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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Frances Perkins, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Isador Lubin, Commissioner (on leave)
A . F. Hinrichs, Acting Commissioner

+

Earnings in Aircraft-Parts Plants,
November 1942
Prepared in the

D IV IS IO N O F W A G E A N A L Y S IS
ROBERT J. MYERS, Chief

Bulletin H o . 744
(Reprinted from the M onthly Labor R eview , June 1943]

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1943

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Governm ent Printing Office
Washington, D. C. - Price 5 cents







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statist
op
tatistics,

Washington, June 18, 1948.
The Secretray

op

Labor :

ai]
1 have the honor to transmit herewith a report on earnings in the aircraft-parts
plants, November 1942, by Edith M. Olsen, under the supervision of H. M. Douty,
of the Bureau's Division of Wage Analysis, Robert J. Myers, Chief.
Cornu
A. F. H inrichs, Acting Commissioner.
Hon. Frances Perkins ,
Secretary of Labor.

CONTENTS
Page

Summary-------------------- --------- --------------------------------------------------- ----------—
Nature of the industry----------------------------------------------------------------------------Scope and method of survey______________________________________________
Characteristics of the labor force_________________________________________
Wage-payment practices_________________________________________________
Hours and earnings, 1941-42__________ ___________________________________
Variations in plant average hourly earnings_______________________________
Earnings by occupation, November 1942_________________________________
Regional differences__________________________________________________
Size of plant_________________________________________________________
Method of wage payment____________________________________________
Plant ranges in occupational earnings_________________




hi

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2
4
5
7
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9
13
14
14
14




Bulletin J^Lo. 307 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics
[Reprinted from the M onthly L abor R eview , June 1943]

EARNINGS IN AIRCRAFT-PARTS PLANTS,
NOVEMBER 1942 1
Summary
THE straight-time average hourly earnings of day-shift workers,
who cQnstituted 55 percent of the labor force of 149 aircraft-parts
plants studied by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, amounted to 91.1
cents per hour in November 1942. Women, who comprised nearly
one-fifth of the workers studied in detail, earned an average of 68.9
cents per hour as compared with 96.1 cents for men. Plants in the
North Central States showed the highest straight-time earnings.
Wide ranges were found in the average rates paid by different plants
for similar work. There appeared to be no marked relationship
between earnings and size of plant, and incentive systems of wage
payment were not common. Estimated straight-time average hourly
earnings in a group of 94 plants for which comparable data were
available rose from 78.7 to 98.3 cents per hour between January 1941
and November 1942.
N ature o f the Industry
The aircraft-parts industry is made up of numerous establishments
acting primarily as subcontractors for the producers of military
planes. These aircraft-parts establishments vary greatly with
respect to size and productive processes, and the parts they manu­
facture range from minute fittings to major subassemblies. Although
most of the plants manufacture many different kinds of parts, a few
are highly specialized and produce only one or a small number of
items.
The industry has developed largely as a result of the expanded
aircraft-production program since the outbreak of the war. In 1939,
the number of establishments engaged exclusively in the production
of parts for aircraft was relatively small. The rapid growth of the
industry since early 1940 may be attributed mainly to two factors:
(1) The heavy demand upon the aircraft manufacturers to meet
ever-increasing production schedules necessitated the subcontracting
to outside plants of much of the work on small parts and subassem­
blies in order to release critical floor space in the airplane assembly
factories. (2) Thousands of manufacturers in other industries,
whose usual lines of production had been curtailed because of short­
ages of materials, were forced to turn to defense production or shut
down their plants; many of them consequently converted all or part
of their plant facilities to the production of aircraft parts, thereby
utilizing valuable machine tools and skilled labor forces in an essential
war industry.
Of the 149 plants included in the present survey of wages in the
aircraft-parts industry, more than half have either converted from
1Prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Wage Analysis by Edith M. Olsen under the supervision of H. M.
Douty.
( 1)




2

E AR N IN G S IN

AIR CR AFT-PARTS

PLANTS

other industries or have been established for the production of air­
craft parts since 1940. Many of these plants are still manufacturing
other products in addition to aircraft parts. This is especially notice­
able in the North Central States where nearly all of the plants included
in this study have converted from the manufacture of other products.
Also, many of the plants in this region are comparatively large and
have contracts for the manufacture of other types of war products.
Consequently, some of the plants in the North Central area employ
appreciable numbers of workers for these other operations despite
the fact that their principal products are aircraft parts. However,
at the time of the Bureau’s survey, in October and November of 1942,
more than 85 percent of all the workers employed in the 149 plants
studied were actually engaged in the production of aircraft parts.
Although the establishments are widely scattered geographically,
there are marked concentrations of parts plants around the centers of
greatest importance in the airframe-assembly industry. In the Los
Angeles area, for instance, the spectacular growth of the airframe
industry has been accompanied by the development of a subsidiary
parts industry. In the East, where the aircraft industry was first
established, there has been a similar development; however, parts
plants in this area are more widely distributed geographically than in
California, as the eastern airframe industry is scattered from Maryland
to Connecticut.
Scope and Method o f Survey
This report on wages in the aircraft-parts industry is one of a series
of studies of the aircraft industry made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Earlier reports analyzed the earnings of workers em­
ployed in the airframe, engine, and propeller branches of the industry,
and a separate article on the aircraft-parts industry in California was
recently published.1
2
In order to insure comparability of the wage data obtained, it was
obviously necessary to limit the scope of the survey to plants per­
forming the same general types of operations. Therefore, only those
establishments engaged primarily in metalworking operations were
included. Despite a general similarity in the types of operations per­
formed in these plants, however, there is a very great diversity in the
types of aircraft parts they produce. Some of the typical products
which are currently being manufactured in the plants studied are
wing, tail, and fuselage parts, hydraulic assemblies, undercarriage
parts, struts, wheels, cowlings, fuel tanks, and innumerable smaller
parts. Excluded from the scope of the present study are plants
engaged primarily in the manufacture of aircraft parts in the follow­
ing categories: Electrical equipment and accessories, aircraft armor
plate, engine and flight instruments, and parts made entirely of
rubber, wood or plastics.
Because of the heterogeneous nature of this branch of the aircraft
industry, even within the limits described above, it is unusually dif­
ficult to select any group of establishments to represent adequately the
1Reports on various branches of the aircraft industry now available are Bureau of Labor Statistics Bul­
letins No. 704 (Wage Rates in the California Airframe Industry. 1941) and No. 728 (Wage Rates in the East­
ern and Midwestern Airframe Industry, 1942). An article,•Earnings in Aircraft-Engine Plants, May 1942,
appeared in the Monthly Labor Review for December 1942 and is available separately as Serial No. R. 1505.
The Monthly Labor Review for April 1943 contained two articles on airplane manufacture—Wages in the
Aircraft-Propeller Industry, October 1942, and Earnings in California Aircraft-Parts Plants, November
1942.




