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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ * * * *

N o. 3 1 3

MISCELLANEOUS SERIES

CONSUMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES
IN THE U N ITED S T A T E S IN 1 9 2 0




By FLORENCE E. PARKER

[ T l?

]

OCTOBER, 1922
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1923




CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction...............................................................................................
Definition of cooperation................................................, ..............
History of cooperation in the United States.............................
General condition of the movement..........................................
Types of cooperative societies.......................................................
Characteristics of the consumers’ movement............................
Typical consumers’ societies.................................................
Need of statistical study in the United States.................................
Scope of investigation..............................................................................
Classification of societies studied..........................................................
Geographical distribution......................................................................
Urban and rural distribution................................................................
Size of societies..........................................................................................
Age of societies..........................................................................................
Size of societies in relation to age........................................................
General organization of consumers’ cooperative societies.............
Legal status of societies studied...................................................
Limitations on membership..........................................................
Management.......................................................................................
Voting..................................................................................................
Business operations...................................................................................
Kind of business...............................................................................
Volume of business...........................................................................
Net trading surplus or loss..............................................................
Financial factors...............................................................................
Share capital...............'..............................................................
Loan capital, reserves, and educational fund...................
Disposition of surplus savings.......................................................
Interest on share capital.........................................................
Provision for reserve and educational funds.....................
Depreciation..............................................................................
Purchase dividends..................................................................
Bonus on wages of employees................................................
Assets and liabilities.......................................................................
Business methods and efficiency.........................................................
Prices charged...................................................................................
Granting of credit.............................................................................
Operating expenses..........................................................................
Auditing..............................................................................................
Inspection of books by members.................................................
Bonding of officers............................................................................
Wholesale societies....................................................................................
General types of wholesale societies............................................
Number and location of wholesale societies..............................
Years in operation.............................................................................
Membership........................................................................................
Representation of member societies...........................................
Capital and reserve..........................................................................
Goods handled...................................................................................
Business operations...........................................................................
Methods of doing business and obstacles encountered.........
Auditing and accounting service................................................
Organization work............................................................................
The failures.............. .................................................................................
Conclusion..................................................................................................
Appendix A.—General features of consumers’ cooperative laws
Appendix B.—Directory of consumers’ cooperative societies. . .




1-6

1
1,2

2,3
3
4-6
5.6
6
6.7
13-16
17,18
18-22
22-24
24-28
24-26
26
26.27
27.28
28-60
28.29
29-32
32-35
35-39
35-38
39
40-47
40
40-42
42
42-46
47
47-60
60-69
60
60-62
62-65
65-67
67,68
68, 69
69-73
69. 70
70
71
71
71
71
72
72
72, 73
73
73
74-80
80, 81
83-98
99-147
hi




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WASHINGTON

n o . 313

Oc t o b e r , 1922

CONSUMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES
IN 1 9 2 0 .

INTRODUCTION.
DEFINITION OF COOPERATION.

The word “ cooperation” has within the past few years taken on
a new significance to many of the people of the United States. To-day
it means more than simply “working together..” Cooperation in
most instances, it is true, makes its appeal to the enlightened selfinterest of the individual. It is looked to as a means of lightening
the burden of high prices and low wages, through the elimination of
all unnecessary middlemen. But the element of idealism and
altruism inherent in the movement gives it a wider significance and
appeal than a strictly economic movement would have.
In general, cooperation embodies industrial democracy. In the
true cooperative society membership is voluntary and open to all.
Shares are of low denomination and may usually be paid for in
installments. At meetings each member has one vote and no more,
regardless of the amount of stock he holds. In order to insure com­
parative equality in the financial status of members, the number of
shares that may be held by any one member is limited. Capital
receives interest at the legal rate, it being the cooperators’ belief that
the owner of capital should receive a fair price for the use of his
money, but no more than a fair price. The possessor of a great deal
of money therefore has no more power in the affairs of the society
and no higher standing than his poorer fellow member. In the
cooperative movement all are on the same footing. It has been said
that tUfe motive power of the movement is the man and not his money,
and this principle is logically extended to every part of the move­
ment, federations as well as local societies. No financial group can
obtain a controlling interest in the true cooperative society.
The distinguishing feature of the cooperative system is that it
exists for the common good. All land or buildings acquired become
the common property of all the members. Every economy in manu­
facture and distribution, and every advance in efficiency or improve­
ment in machinery benefits every member, instead of going as profits
to some one person or class.
HISTORY OF COOPERATION IN THE UNITED STATES.1

It is now generally acknowledged that the cooperative movement
as we know it to-day was inaugurated in 1844 by 28 flannel weavers
of Rochdale, England, as a means of relief from the existing poverty,
1 The data on which this section is based were taken from Cooperation in New England, by Prof. James
Ford, and U. S. Bureau of Labor Bulletin No. 35.



1

2

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

unemployment, adulterated food, and exorbitant prices. The
movement has remained preeminently a working-class movement
and as such has spread to every continent.
The United States was one of the first countries to follow the lead
of the “ Rochdale pioneers,” as they are called. The first consumers’
cooperative organization in this country is said to have been a buying
club established in Boston in 1844. Out of this club grew the power­
ful New England Protective Union, which flourished for a while but
was disrupted by internal quarrels and was finally superseded by the
American Protective Union. Through the efforts of the latter some
700 stores are said to have been established in New England.
During the early seventies, the Patrons of Husbandry, a farmers’
order, established a number of cooperative stores, some of which still
exist.
Not all of the early cooperative ventures were strictly cooperative
in principle. In many cases, the cooperative idea was subordinated
to some other economic, political, or social theory which caused the
failure of the cooperative scheme. This was true of the movement
supported by the Knights of Labor about 1884, in which the coopera­
tive feature was incidental to their political program, the failure of
which destroyed the stores.
In 1874 a purely cooperative organization, the Sovereigns of
Industry, was established. This association opened stores all through
the North Atlantic coast States, but failed in 1879 through poor
business management.
From that time until the end of the century the cooperative move­
ment in the United States languished, only a few isolated stores
surviving. Of late, however, and especially during and since the
war, interest in all lines of cooperative activity has revived.
GENERAL CONDITION OF THE MOVEMENT.

With the beginning of the war prices began to rise. Wages rosn
also but less rapidly and not for all workers. Feeling the economic
pinch, people began to cast around for some means of relieving it.
Cooperation seemed to promise one. Accordingly interest in the sub­
ject awoke and information began to be sought. Learning of the
wonderful results obtained in Great Britain and on the Corllinent,
Americans set out to obtain these results for themselves. Coopera­
tive societies sprang up everywhere, and a high point of cooperative
interest and organization was reached in the latter part of 1919 and
the first half of 1920.
Much of the new development was foredoomed to failure. Stores
were opened in places where the population was insufficient to support
them. Many communities succumbed to the wiles of stock salesmen,
who, taking advantage of the prevailing interest in the subject, were
promoting ventures questionably cooperative and making glowing
and unfulfillable promises. Again, too often the society was started
solely with the idea of lowering the cost of living for its members
and without knowledge not only of cooperative principles but of
business methods. The year 1920 was one of unusual and uncertain
business conditions, to cope with which required experience and a
high degree of business ability. The first of these requisites, in the



INTRODUCTION.

3

nature of things, the new society did not possess, and the second was
also too often lacking.
Figures collected by this bureau 2 show that up to April and May,
1920, wholesale prices of articles handled by the societies—clothing,
groceries, etc.—rose. During the remainder of the year, however,
they fell rapidly. Thus those societies which had laid in a large stock
of goods at the peak prices had to sell their goods at less than the goods
had cost. It is evident that the societies which started business dur­
ing the spring of the year would suffer the most by this condition,
since their whole stock of merchandise was bought at the time of
highest prices. The drop in prices was also reflected in the decreased
value of the inventory at the end of the year. Although little mer­
chandise be carried in stock it is difficult, even with the best of man­
agement and quick turnover of goods, to do business in a falling
market. Plainly, unless excellent judgment were exercised in pur­
chasing, the small margin of profit on groceries might thus easily be
wiped out.
Toward the end of the year the difficulties of the cooperative so­
cieties were increased by the growing unemployment among their
members.3 Among the average wage earners who make up the ma­
jority of cooperators, loss of work means loss of purchasing power
except on credit. This means either That the society must extend
credit or that its unemployed members must transfer their patronage
to the private competitor who will do so. Credit, as is shown later
in this report, is extended by many societies, but this means that the
capital of the society becomes “frozen” to the extent that credit is
ranted. Granting of excessive
is shown in
to have
S the sole or the contributing credit of failure in thisofstudy 70 cases
een
cause
12 the
from which reports were obtained.
TYPES OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

It is difficult to make a clear-cut classification of the different forms
of cooperation. Roughly, there are three branches of the movement:
1. Cooperative credit;
2. Cooperation for production, which in turn may be subdivided
into—
(a) Associations of producers to produce raw materials or finished
products, and
(6) Associations of producers to sell cooperatively either raw ma­
terials or finished products; and
3. Cooperation lor consumption.
These classes may and do overlap in practice. Thus, a credit insti­
tution may also function for producers in selling their product and for
consumers in buying supplies; the consumers’ society may also have
banking and insurance departments and may undertake cooperative
production of supplies; or the farmers’ society may, in addition to
its primary function of a marketing agency for its members, under­
take to supply them with the necessaries of home and farm.
This study is confined to the consumers’ branch of the movement2 United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 296: Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1920, pp. 28 and 29.
* The manager of one society visited early in 1921 estimated that at that time nearly 80 per cent of the
members were out of work.




4

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMERS’ MOVEMENT.

The consumers’ society in its organization varies little from country
to country. The fundamentals laid down by the Rochdale weavers
have been adopted as guiding principles wherever the movement has
spread. Though these principles have been mentioned briefly else­
where, in passing it may be well, in order that they may be clearly
borne in mind, to enumerate and explain them here. They are as
follows:
1. Unrestricted membership, with capital shares of low denomination
which may be paid for in installments. This is an important feature.
Since the cooperative movement is above all a movement of the
working classes, it is essential that the financial undertaking be made
easy and within the workingman’s means.
2. Limitation of the number of shares to be held by any one member.
Members of means are not excluded, but in order that democracy
may prevail, it is well that there should be no wide inequality in
the members’ financial standing in the society.
3. Democracy in government, with officers elected by and responsible
to the members, and each member entitled to one vote orily, irrespective
o f the number of shares he holds. This feature immediately eliminates
any tendency toward control pf the society by the more well-to-do
members, as in the stock company.
4. Sale of goods at prevailing market prices. It is the policy of
cooperative societies to sell only pure goods and as far as possible
only goods produced under favorable working conditions. For this
reason “ union-label” goods are in demand by cooperative societies,
since the label is a guaranty of production under fair wage and
working conditions. Prevailing market prices are charged, for two
reasons: Under the “ cost-plus” system—sale at cost, plus a small
percentage estimated as sufficient to cover expense of management,
handling, etc.—it is next to impossible to foretell accurately what
the expense will be, and the slightest miscalculation leads to the
failure of the store, since there is in the very nature of the plan no
reserve to fall back on. Again, price cutting at once attracts the
attention and arouses the hostility of the private dealer; it is also
unnecessary since the purpose of price cutting can be accomplished
through the return of the patronage dividend.

5. Vash sales to avoid the loss attendant upon the extension of credit
and to enable the society to make the best use of its capital.
6. Return of dividend to each member not on the stock held but
in proportion to the amount of business he has done with the store.

,
,
The dividend is the member’s share of the savings or “ profits,”
that is, of the sum remaining after the deduction from the trading
surplus of the amounts to be set aside for educational purposes,
reserve, and depreciation fund. The dividend is computed not upon
the share capital but upon the total sales, and is distributed in ac­
cordance with the amount purchased by each member. It is evident
that the member’s patronage, not the money he has invested in the
store, determines the amount he receives in dividend. This feature
is peculiar to the cooperative movement. Thus the member whose
trade at the store has amounted to $100 during the quarter would
receive, on a 6 per cent dividend, $6.
Not all cooperative societies, however, conform to all of these
principles, as will appear.



INTRODUCTION.

5

TYPICAL CONSUMERS’ SOCIETIES.

A few typical societies have been selected for brief description,
as representing some of the different forms assumed by the con­
sumers’ society. The grocery-store type has been omitted, since
this form is too well known to need description.
THE COOPERATIVE BOARDING AND ROOMING HOUSE.

This society, composed of unmarried men, took over an old hotel.
The society is incorporated under the regular corporation law because
at the time of formation of the society there was no cooperative law
in the State. Shares are $5 each and are noninterest bearing.
The society has about 4,000 stockholders. The business is operated
at as near cost as possible but patrons who are not members are
charged 25 cents more per week than are the members. Any sur­
plus accruing is divided among the stockholders. At the time the
society was visited it was serving about 120 persons per day, though
the manager stated that when the shipyards were in operation as
many as three or four hundred were served.
THE COOPERATIVE RESTAURANT.

Two examples of this type of society have been selected, one rim
on the cost-plus basis, the other on approximately the market-price
basis. The first is, strictly speaking, a club, composed of unmarried
men, and was started in 1913. The original members each paid
a $1 membership fee, though this has since been abolished. The
plan is to run the business in such a way as to make no profit. A
reserve fund of $100 is always kept on hand. Every week a com­
mittee counts the money taken in and on the basis of this plans the
bill of fare for the coming week. The membership varies from 50
members in the winter, when, work being scarce in the locality, some
members go elsewhere to find positions, to 150 in the summer.
The second type is, as said, run on approximately the marketprice plan and is strictly Rochdale. Each member has one vote.
Dividends are returned to members on the basis of patronage.
Profits made from the sale of food to nonmembers are used for the
advancement of the cooperative idea.
THE COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATION.

This association was organized in 1918 and began operations in
1919. It was formed on the one-man one-vote basis. Each member
contributed $500 toward a noninterest-bearing sinking fund of $8,000,
an additional amount of $12,000 was borrowed from a cooperative
credit union, and the remainder of the amount needed for building
secured from a trust company in exchange for a $25,000 mortgage.
The society has built two apartment houses containing sixteen
5-room apartments each, which the members rent for from $24 to
$27 per month, according to the size of the rooms. This charge
pays taxes, running expenses, upkeep, and interest on the mortgage.
No dividend will be returned to tenants ; any surplus will be used to
pay off the mortgage.
The apartments are light and airy, with large windows, and con­
sist of hall, living room, dining room, two bedrooms, and a bath.
The society has purchased a third apartment house, already con­
structed.



CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

6

THE COOPERATIVE CREAMERY.

Two societies were also chosen here as representing different bases
of consumers’ ownership. The first business is owned by consumers’
cooperative societies, individuals being barred from membership.
Shares are $100 and no society may hold more than 10 shares. Inter­
est at 7 per cent is paid on this share capital, and the surplus savings
are returned to the member societies in proportion to patronage.
The milk supply is obtained at the regular market price from farmers’
cooperative associations, but, although these associations are repre­
sented on the board of directors of the creamery, they receive no
share of the savings. The output of butter is practically all taken
by the member consumers’ societies. Milk, however, is sold to
individuals also, at 2 cents per quart less than the prevailing market
price.
The second society chosen for description grew out of a controversy
between the local milk distributors and their drivers, some of the
striking drivers starting a new distributing association on the coopera­
tive basis. Share capital was obtained from the general public of
the city in which the association is located. The business is carried
on by the workers themselves, but they work on a salary basis, the
surplus savings made by the business being returned to the member
patrons on the basis of patronage. Each member has one vote.
NEED OF STATISTICAL STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES.

In most of the foreign countries where the cooperative movement
has attained a position of any importance, statistics of the movement
are published by the central cooperative organization. In the United
States statistics of the producers’ cooperative movement are collected
and publUhed by the United States Bureau of Agricultural Eco­
nomics and by the Bureau of the Census. No agency has yet done
this for the consumers’ movement. Descriptive studies have ap?eared from time to time, published by private or official sources,
ut containing few or no statistics.
SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION.

In view of the lack of other authoritative sources of general statis­
tical information and the widespread interest manifested, in the move­
ment, its strength and proportions, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
decided to undertake a survey of the consumers’ cooperative move­
ment which should be as inclusive as possible. From all available
sources a list of societies was compiled which, it is believed, covered
at least 90 per cent of the consumers’ societies in the United States.
The list, it was found, contained many duplications and the names
of many societies which had gone out of business, especially during
1920. After elimination of these there were found to be about 2,600
remaining.4 Questionnaires were sent to all of these—for unfortu­
nately most of the information had to be obtained by mail, because
of the expense involved in personal visits by agents of the bureau—
and replies were received from 1,009 societies.*
* Appendix B, pages 99 to 147 contains a directory of consumers7cooperative societies, revised to June,
1922.




SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION'.

7

Information was asked as to the kind of business carried on, the
volume of business done in 1920, the number of members, the amount
of paid-in share capital, the rate of dividend returned on purchases,
and the rate of interest paid on share capital; certain questions as
to method of voting, proxy, bonding of officers, and inspection of
books were also asked in order to establish the cooperative character
of the society. Each society was likewise asked to furnish the bureau
a copy of its annual financial report and of its constitution and by­
laws. It would have been interesting to obtain data on a great many
other points but the above were felt to be most important. Also, the
use of the questionnaire method, to be at all successful, necessitates that
the questionnaire be brief. Financial reports showing assets and
liabilities were submitted by 436 societies and detailed statements of
income and expenditure by 8*6 societies; 417 associations furnished
copies of their constitution and by-laws.
In addition to the information obtained by the questionnaire
method, all the cooperative centers were visited and a number of
local societies given personal study.
It should be emphasized that the present report does not pretend to
be all-inclusive nor to represent the condition of the movement as it
is to-day. In common with all statistical reports a picture as of a
certain definite period must be presented. An especial difficulty pre­
sents itself when the cooperative movement is in question, since the
movement is in such a continuous state of change that information
gathered to-day may be out of date to-morrow.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIETIES STUDIED.

The data presented in this report include those not only of exclu­
sively consumers’ societies but also of societies which combine the
functions of consumers’ societies with those of farmers’ marketing
societies.
The terms “ consumers’ societies” and “agricultural societies” have
been adopted in this study to designate these types of associations,
respectively. These terms are descriptive not of the membership
but of the functions of the society. Thus a society may be composed
of farmers entirely but it is here classed as an “ agricultural” society
only when it combines with its consumers’ activities the marketing
of its members’ products.
The agricultural society not only markets for its members the grain,
produce, live stock, etc., produced by them, but also buys for and
sells to them any or all of such things as groceries, fuel, farm machin­
ery and implements, and general farm supplies (binder twine, sacks,
hay, feed, salt, etc.). Generally no store is maintained, the cooper­
ative buying being done through or as a sort of “ side line” of the
cooperative elevator, cream station, or stockyard by the manager
thereof and being of secondary importance in the society’s activities.
Some of the larger agricultural societies, however, have a regular
store department. The volume of cooperative buying thus done is
so considerable that it was thought desirable to include such societies
in the report. Throughout the tables, however, a division of data
has been maintained, so that anyone interested particularly in the
strictly consumers’ societies or merely in the cooperative buying of



8

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

the agricultural societies will be able to follow that phase of the move­
ment exclusively. It should be emphasized that the data showing
the business done by the agricultural societies cover only their retaU
sales to their members. Figures giving such information as share
capital, reserve, and other funds, however, necessarily include that
of the whole business, including the marketing department.
An attempt has been made to include in this report only societies
that are genuinely cooperative. To determine this the Rochdale
principles were taken as a standard of what the cooperative associa­
tions should be, the returns of the societies being carefully scrutinized
and the societies tested according to this standard, with particular
reference to the return of patronage dividends and the method of
voting. Allowance was made for the fact that some of the associa­
tions are organized under the regular‘State corporation laws which
often specify that voting and distribution of profits shall be on the
basis of shares, and that in some States there is no cooperative law.
Not all of the societies for which information is here given are Roch­
dale in every respect. Some are included which lack certain cooper­
ative features but which nevertheless conform to the standard in
enough respects—especially considering the requirements of corpora­
tion Taw—to warrant their being classed as cooperative societies.
It is recognized that statistical returns give no indication of the
spirit of the society and that the organization may conform in struc­
ture and practice to every one of the accepted cooperative tenets and
at the same time be utterly lacking in the cooperative spirit and vision
and be merely an aggregation of “dividend hunters.” The spirit of
the society can be determined only by close first-hand study and this
was unfortunately impossible. Tne figures therefore may and prob­
ably do cover associations uncooperative in spirit. With this ex­
ception, however, it is believed that the figures can be accepted as
covering only true cooperatives.
Tested according to the standard just explained, the number of
societies falling into each grade is shown in the table below:
T able 1.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE CONFORMING
WHOLLY OR PARTIALLY TO ROCHDALE PRINCIPLES.
Type of society

Not strictly Roch­
dale.

Rochdale.

Total.

Number. Per cent. !Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Consumers' societies......................................
Agricultural societies1..................................
Total......................................................

597
210
807

82.0
7-1.7
80.0 1
|
i

131
1 202
71

18.0
25.3
20.0

728
281
1,009

100.0
100.0
100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.

It will be seen that a larger percentage of agricultural than of
consumers’ societies were not Rochdale in all respects, and this
notwithstanding the fact that, as shown in Table 11, more of the
agricultural than of the consumers’ societies were organized under
cooperative law and might therefore reasonably have been expected
to conform more closely to Rochdale practice.




#9

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTKIBUTION,

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.5

It is of interest to ascertain in just what section of the country
the movement is strongest. This information is given in the follow­
ing table:
2 __ NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND COOPERATORS
AND RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION IN 1920, BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS.

T able

Consumers’.
Geographical division.

Agricultural.®

Total.

Societies. Mem­ Societies. Mem­ Societies. Mem­
bers.
bers.
bers.
Number.

New England.................................................
Middle Atlantic..............................................
East North Central.......................................
West North Central.......................................
South Atlantic..............................................
East South Central........................................
West South Central.......................................
Mountain..............................:........................
Pacific.............................................................
Alaska.............................................................
Total......................................................

55 26,548
81 21,277
160 61,144
257 43,071
5,155
27
11
1,910
16 5,394
30
5,008
57 26,449
2
396
6 696 196,352

4
1
21
205
1
13
23
2

649
47
20,098
36,301
650
2,131
3,564
268

c 270

63,708

59
82
181
462
27
12
29
53
59
2
d 966

27,197
21,324
81,242
79,372
5,155
2,560
7,525
8,572
26,717
395
260,060

6.1
8.5
18.7
47.8
2.8
1.2
3.0
5.5
6.1
.2
100.0

10.5
8.2
31.2
30.5
2.0
1.0
2.9
3.3
10.3
.2
100.0

Per cent.
New England.................................................
Middle Atlantic..............................................
East North Central.......................................
West North Central.......................................
South Atlantic...............................................
East South Central........................................
West South Central.......................................
Mountain........................................................
Pacific.............................................................
Alaska............................................................
Total.....................................................

7.9
11.6
23.0
36.9
3. 9
1.6
2.3
4.3
8.2
.3
100.0

13.5
10.8
31.1
21.9
2.6
1.0
2.7
2.6
13.5
.2
100.0

1.5
.4
7.8
75.9
.4
4.8
8.5
.7

1.0
.1
31.5
57.0
1.0
3.3
5.6
.4

100.0

100.0

S

a The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
b Not including 32 societies which did not report number of members,
c Not including 11 societies which did not report number of members.
d Not including 43 societies which did not report number of members.
*In all cases, the census classification as to geographical districts has been used. This classification is
as follows: New England division includes Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut. Middle Atlantic division includes New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
East North Central division includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. West North
CentraldivisionincludesMinnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,and Kansas.
South Atlantic division includes Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. East South Centraldivisionincludes Kentucky,
Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi. West South Central division includes Arkansas, Louisiana, Okla­
homa, and Texas. Mountain division includes Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico,
Arizona, Utah, and Nevada Pacific division includes Washington, Oregon, and California.




10

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

2 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND COOPERATORS
AND RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION IN 1920, BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS—Concluded.
RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION.

T able

New England............................................................................
Middle Atlantic........................................................................
East North Central..................................................................
West N orth Central................................................................
South Atlantic.........................................................................
East South Central..................................................................
West South Central.................................................................
Mountain...................................................................................
Pacific........................................................................................
Total................................................................................
« Less than one-tenth.

Population.
7,400,909
22,261,144
21,475,543
12,544,249
13,990,272
8,893,307
10 242 224
O 1
O —
*40

Geographical division.

105,710,620

Agri­
Con­
sumers' cultural Total.
societies. societies.
35.9
9.5
28. 5
34.3
3.7
2.2
5.3
15.0
47.5
18.6

0.9
(09.4
28.9
.7
2.1
10.7
.5
6.0

38.7
9.0
37.8
63.3
3.7
2.9
7.4
25.7
48.0
24.6

It will be seen that the number of cooperators belonging to the
966 societies reporting membership was 260,060. The West North
Central district leads with 462 societies (not including 18 which
did not report as to membership), or nearly half of the whole number.
The two largest groups of cooperators are found in the East North
Central and West North Central sections, these having 31.2 and 30.5
per cent of the total number, respectively. These two sections,
composing what is known as the Middle West States, together account
for two-thirds of the societies and over three-fifths of the total mem­
bership included in the study. When the membership of the strictly
consumers7societies of each of these districts is considered in relation
to population, however, these divisions fall below New England and
the Pacific coast.
The agricultural societies are especially numerous in the West
North Central States, more than three-fourths of all the agricul­
tural societies reporting being found there.
The smallest proportion of societies and cooperators is found in
the East South Central district, which has onlv 1.2 per cent of the
total number of societies and 1 per cent of tne total membership
of the movement. Only 6.1 per cent of the societies and 10.5 per
cent of the membership are found in New England. If, however,
the number of cooperators in each division is studied in connection
with the population of that division, as is shown in the third section
of the table, a different light is thrown upon the matter. It thus
as regards consumers7
S ears thatPacific division, having societies New England is second
y to the
35.9 cooperators for every 10,000
of population, while the latter has 47.5. This is especially interesting
when it is remembered that New England was the birthplace of
cooperation in this country. In the United States as a whole coop­
erators number 24.6 for every 10,000 of population.




11

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION,

The distribution of the movement by States is shown in Table 3:1
3
2
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND OF COOPERA­
TORS AND RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION IN 1920, BY STATES.

T a bl e 3 .—

Consumers’.
State.

Agricultural.1

Total.

Societies. Members. Societies. JMembers. Societies. Members.
Number.

Alabama..........................................................
Alaska............................ ................................
Arkansas.........................................................
California.........................................................
Colorado............................................:............
Connecticut.....................................................
Florida............................................................
Idaho...............................................................
Illinois.............................................................
Indiana..........................................................
Iowa.................................................................
Kansas.............................................................
Kentucky........................................................
Louisiana........................................................
Maine...............................................................
Maryland........................................................
Massachusetts.................................................
Michigan..........................................................
Minnesota.......................................................
Mississippi.......................................................
Missouri...........................................................
Montana..........................................................
Nebraska.........................................................
New Hampshire............................................
New Jersey.....................................................
New Mexico....................................................
New York.......................................................
North Carolina................................................
North Dakota.................................................
Ohio.................................................................
Oklahoma.......................................................
Oregon.............................................................
Pennsylvania..................................................
Rhode Island..................................................
South Carolina...............................................
South Dakota.................................................
Tennessee.......................................................
Texas...............................................................
Vermont..........................................................
Virginia............................................................
Washington.....................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin........................................................
Wyoming........................................................
Total.....................................................

3
293
2
396
6
963
14 18,863
8
1,755
7
4,473
2
148
4
583
35 13,492
10
1,438
21
3,661
54
9,709
5
703
2
297
7
1,858
7 2,397
33 18,917
36
9,005
79 14,552
1
100
12 2,634
14
1,861
48
7,553
2
53
9
2,030
2
554
31 11,209
2
210
23
3,207
28
5,593
2
298
4
2,036
41
8,038
4
1,107
3
427
20
1,755
2
814
6
3,836
2
140
4
543
39
5,550
9
1,430
51 31,616
2
255
2 696 196,352

10
1
3
8
2
2
96
1
2
1
3
14
8
9
71
1
1

1,370
60
326
559
261
591
19,841
650
532
57
438
2,081 .
1,413
1,733
10,378
47
135

5
2
13
1

482
953
2,131
78

9

1,515

1
6

• 190
17,887

3 270

63,708

3
2
6
14
18
8
2
7
43
12
23
150
6
2
9
7
34
39
93
1
20
23
119
2
10
3
31
2
28
30
15
5
41
4
3
29
2
6
2
4
40
9
57
2
<966

293
396
963
18,863
3,125
4,533
148
909
14,051
1,699
4,252
29,550
1,353
297
2,390
2,397
18,974
9,443
16,633
100
4,047
3,594
17,931
53
2,077
689
11,209
210
3,689
6,546
2,429
2,114
8,038
1,107
427
3,270
814
3,836
140
543
5,740
1,430
49,503
255
260,060

1 The term “agricultural societies’’is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
2Not including 32 societies which did not report number of members
3 Not including 11 societies which did not report number of members.
<Not including 43 societies which did not report number of members.




12

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

3.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND OF COOPERATORS AND RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION IN 1920, BY STATES—
Continued.

T able

Consumers’.

Agricultural.

Total.

Societies. Members. Societies. Members. Societies. Members.

State.

Per cent.
Alabama..........................................................
Alaska..............................................................
Arkansas.........................................................
California.........................................................
Colorado..........................................................
Connecticut.....................................................
Florida.................... .....................................
Idaho................................................................
Illinois..............................................................
Indiana..........................................................
Iowa.................................................................
Kansas.............................................................
Kentucky........................................................
Louisiana.......................................................
Maine................................................................
Maryland.........................................................
Massachusetts.................................................
Michigan..........................................................
Minnesota........................................................
Mississippi.......................................................
Missouri...........................................................
Montana..........................................................
Nebraska.........................................................
New Hampshire...........................................
New Jersey.....................................................
New Mexico....................................................
New York.......................................................
North Carolina..............................................
North Dakota.................................................
Ohio.................................................................
Oklahoma.......................................................
Oregon..............................................................
Pennsylvania................................................
Rhode Island................................................
South Carolina................................................
South Dakota............................ :...................
Tennessee...................................................
Texas..............................................................
Vermont........................................................
Virginia..........................................................
Washington..................................................
West Virginia................................................
Wisconsin........................................................
Wyoming.......................
Total.....................................................

0.4
.3
.9
2.0
1.1
1.0
.3
.6
5.0
1.4
3.0
7.8
.7
.3
1.0
1.0
4.7
5.2
11.4
.1
1.7
2.0
6.9
.3
1.3
.3
4.5
.3
3.3
4.0
.3
.6
5. 9
.6
.4
2.9
.3
.9
.3
.6
5.6
1.3
7.3
.3
100.0

0.1
.2
.5
9.6
.9
2.3
.1
.3
6.9
.7
1.9
4.9
.4
.2
.9
1.2
9.6
4.6
7.4
.1
1.3
.9
3.8
(5)1.0
.3
5.7
.1
1.6
2.8
.2
1.0
4.1
.6
.2
.9
.4
2.0
.1
.3
2.8
.7
16.1
.1
100.0

3.7
.4
1.1
3.0
.7
.7
35.6
.4
.7
.4
1.1
5.2
3.0
3.3
26.3
.4
.4

2.2
.1
.5
.9
.4
.9
31.1
1.0
.8
.1
.7
3.3
2.2
2.7
16.3
.1
.2

i.9
.7
4.8
.4

.8
1.5
3.3
.1

3.3

2.4

.4
2.2

.3
28.1

100.0

100.0

0.3
.2
.6
1.4
1.9
.8
.2
.7
4.5
1.2
2.4
15.5
.6
.2
.9
.7
3.5
4.0
9.6
.1
2.1
2.4
12.3
.2
1.0
.3
3.2
.2
2.9
3.1
1.6
.54.2
.4
.3
3.0
.2
.6
.2
.4
4.1
.9
5.9
.2
100.0

0.1
.2
.4
7.3
1.2
1.7
.1
.3
5.4
.7
1.6
11.4
.5
.1
.9
.9
7.3
3.6
6.4
()
1.6
1.4
6.9
(5) .8
.3
4.3
.1
1.4
2.5
.9
.8
3.1
.4
.2
1.3
.3
1.5
.1
.2
2.2
.5
19.0
.1
100.0
5

RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION.
State.
Alabama.....................................................................................
Alaska........................................................................................
A rkansas......................................................................................................
California....................................................................................
Colorado.....................................................................................
Connecticut...............................................................................
Florida.......................................................................................
Idaho..........................................................................................
Illinois........................................................................................
Indiana......................................................................................
Iowa............................................................................................
TTansa.s...........................................................................................................
Kentucky...................................................................................
Louisiana...................................................................................
Maine..........................................................................................•
6 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




Population.
2,348,174
55,036
1,752,204
3,426,861
939,629
1,380,631
968,470
431,866
6,485,280
2,930,390
2,404,021
1,769,257
2,416,630
1,798,509
768,014

Con­ Agricul­
sumers’ tural Total.
societies. societies.
1.3
72.0
5.5
55.0
18.7
32.4
1. 5
13.5
20.8
4.9
15.2
54.9
2.9
1.7
24.2

14.6
.4
7.5
.9
.9
2.5
112.1
2.7
6.9

1.3
72.0
5. 5
55.0
33.3
32.8
1.5
21.0
21.7
5.8
17.7
167.0
5.6
1.7
31.1

13

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

T able 3.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND OF COOPERA­
TORS AND RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION IN 1920, BY STATES—
Concluded.
RATE OF COOPERATORS PER 10,000 POPULATION—Concluded.
State.
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Mississippi.........
Missouri.............
Montana.............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire
New Jersey........
New Mexico.......
New York..........
North Carolina..
North Dakota...
Ohio...................
Oklahoma..........
Oregon...............
Pennsylvania__
Rhode Island...
South Carolina..
South Dakota...
Tennessee...........
Texas..................
Vermont............
Virginia..............
Washington.......
West Virginia...
Wisconsin..........
Wyoming...........
Total........
United States...

Population.
1,449,661
3,852,356
3,668,412
2,387,125
1,790,618
3,404,055
548,889
1,296,372
443,083
3,155,900
360,350
10,385,227
2,559,123
646,872
5,759,394
2,028,283
783,389
8,720,017
604,397
1,683,724
636,547
2,337,885
4,663,228
352,428
2,309,187
1,356,621
1,463,701
2,632,067
194,402
101,348,285
105,710,620

Con­ Agricul­
sumers’ tural Total.
societies. societies.
16.5
49.1
24.5
61.0
7.7
33.9
58.3
6.4
15.4

.6
1.2
10.8
.8
49.6

9.7
1.5
26.0
9.2
18.3
2.5
27.6
3.5
4.0
2.4
40.9
9.8
13.1
19.4
18.6

8.2

120.1

0.2
1.2
8.7
4.2
31.6
80.1

.2

3.7

7.5
1.7
10.5

1.0

23.8
1.4

16.5
49.3
25.7
69.7
11.9
65.5
138.3

.6
1.2
6.6
19.1
10..8
8
57.0
11.4
12.0
27.0

9.2
18.3
2.5
51.4
3.5
4.0
42.3
2.4
9.8
188.1
13.1
25.7
24.7

8.2

68.0
6.3
6.0
As the above table shows, Kansas is the leading State, from the
cooperative point of view, as respects number of societies, having
15.5 per cent of the number of societies in the United States. In­
cluding those societies covered in this study which did not report
as to membership, Kansas reports 157 cooperative associations.
Nebraska, with 119 societies, or 12.3 per cent, takes second place.
In point of membership, however, Wisconsin comes first, having
a total of 49,503 cooperators. Kansas and Nebraska together
account for over one-fourth of all of the societies and nearly onefifth of the membership reported. It is seen that the cooperative
movement is very weak in the South, less than one-half of 1 per cent
of the total number either of societies or of members being reported
in any Southern State except Texas. Cooperation is beginning to
secure a foothold in the South, but up to the present this has been
principally along the line of cooperative marketing of crops, especially
cotton.
So far as the strictly consumers’ societies are concerned, Minne­
sota leads in number of societies; Wisconsin far exceeds every other
State in point of membership, a position which it maintains even
when population is taken into consideration.
URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION.

It is a matter of common knowledge that the large cities have
been backward in cooperation. It has been the experience in
practically every country that the large cities have been the last
places to accept the cooperative idea. The reasons for this in the
105983°—22---- 2




14

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

United States, especially under modern conditions, are obvious.
Some of these are: The shifting population, the differing nationalities,
and the fact that the city dweller does not become acquainted
with his neighbors as does the inhabitant of a small town. These
things hinder the spread of cooperation, since one of the first requi­
sites of a successful cooperative society is mutual confidence
among the members, and this is difficult to secure among people
who do not know each other, unless they have some common
bond, such as the same nationality, religious belief, occupation, or
trade-union affiliation. With these circumstances present, confi­
dence is already established, and this confidence is a favorable
precondition to the formation and continuance of the society. Once
the city cooperative society is established, it meets other unfavorable
conditions largely inherent in city life, such as the well-organized
and efficient chain store and the immense department store offering
an almost unlimited field of selection to the buyer. Also, unless
the members live in one fairly limited locality or unless the store
undertakes the task of delivery, difficulties arise as to the means
of getting the purchases home. Under present conditions of trans­
portation in cities this is no small difficulty.
Yet these special obstacles have been overcome and city dwellers
have, to some extent, become cooperators. Even London, which
was long regarded as invincible, has capitulated. Here in the
United States, while the greatest strength of the consumers’ coop­
erative movement is in the towns and smaller cities, flourishing
societies are found within the limits of our largest cities or in the
immediate vicinity. The impetus toward cooperation which was
so noticeable during the war period was also felt in the cities.
The distribution of the societies studied, as to rural and urban
location, is shown by geographic divisions in Table 4. In this table
the census classification is used, all places of less than 2,500 inhab­
itants being classified as rural, and all places of a greater number
of inhabitants as urban.
T a ble 4 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OP COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE IN
PLACES OF CLASSIFIED POPULATION, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
NUMBER.
Consumers’ societies.

Geographical division.

Agricultural societies.1

Urban: Places
Urban: Places of—
of—
Rural:
Rural:
Places
Places
ofless 2,500 25,000 100,000 500.000 Total. ofless 2,500 25,000 Total.
than and and and and
than and and
2,500. under under under over.
2,500. under under
25,000. 100, 000. 500,000.
25,000. 100,000.

1

11
New England...........
27
10
7
4
59
4
4
24
6
26
Middle Atlantic.......
89
25
8
22
85
48
14
East North Central.
8
8
163
23
202
51
7
12
West North Central.
267
201
213
South Atlantic.........
13
2
9
3
27
12
5
East South Central.
5
2
2
West South Central.
16
2
11
11
3
13
21
31
Mountain..................
8 .......
3
24
Pacific.......................
38
62
2
15
2
5
2
2
2
2
Alaska.......................
404
Total.
22
43
258
281
1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.




22

6 1
1 ......

1

1
1

15

URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION.

T a b l e 4 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE IN
PLACES OF CLASSIFIED POPULATION, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Concluded.
PER CENT.
Consumers’ societies.
Geographical division.

Urban: Places
Urban: Places of—
of—
Rural:
Rural:
Places
Places
ofless 2,500 25,000 100,000
Total. ofless 2,500 25,000 Total.
than and and and 500,000
than and and
2,500. under under under and
2,500. under under
over.
25,000.

New England..........
Middle Atlantic.......
East North Central.
West North Central.
South Atlantic........
East South Central.
West South Central
Mountain.................
Pacific.......................
Alaska......................
Total...............

Agricultural societies.

18.6
27.0
52.1
75.7
48.1
41.7
12.5
71.0
61.3

45.8
28.1
29.4
19.1
33.3
41.7
68.8
25.8
24.2

55.5

27.3

100.0

100, 000.

16.9
9.0

8.6

2.6
11.1
16.7
18.8
3.2

25,000. 100, 000.

500,000.
11.9
6.7
4.9

2.2
3.2

8.1

6.8

100.0

100.0

29.2 100.0 100.0
4.9 100,0 95.7
.4 100.0 94.4
7.4 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0 84.6 15.4
100.0 87.5 12.5
3.2 100.0 100.0

4.3

100.0

100.0

5.9 100.0

91.8

8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.4

100.0

Nearly two-thirds of the societies studied arc rural and only onethird urban. The largest proportion of urban societies is found
in the New England district, 82.5 per cent of the societies being in
places having 2,500 persons or more and only 17.5 per cent of its
associations being of rural location. The agricultural States of the
West North Central division have the highest proportion of rural
societies. The consumers’ societies are fairly evenly divided as to
rural or urban location.
It is interesting to find, as the above table shows, that of the con­
sumers’ societies 76, or more than 10 per cent, were located in cities
having 100,000 or more population. Of the agricultural societies all
but one are found in places of less than 25,000 inhabitants.
Table 5 gives, by States, the same information as was contained
in Table 4.




16
T able

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

.

{>.— NUMBER OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE IN PLACES OF CLASSIFIED POPtTLATION, BY STATES.
Consumers’ societies.
State.

Alabama...

....................

Florida...................................
Indiana.................................
Iowa.......................................
K a n sa s..........................................
Kentucky..............................
Louisiana..............................
Maine.....................................
Maryland..............................
Massachusetts.......................
Michigan...............................
Minnesota..............................
Mississippi............................
Missouri.................................
Montana................................
Nebraska...............................
New Hampshire..................
New Jersey...........................
New Mexico..........................
New York.............................
North Carolina.....................
North Dakota.....................
O hio......................................
Oklahoma.............................
Oregon................................
Pennsylvania......................
Rhode Island.......................
South Carolina..................
South Dakota.......................
Tennessee..............................
Texas....................................
Vermont................................
Virginia.........................................
W ash in gton ................................
West V irgin ia............................

Wisconsin..............................
Wyoming..............................
Total............................

Agricultural societies.1

Urban: Places ofRural:
Places
Total.
ofless 2,500 25,000 100,000
than and and and 500,000
2,500. under under under and
25,000. 100,000. 500,000. over.

Urban: Places
of—
Rural:
Places
ofless 2,500 25,000 Total.
than and and
2,500. under under
25,000. 100,000.

2
1
5
7
2
2
1
14
6
14
39
4
3
1
1
16
60
6
12
40
2
1
5
2
21
10
1
18
2
2
22
1
1
2
33
4
39
2
404

1
4
4
1
3
3
14
4
3
15
1
2
7
2
16
14
16
1
7
2
7
3
2
4
3
10
1
2
18
2
4

2
1
1
3
2
3
1
2

2
1
2
1
2

8
4
3

5
2

4

1
2
1

2
2
2

1

7
2
3

2
4

2
4
2
1
23
2
3

2

1
2
9
5
6

5

1'
1

199

49

33

1

43

3
2
6
14
9
7
2
4
35
12
21
57
5
2
10
7
34
36
81
1
14
14
48
2
10
2
35
2
24
29
2
4
44
4
3
22
3
6
2
4
44
9
51
2
728

9
3
9
2
2
95
3
15
8
8

67
1
1
5
3
11
1

11

2
1

1

3

9
2

1
5
1
2
1
1

3
100
1
2
1
3
16
8
9

1

72
1
1

5

5
3
13
1

2

9

9

1
5
258

1
22

1
6

1

281

1 The term “ agricultural society” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.

The above table makes it plain that of the States having 25 or more
consumers’ cooperative societies, Nebraska has the highest propor­
tion of rural societies, over four-fifths being so located. Of these
States, Massachusetts leads as regards the proportion of societies
operating in urban places, all but one society being in this category.
In point of location in cities of 500,000 population or more New York
leads, with about two-thirds of its 'consumers’ societies so situated.
The highest proportion of rural agricultural societies, among the
States having 25 or more societies of this type, is found in Kansas.




17

SIZE OF SOCIETIES,

SIZE OF SOCIETIES,
The distribution of the societies reporting, according to the num bei
of members in each, is shown in Table 6:

T able 6.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES, CLASSIFIED BY TYPE OF SOCIETY
AND NUMBER OF MEMBERS AT END OF 1920.
Number of members.

Consumers7
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

227 32.6
93 34.4
320
33.1
Under 100.............................................................................
116 43.0
354
36.6
100 and under 200................................................................ 238 34.2
98 14.1
34 12.6
132
13.7
200 and under 300................................................................
53
7.6
12
4.5
65
6.7
300 and under 400...............................................................
28
4.0
5
3.4
1.9
33
400 and under 500...............................................................
4
21
3.0
1.5
2.6
25
500 and under 750................................................................
2
7
1.0
.7
9
.9
750 and under 1,000............ .........................................
11
2
1.6
13
1.3
.7
1,000 and under 1,500..........................................................
6
.9
6
.6
1,500 and under 2,000..........................................................
1
2
.3
.4
3
.3
2,000 and under 5,000..........................................................
5
1
.4
.7
6
.6
5,000 and over......................................................................
Total........................................................................... 3 696 100.0 8 270 ‘ 100.0 4 966 100.0
1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers7)
and marketing societies.
3 Not including 32 societies whose membership was not reported.
8 Not including 11 societies whose membership was not reported.
* Not including 43 societies whose membership was not reported.

From the above table it is evident that large societies such as are
so often found in foreign countries, are far from numerous in the
United States. Of the 966 societies only 9, or less than 1 per cent,
have 2,000 members or over, and only 6, or 0.6 per cent, have 5,000
members or more. More than two-thirds of the societies have less
than 200 and one-third have less than 100 members.
The average size of the societies studied is shown, for each State,
in Table 7:

Table 7.—AVERAGE NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN EACH TYPE OF SOCIETY AT END
OF 1920, BY STATES.
Average number of
Average number of
members.
members.
Agri­
Con­ cul­
Con­ Agri­
State.
State.
cul­
sumers’ tural Total.
sumers7 tural Total.
soci­ soci­
soci­ soci­
eties. eties.1
eties. eties.1
98
98 New Hampshire.............
Alabama.........
27
27
198 New Jersey......................
198
Alaska.............
226
47
208
161
161 New Mexico.....................
Arkansas........
277
135
230
1,347
1,347 New York........................
362
California........
362
174 North Carolina................
219
137
Colorado.........
105
105
639
60
567 North Dakota...................
Connecticut...
139
96
132
74
74 Ohio.................................
Florida............
200
477
218
146
109
130 Oklahoma.......................... 149
Idaho..............
164
162
385
70
327 Oregon............ ................... 509
Illinois............
78
423
144
131
142 Pennsylvania.................... 196
Indiana...........
196
174
296
185 Rhode Island.................... 277
Iowa................
277
180
207
197 South Carolina.................. 142
Kansas............
142
141
650
Kentucky.......
226 South Dakota...................
88
168
113
149
Louisiana.......
149 Tennessee.......................... 407
407
265
266
Maine..............
266 Texas.................................. 639
639
342
342 Vermont............................
Maryland.......
70
70
Massachusetts.
573
57
558 Virginia.............................. 136
136
250
146
242 Washington....................... 142
Michigan.........
190
144
184
Minnesota.......
179 West Virginia..................
149
159
159
100
100 Wisconsin.......................... 620 2 ,981
Mississippi__
868
Missouri..........
220
177
202 Wyoming........................... 128
128
Montana.........
133
193
156
157
Nebraska........
151
146
Total........................ 282
236
269
1 The term “ agricultural societies77 is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers7)
and marketing societies.



18

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

As shown by this table, the average number of members per society
in the United States is 269, the consumed societies averaging 282 and
the agricultural societies 236 members. California societies average
highest in respect to membership, with 1,347 persons per society,
while those of New Hampshire are the smallest. In the latter case,
however, the figures are for onlv 2 societies. Among the agricultural
associations Wisconsin ranks nighest in size of society, averaging
2,981 persons.
AGE OF SOCIETIES.

The number of societies which have been in operation each classi­
fied number of years is given, by geographical divisions and States,
in Tables 8 and 9:




T a b l e 8 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES, CLASSIFIED BY NUMBER OF YEARS IN OPERATION AND BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS,
NUMBER.
Agricultural societies1 in business—

Consumers’ societies in business—
Geographical division.

10
32
28
34
6
4
7
10
6
1
138

g
18
30
55
10
5
4'
5
11

7
7
17
37
2
1
3
8

3
4
19
28
4
1
4
4

3
4
9
17
1
1
2

9
11
30
46
3
2
1
3
6

146

82

67

37

111

10
and 25
Less
under years Total. than
and
25 over.
1 year.
years.
9
1
12

25

1
15
1
64

6
1
7
4
1
1
1

55
78
152
246
27
11
15
27
53
2
21 2 666

1
7
17
5
3
1
34

1 year 2
3
4
5
10
and and and and and and 25
under under under under under under years Total.
4
2
5
10 25 and
3
years. years. years. years. years. years. over.
1
2
25
1
1
3
33

2
30

1
2
20

22

2
8
76

17

1
1

3

2
3

1
12
1

2

34

26

27

100

19

5

5

4
1
21
212
1
13
24
2
8278

PER CENT.
New England.....................................................
Middle Atlantic.........
..............................
East North Central............................................
West North Central..........................................
South Atlantic...........
...........
.........
East South Central -..
..................
West South Central
.
. . .......
Mountain................
....
....
.
__
Pacific.........................
Alaska.................................................................
Total..........................................................

18.2
41.0
18.4
13.8
22.2
36.4
46.7
37.0
11.3
50.0
20.7

14.5
23.1
19.7
22.4
37.0
45.4
26.7
18.5
20.8

12.7
9.0
11.2
15.0
7.4
6.7
11.1
15.1

5.5
5.1
12.5
11.4
14.8
6.7
14.8
7.6

3.7
3.8

22.0 12.3 10.1

5.6

5.5
5.1
5.9
6.9
3.7

16.4 16.4
14.1 1.3
19.7 7.9
18.7 10.2
11.1
18.2
6.7
11.1 3.7
11.3 28.3
50.0
16.7 9.6

10.9
1.3
4.6
1.6
3.7
6.7
1.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
3.2 100.0

50.0
25.0
25.0
100.0
38.1
33.3 9.5 9.5 9.5
8.0 11.8 14.2 9.4 10.4 35.9
100.0
38.5 7.7 7.7 23.1 15.4 7.7
12.5 50.0
12.5 12.5 4.2
50.0
50.0
12.2

11.9 12.2

1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’) and marketing societies.
2 Not including 62 societies which did not report number of years in operation.
8 Not including 3 societies which did not report number of years in operation.




9.4

9.7

36.0

8.0
8.3
6.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
2.4 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

AGE OF SOCIETIES,

New England.............
...........................
Middle Atlantic.........
...........................
East North Central.......
...........................
West North Central..........................................
South Atlantic...........
...........................
East South Central...
..............................
West South Central...........................................
Mountain....................
............................
Pacific.......................
...........................
Alaska.........................
..............................
Total..........................................................

4
5
3
1 year 2
Less and and and and and
than under under under under under
10
4
5
1 year. 2
3
years. years. years. years. years.

1.8 100.0

CO

T able 9,—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE, CLASSIFIED BY NUMBER OF YEARS IN OPERATION AND BY STATES.
Agricultural societies1in business—

Consumers’ societies in business—
State.




1
1
1
3
3
1
s
3
2
13
2
1
2
3
4
3
7
3
4
2
1
2
2
11
3
6
1
2
19
1
4
2

4
3
1 year 2
and and and and
under under under under
4
2
3
5
years. years. years. years.
2
3
2
i
6
4
2
11
1
1
4
2
3
8
15
1
6
2
14
1
8
3
6
9
1
4
1

1
1
1
2
3
1
6
1
1
5
6
8
1
1
10
3
5
2
1
4
6

1
1
1
1
1
8
3
5
2
5
4
1
2
8
2
1
1
5
3
1
1
1
2

3
4
year 2
Less 1and and and and
25
years Total. than under under under under
and
1
4
3
5
2
year. years. years. years. years.
over.

1
2
3
4
1
2
1
2
5
1
2

10
and
under
25
years.

1
1
2
1
3

5
and
under
10
years.

1
8

1
5
7
9
2

2
2
4

3

2
5
3
15

1
4
1
1

7
6
20
1
2
8
2
5
1
1
7
1
4
2

1
2
1
1
2
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

2
2
5
13
7
6
2
3
32
12
18
54
5
2
10
7
32
35
74
1
12
13
46
1
9
2
31
2
23
27
2
4
38
4
3
19
3

2

2

1

3
1
6

2

2

10
1

15

1
2
1
4
1
6

1
5
1

1
1
7

10

1

5
and
under
10
years.

10
and 25
under years Total.
25 and
years. over.

5
1

11
1
3
9
2
3
99
1
2
1
3
16
8
9
72
1
1

2
1
44

2
2
7

1

3
1
3

4

1
1

1
9

1
3

1
10

7
25

1
1

3

2

2
2
1

2

3

1

2

4
1
8
1
1

1
11

2
1

5
3
13
1
1

9

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

Alabama............................
Alaska................................
Arkansas............................
California..............................................
Colorado..................................................
Connecticut.......................................................
Florida.................................................................
Idaho...................................................................
Illinois..............................................
Indiana............................................ '
Iowa.....................................................
Kansas.................................................................
Kentucky............................................................
Louisiana.........................................
Maine............................................
Maryland.....................................
Massachusetts...................................
Michigan..........................................
Minnesota........................................
Mississippi.......................................
Missouri............................................
Montana..................................................
Nebraska................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New Jersey..........................................................
New Mexico.....................................
New York....................................
North Carolina............................
North Dakota.....................................................
Ohio..............................................
............
Oklahoma...................................
..............
Oregon................................
Pennsylvania.........
.
. .
, .
Rhode Island..
South Carolina.
South Dakota...................
Tennessee............................................................

Less
than
1
year.

to

o

Texas...............
Vermont..........
Virginia.......... .
Washington....
West Virginia..
Wisconsin........
Wyoming........
Total...... 1

138

146

6
1
4
1
82

3
1
3

2
1
4

2
4
12

1
7
5

67

37

111

64

2
’4
36
9
46
4
2
21 2 666

1
2

2
34

33

34

26

27

100

1
4
19

5

8 278

1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’) and marketing societies,
a Not including 62 societies which did not report number of years in operation,
s Not including 3 societies which did not report number of years in operation.

AGE OF SOCIETIES,




to

22

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

It appears that the largest group of consumers' associations is
composed of societies whidi have been running for 1 year but less
than 2 years, and of agricultural societies those which have been
in operation 5 but less than 10 years. More than two-fifths of the
consumers' societies and nearly one-fourth of the agricultural bodies
have been in business less than 2 years. Over 70 per cent of the
consumers' and over half of the agricultural associations have been
doing business for less than 5 years. Only 3.2 and 1.8 per cent,
respectively, have been operating for 25 years or more. New Eng­
land possesses the largest proportion of these, more than 10 per cent
of the consumers' societies of that division having been in business
25 years or more.
The average age of the consumers' societies reporting was found
to be 4 years and 11 months, of the agricultural societies 5 years and
1 month, and of both types combined 4 years and 11 months.
Only 26 of the 944 societies reporting have been in business for a
quarter of a century or more. Minnesota leads, with 5 of these.
The second place is held by Massachusetts and Wisconsin, each of
these States having 4 such societies, while Kansas comes next
with 3. Leaving out of consideration 8 students' cooperative socie­
ties in this group, 8 societies have been in existence more than 30
years. Three associations have been in operation 42, 44, and 47
years, respectively. The last of these, the oldest genuinely coopera­
tive society known to this bureau,6 unfortunately went out of busi­
ness early in 1921. This society did not fail. Up to August, 1920,
the association had given a certain amount of credit, based on the
amount of share capital held by the member. At that time business
conditions forced the society to go onto a “ cash and carry" basis.
Due, however, to the general hard times the members could not meet
this requirement. As a result the association decided to go out of
business, each member receiving in merchandise the value of his
investment and in addition a bonus of about 20 per cent. The
manager writes: “It seems strange that this store of 47 years in
business should close out. During 25 years under the management
of the writer over $100,000 was paid in rebates." This society, at
the time of quitting business, had 193 members.
SIZE OF SOCIETIES IN RELATION TO AGE.

