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Displaced Workers,
1979-83

Displaced Workers,
1979-83
U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
July 1985
Bulletin 2240

Sg-s-u

For sale l>y the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402

Preface

This bulletin discusses the plight of workers who were
displaced from their jobs because of plant closings or
employment cutbacks during the January 1979-January
1984 period. The article was initially published in the
Monthly Labor Review, June 1985, and is reprinted with
additional tabular material and an explanatory note.
The data were compiled from a special survey spon­

sored by the Departm ent o f L abor’s Employment and
Training A dm inistration and conducted in January
1984 as a supplement to the C urrent Population Survey
(CPS).

Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.

Contents

Page
Displaced workers of 1979-83: how well have they f a r e d ? ..................................................................
Appendixes:
A. Explanatory n o t e .............................................................................
B. Supplementary tables:
Displaced workers:
B- 1. Year o f job loss, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status in
January 1984 ........................................................................................................................
B- 2. Full- or part-time status on lost job, age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and
employment status in January 1984 ................................................................................
B- 3. Educational attainm ent, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status in
January 1984 ........................................................................................................................
B- 4. Educational attainm ent, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and reason for job l o s s ...........
B- 5. Industry and class o f worker o f lost job and reason for job l o s s ................................
B- 6. Sex, whether they received advance notice or expected layoff, reason for job
loss, and employment status in January 1984 ...............................................................
B- 7. Reason for job loss, whether or not they received or exhausted unemployment
insurance benefits, age, and employment status in January 1984 ..............................
B- 8. Full- or part-time status on lost job, sex, group health insurance coverage on
lost job, and employment status and coverage in January 1984..................................
B- 9. Weeks without work after job loss and other selected ch aracteristics.......................
B-10. Median weekly earnings on lost job and on both the old and new job for
those reemployed in January 1984 by industry and class o f w o r k e r .........................
B-l 1. Industry of lost job and industry o f job held in January 1984 ....................................
B-12. Selected m anufacturing industry of lost job, sex, tenure when job ended, and
median weeks without work after job l o s s ......................................................................

IV

1

15

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
29

Displaced workers of 1979-83:
how well have they fared?
A total o f 5.1 million had worked
at least 3 years before being let go
because o f plant closings or jo b cuts;
about 3.1 million had become reemployed
by January 1984, although often earning
less than in their previous jobs
P a u l O. F l a im a n d E l l e n Se h g a l

Nearly one-half of these reported they had exhausted their
benefits.
• Many no longer had health insurance coverage, including
some who subsequently found work.
• Of the 5.1 million displaced workers, about 3.1 million
had become reemployed by January 1984, but often in
different industries than in the ones they had previously
worked. About 1.3 million were looking for work, and
the remaining 700,000 had left the labor force.
• Of the 3.1 million displaced workers who were reem­
ployed, about half were earning as much or more in the
jobs they held when surveyed than in the ones they had
lost. However, many others had taken large pay cuts,
often exceeding 20 percent.
• Blacks accounted for about 600,000 of the 5.1 million
displaced workers, and Hispanics made up 300,000. The
proportion reemployed as of January 1984 was relatively
small for both of these groups— 42 percent for blacks and
52 percent for Hispanics. Conversely, the proportions
looking for work were relatively high— 41 percent for
blacks and 34 percent for Hispanics.
These data are discussed in detail below, as are the concepts
of displacement and how they were applied in this special
survey.

What happens to workers when recessions close their plants
or severely curtail operations? And what happens to those
who lose their jobs because of structural problems of the
type that have recently affected some of our key manufac­
turing industries? How many of these workers manage to
return to the same or similar jobs as economic conditions
improve? How many remain without jobs or eventually set­
tle for different and usually lower paying jobs?
In an attempt to obtain answers to these questions in
connection with the 1980-81 and 1982-83 recessions, two
agencies of the U.S. Department of Labor arranged for a
special household survey in January 1984. Among the prin­
cipal findings:
• A total of 11.5 million workers 20 years of age and over
lost jobs because of plant closings or employment cut­
backs over the January 1979-January 1984 period. Those
who had worked at least 3 years on their jobs— the focus
of this study— numbered 5.1 million.
• About half of the 5.1 million workers reported they had
become displaced because their plants or businesses closed
down or moved. Two-fifths reported job losses due to
“ slack work’’ (or insufficient demand), and the rest said
their shifts or individual jobs had been abolished.
• About 3.5 million of the displaced workers had collected
unemployment insurance benefits after losing their jobs.

The concept and the measurement
Paul O. Flaim is chief of the Division of Data Development and Users’
Services, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Ellen Sehgal is a senior economist in the same division.

Concern over displaced workers began to grow during
the early 1980’s when it was feared that a large part of the
1

employment cutbacks taking place in some industries might
be permanent, leaving many of the affected workers with
little hope of reemployment in the same industry. The steel
industry and the auto industry were prime examples of this
type of situation. And many other manufacturing industries,
particularly in the hard goods sector, were similarly affected
by a combination of cyclical factors and such deep-seated
structural problems as plants that were no longer competitive
in the face of foreign imports.

Table 1. Employment status of displaced workers by age,
sex, race, and Hispanic origin, January 1984
[In percent]

Characteristic

Number
(thousands)1

Total

Employed Unemployed

Not In the
labor force

Total
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
20 to 24
years . . .
25 to 54
years . . .
55 to 64
years . . .
65 years and
o v e r____

5,091

100.0

60.1

25.5

14.4

342

100.0

70.4

20.2

9.4

3,809

100.0

64.9

25.4

9.6

748

100.0

40.8

31.8

27.4

191

100.0

20.8

12.1

67.1

3,328

100.0

63.6

27.1

9.2

204

100.0

72.2

21.7

6.1

2,570

100.0

68.2

26.8

5.0

461

100.0

43.6

34.1

22.3
70.3

24.2

Men
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
20 to 24
years . . .
25 to 54
years . . .
55 to 64
years . . .
65 years and
over . . . .

92

100.0

16.8

12.9

1,763

100.0

53.4

22.5

Women
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
20 to 24
years . . .
25 to 54
years . . .
55 to 64
years . . .
65 years and
over . . . .

138

100.0

67.8

18.0

14.2

1,239

100.0

58.0

22.6

19.4

287

100.0

36.3

28.0

35.7

99

100.0

24.6

11.3

64.1

4,397
2,913
1,484

100.0
100.0
100.0

62.6
66.1
55.8

23.4
25.1
20.2

13.9
8.8
24.1

602
358
244

100.0
100.0
100.0

41.8
43.9
38.8

41.0
44.7
35.6

17.1
11.4
25.6

282
189
93

100.0
100.0
100.0

52.2
55.2
46.3

33.7
35.5
30.0

14.1
9.3
23.6

White
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
Men ...........
Women . . .

Black
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
Men ...........
Women . . .

Hispanic origin
Total, 20 years
and over . . . .
Men ...........
Women . . .

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.
Note : Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the “ other races” group are not presented and Hispanics are Included
in both the white and black population groups.

2

Given this situation, it was feared that a large number of
workers who had spent many years in relatively high-paying
jobs would suddenly find themselves without work and with
little hope of finding similar employment. These are the
persons generally referred to as “ displaced (or dislocated)
workers.’’ While there has never been a precise definition
of such workers, the term is generally applied to persons
who have lost jobs in which they had a considerable in­
vestment in terms of tenure and skill development and for
whom the prospects of reemployment in similar jobs are
rather dim .1
Because there were only widely different estimates of a
rather speculative nature as to the number of such workers
as of late 1983, the Employment and Training Administra­
tion contracted with the Bureau of Labor Statistics to design
a special survey to identify and count them. The survey was
planned as a supplement to the Bureau of the Census’ Cur­
rent Population Survey (which provides the monthly esti­
mates of unemployment). It was first of all decided to identify
all adult workers who had lost a job over the 1979-83 period
because of “ a plant closing, an employer going out of busi­
ness, a layoff from which . . . (the worker in question) was
not recalled, or other similar reasons.’’ For these workers,
a series of questions would then follow to determine the
precise reason for the job loss, the nature of the job in terms
of industry and occupation, how long the workers had held
the job, how much they had been earning, and whether they
had been covered by group health insurance. Other questions
focused on the period of unemployment which might have
followed the job loss, including the receipt and possible
exhaustion of unemployment insurance benefits, and the
possible loss of health insurance coverage. If the worker in
question was again employed at the time of the interview,
additional information was sought on the earnings on the
current job.
This sequence of questions yielded information that al­
lowed much flexibility in deciding who among these workers
could properly be considered as “ displaced.” Different cut­
offs could be made in terms of the years of tenure on the
job lost, the period of unemployment resulting, the extent
of the cut in wages incurred in taking a new job, and other
possible factors.
In publishing the preliminary results of the survey,2 and
in conducting the more detailed analysis discussed in this
article, the only cutoffs that were made were those deemed
absolutely necessary in order not to stray too far from the
general consensus as to who is and who is not a displaced
worker. Thus, an exclusion was first made with regard to
workers whose job losses could not be categorized defini­
tively as displacements— those attributed either to seasonal
factors or to a variety of miscellaneous reasons that could
not be easily classified. An additional exclusion was made
with regard to all workers with less than 3 years in the jobs
they had lost.

Table 2.

Employment status of displaced workers by industry and class of worker of lost job, January 1984

[In percent]

Not In the
labor force

Number
(thousands)1

Industry

Total, workers 20 years and over2 ...................................................................................................

Total

Employed

Unemployed

5,091

100.0

60.1

25.5

14.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary w o rkers................................................................................................

4,700

100.0

59.8

25.8

14.4

Mining .....................................................................................................................................................................
Construction............................................................................................................................................................

150
401

100.0
100.0

60.4
55.0

31.0
30.7

8.6
14.3

Manufacturing..........................................................................................................................................................
Durable g ood s....................................................................................................................................................
Lumber and wood products ......................................................................................................................
Furniture and fixtures....................................................................................................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products................................................................................................................
Primary metal industries..............................................................................................................................
Fabricated metal products...........................................................................................................................
Machinery, except electrical ......................................................................................................................
Electrical machinery......................................................................................................................................
Transportation equipment 0. .........................................................................................................................
Automobiles...............................................................................................................................................
Other transportation equipment.............................................................................................................
Professional and photographic equipment .............................................................................................
Other durable goods industries ................................................................................................................

2,483
1,675
81
65
75
219
173
396
195
354
224
130
54
62

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

58.5
58.2
67.9
(3)
47.5
45.7
62.0
62.3
48.2
62.6
62.9
62.1
0
0

27.4
28.9
19.1
0
30.5
38.7
32.2
27.4
34.5
26.0
24.0
29.4
0
0

Nondurable goods ............................................................................................................................................
Food and kindred products........................................................................................................................
Textile mill products ...................................................................................................................................
Apparel and other finished textile products.............................................................................................
Paper and allied products...........................................................................................................................
Printing and publishing ..............................................................................................................................
Chemical and allied products......................................................................................................................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products..........................................................................................
Other nondurable goods industries...........................................................................................................

808
175
80
132
60
103
110
100
49

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

59.1
52.5
59.8
63.0
0
58.0
64.0
62.8
0

24.2
32.6
26.2
14.2
0
22.9
27.3
18.3
0

14.1
12.9
13.0
0
22.0
15.6
5.8
10.3
17.3
11.4
13.1
8.5
0
0
16.7
15.0
13.9
22.8
0
19.1
8.7
18.8
0

Transportation and public u tilities.....................................................................................................................
Transportation....................................................................................................................................................
Communication and other public utilities.....................................................................................................

336
280
56

100.0
100.0
100.0

57.9
58.8
0

26.8
30.5
0

15.3
10.7
0

Wholesale and retail tr a d e ...................................................................................................................................
Wholesale tra d e .................................................................................................................................................
Retail tra d e .........................................................................................................................................................

732
234
498

100.0
100.0
100.0

61.4
69.6
57.6

21.6
22.0
21.5

16.9
8.4
20.9

Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ...................................................................................................................
Services .................................................................................................................................................................
Professional services ......................................................................................................................................
Other service industries...................................................................................................................................

93
506
187
318

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

78.5
65.0
64.0
65.6

12.4
20.5
19.8
20.9

9.1
14.5
16.1
13.5

Agricultural wage and salary workers ...................................................................................................................
Government w orkers.................................................................................................................................................
Self-employed and unpaid family workers ...........................................................................................................

100
248
25

100.0
100.0
100.0

69.9
63.3
0

22.9
18.7
0

7.2
18.0
0

'Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.

2Total includes a small number who did not report industry or class of worker.
3Data not shown where baSe is less than 75,000.

raised to 6.9 million. On the other hand, the imposition of a
5-year cutoff would have lowered the total to 3.2 million.
Not all of the 5.1 million workers deemed to have been
displaced should be regarded as having suffered serious eco­
nomic consequences. While a great majority were indeed
either still unemployed or had taken jobs entailing a drop
in pay, or had left the labor force, there were also many
for whom the job loss had been only a temporary setback.
Some had apparently been out of work for only a very short
period and, as already noted, many were actually earning
more when surveyed than in the jobs they had lost. In short,
while all of the 5.1 million workers had clearly been dis­
placed from a job at some point over the 1979-83 period,
not all could be properly regarded as being still “ displaced”
when surveyed in January 1984. And even among the ma­
jority for whom the “ displaced” label was still applicable
when surveyed, there were many who probably found suit­
able employment in subsequent months.

Summarizing the results of the survey, a total of 13.9 million
workers 20 years of age and over were initially identified as
having lost a job over the January 1979-January 1984 period
because of plant closings, employers going out of business,
or layoffs from which they had not been recalled. Further
probing disclosed that about 2.4 million of this total had lost
their jobs because of seasonal causes or a variety of other
reasons which could not be easily classified. These were dropped
from the universe to be examined.
Of the remaining 11.5 million workers, a large proportion
had only been at their jobs for a relatively short time before
they were dismissed. For example, 4.4 million had been at
their jobs a year or less. To focus only on workers who had
developed a rather firm attachment to their jobs, the universe
to be studied was limited to those with at least 3 years of
tenure on the jobs they lost. As noted, these numbered 5.1
million. Had a more liberal cutoff of 2 years been used as a
parameter, the count of displaced workers would have been

3

Who were the displaced?
A large number of the 5.1 million workers who had been
displaced from their jobs fit the conventional description.
They were primarily men of prime working age, had lost
typical factory jobs, were heavily concentrated in the Mid­
west and other areas with heavy industry, and, if reem­
ployed, were likely to have shifted to other industries.
However, the universe also included persons from practi­
cally all industry and occupational groups, a large number
of whom were women.

Age-sex-race-Hispanic origin.