E AR N IN G S

3

IN’ A>IRORAFT-PARTS PLANTS

entire parts industry. Nevertheless, the 149 plants included are
believed to constitute a representative sample of the aircraft-parts
industry as it has been defined for the purpose of this study. The
factors of location, size of plant, unionization, and corporate affilia­
tion, as well as type of product, were taken into account in selecting
the sample.
As noted above, most of the plants manufacture several different
kinds of parts; as a result the wage data cannot be analyzed according
to type of product. In spite of the variation in products manufactured,
however, all of the plants studied were found to have very similar
occupational patterns. Standard job descriptions were used by the
field representatives of the Bureau in order to assure the greatest
possible uniformity in the classification of occupations in the various
plants.
The 149 plants covered by the survey are scattered from the East
to the West Coast, although, as already noted, there is a concentration
of plants in certain sections of the country. The distribution of the
plants and workers studied, by region and State, is indicated in table 1.
T a b l e 1.— Num ber o f Aircraft-Parts Plants and Percent o f Workers Covered by Survey,
by Region , November 1942

Region

Number of
plants

Percent of—
Plants

Workers

All regions.............................................................................

149

100.0

100.0

Eastern States i......... .............................................................
North Central States *.............................................................
California*................................... .......................................
Southwestern States4
.............................................................

36
57
41
15

24.2
38.2
27.5
10.1

16.4
57.1
20.0
6.5

1Plants distributed as follows: Connecticut, 3; Maryland, 2; Massachusetts, 3; New jersey, 5; New York,
19; Pennsylvania, 4.
* Plants distributedas follows: Illinois, 6 (5 in Chicago); Indiana, 6; Michigan, 19 (13in Detroit); Minnesota,

4; Ohio, 18; Wisconsin, 4.

3Plants distributed as follows: Los Angeles area, 35; San Diego, 5; San Francisco, 1.
Kansas, 4; Colorado, 2; Missouri, 2; Oklahoma, 4; Texas, 3.

4 Plants distributed as follows:

Nearly three-fifths (57.1 percent) of the workers for whom detailed
occupational wage data were compiled were employed in the 57 plants
in the North Central States. California accounted for 41 plants, the
greatest number in any one State, and for 20 percent of all the workers.
The Eastern region was represented by 36 plants employing 16.4
percent of the workers. The remaining 15 plants were scattered
throughout Kansas, Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, and
employed only 6.5 percent of the workers.
Detailed occupational data were obtained in the 149 plants for all
first- or daylight-shift workers engaged in the production of air­
craft parts at the time of the survev. These first-shift workers con­
stituted over 55 percent of the total number of aircraft employees in
the plants studied. Separate occupational data were obtained for
male and female workers. Various kinds of general plant information,
such as overtime-payment policies, shift differentials, entrance rates,
recent wage-rate changes, and unionization, were obtained for each
plant in order to facilitate the analysis of the wage data. The informa­
tion for the present survey was collected by experienced field represent­
atives of the Bureau from pay-roll and other plant records. Most of




4

E A R N IN G S IN AIR CR AFT-PARTS

PLANTS

the wage data relate to representative pay-roll periods in November
1942. In some plants, however, wage data were obtained for a
representative week shortly before or shortly after November.
Characteristics o f the Labor Force
There was considerable variation, among the plants studied, in the
proportions of skilled workers employed. In some of the larger plants,
where many of the operations have been divided into relatively routine
tasks, a large percentage of the workers were doing simple machine
and assembly work. In some of the smaller plants, on the other hand,
the labor force was made up almost entirely of highly skilled mechanics.
Women were employed in production work by 113 of the 149 plants
included in the survey. These women constituted 20.7 percent of the
total working force employed on aircraft-parts production, and 18.3
percent of all the first-shift workers for whom occupational wage rates
were obtained. Over 19 percent of the workers studied in California
as well as in the North Central States were women; in the Eastern
area, they accounted for 16.2 percent of the workers and in the remain­
ing States for only 12.4 percent. Women were employed in a great
number of different occupations, as table 4 will indicate, although
relatively few were working in the highly skilled occupations.
Negroes were employed in 57 of the 149 plants, but comprised only
2.6 percent of the total labor force engaged in the production of air­
craft parts. Most of the Negroes were working as janitors, helpers,
laborers, and truck drivers, but a considerable number were employed
as assemblers, anodizers, and machine operators. With minor excep­
tions, the few Negro women found in these plants were engaged as
jani tresses.
. Forty-eight of the 149 plants studied were operating under agree­
ments with nationally affiliated labor unions. In 24 cases the unions
were affiliated with the Congress of Industrial Organizations, and in
an equal number with the American Federation of Labor. In two
other plants, both in California, negotiations with nationally affiliated
unions were in progress at the time of the survey. Fourteen com­
panies reported agreements with independent unions, and the remain­
in g 85 plants reported no union agreements.
The extent to which the aircraft-parts industiy was organized by
labor unions varied greatly in the different sections of the country.
Union agreements were in effect in 35 of the 57 plants in the North
Central region. Nineteen of these 35 plants were organized by
C. I. O. unions, 9 by A. F. of L. organizations, and the remaining 7 by
unaffiliated unions. . Ten of the 19 Michigan plants, most of which
had been converted to aircraft-parts production from the automobile
industry, were organized by the United Automobile Workers, Congress
of Industrial Organizations. 'In the East, 12 of the 24 plants studied
were organized by labor unions— 6 by A. F. of L., 4 by C. I. O., and
2 b y unaffiliated unions. Five of the 9 labor unions found in the
California plants were affiliated with the American Federation of
Labor, and the other 4 were independent. In the Southwestern
States, only 6 of the 15 plants were organized— 4 by A. F. of L., 1 by
C. I. O., and 1 by an independent union.
Most of the companies were training some new and inexperienced
workers in the plants. Approximately 9 percent of all the first-shift




EARNDvGS I X

AIRCRAFT-PARTS PLANTS

5

workers covered were classified as trainees in various occupations.
Slightly more than half of these trainees were women, most of whom
were learning to be assemblers, inspectors, or machine operators.
Nearly 50 percent of the male trainees were employed as machine
operators. The plants in California and in the North Centra] States
employed a much larger percentage of trainees than did those in the
other areas.
W age-Paym ent Practices
Employees in all of the plants studied were paid time and a half
for all work above 40 hours a week, and 108 of the plants also applied
the overtime rate to all work above 8 hours a day. One plant paid
time and a half for all work after 7% hours a day, and another paid
double time for all work after 11 hours in 1 day. Twenty-six
plants paid time and a half and 111 paid double time for work on the
seventh consecutive day. Holiday work was compensated for at the
rate of time and a half in 94 plants and at double time in 12 plants.
Fifty-six of the 149 plants were operating on a 3-shift basis, but
only 16.6 percent of all the aircraft-parts employees were working on
the third shift. Nearly 19 percent of the workers employed in the
plants in the North Central region were on the third shift, whereas in
the California plants third-shift workers constituted only 7.9 percent
of the labor force. Sixty-nine plants were operating 2 shifts; 28
percent of all workers were employed on the second shift. The
remaining 24 plants had only 1 shift. Somewhat more than half
(55.4 percent) of the total working force employed on aircraft-parts
production was scheduled on the first shift.
Among the 125 plants operating more than one shift, there was
little uniformity with respect to the payment of wage differentials to
workers on evening and/or night shifts. In 29 of these plants, no
differential was paid to second-shift workers, and in 7 plants no
differential was paid for work on either the second or third shifts
(table 2). Although many of the companies paid a higher premium,
the most common rate, an additional 5 cents per hour above the base
rate, was paid to second-shift workers in 43 plants. Twenty-two of
the companies operating three shifts paid greater differentials to
workers on the third or night shift than to those on the second or
evening shift.
Nineteen of the companies reported no established uniform hiring
rates for new workers. Among the companies which reported stand­
ard entrance-rate schedules, new workers were most commonly paid
starting rates between 50 and 60 cents an hour. In several cases the
entrance rates for new female employees were lower than those for
men. There was no uniformity among the plants in the provisions
made for automatic increases in rates after specified periods of service.
In many of the plants, workers were granted wage increases only on
the basis of individual merit. In the plants where automatic raises
based on length of service were reported, the usual amount of the
increase was 5 cents an hour, at intervals ranging from 4 to 0 weeks,
until basic job rates were attained.

