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CURRENT DATA
ON
NONWHITE WOMEN WORKERS




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Mary

Dublin Keyserliag, Director
December 1965

U.S. DEaPi^TMENT OF LABOR
Wcsnen's Bureau
Washington^ D.C. 20210

December I965

CURREHT MTA ON KONWHITE W M I WORKERS l /
O ET
Labor Force Status and P a r t i c i p a t i o n
There vere 3 . 6 m i l l i o n nonwhlte women workers i n the United States
i n September I965.
(Table l ) They represented kQ percent of nonvhitc
vonen i n the population and li|- percent of a l l vomcn workers. Almost
m i l l i o n nonwhlte women were not i n the labor force; about 3 m i l l i o n of
them were keeping house^ 91^^000 were i n school^ and 199,000 T^ere not
working f o r other reasons.
In each age group except the teenager group^ nonwhite women had
a higher l a b o r - f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate than white women. (Table 2}
S i m i l a r l y , among married women (husband present) i r i t h or without children,
there were proportionately more nonwhite than white working wives.
(Table 3) Among nonwhite working mothers, those with school age c h i l d r e n
only had the hi{^est labor f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate (58 percent).
In September I965, 284,000 nonwhite women workers were seeking
work.
(Table 1) The unemployment rate ^ms 7*3 percent. This compares
w i t h if.7 percent f o r white women.
Unemployment rates of nonwhite women i n 196if were higher than
those of white women i n each age group except 65 years and over, w i t h
the most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e occurring among teenagers.
(Table 2)
About every t h i r d nomvhite g i r l 1^1-19 years o l d was looking f o r a job
as compared t o every seventh white g i r l .
Occupations
Nonwhite women were employed i n a l l major occupational groups i n
September I965, w i t h the l a r g e s t number i n private-household end other
service work.
(Table if) In contrast, the l a r g e s t number of white wonen
were c l e r i c a l workers.
S i m i l a r proportions of nonwhite and white women were employed as
operatives. The proportions of nonwhite women teachers and white women
teachers were about the same; a l l other w h i t e - c o l l a r categories o.ccomtcd
f o r r e l a t i v e l y fewer nonwhite than white women.

i j For d e t a i l e d information on nonwhite and Negro women workers,
see "Negro Women Workers i n 196O," Women's Bureau B u l l e t i n 287. 196^^^ .




Work Experience
Of a l l non^Thite vomen at vork i n September 19^5, more than
one-foarrth were employed on a part-time basis ccanpared w i t h onef o u r t h of the white \nxien.
(Table 5) R e l a t i v e l y more nonvhite
women than white wonen reported they ustially worked part time
invol\mtarily.
More than h a l f of a l l nonwhite wonen worked some time during
1963.
(Table 6) Of these, almost one-third worked f u l l time the
year round and another one-third worked a f u l l - t i m e week, but f o r
only part of the year. In contrast, almost h a l f of the nonwhite
teenage g i r l s and more than two-thirds of the wccien 65 years and
over who worked some time during I963 had part-time Jobs,
Income
Nonwhite women w i t h income 2 / i n 196^ numbered almost 5 . I m i l l i o n
and represented two-thirds of the nonwhite woman population,
(Table 7)
Their median income (half above, h a l f below)
$1,066. A smaller
proportion of white women reported income, but t h e i r median was almost
h a l f again as h i ^ — $ 1 , 5 1 3 .
More than 2 out of 3 nonwhite women had income of l e s s than
$2,000 i n 1964, and almost 1 out of 2 had l e s s than $1,000.
In
contrast, about 3 out of 5 white women received l e s s than $2,000, and
2 out of 5 received l e s s than $1,000.
There was not much d i f f e r e n c e i n the percentages o f nonwhite and
white women who were year-round f u l l - t i m e workers. The median income
of nonwhite women workers, however, was only 69 percent t h a t of white
women workers i n 1964.
Years of School Completed
The educational l e v e l attained by nom^hite women i n the l a b o r
force i n March 196!^ was higher than that of a l l nonwhite women i n the
population, but lower than that of vhlte
women. (Table 8) The median
school years completed by nonwhite women workers was 10,8 years—
years l e s s than that of white women workers.
Seven percent of nonwhite women workers and 12 percent of
nonwhite women i n the population had l e s s than 5 years o f schooling.
In contrast, only 2 percent of white women workers and k percent of
a l l white women had so l i t t l e schooling.