As shown in table 1, men
25 to 54 years of age accounted for nearly 2.6 million of
the displaced workers, or slightly more than one-half. There
were 200,000 men age 20 to 24, about 460,000 men 55 to
64, and 90,000 in the 65-and-over group. The younger the
workers, the more likely they were to have found new jobs
after their displacement. As shown in table 1, the proportion
reemployed as of January 1984 ranged from a high of 72
percent for men age 20 to 24 to a low of 17 percent for
those 65 years of age and over. Most of the men in the latter
age group had apparently retired after losing their jobs.
The women who had been displaced from their jobs num­
bered nearly 1.8 millon, with 1.2 million of them in the 25
to 54 age group. As indicated by table 1, these women were
less likely than the displaced men to have returned to work
as of January 1984 and were far more likely to have left
the labor force regardless of their age.
About 600,000 of the displaced workers were black, and
less than half of them were reemployed when interviewed
(42 percent). The proportion unemployed was almost as
large (41 percent). Hispanic workers accounted for about
280,000 of the displaced. For them, the proportion reemployed (52 percent) was higher than for blacks but con­
siderably lower than for whites. Of the whites who had been

displaced, over three-fifths were reemployed and less than
a quarter were unemployed.

Industry and occupation.

Nearly 2.5 million of the dis­
placed workers, or almost one-half of the total, had lost
jobs in manufacturing, an industry group that now accounts
for less than one-fifth of total employment. Some of the key
durable goods industries which were most severely affected
by the recessionary contractions of demand as well as by
more fundamental structural problems figured most prom­
inently as the sources of displacements. There were, for
example, about 220,000 workers who had lost jobs in the
primary metals industry, 400,000 who had worked in ma­
chinery (except electrical), and 350,000 had been in the
transportation equipment industry, with autos accounting
for 225,000 of the latter. (See table 2.)
Reflecting primarily the long-lasting nature of the prob­
lems of the steel industry— and of the areas where its plants
are (or were) located— less than one-half (46 percent) of
4

the workers who had been displaced from primary metal
jobs were reemployed when surveyed. About 39 percent
were unemployed, and 16 percent had left the labor force.
However, the reemployment percentage for workers dis­
placed from jobs in the nonelectrical machinery industry
(62 percent) and the transportation equipment industry (63
percent) was considerably higher. But even among these
workers, many were now working in different industries,
and usually at lower wages.
While these troubled durable goods industries figured most
prominently as sources of workers’ displacements, it should
be noted that other industries, both within and outside the
manufacturing sector, had also contributed heavily to the
problem. For example, 800,000 workers had been displaced
from jobs in the various nondurable goods industries, 500,000
had been in retail sales, another 500,000 in services, and
400,000 in construction.
In terms of their occupational distribution, a large number
of displaced workers (1.8 million) had lost jobs as operators,
fabricators, and laborers— the typical jobs on a factory floor.
But all occupational groups had contributed to the displace­
ment problem. There were, for example, 700,000 persons
who had lost managerial and professional jobs, 1.2 million
who had been in technical, sales, and administrative jobs,
and slightly over 1 million who had been in precision pro­
duction, craft, and repair jobs. (See table 3.)
In general, the more skilled the occupation the more likely
was the displaced worker to be reemployed. Thus, about
75 percent of those who had been in managerial and profes­
sional jobs were back at work when interviewed. In contrast,
among the workers who had lost low-skill jobs as handlers,
equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers, less than onehalf were working in January 1984.

Regional distribution.

While displaced workers were found
in all regions of the country, a particularly large number
(about 1.2 million) was found to reside in the East North
Central area, which includes the heavily industrialized States
of the Midwest. (See table 4 for regional data and area
definitions.) Another large concentration of such workers
(800,000) was found in the Middle Atlantic area, which
consists of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.
The severity of the job losses incurred in these two areas
during 1979-83 was denoted not only by the relatively large
numbers of displaced workers found within them in January
1984, but also by the fact that the proportion that had man­
aged to return to work— either in their former jobs or en­
tirely new ones— barely exceeded 50 percent. As a further
indication of the seriousness of the displacement problem
in the East North Central area, this region was found to
contain nearly one-third of the displaced workers who were
unemployed in January 1984 (400,000 out of 1.3 million),
and almost one-half of them were reported as having been
jobless 6 months or more.

Table 3.

Employment status of displaced workers by occupation of lost job, January 1984

[In percent]

Number
(thousands)1

Occupation

Total

Employed

Unemployed

Not In the
labor force

Total, workers 20 years and over2 ...........................................................................................................

5,091

100.0

60.1

25.5

14.4

Managerial and professional specialty...................................................................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial........................................................................................................
Professional specialty............................................................................................................................................

703
444
260

100.0
100.0
100.0

74.7
75.7
72.9

16.6
15.6
18.2

8.8
8.7
8.9

Technical, sales, and administrative support........................................................................................................
Technicians and related s u p p o rt.........................................................................................................................
Sales occupations ..................................................................................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical ........................................................................................................

1,162
122
468
572

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.6
67.9
66.7
54.1

21.1
25.3
14.6
25.5

18.3
6.8
18.7
20.5

Service occupations .................................................................................................................................................
Protective service .................................................................................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective ..........................................................................................

275
32
243

100.0
100.0
100.0

51.0
(3)
53.0

24.1
(3)
23.6

24.9
(3)
23.4

Precision production, craft, and repair ................................................................................................................
Mechanics and repairers......................................................................................................................................
Construction trades ...............................................................................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and re p a ir...................................................................................................

1,042
261
315
467

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

61.6
61.3
63.2
60.8

26.1
29.3
23.8
25.8

12.3
9.4
13.0
13.4

Operators, fabricators, and laborers......................................................................................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.............................................................................................
Transportation and material moving occupations ..........................................................................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ..................................................................................
Construction laborers ......................................................................................................................................
Other handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................................................................

1,823
1,144
324
355
55
300

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

54.6
56.0
63.8
41.8
(3)
42.0

31.6
27.5
28.7
47.6
(3)
47.0

13.7
16.5
7.5
10.6
(3)
11.0

Farming, forestry, and fish in g .................................................................................................................................

68

100.0

(3)

(3)

(3)

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.

2Total includes a small number who did not report occupation.
3 Data not shown where base is [ess than 75 000.

Tenure on jobs lost. Many of the displaced workers had
been at their jobs for many years. As seen below, of the
5.1 million total— all of whom had worked at least 3 years
on the jobs they had lost— nearly one-third had spent at
least 10 years in their jobs. Another third had been at their
jobs from 5 to 9 years. The remaining third had lost jobs
at which they had worked either 3 or 4 years. Not surpris­
ingly, the older the displaced workers the more likely they
were to report a relatively longer period of service in the
jobs they had lost. This is clearly shown in the tabulation
below, which gives the percent distribution of the displaced
by age and years of tenure on the lost job:
Age
Total, 20 years
and over..........
25 to 54 years . . .
55 to 64 years . . .
65 years and over

3 to 4
Total years
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

36.2
37.9
15.5
14.6

asked as part of the January 1984 survey. The data obtained
through these questions are the focus of the following
sections.

Reasons for dismissals.

About one-half of the 5.1 million
displaced workers reported they had lost their jobs because
their plant or business had closed down or moved. Another
two-fifths cited “ slack work” as the reason (an answer
which may be translated as insufficient demand for the prod­
ucts or services of the employer). The remainder reported
simply that their individual jobs, or the entire shift on which
they had been working, had been abolished. (See table 5.)
Older workers were most likely to have lost their jobs
due to plant closings. Evidently, while their seniority pro­
tected their jobs in the face of such problems as “ slack
work,” it afforded little protection against the shutdown of
their plants or the folding of their companies. The younger
displaced workers, however, were about as likely to have
lost their jobs due to slack work as due to plant closings.

Median
5 to 9 10 years 20 years years
years or more or more of tenure
33.6
36.9
23.2
31.1

30.2
25.1
61.3
54.2

8.8
4.7
27.9
30.0

6.1
5.8
12.4
11.9

Notification of dismissal.

More than one-half of the dis­
placed workers reported that they had received an advance
notice of their dismissal, or that they had expected it. How­
ever, only 1 in 10 of these had apparently left their jobs
before the actual dismissal occurred. (See table 6.)
Workers who reported that they lost their jobs because
the plant or company closed or moved (61 percent) were
more likely than workers who reported other reasons for job
loss (52 percent) to respond that they received advance

As shown, while the overall median job tenure for the entire
5.1 million total was 6.1 years, median tenure for those 55
to 64 years of age was 12.4 years. Nearly one-third of the
workers in this age group reported they had lost jobs in
which they had spent 20 years or more.

The displacements and their aftermath
Various questions concerning the reasons for the dis­
placements and what occurred in their aftermath were also
5

notice or had expected a dismissal. But even among those
whose plants had closed, only a little more than one-tenth
reported that they had left their jobs before they ended.
Of the displaced workers who did leave their jobs before
they were to be laid off, a substantially higher proportion
were reemployed in January 1984 (79 percent) than was the
case among those who were informed but stayed on (60
percent). The evidence here, therefore, adds some support
for policies to encourage firms to provide early notification
of layoffs; but, as noted, most workers remained on thenjobs even with the advance notification.

fifths of those who moved were working again, a substan­
tially higher proportion than for nonmovers.
Although the data point up the employment benefits of
relocation, it should be recognized that there are important
reasons for the reluctance of workers to move. Many have
established community ties; they may own homes which are
particularly hard to sell if located in a depressed area; and
there may be family members who are still employed lo­
cally, thereby adding to the costs of a move. They may also
not have sufficient information about job opportunities in
other areas. Finally, it has been found that a sizable pro­
portion of workers who do relocate are likely to return.3
A recently published guidebook for employers on man­
aging plant closings estimates that only about 20 percent or
fewer workers in a plant would consider relocating as part
of their “ reemployment strategy.’’ The authors mention,
for example, that only 20 percent of laid-oflf steelworkers
from a Youngstown steel plant had moved out of the area;
that only 20 percent of enrollees in the Job Search and
Relocation Assistance Pilot Program of the U.S. Department
of Labor, and only 6 percent of enrollees for Trade Ad­
justment Assistance, used the relocation assistance which
was offered them.4

Moving to another area.

Only a small minority of the 5.1
million displaced workers (680,000) moved to a different
city or county to look for work or to take a different job.
However, of those who did move, a higher proportion were
reemployed in January 1984— almost 3 in 4, in contrast to
3 in 5 of the nonmovers. (See table 7.) Men were more
likely to move than women, and of the male movers, pro­
portionately more were reemployed (77 percent) than was
the case for their women counterparts (60 percent). Rela­
tively few older workers relocated— only 6 percent among
those 55 and over. However, even among them, about three-

Table 4.

Employment status and area of residence In January 1984 of displaced workers by selected characteristics

[Numbers in thousands]

Characteristic

Total1

New
England

Middle
Atlantic

East
North
Central

West
North
Central

South
Atlantic

East
South
Central

West
South
Central

Mountain

Pacific

5,091
3,328
1,763

260
155
105

794
530
264

1,206
772
434

426
282
145

664
428
236

378
236
143

484
347
137

211
152
59

667
427
241

2,492
1,970
629

118
106
36

410
269
115

556
513
138

208
164
54

339
236
89

204
132
42

231
211
42

103
83
26

323
256
88

481
2,514
1,686
828

16
158
94
64

68
414
260
154

88
658
514
145

36
210
137
73

81
296
175
122

34
189
107
82

63
215
142
73

30
58
40
18

63
315
218
97

352
740
648
84
272

14
41
22
2
5

61
100
122
10
20

83
182
133
22
40

34
68
45
5
28

34
132
70
13
38

33
40
32
4
45

41
54
54
8
49

19
32
39
5
27

32
90
132
16
19

3,058
1,299
22.1
38.8
733

171
48
0
0
41

428
225
24.1
36.8
141

621
400
21.2
47.2
185

276
96
13.0
47.5
54

461
117
29.4
25.5
85

209
113
17.3
51.7
56

344
85
25.4
29.8
55

148
33
0
0
30

399
181
18.4
28.0
86

Workers who lost jobs
T o ta l..........................................................
Men ....................................................
Women ...............................................

Reason for job loss
Plant or company closed down
or moved ......................................
Slack work .........................................
Position or shift abolished ..............

Industry of lost job
Construction .......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Durable goods ..............................
Nondurable g o o d s.........................
Transportation and public
utilities ............................................
Wholesale and retail trade ..............
Finance and service industries . . . .
Public administration.........................
Other industries2 ..............................

Employment status
In January 1984
Employed ............................................
Unemployed .......................................
Percent less than 5 w eeks...........
Percent 27 weeks or more . . . .
Not in the labor force ......................

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.
includes a small number who did not report industry.
3Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
N ote : The following list shows the States which make up each of the geographical
divisions used in this table: New England— Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New

Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic— New Jersey, New York, and
Pennsylvania; East North Central— Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wiscon­
sin; West North Central— Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
and South Dakota; South Atlantic— Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia,
Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Cen­
tral— Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central— Arkansas,
Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; Mountain— Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada,
New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; Pacific— Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and
Washington.

How long without work?

On average, the displaced work­
ers had spent nearly 6 months without work after they had
lost their jobs. That is, the median period without work—
which need not have been a continuous spell and could have
included time spent outside the labor force— was 24.1 weeks.
However, it should also be noted that about one-fourth of
these 5.1 million workers were still jobless when surveyed.
For many of them, the period of unemployment would ob­
viously extend beyond the January 1984 survey period.
As has historically been the case for the unemployed in
general, older workers were without work longer than their
younger counterparts. For workers 55 years and over, the
median period without a job was 30 weeks, while for work­
ers 25 to 34 it was 22 weeks.
Workers who were no longer in the labor force in January
1984 had been without work many more weeks, on average,
than those who were still looking for work (57 versus 32
weeks), while workers who were reemployed had spent far
fewer weeks without a job (13). (See table 8.)

Table 5. Displaced workers by reason for job loss and by
age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin
[In percent]

Characteristic

Number
(thousands)1

Total

Plant or
company
closed
down or
moved

Slack
work

Position or
shift
abolished

5,091
342
3,809
748

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

49.0
47.1
46.3
57.8

38.7
47.1
41.0
28.2

12.4
5.8
12.7
14.0

191

100.0

70.8

18.1

11.1

3,328
204
2,570
461

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

46.0
39.5
43.9
55.6

42.9
59.6
44.8
30.5

11.1
.9
11.3
14.0

92

100.0

68.7

15.7

15.5

1,763
138
1,239
287

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

54.6
58.3
51.1
61.4

30.8
28.7
33.3
24.5

14.6
12.9
15.6
14.1

99

100.0

72.8

20.3

6.9

4,397
2,913
1,484

100.0
100.0
100.0

49.6
46.0
56.7

37.9
42.6
28.7

12.5
11.4
14.6

602
358
244

100.0
100.0
100.0

43.8
44.9
42.2

44.7
46.4
42.2

11.6
8.8
15.7

282
189
93

100.0
100.0
100.0

47.4
48.1
46.2

45.2
43.8
48.1

7.3
8.1
5.7

Total
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
20 to 24 years . . .
25 to 54 years . . .
55 to 64 years . . .
65 years and
over ...................

Men
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
20 to 24 years . . .
25 to 54 years . . .
55 to 64 years . . .
65 years and
over ...................

Women
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
20 to 24 years . . .
25 to 54 years . . .
55 to 64 years . . .
65 years and
over ...................