687420— 48--- 2




6

E AR N IN G S

IX

AIRCRAFT-PARTS

PLANTS

T able 2.— Waite D i fferentials for Second and Third Shifts in 149 Aircraft-Parts Plants,
November 1942
D

Number
Number of shifts worked of plants
Plants with 1 shift only...
Plants with 2 shifts..........

Plants with 3 shifts..........

24
17
2
25
4
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
2
5
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
11
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
3
1
1
1

Second shift

iiif-rentials paid for—
Third shift

No differential...........................
3 cents per hour.........................
5 cents per hour.........................
6 cents per hour.........................
8 cents per hour........................
10 cents per hour........................
10 cents per hour, plus pay for
20-minute lunch period.
10 hours’ pay for 9.5 hours’ work.
5 percent over base rate..............
5 percent of weekly wage...........
5 percent of gross earnings..........
10 percent over daily rate______
10 percent over weekly rate____
15 percent over base rate..........
Paid for 30-minute lunch period.
9.5 hours’ pay for 9 hours’ work..
No differential.
No differential_______ _____
----- do........................................ 5 cents per hour.
10 percent of hourly rate.
8 hours’ pay for 7 hours’ work.
.......do......................................... 8 hours’ pay for 7.5 hours’ work.
___ do.............. ...................... . 14.5 percent over base rate.
2.5 cents per hour................ ...... 5 cents per hour.
3.5 cents per hour....................... 3.5 cents per hour.
4 cents per hour......................... 4 cents per hour.
5 cents per hour......................... 5 cents per hour.
.......do........................................ 7 cents per hour.
10 cents per hour.
.......do......................................... 8 hours’ pay for 6 hours’ work.
___ do......................................... 8 hours’ pay for 6.5 hours’ work.
5.5 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ 11 cents per hour, plus 8 hours’
pay for 7 hours’ work.
pay for 7.5 hours’ work.
6 cents per hour......................... 6 cents per hour.
----- do______ _______________ 6 cents per hour, plus 8 hours'
pay for 6.5 hours’ work.
6.5 cents per hour....................... 6.5 cents per hour.
7.5 cents per hour....................... 7.5 cents per hour.
8 cents per hour......................... 8 cents per hour.
----- do........................................ 12 cents per hour.
10 cents per hour........................ 10 cents per hour.
One-fifteenth of first-shift rate-.. One-seventh of first-shift rate.
5 percent over base rate............. 5 percent over base rate.
___ do........... ............................. 7.5 percent over base rate.
10 percent over base rate.
Do.
10 percent over base rate............
10 percent over weekly rate....... 10 percent over weekly rate.
50 cents per day........................ 50 cents per day.
8 hours’ pay for 7 hours’ work... 8 hours’ pay for 7.5 hours’ work.

Incentive methods of wage payment were not typical in these aircraft-parts plants in November 1942. Virtually nine-tenths (88.7
percent) of all the workers for whom occupational wage rates were
compiled were paid on a time basis. Piece-work or production-bonus
systems were in effect in only 26 of the 149 plants studied, and ap­
proximately 42 percent of the workers in these 26 plants were paid
under such systems. Eighteen of the 26 plants making use of incentive
systems are in the North Central States, 7 in the East, and 1 in Cali­
fornia. Incentive wage systems are not confined to the larger plants
in the industry; over naif of the companies operating such systems
employed fewer workers than the average for the 149 establishments
included in the survey.




EAR N IN GS

IN AIRCRAFT-PARTS

PLANTS

7

,

Hours and Earnings 1941-42
For the purpose of showing the general trend in the level of earn­
ings of the plants currently producing aircraft parts, data on average
hours and earnings, including premium pay for overtime work and
shift-differential payments, were obtained for all wage earners em­
ployed in the plants for pay-roll periods in January 1941, May 1942,
and for the November 1942 pay-roll period on which the occupational
wage data are based. These hours and earnings data are shown by
region in table 3. It must be emphasized that this material relates
to the total employment of the plants in the respective regions and
that these workers include some who were employed on products
other than aircraft parts. As was indicated earlier, a larger percentage
of the workers in the North Central States was employed on other
products than was the case in any of the other regions. The number
of workers employed on other operations in each region was, of course,
greater for the two earlier periods than for November, since prior to
that time many of the companies had not completed the conversion
of their facilities to aircraft-parts production.
It will be recalled
that during November 1942, more than 85 percent of all the workers
in the 149 plants studied were employed on aircraft-parts manufacture.
In each of the regions, these data were not available for some of the
plants during the January 1941 and the May 1942 pay-roll periods;
in the North Central region, information on 1 of the 57 plants was
not available for November 1942. For all the States combined,
comparable data were reported for 94 plants during the January 1941
pay-roll period, and for 131 plants during the May 1942 period.
During the week shown for November 1942, wage earners in the
148 plants represented worked an average of 47.1 hours and received
an average of $50.06. Gross average hourly earnings thus amounted
to $1,063.
Average hours and earnings for a group of 94 identical plants for
which the data were available during all three of the periods
under consideration are also shown in table 3. In these 94 plants,
gross average hourly earnings increased from 81.9 cents in January
1941 to $1.07 in November 1942, or a rise of 25.1 cents an hour.
Gross average weekly earnings increased from $33.93 to $50.46 during
the same period. This change in the gross earnings, however, was
accompanied by a rise of 5.8 hours in the average workweek, an in­
crease which resulted in greater premium overtime payments. It is
estimated that elimination of these extra overtime payments would
reduce the increase in average hourly rates between January 1941
and November 1942 from 25.1 to 19.6 cents.
At least one general wage increase since January 1941 was reported
by approximately one-third of the 149 plants studied, and several
companies reported two or three such raises. Most of these general
wage changes were from 5 to 10 cents per hour, although in a few cases
the increase was much greater. In most of the plants which reported
no general wage changes, increases in hourly rates had been granted
to individual workers.
These over-all earnings data are presented only to indicate very
general trends. Changes in the composition of the labor force in many
of the plants, and the increase in late-shift premiums have undoubtedly
combined to emphasize the apparent rise in earnings between January




8

e a r n in g s

m

a ir c r a f t -p a r t s

plants

1941 and November 1942. In making regional comparisons on the
basis of these data, it should be remembered that variations in the
number of employees receiving premium payments for work on late
shifts tend to obscure the amount of the regional wage differences.
T able 3.— Average Hours and Earnings o f Workers in Aircraft-Parts Plants, by Region,
fo r Specified Periods, 1 94 1 -4 2