2/




Refers t o t o t a l income from a l l sources.
-

2

-

Almost 2 out of 3 nonvhite vcmen workers had seme high
school education^ and 1 out of 8 had attended college. For white
women workers^ the r a t i o s were ^ out of 5 aiid 1 out of
i
respectively.
Information on Negro Wataen^ i960
The r a t i o of llcgro women workers t o a l l ITegro wcxien i n the
i n d i v i d u a l States> i n 19^0^ ranged from 30 percent i n Hawaii and
Maine t o 59 percent i n Alaska.
(Table 9) In each of these 3 States^
however, the number of Negro women was veiy small. In New York,
where t h e i r concentration was greatest, 50 percent of the Negro wonen
were i n the labor f o r c e . For the Nation, the proportion of Negro
women workers i n the Negro wonan population was ^ percent.
The median ntanber of school years completed by Negro women
i n the population a l s o v a r i e d widely among the States. I t ranged
from 7.5 years i n Georgia and M i s s i s s i p p i t o 12.2 years i n Hawaii.
For the Nation, the average was 8 . 9 years.




-

3 .

Table 1.—Labor Force Status of Nonvhite Women and a l l Women
September I965
(Women i h years o f age and over)
Hidber
All
Nonwhite
women
women

Labor force statiis

Non"white vomen
as percent
o f a l l vomen

Population ] J

7,61^3,000

70M3,000

10.9

C i v i l i a n labor force

3,61^,000

26,615,000

13.7

3,360,000
284,000

25,2l^6,000
1,368,000

13.3
20.8

3,999,000

43,788,000

9.1

7.8

5.1

Elnployed
Unemployed
Not i n the labor f o r c e
Unemployment rate (percent)

2 / Excltides vomen i n the Aimed Forces.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
Bmployment and Earnings, October I965.




NOTE

Because of rounding, percentages i n
s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y
add t o 100.

Table 2 .--Labor Force Participation anil Unen^oysient Hates of
Xomihite and White Vanen hy Age, 19^
(Wcnen Ih years of age and over)

Agie

geoop

AIL wonen voxters
llf t o ISl
20 t o 2k
to
35 t o ifl^
lf5 t o
to
65 years

years
years
years
years
years
years
and over

Percent of vonen In
population vfao vork
Vhlte
Non'ubite

Percent of unen^oyed
voaen In the labor force
Nonwhlte
White

U6.0

36.4

10.8

5.5

22.8
53.6
52.8
58.lt
62.3
W.lf
12.7

29.0

30.6
18.3
11.2
7.8
6.1
3.8
2.2

13.2
7.1
5.2

k8,&

35.0
1^3.3
50.2
9.9

H

3.6
3.5

Source: Mazqpoimr Report of the President and A Report on Manpower He<iuiremeats. Resources, U t i l i M t i o n , and Training by the United States Departaent of
Labors March I965.




-

5 .

Table 3.*-X4kbor Force Farticipfttloii Rvtes of Bbmihite
aod Vhite Harried Vdaen (husbaod present)
March 1 6 ^
92
(Itaien
years of age and over)

Percent of BMan:led mnen vho woriE l /
Homihite
Mhlte
Total
A l l narrled wawn (tausband
present}

45.1

With children under 6 years

22.7

Sow under 3 years
•one under 3 years

26.7

33.4

33.7

21.4

29.3

19-3
25.0

With children 6 t o 17 years only

43.0

57.7

41.9

Vltboixt ehUdren under l 8 years

37.8

49.1

36.8

^

Vonen In e i r l l l a n labor force aa percent of ynm&a In pcpolstion.

Source:
Departaaant of labor. Bureau of L i t o S t c t i s t i c s :
Labor Force Bcpoi t Bo. 50.




