View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEW ART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
AQQ
B U RE A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S f ..................1 1 0 * * fO O
INDUSTRIAL

ACCIDENTS

AND

HYGIENE

SERIES

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING
1925-1927




By
FREDERICK L. HOFFMAN, LL. D.
Consulting Statistician, Prudential Insurance Co.

JUNE, 1929

UNITED. STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1929




CONTENTS
Page

Decline in lead poisoning death rate_________________________________________
1-4
Nonoccupational deaths______________________________________________________
4
Nativity distribution of decedents__________________________________________
5
Geographical distribution of deaths__________________________________________
5 -7
Cases of lead poisoning at the Buffalo City Hospital_______________________
8-13
Lead poisoning, by industry groups, State of New York___________________ 13, 14
Lead poisoning in manufacture of electric storage batteries________________
15
Workmen’s compensation for lead poisoning________________________________ 15-17
United States workmen’s compensation data________________________________
17
Lead poisoning in the United States Navy, 1913 to 1927__________________
18
Lead poisoning statistics of the Metropolitan Life Insurance C o_____ _
18, 19
Lead poisoning in New York City____________________ ______________________
19
Compensation for lead poisoning in Ohio____________________________________ 19, 20
Lead poisoning in New Jersey, 1924-25 to 19 26-27________________________ 20, 21
Lead poisoning in Great Britain, 1918 to 1927__________________ ___________22 -2 4
Lead poisoning in Canada____________________________________________________ 24, 25
Lead poisoning in Germany________________________________________________25, 26
Lead poisoning in France_____________________________________________________ 26, 27
Lead poisoning in Scandinavia_______________________________________________
27
Lead poisoning in South Africa______________________________________________
27
Lead poisoning in Japan______________________________________________________
27
Physical condition of lead workers___________________________________________ 28-33
Conclusions____________________________________________________________________ 34, 35
Lead-using industries____________________________________________________ 34, 35
Bibliography_________________ _________________________________________________ 36, 37




in




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

NO. 488

JUNE, 1929

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING, 1925 TO 1927
Decline in Lead Poisoning Death Rate
N C O N T IN U A T IO N of the review of the lead-poisoning situa­
tion in the United States and certain foreign countries, published
in Bulletin No. 426 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, this
bulletin adds some recent statistics which bring the information down
to the end of 1927. The new statistics reflect a further decline in
lead poisoning as measured by the death rate, the actual number of
deaths in the United States having been, respectively, 142 in 1925,
144 in 1926, and 135 in 1927. These deaths, however, are only for
the United States registration area, which represents approximately
90 per cent of the total American population. It is very doubtful
if in the remainder of the population not represented by the registra­
tion area the number of the deaths attained to measurable proportions.
In any event, it is exceedingly doubtful if the total number of the
deaths for the whole country, including Alaska, would reach, and
certainly would not exceed, 150 per annum.
Of the mortality from lead poisoning in the United States, approxi­
mately 50 per cent are the deaths of painters. This is shown con­
cisely in the following table:

I

Deaths from chronic lead poisoning, United States registration area, 1925-1927

Class of persons
Painters_____________________________ ______ _________________________
Other m a les____ ____________________________ _____________ __________
Females___________________ ____________________ ____ ________ _______
Children
__
T o t a l____

1925

1926

1927

Total

75
61
4
2

74
61
6
3

67
60
3
5

216
182
13
10

142

144

135

421

The average age at death for all males was 51.5 years; for painters,
52.9 years; and for all occupations, 51.5 years.
The age distribution of the deaths from lead poisoning during the
last three years is shown in Table 1 for males only, differentiating
painters from other males, including some unoccupied and retired.




1

2
T

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,
able

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

1.— Deaths of adult males from, lead poisoning in United States registration
area, 1925 to 1927
1925

1926

1927

Total

Age group
N um ber Per cent N um ber Per cent N um ber Per cent N um ber Per cent
Painters:
20 to 29 ................ ..............
30 to 39_________________
40 to 49__________________
50 to 59__________________
60 to 69.._____ __________
70 to 79__________________
80 and over............
.
T otal............ .......... ........ !
Other occupations:
20 to 29__.........................
30 to 39__________________
40 to 49_________________
50 to 59_______ __________
60 to 69__________________
70 to 79__________________
80 and. over__________
T o t a l._______ ________ !
A 1 occupations:
.1
20 to 29_________________
30 to 39__________________
40 to 49__________________
50 to 59__________________
60 to 69__________________
70 to 79...............................
80 and over_____________
T o t a l.______ _________

9
21
19
19
7

12.6
28. 0
25. 3
25. 3
9.4

4
8
22
19
15
5
1

5. 4
10.8
29.7
25. 7
20.3
6.8
1.3

3
9
12
20
17
5
1

4. 5
13.4
17.9
29.9
25.3
7.5
1.5

7
26
55
58
51
17
2

3. 2
12.0
25.5
26.9
23.6
7.9
.9

75

100.0

74

100. 0

67

100.0

216

100.0

5
8
15
17
11
4
1

8.2
13.1
24.6
27.9
18.0
6.6
1. 6

1
16
9
15
14
5
1

1.6
26.2
14.8
24.6
23.0
8.2
1. 6

8
10
16
13
9
4

13.3
16.7
26.7
21.6
15.0
6.7

14
34
40
45
34
13
2

7.7
18. 7
22.0
24.7
18.7
7.1
1.1

61

100.0

61

100. 0

60

100. 0

182

100.0

5
17
36
36
30
11
1

3.7
12.5
26. 5
26. 5
22.0
8.1
•'

5
24
31
34
29
10
2

3.7
17.8
22.9
25.2
21.5
7.4
1.5

11
19
28
33
26
9
1

8.7
15.0
22.0
26.0
20. 5
7.1
.7

21
60
95
103
85
30
4

5.3
15.1
23.9
25.9
21.3
7.5
1.0

136

100.0

135

100.0

127

100.0

398

100.0

The average age at death for all occupations in 1927 alone was 50.5
years against 52 years during 1925 and 1926 combined. For painters
the average age at death was 53.3 years for 1927 against 52.7 years
for 1925 and 1926. The indicated differences are too slight to be
considered significant. In 1927 the range in ages at death for painters
was from 26 years to 82 years, while for other males, the range was
from 23 years to 73 years. During the previous two years, the range
in ages for painters was from 22 years to 86 years, while for other
males it was from 21 years to 87 years. Here again there is only a
slight difference which can not be considered significant. On ac­
count of the slight variations in the average age at death from year
to year, it does not seem necessary to give a table in detail for each of
the three years, bat Table 2 will show the average age at death in the
different occupations represented in 1927 in a mortality of 127 males,
showing that for all but a few of the occupations the number of deaths
is too small for the average age to be considered significant for the
present purpose.




3

DECLINE IN LEAD POISONING DEATH RATE

,

T a b l e 2 — Deaths of adult males from lead poisoning in United States registration

area, 1925 to 1927
1927
Occupation

1925

1926

Total
Number

Painters ____ ____ _________________ _____ ________
L a b orers_____________ ______ _____ _____ _________
Metal workers_______________ ____ _______ ________
Lead workers_____________ __ __ _______ ______
Farmers.
____ _______________
_____ _______
Commercial___ _____ _________ __ _____ _____ __
Printers___ _______ ____________ _____
________
Paint manufacturing.... .......... ......... .......... ...............
M iners.. __
_____________ ___ ___ ________
Electric storage b atteries_________ _. ____________
Carpenters___ ____ ________________________________
Glass workers___ _ __ __________________ __ __
_
Plumbers__________ _________ ______ ______________
Potters. _______ _______ .. ___________________ .
Miscellaneous ______ ____ _________________________
Unknown and retired___
_________ . _________

75
11
7
8
5
6
5
3
3
3
1
1
1
2
5

74
7
6
5
6
2
2
4
3
2
3
2
1
1
7
10

T o t a l ________________________________________

136

135

Average
age

67
17

53. 3
39.0

9
2
1
5

45. 6
45.0
55.1
48.8

2

62.0

4

47.5

17
3

53. 0
55.3

216
35
13
22
13
9
12
7
6
5
6
3
6
1
26
18

127

50.5

398

This table is perhaps the most valuable and important in the series
as indicating the concentration of the lead hazard in fatal form in
particular employments. Aside from painters, laborers naturally con­
stitute a large number, representing unquestionably many employ­
ments connected with lead-using industries in which unskilled manual
labor is required to a considerable extent. Highly suggestive is the
small number of deaths of lead workers considering the wide distribu­
tion of the lead industries throughout the country. Unfortunately,
the exact number of employees can not be given. Another important
industry is that of printing, which for the year 1927 showed a some­
what higher mortality than during 1926, but the same as during 1925.
During 1927 there were only five deaths in the printing industry,
which in the aggregate employs an extremely large number of work­
ers, of whom, perhaps only one-third are exposed to lead hazards.
Again, precise figures of the number employed with exposure to lead
can not be given.
Very surprising is the small number of deaths in electric storagebattery manufacture, three deaths having occurred in 1925, two in
1926, and none in 1927. Since, as is well known, the lead hazard in
electric storage-battery manufacture is particularly accentuated in
certain localities, it is surprising to find that there is rarely a fatal
termination. This can be explained only on the ground that lead
poisoning in the electric storage-battery industry in serious form is
very rare, while lead absorption is extremely common.
Particularly surprising is the rarity of deaths of potters, no deaths
having occurred in 1925, one during 1926, and none during 1927.
The far-reaching sanitary reforms introduced into the American pot­
teries during recent years have unquestionably been productive of
excellent results.
Other occupations are numerically of small importance. There are
reasons for believing that in quite a number of deaths the source of
lead poisoning was nonindustrial, particularly in the case of commer­
cial and professional occupations. In the case of farmers there is a




4

DEATHS FROM LEAD

POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

suspicion of lead painting being carried on privately, leading to lead
infection. An exceptional case in 1927 was the death of a doctor, 63
years of age, and a case of the death of a jeweler, 71 years of age.
Aside from the foregoing there were 4 deaths of females in 1925, 6 in
1926, and 3 in 1927. Additional thereto, there were 2 deaths of
children in 1925, 3 in 1926, and 5 in 1927. These were mostly in­
fants during the first or second years of life, or cases in which lead
poisoning is alleged to have resulted from the eating of paint from
cribs or toys, or absorption otherwise. In the case of women the lead
poisoning was nonindustrial, chiefly the absorption of drinking water
conveyed through leaded pipes.

Nonoccupational Deaths
H E foregoing is highly suggestive of the nonindustrial origin of
lead poisoning in many cases, even though the person was
exposed to lead hazards in the occupation followed. The
problem of lead poisoning from lead-piped water supplies has recently
been dealt with in a contribution to the Journal of Industrial Hygiene,
September, 1928, by Messrs. Wright, Sappington, and Rantoul. The
observations of these authors on the results of their investigations are
summarized as follows:

T

A chemical study was made of 102 lead-conducted water supplies— city, well,
and spring waters— 90 of which were used by a total of 253 persons subjected to
clinical investigation. All the waters analyzed contained lead. The lead con­
tent was most strikingiy related to the carbon dioxide content. There was no
apparent relation between length of pipe and lead content.
Of 90 sources used by the persons studied, 35 caused poisoning as determined
by certain criteria.
Of 253 exposed persons, 63, or 24.9 per cent, were poisoned.
Poisoning occurred among 14 persons ingesting as little as 0.1 mg. of lead daily
over an average period of eight and one-quarter years.
The incidence of poisoning was distinctly lower in children under 10 years of
age than among children from 10 to 20 years old or amang adults, and was greater
among adults than among children under 20.
The duration of exposure, except for very short periods, was not significant
in its relation to the incidence of poisoning.
The incidence of poisoning was quite uniform among those ingesting varying
amounts less than 1.5 mg. daily but was much greater as this amount was
exceeded.
Under almost all conditions of comparison— by age, duration of exposure,
amounts of lead ingested daily, and total amounts of lead ingested— women
showed a lower incidence of poisoning than did men.

The term lead poisoning as used in the preceding discussion, how­
ever, requires qualification. The term lead absorption would in most
cases have been preferable. Lead poisoning in fatal form as the
result of drinking water conveyed through lead pipes causes an aggre­
gate mortality probably not exceeding 20 to 30 deaths a year through­
out the country. This phase of the question has been more exhaus­
tively dealt with in the discussion in Bulletin 426. The present
investigation shows rather a lesser than a heavier incidence due to
nonindustrial sources than was shown in the former study.




5

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS

Nativity Distribution of Decedents
F SOM E interest in connection with a general discussion is the
nativity distribution of the deaths from lead poisoning during
the last few years as shown in Table 3. The table does not
indicate any particular predilection of any one nativity over another
as regards liability to lead poisoning, unless it be the case of the Negro.
Unfortunately, the number of colored persons employed in leadusing industries is not known, but the general mpression is that
the negroes are more liable to lead poisoning than the whites,
and they are certainly more liable to lead absorption. This, how­
ever, may be due to the fact that the negroes are generally employed
in the dustiest and most dangerous of occupations, and particularly
is this true in the manufacture of electric storage batteries, in which,
however, fatal cases of lead poisoning are extremely rare.

O

T

able

3. — Deaths of adult males from lead 'poisoning in United States registration
area, 1925, 1926, 1927, by nativity

Total
N ativity

1925

1926

1927
Number

United States 1_____________________________________
Canada____________________________________________
England___________________________________________
Ireland. ________ ____________ ____ i ------------------Scotland
_
_ __
- Germany_________ ___ ____________
--------------P ola n d .____ _____ _______ ----------- Sweden____ . . ______ ____ ________________________
Austria ____________ - _______ _____________ - Hungary__________
_ - ____
__
France___________
_____
_
Russia__________________ _____ --- ------------------- ___
_
____
Czechoslovakia
.
C roatia
_ _ ____ __ ___________
Galicia_____ _______
Lithuania_________ - . ___ _______ ____ ____
Rumania___________ __ . _______________________
- ___ - - ____ __
Portugal_____
N orw ay____ _______
..
____
- ___
Armenia ________ _
_ _ ____
_______
Mexico
__ -_________
Switzerland________
______ ________ _______
Bohemia_____________
__ ____________ ______ _
T otal............................

............... ................... ..!

Unknown________________ ____ _________ __________

(28) 91
5
2
7

(29) 94
5
7
1
3
6
2
2
2
1
3
1
1

(22) 86
3
6
5
1
4
5
2
4
3

Per cent

1
1

5
5
3
3
3
2
2
2

1

*271
13
15
13
4
15
12
7
9
7
3
3
4
3
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

69.1
3.3
3.8
3.3
1.0
3.8
3.1
1.8
2.3
1.8
.8
.8
1.0
.8
. 25
. 25
.5
.8
.25
.25
.25
. 25
. 25
.25
100. 00

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
i ;

134 .