In order to determine, if possible, whether the older societies are
those with the largest number of members, Table 10 was compiled.
• One society in New England, not included in this study, was organized more than 50 years ago. Ac­
cording to information in the possession of this bureau, however, it is no longer really cooperative, since
the dividend is now returned on stock (there are about 60 stockholders) instead of on patronage and the
shares are worth much more than their original price. This store has had the same manager for 45 years.




SIZE OF SOCIETIES IN RELATION TO AGE.
T able

23

,

10.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES, CLASSIFIED BY SIZE AND BY NUM­
BER OF YEARS IN OPERATION.
NUMBER.*
0
1
Societies in operation—
Type of society and number of members.

Consumers’ societies:
Under 100......................................................................................
100 and under 200.........................................................
200 and under 300.........................................................
300 and under 400.........................................................
400 and under 500.........................................................
500 and under 750.........................................................
750 and under 1,000......................................................
1,000 and under 1,500...................................................
1^500 and under 2^000...................................................
2^000 and under 5^000...................................................
5JOOOand over..............................................................
Not reported.................................................................
Total...........................................................................
Agricultural societies:2
Under 100.......................................................................
100 and under 200.........................................................
200 and under 300.........................................................
300 and under 400.........................................................
400 and under 500.........................................................
500 and under 750.........................................................
750 and under 1,000......................................................
1,000 and under 1,500...................................................
2,000 and under 5,000..................................................
5,000 and over................................................................
Not reported.................................................................
Total...........................................................................
Consumers’ and agricultural societies:
Under 100.......................................................................
100 and under 200.........................................................
200 and under 300.........................................................
300 and under 400.........................................................
400 and under 500.........................................................
500 and under 750.........................................................
750 and under 1,000......................................................
1,000 and under 1,500...................................................
1,500 and under 2,000...................................................
2,000 and under 5,000...................................................
5,000 and over...............................................................
Not reported.................................................................
Total...........................................................................

Less
than
1 year.
34
42
29
7
5
8
1
3
2
7
138
19
13
2

34
53
55
31
7
5
8
1
3
2
7
172

1 year 5 and 10 and 25 Total.
and under under years
under 10
25 and
5 years. years. years. over.
103
129
41
19
16
5
4
3
3
2
1
6
332
43
52
11
4
2
1
1
6
120 |
146
181
52
23
18
6
4
4
3
2
1
12
452

38
28
14
19
4
4
1

27
17
10
2
2
1
1
1

1
4
111

3
64

25
42
16
7
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
100

4
9
3
1
1

3
4
2
3
4
1
3
1
21

203
220
94
49
27
21
7
11
6
2
5
21
1666

1
1
1
1

92
116
33
11
5
4

1

1

19

5

2
2
1
1
11
*278

61
70
30
26
5
6
2
1

31
26
13
2
3
1
2
1
,
4
83

4
4
1
2
1
4
4
1
3
2
26

295
336
127
60
32
25
9
13
6
3
6
32
4 944

17.7
12.7
14.9
38.8
14.8
19.1
14.3

13.3
7.7
10.6
4.1
7.4
4.8
14.3
9.1
16.7

1.5
1.8
4.1
14.3
36.4

14.3
9.6

60.0
4.8
3.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1
2
7
211

PER CENT.
Consumers’ societies:
Under 100....................
100 and under 200---200 and under 300—
300 and under 400---400 and under 500---500 and under 750---750 and under 1,000...
1.000 and under 1,500.
1,500 and under 2,000.
2.000 and under 5,000.
5.000 and over............
Not reported..............
Total............... t......

16.7
19.1
30.9
14.3
18.5
38.1
14.3
27.3
33.3
33.3
20.7

50.7
58.6
43.6
38.8
59.3
23.8
57.1
27.3
50.0
100. 0
20.0
28.6
49.8

20.0
19.1
16.7

1 Not including 62 societies which did not renort number of years in operation.
2 Theterm ‘‘agricultural societi es ” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
8 Not including 3 societies which did not report number of years in operation.
* Not including 65 societies which did not report number of years in operation.




24

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

Table 10.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES, CLASSIFIED BY SIZE AND BY NUM­
BER OF YEARS IN OPERATION—Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.
Societies in operation—
Type of society and number of members.

Less
than
1 year.

Agricultural societies:2
20.7
100 and under 200......................................................... 11.2
200 and under 300........................a.............................
6.1
300 and under 400.......................................................
400 and under 500.......................................................
500 and under 750.........................................................
750 and under 1,000......................................................
i,000 and under 1,500...................................................
2,000 and under 5,000...................................................
5,000 and over...............................................................
Not reported.................................................
Total........................................................................... 12.2
Consumers' apd agricultural societies:
Under 100..................................................................... 18.0
100 and under 200......................................................... 16.4
200 and under 300......................................................... 24.4
300 and under 400......................................................... 11.7
400 and under 500....................................................... 15.6
500 and under 750....................................................... 32.0
750 and under 1,000...................................................... 11.1
i,000 and under 1,500................................................... 23.1
1,500 and under 2,000................................................... 33.3
2,000 and under 5,000...................................................
5,000 and over...............................................................
Not reported................................................................. 21.9
18.2
Total.........................................................................

1 year 5 and 10 and 25 Total.
and under under years
under 10
25
and
5 years. years. years. over.
27.2
36.2
48.5
63.6
20.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
54.6 27.3
43.2 36.0

46.7
44.8
33.3
36.4
40.0
25.0
50.0

49.5
53.9
40.9
38.3
56.3
24.0
44.4
30.8
50.0
66.7
16.7
37.5
47.9

20.7
20.8
23.6
43.3
15.6
24.0
22.2
7.7
33.3
33.3
21.9
22.4

1.1 ioo. a
100.0
100.0

4.4
7.8
9.1
20.0
50.0

i

3.0
20. 0
25.0

9.1
6.8

9.1
1.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.5
7.7
10.2
3.3
9.4
4.0
22.2
7.7

1.4
1.2
.8
3.3
3.1
16.0
30.8
16.7
50. 0
6.3
2.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.5
8.8

100.0

2 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (con­
sumers') and marketing societies.

Of the 9 societies having 2,000 members or more, 3 have been in
business 25 years or longer. All of these 3, however, are students'
societies. Not one organization of this age group handling any of the
general necessaries of life has more than 2,000 members. One such
association, in business 30 years, has 1,500 members. On the other
hand, 8 of the 25-year-old societies have fewer than 200 members.
A few of the larger societies have been in business only a compara­
tively short time. Thus 11 societies having 1,500 members or more
have been operating less than 10 years.
The effect of the passage of years on the individual society can
not, of course, be shown without membership figures for the other
years of its existence. The figures in the table do not, however,
appear to indicate an enlarged scope of activity or increased vitality
and power in the older society.

GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE
SOCIETIES.
LEGAL STATUS OF SOCIETIES STUDIED.

The legal incorporation of cooperative societies is important in
that the statute under which incorporation is made quite often makes
provisions which promote or interfere with the accepted coopera­
tive practice. In States having no cooperative law cooperative
societies must, perforce, operate under the regular corporation law,
which may stipulate bases for voting and disposition of savings which



GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF TH E SOCIETIES.

25

are in direct opposition to cooperative practice. The cooperative laws
of those States which have legislated on the subject vary greatly, and
study of the subject shows the need for uniform State cooperative
laws by which a general standard of what constitutes a genuine
cooperative society may be set up.
For the benefit of persons wishing to form a cooperative society
and of those interested in the subject of cooperative legislation, a
general summary and a synopsis of the various State consumers’ co­
operative laws, showing the steps necessary for incorporation and the
requirements and chief features, are given in Appendix A (pp. 83 to 98).
The number of societies organized under corporation law, under
cooperative law, and not incorporated is shown by States in Table 11:
Table 1 1 .— LEGAL ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE, BY STATES.
Number of societies.
Consumers’.
State.

Alabama............
Alaska................
Arkansas............
California...........
Colorado.............
Connecticut.......
Florida...............
Idaho..................
Illinois................
Indiana..........
Iowa....................
Kansas...............
Kentucky..........
Louisiana...........
Maine..................
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Mississippi.........
Missouri.............
Montana............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire
New Jersey........
New Mexico---New York.........
North Carolina..
North Dakota...
Ohio...................
Oklahoma..........
Oregon................
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Island...
South Carolina..
South Dakota...
Tennessee...........
Texas..................
Vermont.............
Virginia..............
Washington.......
West Virginia__
Wisconsin..........
Wyoming...........
Total........

Organized
under—
Cor­ Coop­
pora­ erative
tion
law. law.
3
1
6
6
5
4
2
4
16
7
13
27
4
2

10

7
18
17
44

Not
in­
corpo­
rated.

14
9
7
2
4
35

(2)

16
3
8
30

4
3
12
3
6

2

4
38
9
24

1
(2)

(2)

(2)

15
18
32
6

(!).
29

(2)

4
23

8

1

9
72

(2)

1
1

(2)

5
3
13

1

9

6

2

(2)

1

4
44
9
51

(2)

24

257

100
1

1

3
3

(2)

3
9
2
3
2

22

(2)

11
1

3
16

4
44
4

9

2

(2)

2
2
35
2
24
29
2

3

1

48

10

12

3
2

57
5
2
10
7
34
36
81
1
14
14
48

( 2)

1 1

440

Not
re­
port­ Total.
ed.

1

12
21

1 (2)
(2)
26
1 22
5 (2) 5
2
29 (2) 2
1 1
12
12

Not
in­
corpo­
rated.

2
6

8

2
2

Organized
under—
Not
re­ Total. Cor­
port­
Coop­
pora­ erative
ed.
tion law.
law.
3

14

23

Agricultural.1

6

2

24

728

167

109

4

281

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
2No consumers’ cooperative law.



26

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

It appears from this table that, even making allowance for those
States which have no cooperative legislation, more societies are oper­
ating under corporation than under cooperative law. The reasons
for this are not apparent, though the fact that a number of the older
societies were organized before the cooperative act was passed partly
accounts for it.
LIMITATIONS ON MEMBERSHIP.

Most cooperative societies conform to the open membership prin­
ciple. In general, the only requirement for membership—aside from
the financial one—is that the applicant be over 16 or 18 years of age,
or that he be indorsed by a member in good standing. The applica­
tion is then passed upon by the board of directors. Among the
associations studied, however, 114—54 consumers’ and 60 agricul­
tural societies—report certain restrictions on membership. In 33
consumers’ and 53 agricultural societies only members of certain
farmers’ organizations are admitted to membership. Only active
farmers are admitted by 7 agricultural societies, while 1 consumers’
association admits only farmers and “ other approved persons,” and 2
other societies admit only farmers and wage earners, one of these spe­
cifically barring all persons in “ competitive business. ” The remaining
societies which impose conditions of membership are consumers’ or­
ganizations. One of these receives only workingmen or. working
women, and 7 others grant entrance only to trade-unionists. Only
railroad men may belong to one society, while another limits its
membership to whites, trade-unionists, and members of a certain
agricultural organization. Membership in 5 societies is restricted to
members of the white race, in another to persons of good character,
in another to socialists, and in the remaining one to citizens of the
United States.
The study brought out the fact that in many places the farmers
have combined with the union workingmen of the town. It was
stated by an official of one of the farmers’ central organizations,
however, that the farmer members usually furnished 90 per cent of
the capital and gave the store 100 per cent of their patronage, while
the workingmen furnished 10 per cent of the capital and gave the
store 50 per cent of their patronage.
MANAGEMENT.

The management of the affairs of the society is vested in a board
of directors elected by and from the membership. The number of
directors is most commonly 5, 7, or 9, though 8 societies have 15
directors each. Many societies provide that certain conditions auto­
matically vacate the office of a director, as, for instance, if he is
concerned in any contract with the society or participates in the
profits therefrom. On the theory, evidently, that the office of a
cooperative society should seek the man and not the man the office,
a number of associations hold that “no member shall vote for him­
self for any office, and for a candidate to solicit votes shall be evidence
to show unworthiness of public trust.”
Among the societies studied, by far the most general term of office
of the directors was that of one year, though terms of two and three
years were also fairly common. The term of office ranged in the



27

GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SOCIETIES.

societies studied, from six months (in five societies) to seven years (in
one society). A continuing board is often provided for, one-half or
one-third of the directors being chosen at each election.
The officers of the society—usually president, vice president, secre­
tary, and treasurer (the last two often combined)—are elected by
the directors from their own number, though occasionally they are
elected directly by the membership.
The board of directors supervises the financial affairs of the society,
appoints the manager and employees, and fixes their salaries 7 and
the amount of bond required, if any. The officers are usually unpaid,
except for expenses incurred while on business of the association. A
nominal fee for attendance at board meetings is often, though not
always, paid.
The actual operation of the store is placed in the hands of the
manager, a paid employee.
V O T IN G .

It is one of the cardinal principles of the cooperative movement
that voting shall be on a membership and not a financial basis, each
member having but one vote, regardless of the size of his investment
in the association, and no proxy voting being allowed. The extent
to which this principle is put into practice among the societies studied
is shown in Table 12. It should be borne in mind that in some States
this is regulated by the cooperative law, and the societies operating
thereunder have no choice in the matter.
T able

12.—METHOD OF VOTING IN EACH TYPE OF SOCIETY.

Method of voting.

Consumers’ socie­ Agricultural socie­
ties.1
ties.

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Basis of voting:
1 man 1 vote...........................................
Vote by shares.........................................
Total......................................................
Voting by proxy:
Prohibited................................................
Allowed....................................................
Total......................................................

653
67
2 720

90.7
9.3
100.0

246
35
281

87.5
12.5
100.0

899
102
31,001

89.8
10.2
100.0

476
206
3682

69.8
30.2
100.0

157
115
4272

57.7
42.3
100.0

633
321
5954

66.4
33.6
100.0

1The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
3 Not including 8 societies whose basis of voting was not reported.
* Not including 46 societies whose practice as to vote by proxy was not reported.
4 Not including 9 societies whose practice as to vote by proxy was not reported.
c Not including 55 societies whose practice as to vote by proxy was not reported.

It will be seen that in nearly 90 per cent of the societies reporting as
to the method of voting one member has only one vote, and that in
two-thirds of them voting by proxy is prohibited. In many societies
7 The by-laws of many societies require that the employees be trade-unionists and that the union scale
of wages be paid. In view of the fact that it has always been the claim of the cooperative movement that
the best wages and working conditions have prevailed in the movement, it would have been of interest to
ascertain to what extent this is true in the United States. It was, however,Impossible to gather informa­
tion on this point in this study.




28

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

a members vote may, in his absence, be 6ast by a member of his
family. Four Nebraska societies report having recently changed
from the one-man-one-vote basis to vote by'shares, but none of them
states its reason for so doing.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS.
KIND OF BUSINESS.

The kind of business engaged in by the cooperative societies studied
is shown in Table 13:
T able 1 3 .—

NUMBER OF SOCIETIES CARRYING ON EACH SPECIFIED KIND OF BUSINESS.
Type of society.

Housing societies.................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant societies..........................................................
Restaurant societies..........................................................................
Irrigation societies..........................................................................
Printing and publishing societies.....................................................
Bakeries...........................-..................................................................
Laundries.............................................................................................
Store societies dealing in—
Groceries........................................................................................
Groceries and meat......................................................................
Meat...............................................................................................
Milk................................................................................................
Dry goods......................................................................................
Clothing.........................................................................................
General merchandise...................................................................
General merchandise and coal...................................................
Coal................................................................................................
Farm machinery or implements................................................
Hardware......................................................................................
Miscellaneous building materials..............................................
Students’ supphes......................................................................
Total...........................................................................................

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.i

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
3
6
2
2
4
10

2

2 124
* 72
67
1
2
63
7 454
7
105
9
4
11
728

0.4
.8
.3
.3
.6
1.4
.3
17.0
9.9
1.0
.1
.3
.4
62.3
1.0
.7
1.2
.6
1.5
100.0

»6
1

2.1
.4

»83
9 90
1188
1211
2

29.6
31.8
31.4
3.9
.7

281

100.0

1 The term *‘agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
2Including 3 societies which also handle coal.
aIncluding 2 societies which also handle farm machinery and 1 society which also handles farm machinery
and coal.
* Including 1 society which also handles coal.
6Including 1 society which also handles bakery goods.
*Including 1 society which also handles furniture.
7Including 13 societies which also handle farm machinery, 1 society which also handles coal, and 1 society
which also handles miscellaneous building materials.
®Including 2 societies which also handle miscellaneous building materials, 1 society which also handles
miscellaneous building materials and farm machinery, 9 societies which also handle farm machinery, and 1
society which also handles farm machinery and coal.
9Including 2 societies which also handle farm machinery, 4 societies which also handle miscellaneous
building materials, and 2 societies which also handle farm machinery and miscellaneous building materials.
10Including 1 society which also handles farm machinery and 1 society which also handles miscellaneous
building materials.
11Including 18 societies which also handle farm machinery, 13 societies which also handle miscellaneous
building materials, and 7 societies which also handle farm machinery and miscellaneous building materials.
12Including l society which also handles miscellaneous building materials.

The majority (62.3 per cent) of the strictly consumers’ societies are
those doing a general store business. The agricultural societies, how­
ever, most generally deal in coal or general merchandise or both; 92.8
per cent of these societies fall in these three classes.
Each consumers’ society was asked whether it manufactured any­
thing. Aside from such societies as bakeries, which in the very
nature of their business carry on manufacture, only 10 societies




29

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

report any activity in this respect. Of these 10, 3 make sausage (1
of these bacon also), and 4 bread or bakery goods, 1 makes flour, 1
lumber and shingles, and 1 puts up canned fruits, jams, etc.
VOLUME OF BUSINESS.

The amount of business done by the cooperative societies in 1920 is
shown, by geographical divisions of the United States, in Table 14.
The figures for the agricultural cooperative associations do not include
business done in the marketing of grain, live stock, or other products
for their members, but cover only the retail sales to them. In some
cases the societies did not keep separate records of these different
activities and these societies are omitted from the table.
T able 1 4 .—

AMOUNT OF BUSINESS DONE BY EACH TYPE OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETY
IN 1920, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
Consumers’ societies.

Business.
Geographical division. Num­
ber of
socie­
ties rePer
port- Amount. cent of
ing.
total.
New England.................... 51
Middle Atlantic................. 69
East North Central........... 147
West North Central.......... 251
24
South Atlantic..................
East South Central........... 11
West South Central.......... 14
Mountain............................ 28
Pacific................................. 53
2
Alaska................................
Total......................... 3650

16,161,504
3,569,601
17,380,457
25,240,298
1,488,958
997,900
908,643
2,329,148
6,739,328
120,000
64,935,837

Agricultural societies.1

Total.

Business.
Num­
ber of
socie­
Per
ties report- Amount. cent of
mg.
total.

Business.
Num­
ber of
socie­
ties rePer
port- Amount. cent of
mg.
total.

9.5
4
5.5
1
26.8
14
38.9 120
2.3
1.5
1
1.4
7
3.6
13
10.4
1
.2
100.0 4161

$410,101 2.7
5,000
1,362,169 («)
9.0
11,664,521 76.9
125,000
.8
608,118 4.6
868,700 5.7
.2
35,489

55
70
161
371
24
12
21
41
54
2
15,169,098 100.0 5 811

8.2
$6,571,605
4.5
3,574,601
18,742,626 23.4
36,904,819 46.1
1,488,958
1.9
1.4
1,122,900
1,606,761
2.0
3,197,848
4.0
8.5
6,774,817
.1
120,000
80,104,935 100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies. Volume of business given, however, covers only the retail sales of these societies.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
s Not including 78 societies which did not report amount of business done.
4 Not including 120 societies which did not report amount of business done.
*Not including 198 societies which did not report amount of business done.

As in number of members of cooperative societies, the West North
Central States lead in amount of business done cooperatively, the
sales of this section in 1920 amounting to $36,904,819, or 46.1 per
cent of the whole cooperative sales of the country. Both sections
of the North Central States together account for 69.5 per cent of the
total business.
It is evident from the above table that no inconsiderable amount of
business is done through the cooperative societies of the United
States, since that of the 811 organizations which furnished data on
this point totaled more than $80,000,000.
105983°—22-----3




30

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

The same data, by States, is shown in Table 15:
Table 15.—AMOUNT OF BUSINESS DONE BY EACH TYPE OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETY
IN 1920, BY STATES.
Consumers’ societies.
State.

Agricultural societies.1

Total.

Business.
Num­
ber of
socie­
ties rePer
port- Amount. cent of
mg.
total.

Business.
Num­
ber of
socie­
ties rePer
port- Amount. cent of
mg.
total.

Business.
Num­
ber of
socie­
ties rePer
port- Amount. cent of
ing.
total.

3 $225,362 0.3
2 •120,000
.2
Alaska.................................
4 228,686
.4
Arkansas............................
California............................ 14 3,168,093 4.9
8 707,199 1.1
7
Colorado..............................
.8
5 510,340
1
Connecticut........................
1 142,000
.2
Florida................................
3 305,188
Idaho...................................
.5
TTlinrris............_................... 29 2,851,914 4.4
5
Indiana............................... 11 676,912 1.0
1
3
Iowa.................................... 19 1,716,840 2.6
52 4,142,075 6.4
49
Kansas................................
1
4 360,538
.6
Kentucky...........................
.1
88,626
2
Louisiana...........................
2
Maine.................................. 10 803,042 1.2
.2
5 158,820
Maryland............................
1
Massachusetts.................... 28 4,525,316 7.0
34 4,155,264 6.4
Michigan.............................
3
12
77 9,150,341 14.1
Minnesota..........................
1
Mississippi..........................
28,000
5
13 1,185,328 (2)
1.8
Missouri............................
13 900,161 1.4
5
Montana................., ..........
40
Nebraska........................... 46 5,237,368 8.1
2
17,000
New Hampshire...............
1
9 522,887 00.8
New Jersey.........................
1
2 295,000
.5
New Mexico.......................
New York........................... 22 1,539,553 2.4
2 173,306
.3
North Carolina.................
3
North Dakota.................... 22 2,196,767 3.4
2
Ohio.................................... 25 1,781,879 2.7
.2
2 126,837
7
Oklahoma...........................
1
.2
4 132,242
Oregon................................
38 1,507,161 2.3
Pennsylvania....................
4 262,606
.4
Rhode Island.....................
.2
3 154,979
South Carolina..................
8
South Dakota.................... 22 1,611,579 2.5
3 384,000
.6
Tennessee...........................
6 464,494
.7
Texas..................................
.1
2
43,200
Vermont.............................
4 270,343
.4
Virginia..............................
W ashington....................... 35 3,438,993 5.3
West Virginia....................
9 589,510
.9
3
Wisconsin........................... 48 7,914,488 12.2
2 121,600
.2
Wyoming...........................
Total......................... *650 64,935,837 100.0 <161

$391,203
5,000

2.6
(2)

148,810 1.0
.1
14,564
803,048 5.3
5,216,185 34.4
125,000
.8
280,819 1.9
124,282
.8
125,188
.8
652,805 4.3
580,400 3.8
377,497 2.5
3,595,440 23.7
5,000
100,000 (2).7
287,621
851,074
698,118
35,489

1.9
5.6
4.6
.2

529,022

3.5

222,533

1.5

15,169,098 100.0

3
2
4
14
15
6
1
3
34
12
22
101
5
2
12
5
29
37
89
1
18
18
86
2
10
3
22
2
25
27
9
5
38
4
3
30
3
6
2
4
35
9
51
2
6 811

$225,362
0.3
.1
120,000
228,686
.3
3,168,093
4.0
1,098,402
1.4
515,340
.6
142,000
.2
305,188
.4
3,000,724
3.7
691,476
.9
2,519, 888
3.1
9,358, 260 11.7
485,538
.6
.1
88,626
1,083, 861
1.4
158,820
.2
4,649, 598
5.8
4,280,452
5.3
9,803,146 12.2
28,000
1,765, 728 (2)2.2
1,277,658
1.6
8,832,808 11.0
17,000
527,887 W.7
395,000
.5
1,539, 553
1.9
173,306
.2
2,484,388
3.1
2,632,953
3.3
824,955
1.0
167,731
.2
1,507,161
1.9
262,606
.3
154,979
.2
2,140, 601
2.7
384,000
.5
464,494
.6
.1
43,200
270,343
.3
3,438, 993
4.3
589,510
.7
8,137,021 10.2
.2
121,600
80,104,935 100.0

1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consum­
ers7) and marketing societies. Volume of business given, however, covers only the retail sales of these
societies.
* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
* Not including 78 societieswhich did not report amount of business done.
4 Not including 120 societies which did not report amount of business done.
* Not including 198 societies which did not report amount of business done.

The outstanding feature of this table is the amount of business done
by cooperative societies in Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska and Wis­
consin, in each of which more than one-tenth of the total cooperative
business was done. Sales of a million dollars or more are reported in
each of 19 States. In 4 States sales of less than $100,000 were
reported.
The number of societies doing each classified amount of business in
1920 is given in Table 16.




31

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.
T able 1 6 .—

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF SOCIETIES CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF
BUSINESS IN 1920.
Yearly business.

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Under $5,000...................................................
$5,000 and under $25,000,..............................
$25,000 and under $50,000..............................
$50,000 and under $100,000............................
$100,000 and under $500,000..........................
$500,000 and over............................................
Total......................................................

15
67
231
145
182
28
6 648

2.3
10.3
35.6
22.4
28.1
1.2
100.0

11
40
32
26
46
34
6 159

6.9
25.2
20.1
16.4
28.9
2.5
100.0

26
107
263
171
228
4 12
7 807

3.2
13.3
32.6
21.2
28.3
1.5
100.0

1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies. Volume of business given covers only the retail sales of these societies.
2 Including 4 societies having sales amounting to one million dollars or over.
3 Including 1 society having sales amounting to one million dollars or over.
4 Including 5 societies having sales amounting to one million dollars or over.
6 Not including 80 societies which did not report amount of sales.
6 Not including 122 societies which did not report amount of sales.
7 Not including 202 societies which did not report amount of sales.

Over one-third of the consumers’ societies and one-fifth of the agri­
cultural societies sold goods during 1920 amounting to between
$25,000 and $50,000. Over one-fourth of the consumers’ and of the
agricultural associations had a business during the year 1920 of
$100,000 and under $500,000. It is worthy of note that there
were five societies which did a business of one million dollars or more.
In about one-eighth of the consumers’ associations and nearly onethird of the agricultural organizations the sales fell below $25,000.
Of these societies, however, 2h and 10, respectively, had been in
operation only part of the year.
In Table 17 the average amount of business done in 1920 per society
and per member by those societies furnishing data as to both business
and membership is shown for each State:
T able

17.—AVERAGE AMOUNT OF BUSINESS PER SOCIETY AND PER MEMBER, IN
BY STATES.

1920,

Average amount of business done by—
State.

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Both types of
societies.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
society. member. society. member. society. member.
$769
$75,121
$769
Alabama......................................................... $75,121
303
60,000
303
Alaska..............................................'.............. 60,000
57,172
341
341
Arkansas.......................................................... 57,172
226,292
168
168
California......................................................... 226,292
524
623 $46,370
Colorado.......................................................... 93,947
$380 71,988
193
83 85,890
190
5,000
Connecticut..................................................... 102,068
Florida............................................................. 142,000
1,420
1,420
142,000
101,730
711
711
Idaho............................................................... 101,730
248
236 29,762
373 88,256
Illinois.............................................................. 98,342
396
192 52,248
409 14,564
Indiana............................................................ 56,435
615
495 388,474
1,315 118, 751
Iowa................................................................. 90,360
469
493 93,157
441 106,452
Kansas............................................................. 80,122
192 97,108
544 125,000
370
Kentucky........................................................ 90,135
298
44,313
298
Louisiana.......................... , ........................... 44,313
353
303 140,410
528 93,755
Maine............................................................... 80,425
1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies. Volume of business, however, covers only the retail sales of these societies.




32
T able

CONSUMERS * COOPER ATIVE SOCIETIES.

17.—AVERAGE AMOUNT OF BUSINESS PER SOCIETY AND PER MEMBER, IN 1920,
BY STATES—Concluded.
Average amount of business done by—
State.

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.

Both types of
societies.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
society. member. society. member. society. member.
Maryland...........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Mississippi.........
Missouri..............
Montana............
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire
New Jersey........
New Mexico.—
New York..........
North Carolina-.
North Dakota...
Ohio....................
Oklahoma..........
Oregon................
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Island...
South Carolina..
South Dakota...
Tennessee...........
Texas..................
Vermont.............
Virginia..............
Washington.......
West Virginia-..
Wisconsin..........
Wyoming...........
Total........

$31,764
161,618
122,213
116,002
28,000
89,185
69,243
113,856
8,500
58,099
147.500
72,252
86,653
99,853
71,275
63,419
33,061
39,924
65,652
51,660
72,679
134.500
77,416
21,600
67,586
101,270
65,734
164,885
60,809
100,354

$128
252
484
635
280
433
530
709
321
532
825
851
352
426
650
207
237
363
330
121
309
498
739
412
265
477
353

$124,282
41,729
63,478
116,080
75,499
89,886
5,000
100,000

$286
555
531
493
560
106
741

95,874
425,537
99,731
35,489

730
893
520
455

66,128

55

74,178

427

95,618

530

$31,764
160,331
115,688
109,823
28,000
97,589
70,981
102,707
8,500
52,789
131,667
72,252
86,653
99,376
97,517
91.662
33,546
39,924
65.662
51,660
70,807
134,500
77,416
21,600
67,586
101,270
65,734
159,549
60,800
99,406

$128
258
475
629
280
465
519
640
321
254
573
189
825
835
438
503
79
207
237
651
330

121

399
498
739
412
268
477
378

For both types of societies combined, the highest average business
per society is found among the cooperative associations of California,
the lowest among those of New Hampshire. In 12 States the sales
average over $100,000 per society. In only 7 States does the average
fall below $50,000. The average for all the societies included in the
table was $99,406 per society and $378 per member. It was not
possible to secure from each society figures for sales to members and
to nonmembers separately or even the proportion of sales to each.
The financial statements furnished by 21 societies showed separately
the amount of sales to members and to nonmembers. In these
societies the proportion of total sales made to members ranged
from only 19 to 94 per cent. For all these 21 societies combined the
proportion purchased by members was 47 per cent. The average
sales per member in the above table are calculated upon the total
amount of sales and therefore can be accepted only with reservations.
NET TRADING SURPLUS OR LOSS.

Only 158 consumers’ societies submitted financial reports in such
form as to make possible the determination of the association’s net
trading surplus or loss for the year 1920. No separate data as to
gains made from the retail trading operations of the agricultural
societies were available. Information for the 158 reporting con­
sumers’ societies is shown in Table 18.



BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

33

Table 18.—AMOUNT OF TRADING SURPLUS OR LOSS i FOR 1920 REPORTED BY 158 CON­
SUMERS' SOCIETIES.
Net trading—
State.

Alabama..........................................................
Alaska..... ................................................
Arkansas..........................................................
California.........................................................
Colorado..........................................................
Connecticut.....................................................
Idaho...............................................................
Illinois..............................................................
Indiana............................................................
Iowa.................................................................
Kansas.............................................................
Kentucky........................................................
Maine...............................................................
Maryland........................................................
Massachusetts.................................................
Michigan..........................................................
Minnesota..................................................
Montana..........................................................
Nebraska.........................................................
New Jersey......................................................
New Mexico.....................................................
New York........................................................
North Carolina................................................
North Dakota.................................................
Ohio.................................................................
Oregon.............................................................
Pennsylvania..................................................
Rhode Island..................................................
South Dakota.................................................
Tennessee........................................................
Texas...............................................................
Vermont..........................................................
Virginia...................................! ......................
Washington.....................................................
West Virginia.................................................
Wisconsin......................................................
Total......................................................
Average per society.......................................

Total.

Surplus.

Loss.

1 SI, 106
1
63
1
1,407
1
90
1
1,678
1 5,078
8 29,280
1 6,037
2
4,816
7 22,154
3 19,758
1
714
7 30,729
4 22,151
13 33,242
5 33,202
9 43,058
2
1,481
4 16,189
1
1,951
2 14,503
4 19,578
1
637
2
1,805
2 12,027
5 24,940
1
1,797
1
266
2
2,113
2
3,394
2 3,097
16 175,653
113 533,994
4,726

1
2
1
1
1
4
1
2
4
1

S661
1,512
180
896
646
8,395
660
6,035
3,327
1,577

2
2
2
1
6
2

4,123
2,233
6,319
131
21,445
5,712

3
2
1

3,836
2,663
1,536

3
3
45

3,966
11,317
87,170
1,937

Number
of so­
Number
Number
of so­ Amount. of so­ Amount. cieties re­
porting.
cieties re­
cieties re­
porting.
porting.
2
1
3
1
2
2
1
12
2
4
11
1
3
1
7
6
15
5
11
2
1
10
1
4
4
1
5
2
7
1
1
1
2
5
2
19
158

Amount
of sur­
plus (+)
or loss
(-).
-f $445
+63
-105
+90
+ 1,498
+4,182
-646
+20,885
+5,377
-1,219
+18,827
-1,577
+19,758
+714
+30,729
+18,028
+31,009
+33,202
+36,739
+ 1,481
—131
-5,256
+1,951
+8,791
+19,578
+637
—2,031
+ 12,027
+22,277
+1,797
-1,536
+266
+2,113
-572
+3,097
+ 164,336
+446,824
+2,828

1 “Net trading surplus or loss” is the amount of sales minus cost of merchandise sold, minus operat­
ing expenses.

As shown by the above table the average amount of net trading
surplus for 1920 per society having such surplus was $4,726. Among
the societies reporting losses, the average for 1920 was $1,937.
For all societies combined, the average net gain per society was
$2,828. With an average membership of 282 (as shown in Table 7)
this was a net saving of $10.30 per member for the y e a r . It should,
in this connection, be remembered that for various reasons the
year to which the figures apply—1920—presented peculiar diffi­
culties.
Most of the losses reported are probably due mainly to the market
conditions, though in a few societies inefficient management, lack of
purchasing power on the part of the members, due to strikes, etc.,
are reported as the sole or contributing causes. These losses could
be met from the reserve fund, by the older established societies
which had had time to accumulate such a fund. The new societies,




34
CONSUMERS* c o o pe r a tiv e s o c ie t ie s .
of course, did not possess this bulwark and, as will appear later,8
many were forced into bankruptcy.
In Table 19 are shown for each of 155 consumers7 societies the
amount of loss or gain for the year 1920 and the percentage that
this formed of the sales:
T able

19— AMOUNT OF SALES AND AMOUNT AND PER CENT OF NET TRADING
PROFIT OR LOSS IN 155 CONSUMERS' SOCIETIES DURING 1920.
NET PROFIT.

Society.

Amount of
sales.

No. 1.......................
No. 2.......................
No. 3.......................
No. 4.......................
No. 5.......................
No. 6.......................
No. 7.......................
No. 8.......................
No. 9.......................
No. 10.....................
No. 11.....................
No. 12.....................
No. 13.....................
No. 14.....................
No. 15.....................
No. 16.....................
No. 17..................
No. 18.....................
No. 19.....................
No. 20.....................
No. 21.....................
No. 22.....................
No. 23.....................
No. 24.....................
No. 25.....................
No. 26.....................
No. 27.....................
No. 28.....................
No. 29.....................
No. 30.....................
No. 31.....................
No. 32.....................
No. 33.....................
No. 34.....................
No. 35.....................
No. 36.....................
No. 37.....................
No. 38.....................
No. 39....................
No. 40.....................
No. 41.....................
No. 42.....................
No. 43.....................
No. 44.....................
No. 45.....................
No. 46.....................
No. 47.....................
No. 48.....................
No. 49.....................
No. 50.....................
No. 51.....................
No. 52.....................
No. 53.....................
No. 54.....................
No. 55.....................
No. 56.....................
No. 57.....................
No. 58.....................

$65,080
42,000
29,222
102,894
49,570
130,007
129,924
85,209
42,642
25,110
60,598
194,437
62,063
24,040
115,435
37,471
95,639
174,624
201,244
145,958
39,160
15,000
313,507
86,000
137,903
141,198
41,681
45,224
268,022
122,199
102,000
31,672
283,983
78,780
46,923
127,320
65,977
265,536
117,848
119,744
35,270
18,664
151,000
82,962
95,151
85,000
96,992
111,881
170,637
155,095
235,748
108,130
180,000
53,765
31,869
69,058
25,713
25,000

Net profit.
Amount. Per cent
of sales.
$1,106
63
1,407
90
1,678
5,078
6,893
4,124
2,775
686
224
6,909
6,719
950
6,037
2,075
2,741
6,482
5,481
1,876
504
1,561
4,750
1,500
6,730
10,508
2,520
714
6,610
3,300
2,014
1,112
12,868
2,082
2,743
10,152
547
10,318
1,134
3,236
1,952
1,713
1,077
1,891
3,455
310
1,674
742
9,596
1,922
2,530
3,144
27,561
1,938
1,280
282
2,141
350

8 See section on “ The failures," pp. 74 to 80.




Society.

Amount of
sales.

Net profit.
Amount. Percent
of sales.

1.7 No. 59..................... $50,000 $1,450
.2 No. 60..................... 299,362
9,128
4.8 No. 61.....................
56,725
652
.1 No. 62..................... 100,176
2,949
3.4 No. 63.....................
56,781
104
3.9 No. 64..................... 116,617 17,029
5.3 No. 65.....................
51,356
1,785
4.8 No. 66..................... 197,952
9,611
6.5 No. 67.....................
19,136
694
2.7 No. 68.....................
53,041
787
.4 No. 69..................... 119,376
7,746
3.6 No. 70.....................
47,591
3,644
10.8 No. 71.....................
41,000
987
4.0 No. 72..................... 117,751
3,812
5.2 No. 73.....................
40,306
1,951
5.5 No. 74..................... 131,000
9,664
2.9 No. 75..................... 152,000
4,839
3.7 No. 76..................... 256,000
7,404
2.7 1 No. 77.....................
67,800
2,823
1.3 No. 78.....................
50,626
904
1.3 No. 79.....................
8,447
10.4 No. 80..................... 106,680
8,042
637
1.5 No. 81.....................
15,849
154
1.7 No. 82.....................
39,936
1,651
4.9 No. 83.....................
62,525 11,009
7.4 No. 84..................... * 62,271
1,018
6.0 No. 85.....................
3,123
341
1.6 No. 86.....................
58,496
1,964
2.5 No. 87..................... 189,042
4,639
2.7 No. 88..................... 102,709
4,112
2.0 No. 89..................... 132,441 13,884
3.5 No. 90.....................
80,663
1,797
4.5 No. 91.....................
43,200
266
2.6 No. 92..................... 110,000
1,429
5.8 No. 93.....................
684
24,343
8.0 No. 94.....................
38,266
1,016
.8 No. 95..................... 155,330
2,378
3.9 No. 96.....................
69,804
1,553
1.0 No. 97.....................
1,544
24,000
2.7 No. 98.....................
43,000
609
5.5 No. 99..................... 238,212 11,842
9.2 No. 100................... 3,925,829 86,726
.7 No. 101................... 135,840 14,381
2.3 No. 102................... 180,222 14,007
3.6 No. 103................... 159,359 13,169
.4 No. 104.................
28,845
1,619
1.7 No. 105...................
55,604
8,170
.7 No. 106...................
92,572
1,785
5.6 No. 107...................
40,879
332
1.2 No. 108...................
32,181
2,024
1.1 No. 109................... 237,000 11,666
2.9 No. 110................... 127,000
4,642
15.3 No. I ll...................
39,947
30
3.6 No. 112...................
66,360
1,214
4.0 No. 113................... 143,511
3,437
.4
8.3
Total............ 14,892,456 533,994
* 1.4

2.9
3.0
1.1
2.9
.2
14.6
3.5
4.9
3.6
1.5
6.5
7.7
2.4
3.2
4.8
7.4
3.2
2.9
4.2
1.8
7.9
7.9
1.0
4.1
17.6
1.6
10.9
3.4
2.5
4.0
10.5
2.2
.6
1.3
2.8
2.7
1.5
2.2
6.4
1.4
5.0
10.6
7.8
8.3
5.6
14.7
1.9
.8
6.3
4.9
3.7
.1
1.8
2.4
3.6

2.2

35

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

Table 19.—AMOUNT OF SALES AND AMOUNT AND PER CENT OF NET TRADING
PROFIT OR LOSS IN 155 CONSUMERS* SOCIETIES DURING 1920-Concluded.
NET LOSS.
Society.

Amount of
sales.

No. 114...................
No. 115...................
No. 116...................
No. 117...................
No. 118...................
No. 119...................
No. 120...................
No. 121...................
No. 122...................
No. 123...................
No. 124...................
No. 125...................
No. 126...................
No. 127...................
No. 128...................
No. 129...................
No. 130...................
No. 131...................
No. 132...................
No. 133...................
No. 134...................
No. 135...................

$65,282
29,222
23,274
184,000
178,188
10,363
26,829
346,670
43,286
34,232
154,402
42,463
105,600
29,093
30,853
31,296
34,350
62,321
140,157
63,000
99,597
75,000

Net loss.
Amount. Per cent
of sales.
$661
612
180
896
646
1,203
190
5,801
1,201
660
1,464
4,571
736
1,377
876
338
1,577
1,069
3,054
624
1,609
730

1.0
2.1
.8
.5
.4
11.6
.7
1.7
2.8
1.9
.9
10.8
.7
4.7
2.8
1.1
4.6
1.7
2.2
1.0
1.6

1.0

Society.

Amount of
sales.

No. 136................... $130,976
No. 137................... 265,000
No. 138...................
4,008
No. 139...................
56,884
1,884
No. 140...................
No. 141...................
81,932
No. 142................... 109,340
No. 143...................
78,925
No. 144................... 113,252
45,671
No. 145...................
20,282
No. 146...................
30,714
No. 147...................
54,223
No. 148...................
No. 149...................
70,559
No. 150...................
31,302
No. 151...................
85,104
No. 152...................
23,000
No. 153................... 235,000
No. 154...................
52,099
55,357
No. 155...................
Total............ 3,354,990

Net loss.
Amount. Percent
of sales.
$5,589
131
197
17,747
533
1,153
1,323
4,926
786
2,500
49
1,287
963
1,700
1,536
1,470
286
9,425
1,606
96
83,378

4.3
0) 4.9
31.2
28.3
1.4
1.2
6.2
.7
5.5
.2
4.2
1.8
2.4
4.9
1.7
1.2
4.0
3.1
.2
2.5

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

FINANCIAL FACTORS.
SHARE CAPITAL.

The capital of cooperative societies is raised through entrance fees,
the issue of capital stock, and money borrowed from members and
others. An entrance fee is charged in many societies to cover the
cost of a copy of the rules, organization work, etc., any balance being
carried to the reserve fund. This fee is forfeited to the society if the
member withdraws. Usually this fee is a nominal sum, the amounts
charged in the different societies ranging from 25 cents to $2. Some
associations studied require an entrance fee of $10. In these
cases, however, the organization is a nonstock one and the fees supply
the capital that would otherwise have been secured by the issue of
capital stock. Borrowed money is known in the cooperative move­
ment as “loan capital,” and may be raised through loans from bodies
favorable to the movement (as trade-unions) or from members, some­
times in the form of savings deposits. Loan capital, being generally
withdrawable at short notice, is unsatisfactory as a means of carry­
ing on a continuing business. To obviate this difficulty, the coopera­
tive association issues capital stock or “share capital/7as it is called.
This share capital differs from the capital stock of the ordinary cor­
poration in the following respects: (1) Its ownership carries no voting
power, that being inherent in membership. (2) Its value always
remains at par, thus removing the element of speculation. (3) Share
capital receives a fixed rate of interest and does not participate in
dividends. (4) It may usually be paid for in installments, the
certificate being issued to the purchaser when the full amount is paid.
The face value of share capital issued by the societies varies, being
determined sometimes by the associations themselves and sometimes



36

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

by the cooperative law. Table 20 shows the value of the share in
341 of the societies studied.
T a bl e 2 0 .

—COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES CLASSIFIED BY SHARE VALUES AND BY TYPE
OF SOCIETY.
Number of societies whose capital
shares are of specified value.

Value of share.

Consumers'
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1*

Number of societies whose capital
shares are of specified value.
Consumers’
societies.

Value of share.

Num­
Num­
ber re­ Per berre­ Per
porting. cent. porting. cent.

Num­
Num­
berre­ Per ber re­ Per
porting. cent. porting. cent.
$1.........................
$5.........................
$10........................
$12.50..................
$20........................
$25
$30........................
$35........................

2
51
92
4
36
1
1

0.8
21.0
37.9
1.6
14.8
A
.4

18
1
1
35

Agricultural
societies.1

$50........................
$100......................
18.4 $200......................
1.0 $400......................
1.0 $500......................
35.7
Total.........

17
32
7

7.0
13.2
2.9

243

100.0

13
27
1
1
1
98

13.3
27.3
1.0
1.0
1.0
100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.

The value of the shares issued by cooperative societies, as shown
above, is small. Of the consumers7 societies nearly three-fifths
issue shares of $5 or $10 each. Among the agricultural societies $25
and $100 are the most common values. The significance of this is
somewhat altered, however, by the fact that many societies require
the purchase of more than one share of stock by each member.
The investment required and maximum investment allowed per
member are shown for 256 societies in Table 21:
21.—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES REPORTING, INVESTMENT REQUIRED, AND
MAXIMUM INVESTMENT ALLOWED PER MEMBER, CLASSIFIED BY TYPE OF
SOCIETY.

T able

Maximum invest­
ment allowed.

Investment required.
Amount per member.

$5 and under $25........
$25 and under $50___
$50 and under $100...
$100 and under $200..
$200 and under $500..
$500 and under $1,000.
$1,000 and over..........
Total reporting.
Average amount........

Consumers'
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Number
Number
Number of con­
Number allowing Number allowing sumers'
requiring payment requiring payment societies.
each
each
amount. by install­ amount. by install­
ments.
ments.
75
43
35
24
6
1
1
185
$47

29
23
26
20
5

7
22
13
22
7

3
7
1
13
6

103

71
$76

30

10
4
11
47
51
38
38
199

Number
of agri­
cultural
societies.1

9
24
26
22
81

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.




BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

31

It is seen that the average investment required per member amounts
to $47 in the consumers’ societies and $76 in the agricultural societies.
Among the consumers’ societies reporting on this point 75, or 40.5
per cent, require less than $25, ana 118, or 63.8 per cent, less than
$50. In the agricultural organizations a somewhat larger amount
is required, since over 40 per cent require $100 or more. In con­
nection with this financial requirement the number of societies
which allow payment by installments should be noted. Among
the consumers’ associations the proportion of those which allow shares
to be paid for in installments increases with the amount of invest­
ment required per member. Thus of the 75 societies in the group
requiring from $5 to $25 from each member, 29, or 38.7 per cent,
allow payment by installments. This percentage increases in the
different groups to 53.5, to 74.3, and finally to 83.3 in the groups
requiring from $100 to $200 and from $200 to $500 per member.
The number of agricultural organizations included in the table is
very small, but somewhat the same tendency is to be observed.
As shown in the last two columns of the table there are 10 con­
sumers’ societies which limit the amount of share capital each
member may hold to less than $25, while 60 societies of Doth types
allow investments of $1,000 and over. Here, again, this point is
often determined by the cooperative law.
Shares are usually withdrawable and transferable under certain
conditions. When a member wishes to transfer his stock to another
person this transfer must usually have the approval of the board
of directors and the transfer must be made on the books of the associa­
tion, the old certificate being canceled and a new one issued in the
name of the purchaser. Many societies require that any such share
of stock must be offered to the association first. In case the society
does not care to redeem it the transfer may be made as above.
Fifteen societies (14 consumers’ associations and 1 agricultural
organization) included in the study prohibit transfer of stock.
Many societies permit the withdrawal of share capital only under
such circumstances as the following: If the member removes from
the community or is in actual need of the money; if the withdrawal
of the money will not prove injurious to the society; if the board
of directors approves; after the association has been in business for
1 or 2 years; or on notice varying from 14 days to 1 year. The
share is then bought back, at its original price, by the society and the
certificate is canceled. Sometimes a withdrawal fee (usually $1) is
charged which is carried to the reserve fund of the society. Ten
societies (5 consumers’ and 5 agricultural) report that they allow no
withdrawal of share capital. The law of Pennsylvania provides that
the share capital may be of two kinds—permanent and ordinary, and
that the permanent share capital shall be nonwithdrawable. In that
State, however, the societies usually provide that a member wishing
to withdraw may transfer his share to some other person acceptable
to the board of directors. Transfer of stock is prohibited by law in
Tennessee. In that State the association must refund to any with­
drawing member the face value of his stock and the shares then
revert to the association.
In Table 22 are shown the amount of paid-in share capital of the
cooperative societies of each State and the average amount of such
capital per society and per member, for each type of society. The



38

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES,

share capital given for the agricultural societies necessarily includes
that used in carrying on the marketing phase of the business.
T able

22.—AMOUNT OF PAID-IN SHARE CAPITAL AND AVERAGE PER SOCIETY AND
PER MEMBER IN EACH TYPE OF SOCIETY, BY STATES, 1920.
Agricultural societies.1

Consumers’ societies.
State.

Alabama..............
Alaska..................
Arkansas.............
California.............
Colorado..............
Connecticut.........
Florida.................
Idaho....................
Illinois..................
Indiana................
Iowa.....................
Kansas.................
Kentucky............
Louisiana............
Maine....................
Maryland.............
Massachusetts__
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Mississippi...........
Missouri...............
Montana..............
Nebraska.............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey..........
New Mexico........
New York...........
North Carolina...
North Dakota__
Ohio......................
Oklahoma............
Oregon..................
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
South Carolina...
South Dakota__
Tennessee.............
Texas....................
Vermont..............
Virginia................
Washington.........
West Virginia__
Wisconsin............
Wyoming.............

Num­
ber
of so­
cie­
ties
re­
port­
ing.

Average Num­
Ayerage
Amount paid-in share of so­ Num­ Amount paid-in share
capital— ber
capital—
Num­
of
of
cie­ ber of
ber of
ties mem­ paid-in
mem­ paid-in
share
share
Per
Per
bers. capital. Per mem­ re­ bers. capital. Per mem­
socie­
port­
society. ber.
ty- ber. ing.

3
1
6
12
8
7
2
4
32
10
20
53
4
2
7
7
31
35
72
1
12
13
48
2
8
2
24
2
23
26
2
4
39
4
3
20
2
6
2
4
39
9
49
2
2 662

293
200
963
18,745
1,755
4.473
148
583
13,068
1,438
3,601
9,709
663
297
1,858
2,397
18,797
8,830
13,513
100
2,634
1,699
7,553
53
1,480
554
10,193
210
3,207
5,093
298
2,036
7,768
1,107
427
1,755
814
3,836
140
543
5,550
1,430
31,148
255
191,147

$13,874 $4,625
41,000 41,000
35,940 5,990
478,726 39,894
164,305 20,538
104,691 14,956
18,500 9,250
35,325 8,831
1,213,256 37,914
88,519 8,852
785,583 39,279
514,775 9,713
231,200 57,800
20,167 10,084
58,820 8,403
79,515 11,359
267,787 8,638
384,344 10,981
1,554,661 21,593
11,000 11,000
118,312 9,859
206,274 15,867
882,460 18,383
2,500 1,250
28,687 3,586
24,800 12,400
263,301 10,971
35,974 17,987
691,988 30,086
172,750 6,644
46,350 23,175
14,530 3,643
273,547 7,014
26,134 6,534
11,670 3,890
291,670 14,584
55,100 27,550
61,958 10,326
2,636 1,318
32,544 8,136
305,027 7,821
92,589 10,288
1,517,184 30,963
31,000 15,500
11,290,973 17,056

$47
205
37
26
94 10
1
23
125
2
61
8
93
2
62
2
218
53 93
349
1
68
32
2
33
i
14
3
44
115 14
110
8
45
9
121
117 71
47
19
1
45
26
171
5
216
2
34
156 13
1
7
35
24
27
9
166
68
16
19
60
1
55
65
6
49
122
59 3 265

1,370 $238,800 $23,880 $174
2,000 2,000
33
60
74,505 37,253 270
276
80,190 10,024 143
559
261
48.800 24.400 187
591
62,120 3i;060 105
19,581 1,639,626 17,630
84
650 43.800 43,800 , 67
23,030 11,515
532
43
2,779 2,779
49
57
22,360 7,453
51
438
2,081 274,715 19,623 132
92,655 11,582
66
i, 413
1,733 197,296 21,922 114
10,378 1,572,881 22,153 152
135

25,000 25,.000

185

482
953
2,131
78

92,375 i8,475
76,467 38,234
204,382 15,722
6,600 6,600

192
80
96
85

1,515

196,529 21,837

130

190 42,000 42,000
17,887 6,061,035 1,010,173

221
339

63,351 11,079,945 41,811

175

1 The term “ agricultural societies” is uised in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers,)
and marketing societies. The figures for paid-in share capital necessarily include that used in the mar­
keting activities of the associations.
2 Not including 33 societies, having 5,205 members, which did not report amount of paid-in share
capital, 29 societies, having $258,317 paid-in share capital, which did not report membership, and 4 societies
which aid not report on either point.
3 Not including 5 societies, having 357 members, which did not report amount of paid-in share capital, 10
societies, having $116,335 paid-in share capital, which did not report membership, and 1 society which did
not report on either point.

It will be seen that the 662 consumers' societies included in the
table had paid-in share capital amounting to $11,290,973, an average
of $17,056 per society and of $59 per member. The highest average
both per society and per member is found in Kentucky.




39

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

LOAN CAPITAL, RESERVES, AND EDUCATIONAL FUND.

It should be remembered, however, that a cooperative society,
especially after having been in business for some time, accumulates
otner pecuniary means besides its share capital. These may be in
the form of loan capital, reserve fund,9surplus,10educational fund, or
income from investments, buildings, land, etc. Cooperative authori­
ties urge that the reserve fund be kept intact for special emergencies,
arguing with reason that a reserve is no reserve if subjected to the
ordinary risks of the business. In practice, however, this fund seems
to be quite often regarded as part of the working capital and to be
so used.
Table 23 shows the amounts of loan capital and of reserve and
educational funds possessed by 434 societies reporting:
T able

23.—AMOUNT OF LOAN CAPITAL AND OF RESERVE AND EDUCATIONAL
FUNDS OF SOCIETIES, BY STATES.
Consumers’ societies.
State.

Alabama..................................
Alaska ..............................
.......................
Arkansas
California................................
Colorado..................................
Connecticut,.............................
Tdaho ....................................
Illinois.....................................
Indiana..................................
Towa ................................
ITansns.....................................
Maine.......................................
Maryland. . _ ‘ ......................
Massachusetts.........................
Michigan.................................
Minnesota...............................
Missouri...................................
Montana..................................
Nebraska.................................
New Jersey.............................
New Mexico...........................
New York...............................
North Carolina.......................
North Dakota.........................
Ohio.........................................
Oklahoma...............................
Oregon.....................................
Pennsylvania.........................
Rhode Island..........................
South Carolina.......................
South Dakota.........................
Tennessee................................
Texas.......................................
Vermont..................................
Virginia...................................
Washington............................
West Virginia.........................
Wisconsin...............................
Wyoming................................
Total..............................

Num­
ber of Loan
socie­
ties re­ capital.
porting.

Agricultural societies.®

Num­
Sur­
Surplus Educa­ of ber
plus Educa­
socie­ Loan
and tional ties capital. and tional
reserve. fund. report­
reserve fund.
fund.
ing.