Year and month

All States:
All plants:
January 1841
_______
May 1942______________
November 1942............ ..........
Identical plants:
January 1941 __________
May 1942........... ....................
November 1 842 _
Eastern States:
January 1941.......... ............. .........
May 1942.................................
November 1942........................
North Central States:4
January 1941___________ _______
May 1942........ .. ......... .. .....................
November 1042
_____
California:
January 1941
......
May 1942................................
November 1942.___ ________
Southwestern States:*
January 1941_______________
May 1942..
. ___________
November 1942 _________ _

Number of
plants

Average
weekly
earnings1

Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings1

Estimated
average
hourly
earnings,
excluding
premium
overtime
payments2

94
131
*148

$33.93
4&13
50.06

41.4
47.8
47.1

$0,819
1.006
1.063

$0.787
.920
.977

94
94
94

33.93
48.71
50.46

41.4
48.2
47.2

.819
1.011
1.070

.787
.922
.983

24
33
36

29.94
42.94
44.83

42.9
49.1
48.8

.698
.875
.919

.662
.793
.835

43
52
56

34.26
49.58
51.69

40.7
47.2
46.6

.841
1.051
1.110

.814
.966
1.025

23
35
41

37.69
49.44
50.92

45.3
49.4
48.1

.832
1.001
1.059

.774
.905
.967

4
11
15

27.62
40.75
41.80

39.0
47.9
46.2

.708
.851
.904

.694
.778
.836

»Including overtime premium pay and shift-differential payments.
* Includes shift-differential payments.
* Data for 1 plant not available.
4Data for 1 large plant used with reduced weight in order to avoid overrepresentation of this plant.
*Includes the 2 plants in Colorado.

Variations in Plant Average H ourly Earnings
In November 1942, average hourly earnings, including premium
overtime and shift-differential payments for the workers employed on
aircraft-parts production, amounted to $1,045 as compared with the
gross average of $1,063 shown above for total plant employment dur­
ing the same pay-roll period. This slight difference in earnings (1.8
cents an hour) is presumably due, at least in part, to the fact that
most of the trainees in these plants were employed on aircraft parts.
A distribution of the plants, according to the gross average hourly
earnings of workers making aircraft parts in November 1942, and
the percentage of workers employed by the plants in each earnings
interval appear in table 4.
Twenty of the establishments studied
showed plant average hourly earnings of $1.20 or more an hour, and
employed 22 percent of the workers; 15 of these establishments were
in the North Central States, and 5 in California. The 58 plants with
averages between 90 cents and $1.05 an hour employed 47 percent
of all the aircraft workers in the 148 plants for which plant averages
were available.




EAR N IN G S IN AIR CR AFT-PAR TS

PLANTS

9

T able 4.— Distribution o f Aircraft-Parts Plants and Workers, b y Plant Average H ourly
Earnings,1 November 1942

Plant average hourly earnings2

Number of
plants

Under 80 cents........................................
80 and under 85 cents..............................
85 and under 90 cents........... ..................
90 and under 95 cents________________
95 cents and under $1..... ....... ........... .
$1 and under $1.05..................................
$1.05 and under $1.10....... __................
$1.10 and under $1.20..............................
$1.20 and under $1.30....... ......................
$1.30 and over........................................

23
10
17
20
20
18
7
13
8
12

Total..................................... .......

3148

Average for all plants.............................

Percent
of workers
5.2
7.0
5.7
10.0
15.6
21.2
4.0
9.3
12.8
9.2
100.0
$1,045

1Includes only workers employed on aircraft-parts production.
2Earnings shown include overtime premium pay and shift-differential payments.
3Wage data not available for 1 plant.

Differences in the levels of earnings among these plants reflect
several factors in addition to differences in basic wage rates. Included
are regional differentials, variations in the amounts of extra payments
for work on late shifts, and differences in the length of the average
workweek and, therefore, in the relative amounts of premium pay for
overtime. There was no uniform relationship between earnings levels
and size of plant. Plants with 100 workers or less, as well as plants
with over 900 workers, were found in each interval shown in table 4.

,

Earnings by Occupation November 1942
The occupational wage data given in table 5 are based on the earn­
ings of virtually all first- or daylight-shift workers engaged in aircraftparts production.3 It will be recalled that more than 55 percent of
the total number of aircraft employees in the 149 plants studied were
working on the first shift. The occupational earnings data are shown
separately for male and female workers. Although many of the
female occupations contained too few workers to justify the computa­
tion of average earnings for all regions, the occupations were included
in the table to give a complete picture of the range of occupations in
which women were employed at the time of the survey.
As a group, the first-shift wage earners in the 149 plants surveyed
received average straight-time earnings of 91.1. cents an hour in
November 1942. The difference between this average and the gross
average of $1,045 shown above for aircraft workers reflects the effect
upon earnings of premium overtime rr,tes and shift-differential pay­
ments. It is estimated that elimination of overtime premium pay­
ments alone would reduce gross earnings from $1,045 to 95.8 cents an
hom*. First-shift male workers were paid an average hourly rate of
96.1 cents, or 5 cents more than the combined average of 91.1 cents for
all workers. Women, who constituted 18.3 percent of all first-shift
wage earners, received an average of 68.9 cents an hour.
Straight-time average hourly earnings for all plants combined
ranged from $1,622 an hour for class A male drop-hammer operators,
3A fewfirst-shift occupations have been omitted because they w represented in too few plants or by too
ere
few workers. Data for one large plant were used with reduced weight in order to avoid overrepresentation
of this plant.




10

D A R N IN G S IN

AIRORAFT-PAR TS

PLANTS

to 54.1 cents an hour for female journeymen's helpers. Nearly onethird of the employees were in occupations in which the average wage
was $1.00 or more an hour. Workers in 25 of the occupational groups,
excluding trainees and apprentices, showed average earnings of less
than 70 cents an hour; 8 percent of the workers were employed in
these groups.
Among male workers, 42 occupational groups showed straight-time
averages of $1.00 or more an hour and included 37.8 percent of the
male workers for whom detailed wage data were compiled; slightly
more than 5 percent of the male workers were classified in the 6 occu­
pational groups in which earnings averaged $1.25 or more an hour.
Approximately 15 percent of the male employees, excluding trainees
and apprentices, were classified in the 17 occupational groups in which
the combined averages for all plants were 80 cents an hour or less.
Class B bench assemblers, who constituted the largest male group r
averaged 90.5 cents an hour and represented 3.3 percent of the total
number of first-shift workers.
More than two-thirds of the female workers, excluding trainees and
apprentices, were employed in the 46 occupational groups having
average hourly earnings of 80 cents or less, and well over one-half of
this number averaged 70 cents or less. In only one occupation, class
A welders, were female workers paid over $1.00 an hour. Inspectors,
class C (female), the largest single occupational group, accounted
for 2.1 percent of all workers and averaged 63.4 cents an hour.
T able 5.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings 1 o f First-Shift W orkers in AircraftParts Plants, by Occupation , Sex , ana Region , November 1942
Eastern
States

All States
Occupation and class

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

North Cen­
tral States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

California
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Southwest­
ern States

Aver­ Per­
age
hour­ cent
of
ly
earn­ work­
ers
ings

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

100.0 $0,911 100.0 $0,819 100.0 $0,948 100.0 $0,914 100.0 $0,811
All workers.................................... —
Males............................................. 81.7 .961 83.8 .858 80.7 1.008 80.8 .962 87.6 .828
Females...................-..................... 18.3 .689 16.2 .617 19.3 .698 19.2 .711 12.4 . 695
M a les

Acetylene-burner operators ........... —
Acid dippers.—.............. .....................
Anodizers, class A _______________
Anodizers, class B _________________
Apprentices........ ..................................
Assemblers, bench, class A__________
Assemblers, bench, class B...................
Assemblers, bench, class C...................
Assemblers, floor, class A.....................
Assemblers, floor, class B......................
Assemblers, floor, class C.....................
Blacksmiths . ______ ____ ______
Boring-mill operators, class A ........... .
Boring-mill operators, class B...........
Broaching-machine operators............ 1.
Buffers............ ....................................
Burrers, class B....................................
Burrers, class C......................... ..........
Carpenters, maintenance, class A.........
Carpenters, maintenance, class B.........
Clerks, production_____ ______ ____
Clerks, shipping and receiving.............
Clerks, stocks and stores......................
Craters, class A....................................
Craters, class B....................................
See footnotes at end of table.