Receipt of unemployment insurance.

The economic diffi­
culties of most of the displaced workers were alleviated by
their receipt of unemployment insurance benefits. Yet, while
3.5 million of the 5.1 million displaced workers had received
such benefits, almost one-half had exhausted them by Jan­
uary 1984. (See table 9.) Understandably, the probability
of exhausting one’s benefits was closely tied to the length
of one’s period of unemployment, being very high for work­
ers reporting more than 6 months (27 weeks) without work
and much lower for those with only a short spell of job­
lessness.
A larger percentage of the workers who were unemployed
in January 1984 had received unemployment insurance ben­
efits— 80 percent— than their counterparts who were either
reemployed or had left the labor force— 65 percent for both.
Of the workers who had received benefits, the proportion
that had exhausted them by January 1984 was about 50
percent for those still unemployed, 40 percent for those
reemployed, and 70 percent for those no longer in the labor
force.

White
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
Men .........................
W o m e n ...................

Black
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
Men .........................
W o m e n ...................

Hispanic origin
Total, 20 years and
o v e r .........................
Men .........................
W o m e n ...................

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.
Note: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals
because data for the "other races" group are not presented and Hispanics are included
in both the white and black population groups.

group health insurance, 60 percent no longer had any cov­
erage at the time of the survey. For black unemployed work­
ers previously covered, the uncovered proportion was 75
percent when surveyed.
In general, women were less likely than men to be left
without any health insurance coverage after displacement,
even if unemployed. This is probably because many of them
had spouses who were working, and thus were likely to
have been covered under the spouse’s plan.
Among the previously covered displaced workers who
were out of the labor force when surveyed, about 40 percent
were not covered under any plan in January 1984. Again,
for blacks the proportion who had lost all coverage was
much larger— 67 percent.
Some additional information on this topic is provided by

Loss o f health insurance.

Because a large proportion of
the displaced workers had held relatively “ good” jobs in
terms of pay and other benefits, a large majority of them
had participated in a group health insurance program on
these jobs. As shown in table 10, many of them no longer
were covered under any plan when surveyed in January
1984.
Of the 3.1 million persons who were working again in
January 1984, 2.5 million had been covered by group health
insurance coverage on their lost jobs. Even among these,
about 1 in 4 were no longer covered under a health plan in
January 1984.
For the 1.3 million displaced workers who were jobless
in January 1984 and who previously had been covered by
7

a University of Michigan survey conducted in 1983 in the
Detroit area. This survey found that, of those persons who
had been without work for only 3 months or less, about 30
percent had no health insurance coverage. In contrast, the
uncovered proportion among those without work for more
than 2 years was 55 percent. Almost four-fifths of those
workers had previously had health insurance when em­
ployed. The male workers were more likely than their female
counterparts to be without health insurance at the time of
the survey.5

525,000 had been in managerial and professional specialty
occupations at their lost jobs. Of these, only about half were
reemployed in such jobs. Similarly, about 640,000 had been
in precision production, craft, and repair work at their lost
jobs; among them only 360,000 were working again in these
occupations in January 1984. (See table 12.)
Reemployed workers not only were working in different
occupations, but also in different industries. For example,
of the 980,000 displaced workers who had been in durable
goods manufacturing, only about 40 percent were reem­
ployed in these industries in January 1984. Similarly, about
35 percent of 493,000 workers were reemployed in non­
durable goods manufacturing. In wholesale and retail trade,
50 percent of 455,000 were reemployed and in service in­
dustries, 46 percent of 347,000. The tabulation below shows
the percentage reemployed by key industry group:

The new jobs
Of the 5.1 million displaced workers, 2.8 million who
had been displaced from full-time wage and salary jobs were
reemployed in January 1984. Among them, 2.3 million were
again working at full-time wage and salary jobs, about 220,000
were in other types of full-time employment (mainly selfemployment), and about 360,000 were holding part-time
jobs. (See table 11.)
Many reemployed workers were in occupations different
from those they previously had held. For example, among
the workers who were employed in January 1984, about

NonDurable durable
40
6
5
12
16
22

D u rab le goods .........
N o n d u rab le goods ..
W h o lesale trade . . . .
R etail trade ................
Service ..........................
O th e r industries ___

14
35
4
9
19
19

Trade Services
9
6
10
40
17
18

8
4
5
15
46
22

Table 6. Displaced workers1 by age, whether they received advance notice or expected layoff, selected reason for job loss,
and employment status, January 1984
[Numbers in thousands]

Plant or company closed down or moved

Total who lost jobs
Characteristic

Employment status In January 1984
Total

Employed Unemployed

All other reasons

Employment status In January 1984

Not In the
labor force

Total

Employed Unemployed

Employment status In January 1984

Not In the
labor force

Total

Employed Unemployed

Not In the
labor force

All persons 20 years and over
Total1 ....................................................
Received advance notice or
expected layoff ......................
Left before job end ed.................
Did not leave before job ended .
Did not receive advance notice or
expect la y o ff...........................

5,091

3,058

1,299

733

2,492

1,547

509

437

2,599

1,512

791

296

2,870
318
2,532

1,715
250
1,450

709
23
683

446
45
399

1,525
185
1,331

945
151
787

297
7
290

283
27
254

1,346
133
1,202

770
99
664

412
16
393

163
18
145

2,221

1,343

590

287

967

602

211

154

1,253

741

378

134

2,034

1,330

504

200

885

615

184

86

1,148

715

320

114

1,160
146
1,004

771
117
643

274
11
264

114
17
97

550
74
470

393
61
325

100
3
96

58
9
48

609
72
534

379
57
319

174
7
167

56
8
48

874

558

230

85

335

222

84

28

539

336

146

57

2,118

1,384

534

200

1,039

714

203

122

1,079

670

331

78

1,183
137
1,040

784
112
668

284
10
272

115
15
100

626
85
541

439
73
367

115
3
112

71
9
62

557
52
499

345
40
302

169
7
160

43
6
37

935

599

250

85

413

274

87

51

522

325

163

34

939

345

261

334

568

218

122

229

371

127

139

105

528
35
489

160
21
139

151
2
148

217
12
203

349
26
320

113
18
95

82

179
9
169

47
3

82

154
9
143

44

69
2
66

63

—

412

186

109

117

219

40

75

192

80

70

42

20 to 34 years
T o ta l.......................................................
Received advance notice or
expected layoff ......................
Left before job end ed.................
Did not leave before job ended .
Did not receive advance notice or
expect la y o ff...........................

35 to 54 years
T o ta l.......................................................
Received advance notice or
expected layoff ......................
Left before job end ed.................
Did not leave before job ended .
Did not receive advance notice or
expect la y o ff...........................

55 years and over
T o ta l.......................................................
Received advance notice or
expected layoff ......................
Left before job end ed.................
Did not leave before job ended .
Did not receive advance notice or
expect layoff ......................

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a full-time
wage and salary job between January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings

8

105

or moves, slack work, or the abolishment of their positions or shifts,

4
59

Table 7. Displaced workers by whether they moved to a different city or county to find or take another job, by age, sex, and
current employment status, January 1984
[Numbers in thousands]

Nonmovers

Movers

Employment status In January 1984

Age and sex

Total

Employment status In January 1984

Employed

Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

Total

4,374
3,234
1,370
1,055
809
880

2,537
2,044
864
706
473
312

1,157
859
365
267
227
246

680
332
141
81
109
321

2,784
2,114
936
671
507
510

1,700
1,399
616
459
324
191

800
609
270
189
150
155

1,590
1,120
434
384
303
369

837
645
249
247
149
121

357
250
94
78
77
92

Employed

Unemployed

Not In the
labor force

682
556
318
158
80
53

500
413
221
125
67
32

134
108
71
26
11
12

48
34
26
6
2
9

284
107
50
23
33
164

519
440
262
117
61
38

401
342
191
98
54
24

96
78
55
18
5
12

21
19
16
2
2
2

397
225
91
58
76
157

163
116
56
41
19
14

99
71
30
27
13
8

38
30
15
9
6
—

27
15
11
5

Total:
Total, 20 years and over1 ..........................................................................
25 to 54 y e a rs .............................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 years and o v e r.......................................................................

Men:
Total, 20 years and over ..........................................................................
25 to 54 y e a rs ............................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 years and o v e r.......................................................................

Women:
Total, 20 years and over ..........................................................................
25 to 54 y e a rs ............................................................................
25 to 34 years .......................................................................
35 to 44 years .......................................................................
45 to 54 years .......................................................................
55 years and o v e r.......................................................................

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the

Reemployed
workers
(in thousands)

Durable goods................
Primary metals ...........
Transportation
equipment ..............
Nondurable goods .........
Textile mill products ..
Apparel and other
finished textile
products ..................

nondurable goods manufacturing (made up primarily of lower
paying industries) showed only slight declines, if any, be­
tween their earnings on their new and old jobs. For example,
the median weekly earnings on their lost jobs were $202
for workers in apparel and other finished textile products,
while their earnings on their new jobs were $197; for work­
ers in textile mill products, their median earnings on their
lost jobs were $181, and on their new jobs, $187.
Among the individual displaced workers who had pre­
viously been in full-time jobs in durable goods industries
and who were again working full time in January 1984,
about 40 percent had seen their weekly earnings drop by
20 percent or more. Yet, as seen in table 11, for those who
had been displaced from jobs in other industries, the earn­
ings in the new jobs compared more favorably with those
in the old jobs.
Of the entire universe of about 2 million workers who
were in full-time wage and salary jobs both before displace­
ment and when surveyed— and who reported the earnings
both for their old and new jobs— more than one-half (55
percent) were making as much or more in January 1984
than before displacement. These workers could, therefore,
be seen as having readjusted rather well after their initial
job losses. However, among these 2 million workers, there
were also 900,000 who had taken some pay cuts, and for
about 600,000 of these the cut was in the range of 20 percent
or more.

Median weekly earnings
Job held in
Lost jo b January 1984

980
100

$344
407

$273
246

222
493
48

399
264
181

319
254
187

83

202

7

abolishment of their positions or shifts.

As shown, even among the nearly half a million reem­
ployed who had been displaced from nondurable goods in­
dustries, only about one-third were again working in this
industry group in January 1984. In fact, generally more than
one-half of the displaced workers who were reemployed in
January 1984 were no longer in the industry group from
which they had been displaced.
Understandably, the workers who had been displaced from
high-wage industries were most likely to have suffered a
drop in earnings in taking a new job. For example, as seen
below, for the 980,000 who had previously been in durable
goods manufacturing, the median weekly earnings on the
old jobs had been $344. In contrast, the median for the jobs
they held in January 1984 was only $273. And it should be
noted that these numbers, which are shown below for a few
illustrative industries, understate the actual loss in purchas­
ing power as they are stated in “ current” dollars, that is,
they do not take into account the effects of inflation:
Industry o f lost jobs

—

197

In addition to the workers who had taken pay cuts al­
though they were again working in full-time jobs, there were
also, as already noted, a considerable number— about

As shown, workers who had been displaced from jobs in
9

losses of fringe benefits relative to those enjoyed on the
previous jobs.

360,000— who had gone from a full-time to a part-time job.
Needless to say, these workers were even more likely to
have suffered a considerable drop in weekly earnings after
their displacement. When these are added to our universe,
we can conclude that at least one-half of the displaced work­
ers who were reemployed in January 1984 were earning less
than in the jobs they had lost.
Among the findings from other studies on displacement
which have dealt with earnings differences between the dis­
placed workers’ old and new jobs,6 are the following:
• Older workers and workers with less education are more
likely to experience earnings losses.
• Because there are fewer job opportunities available, earn­
ings losses are larger in areas of high unemployment and
in small labor markets.
• Earnings losses are particularly large for workers dis­
placed from well-paying unionized industries such as au­
tos and industrial chemicals.

A focus on steel and automobile workers
Much of the public discussion about workers’ displace­
ments in recent years has focused on the steel and auto
industries. This is probably because any plant shutdowns
or mass layoffs in these two industries have a particularly
large impact on the geographic areas where they are con­
centrated, as well as a large multiplier effect on the other
sectors of the economy. Moreover, the two industries were
not only hard hit by the recessions of the early 1980’s, but
also had to retrench and alter their production methods be­
cause of foreign competition and other structural factors.
These developments led to large reductions in employment,
with the payrolls in both of these industries being consid­
erably lower in January 1984— even after some rapid re­
covery from the latest recession— than they had been 5 years
earlier. Specifically, over this 5-year period, employment
had dropped by about 400,000 (or nearly one-third) in the
primary metals industry and by about 200,000 (or one-fifth)
in the motor vehicles industry. Of course, many other du­
rable goods industries also underwent large reductions in
employment over this period, but because their plants are
generally not as concentrated in certain areas, nor as dom­
inant in the local economies as are steel and automobile
plants, their cutbacks received less nationwide publicity.

A special assessment of Department of Labor funded
programs in six local areas that provided training and other
services to displaced workers in 1982-83, found that for
the program participants who were reemployed, the average
wages at their new jobs had dropped substantially from their
pre-layoff wages: The mean hourly wage at the new jobs
was in the $7 or $8 range, while the mean wage at layoff
ranged from approximately $9 to $11 an hour.7 And in
addition to the losses in wages, there were obviously some

Steel workers.

Of the 5.1 million displaced workers in
January 1984, about 220,000 had worked in primary metals
industries (largely steel). Forty percent of them reported
they lost their jobs because their plants had closed down,
and most of the others cited slack work as the reason for
job loss. Reflecting the deep-seated problems of this industry
and the generally depressed conditions of some of the areas
where its plants are (or were) located, less than half (46
percent) of these displaced workers were working again in
January 1984. Nearly 40 percent were still looking for work,
while 16 percent were no longer in the labor force. Among
those who had lost their jobs because of plant closings,
almost one-fourth had left the labor force. Thus, the em­
ployment status of the workers displaced from primary met­
als jobs was far worse than that for the entire universe of
displaced workers.
Not surprisingly, of the former steel (and other primary
metals) workers who were again employed when surveyed,
most had left the primary metals industry. Only 25,000 of
them were working in durable-goods industries in January
1984. Of the others, some 20,000 were in services indus­
tries, 15,000 in construction, and another 15,000 in retail
trade. Having had to find work in generally new fields, the
displaced workers who had previously held jobs in primary
metals industries reported a larger decline in earnings at
their new jobs (40 percent) than workers from any other
industry group. As already indicated, median earnings of

Table 8. Displaced workers1 by weeks without work, age,
and employment status, January 1984__________________
Weeks without work
Characteristic

Lass
More Median
than 5 5 to 14 15 to 26 27 to 52 than 52 weeks
waaks weeks weeks
without
weeks
weeks work

Total:
Age 20 and over .............. 1,173
25 to 54 years ..............
856
25 to 34 years . . . .
399
35 to 44 years . . . .
268
45 to 54 years . . . .
189
55 years and over . . . .
203

912
729
347
228
154
109

707
538
214
200
125
122

983
745
349
220
177
179

1,211
871
359
278
234
302

24.1
23.1
21.9
22.3
25.8
29.8

Employed:
Age 20 and over ..............
25 to 54 years ..............
25 to 34 years . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . .
45 to 54 years . . . .
55 years and over . . . .