$763
$920
2
375
1
78
3
8,461
62,053
7
1,864
2,000
2
780
21,640
3
$11
1
58,938
16 493,912
7,859
9,555
4
45,942 2,574
3,090
8
79,961
75,034
25
9,400
700
4
17,609
2
171
79,025 196,342
13
876
92,308 168,483
23
739
37 364,187 293,970
7,211
10,562
2
369
13,445
15,776
5
24 196,873 102,245
46,003
17,210
3
161
1
27,689 1,311
17 148,741
942
1,900
1
55,326 1,241
12 66,877
62,724
28,892
8
2,228
2,069
2
1.500
1,824
2
12
19,337
30,140
16,214
3,400
4
2,000
1
43,755
785
17 101,653
5,469
4,000
2
1,302
2.500
3
12,685
1
700
3,580
2
10,236
88,068
11
1,900
4,283
4
28 214, 756 191,629 4, 925
2,412
500
1
314 2,051,483 1,614,483 13,002

5 $109,602 $10,203
1 56,526 17,850
3 39,433 2,615
2
11,800
32 299,875 172,840
2
17,900 4,688
2
8,600
269
2
17,569
576
8
71,809 42,985
5
1,010 1,183
4
5,000 16,128
37 320,011 140,063
1
2
1

2,700

$136
61

23,744
16,089
464

8

174,077 39,394

2
3

34,840 7,469
23,713 2,002

120 1,177,665 510,362

197

a The term “agricultural societies’’ is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
9 The “reserve” is a fund created from specific appropriations, at the end of each accounting period, from
the net profits, in order to provide for unexpected losses.
10 “ Surplus” is the amount of net profits left after the payment of interest on share capital, provision for
reserve and educational funds, and return of purchase dividends.




40

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

DISPOSITION OF SURPLUS SAVINGS.

In most e^ses the amount of earnings is determined every three
months, though in many of the farmers’ societies this is done annually.
In general, interest on share capital has the first claim on the net
earnings, after which provision is made for reserve and educational
funds, and the remainder is returned to the members in proportion
to their patronage.
INTEREST ON SHARE CAPITAL.

As indicated before, in the cooperative movement share capital is
supposed to receive no more than a certain-fixed rate of interest.
The rate actually paid may fall below this maximum but should not
rise above it. In some societies all or part of the share capital is non­
interest bearing. Table 24 shows the rate of interest actually paid
in 1920 on share capital by the societies included in the study:
T able

2 4 .—ANNUAL

RATE OF INTEREST PAID ON SHARE CAPITAL BY SOCIETIES OF
EACH TYPE IN 1920.

Rate of interest.
1 per cent...................................
per cent.................................
2 per cent...................................
3 per cent...................................
3| per cent.................................
4 per cent...................................
4§ per cent.................................
5 per cent...................................
6 per cent...................................
7 per cent...................................
8 per cent.....................ipl........

Number paying
each rate of interest
per year.
Consum­ Agricul­
ers’ so­ tural
cieties. societies.1
1
1
1
10
1
28
2
94
124
35
136

14
21
22
21
109

Rate of interest.
9 per cent...................................
10 per cent.................................
19 per cent.................................
20 per cent.................................
40 per cent.................................
No interest paid.......................
All or part of capital non­
interest bearing.....................
Not reported.............................
Total................................

Number paying
each rate of interest
per year.
Consum­ Agricul­
ers’ so­ tural
cieties. societies.1
2 40
1
3
1
189
11
50
728

1
35
1
35
22
281

1 The term “ agricultural societies’7is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
* Including one society in which the interest was paid in trade at the store.

According to the above table, the most general rates of interest
seem to be from 5 to 8 per cent, since 53.4 per cent of the consumers’
and 61.6 per cent of the agricultural societies paid rates falling within
this range. No interest at all was paid by 189 consumers’ and 35
agricultural societies. Since 1920 was a poor business year many
associations either made no profits out of which to pay interest or
their members voted to let what earnings there were remain in the
business.
The average rate paid by the societies studied (excluding those not
reporting on this point and those all or part of whose share capital
bears no interest) was 4.8 per cent among the consumers’ and 6.5 per
cent among the agricultural associations.
PROVISION FOR RESERVE AND EDUCATIONAL FUNDS.

In Table 25 is shown the provision made for the reserve and educa­
tional funds, after payment of interest on share capital, in the 280
societies reporting.



41

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

NUMBER OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE CLASSIFIED BY PER CENT OF
SURPLUS SAVINGS APPROPRIATED FOR RESERVE AND FOR EDUCATIONAL
PURPOSES.

T able 2 5 .—

Number of societies appropriating each
classified per cent for—
Educational
purposes.

Reserve.

Per cent of surplus savings appropriated.1

Con­ Agricul­ Con­ AgriculsumersJ tural sumers' i tural
societies. societies.2 societies. societies.1
1 and under 5..............................................................................
5 and under 10............................................................................
10 and under 15..........................................................................
15 and under 20.........................................................................
20 and under 25..........................................................................
25 and under 50..........................................................................
50 and under 100.........................................................................
All profits....................................................................................
All profits remaining after payment of purchase dividends
No regular percentage...............................................................
Total reporting.................................................................

347

i

i

j

I
!
1

s 28
<79 ;
1
7
9!
10
3
1
’ 21
206

13
18
6 26
3
5
2
1
1
85
74

<33
647
6

92
88

6
<8
1

15

1After paying interest on share capital.
* The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.
3 Including 2 societies which also add lapsed dividends and 7 societies (ordinarily appropriating 1 per
cent) which provide that when the profits exceed 10 per cent, 2 per cent shall be set aside for reserve.
<Including 1 society which also adds membership fees.
3 Including 1 society which also adds profits from business with nonmembers.
«Including 2 societies which also add membership fees; 1 society which also adds membership fees and
profits from business with nonmembers; and 1 society which also adds membership fees and all forfeitures.
7 Including 7 societies whose reserve is formed by profits from business with nonmembers and 1 society
whose reserve is formed by 25 per cent of profits from business with nonmembers.
3 Including 1 society which sets aside for reserve an amount equal to 25 per cent of the amount returned
in purchase dividends, and 1 society whose reserve is formed by profits from business with nonmembers.
9Including 1 society whose reserve is formed by membership fees, and 1 society whose reserve is formed
by profits from business with nonmembers.

The most common proportion of savings set aside for educational
purposes is 5 per cent. By “ educational work ” is meant that done in
familiarizing both the members and the public with the aims and prin­
ciples of cooperation. This may be done in various ways, as through
the formation of study groups, the publication of a cooperative news
sheet or magazine, etc. The amount of work so done varies greatly
from society to society, some neglecting it altogether or leaving it to
be done by the wholesale society or the educational body, while others
consider this one of the most important activities of the society and
devote considerable attention to it. One society plans to start classes
in practical cooperation and in the theory and history of the move­
ment, and thereafter to admit to full membership only graduates
1
from these classes. All others will be counted as 1 probationers ”
until they qualify.
Ten per cent is the most common appropriation for reserve. The
by-laws of many societies provide that whatever appropriation is de­
termined upon shall be continued until the accumulation of reserve
reaches a certain proportion of the paid-in share capital. A number
of the cooperative laws also make compulsory the accumulation of a
certain proportion of the capital as reserve; after this amount is
reached continuance of the practice is (by implication) optional with
the society.




42

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

The proportion of capital which must be accumulated as reserve is
shown m Table 26:
26— NUMBER OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE PLACING MINIMUM RESERVE
ACCUMULATION AT SPECIFIED PER CENT OF PAID-IN SHARE CAPITAL OR
AMOUNT.

T able

Con­
Con­
Per cent of paid-in share capi­ sumers7 Agricul­ Per cent of paid-in share capi­ sumers7 Agricul­
tural
tural
tal, or amount.
tal, or amount.
societies. societies.1
societies. societies.1
5 per cent...................................
10 per cent.................................
15 per cent.................................
20 per cent.................................
25 per cent.................................
30 per cent.................................
334 per cent.................;............
36 per cent.................................
50 per cent.................................
60 per cent.
100 per cent...............................
120 per cent...............................

1
2
2
2
3
50
3
1
3 12
3
1

1
1
2
21
8

130 per cent............... ...............
$500...........................................
$1,000........................................
$2,000.........................................
$3,000..........................................
$5,000..........................................
$10,000........................................
$25,000........................................
10 No specified minimum
1
Total reporting..............
3

2
1
1
1
2
219
306

1
1
2
1
62
94

1 The term “agricultural society” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers7)
and marketing societies.
2 This society is putting all its profits into the reserve fund.
3Including 1 society which will return no dividends until the full amount of reserve is reached.

Thirty per cent of share capital seems to be the minimum reserve
most generally fixed. An evidence of the members' recognition of the
importance oi insuring the society's financial stability is shown by the
fact, noted in the table, that two societies are placmg in reserve all
earnings made by the business, and one of these states its determina­
tion to continue to do this until the full minimum reserve is reached.
As shown below, some societies placed all their earnings for 1920 in
the reserve fund, though not making this practice a general rule.
The actual amounts of reserve already accumulated by 434 societies
have been shown in Table 23.
DEPRECIATION.

Depreciation is taken care of by writing off a certain percentage of
the value of buildings, and furniture, fixtures, etc., or making an
appropriation therefor out of the profits, the most common rates being
2\ per cent on buildings and 10 per cent on furniture and fixtures.
PURCHASE DIVIDENDS.

The practice as to return of purchase dividends is shown in Table 27.
27.—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE RETURNING AND NOT RETURNING
PURCHASE DIVIDENDS AND NUMBER OPERATING ON “COST PLUS77 BASIS.

T able

Item.
Societies returning purchase dividends—
Societies on “cost-plus77*plan......................
Societies not returnmg purchase dividends.
Total......................................................

Consumers7
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
576
45
15
2 636

90.6
7.1
2.4
100.0

239
7
8
3254

94.1
2.8
3.1
100.0

815
52
23
<890

91.6
5.8
2.7
100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies77is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers7)
and marketing societies.
2 Not including 92 societies whose practice as to return of purchase dividends was not reported.
* Not including 27 societies whose practice as to return of purchase dividends was not reported.
<Not including 119 societies whose practice as to return of purchase dividends was not reported.



43

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

As is shown in the table above, 90.6 per cent of the consumers’ and
94.1 per cent of the agricultural societies reporting return to mem­
bers, in proportion to patronage, the earnings made by the business.
In addition to these, 7.1 per cent of the consumers’ associations and
2.8 per cent of the combined purchase and sale societies operate on
the “ cost-plus” plan. Under the “cost-plus” plan there is of course
no margin or surplus from which to declare dividends. These u costplus” societies, by selling at cost plus enough to cover the cost of
operation of the store instead of at current prices, accomplish the
same purpose of saving for the members the retailer’s profit. In the
latter case, the members receive their dividend with each purchase
made instead of waiting till the end of the quarter or year. As was
suggested before, however, this plan does not allow of the accumula­
tion of a reserve and is therefore attended with greater risk. There
is still another reason, a psychological one, for the prevalence of the
practice of sale at current prices with the return of purchase divi­
dends at the end of stated periods. With sale at cost plus expense
of handling, the saving at any one time is very small. Where sale is
made at current prices and the total amount saved is returned at the
end of the quarter the amount is much more considerable. This rea­
son has an especially strong force in the United States, where penny
savings have never been popular. It takes a saving of some size to
impress the American as being worth while. Even the quarterly
dividend has frequently been looked upon as not worth the effort
involved in the duties of membership in the cooperative society.11
In Table 28 is shown, for the 576 consumers’ societies and the 239
agricultural associations which return purchase dividends when
earned by the business, the number and per cent which returned and
which did not return any dividend for the last qiiarter of 1920:
T able 2 8 .

—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES WHICH RETURNED OR DID NOT RETURN PURCHASE DIVIDENDS FOR LAST QUARTER OF 1920.
Item.

Societies which returned purchase divi­
dends............................................................
Societies which did not return purchase
dividends.....................................................
Total......................................................

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
340
236
576

59.0
41.0
100.0

114
125
239

47.7
52.3
100.0

454
361
815

55.7
44.3
100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies’’ is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies. The data in this table, however, apply only to their consumers’ activities.

It will be seen that over two-fifths of the consumers’ societies and
over one-half of the combined purchase and sale associations which
conform to the purchase-dividend principle did not return such
dividends for the last quarter of 1920. The main reason for thi^ was
probably that there were no earnings to divide. A number of the
societies have stated this to be the case. In one instance, while the
business showed a profit, this was more than wiped out by loss from
11 One cooperator, however, a man of considerable experience and the president of a successful wholesale
society takes exception to this view and holds that, on the contrary, Americans want their savings at the
time and prefer not to wait until the end of the dividend period.




44

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

fire; another had a heavy loss from the flooding of the basement.
One society has determined not to return any dividend during its
first three years in business. One New England society founded in
1901 has each year put all its profits into its “surplus, which now
amounts to nearly $12,000. Six societies put all their earnings for
1920 into their reserve fund, and two others used their earnings to
increase the share capital. The members of another society, whose
business showed earnings amounting to $1,106, decided to put part
of this into the reserve fund and to use the remainder in loans to the
unemployed workmen of the locality. The loans are to be repaid
when the workmen find employment.
It is unfortunate that the first statistical report of the consumers’
cooperative movement should iiave covered a year of such poor
business conditions as those of 1920, inasmuch as the reports oi the
movement necessarily reflect these conditions.
The rate of dividend returned for the last quarter of 1920 is shown
in Table 29.
T a bl e

29.—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES RETURNING EACH SPECIFIED RATE OF PURCHASE
DIVIDEND FOR LAST QUARTER OF 1920.
Number of societies which returned each specified rate of
purchase dividend.
Rate of dividend returned.

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Under 1 per cent............................................
1 and under 2 per cent...................................
2 and under 3 per cent...................................
3 and under 4 per cent..................................
4 and under 5 per cent..................................
5 and under 6 per cent...................................
6 and under 7 per cent...................................
7 and under 8 per cent..................................
8 and under 9 per cent...................................
9 and under 10 per cent.................................
10 and under 12 per cent...............................
12 and under 15 per cent...............................
15 and under 20 per cent...............................
20 and under 25 per cent...............................
25 and under 30 per cent...............................
30 per cent and over.......................................
Total......................................................
Dividend to nonmembers also.....................

2
19
36
29
44
65
2 37
20
31
6
35
10
3
2
1
340
130

0.6
5.6
10.6
8.5
12.9
19.1
10.9
5.9
9.1
1.8
10.3
2.9
.9
.6
.3
100.0
38.2

8
9
26
18
10
8
7
3
11
9
1
3
1

7.0
7.9
22.8
15.8
8.8
7.0
6.1
2.6
9.6
7.9
.9
2.6
.9

114
15

100.0
13.2

10
28
62
47
54
73
2 44
23
42
6
44
11
6
1
2
1
454
145

2.2
6.2
13.7
10.4
11.9
16.1
9.7
5.1
9.3
1.3
9.7
2.4
1.3
.2
;5
.2
100.0
31.9

1 The term ‘'agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
2 Including 1 society which returned to members who carried their purchases home 0.2 per cent more
than to those who required delivery service.

According to the above table the rate of purchase dividend most
commonly returned by the consumers’ societies was between 5 and 6
»er cent, and
societies between and 3 per
? each case by the agriculturalreturned by about2 one-fifth ofcent,
n
the dividend was
the
societies. It should be emphasized that this purchase dividend is
calculated as a percentage not of share capital but of sales, and that
when the member receives a patronage dividend of, say, 6 per cent,
he is receiving 6 per cent of the total amount of his purchases at the
store.




45

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

The average rate of purchase dividend returned to members bj the
consumers’ societies was 5.9 per cent and by the agricultural societies
4.7 per cent.
In the United States cooperative societies usually sell to the general
public, though they do not always include nonmembers in the return
of dividends. When dividends are returned to nonmembers also,
these are usually only a certain proportion of the rate received by
the members. In some cooperative organizations the nonmember*s
dividend is not paid to him m money but is applied on the purchase
of a share of stock, so that in time he automatically becomes a member
of the society and so is entitled to the full rate of dividend. Among
the societies which reported having paid a patronage dividend for
the last quarter of 1920, 130, or 38.2 per cent, of the consumers’
organizations and 15, or 13.2 per cent, of the combined purchasing
and marketing societies returned dividends to nonmembers as wen
as to members. Of these, 82 (63.1 per cent) of the consumers’
associations and 8 (53.3 per cent) of the agricultural organizations
returned to nonmembers a dividend at one-half the rate returned
to the members. A surprisingly large number—26 (20 per cent) of
the consumers’ and 6 (40 per cent) of the agricultural societies—
returned to nonmembers the same rate of patronage dividend that
was paid to the members themselves. In other societies which
extended to nonmembers the benefit of the savings made by the
cooperative enterprise the nonmembers’ rate varied from one-fourth to
seven-ninths of the members’ rate. In this connection it is interesting
to note that the by-laws of several of the agricultural societies state
as a principle that unonmembers must not be given any benefits
of cooperation because they cripple our cause.” Whether the socie­
ties in question really operate on this principle or whether it is only
a pronouncement is not known.
The average rate of dividend returned to nonmembers bv the
consumers’ societies amounted to 3.4 per cent on their purchases,
and that returned by the agricultural organizations to 3.1 per cent.
The amount of money returned to members during the Whole year
1920 in the form of savings on patronage was ascertainable for only
69 consumers’ societies. In the financial reports of the agricultural
societies received no separation of dividends returned on merchandise
and on the marketing operations was made. The amounts returned
by the consumers’ societies for which this information was available
are shown in Table 30:
•

TA BLE

80.—AMOUNT RETURNED IN PATRONAGE DIVIDENDS IN 1920, BY 69 CONSUMERS'
SOCIETIES.

State.
Alaska................................................................................
California...........................................................................
Illinois................................................................................
Iowa...................................................................................
Kansas...............................................................................
Maine.................................................................................

105983°—22----- 4




Patronage dividends returned
during 1920.
Number
of Number
societies
of
Average Average
report­ members.
Amount. per
per
ing.
society. member.
1
1
9
2
3
2

200
14
8,481
578
368
654

$1,612
482
38,311
6,812
5,907
11,098

$1,612
482
4,257
3,406
1,969
5,549

$8.66
34.43
4.52
11.78
16.05
16.97

46
T able

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

30.—AMOUNT RETURNED IN PATRONAGE DIVIDENDS IN 1920 BY 69 CONSUMERS*
SOCIETIES—Concluded.

State.
Maryland...........................................................................
Massachusetts..................................................................
..........................................
Michigan.........
Minnesota............ .....................................................
Montana..........
..............................................
Nebraska.......................... ................................................
New York..........................................................................
North Dakota...................................................................
Ohio....................................................................................
Oklahoma..........................................................................
Pfvnnsyl vania................. ................ .................................
Rhode Island....................................................................
South Dakota...................................................................
Tennessee..........................................................................
Virginia.............................................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................................
Total........................................................................

Patronage dividends returned
during 1920.
Number
of Number
societies
of
report­ members.
Average Average
ing.
Amount. per
per
society. member.
1
2
7
6
1
7
2
2
4
1
1
2
1
2
2
10
69

193
$270
1,342
9,083
3,184 113,383
1,047 24,672
299
8,786
1,384 22,604
676
2,351
123
9,082
1,586 15,822
98
2,400
230
120
513
6,663
130
2,700
732 12,009
465
3,670
2,464 52,517
24,761 350,354

$270
4,542
16,198
4,112
8,786
3,229
1,176
4,541
3,956
2,400
120
3,332
2,700
6,005
1,835
5,252
5,078

$1.40
6.77
35.61
23.56
29.38
16.33
3.48
73.84
9.98
24.49
.52
12.99
20.77
16.41
7.89
21.31
14.15

As is shown in the table above, two stores in North Dakota re­
turned an average of $73.84 to each of 123 members as a saving on
their purchases. In the stores of California, Michigan, Minnesota,
Montana, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin each member
received between $20 and $40. The total amount returned in divi­
dends on purchases for 1920 by the 69 consumers’ societies from
which data were secured was $350,354 and the average per member
was $14.15. This is a small saving, it would seem, for a whole year’s
business, but it must be repeated not only that 69 societies are too
small a number to be considered fairly representative of the move­
ment as a whole but also that 1920 can not be regarded as a normal
year. It must also be remembered that the amount returned in
dividend is the amount left after provision has been made for pay­
ment of interest on share capital and for appropriations for reserve
and educational funds. The member receives his dividend on
patronage in addition to interest on whatever amount of share capital
he holds, and the greater the amount of his patronage at the store
the greater his dividend.
The total amounts returned in dividends by individual societies
over a period of years are not inconsiderable. Thus of four stores
for which the bureau has data, one in the 11 years prior to 1929
returned $33,073 on purchases; the second during 1918 and 1919
paid back $11,408; the third in the 6 years just preceding 1920,
returned $31,543; and the fourth, during the same period, returned
$58,000 in dividends. This last society reports that the dividend
has amounted to 10 and 12 per cent in some years. A Michigan
society, in business for 30 years, has not failed to pay a dividend in
all that time, and has returned to its members $1,640,973.35 in
patronage dividends and $126,095 in interest on share capital.




BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

47

BONUS ON WAGES OF EMPLOYEES.

Although the cooperative laws of the States12 require that coopera­
tive societies organized under them shall pay, out of the earnings of
the society, a bonus to employees on their wages (generally at the
same or half the rate paid to members in purchase dividends), and
although this provision is embodied in the by-laws of many of the
societies, it seems to be quite generally disregarded in practice.
Only four societies were found whose financial statements gave any
evidence of the payment of a bonus on wages, and two of these are
located in a State 13 whose cooperative law contains no requirement
on the subject. The bonus thus paid for the year 1920 amounted to
$543, $329, $607, and $2,217.
ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.

A detailed statement of the assets and liabilities of the individual
consumers’ societies which furnished this information appears in
Table 31. Many agricultural societies also supplied such statements,
but since the data covered the marketing as well as the consumers’
phase of the business and these could not be separated, it was thought
desirable not to use the information inasmuch as it was not especially
significant for the purpose of this bulletin.
1 Montana, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wisconsin.
2

13 Michigan.




T able

31.--ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS' SOCIETIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1920.
Surplus and
account.
deficitba

Assets.
Society
No.

Merchan­
dise in­
ventory,
Dec. 31,
1920.

Buildings,
land,
and
equip­
ment.

Bins

receiv­
able.

Re­
Accounts Stocks, Miscel­
Bills
receiv­ bonds, laneous. Loss. Profit. capital. payable. Accounts serve
payable. fund.
able.

1..................
$133 $2,513 $2,095
$65,080
4,180
2...................
$71
2,566
95,000 1,171
4,303
3,769
3...................
65,282
74
6,582
4...................
42,000 1,316 20,259 23,429
2,214
1,491
5...................
126
339
(*)
734
1,642
0...................
29,222
596
1,934
91
3,382
7..................
1,611
6,262
48,985
445 13,158
8................... 105,000 5,373 16,585
981 11,916
7,647
6,987
9...................
693
10,034
5,688
80,000
10...................
504 11,165
5,500
55,445 1,540 23,482
11................... 1,399,179 62,881 257,984 111,134
29,823
12...................
3,521
606 26,712 19,016
88,983
3,194
13...................
304
248 1,358
5,280
23,274
6,000
14...................
912
1,325
2,728
49,570 1,850
1,613 18,155
15...................
864
606
44,710
16................... 130,007 1,854 33,740
7,664
1,627
1,884
17................... 184,000 2,565 12,301 40,973 12,000
1,902
18................... 178,188 1,788 21,040 10,140
2,393
7,700
258,358 15,662 24,604
19..................
6,620
3,759
84,602
2,190
225
20...................
923
21..................
700,000 34,489 431,513 319,550 203,382 106,329
1,326
22..................
31
1,667
10,363
289
791
23...................
5,611
11,035 1,451
3,196
24................... 102,226
108 11,715
2,801
3,723
7,699
25...................
91,699 1,882
805
728
1,693
26...................
26,829
195
4,727
4,546
27...................
75,000 2,148 10,685
2,252
82,013 2,827 *3,535
28...................
187 1,787
596
1,737
29...................
25,110
8
5,501 20,862
30................... 346,670 1,794 95,620 44,071
2,500
6,015
60,598 2,735
31..*.............
7,836
32................... 194,434
9 37,419 12,127
642
700
3,200
33...................
37,000
712
2,333
2,103
4,178
87,687 1,140
34...................
1,444
5,469
79,000 1,860 22,770
35.................




$220
120

868

Liabilities.

$3,190

$544
‘i*351'

51
29
4,350
103
6,123 12,672
2,150 3,021
25

$2,895
535
661
711
486

3,997

$37,917

100

46,685
i,678
’‘5,‘679'

1,202

463
5,585 1,624
646
719
928
37 1,064
125,715
46,650 206,648
*2,' 712
"i*ii8‘
” i*086
118
64
937 18,820 6,801
52
379
580
589
904
250
4,915

10
100

$4,000
$650
4,259
2 270
5,615
3,412
40,978
800
2,490
383
3,950
3,877
700
4,453
1,577
4,016
1,500
4,800
6,254
392,170
6,000
4,125
4,856
2,000
6,100
8.700 11,640
10,000
73,276
8,423
21,389
8,060 36,178
3.700
678.300 497,149
1,564
4,000
3,133
5,263
3,352
2,945
7,650
3,082
9,810
10,345
6,450
500
2,362
2 83
124.300 53,614
2,996 *4,122
16,993 22,596
4,820
6,931
5,000
(!)

<)
<
0)

$2,986
3,737
3,192
7,578
1,811
1,072
3,025
3,727
13,202
5,790
61,335
1,839
3,158
118
1,785
3,645
8,445
3,935
4,313
91,581
461
2,766
4,424
650
103
316

100

16,492
2,097
12,840
1,360
6,348

$1,800
78

Un­ Mis­
Sur­ paid cella­
plus.1 divi­ neous.
dends.
$763
747 $1,612

$38

7
431
650
20,441
482
20
73
1,864
1,055
2,000
27,531
1,053
11
11
360
667
317 4,057
2,300
185
27,153 18,663
836
6,404
5,518

1,490
1,741
145
2,361
1,682
813

17,300
3,559
29,545
417

476
1,104
60
393
374
3,006
724
133
235 628
25.110
977
255

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES,

Total sales
for year Cash on
hand
and in
bank.

00




529
780
5,048
147

8,0i

42
5,501

J28
341
3,331
2,401
479
146
1,389
471
853
451
58
65
739
1,576
256
100
1,335
226
1,348
253

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

4,555
773
10,830
6,429
3,341
2,268
115,435
595
3,525
36..................
639
1,558
2,113
687
1,550
41,341
1,298
1,929
37..................
220
794
2,366
671
808
5,675
269
1,627
3,445
300
38..................
50,000 1,186
4,744
/ 1,000 } 1,559 1,392
7,020 \ 2l,28l
607
2,812
4,596
150
97,000 1,001
4,300
39...................
4,587
34,690 29,260
4,825
64,476
121,000 3,399 43,075 13,103
40..................
(fi)
8,683 16,829 7,311
9,600
89,312
18,626
8,427
41...................
603 18,098
10,237
521
12,600
859
42..................
62,984 2,100 11,586
1,036
260 4,505 3,792
14,525 11,000
8,119 7,263 7,919
1,466
2,022
18,984
154,402
100
43..................
596 32,507
9,297
2,000 10,558
2,740 11,200
700
1,826 9,524
800
44...................
95,639
58 23,366
2,186
1,089 16,406
4,303
98 5,050 3,111
42,463 1,315
2,170
45...................
3,780
5,271
10,400
1,461
4,136
2,400
46................... 105,600
505
7,169
6,512 19,410 11,429 11,296 3,401
3,852
335
9,072
8,611
175,000 1,517 29,957
240
47..................
623
1,148 27,705
480
281 1,378
29,093
1,939
1,416
601
48...................
136
4,766
48,291 21,281
7,177
904 3,795
1,243 10,200
49..................
152,000
210 9,708 51,542
233
6,200
24,000
1,567
2,000
3,500
50,000
6,000
50..................
500
11,627
3,992
48,560 14,300
3,375 11,048
51..................
250,000 1,622 41,559 21,266
60
1,212
7,394 27,861 17,588
1,876
6,933
3,085
52................... 146,500
115
943 34,725 10,130
6,410
5,0T
604
7,505
683 6,607
2,092
53...................
40,000
188 10,007
2,459
3,300
3,935
1,623
54..................
76,577 1,117 15,019
2,159
86
8,660
6,749
101
67
55..................
6,444
61,353
7,844
1,163
976
1,669
11,825
6,000
2,901
56
91,675
56..................
1,283
3,118
33 19,481
2,826
4,846 4,300
4,310
504
121
57...................
2,100
1,968
39,160
227 12,626
1,026
5,755
1,100
470
58..................
100,000 1,599
819
90
325
5,518
2,719
5,000
4,455
1,873
59..................
128,126 5,052
9,651
571
4,233
381
2,920
2,965
398
281
1,054
60...................
24,891
5,113
216
351
2,470
844
2,144
61...................
735
2,100
202
4,749
165
1,591 13.000
6.500
62...................
125
3,751
15,000
7,100
286
9,929
549
5,572
4,763
5,800
122 2,276
63...................
53,215
5,770
148 9,703
5,364
3,123
4.000
1,435
64..................
4,407
64,508
1,251
8,001
263
4,757
1,803
4,798
6,646
105
5,472
757 4,627
65..................
55,736
6,843
200
23,240
1,501 35,215 11,545 18,696
66..................
2,500 13,271 1,365
86,000
736 47,054
5,497
2,052 2,464
1,550
16,963
67..................
864
106,723 4,434 16,897
7,555
128
6,610
1,749
500
7,845
337
68..................
55
31,296
3,155
2,845
10,565
2,779
1.500
1,577
3,500
69...................
7,952
1,404
34,350
3,862
2,660
7,460
6,731
70................... 137,903 2,229 10,136
2,728
5,620
1,368
825
5,840
147
71..................
46,331
2,785
2,638
873
864
10,800
147
72..................
141,198 1,590
9,940
962
28,525
700
455
73..................
41,681
21,694
388 2,248
405
5,543
3,158
19,981 13,966
74...................
100 5,696 1,437
6,709
8,380 21,798
179
1 3,170
4,000 12,544
25.000
932 2,500
75................... 268,022 2,012 28,797 3,358
21,890
! 13,301
2,836
3,420 11,500
76................... 122,199 4,436
2,748
100
3,281 20,492
35,398
50.000 55,090 39,809
77................... 907,000 11,335 121,739 76,033
51,258 5,000 2,309
! 343
2,504
2,100
2,015
5.000
78................... 102,000 1,427
1,517
4,186
4,832
| 1,352
906
6,926
2,123
79...................
3,879
81,602 2,288
5,140
1 Surplus is the amount left after the payment of interest on share capital, provision for reserve and educational funds, and return of purchase dividends.
2 Loan capital.
* Not reported.
4Nonstock association.
6 Included with accounts receivable.
6Includes also bills receivable.

60
13
546
485
5,009 9,766
40,136 47,241

CO

Cn
O

T able 31.—ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OP INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS’ SOCIETIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1920-Continued.
Surplus and
deficit account.

Assets.
Society
No.

86
88

100
101
102
103

104
105
106
107
108
109

110
111

Buildings,
land,
and
equip­
ment.

$29,716
154,559
(*)
31,672
75.000
283,983
78,780
46,923
35.000
127,320
65,977
256,512
60.000
67,580
165.000
52,174
118,359
105,869
117,848
58,018
40,841
62,321
40.000
140,157
85,962
362,182
210,483
81,547
19.000
119,744
125.000

$30 $2,058
3,387
4,413
186
2.776
506
4,836
1.776
9,169
1,621 51,908
6,515
5.569
3,264
406
1,526
1,938
2,310
494
421 26,733
341
7,105
3,584 17,351
16
2,976
494
9.570 e 29,579
7,966
767
456 16,500
16,790
1,354 38,875
360
3,709
299
3,257
6.539
1,075
2,401
657
1,495 15,711
386 13,848
2,214 22,118
3,937 20,071
826 27,709
235
6,059
1,213 34,580
9.540
827

$1,384
23,120
2,633
17,297
2,152
1,925
4,467
1,163
3,130
2,386
20,558
4,679
17,648
8,791
4,349
4,609
5,864
6,123
3,107
4,927
1,588
21,246
11,150
16,490
13,243
645
5,392
23,184
8,973

(8)




210

110

Bills Accounts Stocks, Miscel­
Re­
Share
Bills
receiv­ receiv­ bonds, laneous. Loss. Profit. capital. payable. Accounts serve
payable. fund.
etc.
able.
able.
$107

306
*398

(7
)
'W "

4,550
1,644

(6)

i4,052

$821
3,160
1,171
696
320
18,952 $598
18
984
1,341
745 300
1,128
300
1,803
16,460 260
282
2,402
1,800
1,980
e 11,188
215
2,775
27,091
2,278
1,526
1,248 1,410
1,929
17,513 2,050
17,169
19,511
300
6 9,686
4,519
850
6,206
10,073

$455
987
231

200

53
578
237
53

1,100
200
100

50
461
353
769
44
108
240
2,298

”*594’

$200
1,208

1,112 2,001

$712
3,075
2,081
23
*i,'790
1,010

1,002
294

$1,375
7,570
1,905
3,100
9,060
5,984
2,140
3,610
2,482
23,400
5,000
26,940
2,687
9,960
4,210
7.930
5,890
6.350
14,250
2,270
. 2,560
8,520
3,540
18,911
4.930
24,991
12,380
6,650
7.350
25,000
7,700

1,135

1,998
20,005
1,792
1,154
4,822
4,443
1,144

2 $785
1,300
7,000
1,210

26,000
1,000
940
2,242
1,328
2,000
1,800
1,703
9,405
7,100
98
13,409
4,725
1,804
1,639
2 532
3,232
2464
1,000
1,500
14,013
19,512
11,450
13,500
2549
1,450
18,998

6,200
12,220

$1,229
9,740
1,516
1,175
19,282
168
5,064
667
1,555
2,519
3.045
7,903
850
1.039
8,043
5,175
12,689
14,052
10,882
4,173
2.045
172
746
3,735
17,952
7,158
6.040
10,761
3,928
20,159
4,373

$428
5,621
18,682
160

Sur­
plus.

Un­ Mis­
paid cella­
divi­ neous.
dends.

$166
9,970

6,705
1,017

$8,396
3,365 2,096
2,457
1,443
12,227 11,130
i, ioe
30, 387
1,909
224
2,106
541
75
566
789
15,159 7,914
5,125 5,498
2,067

11,264
2,591

4,670

956
1,000
757
45,271
597
39

$2,633
568
8,956
615
60
1,050
648
2,571
1,050
343
1,244
215
5,131
519
996
1,158

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES,

80.
81,
82,
83
84,
85
87
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

Merchan­
dise in­
ventory,
Dec. 31,
1920.

Total sales
for year. Cash on
hand
and in
bank.

Liabilities.




5.405
2,591
533
2,300
6,023
1.406
314

800
50
300
308

6,088
13,353
2,849
6,415
300
7,373
13,846
9,798
50
550
22,093
337 9,675
6,386
6,933 ‘*395'
2,136
36,871
50
10,996
7,863 2,801
5,667
11,090
15,534
253
8,608
241

“'50'

1,100
100

233
227
25
295
356
48
150
1,010
195
351
261
81,780
27,841
296
634
2,068
597
767
787
264

1,000

46

5,794
39,991
4,071
315
6,127
6,185
9,750
4,114 3,000
5,241

319

100 594
i35
149

304
2,584

279
7,000
1,137
2,487
458
1,920
7,400
980
8,068
123
21,140
9,153
9,108
1,077
27,700
92
4,123
776
9 } 1,564
2 500
2,588
13.500
4,030
6,765
4,900
11,515
173
3,365
11,545
6,620 13,822
4,496
5,500
7,284
5,415
29.400 12,300 24,494 2,856
14,920 22,624 19,136
23,050
28,200 214,400 2 1,546 65,486
8,671 200,000 28,595 29,285
2,845 25.400 13,942 10,630
3,469
309 13.000 17,395
3,300
145
12,241
121,740 60,608
130/334 2 39,045
16,176
21,223
3,950
1,119
14.500
4,730
2,152 35.000
15,607 14,513 13,040
1,531
3.000 16,917 11,242
9,595 16.700
3,000
44,100 /\ 2 17,987 23,825
9,876
10.700 13.500
750
5,315
11,750
6,991
5.000
9,785 4,295
3,640
1,923
2 570
2,530 40.500 13,000 14,545 2,708
30.000 12,095 29,476
5,142 33,573
834
1,191
3,028
10,775
10,562
15.000
2 449
4,813
923
1,100
29.419 2 2,700 44,168
15.500 11,697
4,226
6,463
2,048
8,150 12,536
5,396
3,223
3,255
1,529
7 Included with merchandise inventory.
8 Includes also buildings, real estate, and equipment.
9 Included with surplus.
10 Includes reserve also.
2,131
3,186
1,952

4,390
2,360
2,480
3,810
5,895
19.800
4,900
9,270
14,300
7,218
22.800

1,866

10,200
10,200

2,000

2.000

(9)

893
3,267 2,320
116
3,554
887
326
6,874
5,562 *3,’102'
85
11,001 2,362
631
16,471
1,978
1,071 ” *718’ 3,204
592
399
1,400
990
11,645
14,573
20,487
12,508
3,048
6,097
1,542
14,772
662
161
232
15,751
3,500
32
18,707
30
831
15,550
669 3,638
53,799 14,533 1,716
829
2,570
6,882
7,403 1,978
1,348
7,900
40
4,388

384

BUSINESS OPERATIONS,

4,025
265
77,770 2,272
112.................
8,080
H3.................
44
3,663
25,000
2,872
114.................
2,457
36'000 1,032
4,927
6,750
600
115................. 183,115 2,615 12,651
4,297
116................. 151,000 1,952 20, 111
95,151 5,056 17,370 22,494
9,538
117.................
118.................
489
3,049
32,000
4,547
8,970
335
6,777
119................. 102,000 3,784
1,602
120................. 104,000 1,260 29,911 13,650
3,685
121................. 226,904 2,009 16,296
1,403
1,246
122.................
7L890 4,096 28,731
785 25,892
1,135
63,000
123.................
821
124.................
2,849
86,610 1,365 17,196
7,658
834
125................. 130,355 1,115 45,196
550 51,156 6,503
126................. 162,000
997
127................. 1,060,000 7,378 163,335 56,963 15,156
128................. 153,706 4,073
1,780 205,029 38,303
129................. 118,272 1,761 40,970
3,404
391 29,298
130.................
8,788
85,000
277
1 11,597
131.................
32,688
5,000
693 190,054 123,338
132................. 743,000
4,800
133.................
96,992 1,148 24,687
8,834
9,401
7,314 11,034
134.................
177
15,090
135................. 140,867 1,757 36,643
7,400
614
136................. 111, 881
413 23,542 12,613
2,530
262 41,192
3,292
137................. 170,637
1,618
915 52, 715 24,037 14,450
138................. 137,000
723 23,091 17,284
139...............
482
99,597
736
2,986
3,528
140.................
76,627
2,333
141................. 155,095 1,357 10,888 10,422
6,853
4,892
142................. 235,748 1,755 60,523
370
143................. 338,962 10,998 72, 815 16,851
144................. 108,130 5,260 8 31,133
1,005
(7)
364 13,187 2,131
145.................
22,891
146................. 275,581 2,326 13,120 11,043
147................. 180,000 9,590 49,639 27,090
67,814
310 19,460
2,584
363
148.................
5,479
5,252
149.................
53,765 1,554 15,114
2,749
302 10,851
31,869
150.................
2 Loan capital.
3Not reported.
5 Included with accounts receivable,
e Includes also bills receivable.

10329

Ol

Crt
to

Table 31.—ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS* SOCIETIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1920-Continued.
Surplus and
deficit account.
Society
No.

Merchan­ Builddise in­
ventory, and
Dec. 31, equip­
1920. ment.

Bills Accounts Stocks, Miscel­
Re­
Bills
Share
receiv­ receiv­ bonds, laneous. Loss. Profit. capital. payable. Accounts serve
payable. fund.
etc.
able.
able.

$93,000 $1,061 €31,284 $7,952 $10,655
2,565
70.000
2,705
287 20,295
31,387
16,272
134 14,516 10,587
1,180
16,811
3,644 14,366 11,985
110,000
124.000
262 21,549 10,630
2,335
299,362 1,392 47,214 46,337
830
758 15,708
>,276
56,725
433
65.000
2,376 •8,250
4,002
457 13,194
3,338
100,176
8,050
103.000 1,621 18,821
75.000 1,732 15,052 2,'051
471 57,509 .3,389 17,548
194,461
38,238
7,500
3.040
56,781
5,696
10,844
119.000 3,524 15,869
1,659
37,170 5,432
2,386
671
1,150
56.000 3,805
4,704
340
552 84,445
140,769
7.041
985 14,857
89,164
876 89,921
5,414
130,076
1,756
55.000
295 20,323 16,500
197,952
642 21,050 10,546 ” *506'
62,529
142 >6,890
5,567
60,352 2,754 ■ 9,279 5,041
157
18.000 1,272 15,014 6,464
160.000 15,531 13,889 25,032
19,698
200
1,013
952
642
53,041 9,831
3,643
1,774
95,145
489
552
5,500
22,266 2,165
2,571
4,008
1,896
613
69
175,000
2,614
4,534
473
4,488 140,184
119,876 8,680
56,884 3,203
3,710 10,911




200
66
110

696 $1,000 $7,279
5,915
3,340
680 900
201
191
422
5,662
412
19,713
50 1,264
1,095
238
270
1,468 4,060
827 $1,270
26,621
50
901
63 3,780
■ 2,707
39
730
7,695 1,192
684 2,324
4,404
•2,540
503
1,465
2,550
50
45
3,316
11,789
5,590
3,340
17,937 1,000
1,158
480
166
265
1,090
2,212 •400
150
281
85
1,122 1,300
197
5,514
185
197
1,359 17,472
1,349
400
2,157 4,387
6,228

1,000

100

200

100

$381

698
1,258
1,449
9,129
656
1,751
1,797
2,309
9,328
261
1,098
787

$39,400
$16,208
$271
18,600 $14,675
2,276
1,216
2,040
8,400
6,039
2,112
14,200
12,160
124 $426
20,239
7,550
>6,600 20,625
134
1,657
38,584 40,100 16,249 9,847
7,680
5,884
353
3,684
4,876
1,619
11,530
11,160
8,458 19,239
7.600
1,278
17.125 14,500
147
4.600
17.700
.5,235
20,100 61,882
3,304
4,077
6,200
2,599
467
11,600
5,000
3,661
500
846
11,840
640
7,700
7.600
586
1,563
1,458
17.700 12,200
13,230
1,676
14,300 9,000
39.125 14,050 7,158
3,760
6,669
13.600 18.450
284
4,905
17,360 18.450
342
8,988
14.000
127
40 1,556
291
8,500
5,650
674
2,170
14,000
39,531
22,610
1,580
1,540 21,000
13,296
1,470
6,156
10,250
2,280
680
7,892
8,388
9,.883
46,815 2 88,916
8,154
315
2,000 } 2,528
8,976 25,450

112

21.000
(<)

T

Un­ MiaSur­ paid cellaplus. divi­
dends.
$3,448
840
$770
791
904
2,801
1,104
259
1,116
1,233
1,573 2,022

64

2,094
” ‘305
829
652
109
1,848
1,387
619
28

2,614
1,619

2,347
5,801
11,642

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158,
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
367
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
1*78.
179
180
161
182
183
184
185

Total sales
for year. Cash on
hand
and in
bank.

Liabilities.

1,884
181*385
7,523
13,446
81 932
47' 591
109 340
41 000
53 QQ0
117,751
40 3Q6
139,000
95 534
31,000
i3i!66o
42'000
56 793
63' 817
152,000
12,000
78,925
113,252
37,500
96,000
122,483
256,000
67,800
50,626
106,680
(3)
86 141
46*837
80*000
82 184
45* 671
20*282
58*000
(3)

8,577
9,000
30,714
25,000




91
2,615
'837
2,100
13
347
3,069
S' 051
i'soo
268
939
1,105
685
1,582
76
8 968
'621
238
1 307
*919
1,015
5,356
808

1,880
10' 487
2'383
1,988
218
540
1,467
176
4,618
5,076
20,203
14,298
19*649
42,287
11,542
11*924
12*153
17,529
18,274
6,683
9,936
29,009
21,612
10,941
23,379
2,583
5,972
9,207 28,446
1,705
3,612
(5)
4,100
651 32,853
285 6 110
7*722
6,426
1,487 16* 434
8,422
1,060
50 12,493
3,568
4,637
1,490
3*690
3,965 19*331
202
1,602
113
4,518
417
5,117
3,736
3 417
2,641 1 2*931
2 Loan capital.
3 Not reported.

367
25,600
402
1,147
2,865
2,374
2,306
11,343
851
640
45,943
8,351
3,400
13,806
3,066
4,281
5,028
3,659
15,433
6,000
2,646
1,692
5,898
2,382
19,259
2,305
36,107
6,026
2,850
398
2,690
11,299
4,859
2,599
2,395
2*190
14,226
7,237
1,101
2,507
3,809
2,119

235
402

549
10,629

50
4,625
1,175
1,511
375
425
4,091
150
4,865
5,530
2,290
12,162

250
199
347
716
1,389
1,700
5,429
20,107
3,388
5,632
1,036
9,266
8,758
11,304
8,014
13,377
2,793
3,070
985

1,234
2,518
111,630
490
3,419
3,659
427
2,197
3,332
46
550
7,335

5
120
30
100
300

300

300
60
300
300
300
500

533
264

805
491
721 1,153
20
996 5,136
1,130
39
1,275
3,813
43
363
253
10,518
474
22,054
236
463
9,661
68
171
11,647
62
4,839
240 4,925
204
785
1,424 16,780
1,054
85
720
293

1,749 1,043
292
194
3,620
378
125
379
128
7
281
167 1,286
252
* Nonstock association.
5Included with accounts receivable.

4,213
7,405
9,120
3,280
9,168
148
805

625

3,655
22,350
4,300
982
1,434
3,457
9,244
5,275
2,100
26,884
17,359
16,000
24,300
4,623
17,900
7,500
9,450
22,800
18,695
2,000
21,600
15,700
11,900
32,909
5,725
11,265
12,107
8,045
15,000
3,075
3,080
29,350
10,967
2,100
13,876
5,290
9,570
3,648
5,276
8,000
12,415
5,515

3,000 18,398
2 2,164
1,194
486
1,210
22,200
1,899
1,660
1,700
2 4,852 6,925
77
1,540
r 27,000 \ 6,790
\ 2 2,885
21,900
4,784
7,823
/ 4,500 } 20,467
1 26,800
4,271
8,960
1,673
31
4,100
8,591
1,200
9,938
11,823
55
6,177 11,889
14,681 17,385
9,206 10,971
/ 1,000 } 2,408
\ 2 50O
/ 14,250
\ 26,300 | 7,934
1,222
( 22,852
\ 220,553 \ 5,122
/
649
\ 21; 400 . .. . .. . ..
634
3,289
1,510
259
2 500
860
2,100
2,914
306
1,500
3,328
100
895
13,170
6,117
'
\( 52fS?
2 i3i
^ 200

4,854

1,131
449

958
529
2,311
297
2,182
1,248
4,750

160
3,078

144

403 4,747
3,569
281
530
3,252

681
4,281
5,280
3,200
2,805
422
832
794

i, 119
11 Includes cash also.

771
878
15,943
384
3

3,137
72
293
2,087

147
837
305
101
22
794
1,310
454
1,363
2,500
400
33
1,457
1,551
431
11,915
1,493
90
150
714
5,151
129
134
9,928
280
560
235
326
684

B U S IN E SS OPERATIONS.

IKfi
187
.188
. .
189
190
191
192
19R
194
196............
197
198.................
199
200
201
202
203
204
20f>
20fi
207
208
209
210
211
212.
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223 .
224
225...
226 ..
227
228.................

cn
CO

T able 31.—ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS’ SOCIETIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1920-Concluded.
Surplus and
deficit account.

Assets.
Society
No.

Merchan­
dise in­
ventory,
Dec. 31,
1920.

Build­
ings,
land,
and
equip­
ment.

$258
419
704
3,346
1,647
1,289
461
150
3,735
163
354
401
913
243
297
958

$1,672
1,555
17,648
2,940
6,160
6,075
5,874
2,073
21,643
25,044
14,568
8,079
45,570
26,369
18,508
35,321
13,749
41,108
14,580
12,124
14,127
25,426
10.175
29,505
26,898
7,600
17,206
3,236
12,867
13,618
4,978

$925
1,131
3,805
4,610
687
2,157
755
998
9,010
1,266
939
2,959
1,742
1,817
5,761
1,200
15,898
6,144
2,613
1,287
2,417
14,230
18,242
4,253
4,546
13,395
5,064
2,322
219

$28,000
17,922
62,525
57,163
66,271
76,656
65.000
3,123
83.000
58,496
54,223
42.000
132,850
102,000
83.000
132,441
50.000
59,679
55.000
65.000
22,557
70,559
51,070
159,581
135.000
115.000
218,756
31,302
43,200
110.000
24,343




448
203
128
287
9,371
4,596
2,020
75
4,332
627

Liabilities.

Re­
Bills Accounts Stocks, Miscel­
Bills
Share
receiv­ receiv­ bonds, laneous. Loss. Profit. capital. payable. Accounts fund.
payable. serve
etc.
able.
able.

2,120

$5,299
175
67
4,506
1,492
1,255
810
1,953
210
958
13,486
70
1,592

$401
1,073 $850
3,191
200
2,146
4,065
340
11,422
17
3,900
9,710
i;063
10,318
11,528
6.470 1,550
7,577
6,334
3.470
393
2,339
10,035
5,170
9,980 1,600
100
10,030
3,880
1,298
1,620
201
3,392
5,966
505
542

$66

430
176
86
12
84
400
650
3,541
306
790
374
399
41

$2,052

$752
’*288'

"**ii9

964

341
8,485
1,964
7,247
4,636
4,112
78

576
1,534
42 1,697
922 5,616
1,320

1,096
2,305
7 1,536
601
264

106
8,584
2,161
698
265
1,428
388

$2,039
1,710
5,456
6,565
9,320
4,640
8,100
2,395
12.400
8,100
13.500
6,600
18,130
19.000
20,800
19,820
11.400
30.200
10,075
14,800
18.200
22.000
22.500
29.000
30,004
16,175
26.000
6,538
2,155
14)900
5,124

$530
1,500
1,900
2,000
5.000
4,800\
26,315/
8,125
1.000
16,553
4,500
5.950
3,002
950
27,850
5.950
2 517
314
4,250
6,400
14,158
3,500
2 500
2,000

2,540
2500
700

$233
391
9,608
826
1,145
2,036
1,697
893
8,328
15,582
5,185
2,934
11,413
9,313
9,342
6,889
3,030
1,159
8,337
173
1,745
13,575
7,341
22,245
7,980
3,452
8,514
1,623
4,619
4,973
1,019

Sur­
plus.

$1,050
904
4,678
375 $1,663
3,698
2,193

Un­ Mis­
paid cella­
divi­ neous.
dends.

$217

1,045
1,301
860
274
1,222
1,544
962
• 2,474

2,117
2,516
(9) 1020,564
7,154
5,336

145
11,919
3,580

$777
1,121
330

7,273

953
433
1,250
604
262
500
23

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

229
230,
231
232
233
234
235
236,
237
238,
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252.
253
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.

Total sales
for year. Cash on
hand
and in
bank.

cn

2 Loan capital.
3 Not reported.
5 Included with accounts receivable.




1,291 2,020
10
97
381
394
2,103
54
154
250
877
18
36
10

105

12,02 /\

1,170
272

4,757
2,870
1,920
1,552
3,004
357
1,284
286
609
6,726
87,726
2,610

528
2,846
1,620
120
314 3,787
1,786
200
512
332
438
33,270
1,200
222
242 2,544
26,064
1,657
629
4,644
7
190
309
1,213
334
1,079
256 1,607
3,438

6 Includes also bills receivable.
9 Included with surplus.
10 Includes reserve also.

171
2 373 }
8,372
5,600
500 }
6,878 /
28,874 \ 21,147
3,000
925
1,101
8,994
2 200
5,659
1,400
10,715
2,300
73,200
7,658
2,260
2 445
2,770
24,496
9,018
6,980
1,900
6,253
2,010
265
32.000 2 9,485
640,413 519,510
21,370 26,085
9.300 11,892
2,500 13,750
47,210 20,038
25,591
23.500
8,253
19.000
10,717 23,516
41,850 35.000
840
3,375
14.500
6,700
28,630 22.000
6.300
3,375
5,176
7,379
7,560 /\ 2 359 |
24,620 25,350
15.000
12,300
16,800
5,925
6,425
14,100
/ 16,850 |
4,250 \ 21,087
2,625
3,250
22,987
7,000
9,950
500 |

5,014
1,402
7,364
26,891
1,426
775
13,841
4,263
2,02i
3,002
80
8,683
5,249
523
1,628
2,335
326
5,955
1,010
9,729
2,542
42,875
889
5,293

1

6,041
1,678
33,174

11,359
4,254 3,466
1,550
186
1,735
1,527

2,125

226
162
355
11,066
76,605
4,762
11,771
13,419
10,718
793
11,789
1,368
7,918 7,793 8,775
960
207
14,946
319
1,039
2,323
858
1,000

9,092
15,497
3,327
2,926
1,406
28,151
2,824
11,572 2,338
3,560
7,478
777
921 2,812
3,677
885
4,506

115
489
1,202
260
148
315
872
2,310
309
374
614
152
41
45
29,332
1,963
842
1,798
3,385
2,532
70
425

2,130
368
833
1,715
3,371 5,558
900
123
163
5,967
359
282 2,294
* 640
2,412

11 Includes cash also.
12 Included with bills receivable.

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

85,104 1,303
300
8,334
573 2,095
1,785
260.................
38,286 1,478
261.................
100
7,274
4,031
9,011
7,682 7,689'
74,625
3,742
262.................
729
263................. 404,000 2,900 48,258 13,955
4,047 19,839 3,200
513
744
21,000 1,458
1,157
264.................
200
707
4,911
50
2,779
265.................
55,357 1,151
100
3,577
811
266................. 239,174 1,879 25,892
356 9,242
2,371
155,330
276 20,113
267.................
623,783 14,804
9,268 20,568 15,512 (5)
268.................
(3)
28,642 2,711
2,526
1,294
269.................
10,694
3,873
6,500
155
270.................
69,804 2,062
300
5,687
3,297
271.................
4,990
300
272................. 200,000 3,645 17,757
10,755
3,034
57,448
8,008
365
3,217
273.................
5,996
24,000 1,477
1,343
2,005
274.................
1,612
4,982
1,841
23,000
249
275.................
2,421
43,000
3,000
715
25
276.................
562
2,970 (12)
246
128
277.................
525
8,604 11,267 24,212
49,956
278................. 238,212
547
3,952,829 43,606 789,546 194,802 192,354 103,399
279.................
809
627,314
280................. 135,840 4,198 16,000 21,250 (5)
300
130,000 1,786 23,240
1,350 17,859
647
281.................
550
282.................
80,000 2,095
9,749
1,225 11,591
4,300
307 60,517 20,530 26,654 2,968 1,210
283................. 235,000
2,752
284................. 180,222 6,142 30,702
2,537
285................. 159,359 5,651 35,193 12,520
28,845 1,759 16,764 10,759
286.................
430
63
4,264
55,604
766
2,868
8,849
287.................
9,436 21,200 6,807
92,572 3,683 37,310
288.................
4,220
101
2,070
103 1,318
830
289.................
290.................
40,879 1,357 13,057 15,618
80
100
11,646
291................. 311,375 1,669 60,084 41,536
974
2,434
292.................
24,032
6,538
1,200
3,800
44,172 1,007
5,784
1,946
2.448
293.................
105
32,181
763
294___..........
6,065
180 1,163
6,475
1,847 7,347
295................. 237,000 1,205 58,930 34,914
300
4,938
82,903 3,045 13,020
6,350
296.................
2,784 7,794
583 17,788
1,399
297................. 127,000
530
493
187 17,973
7.448
39,947
298.................
20
32 27,265
178 7,021
1,494
299.................
66,000
1,721 26,029
66,072 1,491
300.................
1,239
580
790 4,500
1,173
52,099
301.................
47
825 7,046
302................. 143,511 3,706
7,436 15,297
___ 1,293
1,900
88,000 1,568 12,607
303.................

