS

Occupation

Males
Total, males____________ ________ _____

Com­
mer­
Peri­ Book­ Small Gra­
Li­
All
cial thog­
news­
branches print­ raphy Books odi­ bind­ papers vure1
ing
cals
ing
$39.28 $38.16 $38.81 $42.57 $40.12 $32.12 $35.09

Composing department:
All-round printers................ ..............
33.27 35.69
Apprentices______________________
25.98 24.80
46.33 45.78
Compositors, hand...............................
Copyholders.........................................
19.48 21.85
Foremen..............................................
56.88 59.68
46.90 46.74
Linotype operators________________
39.92
Ludlow operators.................................
(*)
Machinists..........................................
53.00 51.71
46.74 45.03
Monotype casters. ..............................
50.72 49.79
Monotype keyboard operators............
Proof-press operators............................
44.70 36.16
45.44 42.48
Proofreaders______________________
Stonemen................................... ........
46.51 46.43
Other workers.....................................
21.66 21.66
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices..........................................
29.70 26.63
Electrotypers.......................................
56.73 59.22
Foremen..............................................
64.33 58.16
Stereotypers.........................................
44.78 42.07
Other workers......................................
29.02 33.97
Plate department:
29.52 22.22
Apprentices.........................................
63.52 45.99
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers___
Engravers............................................
59.66 52.42
Finishers..............................................
61.22 56.39
Foremen..............................................
71.69 67.00
Grainers......... .....................................
35.95
(*)
Photographers and cameramen............
58.12 47.38
Platemakers........................................
51.88 45.60
.....................and 53.64 52.24
Transferrers
provers
Other workers......................................
30.20 23.49
Press department:
Apprentices.........................................
31.11 26.76
Foremen.......... ......... ..........................
64.22 65.02
Machinists_______________________
49.14 52.63
Multilith operators..........
............
29.14
(2
)
39.43 31.83
Press assistants and helpers________ _
Press feeders................. ......................
35.45 33.89
Press washers....... ...............................
25.20 25.42
48.12 45.77
Pressmen, cylinder..............................
Pressmen, gravure_________________
65.83
Pressmen, offset___________________
55.54 47735*
Pressmen, platen........................ ........
39.61 40.15
59.24 51.09
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary........
Overlay cutters_______
57.53
(*)
Other workers.... ................................
.
30.83 26.36
Bindery department:
Apprentices____________ __ ____
26.88 26.41
21.16 20.67
Assistants and helpers___ . . . ___
45.26 37.18
Folding-machine operators..................
Foremen_________________________
50.23 52.07
Hand workers......................................
27.58 24.82
28.44 34.53
Machine feeders................ ...............
42.43 38.29
Machine operators_____
.
___
48.57
Machinists.............................. ...........
(2
)
Power cutters.......................................
44.46 44.07
Ruling-machine operators
__
44.26 47.82
Shipping and stock department:
15.09 15.09
Delivery and errand b oys..................
Foremen..............................................
48.59 54.40
25.35 23.59
Mailers................................................
35.74 35.41
Shipping clerks................. . ...............
30.53 30.59
Stock clerks..........................................
Truck drivers.......................................
33.94 31.92
25.00 23.80
Other workers......................................
Maintenance department:
38.32 45.17
Firemen___ _____________________
Janitors, watchmen, and service work­
24.63 22.78
ers........................................ ............
34.89 33.14
Other semiskilled workers__________
Other unskilled workers..... .................
26.17 24.86
Skilled workers..______ _____ ___
54.20 54.83
See footnotes ac end of table.




(8
)
24.68 27.29 28.25
47.01 49.06 46.52
14.60
(2)
(2
)
52.08 53.41 58.20
46.47 51.73 45.12
(2
)
(2)
55.64 54.92
(2)
49.62 50.37
(2)
49.41 51.45 55.38
49.88
(2)
(2)
45.45 56.36 42.27
51.57 48.23 43.42
21.55 20.10 24.46
(2)
0

57?11

(2)
(2)

A
24.50

(2)
(2)
44.92

2L33"
39.89

(2)
(2)
(2)

$50.60
(2)

54.05
41.47

(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)

33.11
55.93
(2)
47.53
28.03

(2
)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
51.49
(2)
47.71
77.38
(2)

28.58
61.00
52.67
48.47
69.62
35.65
55.09
51.64
50.10
27.44

27.13
(2)
70.44 93.17
85.74
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
75.51 88.17
62.98
(2
)
71.53
(2)
40.66
(2)

29.03
66.54
(2)
33.51
32.21
32.67
24.57
48.33
(2)
58.62
37.08
57.84
(2)
28.50

37.40
36.29
(2)
(2)
63.55
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
26.02
54.54 43.84
20.23 50.59
(*)
41.31 37.59 28.92
(2)
(2)
29.12 22.89
55.90 47.92 i n s ' 39.50" —( if*
82.64
62.98
(2)
52.63
(2)
(2
)
42.44 38.93 32~24
(2)
(2)
85.64 69.48
32.95
56.41
(2)
35.43 28.21 24.58
33.10
(2)

