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3;
Earning® and O tto Characteristics f e s
of Organized Workers, May 1980
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1981

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Bulletin 2105




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Earnings and Other Characteristics
of Organized Workers, May 1980
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1981
Bulletin 2105




F or sa le by th e S u p erin ten d en t of D ocum ents, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office
W ashington, D.C. 20402 - P rice $4.25




.

.

Prsfaee

Estimates of labor organization membership and of
workers represented by unions and associations present­
ed in this publication are based on information collected
by the Bureau of the Census in the May 1980 Current
Population Survey and tabulated by the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics. For purposes of this survey, a labor or­
ganization may be either a union or an employee asso­
ciation that engages in collective bargaining.
This bulletin cross-tabulates data on employed wage
and salary workers who are members of labor organi­
zations and those who are not members but are repre­
sented by labor organizations, by occupation, industry,
region, weekly earnings, sex, race, and age.
All estimates in this bulletin are comparable with




those published in Earnings and Other Characteristics of
Organized Workers, May 1977 (BLS Report 556, 1979).
The membership estimates in this report are not com­
parable with those published in the Bureau’s biennial
Directory of National Unions and Employee Associations.
The appendix briefly discusses the differences between
these studies.
This study was prepared by Larry T. Adams, an
economist in the Division of Developments in LaborManagement Relations, under the direction of Alvin
Bauman, Chief.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced with­
out permission.

iii




Contents

Page
Summary............................................................................................................................................................. 1
Occupational characteristics...............................................................................................................................2
Industry characteristics.......................................................................................................................................3
E arnings..............................................................................................................................................................3
Black workers...................................................................................................................................................... 3
Age ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Changes from May 1977 to May 1980 ................................................................................................................4
Text tables:
1. Distribution of employed wage and salary workers by labor organization affiliation and
industry, May 1980 ...........................................................................................
1
2. Labor organization status of employed wage and salary workers by sex and race, May 1980 ..........2
Reference tables:
Employed wage and salary workers, May 1980:
1. Represented by labor organizations by occupation, sex, and r a c e ....................................................5
2. In labor organizations by occupation, sex, and race...........................................................................8
3. Nonmembers covered by labor contracts by occupation, sex, and ra c e .......................................... 11
4. Represented by labor organizations by industry, sex, and race........................................................14
5. In labor organizations by industry, sex, and ra c e ..............................................................................18
6. Nonmembers covered by labor contracts by industry, sex, and race .............................................. 22
7. Represented by labor organizations by occupation and industry.....................................................26
8. Private and government workers represented by labor organizations by industry......................... 28
9. Labor organization representation of private and government workers by occupation and race .. 29
10. Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time workers by occupation and labor organization
representation................................................................................................................................. 30
11. Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time workers by industry and labor organization
representation................................................................................................................................. 31
12. Age distribution by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race..........................33
13. Age distribution by occupation, labor organization membership, sex, and race..............................38
14. Age distribution by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and r a c e .............................43
15. Age distribution by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and ra c e .................................54
16. Black workers as a percent of workers by occupation and labor organization representation.........65
17. Black workers as a percent of workers by industry and labor organization representation............ 66
18. Hispanic workers as a percent of workers by occupation and labor organization representation .. 67
19. Hispanic workers as a percent of workers by industry and labor organization representation . . . . 68
Chart:
1. Percent of employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations, May 1980........2
Appendix: Survey methods and limitations of d a t a ....................................................................................... 69




v

Earnings and] ©tlhi®r
©haraeteristies ©f ©r§anii®til
W®rk®rs? May 193©

Summary

Extending into every industrial sector and occupa­
tional group in the Nation, labor organizations repre­
sented 25.7 percent of the 87.5 million employed pri­
vate and government wage and salary workers in May
1980 (chart 1 and text table 1). A slightly lower pro­
portion (23.0 percent of the workers) were actual mem­
bers of labor organizations. About seven-tenths of the
20.1 million members of labor organizations were em­
ployed in private enterprises; the remainder worked for
Federal, State, and local governments.
In 1980, 42.5. percent of the civilian labor force were
women. Nevertheless, they accounted for only 30.1 per­
cent of the employed wage and salary workers in labor
organizations in May 1980. In contrast, blacks and oth­
er minority races1 made up 1.7 percent of the civilian
noninstitutional labor force, but constituted 14.9 per­
cent of labor organization members in May 1980. Pro­
portionately more black men (33.8 percent) belonged
to labor organizations than white men (27.8 percent),
but the differences were even greater among women:
24.0 percent for black women and 14.6 percent for white
women (text table 2).
Better than half (52.3 percent) of the 22.5 million
workers represented by labor organizations were bluecollar workers, 37.7 percent were white-collar work­
ers, and 9.9 percent were service workers. Among the
20.1 million labor organization members, 55.2 percent
were blue collar, 34.9 percent were white collar, and
9.7 percent were service workers. For the 2.4 million
workers not members of a labor organization but cov­
ered by labor agreements, the pattern was different:
Only 27.6 percent were blue-collar workers compared
to 61.1 percent who were white-collar workers and 11.1
percent who were service workers.
Two of the ten industry groups, manufacturing and
service, accounted for more than one-half (32.5 percent
and 25.4 percent, respectively) of the workers repre­
sented by labor organizations. These two industry1
1 Workers of black and other minority races are referred to as “black
workers” in this bulletin. Black persons constituted 85 percent of
black and other minority races in the 1980 census.



1

groups accounted for 57.3 percent of workers belong­
ing to labor organizations and 63.2 percent of repre­
sented nonmembers. While the service industry ac­
counted for slightly more than one-quarter of the re­
presented workers, it employed 41 percent of the non­
members covered by a contract.
Of the approximately 4.7 million Hispanic (all races)
wage and salary workers in May 1980, 29 percent were
represented by a labor organization, compared with 32.1
percent for blacks and 24.9 percent for whites. The
greatest number of Hispanics were in blue-collar occu­
pations in manufacturing industries. Second in impor­
tance were the service industries. However, agriculture
had the largest proportion of Hispanic workers.
Workers represented by labor organizations earned
more than those who were not. Their usual weekly
earnings exceeded those of workers not represented by
$42 ($320 compared to $278). Organized workers in the
construction industry had the highest earnings, $405.
Workers in construction who were not represented
earned $121 less. While many factors are involved in
worker compensation, collective bargaining through laText tab!© 1. Distribution of employed wage and salary
workers by labor organization affiliation and industry, May
1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Employed wage and salary workers
Membership status
Total

Nonagricultural
industries

Agricultural
industries

T o ta l..............................

87,480

86,025

1,455

Members of labor
organizations....................

20,095

20,044

51

Nonmembers
represented by labor
organizations....................

2,398

2,394

4

Nonmembers
not represented...............

64,986

63,586

1,400

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal to­
tals.

ceeded these levels, however; about 63 percent of met­
al craft workers and machinists were represented, for
example. Nearly 86 percent of motor vehicle and equip­
ment operatives were represented by labor organiza­
tions, by far the strongest representation among all bluecollar occupations. Among blue-collar nonfarm labor­
ers, a higher proportion (65 percent) of those employed
in transportation, communication, and public utilities
had labor union representation than in any other indus­
trial sector (table 7).
Although black workers and white workers in the
blue-collar occupations were represented at approxi­
mately the same rate (about 42 percent), there were
significantly different representation rates for these
groups of workers in the white-collar and service oc­
cupations. While 30 percent of the black workers em­
ployed in white-collar occupations were represented by
labor organizations, only 17 percent of white workers
similarly employed were covered by a collective bar­
gaining agreement. Though the difference was smaller,
this relationship was the same in the service occupa­
tions, with a representation rate of 22 percent for black
workers, compared to 17 percent for white workers.
Generally, for both sexes, the representation rate for
black workers exceeded that for white workers in each
major occupational group.
Of the 2.4 million workers covered by labor contracts
who were not members of a union or employee asso­
ciation in May 1980, almost 1.5 million (5 out of 8) were
white-collar workers. Although this ratio may seem

Chari 1. P@re®rst of employed wag© and
salary workers represented by labor
organizations, IVlay 1980
Percent

B oth sexes

Men

W om en

bor organizations is at least partially responsible for the
wage difference.
White-collar workers had the smallest earnings gap
(7 percent) between those represented and those not
represented by a labor organization. The differentials
for the other two occupational groups were much
larger-26 percent for blue-collar workers and 47 per­
cent for service workers.

Text table 2. Labor organization status of employed wage
and salary workers by sex and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
All races

White

Black

Membership status
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

OsoupationaS characteristics

TOTAL

Historically, labor organization has been most high­
ly concentrated among blue-collar workers. In May
1980, 11.8 million workers represented by labor organ­
izations were in this occupational group, nearly 11 mil­
lion of them employed in the private sector (table 9).
Slightly more than 41 percent of all blue-collar work­
ers were represented by labor organizations. The pro­
portions were much lower for white-collar and service
workers-only about 18 percent each were represented
by labor organizations (table 1).
Among the major groups of blue-collar occupations,
transport equipment operatives were the most highly
organized with a 47-percent representation rate-fol­
lowed by operatives (except transport) and craft and
kindred workers (both with rates of approximately 42
percent), and nonfarm laborers (35 percent).
Many individual occupations within these groups ex­



Represented..............
Members .................
Nonmembers
covered by
contracts...............

22,493
20,095

100.0
89.3

19,176
17,099

100.0
89.2

3,317
2,996

100.0
90.3

2,398

10.7

2,077

10.8

321

9.7

15,302
14,039

100.0
91.7

13,375
12,261

100.0
91.7

1,927
1,778

100.0
92.3

1,263

8.3

1,114

8.3

149

7.7

7,191
6,056

100.0
84.2

5,801
4,838

100.0
83.4

1,390
1,218

100.0
87.6

1,136

15.8

963

16.6

173

12.4

M
EN
Represented..............
Members .................
Nonmembers
covered by
contracts...............

W
OMEN
Represented..............
Members .................
Nonmembers
covered by
contracts...............

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal to­
tals.

2

large, these employees constituted only 3 percent of all
white-collar workers. Among blue-collar and service
workers, the comparable figure was 2 percent.
Industry characteristics

Industries which traditionally employ large numbers
of blue-collar workers generally had a higher concen­
tration of workers covered by collective bargaining
contracts (tables 4, 7, and 8). Thus, over one-third of
all employed wage and salary workers in construction
and manufacturing, and. over one-half in transportation
and public utilities were represented by labor organi­
zations. The railroad industry and the postal service,
with 83 percent of the workers covered by collective
bargaining agreements, had the highest representation
rate. In contrast, 11 percent or less of the employees in
agriculture; trade; and finance, insurance, and real es­
tate were represented by labor organizations.
Within manufacturing, however1 there was consider­
,
able variation in the representation rate. In the prima­
ry metals and automobile industries, 63 percent of the
employed wage and salary workers were represented,
contrasted with 14 percent in instrument manufactur­
ing. Two-fifths of the 2.2 million employed wage and
salary workers in public administration were represent­
ed in May 1980. Slightly more than 43.4 percent of the
6.1 million wage and salary workers employed by Fed­
eral, State, and local governments were represented by
a union or employee association.
Earnings

Primarily because of higher earnings by blue-collar
workers, the most highly organized occupational group,
usual weekly earnings of workers represented by labor
organizations, at $320, exceeded those of workers not
represented by $42 in May 1980 (table 10). Blue-collar
workers averaged $323, exceeding the average (mean)
weekly earnings of their unorganized counterparts by
$67. The widest earnings margins were achieved by
workers in skilled occupations in the building trades.
Organized construction craft workers, except carpen­
ters, surpassed the average weekly earnings of those
not organized by $131.
Service workers represented by labor organizations
accounted for almost one-quarter of all employed full­
time service employees, and averaged $81 a week more
than those who were not represented. The smallest
earnings differential was among white-collar workers.
Those who were covered by a labor agreement had
average weekly earnings of $330, only $11 more than
those not covered. As most high-paying professions
have not been significantly organized, professional,
technical, and kindred workers represented by labor
organizations earned $22 less than their nonrepresented
counterparts.



Workers not represented were more likely to be at
the lower end of the earnings scale than those who
were represented. Thirty-seven percent of those not re­
presented earned less than $200 a week compared with
15.2 percent of those who were represented. At the top
of the scale, 24.4 percent of those not represented earned
at least $350, compared with 37.0 percent of those
represented.
In most industries, usual weekly earnings of workers
represented by labor organizations were higher than
those of workers not represented (table 11). The wid­
est differentials were found in construction, where av­
erage (mean) weekly earnings of workers represented
were 42 percent higher than those of workers who were
not. Construction, a highly seasonal industry, with usu­
al weekly earnings of $405; Federal Government, with
an average of $395; and transportation, with an aver­
age of $381, were the highest paying industries for
workers represented by a labor organization in 1980.
Black workers

Blacks made up a larger part of workers represented
by a labor organization than their proportion in the to­
tal work force might indicate. While they made up 11.8
percent of employed wage and salary workers, they
constituted 14.7 percent of those represented by labor
organizations. In the white-collar occupations, especial­
ly in clerical jobs, black workers were more likely to
be represented by labor organizations than white work­
ers. Although 8.8 percent of all clerical workers were
black, more than 14.2 percent of the workers represent­
ed by labor organizations in these jobs were black (ta­
ble 16). Among the blue-collar occupations, the per­
centage of blacks as a proportion of workers represent­
ed by labor organizations (13.4 percent) was only slight­
ly higher than the proportion of blacks to all blue-col­
lar workers (12.9 percent).
Contract coverage among black workers exceeded
that for whites in most industries. In the durable goods
manufacturing group, for example, more than one-half
of all employed black wage and salary workers were
covered compared to less than two-fifths of white
workers.

Age

Employed wage and salary workers represented by
labor organizations had a median age of 37.7 years, 3.9
years older than the median for nonrepresented work­
ers (table 12). The median age of represented workers
was essentially the same for each race and sex cross­
classification (black male, black female, white male, and
white female).
Workers represented by labor organizations were, on
average, older than their nonrepresented counterparts
3

Of the 6.1 million wage and salary workers added to
the work force between May 1977 and May 1980, ap­
proximately 2.2 million workers, or 35 percent, were
employed in the service industries. Although the rep­
resentation rate for the service sector was almost 5 per­
centage points below the all-industry average of 26.5
percent in May 1977, approximately 35 percent of the
2.2 million additional service workers added to the work
force by May 1980 were covered by a contract. As a
result, the representation rate for the service sector rose
from 21.6 percent in May 1977 to 22.8 percent in May
1980.
Only two other industry groups gained a measurable
number of represented workers. In transportation, com­
munications, and public utilities, the number of repre­
sented workers increased by 300,000, approximately 51
percent of the 591,000 additional workers employed in
this group during the 1977-80 period. The representa­
tion rate was unchanged at about 51 percent. The num­
ber of represented workers in public administration rose
Changes from May 1977 to May 1980
The number of employed wage and salary workers by 251,000, about 64 percent of the 390,000 workers
increased by 6.2 million, from 81.3 to 87.5 million, be­ gained between 1977 and 1980. However, the represen­
tween May 1977 and May 1980. More than 90 percent tation rate remained at about 40 percent.
The construction; manufacturing; trade; and finance,
(5.6 million) of these new jobs were in the white-collar
occupations, raising the white-collar proportion of em­ insurance, and real estate industry groups accounted for
ployed wage and salary workers from 49.7 percent in 45 percent of the 6.1 million wage and salary workers
May 1977 to 52.5 percent in May 1980. While both added to the work force between 1977 and 1980, yet
blue-collar and service occupations gained workers dur­ showed little change in the number of represented work­
ing this period, the percentage of workers employed in ers. The representation rates for the construction and
blue-collar occupations declined to 32.5 percent, with manufacturing industries, therefore, decreased from 37.9
no significant change in the proportion of workers in to 33.1 percent and from 37.6 to 34.8 percent, respec­
service occupations.
tively. The representation rates for trade and finance,
The number of workers represented by labor organ­ insurance, and real estate remained at about 11 percent
izations rose by 958,000, increasing the total number of and 5 percent, respectively.
workers covered by collective bargaining agreements
Of the 6.1 million workers gained during the 1977-80
from 21.5 million in May 1977 to 22.5 million in May period, approximately 90 percent (5.6 million workers)
1980. However, the representation rate fell from 26.5 were employed in white-collar occupations. During this
percent to 25.7 percent during the same period. This period, the number of represented white-collar employ­
decrease may be explained, in part, by the shift of work­ ees rose by 1.2 million with the representation rate sta­
ers from blue-collar occupations and manufacturing in­ ble at about 18 percent. The number of employees in
dustries, where representation was high, to white-col­ service occupations increased by approximately 461,000
lar occupations and service industries, where it was low. with no change in the number of represented workers.
The service occupation representation rate did not
2 Black male white-collar workers and black female service work­
change significantly. The blue-collar occupations
ers were exceptions. While the median age estimates for these two
showed no measurable change in wage and salary work­
groups were higher for represented workers than nonrepresented
workers, the difference was not statistically significant.
ers, represented workers, or representation rate.

in each of the major occupational groups. Service work­
ers had the widest age differential, 8.8 years. The age
differential for blue-collar and white-collar workers was
6.3 and 3.9 years, respectively. With a median age of
39.7 years, represented workers in the service occupa­
tions were at least 2 years older than either white-col­
lar or blue-collar workers.
Within the major occupational groups, median age
estimates for each cross-classification of race and sex
indicated that, generally, represented workers were old­
er than nonrepresented workers.2
The age differentials were not as large when meas­
ured by industry. The largest differential was in con­
struction, with the median age of represented workers
5.1 years higher than the median for nonrepresented
workers of 31.8 years (table 14). Services and manufac­
turing followed with differentials of 3.4 and 2.8 years,
respectively.




4

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number

All occupations2 ..............................................................................

22,493

19,176

3,317

15,302

13,375

1,927

7,191

5,801

1,390

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried..............................................................

8,483
3,997
148
41
418
2,022
252
1,116

7,281
3,501
139
34
334
1,809
217
967

1,201
496
8
7
84
214
34
149

3,923
1,836
142
35
63
671
208
718

3,490
1,666
134
31
45
639
179
640

433
170
8
4
18
32
29
78

4,560
2,161
6
6
355
1,351
44
398

3,792
1,835
6
3
290
1,170
39
327

768
327

Managers and administrators, except farm ........................................
Salaried-manufacturing ....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

868
95
773

781
91
690

86
4
83

697
87
610

641
83
558

56
4
53

171
8
163

140
8
132

Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Bookkeepers .....................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries..........................................
Other clerical workers ......................................................................

3,365
118
175
569
2,503

2,775
101
131
481
2,062

589
17
44
88
440

1,272
24
59
24
1,166

1,078
19
41
18
1,000

194
4
18
6
166

2,093
94
116
545
1,337

1,698
82
90
464
1,062

395
13
27
82
275

Sales workers......................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade............................................................
Other sales workers ........................................................................

253
143
110

224
124
100

30
19
10

118
45
73

105
39
66

13
6
7

135
98
37

119
85
34

16
13
3

Blue-collar workers................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Supervisors, n.e.c..............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters ............................................................
Mechanics-auto ...............................................................................
Mechanics, except a u to ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

11,763
4,571
284
1,116
369
397

10,195
4,198
269
1,021
326
363

1,568
373
15
95
42
34

10,059
4,433
282
1,103
356
392

8,816
4,078
268
1,009
318
359

1,243
355
15
93
37
32

1,704
138
1
13
13
5

1,379
120
1
12
8
3

326
18

423
223
773
988

390
194
720
915

33
29
52
73

412
223
754
913

381
194
705
844

31
29
49
69

Operatives, except transport..............................................................
Mine workers ....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ...........................................................................
All o ther.............................................................................................

4,229
113
315
1,917
1,320
565

3,529
107
248
1,613
1,093
468

700
6
66
305
227
96

2,872
109
259
1,379
692
433

2,440
103
210
1,176
576
374

433
6
49
203
116
58

See footnotes at end of table.




11
_

3
66
182
5
71
30
-

30

_

1
5
2

9
_

2
-

19
75

15
71

4
5

1,357
3
56
538
628
132

1,089
3
38
437
516
94

268
-

18
101
112
38

Table 1. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Occupation of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number—Continued
Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................................................
All o th e r.............................................................................................

1,514
1,168
346

1,277
984
293

237
184
53

1,423
1,090
333

1,203
920
282

221
170
51

91
78
13

74
63
11

17
15
2

Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction.......................................................................................
Manufacturing ....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................

1,448
265
436
747

1,191
215
362
613

258
49
74
134

1,331
264
383
684

1,096
214
316
565

235
49
67
119

118
1
53
63

95
1
46
48

23
7
15

Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers .................................................................
Cleaning service...................................................................................
Food service........................................................................................
Health service .....................................................................................
Personal service ..................................................................................
Protective service ................................................................................

2,221
4
644
426
363
164
621

1,682
2
449
343
208
128
551

540
2
194
82
154
37
70

1,296
433
158
72
61
572

1,051
324
126
39
49
513

245
109
32
33
12
59

925
4
210
267
291
104
50

631
2
125
217
170
79
38

294
2
85
50
121
25
11

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All occupations2 ...............................................................................

25.7

24.9

32.1

31.0

30.3

36.6

18.9

17.5

27.4

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried..............................................................

18.5
27.7
10.6
9.6
20.1
61.8
22.7
18.2

17.4
26.8
10.6
8.6
18.2
61.7
21.7
17.3

29.6
36.0
(3
)
(3
)
33.4
62.5
31.5
26.3

18.9
23.6
10.5
9.4
24.8
71.2
22.7
18.1

18.1
23.2
10.5
8.9
22.2
71.8
21.7
17.5

29.5
28.6
(3
)
0
(3
)
(3
)
32.0
25.9

18.1
32.5
(3
)
0
19.4
58.0
22.7
18.2

16.8
31.3
(3
)
(3
)
17.8
57.3
22.0
17.0

29.6
41.6
(3
)
(3
)
32.9
63.0
(3
)
26.7

Managers and administrators, except farm .......................................
Salaried-manufacturing....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

9.7
5.9
10.5

9.2
5.8
9.9

19.5
(3
)
20.4

10.5
6.1
11.7

10.1
5.9
11.3

20.9
(3
)
21.7

7.3
4.6
7.6

6.5
4.8
6.7

17.4
(3
)
18.5

Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Bookkeepers .....................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries..........................................
Other clerical w orkers......................................................................

19.2
7.2
17.6
11.8
24.9

17.9
6.5
16.3
11.0
23.5

29.9
18.2
22.6
21.2
34.7

36.4
15.4
21.9
30.1
38.9

35.8
13.8
19.6
(3
)
38.5

39.6
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
41.4

14.9
6.3
16.0
11.5
18.9

13.5
5.8
15.2
10.7
17.2

26.7
15.8
19.4
20.6
31.6

Sales workers......................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade............................................................
Other sales workers .........................................................................

5.0
5.4
4.6

4.7
5.0
4.3

10.9
10.4
11.9

4.2
4.4
4.0

3.9
4.1
3.8

11.3
(3
)
(3
)

6.0
6.0
6.1

5.7
5.6
6.0

10.5
11.1
(3
)

See footnotes at end of table.




Table 1. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Blue-collar workers................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Supervisors, n.e.c...............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters ............................................................
Mechanics-auto ...............................................................................
Mechanics, except a u to ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

41.4
41.2
33.9
50.4
21.6
56.9

41.2
41.4
34.8
51.7
20.9
56.7

42.6
39.2
(3
)
39.7
29.5
(3
)

43.6
42.3
34.3
50.4
23.0
58.2

43.5
42.4
35.0
51.8
22.4
58.0

44.4
40.5
(3
)
39.3
30.8
(3
)

31.9
23.0
(3
)
(3
)
8.1
(3
)

30.9
22.9
(3
)
(3
)
5.7
(3
)

37.0
23.9
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

63.1
24.0
39.9
47.1

62.8
22.9
40.2
47.5

(3
)
35.2
35.6
42.6

63.7
24.2
39.9
50.8

63.3
23.0
40.3
50.9

(3
)
36.2
34.2
49.5

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
25.2

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
26.6

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

Operatives, except transport..............................................................
Mine w orkers....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ............................................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

42.4
41.1
85.8
46.8
40.8
28.1

42.0
41.6
85.3
46.1
41.0
27.7

44.3
(3
)
87.9
50.5
40.1
30.5

48.4
41.4
87.1
53.6
51.4
29.6

48.0
41.7
85.5
53.4
51.2
29.7

50.5
(3
)
(3
)
55.2
52.5
29.3

33.6
(3
)
(3
)
35.2
33.2
24.1

32.8
0
0
33.8
33.5
21.9

37.0
(3
)
(3
)
43.0
32.1
32.4

Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................................................
All o th e r.............................................................................................

46.9
43.0
68.2

47.0
42.6
71.7

46.9
45.1
54.0

48.2
44.2
68.4

48.5
44.1
72.2

46.3
44.6
53.0

33.5
30.9
(3
)

30.7
28.3
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

Nonfarm laborers................................................................................
Construction......................................................................................
Manufacturing...................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................

35.1
34.4
52.2
29.7

34.2
33.3
52.8
28.5

40.3
40.2
49.2
36.6

36.0
34.8
54.1
30.7

35.3
33.8
55.3
29.8

39.9
40.2
48.9
36.0

27.5
(3
)
41.7
22.0

25.2
(3
)
40.5
19.1

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers.................................................................
Cleaning service..................................................................................
Food service........................................................................................
Health service .....................................................................................
Personal service .................................................................................
Protective service ...............................................................................

18.4
.4
27.8
9.7
19.4
15.1
43.9

17.4
.2
27.1
9.0
15.1
14.2
43.9

22.2
.6
29.5
13.9
32.1
19.4
43.8

27.6
(3
)
30.5
11.0
31.7
21.1
44.8

27.5
(3
)
30.5
10.5
26.6
19.9
45.0

28.3
(3
)
30.4
13.8
40.9
(3
)
43.6

12.5
.4
23.5
9.1
17.7
12.9
35.6

10.8
.2
21.0
8.4
13.7
12.0
33.5

18.8
.7
28.5
14.0
30.3
16.9
(3
)

1 Includes members and nonmembers in bargaining units.
2 Includes farm workers not shown separately.
3 Base less than 75,000.




NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, Slay 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number

All occupations2 ...............................................................................

20,095

17,099

2,996

14,039

12,261

1,778

6,056

4,838

1,218

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried..............................................................

7,017
3,272
108
35
342
1,688
209
891

5,998
2,866
103
28
271
1,514
179
770

1,019
406
4
7
70
174
30
121

3,314
1,513
104
30
56
572
169
581

2,943
1,382
100
26
41
547
145
522

371
131
4
4
14
25
24
59

3,703
1,760
4
5
286
1,115
40
310

3,054
1,485
4
2
230
967
34
248

649
275
3
56
148
5
62

Managers and administrators, except farm .......................................
Salaried-manufacturing ....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

681
57
624

605
53
552

76
4
73

558
53
505

510
50
460

49
4
45

123
4
119

95
4
92

28
28

Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Bookkeepers .....................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries..........................................
Other clerical workers ......................................................................