Cn
Cn

56

CONSUMERS COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

In order to reveal the salient features of the above table the rela­
tionships of certain of the data shown above are given in Table 32.
In this table paid-in share capital, loan capital, reserve, and surplus
are all regarded as “ capital.” This was done because in some of the
older societies the paid-in share capital represents a relatively small
part of the amount that is really used as capital, and therefore the use
in the table of only paid-in share capital as the basis of comparison
would not show the actual facts. Column 1 shows the percentage of
capital that is invested in buildings, land, and equipment. Column
2 gives the relation of the obligations of the association, exclusive of
loan capital, to the capital. Column 3 shows the proportion of capital
that is tied up in credit to members. Bills receivable are not included
here, because, although in some cases notes are given by members for
the amounts owed the society for merchandise, it is believed that in
the majority of societies the item represents chiefly notes given to
cover share capital subscribed but not yet paid for. Columns 4 and
5 represent turnover in terms of sales, column 4 showing the relation­
ship of sales to merchandise stocks, and column 5 that of sales to
capital. Thus, in society No. 1 the sales for the year were 25.9 times
as great as the stock of merchandise on hand December 31, 1920, and
16.3 times as great as the capital.
T a b l e 3 2 .— RELATION

OF FIXED ASSETS, ACCOUNTS AND BILLS PAYABLE, AND AC­
COUNTS RECEIVABLE TO CAPITAL, AND PROPORTION OF SALES TO MERCHANDISE
AND TO CAPITAL, DECEMBER 31,1920.
Relation of

Ac­
Ac­
Fixed counts counts Ratio
and receiv­ of sales
Soeiety assets1 bills
to
No. capital2 pay­ able to to mer­
able 3to capital2 chan­
(per
c S S . capital2 cent). dise.
(per
cent).
(3 )
(4 )
(3 )
(i)




Turnover.

Ac­
Ac­
Fixed counts counts Ratio
and
Ratio Society assets1 bills receiv­ ofsales
of sales
to
able to
to capi­ No. capital2 alSeno capital2 to mer­
chan­
(per capital2
tal*
cent). (per « f e . dise.
cent).
(5 )

52.4 90.9
25.9
16.3
18.0
48.5 70.6
1.3 22.7
11.6
56.8 67.1 15.2
2.1
1.0
53.8 25.2 15.1
13.6 104.9 88.9
40.8 36.1 18.2 15.1
7.3
16.0 17.6 29.6 37.2
23,1
23.6
6.3
171.7 83.7 26.8
43.4 112.9 76.7 11.4
6.1
1.6
16.0 21.3 32.5
2.4
3.6
28.3 17.2
7.6
5.4
3.3
5.6
128.0 194.3 32.9
7.3
6.2
8.3
34.3 26.6 16.6
27.7
208.7 134.9
9 .9
5.1
4.7
5.9 42.8 27.8
3.9
5.0
2.6 15.0
55.9
2.5
8.5
8.3
47.4 78.9 11.2
24.2
72.1 375.7 62.0 10.5
6.1 22.5
22.8
59.2 116.6
20.
21.
47.1 73,5 15.7
1.6
1.0
7.8
2.5
22.
41.7 50.6
.8
69.7 19.9
2.0
2.8
23.
8.7
10.5
24.
32.8 53.9
12.0
36.6 96.3 48.7 11.9
25.
26.1 21.1 23.6 15.8
8.7
26.
1Buildings, land, and equipment.
2 Share and loan capital, reserve; and surplus.

1..
3..
4..
5..
6..
7 ..
8..
9 ..
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
2 ..

Relation of

Turnover.

(1 )

27...........
28.............
29...........
30...........
31...........
32...........
33...........
34...........
35...........

(2 )

(3 )

39.9 83.8 38.4
27.5
3.9 21.8
23.0 19.3 38.2
35.5 56.4 16.8
9.2 22.1 26.4
64.9 189.8 42.0
5.4 12.6
11.6
26.4 27.2 29.2
4.9 20.9
36........... - 30.8
81.6 47.2
37.............. 56.3
38............. 22.8
44.5 48.2
39........... 29.0 26.4 47.4
40........... 37.8 97.6 412.9
41........... 49.8 150.9 n a i
42.............
4.5
2.3 19.7
43........... 88.2 64,4 63.9
44.............
3.4 61.3 46.5
45........... 26.2 13.3
.6
50.7 39.8
46............. 23,1
47........... 37.7 99.6 39.8
5.0 14.8
48............. 20.3
49............. 106.7
58.9
2.6
50........... 19.6
2.3 34.3
51........... 35.3 30.4 18.4
5?........... 117.7 528.1 80.6
* Exclusive of loan capital.
4 Includes also bills receivable.

(4 )

7.0
23.2
14.5
3.6
10.1
5.2
11.6
21.0
3.5
32.7
21.4
10.5
22.6
2.8
4.9
5.4
4.7
4.1
.11.2
14.7
5.8
6.1
15.7
8.3
6.0
4.2

Ratio
ofsales
to capi­
tal.2
(5 )

6.3
10.0
9.7
2.8
6.4
10.4
6.7
11.0
10.7
15.0
7.0
10.0
3.5
5.3
2 .8
5.2
4.7
2.6
10.2
7.7
3 .0

3.1
4.9
4,2
17.0

57

BUSINESS OPERATIONS,

J*Ei ^ TI°N 0F FIXED a s s e t s , a c c o u n t s a n d b il l s p a y a b l e , a n d ac AND TO CAPITAL, DECEMBER 31, 1920—Continued.
99UNTS RECEIVABLE TO CAPITAL, AND PROPORTION OF SALES TO MERCHANDISE

Relation of—
Fixed
Society assets
to
No. capital
(per
cent).
(1)

Ac­
counts
and
bills
afrieto
capital
(per
cent).
(2)

Turnover.

Ac­
counts
receiv­
able to
capital
(per
cent).

Ratio
of sales
to mer­
chan­
dise.

(3)

(4)

53........... 18.3 71.1 57.9
4.0
54........... 15.5 69.2
5.1
55........... 13.2 77.5 73.1
7.8
36........... 9.5 66.0 23.1
4.7
57........... 24.4 89.1 22.9
3.1
58........... 12.1 23.2
4.8 18.1
59........... 11.8 115.6
7.0 30.3
60...........
101.9 31.9
4.9
61........... 5.8 105.9
.4
6 2 ........... 54.6
50.0 28.9
1.5
63........... 94.3 17.3 37.2
5.5
64......... 31.3 212.2 110.2 8.1
65........... 48.0 57.9 40.6
8.1
66........... 14.3 78.6 34.5
1.8
6 7 ..:.... 38.9 18.5
4.4
6.3
68........... 21.8 15.6 19.7
3.0
69........... 40.1 122.3
4.3
7 0 ....... 75.3 87.4 36.6 13.6
71
.....................
47.7 23.4
2.5 17.6
72
.....................
14.2
73........... 73.6
2.4
1.3
7.5
74........... 109.1 85.7
.8
75........... 11.9 58.7 77.7
9.3
76........... 122.6 85.7 16.4 37.2
77........... 89.0 111.1 60.0
7.5
78........... 90.4 86.2 28.4 24.4
79........... 46.9 10.9
15.9
80........... 59.5 108.7 35.3 14.4
81........... 131.8 95.4 18.0 45.6
82...........
79.6 61.5
83
.....................
74.6 67.6 19.7
6.5
84
.....................
4.2 42.2
85........... 62.3 163.2 68.3
5.5
86........... 22.6 12.3 10.3 12.1
87........... 90.0 280.6 62.7 14.4
88........... 73.6 47.9 12.3 22.9
89........... 46.9 116.2 45.4
90........... 12.9 18.6
4.8
91........... 47.7 96.9 36.1
9.3
92........... 52.5 20.2 42.0 14.8
98........... 174.1 95.0 10.5 285.7
94........... 161.0 95.3 21.9 22.7
95........... 25.4 43.8
5.6
96........... 44.2 53.6 20.1
6.5
97........... 69.3 392.6 * 16.8
7.2
98........... 89.2 285.6 42.2
6.3
99........... 9.9 20.6 44.0
3.0
100......... 92.9 173.9 68.1 15.6
101......... 133.3 142.8 41.3 12.5
102.........
13.7 14.6
9.5
103......... 36.7 51.9 44.6 16.7
104......... 62.4 52.1 51.4
8.9
105......... 226.2 759.9
6.2
106......... 44.8 50.5 348.3 16.4
53.0
107......... 95.0 140.1
108......... 9.7 183.6 14.6 10.5
109......... 73.4 137.8 461.5 29.4
3.1
110......... 63.9 108.0 17.1
3.5
I ll......... 87.2 161.2 97.9 13.1
112......... 52.6 95.1 70.6
9.6
113......... 155.2 153.6 109.8
8.7
114......... 56.5 54.7 12.3
7.3
115......... 71.2 163.1 24.3 14.5
116......... 33.7 143.0 47.2
7.5
.117......... 88.7 109.2
5.5
5.5
118......... 62.2 86.0
6.4
7.0
* Includes also bills receivable.




Relation of—

Ac­
Ac­
Fixed counts counts
and
Ratio Society assets Mils receiv­
of sales
to
able to
to capi­ No. capital aEfeto capital
tal.
(per capital (per
cent). (per cent).
cent).
(5)
(3)
(l)
(3)
3.5
7.3
7.0
6.8
4.5
14.7
15.7
7.5
.7
1.2
8.7
16.1
4.9
2.2
5.5
2.2
9.8
18.5
7.9
12.1
1.4
.3
9.5
7.3
10.6
19.1
9.9
12.8
8.8
9.0
9.8
10.2
8.3
21.9
5.8
5.2
13.2
6.6
22.3
6.2
4.8
5.3
17.8
16.1
1.9
17.4
11.1
7.3
9.2
4.1
17.4
9.8
•15.1
12.3
2.6
3.3
12.1
10.2
10.6
8.3
19.3
11.8
3.8
6.5

119.........

120.........
121.........
122.........

123.........
124.........
125.........
126.........
127.........
128.........
129.........
130.........
131.........
132.........
133.........
134.........
135.........
136.........
137.........
138.........
139.........
140.........
141.........
142.........
143.........
144.........
145.........
146.........
147.........
148.........
149.........
150.........
151.........
152.........
153.........
154.........
155.........
156.........
157.........
158.........
159.........
160.........
161.........
162.........
163.........
164.........
165.........
166.........
167.........
168.........
169.........
170.........
171.........
172.........
173.........
174.........
175.........
176.........
177.........
178.........
179.........
180.........
181.........
182.........
183.........
184.........

32.6
44.4
44.5
6.2
11.1
27.9
23.7
24.5
26.4
102.5
13.4
34.5
32.7
72.8
26.1
72.8
14.6
80.8
11.8
29.8
65.8
30.0
122.5
11.3
20.1
19.2
49.5
82.0
15.3
34.1
30.7
20.0
17.3
72.4
43.1
63.1
95.7
11.2
71.6
13.2
52.3
11.6
16.9
49.0
48.7
13.1
8.1
4.0
22.8
58.4
12.6
126.9
59.8
38.5
69.6
30.8
59.4
60.3
4. 3
23.3
26.9
54.1
25.5

Turnover.
Ratio Ratio
of sales of sales
to mer­ to capi­
chan­ tal.
dise.
(4 )

7.6 23.4 11.4
52.3 19.8
3.5
140.7 161.1 13.9
51.4 12.5
2.5
200.4 62.9
2.4
125.3 72.3
5.0
114.1 42.9
2.9
157.2 36.9
3.2
41.0 10.2 6.5
28.9
.2 86.4
96.7 25.1
2.9
81.8 27.2
2.9
22.5 14.0
107.7 21.8 3.9
50.5 30.5
3.9
33.4
9.3 15.5
3.8
176.5 36.3
4.8
71.3 39.7
4.1
33.2 19.2
89.1 32.8
4.3
51.6
2.1
173.8
14.2
63.7 13.4
3.9
49.6 47.7
4.7
6.0 12.1
3.5
45.3
2.8
1.7
47.3 27.4
148.2 18.7
3.6
94.5 57.9
3.5
118.4 25.6
3.6
96.2 58.5
2.9
40.9
.2
114.4 39.9
3.4
76.9 31.8
1.9
83.9
4.6
6.9
7.7
132.3 33.6
5.8
116.3 40.7
6.3
55.3
9.6
56.3 12.7 27.4
52.8 87.3
7.6
92.1
5.3
5.5
26.3 15.3
5.0
333.9 38.3
3.4
119.0 71.0
5.1
65.8 21.7
5.2
32.8
7.5
9.8 10.0 15.6
16.9 17.1 11.9
44.2
8.2 4.1
74.7 23.2
51.6 27.5
3.3
193.2 25.5
2.7
132.4 101.7
9.4
62.1
8.0 3.8
121.3
6.6 6.5
13.5
1.3
28.8
5.2 11.5
17.8 19.4
7.6 14.6
11.6
172.4
8.7
3.0
211.2 23.8 66.9
.6
.7 26.9

(5)
4.9
3.4
27.4
3.2
8.5
4.0
4.9
.8
4.7
3.3
4.4
2.7

6.2
6.1

2.81 2.1
2.1 2.8
1.0
7.2
2.6 6.1
1.7
3.8
2.6 18.2
6.5
5.5
4.0
3.2
12.3
5.4
4.0
3.3
3.6
2.3
4.7
3.0
1.1
4.0
7.4
6.2
5.0
5.6
3.3
6.0
4.2
9.7
4.9
9.4
4.5
6.5
4.6
3.1
4.2
4.3
8.3
.9
3.8
12.5
3.6
12.5
1.8
20.9

21.0 2.1
3.0
1.2
8.6

6.2

6.0 6.2
11.2
1.2

2.1

2.2
2.2

58

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES,

32.—RELATION OF FIXER ASSETS, ACCOUNTS AND BILLS PAYABLE, AND AC­
COUNTS RECEIVABLE TO CAPITAL, AND PROPORTION OF SALES TO MERCHANDISE
AND TO CAPITAL, DECEMBER 31,1920—Concluded.

T able

Relation of—
Fixed
Society- assets
to
No. capital
(per
cent).
(1)
185.........
186.........
187.........
188.........
189.........
190.........
191.........
192.........
193.........
194.........
195.........
196.........
197.........
198.........
199.........
200.........
201.........
202.........
203.........
204.........
205.........
206.........
207.........
208.........
209.........
210.........
211.........
212.........
213.........
214.........
215.........
216.........
217.........
218.........
219.........
220.........
221.........
222.........
223.........
224.........
225.........
226.........
227.........
228.........
229.........
230.........
231.........
232.........
233.........
234.........
235.........
236.........
237.........
238.........
239.........
240.........
241.........
242.........
243.........
244......

75.6
10.0
94.1
18.6
24.2
90.0
165.6
50.4
80.5
14.7
12.4
143.2
‘ 42.7
21.3
44.4
66.3
21.3
63.6
38.7
58.5
30.1
104.6
7.8
28.8
15.2
48.3
40.3
100.0
44.6
32.3
2.0
42.1
38.5
42.7
68.2
16.2
41.4
55.8
191.5
19.5
31.3
30.7
38.4
29.9
43.3
20.9
44.2
34.6
10.1
26.6
31.5
8.0
62.5
9.4
14.2
14.6
8.1
8.7
14.3

Ac­
counts
and
bills
&
capital
(per
cent).
(3)
31.4
78.7
55.2
10.2
38.0
24.8
37.2
49.1
1.3
29.7
105.3
24.5
48.9
80.2
286.2
8.3
52.3
103.6
82.5
.3
714.1
148.5
98.6
21.8
55.6
21.3
77.5
4.8 ■
7.2
23.7
4.1
10.1
28.3
126.7
18.8
75.6
143.1
3.5

Turnover.

Ac­
counts
receiv­
able to
capital
(per
cent).

Ratio
of sales
to mer­
chan­
dise.

(3)

(4)

43.2
15.0
39.1

15.3
1.0
17.3
3.2
6.8
151.7
5.5 32.4
1.4 621.3
6.0
8.9
13.8 10.4
4.3
5.8
8.7
2.8
33.9
7.1
64.7
2.3
73.3
2.7
28.0 11.0
13.1
3.5
3.2
98.1
33.2
3.5
56.7 22.7
316.8
1.2
61.9
2.7
13.6
5.2
19.6
3.4
4.1
2.5
20.5
3.4
9.0
18.6 18.8
5 18.5 12.3
3.2
54.5
57.3 11.2
1.5
2.9
19.3
9.5
1.2
6.6
3.7
9.8
5.5
28.8
3.0
1.9
.1
1.8
9.0
20.3
8.5
7.5 13.0 16.7
35.2
11.5
94.8 10.6
3.5
27.0
19.4
8.8 24.5 10.8
57.6 31.4 12.6
45.6 50.2 11.1
37.3 14.2
1.5
107.5 92.1
3.8
141.4
.1
2.3
98.6 28.9
3.7
59.6 147.0
5.2
138.1
5.3
2.9
64.2 48.0
3.8
73.5 55.4
4.5
24.5 16.0
3.7

*Includes also bills receivable.
6 Includes cash also.




Relation of—

Fixed
Ratio
assets
of sales Society to
to capi­ No. capital
tal.
(P?r
cent).
(5)
3.9
.5
6.7
3i. 5
2.8
57.1
10.4
7.8
7.1
10.2
3.7
2.1
8.7
3.1
6.7
6.5
5.3
6.0
2.4
7.6
4.7
3.7
5.5
2.4
2.4
21.4
7.1
5.0
5.7
5.3
13.5
1.6
7.0
21.6
3.1
3.8
2.3
1.5
1.1
2.5
4.5
9.1
6.8
6.2
6.6
5.1
11.2
8.0
1.3
6.7
4.1
4.0
6.4
6.6
4.7
4.0
3.3

(1)
245.........
246.........
247.........
248.........
249.........
250.........
251.........
252.........
253.........
254.........
255.........
256.........
257.........
258.........
259.........
260.........
261.........
262.........
263.........
264.........
265.........
266.........
267.........
268.........
269.........
270.........
271.........
272.........
273.........
274.........
275.........
276.........
277.........
278.........
279.........
280.........
281.........
282.........
283.........
284.........
285.........
286.........
287.........
288.........
289.........
290.........
291.........
292.........
293.........
294.........
295.........
296.........
297.........
298.........
299......
300.........
301.........
302.........
303.........

6.5
44.7
58.0
17.7
7.1
11.0
63.2
62.9
13.9
28.1
51.5
72.0
16.5
1.2
16.1
14.4
28.0
79.2
22.5
55.5
30.2
21.0
13.9
21.2
30.4
129.5
19.2
33.6
85.9
22.0
23.8
20.7
27.2
81.3
2.8
32.5
42.8
9.4
31.9
56.6
28.1
22.5
79.3
10.8
145.1
36.8
32.6
81.8
141.8
30.0
9.6
44.3
10.0
319.4
44.7
64.1
15.4

Ac­
counts
and
bills
a??eto
capital
(per
cent).
(»)

Turnover.

Ac­
counts
receiv­
able to
capital
(per
cent).
(3)

21.5 40.8
81.6 17.8
134.9 32.8
3.3
2.7
9.6 12.9
81.0 45.6
61.1 23.0
125.5 34.4
37.5 32.7
21.3 24.0
40.4
5.0
59.2 23.0
32.8 24.1
26.9 32.3
33.5 10.6
41.8 16.9
48.6 62.5
81.0 38.6
48.2 32.0
273.1 125.1
8.4
7.7
89.6
4.8
38.4 54.1
10.5 432.5
47.5
193.0
1.0 42.0
33.4 41.3
58.2 35.7
34.7 19.2
22.2 25.1
77.6 80.4
52.6 39.7
14.4 58.4
72.5 14.4
103.7 4 104.5
95.2 78.6
123.3 87.7
6.2
131.1
10.2
48.1
2.3
34.8 18.9
83.6 16.3
322.3 125.9
108.9 . .6
131.0 40.7
50.3
84.0 26.0
110.9 14.7
217.3 29.8
23.3
79.1 53.2
56.5
2.9
93.5 47.2
218.1
263.8 30.1
29.3 29.5
40.5 10.5

Ratio Ratio
of sales of sales
to mer­ to capi­
chan­ tal.
dise.
(4)
3.6
1.5
3.8
5.4
1.6
2.8
5.0
5.4
5.0
15.1
12.7
9.7
3.4
8.1
4.9
10.2
5.3
9.7
8.4
28.2
11.3
9.2
7.7
11.3
1.6
12.3
11.3
7.2
12.0
4.6
14.3
5.3
4.8
5.0
8.5
5.6
8.2
3.9
5.9
4.5
1.7
6.3
2.5
2.0
3.1
5.2
3.7
7.6
5.3
4.0
6.4
7.1
2.2
2.4
38.4
42.0
19.3
7.0

(5)
2.7
1.7
5.2
4.4
1.2
3.2
2.3
5.5
4.4
7.1
8.4
4.4
3.1
6.0
4.8
6.9
2.7
7.7
6.5
22.7
6.0
14.1
9.1
6.7
3.6
8.9
7.7
6.4
3.4
3.1
14.3
48
5.7
5.5
5.2
5.7
6.1
4.9
6.7
4.1
1.5
3.7
2.2
4.0
2.8
10.9
3.6
5.9
4.1
9.6
3.9
8.7
2.4
4.4
8.1
19.8
6.0
7.1

BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

59

It will be seen from the above table that the amount of money
invested in buildings, real estate, and equipment ranged from 1.2 to
319.4 per cent of the total amount of the society's capital. The in­
vestment most commonly found represents between 10 and 20 per
cent of the capital. About one-fifth of the societies included have thus
invested an amount equal to 70 per cent or more of their capital,
while in about one-twelfth of them the amount is as much as or greater
than all their capital. On the other hand, over one-third had less
than 30 per cent of their capital so invested.
Accounts and bills payable by the associations range in amount
from nothing (in the case of 16 societies), to more than seven and onehalf times as much as the amount of the total capital. The common
proportion is about one-fifth. The amounts owed by over one-tenth
of the societies were less than 10 per cent of their capital. Over onethird of the organizations had debts at the end of 1920 amounting
to 80 per cent or more of their capital, while in more than one-third of
the number included in the table these debts exceeded the capital.
The amount of credit extended to members ranges from nothing
(in 37 societies) to nearly three and one-half times the amount of
the society's capital. About one-sixth of the societies had extended
credit amounting to less than 10 per cent. In nearly one-half of
the associations less than 20 per cent of the capital was absorbed
in accounts In about 3 per cent (10 associations) members' unpaid
accounts equaled or exceeded the total capital.
There were 46 societies whose accounts both payable and receivable
Were less than 20 per cent of their capital. Of these, 6 had no accounts
of either kind. In 10 societies, however, both types of accounts
equaled or exceeded the total capital.
The most common rate of stock turnover was between 3 and 4
turns for the year. Eighteen societies had stock on hand at the
end of the year amounting to nearly as much as the total sales for
the year. On the other hand, this table, in conjunction with the
preceding one, makes it evident that in a number of the societies
with the largest sales very little stock is carried. The kind of goods
handled, of course, may very often be a factor here. Six societies
(Nos. 36, 59, 76, 78, 184, and 193), each with a yearly business
of between $100,000 and $150,000, had less than $4,500 worth of stock
on hand at the end of the year. One of these (No. 193) with a
$109,000 business, had in stock only $176 worth of goods at the close
of the year's business.
The common rate of turnover of capital was between 3 and 5
times, though in 27 societies the capital was turned over 15 times or
more. In some cases the high rate of turnover of capital, secured in
spite of having too little “working" capital, is undoubtedly due to
the large amount of credit which the society has been able to obtain
from wholesalers. Refused this, it is altogether probable that the
society would be considerably handicapped by the tying up of its
capital in fixed investments. Accounts and bills payable are in many
cases altogether disproportionate to the size and business of the
society.
Evidence of very good management, however, even where the fixed
investment represents too large a proportion of the capital, is found
in this table. Thus, society No. 8, with more than the full amount
of capital invested, turned over its capital 23.6 times during the year.



60

c o n s u m e r s ' c o o pe r a t iv e s o c ie t ie s .

Society No. 87, with 90 per cent of its capital in buildings, etc., and
with credit outstanding to the amount of over 60 per cent of its
capital, had sales of 21 times the amount of its capital; the large
amount of credit it obtained (280.6 per cent of its capital) probably
made this possible. Society No. 93, which also has a Very large fixed
investment, considerable indebtedness, but only a small amount in
uncollected accounts, carries a very small stock m proportion to sales
and turned over its capital 22.3 times. Society No. 191, though
having too large fixed assets, has few debts, gives no credit, carries
a small stock of merchandise, and had an unusually large turnover
of its small capital of $1,434.
BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY.
PRICES CHARGED.

More than 90 per cent of the consumers’ and nearly all of the
agricultural associations reporting sell at the prevailing market
prices. Operation on the “cost-plus” basis was found in only 45 of
the strictly consumers’ and in only 7 of the combined purchasing
and marketing societies. Information on these points is given in
Table 33.
T able

33.-BALES PRACTICE OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE.
TfAm
Atom.

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Ber
ber. cent. ber. cent; ber. cent.
Societies selling at prevailing prices................................. 665 93.7
269 97.5
934
94.7
Societies operating on cost-plus basis...............................
45 6.3
7 2.5
62
5.3
Total ......................................................................... *710 100.0 •276 100.0 4986 100.0
1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
* Not including 18 societies whose sales practice was not reported.
8Not including 5 societies whose sales practice was not reported.
4Not including 23 societies whose sales practice was not reported.

GRANTING OP CREDIT.

Each society was asked whether it makes a practice of extending
credit to its members, and if so for what period and in what amount
this credit is allowed. Table 34 shows the data obtained on the first
point.
T able

34.—NUMBER OE SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE GRANTING CREDIT TO MEMBERS
AND NUMBER DOING CASH BUSINESS ONLY.

Consumers’ Agricultural
Total.
societies.
societies.1
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. oent. ber. cent.
Societies granting credit.. . . . ........................................... 486 69.5
227 82.5
713
73.2
Societies doing Cash business only................................... 213 30.5
48 17.5
261
26.8
Total........................................................................... *699 100.0 8 275 100.0 4 974 100.0
1 The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
* Not including 29 societies whose credit practice was not reported.
*Not including 6 societies whose credit practice was not reported.
4 Not including 35 societies whdse credit practice was not reported.




item.

BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY.

61

It is recognized that the absolute refusal to give credit is difficult
and sometimes impossible to enforce. The above table, however,
shows that in 213, or 30.5 per cent, of the consumed societies and 48,
or 17.5 per cent, of the agricultural associations reporting, this prin­
ciple was put into practice. One additional society reports that its
business was put on a strictly cash basis beginning with May 1, 1921.
Where credit is allowed, a limit is often placed on the amount
granted—in the form either of a flat amount or of a certain percentage
of the amount of share capital held by the member—or on the period
for which the credit is extended, or both. These limitations as to
amount and period are shown, for the 713 societies doing a credit
business, in Table 35.
T a b l e 3 5 . — NUMBER

OF SOCIETIES CLASSIFIED BY LIMIT ON AMOUNT OF CREDIT
AND PERIOD FOR WHICH GRANTED.
LIMITATION OF AMOUNT.
Number placing each
Number placing each
specified limit on credit
specified limit on credit
granted per member.
grarted per member.
Limitation.
Limitation.
Consum­ Agricul­
Consum­ Agricul­
ers' so­ tural so­ Total.
ers' so­ tural so­ Total.
cieties. cieties.1
cieties. cieties 1
Per cent of members'
Flat amount:
1
1 share capital:
$8..............................
1
1
5..............................
7
7
$10............................
1
1
4
4
10............................
$15............................
25............................
3
3
2
2
$20............................
6
40............................
$25............................
6
4
4
50............................
8
8
22
22
$30............................
1
4
60............................
3
21
$40............................
21
66§...........................
18
2
20
$50............................
10
10
1
1
70............................
2
2
$70............................
75............................
28
$100...........................
18
10
20
20
1
1
80............................
$125...........................
9
9
2
4
6
90............................
2
2
$150...........................
1
3
2
6
100..........................
$200...........................
37
43
1
1
1
1
2
200..........................
$300...........................
5
2
7 “Reasonable” amount
34
$500...........................
40
74
1
1 Varying amount.........
$700...........................
68
42
no
2 Unlimited amount....
$1 000.......................
2
22
36
58
Not reported................
*133
96
229
Total...................
486
227
713

LIMITATION
1
20
1
3
54
1
275
77
1
25
48
g
30

OF PERIOD.
4 months.......................
2
2
7 days..............................
19
9
2
6 months.......................
10 days............................
14
23
1
1
54
2
9 months.......................
15 days............................
1
7
12 months.....................
8
20 days............................
15
198
Varying period...........
30 days............................
39
42
81
1
Unlimited period.........
12
40 days............................
10
22
23
2 mnTiths
months.........................
Not reported................
91
45
136
3
21
Total................. .
486
227
713
i The term “ agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.

In view of the fact that, as brought out in Table 22, the average
share capital per member is only $59 in the consumers’ societies and
$175 in the agricultural associations, it would seem that in many of
the cases in the above table the limits are dangerously high. If, for
instance, very many members of the seven societies which grant
credit up to $500 per member wer,e to take advantage of this, the
capital of the society would soon be badly tied up in credit.
Of the societies for which figures are given in the above table, 15
(7 consumers’ and 8 agricultural societies) extend credit unlimited
105983°—22----- 5




62

CONSUMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

both in time ana amount. Unfortunately, none of these supplied
detailed financial statements, and therefore the effect on their financial
condition can not be determined.
The average amount of credit allowable in those consumers7societies
which set a flat maximum amount is $98, or more than half again
as much as the average capital per member. Among those which
extend credit on the basis of amount of the members^ share capital
the average which may be so granted is 74 per cent.
The average period for which credit may run is 48 days in the
consumers’ societies and 70 days in the combined purchase and sale
associations.
In the cases where the credit granted varies or where “reasonable”
amounts are granted, the determination of this amount is usually
left to the discretion of the manager and to his judgment as to the
financial standing of the individual member.
The actual amounts of bills and accounts receivable and of paid-in
share capital at the end of 1920 are shown in Table 36 for 303 con­
sumers’ societies which furnished information on this point:
AMOUNT OF PAID-IN SHARE CAPITAL AND OF BILLS AND ACCOUNTS
RECEIVABLE BY 303 CONSUMERS’ SOCIETIES AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1920, BY STATES.

T a bl e 3 6 . —

State.

Numberof Amount
socie­ of paid-in
ties share
report- capital.
mg.

Alabama.........
Alaska.............
Arkansas.........
California.........
Colorado..........
Connecticut__
Idaho...............
Illinois.............
Indiana............
Iowa.................
Kansas............
Kentucky.......
Maine...............
Maryland.........
Massachusetts.
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Missouri...........
Montana..........
Nebraska.........
New Jersey__

3 $13,874
40,978
6,440
409,316
10,225
3 81,976
1 21,389
16 886,474
3 , 12,943
8 *111,716
23 263,044
3,500
1
4 52,625
1 19,981
13 123,481
20 190,811
37 1,081,311
2 25,775
6
109,324
24 349,334
4
4,5
1
2
6
2

Amount
of bills
receiv­
able.

Amount
of ac­
counts
receiv­
able.

State.

Num­
ber of Amount
socie­ of paid-in
ties share
re­
port­ capital.
ing.

$3,840 New York....... 16 $156,390
6,582 North Carolina 1 17,359
$311
2,948 North Dakota. 13 205,377
3,216 72,721 Ohio................. 7 58,297
2,683 Oklahoma....... 2 40,317
1,160
1 2,100
12,000 10,412 Oregon.............
1,902
2,393 Pennsylvania.. 10 67,439
209,070 160,001 Rhode Island. . 4 25,981
9,035 South Carolina 1 8,100
4,256 64,254 South Dakota. 17 278,920
89,476 Tennessee........ 2 46,179
16,209
Texas............... 2 32,538
1 2,155
3,263 Vermont.........
Virginia........... 2 20,024
107 104,858 Washington... 11 160,894
7,934 127,028 West Virginia. 4 48,163
127,915 298,257 Wisconsin....... 28 1,057,667
6,442 Wyoming........ 1 9,950
18,975 31,301
Total__ 303 6,056,957
29,170 119,983
5,568
3,615

Amount
of bills
receiv­
able.

Amount
of ac­
counts
receiv­
able.

$50 $22,705
1,700
37,199 93,159
490 12,460
2,624
3,332
46
8.293
6,410
4,065
30,211 100,066
70 13,910
1,592
2,918
3,392
260
6,508
5,026 70,387
18,612
261,747 256,290
1.293
777,770 1,743,930

It will be seen that 28.8 per cent of the paid-in share capital of the
above societies is in members’ unpaid accounts. An additional 12.8
per cent of the capital is found in the form of bills receivable. This
item, however, in many cases includes not only notes given for mer­
chandise, but also those given for share capital which has been sub­
scribed but not yet paid For.
Details as to credit accounts of individual societies have already
been given in Tables 31 and 32.
OPERATING EXPENSES.

Since it was desired to determine how the operating expenses of
cooperative societies compared with those of privately owned stores,
each society was asked to furnish a copy of its financial statement



63

BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY. ,

for the year 1920. This request was complied with by 436 societies.
Of these a large number of agricultural societies but only 72 con­
sumers’ societies supplied detailed information as to expenditures
for the year as well as figures showing their assets and liabilities. It
was decided not to use the expenditure reports of the agricultural
societies since these included the operating expenses of the elevator,
cream station, stockyard, etc., and would therefore throw no light
on the cost of doing merely a consumers’ business.
It is recognized that 72 societies form too small a number to fur­
nish evidence as to operating efficiency of cooperative stores in general..
The figures do, however, show a general trend and are therefore
presented for what they are worth. In order to make them com­
parable with the figures for operating expenses of privately owned
grocery stores published yearly by the Graduate School of "Business
Administration of Harvard University and also with those arrived at
by the United States Office of Markets (now the Bureau of Agricul­
tural Economics), both the “common” figure, or mode, and the
arithmetic average expense incurred for each item are given. The
mode is determined by grouping the percentages into classes of equal
range and taking the figure occurring most frequently in the class
having the greatest number of entries. The advantage of the mode
is that it is not affected by extremes. All percentages are based on
net sales—both cash and credit.
It was impossible to subdivide the items of expense to the point
to which this is done by Harvard University, where an arrange­
ment has been made with the stores furnishing reports by which a
standard form of accounts has been adopted and items of expense
are segregated. The items in the reports furnished this bureau had
to be grouped as could best be done considering the difference in
classification used by the stores. Thus, for instance, taxes and
insurance had to be given as one item because of the fact that many
stores thus combined them and the expenditure for each item could
not, therefore, be segregated. As far as possible, however, the Har­
vard classification was followed.
Table 37 shows for the 72 consumers’ societies the cost of each item
of overhead expense during 1920:
TABLE 37.—OPERATING EXPENSES IN 72 CONSUMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN
1920.
Per cent of net sales.
Number
report­
ing. Lowest. Highest. Common. Average.
Sales expense:
1 70
Wages..........................................................................
21
Advertising................................................................
6
Wrappings, etc...........................................................
70
Total........................................................................
34
Miscellaneous delivery expense (except wages)..........
44
Rent...................................................................................
51
Light, heat, and power...................................................
Insurance and taxes.........................................................
60
44
Interest on capital stock and borrowed money...........
27
Office supplies...................................................................
36
Freight, drayage, and express........................................
12
Repairs..............................................................................
17
Depreciation of store equipment...................................
Loss from bad accounts.................................................
7
65
Miscellaneous expense.....................................................
72
All expenses............................................................
1Includes also wages of delivery force, where there is such.



10.2
.03
.2
.2
.005
.01
.06
.1
.01
.01
.08
.1
.04
.06
.003
3.5

124.9
.7
.8
24.9
3.8
2.7
2.9
2.0
2.9
2.8
4.9
1.5
.7
.5
15.5
25.7

i 5.5
.2
.3
7.7
.7
.8
.1
.1
.2
.2
1.1
.3
.4
.1
.8
10.3

17.3
.2
7.4
1.2
.2
.2
.6
.5
.3
1.7
.4
^3
,2
1.7
11.2

64

c o n s u m e r s ' c o o pe r a tiv e s o c ie t ie s .

As is shown above, the total operating cost ranges from 3.5 to 25.7
per cent of net sales, the average being 11.9 per cent, and the common
figure 10.3 per cent.
The heaviest item of expense was, of course, wages, the average
expenditure for this factor being 7.3 per cent of sales. The lowest
percentage reported for this item was 0.2; in this case, however, it is
fairly certain that this does not cover all labor performed, some of
which doubtless was volunteer labor by the members. Freight,
drayage, and express form the next largest item, absorbing an
average of 1.7 per cent of sales. Delivery expense comes third,
with an average of 1.2 per cent. If it had been possible to segre­
gate the wages paid for delivery service and include them here,
this item would, of course, have been considerably larger.
Table 38 shows, for such items as are common to both, how the
expenses of the societies included in this study compare with the
private stores of the Harvard study.

T able 38.—COMPARISON OF OPERATING EXPENSES IN COOPERATIVE AND PRIVATE'
STORES.
Per cent of net sales.
Lowest
Item.

Bureau
of
Labor
Statis­
tics
(1920).

Har­
vard
Uni­
versity
(1919).1

Highest.
Bureau Har­
of
Labor vard
Uni­
Statis­ versity
tics (1919).1
(1920).

Common.
Bureau
of
Labor
Statis­
tics
(1920).
'
35.5
.2
.3
7,7

Har­
vard
Uni­
versity
(1919).1

Aver­
age.
Bureau
of
Labor
Statis­
tics
(1920).

Sales expense:
2.22 3 24.9 10.54
4.9
*7.3
Wages.............................................................. *0.2
.7 3.0
.2
.01
.2
Advertising.................................................. .03
.8 1.52
.11
.6
Wrappings, etc............................................. .2
.5
2.98 24.9 11.60.
5.9
7.4
Total............................................................ .2
Delivery expense:
.32
. 4.06
1.4
Wages............................................................. (3)
(3)1.2
3.8 2.96 (3).7 1.0
.01 (3)
Other............................................................... .005
.65
3.8 6.17
.7 2.4
1.2
Total............................................................ .005
.17
.8 1.1
2.7 4.19
.9
Rent....................................................................... .01
.03
.1
.23
.2
2.9 1.15
Light, heat, and power........................................ .06
f .15 \
Insurance............................................................... l i f .01 j. 2.0 J .75 l
i
g
\ .63
Taxes.................................................................... / ml \ .01
.2
.01
.33
2.9 3.66 / -1 l 1 -2
.0
.5
.2
2.8
.1
.01
.91
.3
Office supplies....................................................... .01
1.5
.8
.3
.07
.4
.01
Repairs.................................................................. .1
.4
.7 1.27
.27
.01
.3
Depreciation of store equipment....................... .04
.3
.2
.01
.5 1.45
.1
Loss from bad accounts..................................... .06
6.57 25.7 25.35 10.3 14.6
11.9
All expenses................................................ 3.5
1Harvard University. Graduate School of Business Administration. Bureau of Business Research.
Bui. No. 18: Operating expenses in retail grocery stores in 1919.
3 Includes also wages of delivery force.
3 Included with wages of sales force.

Both the common and the average total operating expense of the
cooperative societies of the Bureau of Labor Statistics study are
lower than the common total of the private grocery stores studied
by Harvard University.




BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY.

65

The labor and total operating expense of grocery stores as disclosed
by the present study, by that of Harvard University, and by one made
by the United States Office of Markets, are compared in Table 39.
T able 3 9 .—

COMPARISON OF LABOR AND TOTAL OPERATING COSTS IN GROCERY
STORES AS DISCLOSED BY THREE STUDIES.
Per cent of net sales.

Study and year.

Labor cost.

Type of
stores.

Total operating cost.

Low­ High­ Com-* Low­ High­ Com­
est. est. mon. est. est. mon.
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Cooperative.
(1920).
United States Office of Markets (1916) L ....... do..........
Harvard University (1919)3.................... Private........

0.3
4.5
2.54

24.9
9.8
14.6

5.5
2 6.4
6.3

3.5 25.7
7.0 17.7
6.57 25.35

10.3
211.7

14.6

1 U. S. Department of Agriculture. Office of Markets and Rural Organization. Bui. No. 394: A survey
of typical cooperative stores in the United States.
2Average.
3 Harvard University. Graduate School of Business Administration. Bureau of Business Research.
Bui. No. 18: Operating expenses in retail grocery stores in 1919.

It is evident from the above table that the low figures of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics are lower and the high figures higher in each
case than those of the other two investigations. The common total
cost of operation among the cooperative societies of the study made
by this bureau is lower than that of both the cooperative societies
studied by the Office of Markets and the private stores. The differ­
ence in total operating cost as shown by the present study and that
of the private stores may be due to smaller expenditure (as shown in
Table 38) for such items as wrappings, rent, light, heat, and power,
interest, and bad debts.
Reduced to a percentage of the total operating expense, the labor
cost is found to be as follows:
Per cent.

Bureau of Labor Statistics study...............................................53. 4
Office of Markets study............................................................... *. 54. 7
Harvard University study............................................................43. 2

AUDITING.

The accounting and auditing methods in use in cooperative stores
admittedly leave much to be desired. Investigations made by the
United States Office of Markets have shown that the business practice
not only of cooperative stores but of nearly all other types of coopera­
tive enterprises was the weakest point in the undertaking.

This weakness is due to lack of training on the part of the managers themselves, to
inability to pay the salary required by trained accountants, and to the general failure
on the part of the membership of cooperative associations to realize the importance of
a clear and constant record of the state of their business.14

The danger inherent in a condition of things under which the mem­
bership does not know the actual financial status of the society is
being recognized more and more and remedial efforts are being made
both within and without the movement. The United States Bureau
H U. S. Department of Agriculture. Office of Markets and Rural Organization. Bui. No. 394: A
survey of typical cooperative stores in the United States, p. 16.




66

CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

of Markets has prepared a system of accounting especially for use in
cooperative stores.15 The Cooperative League of America has done
likewise.16 At least one State university—that of Minnesota—teaches
cooperative accounting.17 Several of the various cooperative whole­
sale societies and organization bodies also either install uniform sys­
tems of accounting or will perform the accounting and auditing tor
societies wishing this service.
The fact that there are varying degrees of knowledge of accounting
and of recognition of the value of regular audits has been amply
demonstrated in the present study. No first-hand investigation of
the accounting systems of the societies included was possible. The
statements furnished as to financial condition, however, give a
fair index. These ranged from a bare “ assets so much, liabilities so
much” to the careful and detailed statement of assets and liabilities
and income and expenditure made by the expert accountant. One
society, through a new manager, reported: “ Nobody can tell any­
thing from the books as they are.” The manager of another associa­
tion said: “Have no books, as we do mostly a cash business.”
Analysis of the statements furnished brought out many interesting
points in this connection. Mathematical errors, inexcusable under
the circumstances, were frequent and sometimes serious. Due to such
a mistake the statement of one society showed a surplus of over $1,000,
whereas the true surplus was only about $100. But, on the basis of
this showing, dividends to the amount of over $900 were distributed.
Another society, through a similar mistake, returned in dividends its
apparent profit of $7,074; as a matter of fact it had a loss of nearly
$5,900. Mistakes like these may lead to the failure of the society.
In several cases failure to include paid-in share capital among the
liabilities resulted in a false showing of profit. Thus one association
seemed to have a surplus of over $5,000; but the share capital of
$7,350 not having been included, there was really a loss of nearly
$1,800. Another statement showed a gain of $300, but no account
had been taken of the share capital, which amounted to $13,000.
A third society had a loss of $5,000 when share capital of $10,000
was included among the liabilities. Still a fourth declared and paid
a dividend of over $1,100. Study of its report showed that this
saving was a fictitious one; the share capital had been listed as an
asset and the association had really sustained a loss for the year of
$2,850.
Another organization had a loss of $2,500. This was listed among
the assets and called “good will.”
Each society was asked whether or not its books were subjected to
regular audits and, if so, whether this was done by an auditing committee*of members or by a professional accountant. The results of
this question are shown in Table 40:
15 U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Markets. Bui. No. 381: Business practice and ac­
counts for cooperative stores.
18 Cooperative League of America (157 West Twelfth Street, New York City). Pamphlet No. 5: A sys­
tem of accounts for a cooperative store.
17 See Monthly Labor Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March, 1922, p. 168.




67

BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY.

T able 40.—AUDITING PRACTICE OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF EACH TYPE.
Iti6iii *

Consumers’
societies.

Agricultural
societies.1

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Regular audit by—
Con^mittee....................................................................
315 46.3
Expert accountant......................................................
238 34.9
Both committee and accountant...............................
75 11.0
Occasional audit by—
Committee....................................................................
9
1.3
Expert accountant......................................................
6
.9
5.6
No audit.............................................................................
38
Total........................................................................... 2681 100.0

52 19.2
187 68.8
20
7.4
3
1.1
4
1.5
6
2.2
3 272 100.0

367
425
95
12
10
44
4 953

38.5
44.6
10.0
1.3
1.0
4.6
100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies’’ is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers’)
and marketing societies.
2Not including 47 societies whose practice as to auditing was not reported.
2Not including 9 societies whose practice as to auditing was not reported.
4 Not including 56 societies whose practice as to auditing was not reported.

It is evident from the above table that a greater proportion of
agricultural societies than of consumed societies (76.2 as against
45.9 per cent) make regular use of the services of a public accountant
for the audit of their books. An additional 0.9 per cent of the con­
sumers’ societies and 1.5 per cent of the agricultural associations
have an occasional audit by a qualified auditor. Altogether, over
half of the cooperative organizations studied have their accounts
audited regularly by an expert, and only 44 societies—4.6 per cent—
have no audit at all. The value of an audit by a committee of
members is open to question, since they may have little or no knowl­
edge of the subject themselves, and the “ audit” may amount to no
more than a perfunctory “ O. K.” of what bookkeeping has already
been done. One society, however, announces that certain educa­
tional requirements are necessary for membership on its auditing
committee. In another society this committee has among its mem­
bers a certified accountant.
INSPECTION OF BOOKS BY MEMBERS.

More in order to determine the degree of democracy prevailing
than as a factor in its business methods, the bureau asked each
society whether its books are open to the inspection of the members,
and, if so, under what conditions. The answers received to this
question are shown below.




CONSUMERS 9 COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

68

TABLE

41.—NUMBER OF SOCIETIES WHOSE BOOKS ARE OPEN TO INSPECTION BY
THE MEMBERSHIP ON EACH SPECIFIED CONDITION.
Condition of inspection.

Consumers’ Agricultural
societies.
societies.1

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

Books open to inspection:
On request............................................................................... 505 73.7 216 79,7
During business hours........................................................... 19 2.8*
2
.7
At reasonable times............................................................... 27 4.0
8 3.0
3
By appointment....................... *...........................................
.4
If good reason for request......................................................
3 1.1
9 1.3
To committee only.................................................................
5
2 .7
.7
On request of specified number or per cent of member­
3
ship.......................................................................................
.4
On consent of—
Board of directors or specified officer........................... 28 4.1
12 4.4
Manager.......................................................... ................
3
.4
Other mp.mhp.rs (vote)...................................................
3
.4
In presence of—
2
Board of directors or specified officer........................... 13 1.9
.7
Manager............................................................................
5
.7
5 1.8
At board or regular meetings...............................................
12 1.8
2
.7
3
On 10 days’ notice..................................................................
.4
2
In case of dispute...................................................................
.3
Books not open to inspection...................................................... 45 6.6
19 7.0
Total..................................................................................... *685 100.0 *271 100.0

721 75.4
2.2
21
35
3.7
3
.3
12
1.3
.7
7
3
.3
4.2
40
3
.3
3
.3
15
1.6
10
1.0
14
1.5
3
.3
2
.2
64
6.7
* 956 100.0

1 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.
* Not including 43 societies whose practice on this point was not reported.
*Not including 10 societies whose practice on this point was not reported.
4 Not including 63 societies whose practice on this point was not reported.

It would seem, from examination of the above table, that in the
great majority of cases the books are open to inspection either without
restriction or under reasonable conditions. It is possible to see,
however, that in a few cases the conditions imposed might be capable
of misuse by a certain few. Thus, for instance, in a society where
there was suspicion as to the actions of the board of directors or
manager, a request, even by a considerable proportion of the member­
ship, to view the books of the society might be effectually blocked,
were this dependent upon the permission of these persons.
In only 6.7 per cent of all the societies are the books closed to
inspection.
BONDING OF OFFICERS.

As a means of protection against possible dishonesty, many
societies require that certain or ail of the officers be bonded. Infor­
mation on this point is contained in Table 42.




69

BUSINESS METHODS AND EFFICIENCY.

TABLE

42.—SOCIETIES REQUIRING BONDS OF SPECIFIED OFFICERS OR EMPLOYEES.
Number of societies requiring bonds
of specified officers and employees.
Persons required to be bonded.

Consumers’ Agricul­
tural
societies. societies.1

All officers....................................................................................................
Specified officers or persons:
Secretary...............................................................................................
Treasurer...............................................................................................
Secretary and treasurer......................................................................
Auditor and cashier............................................................................
Manager................................................................................................
Manager and secretary........................................................................
Manager and treasurer.............. I.......................................................
Manager and assistant manager........................................................
Manager and bookkeeper...................................................................
Manager and cashier...........................................................................
Manager and clerks.............................................................................
Clerks....................................................................................................
All persons handling money..............................................................
Total..................................................................................................
N o bonds required......................................................................................
N ot reported...............................................................................................
Grand total.......................................................................................

371
1
16
1
1
101
1
19
1
1
2
1
2
618
183
27
728

142
2
5
47
1
3
1
4
1
206
70
5
281

Total.
513
3
21
1
1
148
2
22
1
5
1
2
1
3
724
253
32
1,009

i The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers7)
and marketing societies.

WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.

GENERAL TYPES OF WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.

Several types of cooperative wholesale societies are found in the
United States. One type of wholesale is the strictly Rochdale type,
being a federation of independent local associations in full control
of their own internal affairs, which own and control the wholesale.
Another form of wholesale is that in which the wholesale is owned
by one big retail cooperative society having a number of branches
and is merely a department of it. Still a third sort is the centralized
form of society in which the wholesale practically controls the opera­
tion of local retail stores. One of the largest of the farmers’ move­
ments is built on this principle. The bookkeeping is done by the
central office and the stores are run by managers selected by it,
with the aid of a local committee. The farmer, it is said, is too busy
with actual farming to want to bother with running the store, and so
leaves this to the central office.
Perhaps the most interesting deviation from the Rochdale plan is
one which is also of the centralized type. This is the so-called ‘‘Ameri­
can plan,” which, the president of the society exemplifying this type
states, is a modification made necessary by certain conditions in the
United States—such as differing nationalities, prejudices, the credit
system, the American mental attitude, etc.—in order to develop the
movement “ rapidly and safely.” The society found it impossible to
obtain from individuals the necessary share and loan capital and so
was obliged to obtain funds from trade-unions. Every union
which lends its money to this society is entitled to one delegate to
the meetings for every share of loan capital held. Each retail store
has local autonomy as far as possible and a local control committee,
makes its own by-laws, and appoints its own manager. Where the



70

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

manager is chosen by the local control committee, however, the choice
must oe unanimous, and the manager may, if not satisfactory, be
removed by the central office. The manager is under bond to the
wholesale and must turn in to it a check for the amount of his receipts
every day. The local society must maintain a stock of merchandise
equal in value to what it obtains from the wholesale. If it does not,
the latter may withdraw the stock and obtain its money. The man­
ager of the central society is also bonded, by a merchandising bond
to the local societies. The retail societies7 accounts are audited
every three months but are checked every two weeks.
The union is the unit of membership under the “American plan/7
and the stores are union stores. There is no individual membership,
but the unionist is, by the fact of belonging to the union, indirectly a
member of the society. As a union member he has a voice in the
election of the local control committee and of the delegate to the cen­
tral society. This he has, however, not as a cooperator but as a
member of the union. Officials of the American plan society regard
the plan as merely a preliminary stage in the cooperative movement
and expect that eventually all the stores will gradually go onto the
original Rochdale basis, but feel that this is a matter requiring educa­
tion in cooperation.
At the end of 1920 there were 69 stores being operated by this
wholesale society, under the “American plan77; 31 independent
cooperative associations operating on the Rochdale plan were also
affiliated to this wholesale, and 8 additional independent societies
which were not affiliated were making their purchases through the
wholesale.
One wholesale, newly organized at the time of the investigation,
represents' still another form of wholesale society—that in which the
member societies are “ plant7 cooperative stores. By “ plant7
7
7
stores are meant those in which the membership is composed entirely
or almost so of the employees of a particular firm. These vary in
type from the purely company owned and operated store, to the
store owned and run by the employees, but subsidized by the company
to the extent of quarters, light, and heat, and finally to the mdeendent store
by the
E nothingmanaged entirelybusiness. employees, the company
aving
to do with the
NUMBER AND LOCATION OF WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.

There are at least 13 cooperative wholesale societies in the United
States, and in addition at least six societies which do both a wholesale
and retail business. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has reports from
10 of these wholesale societies, of which 7 are consumers7 and 3 agri­
cultural associations. One other consumers7society furnished general
information, but had been in operation too short a time to supply
figures.
Of these societies furnishing data the geographical location is as
follows:
Consumers’ societies:
California..........................................
Colorado............................................
Illinois.................................^...........
Massachusetts..................................
South Dakota..................................
Wisconsin.........................................




2
1
1
2
1
1

Agricultural societies:
Colorado............................................ 1
Illinois............................................... 1
Kansas............................................... 1
Total.............................................. 11

71

WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.

YEARS IN OPERATION.

Of the consumers7societies 1 had, at the time of the investigation,
January, 1921, been in operation only 5 months, 1 had been doing
business for a year and 5 months, 1 for 2 years, 2 for 4 years, 1 for 5
years, 1 for 8 years, and 1 for 16 years. The three agricultural
societies had been in business for 3 years, 3 years and 9 months, and
7 years respectively. The average age was 5 years and 3 months
among the consumers7societies and 4 years and 7 months among the
agricultural societies.
MEMBERSHIP.

In general, membership in the wholesale society is limited to local
retail organizations, individuals rarely being allowed to hold stock.
One consumers7 society, however, already discussed, also admits
trade-unions to membership.
REPRESENTATION OF MEMBER SOCIETIES.

Member retail organizations are entitled to be represented at the
meetings of the wholesale society by one or more delegates chosen
from their membership, the number so chosen being either absolute
or based on the size of the retail association. The affairs of the whole­
sale society are managed by a board of directors, the number varying
in the different localities, elected by the delegates either from their
own number or from the membership of the constituent societies.
CAPITAL AND RESERVE.

The value of each share of capital stock ranges, in the wholesale
societies studied, from $10 to $100. The maximum investment
allowed per member society ranges from $500 to $1,000. In one
society the amount of share capital required is proportioned to the
number of members in the individual society; for each 25 members
$100 must be subscribed to the share capital of the wholesale society.
In Table 43 are shown the amount of share capital, loan capital, and
reserve of the wholesale societies reporting on this point:
Table 43.—AMOUNT OF SHARE CAPITAL, LOAN CAPITAL, AND RESERVE, OF CO­
OPERATIVE WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.
Share capital.
Type of society.
Consumers' societies......................................
Agricultural societies2...................................
Total ....................................................

Loan capital.

Reserve fund.