- 6 .

a^lel

Table

-Occupations of anployed HomThite and White Women
September I965
(Women i k years of age and over)

Buployed vomen
ITonvhite
White
Percent
Number
Number
Percent

Occupation

A l l groups

3,6II4,000

100.0

22,971,000

100.0

255^000
55,000
142,000

7.0
1.5
3.9

3,124,000
827,000
1,263,000

13.6
3.6
5.5

58,000
55,000
22,000
26,000

1.6
1.5
0.6
0.7

1,034,000
1,080,000
620,000
299,00-0

4.5
4.7
2.7
1.3

T,000
If01,000

0.2
11.0

138,000
7,856,000

0.6
34.2

117,000
281^,000
62,000

3.2
7.8
1.7

2,871,000
4,985,000
1,838,000

12.5
21.7
8.0

33,000
528,000
26,000

0.9
11^.5
0.7

253,000
3,561,000
69,000

1.1
15.5
0.3

l,06li,000

29.2

1,240,000

5.4

882,000
200,000
678,000

2h.2
5.5
18.6

3,262,000
1,286,000
1,953,000

14.2
5.6
8.5

15,000
321,000

0.4
8.8

115,000
551,000

0.5
2.4

White-collar workers
P r o f e s B i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l workers
Medical, other h e a l t h workers
Teachers (except college)
Other p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l
workers
Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s
S a l a r i e d workers
Self-employed ( r e t a i l trade)
Self-employed workers (except
r e t a i l trade)
C l e r i c a l workers
Stenographers, t y p i s t s , secretaries
Other c l e r i c a l workers
Sales workers
B l u e - c o l l a r workers
Craftsmen
Operatives
Nonfaim laborers
Service workers
Private-hoTisehold workers
Service workers (except p r i v a t e household)
Waitresses, cooks, and bartenders
Other s e r v i c e workers
Pana workers
Fazners and faim managers
Faim laborers and foremen

Source: U.S. DeOctober 19^5.




Lt of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :

-

7 .

Efaployment and

Table 5 . — P u l l - t i m e and Part-time Job Status of N o n ^ i t e
end White Wcmen Workers^ September I965
(Wcmen l 4 years o f age and over)
Wcmen at vork 1/
White
Konvhite

F u l l - t i m e and part-time Job status

T o t a l at work, September 19^5
Hianber
Percent

2,898,000
100.0

20,226,000
100.0

On jfuU-time schediae 2/

72.8

75.3

On part-time schedule

27.3

24.7

8.8

3.0

1.9
6.9

l.U
1.6

18.5

21.7

^

For econonic reasons 4/
UsTially vork f u l l time
Usually vork pert time
For other reasons (usually vork p a r t time)

2J
^
^
^
s t a r t or

Excludes vcmen
Refers t o vork
Refers t o vork
Includes s l a c k
t e m i n a t i o n of

at vork i n a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s .
of 35 hours or more a veek.
of l e s s than 35 hours a veek.
vork, m a t e r i a l shortages, repairs t o p l a n t or egjxipment,
Job dTiring the veek, and i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d f u l l - t i m e vork.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
and Earnings, October I965.




- 6 -

anployment

Table 6.~Work Experience of Nom^lte Women
i n 1963, by Age
(Wotaen i k years of age and over)

number of nonvhite vonen
Percent with work experience

l'»-19
years

20-24
years

25-61^
years

65 years
and over

7,373,000

Work experience i n I963

1,216,000

780,000

4,660,000

717,000

5lf.8

32.9

65.5

64.0

20.8

Total

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n
Total with work experience
On full-time johs
50-52 weeks
2^-k^ weeks
1-26 weeks
On part-time jobs

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

65.8

51.5

73.0

68.0

32.2

31.0
16.5
18.3

l/

100.0

2.2
8.8
U0.5

23.5
15.1

36.6
18.2
13.2

20.1
6.7

3U.3

U8.5

27.0

32.0

67.8

^

1 / Refers to vorl: of 35 hoiirs or more a veek.
^ Refers to work of less than 35 hours a week.
Source: U*S. Departnent of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
Force Report No.




-

9

.

^ c i a l . Labor

Table 7 •--Median Income of llonwhite and White Women i n 1 6 ^
9^
(Women Ih years of age and over)
Women

Nonwhite

White

Total incone recipients
Number (with income)
Percent of population
Median income

5,090,000
67
$1,066

36,614,000

100

100

59

$1,513

Percent distribution
Income range
Under $1^000
$1,000 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $3,999
^,000 to $^,999
$5,000 and over

5

39
19
13
11
8
10

26
$2,663

29
$3,835

US
21
Ih
8
k

Year-round, full-time workers
Percent of t o t a l incone recipients
Median income

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Reports^ Series P - 6 0 , No. hj (September 2k,
I965).