2,857
83
145
425
2,203

2,344
72
105
359
1,808

513
11
40
66
396

1,149
15
51
16
1,067

970
13
33
10
914

179
3
18
6
153

1,707
68
95
409
1,136

1,374
59
72
349
894

333
9
22
59
243

Sales workers......................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade............................................................
Other sales workers .........................................................................

207
125
82

182
111
72

24
14
10

93
40
53

82
36
46

11
4
7

113
85
29

100
75
26

13
10
3

Blue-collar workers................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Supervisors, n.e.c..............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters ............................................................
Mechanics-auto ................................................................................
Mechanics, except auto ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

11,101
4,308
276
1,076
288
381

9,617
3,953
261
984
247
350

1,484
354
15
92
41
31

9,545
4,190
275
1,065
278
.376

8,364
3,850
260
974
241
347

1,181
340
15
91
36
29

1,557
118
1
11
10
5

1,254
104
1
10
5
3

303
14
1
5
2

411
208
729
939

380
179
679
873

31
29
50
66

400
208
713
875

371
179
667
810

29
29
46
65

Operatives, except transport..............................................................
Mine w orkers....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ...........................................................................
All other.............................................................................................

3,990
104
312
1,802
1,244
528

3,328
100
246
1,516
1,029
436

662
5
66
285
214
91

2,733
101
258
1,312
658
403

2,323
97
209
1,120
549
347

409
5
49
192
109
55

See footnotes at end of table.




2

9

11
-

-

-

16
63

12
63

4
1

1,257
3
54
489
586
125

1,004
3
36
396
480
89

252
18
93
106
36

Table 2. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number—Continued
Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery workers............................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

1,439
1,104
335

1,211
926
285

228
178
50

1,367
1,042
325

1,156
878
278

211
164
48

72
62
10

55
48
8

17
15
2

Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction......................................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers.................................................. .............

1,365
254
420
691

1,125
207
351
568

240
47
70
123

1,255
253
369
633

1,035
206
307
523

220
47
62
111

110
1
51
58

90
1
44
45

20
7
12

Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers.................................................................
Cleaning service...................................................................................
Food service........................................................................................
Health service .....................................................................................
Personal service .................................................................................
Protective service ................................................................................

1,954
2
573
369
310
134
566

1,469
398
296
169
105
501

485
2
175
72
141
29
65

1,160
385
141
59
54
520

940
285
113
31
45
466

221
101
28
28
9
54

794
2
188
227
252
79
46

530
114
183
138
60
35

264
2
74
44
113
20
11

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All occupations2 ...............................................................................

23.0

22.2

29.0

28.4

27.8

33.8

15.9

14.6

24.0

White-collar occupations .....................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried..............................................................

15.3
22.7
7.7
8.3
16.4
51.6
18.8
14.5

14.3
22.0
7.8
7.2
14.8
51.7
17.9
13.8

25.1
29.4

16.0
19.4
7.7
8.3
21.9
60.7
18.5
14.7

15.3
19.2
7.8
7.7
20.4
61.5
17.6
14.3

25.2
22.2

14.7
26.5

13.5
25.3

25.0
34.9

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)

(3)
O

(3)
(3)

15.6
47.9
20.4
14.2

14.1
47.4
19.6
12.9

28.0
51.4

Managers and administrators, except farm ........................................
Salaried-manufacturing ....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

7.6
3.5
8.5

7.1
3.4
7.9

17.3

8.0
3.5
9.3

18.1

5.3
2.2
5.5

4.4
2.3
4.6

16.0

18.0

8.4
3.7
9.7

Clerical and kindred workers...............................................................
Bookkeepers .....................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries...........................................
Other clerical workers ......................................................................

16.3
5.0
14.6
8.8
21.9

15.1
4.6
13.1
8.2
20.6

26.0
12.3
20.4
15.9
31.2

32.9
10.1
18.8
20.7
35.6

32.3
9.2
15.6

36.7

(3)

(3)
(3)
(3)

35.2

38.2

12.2
4.5
13.0
8.6
16.1

11.0
4.2
12.2
8.1
14.4

22.5
11.0
16.3
15.0
28.0

Sales workers..................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade.............................................................
Other sales workers .........................................................................

4.1
4.7
3.4

3.8
4.5
3.1

9.0
7.7
11.9

3.3
4.0
2.9

3.0
3.8
2.6

9.7
(3
)
(3
)

5.1
5.2
4.7

4.8
4.9
4.5

8.5
8.4
(3
)

See footnotes at end of table.




(3)
(3)

27.9
50.9
27.1
21.4

(3)

26.8
19.6

(3)

18.6

0

23.4

(3)

17.0

Table 2. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Blue-collar workers.................................................................................
Craft and kindred w orkers..................................................................
Carpenters .........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Supervisors, n.e.c...............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters .............................................................
Mechanics-auto ................................................................................
Mechanics, except a u to ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

39.1
38.9
33.0
48.7
16.9
54.6

38.9
39.0
33.8
49.9
15.8
54.8

61.3
22.4
37.6
44.8

61.1
21.2
37.9
45.4

Operatives, except transport..............................................................
Mine w orkers.....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ............................................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

40.0
38.1
85.0
44.0
38.4
26.3

39.6
39.0
84.3
43.4
38.6
25.8

Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

44.6
40.6
66.1

Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction......................................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................
Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers .................................................................
Cleaning service...................................................................................
Food service.........................................................................................
Health service ......................................................................................
Personal service ..................................................................................
Protective service ................................................................................
1 Limited to workers who identified themselves
association members.
2 Includes farm workers not shown separately.
3 Base less than 75,000.




as

union

41.4
40.0
33.3
48.7
18.0
55.9

41.3
40.1
33.9
50.0
17.0
56.0

42.2
38.8

29.1
19.7

28.1
19.8

34.4
18.7
( 3)

61.9
22.6
37.7
48.7

61.7
21.3
38.1
48.9

(3
)
36.2
32.5
46.8

45.7
39.1
85.3
50.9
48.8
27.5

47.8
( 3)

87.9
47.2
37.8
29.0

46.0
38.4
87.0
51.0
48.9
27.6

44.5
40.1
69.8

45.1
43.8
50.6

46.3
42.2
66.8

33.1
32.9
50.3
27.5

32.3
31.9
51.1
26.4

37.4
38.2
46.4
33.5

16.2
.2
24.7
8.4
16.6
12.3
40.0

15.2
(3
)
24.0
7.8
12.2
11.6
39.9

20.0
.6
26.6
12.3
29.4
15.1
40.9

or

employee

40.3
37.2
( 3)

38.7
28.7
( 3)

( 3)

35.2
33.9
38.1
41.9
( 3)

( 3)

O

( 3)

38.3
29.9

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

0

6.4

3.8

( 3)
0

( 3)

( 3)

(3
)

( 3)

0

(3
)

(3
)
(3
)

( 3)

( 3)

0

21.1

23.5

( 3)

31.1

30.3

34.9

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

52.1
49.3
27.8

32.0
31.0
22.9

30.7
31.1
20.7

39.6
30.5
31.0

46.7
42.1
71.1

44.4
43.1
49.4

26.4
24.7

22.8
21.3

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

34.0
33.4
52.1
28.4

33.3
32.4
53.6
27.5

37.3
38.2
45.8
33.5

25.6

23.9

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

40.0
20.1

38.5
18.1

(3
)

24.7

24.6
(3
)
26.8
9.4
21.1
18.4
40.9

i 25.4
(3
)
28.1
12.2
34.6
(3
)
40.1

10.8
.2
21.0
7.7
15.4
9.9
32.8

9.1
(3
)
19.1
7.1
11.2
9.1
30.2

16.9
.7
24.8
12.3
28.3
13.4
(3
)

0

27.1
9.8
25.9
18.8
40.8

( 3)

-

0

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 3. Nonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Occupation of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Nonmembers covered by contracts

All occupations1 ...............................................................................

2,398

2,077

321

1,263

1,114

149

1,136

963

173

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried...............................................................

1,466
725
40
6
77
335
43
225

1,284
634
36
6
63
295
38
197

182
90
4
14
40
5
28

609
323
38
4
7
99
38
137

546
285
34
4
4
92
34
118

62
38
4
4
7
5
19

857
402
2
1
69
236
4
88

737
350
2
1
59
203
4
80

120
52
10
33
(2
)
9

Managers and administrators, except farm ........................................
Salaried-manufacturing....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

186
38
149

176
38
139

10
10

139
33
105

131
33
98

7
-

45
4
41

-

7

48
4
43

Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Bookkeepers .....................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries...........................................
Other clerical w orkers......................................................................

508
35
30
144
299

432
29
26
122
255

76
6
4
22
45

122
8
8
7
99

108
6
8
7
86

14
2
13

386
27
22
137
201

324
23
17
115
169

62
4
4
22
32

Sales workers......................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade.............................................................
Other sales workers .........................................................................

46
18
29

41
13
29

5
5

24
5
20

23
3
20

2
2

22
13
9

19
10
9

3
3

Blue-collar workers................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters................................
Supervisors, n.e.c...............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters .............................................................
Mechanics-auto ...............................................................................
Mechanics, except a u to ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

662
264
8
39
81
15

577
245
8
37
80
12

84
19
2
1
3

514
244
8
37
78
15

452
229
8
35
77
12

147
20

125
16

12
15
44
50

10
15
41
42

2

12
15
41
38

10
15
38
34

Operatives, except transport...............................................................
Mine workers ....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ............................................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

240
8
3
116
76
37

201
7
3
96
63
32

139
8
(2
)
67
34
30

116
6
(2
)
55
27
27

See footnotes at end of table.




-

2
8
39
2
-

20
13
5

62
15
-

-

2
1
3

-

-

-

2

-

-

2
4

3
12

3
8

23
2

100
(2
)
2
49
42
7

85
(2
)
2
41
36
5

-

■

-

11
7
3

3

23
4
-

2
3

2
3

3

_
4
16
-

8
6
2

Table 3. Continued—Nommember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by occupation, sex, and race, May 1930
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Occupation of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Nonmembers covered by contracts—Continued

-

19
16
4

19
16
4

_

Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery w orkers...........................................................
All o th e r..............................................................................................

75
64
11

66
58
8

9
6
3

56
48
7

47
43
4

9
6
3

Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction.......................................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................

83
11
16
56

65
9
12
45

18
2
4
11

76
11
14
51

61
9
9
43

15
2
4
8

0

Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers .................................................................
Cleaning service...................................................................................
Food service.........................................................................................
Health service ......................................................................................
Personal service ..................................................................................
Protective service ................................................................................

267
2
70
57
52
31
55

212
2
51
47
39
23
51

55
19
10
13
8
5

136
48
17
13
7
51

111
40
13
8
4
47

25
8
4
5
3
5

131
2
22
40
39
24
4

101
2
11
34
31
19
4

30
11
6
8
5

5

8
2
5

-

(2
)

2
2

3
3

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All occupations1 ...............................................................................

2.7

2.7

3.1

2.6

2.5

2.8

3.0

2.9

3.4

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Engineers ..........................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners................................
Health workers, except practitioners...............................................
Teachers, except college.................................................................
Engineering and science technicians..............................................
Other professional-salaried..............................................................

3.2
5.0
2.9
1.3
3.7
10.2
3.9
3.7

3.1
4.9
2.7
1.4
3.4
10.1
3.8
3.5

4.5
6.6
(3
)
0
5.5
11.7
4.4
4.9

2.9
4.1
2.8
1.1
2.9
10.5
4.2
3.4

2.8
4.0
2.6
1.2
1.8
10.4
4.1
3.2

4.2
6.5
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
5.2
6.3

3.4
6.0
(3
)
(3
)
3.8
10.1
2.2
4.0

3.3
6.0
(3
)
(3
)
3.6
9.9
2.4
4.1

4.6
6.6
(3
)
(3
)
5.0
11.6
(3
)
3.3

Managers and administrators, except farm .......................................
Salaried-manufacturing....................................................................
Salaried-other industries..................................................................

2.1
2.4
2.0

2.1
2.4
2.0

2.2
0
2.5

2.1
2.3
2.0

2.1
2.4
2.0

2.8
0
3.1

2.0
2.4
2.0

2.1
2.6
2.1

1.4
(3
)
1.5

Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Bookkeepers ......................................................................................
Office-machine operators.................................................................
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries..........................................
Other clerical workers ......................................................................

2.9
2.1
3.0
3.0
3.0

2.8
1.9
3.2
2.8
2.9

3.9
5.9
2.1
5.4
3.5

3.5
5.3
3.1
9.4
3.3

3.6
4.6
4.0
(3
)
3.3

3.0
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
3.2

2.8
1.8
3.0
2.9
2.8

2.6
1.6
2.9
2.6
2.7

4.2
4.9
3.1
5.6
3.7

Sales workers.......................................................................................
Sales workers in retail trade............................................................
Other sales workers .........................................................................

.9
.7
1.2

.9
.5
1.2

1.9
2.8
(3
)

.9
.4
1.1

.8
.3
1.1

1.6
(3
)
(3
)

1.0
.8
1.4

.9
.7
1.5

2.1
2.7
(3
)

See footnotes at end of table.




Table 3. Continued—Wonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by occupation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Occupation of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Blue-collar workers.................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Supervisors, n.e.c...............................................................................
Machinists and job setters...............................................................
Metal crafts workers, except mechanics,
machinists, and job setters .............................................................
Mechanics-auto ................................................................................
Mechanics, except a u to ...................................................................
All other crafts workers....................................................................

2.3
2.4
.9
1.8
4.7
2.2

2.3
2.4
1.0
1.9
5.1
1.9

2.3
2.0
(3
)
1.0
.8
(3
)

2.2
2.3
.9
1.7
5.1
2.3

2.2
2.4
1.0
1.8
5.4
2.0

2.2
1.7
(3
)
1.0
.9
(3
)

2.8
3.3
(3
)
(3
)
1.6
(3
)

2.8
3.1
(3
)
(3
)
1.9
(3
)

2.6
5.3
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

1.8
1.6
2.2
2.4

1.6
1.7
2.3
2.2

(3
)
(3
)
1.7
4.5

1.9
1.6
2.1
2.1

1.7
1.7
2.2
2.0

(3
)
(3
)
1.7
2.7

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
4.1

0
(3
)
(3
)
3.1

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

Operatives, except transport...............................................................
Mine w orkers.....................................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........................................................
Other durable goods.........................................................................
Nondurable goods ............................................................................
All o th er.............................................................................................

2.4
3.0
.8
2.8
2.4
1.8

2.4
2.6
1.0
2.7
2.4
1.9

2.4
(3
)
(3
)
3.2
2.3
1.5

2.3
3.0
.1
2.6
2.5
2.1

2.3
2.6
.2
2.5
2.4
2.1

2.7
(3
)
(3
)
3.1
3.2
1.5

2.5
0
(3
)
3.2
2.2
1.2

2.6
(3
)
(3
)
3.2
2.4
1.2

2.2
(3
)
(3
)
3.5
1.7
1.4

Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Drivers and delivery workers............................................................
All o th er.................................................................

2.3
2.4
2.2

2.4
2.5
1.9

1.8
1.4
3.5

1.9
2.0
1.5

1.9
2.0
1.0

1.9
1.5
3.6

7.1
6.2
0

7.9
7.0
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

Nonfarm laborers................................................................
Construction...................................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................

2.0
1.5
1.9
2.2

1.9
1.4
1.7
2.1

2.8
2.0
2.8
3.1

2.0
1.5
1.9
2.3

2.0
1.4
1.7
2.2

2.5
2.0
3.1
2.5

1.8
(3
)
1.7
1.9

1.3
(3
)
1.9
1.0

(3
)

Service workers, including private household ......................................
Private household workers.................................................................
Cleaning service............................................................
Food service............................................................
Health service ..............................................................
Personal service ..........................................................
Protective service .............................................

2.2
.2
3.0
13
2.8
2.8
3.9

2.2
.2
3.1
-L2
2.8
2.5
4.0

2.3
(3
)
2.9
16
2.7
4.3
2.9

2.9
(3
)
3.4
1P
5.8
2.3
4.0

2.9
(3
)
3.7
11
5.5
1.5
4.1

2.8
(3
)
2.3
16
6.3
(3
)
3.5

1.8
.2
2.5
14
2.4
3.0
2.8

1.7
.2
1.9
13
2.5
2.9
3.4

Includes farm workers not shown separately.
2 Fewer than 500 workers.
3 Base less than 75,000.




(3
)
(3
)
1.9
(3
)
3.7
17
2.0
3.6
0

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number

All industries.....................................................................................

22,493

19,176

3,317

15,302

13,375

1,927

7,191

5,801

1,390

Agriculture................................................................................................

55

47

9

45

39

6

10

8

2

Mining......................................................................................................

314

296

18

301

287

14

13

9

3

Construction ............................................................................................

1,651

1,496

156

1,622

1,470

153

29

26

3

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ...............................................................................................
Furniture.............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and g la ss......................................................................
Primary metals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical.............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft .............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous.................................................................................

7,309
4,720
86
113
132
305
712
530
851
672
1,135
600
341
194
90
93

6,296
4,087
78
100
122
243
604
467
784
577
952
506
285
162
87
74

1,013
632
9
13
10
62
108
63
67
95
183
95
56
32
3
19

5,671
3,864
67
90
109
258
666
459
749
397
964
521
269
174
55
49

4,945
3,392
62
79
102
216
569
406
691
347
824
449
231
144
53
42

725
473
6
11
7
42
98
53
58
50
140
72
38
30
1
7

1,638
855
19
22
23
47
45
71
102
275
171
79
72
20
35
44

1,351
696
16
21
19
27
35
61
93
230
128
57
54
18
34
32

287
160
3
2
4
21
10
10
9
45
43
23
18
2
2
12

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco .............................................................................................
Textiles...............................................................................................
Apparel ..............................................................................................
Paper .................................................................................................
Printing...............................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum...........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing........................................

2,589
670
21
140
353
380
308
352
79
223
64

2,209
566
13
119
282
332
274
311
66
196
52

380
104
8
22
71
48
34
41
13
27
11

1,806
532
13
84
74
323
239
285
75
158
23

1,554
451
8
72
56
280
209
255
62
140
21

253
81
5
12
18
43
30
30
13
•19
2

783
137
8
57
279
57
69
67
4
64
40

655
115
4
47
226
52
64
56
4
56
31

128
22
3
10
53
5
5
11

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads...............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

3,113
479
1,201
776
657

2,683
429
1,021
660
574

430
50
180
116
83

2,456
451
1,036
395
574

2,159
403
890
356
509

297
48
146
38
65

657
28
165
381
82

525
26
131
303
64

132
2
35
78
18

Trades.....................................................................................................
Wholesale .............................................................................................
Retail ....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...............................................................
Other re ta il.........................................................................................

1,896
432
1,465
212
1,252

1,634
354
1,281
180
1,101

262
78
184
32
152

1,241
376
865
106
759

1,066
307
760
93
666

175
70
105
13
92

656
55
600
107
493

568
47
521
87
434

88
9
79
20
59

See footnotes at end of table.




-

9
9

Table 4. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, S 3 y 1980
Va
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance .................................................................
Insurance and real estate...................................................................

250
67
183

198
51
148

51
16
35

144
30
114

115
23
92

30
7
22

105
37
68

84
28
56

22
9
13

Services ..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion.............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals..............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational ....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

5,719
9
5,710
332
238
140
5,000
336
841
246
3,421
156

4,702
7
4,695
275
172
130
4,118
248
547
171
3,011
141

1,017
2
1,015
56
67
10
882
87
294
75
410
15

2,235
2
2,234
246
119
91
1,778
96
240
85
1,248
109

1,926
2
1,924
206
97
84
1,537
81
147
62
1,144
103

309
309
40
22
7
240
15
93
23
103
6

3,484
7
3,477
85
120
50
3,222
239
601
161
2,174
47

2,776
5
2,771
69
75
46
2,581
167
400
109
1,867
38

708
2
706
16
45
4
641
72
201
52
307
9

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

14

13

1

11

10

1

3

3

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
State ....................................................................................................
L ocal.....................................................................................................

2,172
488
570
309
805

1,810
371
447
279
714

361
117
123
30
92

1,575
317
455
194
609

1,358
255
373
182
549

217
62
82
12
60

597
171
115
116
196

452
116
74
97
165

See footnotes at end of table.




-

145
55
40
18
31

Table 4. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, IM 1980
lay
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Industry of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All industries.....................................................................................

25.7

24.9

32.1

31.0

30.3

36.6

18.9

17.5

Agriculture................................................................................................

3.8

3.7

4.4

4.0

3.9

4.2

3.2

2.9

(2
)

Mining......................................................................................................

35.2

35.5

(2
)

39.1

39.4

(2
)

10.5

9.0

(2
)

Construction ............................................................................................

33.1

33.0

34.6

35.5

35.5

35.7

7.0

6.7

(2
)

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ...............................................................................................
Furniture.............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and gla ss......................................................................
Primary m etals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical.............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft .............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous .................................................................................

34.8
37.6
36.9
20.9
28.6
49.4
60.5
39.0
30.6
30.1
55.9
63.1
50.4
48.1
14.5
18.8

33.8
36.5
35.4
22.5
29.4
45.2
59.0
38.1
30.1
29.4
53.9
60.6
48.4
47.1
15.1
16.9

42.7
47.3
(2
)
13.3
(2
)
77.0
71.1
47.3
39.1
35.0
69.3
81.0
63.9
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

39.6
41.5
37.8
19.7
34.2
50.8
64.2
44.1
33.9
31.2
58.1
65.0
54.0
48.5
15.4
18.4

38.5
40.6
36.3
21.2
35.3
48.2
62.9
43.5
33.2
30.7
56.1
62.5
51.8
47.5
16.3
17.4

48.4
50.2
(2
)
12.9
(2
)
(2
)
72.8
49.3
44.4
35.5
73.4
87.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

24.7
26.4
(2)
28.0
16.1
42.6
33.0
22.5
18.0
28.6
45.9
52.5
40.4
(2
)
13.3
19.2

23.4
24.4
(2
)
(2
)
15.6
30.0
29.3
20.9
17.6
27.7
42.8
48.5
37.7
(2
)
13.6
16.3

32.8
40.4
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
34.4
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco .............................................................................................
Textiles...............................................................................................
Apparel ...............................................................................................
Paper .................................................................................................
Printing...............................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum...........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing.......................................

30.7
40.0
0
17.9
27.2
50.6
21.5
28.4
35.9
32.2
23.1

29.9
38.4
0
18.2
26.5
49.0
20.9
28.1
33.9
31.9
20.5

36.6
51.8
(2
)
16.4
30.4
(2
)
27.2
30.8
(2
)
34.3
(2
)

35.9
45.0
(2)
19.5
24.6
55.6
28.2
31.1
41.9
34.5
26.1

34.7
42.8
(2
)
20.4
22.8
53.6
27.0
31.3
38.7
33.4
24.0

45.4
63.3
(2
)
15.5
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
30.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

23.0
28.0
(2
)
15.9
28.0
33.5
11.8
20.6
(2
)
27.6
21.6

22.4
27.4
(2
)
15.6
27.6
33.4
12.1
19.2
(2
)
28.7
18.7

26.5
(2
)
(2
)
(2)
29.7
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads...............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

51.5
82.8
45.1
53.6
48.3

50.3
82.3
43.8
51.9
47.2

60.6
(2
)
54.6
66.0
57.2

54.7
83.2
50.9
49.5
51.6

54.0
82.6
50.2
48.9
50.7

60.0
(2
)
55.5
(2
)
59.1

42.2
(2
)
26.4
58.7
33.5

39.0
(2
)
23.4
56.0
30.5

62.1
(2
)
(2
)
72.5
(2
)

T rades.....................................................................................................
Wholesale .............................................................................................
Retail .....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...............................................................
Other re ta il.........................................................................................

10.9
12.6
10.5
5.3
12.6

10.3
11.3
10.1
5.0
12.0

17.0
27.4
14.7
7.3
18.8

13.3
14.7
12.8
6.8
14.6

12.6
13.1
12.4
6.8
14.0

20.3
30.6
16.6
6.4
21.2

8.1
6.5
8.3
4.3
10.3

7.7
5.9
7.9
3.9
9.9

12.9
(2
)
12.7
7.9
15.9

See footnotes at end of table.




27.4

Table 4. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations' by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance.................................................................
Insurance and real estate............................................................. :....

4.8
2.8
6.5

4.2
2.4
5.8

10.9
7.1
14.5

7.3
4.0
9.3

6.4
3.3
8.2

16.8
9.7
22.1

3.3
2.3
4.4

2.9
1.9
3.9

7.4
5.9
9.0

Services ..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion.............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals...............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational ....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

22.8
.7
23.9
11.4
14.4
15.6
27.1
11.8
21.6
16.0
42.4
7.4

22.0
.8
22.8
10.6
12.8
15.7
26.0
10.1
17.6
13.6
43.1
7.1

27.3
.5
30.5
18.4
21.3
13.9
33.5
23.4
37.5
26.7
38.3
12.2

24.1
1.0
24.6
13.1
19.6
17.1
29.4
17.1
25.7
13.6
44.6
9.6

23.8
1.2
24.2
12.3
19.5
17.4
29.0
16.5
20.5
11.4
46.4
9.6

26.4
(1
2
)
27.4
18.9
19.9
(2)
31.6
(2
)
43.2
27.2
31.5
(2
)

22.0
.7
23.4
8.4
11.4
13.4
26.0
10.5
20.3
17.6
41.3
4.8

20.9
.8
21.9
7.5
8.9
13.4
24.5
8.5
16.7
15.1
41.3
4.1

27.7
.6
32.1
17.2
22.1
(2
)
34.2
23.9
35.4
26.5
41.3
(2
)

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

16.1

15.9

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................................................
Local.....................................................................................................

40.5
27.2
82.4
31.8
42.3

39.7
25.5
81.8
31.9
42.5

44.7
34.4
84.5
31.2
40.4

45.9
30.1
87.6
33.1
47.9

45.4
28.4
87.3
33.6
48.6

49.6
39.8
88.6
(2
)
42.2

30.9
23.0
66.7
30.0
31.0

29.0
20.8
62.1
29.2
30.0

38.8
29.8
(2
)
(2
)
37.3

1 Includes members and nonmembers in bargaining units.
2 Base less than 75,000.




NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Industry of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

6,056

4,838

1,218

9

7

2

Number

All industries.....................................................................................

20,095

17,099

2,996

14,039

12,261

1,778

Agriculture................................................................................................

51

42

9

42

35

6

Mining......................................................................................................

286

272

14

274

263

11

12

9

3

Construction ............................................................................................