Number
Number
Number
of
of
of
societies Amount. societies Amount. societies Amount.
reporting.
reporting.
reporting.
5 $140,965
3 167,990
8 308,955

3 $294,620
1 23,000
4 317,620

14

$31,538

14

31,538

1Including 1 society which had had a reserve fund amounting to about $20,000 but whose losses during
1920 wiped this out; and 1 society in business too short a time to have accumulated a reserve.
2 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.




72

CONSTJMEKS9 COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

GOODS HANDLED.

Groceries and general merchandise are the chief lines of goods
handled by the wholesale societies, though coal, farm supplies, work
clothing, and farm machinery and implements are frequently bought
through the wholesale.
BUSINESS OPERATIONS.

In Table 44 are set forth the number of member societies, the num­
ber of additional societies not members but doing business through
the wholesale, the amount of business done in 1920, the net profit,
and the rate of dividend returned to member societies:
T able

44__BUSINESS OPERATIONS OF WHOLESALE SOCIETIES IN 1920.'

Type of society.
Consumers' societies...................................
Agricultural societies8...............................
Total..................................................

Average
Number Number Number
rate of
of socie­ of mem­ of inde­ Amount of Net dividend
ties re- ber socie­ pendent business. profit. returned
reporting. ties. buyers.
(percent).
6
3
9

1271
436
1707

94 $3,881,585 8$12,452
200 5,318,488' 15,392
294 9,200,073 2 27,844

?
6*

1 Does not include “branch” retail societies operated as part of wholesale. Where this plan of operation
is followed the whole aggregation of stores is regarded as one retail society.
* Including 1 society with a net loss of $9,563 for the year.
8 The term “agricultural societies” is used in this report to designate combined purchasing (consumers')
and marketing societies.

As the above table shows, there are in affiliation with the wholesale
societies reporting, 707 local societies; 294 additional nonmember
societies make some or all of their purchases through these whole­
sales. Over $9,000,000 worth of business was done by these societies
in 1920, and a total net gain of $27,844 was realized. No case was
found where the member societies bound themselves to make all
their purchases through the wholesale society, the latter usually
having to compete with the private wholesalers for the patronage of
the member stores. In one case it is reported that while there is no
compulsion in the matter of patronage, it is understood that member
societies are expected to give their trade to their own wholesale.
METHODS OF DOING BUSINESS AND OBSTACLES ENCOUNTERED.

Not all of the so-called “wholesale” societies are full-fledged
wholesalers. Three of them operate wholly on the commission
basis.
Prevailing prices are quite generally charged. One society re­
marked in this connection: “ If price cutting is to be started, we
usually leave it to them [the other dealers] to do the starting. ”
All but three of the reporting societies do a strictly cash business.
Cooperative wholesale societies in the United States are at a dis­
advantage because of the fact that the cooperative retail societies are
so widely separated as to cut down the savings that would be possible
were the societies more thickly located. Most of the wholesale so­
cieties, however, do business within a comparatively short radius—
as within the limits of the State or of a certain well-defined trading



WHOLESALE SOCIETIES.

73

area. In some cases, also, opposition from other wholesalers has
been encountered. This usually takes the form of pressure brought
to bear upon the manufacturer to prevent his selling to the coopera­
tive wholesale.
The attitude of the retail cooperative societies toward affiliation
with the cooperative wholesale varies. The number of retail socie­
ties in affiliation with the wholesales from which reports were ob­
tained is, of course, an eloquent testimonial of the opinion of these
on this point. Each retail society was asked whether or not it was
so affiliated. The reason for nonaffiliation given by several was
that no cooperative wholesale existed in their section of the country.
The manager of one association stated that the society was not
affiliated with a wholesale, but in his opinion “by all means [it]
should be”; another said that the society was not so connected,
but “we wish we were.” A third society, in the same State as the
one last mentioned, reported that the secretary-manager of the
organization “who has had years of experience, finds best results by
local cooperation,” and so the society has held aloof from joining
a wholesale.
AUDITING AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE.

The wholesale society may be of especial service in introducing a
satisfactory and uniform system of bookkeeping and in supplying
auditing service. Lack of such a system has been a potent cause of
failure of cooperative stores. It is interesting, therefore, to note what
the wholesale societies studied are doing in this respect. Only three
of these report giving any service in accounting. Two of these will
supply to their member societies assistance and advice in installing
a good system of bookkeeping. The third does not do this, but has
issued a form which it recommends and which, it is stated, is “ quite
generally used” by its affiliated societies. One of these societies
supplies auditing service to its members. Another will audit its
members’ books if called upon to do so, but has no regular auditing
service. One of the agricultural wholesales, while having neither
an accounting nor an auditing department, is closely connected
with the Farmers’ Union, which does maintain such departments,
and member societies may obtain such service from the union.
ORGANIZATION WORK.

None of the societies report carrying on regular work in organiz­
ing new societies, this being done, apparently, with some caution.
One society reports that it does no active organization work, but
will give advice and assistance to cooperators anxious to start a
society, will send speakers to explain the aims of the movement,
and will supply the necessary legal papers. Another states that
regular organization work is discouraged by the society, the attitude
being taken that the initiative toward cooperative organization
should come from the people themselves. Where assistance is re­
quested, however, the society will give such as is necessary.




74

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

THE FAILURES.
# A special attempt was made, when a society was reported as having
failed, to ascertain the cause or causes therefor and the time of
failure. Of 276 societies reported to have failed, the date of failure
was ascertained for 98 and the reason of failure for 70. It was found
that the greatest number of these failures took place in the latter
part of 1920 or the early part of 1921. In many cases the enterprise
was doomed to failure from the beginning because of some glaring
error in basic organization or in methods.
Three cooperative wholesale societies failed during 1920. The
failure of these wholesale societies was, because of the far-reaching
effects, the most outstanding circumstance in the history of the
movement during the year 1920. One of these wholesales nad been
organized with the idea of its becoming the wholesale society for the
whole country.
The failure of these societies had disastrous effects on the retail
societies, since two of the wholesales were operating retail branches
on the chain-store plan, the funds of the whole system being handled
by the central office. It is a feature of the chain-store plan that the
fortunes of the retail branches are inextricably bound up with those
of the central, or wholesale, society.
In general these failures were due to wrong methods of organiza­
tion; poor judgment in buying; poor management; desire for quick
results, leading to overexpansion; too large overhead expense in
proportion to the business done; and to general incompetence at
headquarters.
In one case the situation was aggravated and failure hastened
because of the steel strike, the miners* strike, and the “ outlaw **
railroad strike, which came in quick succession and in which many
of the members of the constituent stores were involved.
The causes of failure among the 70 societies for which report was
made and the number of cases in which each was given as either
sole or contributing cause are as follows:
Number of

Due to members:
cases.
Insufficient capital........ ...............................................................................
17
Lack of patronage and support.................................................................. 13
Lack of cooperative spirit...........................................................................
7
Loss of interest...............................................................................................
5
Dissatisfaction and factional disputes.....................................................
5
Undue interference in business.....................................
3
Total.....................................................................................................
50
Due to manager:
Inefficient management............................................................................... 26
Overstocking.............................................
4
Poor bookkeeping..........................................................................................
4
Theft.............................................................
1
Total.....................................................................................................
35
Due to both members and manager:
Unwise extension of credit.........................................................................
12
Disproportionately high overhead expense...........................................
5>
Total.....................................................................................................
17 .




75

TH E FAILURES,

Number of

General:
cases.
Decline in prices................
7
Poor location..................................................................................................
4
Strike................................................................................................................
4
Fire....................................................................................................................
3
Inability to secure competent manager..................................................
2
Purchase of old slow-turning stock..........................................................
2
• Lack of leadership..............................................
1
Poor business conditions.............................................................................
1
Price cutting by competitors.....................................................................
1
Insufficient number of members.............................................
1
Total.....................................................................................................
26

It is evident that the outstanding reasons for failure are inefficient
management and inability to secure a competent manager, insufficient
capital, lack of patronage by the members, and unwise extension of
credit. Poor bookkeeping was given as a specific cause in only four
cases but this is usually included in inefficient management. It is
safe to say also that this is more often the cause than the member
or other person reporting realized.
Plainly, the chief onus for the lack of success rests on the members
themselves.
Because of the importance of the subject, some of the most signifi­
cant of the information received is noted briefly here.
The examples given hereafter illustrate vividly the fallacy of the
“ eat your way in” slogan and show the cooperative fatalities caused
by the disloyalty of the members, the inertia of members and board
of directors in the oversight of the affairs of their own society, and
such mistakes of judgment as the taking over of an established. store
filled with shop-worn, slow-moving merchandise or the investment
of the society’s capital in unnecessary equipment.
Society No. 1 —Store was organized in 1900 and sold at the end of
1917. Share capital was limited to $100 per member.

During the last 12 years of the company’s existence it paid to its members a net
profit of $26,269.85, which was an average of 25£ per cent per annum on the investment.
If the store had been owned by an individual he would have been satisfied with the
returns, but as it was, with each member having such a small share, there was much
dissatisfaction. As is common with most people who have not had mercantile expe­
rience, the members thought that there was a larger per cent of profit than there proved
to be. On account of several members moving away, an amendment was added to
the by-laws whereby their shares were bought back by the company, thus reducing
the capital to carry on the business. This lack of capital, coupled with the dissatis­
faction already existing, caused members to vote to sell and disband. The members
received par value for their shares.

Society No. 2 .—This store failed at the beginning of 1919, chiefly
because of insufficient capital. Shares were $100 each. Some of the
members paid in full. Others did not, having been told that “if they
would pay $12, $2 would be membership fee and the other $10 would
be their first payment on their share. They were given to under­
stand that the interest on their money and the dividend on their
trading would eventually amount to $100 and pay their share in full,
but this proposition did not seem to work out.” Purchases at the
cooperative store were mainly of staple articles on which the margin
of profit was not sufficient to cover the expenses of operation. The
place where the store was located being a mining town, many of the
members did their buying at the company store. The cooperative




76

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

store ran into debt, members who had not paid for their shares were
sued, and the business was finally closed out.
Society No. 3 .—The reason for the failure of this store was given as
mismanagement. The following statement was submitted:

Our first manager sold on credit until we had bad accounts to the amount of $800 or
more, and any drummer with a cigar and a smile could sell him a gold brick.
Our last manager did well for a time and then took to drink, with the result that the
store was put in such a condition that after six months of hard work on the part of the
last board of directors we were forced to admit that it was beyond us to place the store
back on its feet. We, therefore, placed it in the hands of [an attorney] for settlement,
owing over $4,000.
[We] started business with $980 and over 100 customers, so there was no reason why
we should not have made a success if we had had the proper managers.
When the last board of directors took inventory of the stock we found cured meats,
margarine, and cereals to the amount of several hundred dollars that had been allowed
to spoil and found also that the manager had thrown away a larger amount a short time
before we took over the affairs of the association.
In the face of what we found it was impossible to continue so [we] did the only
thing that could be done honorably.

Society No. 4 -—The reasons for the failure of this store are given as
poor location, lack of cooperation by the members, and inefficient
management.

The store was located near the main factory of [the firm of which the members
were employees] and it was necessary for members to carry the goods home. There
was no trolley passing the door, and any members who had to carry the goods home
had to furnish a good deal of effort, which they were unwilling to do. While mem­
bers were anxious to have the store organized, after they once got it, due to the
fact that they considered they were part owners in it, they kicked against prices and
goods carried and various things more than they would against a* store operated by
some individual or outside concern. It was very discouraging to the board of directors
and manager. Although we tried our best to secure a manager whom we believed
would be interested in this work, we believe that we made a mistake in the man
we got and that he did not show proper interest, as we hoped he would show in this
business, and he did not manage economically.

Society No. 5.—Thi,s society, composed chiefly of Lithuanians,
failed, according to the former secretary, because of lack of business
ability on the part of the members; inefficient manager and employ­
ees; dissensions, prejudice, and lack of cooperative spirit among the
members; and price cutting by the other merchants of the town.

The other merchants boosted the prices down to disrupt the newly-born associa­
tion. They even went so far as to give souvenirs for each little article purchased,
just to attract their attention from this cooperative association. And when you
have no faith in your appointed officers. It finally went out of business.

Society No. 6.—During the period of organization of this society
about 100 people indicated their intention of becoming members.
When the store was opened, however, in July, 1919, only 22 were
paid-up shareholders. “The rest backed out.” Early in October
the store was sold at auction by the sheriff for $50.
Society No. 7.—This society was formed in 1915 and proved to be
“ maintained purely and simply as a means of shrewd stock salesmen’s
collecting 30 per cent for selling the stock to the farmers in this
vicinity.” It was placed in the hands of a receiver in September,
1916.
Society No. 8 .—The following account is given of the conditions
leading to the failure of this society:

Records show 120 stockholders purchased for 9 months $4,300, or $4 each per month.
Farmer executives. Successful farmers, [but] absolutely no training or experience in




TH E FAILURES.

77

financing business. Manager popular, good judge of merchandise, no idea of financing,
with fixtures and office equipment sufficient for quarter million dollar business.
Customers’ accounts about $2,000. Small meeting of stockholders voted to sell for
cash only. Farmers and stockholders having no cash passed then to competitors
carrying charge accounts.
Society No. 9.—The reasons for this society’s going out of business
are given as follows:

Beg to say that reasons are numerous, but principally mismanagement. However,
it was started out wrong. There being $15,000 stock subscribed and only $9,200
paid in, an old stock of goods purchased, consuming entire amount paid in, leaving
no operating capital; $4,700 of this was for fixtures, balance covered stock of goods
on hand, most of which was goods that would not move readily, of which all stores
have. This, of course, necessitated going in debt for goods to meet immediate
demands. Not being able to pay cash for goods or take advantage of quantity pur­
chases, therefore were able to meet competitive prices only at a sacrifice of profit,
and in the end, operating expenses, consisting of high rent, big salaries, and auto­
mobile delivery, exceeded the income, and it was necessary to make assignment to
satisfy creditors. All creditors will be paid and only stockholders will lose.

Society No. 10. —This society, an agricultural association in Mon­
tana, discontinued business, the report states, because of the “ disas­
trous droughts of 1918, 1919, and 1920,” causing such a falling off in
the business as to leave the directors no choice but to close out.
“ Montana farmers are still greatly interested in cooperation, but the
dry years have put such a crimp in our finances that we are unable to
undertake any movement toward that end at the present time.”
Society No. 11.—This society went out of business in July, 1921.
It was, according to the report received from the former secretary,
“very much a success. They had no reason for selling, only very
hard to secure help, and a bunch of farmers could not run a business
and do their farm work.”
Society No. 12.—This association spent $900 for organization
purposes and then started business (2 stores) with $350. The busi­
ness lasted about five months.
Society No. 13.—This society operated a store for about 5% years.
Its history is given as follows:

This store did a thriving business and paid some wonderful dividends to members
only on amounts purchased by them during the year. At one time as much as 12$
per cent, another time 8 per cent. Many members received back at the end of the
year more money than they put into it; that is, over $100—one share to a family was
all that was allowed.
Success turned the management’s head; they gave indiscriminate credit and bought
wild. Then finally directors were brought to their senses and insisted on complete
records and audits regularly as required by law. They found more than their capital
tied up in poor accounts and fixtures, with a stock of over $25,000 on hand and no
money to pay for it. A change in management was made, complete records kept
and regular audits made, but at least 50 per cent of stock had to be sold below cost
and heavy amounts in interest paid—of course no dividends could be paid. Result,
dissatisfied members and final closing of the store with no loss to creditors, but stock­
holders received nothing on their stock except dividends they had received earlier
in the business.
Society No. 14.—This was a society which was merely an adjunct
to a central labor organization. The former president writes as
follows:

It was started to help out our members during the high-cost period and was run
about 18 months, doing a great deal of good in the way of saving to our members.
After prices began to drop, the members began to trade with neighborhood stores
again, so receipts dropped off, making it impossible to operate. The desired results
were accomplished anyway; namely, lower prices.
105983°—22-----6




78

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

Society No. 15.— Society No. 15 was a farmers’ society, the failure of
which “ was due to a very large extent to mismanagement, coupled
with the fact that the members expected to purchase their goods at
cost price, while being unwilling to dispose of their own products to
the store unless they received the highest market price.”
Society No. 16.— Lack of capital killed this society. “Many talked
favorably toward it, [but] only a few were willing to put money into
it, until they were sure it was to be a success.”
Society Mo. 17.—This association had no system of bookkeeping
after the first month. It lasted 11 months.
Society No. 18.—The following laconic account, by the former
secretary, gives graphically the life history of this Texas society:

This store was organized by union men but was rank failure. They expected too
much entirely. Too many knockers. Bad location. Not enough capital to stock up.
Women folks too independent. They don’t want to be told where to buy. Every, thing went wrong. One man left to do all the work. Lost money. Blowed up.

Society No. 19.—This society was forced into bankruptcy because
of overstocking, the maintenance of an expensive delivery svstem,
and the extension of credit up to 80 per cent of the members^ share
capital. Undismayed, the members reorganized, put the store on
the “ cash and carry” basis, and it is now doing well.
Society No. 20.—This society will be dealt with at greater length
than the preceding ones because it received first-hand study by the
bureau and because its failure was the result of a combination of
nearly all the known causes of failure of cooperative societies. Out
of a mass of conflicting evidence the following particulars emerge:
Organization was begun during the cooperative “wave” that swept
over the country during the later years of the war period. Paid
“ organizers” canvassed the city securing members. Shares were
$5 each. Many prospective members paid $2.50 and were told that
the dividends on purchases would pay the remaining $2.50. The
leaders though enthusiastic were impractical, having no knowledge
of business and no idea of what might reasonably be expected of the
movement. Six or seven stores were opened without a sufficient
membership to support them. Funds and management were under
the control of the central office, where incompetence and inefficiency
were rife. The system of bookkeeping was changed twice, each time,
it is stated, “with a total disregard of previous work. ” No separate
accounts were kept for the individual stores, and it was impossible
to tell which ones were successful and which were not, the result
being that the successful ones had to carry the*unsuccessful ones.
The books gave little indication even of where the money came from
or how much was owed.
Extravagant investments in both equipment and merchandise
were made. Of an average share capital of $10 per member, affi­
davits show, $6.25 went for equipment. Also, purchases by non­
members to those by members were in the ratio of 3 to 1. The
society was thus in the position of trying to supply four families with
the remaining $3.75 of share capital. And credit was granted.
At the height of the society’s development, the affidavit of the presi­
dent shows, the association had 1,700 members, $20,000 share capital,
and $7,500 loan capital.
Then the society affiliated with a newly formed wholesale society
and soon the affairs of the two were hopelessly involved.




THE FAILURES.

79

A statement issued by the retail society had shown $882 in undi­
vided profits. When a change in bookkeepers was made and a new
statement issued, this showed not only that there were no undivided
profits but that the society had lost some $9,000.
The members, it must be remembered, had had no training in co­
operative effort. They were of differing nationalities, with different
viewpoints, and this resulted in frequent clashes. Upon the publica­
tion of the second statement the members grew suspicious. Charges
of dishonesty were made. Factions grew up within the society and
disputes became frequent. At the meetings of delegates from the
branches, all witnesses agree, there was evident a total.lack of co­
operative feeling, suspicion, no “mixing,” and some hostility. As
one person interviewed expressed it: “The meetings were always a
fight.” The board of directors, it was stated, spent its energies
haggling over trivial matters, leaving the big problems untouched.
When it became evident that the society was destined to failure, an
effort was made to save it by securing new capital. This failed,
however, as the society was hopelessly demoralized. Bankruptcy
proceedings were instituted and the affairs of the society were closed
up, many of the members losing their life savings, invested in the
society.
It is probably safe to say that, as a result of these experiences,
nowhere else in the country is there such a reaction from cooperation
or such a feeling of bitterness toward the movement as exist in the
section where the above society was located.
Society No. 21.—This was a society composed of Government
employees in the city of Washington, D. C. During the war, faced
with continually mounting prices and a stationary salary, which was
not sufficient even in normal times, the employees of one of the de­
partments undertook at first to supply themselves with groceries.
The movement started with enthusiasm, several thousand persons
joined, and a store was opened. A little later clothing and shoes
were added. The whole thing was on the wrong basis, however.
The members knew little and cared less about cooperation; to them
the store meant simply a place where they could obtain supplies at
smaller cost than elsewhere—bargains. There was no share capital—
the $5 membership fee supplied the operating capital, and refund of
this money was promised on withdrawal of any member from the
society. The store was run on the cost-plus plan and was located
in an out-of-the-way place. No deliveries were made, each member
having to carry home his purchases. What this meant is clear enough
to anyone who knows the transportation conditions that prevailed
in Washington during the war, when to wedge one’s way into a street
car was an achievement which frequently became a physical impossi­
bility when the procedure was complicated by bundles even of small
size.
After a few months trade fell off. Members found that the money
saver was not such a money saver after all—that the package of oat­
meal carried home at great inconvenience could have been obtained
at the same or a lower price at the corner chain store. And, remember,
few were real cooperators. Then came the armistice and the release
of hundreds of clerks from the service. Upon their departure they
called for the return of their membership fees. The society found
itself in a serious position. It had on hand a stock of merchandise



80

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

on which it could not realize, and it was faced with the withdrawal of
large amounts of its working capital. Selling on the cost-plus plan,
as it had, there was no reserve. Nothing remained but to liquidate
its assets, return what could be realized from the stock, and close up
the business.
CONCLUSION.

This study has served to show that, even considering the fact that
60 per cent of the societies studied are incorporated under regular
corporation laws, the great majority of the societies follow the Roch­
dale principles.
While the shares are small, ranging from $5 to $10 in nearly threefifths of the societies, the organizations included in this investigation
are adequately capitalized, 3 the capitalization fixed by various co­
operative authorities be accepted as reasonable. The amount of
paid-in share capital necessary for doing a cooperative business has
been variously set at $1,000, $2,500, and $5,000, or from $10 to $50
per member.18 The strictly consumers’ societies studied averaged
$17,056 per society and $59 per member. Both averages were greater
in the agricultural associations, but there the money was used also to
finance the marketing business of the organization. It should, how­
ever, be emphasized that this capital is considered adequate only if
the members are absolutely loyal to the store. And the degree of
loyalty to the store here disclosed is problematical. No general
figures were obtained showing what proportion of sales was made
to members and what proportion to nonmembers. The average
made of the 21 societies for which this information was obtained
shows that only 47 per cent of the sales went to members. If this
percentage is typical, then $37,649,319, out of a total business of
$80,104,935 done by the 811 societies reporting, represents the sales
to members, an average of only $145 per member for the year.
About two-thirds of the societies reporting on this point have
accumulated either surplus or reserve or both. The amounts so
accumulated range from $1 to over $50,000, and average $5,142 per
society. This showing, in view of the comparative youth of the
societies, is not unsatisfactory.
As far as operating expense is concerned, it was found that cooper­
ative stores compare favorably with private establishments.
One of the most common faults was an unduly large proportion
of capital in fixed assets, leaving too small an amount of “ working”
capital.
Dangerously large extension of credit was found in some instances,
and the average maximum amount which could be so granted was
seen to be more than half again as much as the average capital per
member. Computation of the actual amounts outstanding in ac­
counts receivable showed that 28.8 per cent of the paid-in share
capital was so absorbed, and a smaller proportion if the total capital,
including surplus, reserve, and loan capital be included in “ capital.”
The accounting methods revealed by the study leave something to
be desired, though a large number of societies (over half) conform
to the best practice in regard to accounting and auditing.
18 See Monthly Labor Review, July, 1920, p. 137.




CONCLUSION.

8 1

The Upited States Office of Markets in its study of cooperative
stores 19 came to the conclusion (p. 26) that “ the majority of the
cooperative stores established are unsuccessful in achieving their
main object—saving on purchases to members and a reduction of
the high cost of living.” This conclusion is to‘some extent con­
firmed by the present study. About three-fifths of the consumers’
societies and only about two-fifths of the agricultural associations
which practice return of purchase dividends actually made such a
return for the last quarter of 1920. The average rate so returned
was 5.9 per cent in the consumers’ societies and 4.7 per cent in the
combined purchase and sale organizations. On the average yearly
purchases of $353 and $530 per person shown in Table 17, such a
dividend would amount to $20.83 and $24.91, respectively. This,
as already explained, is an overstatement, since these figures cover
also the nonmembers’ purchases. The figures obtained as to the
total amount of dividend returned during 1920 are unsatisfactory,
but they indicate an average return of only $14 per member for the
year. However, because of the business conditions it is not fair to
judge the movement by the situation in 1920, especially considering
the supplementary reports received showing results of other years.
Some idea of the extent of the cooperative movement in the United
States may be obtained by assuming that the averages arrived at in
this study hold good for the other 1,591 societies located by the
bureau but not reporting and for the societies included in the study
but not reporting on specific points. Thus, the application of the
average membership here shown—269 persons—to the known socie­
ties indicates that the membership of all these societies would be
nearly 700,000. A similar application of the average business done
per society—$99,406—gives the total business by the known societies
of the country at $257,942,269. The known societies, however,
probably include only about 90 per cent of all the cooperative socie­
ties in the United States. Making allowance for these unlocated
organizations, the figure for total membership may be conservatively
placed at 775,000 and the yearly business done at $285,000,000.
The proportions and condition of the movement disclosed by the
present study may prove disappointing to those who, because of the
general enthusiasm for cooperation, have formed glowing pictures of a
movement shortly to equal that of Great Britain. The success of the
movement should be judged, however, not by its size but by its sta­
bility. The results of this study would seem to show that the success
of the society is determined, not so much by the number of members
in the society, as by their loyalty to it. Also, little is heard of the
successful societies. It is the failures which are spectacular and
attract attention.
19 U. S. Department of Agriculture. Office of Markets and Rural Organization. Bui. No. 394: A suryey
of typical cooperative stores in the United States.







APPENDIX A.—GENERAL FEATURES OF CONSUMERS’
COOPERATIVE LAWS.

Some of the States have no cooperative law under which the consum­
ers’ association may incorporate. These States are Delaware, Georgia,
Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New
Hampshire, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont,
and West Virginia. The laws of those States which have legislated
on the subject vary greatly, some of them being of the most general
nature, while others are fairly specific and lay down certain coopera­
tive requirements which must be met by the societies incorporating
under them. Below is given a summary of the cooperative require­
ments of these laws:
Definition of “ cooperative ” society.—Only five laws define u coopera­
tive” society. Those of Florida, Indiana, and Nebraska define such
a society as one which distributes its earnings wholly or in part in
proportion to patronage or service rendered; those of Kansas and
Kentucky define it as one which makes a fixed return on capital and
pays a pro rata dividend on patronage.
Management.—Fifteen laws 1 place the number of directors at not
fewer than five. Seven2 of these require that the directors shall be
elected annually. All of the 15 States, except Alabama, specify
the officers of the society and all except Alaska, Michigan, and New
Jersey require that the officers be chosen every year. Hie Kentucky,
Montana, North Dakota, and Washington laws require that the
directors shall be not fewer than 3 in number, and name the officers,
the Kentucky and Washington statutes providing for annual election
of officers and that of North Dakota of both directors and officers.
In South Carolina the law provides that there shall be not fewer
than 5 nor more than 9 directors, and specifies the officers, who
shall be chosen annually. In Pennsylvania societies there may be
6, 8, or 10 directors, but there must also be 2 auditors and certain
specified officers; one-half of the board of directors and one auditor
are to be elected every six months, for a term of one year. The
Wyoming statute does not fix the number of directors but directs
that whatever number is chosen shall be elected annually.3 The
Nevada law leaves all details of management to be determined by
the association in its by^-laws. The laws of the remaining States
make no provision on this point.
Value o f shares.—Only six State laws4 contain provisions as to
the face value of each share of capital stock issued by the society.
1Alabama, Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.
2Alabama, Alaska, Connecticut, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and North Dakota.
3 In the case of Alabama, New York, and Washington, the above statements apply only to associations
with capital stock. In Alabama, in nonstock associations the number of directors shall be not fewer than
7 nor more than 9, elected annually. In New York, in nonstock associations the number of directors
is to be determined in the by-laws, the dinfctors to hold office for three years, one-third of the board to
be elected each year; the officers are specified and are to be appointed annually by the directors. In
Washington, the details of management are to be as set forth in the society's by-laws.
4Illinois, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina.




83

84

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

In Illinois shares must be not less than $5 nor more than $100 each,
in New York $5 each, in South Carolina not less than $5, in Montana
not less than $10 nor more than $500, and in New Jersey not more
than $50. In Pennsylvania the law provides that the shares may be
from $5 to $25 in value, divided into two classes—permanent and
ordinary. . Permanent stock may not be withdrawn from the society,
though it may be transferred to another person subject to conditions
fixed by the by-laws of the association, and each member must hold
at least one share. Ordinary stock is both transferable and with­
drawable in accordance with the by-laws.
Stock ownership per member—The cooperative laws of 23 States 5
contain provisions as to the amount of share capital that may be
held by any one member. Nine of these 6 restrict the amount so
invested to $1,000 per person, though the Pennsylvania law adds that
this may be increased by vote of the members and that of Wyoming
makes the proviso that the amount may also not exceed one-third
of the total outstanding stock. The Illinois law limits the amount
to 5 shares and $500, and that of New York to $5,000. In Montana
societies each member may invest not less than $10 nor more than
$500. The laws of seven States state this limitation in terms of the
total share capital, that of Kansas placing it at 5 per cent, that of
Massachusetts at 10 per cent, and those of North Carolina, Oregon,
South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington at 20 per cent. In
the laws of Colorado, Indiana, Michigan, and Nebraska this is left
to the s o c ie t y to determine in its by-laws.
Voting.—The laws of 22 States 7 provide that each member of a
cooperative society may have only one vote regardless of the amount
of stock held. The law of Oregon also contains this provision, but
states that in an emergency in which the existence of the association
is threatened the votes cast by the members may be in proportion
to the amount of business done with the society. The law of Florida
leaves the basis of voting to be determined by the stockholders of
the society and that of Michigan provides that the voting shall be
in accordance with the by-laws of the association.
Vote by proxy and by mail.—Eleven laws8 contain provision as to
voting by proxy. Those of Illinois and North Carolina permit
written proxies, that of Alabama permits proxy voting in the annual
election, and that of Wyoming allows it if provided m the by-laws
of the association. The laws of California and Michigan leave the
matter to be carried out according to the society's bydaws, but the
California statute requires that secrecy of ballot must be secured.
Proxy voting is forbidden by the acts of Minnesota, New Jersey,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Voting by mail is permitted
by the statutes of Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, and Tennessee,
while the Michigan act requires that provision for voting by mail
must be made in the by-laws of the association. The laws of Illinois,
Iowa, New York, North Carolina, and Washington allow the vote to
s Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana,
Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South
Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
®Connecticut, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, Wisconsin,
and Wyoming.
m
7Alaska, California, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Kentu<Sy, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana,
Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South
Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
s Alabama, California, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, and Wyoming.



APPENDIX A.---- GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

85

be cast by mail if the voter is notified in writing of the question to be
voted on and a copy of the question accompanies the vote, while
those of Wisconsin and South Dakota allow it if a copy of the matter
in question accompanies the vote. The law of California requires
that the procedure on this point shall be as set forth in the by-laws,
but that secrecy of ballot shall be maintained.
Distribution of earnings.—The method of disposal of the earnings
made by the society receives attention in 30 statutes.9 The percent­
age of savings that shall be paid as interest on share capital and the
percentage to be set aside for reserve fund and educational work are
specified and the return of dividend in proportion to patronage is
made obligatory in the laws of Alaska, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minne­
sota, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Caro­
lina, South Dakota, Virginia, and Wisconsin. The Iowa statute
expressly states that none of these funds may be used in the payment
of promotion work, commissions, salaries, or expenses. Dividends to
nonmembers on their purchases are required by the acts of Massa­
chusetts, North Carolina, and Virginia, and dividends to nonmembers
and to employees on their wages are provided for in the laws of Mon­
tana, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Wisconsin. The
percentages fixed by the law are subject to revision by the association
in Iowa, North Carolina, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Virginia.
Provision as to interest on share capital, reserve, and patronage divi­
dends is contained in the Oregon, Tennessee, Washington, and Wyo­
ming acts. A bonus on wages of employees is provided for, payable
out of the earnings of the society, in the law of Washington, and divi­
dends to nonmembers on their purchases in those of Oregon and Wash­
ington. The Wyoming act states that provision may be made in the
association’s by-laws for the payment of patronage dividends to non­
members. In Alaska and Montana the distribution of profits is to be
made annually. In all but four10of the States mentioned, the law pro­
vides that the percentage of profits stipulated in the statute shah be
set aside for reserve until an amount equal to a certain percentage of
the paid-in share capital (usually 30 per cent) is accumulated. The
laws of Kentucky and Michigan provide for the payment of a fixed
rate of interest on share capital, that of Kentucky stating that by a
two-thirds vote of all the members not less than 10 per cent nor more
than 25 per cent may be set aside for a reserve fund, while that of
Michigan allows the remainder of the earnings, after payment of not
to exceed 7 per cent on share capital, to be distributed as patronage
dividends.
The laws of California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana,
Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, and Ohio
leave the distribution of savings to be settled by the association in
its by-laws. Those of Connecticut and New Jersey add that a speci­
fied percentage shall be set aside for reserve. Those of Indiana and
Nebraska specify that in the distribution of the earnings the society
must conform to the definition of “ cooperative society ” contained in
the law; the Kansas act, while not making this specific provision,
9 Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New J e rse y , New York, North Caro­
lina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia,
Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Alaska, Oregon, Pennsylvama, and Washington.




86

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

contains a definition to which the society must conform in order to
come under the act. The Arkansas statute states that dividends may
not be declared or paid “ except to the amount of money paid in by
the stockholders on their respective shares.”
Use o f the word i( cooperative
The laws of 14 States 11 prohibit
the use of the word u cooperative” in the name of an association formed
after the passage of tne. act unless the provisions of the act are
complied with. The laws of nine of these12provide that any associa­
tion violating this provision may be enjoined from doing business on
suit of a stockholder of any legally organized association. In Kansas
and Tennessee the injunction may be issued on suit of any citizen of
the State. The Wyoming statute also contains this provision with
the added penalty of not more than $100 fine for each offense. The
Massachusetts act sets a penalty of not more than $10 for every day
the violation continues and that of New York of a fine of $500 or
imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
The cooperative law of Pennsylvania is still perhaps the best in the
country, although passed in 1887. It is very full, specifying the
officers, the amount and kinds of shares, the maximum amount of
capital per member, the basis of voting, and the distribution of earn­
ings. In short, this law safeguards both the societies and those with
whom they deal. By specifying how the earnings must be divided,
the law in effect sets a standard of genuine cooperation. It is per­
haps a weakness that no penalty is provided for use of the word
“ cooperative” by associations not complying with the act. Many
of the provisions of the act have been embodied in the laws of other
States, especially that of New York. It contains, however, two pro­
visions not found in any other cooperative law. One of these directs
that bonds shall be required of every person handling money in the
society. The other relates to the question of credit and provides
that “ all transactions shall be for cash, and no credit shall either
be given or taken, * * * provided further, that any credit given
to any such association in violation of the provisions of this act shall
cause a forfeiture of any credit thus illegally given, and that a notice
to such effect shall be published by such association on its letter and
bill heads, advertisements, and other publications.”
The synopsis below shows the steps necessary for incorporation
and the requirements and chief features of each State law.
ALABAMA (STOCK).
(Code of 1907, secs. 3574-3588.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e .—Mutual aid, benefit, industrial.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F ilin g a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n .—With judge of probate in

county in which principal
place of business is located.
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for other corporations. Judge of probate shall receive 15 cents
per 100 words and $2.50 for examining articles.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors, elected for a term of one year.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Not less than $5,000.
11Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
12 Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, North Carolina, Oregon South Carolina, Virginia, Washington, and
Wisconsin.




APPENDIX A.— GENERAL, FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

87

ALABAMA (NONSTOCK);
(Code of 1907, secs. 3584-3588.)

Scope and purpose.—Mutual aid, benefit or industrial.
Number who may organize.—Fifteen or more.
Filing articles of incorporation.—With judge of probate of the county in which
principal place of business is located.
Filing fee.—Same as for other corporations.
Management.—Board of trustees of not less than seven nor more than nine mem­
bers of corporation. Elected annually.
Capital stock.—Nonstock.
Voting by mail or proxy.—Specifically permitted in annual election of trustees.
Proxy must be made 30 days before election.
Assets.—Net assets at all times must equal $1.50 for each $100 of insurance at risk.
ALASKA.
(Acts of 1917, ch. 26.)

Scope and purpose.—Any lawful mercantile, manufacturing, agricultural, or other
industrial pursuit.
Number who may organize.—Not less than five persons. Majority must be residents
of Alaska.
Filing articles of incorporation.—To be filed with secretary of Territory.
Management.—Must have not less than five directors, elected annually. One
president, one or more vice presidents, a secretary, and a treasurer (last two may be
combined).
Capital stock.—Not limited.
Voting.—Members are entitled to only one vote regardless of amount of stock held.
Distribution, of earnings.—Annually. >Not more than 8 per cent on paid-up capital
stock, 10 per cent of profits into a sinking fund, 5 per cent into an educational fund
to teach cooperation, and remainder to be apportioned among stockholders or other
purchasers on their purchases
ARKANSAS.
(Kirby’s Digest, 1904, secs. 937-948.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Benevolent, mutual aid, and similar purposes.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Three or, if association of merchants, nine
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With clerk of circuit court.
F i li n g o f a m e n d m e n ts . —With same clerk within 60 days after their passage.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Clerk or secretary must keep record of proceedings.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Dividends or profits may not be declared or paid

to the amount paid in by the stockholder.

except

CALIFORNIA (NONSTOCK).
(Civil Code of 1906, secs. 653a-l.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F ilin g o f a rticle s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —Clerk

of county in which the principal place
of business is located, and a copy with the secretary of state.
F ilin g o f a m e n d m e n ts . —With clerk of county.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Nonstock.
T ra n sfe r o f sto c k . —May be transferred by board of directors.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il o r p r o x y . —May be provided for in by-laws, provided secrecy of
ballot is secured.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —According to by-laws.
D is s o lu tio n .—Upon written request of two-thirds of members,




88

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

COLORADO (NONSTOCK).
(Acts of 1913, ch. 62.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Ten or more.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for general corporations.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —As provided in by-laws.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —According to by-laws.

CONNECTICUT.
(General Statutes, Revision of 1918, secs. 3600-3609.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Trade or any lawful mercantile, mechanical, manufacturing, or
agricultural business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Seven or more.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With town clerk in town in which business is
conducted.
M a n a g e m e n t. —President, treasurer, and board of not less than five directors, elected
annually.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Not to exceed $200,000.
Issu a n c e o f sto c k .—When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r .—Limited to $1,000.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —According to by-laws, provided that 10 per cent of net
profits shall be appropriated for a contingent fund until this fund equals 20 per cent
of capital stock.
A n n u a l re p o r ts . —To be made to the secretary of state and office of town clerk on or
before March 15.

FLORIDA.

(Acts of 1917, ch. 7384.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
D e f in itio n o f “ c o o p e r a tiv e ” a ss o c ia tio n . —One

which distributes its earnings wholly
or in part in proportion to patronage or services rendered.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than 10.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for other corporations.
V o tin g . —Optional with stockholders.

ILLINOIS.
(Revised Statutes of 1905, ch. 32, secs. 103-127; amended 1915, p. 325; 1917, pp. 303,304.)

Scope and purpose.—General mercantile, manufacturing, or producing business.
Number who may organize.—Five or more.
Filing of articles of incorporation.—With secretary of state.
Filing of amendment.—With secretary of state and recorder of deeds in county in
which principal place of business is located.
Management.—Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, vice presi­

dent, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. The last two offices may be com­
bined.
Capital stock.—Shares not less than $5 or more than $100 in value.
Commission for sale of stock.—No commission shall be charged or paid for selling
stock.
Stock ownership per member.—Limited to five shares or $500 in value.
Transfer of stock.—By-laws may provide that corporation shall have first right to
purchase any stock for sale.
Purchase of stock of other associations.—By a two-thirds vote of at least two-thirds of
members, may invest its surplus to extent of 25 per cent of its paid-in capital in the
capital stock of other cooperative associations; the board of directors may invest
not to exceed 10 per cent ot the paid-in capital in the same manner.
Voting by mail and by proxy.—May vote by mail if notified in writing and copy of
question is attached to vote. Written proxies are permitted.
Distribution of earnings.—According to by-laws.




APPENDIX A.— GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

89

A n n u a l r e p o r ts . —To be made to secretary of state before March 1.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing

sworn statement
that members have so voted by at least two-thirds majority.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—No corporation formed after passage of act permitted to
use the name “ cooperative” unless complying with the provisions of the act.

INDIANA.
(Code of 1914, sec. 4359a.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
D e f in itio n o f “ c o o p e ra tiv e ” a s s o c ia tio n . —One

which distributes its earnings wholly
or in part on the basis of or in proportion to the amount of property bought from or
sold to members, or of labor performed.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than 25.
F ilin g a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F ilin g f e e . —Same as for other corporations.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —May be limited by by-laws.
T ra n sfe r o f sto c k . —May be regulated by by-laws.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —According to by-laws.
E x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing statement with secretary of
state.

IOWA.

(Supplemental Supplement to the Code, secs. 1641-rl-20.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Agricultural,

dairy, mercantile, mining, manufacturing, or
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With secretary of state and the
recorder of deeds of the county in which the principal place of business is located.
F ilin g f e e . —Ten dollars to secretary of state for filing articles, and $5 for amend­
ments, provided that if capital stock is less than $500 the fee shall be $1. Recorder
of deeds to receive the usual recording fee.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. The last two offices
may be combined.
Issu a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not to exceed $1,000 per member.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a ss o c ia tio n s. —By a majority vote may invest not to exceed
25 per cqnt of its capital.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il. —May vote by mail if member has been notified in writing and copy
of question is attached to vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Subject to revision by associations, not to exceed 10 per
cent dividend on stock, not less than 10 per cent of net profits until 50 per cent of
paid-in capital is accumulated for a reserve fund, 5 per cent of net profits for an edu­
cational fund, patronage dividends to members and employees. None of these funds
may be used in payment of promotion work, commissions, salaries, oi expenses.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no dividends are paid for five consecutive years, five members
may petition district court.
A n n u a l r e p o r ts . —To secretary of state before March 1.
P r o v is io n s f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn state­
m ent with secretary of state that a majority of members have so voted.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a t i v e —No corporation formed after passage of act shall use the
name “ cooperative” unless complying with this act.
mechanical business.

KANSAS.
(General Statutes of 1915, secs. 2299-2316; Acts of 1917, ch. 126.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any agricultural, mercantile, dairy, mining, manufacturing,
or mechanical business.
D e fin itio n o f “ c o o p e r a tiv e ” a s s o c ia tio n . —One which distributes profits by fixed
return on capital and pro rata dividend on purchases.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Twenty or more, citizens of the United States, a
majority of whom are residents of Kansas.




90

CONSUMERS ’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

Filing of articles ofincorporation.—With secretary of state.
Management.—Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer. The last two offices may be combined Stock ownership per member.*—Not over 5 per cent of capital stock per member.
Voting.—Each member one vote.
Distribution of earnings.—According to by-laws.
Annual reports—To be made to secretary of state.
Provision for existing organizations.—May come under act by filing sworn state­
ment that majority of members have so voted, and by paying fees.
Use of word “cooperative.”—Organizations may not use name “ cooperative” unless

complying with provisions of act. Associations organized under act must begin
name of society with “ The” and end with “ association,” “ Co.,” “ corporation,’*
‘‘ exchange, ” “ society, ” “ union. ’’

KENTUCKY.
(Acts of 1918, ch. 159.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, manufacturing, or
mechanical business.
D e f in itio n o f “ c o o p e ra tiv e ” a sso c ia tio n . —One which distributes its net profits by a
fixed payment on stock and prorates the remainder on the amounts bought from or
sold to stockholders or customers or both.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize .— Not less than three, residents of Kentucky.
F i li n g o f a rticle s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F e e s .—Same as for other corporations.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than three directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. Last two offices may
be combined.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —After payment of a fixed dividend, by vote of two-thirds
of members, may set aside for reserve not less than 10 or more than 25 per cent of net
profits.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o rg a n iza tio n s. —May come under the act by filing sworn state­
ment that majority of members has so voted.
U se o f w o r d 11 c o o p e r a tiv e .” —Not to be used in name of associations formed after
passage of act unless complying with provisions of act.

MASSACHUSETTS.

(Revised Laws of 1902, ch. 110, secs. 7, 69, 70; Acts of 1903, ch. 437, sec. 93; Acts of 1913, ch. 447; GeneraL
Acts of 1915, ch. 118; General Acts of 1918, cn. 257, sec. 362.)
*
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any agricultural, dairy, or mercantile business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize .—Seven or more.
F ilin g o f a rticle s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state after approval by

commis­
sioner of corporations.
F ilin g fe e . —One-twentieth of 1 per cent of authorized capital stock but not less thar
$5.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Not less than $100 or more than $100,000.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r .—Not to exceed one-tenth of total stock.
I n v e s tin g reserve. —May invest reserve in buildings of association or lend to members
on real estate mortgages.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Dividends on stock not to exceed 5 per cent; not less than
10 per cent of net profits for reserve fund until at least 30 per cent of paid-up capital is
accumulated; not to exceed 5 per cent of remainder of net profits for an educational
fund; patronage dividends to stockholders and one-half stockholders’ rate to non­
members which may be applied on purchase of share of stock.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o rg a n iza tio n s. —May come under act by filing sworn statement
that majority of members has so voted, and by paying fee of $1.
Use o f w o r d “ c o o p e ra tiv e .”—Not to be used in name of association unless com­
plying with provisions of act.




APPENDIX A.— GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

91

MICHIGAN.
(Acts of 1917, No. 239.)

S c o p e a rid p u r p o s e .—Agricultural,

dairy, mercantile, manufacturing, or mechanical
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F ilin g o f a rticle s o f in c o rp o ra tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts. —With secretary of state and clerk
of county in which principal place of business is located.
F ees. —For filing, 20 cents per folio of articles; franchise fees, same as for other corpora­
tions.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors, elected for one year; Officers shall be
president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer. The last two offices may be
combined.
S to c k o w n e rsh ip p e r m e m b e r. —According to by-laws.
V o tin g . —According to by-laws.
V o tin g b y m a il a n d b y p r o x y . —According to by-laws. Opportunity to vote by mail
must be provided.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Reserve, capital stock, and patronage dividends as
by-laws provide, but not to exceed 7 per cent on stock. May distribute remainder
as purchase dividend.
A n n u a l r e p o rts. —To be made to secretary of state and clerk of county, in January
or February.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no interest is paid on capital stock for five years, majority of stock­
holders may petition county circuit court in chancery.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iza tio n s. —May come under act by complying with pro­
visions and filing sworn statement with secretary of state that majority of stockholders
so decide.
business.

MINNESOTA.

(Acts of 1919, ch. 382.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —An;^ lawful

agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, telephone,
manufacturing, or mechanical business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Seven or more for corporations with capital of $50,000
or less, and 15 for those of more than $50,000 capital.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With register of deeds of county in which the
principal place of business is located if capital is $25,000 or less, and with both register
of deeds and secretary of state if "capital is more than this amount.
F ilin g fe e s . —To secretary of state, $10 for articles of incorporation, $5 for amend­
ments.
A m e n d m e n ts . —To be filed in office of register of deeds of county.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors. Officers to be president, one or more
vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Not to exceed $100,000.
Is su a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not over $1,000.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il a n d b y p r o x y . —Vote by mail permitted. No proxies.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Earnings of first and second years may be set aside for
reserve fund, and 10 per cent of annual net earnings shall be put in reserve until latter
equals 30 per cent of the paid-up capital. Stockholders may increase reserve to 100
per cent of capital stock. Five per cent of net profits may be used to teach coopera­
tion. Annual interest on stock may not exceed 8 per cent. Additional profits to be
disbursed in proportion to purchases.
A n n u a l r e p o r ts . —To be filed annually, on or before March 1, with department of
agriculture and with dairy and food commission.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no dividends are paid for five consecutive years, five or more
members may apply to district court.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o rg a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by passing resolution and
filing papers as above.

MONTANA.

(Civil Code of 1907, secs. 4210-4220, amended by Acts of 1909, ch. 3, Acts of 1915, ch. 140, and Acts of 1917,
ch. 83.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Trade or any branch of industry, purchase or distribution of
commodities for consumption, borrowing or lending money for industrial purposes.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than three nor more than seven.




92

c o n s u m e r s ’ c o o pe r a tiv e s o c ie t ie s .

F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F i li n g f e e . —Five dollars.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than three directors. Officers shall

be president, vice
president, secretary, and treasurer.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Snares not less than $10 or more than $500 each.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —One share each.
C o n s o lid a tio n s . —Consolidations of cooperative corporations forbidden without con­
sent of majority of stockholders of each corporation.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote. May vote by mail.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —First 8 per cent on par value of stock; 5 p e r cent of bal­
ance of profits for reserve until fund equals 30 per cent of paid-in capital; 5 per cent
of balance for fund to teach cooperation; and remainder for dividends on purchases
and bonuses to employees. Dividends payable annually.
D is s o lu tio n . —Failure to declare dividends within 5 years shall be cause for disso­
lution.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing articles of incor­
poration with secretary oi state.

NEBRASKA.

(Revised Statutes of 1913, secs. 733-737.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
D e f in itio n o f “ c o o p e r a tiv e ” a ss o c ia tio n .—One

which authorizes the distribution of
its earnings wnolly or in part on the basis of, or in proportion to, the amount of prop­
erty bought from or sold to members, or of labor performed.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than 25.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state,
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for other corporations.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —According to by-laws.
T ra n sfe r o f sto c k . —According to by-laws.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —According to by-laws, but in conformity with definition
of cooperative associations as herein given.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement
with secretary of state.

NEVADA (NONSTOCK).
(Revised Laws of 1912, secs. 1249-1260.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With

secretary of state and clerk of county
in which principal place of business is located.
M a n a g e m e n t. —According to by-laws.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Nonstock.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il .—May be provided for in by-laws.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Accdrding to by-laws.
D is s o lu tio n . —By written request of two-thirds of members.

NEW JERSEY.
(Compiled Statutes of 1910, pp. 1580-1584.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any

lawful mechanical, mining, manufacturing, or trading
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than seven residents of State.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —To be approved by chief of bureau of statistics
of labor and industries, tiled with clerk of county in which principal place of
business is located, and with bureau of statistics of labor and industries.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors, elected annually. Officers shall be presi­
dent, treasurer, and secretary.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Shares not to exceed $50.
Is su a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
T ra n sfe r o f sto c k . —According to by-laws.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a ss o c ia tio n s. —May have interest in another society to
extent of one-third of paid-up capital.
business.




APPENDIX A.---- GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

93

V o tin g . —Each member one vote, cast in person.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —According to by-laws,

but must set aside 5 per cent for
reserve until amount equal to 30 per cent of capital stock is accumulated.
A n n u a l r e p o r ts . —To be made to clerk of county and chief of bureau of statistics
of labor and industries.
D is s o lu tio n . —Same as any other corporation.

NEW YORK (STOCK).
(Acts of 1913, eh. 454, amended by Laws of 1920, chs. 104 and 591.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —General

producing, manufacturing, and merchandising busi­
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F ilin g o f a rticle s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts th e re to . —Same as provided for
other corporations.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer. The last two offices may be combined.
Elections annually.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Shares of $5 each.
Issu a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not over $5,000.
T ra n sfer o f sto c k . —By written consent of association.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il. —Permitted if member has been notified of question and a copy is
attached to vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Stock dividends not to exceed 6 per cent; not less than
10 per cent of net earnings for reserve fund until amount equal to 30 per cent of paid-up
capital is accumulated; 5 per cent of net earnings for an educational fund; ana
patronage dividends to members and employees and at one-half rate to nonmembers,
and dividends to employees on wages.
A n n u a l re p o r ts . —To be made to department of farms and markets on or before
October 31.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no dividends are paid for five consecutive years, five or more
members may petition supreme court of county.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn state­
ment that majority of members have so voted.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used in name of any corporation formed
after passage of act unless complying with provisions of act.
ness.

NEW YORK (NONSTOCK).
(Acts of 1920, ch. 166, art. 21.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —The purchase, manufacture, preservation, drying, canning,
storing, handling, and utilization of agricultural, dairy, horticultural, or other food
products, family or other household supplies to be consumed by the families or guests
of the members.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more, none of whom is engaged in dealing or
is directly or indirectly interested in dealing in any agricultural, horticultural, or
dairy products or other family supplies except those produced by him.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts th e re to . —Same as for other cor­
porations.
M a n a g e m e n t. —According to by-laws. Directors to hold office for three years, onethird to be elected each year. Officers shall be president, vice president, secretary,
and treasurer, appointed annually by the directors.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Nonstock.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il a n d b y p r o x y . —Voting by registered mail permitted on specific
questions. No proxies.
N a m e o f o r g a n iz a tio n . —Must include words ‘fcooperative ” and “association.”

NORTH CAROLINA.
(Public Laws of 1915, ch. 144.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any

or mechanical business.
105983°—22----- 7



agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, manufacturing,

94

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary

of state and clerk of superior
court in county in which principal place of business is located.
F ilin g f e e . —Ten dollars and fee allowed by law to secretary of state, $2 when capital
stock is less than $1,000. Fifty cents to clerk of court. For filing amendments, $5,
or $2 if capital stock is less than $1,000.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. The last two offices
may be combined.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not more than 20 per cent of paid-up capital stock.
T ra n sfe r o f s to c k . —According to by-laws.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il a n d b y p r o x y . —May vote by mail if vote is accompanied by copy of
question. Proxies must be written.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Subject to revision by association, stock dividends not
to exceed 6 per cent;not less than 10 per cent of net profits to reserve fund until amount
equal to 30 per cent of paid-up capital is accumulated; not less than 2 per cent of net
profits for an educational fund; patronage dividends to members and to nonmembers
at one-half members’ rate, and bonus to employees on wages.
A n n u a l r e p o r ts . —To be made to secretary of state and division of markets and rural
organization on or before March 1.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement
with secretary of state that majority of stockholders have so voted.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used in name of any organization hereafter
formed unless complying •with provisions of act.

NORTH DAKOTA.
(Acts of 1909, ch. 62.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful mercantile, manufacturing, agricultural, or indus­
trial business.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
F ilin g f e e . —Ten dollars.
M a n a g e m e n t. —President, secretary, treasurer, and not less than three directors,
elected annually. Is su a n c e o f s to c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not over $1,000.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —According to by-laws.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no dividends are paid for five years, five or more members may
petition district court of county.

OHIO.

(General Code of 1910, secs. 10185,10186.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Purchasing associations.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —According to by-laws.

to purchases.

May be distributed in proportion

OREGON.

(Lord’s Oregon Laws, 1910, secs. 6766-6783; Laws of 1915, ch. 226; 1917, ch. 411.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With

corporation commissioner,
clerk of county, and Oregon Agricultural College.
F ilin g f e e . —Ten dollars to corporation commissioner, 20 cents per 100 words to clerk
of county. For amendments, $5 to corporation commissioner and 20 cents per 100
words to clerk of county.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Five directors, elected for not more than two years. Officers shall
be president, one or more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer. The last two
offices may be combined.
Issu a n c e o f s to c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not over one-fifth of total stock.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a s s o c ia tio n s . —Not to exceed 20 per cent of capital and re­
serve fund.



APPENDIX A.— GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

95

V o tin g '.—Each member one vote, but by-laws may provide that in an emergency
threatening the life of the association, voting may be in proportion to the amount of
business done through the association.
V o tin g b y p r o x y . —No proxies.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Interest on stock not to exceed 8 per cent; not less than
5 nor more than 25 per cent of net earnings for reserve fund; patronage dividends to
nonmembers at one-half the rate to members.
R e p o r ts . —To be made annually to corporation commissioner on or before August 1,
and semiannually, in middle and at end of association’s fiscal year, to the Oregon
Agricultural College.
D is s o lu tio n . —By vote of two-thirds of members. Dissolution fee of $2 to corpora­
tion commissioner.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement
with corporation commissioner that majority of members have so decided.
U se o f w o rd “ c o o p e r a tiv e .” —Not to be used unless complying with provisions of
act.
N o n sto c k a ss o c ia tio n s . —May also incorporate under this act.
A n n u a l licen se f e e . —Ranges from $5 for associations whose authorized stock does
not exceed $5,000 to $100 for associations whose stock exceeds $2,000,000. Five dolars for nonstock associations.