132

126

392

2 i

3

1

6

1

1 Figures in parentheses denote that one or both parents were of foreign birth.
*28 of these deaths were negroes.

Geographical Distribution of Deaths
H E geographical distribution of deaths from lead poisoning in
Table 4 is of interest. If required this table should be correlated
to persons employed in lead-using industries rather than to the
population as has been done in previous investigations. The high
mortality from lead poisoning in Maine and New Hampshire in pro­
portion to the population, as indicated in the previous report, is no
longer apparent in the light of recent statistics. The relatively high
rate for Massachusetts may partly be attributed to hospital facilities

T

34968°— 29------- 2




6

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

in Boston, where excellent diagnostic facilities are available. But
considering once more the enormous extent of lead-using industries
throughout the country, the relative frequency of lead poisoning in
fatal form is much less than would generally be assumed and unques­
tionably less at the present time, by possibly as much as 50 per cent,
than 10 years ago. This is so much more significant considering the
large increase in construction activities involving an ever-increasing
amount of painting operations, as well as an actual increase in the
output of lead-using industries, from white lead to the manufacture of
electric storage batteries.
T

able

4 .— Geographic distribution of deaths of adult males from lead poisoning,
1925 to 1927
1925

Connecticut
________
M assachusetts
Maine
__
New Hampshire
..........
Rhode Island
_ _ _ _
Vermont
Total______ ______

1926

1927

Total

1
14
5
1
1
1

2
10
4
3

1
13
3
1
1

4
37
12
5
2
3

23

State

21

2
19

Total

1
16
9
7

8
15
12

3
23
14

1
27
47
33

35

40

108

1

Total

10
2
5
1
3
3
6
3
10
3
46

10
1
2
2
5
1
9
1
16.
3
50

11
3
1
1
2
7
2
11
2
1
41

1

1
1
2
1

4
1
2
3
2

31
6
California _____ ______
8 Colorado_______________
4 ' Id aho.............
.
10 i Montana
4
Oregon_______ _________
22 U ta h .. ________________
6 Washington_____ ______
37
W yoming
____
8 New Mexico
1
Total
137
Grand total_______

1
1
3
3

_^

1927 Total

3
1
3

1
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1

I

n<>

Total
Illinois
Indiana_____
________
Iowa ____ __________
Kansas
__ __
__ .
Michigan__
Minnesota- . . . ___ ____
Missouri___ ______ ____
Nebraska_______ __ ___
Ohio - ___________ ___
Wisconsin
North Dcikotci

1926

Alabama . . ....................
Arkansas
District of C o lu m b ia __
Florida _________ .
Georgia._______ _ ____
Kentucky________ ______
Louisiana
M aryland___ ________
TTlQQiQQlT'lT'W
V
1VJ. j.i3oloOi_P [./i__________________ North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee _
_
West Virginia.
Virginia

63

m

Delaware.
______
N ew Jersey.
...........
________
New Y ork ..
Pennsylvania.. _________

1925

State

!

19
8

10

2
1
1
2
3
2

1
1
2
3
1

2
4
2
4
1
20

7
1
3
1
2
1

___

2
4
3
5
4
3
8
7
2
3
3
7
5
5

61
25
4
4
1
4
5
7
1
1

15

52

142 | 144 | 135

421

18

1

19

To amplify the foregoing statistics for the last three years for the
country at large, statistics for certain American cities for the last 10
or 15 years are given for the purpose of historical retrospection.
T

able

5 .— Deaths from lead poisoning, in specified cities, 1915 to 1927
Los Angeles

Detroit

Boston

Year
Popula­
tion
1915.
1916_
1917_
1918_
1919_
1920 _
1921_
1922.
1923 _
1924_
1925_
1926_
1927 _

732,049
788, 590
864, 471
915, 653
968, 087
993, 678
994, 341
995, 004
995, 688
1,118, 856
1, 242, 044
1, 290, 000
1, 334, 500




Deaths Rate per
1, 000,000
2.7
3
2
1
3
1
4
1
2
1
3

3.5
2.2
1.0
3.0
1.0
4.0
1.0
1.8
.8
2.3

Popula­
tion
464,
488,
513,
537,
560,
584,
609,
634,
674,
714,

Deaths Rate per
1,000,000

4.1

"i.’8

1, 222,

1, 300,
1, 377,

2.3

Popula­
tion
720,
726,
732,
738,
744,
751,
757,
764,
770,
776,
779,
787,
793,

Deaths Rate per
1, 000,000
4.1
4.1
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
5.2

2.6
1.3

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

7

OF DEATHS

T a b l e 5. — Deaths from lead 'poisoning, in specified cities, 1915 to 1927— C on.

Pittsburgh i

Philadelphia
Year

Popula­
tion

Rate per
Deaths 1,000,000

1,696, 342
1, 724, 630
1, 753, 058
1, 781, 346
1, 809, 635
1, 837, 924
1, 866, 212
1, 894, 500
1,922, 788
1, 951, 076
1,979. 364
2,008,000
2, 035, 900

191 5
191 6
191 7
1918,
191 9
192 0
192 1
1922__
1923._
1924__
1925__
1926__
1927._

7
6
4

2.9
4.6
2.3
1.1
3.9
1.1
2. 7
3. 7
3. 6
3.1
2.0

2

1.0

5
8
4
2
7
2
5

San Francisco 2

Rate per
Deaths 1,000,000

Popula­
tion
563, 028
568, 409
573, 790
579,171
584, 552
591,033
602, 452
607, 902
620, 367
626, 015
631, 563
637,000
665, 500

1

1.8

3

5.2

3
3

5.1
5.1

2

3. 2

3

4.7

Popula­
tion
465,069
474,315
483, 561
492, 807
502, 053
511, 300
520, 546
529, 792
539, 038
548, 284
557, 530
567, 000
576,000

Deaths Rate per
1,000,000
2
1
1

4.3
2.1
2.1

1

4.0
2.0
3.8
1.9

1
1

3.6
1.8
1.7

1

1 Including 1 nonresident in 1917 and 2 in 1920.
3 Years from 1915 to 1920 are fiscal years for this city.

These cities reflect a declining death rate from lead poisoning with
the possible exception of the city of Boston, which during 1927 had
five deaths from the disease, wliich is the highest number on record
since 1915. In view of the apparent frequency of lead poisoning
in the State of Massachusetts, a special return from the Massachusetts
General Hospital covering the period 1918 to 1927, giving the cases of
acute and chronic lead poisoning treated at that institution is shown:
Cases of acute and chronic lead poisoning treated at the Massachusetts General
Hospital, 1918 to 1927

Year

Acute

1918 ....................
1919-.............................
1929
______
1921__ _____ _________
1922
1923. - ............. ...............

Chronic
1
2
7
1
3

5
9
14
8
18
30

Total
6
11
14
15
19
33

Year
1924__
1925
1926
1927________

Acute
____
______

T o t a l.. _ __

Chronic

Total

5
2
4
1

16
20
18
18

21
22
22
19

26

156

182

It is thus shown that the number of cases treated at the Massa­
chusetts General Hospital has increased up to the year 1923, subse­
quent to which cases have declined, but not measurably so, maintain­
ing about an average of 21 cases during the last four years. It should
be explained, however, that aside from the foregoing, during the
past 10 years 861 cases of lead poisoning have been treated in the
out-patient department of the hospital, and of this number 236 were
registered as painters. This, unfortunately, is the only occupational
classification which is made in the hospital, so that no further infor­
mation is available regarding other occupations.




DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

8

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

Cases of Lead Poisoning at the Buffalo City Hospital
N F U R T H E R amplification of the available data regarding lead
poisoning in particular localities, through the cooperation of
the superintendent of the Buffalo City Hospital, the details of
16 lead poisoning cases treated at the hospital since 1921 are given.
The reports in question are probably the most nearly complete records
ever made of all the facts of lead poisoning cases, but only the essential
details can be given.

I

C A SE I, A. P., A P R IL 23, 1921
Admission history.
Ill 4 weeks; male; white; married; 5 children; age, 51; birthplace, Buffalo;
occupation, lead burner; last date patient worked, April 23, 1921.
Present illness.
Admitted April 23, 1921. Illness began three weeks previous with nausea
and vomiting, and cramps in abdomen. Trembling and pains in limbs. Appe­
tite fairly good. Admitted as chronic lead poisoning, chronic alcohol poisoning,
general arterial sclerosis.
M ay 14: Has almost complete paralysis of upper extremities, though he retains
a slight power of flexion on the fingers. Diminished sensation to pain.
July 2: Complete paralysis extensors wrist and fingers. Some use muscles
posterior shoulder girdle. Marked swelling hands and forearms— left side
particularly. Some atrophy muscles legs without disability.
January 20, 1922: Improvement slow but steady. Can not shake hands or
feed himself, although the movements of the shoulder girdle are limited. Still
has paralysis of deltoids, with atrophy and limited abduction.
Hands swollen
and painful at times. Walks normally.
Physical examination No. 1.
Eyes: Pupils myotic, right slightly larger than left. Regular reaction to
A. & L.
Ears: Normal.
Nose: Evidence of nose bleed. Septum deviated to R.
M outh: Membranes of gums bluish tint. Bluish color of membrane at cor­
ners. Teeth poor condition, much pyorrhea, breath foul.
Chest: B. V. D. in right interscapular region, increased tactile and vocal
fremitus. No rales heard.
Heart: Somewhat enlarged to both left and right. Muscle sounds of poor
quality.
No murmurs.
Arteries: Marked sclerosis.
Abdomen: Somewhat distended tympanitic to percussion. Spleen not pal­
pated. Liver palpated just below costal margin.
Diffuse tenderness, no
masses.
Extremities: Normal appearance. Paresis of extensors and flexors but more
pronounced in extensors of arms and legs.
Reflexes: Patellars active— achilles present. Tremor of tongue, lips, and
hands.
Skin: Not remarkable.
Glands: Cervical palpable.
Diagnosis: Chronic lead poisoning; post typhoid; arteriosclerosis; chronic
alcoholism; cerebro spinal syphilis.
Physician’s recommendation for discharge.
I hereby recommend for discharge from the Buffalo City Hospital, A. P.,
effective February 22, 1922.
Admitted on April 23, 1921; admission diagnosis— chronic lead poisoning;
revised diagnosis— chronic lead poisoning; complication or sequel— chronic lead
poisoning, syphilis, chalazion.
Destination and recommendation regarding future conduct— To home, under
care of private physician.




CASES OF LEAD POISONING AT BUFFALO CITY HOSPITAL

9

CASE II, R. W ., J U L Y 24, 1920
Admission history.
Male; married; white; age, 43; occupation, lead solderer; ill since Easter Sun­
day.
Present illness.
Has worked for past six years as a lead solderer. Has noted bleeding of gums,
lower extremities becoming weaker. Pain noted in hands, wrists, and forearms.
Pain in stomach for past six weeks, of colicky type. One attack of diarrhea.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Anemic, pasty complexion.
Eyes: Slight conjunctival congestion move in right eye, pupils irregular in out­
line but react to light.
Ears: Negative.
Nose: Some catarrhal obstruction.
Mouth— tongue: Some tremor, brown coating.
Teeth: Very poor condition, many missing.
Gums: Blue line noted, patient says that they bled last week.
Nasopharynx: Unable to make thorough examination— gags very easily.
Cervical glands: Palpable but not tender nor hot.
Circulatory system: Radial arteries— moderate sclerosis. Pulse is small,
easily compressible, regular, frequent.
Heart: Not enlarged to percussion. Heart sounds good quality, no murmurs,
nor thrills.
Lungs: Respirations are increased in rate, regular but noisy due to mucus in
respiratory tract. Breath sounds diminished in left lower base posteriorly, few
moist subcrepitant r&les heard posteriorly at both bases. An expiratory grunt
heard all over chest. Vocal fremitus somewhat increased continuously right side.
Abdomen: Negative for rigidity or tenderness or masses.
Skin: Dry, anemic, and warm.
Diagnosis: Chronic lead poisoning;.chronic parenchymatous nephritis.
Discharge.
Patient was discharged without consent on August 31, 1920; discharged im­
proved; per cent of disability, 100.
C ASE III, J. C., N O V E M B E R 2, 1922
Admission history.
Male; age, 51.
Present illness.
Was working up to one week previous to admission, when he had to stop work
on account of pain in the abdomen. The pain is of a dull character not localized
in abdomen and has been present more or less for the past two months. He is
troubled with flatulence and belching of gas after taking food; has never vomited.
Three years previous had similar illness and spent nine weeks in bed at home.
Four years ago he weighed 220 pounds; two months ago he weighed 175 pounds,
a loss of 45 pounds.
Physical examination.
General condition: Patient a white male of apparently stated age, well devel­
oped, fairly nourished, pale, normal expression, lies comfortably in bed in any
position, not in distress.
Respiratory system: Chest well developed, symmetrical, moves freely, only
fair expansion. Slightly impaired resonance over right apex.
Circulatory system: Heart sounds normal quality, but diminished intensity.
Digestive system: Abdomen is retracted, moves freely with respiration, no re­
bound pain. Liver and spleen not enlarged.
Nervous system: Intellect, normal; sensation, normal.
Diagnosis: Chronic cholecystitis; chronic lead poisoning.
Discharge.
Patient discharged November 17, 1922, condition improved.




DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

10

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

C A S E IV , W . S., M A L E , A G E 38
Present illness.
Began about three weeks previous to admission with dull aching pain in lower
abdomen. Has poor appetite, no vomiting, no nausea at any time, constipated
since onset, no cough, no sputum.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Slightly emaciated.
Respiratory system: Chest emaciated.
Circulatory system: Heart regular, rhythmic, not enlarged.
Digestive system: Abdomen sunken, emaciated. Liver enlarged, spleen not
palpable.
Skin: No rashes, few scars over chest.
Diagnosis: Chronic appendicitis.
Occupation.
Patient worked in rubber factory nine months on a mixing machine, and in­
haled much red blue powder, which he claimed made him sick. Worked eight
hours daily at hard labor.
C ASE V, L. A ., A P R IL 4, 1921, M A L E , A G E 58
Present illness.
Weakness in forearms, loss of grip, headache, nausea, constipation.
Physical examination.
Teeth: Poor condition, much pyorrhea. No lead line.
Extremities: Varicose veins on legs, emaciation.
Diagnosis: Arteriosclerosis; chronic cardio-vaseular disease; mitral insuffi­
ciency; chronic interstitial nephritis.
Discharge.
Patient discharged April 11, 1921, condition improved.
C A SE V I, V. W ., M A L E , A G E 37
Present illness.
Sick for three weeks beginning with pain in back. Dull pain all over the abdo­
men with a general loss of strength and ambition. Pain has not been severe at
any time. No headache and no cough. Has not been able to eat at all. No
joint pains, no pain in chest.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Lies in bed in dull stupid manner, apparently quite sick
and weak. Eyes react sluggishly to light and accommodation, teeth very
unclean, tongue heavily coated, breath foul.
Chest: Well developed.
Heart: Normal. Action regular and rhythmical.
Diagnosis: Typhoid fever; chronic lead poisoning.
Occupation.
Pouring lead for six weeks ending two weeks prior to admission.
Discharge.
Patient discharged April 11, 1922, with consent, condition improved.
C ASE V II, W . S., M A L E , A G E 30, O C T O B E R 17, 1924
Present illness.
Began eight days previous to admission, with diarrhea and vomiting.
painter for 12 years.