1,574

1,424

149

1,551

1,404

147

23

21

2

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ...............................................................................................
Furniture .............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and gla ss......................................................................
Primary m etals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical ............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft ............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous .................................................................................

6,771
4,366
74
103
124
292
686
491
798
599
1,038
582
286
170
79
82

5,829
3,774
65
93
115
232
582
433
731
515
869
488
238
144
75
64

942
592
9
10
10
60
104
58
67
85
169
95
48
26
3
18

5,293
3,606
63
83
104
246
642
420
709
352
897
510
233
154
46
44

4,623
3,165
57
75
97
206
547
373
651
307
768
438
201
129
45
38

671
441
6
8
7
40
95
47
58
45
128
72
32
24
1
6

1,478
759
11
19
20
46
44
71
89
247
142
72
53
16
32
38

1,207
609
8
18
18
26
35
60
79
207
101
50
37
14
30
27

271
151
3
2
3
20
9
10
9
40
41
23
16
2
2
12

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco ............................................................................................
Textiles ..............................................................................................
Apparel ..............................................................................................
Paper .................................................................................................
Printing...............................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum...........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing.......................................

2,405
628
19
117
326
369
290
320
75
205
58

2,056
531
11
99
261
321
262
283
62
179
48

350
97
8
18
66
48
27
37
13
25
10

1,687
498
11
74
66
312
228
262
71
144
20

1,458
423
6
66
50
269
204
236
58
128
17

229
75
5
8
16
43
24
26
13
17
2

718
130
8
43
260
57
61
58
4
60
38

598
108
4
33
210
52
58
47
4
52
30

120
22
3
10
50
5
3
11

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads..............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

2,903
474
1,121
714
594

2,491
424
946
606
515

412
50
176
108
78

2,331
446
986
372
527

2,041
397
843
334
466

290
48
143
38
61

572
28
136
341
67

450
26
103
272
49

122
2
33
70
18

Trades.....................................................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................................................
Retail ....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...............................................................
Other re ta il.........................................................................................

1,753
389
1,363
199
1,164

1,505
314
1,191
170
1,021

247
75
172
29
143

1,151
347
803
97
706

984
279
705
88
617

166
68
99
9
89

602
42
560
102
458

521
35
486
82
404

81
7
74
20
54

See footnotes at end of table.




’

-

9
7

Table 5. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Number—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance .................................................................
Insurance and real estate...................................................................

190
38
153

146
26
120

45
11
33

119
18
101

90
11
79

29
7
22

71
20
52

56
15
41

16
4
11

Services ..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion.............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals..............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational ....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

4,743
7
4,735
293
229
127
4,086
283
692
207
2,767
137

3,873
5
3,868
238
163
117
3,349
205
437
147
2,430
130

870
2
867
55
66
10
736
78
255
60
337
7

1,909
2
1,907
216
116
85
1,489
86
201
77
1,030
96

1,639
2
1,637
178
95
78
1,286
73
116
56
948
94

270
270
39
21
7
203
13
85
21
81
2

2,834
6
2,828
77
113
42
2,597
198
491
130
1,737
41

2,234
3
2,231
60
69
38
2,063
133
322
91
1,482
36

600
2
597
16
44
4
533
65
169
38
256
5

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

12

11

1

9

8

1

3

3

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................................................
L ocal.....................................................................................................

1,812
347
509
253
703

1,505
261
393
228
622

307
86
116
24
81

1,361
236
411
164
549

1,174
192
334
155
493

187
44
77
9
56

452
111
98
89
154

331
69
60
74
129

See footnotes at end of table.




-

120
42
39
15
25

Table 5. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, Wlay 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

All races

White

Women

Men

Total
Industry of current job

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All industries.....................................................................................

23.0

22.2

29.0

28.4

27.8

33.8

15.9

14.6

Agriculture................................................................................................

3.5

3.4

4.4

3.6

3.6

4.2

3.0

2.7

(2
)

Mining......................................................................................................

32.1

32.6

0

35.6

36.2

(2
)

9.8

8.1

(2
)

Construction ............................................................................................

31.6

31.4

33.2

34.0

33.9

34.3

5.6

5.3

(2
)

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ..............................................................................................
Furniture ............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and g la ss......................................................................
Primary m etals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft ............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous .................................................................................

32.3
34.8
31.5
19.1
27.0
47.2
58.4
36.1
28.7
26.9
51.1
61.2
42.4
42.1
12.6
16.6

31.3
33.7
29.6
21.0
27.7
43.2
56.9
35.4
28.0
26.3
49.2
58.4
40.5
41.7
13.1
14.6

39.7
44.3
(2
)
10.0
(2
)
74.1
68.7
43.1
39.1
31.1
64.2
81.0
55.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

36.9
38.8
35.5
18.1
32.5
48.5
61.8
40.3
32.1
27.7
54.1
63.7
46.8
42.7
13.1
16.5

36.0
37.8
33.8
20.2
33.5
46.0
60.5
39.9
31.3
27.2
52.4
61.0
45.2
42.5
13.8
15.6

44.8
46.9
(2
)
9.2
(2
)
(2
)
70.8
44.1
44.4
31.8
67.2
87.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

22.2
23.4
(2
)
24.6
14.4
41.3
32.3
22.3
15.6
25.7
38.0
47.9
29.9
(2
)
12.0
16.7

20.9
21.4
(2
)
(2
)
14.2
29.0
29.3
20.8
15.1
25.0
33.6
42.6
25.7
(2
)
12.3
13.4

30.9
38.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
30.4
(2)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco .............................................................................................
T extiles..............................................................................................
Apparel ..............................................................................................
Paper .................................................................................................
Printing...............................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum...........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing .......................................

28.5
37.5
(2
)
14.9
25.1
49.1
20.2
25.8
34.1
29.6
20.9

27.8
36.0
0
15.1
24.5
47.4
20.1
25.5
31.8
29.2
18.8

33.7
48.3
(2
)
13.4
28.1
(2
)
21.8
27.6
(2
)
32.0
(2
)

33.5
42.1
(2
)
17.3
22.1
53.7
27.0
28.6
39.7
31.4
22.2

32.6
40.1
(2
)
18.8
20.4
51.5
26.3
29.0
36.2
30.5
20.0

41.2
58.5
(2
)
10.4
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
25.9
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

21.1
26.4
(2
)
12.0
26.1
33.5
10.4
17.7
(2
)
25.9
20.3

20.5
25.8
(2
)
10.9
25.7
33.4
10.9
15.9
(2
)
26.6
18.1

25.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
27.7
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads..............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

48.0
81.8
42.1
49.3
43.7

46.7
81.2
40.5
47.7
42.5

58.1
(2
)
53.2
61.3
54.0

51.9
82.2
48.4
46.7
47.3

51.1
81.6
47.5
45.8
46.5

58.5
(2
)
54.4
(2
)
55.2

36.7
(2
)
21.6
52.6
27.2

33.4
(2
)
18.4
50.1
23.3

57.3
(2
)
(2
)
64.7
(2
)

T rades.....................................................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................................................
Retail ....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ..............................................................
Other re ta il.........................................................................................

10.1
11.4
9.8
4.9
11.7

9.5
10.0
9.4
4.7
11.2

16.1
26.2
13.8
6.5
17.7

12.4
13.6
11.9
6.2
13.6

11.7
12.0
11.5
6.4
13.0

19.4
29.8
15.6
4.8
20.5

7.4
4.9
7.7
4.1
9.6

7.0
4.4
7.3
3.7
9.2

11.9
(2
)
11.9
7.9
14.5

See footnotes at end of table.




24.0

Table 5. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers in labor organizations1 by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance.................................................................
Insurance and real estate........... ........................................................

3.7
1.6
5.5

3.1
1.2
4.7

9.5
5.0
13.7

6.0
2.4
8.2

5.0
1.6
7.0

16.3
9.7
21.3

2.3
1.2
3.3

1.9
1.1
2.8

5.4
2.7
8.2

Services ..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion.............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals..............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational ....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

18.9
.6
19.8
10.1
13.9
14.1
22.1
10.0
17.7
13.4
34.3
6.5

18.1
.6
18.8
9.2
12.2
14.1
21.2
8.3
14.0
11.7
34.8
6.5

23.3
.5
26.1
17.9
21.1
13.7
28.0
20.9
32.5
21.3
31.5
5.8

20.6
1.0
21.0
11.5
19.2
16.0
24.6
15.2
21.5
12.3
36.8
8.5

20.3
1.2
20.6
10.6
19.1
16.2
24.3
14.8
16.1
10.3
38.5
8.7

23.1
(1
2
)
23.9
18.3
19.4
(2
)
26.7
(2
)
39.6
25.0
24.8
(2
)

17.9
.6
19.1
7.5
10.8
11.3
20.9
8.7
16.5
14.1
33.0
4.2

16.8
.5
17.7
6.5
8.1
11.2
19.6
6.7
13.4
12.7
32.7
4.0

23.5
.6
27.2
17.1
21.9
(2
)
28.5
21.6
29.8
19.7
34.4
(2
)

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

13.5

13.0

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
State .....................................................................................................
L ocal.....................................................................................................

33.8
19.3
73.7
26.0
36.9

33.0
17.9
72.0
26.1
37.1

38.0
25.4
80.1
24.8
35.6

39.7
22.5
79.1
28.0
43.2

39.2
21.4
78.1
28.5
43.7

42.9
28.3
83.6
(2
)
39.3

23.4
14.9
57.3
23.0
24.3

21.2
12.3
50.0
22.2
23.5

32.3
22.9
(2
)
(2
)
29.4

1 Limited to workers who
association members.
2 Base less than 75,000.




identified

themselves

as

union

or

employee

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 6. Wonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Nonmembers covered by contracts

All industries.....................................................................................

2,398

2,077

Agriculture...............................................................................................

4

4

Mining......................................................................................................

28

24

Construction ............................................................................................

78

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ..............................................................................................
Furniture............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and g la ss......................................................................
Primary m etals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft ............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous .................................................................................

1,263

1,114

4

4

4

27

23

71

6

72

538
354
13
10
8
13
25
40
54
73
97
18
54
24
12
11

467
314
13
7
7
11
22
34
54
62
83
18
47
19
12
10

71
40
3
1
2
4
6
11
13
8
6
1

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco ............................................................................................
Textiles.............................................................................. ................
Apparel ..............................................................................................
Paper .................................................................................................
Printing...............................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum..........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing.......................................

184
42
2
24
26
11
18
32
4
18
6

153
35
2
20
21
11
12
28
4
16
4

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads..............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

210
5
80
62
63

Trades................................. r.
..................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................................................
Retail ....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ..............................................................
Other re ta il........................................................................................

144
42
101
13
88

See footnotes at end of table.




321

1,136

963

1

1

-

4

1

1

-

66

6

6

5

377
258
4
7
5
12
24
39
40
45
68
11
36
21
8
5

323
227
4
4
5
10
22
34
40
39
56
11
30
15
8
4

55
31
3
2
3
6
5
12
6
6
1

160
96
8
3
2
1
1
0
13
28
29
7
19
4
3
6

144
87
8
3
2
1
0
13
23
28
7
17
4
3
6

31
7
4
5
7
4
2
2

119
34
2
10
8
11
11
23
4
14
4

96
28
2
6
6
11
5
19
4
12
4

23
6
4
2
5
4
2
-

64
8
14
19
8
10
4
2

57
7
14
15
6
10
4
1

192
5
75
54
58

17
5
8
5

125
5
50
22
47

117
5
47
22
43

7

4

85
30
40
15

75
28
31
15

10
2
8
O

129
39
90
10
79

15
3
12
3
9

90
29
61
9
52

82
27
55
6
49

8
2
6
3
3

53
13
40
5
35

47
12
35
5
30

7
1
5

-

149
-

-

3
-

173

0
16
9
1
1
1
5
2
2
7
1
-

4
1
2

5

Table 6. Continued—Nonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by industry, sex, and race, Slay 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Men
Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Nonmembers covered by contracts—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance .................................................................
Insurance and real estate...................................................................

59
29
30

53
25
28

7
5
2

26
12
14

25
12
13

Services ..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion.............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals..............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational .....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

977
2
975
39
9
13
914
52
150
39
654
19

829
2
827
37
8
13
769
43
110
24
581
11

148

327

288

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

2

2

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................................................
Lo ca l.....................................................................................................

359
141
60
57
102

305
110
54
51
91

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

148
2
1
0
145
9
39
15
73
8
54
31
6
6
11

-

34
18
16

28
13
15

6
5
1

37
2
8
2
22
3

650
2
648
9
7
8
625
42
110
31
436
6

541
2
540
9
6
7
518
35
78
18
385
2

109
109
0
0
0
108
7
32
13
51
5

-

0

0

-

30
18
5
3
4

145
60
16
27
42

121
47
14
23
36

24
13
2
3
7

1
-

1
39
-

327
30
3
6
288
11
40
8
218
13

288
29
2
6
251
8
32
6
196
9

2

2

214
81
44
30
60

184
63
39
27
55

39
1
1
-

Table 6. Continued—Nonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by industry, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All industries.....................................................................................

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.5

Agriculture................................................................................................

.3

.3

(2
)

.3

.4

Mining......................................................................................................

3.1

2.9

(2
)

3.5

3.2

Construction ............................................................................................

1.6

1.6

1.4

1.6

1.6

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................................................
Ordnance ...........................................................................................
Lumber ...............................................................................................
Furniture.............................................................................................
Stone, clay, and glass......................................................................
Primary m etals...................................................................................
Fabricated metals .............................................................................
Machinery, except electrical.............................................................
Electrical equipment .........................................................................
Transportation equipment.................................................................
Automobiles ....................................................................................
Aircraft .............................................................................................
Other transportation equipment ....................................................
Instruments .....................................................................................
Miscellaneous.................................................................................

2.6
2.8
5.4
1.8
1.7
2.1
2.2
2.9
1.9
3.3
4.8
1.9
8.1
6.0
1.9
2.2

2.5
2.8
5.7
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.1
2.8
2.1
3.2
4.7
2.1
7.9
5.4
2.0
2.3

3.0
3.0
(2
)
3.3
(2
)
2.9
2.4
4.2
(2
)
3.9
5.1
(2
)
8.8
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

2.6
2.8
2.3
1.5
1.7
2.3
2.4
3.8
1.8
3.5
4.1
1.4
7.2
5.8
2.3
2.0

Nondurable goods ...............................................................................
Food...................................................................................................
Tobacco .............................................................................................
Textiles...............................................................................................
Apparel ...............................................................................................
Paper ..................................................................................................
Printing................................................................................................
Chemicals...........................................................................................
Petroleum...........................................................................................
Rubber and plastics..........................................................................
Leather and not specified manufacturing ........................................

2.2
2.5
(2
)
3.0
2.0
1.4
1.3
2.6
1.8
2.6
2.2

2.1
2.4
(2
)
3.0
2.0
1.6
.9"
2.5
2.0
2.7
1.7

2.9
3.5
(2
)
2.9
2.3
(2
)
5.4
3.2
(2
)
2.2
(2
)

Transportation, communication, and public utilities.............................
Railroads...............................................................................................
Other transportation ............................................................................
Communication ....................................................................................
Other public utilities.............................................................................

3.5
.9
3.0
4.3
4.6

3.6
1.0
3.2
4.2
4.8

T rades.....................................................................................................
Wholesale .............................................................................................
Retail ....................................................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...............................................................
Other re ta il.........................................................................................

.8
1.2
.7
.3
.9

.8
1.2
.7
.3
.9

See footnotes at end of table.




3.1

2.8

3.0

2.9

(2
)

.2

.2

(2
)

(2
)

.7

.8

(2
)

1.3

1.4

1.4

(2
)

2.5
2.7
2.4
1.0
1.8
2.2
2.4
3.6
1.9
3.5
3.8
1.5
6.6
5.0
2.5
1.8

3.6
3.3
(2
)
3.7
(2
)
(2
)
2.0
5.2
(2
)
3.7
6.2
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

2.4
3.0
(2
)
3.4
1.7
1.3
.7
.1
2.4
2.9
7.8
4.6
10.5
(2
)
1.3
2.5

2.5
3.1
(2
)
(2
)
1.4
1.0
(2
)
.1
2.5
2.7
9.2
6.0
12.0
(2
)
1.4
2.9

1.8
2.3
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
4.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

2.4
2.9
(2
)
2.2
2.5
1.9
1.3
2.5
2.2
3.0
3.9

2.1
2.7
(2
)
1.6
2.3
2.1
.7
2.3
2.5
2.9
4.1

4.2
4.8
(2
)
5.1
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
4.2
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

1.9
1.5
(2
)
3.9
1.9
(2
)
1.3
2.9
(2
)
1.8
1.3

2.0
1.6
(2
)
4.7
1.9
(2
)
1.2
3.3
(2
)
2.1
.5

1.5
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
2.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

2.5
(2
)
1.4
4.7
3.2

2.8
1.0
2.5
2.8
4.2

2.9
1.1
2.7
3.0
4.3

1.5
(2
)
1.1
(2
)
3.9

5.5
(2
)
4.8
6.1
6.3

5.6
(2
)
5.1
5.8
7.2

4.8
(2
)
(2
)
7.8
(2
)

1.0
1.1
.9
.7
1.1

1.0
1.1
.9
.6
1.0

1.0
1.2
.9
.4
1.0

.9
.8
1.0
1.6
.7

.7
1.5
.6
.2
.7

.6
1.5
.5
.2
.7

1.0
(2
)
.9
(2
)
1.5

3.4

Table 6. Continued—Nonmember employed wage and salary workers covered by labor contracts by industry, sex, and race, S iay 1980
V
(Numbers in thousands)
Men

Total
Industry of current job
All races

White

Black and
other

All races

White

Women
Black and
other

All races

White

Black and
other

Percent of employed wage and salary workers--Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................................................
Banking and other finance.................................................................
Insurance and real estate...................................................................

1.2
1.2
1.1

1.1
1.2
1.1

1.4
2.1
.8

1.3
1.6
1.1

1.4
1.7
1.1

0.5
(1
2
)
.8

1.1
1.1
1.0

1.0
.9
1.1

2.0
3.1
.8

Services..................................................................................................
Private household service ..................................................................
Miscellaneous services.......................................................................
Business and repair..........................................................................
Personal services, except private household..................................
Entertainment and recretion............................................................
Professional services........................................................................
Medical, except hospitals..............................................................
Hospitals.........................................................................................
Welfare and religious.....................................................................
Educational ....................................................................................
Other professional services...........................................................

3.9
.1
4.1
1.3
.6
1.5
5.0
1.8
3.8
2.5
8.1
.9

3.9
.2
4.0
1.4
.6
1.6
4.9
1.7
3.5
1.9
8.3
.5

4.0
(2
)
4.4
.5
.3
.2
5.5
2.4
5.0
5.4
6.9
6.4

3.5
(2
)
3.6
1.6
.4
1.1
4.8
1.9
4.2
1.3
7.8
1.1

3.6
(2
)
3.6
1.7
.4
1.2
4.7
1.7
4.4
1.1
7.9
.8

3.3
(2
)
3.5
.6
.5
(2
)
4.9
(2
)
3.6
2.2
6.7
(2
)

4.1
.2
4.4
.9
.6
2.1
5.0
1.8
3.7
3.4
8.3
.6

4.1
.2
4.3
.9
.7
2.2
4.9
1.8
3.3
2.5
8.5
.2

4.2
(2
)
4.9
.2
.2
(2
)
5.8
2.3
5.6
6.8
6.9
(2
)

Forestry and fisheries ............................................................................

2.6

2.9

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Public administration ..............................................................................
Federal, except postal ........................................................................
Postal ...................................................................................................
State .....................................................................................................
Lo ca l.....................................................................................................

6.7
7.8
8.7
5.8
5.3

6.7
7.6
9.8
5.8
5.4

1 Fewer than 500 workers.
2 Base less than 75,000.




6.7
9.0
4.4
6.4
4.8

6.2
7.7
8.5
5.1
4.7

6.2
7.0
9.2
5.0
4.9

6.8
11.5
5.1
(2
)
2.9

(2
)
7.5
8.1
9.4
7.0
6.7

(2
)

(2
)

7.7
8.5
12.1
7.0
6.5

6.6
6.9
(2
)
(2
)
8.0

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-)
indicate no workers in cell.

Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation and industry, [May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Occupation of current job

Total

Agriculture

Mining

Construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

Trans­
portation Wholesale
trade
and public
utilities

Retail
trade

Finance
and
services

Forestry
and fish­
eries

Public
administra­
tion

Number

All occupations2 ................................................................................

22,493

55

314

1,651

7,309

3,113

432

1,465

5,969

14

2,172

White-collar occupations ........................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Managers and administrators, except fa rm ........................................
Clerical and kindred workers...............................................................
Sales workers.......................................................................................

8,483
3,997
868
3,365
253

4
2

29
7
2
20
-

145
43
70
32
-

880
271
95
487
27

1,062
216
96
732
18

104
6
25
56
17

642
13
134
352
143

4,253
3,098
269
842
44

4
4

1,361
338
177
843
4

Blue-collar workers.................................................................................
Craft and kindred w orkers...................................................................
Carpenters .........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Mechanics and repairers...................................................................
Operatives and kindred workers.........................................................
Operatives, except transport .......................................... ..................
Drivers and delivery w orkers............................................................
Other transport equipment operatives .............................................
Nonfarm laborers..................................................................................
Construction.......................................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers................................................................

11,763
4,571
284
1,116
1,815
5,743
4,229
1,168
346
1,448
265
436
747

23
5
2

4
14
14

283
134
22
41
48
136
113
17
7
13
13

1,487
1,029
190
632
104
194
114
78
2
265
265
-

6,283
1,891
36
271
1,110
3,956
3,552
205
199
436
436
-

1,962
904
15
76
259
798
95
599
104
260
260

319
71
1
10
32
182
53
118
10
66
66

618
128
4
4
67
226
153
65
8
264
264

548
270
12
59
125
205
134
58
13
73
73

10
2
1
9
9

229
137
5
22
70
43
15
24
3
49
49

Service workers, including private household ......................................

2,221

2

2

19

146

89

9

205

1,168

-

582

See footnotes at end of table.




-

2
-

-

4
-

(3
)
-

Table 7. Continued—Employed wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation and industry, SV 1980
iay
(Numbers in thousands)

Occupation of current job

Total

Agriculture

Mining

Construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

Trans­
portation Wholesale
and public
trade
utilities

Retail
trade

Finance
and
services

Forestry
and fish­
eries

Public
administra­
tion

Percent of employed wage and salary workers

All occupations1 ...............................................................................
2
3

25.7

3.8

35.2

33.1

34.8

51.5

12.6

10.5

19.7

16.1

40.5

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers ....................................
Managers and administrators, except farm ........................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................................................
Sales workers.......................................................................................

18.5
27.7
9.7
19.2
5.0

2.7
0
0
0
(4
)

10.2
6.5
0
16.7
0

12.2
19.4
12.7
8.2
(4
)

12.3
11.3
5.9
18.2
5.4

38.4
33.8
16.9
49.2
0

4.6
4.1
3.9
7.8
2.2

8.5
6.4
6.1
13.9
5.4

20.5
32.4
10.1
11.2
4.4

(4
)
(4
)
O
O

36.3
31.3
26.2
42.6
0

Blue-collar workers.................................................................................
Craft and kindred w orkers..................................................................
Carpenters .........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Mechanics and repairers..................................................................
Operatives and kindred workers.........................................................
Operatives, except transport............................................................
Drivers and delivery workers............................................................
Other transport equipment operatives ............................................
Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction......................................................................................
Manufacturing....................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................................................

41.4
41.2
33.9
50.4
42.9
43.5
42.4
43.0
68.2
35.1
34.4
52.2
29.7

8.1
0
(4
)
0
0
0
0
(4
)
7.5

47.1
51.0
(4
)
O
(4
)
42.7
41.1
0
O
(4
)

39.6
41.1
31.3
46.4
39.3
39.6
39.9
39.9
(4
)
34.4
34.4

46.9
45.8
42.7
67.6
57.1
46.9
46.1
45.6
69.8
52.2

62.6
67.7
(4
)
70.3
66.0
57.0
60.9
53.2
88.3
64.8

21.3
12.9
O
(4
)
10.8
22.6
22.4
21.7
(4
)
28.9

20.8
23.2
(4
)
40.7
21.1
22.3
20.0
26.6
O
13.2

(4
)
0
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

41.0
45.0
(4
)
(4
)
46.2
41.4
(4
)
0
0
32.5

Service workers, including private household ......................................

18.4

0

1
2
3
4

Includes members and nonmembers in bargaining units.
Includes farm workers not shown separately.
Fewer than 500 workers.
Base less than 75,000.




-

7.5

-

52.2
-

64.8

28.9
21.8
(4
)
(4
)
16.8
36.1
33.7
37.4
0
24.1
24.1

(4
)

36.5

60.1

(4
)

-

-

(4
)
(4
)

-

-

-

-

(4
)

-

-

28.9

13.2

(4
)

32.5

5.8

17.0

(4
)

55.0

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes (-) indicate no
workers in cell.




Table 8. Employed private and government wage and salary workers
represented by labor organizations’ by industry, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Government

Private
Number
repre­
sented

Percent of
private
wage and
salary
workers

Number
repre­
sented

Percent of
govern­
ment wage
and salary
workers

All industries .............................................................................

15,526

21.7

6,968

43.4

Agriculture........................................................................................

50

3.5

5

O

Mining ..............................................................................................

312

35.1

2

(2
)

Construction.....................................................................................

1,431

32.2

220

40.8

Manufacturing, to ta l........................................................................
Durable g oods...............................................................-...............
Nondurable goods........................................................................

7,252
4,671
2,581

34.8
37.5
30.7

57
49
8

45.3
48.5
(2
)

Transportation, communication, and public utilities ......................
Railroads and railway express.....................................................
Other transportation......................................................................
Other utilities.................................................................................

2,707
471
1,036
1,199

51.3
82.8
44.0
51.0

406
8
165
233

52.4
(2
)
53.4
51.2

Trade ...............................................................................................
Retail.............................................................................................

1,886
432
1,454

10.9
12.6
10.5

10
(2
)
10

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Finance, insurance, and real estate...............................................

217

4.3

33

Private household services.................................................... ........

9

.7

Miscellaneous services ...................................................................
Business and repair......................................................................
Personal services, except private household..............................
Entertainment and recreation......................................................
Medical, except hospitals.............................................................
Hospitals........................................................................................
Welfare and religious....................................................................
Educational ...................................................................................
Other professional services.........................................................

1,657
326
236
127
175
409
43
201
139

11.1
11.4
14.4
15.2
7.4
14.9
4.6
12.9
6.9

Forestry and fisheries......................................................................

4

Industry of current job

Public administration........................................................................
' Includes members and nonmembers in
bargaining units.
2 Base less than 75,000.

-

4,053
6
2
14
160
432
203
3,220
17

f)

10

-

2,172

26.7
45.3
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
34.5
37.5
33.1
49.5
18.1
(2
)
40.5

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal totals. Dashes (-) indicate no workers
in cell.