- 10

.

Current Population

Table 8.--Years of School Con^leted by Nonvhite and Vhite
Women, March 1964
(Women l 8 years of age and over)

Years of school completed

Utcaber ^
Percent
Ho school yeejrs completed

Population
Nonvhite
White
women
vomen

Labor force
White
Nonvhite
vocen
women

6,5llf,000
100.0
2.I1

55,369,000
100,0
1.2

100.0
1.3

ELanentary school:
1 to 4 years
5 to 7 years
8 years

10.0
18.0
11.7

3.2
8.I1
lif.O

5.7
17.1
11.0

10.9

High school:
1 to 3 years
If years

2U.6
23.7

18.6
37.5

25.1
26.7

17.8
43.1

6.3
2.4
1.0

10.3
5.1
1.7

7.8
1.8

11.0
7.0
3.1

10.0

12.1

10.8

12.3

College:
1 to 3 years
4 years
5 years or more
Median years of school con^jleted

21,182,000
100.0
0.3

1 / Refers t o the c i v i l i a n noninstitutional population.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
Force Report No. 53-




- 11

.

Special Labor

1.5

Table 9«~Negro Wonen In the Population and Labor Force
and Years of Schooling^ Selected States^ I960
(Women Ih years of age and over)

state

UNITED STATES
Alaska
Colorado ••••••••••••••
D i s t r i c t of Colunbia
HaMaii
minola
Indiana

Maine
Maryland
Michigan
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
Mew Tortc
North Carolina
Ohio
OklahoM
nBuiWjIvula
Texas

Nunber
Population
Labor force

Median years
of school
ccnpleted
y

6.371.575

2,690,771*

12
*

8.9

328,282
1,605
13,165
293,1I95
13,028
36,357
1U8,713
287,ll»8
377,860
765
355,171*
89,6140
8,1*28
29,85U
3lil,270
736
171,390
38,679
237,259
7,179
290,503
136,706
9,1*18
3,91*6
181,897
5,Oli6
51*5,511
358,520
266,700
53,066
5,693
305,672
lt01«786

123,326
9U3
5,375
130,968
6,096
17,51*U
78,5U7
150,813
162,21*5
230
11*6,751
36,060
3,1*85
12,065
122,250
237
77,iao
18,689
86,71*1*
3,359
100,172
56,1*88
1*,055
2,liil
88,523
2,U56
272,022
11*5,011
110,369
19,017
2,358
132,63li
176,306

38
59
11
*
15
*
17
*
18
*
53
53
13
*
30
11
*
10
*
11
*
UO
36
30
15
*
18
*
37
17
*
3U
Ul
13
*
51i
19
*
U9
50
llO
la
36
la
13
^
i*li

8.0
11.8
9.2
10.6
11.1
9.9
10.1*
8.1*
7.5
12.2
9.7
9.8
10.1
10.2
7.6
12.1
9.0
10.6
9.9
11.0
7.5
9.3
10.3
9.6
9.6
10.0
10.0
8.3
9.8
9.1*
10.3
9.8
9.0

S m footnotes at end o f table.




Percent In
labor force

- 32 .

Table 9.-*Negro Women i n the Population and Labor Force
and Years of Schooling, Selected States,
1960~Continued

State

UNITED STATKS

Number
TCpulation
Labor force

Percent i n
labor force

Median years
of school
completed 2/

y

Utah
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin

1,273
268,19U
13,916
22,382

h9B
105^010
6,10U
9,536

39
39
hh
h3

10.$
8.3
10.6
9.9

1/ Includes members of the Armed Forces.
y Refers to Negro women i n the population.
y Includes data for the 12 States not l i s t e d separately.
NOTE.—The Ihireau of the Census reported data by race only for States with 2,500
or more Negroes and 2,500 or more persons of other nomrtiite races.
Source: U.S. Department of Cowmerce, Bureau of the Census:
Population. Nonwhite Population by Race.




. 13 -

I960 Census of

Labor D.C.

(WB 66^1^)