Was

Physical examination.
General appearance: Well-developed and well-formed.
Marked pallor, skin
cold. Lead line not marked but present. Breathing normal. Heart sounds of
good quality.
Diagnosis: Lead poisoning.
Discharge.
Patient discharged, without consent, October 27, 1924.




Condition improved.

CASES OF LEAD POISONING AT BUFFALO CITY HOSPITAL

11

CASE V III, P. H ., M A R C H 3, 1923, M A L E , A G E 59
Present illness.
Pain in stomach for two weeks, quite severe.
appetite, constipated, no cough.

No vomiting or nausea.

Poor

Physical examination.
General appearance: Quite thin, rather poorly nourished. Teeth very unclean,
tongue coated, foul odor to breath.
Diagnosis: Chronic lead poisoning; indirect inguinal hernia; external hemor­
rhoid; pyorrhea alveolaris.
Discharge.
Patient discharged from the hospital April 3, 1923.
CASE I X , F. K , S E P T E M B E R 5, 1924, A G E 41, M A L E
Present illness.
Patient is lying on his back, in no apparent pain, with a constantly roving,
searching look; some part of his body always is in motion, twitching of facial
muscles or movement of low^er extremities or turning of head. Face is bright,
but pasty and moist. Strange urinous odor to his breath. Some evidence of
unbalanced mind.
Physical examination.
Skin and mucous membranes pale, skin worst. Lead line definitely marked.
Tongue moist and but slightly coated. Heart normal. Muscles flabby.
Diagnosis.
Chronic lead poisoning.
Patient expired September 7, 1924.
CASE X , J A N U A R Y 13, 1925, M A L E , A G E 44
Present illness.
Began working in shop where lead was melted in March, 1924. In July began
to vomit, followed by cramps and numbness and coldness in right hand in half
thumb, index finger, and half of second finger up the wrist on the radial side.
Lost 18 pounds. Appetite poor.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Poorly nourished, underdeveloped, weak and anemic,
suffering with gastric distress. Pus at base of teeth, lead line on gums. Chest
large in proportion to rest of body. Heart rate slow.
Diagnosis.
Chronic lead poisoning with peripheral neuritis of right hand; secondary anemia;
some infiltration of left lung.
Discharge.
Patient discharged on February 6, 1925, condition improved.
CASE X I , T. R., M A Y 5, 1925, M A L E , C O L O R E D , A G E 27
Present illness.
Began two weeks previous. Started gradually with slight pain in abdomen,
vomiting and sweet taste in mouth, and constipation. Attacks became very
severe.
Occupation: Weighed lead for three months.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Well developed and nourished.
not acutely ill.

Appears depressed but

Diagnosis.
Lead poisoning with lead colic.
Discharge.
Patient discharged on M ay 28, 1925, condition improved.




12
CASE

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,
X I I , P. B., S E P T E M B E R

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

5, 1927, M A L E , PO LISH , A G E

24

Present illness.
Began one week after he started working at battery company, with occasional
pain in arms, shoulders, and leg. Became constipated, lost appetite, and became
generally weak, followed by severe cramps in abdomen. Three weeks’ exposure
to dust from scraping batteries.
Physical examination.
No previous illness, no previous complaints. Patient well-nourished and welldeveloped, and not markedly ill. Definite lead line in gum margins. Chest well
developed. Heart regular.
Diagnosis.
Acute plumbism; slight pulmonar}" fibrosis.
Discharge.
Patient discharged from the hospital September 27, 1927, condition improved.
C ASE

X I I I , J. U., A P R IL

7, 1923, M A L E , A G E

43

Present illness.
Sent to hospital as an alcoholic, after fainting spell. Worked as a laborer, then
in a lead furnace room putting lead into large vats and ladling the molten lead
Was exposed to gaseous vapors. Ate his lunches at factory but claimed he always
washed his hands before eating.
Physical examination.
General appearance: Tongue thickly coated, teeth carious. Lungs, impaired
resonance over bases, suspicious pneumonia. Swelling of right hand. Rather
stuporous.
Diagnosis.
Acute alcohol poisoning with stupor; oral sepsis— pharyngitis; dental caries;
possible pneumonia; enlarged heart.
Discharged.
Patient discharged on M ay 18, 1923.
Disability, 25 per cent.
Patient readmitted to hospital December 11, 1926, with a carcinoma of the
stomach with chronic lead poisoning. Died on January 4, 1927.
CASE

X I V , R. C., A U G U S T

19, 1927, M A L E , A G E

49

Present illness.
Patient became ill after drinking some liquor. Severe pains in abdomen with
vomiting and straining. Had one or two attacks of dizziness and was uncon­
scious with one attack. Father and mother alive and well. One sister alive and
well. No past illness. Painter, drinks considerably. Admission diagnosis:
Alcoholism, chronic.
Physical examination.
Poorly nourished but not acutely ill; teeth carious; no lead line; no impair­
ment of lungs; heart regular.
Admission history.
Scotch-American descent; decorator, painter;
drinking 30 years; never incapacitated.

married twice;

no children;

Diagnosis.
Chronic plumbism; chronic alcoholism.
Discharge.
Patient discharged without consent, August 29, 1927.
CASE X V , G. S., JU L Y

27, 1927, M A L E , A G E

44

Present illness.
Patient an automobile painter for 13 years. Had been well until previous
August, at which time he noticed that his hands became numb and his grasp
on the brush was weaker. Weakness gradually became so marked that he was




LEAD POISONING, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, N E W YORK STATE

13

unable to feed himself. Wrist joints became swollen but never painful. Swelling
gradually subsided, some strength recovered but can not extend the hand.
Ankles and muscles also painful.
Admission diagnosis: Chronic lead poisoning, possible acute cholecystitis.
Previous admission date, May 9, 1927.
Admission history.
Uses alcohol in moderation; smokes; married— wife, one son, and five daughters
alive and well; mother, age 72, alive and well; father and one brother dead.
Physical examination.
Scalp, ears, and nose negative; teeth all out, no lead line; chest expansion
good and equal; heart normal.
Diagnosis.
Double wrist drop; hypertension; possible chronic nephritis.
Discharge.
Patient discharged with consent of superintendent, May 27, to return to out
patient clinic.
Readmitted on July 27, 1927.
Diagnosis: Chronic lead poisoning. Dis­
charged August 19, 1927, to return to out patient medical clinic.
CASE X V I, A. A., J U L Y 10, 1920, M A L E , A G E 43
Present illness.
Began six weeks previous after working for three weeks in a lead factory.
Had dizzy spells, felt nauseated, and stomach felt sore. Vomited often and had
to stay in bed for about a week. Physician advised him to go to the hospital.
Has been constipated since onset, and has lost considerable weight.
Physical examination.
General appearance very anemic, is emaciated; pulse small; heart weak at
apex, hardly audible at base; no murmurs heard; teeth in very poor condition;
tongue coated; breath foul; no lead line.
Diagnosis.
Thyrotoxicosis; lead poisoning; pulmonary tuberculosis.
Discharge.
Patient discharged July 28, 1920; condition improved; disability 10 per cent.

Lead Poisoning, by Industry Groups, State of New York
T IS information of this nature which is most urgently required,
but on a much larger scale, to justify definite conclusions as
regards both diagnosis and treatment for lead absorption and
lead poisoning properly differentiated. That we are far from being
able to settle an important question of this nature is explained in
a discussion of lead poisoning in the last annual report of the New
York State Industrial Commissioner by Dr. M ay R. Mayeis, medical
inspector of the section of special research. This author considers
in some detail the question of terminology, pointing out that the
matter is still debatable as to exactly what is lead poisoning. She,
however, agrees with the conclusion which is gradually gaining
approval that lead absorption should be differentiated from lead
poisoning and that a higher standard of diagnosis should be adopted,
including laboratory analyses both of blood and urine, as the result
of which the administration of compensation laws for lead poisoning
cases would be greatly facilitated.
The importance of the differentiation of lead absorption and lead
poisoning as a compensation factor is clearly visualized in the

I

34968°— 29------- 3




14

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

statistics of the New York State Department of Labor for the two
fiscal years, 1925-26 and 1926-27, as shown in Table 6. This table
brings out the numerical concentration of lead poisoning cases for
certain outstanding industries and the relative financial burdens
resulting therefrom.
T

able

6.— Number of cases of temporary disability caused by lead poisoning, time
lost, and compensation paid, by industry,11925-26 and 1926-27
Year ending June 30, 1928
Industry group

Time
loss
(weeks)

Cases

Metal goods:
Blast furnaces_______________________
1
12
Foundries.. ________ _______________
2
Lead and lead alloys_________________
Metal fixtures.. . . . ______ _________
Metal sta m p in g_____________ _____
1
1
Sheet metal work____________________
Beds_________________________________
1
Cutting and welding___________ _____
M achinery building:
M edium machinery _____ __ ______
3
1
Special machinery. . . . _
. ___
Electrical apparatus, including storage
133
batteries______
__
S a fe s ___ ______ _ ____________ .
Small arms
__ . . ...................... ..
1
Automobiles and auto parts.........................
W ood products:
1
......... .................
Planing mills
Brnrvms and hrnshfis
Bakeries
!__ ____ _
6
Chemicals____ . . . ____________________ _!
20
Paints, inks, and dves____ ______________
Printing
TVTisnellaneons nrvmnosit.ion eoods
2
Stone grinding . . .
___ .
1
_________
Pottery m a k in g ____ _
2
___________
Glassware
Miscellaneous manufacturing___________
Total, manufacturing_______ ____ _
Construction:
Structural iron and steel
Plumbing and gas fitting.. _________
Painting and decorating.......... ............ .
Ship repairing __
._
_________

i

Year ending June 30, 1927

Compen­
sation

447
76
14

$8, 010
1,412
284

1

6
150
65

Time
loss
(weeks)

33
10
1

Compen­
sation

13

247

133
1
1
6

1,005
3
133
52

12, 236
39
451
993

1
1
1
9
22
3
4

9
9
5
47
223
38
32

167
67
90
867
3, 240
681
392

Cases

$117
1, 649
1,225

27 !
37 ,
'
6

540
740
78

12
15

230
303 !

827

11, 580 1
147 |

7
17

300

j

i

1
359 1
2,473

13 !
61 !
1
i

250 :
532 !
93 i

20
215

188

1, 4S5

3
2
15
1

25
40
404
35

1

4

77

228

2, 1J0

29, 233

1
8

3
225

47
4, 457

9

228

4, 504

2
2
2

20, G16

76
10
25

1, 472
.184
464

243

2, 449

35,857

!

487
790
8,040
698 1

Total, construction________________

21

504

10,015

Transpoitation and public utilities______
Trade
. . _ . . ___ _________
Clerical and personal service
_________

1
3

5
8

103
139

Grand total, all industries__________

213

2,002

30,873

i

|

No cases of lead poisoning resulted in permanent partial disability
in the years ending June 30, 1926, and June 30, 1927.
According to Table 6, the number of compensated cases of lead
poisoning within the definition of the compensation law increased
from 213 to 243 between 1926 and 1927. The amount of compensa­
tion paid out on account of such cases increased from $30,873 to
$35,857. The number of fatal cases of lead poisoning, however,
decreased from 3 to 1, while the amount paid on account of such
cases decreased from $18,384 to $10,054. The major number of cases
of lead poisoning occurred in the manufacture of electric storage
batteries, while the number of such cases was precisely the same for
both years.




15

W O R K M E N ’S COMPENSATION FOR LEAD POISONING

Lead Poisoning in Manufacture of Electric Storage Batteries
H E following statistics are based upon a detailed analysis of
certificates of lead poisoning furnished by the New York
State Department of Labor, covering the year 1927, also with
particular reference to compensation.
Table 7 gives an analysis of the returns for 185 battery workers,
showing the average age at the time of disease occurrence and the
average duration of employment.

T

T

able

7.— Average age and duration of employment in cases of lead poisoning in
electric storage battery plants in New York State, by occupation, 1927
Duration of employment (when taken
sick)

Age

White race

Occupation

Number
reporting
Pasters..... .......... .........
Sweepers .................
Plate workers
Pitmen _
_________
Millers ...... ............ .
M ix e rs ......... ..............
Electricians- ......... .
Oxide workers______
Potmen
Truckers
.... ............
Inspectors
N ot reported......... .....
Total_________

Colored race

Average N umber
(years) reporting

68
12
11
6
6
4
3
3
2
2
16

31.5
41.0
29. 5
41.0
31.5
36. 0
26.0
45.7
46.0
29.5
26.3
35.0

140

32.6

White race

Average Number
(years) reporting

Colored race

Average Number
(years) reporting

33.7

67
12
9
6
6
4
3
3
2
2
17
3

6.7
3.4
5.4
3.7
5.8
6.3
8.7
6.7
1.5
6.0
3.1
8.9

31.7

134

5.7

7

31.7

1

31.0

'61

45

A verage
(months)

7

4.3

1

9.0

35

1.8

43

2.4

According to Table 7, while for the white employees in the manu­
facture of electric storage batteries the average length of employment
was 5.7 years, it was only 2.4 months for the colored labor. Here the
average duration of employment was lowest for mixers, only 1.8
months. The average age is almost the same.
The certificates contain very little additional information of statisti­
cal value. It is very regrettable that most of the certificates should
be incompletely filled out as regards complications and previous
attacks. It is to be hoped more attention will be given in the future
to the practical importance of sending in completely filled out cer­
tificates, of importance for both legal and medical purposes.

Workmen’s Compensation for Lead Poisoning
H E whole question of compensation law and its application to
lead cases has very recently been reviewed by Dr. M ay R.
Mayers of the Bureau of Industrial Hygiene, New York
State Department of Labor, published in the Industrial Hygiene
Bulletin for October, 1928. This discussion is exceedingly valuable
and of great practical importance. It draws for the first time a clear
distinction between lead poisoning and lead absorption, emphasizing,
however, the equivalent use of these terms for compensation purposes.