Table 9. Employed private and government wage and salary workers represented by labor organizations1 by occupation
and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Private
Occupation of current job

Number
repre­
sented

Government

Percent represented by labor
organizations
All races

White

Black and
other

Number
repre­
sented

Percent represented by labor
organizations
All races

White

Black and
other

All occupations1 ...............................................................................
2

15,526

21.7

20.9

28.2

6,968

43.4

43.3

44.3

White-collar occupations .......................................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers....................................
Managers and administrators, except farm ........................................
Clerical and kindred workers...............................................................
Sales workers......................................................................................

3,619
983
490
1,899
246

10.4
11.6
6.4
14.0
4.9

9.7
11.0
6.1
13.1
4.6

19.4
18.6
13.4
23.1
10.7

4,864
3,014
378
1,465
7

43.1
50.6
28.3
37.0
(3
)

42.6
50.4
27.8
35.9
(3
)

46.0
52.9
33.6
42.0
(3
)

Blue-collar workers.................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................................................
Carpenters ........................................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters...............................
Mechanics and repairers..................................................................
Operatives and kindred workers.........................................................
Operatives, except transport............................................................
Drivers and delivery workers............................................................
Other transport equipment operatives .............................................
Nonfarm laborers.................................................................................
Construction......................................................................................
Manufacturing...................................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers................................................................

10,858
4,128
262
999
1,650
5,478
4,163
987
328
1,252
205
433
615

41.1
40.6
33.1
51.3
42.0
43.5
42.5
42.6
67.8
34.2
31.5
52.0
28.2

40.9
40.7
33.9
52.7
41.8
43.3
42.2
42.2
71.6
33.6
30.0
52.6
27.8

42.2
39.0
(3
)
39.7
45.2
44.8
44.5
44.9
50.2
37.7
38.6
49.2
30.9

905
443
22
117
164
266
66
181
18
196
60
4
132

45.4
48.4
(3
)
43.9
53.5
43.0
34.1
45.2
(3
)
42.5
49.6
(3
)
39.4

45.1
49.6
(3
)
44.6
56.2
42.0
32.9
45.0
(3
)
39.3
48.9
(3
)
34.2

46.3
40.3
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
46.5
(3
)
46.3
(3
)
52.5
(3
)
(3
)
52.1

Service workers, including private household ......................................

1,025

11.0

9.6

16.6

1,197

43.7

45.1

38.7




1 Includes members and nonmembers in bargaining units.
2 Includes farm workers not shown separately.
3 Base less than 75,000.

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Dashes (-) indicate no workers in cell.

Table 10. Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and labor organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Percent not represented by labor organizations
Percent represented by labor organizations
receiving weekly earnings ofreceiving weekly earnings ofNumber
Number
not
Average
Average
repre­
repre­
Percent
weekly
weekly
sented
sented
repre­
$400 earnings
by labor
$400 earnings
by labor Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350sented
and (mean)
organi­
and (mean)
organi­ $150 $199 $249 $299 $349 $399
by labor
$150 SI 99 $249 $299 $349 $399
over
over
zation
zation
organi­
zations

Full-time workers

Occupation of current job
Total

Earn­
ings
ratio'

All occupations2 ..................................................

68,510

29.5

20,178

5.1

10.1

15.7

16.1

16.0

12.7

24.2

$320

48,332

17.1

19.9

16.7

12.5

9.5

5.5

18.9

$278

1.15

White-collar occupations..........................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers...................................................................
Managers and administrators, except farm ..........
Clerical and kindred workers .................................
Sales workers .........................................................

36,365

20.7

7,511

3.0

9.8

16.4

18.7

15.7

12.5

23.8

330

28,854

11.8

18.5

15.7

12.6

10.3

6.4

24.6

309

1.07

11,788
7,044
14,167
3,366

28.8
12.0
21.5
6.7

3,399
843
3,044
225

1.0
.7
5.0
(3
)

4.8
2.6
16.8
(3
)

17.2
3.8
18.6
(3
)

20.6
9.0
20.1
0

15.6
10.5
16.8
(3
)

12.7
16.2
11.5
(3
)

27.9
57.1
11.1
0

349
450
281
(3
)

8,389
6,201
11,123
3,141

4.4
4.1
19.9
18.1

7.9
8.8
32.6
16.1

11.6
12.3
21.2
14.1

16.8
10.2
11.2
11.0

13.5
14.1
5.6
10.8

9.9
8.2
3.3
4.7

35.9
42.4
6.1
25.2

371
400
215
297

.94
1.12
1.30
(3
)

Blue-collar workers ...................................................
Craft and kindred workers......................................
Carpenters............................................................
Construction craft workers, except
carpenters ...........................................................
Mechanics and repairers.....................................
Operatives and kindred workers ...........................
Operatives, except transport...............................
Drivers and delivery workers...............................
Other transport equipment operatives...............
Nonfarm laborers....................................................
Construction .........................................................
Manufacturing.......................................................
All other nonfarm laborers ..................................

24,714
10,152
726

44.7
42.4
32.4

11,046
4,306
236

5.0
2.5
(3
)

9.2
3.2
(3
)

14.4
8.9
(3
)

14.5
12.2
(3
)

16.7
16.3
(3
)

13.8
16.3
(3
)

26.4
40.6
(3
)

323
369
(3
)

13,667
5,846
491

16.3
5.8
10.2

20.1
11.9
19.0

20.0
16.4
19.7

14.0
17.9
20.4

10.9
16.8
13.4

5.5
8.7
8.1

13.3
22.7
9.2

256
309
252

1.26
1.19
(3
)

1,805
3,915
11,510
8,746
2,372
392
3,051
715
804
1,533

54.5
45.3
46.5
45.1
46.9
77.5
45.4
47.4
62.5
35.4

983
1,774
5,356
3,940
1,112
304
1,384
339
502
543

1.6
1.6
7.4
8.9
3.7
1.3
3.8
3.9
3.1
4.4

.4
5.0
12.9
15.5
5.3
7.0
13.3
11.3
16.1
11.9

6.6
8.9
18.6
19.5
16.6
14.5
15.3
18.5
18.8
10.0

8.5
14.1
15.0
16.4
12.1
7.9
19.7
9.7
13.2
31.9

14.1
17.1
15.2
13.3
17.8
30.5
23.7
21.6
22.7
25.9

13.7
18.4
12.3
12.2
12.0
15.7
11.6
16.6
14.7
5.7

55.0
34.8
18.5
14.2
32.5
23.2
12.6
18.4
11.4
10.2

409
353
295
280
339
331
290
305
286
284

821
2,141
6,154
4,806
1,260
88
1,667
376
302
990

9.2
2.1
23.6
25.4
18.2
0
26.4
17.9
23.5
30.6

11.3
12.3
25.1
25.8
21.2
(3
)
30.0
30.8
28.1
30.3

13.5
16.6
23.0
23.9
19.8
(3
)
21.8
25.7
19.4
21.0

24.8
23.1
11.7
10.9
15.6
(3
)
8.4
5.6
16.4
7.1

19.9
17.1
5.9
5.5
7.0
(3
)
9.1
10.4
10.6
8.2

9.6
11.0
3.4
3.0
4.2
(3
)
1.8
3.1
0
1.8

11.8
17.7
7.3
5.5
14.0
(3
)
2.5
6.4
2.0
1.1

278
302
221
214
245
(3
)
202
228
211
190

1.47
1.17
1.34
1.31
1.38
(3
)
1.43
1.34
1.35
1.50

6,606

24.3

1,605

15.4

18.0

21.0

15.4

12.1

6.5

11.6

255

5,002

45.6

26.0

13.5

8.2

2.0

1.1

3.6

174

1.47

Service workers, including private
household .................................................................

' Ratio of earnings of workers covered by labor-management agreements to those not covered by
agreements.
workers in ceil.
2 Includes farm workers not shown separately.
3 Base less than 300,000 or percent less than 0.1.




NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Dashes (-) indicate no

Table 11. Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time wage and salary workers by industry and labor organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Percent represented by labor organizations
Percent not represented by labor organizations
Number
receiving weekly earnings ofreceiving weekly earnings ofNumber
not
repre­
Average repre­
Average
Percent
sented
weekly sented
weekly
repre­
by labor
$400 earnings
by
$400 earnings
sented
Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350organi­
labor
and (mean)
and (mean)
by labor
$150 SI 99 $249 $299 $349 $399
$150 $199 $249 $299 $349 $399
zation
over
organi­
over
organi­
zation
zations

Full-time workers

Industry of current job
Total

All industries ..................................................

68,510

29.5

20,178

Agriculture...............................................................

1,099

2.8

31

Mining.....................................................................

691

35.0

242

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Construction ...........................................................

3,864

39.0

1,506

2.1

3.8

7.5

8.5

14.6

11.3

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
A ircra ft............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

19,207
12,126
2,753
2,775
1,998
863
670
465
4,600

37.5
40.3
54.2
32.7
55.7
63.9
44.4
56.8
29.8

7,196
4,885
1,493
906
1,113
551
297
264
1,373

6.0
4.8
3.3
1.4
2.7
4.4
(2
)
(2
)
10.5

11.9
9.4
10.1
6.7
1.7
2.1
(2
)
(2
)
16.6

16.2
16.7
16.5
14.8
11.1
9.3
(2
)
(2
)
22.8

16.0
17.9
16.0
20.0
15.6
9.7
(2
)
(2
)
20.4

15.7
16.0
16.4
13.5
23.7
21.9
(2
)
(2
)
10.8

14.1
15.4
11.7
21.9
19.7
26.9
(2
)
(2
)
11.5

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum................................
Other nondurable g oods.................................

7,081
1,374
692
905
609
1,103
1,272
924

32.6
40.3
15.4
27.4
54.6
22.8
36.3
28.4

2,312
553
106
248
332
251
462
263

8.3
1.6
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
4.2
(2
)

17.2
16.2
(2
)
(2
)
15.9
(2
)
5.6
(2
)

15.2
12.6
(2
)
(2
)
16.7
(2
)
16.9
(2
)

12.0
15.1
(2
)
(2
)
14.7
(2
)
13.6
(2
)

15.1
22.8
(2
)
(2
)
12.3
(2
)
26.9
(2
)

Transportation, communication, and
public utilities ........................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

4,893
2,797
1,413
1,318

47.8
54.7
55.4
43.7

2,337
1,530
783
576

2.2
1.4
2.4
2.2

6.8
3.2
11.3
4.8

12.4
9.1
15.1
16.9

16.4
12.4
17.7
19.6

T rade......................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

11,237
3,027
8,210

13.2
14.4
12.8

1,487
436
1,051

7.6
8.4
7.2

11.6
4.1
14.7

17.5
23.8
14.8

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

4,446

5.9

262

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

See footnotes at end of table.




5.1
(2
)

10.1
(2
)

15.7
(2
)

16.1

12.7

$320

48,332

17.1

19.9

16.7

12.5

9.5

5.5

18.9

$278

(2
)

1,069

33.9

29.0

14.4

12.4

5.2

2.6

2.5

193

(2
)

(2
)

449

1.5

13.9

12.5

12.1

5.5

14.7

39.7

370

(2
)

52.2

405

2,358

8.1

18.5

18.5

19.8

12.7

6.8

15.5

284

1.42

20.1
19.9
26.0
21.7
25.5
25.8
(2
)
(2
)
7.4

303
309
317
322
340
347
(2
)
(2
)
266

12,011
7,241
1,260
1,869
885
312
373
201
3,227

11.4
8.0
7.2
4.1
4.6
4.7
5.3
(2
)
11.5

17.0
15.0
14.7
12.9
6.5
4.9
5.5
(2
)
18.6

17.7
18.0
18.6
19.9
13.3
15.3
11.3
(2
)
18.0

12.5
13.6
15.5
11.6
12.9
12.5
13.4
(2
)
14.1

9.8
10.8
10.1
12.1
16.3
15.4
19.2
(2
)
8.7

6.1
6.9
6.5
8.1
10.4
9.8
7.8
(2
)
5.5

25.5
27.8
27.4
31.4
36.1
37.4
37.5
(2
)
23.6

309
324
322
341
377
385
396
(2
)
299

.98
.95
.98
.94
.90
.90
(2
)
(2
)
.89

11.6
16.0
(2
)
(2
)
15.8
(2
)
10.5
(2
)

20.5
15.7
(2
)
(2
)
24.5
(2
)
22.3
(2
)

292
301
(2
)
(2
)
322
(2
)
310
(2
)

4,770
820
585
658
277
852
810
661

16.6
7.0
24.1
43.6
(2
)
11.0
7.0
20.3

20.2
22.8
26.5
26.8
(2
)
20.2
8.7
23.2

17.2
18.2
25.3
10.7
(2
)
22.8
13.7
15.5

10.8
7.6
11.4
6.2
(2
)
13.8
12.2
9.8

8.3
12.0
6.9
5.1
(2
)
8.3
11.5
7.5

4.8
6.2
1.0
.8
(2
)
5.4
6.6
7.1

22.0
26.3
4.8
6.9
(2
)
18.5
40.3
16.6

288
308
216
196
(2
)
272
382
267

1.01
.98
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
.81
(2
)

16.9
18.4
17.5
17.9

12.4
16.7
13.4
11.1

32.9
38.7
22.6
27.5

359
381
334
337

2,556
1,267
630
742

8.2
8.1
6.5
9.5

15.1
16.1
13.7
13.0

15.5
13.2
13.7
20.1

11.3
12.3
10.2
10.8

12.0
10.8
14.9
10.5

6.1
5.8
1.9
9.5

31.8
33.7
39.1
26.6

330
326
369
314

1.09
1.17
.91
1.07

15.9
15.0
16.3

18.6
16.1
19.6

11.5
12.3
11.2

17.4
20.3
16.2

294
300
292

9,750
2,591
7,159

24.5
8.0
30.5

20.9
16.3
22.5

16.6
19.7
15.6

10.7
11.5
10.4

9.5
12.5
8.4

4.9
7.0
4.2

12.8
25.1
8.4

247
314
222

1.19
.95
1.32

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

4,184

12.6

25.3

18.5

11.5

7.3

4.5

20.4

285

(2
)

(2
)

16.0
(2
)

(2
)

24.2

Earn­
ings
ratio1

(2
)

1.15
(2
)

Table 11. Continued—Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time wage and salary workers by industry and labor organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Percent not represented by labor organizations
Percent represented by labor organizations
Number
receiving weekly earnings ofreceiving weekly earnings ofnot
Number
Average
Average repre­
repre­
Percent
weekly
weekly sented
sented
repre­
$400 earnings
$400 earnings
by
by labor
Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350Under $150- $200- $250- $300- $350sented
and (mean)
labor
and (mean)
organi­
$150 $199 $249 $299 $349 $399
$150 SI 99 $249 $299 $349 $399
by labor
over
organi­
over
zation
organi­
zation
zations

Full-time workers

Industry of current job
Total

Earn­
ings
ratio1

Services..................................................................
Business and repair.............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................

17,673
2,329
1,463
458
1,005
385

25.5
14.9
10.8
1.6
14.9
15.5

4,510
347
158
7
150
60

7.6
8.0
0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

12.9
16.0
(1
2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

20.7
22.7
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

19.5
16.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

12.9
12.0
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

9.0
7.8
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

17.4
17.5
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

$291
295
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

13,163
1,982
1,306
451
855
326

22.0
12.2
57.7
82.0
44.9
26.5

21.4
22.6
16.1
9.1
19.7
21.8

15.6
13.9
12.0
4.5
15.9
18.9

13.2
14.8
4.0
1.8
5.1
11.6

8.8
10.5
3.0
.2
4.4
11.0

5.0
5.4
1.2
.8
1.4
2.5

14.1
20.7
6.2
1.7
8.5
7.6

$255
288
164
105
196
247

1.14
1.03
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

13,495
5,492
3,218
4,785

29.2
48.8
19.8
13.2

3,946
2,678
636
632

6.6
6.3
3.6
11.0

12.1
8.8
20.9
17.2

20.4
19.8
25.7
17.8

20.5
21.9
18.2
16.6

13.4
12.1
18.6
13.6

9.1
10.2
5.8
7.5

17.9
20.8
7.3
16.4

295
303
266
287

9,549
2,814
2,581
4,154

19.1
21.2
15.2
20.0

21.8
17.5
23.2
23.9

16.3
14.7
20.2
15.0

14.2
13.9
17.4
12.4

9.1
10.3
9.1
8.3

5.5
7.0
5.1
4.8

14.0
15.3
9.8
15.7

260
261
256
262

1.13
1.16
1.04
1.09

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

69

(2
)

17

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

51

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ..................................................................
S ta te ....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

4,695
1,636
603
872
1,584

43.4
29.8
85.4
32.3
47.5

2,037
487
515
282
753

1.1
.3
1.3
(2
)
2.0

7.4
8.3
.2
(2
)
8.6

11.5
8.7
3.4
(2
)
19.3

17.2
16.7
13.4
(2
)
20.1

20.2
12.5
34.7
(2
)
17.2

16.0
9.8
28.5
(2
)
12.1

26.6
43.7
18.4
(2
)
20.6

348
395
348
(2
)
316

2,658
1,149
88
590
831

10.5
8.0
(2
)
4.7
18.6

17.4
13.0
(2
)
15.9
24.6

15.5
12.9
(2
)
17.9
19.0

12.2
11.0
(2
)
22.3
5.6

12.4
13.2
(2
)
10.5
11.4

7.9
8.6
(2
)
9.4
5.5

24.0
33.2
(2
)
19.3
15.2

311
366
(2
)
289
251

1.12
1.08
(2
)
(2
)
1.26

1 Ratio of earnings of workers covered by labor-management agreements to those not covered by
agreements.
workers in cell.
2 Base less than 300,000 or percent less than 0.1.




NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Dashes (-) indicate no

Table 12. Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race, Wlay 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Represented by labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
age
years
years
over

Both sexes
All occupations1 ..............................................

87,480

22,493

117

2,874

6,767

4,990

7,490

256

37.7

64,986

2,643

14,433

17,330

12,098

16,562

1,920

33.8

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

45,955

8,483

37

915

2,839

1,983

2,594

115

37.2

37,472

713

6,872

10,882

7,797

10,233

974

35.3

14,436

3,997

4

279

1,522

1,013

1,132

47

36.5

10,439

44

1,404

3,788

2,424

2,563

216

34.8

8,953
17,507
5,059

868
3,365
253

2
26
5

45
544
47

243
994
80

223
708
40

341
1,046
75

15
47
6

42.2
37.1
34.1

8,086
14,142
4,805

7
407
256

684
3,720
1,065

2,184
3,700
1,210

2,002
2,517
853

2,967
3,492
1,211

241
307
211

40.5
32.8
33.9

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred w orkers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

28,414
11,083
836

11,763
4,571
284

63
6
2

1,659
475
38

3,361
1,343
103

2,532
1,033
50

4,061
1,687
91

87
28

37.6
38.8
34.9

16,651
6,512
552

700
76
9

4,653
1,464
171

4,348
1,939
173

2,756
1,215
70

3,848
1,702
119

346
116
11

31.3
33.8
29.5

2,212
4,234
13,208
9,982
2,719

1,116
1,815
5,743
4,229
1,168

2

114
185
837
669
104

368
505
1,618
1,188
328

232
436
1,251
866
312

388
684
1,978
1,457
416

11
4
44
36
8

37.1
39.4
37.7
37.3
39.3

1,096
2,419
7,465
5,753
1,551

21
28
210
177
29

287
624
2,080
1,616
409

323
793
1,927
1,465
417

183
414
1,302
1,013
269

262
525
1,785
1,372
381

20
37
161
109
47

31.7
31.8
31.7
31.5
33.0

507
4,123
771
836
2,516

346
1,448
265
436
747

39

64
347
46
84
217

102
400
77
130
194

74
248
40
100
107

105
396
95
118
183

15
3
5
8

35.7
32.2
35.2
34.6
30.0

161
2,674
506
400
1,768

3
414
27
16
371

55
1,109
239
160
711

46
482
106
95
280

20
239
56
52
131

32
361
76
73
212

5
69
3
5
62

27.7
23.7
24.8
27.3
22.5

12,074

2,221

17

296

558

470

828

52

39.7

9,853

1,127

2,629

1,895

1,378

2,271

553

30.9

All occupations1 ..............................................

49,348

15,302

77

1,931

4,566

3,363

5,210

154

37.9

34,046

1,430

7,158

9,245

6,252

8,877

1,085

34.1

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm .........................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers................................

20,725

3,923

13

330

1,233

942

1,350

56

38.9

16,803

196

2,109

5,022

3,766

5,172

537

37.4

7,783

1,836

99

661

497

560

19

37.6

5,948

23

633

2,091

1,406

1,668

126

36.0

6,626
3,497
2,819

697
1,272
118

1
10
2

32
178
20

191
339
42

185
242
18

278
477
35

10
25
2

42.3
39.9
34.5

5,929
2,225
2,701

4
77
92

399
582
495

1,540
596
793

1,536
307
518

2,262
557
685

188
105
118

41.4
32.6
34.9

Blue-collar workers...........................
Craft and kindred workers.........................
Carpenters ............................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters..............................
Mechanics and repairers.............................

23,071
10,484
824

10,059
4,433
282

53
6
2

1,433
455
38

2,951
1,302
101

2,135
995
50

3,423
1,650
91

64
26

37.2
38.8
35.0

13,012
6,051
542

627
71
9

3,817
1,364
160

3,431
1,797
173

2,014
1,127
70

2,851
1,587
119

271
105
11

30.4
33.8
29.6

2,187
4,131

1,103
1,780

2

110
177

365
493

228
426

387
679

11
4

37.2
39.4

1,084
2,351

20
28

283
606

318
767

181
399

261
517

20
35

31.9
31.8

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

-

15
13
-

2
43
3
-

_

-

Men

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

Table 12. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Men—Continued
36.6
35.4
39.7

4,598
3,068
1,377

169
137
29

1,451
1,015
382

1,229
819
367

697
468
211

954
576
346

98
52
41

29.5
28.4
32.5

15
3
5
8

35.5
32.3
35.4
34.0
30.1

154
2,363
494
325
1,544

3
387
25
16
347

54
1,001
232
131
638

42
405
105
77
223

17
191
53
41
97

32
311
76
56
178

5
68
3
5
61

27.7
23.3
25.0
27.1
21.8

432

32

38.4

3,396

521

1,012

625

334

673

231

27.5

2,913

4,590

137

37.9

30,711

1,311

6,393

8,286

5,638

8,111

970

34.2

1,103

844

1,218

54

39.1

15,767

172

1,935

4,655

3,531

4,962

512

37.7

81

601

453

512

19

37.7

5,524

21

593

1,932

1,287

1,583

108

36.1

1
7
2

29
136
16

180
283
39

162
213
16

259
416
31

10
23
2

42.5
40.8
34.6

5,716
1,929
2,597

3
62
85

383
496
464

1,460
502
762

1,482
261
500

2,201
507
671

187
102
116

41.6
33.2
35.1

46
4
2

1,285
412
36

2,567
1,198
96

1,844
902
47

3,017
1,537
87

57
26

37.3
39.1
34.9

11,457
5,530
498

590
65
9

3,420
1,268
152

3,004
1,651
163

1,732
1,005
62

2,480
1,444
107

232
97
7

30.1
33.6
29.0

94
165
593
437
96

332
454
1,066
737
246

214
386
765
465
242

357
628
1,191
781
327

11
4
19
11
8

37.6
39.5
36.5
35.5
39.2

940
2,172
3,919
2,644
1,166

18
25
157
128
26

258
568
1,261
896
328

279
712
1,029
693
304

152
361
583
389
182

212
471
799
489
289

20
35
90
48
37

31.4
31.7
29.2
28.1
32.3

30

60
280
40
65
176

82
303
62
94
146

58
177
32
69
75

82
290
75
84
131

12
2
4
6

35.0
31.4
35.1
34.1
29.4

109
2,009
420
256
1,333

3
368
24
14
330

37
891
208
115
567

32
324
91
57
176

12
144
37
27
80

20
237
58
39
140

5
45
3
3
39

27.8
22.6
24.5
26.2
21.3

11

131

308

224

350

26

38.2

2,774

467

840

478

273

527

190

26.9

666
501
100

1,277
879
298

916
560
286

1,404
908
398

35

64
312
46
74
192

100
373
76
120
178

70
224
40
83
100

99
368
95
102
171

1,296

11

165

374

282

44,085

13,375

67

1,681

3,986

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

19,257

3,490

10

261

7,191

1,666

6,357
3,007
2,701

641
1,078
105

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

20,273
9,608
765

8,816
4,078
268

1,950
3,811
7,561
5,084
2,087

1,009
1,639
3,642
2,440
920

391
3,104
634
572
1,898

282
1,096
214
316
565

3,825

1,051

8,893
5,940
2,467

4,295
2,872
1,090

487
3,694
757
708
2,228

333
1,331
264
383
684

4,693

All occupations' ...............................................

Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................
Service workers, including
private household.................................................

9
9
-

39
3
-

23
15
8

_

White men

Service workers, including
private household.................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




-

9
9
-

33
3
-

-

Table 12. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
age
years
over

Black and other men
All occupations’ ..............................................

5,262

1,927

11

250

580

449

621

17

37.3

3,335

119

764

959

613

765

115

33.3

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

1,469

433

3

68

130

98

132

1

37.1

1,036

25

174

366

235

211

25

34.1

593

170

-

18

60

44

48

-

36.9

423

2

40

159

119

86

18

35.1

269
490
117

56
194
13

-

3
43
5

11
56
3

24
29
2

19
61
4

-

41.5
35.6
34.0

213
296
104

16
7

17
86
31

81
95
32

54
45
18

61
50
14

1
4
2

37.8
30.2
28.4

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

2,797
876
58

1,243
355
15

384
103
6

291
93
3

405
114
4

-

36.8
36.6
40.7

1,555
521
44

38
6

-

148
43
2

396
96
8

427
146
10

283
122
9

371
142
12

40
8
5

32.9
35.7
42.0

237
320
1,332
856
380

93
141
653
433
170

-

16
12
73
65
4

33
39
211
142
51

13
40
151
95
44

29
50
214
127
71

33.3
38.4
37.4
35.1
41.9

144
179
679
423
211

2
3
12
9
3

25
38
190
118
54

39
55
200
126
63

30
38
114
80
29

49
45
155
86
57

96
589
123
136
330

51
235
49
67
119

-

5
32
7
9
16

18
70
14
25
31

12
47
8
14
25

17
78
20
18
40

1

40.4
35.5
36.0
33.7
38.0

45
354
73
70
211

20
2
1
17

17
110
24
16
71

11
81
14
20
47

5
47
16
14
17

868

245

-

34.

65

58

82

6

39.3

623

54

172

147

All occupations’ ..............................................

38,132

7,191

40

943

2,200

1,627

2,280

102

37.3

30,940

1,213

7,276

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ...................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers..................................................