910
705
322
223
160
119

657
540
252
185
103
65

453
364
147
134
83
52

590
486
222
150
114
63

393
334
129
130
74
41

13.1
13.4
12.5
15.4
15.3
12.4

Unemployed:
Age 20 and over ..............
25 to 54 years ..............
25 to 34 years . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . .
45 to 54 years . . . .
55 years and over . . . .

166
124
64
40
21
25

201
156
75
37
43
31

201
142
57
50
35
50

264
185
81
57
46
65

447
348
153
106
90
88

32.2
32.6
33.8
30.9
32.5
33.3

Not in the labor force:
Age 20 and over ..............
25 to 54 years ..............
25 to 34 years . . . .
35 to 44 years . . . .
45 to 54 years . . . .
55 years and over . . . .

98
27
14
6
8
59

55
34
20
7
7
14

53
33
10
17
7
19

130
74
46
13
16
51

370
189
77
42
69
173

56.8
57.6
53.0
54.7
96.2
61.2

1“ Displaced” refers to persons whose jobs were lost because of plant closings or
moves, slack work, or the abolishment of their positions or shifts.

10

Table 9. Workers who lost jobs In past 5 years1 by duration of joblessness, receipt of unemployment insurance, whether
benefits exhausted, weeks without work, and employment status, January 1984
[Numbers in thousands]

Weeks without work end
employment ststus

Lost a job In last
5 years

Plant or company closed down
or moved

All other
reasons

Total

Received
unemployment
benefits

Exhausted
benefits

Total

Received
unemployment
benefits

Exhausted
benefits

Total

Received
unemployment
benefits

Exhausted
benefits

Both sexes:
All persons:
Total1 ............................................
Less than 5 weeks ................
5 to 14 weeks .........................
15 to 26 weeks ......................
27 to 51 weeks ......................
52 weeks or more .................

5,091
1,173
912
707
656
1,538

3,497
298
687
604
583
1,273

1,670
44
59
165
316
1,064

2,492
665
419
325
309
724

1,589
144
297
270
270
584

755
21
19
63
157
482

2,599
508
494
381
347
814

1,908
155
391
334
313
689

915
23
40
102
160
582

Employed:
T o ta l...............................................
Less than 5 weeks ................
5 to 14 weeks ................ =. . .
15 to 26 weeks ......................
27 to 51 weeks ......................
52 weeks or more .................

3,058
910
657
453
368
615

1,973
182
499
389
342
533

802
18
44
111
182
436

1,547
546
313
204
190
269

904
98
225
171
169
228

357
8
16
43
98
186

1,512
364
343
249
178
346

1,068
84
274
218
172
305

445
9
28
69
84
251

Unemployed:
T o ta l...............................................
Less than 5 weeks .................
5 to 14 weeks .........................
15 to 26 weeks ......................
27 to 51 weeks ......................
52 weeks or more .................

1,299
166
201
201
199
512

1,043
69
167
174
176
447

541
9
11
38
93
387

509
61
75
88
72
206

390
15
59
75
64
174

203
2
3
12
34
151

791
105
126
113
127
306

653
54
108
99
112
273

338
7
8
26
59
236

Not in the labor force:
T o ta l...............................................
Less than 5 weeks ................
5 to 14 weeks .........................
15 to 26 weeks ......................
27 to 51 weeks ......................
52 weeks or more .................

733
98
55
53
89
411

481
48
22
40
65
294

327
17
3
16
41
241

437
58
30
33
47
249

294
30
13
24
37
182

195
10

296
40
24
20
42
162

187
18
9
17
28
112

132
7
3
8
16
96

'Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the

—

8
25
145

abolishment of their positions or shifts.

these reemployed workers were $246 at their new jobs ver­
sus $407 at their old ones. Such earnings losses must have
caused substantial changes in the consumption pattern of
these workers and their families.

Automobile workers.

About 225,000 auto workers had been
displaced from their jobs during the January 1979-January
1984 survey period. Of these, 44 percent reported they had
lost their jobs because their plants had closed, while 46
percent reported slack work as the reason for job loss. Re­
flecting partly the fact that the industry had enjoyed a sub­
stantial recovery by January 1984, nearly two-thirds of these
workers were again employed when surveyed. However,
while some automobile workers had gone back to their for­
mer jobs, many others had apparently switched to differ­
ent— and generally lower paying—jobs in other industries.
As indicated above, for all those who were reemployed, the
median weekly earnings for the jobs they held in January
1984 were substantially lower than the median for the auto
industry jobs they had lost.
It is also important to note that 25 percent of the displaced
auto workers were still looking for work in January 1984
and that 13 percent had left the labor force. For those who
lost their jobs because their plant closed, the proportions
unemployed or out of the labor force in January 1984 were
even a bit higher.
11

Of course, an additional number of automobile workers
were recalled to their jobs during 1984. Employment in the
motor vehicles and equipment industry increased from about
850.000 (seasonally adjusted) in January 1984 to about
900.000 by the year’s end. So, the displacement problem
in this industry was likely to have been alleviated consid­
erably during the year following the survey.

Other studies of displaced workers
In addition to the data from the January 1984 survey,
special case studies evaluating the effectiveness of Depart­
ment of Labor programs for displaced workers, particularly
displaced auto and steel workers, are another valuable source
of information on this topic.
In order to obtain information on the effectiveness of
various types of assistance which might be provided to dis­
placed workers, the Department of Labor funded a series
of pilot projects in 1980-83. One project, the Downriver
Community Conference Economic Readjustment Program,
served laid-ofif automotive workers from the Detroit met­
ropolitan area.8 Among the findings from this demonstration
study are the following:
1.
The displaced workers were predominantly men, aged
25 to 44, and married. Most had graduated from high school;
however, when tested in the program, one-fifth scored below

reemployment rate declined the longer the workers remained
in the program, and this reflected in part the worsening labor
market conditions in the Detroit area during that particular
period.

a sixth grade literacy level. They had, on average, worked
more than 10 years on the lost job— and they had earned
about $10 an hour.
2. Depending upon the particular plant from which they
had been laid off, the workers were found to have received
either unemployment insurance benefits, or unemployment
insurance coupled with company-funded supplemental un­
employment benefits, or, in some cases, both of these ben­
efits as well as trade adjustment assistance, which was paid
to those whose jobs were deemed to have been lost because
of imports. Therefore, some of the workers had their prelayoff earnings almost entirely replaced by benefits, at least
for a time.

5.
On average, the earnings of participants who became
reemployed were more than 30 percent below their prelayoff earnings.
The Department of Labor had also funded a pilot program
in Buffalo, New York (among other sites), the aim of which
was to assist displaced workers, largely from auto and steel
jobs. In this demonstration, it was found that the reemployed
workers were placed in jobs paying a mean wage of about
$6.50 an hour, a decline from a mean pre-layoff hourly
wage of more than $10 an hour. The program participants
were primarily men, between their mid-20’s and mid-40’s,
most with a high school education. Nearly 70 percent of
the participants were reemployed at the time of the project’s
termination, with the younger workers being slightly more
likely to be placed in jobs than were the others.9
Some additional data on displaced workers are available
from a sample of 379 workers from a population of about
11,000 workers on indefinite layoff from a major automobile
manufacturer in April 1983.10 The survey, which was funded
by the Department of Commerce, was conducted by the
University of Michigan from November 1983 to January
1984. Among the findings are the following:
• Auto workers who were recalled to jobs with their pre­
vious employer reported a mean hourly wage of $12.26,
with a weekly gross pay of $490.42. In contrast, the other
reemployed workers cited a mean hourly wage of $7.42
and an average weekly gross pay of $314.70.
• Of the 379 respondents, 30 percent had been recalled to
their old jobs at the time of the survey, 25 percent were
employed elsewhere, about 35 percent were looking for
work, and 10 percent were no longer in the labor force.
• Compensation payments (for example, unemployment in­
surance and trade adjustment assistance benefits) had cov­
ered, on average, about 30 percent of the displaced workers’
income loss since they had been laid off. The proportion
of lost income offset by such benefits was lower the longer
the layoff period, dropping from about 55 percent for
workers laid off less than 1 year to about 13 percent for
those laid off more than 2 years.
• Workers with more than 10 years’ seniority at their old
jobs had received benefits that replaced larger proportions
of their lost wages. However, these workers also reported
relatively lower earnings when they were reemployed.

3. Although resources were made available to the work­
ers for job search and relocation outside their area, only 8
percent of the program enrollees relocated. About 20 percent
of those who relocated subsequently returned.
4. Two years after the job loss, only about 50 percent
of the workers in the program had found another job. The

Table 10. Displaced workers by health insurance
coverage and employment status, January 1984
[Numbers in thousands]

Covered by group health
Insurance on lost job
Characteristic

Total1
Total

Not covered under Not covered
on lost job
any plan In
January 1984
Number Percent

Total
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed .......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

5,091 3,977
3,058 2,454
1,299 1,037
733
486

1,381
573
612
196

34.7
23.4
59.0
40.3

1,033
554
236
242

3,328 2,757
2,117 1,780
903
743
307
235

985
413
469
102

35.7
23.2
63.1
43.6

507
301
139
67

1,763 1,220
941
675
294
396
426
251

396
160
142
93

32.4
23.7
48.4
37.2

526
253
98
175

4,397 3,433
2,754 2,203
822
1,031
408
613

1,118
516
452
150

32.6
23.4
55.0
36.7

902
509
192
201

Men
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed ......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

Women
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed ......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

White
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed ......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

Black
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed ......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

602
252
247
103

468
208
193
67

239
50
144
45

51.0
23.9
74.5
66.7

117
38
44
34

282
147
95
40

193
111
60
22

66
29
33
5

34.2
25.6
55.5
20.5

83
32
33
17

Hispanic origin
Total, 20 years and o v e r .................
Employed ......................................
Unemployed .................................
Not in the labor force .................

Summary
The two recessions of the early 1980’s, coupled with more
deep-seated structural problems affecting certain industries,
took a heavy toll among American workers. About 5.1
million who had worked at least 3 years on their jobs found

1Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.

12

Table 11. Displaced full-time workers by industry, by reemployment in January 1984, and by comparison of earnings
between new and old jobs
[In thousands]

Full-time wage and salary job

Industry of lost job

Displaced after 3 years or more on job2 ......................
Construction ..................................................................
Manufacturing ...............................................................
Durable goods ..........................................................
Primary metals industries .................................
Steel3 ..................................................................
Other primary m etals......................................
Fabricated metal products .................................
Machinery, except electrical..............................
Electrical machinery ............................................
Transportation equipment .................................
Automobiles ....................................................
Other transportation equipment ...................
Nondurable g o o d s....................................................

2,841
253
1,418
954
98
78
20
102
244
94
219
141
77
464

357
26
151
106
14
14

Transportation and public utilities ...........................
Wholesale and retail trade .........................................
Finance and service industries....................................
Public administration....................................................
Other industries4 ..........................................................

191
399
378
48
153

Part-time
job

Total1

20 percent
or more
below

Below,
but
within
20 percent

Equal or
above,
but
within
20 percent

621
48
366
281
40
33
7
30
77
26
66
43
23
85

320
30
171
102
5
3
2
6
34
12
22
16
6
69

571
47
286
181
22
14
9
21
39
14
42
21
21
105

533
61
247
155
5
5

12
17
10
30
19
11
45

2,266
199
1,200
797
77
59
18
81
215
84
174
115
59
403

15
72
58
4
31

154
296
270
42
104

40
61
59
11
36

22
41
35
5
16

44
79
83
7
24

27
85
74
18
22

—

’ Includes 221,000 persons who did not report earnings on lost job.
2Data refer to persons who lost or left a full-time wage and salary job between January
1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or abolishment
of their positions or shifts.

Table 12.

Self
employment
or other
full-time
job

Eamlngs relative to those of lost job

Total
reemployed
January
1984

20 percent
or more
above

218
28
67
51
7

4
2
9
12

—

16
40
22
34
26
8
92

—

14
7
7
16
22
31
50
2
18

3lncludes blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills, and iron and steel
foundries.
includes a small number who did not report industry,

Reemployed workers by occupation in January 1984 and by occupation of job lost in preceding 5 years

[Numbers in thousands]

Occupation on job held In January 1984
Managerial and
professional
specialty
Occupation on job lost

Total, 20 years and over . . . .
Managerial and professional
specialty.................................
Executive, administrative, and
managerial ...........................
Professional specialty..............

Total
employed

Executive,
adminis­
trative,
and
managerial

3,058

Technical, sales,and
administrative support

Operators, fabricators, and
laborers

Service
occu­
pations

Precision
production,
Machine
craft,
operators,
and
assemblers,
repair
and
Inspectors

Trans­
Handlers,
portation equipment
cleaners,
and
helpers,
material
and
moving
occupations laborers

Farming,
forestry,
and
fishing

Profes­
sional
specialty

Techni­
cians
and
related
support

Sales
occu­
pations

Admini­
strative
support,
Including
clerical

282

194

73

359

364

320

621

387

223

183

52

525

153

116

16

62

79

31

38

11

11

6

2

336
189

141
12

26
91

10
6

43
18

57
22

12
19

27
11

7
4

7
4

3
3

2
—

704

Technical, sales, and
administrative support . . . .
Technicians and related
support .................................
Sales occupations ...................
Administrative support,
including clerical...................

70

38

41

197

188

56

50

27

19

16

83
312

3
34

10
15

39

4
159

4
27

6
18

6
30

6
10

1
11

6
6

309

34

13

2

34

157

32

14

11

7

4

1

Service occupations......................

140

1

6

2

10

8

81

18

4

5

5

—

Precision production, craft, and
re p air.......................................

642

33

19

4

28

25

35

359

64

27

40

9

995

18

14

10

58

64

118

145

277

159

107

26

640

6

10

8

37

44

94

98

248

35

50

9

207

4

2

1

14

7

6

19

12

107

24

9

148

7

1

8

13

16

28

16

16

33

8

47

5

—

3

0

0

9

4

4

9

13

Operators, fabricators, and
laborers .................................
Machine operators,
assemblers, and inspectors.
Transportation and material
moving occupations ...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers...........
Farming, forestry, and fishing . .

2
-

—

’ Data refer to persons with tenure of 3 years or more who lost or left a job between
January 1979 and January 1984 because of plant closings or moves, slack work, or the

13

abolishment of their positions or shifts.