PENNSYLVANIA.
(Statutes of 1920, secs. 5520-5569.)
S c o p e and p u r p o s e . —Productive or distributive business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With

secretary of state and
recorder of deeds of county in which principal place of business is located.
F i li n g fe e s . —Ten cents for each 100 words to secretary of state and recorder of deeds.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Six, eight, or ten directors and two auditors. Officers shall be
president, secretary (directors ex officio), and treasurer. One-half of directors and
one auditor to be elected every six months for one year. Bonds to be required of
every person handling money.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Shares of $5 to $25 each. Stock may be of two classes: “ Permanent
stock,” transferable, subject to by-laws, but not withdrawable, each member to pur­
chase at least one share; and “ ordinary stock,” transferable and withdrawable in
accordance with by-laws.
Issu a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Limited to $1,000, but may be increased by vote of
members.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f oth er a ss o c ia tio n s. —By majority vote of members.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y p r o x y . —No proxies.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Depreciation at rate of 10 per cent on fixtures, etc., 2 \
per cent on buildings; dividends of 5 per cent on ordinary stock, and 6 per cent on
permanent stock; 5 per cent for reserve; not less than 2J per cent for propaganda and
social fund; dividends to members on patronage and to employees on wages, and
patronage dividends to nonmembers at half members’ rate.
C re d it. —“All transactions shall be for cash, and no credit shall either be given or
taken, * * * provided further, that any credit given to any such association in
violation of the provisions of this act shall cause a forfeiture of any credit thus illegally
given, and that a notice to such effect shall be published, by such association, on its
letter and bill heads, advertisements, and other publications.”
R e p o r ts . —Monthly reports to be posted in principal office of association.
D is s o lu tio n . —By majority vote of members.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by a majority vote.
N a m e o f a s s o c ia tio n . —Last two words of name shall be “ cooperative association.”
It shall be unlawful to use either “society” or “ company.”

SOUTH CAROLINA.
(Acts of 1915, No. 152, pp. 235-237.)
Scope

and p u r p o s e . —Agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, mechanical, or manu­

facturing business.

N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five




or more.

96

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five nor more than nine directors.

Officers shall be
president, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. The last two offices may be
combined.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Not less than $100. Shares not less than $5 each.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not over one-fifth of total stock.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a ss o c ia tio n s. —By a majority vote, may so invest reserve,
or not to exceed 25 per cent of capital.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Subject to revision by association, stock dividends not to
exceed 6 per cent; not less than 10 per cent to reserve fund until an amount equal to
30 per cent of the paid-up capital stock is accumulated; 5 per cent to educational
fund; remainder to go as dividend—one half to shareholders on patronage and to
employees on wages and the other half to nonmembers and may, in the case of non­
members, be credited on share of stock.
A n n u a l r e p o rts. —To be made to commissioner of agriculture on or before January 1.
E x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement that majority
of stockholders have so decided.
U se o f w o r d 11 c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used as part of name by any organization
formed after passage of act unless complying with provisions of act.

SOUTH DAKOTA.
(Acts of 1913, ch. 145.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, manufacturing,
or mechanical business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F i li n g a m e n d m e n ts . —With secretary of state.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors, elected for not more than three years.
Officers shall be president, one or more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer,
elected annually. The last two offices may be combined.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not more than $1,000.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a s s o c ia tio n s. —By a majority vote, not to exceed 25 per
cent of capital.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il. —Permitted if vote is accompanied by a written copy of the question.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Subject to revision by association, dividends on capital
stock not to exceed 10 per cent; not less than 10 per cent to reserve fund until amount
equal to 30 per cent of paid-up capital is accumulated; not to exceed 5 per cent for
educational fund; patronage dividend to shareholders.
E x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement with secre­
tary of state that majority of members so decide.

TENNESSEE.
(Acts of 1917, ch. 142.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Buying or selling agricultural products and farm supplies.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o r g a n ize . —Five or more.
F i li n g a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state and county register of deeds.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors divided as nearly as practicable into

three classes, to serve one, two, and three years, respectively. Officers shall be
president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer. Last two offices may be combined.
Elected annually by board of directors.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Association may operate either with or without capital stock.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Limited to one-fifth of total number of shares.
T ra n sfe r o f sto c k . —Prohibited. Shares must revert to association and money be
refunded by association to withdrawing member.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il a n d b y p r o x y . —Absent members may vote on specific questions by
ballots deposited with secretary or other proper officer. No proxies.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Not less than 10 per cent to reserve (up to 30 per cent of
capital stock) which may be invested in stock of any other association; not more than
6 per cent on capital stock; remainder as dividend to persons in any one of following
classes: (1) members, (2) members and nonmembers, (3) members and employees, (4)
members, nonmembers, and employees.



APPENDIX A.— GENERAL FEATURES OF STATE LAW S.

97

A n n u a l r e p o r t. —To be filed with State comptroller, the State commissioner of
agriculture, and the director of the division of extension of the College of Agriculture
of the University of Tennessee, for suggestions and recommendations within three
months after the close of the business year for which made.
D is s o lu tio n . —By two-thirds vote of members.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o rg a n iza tio n s. —May come under act by filing certificate with
secretary of state and county register of deeds on two-thirds vote of members.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used unless complying with provisions of
this act.

VIRGINIA.

(Acts of 1920, p. 568, ch. 382.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any agricultural, dairy, mercantile, merchandise, brokerage,
manufacturing, or mechanical business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not to exceed $1,000.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er o r g a n iz a tio n s . —By majority vote, not to exceed 25 per
cent of capital.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote. Association may specify that stock held by per­
sons not members of certain nonstock corporations shall have no voting power.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Subject to revision by association, stock dividends not
to exceed 8 per cent; not less than 10 per cent of net profits to reserve until amount
equal to 30 per cent of paid-up capital is accumulated; 5 per cent for educational fund;
patronage dividends to shareholders and to nonshareholders at one-half members’
rate and bonus to employees on wages.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used as part of name by any organization
formed after passage of act unless complying with provisions of act.

WASHINGTON (STOCK).
(Laws of 1913, ch. 19.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F ilin g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With

secretary of state and
county auditor of county in which principal place of business is located.
F i li n g f e e . —Twenty-five dollars to secretary of state and 15 cents per 100 words to
auditor. For amendments, $10 to secretary of state and 15 cents per 100 words to
auditor.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than three directors. Officers shall be president, one or
more vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually.
Is su a n c e o f sto c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r. —Not more than one-fifth of total stock.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a ss o c ia tio n s. —By a majority vote of stockholders may
subscribe for shares and invest reserve.
V o tin g . —Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il. —Permitted if notified of exact question and vote is accompanied
by written copy of question.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a rn in g s. —Capital stock dividends not to exceed 8 per cent; not
less than 10 nor more than 25 per cent of remainder to reserve fund; dividends on
patronage to members and on wages to employees and on patronage to nonmembers
at one-half members’ rate.
A n n u a l r e p o r t. —To be made to secretary of state before March 1.
E x is tin g o rg a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn statement with secre­
tary of state that majority of members have so voted.
U se o f w o r d “ c o o p e r a tiv e .”—Not to be used as part of name by any corporation
unless complying with provisions of act.

WASHINGTON (NONSTOCK).
(Remington & Ballinger's Code, secs. 3752-3764.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Any lawful purpose except carrying on of a business, trade,
avocation, or profession for profit.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize .—Not less than five.




98

CONSUMERS * COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n . —With secretary of state and county auditor of
county in which principal place of business is located.
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for other corporations.
M a n a g e m e n t .—According to by-laws.
C a p ita l sto c k . —Nonstock.
V o tin g . —All members have equal power.
D is s o lu tio n . —Upon written request of two-thirds of members.
E x is tin g o rg a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing statement with secretary of
state that majority of members has so voted.

WISCONSIN.
(Statutes of 1911, ch. 86, secs. 1786e-l to 1786e-17.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e .—Any

agricultural, dairy, mercantile, mining, manufacturing,
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Not less than five.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With secretary of state and
register of deeds of the county in which the principal place of business is located.
F i li n g f e e . —Ten dollars to secretary of state and 25 cents to register of deeds. For
amendments, $5 to secretary of state.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Not less than five directors. Officers shall be president, one or more
vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer, elected annually. The last two offices
may be combined.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m em b e r.-* - Not more than $1,000.
P u rc h a se o f sto c k o f o th er a ss o c ia tio n s. —By a majority vote, may invest reserve or
not to exceed 25 per cent of capital.
V o tin g .—Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il. —Permitted if copy of question accompanies vote.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Stock dividends not to exceed 6 per cent; not more than
10 per cent of net earnings to reserve fund until amount equal to 30 per cent of paid-up
capital is accumulated; 5 per cent to educational fund; dividends on patronage to
stockholders and on wages to employees and to nonmembers at one-half members ’
rate, which may be applied on the purchase of a share of stock.
A n n u a l r e p o r t. —To be made to secretary of state on or before March 1.
D is s o lu tio n . —If no profits are paid for five or more years, five or more stockholders
may apply to circuit court of county.
P r o v is io n f o r e x is tin g o r g a n iz a tio n s . —May come under act by filing sworn state­
ment.
U se o f w o r d 11c o o p e r a tiv e .” —Not to be used as part of name by any corporation
organized after passage of act unless complying with provisions of act.
or mechanical business.

WYOMING.
(Session Laws of 1915, ch. 145.)
S c o p e a n d p u r p o s e . —Agricultural, dairy, live-stock, irrigation, horticultural, mer­
cantile, manufacturing, mechanical, or industrial business.
N u m b e r w h o m a y o rg a n ize . —Five or more.
F i li n g o f a rtic le s o f in c o r p o r a tio n a n d a m e n d m e n ts . —With secretary of state and
clerk of county in which business is carried on.
F i li n g f e e . —Same as for other corporations.
M a n a g e m e n t. —Directors, no number specified, elected annually.
Is su a n c e o f s to c k . —When paid for in full.
S to c k o w n e rs h ip p e r m e m b e r.—*Not more than $1,000 nor more than one-third of out­
standing stock.
V o tin g .—Each member one vote.
V o tin g b y m a il o r b y p r o x y . —Not permitted unless provided for in by-laws.
D is tr ib u tio n o f e a r n in g s . —Subject to revision by members, not to exceed 8 per cent
dividend on capital stock; not less than 10 per cent of net earnings to reserve fund
until amount equal to 30 per cent of paid-up capital stock is accumulated; patronage
dividends to members and may be provided by by-laws to nonmembers.
A n n u a l r e p o r t. —Statement to be kept on file witn the secretary of association.
U se o f the w o r d 11 c o o p e ra tiv e . ” —Not to be used as part of the name unless complying
with the provisions of the act.




APPENDS B.—DIRECTORY OF CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE
ASSOCIATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.
[(c) indicates strictly consllmers, societies; (f), combined marketing and consumers’ societies; and *,
societies on the bureau’s list, but for which the bureau has no data.]

ALABAMA.
Albany (c)..............................Labor & Producers Union,
1321 Fourth Avenue south.
Fairhope (c)........................... Fairhope Cooperative Store.
Mobile (c)...............................Cooperative Supply Co.,
461 Dauphin Street.
Tuscumbia*...........................Mutual Cooperative Association,
111 East Sixth Street.
ALASKA.
Anchorage (c)........................Anchorage Co-operative Stores Co. (Inc.).
Hydaburg (c).........................Hydaburg Trading Co.
Juneau*...................................Consumers’ Protective Association.
Petersburg*............................Petersburg Cooperative Association.
Petersburg*............................Trading U nion.
ARKANSAS.
Alix*.......................................Alix Cooperative Society.
Arkadelphia*........................Clark County Cooperative League.
Berryville*............................Berryville Equity Union.
Bonnerdale*..........................Bonnerdale Farmers’ Association.
Conway*................................ Faulkner County Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Cotter*....................................Cooperative Store Co.
Dierks*...................................People’s Cooperative Store Co.
Hartford ( c ) ...........................Farmers’ & Miners’ Cooperative Store.
Jonesboro (c)........................ Boro Union Co-operative Society.
Jonesboro, R.F.D. No.2 (c). Farmers Supply Co.
Little Bock*......................... Arkansas Cooperative Co.,
Corner of Markham and Cross Streets.
Little Bock (c).....................Citizens Co-operative Laundry.
McGehee (c).........................Union Cooperative.
Nashville*............................. Farmers’ Union Exchange & Marketing Co.
North Little Bock (c).........Union Co-operative Stores Society,
321 East Washington Avenue.
Pine Bluff (c).......................Pine Bluff Co-operative Association,
1402 East Sixth Avenue.
Van Buren (c).......................Producers & Consumers Co-operative Society,
822 Main Street.
CALIFORNIA.
Adin*...................................... Big Valley Cooperative Association.
Atascadero ( c )......................Atascadero Bochdale Union.
Berkeley (c)..........................Associated Students’ Store,
University of California.
College City (c)....................College City Bochdale Co.
Healdsburg (c)..................... Healdsburg Bochdale Co.
Hollister (c)...........................Hollister Rochdale Co.
King City*.............................King City Rochdale Co.
Le Grand *............................ Le Grand Bochdale Co.
Los Angeles (c).....................Cooperative Consumers’ League,
1021 Temple Street.
99




100

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

CALIFORNIA—Concluded.
Los Angeles (c).....................Producers’ & Consumers’ Association (Inc.),
750 South Sichel Street.
Maxwell (c)........................... Maxwell Rochdale Co.
Napa * ...................................Napa Rochdale Union.
Oakland (c)............................California Cooperative Meat Co.,
southeast corner Twelfth and Harrison Streets.
Oakland (c)............................East Bay Cooperative League,
478 Ninth Street.
Oakland *...............................Fraternal Cooperative Mercantile Co.,
372 Eleventh Street.
Porterville *..........................Granada Rochdale Co.
Salida * .................................. Salida Cooperative Association.
San Bernardino (c)..............Union Co-operative Association,
771 Third Street.
Santa Paula *........................ Santa Paula Cooperative Association.
Shandon *..............................Shandon Rochdale Co.
Stanford University (c)___Stanford University Bookstore.
Stockton *.............................. Cooperative Store, R. R. Men.
Vallejo * .................................Consumers’ Cooperative Association.
Wheatland (c)...................... Wheatland Rochdale Co.
Whittier *..............................Whittier Union Cooperative store.
COLORADO.
Adena...........
.Adena Cooperative Building Association (inactive,.
.Farmers & Laborers Cooperative Store.
Aguilar (c)...
Akron*..........
.Washington County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Alamosa * . . .
.Alamosa Cooperative Supply Co.
Anton (c) —
.Anton Co-operative Store Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Supply Co.
Arapahoe (c)
Arena * .........
.Arena Cooperative Supply Co.
Arriba *........
.Arriba Equity Mercantile Co.
Ault (f)---.Ault Exchange Co.
Berthoud *
.Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Bovina* ...
.Star Farmers^ Cooperative Co.
Center (f)...................
.Center Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Cheyenne Wells (c)
. Cheyenne Wells Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Cope Co-operative Co.
Cope (c)....................
Dailey (f)..................
.Dailey Co-operative Co.
Delta (c)...................
.The Cooperative Trading Co.
Denver *...................
.Colorado State Grange,
1432 Fifteenth Street.
Denver (-w h o le sa le ).
.Equity Union Coal & Mercantile Co-operative Co.,
519 Denham Building.
Denver (c)............. .
. Intermountain Co-operative Association,
1442 Chamba Street.
.The Colorado Farmers Union Exchange Co.,
Denver (w h o le sa le ).
1727 Wazee Street.
Denver *..................
.Tramway Employees’ Cooperative Society.
.Eckley Farmers’ Mercantile Co.
Eckley (f)................
Edge water *...........
.Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Evergreen * ............
.Evergreen Cooperative Creamery & Trading Co.
Flagler*.................
. Flagler Equity Exchange.
.Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Fort Morgan *........
.Fruita Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Fruita *...................
Granada (f)............
.The Granada Cooperative Equity Co.
Grand Junction (f)
.Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange (Inc.).
.Happyville Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Happyville *..........
Haxtum (c).............
.Haxtum Farmers Cooperative Co.
Hollv *.....................
.Holly Cooperative Equity Co.
Iliff (f).....................
.The Iliff Farmers’ Co-operative Elevator Co.
.Keenesburg Cooperative Co.
Keenesburg *.........
.Lafayette Farmers’ Union Co.
Lafayette*.............
.La Salle Cooperative Exchange.
La Salle *...............
Limon (f).................
.Equity Mercantile Association.




APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

COLORADO—Concluded.
Loma*.................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Longmont *............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Elevator & Supply Co.
Loveland (f)...........................The Loveland Farmers Cooperative Produce Co.,
100 East Fourth Street.
Maybell*.................................Cooperative Milling & Trading Co.
Monte Yista (c)............ ........The Monte Yista Farmer’s Co-operative Produce Co.
Montrose*...............................Grange Cooperative Co.
New Raymer*.......................Pawnee Farmers’ Elevator & Supply Co.
Nunn*..................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Otis*.........................................Otis Farmers’ Cooperative Store & Supply Co.
Padroni*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator & Supply Co.
Pierce*....................................Farmers’ Union No. 223.
Proctor*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Seibert (f)...............................The Seibert Farmers Equity Exchange Association.
Simla*.....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Snyder (c)..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Box 63.
Snyder*...................................Snyder Cooperative Store (Inc.).
Sterling*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator & Supply Co.
Strasburg*..............................Strasburg Cooperative Co.
Stratton (f).............................Stratton Equity Exchange Co.
Vona*...................................... Yona Equity Cooperative Association.
Yuma*.....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange & Mfg. Co.
CONNECTICUT.
Amston (c).............................The Farmers Cooperative Dairy Co.
Avon*......................................North Canton Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Bristol (f)................................Fanners Cooperative Purchasing Association.
Bristol (c)...............................Polish Co-operative Association “ Zgoda,”
63 Irving Street.
Columbia*..............................Columbia Cooperative Association.
Hartford (c)........................... Hartford Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
39 Mulberry Street.
New Britain*.........................Cooperative Bakery,
235 North Street.
New Haven (c).....................Yale Cooperative Corporation,
102 High Street.
Norwich, R. F. D. No. 1*. .Preston Cooperative.
Stafford Springs (c).............Workers Cooperative Union (Inc.).
Terryville*.............................Litchfield Cooperative Association.
Terryville*.............................Polish Cooperative Association,
Comer of Allen and Beach Avenues.
Thompsonville (c)............... The Cooperative Association.
Torrington (c)........................Community Cooperative Co. (Inc.),
121-135 Main Street.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Washington*..........................Douglas Cooperative League.
723 Florida Avenue NW.
Washington*..........................National Cooperative Society,
502 T Street NW.
DELAWARE.
Arden*....................................Arden Cooperative Association.
Delmar*.................................. Delmar Cooperative Association,
Yeasey Brick Building.
FLORIDA.
Crestview*..............................West Florida Mercantile Corporation.
Fort Pierce (c)...................... People’s Cooperative Grocery Store,
Box 394.



101

102

c o n s u m e r s ’ c o o pe r a t iv e s o c ie t ie s .

FLORIDA—Concluded.
Hastings (c)............................Hastings Cooperative Association.
Jacksonville*.........................Cooperative Timber Co.
Miami*.................................... Miami Cooperative Exchange.
Orange Mills*........................ Orange Mills Cooperative Store.
Ruskm*...................................Ruslan Cooperative Store & Cannery.
Ybor City* (P. O., Tampa).Ybor Cooperative Store,
Between Nineteenth and Twentieth Streets,
GEORGIA.
Fitzgerald*.............................Union Mercantile Cooperative Store.
Macon (c)............................... Macon Union Cooperative Association.
IDAHO.
Buhl*.......................................Buhl Cooperative Society.
Coeur d ’Alene (c )...............Coeur d’Alene Cooperative Society.
Cottonwood*......................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Fenn*......................................Union Warehouse Co.
Ferdinand (f)........................Ferdinand Rochdale Co.
Kendrick*..............................Kendrick Rochdale Co.
Lewiston (c)..........................Lewiston Co-Operative Association,
1522 Main Street.
Nez Perce (f)........................Nez Perce Rochdale Co.
Robin*....................................Farmers’ Union.
St. Maries*............................ St. Maries Cooperative Store.
Sandpoint (c)....................... Farmers General Supply Co. (Ltd.).
Spirit Lake (c).....................Spirit Lake Co-Operative Society.
Stites (f).................................Loyalty Co-Operative Creamery Co.
Weston*..................................Cooperative Store.
ILLINOIS.
Ashkum*................................Ashkum Farmers* Cooperative Store.
Beardstown (c).....................Beardstown Co-Operative Mercantile Association,
218 Washington Street.
Beaucoup*.............................Beaucoup Farmers’ Cooperative.
Benld (c)............................... Benld Co-Operative Society.
Bloomington ( c ) ................. Bloomington Cooperative Society,
611 North Main Street.
Bloomington (c)...................Me Clean Cooperative Co.
Bradfordton*.........................Bradford ton Cooperative Association.
Brownstown*.........................Brownstown Equity Exchange.
Canton*..................................Canton Cooperative Society.
C anton(c)............................Canton-Rocndale Cooperative Society,
168 Elm Street.
Carbondale (c)..................... Carbondale Co-Operative Store Co.
Carriers Mills*......................Cooperative Store.
Cave in Rock*......................Cave in Rock Cooperative Store.
Centralia*..............................Union Supply Co.
Champaign (c)..................... Twin City Co-Operative Society,
118-115 North First Street.
Cherry*.................................. Cherry Cooperative Society. #
Chicago*................................ Blue Lake Cooperative Association,
647 Aldine Avenue.
Chicago*.................................Chicago Cooperative Association,
2850 Logan Boulevard.
Chicago (w h o le sa le ) ...............Chicago Equity Union Exchange,
*
127 North Dearborn Street.
Chicago*.................................Femdell Cooperative Cafeteria Co.,
1517 Sherwin Avenue.
Chicago (c).............................Grand Crossing Cooperative Association,
7520 Cottage Grove Avenue.
Chicago (c)............................Palatine Commercial Corporation,
1521-1525 Haddon Avenue.



APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

ILLIN OIS—Continued.
Chicago (c) .............................Roseland Cooperative Association,
11001 Michigan Avenue.
Chicago (c).............................The Chicago Cooperative Association,
2257 Thirteenth Street.
Chicago*.................................The Italian Cooperative Society,
1011 West Grand Avenue.
Chicago*................................. U. S. Cooperative Co.,
1335-1337 East Fifty-seventh Street.
Chicago (c).............................West Englewood Co-Operative Society (Inc.),
1835 West Fifty-ninth Street.
Chicago*................................. Western Cooperative Society (Inc.),
1610 South Homan Avenue.
Chicago*................................. West 59th St. Neighborhood Cooperative Association,
1001 West Fifty-ninth Street.
Chicago (c).............................Workmen’s Cooperative Mercantile Association,
2659 South Trumbull Avenue.
Claremont*.............................Claremont Cooperative Store. ^
Clinton (c)............................Clinton Co-Operative Association.
Coulterville (c).....................Just Right Community Store.
Crossville*..............................Cooperative Store.
Cuba* .................................Cuba Cooperative Store
Dalzell (c)............................. Dalzell Cooperative Society.
Donnellson (f)......................Donnellson Farmers Equity.
East St. Louis (w h o le sa le ) .. Central States Wholesale Cooperative Society,
203 Converse Avenue.
Edwardsville (c)...................Leclaire Co-Operative Association.
Eldena (f)............................... Eldena Co-Operative Co.
Farina (c)................................The Farmers Co-operative Store.
Farmington (c )....................Farmington Cooperative Society.
Forest City*..........................Forest City Cooperative Association.
Galesburg (c).........................Galesburg Co-operative Society,
593 Mulberry Street.
Galva*.....................................Galva Cooperative Store.
Girard (c)............................... The Tradesman Cooperative Society.
Greenridge*........................... Miners’ Store.
Harrisburg (c)....................... The Co-operative Store of Harrisburg, 111.,
20 South Main Street.
Herrick*................................ Herrick Equi ty Exchange.
Herrin*.................................. Workmen’s Protective Association.
Hillsboro*..............................Hillsboro Cooperative Society.
Hillsboro, R. F. D. No. 2*.Schram City Cooperative Society.
Jacksonville (c)....................Jacksonville Co-Operative Society,
# 224 South Mam Street.
Joliet*.....................................Joliet Cooperative Store.
Junction*...............................Junction Cooperative Store.
Kankakee (c)........................Kankakee Co-operative Society.
Kincaid*................................Kincaid Cooperative Store.
Kinmundy*.......................... Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Ladd (c).................................Ladd Co-operative Society.
Lake City (f)......................... Lake City Farmers’ Co-operative Grain & Merc. Co.
Lenzburg (c).........................Lenzburg Co-operative Society.
London Mills (f)...................London Mills Farmers Co-operative Co.
Louisville*............................ Louisville Cooperative Store.
Mark* (P. O., Granville). .Standard Cooperative Society.
Marseilles*............................Marseilles Cooperative Association.
Mascoutah (c) ........................Producers’ & Consumers’ Cooperative Association.
McLeansboro*...................... McLeansboro Cooperative Store.
Medora*................................. Medora Cooperative Store.
Melrose Park*.......................Workers’ Consumers’ Association,
2005 Lake Street.
Mendota*................................Mendota Farmers’ Cooperative Supply Co.
Momence (c).........................Momence Co-operative Society.
Mount Olive (c) ...................Mt. Olive Cooperative Store.
Mount Sterling*...................Mt. Sterling Cooperative Co.
Mulberry Grove*................. Mulberry Gro ve Equity Exchange.




103

104

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

ILLINOIS—Concluded.
New Athens (c).....................New Athens Co-operative Store Co.
New Baden*..........................New Baden Cooperative Society.
New Philadelphia*..............New Philadelphia Cooperative Co.
Nokomis*................................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Odin*.......................................Odin Cooperative Association.
Olmsted (f).............................Farmers Mercantile Co. of Olmsted.
Pana (c).................................. Pana Co-operative Society,
^116 East Second Street.
Plain view (f).........................Plain view Co-operative Co.
Pontiac (c )...........................Illinois Farmers Co-Operative Association.
Quincy (c)............................. Quincy Cooperative Society,
501 North Fifth Street.
Riverton (c)...........................Riverton Co-Operative Society.
Rockford (c )......................... Ideal Cafe (not yet in operation),
1015 Third Avenue.
Rockford (c)..........................Rockford Cooperatives,
525 Seventh Street.
Rockford*.............................Union Cooperative Store,
1357 Rural Street.
Roodhouse*............................Cooperative Society.
Salem*.....................................Cooperative Store.
San Jose (f)............................San Jose Cooperative Co.
Sawyersville*.......................Sawyersville Cooperative Store.
Sheffield*............................... Sheffield Cooperative Store.
Sparta*....................................Ideal Cooperative Association,
175 Broadway.
Sparta (c)...............................Sparta Co-operative Merchandise Association,
136 East Main Street.
Standard*...............................Standard Cooperative Co.
Staunton (c)...........................Union Supply & Fuel Co. (Inc ), Co-operative
Stockton (f)........................... Stockton Co-Operative Association.
Stronghurst*..........................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Tamaroa*............................... Tamaroa Cooperative Store.
Taylor Springs*....................Hillsboro Cooperative Association.
Thackeray*............................Cooperative Store.
Tilden (c)...............................Til den Labor Co-operative Society.
Toluca*......... .........................Toluca Cooperative Society.
Vera (f)...................................Vera Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Villa Grove (c).....................The Villa Grove Co-operative Society.
Watseka*................................Gleaners’ Store.
Waukegan ( c ) ......................Cooperative Trading Co.,
1105 McAllister Avenue.
West Frankfort*...................Union Supply Association.
Westville*..............................Stella d’Italia.
Williamsville*......................Williamsville Cooperative Association.
Willow Hill (c).....................Farmers Mercantile.
Witt (c).................................. Witt Co-Operative Association.
INDIANA.
Akron*....................................Cooperative Supply Co.
Bloomington (c)...................Indiana University Book Store.
Dunkirk*...............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Evansville (c).................... Evansville Co-operative Association,
1025-1027 West Franklin Street.
Garrett*..................................Employees’ Cooperative Co.
Gary (c)................................. Workmen’s Co-operative Mercantile Association,
2246 West Eleventh Avenue.
Goshen*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Helmer*.................................Helmer Cooperative Co.
Hudson*................................ Hudson Cooperative Association.
Indianapolis*....................... Farmers’ Society of Equity,
523 Lemke Building.
La Fayette (c).................... The Consumers’ Co-operative Union 20
419-421 Columbia Street.




APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

INDIANA—Concluded.
Montmorenci (c)..................The Co-operative Store.
New Paris*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Onward*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Paxton*.................................. Paxton Cooperative Store Co.
Pekin (c)................................Washington County Supply Co.
Rensselaer*.......................... Cooperative Meat Market.
Rich Valley*......................... Rich Valley Cooperative Elevator Co.
Roekfield (c).........................Rockfield Cooperative Store.
Rockville*............................. Kinney Cooperative Co.
Shelburn (c)..........................Shelburn Cooperative Society.
Shirley*..................................Cooperative Store.
Straughn (f)........................... Farmers Co-operative Co. of Straughn.
Tipton (c).............................. My Store Co.
Trafalgar (c)...........................Indiana Co-Operative Mercantile Association.
Universal (c).........................Universal Cooperative Store.
Wabash*................................Cooperative Coal Co.
Walkerton*.............................Pine Creek Gleaner Cooperative Association.
Winchester*.......................... Winchester Cooperative Store.
Wolcott (f)............................. Farmers Cooperative Co.
Wolcott (c).............................Peoples Cooperative Store.
Yoder...................................... Sheldon Equity Exchange.
IOWA.
Albert City*...........................Albert City Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Albia*..................................... Monroe County Cooperative Store.
Alvord*...................................Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Battle Creek*........................Cooperative Store.
Boone (c)...............................Boone Cooperative Society,
1007 West Third Street.
Boyden (c).............................People’s Cooperative Store.
Brooks*................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Burlington (c).......................Co-operative Supply Co.,
Lucas Avenue.
Castana (c).............................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Cedar Rapids (c)..................The Cedar Rapids Cooperative Society,
1111 South Third Street.
Clarion (f)...............................The Incorporated Co-operative Society of Solberg.
Clio (c)....................................Farmers Exchange.
Conesville*............................Conesville Cooperative Co.
Correctionville (c)...............The Farmers Co-Operative Store.
Corydon*...............................Farmers’ Union Store.
Danbury (c).......................... Danbury Co-Operative Co.
Davenport (c)......................Tri-City Co-operative Store,
824 West Second Street.
Denison*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Society.
Des Moines (c)......................Des Moines Co-operative Mercantile Society,
606 East Grand Avenue.
Des Moines*...........................Farmers’ Union State Exchange.
Des Moines*...........................Miners’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.,
605 East Locust Street.
Dougherty*............................Cooperative Association.
Emerson (c)...........................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Garner (c)...............................Farmers Co-operative Society.
Gladwin (c)........................... Gladwin Co-operative Co.
Henderson (c).......................Farmers Union Exchange.
Holstein*................................Holstein Cooperative Store.
Lake City*.............................Farmers’ Cooperative Union Store
Larrabee*............................... Larrabee Cooperative Store.
Linn Grove (c)..................... People’s Co-operative Store Co.
Little Rock*..........................Little Rock Rochdale Co.
Lytton*...................................The Cooperative Store.
Marathon*..............................Marathon Cooperative Store.
Marcus*...................................The Cooperative Store.
Mason City*...........................Cooperative Store.




105

106

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

IOWA—Concluded.
Mount Pleasant*..................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Moville*..................................Cooperative Store.
New Albin (c)...................... New Albin Co-operative Co.
Newell (c>.............................. Farmers Co-operative Supply Co.
Odebolt*.................................The Cooperative Store.
Onawa (c)..............................Onawa Cooperative Co.
Paullina (f).............................Paullina Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Postville*...............................Postville Cooperative Society.
Rockfield............................... Rockfield Cooperative Store.
Rockwell (f)..........................Farmers Incorporated Co-operative Society.
Sioux City (c).......................Sioux City Cooperative Association,
1501 Geneva Street.
Sutherland*...........................The Cooperative Store.
Valley Junction (c)............. Valley Junction Co-operative Mercantile Society,
534 Fifth Street.
Varina*...................................Cooperative Store.
Wall Lake (c)....................... The Farmers Mercantile Co.
West Boone*......................... Cooperative Store.

KANSAS.
Abbyville (f)......................... The Abbyville Co-operative Equity Exchange.
Abilene*..................................Dickinson County Business Association.
Adamsville (f) (P . 0 . , The Adamsville Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Oxford).
Admire*.................................Admire Cooperative Association.
Agra*........................................Cooperative Grain, Shipping & Mercantile Co.
Aiamota (f).............................Farmers Co-operative Elevator & Mercantile Association.
Alden (f).................................The Farmers Co-operative Milling & Mercantile Associa­
tion.
Aliceville (c).........................Peoples Supply Co.
Alida*......................................Aliaa Cooperative Store.
Alma (f).................................. The Alma Fanners Union Cooperative Association.
Alta Vista*.............................Alta Vista Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Americus*.............................. Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Antelope (f)........................... The Fanners Union Co-operative Association.
Anthony, R. F. D. No. 2 (f).Farmers Union Co-operative Business Association.
Antonino*............................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Arkansas City (c).................Co-Operative Store,
217 South Summit Street.
Arkansas City*..................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Arnold*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Atchison*............................... Atchison Cooperative Society.
Athol*......................................Smith County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Attica*....................................Attica Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Atwood (f)............................. Atwood Equity Exchange.
Axtell*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Baileyville (f).......................Fanners’ Co-operative Association.
Baker*.................................... Farmers’ Union Elevator & Mercantile Co.
Baldwin City (c).................. Farmers Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Bancroft (c)...........................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Barnes*...................................Barnes Cooperative Association.
Bayard*..................................Fanners’ Union of Bayard.
Beagle*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Beardsley*.............................Beardsley Equity Mercantile Exchange.
Beattie*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Beaver*.................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Supply Co.
Bellaire*................................. Smith County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Belleville (c)........................ Farmers Union Cooperative Business Association of Re­
public County.
Beloit*....................................Mitchell County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association^
Belpre*...................................Belpre Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Bennington*......................... Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Bentley*................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile & Elevator Co.




APPENDIX B.—DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

107

KANSAS—Continued.
Berryton*...............................Shawnee Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Associa­
tion.
Beulah*...................................Crawford County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Beverly*.................................The Lincoln County Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Bird City (f).......................... Bird City Equity Mercantile Exchange.
Black Wolf (c)...................... Co-operative Umon Mercantile Co.
Blaine*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Blakeman*............................ Blakeman Equity Exchange.
Bloom (f)................................Bloom Cooperative Exchange.
Blue Mound (f)....................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Bluff City*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Bogue*.................................... Farmers’ Umon Cooperative Shipping & Business Asso­
ciation.
Brazilton (c).......................... Brazilton Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Brewster*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Brookville (f)........................ The Brookville Farmers Union Co-Operative Business
Association.
Brownell*.............................. Brownell Farmers’ Union Store.
Bucklin*................................ Bucklin Cooperative Exchange.
Bucyrus (f)............................Bucyrus Farmers Co-Operative Association.
Bunkerhill*. ...................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mfg. & Mercantile Co.
Burdett (f)............................. Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Burdick (f).............................Burdick Farmers Union Cooperative Business Association.
Burlingame*..........................Burlingame Farmers’ Elevator & Supply Co.
Burlington (c).......................Farmers Supply Co.
Burns*....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Burrton*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Bushong*...............................Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Byers (f).................................Byers Cooperative Exchange.
Cairo*......................................Cairo Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Calista (f)................................The Calista Grain & Mercantile Co.
Carbondale*.......................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Castleton*..............................Castleton Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Cedar*.................................... Smith County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Cedar Bluffs*........................Cedar Bluffs Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Cedar Yale*...........................Cedar Vale Cooperative Co.
Centropolis (f).......................The Farmers Union Co-operative Mercantile Association.
Chanute (c)...........................Chanute Peoples Cooperative Association,
29 West Main Street.
Chanute*............................... Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Chase (c)................................The Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Cheney*.................................Vinita Cooperative Union Exchange.
Cicero (f).................................The Farmers Union Wheat Growers Cooperative Associa­
tion.
Claflin (c)...............................Farmers Union Cooperative Supply Co.
Clayton*.................................Clayton Cooperative Mercantile & Grain Association.
Clements (c)..........................Chase County Farmers Co-Operative Union.
Clifton*................................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Cloverdale* (P. O., Gre- Cloverdale Cooperative Association,
nola.).
Clyde*.................................... Clyde Cooperative Supply Co.
Coats*.......................................Farmers’ Grain, Livestock & Cooperative Mercantile
Association.
Coffeyville*........................... Coffeyville Cooperative Association.
Colby*.....................................Thomas County Cooperative Association.
Coldwater (f).........................Farmers Elevator Co.
Collyer*...................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Columbus*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile & Shipping Co.
Colwieh*................................. Fanners’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Conway (c)............................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Conway Springs*..................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Coolidge*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Copeland*...............................The Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Corbin*................................... Sumner County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Corning (c).............................The Farmers Co-Operative Business Association.



108

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

KANSAS—Continued.
Courtland (f)........................, Farmers Union Grain & Supply Association.
Cunningham*........................Cunningham Cooperative Association.
Delavan (f).............................The Delavan Farmers Union Co-operative Mercantile As­
sociation.
Delia*..................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Dellvale*................................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Delphos (c)............................ Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Denison*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Dennis*...................................Labette County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Dent Spur* (P. 0 ., Great Dent Spur Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Bend).
Dighton*................................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Dillon*....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Dodge City (f).......................Dodge City Co-operative Co.
Dorrance (c)..........................Farmers Union Mercantile Association.
Dover (c)...............................The Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Dresden*................................Farmers’ Equity Association.
Duquoin (c)........................... Duquoin Farmers Union Co-operative Business Associa­
tion.
Eaton* (P. O., Burden, Eaton Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
R. No. 3).
Edmond (f).............................Farmers Co-operative Association.
Edna (c)..................................The Farmers Co-Operative Supply Co.
Effingham*............................ Farmers’ Mercantile Association.
Elkhart (f)..............................Elkhart Co-operative Equity Exchange.
Ellis*....................................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Ellsworth (f).......................... Ellsworth County Farmers’ Co-operative Union.
Elmdale (c)............................The Elmdale Farmers Co-Operative Union.
Elmo*......................................Elmo Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Ensign (f)............................... The Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Erie*........................................Erie Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Eskridge*............................... The Farmers’ Union.
Eureka*.................................Greenwood County Farmers’ Union Business Association.
Everest (f)................- ............Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Fairview (c).......................... Farmers Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Falun (f)..................................The Farmers Union Co-Operative Grain, Livestock &
Mercantile Association.
Farlington (c)....................... Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Fellsburg*..............................Fellsburg Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Fontana*................................ Farmers’ Cooperative Grain & Coal Association.
Fontana, R. F. D. No. 3 (c).The New Lancaster Co-operative Corporation.
Ford (f)................................... Ford Cooperative Exchange.
Fowler*.................................. Fowler Equity Exchange.
Frankfort (f)..........................Farmers Union Co-Operative Produce Co.
Franklin*...............................Union Cooperative Store.
Fredonia ( c )......................... Wilson County Grange Co-Operative Association.
Freeport*............................... The Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Fremont*............................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Friend*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Frontenac (c)........................Austrian Mercantile Co.
Frontenac*............................ Italian-American Cooperative Store.
Frontenac*............................ Italian-French Cooperative Co.
Frontenac*............................Miners’ Union Cooperative Store.
Galesburg*.............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Galva (f).................................Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Garden City*........................Cooperative Store.
Garfield (f).............................The Garfield Co-Operative Co.
Gaylord (f)............................. The Graylord Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Geary* (P. 0 ., Wathena)...Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Gerlane*................................ Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Geuda Springs (f).................Sumner County Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Girard*...................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Glade*.................................... Farmers’ Union.
Globe* (P. 0 ., Overbrook, Globe Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
R. F. D. No. 2).



APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

109

KANSAS—Con tinued.
Goff*.........................................Goff Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Goodland (e)......................... Sherman County Co-operative Association.
Gorham*................................. Farmers’ Union Store.
Grainfield*............................. Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Greeley (f)..............................Greeley Milling Co.
Grenola*................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Store.
Green*.....................................Alliance Cooperative Association.
Green*.....................................Green Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Greenleaf (f).......................... Farmers Mutual Mercantile Co.
Grinnell*................................ Farmers’ Union Store.
Gross ( c ) .................................Union Miners Co-operative Store.
Groveland*............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Haggard (f).............................Farmers Cooperative Grain, Coal & Supply Co.
Hamilton*.............................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Hamlin*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Hanston*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Harper (f)...............................The Harper Farmers Union Co-Operative Business Asso­
ciation.
Harveyville*.........................Harveyville Grange Cooperative Association.
Haven*...................................Haven Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Haviland (f).......................... The Farmers Co-operative Co.
Hays (f)...................................Farmers Co-operative Association.
Healy*.................................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Her lamer*............................. Herkimer Cooperative Business Association.
Herrington*...........................Herrington Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Hiattville (c).........................Farmers Union Co-operative Co.
Hiawatha*..............................Hia watha Cooper afive Association.
Hillsboro (f)...........................Farmers Equity Union.
Hillsdale (f)...........................Farmers Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Hoisington*............................Hoisington Cooperative Mercantile & Manufacturing Co.
Holton*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Produce Association.
Holton*...................................Jackson County Grange Cooperative Association.
Holyrood (c)..........................Farmers Co-operative Association.
Home City*...........................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Horace*.................................. Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Horton (c)..............................The Horton Co-operative Association.
Hoxie*.................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Humboldt*............................ Humboldt Grange Supply House.
Hunter*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Independence (c)................Farmers Supply & Exchange Co.
Inman (f)............................... Inman Farmers Elevator Co.
Isabel*.....................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Iuka*.......................................Iuka Cooperative Exchange.
Jamestown*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Jennings (f)............................Farmers Co-operative Equity Union Exchange.
Junction City*......................Geary County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Exchange.
Kanona (f)..............................Kanona Co-operative Mercantile Equity Exchange.
Kanorado (f)..........................Kanorado Co-operative Association.
Kansas City (c).....................Kansas State Cooperative Association,
1011 Central Avenue.
Kansas City (c).....................The Argentine Cooperative Association,
2615 Strong Avenue.
Kechi*.....................................Farmers’ Union.
Kellog* (P. O., Winfield)..Kellog Farmers’ Union Association.
Kelly*..................................... Kelly Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Kensington*...........................Smith County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Kimball (c)............................Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
Kiowa (f)................................ The O. K. Co-operative Grain & Mercantile Co.
Kismet (f).............................. Kismet Equity Exchange.
Labette*..................................Labette Cooperative Co.
LaCrosse*............................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile & Elevator Co.
LaCygne*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Lakin*.....................................Lakin Cooperative Equity Exchange.
105983°—22----- 8




110

CONSUMERS

Lamont*.........
Lancaster*—
Langdon*........
Lamed (f)—
Latham*.........
Latimer*.........
Lawrence (c).
Lebanon*........
Le Loup*----Leona (f).........
Leonardville*.
Leoti (c)..........
Le Roy*.........
Liberal*..........
Lincolnville*.
Lindsborg (f).
Little River*.
Longford*.......
Long Island*.
Louisburg*...
Lucas*.............
Lucas*___ . . .
Ludell (f).
Luray*—
Lyndon*..
Lvons*___
McCune*..
McDonald*........
McLouth (c)----McPherson, R. F. D.
No. 3 (f).
McPherson (c)..
Macksville*.........
Madison*...............
Manhattan*..........
Mankato (f)...........
Manning (c).........
Marietta ( c)......... .
Marietta (f).......... .
Marion (f)..............
Marquette*...........
Marysville*..........
Mayetta (f)............
Meade*..................
Menlo*....................
Michigan Valley*.
Milan*...................
Milberger* (P. O., Rus­
sell, It. F. D. No. 4).
Milford*..............................
Miltonvale (f)....................
Mina*— ...........................
Minneapolis*.....................
Minneola*...........................
Missler*...............................
Modoc*................................
Moline*................................
Montezuma*......................
Monument*........................
Morganville*......................




COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

KANSAS—Continued.
Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Atchison County Farmer8, Union Cooperative Association.
Langdon Cooperative Association.
Pawnee County Co-operative Association.
Grange Cooperative Co.
Farmers’ Union Store.
Farmers Co Operative Union Business Association.
Farmers* Union Store.
Farmers* Union Store.
Doniphan County Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Riley County Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Leoti Equity Co-operative Mill & Elevator Co.
Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Liberal Equity Exchange Association.
Farmers* Union Store Association.
Farmers* Union Elevator Co.
Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Longford Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Farmers* Cooperative Mercantile & Shipping Association.
Farmers* Cooperative Grain & Supply Co.
Farmers* Cooperative Mfg. & Mercantile Association.
Lucas Cooperative Association.
The Ludell Equity Co-operative Exchange.
Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Farmers* Cooperative Association.
Farmers* Cooperative Union.
Crawford County Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
McDonald Equity Mercantile Exchange.
The Farmers Co-operative Exchange.
Farmers* Co-operative Association.
McPherson County Alliance Exchange Co.,
301-303 North Main Street.
Farmers* Cooperative Association.
Farmers* Union Store.
Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Jewell County Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Manning Farmers Co-Operative Business Association. '
Farmers Co-Operative Lumber Co.
Marietta Stock & Grain Co.
Marion Co-operative Equity Exchange.
Farmers* Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Marshall County Cooperative Association.
Farmers Cooperative Association.
Cooperative Elevator & Supply Co.
Menlo Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Farmers* Union Business Association.
.The Sumner County Farmers Union Cooperative Associa­
tion.
Farmers* Union Store.
Geary County Farmers* Union.
.The Miltonvale Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Associa­
tion.
Mina Cooperative Business Association.
Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
.Minneola Cooperative Exchange.
.The Cooperative Equity Exchange.
.Modoc Cooperative Association.
.Moline Grange.
.Montezuma Equity Exchange Mercantile Association.
.Farmers* Union Cooperative Mercantile & Elevator Asso­
ciation.
*
.Farmers* Union Business Association.

APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

Ill

KANSAS—Continued.
Morland*.................................Fanners’ Cooperative Exchange.
Mt. Hope (f)......................... Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator.
Mulberry, R. F. D. No. 2 (c).Union Co-operative Society.
Mullinville*...........................Mullinville Equity Grain & General Mercantile Exchange.
Nashville*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Natoma*................................. Fanners’ Union Store.
Neodesha*..............................Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Neola*..................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Neosho Rapids*....................Farmers’ Cooperative Supply Co.
Ness City*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Newton (c).............................The Community Cooperative Association,
114 West Sixth Street.
Niles*...................................... Farmers’ Grain, Livestock & Cooperative Mercantile As­
sociation.
Norcatur (f)............................The Norcatur Farmers Co-operative Business Association.
Norris* (P. O. Kinsley)___Norris Cooperative Exchange.
Norton (f)............................... Norton County Co-Operative Association.
Norwich (f)............................ Farmers’ Co-operative Elevator & Supply Co.
Norwood* (P. 0., Ottawa, Norwood Cooperative Association.
R. F. D. No. 6).
Oakley*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile & Elevator Asso­
ciation.
Oberlin (f)..............................Oberlin Co-operative Equity Exchange.
Ogden*....................................Ogden Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Oketo (f).................................Farmers Co-Operative Mercantile Association.
Olathe*....................................Johnson County Cooperative Association.
Olney* (P. O., Hanston). .Farmers’ Cooperative Grain & Supply Co.
Olsburg (f)..............................Olsburg Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Oneida*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Oronoque (c).........................Farmers Co-operative Business Association.
Osawatomie (c)..................... The Osawatomie Union Co-Operative Cash Association.
Osborne (f).............................Osborne County Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Otis*........................................ Farmers’ Cooperative Union Association.
Overbrook*............................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Page (f)................................... Farmers’ Co-operative Association.
Paola (c).................................Paola Farmers Cooperative Association.
Paradise*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Park (f)...................................Buffalo Park Cooperative Association.
Partridge (f)...........................Partridge Co-Operative Equity Exchange.
Pauline (f)..............................The Pauline Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator & Supply
Association.
Paxico*................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Peabody (f)............................The Peabody Cooperative Equity Exchange Association.
Penalosa*................................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange Co.
Perth*......................................Sumner County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Phillipsburg (f).....................Phillips County Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Plains*.................................... Plains Equity Exchange Cooperative Union.
Pleasanton*............................Linn County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Pomona*.................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Pratt (c)..................................The Pratt Cooperative Society.
Preston (f)..............................Preston Co-operative Grain & Mercantile Co.
Pretty Prairie*..................... The Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Price* (P. O., Sabetha)___Price Cooperative Exchange.
Protection*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Purcell (f)...............................Purcell Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Radium (f)............................ Kansas Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Ramona (f).............................The Ramona Co-operative Elevator Co.
Ransom*................................ Ransom Farmers’ Union.
Reager (f)...............................Reager Farmers Co-operative Association.
Redfield*................................Farmers’ Grange Store.
Redwing*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Grain & Supply Co.
Reno*......................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Reserve*.................................Reserve Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Richmond (f)........................Fanners’ Co-operative Mercantile Society.




112

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

KANSAS—Continued.
Riley*......................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile & Shipping Asso­
ciation.
Ringo (c)................................The Workers Co-Operative Association,
Box 146.
Robinson*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Ruleton*................................ The Goodland Equity Exchange.
Rushcenter*...........................Rushcenter Coal, Grain & Livestock Association.
St. Paul*................................Union Cooperative Store.
St. Francis (f)........................St. Francis Equity Exchange.
Sawyer*...................................Sawyer Equity Cooperative Exchange.
Scandia (f)..............................The Sherdahl Co-Operative Association.
Schulte (f).............................. Farmers Co-operative Grain & Supply Co.
Scott City*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Selden*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Seneca*................................... Farmers’ Union Co. of Seneca.
Severance (f)..........................Severance Farmers’ Union.
Severy*..................................Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Seward (f)...............................Farmers Products & Supply Co.
Sharon Springs*...................Wallace County Cooperative Supply Co.
Shawnee*................................Shawnee Cooperative Society.
Shields*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Business Association.
Shook*.....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Skiddy*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile & Shipping Association.
Smith Center*.......................Smith County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Asso­
ciation.
Smolan*...................................Smolan Cooperative Store.
Soldier (f)...............................Farmers Umon Elevator Co.
S olom on*............................Farmers’ Grain, Livestock & Cooperative Mercantile
Association.
Spearville (c)........................The Farmers’ Union Co-operative Mfg. & Mercantile Asso­
ciation.
Spivey*...................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Spring Hill (c)...................... The Spring Hill Co-operative Association.
Stafford*................................The Independent Cooperative Grain & Mercantile Co.
Stark*...................................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Star Valley* (P. O., Me- Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Cune, R. F. D. No. 2).
Sterling*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Stilwell*..................................Stilwell Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Stockton*............................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Strauss* (P. O., McCune)..Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Strickler* (P. O., Iuka)— Strickler Cooperative Exchange.
Strong City (c)......................Strong City Farmers Union Co-operative Business Asso­
ciation.
Summerfield*........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Susank*(P.O.,Hoisington). Farmers’ Union Cooperative Grain & Supply Co.
Syracuse (c).......................... The Farmers Union Co-Operative Mercantile Association.
Tecumseh*.............................Tecumseh Cooperative Association.
Tescott (f)...............................The Farmers Co-Operative Association.
Timken*................................. Farmers’ Union Store.
Tisdale*.................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Topeka, R. F. D. No. 28 (c).The Seabrook Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Toulon (P. O., Hays)..........Fanners’ Union Cooperative Association of Toulon.
Trousdale (f).........................The Trousdale Co-operative Exchange.
Turon*.................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Valencia*............................... Valencia Cooperative Business Association.
Valley Center (f).................. Valley Center Farmers Union Co-operative Mercantile &
Elevator Co.
Vaughn* (P. 0 ., Rushcen- Conkling Cooperative Co.
ter).
Vesper*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Grain & Mercantile Association.
Victoria (c).............................The Farmers Co-operative Union.
Vliets (f)................................. The Farmers’ Union Co-operative Business Association.
Wakarusa*..............................Wakarusa Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Associa­
tion.




APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

113

KANSAS—Concluded.
Wakeeney*............................Trego County Cooperative Association.
Wakefield (c).........................Wakefield Alliance Cooperative Association.
Waldo (f)................................ Farmers Union Cooperative Business Association.
Walker (f)...............................Farmers Grain & Cooperative Union.
Walnut (c)..............................The Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
Wamego (f)............................The Farmers Co-operative Association.
Washington (f)......................Washington County Farmers Union Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Waterville*............................Farmers’ Union Hardware Store.
Waterville*............................Waterville Cooperative Store.
Wathena*...............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Waverly (c)......................... Farmers Co-operative Co.
Webster*................................ Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Weir Junction*..................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Weir*.......................................Weir Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Welda*....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Wellington (f)........................The Sumner County Farmers’ Union Cooperative Asso­
ciation.
Wellsford (f).......................... The Wellsford Grain Co.
Wellsville (f)..........................Farmers Union Co-operative Business Association.
Weskan*.................................Weskan Cooperative Union.
West Mineral*.......................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wetmore*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative MercantileAssociation.
Wheeler*................................ Wheeler Cooperative Mercantile Equity Union.
Whiteside (P. 0 ., Hutch- Whiteside Co-operative Equity Exchange,
inson, R. F. D.) (f).
White Water*........................The Patrons’ Mercantile Co.
Whiting*.................................Whiting Cooperative Association.
Wilburton*............................ Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Willis (f).................................Willis Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Wilmot*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Wilroads*............................... The Ford Cooperative Equity Exchange.
Wilsey*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wilson*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Windom*................................Farmers’ Union Store.
Winifred*...............................Winifred Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Woodbine (f)..........................The Woodbine Farmers Union Co-operative Exchange.
Wright*.................................. Wright Cooperative Exchange.
Yates Center (f)................... Farmers Cooperative Elevator Co.
Zarah*.....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Zenith (f)...............................Zenith Grain, Live Stock & Mercantile Co.
Zook* (P. O., Larned)___ The Zook Cooperative Co.
Zurich*................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile& Shipping Association.
KENTUCKY.
Alexandria*...........................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Bowling Green (c)............... Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Boyd*......................................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Campbellsville*....................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Cynthiana*............................ Harrison County Pomona Grange.
Flemingsburg, R.F. D. Johnson Associated Farmers.
No. 3 (c).
Franklin (f)...........................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Georgetown*..........................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Glasgow*................................ Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Grange City (c).................... Farmers Union Stock Co.
Harlan*...................................Harlan Cooperative Store.
Harrodsburg*........................ Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Hartford*................................American Cooperative Association.
Johnson Junction*............... Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Lawrenceburg*....................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
Louisville (w h o le sa le )..........Farmers’ Union Wholesale Co.
Lexington...............................Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
McHenry*..............................Workmen’s Cooperative Store.



114
Paducah*........... .
Pleasureville (c).
Providence*........
R iley*..................
Russellville*___
Sadieville*.........
Taylorsville*___
Toilesboro*.........
Turners Station*
Versailles (c)___
Winchester*........

c o n s u m e r s ' c o o pe r a tiv e s o c ie t ie s .

KENTUCKY—Concluded.
.McCracken County Cooperative Association.
.Pleasureville Farmers Union No. 266 (no store; club only).
-Cooperative store.
.Farmers* Cooperative Cash Store.
-Farmers, Union Supply Co.
.Farmers’ Union Supply Co.
.Farmers* Union Supply Co.
.Farmers* Union Supply Co.
.Farmers* Union Supply Co.
.Farmers Union Supply Co.
.Farmers* Union Supply Co.