25,229

4,560

24

585

1,606

1,042

1,244

59

35.7

20,669

517

6,652

2,161

4

180

861

517

572

27

35.5

4,491

2,327
14,010
2,240

171
2,093
135

16
4

13
366
27

52
654
38

37
466
22

62
569
40

5
22
5

41.7
35.6
33.4

Blue-collar workers.........................................:....
Craft and kindred workers ..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters..............................
Mechanics and repairers...........................

5,343
599
12

1,704
138
1

226
20
_

410
41
1

-

638
37

23
2

25
103

13
35

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

3
7
2
2

5
5

1
7

4
4
3
1
(2
)

(2
)

_

_
8
4
4

36.4
33.5
31.4
30.5
33.6

12
73
17
17
38

(2
)
23
_
2
21

27.6
29.0
34.0
30.0
27.1

62

146

41

30.0

8,085

5,847

7,685

835

33.4

4,763

5,861

4,031

5,061

437

33.4

21

770

1,697

1,019

895

90

32.9

2,156
11,917
2,105

4
329
164

285
3,138
570

643
3,103
417

466
2,210
336

705
2,935
526

53
201
93

38.0
32.8
32.4

39.9
38.6
27.0

3,639
461
11

73
5

837
100
11

917
142
_

742
88

997
115
_

74
10

34.7
33.7
21.3

32.0
31.0

12
68

4
17

5
26

2
15

1
8

-

(2
)

Women

See footnotes at end of table.




(2
)

10
-

4
8

3
12

397
38
5
9

_

_
2
5

_
-

-

(2
)

_

_

_
2

24.7
29.4

Table 12. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Women—Continued
342
309
31

335
306
25

574
549
18

4
24

6
28

4

10
25

2
27
1
10
16

925

6

131

33,059

5,801

34

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

22,636

3,792

5,866

1,835

2,154
12,530
2,086

140
1,698
119

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters............................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

4,463
523
8

1,379
120
1

4,315
4,043
252

1,448
1,357
78

21
429
14
128
287

13
118
1
53
63

7,382

All occupations1 ..............................................

Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................
Service workers, including
private household.................................................

6
4
“
2
4
-

172
168
4
35
-

-

-

“

40.8
41.5
35.8

2,867
2,685
174

-

39.0
31.7
30.0
37.6
29.0

7
311
12
75
224

21
21

40
40

629
601
27

698
646
49

606
545
58

25

1
108
6
29
73

3
77
1
19
57

3
48
3
11
34

“

62
57
5

831
796
35

35.9
35.8
36.7

1

27.5
26.6
22.0
28.3
26.8

1,598

321

32.6

5,105

6,825

723

33.3

5,190

3,678

4,808

422

33.8

707

1,494

915

816

80

33.0

3
290
151

270
2,789
517

584
2,735
378

434
2,007
322

673
2,811
508

50
201
91

38.3
33.4
33.1

69
5

725
85
7

732
116
“

625
82
“

869
104
“

64
10

34.9
33.8
23.0

1
8
720
686
34

-

-

-

27
2
-

18
6

16
12

184

188

396

20

41.6

6,457

606

1,617

1,270

1,044

793

1,753

1,275

1,854

92

37.4

27,258

1,116

6,507

6,982

20

496

1,303

846

1,071

55

36.0

18,844

463

4,283

2

160

741

425

482

25

35.4

4,032

19

15
4

13
300
24

42
489
32

32
369
20

50
504
36

4
22
5

42.2
36.8
33.7

2,014
10,832
1,967

188
18
“

316
36
1

317
34

526
30
-

23
2

40.2
38.0
27.0

3,084
403
7

-

1

50
16
34

-

White women

Service workers, including
private household.................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




24
87
3,561
3,319
224

12
28
1,164
1,089
63

18
379
14
114
251

11
95
1
46
48

5,820

631

-

10
-

-

2
11
264
237
26

5
7
261
238
20

2
3
472
453
14

-

4
22

5
23

-

4

10
20

1
16
1
7
8

15
6

14
10

-

4

108

134

112

257

6
4
2
4
-

4
6
140
136
4
_

30

_

_

”

14

12
59
2,397
2,229
161

39.0
30.8
30.0
37.5
28.3

21
21

31.0
30.5
41.2
42.0
35.4

7
284
12
68
203

40.5

5,190

-

C
)

4
15
537
510
26

5
22
547
502
42

2
13
500
442
55

22

1
103
6
27
70

3
69
1
16
51

3
42
3
8
31

572

1,446

1,031

784

-

40
40

23
2

44
_
16
28

1,121

“
2
53
49
4

24.7
29.0
36.2
36.2
37.1

1

27.5
26.0
22.0
27.5
26.2

236

30.3

_

1

-

Table 12. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupation, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other women
All occupations1 ..............................................

5,072

1,390

6

150

447

353

425

10

37.0

3,682

97

769

1,103

741

860

112

33.6

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

2,593

768

4

89

303

196

173

4

34.3

1,825

55

480

670

352

253

15

30.4

786

327

2

20

120

92

91

2

36.5

459

1

63

203

103

78

10

32.7

173
1,480
154

30
395
16

11
165
7

5
97
2

12
65
5

2

40.0
32.5
31.0

143
1,085
138

1
39
13

15
349
53

60
368
39

32
204
14

32
124
18

3

66
3

34.9
28.9
25.7

39.0
42.0
_

555
58
4

_
-

3

-

112
15
4

_

_

-

42.0
36.0
39.4
39.4
38.0

-

_

-

-

-

-

1
102
96
4

4
152
144
8

2
105
103
3

(2
)
111
111
(2
)

1
5
2
3

-

45.0
34.0
38.0
32.7

-

_

_

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers.................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers.................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers..............................
Service workers, including
private household.................................................
' Includes farm workers not shown separately.
2 Fewer than 500 workers.




-

(2
)
1
-

_

881
76
4

326
18
-

1
15
754
724
28

1
7
285
268
15

-

-

2
50
14
36

2
23
7
15

-

-

1,561

294

94
6

39
2

-

-

-

-

80
4
-

1
2
78
72
5

-

-

5

1
10
3
7

22

50

2
32
32

-

5
-

2

2
74
68
5
2
2
75

113
6
(2
)

139

-

_

6

43.5

8
469
456
13

2
92
91
1

_

28
7
21
1,267

3

185
26

117
6

-

3

5
2
3

8
2
5

6
3
3

34

171

239

260

-

128
11

_

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
workers in cell.

6
6
477

(2
)
2

_
_

10

_
10
8
2
-

34.3
33.4
20.0
_
32.0
34.7
34.8
29.0
32.0
32.0
31.0

85

42.3

Dashes (-) indicate no

Table 13. Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occupfion, labor organization membership, sex and race, S lay 1980
V
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Both sexes
All occupations1 ..............................................

87,480

20,095

94

2,493

5,960

4,478

6,844

227

38.0

67,384

2,666

14,814

18,137

12,610

17,208

1,949

33.8

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

45,955

7,017

30

724

2,305

1,653

2,208

98

37.5

38,938

720

7,064

11,416

8,128

10,619

991

35.3

14,436

3,272

4

210

1,239

839

947

34

36.7

11,163

44

1,473

4,071

2,599

2,748

229

34.8

8,953
17,507
5,059

681
2,857
207

22
5

39
443
31

181
819
65

178
606
30

270
923
69

13
44
6

42.7
37.7
34.3

8,272
14,650
4,852

9
411
256

690
3,821
1,080

2,245
3,875
1,225

2,047
2,619
863

3,038
3,616
1,217

244
309
211

40.5
32.8
33.9

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

28,414
11,083
836

11,101
4,308
276

1,507
429
36

3,153
1,268
102

2,415
969
48

3,892
1,612
89

83
26

38.0
39.0
35.0

17,313
6,775
560

711
78
10

4,806
1,510
173

4,556
2,014
173

2,873
1,279
72

4,017
1,777
120

350
118
11

31.4
33.9
29.4

2,212
4,234
13,208
9,982
2,719

1,076
1,729
5,429
3,990
1,104

103
171
761
607
94

355
478
1,506
1,106
299

222
415
1,203
827
305

384
661
1,907
1,406
398

11
4
42
34
8

37.4
39.7
38.2
37.8
39.7

1,136
2,504
7,780
5,993
1,615

21
28
214
181
29

298
638
2,156
1,678
419

336
820
2,040
1,548
446

194
435
1,351
1,052
276

266
547
1,855
1,422
399

21
37
163
112
47

31.8
31.9
31.7
31.5
33.0

507
4,123
771
836
2,516

335
1,365
254
420
691

36

60
316
41
80
195

101
380
75
127
178

71
243
40
96
107

103
373
93
113
167

15
3
5
8

35.9
32.6
35.9
34.6
30.1

172
2,758
517
416
1,825

5
418
29
16
374

59
1,140
243
164
733

46
502
109
98
296

23
243
56
56
131

34
384
78
78
229

5
69
3
5
62

27.6
23.8
24.8
27.4
22.7

12,074

1,954

12

259

495

407

737

45

39.8

10,120

1,132

2,667

1,958

1,441

2,363

560

31.1

All occupations1 ..............................................

49,348

14,039

64

1,727

4,163

3,090

4,856

140

38.1

35,308

1,444

7,362

9,649

6,524

9,231

1,099

34.2

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

20,725

3,314

10

276

1,029

795

1,154

49

39.1

17,411

199

2,163

5,225

3,913

5,368

544

37.5

7,783

1,513

-

76

542

420

462

14

37.8

6,271

23

657

2,210

1,482

1,766

131

36.0

6,626
3,497
2,819

558
1,149
93

-

28
158
15

151
306
31

151
210
14

220
442
31

8
25
2

42.3
40.3
34.8

6,068
2,347
2,725

5
79
92

404
602
500

1,580
630
804

1,570
338
522

2,320
592
689

189
106
118

41.4
32.9
34.9

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters............................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................

23,071
10,484
824

9,545
4,190
275

1,302
412
36

2,789
1,232
101

2,046
935
48

3,299
1,581
89

63
25

37.6
39.0
35.1

13,526
6,294
549

635
73
10

3,947
1,407
163

3,593
1,866
173

2,103
1,187
72

2,975
1,656
120

273
106
11

30.5
34.0
29.6

2,187
4,131

1,065
1,697

100
162

353
467

217
407

382
656

11
4

37.5
39.7

1,121
2,434

20
28

293
621

330
793

192
418

266
539

21
35

32.0
32.0

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

-

52
4
-

2
-

10
10
-

-

38
2
-

-

-

Men

See footnotes
 at end of table.


9
2
45
4
-

2

-

Table 13. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occuption, labor organization membership, sex and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Men—Continued
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

8,893
5,940
2,467

4,100
2,733
1,042

487
3,694
757
708
2,228

325
1,255
253
369
633

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

4,693

All occupations' ..............................................

7
7

607
457
90

1,200
822
279

890
539
281

1,373
893
384

33

60
283
41
69
172

99
357
74
117
166

70
221
40
81
100

96
344
93
97
155

1,160

8

145

337

246

44,085

12,261

55

1,508

3,619

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm .......................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

19,257

2,943

9

217

7,191

1,382

-

6,357
3,007
2,701

510
970
82

-

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters .......................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers..........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ..............................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction..........................................
Manufacturing..................................................
All other nonfarm laborers..............................

20,273
9,608
765

8,364
3,850
260

1,950
3,811
7,561
5,084
2,087

974
1,564
3,479
2,323
878

391
3,104
634
572
1,898

278
1,035
206
307
523

3,825

940

22
14
8

37.2
35.9
40.0

4,793
3,207
1,425

171
138
29

1,510
1,060
392

1,306
876
387

723
489
216

985
590
360

99
53
41

29.6
28.4
32.6

15
3
5
8

35.6
32.7
36.0
34.2
30.3

161
2,439
505
339
1,595

3
392
27
16
349

59
1,031
237
136
658

43
421
107
79
235

18
193
53
43
97

34
334
78
61
195

5
68
3
5
61

27.6
23.4
24.9
27.2
21.9

397

27

38.5

3,532

524

1,032

662

370

708

237

27.9

2,681

4,275

123

38.1

31,824

1,323

6,567

8,653

5,871

8,426

984

34.2

914

718

1,039

47

39.3

16,313

173

1,980

4,844

3,657

5,140

519

37.7

61

495

387

425

14

37.9

5,809

21

614

2,039

1,353

1,669

114

36.1

25
119
12

140
251
28

134
184
12

202
385
27

8
23
2

42.4
41.2
34.6

5,848
2,037
2,619

4
62
85

387
512
468

1,499
534
772

1,510
290
504

2,259
538
675

188
102
116

41.6
33.4
35.1

1,169
374
34

2,421
1,132
95

1,770
847
46

2,910
1,469
85

56
25

37.6
39.2
35.0

11,910
5,758
506

597
67
10

3,536
1,306
154

3,149
1,717
163

1,805
1,060
63

2,588
1,512
108

233
97
7

30.3
33.8
29.0

86
152
540
396
87

321
430
999
688
229

204
371
748
453
237

353
606
1,167
769
316

11
4
18
10
8

37.8
39.8
37.1
36.0
39.6

975
2,247
4,082
2,760
1,209

18
25
159
129
26

267
581
1,314
937
337

291
736
1,096
743
321

162
376
600
400
187

217
494
822
502
300

21
35
91
49
37

31.5
31.9
29.2
28.1
32.4

27

57
255
35
62
158

81
290
62
92
136

58
175
32
67
75

82
273
73
81
119

12
2
4
6

35.2
31.8
36.0
34.4
29.5

113
2,069
429
265
1,376

3
372
25
14
333

40
916
213
118
585

32
336
91
59
186

12
146
37
29
80

20
254
60
42
152

5
45
3
3
39

27.5
22.7
24.3
26.3
21.4

8

118

277

194

322

21

38.2

2,885

470

853

509

303

555

195

27.4

“
-

34
2
-

-

White men

Service workers, including
private household..............................................
See footnotes at end of table.




7
2
38
2

-

7
7
-

29
2
-

-

-

Table 13. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occuption, labor organization membership, sex and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other men
All occupations1 ...............................................

5,262

1,778

9

219

543

409

581

17

37.6

3,484

120

795

996

653

805

115

33.4

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

1,469

371

2

59

116

78

115

1

37.0

1,098

26

183

381

256

227

25

34.3

593

131

-

15

47

33

36

-

36.9

461

2

44

172

129

97

18

35.2

269
490
117

49
179
11

-

3
38
3

11
55
3

17
26
2

18
57
4

-

42.0
35.0
36.0

220
310
106

17
7

17
90
33

81
96
32

60
49
18

62
54
14

1
4
2

37.9
30.5
28.2

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

2,797
876
58

1,181
340
15

133
38
2

368
100
6

276
88
3

389
112
4

37.1
37.0
40.7

1,616
536
44

38
6

411
101
8

444
149
10

297
127
9

387
144
12

40
8
5

32.9
35.5
42.0

33.1
39.1
37.9
35.4
42.0

146
187
712
447
216

2
3
12
9
3

26
40
195
122
54

39
57
210
134
65

30
42
123
89
30

49
45
163
88
60

1

40.0
35.3
36.0
33.7
36.7

49
369
76
74
220

20
2
1
17

19
115
24
18
73

11
85
16
20
49

5
47
16
14
17

2
7
2
-

7
-

(2
)

-

8
4
4

36.2
33.4
31.6
30.6
33.7

14
80
17
19
43

(2
)
23
2
21

27.8
29.3
34.0
30.0
27.4

67

153

41

30.1

8,488

6,086

7,977

850

33.4

4,901

6,191

4,215

5,251

447

33.4

21

816

1,861

1,116

982

97

33.0

2,204
12,303
2,127

4
332
164

286
3,218
580

665
3,245
421

477
2,280
341

717
3,024
528

54
203
93

38.0
32.8
32.4

40.4
39.0
27.0

3,787
481
11

76
5

859
103
11

963
148
-

770
92
-

1,042
121
-

77
12

34.8
33.8
21.3

34.0
30.3

14
71

5
17

6
27

2
17

1
8

14
10
67
61
3

32
37
201
134
50

13
36
142
86
44

29
50
206
124
67

-

3
27
7
7
14

18
67
12
25
30

12
47
8
14
25

14
71
20
16
35

-

27

60

53

75

6

40.1

647

54

179

153

30

766

1,798

1,388

1,988

87

37.8

32,076

1,223

7,453

3,703

20

448

1,275

857

1,054

49

36.1

21,526

521

6,652

1,760

4

134

698

419

485

20

35.8

4,893

2,327
14,010
2,240

123
1,707
113

13
4

12
285
17

30
513
34

26
396
16

50
480
38

5
20
5

44.3
36.2
33.7

5,343
599
12

1,557
118
1

205
17
-

364
35
1

369
34
-

593
31
-

20

-

0

25
103

11
32

”

3
8

2
11

5
7

2
5

“

237
320
1,332
856
380

91
133
621
409
164

96
589
123
136
330

48
220
47
62
111

-

868

221

-

All occupations1 ..............................................

38,132

6,056

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

25,229

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters............................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

1

2
' 5
5

4
4
-

3
1
(2
)

-

(2
)

Women

See footnotes at end of table.




-

6

(2
)
~

2

24.7
29.8

Table 13. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occuption, labor organization membership, sex and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Women—Continued
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction......................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

4,315
4,043
252

1,329
1,257
62

21
429
14
128
287

10
110
1
51
58

7,382

All occupations’ ..............................................

3
3
-

154
151
4

306
284
20

4

10
23

2
23
1
10
12

794

4

113

33,059

4,838

25

White-collar occupations ......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers .........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

22,636

3,054

5,866

1,485

2,154
12,530
2,086

95
1,374
100

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred workers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives ......................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Construction..................................................
Manufacturing ........................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

4,463
523
8

1,254
104
1

24
87
3,561
3,319
224

10
25
1,060
1,004
48

18
379
14
114
251

8
90
1
44
45

5,820

530

Service workers, including
private household.................................................

4
-

33
-

-

313
287
24

534
513
15

2
22
-

6
28

19
19

-

-

-

2,986
2,786
190

45.0
32.0
31.0
37.3
29.3

-

41.2
41.7
36.6

11
319
13
77
230

44
42

646
618
27

734
671
60

628
563
59

2
27
2
25

1
110
6
29
75

3
81
2
19
60

5
50
3
13
34

_

35.9
35.9
36.3

1

1,654

323

32.8

5,310

7,073

738

33.4

5,467

3,839

4,980

432

33.8

746

1,641

995

893

87

33.1

3
293
151

271
2,855
525

605
2,840
382

444
2,072
327

685
2,892
510

51
203
91

38.3
33.4
33.1

73
5

747
88
7

769
120
_

648
86

904
109
_

67
12

34.8
34.1
23.0

5
15
555
527
26

6
23
580
525
52

2
15
518
456
56

1
8
751
713
38

22

1
105
6
27
72

3
70
2
16
52

5
45
3
10
31

574

1,464

1,049

804

16
12

158

161

341

18

41.9

6,588

609

1,635

1,296

1,071

639

1,421

1,070

1,606

77

37.9

28,221

1,125

6,660

7,315

17

382

1,026

685

899

45

36.5

19,582

466

4,397

2

120

594

346

405

18

35.6

4,381

19

11
4

12
234
17

21
384
28

22
303
14

38
423
34

3
20
5

44.4
37.5
33.6

2,059
11,156
1,985

166
15
-

279
33
1

293
30
-

20

_

40.8
38.0
27.0

3,209
419
7

3
6
123
119
4

1
10
231
214
15

5
5
243
223
18

2
3
441
426
10

-

33.0
29.0
41.9
42.5
36.4

14
62
2,501
2,314
177

2
20

5
23

_

45.0
31.0
31.0
37.0
28.7

11
288
13
70
206

41.1

5,291

-

64
59
5

27.5
26.8
22.5
29.0
26.8

15
6

-

870
832
38

-

_

50
16
34

1

_
_

White women

Service workers, including
private household................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




6
-

3
3

-

-

4

10
18

1
16
1
7
8

2

91

116

4

28
-

-

490
26

_

(2
)

19
19

-

13
6

14
10

92

217

-

12

_

(2
)

_

_

44
42
2
23
2

44

_

16
28
1,162

_

2
54
51
4

24.7
29.4
36.1
36.1
36.6

1

27.5
26.1
22.5
28.3
26.1

238

30.5

_
_

1

Table 13. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by occuption, labor organization membership, se)t and race, H
/Jay 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Occupation of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other women
All occupations’ ..............................................

5,072

1,218

5

126

377

318

381

10

37.5

3,855

97

792

1,173

776

904

112

33.7

White-collar occupations .......................................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ..........................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ........................................................
Clerical and kindred workers..............................
Sales workers......................................................

2,593

649

3

65

249

172

155

4

34.9

1,945

55

503

724

376

271

15

30.5

786

275

2

14

103

73

80

2

37.3

512

1

69

220

122

89

10

32.8

173
1,480
154

28
333
13

10
129
7

4
93
2

12
58
4

2

42.0
33.1
34.0

145
1,147
141

1
39
13

15
363
56

61
404
39

33
208
14

32
132
18

3

52

35.0
29.2
25.6

Blue-collar workers................................................
Craft and kindred w orkers..................................
Carpenters ........................................................
Construction craft workers,
except carpenters...........................................
Mechanics and repairers..................................
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Operatives, except transport...........................
Drivers and delivery workers...........................
Other transport equipment
operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Manufacturing...................................................
All other nonfarm laborers...............................

881
76
4

303
14
-

85
3

76
4

103
5
-

38.8
44.0
-

578
62
4

3

-

112
15
4

194
29
-

122
6
-

138
12
-

1
15
754
724
28

1
7
269
252
15

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
110
107
3

(1
2
)
119
119
(2
)

-

-

4
154
147
8

2
50
14
36

2
20
7
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,561

264

Service workers, including
private household.................................................
1 Includes farm workers not shown separately.
2 Fewer than 500 workers.




-

1

-

39
2

_

-

-

-

-

2

22

42

42.0
36.0
38.9
38.9
38.0

8
485
472
13

-

1
5
2
3

-

45.0
34.7
38.0
33.0

-

-

-

5

-

2
2

1
7
3
4

-

-

1
93
87
4

-

5

_

2
69
64
5

1
2
75
69
5

2
32
32

-

0

69

124

6

43.2

31
7
24

1,297

2
92
91
1
3

5
2
3

11
2
8

6
3
3

34

171

247

267

3
-

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
workers in cell.

6
6
492

0
2
10
-

10
8
2

34.5
33.2
20.0
32.0
35.1
35.2
29.0
32.0
32.0
31.0

85

42.4

Dashes (-) indicate no

Table 14. Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Both sexes
All industries ..................................................

87,480

22,493

Agriculture...............................................................

1,455

55

Mining.....................................................................

892

314

Construction ...........................................................

4,982

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

117

2,874

6,767

4,990

7,490

256

37.7

64,986

2,643

14,433

17,330

12,098

16,562

1,920

33.8

12

21

7

13

2

35.6

1,400

137

397

310

221

272

63

28.9

1

59

91

76

85

1

35.0

578

3

128

200

105

134

8

31.8

1,651

8

207

529

313

569

24

36.9

3,331

67

915

956

561

780

51

31.8

20,976
12,546
2,769
2,779
2,031
951
676
404
4,966

7,309
4,720
1,329
851
1,135
600
341
194
1,404

8
1

1,004
638
139
138
126
45
42
38
236

1,990
1,293
392
240
291
169
72
50
369

1,629
1,059
292
171
281
155
85
41
315

2,624
1,700
495
295
430
228
140
62
481

54
28
11
8
6
3

38.5
38.5
39.2
37.6
39.4
39.5
41.2
36.7
37.4

13,667
7,826
1,440
1,928
896
351
335
210
3,562

168
71
8
21
6
2

2,659
1,473
244
362
133
42
44
48
733

3,713
2,212
413
581
221
90
68
64
997

2,885
1,685
311
386
213
94
78
41
775

4,027
2,288
445
555
319
124
142
53
969

215
97
19
22
4

52

35.7
35.5
36.3
34.8
38.2
38.4
41.5
33.9
34.9

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles ..............................................................
Apparel..............................................................
Paper ................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g o o ds..................................

8,430
1,674
786
1,298
751
1,433
1,240
1,028

2,589
670
140
353
380
308
352
307

365
104
25
31
46
52
52
48

697
177
25
70
106
81
117
89

570
146
34
71
103
70
67
67

924
235
53
168
125
101
116
99

38.6
37.5
39.5
44.9
38.9
38.6
36.9
38.0

5,841
1,004
646
945
371
1,125
888
721

5

1,186
229
139
179
53
278
116
177

1,500
241
146
249
100
282
273
181

1,200
208
126
197
87
216
202
133

1,739
292
207
292
121
270
285
208

118
18
17
15
9
29
14
17

36.0
34.7
37.2
36.8
38.3
33.3
38.3
35.6

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

5,469
3,241
1,447
1,359

2,634
1,681
776
657

276
165
92
64

861
494
302
227

653
431
169
144

830
578
213
217

4

37.3
38.8
34.9
37.5

2,835
1,561
672
703

28
19
7
2

497
300
94
113

891
467
232
216

623
340
156
148

761
408
180
218

35
28
4
5

34.9
34.7
34.6
36.1

T rade......................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

17,401
3,419
13,981

1,896
432
1,465

-

498
70
428

516
131
385

314
92
222

472
134
338

20
4
16

31.9
36.4
30.9

15,504
2,988
12,517

1,461
31
1,430

4,518
541
3,977

3,609
950
2,659

2,244
586
1,658

3,194
778
2,416

477
102
376

29.5
35.1
27.9

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

5,152

250

-

57

68

40

80

5

35.0

4,902

74

1,039

1,396

1,000

1,246

147

34.7

Services.............................................
Business and repair.......................................
Personal services ............................
Private household services............................
Other personal services.......................... .......

25,123
2,902
2,868
1,214
1,653

5,719
332
247
9
238

527
72
47
47

1,844
93
43

1,351
73
50
2
48

1,867
92
93
4
89

111
2
6
2
4

38.1
35.6
37.9
46.0
37.7

19,404
2,570
2,620
1,205
1,415

669
70
237
176
61

3,855
672
485
177
309

5,347
729
554
158
396

3,712
468
360
134
225

5,008
535
766
408
359

813
95
218
153
65

34.7
31.9
35.5
41.2
33.6

See footnotes at end of table.




-

1
1
-

7
2
2
3
-

(’)
-

0
1
-

(’)
0
77
77

20
9
2
7

-

43

-

3
3
26
5
1
11
(’)
4
-

3
14
13
_

-

4
35
98
17
11
14
2
50
_

_

4
0

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Both sexes—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

902
18,451
8,062
3,901
6,489

140
5,000
3,421
841
737

Forestry and fisheries...........................................

87

14

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
State .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

5,364
1,795
691
972
1,906

2,172
488
570
309
805

All industries ..................................................