3
—

2

themselves without employment over the 1979-83 period
due to plant closings, payroll curtailments, or companies
going out of business. In some cases, these job losses were
only temporary, entailing little sacrifice in terms of unem­
ployment and lost income. In many other cases, the read­
justment to the job loss has been much more painful.
Some of the workers displaced from their jobs over this
5-year period had returned to work after a relatively short
time, and their earnings when surveyed in January 1984
were as high or higher than they had been before the job
loss. Many others had found different jobs, but frequently
at much lower wages than in the jobs from which they had
been displaced. About one-fourth were still unemployed
when surveyed, though some may have been employed dur­
ing part of the period since their displacement. Finally, about

1One writer’s rather typical description of displaced (or dislocated) work­
ers reads: “ Dislocated workers are individuals with established work
histories who have lost their jobs through no fault of their own and who
are likely to encounter considerable difficulty finding comparable employ­
ment. Such individuals are commonly thought to have lost their jobs be­
cause the industries or occupations in which they worked are in long-term
decline. . . . However, while it may be conceptually appealing to distin­
guish between long-term and cyclical declines, as a practical matter such
a distinction is not very meaningful when cyclical declines last several
years. Moreover, an industry may be growing overall but declining in
particular geographic or subindustry segments.” Quoted from Lynn E.
Browne, “ Structural Change and Dislocated Workers,” New England
Economic Review, January-February 1985, p. 21. Also see reports on
topic by Marc Bendick and Steven Sheingold.
2 “ b l s Reports on Displaced Workers,”
U.S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Press Release, Nov. 30, 1984.
3Richard P. Swigart, ed., Managing Plant Closings and Occupational
Readjustments: An Employer’s Guidebook (National Center on Occupa­
tional Readjustment, Inc., 1984), p. 48. Also see Walter Corson, Rebecca
Maynard, and Jack Wichita, Process and Implementation Issues in the
Design and Conduct o f Programs to Aid the Reemployment o f Dislocated
Workers (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., October 1984), p. 79.
4Swigart, Managing Plant Closings, p. 49.
5S.E. Berki, Leon Wyszewianski, Richard Lichtenstein, and others,
Insurance Coverage of the Unemployed (The Department of Medical Care
Organization, School of Public Health, The University of Michigan, Jan.
15, 1985).
6Raymond Uhalde, “ Job Displacement and Employment Security: A
Workplace Perspective” in Kevin Hollenbeck, Frank C. Pratzner, and
Howard Rosen, eds.. Displaced Workers: Implications for Educational
and Training Institutions, (Columbus, o h , The National Center for Re­
search in Vocational Education, Ohio State University, 1984), pp. 24-27.

15 percent had left the labor force.
Given the resiliency of the U.S. economy and the rapid
advances which it posted during most of 1984, it is quite
likely that many of the displaced who were still jobless in
January 1984 were either recalled to their old jobs or man­
aged to find new ones during the year. But even as the year
came to a close, some industries— steel being a prime ex­
ample— were still plagued by serious structural problems.
This, in turn, was reflected by the still high jobless rates in
some geographic areas where the displacement problem had
taken a particularly large toll. For many of the workers
displaced from long-held jobs in these areas, the prospects
of reemployment were obviously not very bright— unless
they were willing to relocate to new areas and to search in
new fields.
□

Uhalde refers to research, for example, by Arlene Holen, Losses to Work­
ers Displaced by Plant Closure or Layoff: A Survey of the Literature
(Alexandria, v a , The Public Research Institute, Center for Naval Analysis,
November 1976); Louis Jacobson and Janet Thomason, Earnings Loss
Due to Displacement (Alexandria, v a , The Public Research Institute, Cen­
ter for Naval Analysis, August 1979); Glen Jenkins and Claude Montmarquette, “ Estimating the Private and Social Opportunity Cost of
Displaced Workers,” Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1979,
pp. 342-53; and Robert Crosslin, James Hanna, and David Ste­
vens, Economic Dislocation: Toward a Practical Conceptual Approach
(Carson City, NV, Employment Security Department, September 1983).
Also see “ Former Steelworkers’ Income Falls by Half,” The New York
Times, Oct. 31, 1984.
7Corson, Maynard, and Wichita, Process and Implementation Issues,
pp. 64, 81, and 83.
8Jane Kulik, D. Alton Smith and Ernst W. Stromsdorfer, The Down­
river Community Conference Economic Readjustment Program: Final
Evaluation Report (Abt Associates Inc., Sept. 30, 1984).
9L. M. Wright, Jr., Case Study, Buffalo Worker Reemployment Cen­
ter, Buffalo, New York ( c s r , Incorporated, under subcontract to Mathe­
matica Policy Research, January 1984), pp. 7, 8, and 50; Marcia C. Jerrett,
Robert Jerrett, III, Jane Kulik, John Tilney, and Jeffrey Zomitsky,
Serving the Dislocated Worker: A Report on the Dislocated Worker Dem­
onstration Program (Abt Associates, Inc., December 31, 1983), pp. 28,
46, and 47; and William Corson, Sharon Long, and Rebecca May­
nard, “ An Impact Evaluation of the Buffalo Dislocated Worker Program
(Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., March 12, 1985), pp. 38 and 116.
l0Jeanne P. Gordus, Sean P. McAlinden, and Karen Yamakawa,
Labor Force Status, Program Participation and Economic Adjustment of
Displaced Auto Workers (Ann Arbor, m i , Industrial Development Division,
Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Nov.
15, 1984.)

14

Appendix A. Explanatory Note

ment status at the time o f the interview, a question was
asked of all those who had been reported as having lost
a job to determine whether they currently had any
health insurance coverage.
As noted earlier, in tabulating the data from this
survey, the only workers considered to have been
displaced from their jobs were those who reported job
losses arising from: (1) The closing down or moving o f a
plant or company, (2) slack work, or (3) the abolish­
ment of their position or shift. This means that workers
whose job losses stemed from the completion of
seasonal w ork, the failure o f self-em ploym ent
businesses, or other miscellaneous reasons were not in­
cluded among those deemed to have been displaced. A
further condition for inclusion among the displaced
workers, for the purpose of this study, was tenure of at
least 3 years on the lost job.
In examining the displaced workers who were
unemployed in January 1984, it is im portant to note
that not all were continually unemployed since the job
loss they reported. Many, particularly those who
reported job losses which occurred in 1979 or the very
early 1980’s, may subsequently have held other jobs,
only to find themselves unemployed once again in
January 1984.

The data presented in this report were obtained
through a special survey conducted in January 1984 as a
supplement to the C urrent Population Survey (CPS), the
m onthly survey o f about 59,500 households which pro­
vides the basic data on employment and unemployment
for the Nation. The purpose o f this supplementary
survey was to obtain inform ation on the number and
characteristics o f workers 20 years o f age and over who
had been displaced from their jobs over the previous 5
years, that is, over the period from January 1979 to
January 1984. This is the period during which the
economy went through two back-to-back recessions and
the levels o f employment in some industries, particular­
ly the goods-producing sector, were reduced con­
siderably.

Concepts and Definitions
In order to identify workers who had been displaced
from jobs, the survey respondents were first asked
whether the household member had lost a job during the
period in question because of a plant closing, an
employer going out of business, a layoff from which the
respondent was not recalled, or other similar reasons. If
the answer to this question was “ yes,” the respondent
was asked to identify, among the following reasons, the
one which best fit the reason for the job loss:
Plant or company closed down or moved
Plant or company was operating but job was lost
because of:
Slack work
Position or shift was abolished
Seasonal job was completed
Self-employment business failed
Other reasons

Estimating Methods
The estimation procedure used in this survey involves
the inflation of the weighted sample results to indepen­
dent estimates o f the total civilian noninstitutional
population o f the United States by age, race, Hispanic
origin, and sex. These independent estimates are based
on updated statistics from the 1980 decennial census and
the statistics on births, deaths, immigration and emigra­
tion, and the Armed Forces.

After ascertaining the reason for the job loss, a series
of questions were asked about the nature o f the lost
jo b —including the year it was lost, the years o f tenure,
the earnings, and the availability of health insurance.
Other questions were asked to determine what
transpired after the job loss such as: How long did the
person go without work, did he or she receive
unemployment insurance benefits, were the benefits ex­
hausted, and, finally, did the person move after the job
loss. If the person was reemployed at the time o f the in­
terview, follow-up questions were asked to determine
the current earnings. A nd, regardless of the employ­

Rounding of estimates
The sums o f individual items may not always equal
the totals shown in the same tables because o f indepen­
dent rounding o f totals and components to the nearest
thousand. Similarly, sums o f percent distributions may
not always equal 100 percent because of rounding. Dif­
ferences, however, are insignificant.

Reliability of the estimates
Since the estimates in this report are based on a sam­
ple, they may differ somewhat from the figures that
15

estimate derived from all possible samples is included in
the confidence interval.
As a general rule, summary measures such as me­
dians, means, and percent distributions are not publish­
ed when the monthly base of measure is less than
75,000. Because o f the large standard errors involved,
there is little chance that summary measures would
reveal useful inform ation when computed on a smaller
base. Estimated numbers are shown, however, even
though the relative standard errors o f these numbers are
larger than those for corresponding percentages. These
smaller estimates are provided primarily to permit such
combinations o f the categories as serve each user’s
needs.
In order to derive standard errors that would be ap­
plicable to a large num ber of estimates and could be
prepared at a m oderate cost, a number of approxim a­
tions were required. Therefore, instead o f providing an
individual standard error for each estimate, generalized
sets of standard errrors are provided for various types
o f characteristics. As a result, the sets of standard errors
provided give an indication of the order o f magnitude of
the standard error of an estimate rather than the precise
standard error.
The figures presented in tables A-2 and A-3 are ap­
proximations to standard errors o f various estimates.
To obtain standard errors for specific characteristics
other than Hispanic levels, factors from table A -l must
be applied to the standard errors given in tables A-2 and
A-3 in order to adjust for the combined effect o f sample
design and the estimating procedure on the value o f the
characteristics. Standard errors for Hispanic levels
should be calculated directly using the form ula for the
standard error o f an estimated number and the
param eters in table A -l. Standard errors for in­
termediate values not shown in the gerneralized tables
of standard errors may be approxim ated by interpola­
tion.
Two parameters (denoted “ a ” and “ b ” ) are used to
calculate standard errors for each characteristic; they
are presented in table A -l. These param eters were used
to derive the standard errors in tables A-2 and A-3, and
to calculate the factors in table A -l. They also may be
used to calculate directly the standard errors for
estimated numbers and percentages. Methods for direct
com putation are given in the following sections.

would have been obtained had a complete census been
taken using the same questionnaires, instructions, and
enum erators. There are two types o f errors possible in
an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and
nonsampling. The standard errors provided for this
report primarily indicate the magnitude o f the sampling
error. They also partially measure the effect of some
nonsampling errors in response and enum eration, but
do not measure any systematic biases in the data. The
full extent of the nonsampling error is unknown. Conse­
quently, particular care should be exercised in the inter­
pretation of figures based on a relatively small number
of cases or on small differences between estimates.

Nonsampling variability. Nonsampling errors in surveys
can be attributed to many sources, e.g., inability to ob­
tain inform ation about all cases in the sample, defini­
tional difficulties, differences in the interpretation of
questions, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct inform ation, inability to recall inform a­
tion, errors made in collection such as in recording or
coding the data, errors made in processing the data,
errors made in estimating values for missing data, and
failure to represent all units within the sample (under­
coverage).

Sampling variability. The standard errors given in the
following tables are primarily measures of sampling
variability, that is, o f the variation that occurred by
chance because a sample rather than the entire popula­
tion was surveyed. The sample estimate and its
estimated standard error enable one to construct con­
fidence intervals, ranges that would include the average
result of all possible samples with a known probability.
For example, if all possible samples were selected and
each surveyed under essentially the same general condi­
tions and using the same sample design, and if an
estimate and its estimated standard error were
calculated from each sample, then:
1. Approximately 68 percent of the intervals from
one standard error below the estimate to one standard
error above the estimate would include the average
result of all possible samples.
2. Approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.6
standard errors below the estimate to 1.6 standard er­
rors above the estimate would include the average result
o f all possible samples.
3. Approximately 95 percent of the intervals from
two standard errors below the estimate to two standard
errors above the estimate would include the average
result o f all possible samples.

Standard errors o f estimated numbers. The approx­
imate standard error, 0x, o f an estimated num ber can be
obtained in two ways. It may be obtained by use o f the
form ula
(1)

The average estimate derived from all possible
samples may not be contained in any particular com­
puted interval. However, for a particular sample, one
can say with a specified confidence that the average

ax =

>/ax2 -(- bx

where x is the size of the estimate and a and b are the
parameters in table A -l associated with the particular
type o f characteristic. Alternately, the standard error o f
16

an estimate may be obtained by use of the form ula
(2)

polation from table A-3. The standard errors in table
A-3 were computed using form ula (3) above and the
total employment param eters in table A -l. Direct com­
putation o f the standard errors using form ula (3) will
provide more accurate results than use of the standard
error tables.

ax = fa

where f is the appropriate factor from table A -l and o
is the standard error of the estimate obtained by inter­
polation from table A-2. The standard errors in table
A-2 were derived using form ula (1) above and the total
employment param eters given in table A -l. Direct com­
putation of the standard errors using form ula (1) will
give more accurate results than use of the interpolation
in the standard error table.

Illustration. Suppose that, of the 5,091,000 displaced
workers, 2,492,000 or 48.9 percent lost their jobs when
a plant or company closed down or moved. From table
A -l, the appropriate b param eter is 2,206. Using for­
mula 3, the approximate standard error on 48.9 percent is

Illustration. As indicated in table 4, there were
3,058,000 workers who lost or left a job involuntarily in
the past 5 years and were employed in January 1984.
From table A -l, the appropriate parameters are a =
-0.0000157 and b = 2,327. Using form ula (1), the ap­
proximate standard error on an estimate of 3,058,000 is
a xV-0.0000157 (3,058,000)2 + 2,327 (3,058,000) =
83,000

V2,206
5,091,000

(48.9) (51.1) = 1.0

Alternately, by interpolation in table A-3, the standard
error on 48.9 percent using a factor of 0.97 is 1.1 (0.97 x
1.1) percentage points.
Therefore, using the 1.0 estimate of standard error,
the 68-percent confidence interval of the percentage of
displaced workers who lost their jobs when a plant or
company closed down or moved is from 47.9 to 49.9,
and the 95-percent confidence interval is from 46.9 to
50.9.

Alternatively, by interpolation in table A-2, the stand­
ard error on 3,058,000 using a factor o f 1.0 and round­
ing to the nearest thousand is 83,000 (1.0 x 83,000).
Using the 83,000 estimate o f standard error, the
68-percent confidence interval as shown by the data is
from 2,975,000 to 3,141,000. Therefore, a conclusion
that the average estimate derived from all possible
samples lies within a range computed in this way would
be correct for roughly 68 percent o f all possible samples.
Similarly, we could conclude with 95 percent confidence
that the num ber o f displaced workers who were current­
ly employed in January 1984 lies within the interval
from 2,892,000 to 3,224,000 (using twice the standard
error).

Standard error o f a difference. For a difference be­
tween two sample estimates, the standard error is ap­
proximately equal to
(5)

a <x-y) = W

x

where <*x and Oy are the standard errors o f the estimates
x and y; the estimates can be o f num bers, percents,
ratios, etc. This will represent the actual standard errors
quite accurately for the difference between two
estimates of the same characteristic in two difference
areas, or for the difference between separate and uncor­
related characteristics in the same area. If, however,
there is a high positive (negative) correlation between
the two characteristics, the form ula will overestimate
(underestimate) the true standard error.