LOUISIANA.
Jennings (c).
Jennings*__
Lafayette (c)

-Farmers* Union Co. (Inc.).
-Gulf Coast Cooperative Co.
.Lafayette Cooperative Association (Inc.), '
Box 374.

MAINE.
Biddeford (f).........................Biddeford Farmers* Union,
381 Main Street.
Biddeford (c).........................Family Co-operative Store of Biddeford,
48 Alfred Street.
Bucksport*............................Bucksport CQoperative Market.
Cumberland Mills (c).........Cooperative Association.
406 Main Street.
Dexter (c).............................. Dexter Co-Operative Society.
Eliot*.......................................Farmers* Cooperative Buying Organization. >
Gardner (c)............................Community Co-Operative Store.
Greenville (c)........................Greenville Co-Operative Supply Co.
Houlton*................................ Houlton Grange Store.
Kittery (f)..............................Kittery Farmers Union.
Livermore*............................ Union Store.
Livermore Falls*..................Union Store.
Madison (c)............................ Madison Union Co-Operative Store (Ltd.).
Millinocket (c)......................Co-Operative Store Co.
Oakland*................................Oakland Buying Club,
19 Belgrade Avenue.
Saco*....................................... Farmers* Cooperative Store.
Sanford (c).............................Sanford Cooperative Association,
Washington Street.
Sangerville (c)......................Sangerville Co-Operative Co.
Sedgwick*..............................Sedgwick Grange Store.
Skowhegan*.......................... Skowhegan Cooperative Association.
South Portland*...................South Portland Cooperative Association.
Woodland (c)........................Woodland Co-Operative Store.

MARYLAND.
Baltimore (c)........................Adelphia Commercial Corporation,
,
1721-1723 Fleet Street.
Baltimore (c).........................Baltimore Cooperative Society (not yet in operation),
1109 North Broadway.
Baltimore (c)........................Organized Labor Cooperative Society,
Ashland and Central Avenues.
Brunswick (c)......... .......... .Brunswick Co-Operative Association.
Cumberland (c)....................Cumberland Co-Operative Bakery (Inc.).
Frederick*.............................People’s Cooperative Store.
Froetburg (c).........................Frostburg Cooperative Society,
84 East Main Street.
Hagerstown. R. F. D. No. 5 Leitersburg Grange (Inc.).
(c).




APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.
%

115

MARYLAND—Concluded.
Mount Savage*......................Mount Savage Cooperative Association.
Perryville (c).........................The Peoples Cooperative Store Co.
Walcott................................... Peoples Cooperative Store.
Western Port*.......................Trades Council Supply Co.
MASSACHUSETTS.
Adams (c)...............................Polish Co-Operative Bakery Association,
41 Crotteau Street.
Beverly*.................................Peoples Cooperative Store,
141 Cabot Street.
Boston (c)...............................Charles River Cooperative Society,
25 River Street.
Boston (c)...............................Consumers’ Co-Operative Co. (inactive),
120 Tremont Street.
Boston (c)...............................Consumers’ Cooperative Independent Workmens Circle,
86 Leverett Street.
Boston (w h o le sa le ) ............... New England Cooperative Wholesale Association,
84-86 Leverett Street.
Boston*................................... South Boston Lithuanian Cooperative Association.
Brighton (c)..........................Lithuanian Cooperative Association,
24 Lincoln Street.
Brighton*.............................. Polish Cooperative Association
11 Lincoln Street.
Brockton*..............................Cooperative Bakery,
25 Stillman Avenue.
Brockton*..............................Montello Cooperative Association Public Market,
30 Intervale Street.
Brockton (c)......................... Polish Co-Operative Association,
30 Ames Street.
Cambridge (c).......................Cambridge Lithuanian Co-Operative Association,
39 Portland Street.
Cambridge*...........................Consumers’ Cooperative Co.
18 Farrar Street.
Cambridge*...........................East Cambridge Cooperative Association,
711 Cambridge Street.
Cambridge (c).......................Harvard Cooperative Society,
Harvard Square.
Chicopee *.............................Chicopee Cooperative Alliance,
Market Square.
Clinton (c).............................German Co-operative Consumers’ Co. (Inc.),
47-49 Branch Street.
Clinton*..................................Sobieski Cooperative Association,
Green Street.
Dorchester*...........................Dorchester Cooperative Grocery,
342 Norfolk Avenue.
Easthampton (c).................. Polish Co-operative Association,
70-72 Parsons Street.
Fitchburg (c)........................ German Cooperative Grocery Co.,
196 Kimball Street.
Fitchburg*.............................Into Cooperative Society.
Framingham (c)................... Producers & Consumers Cooperative Union,
49-55 Howard Street.
Framingham Centre (f)___Farmers’ Co-operative Exchange.
Gardner*.................................Gardner Cooperative Association.
Gardner*.................................Polish & Russian Cooperative Grocery Co.,
326 Pleasant Street.
Gardner*.................................Workers’ Cooperative Co.
Greenfield*.............................Greenfield Cooperative Store.
Greenfield*.............................Greenfield Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Groton (f)...............................Ayer Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Haverhill (c).........................Haverhill Cooperative League (Inc.),
388 Washington Street.
Hudson (c).............................Lithuanian Cooperative Association (Inc.),
166 Main Street.




116

COligUMEBs’ COOPEBATIVE SOCIETIES.

MASSACHUSETTS—Concluded.
Indian Orchard (c)............. Indian Orchard & Ludlow Co-Operative Association,
192 Main Street.
Lawrence (c).......................... German Co-operative Association,
25 Berkeley Street.
Lawrence (c).......................... Hebrew Cooperative Bakery,
128J Valley Street.
Lawrence*.............................Italian Cooperative Bakery,
300 Elm Street.
Leominster (c)......................Italian Colonial Co-operative Co.,
79 Lincoln Terrace.
Lowell*...................................Lithuanian Cooperative Association.
Lowell*...................................Lowell Cooperative Association,
108 Middlesex Street.
Lynn (c).................................Workingmen’s Co-operative Bakery (Inc.),
197 Summer Street.
Maynard*............................... Finnish Cooperative Store,
Box 1099.
Maynard (c)...........................International Co-operative Association,
94 Main Street.
Maynard*...............................Kaleva Cooperative Association,
48 Main Street.
Maynard (c)...........................Riverside Co-operative Association,
44 Nason Street.
Middleboro*...........................American Lithuanian Cooperative Public Market.
New Bedford*.......................Cooperative Bakery,
478 South Water Street.
New Britain*.........................Sovereigns Trading Co.
North Dighton (c)................North Dighton Cooperative Association (Inc.).
Norwood*...............................Norwood Lithuanian Cooperative Association,
1078 Washington Street.
Norwood (c)...........................Polish Cooperative (Inc.),
1057 Washington Street.
Norwood (c)...........................United Co-operative Society,
47 Savin Avenue.
Plymouth (c)........................Plymouth Co-operative Association,
Cor. Bradford & Sandwich Streets.
Plymouth (c).........................Societa Co-operativa Cristoforo Colombo (Inc.).
Quincy ( c ) ............................ Turva Cooperative Stores Co.,
32 Copeland Street.
Salem*.....................................Polish Cooperative Commercial Store,
Box 272.
South Braintree (c)............. Workers Cooperative Union of South Braintree,
56 Pearl Street.
Springfield*...........................Cooperative Grocery Store,
531 Main Street.
Springfield (w h o le sa le ) .........Eastern States Consumers’ Exchange,
292 Worthington Street.
Springfield (c).......................Hampden County Farmers’ Exchange,
168 Bridge Street.
Springfield (c).......................Jewish Workers Cooperative Association,
101 Franklin Street.
Walpole*.................................Neponset Cooperative Stores.
Westfield (c )..........................Mundale Farmers Cooperative Exchange.
Westfield (c).......................... Wyben Farmers’ Co-operative Exchange.
Woburn*.................................Middlesex Cooperative Co.
Worcester (c)......................... Labor League Cooperative Bakery,
106 Water Street.
Worcester*..............................Swedish Cooperative Society,
26 Greenwood Street.
Worcester (c)......................... United Co-operative Society,
138 Belmont Street.




APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

117

MICHIGAN.
Allegan (c)............................. Allegan Farm Bureau Co-operative Association.
Amasa (c)...............................Amasa Cooperative Society.
Bangor (c)..............................Bangor Cooperative Association.
Battle Creek (c )...................Alliance Mercantile Co.,
43 Aldrich Street.
Battle Creek (c)...................Battle Creek Co-Operative Society,'
14 South Madison Street.
Battle Creek*.......................The People’s Cooperative,
49 Caine Street.
Bessemer*.............................. Bessemer Cooperative Store.
Brown City*..........................Brown City Cooperative Co.
Bruce Crossing (c)............... Settlers Co-operative Trading Co.
Cadillac (c)............................Cadillac Cooperative Association,
224 North Mitchell Street.
Calumet (c)........................... Tamarack Co-Operative Association.
Capac (c)................................Capac Co-operative Association.
Carsonville (c)...................... Carsonville Cooperative Co.
Caspian (c)............................ Caspian Corporation.
Cass City (c).......................... Cass City Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Charlotte*.............................. Square Deal Cooperative Association.
Chassel*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Trading Co.
Chatham*...............................Farmers’ Cooperative Store Co.
Clare*......................................Michigan Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Crystal Falls (c)....................Crystal Falls Co-operative Society.
Crystal Falls*........................Finnish-Swedish Mercantile Association.
Detroit (c)..............................Consumers Cooperative Co.,
1019 Westminster Avenue.
Detroit (c)..............................Lithuanian Cooperative Association,
1400 Coniff Avenue.
Detroit*.................................. Union Cooperative Bakery,
651 Grand Avenue.
Eben Junction*................... Eben Farmers’ Cooperative Store Co.
Eden*..................................... Eden Cooperative Association.
Elberta*................................. Elberta Cooperative Association.
Escanaba*..............................The Northern Michigan Co-operative Wholesale Associa­
tion.
Escanaba (c).........................Railway Employees Cooperative Association.
Escanaba (c).........................Scandia Co-Operative Association.
Falmouth*............................. Falmouth Cooperative Association.
Flint*......................................People’s Cooperative Society,
1904 Lyman Street.
Gaines*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Grand Rapids*.....................Grand Rapids Cooperative Store,
1318 Maud Avenue.
Grand Rapids (wholesale). .Grand Rapids Cooperative Wholesale,
1315 Ionia Avenue SW.
Grass Lake*...........................Grass Lake Cooperative Society.
Grayling (c)...........................Railwaymens Union Co-Operative Association.
Hancock*...............................Farmers’ Cooperative Trading Co.
Herman (c)............................Farmers Co-operative Association.
Hillsdale*..............................Hillsdale County Cooperative Association.
Holland*................................Holland Cooperative Association.
Iron Mountain (c)...............The Iron Mountain Mercantile Co. (Ltd.).
Iron River*...........................Twin City Cooperative Association.
Ironwood (c).........................Finnish Cooperative Trading Co.,
231 East Ayer Street.
Ishpeming (c).......................Ispheming Consumers’ Co-operative Association,
213 Pearl Street.
Jackson (c)............................Co-Operative Society of Railway Brotherhoods,
111 Cooper Street.
Jonesville*............................ Jonesville Cooperative Association.
Kalamazoo (c)......................Kalamazoo Co-operative Union,
214 East Main Street.
Kearsarge (c).........................Finnish Workmen’s Cooperative Co. (Inc.),
West Side County Road.




118

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

MICHIGAN—Concluded.
Lake Lindon*
Lake Lindon Cooperative Association.
Laurium*........
Italian Cooperative Store.
Lawrence*...
Lawrence Cooperative Co.
Levering Co-operative Co.
Levering (f) ..
Manistee*----Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Marquette (c).
Railway Employees Co-operative Association of Mar­
quette, Mich., 207-209 South Front Street.
Marquette (c).
Workers Cooperative Society,
231 West Washington Street.
Mass*.......
Mass Cooperative Co.
Midland*
Cooperative Store.
Montgomery*.
Montgomery Cooperative Association.
Montgomery*.
Tri-State Cooperative Association.
Morenci Cooperative Association.
Morenci*.........
Peoples’ Co-operative Association of Munising.
Munising (c)..
People’s Cooperative Store.
Negaunee*__
Newberry (c).
Newberry Co-operative Association,
Lock box 486.
New Hudson*.
Wixon Cooperative Association.
Nisula*...........
Nisula Cooperative Store Co.
Onsted Cooperative Association.
Onsted*..........
Owosso Cooperative Association,
Owosso (c)___
207 South Washington Street.
Paynesville Cooperative Association.
Paynesville*............
Farmers’ Cooperative Trading Co.
Pelkie*......................
Petoskey Cooperative Market Association.
Petoskey*.................
Quincy Co-Operative Elevator Association.
Quincy (f)................
Reading (f)...............
Reading Co-operative Commerce Co.
Republic Farmer Co-operative Association.
Republic (c)............
Rock Co-operative Co.
Rock (c)— .............
Saline Cooperative Co.
Saline*......................
Soo Co-operative Mercantile Association,
Sault Ste. Marie (c).
536 Ashmun Street.
Scotts Co-operative Association.
Scotts (c)............
Cooperative Store.
Shelby*..............
South Haven (c)
South Haven Co-operative Stores.
South Range*..
Farmers’ Cooperative Trading Co.
Tecumseh*.........
Tecumseh Cooperative Association.
Trenary Farmers Co-Operative Store.
Trenary (c)........
Wakefield (c). . .
Peoples Cooperative Co.
MINNESOTA.
Adrian (c).............................. Farmers Co-operative Supply Co.
Aitkin (f)............................... Bay Lake Fruit Growers Association. #
Alexandria*...........................Douglas County Cooperative Association.
Alpha*.................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Society.
Angora*..................................Angora Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Angora*..................................Sturgeon Alango Cooperative Co.
Appleton*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Argyle, R. F. D. No. 1 (c).Farmers Co-operative Association.
Arlington (c).........................Union Mercantile Co.
Ashby (c)...............................Farmers Equity Association.
Askov (f)................................ Askov Co-Operative Association.
Atwater (c)............................Atwater Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Aurora (c)..............................Aurora Co-operative Mercantile Association.
Austin*...................................Mower County Cooperative Co.
Badger*..................................Badger Cooperative Co.
Badger*...................................Roseau County Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator & Mercan­
tile Co.
Bagley (f).............................. Bagley Cooperative Co.
Barnum (f).............................Barnum Farmers Cooperative Co.
Bass Lake*.............................Bass Lake Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Belgrade (c)..........................Belgrade Co-operative Store Co.
Bemidji (c)............................ Peoples Cooperative Store of Beltrami County.




APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES,

119

MINNESOTA—Continued.
Benson*..................................Benson Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Bethel*...................................Bethel Cooperative Store Co.
Biwabik (c)...........................Biwabik Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Blackberry (c)......................Farmers Mercantile Co.
Bovev (c).............................. Balsam Co-operative Association,
Box 102.
Bovey*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Trading Co.
Brainerd*.............................. Our Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Breckenridge (c)..................Breckenridge Cooperative Association.
Brimson (c)...........................Farmers Store Association.
Brookston*............................Brookston Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Brooten (c)............................Farmers’ Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Brooten*................................. Grove Lake Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Brownsville*..........................Brownsville Cooperative Co.
Canton (f)...............................Farmers Co-Operative Co. of Canton.
Cass Lake*............................ Cass Lake Cooperative Store Co.
Chisholm (c)..........................Balkan Farmers Co-operative Association.
Clara City*.............................Clara City Cooperative Co.
Cloquet (c).............................Cloquet Cooperative Society.
Cloquet (c)............................Knife Falls Co-Operative Association.
Cloverton*.............................Cloverton Cooperative Association.
Correll (c)..............................Correll Co-Operative Supply Co.
Cromwell (c).........................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Crookston*............................ Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen,
519 Elm Street.
Crookston (c)........................Crookston Cooperative Mercantile Co.,
113 South Main Street.
Crosby (c)...............................Crosby Workers Co-operative Association.
Dawson*................................. Dawson Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Deer River*..........................Suomi Cooperative Association.
Delano (c).............................. Delano Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Detroit*...................................Detroit Cooperative Association.
Dilworth*..............................People’s Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Duluth (c)............................Farmer’s Co-operative Purchasing Association,
2102 West Michigan Avenue.
Duluth (c)...........................Toverila Co.,
#108 East First Street.
Duluth (c)............................. Union Consumers Co-Operative Society,
1911 West Superior Street.
Dundee (c)............................ Dundee Co-operative Co.
East Lake*.............................East Lake Cooperative Store.
Edgerton*...............................Edgerton Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Elbow Lake (c).....................Elbow Lake Co-Operative Co.
Elgin*......................................Elgin Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Ellendale*.............................Ellendale Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Elmore (c)..............................Elmore Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Elysian (c)............................Greenland Farmers Equity Exchange.
Embarrass (c)........................Embarrass Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Association.
Emmons*................................State Line Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Fairfax*..................................Fairfax Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Fergus Falls*.........................Otter Tail Cooperative Co.
Fertile (f)...............................Garfield Co-Operative Co.
Flensburg*.............................Cooperative Association.
Fosston*..................................Fosston Cooperative Co.
Gary (c)..................................The Waukon Mercantile Co.
Gatzke*...................................Rollis Mercantile Cooperative Co.
Georgeville (c)......................Co-Operative Farmers Co.
Gheen (c)............................... Farmers’ Co-Operative Trading Co.
Gilbert (c)..............................International Work People’s Co-operative Association.
Glenwood, R. F. D.*.......... Bareness Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Glenwood*.............................Equity Cooperative Trading Co.
Gowan*................................... Gowan Cooperative Association.
Grace ton*............................... Graceton Cooperative Store.
Grand Rapids*......................Grand Rapids Cooperative Store.
Greenbush*............................Greenbush Cooperative Co.




120

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

MINNESOTA—Continued.
Greenbush*............................Roseau County Fanners’ Cooperative Elevator & Mercan­
tile Co.
Grey Eagle (c ).................... The Co-operative Store.
Grygla*...................................Grygla Cooperative Store.
Hallock (c).............................Kittson County Farmers Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Hamburg (f)...........................Hamburg Farmers Equity Co-operative Association.
Hammond*............................Hammond Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Hanska*................................. Hanska Linden Cooperative Store.
Harmony (c).........................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Hayfield (i)...........................Hay field Farmers Elevator & Mercantile Co.
Hill City (c)..........................Hill City Co-operative Co.
H ills*......................................Hills Farmers Store.
Hinckley*..............................Equity Cooperative Warehouse Association.
Hoffman*............................... Hoffman Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Holland*................................Peoples Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Hopkins (c)........................... Hopkins Co-operative Association.
Houston*................................Houston Cooperative Co.
Howard Lake (c)..................Howard Lake Cooperative Mercantile Co.
International Falls*............Walo Cooperative Association,
817 Eighth Street.
Jackson*.................................The People’s Cooperative Co.
Jeffers (c)............................... Jeffers Co-operative Co.
Kandiyohi*........................... Kandiyohi Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Kandiyohi*........................... Pennock Farmeis’ Cooperative Store.
Kellogg (c).............................Kellogg Co-operative Store Co.
Kenneth (c).......................... Kenneth Farmers Store Co.
Kenyon (f).............................Kenyon Farmers Mercantile & Elevator Co.
Kerkhoven*.......................... Farmers’ Exchange.
Kettle River*.......................The Cooperative Store.
Lakefield*..............................Jackson County Cooperative Co.
Lamherton (c)......................Farmers Co-operative Co.
Lanesboro (c)........................Lanesboro Co-operative Mercantile Co.
La Salle*................................ Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
La Salle*................................ Watonwan Cooperative Co.
Lawler (f)...............................Lawler Farmers Cooperative Association.
Litchfield (f)..........................Farmers & Merchants Co-operative Association.
Little Swan*..........................Little Swan Farmers’ Cooperative Stock Co.
Long Prairie (c)................... Long Prairie Cooperative Co.
Lowry*................................... Equity Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Luveme*................................Luveme Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Madelia*.................................Madelia Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Madison (f)............................Madison Farmers Mercantile & Elevator Co.
Madison Lake*.....................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Marcell*..................................Marcell Cooperative Association.
Markville*.............................Markville Cooperative Association.
Max*....................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Menahga (c)..........................Farmers Co-operative Sampo.
Mentor (f)___>.....................Mentor Co-operative Co.
Minneapolis (c)....................American Rochdale Stores Co.,
715 McKnight Building.
Minneapolis (c)....................Franklin Co-operative Creamery Association,
2601 East Franklin Avenue.
Minneapolis (c) (o rg a n iza - Northwestern Cooperative League,
tio n b o d y ).
910-912 Lumber Exchange.
Minneapolis*........................Star Cooperative Meat & Provision Co.
Minneota (f)..........................Farmers & Merchants Supply Co.
Minnesota Lake (q).............Minnesota Lake Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Monticello*............................Monticello Cooperative Co.
Montrose (c)..........................Montrose Farmers Mercantile Co.
Nashwauk*............................Elano Cooperative Store.
Nassau (f)...............................Nassau Farmers Elevator Co.
New Auburn*.......................New Auburn Cooperative Store.
Newfolden (f)....................... Newfolden Farmers & Merchants Elevator Co.
New London (c).................. New London Farmers Store Co.
New Richland*....................New Richland Farmers’ Cooperative Co.




APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

121

MINNESOTA—Continued.
New Ulm*..............................Hanska-Linden Cooperative Store.
New Ulm*..............................People’s Cooperative Association.
New York Mills (c)............. Heinola Farmers Mercantile Association.
Odessa*.................................. Odessa Cooperative Store.
Odessa*.................................. Odessa Farmers’ Mercantile Co.
Olivia*.................................... People’s Store. |
Orr*..........................................Orr Cooperative Association.
Paynesville*.........................Cooperative Farmei ’ Store.
Pennock*...............................Pennock Cooperative Store.
Perham (c)............................Perham Co-operative Co.
Petrell*.................................. Farmers’ Store Association.
Pipestone (c)..................... .Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Pitt*.........................................Pitt Cooperative Co.
Preston*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Princeton*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Proctor*..................................Proctor Cooperative Co.
Radium (c)...........................Farmers Co-operative Store Co.
Randolph*........................... Randolph Cooperative Co.
Reading*................................ Reading Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Red Wing, R. F. D. No. 3*.Burnside Cooperative Association.
Red Wing (c).........................Goodhue County Cooperative Co.,
420-430 Third Street.
Roseau (c)..............................Roseau Cooperative Co.
Rose Creek (c)......................Rose Creek Cooperative Co.
Rothsay (c)............................Rothsay Cooperative Association.
Ruthton*................................Fanners’ Cooperative Association.
St. Paul*................................Consumers’ United Stores Co.
St. Paul*................................Cooperative Mercantile Association,
832 East Lawson Street.
St. Paul*................................St. Paul Cooperative Association,
Eighth and Cedar Streets.
Sanborn (c)............................Sanborn Cooperative Co.
Scandia (c).............................Scandia Mercantile Co.
Sebeka (c).............................Sebeka Co-operative Co.
Sleepy Eye*.........................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Staples (c)..............................Staples Co-operative Co.
Starbuck (c)...........................Farmers Mercantile Co.
Steen*..................................... Steen Rochdale Co.
Stewart*.................................Stewart Co-operative Association.
Stewartsville*.......................Stewartsville Cooperative Store.
Svea (c)..................................Svea Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Thief River Falls (c)...........Peoples Co-operative Store Co.
Tintah*...................................Tintah Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Toimi (c)................................ Fairbanks Cooperative Association (no store; club only).
Toimi (c)................................Finnish Supply Co.
Toivola (c)..............................Toivola Co-operative Mercantile Association
Two Harbors*.......................Scandinavian Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Two Harbors (c).................. The Workers & Farmers Co-operative Co.
Viking*...................................Viking Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Virginia (c)............................Virginia Work People’s Trading Co.
Wanamingo*..........................Wanamingo Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Warroad*................................Warroad Cooperative Co.
Waseca*.................................. Farmers’ & R. R. Men’s Cooperative Store.
W aseca*.................................Waseca Farmers’ Elevator & Mercantile Association.
Waterville*............................Lesuer County Co-operative Co.
Wegdahl (c)...........................Wegdahl Farmers Co-operative Association.
Wells (c)................................ Wells Farmers Mercantile Co.
Westbrook*............................Westbrook Cooperative Co.
West Duluth*....................... West Duluth Cooperative Store,
609 Sixty-seventh Avenue.
Wheaton (c).......................... Wheaton Farmers’ Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Willmar (c)............................Willmar Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Windom ( c ) .........................Windom Co-operative Co.
Winona (c)..............................Winona Co-operative Co. (not yet in operation).
Winthrop*..............................Winthrop Cooperative Store.




122

con su m ers ' cooperative societies .

MINNESOTA—Concluded.
Wrenshall*............................. Wrenshall Cooperative Association.
Young America*...................Young America Cooperative Store Co.
Zumbrota (c).........................Zumbrota Co-operative Mercantile Co.
MISSISSIPPI.
Amory (c )...
McComb (c).
Sharpsburg*.
Vicksburg*..

Amory Co-c§)erative Store.
McComb Co-operative Store.
Union Cooperative Co.
Workers’ Cooperative Store,
2006 Washington Street.

MISSOURI.
Barnhart*...............................Fanners’ Union Store.
Bevier*...................................Bevier Cooperative Store.
Bland*.....................................Fanners’ Union Cooperative Association.
Bloomington..........................Bloomington Equity Exchange.
Bogard*.................................. Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Bowling Green*................... Farmers’ Equity Exchange.
Braymer*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Brookfield (c)........................Cooperative League of Brookfield,
120 South Main Street.
Buffalo (f)...............................Dallas County Farmers Exchange.
Carrollton (f).........................Fanners Co-operative Co.
Chula*..................................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Columbia (c)..........................University Cooperative Store.
Conception Junction*.........Conception Junction Cooperative Store.
Concordia*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Cowgill*.................................. Farmers’ Union Store.
De Soto*................................. Fanners’ Union Store.
Eldon (c)................................ Miller County Co-operative Association,
102 South Maple Street.
Enon (c)..................................Farmers Hardware & Lumber Co.
Exeter (f)....................... : .. .Farmers Exchange.
Gallatin (f)............................Farmers Mercantile Co.
Hannibal (c)..........................Hannibal Co-operative Society.
Hawk Point*......................... Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator & Supply Co.
Humphreys (f)......................Humphreys Farm Club.
Hunnewell*........................... Farmers’ Elevator & Exchange.
Hurley (f)..............................Farmers Exchange No. 140.
Jerico Springs*.....................Farmers' Union Store Association.
Jonesburg (c)........................Farmers Mercantile Co.
Kansas (Sty {w h o le sa le )..... Farmers’ Union Jobbing Association,
106 New England Building.
Kansas City*......................... Jewish Cooperative Society,
903 Independence Avenue.
Kansas City*......................... Universal Brotherhood Cooperative Store,
552 Harrison Street.
Leeton*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Lexington (f).........................Farmers’ Cooperative Elevator of Lexington.
Lexington*.............................French Cooperative Store,
Franklin Street.
Lexington*............................Lexington Cooperative Store.
Liberal*.................................. Fanners’ Exchange.
McFall*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Purchasing & Sales Co.
Marceline (c).........................Peoples Co-operative Association.
Marionville*.......................... Farmers’ Exchange.
Milo*........................................Farmers’ Exchange.
Monett (c).............................. Monett Co-operative Mercantile Society,
212 Fourth Street.
Moscow Mills (c)...................Moscow Co-operative Society.
Mountain Grove*................. Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Nettleton (f).......................... Farmers Mercantile & Trade Co.
Nevada (c)............................. Vernon County Co-Operative Supply Co.
Newburg*...............................Cooperative Mercantile Co.



APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

Norbome (f)..
Odessa*..........
Princeton (f)..
Richards*.. .
St. Louis (c)..
Saline (c)___
Santa Rosa (f)
Sedalia (c). ..
Sheldon ( c ) ..
Standish (f) ..
Trenton*.........
W hiteside*...
Windsor (c)...
Absarokee*—
Alberton*____
Baker*.............
Bear Creek (c)
Belt*...............
Big Sandy (f)..
Bigtimber*___
Billings*.........
Brady (f)........
Butte (c).........
Caldwell*........
Cascade (f). . .
Chester*..........
Conrad*...........
Corvallis (c )..
Creston*..........
Dagmar (c). . .
Deer Lodge*. Denton*..........
Dillon*............
Dodson (f)... .
Fairchild*---Fair view*........
Florence (c)...
Froid (c).........
Gildford*____
Glendive*.
Gold Butte (c)
Great F a lls* ..
Great Falls (c)
Greycliff*____
Hamilton (c).
Harlowton*...
Havre (c)-----Helena*..........
Hilger*............
Inverness*.. .
Joplin (f)........
Kalispell (f)..Kremlin*.........
Livingston*..
Livingston*..
Malta (f)......... .



123

MISSOURI—Concluded.
.Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
.Farmers Union Store of Mercer County.
.The Farmers’ Union.
.American Cooperative Union (Inc.).
.Farmers Store.
.Farmers’ Co-Operative Association No. 96.
.Sedalia Cooperative Association,
614 South Ohio Avenue.
.Farmers Exchange.
. Farmers Co-operative Supply Co.
.Trenton Cooperative Mercantile Co.,
811 Main Street.
.Whiteside Cooperative Equity Exchange.
.Farmer Co-operative Co.
MONTANA.
.Absarokee Cooperative Co.
.Powell County Cooperative Association.
.Fallon County Cooperative Mercantile Association.
.Peoples Co-operative Society.
.Equity Cooperative Association of Belt.
.The Farmers Produce Co.
.Yellowstone Cooperative Store.
.Billings Rochdale Union Cooperative Store,
2720 Montana Avenue.
.Equity Co-operative Association of Brady.
.Cooperative Store & Bread Factory (not yet in operation),
2604 Amherst Street.
,
.Caldwell Cooperative Society.
.Cascade Co-Operative Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Equity Co-Operative Association.
.Equity-Supply Co.
. Farmers Co-operative Association.
.Powell County Cooperative Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Beaverhead Cooperative Co.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Fairview Cooperative Store.
.Florence Cooperative Co.
.Froid Cooperative Mercantile Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association.
.Consumers’ Mercantile Association.
.Gold Butte Co-operative Association.
Equity Cooperative Association of Montana,
Stanton Bank Building.
.Montana Consumer’s League,
315 First Avenue.
.Greycliff Cooperative Store.
.Equity Co-operative Association of Hamilton.
Equity Cooperative Store.
.Hill County Co-operative Association.
. Farmers’ Society of Equity.
.Equity Cooperative Association of Hilger.
.Equity Cooperative Association of Inverness.
.Equity Co-operative Elevator & General Trading Co.
.Equity Supply Co.
.Equity Cooperative Association of Kremlin.
.Union Cooperative Store.
.Yellowstone Cooperative Association.
.Equity Cooperative Association of Phillips County.

124

con su m ers ’ cooperative societies .

MONTANA—Concluded.
Manhattan (c).......................Gallatin County Union of American Society of Equity.
Miles City*............................Miles City Cooperative Store.
Monarch*...............................Monarch Cooperative Store.
Ollie*...................................... Equity Cooperative Association.
Opheim (c).............................Farmers’ Cooperative Co. (not yet in operation).
Plentywood*.........................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Poplar*................................... The Cooperative Store.
Power*....................................Cooperative Store, Society of Equity.
Raynesford*..........................Equity Cooperative Association.
Red Lodge*...........................Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Rolefield*.............................. Rolefield Cooperative Co.
Roundup (c).........................Roundup Co-operative Association.
Roy*........................................The Cooperative Store.
Rudyard*...............................Equity Cooperative Association.
Saco (f)................................... Saco Co-operative Association.
Shelby*.................................. Cooperative Store.
Sidney*..................................Farmers’ Mercantile Co.
South Great Falls*..............American Society of Equity,
415 First Avenue.
Square Butte*......................Square Butte Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Stevensville (c)....................Farmers Co-Operative Association
Twin Bridge*........................Madison Cooperative Association
Wibaux*.................................Wibaux Cooperative Association.
Wilsall (f)...............................Farmers Exchange of Wilsall.
Windham*............................. Windham Cooperative Store.
Wisdom*.................................Wisdom Cooperative Store.
Worden (c).............................Project Co-operative Association.
NEBRASKA.
A bbott*.! ............................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Exchange.
Abdal* (P. O., Superior). .Farmers Union Cooperative Elevator Co.
Abie (f)...................................Abie Farmers Grain & Lumber Co.
Adams*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Ainsworth*............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Alexandria*...........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Alliance*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Ames (f)................................. Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Anoka (c)...............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Ansley*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Arapahoe*..............................Farmers’ Equity Exchange.
Archer*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Atkinson*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Auburn*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Aurora (f)...............................Farmers Union Association.
Axtell*......................,.............Farmers’ Union Cooperative Implement Co.
Bancroft*............................... Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Bayard*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Beaver City*.........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Store.
Belgrade*...............................Farmers’ Union Store.
Benkelman*.......................... Benkelman Equity Exchange.
Bennett*................................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Bennington (f)......................Farmers Union Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Big Spring (f)........................Farmers Elevator Co.
Bladen (c)..............................Farmers Union Business Association.
Blair*.......................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Bloomfield*........................... Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Bloomington (c)................... Bloomington Equity Exchange.
Blue H ill (f)..........................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Blue Springs*........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Boelus (f)................................Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Boone*.................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Bradshaw*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Brady (f).................................Farmers’ Co-Operative Association.
Brock (f).................................The Farmers Union Co-operative Association.



APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

125

NEBRASKA—Continued.
Broken Bow*........................Cooperative Co.
Burr (c)...................................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Burwell*................................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Bushnell*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Butte*.................................... Farmers’ Exchange.
Cairo (c).................................Farmers Mercantile Co.
Cambridge (f).......................Farmers Union.
Cams (c).................................Cams Farmers’ Mercantile Co.
Carroll*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Cedar Bluffs (f)....................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Central City*.........................Chapman Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Ceresco (f)..............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Chadron (c)...........................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Clarks (c)...............................Farmers Union Co.
Clarkson (f)........................... Farmers Union Co-Operative Supply Co.
Clearwater (f)....................... The Union Store.
Clinton*................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Coleridge*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Exchange.
Columbus*.............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Concord*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Cowles (f)...............................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Crab Orchard (f)...................Farmers Union Co-operative Association of Crab Orchard,
Nebr.
Crawford*.............................. Crawford Cooperative Co.
Creighton*.............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Crete (f)..................................Farmers Union Co-operative Association of Crete.
Crofton (c).............................Farmers Union of Crofton.
Culbertson*...........................Culbertson Equity Exchange.
Curtis (c)................................Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Dalton*...................................Dalton Cooperative Society.
Dannebrog*...........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Davenport*........................... Farmers^ Union Cooperative Association.
Dawson (f).............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Delphi* (P. O., Lawrence).Delphi Farmers’ Union Grain & Merchandise Co.
De Witt*................................De Witt Farmers’ Union Exchange.
Diller (c)................................Farmers Union Co-Operative Store.
Dix*........................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Dixon (f)................................Farmers’ Union Co-Operative Association.
Dorchester*........................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association of Dorchester.
DuBois*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Duncan (f).............................Farmers Business Association.
Eagle*.....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Eddyville*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Edgar*.................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Eldorado*.............................. Farmers’1Cooperative Co.
Elgin*......„............................. Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Elkhorn (f)............................ Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Elmwood (f)..........................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Elsie*......................................Elsie Equity Mercantile Exchange.
Elwood*................................. El wood Equity Exchange.
Emerson*............................... Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Emmet*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Endicott*...............................Endicott Equity Exchange.
Eustis*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Fairfield*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Fairmont*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Falls City (c)........................ Falls City Co-operative Exchange.
Farnam*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Farwell (f).,..........................Farmers Co-Operative Grain & Supply Co.
Filley*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Firth (f)..................................Farmers Co-operative Grain & Coal Co.
Flowerfield*.......................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Supply Co.
Franklin (f)........................... Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Fremont (c)..........................The Peoples Co-operative Store.
105893°—22------9




126

CONSUMERS* COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

NEBRASKA—Continued.
Friend (f)...............: ..............Farmers Union Co-operative Co.
Fullerton*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Funk*............................
Farmers’
Cooperative Store.
Geneva*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Geneva*...................................People’s Cooperative Supply Co.
Genoa*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Gilead*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Giltner*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Glenvil*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Gordon*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Gothenburg*.........................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Graf*....................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association of Graf.
Grafton*.................................People’s Cooperative Supply Co.
Grainton*.............................. Gramton Equity Exchange.
Grant*.....................................Grant Equity Exchange.
Greeley (f).............................Farmers Cooperative Co.
Gresham*......................... -. .Farmers’ Umon Cooperative Association.
Guide Bock*........................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Gurley*.................................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Haigler (f)..........................
HaiglerEquity Exchange.
Hamlet*.................................Hamlet Equity Exchange.
Hardy (c).............................. Farmers Union Mercantile Association.
Harrison*................................ Equity Cooperative Association of Harrison.
Hartington (c)......................Farmers Union Exchange.
Hastings*...............................Nebraska Farmers’ Union Association.
Havelock (c).........................Peoples Co-Operative Co.
Hayland*...............................Hayland Farmers’ Union Co.
Hay Springs*........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Hebron (f).............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Hemingford (c)....................Farmers’ Co-Operative Association.
Hendley*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Herman (f)............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Hershey (f)........................... Farmers Cooperative Association.
Hickman (c).........................Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
Hildreth*....... ........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Holbrook (c)...........................Farmers Union Co-Operative Store.
Holdrege (c)...........................Farmers Union Exchange.
Holstein*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Homer*....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Co. of Homer.
Hooper (f)..............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Co.
Horace*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Hordville*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Hoskins*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Howe*......................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Humboldt (c).........................Farmers Union Co-Operative Co.
Huntley*.................................Huntley Equity Exchange.
Imperial*................................ Imperial Equity Mercantile Exchange.
Inavale*.................................. Farmers’ Union Association.
Indianola (f)...........................Indianola Equity Exchange.
Inland*___!............................Fanners’ Umon Cooperative Association.
Irvington (c).........................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Ithaca*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Jansen*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Johnson*.................................The Johnson Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Julian*................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Kennard*..............................Kennard Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Keystone (c).........................Farmers Co-Operative Association.
Kimball*............................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Kramer*.................................. Kramer Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Lanham* (P. O., Lanham, Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Kans.).
Lebanon*.............................. Lebanon County Exchange.
Leigh (c)................................Farmers Union Co-Operative Exchange.
Lexington*.....................'... .Lexington Grange Cooperative Association.
Lincoln*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.




APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

127

NEBRASKA—Continued.
Lindsay*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Litchfield (f)..........................The Farmers Co-Operative Co.
Lodge Pole (P .......................Farmers Union Cooperative Grain & Stock Association.
Long Pine (c)........................Long Pine Farmers Co-Operative Co.
Louisville*.............................Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Loup City*............................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Lynch (f)................................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Lyons*.................................... Lyons Cooperative Store.
Madison*................................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Malcolm (c)............................Malcolm Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Malmo*...................................Union Cooperative Co.
Marion (f)...............................Marion Equity Exchange.
Mason City*...........................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Maywood*..............................Maywood Equity Exchange.
McCook (f).............................Red Willow Equity Exchange.
McCool Junction*................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Meadow Grove*....................Farmers’ Union Co.
Melbeta*.................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Memphis*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Millard*..................................Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Minatare (f)........................... Farmers Union Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Minden*..................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Business Association.
Mitchell*................................Farmers’ Union Association.
Monowi*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Monroe*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Morrill*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Mullen (f)...............................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Murdock*...............................Farmers’ Union Association.
Murray*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Naponee*................................Naponee Equity Exchange.
Neligh (c)...............................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Newman Grove (c).............. Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Newport*............................... Newport Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Nickerson (f).........................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Nickerson*............................. People’s Cooperative Store.
Niobrara*................................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Nora (f)................................... Farmers Union Association.
Norfolk (c ).............................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Norman (f).............................Farmers Business Association.
North Bend (f).....................Farmers Union Cooperative Co.
Oak*........................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Oakdale (c)........................... Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Oakland (f)............................Farmers Co-operative Union.
Ohiowa (f)..............................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Omaha ( o r g a n iza tio n b o d y ).Cooperative Stores Co.,
2719 Poppelton Avenue.
Omaha (w h o le sa le ) ................Farmers’ Union Exchange,
Eleventh and Jones Streets.
Omaha (c)..............................Workmen’s Cooperative Mercantile Association,
1732 South Thirteenth Street.
Ong (f).....................................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Orchard*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Ord (f).....................................Farmers Grain & Supply Co.
Orleans*................................. Orleans Equity Cooperative Association.
Osceola (f)..............................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Otoe (f)....................................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Oxford*...................................Oxford Farmers’ Exchange.
Page (c)...............................„.Farmers Union Store.
Palmer*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Parks*.....................................Parks Equity Exchange.
Paul*........................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Pauline*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Pawnee City*........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Store.
Paxton*...................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Pender (f).............................. Farmers Union Mercantile Co.




128

con su m ers’

c o o p e r a t iv e

s o c ie t ie s .

NEBRASKA—Cont inued.
Peru*...................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Store.
Petersburg (c).......................Farmers Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Pickrell (c)............................Pickrell Farmers Mercantile Co.
Pierce*......................i ............Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Pilger*.............................................................Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Platte Center (c)...................Farmers Union Co operative Co.
Plymouth (c)......................... Farmers Mercantile Co.
Polk*................................................................Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Ponca*............................................................. Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Prague*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Farmers’Union CooperativeAssociation.
Preston*.........................
Raeville (c)......... .................Farmers Co-Operative Exchange of Raeville.
Randolph*..................................................... Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Red Cloud*....................................................Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Republican City*............... Republican City Equity Exchange.
Rescue*................................ .Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Richfield (f)...........................Farmers Union Elevator Co.
Richland*....................................................... Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Rising City*...................................................Farmers’ Union CooperativeAssociation.
Rockford (f)...........................The Farmers Union Co-operative Association of Rockford,
Nebr.
Rokeby (f)..............................Rokeby Co-operative Elevator Co.
Roscoe*..................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Roseland*...............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Rosemont*..............................Farmers’
Union CooperativeAssociation.
Royal*..................................... Farmers’
Union CooperativeAssociation.
Rushville*.............................. Farmers’
Union CooperativeAssociation.
Ruskin*.................................. Farmers’ Union Store.
St. Edward*...........................St. Edward Union Cooperative Association.
Salem (f)..................................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Scotia*......................................Fanners’ Union Cooperative Co.
Scribner (f).............................Fanners Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Seward (c )..............................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Shelby*..................................Farmers’ Union Exchange.
Sidney*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Smithfield*............................Smithfield Equity Exchange.
Spalding*...............................Farmers’ Union.
Springfield (f)........................Farmers* Co-Operative Grain Co.
Springview*...........................Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
Stamford*................................Stamford Equity Exchange.
Stanton (c)..............................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Stapleton*..............................Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Steele City*...........................Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Stella*..................................... Farmers* Union Cooperative Association.
Sterling*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Stockville*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Stratton (f).............................Farmers’ Gram, Live Stock & Supply Co.
Swedeburg*...........................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Syracuse*..............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Table Rock*........’ ................Table Rock Cooperative Co.
Taylor*....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Store Co.
Tecumseh*............................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Tekamah*.............................. Farmers’ Union Store.
Thedford*.............................. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Thompson (f)..........................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Tilden*.................................... Farmers’ Union Exchange.
Trenton*..................................Trenton Equity Exchange.
Trumbull*...............................Nebraska Farmers’ Union Association.
Uehling (f).............................Farmers Co-Operative Mercantile Association.
Ulysses (c).............................. Farmers Cooperative Store.
Unadilla*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Upland (c)..............................Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
Valentine (f)...........................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
Venango*.................................Venango Equity Exchange.
Verdel*.................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Union.



APPENDIX B.--DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

129

NEBRASKA—Concluded.
Verdigre*............................... Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Yerdon (f)...............................Farmers Union Co-operative Association.
Vesta*..................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Virginia (f).............................Farmers Co-Operative Co.
Wahoo (f)................................Farmers Co-Operative Co.
Wakefield (c).........................Farmers Union Co-operative Exchange.
Wallace*.................................Wallace Equity Exchange.
Walthill*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Co.
Walton*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wann*..................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Washington*.......................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Waterbury*............................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Wausa*....................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Waverly*.................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wayne*................................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Weeping Water*................... Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wellfleet (f)...........................Wellfleet Equity Exchange.
Weston (c)..............................Farmers Union Co.
Westpoint (c).........................Farmers Union Exchange.
Wilsonville (c)..................... Wilsonville Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Wilsonville (f)......................Wilsonville Equity Exchange.
Winnebago*..........................Farmers’ Elevator & Cooperative Association.
Winside (f)............................Farmers Union Cooperative Association.
Winslow (f).............................Farmers Union Co-operative Co.
Wisner*...................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wolbaeh*................................Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Wynot*....................................Farmers’ Union Exchange.
Yutan (f).................................Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Durham (c)........................... Durham Cooperative Co.
Milford (c).............................Milford Cooperative Society.
NEW JERSEY.
Belleplain (f)........................Belleplain Farmers’ Cooperative Association (Inc.).
Bergenfield (c)......................North Jersey Co-operative Society (Inc.).
Clifton (c)...............................Italian American Family Association,
262 Parker Avenue.
Clifton (c)...............................North Jersey Consumers Co-operative Supply Co. (Inc.),
693 Main Street.
Dover (c)............................... Dover Cooperative Store (Inc.),
23 East Blackwell Street.
Gloucester City (c)...............Gloucester City Co-Operative Co. (Inc.),
844 Cumberland Street.
Harrison (c)............................West Hudson Co-operative Association (Inc.),
531 Harrison Avenue.
Linden*.................................. Cooperative Bakery.
Montclair*..............................Montclair Cooperative Kitchen,
8 Hillside Avenue.
Newark (c).............................Newark Cooperative League (Inc.),
194 Prince Street.
Newark*................................. Ukraine Cooperative Society,
Beacon Street and Springfield Avenue.
Paterson (c)........................... Co-operative Butcher Shop,
127 River Street.
Paterson (c)........................... Italian Union Co-operative,
276 Straight Street.
Paterson (c)........................... Purity Cooperative Association,
12 Tyler Street.
Perrineville*..........................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Perth Amboy (c)..................Workers Co-operative Society,
279 New Brunswick Avenue.
Princeton*..............................Princeton University Store.



130

c o n s u m e r s ’ c o o pe r a tiv e s o c ie t ie s .

NEW JERSEY—Concluded.
Sayreville*.............................Sayreville Consumers’ Cooperative Association.
South River*........................ Consumers’ Cooperative Association.
South River*.........................South River (Hungarian) Cooperative Association.
South River*.........................South River (Russian) Cooperative Association.
Stelton*...................................Fellowship Cooperative Association.
Stelton*...................................North Jersey Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Vineland*..............................Workers’ Cooperative Association,
539 Landis Avenue.
West Hoboken (c).............. Cooperative Italiana Moderna,
470 Summit Avenue.
West Hoboken (c)...............Italian Workmen Co-operative,
345-347 West Street.
Woodbine*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
NEW MEXICO.
Clovis*....................................Plains Buying & Selling Association.
Deming (c).............................Deming Cooperative Exchange.
Quay*...................................... Quay Valley Buying & Selling Cooperative Association.
Roy (f).................................... Mesa Co-Operative Co.
Tucumcari (c)......................Tucumcari Co-operative Mercantile Co.
NEW YORK.
Accord (f)...............................Accord Farmers Co-operative Association.
Alfred (f)................................ Alfred Farmers Co-operative Association.
Ancram Lead Mines (f)-----An cram Lead Mines Dairymen’s League Cooperative
Association.
Andover (f)............................ Andover Farmers Co-operative Association.
Apalachin (f).........................Apalachin Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Ashville (f)............................Chautauqua County Fruit Growers Association.
Auburn (c).............................Polish Meat & Grocery Cooperative Store.
Bainbridge (f).................;. .Bainbridge Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Baldwinsville (f)................. Baldwinsville Farmers’ Co-operative Association.
Batavia (f)..............................Genesee County Farmers Co-operative Association.
Batavia (f)..............................Marathon Farmers Co-operative Association.
Brockport (f)......................... Brockport Co-operative Association.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Brownsville & E. New York Co-operative Coal & Ice
Association (Inc.), 336 Alabama Avenue.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Co-Operative Bakery of Brownsville & E. N. Y.,
252 Powell Street.
Brooklyn*.............................. Eastern Parkway Cooperative Society,
Eastern Parkway.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Finnish Cooperative Housing Association (Inc.),
816 Forty-third Street.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Finnish Cooperative Restaurant.
Comer of Fortieth Street and Eighth Avenue.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Finnish Cooperative Trading Association (Inc.),
4301 Eighth Avenue.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Lithuanian Cooperative Publishing Society (Inc.),
445 Grand Street.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Ridge Cooperative Association (Inc.),
913 Fifty-second Street.
Burnhams (f).......................Cassaduga Co-operative Association.
Candor*...................................Candor Cooperative Grange League Federation Exchange
(I dc .).
Central Square (f)................Central Square Dairymen’s League Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Chatham (f)........................... Chatham Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Cherry Creek (f)................... Cherry Creek Co-operative Association.
Cincinnatus (f)......................Cincinnatus Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Copake (f)...............................Copake Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Cortland (f).......................... .Cortland Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Coventry (f)...........................Coventry Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Coxsackie (f)..........................Coxsackie Fruit Growers Co-operative Association.



APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

131

NEW YORK—Continued.
Croghan (c)............................ Croghan Grange Exchange Cooperative Association.
Croton-on-Hudson (c).........Croton Cooperative Stores (Inc.).
Delhi*..................................... Delhi Fanners’ Cooperative Association.
DeRuyter ( f ) ........................Madison County Dairymen’s League Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Earlville (f)............................Madison County Dairymen’s League Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Ellington (f)...........................Ellington Farm Products Co-operative Association.
Fairport (f).............................Penfield Grange League Federation Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Falconer (f)............................Chautauqua County Fruit Growers Association.
Fort Edward*........................Adirondack Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange (Inc.).
Frankfort (f)..........................Frankfort-Schuyler Co-operative Association.
Fredonia (f)........................... C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
Fredonia (f)........................... Fredonia Grange Exchange Co-operative Association.
Frewsburg (f).........................Chautauqua County Fruit Growers Association.
Friendship (f)........................Friendship Farmers Co-operative Association.
Gansevoort (f)....................... Gansevoort Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Gardiner (f)............................Central Co-operative Association of Gardiner.
Germantown (c)...................Germantown Co-operative Association (Inc.).
Germantown (f)....................Germantown Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Granville (f)...........................Granville Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Greene (f)............................... Greene Grange League Co-operative Association.
Hadley (f).............................. Upper Hudson Co-operative Association.
Hamburg (f)...........................Umted Farmers Co-operative Association.
Hamilton (f).......................... Madison County Dairymen’s League Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Herkimer (f).......................... Herkimer Farmers Co-operative Association.
Hillsdale (f)........................... Hillsdale Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Hilton (f)................................Hilton Branch Grange League Federation.
Honeoye Falls (f).................Mendon Co-operative Grange League Federation.
Hornell (c)............................. Homell Cooperative Association (Inc.),
107 Canisteo Street.
Kennedy (f)...........................Kennedy Farmers Co-operative Association.
Kinderhook (f)....................Kinderhook Pomological Association.
Lawtons (f).............................Lawtons Farmers Co-operative Association.
Le Roy (f)..............................Linwood Co-operative Association.
Livonia (fj..............................Livonia Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
Lowville (f)........................... Lowville Co-operative Association.
Lyons (c)................................ People’s Cooperative Stores of Lyons (Inc.).
Lyons Falls (f)......................Lyons Falls Co-operative Association.
Mayville (f)............................Chautauqua Farmers Co-operative Association.
McDonough ( f) .................... McDonough Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
McLean (f)............................. McLean Milk Products Co-operative Association.
Mechanicsville (c)................Champlain Cooperative Society,
927 East Street, Flag Island.
*Mechanicsville (c)................Mechanicsville Cooperative Wholesale & Retail Associa­
tion (Inc.),
304 Park Avenue.
Middleville (f).......................Middleville Cooperative Exchange.
Milford (f)...............................Milford Co-operative Association.
Mount Vision (f)...................Mount Vision Co-operative Exchange.
New Bremen (f)................... Farmers Milling Co. Co-operative Association.
New Hartford (f).................. New Hartford Producers Co-operative Association.
New York (c)........................Beekman Hill Cooperative Association (Inc.),
243-249 East Fiftieth Street.
New York*.............................City Hall P. O. Cafeteria,
City Hall Station.
New York (c)........................Co-operative Club for Students (Inc.),
208 West Fourteenth Street.
New York (c) {e d u c a tio n a l) .Co-operative League of The United States of America As­
sociation (Inc.),
157 West Twelfth Street.
New York (c)........................Hudson Guild Cooperative Store (Inc.),
443 West Twenty-eighth Street.




132

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

NEW YORK—Concluded.
New York (c)
New York (c)
New York (c)
New York*..............
New York (c)..........
New York (c)..........
New York (c)..........
New York (c)..........
New York (c)..........
New York Mills (c)
Oswego (f) ................
Oswego (c)...............
Owego (f). . . .
Oxford (f)----Parish (f) . . . .
Perrysburg (f)
Phelps ( f ) ....
Poland (f)....
Portland (f). .
Portlandville (f)
Richfield (f).
Ripley (f)....
Rochester (c)
Savannah (f)...........
Schenectady (c) ..
Sherburne (f). . . .
Sheridan (f)...........
Sherman (f)...........
Silver Creek (f) ___
Sinclairville (f)—
South Hartwick (f)
Spencer (f).........
Spencerport (f).
Stephentown (f)
Stillwater*..........
Stone Ridge (f).
Syracuse (c)----Utica (c).............
Williamson (f)..

.Our Cooperative Cafeteria (Inc.),
52 East Twenty-fifth Street.
.People’s Cooperative Society (Inc.),
175 East Broadway.
.Postal Employees’ Cooperative Association (Inc.),
Room 441, general post office, Thirty-third Street and
Seventh Avenue.
.“T ” Cooperative Association (Inc.),
5 West Sixty-fifth Street.
.Village Cooperative Society (Inc.),
27 Barrow Street.
.Voorhis Cooperative Society,
315 East Thirty-ninth Street.
.Workingmens Cooperative Publishing Association,
112 Fourth Avenue.
.Workmen’s Circle Cooperative Association (Inc.),
1077 Intervale Avenue, Bronx.
.Workmen’s Mutual Aim Association,
1786 Lexington Avenue.
.The Co-operative Store Association (Inc.).
.Oswego County Co-operative Association.
.Oswego Wholesale & Retail Cooperative Association (Inc.),
149 West First Street.
.Owego Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
.Oxford Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
.Parish Farmers Co-operative Association.
C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
.Tri-County Farmers Co-operative Association.
.Poland Farmers Co-operative Association.
.C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
.Portlandville Collinville Co-operative Association.
.Richfield Springs Co-operative Association.
-C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
.Working People’s Consumers’ League,
588 Genesee Street.
.Savannah Co-operative Association.
.Workers’ Consumers’ League,
13 Nawood Avenue.
.Dairymen’s League Co-operative of Sherburne.
.C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
.Farmers Milk Producers Association.
,C. & E. Grape Growers Association.
.Sinclairville Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
.South Hartwick Dairymen’s League Co-operative Associa­
tion.
.Spencer Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
.Ogden Grange League Federation Co-operative Associa- *
tion.
.Stephentown Co-operative Association.
.Champlain Cooperative Store (Inc.).
.Kysenke Dairymen’s League Co-operative Association.
.Purity Cooperative Bakery Association (Inc.),
719 South State Street.
.Utica Co-operative Society (Inc.),
914 Court Street.
.Williamson Co-operative Vegetable Association.

NORTH CAROLINA.
Elon College*
Hamlet*.........
Monroe*..........
Nashville (c).
Spray*.............
Valdese (c). ..
Wilson*...........