T




16

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

The foF owing extended extract from this discussion is quoted as of
permanent value.
The plain intent of the compensation law is that, in all compensable diseases,
compensation should be available to the worker injuriously affected well before
the acute stage, resulting in total disability, is reached. This is clearly evidenced
by section 39, above set forth, which specifically provides for compensation even
where the employee is able to earn his wages at another occupation, so long as
such wages do not equal his full wages prior to the date of his disablement.
Such being the intent of the compensation law, it would be manifestly contrary
to that intent to limit the term “ lead poisoning” to such cases showing acute
symptoms. Only by embracing within the term all cases in which, as a result of
exposure to lead, there is resulting disability, of whatever degree, and whether
manifestly itself in acute or subacute, objective or subjective sj^mptoms, can the
intent of the law be carried out.
In effect, therefore, the term “ lead absorption” as used in the present discus­
sion is synomymous with the term “ lead poisoning” in the compensation law.
It has the advantage, however, as above pointed out, of helping to standardize
both terminology and diagnosis in a disease where the lack of standardization
has led to much needless disagreement among medical men and consequently no
end of difficulty in the administration of the compensation law.
For this reason it is argued that the term “ lead absorption” be substituted
for the term “ lead poisoning” in the compensation law. Article 1, section 3,
subdivision 2, would then read as follows:
“ Occupational diseases.— Compensation shall be payable for disabilities sus­
tained or death incurred by an employee resulting from the following occupational
diseases: 1. Lead absoprtion.”
Clearly, the suggested substitution involves no change in the law. It is
merely a substitution of convenience, as will be still further brought out in the
ensuing discussion.
Before proceeding to a discussion of the procedure to be followed in determining
whether a claimant is suffering from incapacity due to lead-absorption as just
defined, there are several fundamental points to be kept in mind:
1.’ In any given individual, lead may be present in his body either in toxic or
nontoxic form. In an individual where all of the lead present in his body has
been stored in his bones it is nontoxic to him for the time being.
2. Lead which is present, however, in the circulating blood may be either
toxic or nontoxic, depending upon the quantity of lead present. It is only
those cases where toxic quantities of lead appear in the circulation that any
incapacit}7 may occur and it is only those cases which are, therefore, of any
interest to the compensation tribunal.
3. Lead workers are just as subject as any individual to the ordinary ailments
such as ordinary stomach ache, gastric ulcer, appendicitis, etc. It is quite
obvious, therefore, that all other causes be definitely eliminated in considering
the health of a lead worker quite as much as in making a differential diagnosis
in any other individual.
Confining ourselves to those cases where lead is thought to be actively present
in the body in toxic amounts, resulting in clinical manifestations of disability,
we may divide these for the present purpose into two groups, depending upon
whether the manifestations are such as to produce definite demonstrable disa­
bility, or are merely subjective, resulting in a claimed disability, the existence of
which may be difficult to prove.

The foregoing interesting discussion is followed by a consideration
in detail of cases with positive disability and cases wTth doubtful dis­
ability. The former is subdivided into cases with positive laboratory
findings and cases with negative laboratory findings. In each case
the procedure to be followed is indicated and diagnostic possibilities
are pointed out. As regards the diagnostic possibilities in cases with
positive laboratory findings, it is stated:
Diagnostic possibilities.— Cases with objective clinical manifestations (positive
disability) and positive laboratory findings present the following diagnostic
possibilities:
1.
If the disability is such as to be definitely associated with lead absorption
and this is further confirmed by the laboratory, there can be no doubt as to the
diagnosis.




17

UNITED STATES W O R K M E N ’S COMPENSATION DATA

2. If the disability is such that its relation to lead absorption is in doubt, the
presence of laboratory evidences of lead absorption should, generally speaking,
be presumptive evidence in favor of lead as a cause for the disability— other
possibilities, of course, being ruled out in the usual manner.

As regards the diagnostic possibilities in cases with negative
laboratory findings the observation reads that—
Diagnostic possibilities.— The cases which can arise under this group present
several diagnostic possibilities.
1. If the disability is such as to leave no doubt whatever as to its relation to
lead absorption the absence of laboratory confirmation should not prevent a
positive diagnosis being made.
2. If the disability is such as to leave some doubt as to its relation to lead
absorption, the absence of laboratory confirmation should, generally speaking,
be presumptive evidence against lead as a cause for the symptoms. In these cases
repeated laboratory tests should be made, however. If no other cause for the
disability can be established, a medical expert should be called into consultation.
3. If the disability is definitely one which has never been associated with lead
absorption, and the laboratory findings are negative, the presumption is against
lead as a cause for disability.

To the foregoing are added the diagnostic possibilities in cases with
doubtful disability as a matter of record.
If the symptoms of which the worker complains, though ever so vague, are
those definitely associated with lead absorption, and the laboratory findings are
positive, the presumption is in favor of lead as a cause for the sumptoms and
consequent disability. All other possible causes for these symptoms must, of
course, be ruled out as indicated above.
2. If the sj^mptoms complex is a doubtful one, and the laboratory findings
show lead absorption, the presumption of evidence is still in favor of lead as a
cause for the symptoms and the disability.
3. If the clinical picture is doubtful and the laboratory findings negative the
presumption of evidence is definitely against the possibility of lead absorption
as cause for the symptoms.

United States Workmen’s Compensation Data
N D E R the Federal compensation act, cases of lead poisoning are
compensable in the same manner as industrial accidents.
Through the courtesy of the secretary of the commission the
returns for the period 1920 to 1927, giving details of 198 cases, of
which 9 or 4.5 per cent terminated fatally, are shown in Table 8.
The total amount paid for compensation on account of all cases, with
the estimated valuation for permanent total-disability cases and
deaths, was $119,207.70 for the period under review, giving an
average compensation of about $600.
T

I

T

T a b l e 8 .— Number of cases of lead poisoning and compensation paid under Federal

compensation act, 1920 to 1927

Year

Total
number
of cases

Permanent, partial,
and te m p o ra ry
to ta l d is a b ilit y
cases.
N um ­
ber

Amount of
compen­
sation

Permanent total
disability cases

N um ­
ber

N um ­
ber

Esti­
mated
valuation

$13,222.00

1920_ ........................... ............. 1921
. .
1922 ..........................................
1923
.
...... ..........
1924.................. ..........................
1925 ________ _____ ________
1926
_
......................
1Q27

16
8
8
7
57
72
12
18

15
6
7
5
54
71
11
17

$2,324.34
655. 60
2, 546. 31
6, 418. 83
2, 490.17
6, 218. 11
738.34 !
1,374.00

2

21,509.00

2 $15,068.00
1
7, 764.00
2 15, 717.00
1
6, 276.00
1
123.00
1
4, 470. 00
1 12, 293 00

Total, 8-year period____

198

186

22, 765. 70 |

3

34, 731.00

9




1

Estimated
valuation

Death cases

61, 711. 00

18

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

Lead Poisoning in the United States Navy, 1913-1927
N A previous report/ are given some statistics of lead poisoning
in the United States Navy, which are now brought down to the
end of the year 1927. Table 9 has been derived from an article
on five cases of lead poisoning occurring on board the U. S. S.
Wyoming in 1926, by Lieut. Commander W . W . Hargrave, United
States Navy.

I

T

able

9. — Lead poisoning admissions and deaths in United States Navy,
1913 to 1927

Year

Average
strength

1913.
1914.
1915.
1916 _
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920.
1921.

65,926
67,141
68, 075
69. 294
245, 580
503, 792
298, 774
140, 773
148, 861

Cases of
acute
lead
poison­
ing

Cases of
chronic
lead
poison­
ing
36
30
24
20

21

13

Year

Average
strength

122,126
116, 565
119, 280
115, 391
113, 756
115.316

1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.

Cases of
acute
lead
poison­
ing

Cases of
chronic
lead
poison­
ing

7
1 25
1
6
26
27

i 11

1
1

Total_
_

2. 310, 650

i Including 1 death.

A surprising fact in this experience Las been the small number of
deaths considering the relatively large number of acute and chronic
cases. In proportion to the Navy personnel the rate of incidence
has been 215 per million exposed to risk. It may be observed in
this connection, however, that of the 26 cases of acute lead poisoning
in 1926, 13 cases were caused by lead paint, but the manner in which
the men were poisoned was not specified. Five other cases were
caused by particles of dust from paint. Poor ventilation in double
bottoms and bilges was regarded as the cause in six cases. One man
was poisoned by a native drink, “ aguardiente,” which was distilled
in containers lined with lead, and one by coming in contact with red
lead. In 1927, 9 of the 27 cases of acute lead poisoning resulted from
chipping and painting aboard ship, but the circumstances which
caused the poisoning were not mentioned. Chipping and painting
in double bottoms caused poisoning in 13 cases and chipping in double
bottoms in 5. In these cases deficient ventilation was regarded as
the primary factor.
It would appear, however, from the foregoing that the cases in
question were lead absorption rather than lead poisoning, for the
small fatality rate is suggestive of the certainty that in the Navy,
cases of lead absorption are early recognized and receive prompt as
well as qualified attention.

Lead Poisoning Statistics of Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
H E statistician of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. has been
good enough to supply the returns of lead poisoning deaths in
the industrial experience of that company down to the end of
1927, as shown in Table 10. The tabulation shows a slight increase
over the rate of 1925 during the last two years, but a much lower
rate than during the early years of the experience under review.

T




19

COMPENSATION FOR LEAD POISONING IN OHIO
T

able

10. — Deaths from chronic lead poisoning, industrial department of
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 1911 to 1927
Number
exposed to
risk 1

N umber
of deaths

Rate per

7, 790, 227
8, 219, 695
8, 696, 548
9, 247, 323
9, 665, 699
10.177, 060
10. 847, 852
11. 553. 347
12. 424, 509

1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.

2. 2

4.5
4.0
4.2
3. 1
3.2
2.3
2.5

Number
exposed to
risk 1

Year

1,000,000

192
192
192
192
192
192
192
192

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Number
of deaths

Rate per
1,000,000

13, 086, 725
13, 500, 762
13, 776, 239
14, 534, 242
15, 423, 233
16, 271, 168
17, 087, 706
17, 521, 595

2.2
1.9

2.2
2.3
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.8

2.1

i Ages 1 year and over.

Lead Poisoning in New York City
T A T IST IC S for the city of New York have been given in a previous
review but they are here brought down to the end of 1927. Tne
number of lead poisoning cases in 1925 was 5, in 1926,10, and in
1927,12. There has, therefore, been a substantial increase suggestive
of the possible neglect of known safety precautions or the none too rig­
orous enforcement of the law governing the protection of the workers.

S

Compensation for Lead Poisoning in Ohio
Q U ALLY interesting statistics have recently been made avail­
able through a publication of the industrial commission of
Ohio. The number of compensated claims for lead poisoning
from July 1, 1924, to July 1, 1927, in that State was 907. Of this
number, 37, or 4.1 per cent, terminated fatally. The number of cases
of permanent disability was only 1, while the number with a disa­
bility of more than 7 days was 759, and cases with disability of less
than 7 days, 45, aside from 65 cases which suffered no time lost.

E

The occupational distribution of compensated claims for lead poison­

ing and the number of days lost, with compensation costs, and medical
costs for each industry group have been as follows:
T

able

11.— Compensated claims for lead poisoning in Ohio, July 1, 1924,
to July l t 1927
Industry group

Number
of claims

Building construction_______ ___________ 1
Chemicals---------------- ------- ------------------------ |
Clay, glass, and stone------------------------------Leather and leather goods________________
Lumber and wood products___ ___ ____
Blast furnaces___________________________
Machinery manufacturing
___________
Metal goods_____________________________
Vehicles _______________ ____ ___________
Paper and printing-- ---------------------------Rubber _________ _______________ _____
Textiles and clothing- _____ ______ - __
Miscellaneous____________________________
Transportation
Utilities- _____ ________ _________________
Commercial _ ___________________________
Care of grounds______________________ . . .
Public employees_______________ _______
Food and beverages _______ _____ ____
T otal, ............................. .......................
Fatal cases.................... ............. ......... ..........




84
112
57
1
21
4
29
356
161
25
15
1
8
1
17
6
6
2
907

Days lost
Total
42, 790
24, 431
32,711
11
14, 746
139
7,157
45, 907
40, 094
35, 002
7,488
24
503
3
18
7, 299
6, 280
6,318
6,106
1 277, 027

371 222,000

Average

Compensation cost
Total

509
$43, 313
218
20, 301
574
20,019
11
8
702
18,484
35
256
247
5, 111
129
44, 990
249
35, 651
1,400
19, 287
499
9, 775
24
45
63
1,188
3
18 |
29
429
8, 865
7,106
1, 047
1,053
7, 086
246
3, 053
305
241, 760
133, 584
6, 000

Average

Medical
cost

$516
181
351
8
880
64
176
126
221
771
652
45
149

$6,910
5, 208
2, 363
51
1,518
99
884
15, 221
8, 265
2,771
480
30
509

29
521
1,184
1,181
123
267

64
1,154
387
295
72
46, 293
8,888

3, 610

20

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

As shown by Table 11, the 907 compensated cases of lead, poison­
ing involved a time loss of 277,027 days or an average loss of 305
days per case. The compensated cost was $241,760 or an average
compensation return of $267. The total medical cost was $46,293,
or an average medical cost of $51. The 37 fatal cases involved an
estimated time loss of 222,000 days, or an average loss of 6,000
days. The compensation cost on account of such deaths was
$133,584, or an average cost of $3,610. The total medical cost on
account of fatal cases was $8,888.

Lead Poisoning in New Jersey, 1924-25 to 1926-27
OR the State of New Jersey, statistics are rather fragmentary
but nevertheless of interest in connection with the preceding
discussion. Workmen’s compensation benefits in industrial
poisoning by lead, etc., became effective in New Jersey in 1924.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924, 38 cases of lead poisoning
were reported to the department of labor, but the report for that
year gives no further information. During the fiscal year 1924-25,
the number of reported cases of lead poisoning was 164, of which
14 terminated fatally. For this year the industries in which lead
poisoning occurred are specified in the annual report as follows:

F

T

able

Industry group
Chemical plant
Enameling___ __
Ink manufacturing.
Jnsecticides
___
Junk yard- _____
Lead batteries_____
Lead cables_______
T Q r? raAniti(t
Q
Lead oxide ........... O ilcoth___________

12. — Cases of lead 'poisoning in New Jersey, 192^-25

Fatal

Nonfatal
1
8

v

i
i
i

2

2
19
1
1

Total

Industry group
1
8
1
2
1
1
2
21
1
1

Fatal

Nonfatal

Total

1

12

T o t a l.............