(*)
.4
.1
.1
.5
1.2
3.3
1.4
2.3
1.4
.2
(*)
.3
.1
.1
.9
1.2
.6
.3
.3
.4
.8
2.9
.1
.1

.992
.814
1.032
.812
.748
1.019
.905
.748
1.226
.840
.737
1.071
1.219
.948
.958
.963
.931|
.714
1.069
.882
.842
.828
.826
1.020
.826

.5

.901

.6
1.3
3.9
1.6
1.3
.9
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
2.0
1.6
.8
.3
.4

.901
.865
.715
.654
.698
.542
.700
(a
)
(3
)
.908
.674
.909
.823
.649
.857
.710

.735
1
)
c T "(V 1
3.6

(2
)
.3
.1
.1
.5
1.0
3.4
1.5
3.5
1.7
.2
(2
)
.4
.1
.1
.7
1.2
.3
.2
.3
.4
.9
2.9
-1
.1

(i)
1.050
.819
.5 .729
.3
.1 1.082 (2
1.010
))
(2)
.829
.712
.4 .750
.4
1.029 2.3 1.077
.991 3.4 .879 2.5
.795 1.1 .755 2.0
1.297
.5 .973
.1
.897 1.6 .803
.783
.3 .678 "” \’ i
1.141
1.252
.2 1.086
.978
.1 00
.i
1.075 (2
00
)
1.075
.6 .800
.4
1.027 1.3 .797
.1
.745 1.3 .732
.4
1.113
.5 1.123
.1
.964
.3 .871
.2
.7 .880
.820
.830
1.2 .841
.6
.873 3.4 .801
2.7
1.017
.1 1.075 (2
)
.1
.834 (*)
00

(3
)
.772
(8
)
(3)
.573
.783
.617
00

00
.764
00
.633
00
.792
.717
.739
00

ElARNINGS IN AIR CR AFT-PAR TS

11

PLANTS

T able 5.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings 1 o f First-Shift W orkers in AircraftParts Plants, b y Occupation , Sex, and Region , November 1942 — Continued
All States
Occupation and class

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Eastern
States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

North Cen­
tral States

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

California

Aver­ Per­
age
hour­ cent
of
ly
earn­ work­
ers
ings

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Southwest­
ern States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

M a le s —Continued

Drill-press operators, class A_________
Drill-press operators, class B................
Drill-press operators, class 0 ................
Drop-hammer operators, class A..........
Drop-hammer operators, class B..........
Electricians, class A..............................
Electricians, class B..............................
Electricians, class 0 ..............................
Expediters...........................................Firemen, stationary boiler___________
Foremen, working,'class A...................
Foremen, working, class B...................
Foremen, working, class 0 ...................
Gear cutters, class B_______________
Grinding-machine operators, class A__
Grinding-machine operators, class B. . .
Grinding-machine operators, class C ...
Heat treaters, class A............................
Heat treaters, class B...........................
Helpers, journeymen’s..........................
Helpers, machine operators’.................
Helpers, other................. .....................
Inspectors, class A............. ..................
Inspectors, class B........................... ~~
Inspectors, class 0 .................-.............
Inspectors, receiving_______________
Janitors................................................
Job setters............................................
Laborers...............................................
Lathe operators, engine, class A...........
Lathe operators, engine, class B...........
Lathe operators, engine, class C...........
Lathe operators, turret, class A............
Lathe operators, turret, class B............
Lathe operators, turret, class 0 ............
Lay-out men, class A............................
Lay-out men, class B _ ___________
_
Loaders and unloaders; racks and con­
veyors. . _______________________
Machine operators, all-round, class A ..
Machine operators, all-round, class B.. .
Machinists, general..............................
Maintenance men, general....................
Metal-saw operators.............................
Milling-machine operators, class A.......
Milling-machine operators, class B.......
Milling-machine operators, class 0 .......
Millwrights, class A..............................
Millwrights, class B________________
Oilers, maintenance..............................
Packers.......................... .....................
Painters, production.............................
Painters, maintenance______________
Patternmakers, wood...........................
Pipefitters, maintenance...
Planer operators .
Platers.— ..... ......................................
Power-brake operators, class A_______
Power-shear operators...........................
Punch-press operators, class A.............
Punch-press operators, class B..............
Punch-press operators, class C.............
Repairmen, machine.............. .............
Repairmen, product.............................
Riveters, pneumatic.............................
Riveting-machine operators........... ......
Router operators___________________
Salvagers........................................... —
See footnotes at end of table.




0.2 $0,962
1.4 1.069
1.3 .896
1.0 .740
.5 1.622
.4 1.041
.4 1.162
.2 .969
.1 .846
.2 .937
.2 .838
1.8 1.303
1.4 1.035
.2 .860
(>
)
.911
1.0 1.160
.7 .953
.1 .856
.2 1.135
.3 .875
.8 .844
.9 .767
.5 .801
2.1 1.106
2.6 .925
1.2 .819
.1 .836
1.5 .729
1.2 1.167
1.8 .732
.9 1.205
.7 .986
.2 .809
1.9 1.190
1.2 .973
.3 .908
.1 1.273
.947
(’ )
.3
.7
.8
1.0
.2
.3
.9
1.1
.2
.3
.4

.2
.4
.7
(2)
.2
.3
(2)
.3
(2)

.2
.2
1.0
.3
.8
.3
1.2
.3
.1
.1

(«)
0.5 $1,005
1.8 .785
1.6 .627
1.8 1.664
1.2 1.214
.1 .953
.1 .915
(3
)
(*)
(2)

.762
1.0 1.204
.9 .902
(3)
(’)
1.1 1.057
.9 .801
.1 (3)
.1 .966
.4 .772
1.9 .985
1.3 .691
(2
)

1.1
3.9
1.1

(3
)

.979
.789
.686

1.7 .635
1.1 1.032
2.1 .681
.8 1.084
.8 .823
.1 00
1.7 1.061
1.8 .834
.2 (3)
.1 (3)
<)
’

.701
1.015 3.2
.728 3.1
1.080
.9
.867
.2
.841
.3
1.175
.4
.972 1.4
.836 0)
1.118
.4
.871
.8
.836 0)
.829
.7
.955
.6
.961
1.272
1.061
.2
1.046 (2)
.972
.4
1.000
.930
.1
.993
.887
.8
.721
.1
1,031
.8
1.083
.2
.990
.3
.973
.1
.850
.933

(3)

'