Standard errors o f estimated percentages. The approx­
imate standard error o f an estimated percentage,
0 (y,p), can be com puted in two ways. It may be obtain­
ed by use o f the formula
(3) ° (y,p) =

a (x,p) =

V t - . p (ioo-p)

Illustration. Suppose that, o f the 3,328,000 male
displaced workers, 2,117,000 or 63.6 percent were
employed in January 1984, and o f the 1,763,000 female
displaced workers, 941,000 or 53.4 percent were
employed in January 1984. The apparent difference bet­
ween these two groups is 10.2 percent. Using formula
(3) and the appropriate b param eters (2,013 for males
and 1,725 for females) from table A -l, the standard er­
ror on 63.6 percent with a base o f 3,328,000 is approx­
imately 1.2 percentage points, and for 53.4 percent with
a base o f 1,763,000 is approximately 1.6 percentage
points. Using form ula (5), the standard error on the

where y is the size o f the subclass o f persons which is the
base o f the percentage, p is the percentage (0< p < 100),
and b is the param eter in table A -l associated with the
particular type o f characteristic in the num erator o f the
percentage. Alternately, standard errors may be approx­
imated by use o f the formula
(4) ° x = f °
where f is the appropriate factor from table A -l and o
is the standard error o f the estimates obtained by inter­
17

estimated difference of 10.2 percentage points is ap­
proximately
°

95-percent confidence interval is from 6.2 to 14.2. Since
this interval does not include zero, we can conclude with
95 percent confidence that the percentage o f male
displaced workers currently employed is greater than the
percentage of female displaced workers currently
employed.

(x-y) = V l.2 1 + (1.6)2 = 2.0
2

This means that the 68-percent confidence interval
around the difference is from 8.2 to 12.2, and the

Table A-2. Standard errors for estimated numbers

Table A-1. “a ” and “b” parameters for computing approx­
imate standard errors of estimated numbers, percentages,
and labor force participation rates for estimates of CPS
labor force data
a x 10-4

b

(2)
13.0

- .1 5 7

2 ,3 2 7

1.00

W h i t e .....................................................................
B l a c k .....................................................................
H ispanic (p erc en tag es only) .....................
H ispanic (levels o n l y ) .....................................

- .1 7 7
-1 .4 4 4
(2)
8.1

2 ,3 2 7
2 ,3 2 7
4 ,3 9 4
1,84 7

1.00
1.00
1.37

Both sexes, 16 to 19 y e a r s ........................... - 1 .8 3 0
-2 .1 4 0
W hite, 16 to 19 y e a r s .....................................
B lack, 16 to 19 y e a r s ..................................... -1 2 .6 2 0

2 ,3 2 7
2 ,3 2 7
2 ,3 2 7

1.00
1.00
1.00

M en ........................................................................
M en , 2 0 ye ars and over or w h ite m en . .
B lack m en ..........................................................
H ispanic m en (p e rc e n ta g e s o n ly ).............
W h ite m en, 2 0 ye ars and o v e r ..................
B lack m en, 2 0 ye ars and o v e r ..................

(2)
-,3 0 4
-2 .7 7 6

2 ,0 1 3
2 ,0 1 3
2 ,0 1 3
3 ,1 3 9
2 ,0 1 3
2 ,0 1 3

.93
.93
.93
1.16
.93
.93

- .1 8 8

1 ,72 5

.86

-.2 0 5

1 ,72 5

.86

-1 .6 4 0

1 ,72 5
2 ,3 2 8

.86
1.00

2 ,2 0 6
2 ,5 3 6
1 ,86 4
1 ,60 0

.97
1.04
.90

Standard error

1 0 ........................................................................
2 5 ................................................................
5 0 ..................................................................
1 0 0 .............................................................................
2 5 0 ...........................................................................
5 0 0 ........................................................................
1 ,0 0 0 ........................................................
2 ,5 0 0 ................................................................
5 ,0 0 0 ................................................
7 ,5 0 0 .....................................
1 0 ,0 0 0 .............................................................................
1 5 ,0 0 0 ..................................................
2 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................................
3 0 ,0 0 0 .............................................................................
4 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................................
5 0 ,0 0 0 ................................................................
7 0 ,0 0 0 ..................................................................
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .....................................

1.26
1.74

T o t a l.............................................................................

S ize of es tim a te

5
8
11
15
24
34
48
76
106
129
147
177
201
23 6
261
278
29 3
275

f1

3 ,7 0 2
7 ,0 3 0
1 ,95 5

(In thousands)

C h aracteris tic
A gricu ltural em ploym ent
H ispanic (p erc en tag es only) ..........................
H ispanic (levels o n l y ) ..........................................

- .2 7 6

(3)

All labor fo rc e d a ta o ther than unem ploym en t and argicultural em p lo ym en t data:

- .2 4 9
-.2 7 4
-2 .4 2 6

(3)

NOTE: T o obtain standard errors fo r th e ch a ra c te ris tic of interest, m ultiply
th e s e values by th e app ropriate fa c to r provided in ta b le A -1 .

Table A-3. Standard errors for estimated percentages
(In thousand)
Estim ated p e rc e n ta g e

W o m en , total or w h ite ...................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and over,
total or w hite ..................................................
B lack w o m en or B lack w o m en ,
2 0 years and o v e r ..........................................
H ispanic w o m en (p erc en tag es only) . . .
U n em p lo ym en t
Total or w h i t e ..........................................................
B l a c k ..........................................................................
H ispanic (p erc en tag es only) ...........................
H ispanic (levels o n l y ) ..........................................

(2)

-.1 5 2
-1 .5 0 6
(2)
14.9

B ase of
p erc e n ta g e

7 5
100
250
500
1 ,00 0
2 ,5 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
7 ,5 0 0
1 2 .0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 0 ,0 0 0

(3)

1 T h e se fa cto rs a re to be app lied to th e standard errors in tables A-2 and
A -3 to co m p u te stan d a rd errors for th e given type of ch a rac teristic.
2 N ot app licab le.
’ S tan d ard errors should b e ca lc u la te d directly using fo rm ula (1) and th e
corresponding a and b p a ram eters .

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

1
or
99

2
or
98

5
or
95

10
or
90

15
or
85

25
or
75

1.8
1.5
1.0

2.5
2.1
1.4
1.0

.7

3.8
3.3
2.1
1.5
1.1

.4

.7

5.3
4.6
2.9
2 .0
1.4
.9
.6
.5

6.3
5.4
3.4
2.4
1.7
1.1
.8
.6
.5
.3
.2
.2

7.6
6 .6
4.2
3.0
2.1
1.3
.9
.8
.6

.7
.5
.3
.2
.2
.14
.10
.07
.05

.3

.5

.2
.2
.14
.10
.07

.4
.3
.2
.15
.11

.4
.3
.2
.14

50

8.8
7.6
4.8
3.4
2.4
1.5
1.1
.9

.4

.7
.5

.3
.2

.3
.2

NOTE: To obtain standard errors fo r the c h a ra c te ris tic of interest, m ultiply
th e s e values by th e ap p ro p ria te fa c to r provided in ta b le A -1 .

18

Appendix B. Supplementary Tables

Table B-1. Displaced workers by year of job loss, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status in January 1984
Percen t distribution by em p lo ym en t status in January 19 84
T o ta l’
(in thousands)

Sex, race, H ispanic origin, and year of job loss

Total

Em ployed

U nem ployed

N ot in the
labor force

5,091
567
703
1 ,01 6
1 ,34 6
1,44 7

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0

60.1
6 3 .2
7 2 .9
66 .8
62 .4
4 5 .7

2 5 .5
14.1
14.8
16 .6
2 3 .2
4 3 .6

14 .4
22 .7
12.3
16.7
14.5
10 .6

3 ,3 2 8
34 4
46 2
670
880
96 5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 3 .6
6 8 .3
74 .4
7 1 .5
6 6 .4
4 8 .5

27.1
15.5
16.8
18.2
25 .5
4 4 .2

9.2
16.2
8.8
10.3
8.1
7.3

1 ,76 3
22 3
241
346
466
482

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

53 .4
55 .3
7 0 .0
5 7 .5
54 .7
4 0 .2

2 2 .5
11 .9
11.1
13 .5
18.8
4 2 .6

2 4 .2
3 2 .8
18.9
2 9 .0
2 6 .5
17 .3

4 ,3 9 7
1 ,96 9
2 ,4 1 8

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

6 2 .6
7 0 .2
56 .4

2 3 .4
13 .7
3 1 .3

13 .9
16.1
12.3

602
278
324

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 1 .8
5 0 .0
3 4 .8

4 1 .0
2 8 .7
5 1 .7

17.1
2 1 .3
13 .6

282
99
18 0

10 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

5 2 .2
6 2 .7
4 7 .0

3 3 .7
12.9
4 4 .4

14.1
24 .3
8 .5

TO TA L

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1 9 7 9 ......................................... w..............................................................................
1 9 8 0 .............................................................................................................................
1981 ..............................................................................................................................
1 9 8 2 .............................................................................................................................
1 9 8 3 2 ............................................................................................................................
Men

Total, 2 0 years and over ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1 9 7 9 ..........................................................................................................................
1 9 8 0 ..............................................................................................................................
1981 ..............................................................................................................................
1 9 82 .............................................................................................................................
1 9 8 3 2 ............................................................................................................................
W om en

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1 9 7 9 ..........................................................................................................................
1 9 8 0 .............................................................................................................................
1981 ..............................................................................................................................
1 9 8 2 .............................................................................................................................
1 9 8 3 2 ............................................................................................................................
W hite

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1979-81 ..................................................................................................................
1 9 8 2 -8 3 2 .....................................................................................................................
Black

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1979-81 ..................................................................................................................
1 9 8 2 -8 3 2 .....................................................................................................................
Hispanic origin

Total, 2 0 years and over ............................................................................................................
Lost job in: 1979-81 ..................................................................................................................
1 9 8 2 -8 3 2 .....................................................................................................................

2 Includes a sm all num ber of w orkers w ho lost jobs in January 1984.
N O T E : Detail fo r race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
to tals bec au se d ata fo r th e “ o ther ra c e s ” group are not p resen ted and
H ispanics are included in both th e w hite and black population groups.

1 D a ta refer to persons with tenure of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job betw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 b ec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abo lishm ent of their positions or
shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report th e year of
job loss.

19

Table B-2. Displaced workers by full- or part-time status on lost job, age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status
in January 1984
P ercen t distribution by em ploym ent status in January 1 9 8 4
Full- or part-tim e status on lost job, age, sex, race, and H ispanic origin

T o ta l1
(in thousands)

T o tal

Em ployed

U nem ployed

N o t in th e
labor fo rce

5,091

1 0 0.0

60.1

2 5 .5

14 .4

4 ,7 0 9
281
3 ,5 9 6
69 3
13 9

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 0 .9
7 1 .0
6 5 .3
41.1
2 3 .4

26.1
2 0 .4
2 5 .8
3 2 .8
12 .0

13.1
8 .6
8 .9
26.1
6 4 .5

3 ,2 1 7
17 0
2 ,5 2 2
451
75

1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 4 .0
7 3 .4
6 8 .3
4 3 .2
2 0 .6

2 7 .2
2 0 .2
2 6 .9
3 4 .5
9 .8

8 .8
6 .4
4 .8
2 2 .3
6 9 .6

1 ,49 2
11 2
1 ,07 4
242
65

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

5 4 .2
6 7 .4
58 .3
37.1

2 3 .6
2 0 .6
23.1
2 9 .7

2 2 .2
11 .9
18 .6
3 3 .2

ft

ft

ft

4 ,0 5 4
2 ,8 1 9
1 ,2 3 5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 3 .5
6 6 .4
5 7 .0

2 3 .9
2 5 .2
21.1

1 2 .5
8 .4
2 1 .9

568
343
225

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 2 .2
4 4 .5
3 8 .8

4 1 .8
4 4 .8
3 7 .3

16 .0
10 .7
2 4 .0

277
18 9
88

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

5 2 .9
55 .2
4 8 .2

3 2 .9
3 5 .5
2 7 .2

1 4 .2
9 .3
2 4 .6

372
104
268

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0

5 0 .7
5 5 .4
4 8 .9

18.1
2 2 .8
1 6 .2

3 1 .3
2 1 .9
3 4 .9

T O TA L

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
FU LL TIM E ON LO ST JOB

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
2 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
5 5 to 6 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
6 5 years and o v e r .......................................................................................................................
Men

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
2 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
5 5 to 6 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
6 5 years and o v e r .......................................................................................................................
W om en

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
2 0 to 2 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
2 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
5 5 to 6 4 y e a r s ...............................................................................................................................
6 5 years and o v e r .......................................................................................................................
W hite

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
M e n .....................................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ..............................................................................................................................................
Black

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
M e n .....................................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ..............................................................................................................................................
Hispanic origin

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
M e n .....................................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ..............................................................................................................................................
PA RT TIM E ON LO ST JOB

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
M e n .....................................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ..............................................................................................................................................
' D a ta re fe r to persons with te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 bec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent o f th eir positions or
shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report their fullor part-tim e status on lost job.

2 D a ta not show n w h ere bas e is less th an 7 5 ,0 0 0 .
N O T E : D etail fo r ra ce and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
to tals bec au se d a ta for th e “o th er ra ces " group a re not p resen ted and
Hispanics a re included in both th e w hite and b lack population groups.

20

Table B-3. Displaced workers by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and employment status
in January 1984
Percen t distribution by em p lo ym en t status in January 1 9 84
Educational attainm ent, sex, race, and H ispanic origin

T o ta l'
(in thousands)

Total

E m ployed

U nem ployed

N ot in th e
labor fo rce

5,091
51 9
755
2 ,4 2 5
814
57 8

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
10 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0

60.1
41.1
4 9 .6
6 0 .8
6 7 .5
77 .4

2 5 .5
3 2 .9
3 3 .3
2 5 .2
2 1 .5
15.7

14.4
2 5 .9
17.2
14.0
11 .0
6 .9

3 ,3 2 8
362
498
1 ,49 3
542
431

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 3 .6
4 3 .6
5 1 .9
6 5 .4
7 1 .0
7 8 .6

27.1
3 7 .8
3 7 .4
27.1
2 0 .5
14.9

9.2
18 .6
10.7
7.5
8 .6
6 .5

1 ,76 3
157
256
932
272
147

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

53 .4
35 .5
4 5 .0
53 .3
6 0 .7
7 4 .0

2 2 .5
2 1 .7
2 5 .3
2 2 .2
2 3 .4
18.2

2 4 .2
4 2 .8
29 .7
2 4 .5
15 .9
7.8

4 ,3 9 7
1,051
2 ,1 2 2
1 ,22 4

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

6 2 .6
49.1
6 3 .0
7 3 .7

2 3 .4
3 1 .5
2 3 .2
16 .9

13.9
19.3
13 .9
9.4

602
203
271
128

1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

4 1 .8
31.1
4 5 .4
51.1

4 1 .0
4 1 .5
4 0 .5
4 1 .6

17.1
2 7 .4
14.1
7.3

282
149
93
40

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

5 2 .2
4 4 .4
57.1
(2)

3 3 .7
3 8 .7
3 1 .9
(2)

14.1
16 .9
11 .0
(*>

TO TA L

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Elem entary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
Men

Total, 2 0 years and over ............................................................................................................
Elem entary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
W om en

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
E lem entary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
W hite

Total, 2 0 years and over ............................................................................................................
Less than 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 years of high school ..............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
Black

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Less than 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 years of high school .............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
Hispanic origin

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Less th an 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 years of high school .............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
1 D a ta refer to persons with te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 84 b ec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or
shifts.