14

1

9
12
3

Oil refining.
Paint and dry col­
ors ___ _
Painters, _ _____ _
Red lead __ __ __
Soldering.
____
Tetraethyl lead___

85

9
12
3
3
97

150

164

-3

Of outstanding significance is, of course, the large number of cases
and deaths due to tetraethyl lead. But suggestive also is the large
number of cases in lead refining. The outbreak of tetraethyl lead
poisoning was attributable to ignorance as regards the required pre­
cautions in the manufacture of a new type of gasoline which at­
tracted nation-wide attention and led to the appointment of a
special committee of inquiry by the United States Public Health
Service, which published an extended report in 1926. The report,
however, does not include an extended consideration of the cases
which had occurred in different parts of the country in a form useful
for the present purpose. The report concerns chiefly persons em­
ployed in the handling and manufacturing of ethyl gasoline. The
resulting recommendations were widety adopted and few deaths
have since occurred in this country and abroad.
During the year 1925-26 the number of cases of lead poisoning
entitled to compensation in the State of New Jersey was 32, only 1
of these terminating fatally, that of a painter, 51 years of age. Two




LEAD POISONING IN N EW JERSEY,

1 9 2 4 -1 9 2 7

21

•of the cases suffered temporary disability of from one to two weeks and
29 extended over two weeks. The total number of days lost on account
of disability was 7,816, on account of which the total indemnity was
$9,478. The amount paid for medical aid for reported cases was only
$ 1 °°. ^
During 1926-27 the number of cases of lead posioning receiving
compensation in the State of New Jersey was 48. Only 1 of these
terminated fatally, 8 being partially but permanently disabled,
while 39 suffered temporary disability. The total amount of dis­
ability suffered was 13,773 days, on account of which a total com­
pensation of $21,167 was paid. The total medical cost on account
of 23 cases was $1,007.
The foregoing statistics clearly emphasize that lead poisoning in
the State of New Jersey is no longer a question of very serious im­
portance. Certainly considering the extent of the pottery industry
alone in that State, many more fatal cases might have been expected.
In a survey of the pottery industry of New Jersey made by Newman,
*et al., in behalf of the United States Public Health Service in 1921,
it was found that among 2,422 male pottery employees in that State,
16 gave a positive diagnosis of lead absorption, but among 480 female
employees, there was one case. In addition, there were 20 male cases
presumptive of lead absorption, and 3 females, as well as 18 additional
suggestive cases for malt and 2 for females. In the State of Ohio,
among 6,171 male pottery employees, 57 positive cases of lead absorp­
tion were found, while among 2,868 females, there were 10 cases
positively diagnosed as lead absorption. In addition thereto, how­
ever, 43 males and 22 females were considered presumptive of lead
absorption and 76 males and 27 females suggestive. Combining the
four States of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia,
among 12,297 pottery employees, of whom 1,902 were considered
exposed to risk of lead poisoning, and of whom 1,809 were examined,
139 were positively found to be suffering from lead absorption, 106
from presumptive lead absorption, 168 gave suggestive symptoms,
while 1,396 were negative. It was therefore concluded that con­
sidering only positive cases of lead poisoning, the rate of lead injury
was 8.8 per cent for the men, 3.5 per cent for the women, and 7.7 per
cent for both, or at a rate of 77 per 1,000 of those examined. But if
both positive and presumptive cases are considered, the rate of lead
absorption was 135 per 1,000. But since this report was made, con­
ditions have unquestionably considerably improved in the State of
New Jersey, at least so far as positive evidence of deaths from lead
poisoning may be accepted as a clear indication. The more minute
the diagnostic procedure, of course, the more certain it is that small
traces of lead will be discovered which may or may not necessarily
be of industrial origin. Methods of diagnosis vary so widely that no
exact comparison between the different industrial employments or
different services can be looked upon as entirely conclusive. In other
words, deaths from lead poisoning are a more certain indication of
the seriousness of the situation than cases of lead absorption of a
widely varying degree of pathologic or physiologic significance.




22

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

Lead Poisoning in Great Britain, 1918 to 1927
N C O N T IN U A T IO N and elaboration of the foregoing analysis
of statistics of lead poisoning for the United States, certain
international statistics of lead poisoning are inserted for a few
important countries as a matter of convenient reference. The first
of these tables shows the number of reported cases of lead poisoning
according to the reports of the chief inspector of factories and work­
shops of Great Britain for the years 1918 to 1927 with the corre­
sponding number of deaths and the percentage of deaths to the
number of cases. Except as indicated for 1927, Table 13 does not
include painting of buildings.

I

T

able

Year

1918.................. ........
1919
1920
_____
1921_______________
192 2
192 3

13. — Lead 'poisoning in Great Britain, 1918 to 1927

Cases

144
207
243
230
347
337

Deaths

Fatality
per cent

11
26
23
23
26
25

1 Including painting of buildings.

7.6
12.6
9.5
10.0
7. 5
7.4

Year

!
|
i
!
!

1924 _.........................
1925 ______________
1926..........................
1927......................... /
\

Cases

486
326
242
1347
2 249

Deaths

32
13
28
1 35
214

Fatality
per cent
6.6
4.0
11. 5
i 10.1
2 5. 6

2 Not including painting of buildings.

In this connection the senior medical inspector, Dr. John C.
Bridges, observes as follows:
Poisoning by lead produces a definite train of symptoms, though in certain
cases these may be ill-defined. A worker exposed to lead has on more than one
occasion been notified as suffering from lead poisoning which, on investigation,
has proved to be a septic infection of an injury. Such cases have been excluded
in calculating the total number of notified cases, but a diagnosis such as this may
lead to difficulty for the employee and employer. The decline in the reported
cases noted last year, is continuing, there being 84 fewer cases than in 1925 and
244 less than in 1924. Some of this diminution is undoubtedly due to the ad­
verse conditions of trade, although electric accumulator works, from which 21
fewer cases of lead poisoning have been reported, do not appear to have been so
seriously affected. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the greater protection
afforded by the code of regulations, which came into force in March, 1925, may,
at any rate to some extent, be responsible for this fall in the number of cases.
There is reason to believe that the overtime which has been worked occasionally
in the manufacture of electric accumulators has contributed to the incidence of
lead poisoning in the industry. Overtime in work exposing the workers to lead,
or indeed any toxic substance, is to be discouraged, for each additional hour worked
means an increase in the inevitable daily dose of lead dust or other harmful ma­
terial. There is, however, room for further improvement in the observance of the
regulations affecting this industry, not so much in the mechanical arrangements
for exhaust ventilation— though these are by no means perfect in all cases— ■
but in attention to the details of the regulations which concern cleanliness of
floors and benches. Constant supervision of the exhaust plant is undoubtedly
essential, for a new plant, which may be admirably designed and fulfil its purpose
well at the outset will, unless constantly tested and overhauled, become of little
value. This refers not only to works under the electric accumulator regulations,
but to all exhaust plants designed for the removal of dust or fume. A striking
example of this may be cited. In 1914 a modern and up-to-date plant w as in­
r
stalled in a factory for the manufacture of litho-transfers. This year three cases
of poisoning occurred in rapid succession, and it was then found that the exhaust
plant and the inclosed machines had become ineffective and failed to prevent the




LEAD POISONING IN GREAT BRITAIN,

1918 TO

1927

23

escape of the lead dust, generated in fine powder during the process, into the air
of the workroom. Attention to the exhaust plant might have prevented these
three cases and saved the firm much anxiety and trouble.

In elaboration of the foregoing, a statement by Doctor Bridges
from the annual report for 1927 is quoted, as follows:
The general health of the workers, particularly the younger ones, has, I believe,
improved during the past few years. The factors which have contributed to this
improvement are many, and not the least, I consider, is “ summer tim e,” which
enables the workers to take advantage of the recreational facilities now provided
by many employers. An increase of such facilities, whether by individual firms
or by municipalities, will, in the future, be reflected in the improved health of
the workers. There can be no doubt that the arrangements for welfare, now
made by many firms, benefit the health of their employees. Progress has been
made from year to year in this movement, but there is still a tendency to limit
the application of welfare to female emploj^ees. Of particular importance are
those projects which have for their object recreation outside working hours for
juvenile employees. These, if well organized, can not fail to counteract the
potential ill effects of monotony and tedium consequent upon the many me­
chanical and repetitive occupations unavoidable in modern industry.

Reference is next made in the report to the effects of the lead paint
(protection against poisoning) act of 1926, which has come into force.
This act made compulsory the notification of lead poisoning among
workers engaged in the painting of buildings, and gave the secretary
of state power to make regulations. It is possible that the discrep­
ancies in the returns for the two years are explained on this ground
in that the returns for 1927 include cases of lead poisoning among
painters which apparently are not included in the returns for the
previous year. The report includes some brief observations on lead
poisoning in the manufacture of electric storage batteries, which are
also quoted as a matter of convenient reference.
Activity in this industry has continued, and 58 cases were notified, being an
increase of 6 over those of last year. Twenty-four of these cases, as compared
with 14 last year, occurred in work involving exposure to dust from pasted plates,
in such occupations as trimming, trucking, and packing, where it is difficult, and
in some cases impossible, to control the dust effectively. With the exception of
lead burning, which accounted for 6 cases, as compared with 3 last year, and cast­
ing, with 2 cases as against 6 last year, the incidence in other processes remains
much the same. One large works have appointed a whole time works doctor.
This appointment, following as it does on the establishment of a dental clinic
at these works, is clear evidence of the anxiety on the part of the firm to safeguard
the health of their workers.

The following observations on the painting of buildings are sug­
gestive of the practical value of the new act which came into force
the 1st of October during the preceding year:
On January 1 lead poisoning occurring among workers employed in or in con­
nection with the painting of buildings became compulsorily notifiable. The
number, 98, shows an increase of 8 over that of last year. This small increase,
even in spite of compulsory notification, may be ascribed to the fact that for
the past two or three years all cases of lead poisoning which have come to the
notice of the union officials have been referred by them to the department. It
was observed by Sir Thomas Legge some years ago, in his annual report, that the
percentage of severe cases amongst house painters was very much higher than
among other lead workers. A review of the cases notified this year confirms
this view. It may be that once a man becomes a painter he is always a painter,
while in other industries where the use of lead is involved a man, after an initial
attack of lead poisoning, can turn his attention to other work not involving
exposure to lead. The fatalities, 21 in number, account for 60 per cent of all
the fatalities due to lead poisoning. These have occurred in men who have
been employed for many years as painters, the average age at death being 54.
The distribution of the cases has been widespread, and among 92 firms 6 having




24

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

had two cases each. The regulations which came into force on the 1st day of
October have not and can not be expected to have produced any effect on the
incidence of lead poisoning amongst this group of workers, although from the
reports it appears that in the majority of cases an effort has been made to com­
ply with them. Some years must elapse before an appreciable effect is produced.
An even longer period must elapse before the fatality rate falls.

Finally, there are some brief observations on color spraying, with
particular reference to women:
Three females, ages 20 to 24, employed for four to six months in spraying
leather with various colors in liquid form were found by Doctor H enry’ to be
suffering from signs of lead absorption, slight punctate basophilia being pres­
ent in every case. Two of the colors in use were found to contain lead to the
extent of 18.6 per cent and 1.3 per cent, respectively, calculated as lead monoxide.

Table 14, derived from the annual report of the registrar-general
for England and Wales for the period 1916 to 1926, shows the sex
distribution of the deaths from lead poisoning throughout England
and Wales as well as the rate per million of population for both sexes
combined.
T

able

14.— Deaths from industrial lead 'poisoning in England and Wales,
1916 to 1926

Y ear

1916............ .......................
1917____________
. . . .
1918______
. ___
1919__________________________________________________
1920__________________________________________________
1 9 2 1 _____________________________________________________________

1922____________
__________________________
1923............
1924................... .......
...................
_ .
. _
1925____ _______ ______________________________ ______
...
1926................... .......
Total............................................................................

Population

Male

34, 642, 000
34,197, 000
34,024, 000
35, 427, 000
37, 237, 000
37, 887, 000
38,158, 000
38, 403, 000
38, 746, 000
38, 890, 000
39, 067, 000

54
41
35
48
56
56
43
51
47
28
44

406, 678, 000

503

Female

1
2
1

Total

Rate per
1,000,000

5
2
5
4
2
3
3

55
43
36
48
61
58
48
55
49
31
47

1.6
1.3
1.1
1.4
1. 6
1. 5
1.3
1.4
1. 3
.8
1.2

28

531

1.3

According to this table it is shown that during the first five years
of the period there were 243 deaths, and during the second five years
there were 241 deaths, or an average of about 48 per annum for the
decade. But during 1926 the number of deaths was 47, so that the
resulting rate was 1.2 per million for that year against 1.3 for the
whole period. Evidently the lead poisoning situation is slowly im­
proving, and that is made particularly evident by the returns for
1927, not included in the tabulation, showing that during that year
there were 44 deaths among the males and no deaths among the
females.

Lead Poisoning in Canada
OR Canada the information as yet is limited to the years 1921
to 1926, but is of interest by waj of comparison with the
corresponding rate for the United States and England and
Wales. The information is exclusive of deaths from lead poisoning
in the Province of Quebec, which at the time was not in the Canadian
registration area.

F




25

LEAD POISONING IN GERMANY
T

able

15.— Deaths from lead 'poisoning in Canada (excluding Province of Quebec),
1921 to 1926
Fe­
males

Population

Total

1,000,000

0.5

6, 406, 000
6, 507, 000
6, 577, 000
6, 659, 000
6, 737, 000
6, 815,000

1921.
1922
1923.
1924
1925.
1926.

Rate per

.6

The foregoing tabulation is supplemented by a more extended state­
ment for the Province of Ontario for the period 1910 to 1927, includ­
ing also the rates per million of population.
T

able

16 .— Deaths from lead poisoning in the Province of Ontario, 1910 to 1927'

Year

Population Deaths

1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.

2, 489, 241
2, 523, 274
2, 564,313
2, 605, 352
2, 646, 390
2, 687, 429
2, 728, 468
2, 769, 507
2, 810, 546

Rate per

Year

1,000,000

1.2
1.2
1.6

.4
.4
1.5

1.8
1.8
1.1

Population Deaths Rate per
1,000,000

2, 851, 584
2, 892, 623
2,933, 662
2, 981,182
3, 028, 907
3, 062,150
3,103, 000
3,150, 000
3, 200, 000

1919.
1920.
1921
1922.
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927

0.4
.7
.3
1.3

1.0
.7
1.0
1.0

2.8.

Lead Poisoning in Germany
OR Germany statistics of lead poisoning are rather fragmentary
and not available for the entire Republic. For Berlin the
statistics have not been tabulated since 1921 on account of
the simplification of the tabulation of the causes of death. This is
rather disconcerting since Berlin has a considerable number of leadusing industries, including several large plants manufacturing electric
storage batteries, in which lead-poisoning cases, certainly in nonfatal
form, have by no means been rare. As a matter of fact a personal
investigation in 1926 brought home the conclusion that in all proba­
bility cases of lead poisoning were relatively more common in the
manufacture of electric storage batteries in Berlin than in some of
our representative industrial plants in this country. The Prussian
statistical office, however, has furnished the returns of lead-poisoning
cases in Prussia for the period 1910 to 1925, which makes an interesting
contribution.