0.3 $0,958 0.1 $0,996
2.0 1.095 1.2 .962
1.2 .965 1.8 .858 0.1 (3
)
.7 .807 1.6 .758
.4 $0,622
.3 1.829
.4 .926
.2 1.110
.1 .940
.3 .885 1.1 .784
.4 1.204
.4 1.151
.4 1.017
.2 .994
.1 .986
.3 .833
.1 .886 (*)
.1 <5
(3
)
.1 1.050
.2 .881
.8 .815
.2 .871 (i)
(3
)
1.5 1.311 3.4 1.318 1.2 1.287
1.4 1.054 1.6 1.042 2.8 1.051
.1 .811
.4 .918 1.4 .857
.911
(2
)
1.2 1.209
.9 1.113
.4 (3)
.7 1.032
.3 .821
.5 .909
.1 .941
.4 .667
.1 .840
.2 1.178
.1 (3)
.2 1.078
.3 .940
.1 .802
.8 .811
.4 .765
.8 .830 2.1 .669
.6 .861
.7 .747 2.5 .668
.5 .911
.8 .716
1.4 .621
2.3 1.105 2.9 1.160
.7 .977
2.6 .984
1.8 .959
1.7 .818
1.1 .873
1.1 .858 1.9 .663
(3)
(2)
.3 .854 (t)
(3
)
1.5 .773
1.5 .730 1.3 .572
1.6 1.207
.5 1.126
.4 .851
2.0 .772 1.2 .638
.7 .631
.6 1.281 2.0 1.197
.6 1.017
.6 1.047 1.0 1.017
.6 .809
.2 .816
.1 (3
.4 .848
)
2.0 1.225 2.0 1.231
1.6 .996
.
1.2 1.033
1.3 .976
.3 1.025
.4 .788 ” " '2 .710
.1 1.347
.1 1.143 (2)
(3)
(3
)
1.083
(*)
(2)

.1 .763
.4 .721
.6 .563
1.006
.2 1.084
.2 .993
.4 .906
.670
.1 .866
.3 .866 2.3 .801
.5 1.162
1.096
.8 1.178 6.0 .970
.778 • .2 .911
.8 .805
.3 .916 " \ '2 ‘ ‘ . 824
.634
’
.4 .761
.9 1.210 1.7 1.147 (*)
1.046
(3
)
.748 1.1 1.062 1.1 .960
.8 .891
.2 .907
.5 .802
.1 (3
-(3
)
)
.4 1.142
1.001
.1 1.191
(3)
)
.771
.4 .920 (J
.2 .862
.1 .817
.3 .719
00
.745
.4 .872 (*)
(3
)
(3
)
(2
)
.747
.7 1.033
.7 .839
.6 .893
(2)
(3)
.955 (I)
.2 1.247
.1 1.431
.4 1.091 (2)
.855
(3
)
(2)
(3)
1.124 (>)
(3
)
.3 .989
.918
.2 1.030
.3 .883
1.000
.842
.3 .971
.2 .860
.2 .829
.1 .998
.3 1.020
.3 .883
1.2 .906
.861
.2 (3
.6 .825
)
.5 .721 (*)
.696
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
.7 1.136
.942
.4 .850
.9 1.072
.5 1.120
. . . . ..
.786
.624
2.0 1.012 ’ ” ( * T " o r
'.’ 580
.1 .830 (2
.664
4.1 .794
(3
)
)
.1 .859
.1 (3)
.2 .912
.2 .995

12

E A R N IN G S I N

AIRCRAFT-PA i
RTS

PLANTS

T able 5.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings 1 o f First-Shift Workers in AircraftParts Plants, b y Occupation , S ex, and Region , Novem ber 1942 — Continued
All States
Occupation and class

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Eastern
States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

North Cen­
tral States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

California
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Southwest­
ern States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

M a le s —Continued

Sandblast operators..............................
Screw-machine operators, class A.........
Screw-machine operators, class B.........
Screw-machine operators, class C........
Shaper operators..................................
Sheet-metal workers, class A..... ..........
Sheet-metal w
orkers, class B...............Solderers, class B............ .....................
Solderers, class C......... —....................
Straighteners......... ...............................
Template m
akers, class A....................
Template makers, class B_______ ____
Template m
akers^ class C....................
Testers, class A . . _______________
Testers, class B....................................
Testers, class C___________________
Thread-milling-machine operators.......
Timekeepers........ ................ ..............
Toggle-press operators.............. ...........
Tool and die makers, class A ...............
Tool and die makers, class B ..............
Tool and die makers, class C________
Tool-crib attendants, class A ..... .........
Tool-crib attendants, class B_..............
Tool grinders___ ______ ___________
Trainees, journeyman...........................
Trainees, machine operators.................
Trainees, other____________________
Truck drivers.......................................
Truckers, hand................................. .
Truckers, power, inside.......................
Tube benders, class A______________
Tube benders, class B______________
Watchmen............................................
Welders, hand, class A.........................
Welders, hand, class B.........................
Welders, hand, class G ........... .............
Welders, machine.................................

0.3 $0,882 0.3 $0,775
.7 1.212
.5 .967
.5 1.037
.2 .781
.4 .862
.2 .682
.2 .977
.3 .923
.7 1.119
.7 1.180
.7 .820 1.8 .815
.1 1.106
.840
(*)
.1 .910
.1 .700
.1 1.251 (*)
(3
)
.1 .954
.1 .756
.1 1.059
.2 .886
.2 .853
.5 .842
.3 .773
.2 .703
.2 1.085
.2 .862
.3 .839
.4 .717
.900
(2
)
2.5 1.346 3.3 1.320
.9 1.030
.1 1.010
.2 .833
.3 .924 (2 " ( * r
)
.2 .707
.6 1.072
.4 .947
.3 .814
•3 .752
1.5 .700 2.0 .628
2.5 .700
55
.6 .1 1
.4 .733
.4 .838
.8 .771
1.1 .755
.2 .940
(a )
1.066
(2 )
.912
1.2 .733 i.8 .657
2.2 1.171
1.3 .946
.8 .939 1.3 .942
.3 .732
.1 ( 3)
.2 .773
.3 .903

0.2 $1,002 0.2 f0.873
1.0 $0.753
.9 1.255
.5 1.192
.8 1.069
.3 .956
.6 .879
.1 .831
.1 1.195 (2
"T o ” ."778
)
(3
)
.7 1.132
.6 1.117
.8 (3
)
.3 .887
.6 .823
1.7 .709
.1 1.101
.5 (3
)
. i (3 )
.906
(2
)
.2 .880
(2
) 1.103
.2
(3
)
.1 1.253 (2
)
(3
)
(2
)
(3
)
.1 .960
. i /3\
V/
] 2 (3\
.2 .764
V/
.1 1.174
.1 1.106
!2 .940
.2 .848
.2 .912
.2 (3
)
.3 .845
.4 . 715
.6 .646
.3 1.150
.2 .950
.3 .915
.2 .838 ” ” .~ .734
7
(3 )
.1 1.042
(2
)
2.3 1.376 3.1 1.330 1.0 1.113
1.0 1.035 1.1 1.050 1.3 .948
.1 .833
.3 .960
.9 . 713
.3 .930
.4 .955
.7 .841
.1 .690
.5 .731
.8 .691
.7 1.135
.7 1.071
.3 .826
.3 .835
1.0 .744 2.9 .706
.4 .469
3.5 .716 1.9 .703
1.3 .448
.3 .955
.6 .787
.7 .695
.9 .781
.4 .755 ( 2)
(3
)
.3 .940
('3')
m
.2 Vt
(2
) 1.185 m
1 \3 )/
.1 .962 ( 2)
(3 )
(
.9 .764 1.2 .797 2 A
.662
1.8 1.186 1.8 1.407 8.7 1.079
.3 .973
.4 1.013
5.1 .902
.775
.4 .815 2.1 .694
( 2)
.2 .919
.4 .988
.5 .755