(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)

(2)
(2
)

76.05
(2)
95.01
50.76

(2)

43.76
62.02
48.53

24.30 33.23
22.23 24.43
38.05 65.18
48.75 53.73
25.78 28.89
29.12 29.74
37.91 48.52
57.74
(2)
45.40 51.68
41.90
(2)

24.60
18.92
40.74
48.12
24.54
28.03
46.50
(2)
42.44
(2)

14.70 16.39
(2)
(2)
21.13 29.48
36.99 38.27
28.91 32.55
37.12 31.08
23.84 26.96

16.24 14.94
45.85
(2)
27.19 26.17
33.53 33.40
33.25
(2)
35.72 36.44
26.12 23.35

25.48
18.08
38.29
46.15
30.18
26.30
39.20
41.06
41.11
39.50

34.73

40.70

31.10

26.08
35.38
27.11
56.83

27.49
36.65
27.60
50.59

22.72
(2)
(2)
53.39

(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2)

11.47
(2)
22.90
(2) ‘ "(2)“
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
31.15
(2)

(2)

23.78
36.02
24.76
51.62

(2)

21.31
(2)
(2)

26.45
(2)
77.61

34
T

EARNINGS AND HOURS, JANUARY 1942

able

1 7 . —Average

Weekly Earning? of Wage Earners in Large and Small Printing:
Plants, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942—Continued

PLANTS EMPLOYING 21 OR MORE WAGE EARNERS—Continued

Occupation

Com­
Li­
mer­
Peri­ Book- Small Gra­
AH
cial thog­
news­
branches print­ raphy Books odi­ bind­ papers vure
cals
ing
ing

Males—Continued
Miscellaneous:
__
Clerks, plant-- - __ __
Handicapped workers and learners___

$28.66 $33.17 $26.36 $29.34 $36.94
19.36 22.29
(2
)
(2 $12.90
)

Females
_
Total, females_ _____________________
Composing department:
Apprentices__________________ ____
Compositors, hand and machine.........
Proofreaders __ __________ ________
Other workers_____ _______________
Plate department: All workers__________
Press department:
Apprentices______________________
Press operators and feeders__________
Other workers___________ ________
Bindery department:
Apprentices______________________
Forewomen_________ '_____________
Hand workers..................... ....... .........
Machine operators and feeders_______
Shipping and stock department:
Mailers__________________________
Other workers________________ ____
Maintenance department: Maintenance
workers____________________ _______
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant__________ _______ ___
Handicapped workers and learners___

19.93

19.96

19.20

20.95

20.37

19.09
31.58
29.91
17.85
21.98

18.47
31.63
30.39
17.58
24.15

(2
)
(2
)
23.32
22.36
20.83

18.00
29.33
32.99
17.56
(2
)

(2
)
37.54
28.57
17.71
(2
)

19.50
23.66
21.16

19.01
22.76
20.55

(2
)
19.37
20.24

(2
)
(2
)

17.66
28.15
18.42
21.33

18.77
26.57
18.39
21.41

15.20
31.72
18.22
20.70

17.43
19.54

17.95
21.25

19.46

2 .2
00
11.03

(2
)

19.05 $19.21

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2)

(2
)
39.98
(2
)

<)
2

15.31
(2
)
16.88
20.95

14.09
28.28
18.55
20.59

13.19
(2
)

19.79
19.09

14.52
15.55

17.21
19.70

(2
>
(2
)

(2
)

14.95

(2
)

21.86

20.72

(2
)

19.68
(2
)

20.97

2 .1
02

19.73
(2
)

(2
)
10.38

$13.37'

(2
)

17.47
28.84
19.26
23.11

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

PLANTS EMPLOYING FEWER THAN 21 WAGE EARNERS

Occupation

Com­
mer­
All
Book­ Small
branch­ cial Lithog­ Books Period­ binding news­
icals
papers
print­ raphy
es
ing

Males
Total, males................................. ................. $30.46
Composing department:
All-round printers.............. .....................
Apprentices______ ______ _________ _
Compositors, hand...................................
Foremen.............. ...................... ...........
Linotype operators_____ _____ ______
Ludlow operators .. ___ . _________
Machinists_________________ _____ __
Monotype casters__________ ______ __
Monotype keyboard operators_________
Proofreaders_____________ ___________
Stonemen________________ __________
Other workers_________ ________ ____
Electrotype and stereotype department:
Apprentices
_
____
Stereotypers________________________
_________
Other workers
.
Plate department:
Apprentices
_____________________
Artists, retouchers, and re-etchers______
Engravers — ______________________
Foremen
_ __ ________________
Photographers and cameramen ______
Plate makers _____________________

Transferrers and provers________ _____
Other workers.......................................