F

T

Year

1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914
1915.
1916.
1917.

able

17.— Deaths from lead poisoning in Prussia, 1910 to 1925

Population Deaths

39, 551,351
40, 500, 283
41,074, 664
41, 649,062
42, 223, 453
42, 223, 453
42, 223,453
42,421, 556




Rate per
1,000,000
0.9
.5

.6

.5
.5
.5
.4

.2

Year

1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.

Population Deaths Rate per
1, 000,000

42, 421, 556
39, 340, 447
37, 890, 862
38, 887, 722
38,095, 628
38, 589, 045
37, 695, 833
38, 054, 894

.4,

.6

.3
.4
.4
.4.

26

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

An elaborate report on the occurrence of lead poisoning in the
manufacture of electric storage batteries was published by the Im­
perial Health Department in 1898 but seems not to have been followed
up in future extended investigations. It is chiefly a descriptive ac­
count of processes of manufacture, amplified by regulations adopted
in 1898 and not substantially altered in important details. As
regards the effects of the regulations in Great Britain in reducing the
incidence of lead poisoning in the manufacture of electric storage
batteries, it may be of value to quote the following statement on the
number of cases previous to 1926. (Parliamentar}^ proceedings.)
Mr. Robinson asked the home secretary how many cases of lead poisoning
occurred among pasters engaged in the manufacture or repair of electric accumu­
lators in the years 1921, 1922, 1923, and 1924, respectively; and whether any
cases had been reported since the new code of regulations came into force on
March 1, 1925. Sir William Joynson-Hicks replied: There were 5 such cases
reported in 1921, 11 in 1922, 44 in 1923, and 42 in 1924. Since March 1 last,
there have only been 15 cases among pasters. The new regulations can not be
expected to have their full effect for a considerable time, but they appear to have
already caused a substantial reduction in the number of cases.

Lead Poisoning in France
S R E G A R D S cases of lead poisoning in the manufacture of
electric storage batteries in France, the following is quoted
from a brief letter from the Paris correspondent of the Journal
of the American Medical Association, dated October 5, 1925.

A

Balsac, Lafont, and Feil recently published in the Medical Bulletin the results
of an inquiry made to complete their previous investigation of occupational
morbidity among workmen employed in the manufacture of accumulators. They
found that lead poisoning in workmen so engaged is frequent. They examined
50 workers, 2 women and 48 men. Of the latter, 19 were Frenchmen and 29
were Moroccans. Only 2 of the workers were under 20 years of age, while 8
were past 40. The stigmas of lead poisoning and of preliminary stages, which
the authors studied particularly, are: Urticaria, basophilic stippling of red-blood
cells, nucleated red-blood cells, Teleski’s sign (extensors of the wrist too weak to
laise the hand above an angle of 4 5 ° when the forearm is extended), and
finally lead colic. For the 19 Frenchmen and 2 French women, the findings
were: Urticaria or wheals, 8 (38 per cent); red-blood cells with granulations, 15
(71 per cent); nucleated red-blood cells, 0; sign of the extensors, 7 (33 per cent);
lead colic, 9 (43 per cent). For the 29 Moroccans the findings were: Wheals, 21
(72 per cent); red-blood cells w ith granulations, 23 (80 per cent); nucleated redT
blood cells, 22 (79 per cent); sign of the extensors, 14 (49 per cent); lead colic, 3
(11 per cent).

In elaboration of the foregoing, through the courtesy of the bureau
of public hygiene of the city of Paris, returns of lead-poisoning cases
for the period 1910-1924 have been obtained. These show the
population of Paris, the number of deaths from lead poisoning, and
the rate per million of population for each year.
T a b l e 1 8 . — Deaths from lead poisoning in Paris, 1910 to 1924

Year

1910______________
1911.. ___________
1912___________
1913...____ _______
1914..................... .
1915.....................
1916.......................
1917_____________




Population Deaths

2, 822, 329
2, 888,110
2, 889, 946
2, 891, 782
2, 893, 618
2, 895, 454
2, 897, 291
2, 899, 000

18
13
14
15
9
8

Rate per ■
1,000,000
6. 4
4. 5
4.8
5.2
3.1
2.4
2.8
2.4

Year

1918
1919.
1920
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924

IPopulation Deaths Eate per
1, 000,000
2, 900, 960
2, 902, 799
2, 904, 635
2,906, 472
2, 899, 464
2, 892, 456
2, 885, 448

0.7

2.8
1.7
1.7

2.1
1.7
1.0

27

LEAD POISONING IN JAPAN

It is shown by this table that the rate from lead poisoning has very
materially declined in Paris from an alarmingly high rate of 6.4 per
million to a rate of 1 per million in 1924.

Lead Poisoning in Scandinavia
R E T U R N from the statistical office of Norway, limited, how­
ever, to the city of Oslo, for the period 1910 to 1925, shows
only one death from lead poisoning during the entire period
of 16 years. The population of Oslo in 1925 was about 260,000.
The same rarity of lead poisoning is found in other parts of Scandi­
navia. According to returns furnished by the statistical department
of Denmark, not a single death from lead poisoning was reported for
the city of Copenhagen during the same period of 16 years. The
population of Copenhagen in 1925 was 729,000. Precisely the same
results were reported by the statistical bureau of Sweden for the city
of Stockholm for the period 1910 to 1925, according to which not a
single death from lead poisoning occurred in that city during the 16
years under review. The population of Stockholm in 1925 was
442,000.

A

Lead Poisoning in South Africa
E T U R N S for the Union of South Africa cover the period 1912
to 1926 and indicate that during recent years lead poisoning
in that country has become of rare occurrence. This is most
extraordinary in view of the development of mining and smelting
industries in connection with which lead poisoning cases are more
likely to occur.

R
T

able

19. — Deaths from lead 'poisoning in Union of South Africa, 1912 to 1926
Population Deaths 1 Rate per
1,000,000

Y ear

1, 305. 217
1, 330, 053
1, 354, 889
1, 379, 725
1, 404, 561
1. 429, 397
1, 454, 113
1, 476, 419

1912_______________
1913
1914
]915
1916
1917
1918 _____________
1919
__ ___

2
6
1
1

Year

Population Deaths Rate per
1,000,000
1
1

0.7
.7

1

.6

1

1,499, 911
1, 523, 403
1, 546, 895
1, 579, 733
1, 610, 774
1, 637, 472
1, 677, 520

1920........................
1.5
_ ________
4. 5 1921
.7 ! 1922...........................
| 1923
1924
7 1925
1926......... .............. _

.6

Lead Poisoning in Japan
F R A T H E R unusual interest is the return for the city of Tokyo,
furnished by the local statistical office for the period 1910 to
1925, suggestive of an increase in the frequency of lead poison­
ing, probably largely to be explained on the ground of a considerable
development of lead-using industries within recent years.

O

T

20. — Deaths from lead poisoning in Tokyo, 1910 to 1925

able

Y ear

Population Deaths

1910 ...........
1911_______________ !
1912_______________ I
1913_______________ !
1914
1915.____ _________
1916......................... .
1917............. ......... .




2, 006. 900
1,871,400
1, 871, 900
1, 780, 200
1, 870, 300
1, 870, 500
1, 870, 900
1,871, 400

3
1
2
2
2

Rate per ,
1,000,000 ;

Year

1918. ................... .
1919__ ____ _______
1920_______________
1.6
.6 ' 1921______ ____ ___
L1
1923........... .............
1.1 i 1924......................... .
t i | 1925...........................

Population Deaths Rate per
1,000,000
1
2,156, 500
2, 218, 000
2,173, 200
2, 204,400
2, 236, 000
2, 265, 300
2, 917, 308
1, 995, 567

3
7
2
5
1
3
1

1.4
3.2
.9
2.3
.4
1.3

3

1.5

28

D EATH S FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

Physical Condition of Lead Workers
4

SIDE from the foregoing statistics of the general frequency of
lead poisoning in fatal form, information regarding the phys­
ical condition of lead workers in certain lead-using industries
make an extremety interesting addition to general knowledge. It is
recognized that the physical condition of lead workers has an important
bearing upon their predisposition to lead absorption and lead poisoning,
particularly lead poisoning. But heretofore data regarding the physical
condition of lead workers have been very fragmentary and broadly
speaking not comparable with statistics of other employments.
For the present purpose the following information has been col­
lected: First, 3,879 examinations of workers in a representative
electric storage battery plant; second, 921 examinations in a whitelead plant in the Central W est; third, 527 examinations of workers
in the same plant for the year 1927; and fourth, 833 examinations
of workers in a white-lead plant on the Atlantic coast. The results
of these examinations are given in detail and in a fairly comparable
manner, although the variations in the blanks used make precise
comparison on all points somewhat difficult. Another complication
arises out of the varying racial compositions of the labor force. As
far as practicable, however, this has been taken into account. The
statistics of the electric storage battery plant employees cover height,
weight, and pulse rate with due regard to racial composition and age.
The average age of about 3,880 examinations was 27.4 years; the
average height, 66.6 inches; the average weight, 147 pounds, and the
average pulse rate, 74.4 per minute. By racial composition, as regards
height and weight the figures are shown in Table 21.
T a b l e 21 .— Height and weight of workers in an electric storage battery plant
Height
(inches)
Race or nationality
and age group

Num ­
Num ­
ber A ver­ ber Aver­
re­
re­
age port­ age
port­
ing
ing

American:
Under 30 years..........
840
209
30 to 39 years_______
136
40 years and over----T otal.................... . 1,185
Canadian:
Under 30 years_____
433
93
30 to 39 years_______
40 years and over----33
T o t a l......................
British:
Linder 30 years........ .
30 to 39 years.............
40 years and over----T o t a l......................
Eastern European:
Under 30 years..........
30 to 39 y e a rs ............
40 years and over___
Total....................
Northern European:
Under 30 yea rs.........
30 to 39 years.. ____
40 years and over___
Total........................




Weight
(pounds)

147

66.8
66. 9
67.4

425
90
33

140
150
153

559

66.8

548

208
103
84

66.4
67.1
66.9

207
103
84

395

66.7

394

164
71
37
272

65.3
66.1
66.0
65.6

162
71
37
270

49
28
22

67.4
67.5
66.1
67.2

49
28
22

99

143
155
158

841
67.0
67.4
211
67.8
136
67.2 1,188

99

Height
(inches)
Race or nationality
and age group

Southern European:
Under 30 vears_____
30 to 39 years_______
40 years and over___
Total.......................
Colored:
Under 30 years........ .
30 to 39 years_______
40 years and over___

Weight
(pounds)

N um ­
Num ­
ber
ber
re­ Aver­ re­ Aver­
age port­ age
port­
ing
ing
495
119
93

500
120
94

139
155
155

707 | 65.0

714

144

200
87
47

200
87
47
334

156
161
163

142

67.9
67.7
66.9
334 j 67.7

139
150
151

65.9
65.2
66.7

57
20
3

144
151
168

65.8

80

147

67.5
66.8
66.5
67.1

150
47
52

148
158
157

249

152

66.5 2, 591
777
66.8
508
66.8

142
155
156

66.6 3,876

147

Total......... ..............
Miscellaneous:
Under 30 years........ .
57
30 to 39 years. ...........
20
40 years and over___
3
144
Total........................
80
Not reported:
136
Under 30 years..........
150
157
30 to 39 years_______
46
154
52
40 years and over___
144
Total........................ 248
All races:
147
Under 30 years.......... 2, 596
155
30 to 39 years............ 776
151 j
507
40 years and over___
150
Total........................ 3,879

64.9
65.3
65.4

158

29

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF LEAD WORKERS

These and other results following may be compared with the physi­
cal measurements made of conscripts during the World War. The
total number of men measured was 868,445, of an average height of
67.49 inches. In the final report on the measurements there is in­
cluded a standard table of heights for certain European races giving
an average of 67.9 inches for Scotch, 67.8 for English, 67.7 for Ger­
mans, 67.5 for Irish, 66.7 for Poles, and 65.0 for Italians. No meas­
urements are given for persons of Mexican origin. The average height
of white soldiers on demobilization was 67.7 inches, and of negro sol­
diers, the same. It would, therefore, appear that the average height
of electric storage battery workers is somewhat below the average,
due obviously to the inclusion of many South Europeans. The aver­
age height of white American workers and colored American workers
in the electric storage battery plant corresponds almost precisely to
the average revealed by the Army measurements on demobilization.
The average weight of 872,419 draft recruits measured during the
World War was 141.5 pounds. This is 5 pounds less than the average
weight of electric storage battery workers according to the preceding
table. It illustrates that the men employed in this industry are well
nourished and more so in view of the slightly lower height which
would give a larger proportionate weight to every inch of height, which
for standard purposes is usually placed at two pounds to the inch.
No comparative weights for other races are conveniently available,
but the heigher weight of colored men conforms to the general expe­
rience of a higher actual as well as relative weight for persons of color
when compared with white persons of corresponding age.
Table 22 concerns the physique of lead workers in a white lead plant
in the Central West, and represents about 950 examinations.
T a b l e 2 2 . — Results of examination of workers in a white lead plant in the Central

West, 1926

Age (years)

Height
(inches)

Weight
(pounds)

Duration of
em ploy­
Number of
ment
children
(months)

Race or nationality and age groups
Num ­
Num ­
Num ­
ber Aver­ ber A ver­ ber
re­
re­
re­ A ver­
port­ age port­ age port­ age
ing
ing
ing
American:
Under 30 years............................... .......
3C to 39 years______ _______ ________
40 years and over.______ _________

77
31
30

24.6
32. 7
47.8

74
26
29

Total ............................... .................

138

31.4

320
140
23

Colored:
Under 30 years _____ ___________
30 to 39 years.. __________
40 years and over__________________
T otal__________________ ____ _
Eastern European:
Under 30 years.............................. .......
30 to 39 years................... ....................
40 years and over..... ............................
T otal. .............................................