Females

Assemblers, bench, class A...................
Assemblers, bench, class B...................
Assemblers, bench, class G ............. ......
Assemblers, floor, class A.....................
Assemblers, floor, class B___________
Assemblers, floor, class 0 .....................
Buffers___________ _______________
Burrers, class B------------------ ----------Burrers, class C...................................
Clerks, production...........
............. Clerks, shipping and receiving............
Clerks, stocks and stores.....................
Drill-press operators, class A............. .
Drill-press operators, class B..... ....... .
Drill-press operators, class C__........... .
Forewomen, working, class C _______
Grinding-machine operators, class B__.
Grinding-machine operators, class G__
Helpers, journeymen’s____1_________
Helpers, machine operators’..................
Helpers, other.......................................
Inspectors, class A___ ______ _______
Inspectors, class B................................
Inspectors, class C................................
Janitresses..................................- .........
Laborers................... .................. .........
Lathe operators, engine, class B___! —
Lathe operators, engine, class C............
Lathe operators, turret, class B............
See footnotes at end of table.




.2
1.1
1.7

.773
.837 1.3 .747
.678 3.8 .648
(2 )
.855
.2 .800
.2 .656
.1 .592
.2 .568
.2 .729
.3 .637
1.0 .679
.8 .524
.2 .689
.1 .623 . . . . . .
.5 .672
” ."647
.1 .756
.3 .725
.4 .783
1.1 .736
.3 .558
(2 )
.817
.1 .730
.769
(2
)
.691
(2
)
.1 .541
.1 .606
.1 (3
)
.1 .654
.1 (3
)
.3 .792 (2 )
(3
)
.5 .713
1.1 .713
2.1 .634 2.5 .564
.1 (3
.2 .639
)
(2)
.1 (3
.613
)
(2
)
.844 (2
)
(3
)
.613
(2
)
. 844j
.1 .850
(2
)

.1
(2
)
w
.4
.4
2.5
.2

.707
.865
.690
.855
.803
.741
.640
.819
.769
.647
.545
.649
.756
.656
.790
(3
)
(3
)
.695
.499
(3
)
(3
)
.791
.670
.626
.635

(2 )

(3 )

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

.843
.650
(3 j........
)

.2
1.3
1.4
(2 )

.3
(2 )

»

.2
.6
.2
.1
.5
.1
.3
1.4
(2
)
(2 )
(2 )

.2
1.1
1.2

.919
.838
.712

.2
1.1
«1
.5
2.9
.3
.1
.7

.785
.647
(3
)
.693
.662
.755
.744
.717

(2
)
.6

(3
)
.731

.3
1.0
.1

.871
.660
.811

.1
1.4
.1

(3
)
.496
(3
)

.4
.6
(2
)

617
!600
(3
)

.2
.9
.1

(3
)
.661
(3
)

.1

(3
)

(2 )
(2 )

.1
.4
W
.3
1.4
.1
.1

.1

(2
)
(2
)
(2 )

( 3)

(3
)
(3
)
4 ■ (3 )

(3 )

(3
)
.675
.696
(3 )

.843
.773
.752
.683

E AR N IN G S IN AIR OR A FT-PA R TS

13

PLANTS

T able 5.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly E a rnings 1 o f First-Shift Workers in AircraftParts Plants, by Occupation , Sex, and Region , November 1942 — Continued
All States
Occupation and class

Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Eastern
States

Aver­ Per­
age
hour­ cent
of
ly
earn­ work­
ings ers

North Cen­
tral States

Aver­ Per­
age
hour­ cent
of
ly
earn­ work­
ers
ings

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

California
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Southwest­
ern States
Per­
cent
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hour­
ly
earn­
ings

Females—Continued
Lathe operators, turret, class C______
Loaders* and unloaders; racks and conveyors __ ____________________
Metal-saw operators________________
M
iiiing-m
aohirift operators, class B.......
Milling-machine operators, class C___
Packers......................................-.........
Painters.... .......... .............__________
Punch-press operators, class B_______
Punch-press operators, class 0 .............
Riveters, pneumatic- _____ __________
Riveting-machine operators........... ......
Salvagers__________________ ______
Screw-m
achine operators, class C.........
Sheet-metal workers, class B------------Solderers, class C.... .............................
Straighteners______________________
Testers, class C_________ - _________
Timekeepers................ ........................
Tool-crib attendants, class B...... ....... .
Tool grinders.................................... .
Trainees, machine operators.................
Trainees, other..........-....... -.................
Welders, hand, class A.........................
Welders, hand, class B.........................
Welders, hand, class C___ __________
Welders, machine .. .........................

(*)
<> $0.712 (?)
*
0.2 .562
(1 • .716
2
)
.1 .790 0.1 $0,698
. 1 .768
.4 .605
1.1 .597
.2 .592
.2 .544
(2
)
.786
.4 .633
.1 .550
.4 .726
.4 .710
.1 .602
(2
)
.652
.1 .720
.721
(2
)
(2
)
.790
.1 .581
.2 .554
.1 .612
.1 .611
_
.1 .647 ___ _
.1 .565
.9 .601
1.0 .545
3.9 .695
1.5 .509
1.180
(2
)
.1 .808
.1 (3
)
.1 .701
-(i).1 .702

0.2 $0.761 0.1 (3
)
n 2S .
O
.i
(2
)
)
.2 (3
.741 (2
)
(3
.1 .838 (2
(8
.1 .772 (2
)
(3
)
.4 .603 ( .1 .740
.2 .604
(2
)
.1 .781
.790
.1 (3
.6 .625
.2 .763
)
.6 .726
3.9 $0,796
.2 .543 (2
)
(3
)
.1 .602
)
m
.1 .649 (2
1.1 .665
.1 .777 (2
)
(3
)
(2
)
.721
.1 .790
(2
)
)
(3
)
.616 (2
.1 .586
.1 (3
.1 .636
)
.1 .600
.2 .697 ___
.1 .565
.1 (3
.4 .559 2.4 .641
)
5.4 .710 3.0 .697
.2 .470
.1 1.180
.8 .819
1.2 .691
.1 .741
(3
)
(2
)
.1 .619
.4 .753
........

1The average hourly earnings shown in this table are exclusive of premium overtime and shift-differential
payments.
2 Less than a tenth of 1 percent. These occupations are included in the table to indicate fully the nature
of the occupational pattern in the industry. Although average earnings by occupation are not shown for
these workers, their earnings have been included in the average earnings for all workers, and for male and
fem w
ale orkers separately.
aToo few workers and/or plants to warrant computation of an average.
REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

The magnitude of regional wage differentials is apparent from the
weighted averages, shown in table 5, for each geographical region.
The highest straight-time average hourly rate for all workers was
found in the North Central region; the average for this region was
94.8 cents an hour, or nearly 4 cents an hour more than the combined
average for the four regions. The average for California was 91.4
cents an hour, while averages of 81.9 and 81.1 cents are shown for
the Eastern States and the Southwestern States, respectively. In
most of the occupations for which regional comparisons are possible,
the highest hourly averages are found in the North Central region.
There is substantial evidence to indicate that earnings in the Michigan
plants studied tended to be somewhat above those in the other five
States in the North Central region. The proportion of Michigan
plants studied, however, is not adequate to warrant the presentation
of separate data for that State.