49,348
1,141

45

M ining.....................................................................

770

301

Construction ...........................................................

4,567

1,622

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries ................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

14,334
9,305
2,258
2,210
1,659
801
498
360
3,179

5,671
3,864
1,193
749
964
521
269
174
958

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable goods..................................

5,029
1,182
429
300
580
847
915
596

1,806
532
84
74
323
239
285
195

-

15,302

Agriculture...............................................................

( 1)

24
383
176
119
88

44
1,663
1,149
274
241

31
1,197
861
174
163

4

2

5

12
91
64
13
14
-

35.2
38.3
38.7
37.2
37.0

762
13,452
4,641
3,059
5,751

100
261
107
31
122

261
2,437
807
603
1,027

154
3,910
1,264
1,024
1,622

83
2,802
1,046
602
1,153

124
3,583
1,299
746
1,537

36.0

23
1,660
1,167
261
232

2

6
5
5

73

3

16

22

20

11

30.9

12
16

400
134
5
103
158

864
360
27
175
302

704
318
30
143
213

1,084
473
53
210
349

34,046

1,430

7,158

9,245

6,252

8,877

1,085

34.1

36.7

1,096

110

301

242

170

213

59

28.9

1

35.6

468

89

164

87

122

6

32.6

556

24

36.9

2,945

63

823

851

474

685

49

31.4

1,251
848
273
145
239
138
66
34
192

2,006
1,396
449
260
373
199
120
54
314

36
25
9
8
6
3

38.1
38.3
39.5
37.3
39.8
39.7
42.9
36.0
35.6

8,663
5,441
1,065
1,461
694
280
229
185
2,221

106
44
4
19
4

1,532
939
181
249
91
28
22
41
418

2,346
1,519
292
425
162
69
38
55
641

1,881
1,219
227
318
165
76
56
34
509

2,630
1,642
344
430
268
107
110
51
601

168
76
16
20
4

36

36.4
36.2
36.9
35.9
39.4
40.2
44.8
34.7
35.3

402
119
19
14
90
53
54
40

609
180
30
33
106
82
93
59

37.7
37.0
38.0
43.3
39.2
39.6
36.8
36.1

3,222
650
345
226
258
608
630
401

592
145
71
30
27
145
69
99

827
172
75
68
69
137
183
102

661
126
69
45
61
118
146
73

988
181
111
69
90
148
218
118

92
16
14
11
9
22
14
6

36.8
33.6
38.1
37.3
40.9
33.8
40.4
35.7

2

680
150
150
80
300

513
125
123
73
192

766
174
241
114
237

22
3
8
3
7

39.2
39.1
43.3
39.4
36.8

3,192
1,307
122
662
1,100

77

1,931

4,566

3,363

5,210

154

37.9

-

10

17

6

11

2

-

55

86

75

83

8

201

523

310

4

790
524
125
119
106
40
29
38
175

1,585
1,071
337
218
240
141
53
46
276

265
86
16
10
32
42
40
33

514
141
17
15
94
57
98
61

-

2

26.3
35.4
36.1
33.9

107
18
7
19
63

188
36
47
39
66

2
-

40
459
117
52
290

33
5
-

38.9
39.0
45.2
37.4
38.6

Wien

See footnotes at end of table.




-

4
2
-

2
-

0
(1
)

-

3
1
11
4
1
-

0
4
-

1

0

-

4
16
62
11
6
4
1
37
-

3

-

4
0

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor Organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

65 years
16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Men—Continued
0

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

3,947
2,578
798
1,114

2,005
1,487
395
574

T rade.......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

9,305
2,562
6,743

1,241
376
865

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

1,982

144

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

9,260
1,882
793
188
606
531
6,053
2,795
935
2,324

2,235
246
121
2
119
91
1,778
1,248
240
290

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

68

11

-

Public administration.............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te ....................................................................
Local....................................................................

3,431
1,053
520
586
1,272

1,575
317
455
194
609

-

See footnotes at end of table.




191
142
41
51

608
424
141
195

510
374
86
134

683
535
125
192

324
64
260

355
122
234

192
75
118

20

37

194
54
24

706
77
24

-

55
55

7
-

2
-

-

24
16
99
50
36
13

-

O
2

2

3

38.6
39.5
36.1
38.0

1,943
1,091
403
539

22
15
4
2

321
208
46
78

568
311
118
159

440
230
111
120

566
303
124
177

307
115
191

7
1
7

31.4
35.6
30.0

8,064
2,186
5,879

767
24
744

2,259
361
1,897

2,019
689
1,330

1,145
443
702

27

56

4

40.4

1,838

31

238

514

757
65
42

49
2
2

24
27
578
403
83
91

522
48
25
2
23
19
430
316
42
72

38.7
33.8
36.8
42.0
36.6
36.9
39.4
39.5
36.7
40.3

7,024
1,636
673
186
487
440
4,275
1,547
694
2,034

312
55
88
57
30
57
112
59
13
41

1,401
418
157
50
108
154
671
297
128
246

4

2

5

36.5

57

3

492
95
113
52
232

383
82
93
52
156

576
122
210
77
168

39.9
39.9
44.8
40.8
36.9

1,856
736
65
392
663

15

-

2
2
3
3

103
15
33
12
44

12
11
-

-

-

42
20
631
449
72
109

2
7
37
26
6
5
17
3
6
1
7

8
7

25
23
3

35.8
34.9
36.8
37.4

1,612
586
1,025

263
83
180

29.6
35.9
27.1

399

555

101

38.3

1,998
451
157
21
136
88
1,302
445
275
582

1,204
309
64
7
57
31
800
285
93
421

1,771
330
161
32
130
79
1,200
430
165
606

338
74
45
20
25
30
189
31
21
137

34.2
32.4
31.2
21.7
33.0
26.3
35.7
35.0
33.4
37.2

8

18

17

10

1

32.5

176
36
1
49
90

503
203
14
99
187

415
182
12
84
137

673
304
31
138
200

73
11
6
14
43

40.1
41.3
48.9
39.1
38.6

-

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White men
All industries ..................................................

44,085

13,375

Agriculture...............................................................

991

39

M ining......................................................................

729

287

Construction ...........................................................

4,139

1,470

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

12,836
8,364
2,008
2,080
1,468
718
445
304
2,809

4,945
3,392
1,037
691
824
449
231
144
840

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum................................
Other nondurable g oods..................................

4,472
1,054
352
246
522
775
814
548

1,554
451
72
56
280
209
255
169
»

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

3,507
2,261
729
1,004

1,756
1,293
356
509

Trade......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

8,447
2,335
6,112

1,066
307
760

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

1,805

115

8,089
1,671
641
146
495

1,926
206
99
2
97

30,711

1,311

6,393

8,286

5,638

8,111

970

34.2

-

31.0

952

108

271

218

134

171

50

27.9

1

35.8

442

83

155

82

116

6

32.7

506

21

37.0

2,670

56

758

789

411

610

45

31.0

1,073
722
228
131
201
118
53
30
162

1,774
1,257
397
250
328
174
109
45
282

32
20
5
8
6
3

38.3
38.6
39.6
37.8
40.1
39.7
44.0
36.8
35.9

7,890
4,972
971
1,388
644
269
215
160
1,969

100
42
4
17
4
-

1,370
843
168
235
86
28
20
37
355

2,081
1,353
255
391
145
65
33
47
562

1,727
1,122
203
310
147
73
50
24
462

2,457
1,542
328
416
257
103
108
46
540

155
71
13
20
4

34

36.8
36.6
37.3
36.2
40.2
40.4
46.8
34.7
35.6

442
121
14
11
76
49
86
55

351
106
17
9
82
44
48
36

517
148
25
26
91
73
87
48

37.8
37.2
38.0
44.3
39.6
39.8
37.3
36.0

2,918
603
280
190
242
566
560
379

3

527
133
54
24
27
134
62
85

728
162
56
50
63
131
150
98

605
111
54
40
59
112
136
70

916
170
99
63
84
134
200
116

84
16
12
11
7
20
12
6

37.1
33.3
39.4
38.4
40.8
33.8
40.8
36.1

524
359
128
172

436
315
80
112

621
479
122
177

1,751
968
373
494

19
13
4
2

286
176
41
78

500
267
108
143

395
211
102
101

528
280
118
168

23
22

-

38.8
39.6
37.0
38.0

3

36.1
35.5
36.8
37.4

294
58
237

307
100
207

159
60
99

251
89
162

7

31.1
35.4
29.8

7,380
2,028
5,352

710
23
687

2,044
330
1,713

1,842
641
1,201

1,042
400
642

1,501
556
944

242
77
165

29.7
36.1
27.2

28

21

47

4

41.1

1,691

19

218

463

375

520

96

38.7

155
51
21

615
64
20

452
39
18
2
16

654
53
35

45

38.7
32.4
37.0
42.0
36.5

6,163
1,464
543
144
398

282
54
78
55
23

1,208
357
136
47
89

1,762
399
130
15
115

1,069
281
57
3
54

1,560
303
114
18
96

282
71
29
7
22

34.2
32.8
30.1
19.9
32.0

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services........................ ..........

37.9

14

-

137

163
129
27
46

See footnotes at end of table.




67

1,681

3,986

2,913

4,590

-

10

17

3

9

-

50

81

74

81

6

184

470

282

4

695
467
114
111
87
33
22
31
155

1,368
926
293
191
203
120
47
35
239

228
71
15
8
30
38
34
28

-

-

4
2
2
(')
-

0

-

48
48

6
-

2
-

-

2

-

21

20

-

-

3
1
11
4
1
(1
)
4
-

1
12
11
3
7

-

2
-

35

2

0

-

4
16
58
11
6
3
1
34
-

-

4
0

-

Table 14. C©ntinued--Age distribution of employed! wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sen, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White men—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

484
5,293
2,466
719
2,107

84
1,537
1,144
147
246

2
1
1
-

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

61

10

-

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal .......................................
Postal ..................................................................
S ta te ....................................................................
L ocal....................................................................

2,994
896
427
542
1,129

1,358
255
373
182
549

All industries ..................................................

5,262

1,927

Agriculture...............................................................

151

6

-

Mining.....................................................................

41

14

-

Construction ...........................................................

428

153

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

1,498
941
249
131
191
83
53
55
370

725
473
156
58
140
72
38
30
118

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g o o ds..................................

557
128
77
54
59
71
100
48

253
81
12
18
43
30
30
26

16
67
36
22
9

24
508
379
52
76

17
378
290
23
65

18
548
411
46
91

4

1

5

2

76
8
25
10
33

438
86
88
50
215

343
66
81
52
144

485
94
174
69
148

11

250

580

449

-

-

0
2

-

7
36
26
5
5

36.9
39.4
39.5
36.9
40.6

400
3,756
1,322
572
1,862

54
97
45
12
40

140
575
247
107
221

81
1,152
388
228
536

29
703
248
67
389

70
1,073
367
142
564

35.0

51

3

6

18

15

10

14
2
5
1
7

39.6
39.3
45.5
40.5
36.6

1,636
641
54
360
581

15
8
7

142
31
1
46
64

440
175
10
89
166

369
162
10
79
118

601
263
27
127
184

69
11
6
12
41

40.4
41.4
50.0
39.6
39.0

621

17

37.3

3,335

119

764

959

613

765

115

33.3

3

2

2

47.3

144

2

31

24

36

43

9

38.4

31.0

26

5

9

5

7

-

-

26
156
27
16
113

26.1
35.8
35.2
33.3
37.3

-

33.2

Black and other men

See footnotes at end of table.




5
2

_
-

_
-

-

-

6

2

2

17

53

27

50

3

36.0

276

6

65

62

63

76

3

35.5

95
57
11
7
19
6
7
6
20

217
145
44
26
38
21
6
10
37

178
126
45
14
38
20
14
5
30

232
140
52
10
45
25
12
9
32

4
4
4

36.1
35.8
39.3
33.7
36.7
39.5
36.0
32.7
34.8

772
468
93
73
51
11
15
25
251

6
2

162
96
14
14
6
2
4
63

265
166
36
34
16
4
5
8
79

154
98
24
8
18
3
6
9
47

173
101
16
14
10
4
2
5
61

13
5
3

33.2
33.0
34.8
30.0
34.9
32.0
35.0
34.7
32.8

38
15
1
2
2
4
6
5

72
21
4
4
18
7
12
6

51
14
2
5
8
9
6
4

92
32
5
7
15
9
6
11

36.7
34.8
38.0
38.0
35.5
38.7
31.0
38.0

304
47
65
36
16
42
70
22

66
12
17
6

99
10
19
18
6
6
33
4

56
14
15
5
2
6
10
2

72
11
12
7
6
14
18
2

-

0
_
-

-

-

2
4
-

0
-

3

-

-

11
7
14

32.0

-

3
8
-

2
-

2
2
2
-

33.8
37.2
31.0
32.8
42.0
35.0
34.0
25.5

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sen, and race, May 19®0
(Numbers in thousands)

Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other men—Continued
—

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation.....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities.............................................

441
317
68
110

249
194
38
65

-

T rade.......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
R e ta il....................................................................

859
227
631

175
70
105

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

177

30

-

Services..................................................................
Business and repair.............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

1,171
212
152
41
110
47
760
328
215
217

309
40
22
22
7
240
103
93
44

-

Forestry and fisheries............................... ............

6

1

-

Public administration.............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

437
157
93
44
143

217
62
82
12
60

-

See footnotes at end of table.




48
22
26

33
15
18

55
26
30

9

6

9

90
13
4

71
10
8

103
12
7
7
2
83
38
27
19

-

3
O
2
2

_

63
57
3
15

39
4
3

2
-

74
59
6
22

6

7

84
65
14
24

30
6
24

7

4
3
70
24
31
15

32
15
14
4

-

8
2
52
26
19
7
1

28
7
8
2
10

54
9
25
3
18

41
17
12
0
12

-

1

33.4
31.7
36.7
36.0

111
30
81

21
6
15

28.3
33.9
26.7

24

34

6

33.5

236
51
27
6
22
7
150
58
46
46

135
28
8
4
4
2
97
37
27
33

212
28
47
14
34
9
128
62
23
43

56
3
16
13
3
4
33
4
5
24

34.1
28.5
46.0
52.0
40.0
29.0
35.0
33.9
33.7
37.1

0

2

1

1

1

23.5

91
28
36
8
20

34
5

63
28
4
11
20

46
20
2
5
19

4

37.8
40.7
40.0
33.5
35.6

68
44
10
17

45
20
8
19

39
23
7
9

57

215
31
184

177
48
129

103
43
60

148

12

20

51

-

38.3
40.0
36.7
36.7
38.0
38.8
40.0
36.0
34.0

862
172
130
41
88
40
520
225
122
172

31
1
10
3
7
4
16
13
1
1

193
61
22
2
19
14
96
50
21
25

-

28
13
15
4

46.0

5

-

41.7
43.6
40.0
49.3
40.6

220
94
11
32
83

0
0
-

37.5
38.9
30.0
38.7

192
123
30
45

-

33.6
40.0
31.7

684
158
526

-

37.0

1
1

4
2
O
0
2
2

3
1
1
-

3
3
-

0
58

O

35
32
5

3
26

2
1
-

72
41
4
11
16

C)

2
2

Table 14. Continued-Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Women
All industries ..................................................

38,132

7,191

Agriculture.................. ............................................

314

10

Mining.....................................................................

122

13

Construction ...........................................................

415

29

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

6,642
3,241
511
569
373
151
177
45
1,788

1,638
855
136
102
171
79
72
20
446

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel..............................................................
Paper ................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable go o ds..................................

3,402
492
357
998
170
586
326
432

783
137
57
279
57
69
67
112

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

1,521
663
650
245

629
194
381
82

Trade......................................................................
W holesale............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

8,095
857
7,238

656
55
600

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

3,170

105

-

Services .................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services..................................

15,863
1,020
2,074
1,027
1,048

3,484
85
127
7
120

See footnotes at end of table.




40

943

2,200

1,627

2,280

2

5

1

1

102

37.3

30,940

1,213

7,276

8,085

5,847

7,685

835

33.4

2

-

34.0

304

26

96

69

50

59

4

29.0

4

5

1

2

-

27.0

109

3

39

36

18

11

2

27.6

6

6

4

13

-

31.8

385

4

92

104

88

95

3

34.6

214
114
14
19
19
5
13
1
61

405
222
55
23
51
28
19
4
94

378
210
20
26
42
17
18
7
123

618
304
46
35
57
29
20
8
167

40.1
39.2
35.3
39.1
37.3
38.0
35.3
41.0
40.7

5,004
2,385
375
467
202
72
106
25
1,341

62
26
4
2
2
2

1,127
534
63
114
42
13
22
7
316

1,367
693
121
156
59
21
30
9
356

1,005
466
84
68
48
19
22
7
267

1,397
645
101
125
51
17
32
2
369

47
21
3
2

34.5
33.8
34.8
31.7
34.8
34.5
36.0
28.0
34.0

100
18
9
21
14
9
11
15

183
36
8
55
12
24
19
28

168
26
15
57
13
16
13
28

315
55
24
134
18
19
24
40

41.3
39.3
43.0
45.6
35.3
36.6
37.3
41.8

2,619
354
300
719
113
517
258
320

593
84
68
149
26
133
47
78

673
69
71
182
31
145
90
79

539
82
57
152
26
98
55
60

752
111
96
223
31
122
67
90

84
23
51
13

253
70
160
32

143
57
82
10

147
42
88
25

892
470
268
163

6
3
2

2

34.0
35.0
33.8
33.3

176
92
48
36

323
156
113
57

183
110
45
28

174
6
167

160
9
151

122
17
104

165
19
146

13
3
10

33.2
43.0
32.5

7,440
802
6,638

694
8
686

2,260
179
2,080

1,589
260
1,329

37

31

13

24

1

29.7

3,064

43

801

333
18
23

1,139
16
19

828
24
25

1,110
27
50
4
46

62

37.8
38.4
38.4
52.0
38.2

12,380
934
1,948
1,019
928

356
16
150
119
31

2,454
254
328
127
201

4
1
-

1
1
3
2
1
-

1
-

0
(1
)
21
21

12
-

6
2
5

-

-

23

-

19

25

19
4
2
-

2
15
2
11
0
2
2
2
_

-

3
2
2

-

19

_

36
6
5
10
1
13
1

-

_
_

_
_
15

11

35.2
36.9
36.1
36.7
34.9
33.0
33.1
35.6

195
105
55
41

10
5
4
2

32.5
34.0
31.4
31.8

1,100
144
956

1,583
192
1,391

215
19
196

29.3
32.8
28.7

882

601

691

46

32.4

3,349
279
396
137
260

2,508
160
296
128
168

3,237
205
605
376
229

475
21
173
133
40

34.9
31.3
37.2
44.1
33.8

26
2
3
3
_
7
_

Table 14. Continued-Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Women—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

371
12,398
5,267
2,966
4,165

50
3,222
2,174
601
448

4
2
2
O

8
284
126
83
75

Forestry and fisheries ............................................

20

3

-

2

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

1,933
742
172
386
633

597
171
115
116
196

All industries ..................................................

33,059

5,801

Agriculture...............................................................

269

8

Mining......................................................................

106

Construction ...........................................................

-

_

18
1,086
746
191
149

12
768
545
132
91
1

0

-

187
55
37
28
68

130
42
30
21
37

190
52
31
37
69

793

1,753

1,275

-

2

4

9

-

2

5

393

26

-

6

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

5,766
2,845
460
527
300
117
143
41
1,558

1,351
696
112
93
128
57
54
18
362

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food .................................................... .............
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum................................
Other nondurable goods..................................

2,921
420
301
818
156
532
292
369

655
115
47
226
52
64
56
91

-

42
149
49
18
81

106
1,766
510
475
781

66
2,608.
819
750
1,039

51
2,002
761
509
732

45
2,382
870
582
931

11
270
86
31
153

26.3
35.2
36.6
34.1
34.7

34.0

17

1

7

3

3

1

1

27.0

37.3
37.1
40.3
37.0
36.2

1,336
572
57
270
437

18
5

2
2
1

4
9

224
98
4
53
68

360
157
12
76
115

290
136
18
59
76

411
169
21
72
149

34
7
1
5
20

36.9
36.0
43.5
34.5
38.6

92

1,854

-

322
9,176
3,094
2,365
3,717

37.4

27,258

1,116

6,507

6,982

5,105

6,825

723

33.3

-

85
21
14
27
22

-

33.3
37.8
38.2
37.3
35.5

5
53
38
7
9

3
1,029
717
188
123

5
-

-

White women

See footnotes at end of table.




34

4
1
1
-

1
3
-

2
1
-

-

“

2

-

27.0

261

21

90

57

39

53

2

27.6

1

2

-

28.0

96

3

35

30

15

11

2

27.5

5

2

13

-

31.5

367

4

88

97

83

92

3

34.4

185
100
13
18
13
5
6
1
56

316
165
47
18
34
18
14
2
67

309
169
14
24
32
11
14
7
100

518
257
37
33
49
23
18
8
138

40.5
39.9
34.6
40.0
39.3
39.3
38.0
42.0
40.9

4,415
2,150
348
435
172
60
89
23
1,195

62
26
4
2
2
2

986
478
60
103
33
10
16
7
282

1,163
606
105
143
47
15
26
7
311

866
416
77
65
42
17
19
7
232

1,298
607
100
119
48
17
29
2
341

41
17
3
2

34.9
34.1
35.7
31.8
35.7
35.7
37.0
29.0
34.2

86
15
7
16
12
9
11
14

151
34
6
43
9
24
15
19

139
20
12
49
13
16
10
20

261
44
20
106
18
15
20
37

41.2
38.7
44.0
45.6
38.0
34.5
38.0
43.4

2,266
305
254
593
104
467
236
278

508
76
58
122
23
115
44
64

557
55
55
136
27
131
79
68

450
69
48
121
25
84
47
51

690
97
85
200
29
117
66
85

-

19
4
2
-

2
15
2
-

11
-

0
2

19
36
6
5
10
1
13
1

11
24
2
3
3
7
9

35.6
36.9
36.7
37.7
35.5
33.2
33.4
36.0

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

Not represented by labor organization
65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White women—Continued
Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

1,310
593
542
210

498
157
303
64

Trade......................................................................
Wholesale ............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

7,416
799
6,617

568
47
521

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

2,878

84

-

Services .................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services..................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

13,307
924
1,515
669
846
343
10,525
4,525
2,398
3,603

2,776
69
80
5
75
46
2,581
1,867
400
314

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

19

3

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal .......................................
Postal ..................................................................
S ta te ....................................................................
Local....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




1,561
559
119
333
550

452
116
74
97
165

1

72
18
42
13

183
59
111
21

117
51
68
5

125
28
82
23

160
6
154

133
7
127

98
14
84

28

24

266
13
17

943
16
15

-

0
0
21
21

8
-

6
2
5
2

-

-

-

17
8
227
114
64
50

-

2

_
"

69
14
14
26
16

2

34.6
35.0
34.7
34.0

812
435
239
146

142
17
125

13
3
10

32.3
44.3
31.7

8

24

1

643
22
14

864
18
24
2
22
3
819
611
126
81

52

-

15
16
895
642
135
118
0
131
35
19
23
55

2
2

14
12
596
470
68
58
1
90
29
16
15
30

157
39
24
31
64

-

3
2
2
5
44
29
7
8
5
2
2
1

159
86
42
31

274
133
91
51

172
105
45
23

191
103
55
39

10
5
4
2

33.4
34.8
32.8
32.4

6,848
752
6,096

641
8
633

2,083
171
1,913

1,433
239
1,194

1,008
137
871

1,475
180
1,295

208
18
190

29.3
32.8
28.7

32.0

2,794

35

730

777

544

664

44

32.7

37.6
37.7
37.9
46.0
37.7
34.3
37.6
38.2
36.0
35.3

10,532
855
1,435
664
771
297
7,944
2,658
1,998
3,289

330
15
146
116
30
42
126
38
16
72

2,170
232
295
113
182
101
1,543
421
422
700

2,865
245
334
114
220
58
2,227
711
614
902

2,132
150
196
82
115
45
1,741
678
420
644

2,653
192
358
172
187
40
2,063
741
497
824

382
21
105
68
38
11
245
69
29
147

34.5
31.7
33.2
33.8
32.8
25.7
35.4
36.9
34.0
34.8

34.0

-

6
3
2

17

1

7

3

3

1

1

28.0

38.6
38.3
41.8
37.2
38.0

1,109
443
45
236
385

13
3

159
61
2
42
54

281
116
7
65
92

242
106
15
52
69

382
150
19
69
143

31
7
1
5
17

38.7
37.8
44.9
35.3
40.6

-

2
8

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, S lay 1980
V
(Numbers in thousands)

Not represented by labor organization

Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other women
All industries ..................................................

5,072

1,390

Agriculture...............................................................

45

2

Mining......................................................................

16

3

Construction ...........................................................

21

3

-

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

876
395
51
42
73
34
35
4
230

287
160
24
9
43
23
18
2
84

_
-

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles ..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g oods..................................

481
72
56
180
15
55
34
63

128
22
10
53
5
5
11
21

_
-

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

211
71
108
35

131
37
78
18

-

Trade.......................................................................
W holesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




680
58
621

88
9
79

6

150
-

1

353

425

1

1

37.0

3,682

97

769

1,103

741

860

112

33.6

-

42.0

42

5

6

12

11

6

2

34.5

-

-

20.0

13

-

5

6

3

-

-

38.0

19

-

4

7

5

3

100
47
9
2
8
7
1
29

_
-

38.8
36.9
38.0
34.0
32.5
35.3
30.5
27.0
39.4

589
236
27
32
30
12
17
2
146

_
-

142
56
3
10
10
3
6
34

203
87
16
13
12
6
4
2
45

139
50
7
3
5
2
3
35

100
38
1
6
3
3
28

-

23
28
6
3
8

0
2

53
12
3
28

41.4
44.0
42.0
46.0
27.0
48.0
35.3
36.0

353
50
46
127
10
50
23
42

_
-

85
8
10
28
3
17
3
14

116
14
16
45
3
14
11
11

89
14
9
31
1
14
8
10

61
14
11
23
2
5
1
5

-

32.6
35.0
31.8
32.5

80
34
30
17

-

16
5
7
4

49
22
23
5

11
5

4
2

38.0
40.0
37.7

592
50
542

176
9
168

157
22
135

-

1

2
70
41
6
2
11
6
4

5

89
57
8
5
17
10
6
2
27

14
3
2
5
2

32
2
2
12
3

29
14
1
1
7
7
-

-

13
5
9
0
14
14

-

10

5
9

1
3
8

4
3
3

_
-

70
10
49
10

26
6
14
5

22
14
6
2

-

1

_
-

447

27
3
24

-

-

24
4
20

23
2
21

_
-

-

53
53

-

-

-

0
6

2

92
6
85

108
12
96

31.0

-

35.5
6
4

-

4
2

2
-

32.6
31.6
30.3
30.0
32.3
32.5
33.0
27.0
32.6
33.2
36.7
34.0
33.6
28.5
30.0
31.0
32.7
29.4
30.7
27.3
29.5

7
1
6

29.5
33.4
29.0

Table 14. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization representation, sex, and race, S iay 1980
V
(Numbers in thousands)
Represented by labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Not represented by labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Black and other women—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

292

22

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ....:......................................................
Other professional services.............................