68.1
68.6
67.9

Num ­
N um ­
ber
ver­ ber A ver­
re­ Aage
re­
port­
port­ age
ing
ing

77
31
29

152
164
170

76
31
29

2.9
6.5
5.7

21
18
17

1.0
1.8
1.7

129

68.1 | 137

159

136

4.3

56

1.5

24.8
34. 0
43.6

310
136
22

68. 9
68. 3
68.0

320
140
23

158
162
163

313
135
23

.9
1. 2
3.3

179
103
16

.9
1.4
1.2

1 483

28.2

468

68.7

483

159

471

1.1

298

1.1

25
64
44

24.8
35.3
44.2

25
63
43

67. 3
67.0
66.0

25
64
44

149
156
158

25
63
44

.8
.9
3.3

4
32
18

1.3'
1.9
2.3

133

36.2

131

66.7

133

155

132

1.7

54

2.0

30
T

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

able

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

2 2 . — Results of examination of workers in a white lead plant in the Central

West, 1926— Continued

Age (years)
Race or nationality and age groups

Height
(inches)

Weight
(pounds)

Duration of
Number of
em ploy­
ment
children
(months)

N um ­
Num­
Num­
N um ­
N um ­
ber
ber A ver­ ber A ver­ ber A ver­ ber
A ver­
re­
re­
re­ A ver­
re­
re­
port­ age port­ age port­ age port­ age port­ age
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing

Northern and Western European:
Under 30 years_____ __________ ____
30 to 39 years_______________ ______
40 years and over_______ _ . ____

47
28
27

25.0
34.0
46.9

46
27
24

68.4
67.5
67.6

47
28
27

154
159
160

47
28
26

2.0
2.0
3.7

10
14
14

1.2
2.1
2.0

T otal........................ .......... . . .

...

102

33.4

97

67.9

102

157

101

2.5

38

2.0

Mexican:
Under 30 years.................... .................
30 to 39 y e a rs______________________
40 years and over_________ ________

52
12
5

24.5
33.7
41.2

51
12
5

66.4
65.4
66.2

52
12
5

141
141
150

52
12
5

1.7
1.9
1.4

13
10
3

1.8
2. 3
2.3

69

27.3

68

66.2

69

142

69

1.7

26

2.1

6
14
8

25. 5
34. 6
43.3

6
14
8

68.0
65. 3
67.0

6
14
8

164
147
161

6
14
8

2. 1
.6
3. 1

3
7
7

1. 0
2. 9
2. 6

T otal................................. ................

28

35.1

28

66.4

28

154

28

1.7

17

2.4

Grand total........................................

953

30.5

921

68.0

952

157

937

1.9

489

1.4

T otal_________________ ________
Miscellaneous:
Under 30 years_____________________
30 to 39 years____________ _________
40 years and over..
______ __ __

Conjugal condition

Previous lead em­
ployment

General appearance

Race or nationality and age group
Single

Mar­
ried

W id­
owed

American:
Under 30 years______________
30 to 39 years________________
40 years and over___.................

52
7
7

25
24
20

3

18
17
12

T otal......................................
Colored:
Under 30 years______________
30 to 39 years________________
40 years and over____________

66

69

3

130
24
5

190
115
16

T otal.______ _______________
Eastern European:
Under 30 years_______________
30 to 39 years................... .........
40 years and over______ _____

159

Yes

Not re­
ported Good

No

46
8
12

13
6
6

47

66

1
2

52
31
6

241
97
15

321

3

89

18
28
21

6
36
23

1

Total—....................................
Northern and western European:
Under 30 years______________
30 to 39 years_______ ____ ___
40 years and over............. ........

67

65

36
14
10

Total................................... __
Mexican:
U nder 30 years................. ........
30 to 39 years________________
40 years and over____________

Fair

Not re­
ported

63
26
24

8
2
2

25

113

12

13

27
12
2

266
107
18

6
12
4

48
21
1

353

41

391

22

70

4
21
16

19
39
21

2
4
7

21
44
28

3
12
10

1
8
6

1

41

79

13

93

25

15

11
14
15

2

6
8
5

32
17
18

9
3
4

36
21
21

i6
4
3

5
3
3

60

40

2

19

67

16

78

13

11

38
1
2

14
11
3

6

41
11
3

5
1

2

45
7
1

4
3
3

3
2
1

Total........................................
Miscellaneous:
Under 30 years_______________
30 to 39 years______ ____ _____
40 years and over...... ................

41

28

8

55

6

53

10

6

3
6
1

3
7
7

1
2

3
12
6

1

5
2

5
9
4

1

1
2
1

Total................................ .......

10

17

7

18

3

21

2

4

540

211

84

119

Grand total............................ .
in clu d in g 1 “ poor.”




403

9

638

104

749

6
3
4

31

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF LEAD WORKERS

According to Table 22 the average height of white lead workers is
68 inches, while the average weight is 157 pounds. The tabulation
includes numerous detailed observations which need not be enlarged
upon. Certain details are given by racial composition and by
selected divisional periods of life.
The preceding statistics are for the year 1926. Corresponding
figures for a white lead plant in the central West in 1927 are given
in Table 23, the number of employees reported, by departments,
being as follows: Yards, 230; oxide, 77; track, 52; cartage, 43; metal
shipping, 38; repair, 34; general, 21; power, 18; mill, 16; total, 529.
T

able

23.— Results of examination of workers in a white lead plant in the Central
West, 1927

Age (years)

Height
(inches)

Weight
(pounds)

Duration of
em ploy­
Number of
ment
children
(months)

Eace or nationality and age group
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­
ber
ber
ber
ver­ re­ A ver­ ber A ver­ re­ A ver­ ber A ver­
re­ Aage
re­
re­
age port­ age port­ age
port­
port­
port­ age
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
American:
Under 30 years. _____ ____________
30 to 39 years_______ _______________
40 years and over___________________

54
21
9

23.8
33.7
49.6

54
21
9

68.9
68.7
67.2

54
21
9

159
160
180

54
21
9

2.0
4.9
7.9

4
12
3

0.5
2.0
2.0

Total........ .........................................

84

29.0

84

68. 7

84

162

84

3.3

19

1.7

Colored:
Under 30 years._____ ______________
30 to 39 years_______________________
40 years and o v e r . . . __________ ._

174
117
15

24.6
33.5
43.1

174
116
15

69.7
69.0
68.4

174
117
15

165
167
170

170
117
14

.7
1.1
1.2

59
72
9

1.5
1.7
2.6

Total________________ ________ _

306

28.9

305

69.4

306

166

301

.9

140

1.7

Eastern European:
Under 30 years___ _ __ ___
30 to 39 years_____________________ .
40 years and over___________________

3
10
10

20. 7
35.8
44.6

3
10
10

68. 4
65.6
66.0

3
10
10

166
161
156

2
8
10

2. 8
3.6
6.3

5
7

2.2
3.1

Total................................. .................

23

37.6

23

66.1

23

159

20

4.9

12

2.8

Northern and Western European:
Under 30 y e a r s _________ _. ...........
30 to 39 years_______________________
40 years and over___________________

15
9
11

24.1
36.1
45.4

15
9
11

68.3
67.5
67.1

15
9
11

160
161
163

14
9
11

2.6
.8
3.6

4
3
7

1.8
2.7
1.0

_

35

33.9

35

67.7

35

161

34

2. 5

14

1.6

Mexican:
Under 30 years_____________________
30 to 39 years_______________________
40 years and over________ _________

35
14
3

23.7
33.1
43.0

35
14
3

66.2
65.9
66.3

35
14
3

145
147
149

35
14
3

1.2
1.7
1.9

4
4
2

.5
2.5
1.5

52

27.3

52

66.1

52

146

52

1.4

10

1.5

14
7
6

24.4
34.4
46.7

14
7
6

67.7
66.0
66.7

14
7
6

155
153
164

14
7
6

2.1
3.6
6.4

2
2
3

1.0
3.5
3.7

Total...................................................

27

31.9

27

67.0

27

156

27

3.4

7

2.9

Grand total...................... .................

527

29.6

526

68.6

527

162

518

1.7

202

1.8

Total____ __________ _________

T otal............................................... .
Miscellaneous:
Under 30 years_____________________
30 to 39 years_______________________
40 years and o v e r . . . ____ _____ ____




32
T

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

able

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

23. — Results of examination of workers in a white lead plant in the Central
West, 1927— Continued

Previous lead em­
ployment

Conjugal cond:tion

General appearance

Race or nationality and age group
Single

Mar- j Widried i owed

Yes

Not re­
ported Good

No

Fair

!
Not re­
ported

1
American:
Under 30 years____ _____ _______
30 to 39 years. _ __
40 years and o v e r .... .......................

42
6
4

12
15
5

6

4
10
1

8
11
7

44
17
7

7
4
2

3

1

Total...............................................

52

32 !

7

15

26

68

13 I

3

Colored:
Under 30 years..................................
30 to 39 years. ___________ _______
40 years and over _

7
18
1

95
99
14

29
28
5

129
75
6

16
14
4

155
102
15

6 |
11 1
2 |

13
4

26

208 I

62

210

34

272

19 !

17

1

4
3

6
7

3

1
7
2

1
3
5

3
9
6

1
3

1

Total__________________________

10

13

4

10

9

IS

4

1

Northern and Western European:
Under 30 years______
___ _____
30 to 39 years____________ ______
40 vears and o v e r ___
__

8
6
3

6
3
8

2
1
2

10
5
3

3
3
6

13
7
11

3
1 |

1

T ota l................................ ..............

17

17

5

18

12

31

4

1

30
8
3

5
6

5
4
1

24
7
1

6
3
1

29
8
2

i4
2
1

2
4

41

11

!

10

32

10

39

i7

6

4
3
5

|
I

1
1
1

9
5
2

4
1

14

4
1

Total............................ ................

12

12

1

3

16

5

24

3

Grand total___________________

158

293

96

452 j

50

Total........... ......... ......................
Eastern European:
.
. _i
Under 30 y e a r s . .__
30 to 39 vears.
40 years and over _____________ _

Mexican:
Under 30 years.......... ................. .
30 to 39 years...... .......... .......... _
40 years and over
T otal........................................... .
Miscellaneous:
Under 30 years
30 to 39 vears
40 years and over

_

3

91

301 |

3

3

28

i Including 1 “ poor.”

During 1927 the average height was 68.6 inches, against 68 inches
during the preceding year. The average weight was 162 pounds,
against 157 pounds during 1926.
The returns for examinations of employees in a white-lead plant on
the Atlantic seacoast are shown in Table 24. These examinations
show trade life, height, weight, pulse, and blood pressure. Efforts
are now being made to bring about standardization of reporting so
that in the future it may be possible to present uniform returns for
different plants, which, of course, would very materially increase their
value.




33

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF LEAD WORKERS
T

able

2 4 .— Results of examination of workers in a white lead plant on the Atlantic

seaboard, 1926
Blood i)ressure
Trade life
(months)

Pulse (per
minute)

Weight
(pounds)

Height
(inches)

Diastolic

Systolic
Age group

Num ­
N um ­
N um ­
Num ­
Num ­
N um ­
ber
Aver­
Aver­
ber
Aver­ ber
Aver­
ber
Aver­
ber
Aver­ ber
report­ age report­ age report­ age report­ age report­ age re] 't- age
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
Under 30..........
30 to 39________
40 and over____
Not reported.

354
244
186
49

9.5
28.1
96.2
67.4

353
247
182
50

66.8
66.4
65.9
63.7

354
249
187
50

148
154
157
154

357
250
188
53

76
77
77
78

356
246
185
26

121
122
137
126

354
245
185
25

67
69
77
68

Total___

833

37.7

832

66.3

840

152

848

77

813

125

809

70

The data following contain information concerning 128 examina­
tions of workers in a white-lead plant in the Central West. The num­
ber of cases is too small for a safe generalization but the information
is included as a matter of interest, suggestive of further studies in this
direction.
T

able

25.— Results of 128 examinations in a white lead plant in the Central West

Department
Y a r d _______
____
___
Oxide___________
..
____
M ill_________________________
Lead__
__
....................
Warehouse___
___________
__________
Corroding'___
Shinnine,--------------------------------------------------------------------- --kJ 1J l 1J [ J\. L i g
Office. ___
___________
Condition of—
Gums:
Pyorrhea...... ................... .....
B ad________ ______ ______
F a i r . ____ _____ _________
Normal__________________
Good______ ____ _________
Not stated.. .
. ______

Number

Per cent

49
24
17
8
4
3
1
1

38.3
18. 7
13.3
6. 2
3.1
2.3
.8
!8

Cases

Per cent

85
5
12
4
20
2

66. 4
3.9
9.4
3.1
15.6
1.6

Number

Department
Mechanics:
Engine room...................... .
Carpenters_____ _____ ___
Electric helpers__
Pipe fitters .........................................
Blacksmiths. ____ _____
T otal________________

.

Condition of—

History of—

Previous lead employment ______ ____ __________ ____ _________________
_______________
_____ ___
Lead poisoning__________________ _____
Rheumatism_________ ______________
____ _____ ________ ______ _____

11
6
1
1
2

8.6
4.7
.8
.8
1.6

128

100.0

Cases

Teeth:
Bad______ ____ _______
Fair. ______ _______ ______
Good*!
.............................
Not stated____________

64
42
20
2

Number Number
reporting of cases
128
128
128

Per cent

68
16
26

Per cent

50.0
32.8
15. 6
1.6

Per cent

53.1
12.5
20.3

The average duration of employment of the 127 reporting on this
subject was 40.5 months, and the average age of 118 was 37 years.
Of the 124 reporting as to dependents, 98 reported an average of 2.5
dependents.




34

DEATHS FROM LEAD POISONING,

1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 7

Conclusions
IN C E most of the foregoing data are entirely new in the study of
the subject, it is felt that it would be premature to enlarge upon
the resulting conclusions. The data are made public chiefly
for the purpose of suggesting new lines of research which could be
followed to much practical advantage. To illustrate, however, the
great practical urgency of uniformity in the medical and physical
examination blanks used for the different establishments, as previously
intimated, efforts are being made with a promise of good results. The
foregoing observations may properly be concluded with a brief abstract
from an address on “ Some Clinical Aspects of Industrial Poisoning/’
by Dr. N. C. Sharpe, University of Toronto, and Division of Industrial
Hygiene, Ontario Board of Health, January 30, 1923.

S

In so many cases of industrial poisoning from chemicals the early subjective
symptoms are the same and there is no known early diagnostic test. This would
indicate, then, that an intimate knowledge of the occupation and its risks are
necessary for diagnosis in order to remove the man from danger of further
absorption— and 3
^et not to unnecessarily interfere with his work. In many of
the cases of industrial poisoning (especially the slight acute intoxications from
volatile bodies) either no physician is summoned or if he is, the man has fre­
quently recovered by being placed in the fresh air alone. Yet, although he seems
to have fully recovered, repeated exposures and similar intoxications must
undermine his health, and a knowledge of the occupation is necessary so that
precautions may be suggested to do away with the exposure if at all possible.