2 D a ta not show n w h ere b as e is less than 7 5 ,0 0 0 .
N O T E : D etail for race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
to tals bec au se data for th e “ o ther ra c e s ” group are not p resen ted and
H ispanics are included in both th e w hite and black population groups.

21

Table B-4. Displaced workers by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and reason for job loss
P ercen t distribution by reason fo r job loss

Total

Plant or
com pany
closed dow n
or m oved

S lack work

Position or
shift w as
abolished

5,091
519
75 5
2 ,4 2 5
814
578

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 9 .0
5 7 .2
5 3 .4
4 9 .5
44.1
4 0 .3

38 .7
3 6 .9
40.1
4 0 .2
4 0 .8
2 9 .3

12 .4
5.9
6 .6
10.3
15 .0
3 0 .4

3 ,3 2 8
362
498
1 ,49 3
542
431

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

4 6 .0
5 3 .7
4 9 .5
4 6 .6
4 0 .0
4 0 .7

4 2 .9
40.1
4 4 .2
4 4 .9
4 7 .3
3 1 .3

11.1
6 .3
6.3
8 .5
12 .7
28.1

1 ,76 3
157
256
932
272
14 7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

5 4 .6
6 5 .2
6 0 .8
5 4 .2
5 2 .4
3 9 .2

3 0 .8
2 9 .7
3 2 .0
3 2 .6
2 7 .9
23 .4

14 .6
5.1
7.2
13 .2
19 .8
3 7 .4

4 ,3 9 7
1,051
2 ,1 2 2
1 ,22 4

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 9 .6
5 5 .5
5 0 .8
4 2 .4

3 7 .9
3 8 .8
3 8 .7
3 5 .9

12 .5
5.7
10 .5
2 1 .8

602
203
271
12 8

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 3 .8
5 2 .6
3 8 .0
42.1

4 4 .7
3 9 .2
5 2 .6
3 6 .6

11 .6
8 .2
9.5
2 1 .3

282
14 9
93
40

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 7 .4
5 1 .6
4 4 .2
0

4 5 .2
4 3 .4
54.1
(2)

7.3
5.0
1.6
O

T o tal'
(in thousands)

E ducational attainm ent, sex, race, and H ispanic origin

TO TA L

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
E lem en tary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
Men

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
E lem en tary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
W om en

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
E lem en tary school o n ly ............................................................................................................
High school: 1 to 3 years .......................................................................................................
4 y e a r s .........................................................................................................................
C ollege:
1 to 3 years ..........................................................................................................
4 or m ore years .....................................................................................................
W hite

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Less than 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 years of high school .............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
Black

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Less th an 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 ye ars of high school .............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
Hispanic origin

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ............................................................................................................
Less than 4 years of high s c h o o l.......................................................................................
4 years of high school .............................................................................................................
1 ye ar or m ore of c o lle g e .......................................................................................................
' D a ta refer to persons with te nure o f 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job betw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 b ec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or
shifts.

2 D a ta not show n w h ere base is less th an 7 5 ,0 0 0 .
N O T E : D etail fo r ra ce and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
to tals b ec au se d a ta fo r th e “ o ther ra ces " group are not p resen ted and
Hispanics are included in both th e w hite and black population groups.

22

Table B-5. Displaced workers by industry and class of worker of lost job and reason for job loss
P ercen t distribution by reason for job loss
T o ta l'
(in thousands)

Industry and class of w orker of lost job

Total

Plant or
com pany
closed dow n
or m oved

S lack work

Position or
shift w as
abolished

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ......................................................................................................

5,091

1 0 0 .0

4 9 .0

3 8 .7

12 .4

Nonagricultural private w a g e and salary w orkers .........................................................

4 ,7 0 0

1 0 0 .0

50.1

3 9 .7

10.1

M in in g ................................................................................................................................................
C o n s tru c tio n ....................................................................................................................................

15 0
401

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 0 .2
5 0 .5

4 5 .4
45.1

4.4
4.4

M a n u fa c tu rin g ................................................................................................................................
D urable goods ...........................................................................................................................
Lum ber and w ood p r o d u c ts ............................................................................................
Furniture and fix tu re s ..........................................................................................................
S tone, clay, and glass p ro d u c ts ...................................................................................
Prim ary m etal in d u s trie s ....................................................................................................
F ab ricated m etal products ..............................................................................................
M ach inery ex cep t electrical ............................................................................................
E lectrical m achinery, equipm ent, and supplies ....................................................
Transpo rtation eq u ipm ent ................................................................................................
A u to m o b ile s ..........................................................................................................................
O th e r transportation e q u ip m e n t.................................................................................
P rofessional and photographic e q u ip m e n t..............................................................
O th e r durable goods in d u s trie s .....................................................................................

2 ,4 8 3
1 ,67 5
81
65
75
219
173
396
19 5
354
224
130
54
62

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

4 8 .6
4 3 .9
5 5 .7
(1
2)
54 .2
39 .6
4 1 .6
38 .3
51.1
3 9 .3
4 4 .0
3 1 .3
(2)
(*)

4 2 .5
48.1
3 1 .6
(2)
3 6 .6
52 .6
54 .7
5 3 .2
4 4 .2
5 1 .2
4 5 .4
6 1 .4
(2)

ft

8 .9
8 .0
12.7
(2)
9.2
7.8
3.7
8 .5
4 .7
9.4
10 .6
7.4
<*)
<*>

N ondurable g o o d s ....................................................................................................................
Foo d and kindred p ro d u c ts .............................................................................................
T extile mill p ro d u c ts ............................................................................................................
A pparel and o ther finished textile p ro d u c ts ............................................................
P ap er and allied p r o d u c ts ................................................................................................
Printing and p u b lish in g .......................................................................................................
C hem ical and allied products ........................................................................................
R u bber and m iscellaneou s plastics p ro d u c ts ........................................................
O th e r nondurable goods in d u s trie s .............................................................................

808
17 5
80
13 2
60
103
11 0
100
49

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0

58 .2
6 4 .7
7 2 .0
6 0 .7
(2)
4 7 .6
4 3 .3
6 3 .6
(*)

3 0 .9
2 6 .6
17 .8
36 .3
(*)
3 0 .8
3 8 .6
3 0 .6
O

10.9
8 .6
10 .3
3.0
<*)
2 1 .6
18.1
5.8
C
2)

Transpo rtation and public u tilitie s .......................................................................................
T ra n s p o rta tio n ............................................................................................................................
C om m unication and o ther public u tilitie s ....................................................................

336
280
56

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

4 7 .4
4 7 .0
(*)

3 5 .8
4 1 .0
<*>

16 .8
12 .0
0

W h o le s a le and retail tr a d e ......................................................................................................
W h o le s a le trade .......................................................................................................................
R etail trade .................................................................................................................................

732
234
498

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 8 .9
4 8 .8
6 3 .7

3 1 .6
41.1
2 7 .2

9.4
10.1
9.1

Finance, insurance and real e s t a t e ...................................................................................
S e r v ic e s .............................................................................................................................................
Professional s e rv ic e s .............................................................................................................
O th e r service industries .......................................................................................................

93
506
187
318

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

4 8 .9
4 6 .6
3 3 .3
5 4 .3

2 5 .9
3 7 .3
4 1 .3
3 4 .9

2 5 .3
16.1
2 5 .3
10 .7

Agricultural w a g e and salary w o r k e r s ..................................................................................
G o ve rn m en t w o r k e r s .....................................................................................................................
S elf-em p lo ye d and unpaid fam ily w o r k e r s .........................................................................

100
248
25

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

4 5 .0
2 6 .7
0

2 8 .9
2 2 .5
(*)

26.1
50 .8

1 D a ta refer to persons with te nure of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 b ec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or

23

0

shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report industry or
class of w orker.
2 D a ta not show n w h ere b a s e is less th an 7 5 ,0 0 0 .

Table B-6. Displaced workers by sex, whether they received advance notice or expected layoff, reason for job loss, and
employment status in January 1984

(In thousands)
Plant or com pany closed
dow n or m oved

T o tal w ho lost jobs
E m ploym ent status in
January 19 84

Sex, and w h eth er or not w orkers received advance
notice or e x p ected layoff
T o ta l’

Em ­
ployed

U n em ­
ployed

5,091
2 ,8 7 0
2 ,5 3 2
2,221

3 ,0 5 8
1 ,7 1 5
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,34 3

1 ,29 9
709
683
590

3 ,3 2 8
1,82 2
1 ,61 2
1 ,5 0 6

2 ,1 1 7
1 ,14 9
973
968

1,76 3
1 ,04 9
921
715

941
566
478
375

All o ther reasons

E m ploym ent status in
January 1 9 84

N ot in Total
th e
labor
fo rce

E m ploym ent status in
January 1 9 84

N o t in Total
th e
labor
force

Em ­
ployed

U nem ­
ployed

N ot in
th e
labor
force

2 ,5 9 9
1 ,3 4 6
1 ,20 2
1 ,25 3

1 ,51 2
770
664
741

791
412
393
378

296
163
14 5
13 4

343
19 0
18 6
153

16 4 1 ,79 8
101
935
841
93
863
63

1 ,09 5
55 4
480
541

560
298
288
262

14 4
83
73
60

165
107
10 4
59

273
18 2
161
91

417
217
183
200

231
114
10 5
11 7

15 3
80
72
73

Em ­
ployed

Unem ­
ployed

7 3 3 2 ,4 9 2
4 4 6 1 ,5 2 5
3 9 9 1,331
287
967

1 ,54 7
945
787
602

509
297
290
211

437
283
254
15 4

90 3
489
474
414

30 7 1 ,5 2 9
184
887
16 5
771
643
12 3

1 ,02 3
59 5
492
427

396
221
20 9
176

426
262
234
16 4

524
349
294
17 5

TO TA L

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r .........................................................
R ec eiv ed ad v an ce notice or e x p ected l a y o f f ...........
R em ain ed at job until it e n d e d .......................................
Did not receive ad v an ce notice or ex p ect layoff ....
Men

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r .........................................................
R e c eiv ed ad v an ce notice or e x p ected layoff ...........
R em ain ed at job until it e n d e d ......................................
Did not receive ad v an ce notice or e x p ect layoff ....
W om en

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r .........................................................
R ec eiv ed ad v an ce notice or ex p ected la y o f f ...........
R em ain ed a t job until it e n d e d ......................................
Did not re ceive ad v an ce notice or ex p ect layoff ....

1 D a ta refer to persons w ith te nure of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or
left a job betw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 bec au se of plant

963
638
56 0
325

801
410
361
390

closings or m oves, slack work, or th e abo lishm ent of their positions or
shifts.

24

Table B-7. Displaced workers by reason for job loss, whether or not they received or exhausted unemployment insurance
benefits, age, and employment status in January 1984

(In thousands)
Plant or com pany closed dow n or
m oved

T o tal w ho lost jobs
A ge and em ploym ent status in January
1984

R ec eiv ed benefits
T o ta l’

All o th er reason s

R ec eiv ed ben efits
Total

Total

E xhausted
ben efits

5,091
4 ,7 4 9
1,69 2
1,21 8
90 0
93 9

3 ,4 9 7
3 ,3 2 7
1 ,17 8
869
652
629

1 ,6 7 0
1 ,60 4
544
416
330
314

2 ,4 9 2
2,331
72 4
54 2
496
56 8

1 ,5 8 9
1 ,5 1 9
454
352
323
391

755
732
213
17 3
152
195

2 ,5 9 9
2 ,4 1 8
967
675
404
371

1 ,90 8
1 ,80 7
724
517
328
238

91 5
872
331
243
178
120

3 ,0 5 8
2 ,8 1 8
1,08 9
83 7
54 7
34 5

1,97 3
1,85 5
721
55 8
371
205

802
760
286
241
15 6
76

1 ,54 7
1 ,41 5
48 3
402
311
218

904
845
276
252
18 5
13 2

357
341
111
10 9
68
53

1 ,51 2
1 ,40 3
606
434
236
127

1 ,06 8
1 ,0 1 0
445
306
18 6
73

445
418
175
132
88
24

1,29 9
1,23 0
43 5
29 3
241
261

1 ,04 3
1 ,0 0 6
337
245
206
218

541
52 8
172
12 8
117
11 0

509
487
163
98
105
12 2

390
384
12 4
67
88
10 4

203
19 9
61
43
46
49

791
743
272
195
13 6
13 9

653
622
212
178
11 8
11 4

338
329
11 2
85
71
61

73 3
701
167
88
112
334

481
466
120
66
74
206

327
316
85
47
56
128

437
428
78
42
80
229

294
290
53
33
50
15 4

19 5
19 2
41
21
37
93

296
273
90
46
32
10 5

187
17 6
67
33
24
52

132
124
45
25
19
35

Total

E xhausted
ben efits

R ec eiv ed ben efits
Total
Total

E xhausted
benefits

TO TA L

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ....................................
2 5 years and o v e r ...............................................
2 5 to 3 4 years ...................................................
3 5 to 4 4 years ...................................................
4 5 to 5 4 years ...................................................
5 5 years and o v e r ............................................
E m ployed

Total, 2 0 years and over ....................................
2 5 years and o v e r ...............................................
2 5 to 3 4 years ...................................................
3 5 to 4 4 years ...................................................
4 5 to 54 years ...................................................
5 5 years and o v e r ............................................
U nem ployed

Total, 2 0 years and over ....................................
2 5 years and o v e r ...............................................
2 5 to 3 4 y e a r s ...................................................
3 5 to 4 4 years ...................................................
4 5 to 54 years ...................................................
5 5 years and o v e r ............................................
N o t in th e labor fo rc e

Total, 2 0 years and over ....................................
2 5 years and o v e r ...............................................
2 5 to 34 years ...................................................
3 5 to 4 4 years ...................................................
4 5 to 5 4 years ...................................................
5 5 years and o v e r ............................................

' D a ta refer to persons with te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 84 bec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or

shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report w h eth er
or not th ey received or ex h au sted their ben efits

25

Table B-8. Displaced workers by full- or part-time status on lost job, sex, group health insurance coverage on lost job, and
employment status and coverage in January 1984
(Numbers in thousands)
C o ve red by group health insurance on lost
job
Full- or part-tim e status, sex, and em ploym ent status in January 19 8 4

T o tal'
Total

N o t co v ere d under any plan
in January 19 8 4
N um ber

N o t co vered
on lost job

P ercen t

TO TA L

5,091

3 ,9 7 7

1,381

3 4 .7

1 ,0 3 3

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ......................................................................................................................
E m p lo y e d ...............................................................................................................................................
U n e m p lo y e d ..........................................................................................................................................
N o t in th e labor f o r c e ......................................................................................................................