2,556
95
559
358
202
29
1,873
743
568
562

708
16
47
2
45
4
641
307
201
133

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

0

-

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal .......................................
Postal ..................................................................
State ....................................................................
Local....................................................................
' Fewer than 500 workers.




372
183
52
53
84

145
55
40
18
31

9

185
3
11
11
172
75
64
33

246
9
27
2
24
0
210
106
63
42

-

-

-

6
57
12
19
25

0
-

_
-

196
0
4
4
2
190
103
56
31

2
2
2

-

5

67
4
6

4
-

7

16
7
0
1
7

56
20
19
5
13

-

40
14
14
5
7

28.0
10
10
8
1
33
14
8
6
5

_
-

270

8

71

105

58

27

38.6
49.0
39.4
58.0
39.1
31.0
38.5
38.7
39.5
36.0

1,848
79
512
355
157
25
1,232
436
367
429

27
(1
)
3
3
1
23
11
2
10

284
23
33
13
19
5
223
89
53
80

484
33
62
23
39
8
380
107
136
137

376
10
99
46
53
6
260
83
89
88

584
13
247
204
42
5
320
128
84
107

_

-

-

-

-

34.6
35.4
35.3
36.0
31.3

0
228
129
12
35
53

-

0
4
2

_
2
0

65
37
2
12
14

80
40
5
12
23

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
workers in cell.

47
30
3
7
7

29
19
2
2
6

1

30.3

93

37.7
28.6
50.4
54.7
38.3
32.5
34.4
35.1
34.4
33.8

_
68
65
3
25
17
2
6

23.0
3

_
3

Dashes (-) indicate no

30.2
30.8
31.5
27.0
30.0

Table 15. Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Both sexes

Agriculture...............................................................

1,455

51

M ining......................................................................

892

286

Construction ...........................................................

4,982

1,574

Manufacturing, to ta l................................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

20,976
12,546
2,769
2,779
2,031
951
676
404
4,966

6,771
4,366
1,251
798
1,038
582
286
170
1,278

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
T extiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g o o ds..................................

8,430
1,674
786
1,298
751
1,433
1,240
1,028

2,405
628
117
326
369
290
320
281

5,469
3,241
1,447
1,359

2,429
1,595
714
594

17,401
3,419
13,981

1,753
389
1,363

5,152

190

25,123
2,902
2,868
1,214
1,653

4,743
293
237
7
229

67,384

2,666

14,814

18,137

12,610

17,208

1,949

33.8

12

19

5

13

2

35.6

1,404

137

397

313

223

272

63

28.9

49

86

71

78

1

35.4

605

3

138

205

110

141

8

31.7

186

506

302

554

21

37.3

3,408

72

936

979

572

796

54

31.7

904
578
128
132
112
43
35
35
206

1,824
1,181
369
227
264
164
60
40
322

1,497
975
273
157
256
151
71
34
289

2,488
1,605
470
275
401
221
121
58
460

51
27
11
8
6
3

38.9
38.8
39.5
37.3
39.9
39.6
42.3
37.1
38.2

14,205
8,180
1,518
1,981
993
369
390
234
3,688

170
72
8
21
7
2
1
4
35

2,758
1,534
255
368
147
44
51
52
764

3,878
2,324
435
595
249
94
81
74
1,045

3,017
1,769
330
400
237
99
91
47
801

4,163
2,383
470
574
348
131
161
56
990

218
98
19
22
4

53

35.7
35.5
36.3
34.9
38.0
38.4
40.3
34.1
34.8

326
92
21
25
44
48
44
44

644
161
20
68
102
75
104
84

522
136
27
66
101
63
60
58

883
232
45
155
122
99
112
92

39.0
38.1
40.0
44.8
38.9
39.3
37.4
37.9

6,025
1,046
669
972
382
1,143
921
747

98
17
11
14
2
50
5

1,224
241
143
185
54
281
123
182

1,554
257
151
251
105
289
286
185

1,249
218
133
202
89
223
208
142

1,781
295
215
305
124
272
289
216

120
18
17
16
9
29
14
17

36.0
34.4
37.3
37.0
38.3
33.4
38.0
35.8

242
144
88
55

775
458
272
206

633
423
162
139

766
558
192
190

4

37.5
39.1
35.0
37.4

3,040
1,646
734
765

28
19
7
2

531
321
98
122

977
502
261
237

643
348
163
153

825
428
201
245

35
28
4
5

34.8
34.5
34.5
36.2

456
63
393

458
111
347

299
87
212

449
124
325

20
4
16

32.3
37.1
31.1

15,648
3,030
12,618

1,468
31
1,436

4,560
547
4,013

3,666
970
2,696

2,259
591
1,668

3,218
788
2,429

41

51

29

65

5

35.8

4,962

74

1,055

1,414

1,011

412
55
44

1,518
83
42

1,114
66
49
2
47

1,598
87
92
4
88

92
2
6
2
4

38.4
37.1
38.7
52.0
38.4

20,381
2,609
2,631
1,207
1,424

679
70
242
178
64

3,970
689
488
177
312

5,674
739
555
158
397

3,949
475
360
134
226

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair.............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................

38.0

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

227

0
0

Trade.......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

6,844

0
0

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

4,478

7

20,095

5,960

4

87,480

2,493

1

All industries ..................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




94
-

-

-

7
2
2
3

1

70
70

10
-

4
-

-

4

-

44

42

-

3
2
24
5
1
10
(')
4
3
14
13
-

-

-

0

4

All
102
376

29.5
35.0
27.9

1,260

147

34.7

5,277
540
767
408
360

832
95
218
153
65

34.8
31.8
35.4
41.2
33.5

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Both sexes—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

902
18,451
8,062
3,901
6,489

127
4,086
2,767
692
627

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

87

12

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal .......................................
Postal ..................................................................
S ta te ....................................................................
Local....................................................................

5,364
1,795
691
972
1,906

1,812
347
509
253
703

All industries ..................................................

49,348

14,039

Agriculture...............................................................

1,141

42

Mining.....................................................................

4
2
2
-

20
292
130
92
70

41
1,351
926
231
194

27
972
681
149
143

23
1,397
978
210
208

-

2

4

2

4

1

145
25
39
28
53

559
105
128
60
266

434
94
107
63
170

655
120
229
100
206

64

1,727

4,163

3,090

-

10

15

-

46
4
4

1
-

_

12
72
51
9
12

35.2
38.6
38.9
37.2
38.2

775
14,366
5,295
3,209
5,861

102
265
111
31
123

265
2,527
854
630
1,044

157
4,223
1,487
1,068
1,668

87
3,027
1,226
628
1,173

124
3,846
1,487
797
1,561

40
478
131
56
292

26.4
35.5
36.3
34.0
35.5

36.0

76

3

16

22

20

12

2

31.0

18
3
7
1
7

39.5
39.3
43 7
40.1
37.0

3,551
1,448
18?
719
1,202

34
5
12
17

443
145
13
114
171

985
404
49
196
336

783
348
46
153
236

1,196
527
65
224
380

111
18
9
21
63

38.8
39.0
43 6
37.3
38.4

4,856

140

38.1

35,308

1,444

7,362

9,649

6,524

9,231

1,099

34.2

4

11

2

36.0

1,100

110

301

244

172

213

59

28.9

81

70

76

1

35.8

495

98

169

92

129

6

32.6

182

502

299

543

21

37.3

3,017

67

842

873

484

699

52

31.4

716
475
114
114
94
39
22
34
153

1,465
991
318
207
221
138
46
37
245

1,155
783
255
134
221
134
58
29
171

1,918
1,333
428
247
354
196
107
50
305

36
25
9
8
6
3

38.4
38.7
39.9
37.1
40.2
39.8
43.8
36.2
36.2

9,040
5,698
1,133
1,501
762
291
265
206
2,303

106
44
4
19
4

1,606
988
192
254
103
29
29
45
440

2,465
1,599
311
436
181
72
45
64
671

1,976
1,285
245
329
182
80
64
38
529

2,718
1,706
365
444
287
110
123
54
610

168
76
16
20
4

36

36.3
36.2
36.8
36.0
39.0
40.0
43.2
34.8
35.1

240
76
15
8
30
39
35
30

475
128
16
13
90
55
88
56

372
111
16
12
88
48
52
35

585
177
25
31
103
81
88
52

38.0
37.6
37.4
44.0
39.3
40.3
37.2
35.7

3,342
684
355
234
269
618
653
420

618
154
71
31
29
148
75
102

866
185
76
70
74
139
193
107

692
135
72
46
63
123
149
77

1,012
184
116
72
93
149
223
125

92
16
14
11
9
22
14
6

36.7
33.4
38.3
37.4
40.7
33.8
40.2
35.9

-

Men

770

274

Construction ...........................................................

4,567

1,551

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

14,334
9,305
2,258
2,210
1,659
801
498
360
3,179

5,293
3,606
1,125
709
897
510
233
154
876

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g oods..................................

5,029
1,182
429
300
580
847
915
596

1,687
498
74
66
312
228
262
176

See footnotes at end of table.




-

4
2
-

2
-

0
-

(1
)

-

3
1
11
4
1
-

(')

4

_

1

0

-

4
16
62
11
6
4
1
37
-

3

-

4
0

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Men—Continued
Transportation, communication,
and public utilities .................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ....................................................
Other public utilities.............................................

3,947
2,578
798
1,114

1,885
1,431
372
527

T rade.......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

9,305
2,562
6,743

1,151
347
803

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

1,982

119

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

9,260
1,882
793
188
606
531
6,053
2,795
935
2,324

1,909
216
118
2
116
85
1,489
1,030
201
259

-

Forestry and fisheries............................................

68

9

-

Public administration ..............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

3,431
1,053
520
586
1,272

1,361
236
411
164
549

-

See footnotes at end of table.




171
126
41
46

562
404
133
178

494
369
81
129

645
521
117
172

297
58
239

321
107
214

185
75
110

17

31

159
42
24

600
67
24

52
52

3
2
-

-

0

1

1

1,630
594
1,036

263
83
180

29.6
35.8
27.2

404

565

101

38.3

2,104
461
158
21
137
89
1,396
516
286
594

1,278
313
65
7
58
32
869
342
98
429

1,869
334
162
32
131
79
1,294
502
176
615

347
74
45
20
25
30
198
36
25
137

34.3
32.2
31.2
21.7
33.0
26.3
35.9
35.5
33.5
37.2

8

19

17

1
1

1

32.5

193
41
7
51
94

567
223
28
108
207

471
200
24
90
158

748
341
43
151
213

75

40.1
41.4
45.7
39.2
38.6

3

2,062
■1,147
425
587

22
15
4
2

341
224
46
83

614
331
127
177

456
236
116
125

604
317
133
197

288
107
181

7
1
7

31.6
36.3
30.0

8,155
2,215
5,940

771
24
747

2,285
367
1,918

2,053
704
1,349

1,152
443
710

21

45

4

40.8

1,864

31

241

521

659
61
41
41
19
537
376
61
100

40
2
2

24
25
484
332
72
80

448
44
25
2
23
19
361
259
37
64

39.0
35.6
37.5
42.0
37.3
37.1
39.6
39.6
37.1
40.9

7,351
1,666
675
186
489
446
4,564
1,765
734
2,065

317
55
88
57
30
59
116
62
13
41

1,435
430
158
50
108
156
691
306
136
249

2

4

36.5

59

3

429
75
99
43
212

327
64
81
46
136

502
85
198
64
155

39.7
39.4
45.1
40.7
36.9

2,070
816
109
422
723

16

-

24
14
79
41
28
10

-

3

35.8
34.8
36.8
37.5

38.7
39.7
35.9
38.0

4

-

2
1

87
10
28
10
39

12
11
-

2
7
29
21
3
5
15
3
5
O
7

8
8

25
23
-

11
7
14
43

Tab!© 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64 65 years Median
and
years
years
years
years
years
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White men
All industries ..................................................

44,085

12,261

Agriculture...............................................................

991

35

55

1,508

3,619

2,681

4,275

-

10

15

1

9

-

43

76

70

75

2

165

453

273

4

633
423
104
106
79
33
16
29
135

1,258
851
276
180
185
117
40
28
210

210
65
14
6
29
36
31
25

Mining.....................................................................

729

263

Construction ...........................................................

4,139

1,404

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment...............................
Automobiles ...................................................
A ircra ft............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

12,836
8,364
2,008
2,080
1,468
718
445
304
2,809

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles.............................................................
Apparel .............................................................
Paper ................................................................
Printing .............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum...............................
Other nondurable g o o ds.................................

4,472
1,054
352
246
522
775
814
548

1,458
423
66
50
269
204
236
151

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

3,507
2,261
729
1,004

1,644
1,240
334
466

Trade......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

8,447
2,335
6,112

984
279
705

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

1,805

90

8,089
1,671
641
146
495

1,639
178
97
2
95

31,824

1,323

6,567

8,653

5,871

8,426

984

34.2

-

30.5

956

108

271

220

136

171

50

27.9

1

36.0

465

91

160

86

122

6

32.7

492

18

37.4

2,735

61

777

806

420

623

48

31.0

994
669
214
121
189
114
48
27
145

1,701
1,201
378
236
309
171
97
41
277

32
20
5
8
6
3

38.7
39.0
40.0
37.7
40.6
39.8
44.8
37.0
36.8

8,213
5,199
1,031
1,428
699
280
244
175
2,040

100
42
4
17
4
_

1,431
887
177
240
94
29
26
39
376

2,191
1,428
272
402
163
68
40
54
591

1,805
1,175
217
320
158
77
54
27
479

2,531
1,597
346
430
276
106
120
50
545

155
71
13
20
4
_
4
(’)
34

36.7
36.5
37.2
36.3
39.8
40.2
45.5
35.0
35.4

407
109
14
9
72
48
78
50

326
97
16
8
80
42
46
31

499
147
21
26
88
73
82
43

0

38.1
37.8
37.3
44.9
39.6
40.5
37.5
35.7

3,014
631
286
196
253
571
578
396

58
11
6
3
1
34
3

544
139
55
25
29
136
65
88

763
174
56
52
68
133
158
103

630
120
55
41
61
114
139
75

934
172
103
63
87
134
204
121

84
16
12
11
7
20
12
6

36.9
33.1
39.6
38.4
40.6
33.7
40.7
36.2

482
341
119
156

420
309
75
107

585
465
114
159

38.9
39.8
37.0
37.9

1,863
1,021
395
537

19
13
4
2

305
191
41
82

542
285
117
158

410
216
108
106

563
294
126
186

23
22

_

3

36.1
35.4
36.8
37.6

271
52
219

275
86
188

151
60
92

236
81
154

7

31.2
36.0
29.8

7,462
2,055
5,407

713
23
690

2,067
336
1,730

1,875
655
1,220

1,050
400
650

1,516
564
952

242
77
165

29.7
36.0
27.2

12

22

16

37

4

41.4

1,715

19

220

470

379

531

96

38.7

127
39
21

522
54
19

387
35
18
2
16

565
50
34

36

39.0
34.5
39.0
42.0
38.5

6,450
1,493
545
144
401

285
54
78
55
23

1,236
369
136
47
89

1,856
409
131
15
116

1,134
284
57
3
54

1,648
306
115
18
97

291
71
29
7
22

34.3
32.6
30.0
19.9
31.9

-

Services .................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services..................................

38.1

144
114
27
41

-

123

See footnotes at end of table.




4,623 ■
3,165
977
651
768
438
201
129
768

-

4
2
-

2
(')
0

-

45
45

3
-

2
-

-

2

-

21

19

-

-

3
1
11
4
1

_

4
1
12
11
3
7

-

-

2
-

34

2

(’)

-

4
16

_

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White men—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

484
5,293
2,466
719
2,107

78
1,286
948
116
222

-

Forestry and fisheries ............................................

61

8

-

Public administration ..............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

2,994
896
427
542
1,129

1,174
192
334
155
493

-

All industries ..................................................

5,262

1,778

Agriculture...............................................................

151

6

-

Mining......................................................................

41

11

-

Construction ...........................................................

428

147

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
A ircra ft............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

1,498
941
249
131
191
83
53
55
370

671
441
148
58
128
72
32
24
107

33.2

142
589
254
113
222

83
1,233
451
237
545

29
764
298
71
394

70
1,157
436
150
571

35.0

53

3

6

18

15

11

1,820
704
93
387
636

16

7

39.3
38.6
45.6
40.6
36.5

8
8

153
34
5
48
66

499
192
22
97
187

415
174
20
85
137

667
293
39
137
197

71
11
7
12
41

40.6
41.6
47.4
39.7
39.0

581

17

37.6

3,484

120

795

996

653

805

115

33.4

3

2

2

47.3

144

2

31

24

36

43

9

38.4

31.0

30

7

9

6

7

4

1

3

1

65
4
21
8
32

379
68
76
41
194

296
54
71
46
125

419
63
163
59
134

9

219

543

409

-

-

1

-

55
98
47
12
40

18
463
343
37
83

0

26.1
36.0
35.7
33.5
37.3

406
4,007
1,518
604
1,885

17
317
240
18
59

14
53
29
16
8

26
165
32
20
113

37.1
39.5
39.5
37.0
41.1

23
426
316
43
67

1

7
27
21
1
5
13
2
3
0

-

Black and other men

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum................................
Other nondurable g oods..................................
See footnotes at end of table.




557
128
77
54
59
71
100
48

229
75
8
16
43
24
26
24

2

_
-

-

_
-

32.0

3

6

1

‘1

17

49

26

50

3

36.2

281

6

65

67

64

76

3

35.4

82
52
10
7
16
6
5
4
18

207
140
42
26
36
21
6
9
35

161
114
42
14
32
20
10
2
26

217
131
50
10
44
25
11
9
27

4
4
4

36.2
35.9
39.5
33.7
37.6
39.5
38.0
33.3
34.5

827
500
102
73
63
11
21
31
263

6
2

175
102
15
14
9
3
6
64

275
171
39
34
18
4
5
9
80

171
110
27
8
24
3
10
11
50

187
109
18
14
12
4
3
5
65

13
5
3

33.5
33.3
34.7
30.0
34.7
32.0
35.0
34.0
33.1

36.8
35.6
38.0
37.0
35.5
39.0
31.0
36.0

328
53
69
38
16
47
74
24

73
15
17
6

103
11
20
18
6
6
35
4

61
14
17
5
2
9
10
2

78
12
13
9
6
14
18
4

30
11
1
2
2
3
4
5

67
19
2
4
18
7
10
6

46
14
0
5
8
6
6
4

85
31
4
5
15
8
6
9

-

-

0

_
-

-

2
4
-

(1
)
-

-

3
-

-

12
9
14

-

3
8
-

2
-

2
2
2
“

34.0
36.4
31.7
33.2
42.0
36.0
33.5
27.0

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other men—Continued
Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

441
317
68
110

242
191
38
61

-

Trade......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ...................................................................

859
227
631

166
68
99

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

177

29

Services.................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services..................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

1,171
212
152
41
110
47
760
328
215
217

270
39
21

Forestry and fisheries ..................... .....................

6

1

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal .......................................
Postal .........................................................
State ...........................................................
Local ...........................................................

437
157
93
44
143

187
44
77
9
56

See footnotes at end of table.




21
7
203
81
85
37

28
12
15
4

-

_
-

47
20
26

33
15
18

53
26
27

6

-

60
57
3
13

9

6

9

32
3
3

7

74
59
6
22

26
6
20

7

80
63
14
22

78
13
4

61
9
7

94
12
7

-

3

0
26
13
12
2
-

4
3
58
16
29
13

7
2
44
20
19
5
1

22
5
7
2
8

-

50
7
23
3
18

31
10
10
0
10

-

37.8
39.2
30.0
39.3

199
126
30
49

-

33.9
40.3
32.0

692
160
533

-

36.0
39.3
40.0
36.0

(1
)
82
22
36
5
20

36
33
5

46
20
8
19

41
23
7
12

57

218
31
188

179
50
129

103
43
60

148

12

20

51

-

36.0
38.0
40.3
41.5
37.3
40.0

901
173
130
41
89
40
557
247
130
180

32
1
10
3
7
4
18
15
1
1

199
61
22
2
19
14
102
52
23
27

-

46.0

5

-

42.8
45.3
41.6
46.0
41.7

249
112
15
35
87

0

1
1

4
2
(’)

-

7
2
74
33
23
17

3
3

72
46
10
18

0
2

2

3
1
1

-

-

58
0

(')

1

33.3
31.6
36.7
35.6

114
30
84

21
6
15

28.3
33.7
26.6

25

34

6

33.7

248
51
27
6
22
7
163
66
49
49

144
29
8
4
4
2
105
43
27
35

221
28
47
14
34
9
137
67
26
44

56
3
16
13
3
4
33
4
5
24

34.1
28.5
45.0
52.0
38.7
29.0
34.8
34.0
33.6
36.8

2

1

1

1

23.5

40
7
1
3
28

68
31
6
11
20

56
26
4
5
21

4

37.8
40.4
37.3
34.5
35.3

0

2
1

_

81
47
4
14
16

(1
)
2
2

Table 15. Continued-Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Workers not in labor organization

Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Women
All industries ..................................................

38,132

6,056

Agriculture...............................................................

314

9

Mining......................................................................

122

12

Construction ...........................................................

415

23

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l............................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods.........................................

6,642
3,241
511
569
373
151
177
45
1,788

1,478
759
126
89
142
72
53
16
403

Nondurable goods, total .....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper .................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable go o ds..................................

3,402
492
357
998
170
586
326
432

718
130
43
260
57
61
58
106

1,521
663
650
245

544
164
341
67

8,095
857
7,238

602
42
560

3,170

71

15,863
1,020
2,074
1,027
1,048

2,834
77
119
6
113

See footnotes at end of table.



8,488

6,086

7,977

850

33.4

-

35.0

304

26

96

69

50

59

4

29.1

2

-

27.5

110

3

40

36

18

11

2

27.5

3

11

-

42.0

391

4

93

106

88

97

3

34.4

359
190
51
20
42
26
14
3
76

342
192
18
22
35
17
13
5
118

571
272
41
28
47
25
14
8
155

40.6
39.6
35.1
38.3
37.3
37.5
33.0
43.0
41.3

5,164
2,481
385
480
231
79
124
28
1,385

64
28
4
2
3
2
1

1,152
545
63
114
44
15
22
7
324

1,413
725
125
159
68
22
35
11
374

1,041
484
85
72
55
19
28
9
271

1,445
677
105
131
61
21
38
2
380

50
22
3
2

34.6
33.9
34.9
31.9
35.1
34.7
36.4
30.0
34.0

86
16
5
17
14
9
9
13

169
33
4
55
12
19
16
28

150
25
11
54
13
15
9
23

298
54
20
124
18
18
24
40

41.8
40.0
45.0
45.3
35.3
37.0
40.5
42.0

2,683
362
314
738
113
525
268
326

607
87
72
153
26
133
49
80

687
71
74
182
31
150
93
79

557
84
61
155
26
100
60
64

768
111
100
233
31
123
67
91

70
17
46
9

213
54
139
28

138
55
81
10

120
36
75
17

978
499
308
179

6
3
2

2

34.4
35.6
34.1
33.3

190
98
53
39

363
171
134
61

188
112
47
28

158
5
153

137
4
133

114
13
102

160
17
143

13
3
10

34.2
45.0
33.4

7,493
815
6,678

697
8
689

2,275
181
2,094

1,613
266
1,347

24

20

7

20

1

31.0

3,098

43

814

252
13
20

918
16
19

666
22
24

939
26
50
4
46

52

38.1
39.7
39.2
58.0
38.9

13,030
943
1,956
1,021
935

362
16
155
121
34

2,535
259
331
127
204

4

1

2

3

5

1

4

4

188
102
14
18
18
4
13
1
53

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair.............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................

7,453

1,988

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

1,223

1,388

0
0

T rade......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

32,076

1,798

-

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities.............................................

37.8

766
2

30
1
3
-

3
2
1

1

18
18

7
-

2
-

-

2

-

-

20

19

24

87

15
2
2
0
13
2
10
2
2
2
-

-

3
2
2

19
36
6
5
10
1
13
1

-

17

11

35.3
36.7
36.2
36.9
34.9
33.0
33.1
35.7

221
111
68
48

10
5
4
2

32.4
33.8
31.3
32.0

1,107
149
958

1,587
194
1,394

215
19
196

29.3
32.8
28.7

893

607

694

46

32.3

3,570
279
397
137
260

2,671
162
296
128
168

3,408
206
605
376
229

485
21
173
133
40

35.0
31.2
37.1
44.0
33.7

28
2
3
5
7
-

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

■ Women—Continued
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services .........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

371
12,398
5,267
2,966
4,165

42
2,597
1,737
491
369

-

6
213
89
64
61

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

20

3

-

2

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal ..................... ..................
Postal ...................................................................
State ....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

1,933
742
172
386
633

452
111
98
89
154

_

59
15
11
19
13

130
30
29
16
54

107
30
26
17
34

153
35
31
36
51

All industries ..................................................

33,059

4,838

639

1,421

1,070

1,606

Agriculture...............................................................

269

7

-

2

3

Mining.....................................................................

106

9

-

1

5

Construction ...........................................................

393

21

-

4

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

5,766
2,845
460
527
300
117
143
41
1,558

1,207
609
103
79
101
50
37
14
325

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food ..................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel..............................................................
Paper ................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g o o ds..................................

2,921
420
301
818
156
532
292
369

598
108
33
210
52
58
47
86

4
2
2
-

-

-

16
867
594
159
114

8
611
422
111
78
1

O

3
860
602
150
108
-

5
43
29
7
7

33.0
38.1
38.5
37.2
36.5

329
9,802
3,530
2,475
3,796

42
149
49
18
82

108
1,836
547
494
795

68
2,827
971
782
1,074

55
2,158
884
530
744

45
2,552
985
620
946

11
280
94
31
154

26.5
35.3
36.7
34.2
34.6

34.0

17

1

7

3

4

1

1

27.0

1,482
632
73
297
480

18
5

2
1
1

38.6
38.6
40.8
38.5
37.2

4
9

250
104
7
62
77

418
181
21
88
128

312
148
22
63
78

448
186
22
73
167

36
7
1
7
20

36.5
35.9
42.2
34.3
38.1

77

37.9

28,221

1,125

6,660

7,315

5,310

7,073

738

33.4

3
-

-

White women

See footnotes at end of table.