Lead-Using Industries
TN T H E interpretation of the preceding and earlier statistics sugA gestive of a decline in lead poisoning it is, of course, of the utmost
importance that use should be made of correlation data as regards
the corresponding changes in the lead-using industries. An accurate
comparison of this kind, however, is not feasible until the manufac­
turing census for 1928 is available. But certain statistics can be
utilized, although the most important data for the construction
industry, in which, of course, painting figures to a large extent, are
not available. The quantity of lead produced in the United States
during recent years has changed as follows:
In 1917 the production of smelted and refined Lead in the United
States was 614,704 tons. This by 1921 had decreased to 445,654
tons, but increased by 1926 to 814,086 tons. The output of refined
primary lead in the United States, from domestic ore, in 1927,
amounted to 668,320 short tons. The production was nearly 2 per
cent less than in 1926. The apparent consumption of refined primary
lead in the United States in 1926 amounted to about 663,000 short
tons as compared with about 718,000 tons in 1926.
The production of lead pigments since 1917 is given in Table 26,
derived from the preliminary report on the Mineral Resources of the
United States, by A. Stoll, published by the United States Bureau of
Mines in 1927.




35

CONCLUSIONS
T

able

26. — Lead pigments sold by domestic manufacturers in the United States,
1917 to 1927 (short tons)

White lead

Basic lead sulphate
or sublimed lead
Red lead Litharge

Year
Dry
1917_______________________________ ____
1918_____________________________________
1919_____________________________________
_______________
1920
-1921 ____________________________________
1922 ____________________________________
1923 _____________________________________
1924 ____________________________________
1925 ____________________________________
________________
1926
1927
________
__________________

In oil

27, 869
20, 089
30. 085
33, 078
26. 738
41, 598
37, 786
42, 622
43, 426
37, 968
38, 669

87.331
82, 799
109, 005
112, 017
143, 545
153,393
125, 087
] 44, 872
120, 479
111,845
119, 026

White
8, 231
7,403
9, 068
12,412
11, 568
13, 765
11, 949
14,572
14, 996
12, 271
13, 482

Blue
1,369
1, 343
1,350
928
463
972
800
1, 088
1,090
1, 236
1,061

25, 478
30, 069
32, 362
34, 431
21,805
30, 509
38, 037
36,813
41, 669
42, 550
39, 073

44,102
48, 874
46, 739
62,329
41,909
58, 261
75,107
74, 724
86, 546
82, 540
81, 655

Since some of the industrial lead poisoning is known to arise from
the manufacture and use of lead pigments, the preceding table sus­
tains the conclusion that the industry in this respect has made sub­
stantial progress^ in total production during recent years, with a
coinciding decline in the actual number of deaths from lead poisoning.
According to a preliminary statement by the Department of Com­
merce, the total amount of lead and zinc pigments produced during
1927 shows an increase in basic lead sulphate or sublimed lead from
12,271 tons in 1926 to 13,482 tons in 1927 for white lead, while for
blue lead there was a decrease from 1,236 tons to 1,061 tons, com­
paring 1926 with 1927. There was also a reduction in the amount
of red lead produced, or from 42,550 tons in 1926 to 39,073 tons in
1927, and a slight decline in the production of litharge from 82,540
tons in 1926 to 81,655 tons in 1927, while the production of dry white
lead increased from 37,968 tons in 1926 to 38,669 tons in 1927. There
was an increase in the production of white lead in oil from 111,845
tons in 1926 to 119,026 tons in 1927. Lithopone increased from
159,931 tons to 176,994, and zinc sulphate from 3,649 tons to 8,971
tons.
Building construction involving painting indoors and outdoors has
been maintained at a higher level during the last few years than
during the years preceding. There are, therefore, no reasons for
believing that the actual decline in industrial lead poisoning is meas­
urably attributable to a decline in the primary production of lead
pigments for industrial purposes. Quite to the contrary, there are
reasons for believing that a substantial increase has taken place in
both mining and manufacturing of lead and lead productions, par­
ticularly electric storage batteries, compared with the earlier period
covered by the present review.




Bibliography

C h a n g e s in

the

blood

as

r e f l e c t in g

in d u s t r ia l

damage

.

Journal of Industrial Hygiene, February, 1928.
C h r o n ic l e a d p o is o n in g f r o m s n u f f .

Journal of American Medical Association, January 28, 1928.
H a r t A c c id e n t a n d In d e m n ity
H

H

C o.

Spray coating, its hazards and safeguards. Hartford, 1928.
a r t , C. D.
Manufacturing lead covered telephone cable. Bell telephone laboratory,
1928.
o w a r d , C h a r l e s D.
Lead in drinking water.
Journal of American Medical Association, March, 1923.

I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r O f f ic e .

Encyclopedia of Occupation and Health.
Lead colors and lead compounds, No. 13; red lead, No. 14; white lead,
No. 19. Geneva, 1925.
------- Encyclopedia of Occupation and Health.
Lead poisoning, No. 54; the painting industry, No. 57. Geneva, 1926.
------- Encyclopedia of Occupation and Health.
Lead poisoning, No. 87; tetraethyl lead, No. 87; accumulators (electric
storage batteries), No. 182. Geneva, 1928.
------- Report on white lead. Geneva, 1927.
K ehoe

and

T ham ann.

The behavior of lead in the animal organism.
American Journal of Public Health, M ay, 1928.
L ead

p o is o n in g

from

lead

- p ip e d

w ater

s u p p l ie s .

Journal of Industrial Hygiene, September, 1928.
L e a d p o is o n in g r e s u l t in g f r o m t h e u s e o f s n u f f .

Journal of American Medical Association, March 10, 1928.
L e a k e , J.

P.

Observations on lead hazards.
Journal of American Medical Association, October 1, 1927.
L e a t h e r s , W . S ., a n d M o r g a n , H . J.
Lead poisoning in an enameling plant.
Journal of American Medical Association, October, 1927.

A

N E W HAZARD IN THE W E IG H TIN G OF SILK.

Scientific American, January, 1928.
Je r s e y .
Department of Labor.
Industrial Bulletin, October, 1927-September, 1928.
N e w S outh W a le s.
Division of General Health.
Lead poisoning report No. 7. Sydney, 1927.
N e w Y o r k (C it y ).
Department of Health.
Lead poisoning caused by snuff.
Weekly Bulletin, November 5, 1927.
N e w Y o r k (S t a t e ) .
Department of Labor.
Annual reports, 1924-1927.
---------------- Lead poisoning and lead absorption, by M . R. Mayers.
Industrial Hygiene Bulletin, October, 1927.
----------------The significance of the lead line in the diagnosis of lead poisoning, by
M . R. Mayers.
Industrial Hygiene Bulletin, August, 1927.
N ew

36




BIBLIOGRAPHY
P r o c e e d in g s u n d e r t h e

lead

act.

p a in t

The Lancet, November 26, 1927.
S w o p e , S. D.
Lead poisoning in smelting process of lead ores.
Southwestern Medicine, 1927.

A

TEST FOR LEAD ABSORPTION.

Journal of American Medical Association, July 28, 1928.
States.
Public Health Service.
Annual report, 1927. Washington, 1927.

U n it e d
T he

use

of

w h it e

lead

in

p a in t in g

The Lancet, November 6,1 927 .




.




LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list o f all bulletins o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case o f bulletins giving the results o f periodic surveys o f the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A com plete list o f the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulletins
published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*)
are out o f print.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
*No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York. [1913.]
•No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements. [1913.]
No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City. [1914.]
No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of N ew York City.
[1914.]
♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.]
♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the m en’s clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.]
No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
N o. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of N ew York City. [1923.]
No. 402. Collective bargaining b y actors. [1926.]
No. 468. Trade agreements, 1927.
No. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.]
Cooperation.
No. 313. Consumers' cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
No. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]
No. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural).
Employment and Unemployment.
*No.
N o.
*No.
*No.
No.

109.
172.
183.
195.
196.

*No. 202.
No. 206.
No. 227.
No.
*No.
No.
No.
No.

235.
241.
247.
310.
409.

Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the United States. [1913. J
Unemployment in N ew York City, N. Y . [1915.]
Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.]
Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis, M inn., Jan­
uary 19 and 20, 1916.
Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass.,
held M ay 10, 1916.
The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,
1917.
Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.]
Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N . Y ., M ay 9-11,1918.
Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922]
Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.

Foreign Labor Laws.
*No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.

[1914.]

Housing.
*No.
No.
No.
No.

158.
263.
295.
469.

Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
Housing b y employers in the United States. [1920.]
Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to] 1927.




L
i]

[1914.]

Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
*No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories.
[1912.]
N o. 120. Hygiene of the painter’s trade. [1913.]
*No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection. [1913.]
*No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.]
*No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
*No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
*No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
N o. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting
of buildings. [1916.]
*No. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.]
*No. 207. Causes of death, b y occupation. [1917.]
*No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.]
*No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.]
N o. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.]
N o. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
*No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.]
•No. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
N o. 236. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
N o. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition W orkers’
Committee. [1919.]
*No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufactuiing industry. [1919.] .
N o. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
N o. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
N o. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.]
N o. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.]
N o. 291. Carbon-monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
N o. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919.
N o. 306. Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be looked for in haz­
ardous occupations. [1922.]
N o. 339. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States. [1923.]
N o. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus.
[1926.]
N o. 425. Record of industrial accidents in the United States to 1925.
N o. 426. Deaths from lead poisoning. [1927.]
N o. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
N o. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington, D . C .f
July 14-16, 1926.
N o. 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.]
N o. 466. Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.J
Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

237.
340.
349.
361.
380.
383.
384.
399.

Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry. [1923.]
Labor relations in the Fairmont (W . Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924.
Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.

[1925.]

Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
No.
N o.

211.
229.
285.
321.
322.
343.
370.
408.
444.
467.
486.

Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
Minimum-wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.]
Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925.]
Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1926.
Minimum-wage legislation in various countries. [1928.]
Labor legislation of 1928.




[II]

Proceedings of Annual Conventions of the Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the United
States and Canada. (Name changed in 1928 to Association of Governmental Officials in Industry of
the United States and Canada.)
*No.
No.
No.
No.
*No.
*No.
No.
No.
No.

266.
307.
323.
352.
389.
411.
429.
455.
480.

Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
Eighth, New Orleans, La., M ay 2-6, 1921.
Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., M ay 22-26, 1922.
Tenth, Richmond, Va., M ay 1-4, 1923.
Eleventh, Chicago, 111., M ay 19-23, 1924.
Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926.
Fourteenth, Paterson, N . J., M ay 31 to June 3, 1927.
Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., M ay 15-24, 1928.

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
Commissions.
No. 210.
No. 248.
No. 264.
*No. 273.
No. 281.
No. 304.
No. 333.
No. 359.
No. 385.
No. 395.
No. 406.
No. 432.
No. 456.
No. 485.

Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916.
Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25, 1917.
Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-27, 1918.
Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24, 1920.
Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23, 1921.
Ninth, Baltimore, M d., October 9-13, 1922.
Tenth, St. Paul, M inn., September 24-26, 1923.
Eleventh, Halifax, N ova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925.
Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29, 1927.
Fifteenth, Paterson, N. J., September 11-14, 1928. (In press.)

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association ol Public Employment Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20, 1913; second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25, 1914;
third, Detroit, July 1 and 2, 1915.
No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y ., July 20 and 21, 1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y ., September 7-9, 1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D . C., September 11-13, 1922.
No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., M ay 19-23, 1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N. Y ., September 15-17, 1925.
No. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, M ich., October 25-28, 1927.
Productivity of Labor.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 3T Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, .1923.
50.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1926.]
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.]
No. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnaces. [1928.]
No. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. [1928.]
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
*No.
*No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

121.
130.
164.
170.
357.
369.
464.

Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
Foreign food prices as affected b y the war. [1915.]
Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
Retail prices, 1890 to 1927.

Safety Codes.
*No. 331. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places.
No. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
No. 350. Specificatioiis of laboratory tests for approval of electric headlighting devices for motor
vehicles.
No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations.
No. 378. Safety code for woodworking plants.
No. 382. Code for lighting school buildings.
No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
No. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
No. 433. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.




[m]

Safety Codes—Continued.
No.
No.
No.
N o.

436.
447.
451.
463.

Safety
Safety
Safety
Safety

code
code
code
code

for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
for rubber mills and calenders.
for forging and hot-metal stamping.
for mechanical power-transmission apparatus—first revision.

Vocational and Workers’ Education.
*No.
*No.
No.
No.
No.

159.
162.
199.
271.
459.

Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. [1915.]
Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. [1917.]
Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. [1920.]
Apprenticeship in building construction. [1928.]

Wages and Hours of Labor.
*No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and waist
industry of New York City. [1914.]
*No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. [1914.]
N o. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
N o. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
*No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
No, 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 394. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board Industry. [1926.]
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 413. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and 1924.
N o. 435. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1926.
N o. 438. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1925.
N o. 442. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1925.
N o. 446. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1926.
No. 450. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1926.
No. 452. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to 1926.
N o. 454. Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining, 1922, 1924, and 1926.
No. 457. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, M ay 15, 1927.
No. 471. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1927.
No. 472. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat packing industry, 1927.
No. 476. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, 1927. Supplement to Bulletin No. 457.
No. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928.
No. 487. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1928.
Welfare Work.
*No.
No.
*No.
No.

123.
222.
250.
458.

Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
Welfare work in British munitions factories. [1917.]
Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States.
Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926.

[1919. J

Wholesale Prices.
No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927.
No. 473. Wholesale prices, 1913 to 1927.

[1921.]

Women and Children In Industry.
No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
♦No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
N o. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
*No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
N o. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and
garment factories. [1914.]
•No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.]
*No, 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in the United States
[1915.]




[IV ]

Women and Children in Industry—Continued.
*No.
*No.
*No.
No.
No.
*No.

176.
180.
182.
193.
215.
217.

Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.]
The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. [1915.]
Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. [1916.]
Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [191G.]
Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children. [1918.]
No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.]
No. 253. Women in the lead industries. [1919.]

Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
*No.
*No.
No.
No.
*No.
No.

101.
102.
103.
107.
155.
212.

*No. 243.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

301.
312.
379.
423.
477.

Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
British national insurance act, 1911.
Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.]
Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called b y the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D . C., December 5-9, 1916.
W orkmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and
1918.
Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.]
National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921.
Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925.
W orkmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of July 1, 1926.
Public-service retirement systems, United States and Europe. [1928.]

Miscellaneous Series.
*No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to
M ay 1, 1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.]
No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D . C. [1921.]
No. 299. Personnel research agencies: A guide to organized research in employment management,
industrial relations, training, and working conditions. [1921.]
No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.]
No, 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. [1923.]
N o. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. [1923.]
No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foeign countries. [1926.]
No. 420. Handbook of American trade-unions. [1926.]
No. 439. Handbook of labor statistics, 1924 to 1926.
No. 461. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.]
No. 462. Park recreation areas in the United States. [1928.]
No. 465. Beneficial activities of American trade-unions. [1928.]
No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.J
No. 483. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, Mass., 1928.




A D D IT IO N A L COPIE S
OF THIS PUBLICATION M A Y BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

10 C E N T S P E R C O P Y
V

[V]