14

E AR N IN G S IN

AIRCiRAPT-PARTS

PLANTS

SIZE OF PLANT

A tabulation of occupational earnings by size of plant, in terms of
numbers of wage earners employed, yielded no conclusive evidence
that workers in large plants received higher earnings generally than
those in small plants. In many of the occupations, the average
earnings for workers in the smaller plants exceeded the averages for
workers employed for similar work in the large plants.
METHOD OF WAGE PAYMENT

The effect of incentive methods of wage payment upon average
hourly earnings in the industry appears to be significant, although
the numbers of workers paid under such systems are not adequate to
permit a detailed analysis of this factor. The averages for plants
in which workers were paid under a production-bonus or piece-work
system were consistently higher than the average rates paid to time
workers in the same occupations. As stated earlier, incentive systems
were found to a greater extent in the North Central area than in the
plants in any other region; this was one factor contributing to the
comparatively higher average rates for this region. The apparent
inconsistency in the averages for some occupations is due entirely
to the fact that some of the workers were paid under incentive systems.
Class B female bench assemblers, for instance, showed an average of
83.7 cents an hour, whereas the class A workers in the same occupation
averaged only 77.3 cents an hour; the average for the class B workers
was raised by incentive payments in some plants, whereas virtually
all of the class A assemblers were paid on a straight hourly basis. A
similar situation is found in the case of female drill-press operators,
where the class C operators averaged 73.6 cents an hour as compared
with 72.5 cents an hour for class B operators.
PLANT RANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL EARNINGS

For most of the occupations studied there was a very wide range
in earnings between the highest and the lowest averages for individual
plants. The occupations for which individual plant ranges are shown
in table 6 were selected for their numerical importance in terms of the
numbers of workers included. This tabulation has been confined to
plants in the North Central States in order to eliminate, as far as
possible, any regional wage difference. The occupations included
represent approximately 77 percent of all the first-shift employees
studied in the North Central States.
The greatest spread in average straight-time earnings was found
for class A working foremen who averaged $2.25 in the plant with the
highest rate for this occupation and $1,095 in the plant with the
lowest average. The range for class A welders was from 81.3 cents to
$1.867 an hour. These ranges are limited in their significance because
they show the extremes in plant earnings by occupation and do not
indicate the range for individual workers. They do, however, reveal
the extent of the variations from the general averages for all plants
combined, for each occupation.




E AR N IN G S IN

AIR CR AFT-PAR TS

15

PLANTS

T able 6 . — Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f First-Shift W orkers in Selected
Occupations in Aircraft-Parts Plants, North Central States, November 1942

Occupation and class

Male w
orkers:
Assp h .rS bench, C
.m lp j
lass A .

.......

AssA hlA floor, class A _ __
m rs)
____________
Assemblers’ floor, class B______________________
Buffers
____________ ___ _________________
Burrers, class B__________________________ ___
niAflrs, shipping and rA
oeiving
Clerks) stocks and stores___.......... .................. ......
Drill-press operators, class A...................................
Drill-prpss operators) class "R _ _
.
_
_
Drill-press operators) class 0 ...................................
'R fp A , T
'n rn n yorlrip class A . . . . . .
g,
_
_
...
Forem w
en) orking^ class B , ... _ _
Drinhing-m
ftchina operators, class A_ ...................
Drinriing-m
AchinA operators) class B_____ _____
T plpA
T
fs^m chipA operators
A
_______
Inspectors, class A_________________ _________ Inspectors) class B ,
_
_____ ...
Inspectors) class 0 . . . . . . ................... .....................
Janitors ______ ____________________________
Job setters_____ . . . . . . . . .................... ..................
Laborers__________________________ ________
Lathe operators, engine, class A____________ ____
Lathe operators, engine, class B____________ ____
Lathe operators, turret, class A..............................
Lathe operators, turret, class B...............................
Milling-machine operators, class A.........................
t/t
v iiiing-mfych e operators class B..... ....................
in
Painters...... .......... .......... ....... ...............................
Punch-press operators, class A _.............................
Repairmen, machine..............................................
Riveters, pneumatic................................................ji
Screw-m
achine operators, class A............................ 1
Screw-m
achine operators, class B........................ . J !
Screw-m
achine operators, class C............................ j
Sheet-m
etal workers, class A...................................
Tool and die m
akers, class A.................................. 1
Tool and die m
akers, class B.............................. ...!1
Tool grinders......... .................................................1
Trainees, machine operators...... —........................... j
Trainees, other.......................... ............................ ;
Truckers, hand.---------------- ---------------------------- 11
Watchmen............................................ ................. '
Welders, hand, class A........................................... !
orkers:
Female w
Assemblers, bench, class B.............. ....... ...............
Assemblers, bench, class C............................... ......
Burrers, e -ss 0 ___________________________ __
ia
Drill-press operators, class C...................................
Inspectors, class C________________ _______ ___
Punch-press operators, class 0 _________________
Riveters, pneumatic................ ....................- .........
Trainees, fnanhlnA operators_________________ . _
Trainees, other...................... ..................................




Number
of
plants

Average
hourly
earnings

Individual plant
averages
High

Low

21
33
20
9
8
26
15
29
42
19
27
20
34
23
23
23
15
33
36
18
45
22
26
1
9
17
20
15
16
21
29
23
25
6
19
20
12
12
42
21
18
19
12
19
29
26

$1,029
.991
.795
1.297
.897
1.075
1.027
.830
.873
1.095
.965
.807
1.311
1.054
1.209
1.032
.861
1.105
.984
.873
.773
1.207
.772
1.281
1.047
1.225
1.033
1.210
1.062
1.033
.906
1.136
1.012
1.255
1.069
.879
1.132
1.376
1.035
1.071
.744
.716
.781
.764
1.186

$1.250
1.323
1.260
1.426
1.296
1.531
1.250
1.150
1.213
1.326
1.150
1.100
2.250
1.387
1.415
1.292
1.220
1.400
1.450
.954
1.000
1.675
1.016
1.775
1.375
1.450
1.174
1.950
1.200
1.650
1.219
1.650
1.119
1.503
1.300
1.078
1.599
2.014
1.350
1.500
1.000
1.000
.952
.975
1.867

$0,743
.675
.500
.780
.586
.500
.717
.618
.578
.775
.705
.542
1.095
.887
.700
.500
.650
.900
.714
.600
.500
.683
.500
.900
.838
.800
.692
.983
.650
.700
.875
.725
.844
.950
.670
.600
.850
1.103
.914
.600
.500
.450
.530
.500
.813

9
18
8
12
23
12
2
9
12

.865
.690
.769
.790
.626
.625
.726
.559
.710

1.117
.830
.890
.890
.837
.890
.825
.750
1.000

.650
.480
.480
.500
.387
.482
.686
.400
.400