4 ,7 0 9
2 ,8 6 6
1 ,22 8
616

3 ,8 6 2
2 ,3 9 4
1 ,01 2
456

1 ,3 4 7
561
601
184

3 4 .9
2 3 .5
59 .4
4 0 .3

772
426
19 2
153

M en , 2 0 years and over ....................................................................................................................
E m ployed ...............................................................................................................................................
U n e m p lo y e d ..........................................................................................................................................
N o t in th e labor f o r c e ......................................................................................................................

3 ,2 1 7
2 ,0 5 7
875
285

2 ,7 2 3
1,761
733
229

970
407
463
100

3 5 .6
23.1
6 3 .2
4 3 .8

434
262
12 2
50

W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................................................................
E m p lo y e d ...............................................................................................................................................
U n e m p lo y e d ..........................................................................................................................................
N o t in th e labor f o r c e ......................................................................................................................

1 ,4 9 2
808
353
331

1 ,1 3 9
633
279
227

377
15 5
138
83

33.1
2 4 .5
4 9 .6
3 6 .7

338
16 4
69
104

372

109

34

3 1 .2

260

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ......................................................................................................................
Full tim e on lost job

Part tim e on lost job

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ......................................................................................................................
1 D a ta refer to persons with te nure of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 19 84 b ec au se of plant closings
or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abo lishm ent of their positions or shifts.

Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report full- or part-tim e
status or health insurance coverage,

Table B-9. Displaced workers by weeks without work after job loss and other selected characteristics

(Numbers in thousands)
W e e k s w ithout w ork after job loss

C haracteristic

T o ta l’

Less than
5 w ee ks

5 to 14
w ee ks

15 to 2 6
w ee ks

2 7 to 52
w ee ks

M o re than
52 w ee ks

M edian
w ee ks
w ithout
w ork after
job loss

TO TA L

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ..........................................................................................
M e n ...................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ...........................................................................................................................
W h ite ...............................................................................................................................
B la c k ................................................................................................................................
H ispanic o r ig in ............................................................................................................

5,091
3 ,3 2 8
1 ,76 3
4 ,3 9 7
602
282

1 ,27 8
836
442
1,181
84
72

91 2
630
28 2
77 8
115
48

707
485
222
625
69
31

983
644
339
831
133
70

1,211
732
479
983
201
62

24.1
2 1 .8
2 6 .3
2 1 .4
3 3 .9
2 6 .3

4 ,7 0 9
2 ,8 6 6
1 ,22 8
616
3 ,2 1 7
1 ,49 2
4 ,0 5 4
568
277

1 ,14 6
885
167
94
79 2
354
1,05 8
77
71

858
625
189
44
622
237
734
10 6
48

653
417
192
43
471
182
57 8
63
30

932
571
249
112
629
302
783
12 9
67

1,121
368
430
323
703
417
901
193
61

24 .3
13 .2
3 2 .6
62 .3
2 1 .6
2 6 .7
2 1 .5
3 5 .3
2 6 .2

372
10 4
268

123
38
85

54
9
45

54
14
40

52
15
37

90
29
61

2 0 .6
2 4 .3
16.8

Full tim e on lost job

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ..........................................................................................
E m ployed in January 19 8 4 ..................................................................................
U n em p lo ye d in January 1 9 8 4 ............................................................................
N o t in th e labor fo rce in January 19 8 4 ........................................................
M e n ...................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ...........................................................................................................................
W h ite ...............................................................................................................................
B la c k ................................................................................................................................
H ispanic o r ig in ............................................................................................................
Part tim e on lost job

Total, 2 0 years and o v e r .........................................................................................
M e n ...................................................................................................................................
W o m e n ...........................................................................................................................

1 D a ta refer to persons w ith te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 19 8 4 b ec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abo lishm ent of their positions or
shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report full- or

part-tim e status or w ee ks w ithout work.
N O T E : D etail fo r ra ce and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to
to tals b ec au se d ata for th e “ o ther ra c e s ” group are not p resen ted and
Hispanics are included in both th e w hite and black population groups.

27

Table B-10. Median weekly earnings of displaced workers on lost job and on both the old and new job for those reemployed
in January 1984 by industry and class of worker
(Numbers in thousands)
W o rke rs w h o lost jobs in 1 9 7 9 -8 3 but w ere
em ployed in January 19 8 4

Industry and class of w orker

T o ta l’

M edian
w eekly
earnings on
lost job

Total

M edian
w eekly
earnings on
lost job

M edian
w eekly
earnings on
job held in
January
19 8 4 *

T o tal, 2 0 years and o v e r ......................................................................................................

5,091

$295

3 ,0 5 8

$306

$272

N onagricultural private w a g e and salary w orkers .........................................................

4 ,7 0 0

299

2 ,8 0 8

310

273

M in in g ................................................................................................................................................
C o n s tru c tio n ....................................................................................................................................

15 0
401

432
331

91
220

429
334

325
309

M a n u fa c tu rin g ................................................................................................................................
D urable g o o d s ...........................................................................................................................
Lum ber and w ood p r o d u c ts ............................................................................................
Furniture and fix tu re s ..........................................................................................................
S tone, clay, and glass p ro d u c ts ...................................................................................
Prim ary m etal industries ....................................................................................................
F ab ricated m etal products ...............................................................................................
M ach inery e x cep t electrical ............................................................................................
Electrical m achinery, equipm ent, and supplies ....................................................
Transpo rtation equ ipm ent ................................................................................................
A u to m o b ile s ..........................................................................................................................
O th e r transportation e q u ip m e n t.................................................................................
Professional and photographic e q u ip m e n t..............................................................
O th e r durable goods in d u s trie s .....................................................................................

2 ,4 8 3
1 ,67 5
81
65
75
219
17 3
396
19 5
35 4
224
13 0
54
62

308
334
261
(3)
$283
351
306
35 0
269
392
391
394
(3)
(3)

1 ,45 2
974
55
36
36
100
10 7
247
94
222
141
81
39
39

319
344
(3)
(3)
(3)
$407
306
366
272
399
406
380
(3)
0

266
273
(3)
(3)
(3)
$246
259
298
260
319
337
305
(3)
(3)

N ondurable g o o d s ....................................................................................................................
F ood and kindred p ro d u c ts .............................................................................................
T ex tile mill p ro d u c ts ............................................................................................................
A pparel and other finished textile p ro d u c ts ............................................................
P ap er and allied p r o d u c ts ................................................................................................
Printing and p u b lish in g .......................................................................................................
C hem ical and allied products ........................................................................................
R u bber and m iscellaneou s plastics p ro d u c ts ........................................................
O th e r nondurable good s in d u s trie s .............................................................................

808
17 5
80
13 2
60
103
11 0
10 0
49

$249
297
184
188
(3)
$252
315
270
(3)

477
92
48
83
41
60
70
63
20

$260
307
(3)
$202
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

$249
278
(3)
$197
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

Transpo rtation and public u tilitie s .......................................................................................
T ra n s p o rta tio n .............................................................................................................................
C om m unication and o ther public u tilitie s ....................................................................

336
280
56

$381
394
(3)

194
16 4
30

$397
417
(3)

$348
354
O

W h o le s a le and retail t r a d e ......................................................................................................
W h o le s a le trade .......................................................................................................................
R etail trad e .................................................................................................................................

732
234
498

$240
29 9
207

450
163
287

$275
306
238

$255
318
215

Finance, insurance and real e s t a t e ...................................................................................
S e r v ic e s .............................................................................................................................................
Professional s e rv ic e s ..............................................................................................................
O th e r service industries .......................................................................................................

93
506
187
318

286
250
246
250

73
329
12 0
209

(3)
$264
246
267

(3)
$268
287
258

Agricultural w a g e and salary w o r k e r s ..................................................................................
G o v e rn m e n t w o r k e r s .....................................................................................................................
S elf-em p lo ye d and unpaid fam ily w o r k e r s .........................................................................

100
248
25

251
239
(3)

70
157
19

(3)
$262
(3)

(3)
$270
(3)

2 M edian w ee kly earnings on job held in January 1 9 8 4 a re based only
on w a g e and salary w orkers (excluding incorporated se lf-em ployed) and
th ere fo re a re not directly co m p a rab le to m edian earnings on lost job
w hich are b ased on earnings from all classes of work.
3 D a ta not show n w h ere b as e is less th an 7 5 ,0 0 0 .

' D a ta re fe r to persons with te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 bec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or
shifts. Includes a sm all num ber of persons w ho did not report industry or
class of w orker.

28

Table B-11. Reemployed workers by industry of lost job and industry of job held in January 1984
P ercen t distribution by industry in January 1 9 84

Industry of lost job

T o tal'
(in thousands)

M anufacturing
Total

Con­
struetion
Durable
goods

Total

Non­
durable
goods

T ran sp o r­
tation and
public
utilities

W h o le ­
sale
and
S ervices
retail
trade

O th er1
2

Total, 2 0 years and over ...................................

3 ,0 5 8

1 0 0.0

10 .6

2 8 .3

18.7

9 .6

7.5

2 0 .7

2 1 .0

11.8

C o n s tru c tio n ...................................................................
M a n u fa c tu rin g ................................................................
D urable g o o d s ..........................................................
N ondurable g o o d s ...................................................
Transpo rtation and public u tilitie s ......................
W h o lesale and retail trad e ....................................
S e r v ic e s ............................................................................
O th er2 ................................................................................

281
1 ,47 4
98 0
493
198
455
34 7
300

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

4 3 .6
7.4
8 .5
5.1
11.6
4.1
7.6
8.7

6 .2
4 7 .0
46.1
4 8 .6
12.3
14 .6
12.0
7.4

4.0
31.1
3 9 .8
14 .0
7.7
9.0
8.1
5.0

2 .2
15 .8
6.3
3 4 .7
4 .6
5.6
3.9
2.3

4 .2
5.0
5.4
4 .4
4 2 .6
5.4
3.6
6.3

12 .6
15.4
16.7
12 .9
11 .8
50.1
19 .4
17 .7

2 3 .2
16 .8
15 .6
19.3
11.5
16.8
4 6 .4
2 3 .5

10.3
8.4
7.8
9.7
10.2
8.9
10.9
3 6 .4

shifts.
2 Includes mining; finance, insurance, and
adm inistration; and farm ing, forestry, and fisheries.

1 D ata refer to persons with te n u re of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or
left a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 bec au se of plant
closings or m oves, slack w ork, or th e abolishm ent of their positions or

real

estate;

public

Table B-12. Displaced workers by selected manufacturing industry of lost job, sex, tenure when job ended, and median
weeks without work after job loss
P ercen t distribution by tenure
Industry of lost job and sex

T o ta l’
(in thousands)

Total

3 to 4
years

5 to 9
years

10 to
14
years

15 to
19
years

2 0 or
m ore
years

M edian
years
on lost
job

M edian
w ee ks
w ithout w ork
afte r job loss

T o tal, 2 0 years and over, all in d u s trie s .........................................

5,091

10 0.0

3 6 .2

3 3 .6

14.7

6 .7

8.8

6.1

24.1

' M ach inery ex cep t electrical:
Total, 2 0 years and ove r ...............................................................
M en, 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r .......................................................

400
305
95

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

3 3 .3
3 3 .3
33.1

3 9 .8
3 5 .8
5 2 .5

17.3
19 .5
10 .2

5.8
6.9
2.3

3.8
4.5
1.7

6 .2
6.6
5.6

2 6 .3
2 1 .0
52.1

Prim ary m etal industries:
Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ................................................................
M en, 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r .......................................................

21 9
188
31

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

2 6 .7
2 4 .8
(2)

2 9 .2
2 7 .3
(2)

19 .2
19.7
(2)

6.7
6.8
(2)

18.3
2 1 .3
(2)

9.1
9 .7
(2)

5 2 .7
53.1
(2)

Autom obiles:
Total, 2 0 years and over ...............................................................
M en, 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r .......................................................

224
182
43

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

2 9 .5
2 3 .4
(2)

3 2 .7
32.1
(2)

2 3 .6
2 7 .9
(2)

6.3
7.8
(2)

7.8
8 .9
(2)

7.7
9.0
(2)

5 3 .6
5 2 .8
(2)

A pparel and o ther finished textile products:
Total, 20 years and over ...............................................................
M en, 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r .......................................................

132
34
98

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0

3 1 .8
(2)
3 3 .3

3 5 .9
(2)
4 2 .2

20.1
(2)
13 .8

5.8
(2)
5.5

6.4
(2)
5.2

6 .8
(2)
6 .4

2 4 .8
(2)
3 0 .5

T extile mill products:
Total, 2 0 years and o v e r ...............................................................
M en, 2 0 years and o v e r ..............................................................
W o m en , 2 0 years and o v e r .......................................................

80
47
33

1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0

2 4 .6
(2)
(2)

4 0 .4
(2)
(2)

8.5
(2)
(2)

8.8
(2)
(2)
«

17.7
(2)
(2)

6.4
(2)
(2)

13.3
(2)
(2)

1 D ata refer to persons with te nure of 3 or m ore years w ho lost or left
a job b etw een January 1 9 7 9 and January 1 9 8 4 b ecause of plant closings

or m oves, slack work, or th e abo lishm ent of their positions or shifts,
2 D a ta not shown w h ere bas e is less than 7 5 ,0 0 0 .

29

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$
TOTAL . $

D is c o u n t: T h e S u p e rin te n d e n t of D o cu m e n ts offers a 2 5 -p e rc e n t discou nt on o rders for 10 0 cop ies or m ore
of a single title, m aile d to a single add ress.

Where to Find
Information on
Employment and Unemployment
Employment and Earnings:
M onthly periodical containing labor force
and establishment data. National,
State, and area figures on
employment, unemployment, hours,
and earnings. Order

Employment and Earnings
from Superintendent o f Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, W ashington,
D.C. 20402. Includes text,
statistical tables, and technical notes.

Electronic News Release:
Quickest. Accessible electronically
immediately at release time through
BLS news release service. Write
the Office o f Publications, Bureau o f
Labor Statistics, W ashington, D.C.
20212, or call (202) 523-1913.

Employment Situation News Release:
Copies o f this national statistical
monthly release reach the public
about a week after the release date.
Write: Inquiries and Correspondence,
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
W ashington, D.C. 20212.

Telephone:
Quick summary on 24-hour recorded
message. Key num bers, plus other
BLS indicators and upcoming release
dates. Call (202) 523-9658.

Computer Tapes:
For users who need data in
machine-readable form. From the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics, Division of
Financial Planning and Management,
W ashington, D.C. 20212.

Monthly Labor Review:
Employment and unem ploym ent statistics
included in monthly 40-page
summary of BLS data and in
analytical articles. Available from
the Superintendent o f Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office
W ashington, D .C. 20402.

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region VI
Federal Building
525 Griffin St., Rm. 221
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Region I
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
P enalty for private use, $300

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