See footnotes at end of table.




$31.37

$34.26

$30.71

$32.10

$29.49

$25.91

28.05
18.80
36.50
45.63
34.37
38.99
40.66
(2
)
39.51
36.38
41.10
22.26

29.58
19.54
37.61
49.60
36.78
39.15
(2
)
(2
)
39.23
38.93
43.92
22.82

(2
)
(2
)
37.99

(2
)
19.35
37.01
(2
)
34.31

(2
)
(2
)
37.33
(2
)
38.59

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

26.12
16.70
30.55
37.71
30.37
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
28.36
(2
)

(*)
30.34

17.13
37.64
33.28
(2
)
37.95
40.52
42.37
23.01

(2
)
32.53
33.16
(3)

(2
)
39.66
(2
)

30.43

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
15.87
40.58
(2
)
(2
)
37.89
42.47
42.11
24.86

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)
32.39
20.78
25.70
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

s

35

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

'T a b le 17.—Average Weekly Earnings of Wage Earners in Large and Small Printing

Plants, by Occupation, Branch, and Sex, 1942—Continued
PLANTS EMPLOYING FEWER THAN 21 WAGE EARNERS—Continued

Occupation

All

branch'

Com­
mer­
cial
print­
ing

Li­
thog­
raphy

Books

Peri­
odi­
cals

Book> Small
bind­ news­
ing papers

Males—Continued
Press department:
Apprentices............................................
Foremen................................................
Multilith operators.................................
Press assistants and helpers....................
Press feeders...........................................
Pressmen, cylinder.................................
Pressmen, offset......................................
Pressmen, platen....................................
Pressmen, rotary and web-rotary...........
Other workers.........................................
Bindery department:
Apprentices............................................
Assistants and helpers............................
Folding-machine operators........ •
-..........
Foremen.................................................
Hand workers.........................................
Machine operators..................................
Power cutters........................................
Ruling-machine operators.....................
■Shipping and stock department:
Delivery and errand boys.......................
Mailers..................... .............................
Shipping and stock clerks......................
Truck drivers.........................................
Other workers.........................................
Maintenance department:
Janitors, watchmen, and service workers.
Other maintenance workers...................
Miscellaneous:
Handicapped workers and learners........

$18.16 $18.56
(2
)
47.34 48.22
30.32
$35.29
(2
)
25.16 24.88 34.39
22.96 22.73 26.89
37.34 39.48 35.45
44.28 41.30 46.59
31.20 31.62 31.25
39.49 40.39
(2
)
16.21
17.75
0

(a
)

$15.68

$30.46
37.79

19.64
17.79
27.75

(2
)

(2
)

27.59
(2)

(2
)

(2
)

16.99
19.43
31.99
43.74
23.34
33.76
35.97

14.92
16.75
26.25
44.33
19.48
32.50
36.27
34.94

13.90
17.29
26.07
23.91
17.77

13.66
19.13
26.89
23.78
18.75

28.37

(2
)

(2
)

15.47
23.24

15.62
23.13

17.07

16.65

(2
)

12.04

14.75

(2
)

(2
)

'Total, females....................................

16.92

16.99

16.44

Composing department:
Apprentices................................
Compositors, hand and machine.
Proofreaders--------------------------Other workers_____ ___________
Plate department: All workers..........

(2
)
20.18
20.91
17.99
18.28

(2
)
22.17

(*
)

(2
)

25.80
30.27
12.43

$18.76
21.66

39.18
(2
)
28.04
34.47
37.10
37.51
17.57

(2
)

15.92

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

14.66

(2
)

21.09

(2
)

17.66

(2
)
(2
)
<
*
>
(2
)

8*23
10.42
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

8

13.97
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

8.92

15.49

18.30

17.60

15.67

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Females

Apprentices..
Press operators and feeders..............
Other workers..................................
Bindery department:
Apprentices.................................... .
Forewomen......................................
Hand workers................................ .
Machine operators and feeders....... .
-Shipping and stock department:
Mailers.......................................... .
Other workers..................................
Maintenance department:
Maintenance workers..................... .
Miscellaneous:
Clerks, plant....................................
Handicapped workers and learners..

22.65

17.84
18.51

(2
)

~ )"
(2

(*
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

15.71
18.36

13.79

(2
)
<)
2

(2
)

13.54
15.06

15.17
(2
)
17.50
18.00

16.06
16.03

18.08
15.93

(2
)

(2
)

12.86

(2
)

(2
)

18.25
9.86

17.53
11.78

18.67

18.45
14.93

14.11
24.70
15.89
18.15

12.91

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

18.63
16.59

14.90

(2
)

10.73

(2
)
(2
)

(*
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

18.19
15.27

1Includes 2 plants having fewer than 21 wage earners.
* Number of workers insufficient to permit presentation of an average.




(2
)

"(I)-

(s
)