.Elon Cooperative Store.
.Cooperative Store.
.Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.King Co-operative Co.
.Rockingham Cooperative Co.
.Valdese Co-operative Store Co.
.Producers’ & Consumers’ Exchange. .

APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OE SOCIETIES.

133

NORTH DAKOTA.
Ayr*.......................
Baker (c)__ . . . .
Barney*................
Belfield*...............
Berlin*..................
Beulah*................
Bismarck*............
Blaisdell*.............
Bordulac*............
Bottineau (c)____
Brampton*...........
Brinsmade*.........
Buchanan*..........
Cleveland*...........
Cogswell (c)..........
Crystal.................. .
Dazey*...................
Devils Lake*.......
Dore*......................
Drayton (c)...........
Eckelson*..............
Edmore*.................
Ellendale (f).........
Emerado*..............
Englevale (c).......
Enderlin*...............
Fargo (c).............. .
Forbes*..................
Fort Clark*...........
Fredonia*..............
Gackle (c).............
Galchutt*..............
Galchutt*..............
Gardner (c)...........
Glenfield (f)..........
Golden Valley (c)
Gorham*.................
Grand Forks (c)..
Granville (c).........
Hastings (c)...........
Haynes*................
Hunter (c).............
Jamestown (c)___
Juanita (f)..............
Juanita (c).............
Kathryn (c).........
Lansford (c)...........
Leal*.......................
L eith*...:..............
Lincoln Valley*...
Lisbon (c)..............
McHenry*..............
Marmarth*.............
Medina*..................
Mercer*..................
Michigan*..............
Milnor (c)...............
Mott (f) ...................
New Rockford (c)
Nome (c)................
Nortonville*..........
Pillsbury*...............




.Ayr Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
.Baker Co-operative Store Co.
. Barney Cooperative Mercantile Association.
.Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Berlin Cooperative Store.
.Consumers’ Union.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Union,
Box 215.
.Blaisdell Cooperative Co.
.Bordulac Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Bottineau Co-operative Store Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
.Equity Cooperative Store.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
.Cleveland Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Cogswell Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
.Crystal Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co, (practically
out of business).
.Dazey Cooperative Association.
.Devils Lake Cooperative Laundry.
.Dore Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Drayton Co-Operative Co.
.Eckelson Cooperative Co.
.Edmore Cooperative Store Co.
. Winship Equity Exchange.
.Emerado Cooperative Store.
.Englevale Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
.Enderlin Cooperative Association.
.Rochdale Society of Fargo (not yet in operation).
.Forbes Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Fort Clark Cooperative Co.
.Fredonia Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Gackle Co-operative Store Co.
.Galchutt Cooperative Store.
.Richland County Cooperative Implement Co.
.Gardner Co-operative Co.
.Glenfield Co-operative Association.
.Golden Valley Mercantile Co.
. Gorham Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Grand Forks Co-Operative Association,
125-127 South Third Street.
.The Farmers Store.
.The Hastings Co-Operative Store Co.
.Haynes Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Hunter Co-operative Mercantile Co.
.Railroad Co-Operative Stores Co.
.Farmers Co-operative Association.
.Juanita Cooperative Co.
. Kathryn Cooperative Trading Co.
.Lansford Co-Operative Co.
. Leal Cooperative Co.
.Farmers Cooperative Store Co.
.Lincoln Cooperative Co.
.Lisbon Farmers’ Co-Operative Co.
.McHenry Cooperative Co.
.Marmarth Rochdale Co.
.Medina Cooperative Society.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Michigan Cooperative Store.
.Milnor Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Mott Equity Exchange.
.Cooperative Store.
Farmers’ Co-operative Publishing Co.
.Cooperative Store.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Store,

134

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

NORTH DAKOTA—Concluded.
Plaza*..................................... Farmers’ Cooperative Society.
Portland (c)...........................Portland Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Rainy Butte*........................Rainy Butte Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Reeder*..................................Reeder Cooperative Co.
Rhame (c)..............................Rhame Equity Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Roth*......................................The Farmers’ Equity & Supply Co.
Rutland (c)........................... Farmers’ Co-Operative Store.
Sherwood*............................. Sherwood Cooperative Store.
Silverleaf*............................. Silverleaf Cooperative Society.
Starkweather*...................... Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Tolley*....................................Tolley Cooperative Store Co.
Valley City (c).....................Peoples Co-operative Trading Co.
Van Hook*............................ Finnish Cooperative Club.
Verona*.................................. Verona Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Williston*.............................. Williston Cooperative Store.
Wilton (c)..............................Wilton Co-operative Association.
Woodworth*..........................Woodworth Cooperative Store.
Wyndmere*...........................Cooperative Store.
Zap (c)....................................Farmers Co-operative Mercantile (Inc.).
Zeeland (f).............................Zeeland Farmers Co-operative Co.
Zion*.......................................Zion Cooperative Mercantile Co.
OHIO.
Ashland*................................Ashland Cooperative Co.
Ashtabula (c).........................Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Athens (c).............................. Athens Cooperative Co.
Aultman (c)..........................The Aultman Co-operative Co.
Bellefontaine (c).................. The Bellefontaine Co-operative Supply Co..
113-115 North Main Street.
Bellevue (c)......................... Bellevue Cooperative Society.
Bridgeport*............................Bridgeport Cooperative Association.
Bridgeport*...........................Slovenian Cooperative Store.
Canfield*................................The Citizens’ Cooperative Co.
Cavett*...................................Cavett Equity Exchange.
Chillicothe*...........................Chillieothe Cooperative Store.
Cincinnati*............................ Avondale Purchasing League,
66 Glen wood Avenue.
Cincinnati*............................ Cooperative Store,
1518 Vine Street.
Cincinnati*............................ Farmers’ Union Cooperative Supply Co.,
424 West Court Street.
Cincinnati (c)........................St. Xavier College Co-operative Book Store,
Seventh and Sycamore Streets.
Cincinnati (c)........................The Machine Shop Workers Co-operative Co.,
1316 Walnut Street.
Cincinnati (c)........................The Riverside Co-Operative Society Co.,
3922 Liston Avenue.
Cincinnati*............................ The Jewish Cooperative Store,
1817 John Street.
Cincinnati*............................The Jewish Cooperative Store Co.,
1512 Central Avenue.
Cincinnati*...........................University of Cincinnati Cooperative Store.
Cleveland (c)........................ Cleveland Cooperative Co.,
2412-2416 Scovill Avenue.
Cleveland*.............................People’s Commercial League,
12709 Superior Avenue.
Cleveland*.............................Cleveland Consumers’ Cooperative Society,
2228 West Seventy-third Street.
Cleveland*.............................The Cooperators Co.,
1195 East Seventy-first Street.
Cleveland (c)........................ The Slovenian Co-Operative Co.,
667 East One hundred and fifty-second Street.
Cleveland (c)........................ The Workingmen’s Co-operative Co.,
3726 East One-hundred and thirty-first Street.



APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

135

OHIO—Concluded.
.The Ohio State University Co-operative Supply Co.,
Columbus (c).........
Hayes Hall, State Umversity.
Crestline (c)..........
.The Crestline Co-Operative Co.,
134-136 East Main Street.
Dillonvale (c).......
.The New Co-operative Co.
Deshler (f).............
.The Deshler Farmers Elevator Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Society.
Elmore*..................
Flushing*...............
.Cooperative Store.
Fredericktown (c)
.Fredericktown Co-operative Grocery.
Gabon (c)...............
.The Gabon Co-Operative Store Co.
201 South Market Street.
Grelton (f)..............
.The Farmers’ Grain & Seed Co.
Hollister*...............
.Cooperative Store.
Jackson*.................
.The Jackson Cooperative Co.
Lowell (c)..............
.The Lowell Co-operative Co.
.The Middleport Co-operative Co.
Middleport (c). . .
.The Peoples Cooperative Co.
Minersville (c) —
.The Murray City Co-operative Store Co.
Murray (c).............
Neffs (c).................
.The Co-Operative Store Co.
.Federated Cooperative Society,
Newark*.................
444 East Main Street.
.The Farmers Co-Operative Store Co.
New Lexington (c).
.New Philadelphia Cooperative Store,
New Philadelphia*
50 South Broadway.
.Citizens Cooperative Grocery Store.
North Baltimore*
.Nova Cooperative Society.
Nova*....................
.The Orrville Co-Operative Co.,
Orrville (c)..........
142 West Market Street.
.People’s Cooperative Store.
Pomeroy*.............
Pomeroy (c).........
.The Ohio Valley Co-Operative Co.,
Corner of Maine and Court Streets.
Port Clinton (c).................. .Port Clinton Cooperative Co.
Rayland, R. F.D. 2-87 (c) .Rush Run Co-operative Society.
Rockford*............................. .Rockford Equity Exchange.
Rockford (c)........................ .Rockford Supply Co.
Rockyridge*........................ . Ottawa County Cooperative Co.
Sandusky*............................ . Sandusky Cooperative Co.
Scott*.................................... .The Equity Mercantile Co.
Spencer*............................... .Spencer Equity Exchange.
Syracuse (c)......................... .The Syracuse Co-Operative Store Co.
Tiro*...................................... .Tiro Equity Exchange.
Toledo (c)............................. .The Co-operative Stores Co.,
1201 Miami Street.
Toledo*.
.Toledo Cooperative Co.,
1728 Wayne Street.
Yan Wert*................
.The Van Wert Cooperative Store Co.
Washingtonville (c)
.Washingtonville Co-operative Society.
Wellsville (c)..........
.The Wellsville Co-operative Store Co.,
1323 Main Street.
West Unity (f)........
.The Brady Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Woodsfield*.............
.The Woodsfield Cooperative Store Co.

OKLAHOMA.
Altus*......................................Farmers’ Union Grain & Fuel Co.
Alvah*.....................................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Boise City*.............................Boise Cooperative Store.
Butler (f)................................ Farmers Union Exchange.
Cheyenne*............................. Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Cherokee*...............................Farmers’ Federation.
Custer City (c)......................The Custer City Farmers Association.
Dewar*....................................The Dewar Cooperative Society,
Fourth Street and Broadway.
Drumright*............................Oil Field Workers’ Union Cooperative Stores.
Elk City*................................Elk City Cooperative Store.




136

CONSUMEKS ’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

OKLAHOMA—Concluded.
El Reno ( c ) ...
Fargo (f)...........
Forgan*.............
Foss*..................
Gage (f).............
Garlington*—
Goltry ( f ) ......
Goodwell (f)__
G uthrie*,.........
Hailey ville*...
Henryetta (c)..
Hobart (f).........
Hooker (f)........
Lela*..................
McAlester*........
Manitou*..........
Mooreland (f)..
Morrison (f)___
Newkirk (f)___
Okarche*...........
Qualls*..............
Sasakwa*...........
Shattuek (f) ___
Supply*.............
Texhoma*........
Valley*.............
Waynoka (f)—
Weatherford (f)
Willowbar*.......

El Reno Cooperative Store.
Farmers Gram & Supply Co.
Forgan Equity.
Washita County Cooperative Association.
Farmers’ Co-operative Association.
Garlington Cooperative Store.
Farmers Exchange.
Goodwell Equity Exchange.
Guthrie Cooperative Society.
Hailey ville Cooperative Store.
Henryetta District Cooperative Society,
216 South Fourth Street.
Farmers Co-operative Association (Inc.).
Hooker Equity Exchange.
Farmers’ Union Trading Association.
Oklahoma Cooperative Store.
Farmers’ Society of Equity .
Farmers Co-operative Trading Co.
Farmers Trading Association.
Farmers Co-operative Elevator & Supply Co,
Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Cooperative Store.
Cooperative Store.
Shattuek Co-operative Association.
Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Texhoma Equity Exchange.
Valley Cooperative Association.
Farmers’ Co-operative Association of Waynoka,
Farmers Union Exchange.
Willowbar Cooperative Mercantile Co. (Inc.).

OREGON.
Astoria*.
------Consumers’ Cooperative Association,
633 Commercial Building.
Astoria*...........................____Finnish Cooperative Society,
Box 99.
Bandon*......................... ------Cooperative Store.
Coquille*........................ ____Cooperative Store.
Corvallis (c)................... ------Cooperative Managers Association.
Corvallis*........................------Cooperative Store.
Dallas*............................ ____Smithfield Cooperative Exchange.
Dayton*.........................____Cooperative Store.
D ayton*........................------Farmers’ Union Cooperative Warehouse Co.
Eugene (c)..................... ____University of Oregon Co-operative Store.
Forest Grove, R. F. D. No. State Grange Cooperative Exchange.
1*.
H alsey *........................____Calapooia Cooperative Exchange (Inc.).
Huntingdon*................. ____Huntingdon Cooperative Co.
Junction City (f).......... ____Junction City Cooperative Exchange.
La Grande*.................... ____Union County Cooperative Association.
Lebanon*....................... ------The Lebanon Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Mulino*...........................------Beaver Creek Cooperative Co.
Portland (c)................... ------Multnomah Co-operative Water Association,
404 Platt Building.
Portland (c)................... ____Reed College Co-operative Store,
Reed College.
Rainier*.......................... ------Grangers’ Cooperative Warehouse Association.
Rickreall*.......................------Derry Cooperative Warehouse Co.
Rickreall*.......................------Polk County Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Toledo*............................____Lincoln County Farmers’ Cooperative Warehouse (Inc.).




APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

137

PENNSYLVANIA.
Altoona (c).............................The Blair County United Co-operative Association,
1719 Eighth Avenue.
Arcadia*.................................Arcadia Cooperative Association.
Avella ( c ) ..............................The Avella Cooperative Association.
Bamesboro*...........................Bamesboro Cooperative Association,
1014-1020 Philadelphia Avenue.
Beaverdale*...........................Beaverdale Cooperative Store.
Bellwood*...............................Cooperative Store.
Bentley v ille* ... ...................Bentleyville Cooperative Association.
Bentleyville*.........................Progressive Cooperative Association.
Berlin (c)................................Berlin Co-operative Association.
Berwick (c)........................... Columbia Cooperative Association.
Blairsville (c)........................Blairsville Co-operative Association,
24 North Walnut Street.
Brookville (c)....................... Brookville Cooperative Association.
Brownsville*..........................Brownsville Progressive Cooperative Association.
Bulger (c)...............................Bulger Co-operative Association.
Cherry Valley (c)................. Cherry Valley Real Estate & Retail Co-operative Associa­
tion.
Clarence*................................Cooperative Store
Clearfield (c)..........................Union Labor Co-operative Association,
11 Nichol Street.
Clymer*.................................. Clymer Cooperative Association.
Coaldale*...............................Coaldale United Workers’ Cooperative Store.
Coalport (c)............................Coalport Cooperative Association.
Conemaugh*.......................... Conemaugh Cooperative Association.
Conifer*...................................Conifer Cooperative Association.
Cresson (c)..............................Cresson Co-operative Association.
Cresson (c) ( fe d e r a tio n )........Penn Central Cooperative Association.
Dagus Mines*........................ Dagus Mines Cooperative Store.
Daisytown*............................ Daisytown Cooperative Association.
Daisy town (c)........................Daisytown Supply Co.
Daisytown (c)........................Walkertown Co-operative Association.
Defiance (c)........................... Broad Top Cooperative Association.
Derry (c).................................Derry Wholesale & Retail Cooperative Association.
Dixonville (c).......................Dixonville Co-operative Association.
Donora*...................................Lithuanian Cooperative Association.
Donora*...................................Ruthenian Cooperative Store.
Dubois*...................................“The People’s Store.”
215 West Long Avenue.
East Brady*...........................East Brady Cooperative Store.
Emporium (c).......................Consumers’ Association,
East Allegheny and Third Streets.
Erie (c)................................... Lake Erie Cooperative Association,
2225 State Street.
Ereedom*............................... Freedom Cooperative Association.
Freeland (c)...........................Union Co-Operative Association,
341 Center Street.
Germansville*.......................Lehigh Exchange.
Grassflat*................................Grassflat Cooperative Association.
Hastings (c)...........................Hastings Cooperative Association.
Hollidaysburg (c).................Hollidaysburg Workers Co-Operative Association,
519 Allegheny Street.
Houtzdale*.............................Atlantic Cooperative Association.
Huntingdon*......................... Union Cooperative Society.
Imperial (c)........................... Imperial Co-operative Association.
Imperial ( w h olesale) .............Progressive Cooperative Wholesale.
Irwin, R. F. D. No. 3 (c). .Herminie Cooperative Store.
Irwin*...................................... Irwin Cooperative Association.
Jersey Shore (c)....................Jersey Shore & Avis Mercantile Association,
135 Main Street and 1244 Allegheny Street.
Johnsonburg (c)....................Polish Co-Operative Store.
Juniata (c)..............................Juniata Co-Operative Association,
714 Fourth Avenue.
Kaylor (c)...............................Kaylor Grange Supply Co.
Kersey*...................................Fox Cooperative Association.



138

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

PENNSYLVANIA—Continued.
Lancaster*. 4.........................Red Rose Cooperative Association,
38 Broad Street.
Lanse (c)................................ Lanse Cooperative Association.
Lawrence*............................. Hills Station Cooperative Association.
Lecontes Mills*.....................Lecontes Mills Cooperative Store.
Lehighton (c)........................Lehighton Co-operative Association,
342 North First Street.
Lewiston*...............................Standard Cooperative Association,
39 Valley Street.
Lykens (c)............................. Lykens Co-Operative Association,
Main Street.
Mansfield*..............................Keystone Grange Exchange.
McDonald*............................ McDonald Cooperative Association,
116 East Lincoln Avenue.
Midway (c)............................Midway Co-operative Association.
Millmoiit*.............................. Millmont Cooperative Store,
229 Upland Avenue.
Monessen*..............................Monessen Italian Cooperative Association.
Monessen*..............................Ruthenian NationaPMercantile Cooperative Association,
205 Schoonmaker Avenue.
Monessen (c).........................Sampo Co-operative Association,
500 Sixth Street.
Monongahela City*............. People’s Store.
Morann*................................. Morann Cooperative Association.
Nanty Glo*............................Nanty Glo Cooperative Association.
Newell*..................................Newell Cooperative Association.
Newmanstown (c)...............Newmanstown Cooperative Association.
Norristown (c)......................Norris Co-Operative Association,
Barbadoes and Penn Streets.
Osceola Mills (c).................. Osceola Co-operative Association,
722 Single Street.
Patton*...................................Patton Cooperative Association.
Philadelphia*.......................Cooperative Store for Penn. R. R. Employees,
Seventeenth and Filbert Streets.
Philadelphia (c)...................Kensington Workman’s Cooperative Association,
2331 East Cumberland Street.
Philadelphia*.......................Philadelphia Cooperative Store & Lunch Room,
40 North Ninth Street.
Pitcairn (c)............................Pitcairn Co-Operative Association,
Comer of Second and Center Avenues.
Pittsburgh (c).......................Lithuanian Provision Co-Operative Association,
1326 Reedsdale Street.
Pittsburgh*........................... Workmen’s Cooperative Association,
1838 Center Avenue.
Pittston (c)............................ Pittston Co-Operative Association.
Portage (c)............................ Portage Cooperative Association.
Reading (c)...........................East Reading Co-Operative Association,
Thirteenth and Muhlenburg Streets.
Reading (c)...........................Home Builder Co-Operative Association,
105 North Sixth Street.
Reading (c)...........................Keystone Co-operative Association,
105 North Sixth Street.
Reading (c)............................P. & R. Workers Co-Operative Association,
1100 North Ninth Street.
Reading (c)...........................Pennsylvania Wholesale Cooperative Association,
105 North Sixth Street.
Reading (c).......................... Reading Publishing Co-Operative Association,
440 Washington Street.
Reading (c)...........................Transportation Co-Operative Association,
1030 Windsor Street.
Renovo. - =., ........................ Renovo Co-Operative Association,
Sixth Street.
Robertsdale*.........................Robertsdale Cooperative Association.
Rochester*............................Rochester Cooperative Society.
Roscoe (c).......... ....................Roscoe Cooperative Association.
St. Marys (c).........................Elk Co-operative Association,
217 North Michael Street.



APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

PENNSYLVANIA—Concluded.
Sayre ( c ) ................................ Valley Co-operative Association,
104 South Elmer Avenue.
Scranton (c).......................... Scranton Co-Operative Association,
403 Cedar Street.
Shenandoah*.........................Globe Cooperative Society,
208 Centre Street.
Smithmill*............................ Janesville Cooperative Association.
South Brownsville*............South Brownsville Cooperative Association.
South Fork*..........................Fork Cooperative Association.
Spangler (c)...........................Spangler Cooperative Association.
Sunbury (c)...........................Sunbury Stores Cooperative Association,
Fourth and Reagan Streets. ^
Sykesville (c)....................... Sykesville Co-operative Association.
Temple, R. F. D. No. 1 (c).Rosedale Cooperative Association.
Vestaburg*............................ Vestaburg Cooperative Association.
West Brownsville*.............. West Brownsville Cooperative Association.
West Chester*.......................Pomona Exchange N o. 3.
West Philadelphia (c).........Benjamin Franklin Cooperative Association,
3620 Walnut Street.
West Reading (c)................West Reading Co-operative Association,
211-213 South Third Avenue.
Wiconisco (c)........................Wiconisco Co-Operative Association,
Pottsville Street.
Wilkesbarre*.........................Ukrainian Cooperative Society,
817 Washington Street.
Williamstown (c).................Williamstown Co-Operative Association,
Market Street.
Windber*...............................Abruzzi Cooperative Association,
1914 Graham Avenue.
Womelsdorf (c).....................Womelsdorf Co-operative Association.
Yukon (c).w........................... Yukon Mercantile Co-operative Association.
RHODE ISLAND.
Greystone (c)....................... Greystone Cooperative Association,
^Whitehall Buildings. ^
Newport (c)..........................Union Co-operative Association,
281 Thames Street.
Pascoag (c)............................Pascoag United Co-operative Association,
Saylor Avenue.
Peace Dale*..........................Cooperative Store.
Providence*......................... Rhode Island Cooperative Store (Inc.),
337-341 Weybosset Street.
Providence*......................... Workmen’s Cooperative Association,
49 Weybosset Street
Saylesville (c)...................... Saylesville Cooperative Association,
1218 Smithfield Avenue.
SOUTH CAROLINA
Abbeville*............................ The Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Columbia*..............................Clemson Community Store,
Clemson College.
Columbia (c)..........................Producers & Consumers Co-operative Exchange,
1213 Gervais Street.
Fort Mill (c)..........................Fort Mill Co-operative Association.
Greenville*...........................Railroad Men’s Cooperative Society.
Laurens*................................ People’s Cooperative Association,
Watts Mill.
SOUTH DAKOTA.
Albee (c)................................ Farmers Co-operative Store of Albee.
Alexandria (c)......................Alexandria Co-Operative Association.
Armour*................................. Valley Union Store.
Bancroft*...............................Bancroft Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Belvidere*............................. Belvidere Cooperative Co.



139

140

co n su m ers’

c o o p e r a t iv e

s o c ie t ie s .

SOUTH DAKOTA—Continued.
Bonesteel (c )...........
Britton*....................
Buffalo*....................
Canistota * ...........
Canova (c)...............
Chancellor*..............
Chester*....................
Claire City (c).........
Conata*.....................
Cottonwood (f). . . .
Cresbard (f).............
Crocker*....................
Custer (c)..................
Cuthbert*.................
Dallas (c).................
De Smet (f).............
Dimock*...................
Doland (c)...............
Faulkton*................
Florence (c).............
Fort Pierce*............
Frankfort (c)............
Frederick (c)...........
Fruitdale (c)’...........
Fulton*.....................
Garden City*...........
Gayville*.................
Groton (c)................
Hamill (c)................
Hitchcock*...............
Hoven (f)..................
Huron*......................
Interior*...................
Kadoka*...................
Kidder (c)................
Lake Preston (f)__
Lucas*.......................
Miller*......................
Miranda*...................
Mission H ill (f)___
Mitchell ('w h o lesa le )
Mobridge (c)............
Mount Vernon*___
Murdo*......................
New Underwood*..
Nisland*...................
Onaka*......................
Orient*......................
Osceola*....................
Owanka*..................
Philip (f)..................
Pierpont (c).............
Quinn (c)..................
Raymond (c)...........
Redfield*.................
Scenic*......................
Spearfish (c)
Springfield*.
Turton*____
Vale*........... .
Veblen (c)..
Wasta (c)__
Wagner*___
Wecota*.......
Wessington*.



.Farmers Union Mercantile Co.
.Equity Cash Exchange.
.Grand River Cooperative Mercantile Co.
. Farmers’ Union Cooperative Store.
.Farmers Co-operative Store of Canova.
. Chancellor Rochdale Co.
.Chaster Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Claire City Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
.Conata Rochdale Co.
.Cottonwood Rochdale Co.
.Cresbard Co-Operative Store Co.
.Crocker Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Custer Co-operative Mercantile Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
.Dallas Farmers’ Union Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
.Farmers Co-operative Association.
.Dimock Rochdale Co.
.Doland Co-operative Co.
. Faulkton Cooperative Mercantile Co.
. Florence Cooperative Store.
.Stanley County Rochdale Co.
.Frankfort Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Frederick Co-operative Mercantile Co.
.Fruitdale Co-operative Mercantile Co.
.Farmers’ Union Exchange.
.Citizen’s Cooperative Association.
.Farmers’ Union Store.
.Groton Co-Operative Co.
.Hamill Farmers’ Co-Operative Exchange.
.Hitchcock Cooperative Co.
.Hoven Equity Exchange.
.Union Cooperative Association.
.Interior Rochdale Co.
. Kadoka Rochdale Co.
.Kidder Co-Operative Co.
.Lake Preston Co-Operative Elevator Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
.Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
.Miranda Rochdale Co.
.Farmers Union Co-Operative Association.
.Farmers’ Union State Exchange & Co-operative S. Co.
.Mobridge Co-operative Association (not yet in operation).
.Mt. Vernon Farmers’ Union Store.
. Farmers’ Cooperative Grocery Co.
.Underwood Rochdale Co.
.Nisland Cooperative Co.
.Onaka Cooperative Mercantile Co.
. Orient Rochdale Co.
.Farmers’ Union Mercantile Co.
.0 wanka Rochdale Co.
.Farmers’ Cooperative Co. of Philip, S. Dak.
.The Farmers Store.
.Quinn Rochdale Co.
.Raymond Co-operative Co.
.Consumers’ Cooperative Exchange.
.Scenic Rochdale Co.
. Selby Equity Union Exchange.
.Reeder Cooperative Co.
. Spearfish Rochdale Co.
..Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
.Turton Cooperative Store.
.Vale Rochdale Co.
.Veblen Co-operative Mercantile Co.
.Wasta Rochdale Co.
.Farmers’ Union Exchange.
.Wecota Cooperative Store.
.Wessington Cooperative Mercantile Co.

APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

SOUTH DAKOTA—Concluded.
Wessington Springs (f)........Jerauld County Farmers Union.
White Lake*......................... Farmers’ Union Store.
Winner*..................................Winner Cooperative Co.
Yale*.......................................Yale Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
TENNESSEE.
Bolivar....................................Farmers’ Union Stores.
Charleston*............................Cooperative Stores.
Ervin (c)................................Unicoi County Consumers Co-operative League.
Etowah (e).............................Consumers Co-operative League.
Greeneville*..........................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Huntingdon*.........................Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Jackson (c).............................Madison Cooperative Society,
110 Liberty Street.
McKenzie*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
McLemoresville*.................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Memphis*..............................Citizens’ Cooperative Stores,
390 Beale Avenue.
Memphis*...............................The Railway Employees’ Store,
Olive and South Wellington Streets.
Rutherford*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Store.
Union City*...........................Macon Hall Union Store.
TEXAS.
Amarillo*................................Amarillo Cooperative Store.
Amarillo*................................Plains Cooperative Society.
Austin (c)..............................University of Texas Co-operative Society,
2210 Guadalupe Street.
Burleson*................................The Farmers’ Union Cooperative Association.
Canadian*...............................Canadian Cooperative Store.
Childress*...............................Childress Cooperative Society.
Cleburne*...............................Cooperative Store.
Dalhart (c)............................. Dalhart Co-Operative Association.
De Kalb*................................Farmers’ & Laborers’ Mercantile & Produce Co.
Dublin*..................................Cooperative Association.
Galveston (c).........................Galveston Co-Operative Stores (Inc.),
2017 Avenue E.
Gid dings*................................Lee County Cooperative Association.
Kingsville (c)........................Kingsville Co-operative Co.
Marshall*........................-___ Cooperative Store.
Mesquite*............................... Cooperative Association.
O ’Brien*................................. Farmers’ Cooperative Union.
Pottsville*.............................. Cooperative Store.
Sherman (c)..........................Union Co-operative Co.,
601 East Brackett Street.
Smithville*........................ .Cooperative Store Co.
UTAH.
Provo*....................................Cooperative Store.
Salt Lake City*.................... Japanese Labor Fraternity Cooperative Store,
31 Southwest Temple Street.
VERMONT.
Andover (c)...........................Finnish Farmers Co-operative Club (Inc.).
Franklin*.............................. Franklin Farmers’ Exchange.
VIRGINIA.
Baskerville*..........................Cooperative Store.
Clifton Forge (c)..................Workers Commercial Union.
Covington (c)........................Workingmen’s Mercantile Association (Inc.).
Goshen*................................. Rockbridge County Farmers’ Union.
Harrisonburg*......................Spring Creek Cooperative Store.
Lincoln*................................ Lincoln Cooperative Restaurant.
105983°—22-----10



141

142

CONSUMERS

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES.

VIRGINIA—Concluded.
Manassas*...............................Prince Will. Cooperative Exchange.
Norfolk*..................................Norfolk Navy Yard Cooperative Restaurant.
Rural Home*.........................Cooperative Store.
Scottsville (c)....................... Farmers* Co-operative Exchange Club (Inc.).
Strasburg (c)......................... Strasburg Co-operative Association (Inc.).
WASHINGTON.
Aberdeen ( c ) .........................Grab’s Harbor Workers* Cooperative Association.
Almira*................................... Almira Farmers’ Warehouse Co. (Ltd.).
Almota*..................................Almota Farmers’ Elevator & Warehouse Co.
Anacortes (c )........................ Anacortes Cooperators.
Asotin*....................................Farmers’ Union Association of Asotin County.
Auburn (c)..............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Auburn (c).............................Union Co-operative Society of Auburn.
Bellingham (c)..................... Bellingham Consumers’ Co-operativeAssociation,
1325 Commercial Street.
Bellingham ( c ) .....................Bellingham Grange Warehouse.
Benton City*.........................Benton City Grange Warehouse Co.
Brush Prairie, R. F. D. Hockinson Co-operative Association.
No. 1 (c).
Buena*....................................Cooperative Trading Co. of Buena.
Carlsborg (c )..........................Dungeness Grange Store Co.
Castlerock (c )........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Centralia (c)...........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Chehalis (c)............................Grange Warehouse Co. oiChehalis.
Cle Elum (c) .. ...................Cle Elum Cooperative Society.
Clinton (c)..............................Clinton Union Co. (Inc.).
Colfax*....................................Farmers’ Union Warehouse Co. of Mockonsema.
Colton*....................................Farmers’ Union Warehouse.
Colville (c ).............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Conway (c).............................Conway-Fir Trading Union.
Daisy (c).................................Community Store Co.
Deer Park(c)......................... Grange Warehouse of Deer Park.
Duvall (c)...............................Grange Warehouse Co.
East Spokane*.......................Consumers’ Cooperative Society.
Edmonds (c)......................... Edmonds Co-operative Association.
Enumclaw (c)....................... Enumclaw Grange Warehouse Co.
Enumclaw (c).......................Enumclaw Rochdale Co. ,
Fairmont (c)...........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Farmington (c)......................Farmers Educational & Cooperative Union Warehouse Co,
Fem dale(c)............................Grange Warehouse.
Frances (c).............................Grange Warehouse of Pacific County (Inc.).
Fredonia (c) (Mount Ver- Grangers’ Warehouse Co.
non, R. F. D. No. 1).
Freeland*............................... Cooperative Store.
Gertrude (c)...........................Grange Warehouse of McNeil’s Island.
Goldendale*...........................Klickitat Farmers’ Union Warehouse Co.
Granite Falls (c)...................The Granite Falls Producers Union.
Grays River*......................... Farmers’ Cooperative Produce & Warehouse Association.
Hadlock(c)............................Grange Warehouse Co. of Chimacum.
Hansville ( c ) .........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Hillyard (c)........................... The Hillyard Rochdale Co-operative Association.
Issaquah (c)...........................Grange Mercantile Association.
Kalama(c).............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Kennewick (c)...................... Grange Warehouse Co.
K ent(c).................................. Grangers’ Warehouse Co.
Kittitas*.............:..................Kittitas Cooperators.
Lakebay (c)....................... .Grange Warehouse Co. of Home, Wash.
Lamont*..................................Lamont Farmers’ Union Elevator & Warehouse Co.
Langley (c)............................Whidby Co-operative Association.
Latah*..................................... Farmers’ Union Grain & Supply Co.
Leavenworth (c).................. Leavenworth Co-operative Society.
Malden*..................................Malden Cooperators,
Box 163.
M alo(c)...................................Grange Warehouse Co.
Maple Falls (c)...................... Maple Falls Cooperative Association.



APPENDIX B.— DIRECTORY OP SOCIETIES.

WASHINGTON—Concluded.
Marysville (c)........................Marysville Co-operative Association.
Meyers Falls (c)....................Grange Warehouse of Stevens Co.
Monroe (c)..............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Newport (c)...........................Newport Grange Warehouse Co.
Nooksack(c)..........................Nooksack Valley Rochdale Co.
Oak Harbor (c)..................... Oak Harbor Producers Co-operative Co.
Olympia (c)...........................Co-operators of Olympia,
211 West Fourth Street.
Oso(c)..................................... Grange Warehouse Co.
Palouse (f)............................. Farmers Union Co. of Palouse.
Parkwater*............................ Park water Cooperative Association.
Port Angeles (c)................... Grange Warehouse Co. of Clallam County
Port Orchard (c ).................. Bethel Cooperative Association.
Poulsbo (c)............................ Kitsap County Co-operative Association.
Prosser (c)...............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Pullman ( c ) ...........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Pullman*................................Inland Cooperative Association.
Puyallup (c )..........................Grange Warehouse Co.
Redmond (c)......................... Grange Warehouse Co.
Renton (c)..............................Grange Warehouse Co.
Rochester (c).........................Farmers ’ Exchange.
Rockport(c).......................... Grange Warehouse Co.
Roslyn (c)..............................Cascade Industrial Cooperative Association.
Roy (c)....................................Grange Warehouse Co.
St. John*................................Cooperative Fuel & Warehouse Co. of St. John.
Satsop(c)................................Grange Warehouse Co.
Seattle (f) {w h o le sa le ) ..........Associated Grange Warehouse Co.,
Maynard Building.
Seattle (c).............................. Cooperative Food Products Association,
1419-1423 First Avenue.
Seattle (c).............................. Federal Cooperative Club,
P. 0 . Building.
Sequim, R. F. D. No. 2 (c) .Blyn Grange Warehouse Co.
Silvana (c)............................. Silvana Trading Union.
Silverdale (c)........................ Silverdale Poultry Association.
Snohomish (c)......................Snohomish Fruit Growers Association.
Spokane*...............................Economy Cooperative Association.
Sprague*.................................Sprague Rochdale Store Co.
Stan wood*..............................Stan wood Cooperative Store.
Thornton*.............................. Farmers’ Union Warehouse of Thornton.
Toledo (c)...................................... Grange WarehouseCo.
Tolt(e).................................... The Grange Store.
Tonasket(c)...................................Grange WarehouseCo.
Touchet(c).................................... Grange WarehouseCo.
Uniontown*..........................Uniontown Cooperative Association.
Usk (c).............................................Grange WarehouseCo.
Valley (c)............................... Farmers Union Store.
Vancouver (c)......................Union Co-operative Cash Store,
Ninth and Washington Streets.
Vaughn (c)..................................... Grange WarehouseCo.
Walla Walla*.........................Farmers’ Exchange of Walla Walla.
Waterville*............................ Rochdale Cooperative Store.
West Sound*..........................West Sound Trading & Transportation Co.
White Bluffs (c)............................ Grange WarehouseCo.
Winiock (c)....................................Grange WarehouseCo.
Winthrop (c).........................................Grange Warehouse Co. of MethowValley.
Woodland (c).........................Farmers Co-Operative Trading Co. (Inc.).
Woodland (c)................................ Grange WarehouseCo.
Yakima (c).................................... Grange WarehouseCo.
Yardley (c) (Spokane)........ “ Our Store. ’’
Yelm (c)..........................................Grange WarehouseCo.
WEST VIRGINIA.
Adamston (c)........................Adamston Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Bluefield*..............................Brotherhood Cooperative Store,
102 Mercer Street.



143

144

co n su m ers’

c o o p e r a t iv e

s o c ie t ie s .

WEST VIRGINIA—Concluded.
Cedargrove*...........
.The Kanawha Cooperative Society.
Elkins (c)...........
.Union Supply Co.
Eskdale*.................
.Cooperative Store.
Gassaway*..............
.Gassaway Cooperative Association.
Gauley Bridge*...
.R. R. Men’s Cooperative Store.
Glenmorgan*.........
.Beaver Cooperative Store.
Grafton (c).............
.Grafton Cooperative Store,
122 Latrobe Street.
Hinton (c)..........
.The Hinton Co-operative Mercantile Co.,
207 Temple Street.
Jarralds Valley (c)
.Coal River Co-operative Store.
Keyser*...................
.Keyser Cooperative Store,
54 Virginia Street.
Littleton (c)........
. Littleton Co-operative Store Co.
McMechen (c)__
.McMechen Cooperative Store (Inc.).
Mt. Hope*..............
.United Cooperative Society.
Newburg*...............
.Newburg Cooperative Store.
Parsons (c)..........
.Laborers Supply Co.
Piedmont (c).........
.Trades Council Supply Co.
Princeton*.............
.Princeton Cooperative Store.
Rich wood*.............
.The Richwooa Cooperative Association.
St. Albans (c). . . .
.The Union Store Co.
Simpson*................
. Simpson Cooperative Store.
Thomas*.................
.International Cooperative Association.
Tunnel ton*.............
.Tunnelton Cooperative Store.
Wendel*..................
.Mine Workers’ Cooperative Store.
WISCONSIN.
Algoma*___ , ........................The Algoma Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Alma Center*....................... Alma Center Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Altoona (c)............................Altoona Cooperative Association.
Amery, R. F. D. No. 2 (c). . Little Falls Mercantile Co.
Aniwa (c).............................. Aniwa Equity Exchange.
Antigo*.................................. Antigo Railroad Employees’ Cooperative Store,
712 Fifth Avenue.
Ashippun*.............................Ashippun Cooperative Co.
Ashland (c)........................... Producers Co-operative Association,
1115 Second Street west.
Avoca*....................................Avoca Cooperative Co.
Baldwin*............................... Baldwin Cooperative Co.
Bayfield (c)...........................Sand Island Co-operative Association.
Bear Creek*.......................... Bear Creek Cooperative Co.
Black Earth (c)....................Patrons Mercantile Co.
Black River Falls*............. Cooperative Store Association.
Blanchardville*...................Farmers’ Equity Co.
Bloomer (c)...........................Farmers Store Co.
Bradley, R. F. D. No. 1*— The New Harshaw Cooperative Association.
Brantwood (c)......................Brantwood Supply Co.
Brillion (c)............................Farmers Advancement Association.
Brodhead (c)........................ Brodhead Co-Operative Co.
Brooklyn (c)..........................Farmers Mutual Benefit & Trading Co.
Browntown*.......... ................Browntown Cooperative Co.
Bruce*....................................Bruce Cooperative Store Co.
Bruce, R. F. D. No. 3*___Bruce Farmers’ Equity Exchange.
Bruce*....................................Crystal Cooperative Association.
Campbellsport (f)................Campbellsport Equity Co.
Cazenovia*............................ The Cazenovia Equity Wholesale Co.
Cedar Grove*........................Cooperative Exchange.
Chaseburg*............................Farmers’ Cooperative Co. of Chaseburg.
Chetek (c)..............................Chetek Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Cleveland (c).........................Cleveland Co-operative Warehouse Association.
Clifford ( c ) .............................Farmers Industrial Association.
Clintonville (c)....................Clintonville Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Colby*.................................... Harmony Cooperative Co.
Colfax*................................... Colfax Cooperative Co.
Corliss*................................... Corliss Equity Cooperative Association.



APPENDIX B.---- DIRECTORY OF SOCIETIES.

145

WISCONSIN—Continued.
Dale, It. F. D. No. 1*.........Dale Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Dorchester (c).......................Dorchester Co-Operative Co.
Durand (f)..............................Lower Chippewa Valley Equity Exchange.
Eastman*............................... Eastman Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Elroy (c)................................ Elroy Cooperative Store.
Emerald (f)........................... Emerald Farmers Exchange.
Fond du Lac (c)...................Fond du Lac Co-operative Society,
101 South Main Street.
Fredonia (c)..........................Fredonia Farmers Equity Association.
Fremont (c)........................... Wolf River Valley Co-operative Co.
Glenwood City (c)...............Glenwood City Equity Co.
Grantsburg*...........................Equity Farmer’s Cooperative Association.
Green Bay, R. F. D. No. 8*.Anston Farmers’ Cooperative Exchange.
Green Lake (c).....................The Green Lake Farmers Equity Co-Operative Associa­
tion.
Hager City*..........................Cooperative Store.
Hartford*"............................. Hartford Cooperative Co.
Hollandale*...........................Hollandale Cooperative Co.
Hudson*................................ St. Croix Cooperative Co.
Hustisford*............................ Economy Cooperative Co.
Iola*........................................ Iola Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Iron River (c )......................Farmers’ Cooperative Mercantile Association.
Jim Falls (c).........................Jim Falls Co-operative Mercantile Co.
Kilbourn*..............................Kilbourn Equity Exchange.
Knapp*..................................Knapp Equity Exchange.
La Crosse*............................. Cooperative Store,
1024 St. Paul Street.
La Crosse*..............................La Crosse Cooperative Association,
1607 George Street.
La Farge*.............................. La Farge Equity Exchange.
Lomira*.................................. Lomira Farmers’ Union.
Luck, R. F. D. No. 2 * . . . .The Farmers’ Equity Exchange.
Luxembourg, R. F. D. The Luxembourg Equity Association.
No. 1*
Madison (c)...........................University Co-operative Co.,
506-508 State Street.
Madison*................................ Wisconsin Equity Farmers’ Exchange.
Manitowoc, R. F. D. No. Alverno Equity Exchange.
4(c).
Manitowoc, R. F. D. No. 5*.Whitelaw Cooperative Exchange Co.
Maple (c )...............................Maple Farmers Co-operative Association.
Marengo (c)........................... Marengo Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Association.
Marion (c)...............................Marion Co-Operative Mercantile Co.
Mattoon (c)........................... Farmers’ Equity Supply & Produce Co.
Medford (c)........................... Medford Cooperative Co.
Menasha*...............................Farmers’ Equity Society.
Merrill*.................................. Equity Market & Supply Association.
Milladore*............................. Citizens’ Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Milwaukee (c).......................The Milwaukee Consumers Co-operative Association,
3612J Clarke Street (address of secretary-treasurer).
Milwaukee*......................... .Union Cooperativa di Consumo,
29 Cawker Building.
Minong, R. F. D. No. 1*.. .Minong Cooperative Exchange.
Mondovi*...............................Mondovi Equity Exchange.
Montfort*................................Montfort Cooperative Co.
Moquah*.................................Moquah Cooperative Society.
Moquah*.................................Pilsen Cooperative Association.
Mt. Horeb (c ).......................The Farmer Store.
Muscoda (c)...........................Muscoda Co-operative Co.
Neillsville*............................ Farmers’ Cooperative Society.
Neosho (c)............................. Neosho Co-operative Co.
New Auburn*.......................New Auburn Cooperative Co.
Norwalk*............................... Norwalk Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Phillips (c)............................American Society of Equity.
Phillips*................................ ..Bohemian Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Poskin (c)..............................Poskin Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Prairie Farm (c).................. Prairie Farm Co-operative Association.



146

co n su m ers'

c o o p e r a t iv e

SOCIETIES.

WISCONSIN—Concluded.

Prescott*.............................The Prescott Cooperative Association.
Random Lake*...................Random Lake Cooperative Association.
Readfield (c)...................... Readfield Co-operative Co.
Reedsburg (c).....................Reedsburg Co-operative Co.
Rib Lake*...........................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Rice Lake (c ).................... Rice Lake Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Richardson (c) (P. O., Farmers Co-operative Trading & Shipping Co.
Clayton, R. F. D. No.
1).
Rio (f)......................... ........Rio Produce Co.
Rock Elm*..........................Rock Elm Cooperative Co.
.
Royalton*...........................*Royalton Farmers’ Equity Association.
Rubicon (f)..........................Rubicon Co-operative Co.
Shawano*.............................Rose Brook Cooperative Association.
Sheboygan Falls*...............Sheboygan Falls Cooperative Association.
Soldiers Grove (c)..............Farmers Cooperative Equity Exchange.
South Germantown (c)___Germantown Co-operative Co.
Spencer*..............................Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
Spring Valley*....................Equity Cooperative Association.
Stetsonville*....................... Stetsonville Mercantile Cooperative Co.
Stoughton*..........................Stoughton Cooperative Co.
Sugar Bush*........................Sugar Bush Equity Co.
Superior (c) {w h o lesa le) ___Cooperative Central Exchange,
Ogden Avenue and Winter Street.
Superior (c )........................Finnish Cooperative Creamery,
422 Cummings Avenue.
Superior (c).........................Peoples Cooperative Society,
1423 North Fifth Street.
Superior (c) .......................Tarmo Co.,
1402 Third Street.

Superior (c)....................... Tyomies Society,
601-603 Tower Avenue.
Sussex (f)...........................Sussex Co-Operative Co.
Thiensville, R. F. D. No. 2. East Mequon Co-operative Supply Association,
(c)
Tomah*..............................Tomah Equity Cooperative Association.
Vandyne*.......................... Vandyne Farmers’ Cooperative Association.
Waunakee*........................Waunakee Equity Cooperative Association.
Wausaukee*............ :........Wausaukee Cooperative Association.
Watertown (c)....................Farmers Co-operative Co.,
111-117 Water Street.
Wentworth (c)...................Wentworth Farm Co-operative Association.
Westboro*..........................Westboro Farmers’ Cooperative Co.
West Salem*......................West Salem Cooperative Store.
Whitelaw (c)......................Whitelaw Co-operative Exchange Co.
Winneconne*.....................Winneconne Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Winneconne*.....................Winneconne Farmers’ Equity Exchange.
Withee*............................. Withee Cooperative Co.
Wittenberg (c)..................Wittenberg Co-operative Co.
Woodford*....................... Woodford Cooperative Mercantile Co.
Woodland*.........................Woodland Cooperative Co.
Woodruff*..........................Woodruff Grange.

WYOMING.
Beulah*..................................Beulah Rochdale Co.
Casper*....................................Citizens’ Equity Association.
Cheyenne*.............................Cheyenne Cooperative Store.
H ulett (c)...............................Hulett Rochdale Co.
Kleenbum (c).......................The Miners & Consumers Co-operative Co.
.Sheridan*............................... Farmers’ & Consumers’ Cooperative Co.,
39-51 East Brundage Street.
Sheridan (c )......................... Sheridan Cooperative Co.,
1 South Main Street.
Sundance*.............................Sundance Rochdale Co.
Upton*....................................Equity Cooperative Association.




SERIES OF BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
[The pu blication o f th e annual an d special reports an d o f th e bim on th ly bulletin was
discon tin u ed in Ju ly, 1912, and since th a t tim e a bu lletin has been p u blish ed a t irregular
intervals. Each nu m ber contains m a tte r devoted to one o f a series o f general su bjects.
These bu lletin s are num bered consecutively, beginning w ith N o. 101, an d up to No. 236 they
also carry consecutive num bers under each series. Beginning w ith No. 237 th e serial n u m ­
bering has been discontin ued. A list o f th e series is given below. Under each is grouped
all th e bulletins which contain m aterial relating to th e su b ject m a tter o f th a t series. A
list o f th e reports and bulletins o f th e Bureau issued prior to Ju ly 1, 1912, w ill be fu rnish ed
on application. The bulletins m arked th u s * are o u t o f p rin t.]

Wholesale Prices.
*Bul. 114. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1913.
*Bul. 173. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914.
*Bul. 200. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1915.
Bui. 226. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1916.
Bui. 269. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1919.
Bui. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries. [Revision
of Bulletin No. 173.]
Bui. 296. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1920.
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
*Bul. 105. Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part II—General tables.
*Bul. 106. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part II—General tables.
Bui. 108. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1912.
Bui. 110. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1912.
Bui. 113. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1912.
Bui. 115. Retail prices, 1890 to February, 1913.
*Bul. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer.
Bui. 125. Retail prices, 1890 to April, 1913.
*Bul. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer.
Bui. 132. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1913.
Bui. 136. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1913.
Bui. 138. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1913.
*Bul. 140. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1913.
Bui. 156. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.
Bui. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
*Bul. 184. Retail prices, 1907 to June, 1915.
Bui. 197. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1915.
Bui. 228. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1916.
Bui. 270. Retail prices, 1913 to 1919.
Bui. 300. Retail prices, 1913 to 1920.
Wages and Honrs of Labor.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia.
*Bul. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
*Bul. 128. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890 to 1912.
*Bul. 129. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1890 to 1912
*Bul. 131. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912.
*Bul. 134. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit goods industries, 1890
to 1912.
*Bul. 135. Wages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and 1912.
Bui. 137. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 143. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1913.
Bui. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and
waist industry of New York City.




0)

Wages and Hours of Labor—Concluded.
*Bul. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
*Bul. 150. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1913.
*Bul. 151. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United States, 19Q7 to 1912.
Bui. 153. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1907 to 1913.
*Bul. 154. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and underwear industries, 1907
to 1913.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments
and garment factories.
Bui. 181. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
Bui. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 168. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1,1914.
Bui. 177. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1914.
*Bul. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
*Bul. 194. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1,1915.
Bui. 204. Street railway employment in the United States.
Bui. 214. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1916.
Bui. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
Bui. 232. Wages and hours oflaborinthe boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916.
Bui. 238. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1916.
Bui. 239. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing, 1916.
Bui. 245. Unionscale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1917.
*Bul. 252. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1917.
Bui. 259. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1918.
Bui. 260. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1918.
Bui. 261. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1918.
Bui. 262. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing, 1918.
Bui. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919. Preliminary report.
Bui. 274. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1919.
Bui. 278. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1920.
Bui. 279. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining.
Bui. 286. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1020.
Bui. 288. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1920.
Bui. 289. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1920.
Bui. 294. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in 1921.
Bui. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry.
Bui. 302. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1921.
Bui. 305. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry: 1907 to 1920.
Employment and Unemployment.
*Bul. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings,and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia.
Bui. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass.
*Bul. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
Bui. 192. Proceedings of the American Association of Public Employment Offices.
*Bul. 195. Unemployment in the United States.
Bui. 196.. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis, January, 1916.
Bui. 202. Proceedings of the conference of the Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass,
held May 10,1916.
Bui. 206. The British system of labor exchanges.
Bui. 220. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Employ­
ment Offices, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21,1916.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
*Bul. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,
1917.
Bui. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association.
Bui. 241. Public employment offices in the United States.
Bui. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May 9-11, 1918.
Bui. 310. Industrial unemployment.
Bui. 311. Proceedings of the ninth annual meeting of the International Association of Public Employ­
ment Services.




(n)

Women in Industry.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected indus­
tries in the District of Columbia.
*Bul. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
*Bul. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
*Bul. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments
and garment factories.
*Bul. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
*Bul. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
*Bul. 176. Effect of minimum wage determinations in Oregon.
*Bul. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass.
Bui. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts.
Bui. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts.
*Bul. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 253. Women in the lead industry.
Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
Bui. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany.
Bui. 102. British National Insurance Act, 1911.
Bui. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland.
Bui. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany.
*Bul. 126. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
*Bul. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States.
*Bul. 185. Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915.
Bui. 203. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 210. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association
o,f Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
*Bul. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children.
Bui. 240. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States.
Bui. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 248. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 264. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 272. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada, 1919.
*Bul. 273. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 275. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and Canada.
Bui. 281. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration.
Bui. 304. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions.
Bui. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain.
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
*Bul. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories.
Bui. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade.
*Bul. 127. Dangers to workers from dust and fumes, and methods of protection.
Bui. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead.
*Bul. 157. Industrial accident statistics.
Bui. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries.
*Bul. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry.
Bui. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting
of buildings.
*Bul. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [Limited edition.]
Bui. 205. Anthrax as an occupational disease.
Bui. 207. Causes of death by occupation.
(m )



Industrial Accidents and Hygiene—Concluded.
Bui. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades.
*Bul. 216. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades.
*Bul. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
Bui. 236. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters.
Bui. 251. Preventable deaths in the cotton manufacturing industry.
Bui. 253. Women in the lead industries.
Bui. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. Revision of Bui. 216.
Bui. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [Revised.]
Bui. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics.
Bui. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates.
Bui. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning.
Bui. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite stone industry.
Bui. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910 to 1919.
Bui. 306. Occupational hazards and diagnostic signs.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
*Bul. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
*Bul. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements.
Bui. 139. Michigan copper district strike.
Bui. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York
City.
Bui. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry.
*Bul. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry.
Bui. 233. Operation of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of Canada.
Bui. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes.
Labor Laws of the United States (Including decisions of courts relating to labor).
*Bul. 111. Labor legislation of 1912.
Bui. 112. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912.
*Bul. 148. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
*Bul. 152. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913.
*Bul. 166. Labor legislation of 1914.
*Bul. 169. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1914.
*Bul. 186. Labor legislation of 1915.
*Bul. 189. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1915.
Bui. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States.
*Bul. 213. Labor legislation of 1916.
Bui. 224. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916.
Bui. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States.
*Bul. 244. Labor legislation of 1917.
Bui. 246. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1917.
Bui. 257. Labor legislation of 1918.
Bui. 258. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1918.
Bui. 277. Labor legislation of 1919.
Bui. 285. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States.
Bui. 290. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1919-1920.
Bui. 292. Labor legislation of 1920.
Bui. 308. Labor legislation of 1921.
Bui. 309. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1921.
Foreign Labor Laws.
Bui. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.
Vocational Education.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
*Bul. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
*Bul. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va.
Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis.
Bui. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain.
(IV)




Labor as Affected by the War.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain.
Bui. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers
Committee.
Bui. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain.
Bui. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
Bui. 287. National War Labor Board.
Miscellaneous Series.
*Bul. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
*Bul. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
*Bul. 123. Employers’ welfare work.
Bui. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
*Bul. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
*Bul. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Bui. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to
May 1,1915.
Bui. 208. Profit sharing in the United States.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 242. Food situation in Central Europe, 1917.
Bui. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States.
Bui. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations.
Bui. 263. Housing by employers in the United States.
Bui. 266. Proceedings of Seventh Annual Convention of Governmental Labor Officials of the United
States and Canada.
Bui. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor.
Bui. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States.
Bui. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D. C.
Bui. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
Bui. 299. Personnel research agencies. A guide to organized research in employment, manage­
ment, industrial relations, training, and working conditions.
Bui. 307. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Convention of Governmental Labor Officials of the
United States and Canada.




<v)

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Descriptions of occupations, prepared for the United States Employment Service, 1918-19.
Boots and shoes, harness and saddlery, and tanning.
Cane-sugar refining and flour milling.
Coal and water gas, paint and varnish, paper, printing trades, and rubber goods.
Electrical manufacturing, distribution, and maintenance.
Glass.
Hotels and restaurants.
Logging camps and sawmills.
Medicinal manufacturing.
Metal working, building and general construction, railroad transportation, and shipbuilding.
Mines and mining.
Office employees.
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Street railways.
Textiles and clothing.
Water transportation.




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(VI)