25

3
-

3
2
1
-

-

2

-

26.0

262

21

90

57

39

53

2

27.7

1

2

-

29.0

97

3

35

31

15

11

2

27.4

3

2

11

-

46.0

372

4

89

100

83

94

3

34.1

160
88
12
17
11
4
6
1
47

273
136
43
15
27
17
10
O
51

275
152
12
20
24
11
8
5
95

480
230
33
27
39
19
12
8
131

41.2
40.4
34.6
39.2
40.0
38.7
36.0
44.0
41.7

4,559
2,237
357
448
199
67
106
26
1,233

64
28
4
2
3
2
1

1,011
489
61
104
34
12
16
7
291

1,206
635
108
146
54
16
30
9
327

899
433
78
69
50
17
25
9
236

1,335
633
103
125
58
21
35
2
348

44
18
3
2

34.9
34.2
35.7
32.1
36.2
36.0
37.6
30.3
34.1

72
13
3
12
12
9
9
12

137
32
3
43
9
19
11
19

123
19
8
46
13
14
5
17

250
43
17
99
18
15
20
37

42.2
39.3
50.0
45.6
38.0
35.0
41.3
44.3

2,323
311
268
608
104
474
245
283

521
79
62
126
23
115
46
66

571
57
59
136
27
136
82
68

466
69
52
124
25
86
52
53

702
97
88
207
29
117
66
85

-

15
2
2
-

-

(’)
13
2
10
-

2

19
36
6
5
10
1
13
-

1

_
-

_
13
26
2
3
5
7
_
9

35.6
36.7
36.7
37.9
35.5
33.2
33.4
36.2

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

White women—Continued
Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities.............................................

1,310
593
542
210

423
129
272
49

T rade.......................................................................
W holesale............................................................
Retail ....................................................................

7,416
799
6,617

521
35
486

-

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

2,878

56

-

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

13,307
924
1,515
669
846
343
10,525
4,525
2,398
3,603

2,234
60
72
3
69
38
2,063
1,482
322
260

Forestry and fisheries ............................................

19

Public administration ..............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
S ta te .....................................................................
Local.....................................................................

1,561
559
119
333
550

See footnotes at end of table.




1

59
12
38
.9

3
-

2
-

100
24
69
16

114
3
111

91
9
82

15

199
8
15

18

112
48
67
5

17

18

150
44
98
17

148
5
142

0
0

760
16
15

-

2
2

-

-

15
6
169
83
47
39

3

-

2

331
69
60
74
129

_

47
10
11
17
10

-

-

2

35.0
35.9
34.9
33.5

887
464
270
161

137
15
123

13
3
10

33.0
45.3
32.3

3

20

1

509
20
13

722
17
24
2
22
3
678
511
94
72

42

-

15
14
714
506
117
91

13
8
468
360
56
52
1

0
89
18
12
15
44

69
18
12
12
28

124
24
23
30
47

2
2

-

3
2
2
5
34
21
7
6
3
2
1
1

172
92
45
35

306
149
104
55

177
108
47
23

216
107
68
47

10
5
4
2

33.3
34.4
32.7
32.7

6,894
764
6,130

644
8
636

2,096
172
1,924

1,452
242
1,210

1,015
142
873

1,479
182
1,297

208
18
190

29.3
32.8
28.7

33.5

2,822

35

741

786

548

667

44

32.6

37.8
38.8
38.8
60.0
38.5
34.3
37.8
38.4
35.9
36.4

11,073
864
1,443
666
777
304
8,462
3,043
2,076
3,343

334
15
151
118
33
42
126
38
16
72

2,238
237
298
113
185
103
1,601
451
439
711

3,048
245
334
114
220
59
2,409
847
632
929

2,266
152
196
82
115
49
1,869
788
431
649

2,795
194
358
172
187
40
2,203
842
529
833

392
21
105
68
38
11
255
77
29
149

34.6
31.7
33.1
33.8
32.7
25.8
35.4
37.0
34.1
34.7

34.0

-

6
3
2

17

1

7

3

4

1

1

28.0

40.3
40.8
42.7
38.7
38.8

1,229
490
60
259
420

13
3

181
65
5
50
61

323
134
14
73
103

264
117
19
56
72

416
165
20
70
159

33
7
1
7
17

38.2
37.6
43.3
35.2
40.3

-

2
8

Table 15. Continued-Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

Total

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other women
All industries ..................................................

5,072

1,218

Agriculture...............................................................

45

2

Mining.....................................................................

16

3

Construction ...........................................................

21

2

-

Manufacturing, to ta l...............................................
Durable goods, to ta l...........................................
Metal industries................................................
Machinery, except electrical............................
Transportation equipment................................
Automobiles ...................................................
Aircraft ............................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Other durable goods........................................

876
395
51
42
73
34
35
4
230

271
151
23
9
41
23
16
2
78

_
--

Nondurable goods, total ....................................
Food .................................................................
Textiles..............................................................
Apparel ..............................................................
Paper ................................................................
Printing ..............................................................
Chemicals and petroleum ................................
Other nondurable g o o ds..................................

481
72
56
180
15
55
34
63

120
22
10
50
5
3
11
19

-

Transportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................................
Transportation .....................................................
Communication ...................................................
Other public utilities............................................

211
71
108
35

120
35
70
18

Trade......................................................................
Wholesale............................................................
Retail ...................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




680
58
621

81
7
74

5
-

126
-

1

381

1

-

1

1

14
3
2
5
2

32
2
2
12
3

7
-

-

1

-

12
5
8
-

_

37.5

3,855

97

792

1,173

776

904

112

33.7

-

42.0

42

5

6

12

11

6

2

34.5

-

20.0

13

-

5

6

3

-

-

34.0

19

-

4

7

5

3

38.2
36.7
37.0
34.0
33.5
35.3
31.0
27.0
39.0

605
245
28
32
32
12
18
2
152

142
56
3
10
10
3
6
34

207
91
16
13
14
6
6
2
47

142
51
7
3
5
2
3
35

110
43
2
6
3
3
32

40.6
44.5
42.0
43.0
27.0
48.0
35.3
35.5

361
50
46
130
10
51
23
44

85
8
10
28
3
17
3
14

116
14
16
45
3
14
11
11

91
14
9
31
1
14
8
11

66
14
11
26
2
6
1
5

32.9
34.5
32.2
33.0

90
36
38
17

17
5
8
5

57
22
30
5

11
5

5
3

39.0
42.0
38.6

599
51
548

179
9
171

160
23
137

67
41
6
2
11
6
4

5

86
54
8
5
16
10
4
2
25

29
14
1
1
7

11
11

-

90
42
8
2
8
7
1
-

22

24

26
5
3
8

48
12
3
25
-

-

5
9

1
3
6

3
3
3

62
10
42
10

26
6
14
5

20
13
6
2

23
1
22

10

-

1

-

-

-

318

0
2

_

-

377

24
4
20

23
2
21

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
53
-

53

-

-

_

0
6

2

92
6
85

108
12
96

31.0

-

36.0
6
4

_
4
2
_
-

2

32.9
31.9
30.7
30.0
31.7
32.5
31.5
27.0
33.5
33.5
37.0
34.0
33.9
28.5
32.0
31.0
33.3
29.5
30.8
27.7
,29.0

-

_
7
1
6

29.6
33.1
29.0

Table 15. Continued—Age distribution of employed wage and salary workers by industry, labor organization membership, sex, and race, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Workers in labor organization
Industry of current job

Total
workers

Total

Workers not in labor organization

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Total

16 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65 years
Median
and
age
over

Black and other women—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................

292

16

Services ..................................................................
Business and repair.............................................
Personal services ...............................................
Private household services..............................
Other personal services...................................
Entertainment......................................................
Professional services ..........................................
Education ..........................................................
Hospitals ...........................................................
Other professional services.............................

2,556
95
559
358
202
29
1,873
743
568
562

600
16
46
2
44
4
533
256
169
108

Forestry and fisheries ...........................................

(')

-

Public administration .............................................
Federal, except postal ........................................
Postal ...................................................................
State ....................................................................
L ocal....................................................................
1 Fewer than 500 workers.




372
183
52
53
84

120
42
39
15
25

7

-

-

44
5
17
21

_
-

11
6

-

-

3
2
153
88
42
23

(’)
1
4

11
-

27.0
218
9
27
2
24
-

41
12
17
2
10

10
-

-

143
62
55
26

182
91
55
36

-

-

-

_
-

157
3
11

6
2
2
2

-

158
0
3

-

-

-

4

54
4
6

4
-

5

39
12
14
5
7

10
8
1
-

29
11
8
6
4

_
-

39.4
50.0
42.0
58.0
39.7
30.7
39.4
39.8
39.7
36.8

1,957
79
513
355
157
25
1,340
487
399
454

8

35.3
36.5
35.5
38.0
31.0

0
252
141
14
38
59

74

107

59

27

27

276

297
23
33
13
19
5
236
96
55
84

522
33
63
23
40
8
418
123
150
145

405
10
99
46
53
6
289
96
98
95

613
13
247
204
42
5
348
143
92
113

-

-

-

0
3
3
1
23
11
2
10
-

0
4
2

-

2
O

69
39
2
12
16

95
48
7
15
26

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
workers in cell.

49
31
3
7
7

1

30.1

93

37.5
28.5
50.3
54.7
38.0
33.0
34.5
35.1
34.6
33.8

68
65
3
25
17
2
6

23.0

32
21
2
2
7

3
-

3

Dashes (-) indicate no

30.5
31.3
31.0
27.2
30.2




Table 16. Black workers as a percent of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and labor organization
representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Occupation of current job

All employed wage and
salary workers

Represented by labor
organization

Not represented by labor
organization

Total

Percent black

Total

Percent black

Total

Percent black

All occupations1 ...................................................................

87,480

11.8

22,493

14.7

64,986

10.8

White-collar occupations..............................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers...........................
Managers and administrators, except fa rm ..............................
Clerical and kindred workers....................................................
Sales workers............................................................................

45,955
14,436
8,953
17,507
5,059

8.8
9.6
4.9
11.3
5.4

8,483
3,997
868
3,365
253

14.2
12.4
9.9
17.5
11.7

37,472
10,439
8,086
14,142
4,805

7.6
8.5
4.4
9.8
5.0

Blue-collar workers......................................................................
Craft and kindred workers ........................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters .....................
Mechanics and repairers........................................................
O th e r.......................................................................................
Operatives and kindred workers..............................................
Operatives, except transport .................................................
Drivers and delivery workers .................................................
Other transport equipment operatives...................................
Nonfarm laborers ......................................................................
Construction............................................................................
Manufacturing .........................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers .....................................................

28,414
11,083
836
2,212
4,234
3,802
13,208
9,982
2,719
507
4,123
771
836
2,516

12.9
8.6
7.4
10.8
7.9
8.3
15.8
15.8
15.0
19.4
15.5
15.9
18.0
14.6

11,763
4,571
284
1,116
1,815
1,357
5,743
4,229
1,168
346
1,448
265
436
747

13.3
8.2
5.2
8.5
8.2
8.5
16.3
16.6
15.8
15.4
17.8
18.6
17.0
18.0

16,651
6,512
552
1,096
2,419
2,445
7,465
5,753
1,551
161
2,674
506
400
1,768

12.7
8.9
8.6
13.1
7.8
8.2
15.4
15.3
14.4
28.1
14.3
14.5
19.1
13.1

Service workers, including private household.............................

12,074

20.1

2,221

24.3

9,853

19.2

1 Includes farm workers not shown separately.

NOTE: Due to rounding,
totals.

sums of individual items may not equal

Table 17. Black workers as a percent of employed wage and salary workers by industry and labor organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

Industry of current job

All employed
wage and salary
workers

Represented by
labor
organization

Not represented
by labor
organization

Total

Percent
black

Total

11.8

22,493

14.7

64,986

1,455

13.4

55

15.5

1,400

13.3

892

6.4

314

5.6

578

6.8

4,982

9.0

1,651

9.4

3,331

8.8

20,976
12,546
235
539
461
618
1,176
1,359
2,779
2^230
2,031
951
676
404
622
497

11.3
10.7
6.3
17.9
10.2
13.1
12.9
9.9
6.2
12.2
13.0
12.3
13.0
14.7
7.6
11.4

7,309
4,720
86
113
132
305
712
530
851
672
1,135
600
341
194
90
93

13.9
13.4
10.2
11.4
7.9
20.4
15.1
11.9
7.9
14.2
16.1
15.7
16.4
16.5
3.4
20.3

13,667
7,826
148
426
329
313
464
828
1,928
1,559
896
351
335
210
532
403

10.0
9.0
4.1
19.6
11.1
5.9
9.5
8.5
5.4
11.3
9.0
6.3
9.4
13.0
8.3
9.4

8,430
1,674
60
786
1,298
751
1,433
1,240
220
692

12.3
12.0
17.6
16.9
18.0
9.8
8.8
10.8
11.9
11.4

2,589
670
21
140
353
380
308
352
79
223

14.7
15.5
39.4
15.5
20.2
12.6
11.1
11.7
16.9
12.2

5,841
1,004
39
646
945
371
1,125
888
141
469

275

Stone, clay, and g la ss...........................................

Electrical equipment..............................................

Instruments .............................................................

Printing.....................................................................
Petroleum................................................................

7.8

64

17.9

212

Percent
black

87,480

Leather and not specified

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Represented by
labor
organization

Not represented
by labor
organization

10.8

Total
All industries..........................................................

Industry of current job

Percent
black

All employed
wage and salary
workers
Total

Percent
black

Total

Percent
black

Total

Percent
black

Transportation, communication, and
public utilities .............................................................
Railroads...................................................................
Other transportation .................................................
Communication..........................................................
Other public utilities..................................................

6,048
579
2,662
1,447
1,359

11.7
9.9
12.4
12.2
10.7

3,113
479
1,201
776
657

13.8
10.5
15.0
15.0
12.7

2,935
100
1,461
672
703

9.5
7.4
10.3
8.9
8.8

Trade............................................................................
W holesale.................................................................
Retail .........................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...................................
Other reta il.............................................................

17,401
3,419
13,981
4,031
9,950

8.8
8.4
9.0
11.1
8.1

1,896
432
1,465
212
1,252

13.8
18.1
12.6
15.2
12.1

15,504
2,988
12,517
3,818
8,698

8.2
6.9
8.5
10.8
7.5

Finance, insurance, and real estate...........................
Banking and other finance ......................................
Insurance and real estate........................................

5,152
2,356
2,796

9.1
9.7
8.6

250
67
183

20.5
24.2
19.2

4,902
2,289
2,613

8.5
9.2
7.9

Services .......................................................................
Private household service .......................................
Miscellaneous services ............................................
Business and repair..................................................
Personal services, except private
household................................................................
Entertainment and recreation..................................
Professional services ...............................................
Medical, except hospitals......................................
Hospitals.................................................................
Welfare and religious.............................................
Educational ............................................................
Other professional services..................................

25,123
1,214
23,909
2,902

14.8
32.9
13.9
10.6

5,719
9
5,710
332

17.8
24.2
17.8
17.0

19,404
1,205
18,199
2,570

14.0
32.9
12.7
9.8

1,653
902
18,451
2,834
3,901
1,541
8,062
2,114

18.9
8.3
14.3
13.2
20.1
18.2
13.3
5.9

238
140
5,000
336
841
246
3,421
156

27.9
7.4
17.6
26.0
34.9
30.4
12.0
9.8

1,415
762
13,452
2,498
3,059
1,295
4,641
1,958

17.4
8.5
13.0
11.5
16.0
15.8
14.2
5.6

87

7.5

14

8.9

73

7.2

5,364
1,795
691
972
1,906

15.1
18.9
21.0
10.0
11.9

2,172
488
570
309
805

16.6
24.0
21.5
9.8
11.4

3,192
1,307
122
662
1,100

14.0
17.1
18.5
10.1
12.3

11.3
9.6
5.9
17.2
17.2
6.9
8.1
10.5 Forestry and fisheries.................................................
9.0
11.1 ' Public administration ...................................................
Federal, except postal .............................................
4.7
Postal.........................................................................
S ta te ..........................................................................
L ocal..........................................................................




Table 18. Hispanic workers as a percent of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and labor
organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
All employed wage and
salary workers

Represented by labor
organization

Not represented by labor
organization

Occupation of current job
Total

Percent
Hispanic

Total

Percent
Hispanic

Total

Percent
Hispanic

All occupations' ....................................................................

87,480

5.4

22,493

6.1

64,986

5.1

White-collar occupations..............................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred workers...........................
Managers and administrators, except fa rm ..............................
Clerical and kindred workers....................................................
Sales workers............................................................................

45,955
14,436
8,953
17,507
5,059

3.3
2.6
2.3
4.5
3.0

8,483
3,997
868
3,365
253

4.3
3.1
2.7
5.9
5.9

37,472
10,439
8,086
14,142
4,805

3.1
2.4
2.2
4.2
2.8

Blue-collar workers......................................................................
Craft and kindred workers ........................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Construction craft workers, except carpenters .....................
Mechanics and repairers........................................................
O th e r.......................................................................................
Operatives and kindred workers...............................................
Operatives, except transport ..................................................
Drivers and delivery workers .................................... .............
Other transport equipment operatives....................................
Nonfarm laborers ......................................................................
Construction............................................................................
Manufacturing .........................................................................
All other nonfarm laborers.....................................................

28,414
11,083
836
2,212
4,234
3,802
13,208
9,982
2,719
507
4,123
771
836
2,516

7.7
5.4
6.4
6.2
5.0
5.1
9.5
10.7
6.1
4.1
8.3
10.8
9.2
7.3

11,763
4,571
284
1,116
1,815
1,357
5,743
4,229
1,168
346
1,448
265
436
747

7.0
5.2
3.9
4.8
5.1
5.9
8.1
9.2
4.9
4.9
8.4
12.0
6.1
8.4

16,651
6,512
552
1,096
2,419
2,445
7,465
5,753
1,551
161
2,674
506
400
1,768

8.3
5.5
7.6
7.7
4.9
4.7
10.6
11.9
7.0
2.4
8.3
10.2
12.6
6.8

Service workers, including private household.............................

12,074

6.2

2,221

7.4

9,853

5.9

1 Includes farm workers not shown separately.

NOTE: Due to rounding,
totals.

sums of individual items may not equal

Table 19. Hispanic workers as a percent of employed wage and salary workers by industry and labor organization representation, May 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
All employed
wage and salary
workers

Represented by
labor
organization

Not represented
by labor
organization

Total

Percent
Hispa­
nic

Total

Percent
Hispa­
nic

5.4

22,493

6.1

64,986

1,455

17.0

55

22.8

1,400

16.7

892

6.6

314

5.4

578

7.2

4,982

6.4

1,651

6.0

3,331

6.5

20 976
12 546
235
539
461
618
1,176
1,359
2,779
2^230
2 031
951
676
404
622
497

6.6
6.1
7.2
6.3
11.6
6.9
4.8
6.9
3.9
6.6
49
3.2
6.5
62
8.5
12.0

7,309
4^720
86
113
132
305
712
530
851
672
1,135
600
341
194
90
93

7.2
6.0
9.5
11.6
19.9
7.2
5.6
6.4
2.6
6.0
4.1
2.8
5.9
4.8
9.8
21.5

13,667
7,826
148
426
329
313
464
828
1,928
1,559
896
351
335
210
532
403

6.3
6.2
5.8
4.9
8.3
6.5
3.6
7.2
4.4
6.9
6.0
3.9
7.2
7.5
8.3
9.8

8 430
T674
60
786
1,298
751
1,433
1,240
220
692

7.4
9.8
3.0
6.7
14.8
3.1
3.6
5.5
1.3
72

2,589
670
21
140
353
380
308
352
79
223

9.3
14.1
(1
)
22.6
14.5
3.9
3.6
7.1
5.0

5,841
1,004
39
646
945
371
1,125
888
141
469

6.5
7.0
4.6
3.2
14.8
2.3
3.6
4.8
2.0
8.2

275

Electrical equipment ...............................................

Instruments .............................................................

Printing.....................................................................
Petroleum................................................................

53

64

2.8

212

6.0

Percent
Hispa­
nic

87,480

O

Leather and not specified

1 Base less than 75,000.




Not represented
by labor
organization

5.1

Total

Stone, clay, and gla ss............................................

Represented by
labor
organization

Industry of current job

Industry of current job

All industries..........................................................

All employed
wage and salary
workers
Total

Percent
Hispa­
nic

Total

Percent
Hispa­
nic

Total

6

Percent
Hispa­
nic

Transportation, communication, and
public utilities .............................................................
Railroads...................................................................
Other transportation .................................................
Communication.........................................................
Other public utilities ..................................................

6,048
579
2,662
1,447
1,359

4.0
4.6
4.1
3.4
4.0

3,113
479
1,201
776
657

4.7
5.6
4.5
5.0
4.2

2,935
100
1,461
672
703

T rade...........................................................................
W holesale.................................................................
Retail .........................................................................
Eating and drinking places ...................................
Other re ta il.............................................................

17,401
3,419
13,981
4,031
9,950

4.8
4.1
5.0
6.2
4.6

1,896
432
1,465
212
1,252

7.8
8.0
7.7
19.3
5.7

15,504
2,988
12,517
3,818
8,698

4.5
3.5
4.7
5.4
4.4

Finance, insurance, and real estate...........................
Banking and other finance ......................................
Insurance and real estate........................................

5,152
2,356
2,796

4.1
4.2
4.0

250
67
183

9.8
10.0
9.7

4,902
2,289
2,613

3.8
4.1
3.6

Services .......................................................................
Private household service .......................................
Miscellaneous services............................................
Business and repair..................................................
Personal services, except private
household................................................................
Entertainment and recreation..................................
Professional services ...............................................
Medical, except hospitals......................................
Hospitals.................................................................
Welfare and religious .............................................
Educational ............................................................
Other professional services..................................

25,123
1,214
23,909
2,902

4.6
8.4
4.4
6.1

5,719
9
5,710
332

5.3

5.4
12.7

19,404
1,205
18,199
2,570

4.4
8.5
4.1
5.3

1,653
902
18,451
2,834
3,901
1,541
8,062
2,114

8.0
5.9
3.7
3.1
3.9
3.4
4.0
3.6

238
140
5,000
336
841
246
3,421
156

17.9
8.2
4.2
5.2
5.2
4.6
3.8
5.2

1,415
762
13,452
2,498
3,059
1,295
4,641
1,958

6.4
5.5
3.6
2.9
3.5
3.1
4.1
3.5

Forestry and fisheries .................................................

87

7.5

14

1.8

73

8.5

Public administration ..................................................
Federal, except postal .............................................
Postal.........................................................................
State .........................................................................
Local.........................................................................

5,364
1,795
691
972
1,906

4.2
4.6
4.1
3.2
4.3

2,172
488
570
309
805

4.0
3.5
4.9
3.2
3.9

3,192
1,307
122
662
1,100

4.3
5.0
.5
3.2
4.5

NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

O

3.2

O

3.9
1.5
3.8

Appendix: Survey Methods
and Limitations off Data

Current Population Survey methods

Reliability © the estimates
ff

The May 1980 Current Population Survey asked two
questions relating to participation in labor organizations.
One question related to actual membership in a union
or employee association; the other question, asked only
if the first were answered in the negative, related to
coverage of the worker by a union or employee asso­
ciation contract. An employed wage or salary worker
who identified himself or herself as either a member of
a union or employee association, or as being covered
by a contract such an organization had with the em­
ployer, was so classified. Only the worker’s present job
was considered.
Estimates were derived from a sample survey con­
ducted by trained interviewers who collected informa­
tion from about 65,000 households in 629 areas through­
out the United States. Retirees, unemployed union mem­
bers, and persons in the Armed Forces were excluded.

Since the estimates are based on a sample, they may
differ somewhat from the figures that would have been
obtained if a complete census had been taken using the
same schedules and procedures. As in any survey, the
results are subject to errors of response and reporting
as well as to sampling variability.
The standard error is primarily a measure of sampling
variability; that is, the variations that occur by chance
because a sample rather than the whole of the popula­
tion is surveyed. As calculated for this bulletin, the
standard error also partially measures the effect of re­
sponse and enumeration errors, but does not measure
any systematic biases in the data. The chances are about
2 out of 3 that an estimate from the sample would dif­
fer from a complete census by less than the standard
error. The chances are about 19 out of 20 that the dif­
ferences would be less than twice the standard error.
The following A and B characteristics are to be used
in the standard statistical formulas for determining
standard errors for data reported in this bulletin: For
earnings data, A = -0.0000671 and B = 8592; for all
other data, use the characteristics in table A-l.

Comparability

In 1979, the CPS survey design was modified to col­
lect earnings data on a monthly basis rather than once
a year. Earnings data reported in this bulletin, collected
in May 1980, are comparable to the 1977 earnings data
reported in BLS Report 556. The parameters in table
A-l should be used in calculating standard errors for
all data (including earnings) reported in Report 556.
The figures on labor organization membership pre­
sented in this bulletin are not comparable with data
from other sources due to differences in concepts, clas­
sification, and coverage. Membership figures published
in the Bureau’s biennial Directory of National Unions
and Employee Associations in the United States were
based on responses to a questionnaire mailed directly
to all unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO, to unaffiliated unions that engage in collective bargaining with
different employers in more than one State, and to as­
sociations that engage in collective bargaining. In 1978,
the reported U.S. membership based on the Directory
survey was 22.7 million. The membership figure deri­
ved from the CPS May 1980 survey was 20.1 million.
The membership reports of labor unions sometimes in­
clude in their totals persons who were excluded from
the CPS survey.'



Limitations ©f earning data

It has long been recognized that, compared to the
collection of earnings data from payroll records, the
Table A-1. A and B characteristics for calculating
approximate standard errors of numbers and
percentages
Type of characteristic

B

Both sexes:
Total or white ....................
Black and other..................

-0.0000177
-.0001474

2,267
2,267

Male only:
T o ta l..................................
White..................................
Black and other

-.0000375
-.0000423
- 0003271

2,267
2,267
2,267

Female only:
Total or white ....................
Black and other..................

69

A

-.0000166
-.0001327

1,776
1,776

collection of the same information through a household
sample survey involves the loss of a certain amount of
accuracy in exchange for a gain in specific information
on the demographic characteristics of wage earners.
For example, experience demonstrates that in a house­
hold survey, the nonresponse rates are higher for ques­
tions about earnings than for other questions. Over the
years since 1967, the nonresponse rate on weekly earn­
ings has ranged from about 16 percent to 20 percent.
Whether the nonresponse problem produces an upward
or downward bias (or no bias at all) on the earnings
averages derived from the survey depends on how the




nonresponsive households are distributed among the
sample population. If, for example, nonresponses on
earnings tend to be concentrated among households
with high earnings levels, then the earnings levels re­
ported in the survey would be biased downward. If,
however, the nonresponses are distributed randomly,
no bias would exist. (For a more complete discussion
of the merits and limitations of earnings data obtained
from the May CPS, see Technical Description of the
Quarterly Data on Weekly Earnings from the Current
Population Survey (Report 601, Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, July 1980.)

70
* U. S. G O V ER N M EN T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1981 341-270/4925

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