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CONSUM ER
EXPENDITURES
AND IN CO M E:
S u rv e y
G u id e lin e s
B U LLETIN 1 6 8 4
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u of L a b o r S ta tistics

SEP %

m







CONSUMER
EXPENDITURES
AND INCOME:
S u rve y
G u id e lin e s
BULLETIN 1684
U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner
1971

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C. 20402 - Price $1.75
Stock N um ber 290 1 -06 5 2




Preface
This bulletin documents the planning, operation, and evaluation of the Survey of
Consumer Expenditures, 1960-61, and lays the foundation for planning surveys in
the 1970’s. It draws on experience gained over more than 8 decades by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in interviewing American fam ilies about their earnings and
spending.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Department of Agriculture published
about 200 statistical reports and supplements and numerous analytical reports based
on the 1960-61 nationwide survey of urban and rural fam ilies. In addition, the Bureau
entered a new phase of data dissemination by duplicating and selling magnetic tapes
of disaggregated data to universities and others having access to electronic dataprocessing equipment. This greatly expanded the survey’s usefulness for microeconomic research. Some description of concepts and methods accompanied each
publication. Fees for magnetic tapes included a handbook describing tape content
and format, as well as consultation with Bureau staff.
This bulletin repeats some of those statements on methods, but includes addi­
tional descriptive and tabular m aterials. More significantly, it contains information
on sampling and other erro rs, and presents extensive comparisons of the survey
findings with data from other sources, principally the Bureau of the Census and Office
of Business Economics of the Department of Commerce. Also, it includes facsim iles
of all questionnaires and forms used in interviewing fam ilies. The principal purpose
of this bulletin is to provide a handbook that will stimulate ideas and programs for
continuing improvement of expenditure surveys.
Many people in the Office of Prices and Living Conditions have contributed to
this report, both in its broad outline and in its detail. Kathryn R. Murphy is the
principal author. Helen H. Lamale and Joseph A. Clorety, J r ., advised and counseled
M rs. Murphy throughout its preparation and wrote the sections on family income dis­
tributions and on aggregate income and expenditures in chapters 9 and 10. Marvin
Wilkerson and Elizabeth Ruiz developed the sections on sampling, sampling errors,
and the weighting system. Alice Bigelow Curry and Nellie M. Covington prepared the
tables in the text and appendix B.
This bulletin is a testimonial to the generosity and interest of thousands of
American families who cooperated in supplying information requested in the Survey
of Consumer Expenditures, 1960-61. Their names appear nowhere on the survey
records. They spent hours helping interviewers construct a detailed account of a
year’s income and how they used it. Neither the Bureau nor the Department of Agri­
culture will use or release data in a way that would permit identification of an
individual family.




iii




Contents
Page
Chapter 1. Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Historical background------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Collection of data---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Classification and tabulation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Prelim inaries to 1960-61 su rv ey ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
2
4
5

Chapter 2. Purpose, scope, andorganization------------------------------------------------------------------Multi-purpose survey-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Joint BLS-USDA responsibility--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Considerations affecting sample s i z e ------------------------------------------------------------------------BLS organization for CES — -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7
7
7
7
8

Chapter 3. Design of sa m p le ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Urban sam ple----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rural sam p le ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Definition of consumer unit and eligibility requirements-------------------------------------------------Substitution p roced u res-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11
11
14
15
16

Chapter 4. Data collection---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reporting fo rm s-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Field operations-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Timing and man-hours in the field operations---------------------------------------------------------------

17
17
19
23

Chapter 5. Analysis of sample re tu rn s------------------------------------------------------------------------Samples assigned for interviews------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mail questionnaires for weekly food expenditures----------------------------------------------------------Characteristics of families cooperating inCincinnati------------------------------------------------------

25
25
26
27

Chapter 6. Preparation of schedules for tabulation---------------------------------------------------------Precoded schedules---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Review of schedules--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Manual editing and coding-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transfer of data to punchoards-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Computer editing, coding, and summarizing program s-----------------------------------------------------

29
29
29
33
33
33

Chapter 7. Tabulation and publication-------------------------------------------------------------------------Classification of ite m s-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Computation of av erages---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Content of statistical r e p o r ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Weighting data to United States and regional av e rag e s----------------------------------------------------

36
36
36
37
37

Chapter 8. Reliability of information--------------------------------------------------------------------------Sampling e r r o r --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Characteristics of nonrespondents---------------------------------------------------------------------------Response e r r o r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Processing e r r o r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

40
40
42
43
44

Chapter 9. Comparisons with data from otherso u r c e s------------------------------------------------------Differences in definitions--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of consumer units by ch aracteristics----------------------------------------------------------

45
45
46




v

Contents— Continued
Page
Chapter 10. Reconciliation of aggregate from CES, OBE, and other so u rces---------------------------Aggregate income, expenditures, and sav in gs--------------------------------------------------------------Other com parisons______________________________________________________________________

56
56
66

Chapter 11. Uses of the survey data---------------------------------------------------------------------------Updating BLS statistical m e a su re s--------------------------------------------------------------------------Availability of data for other pu rposes----------------------------------------------------------------------U ses of data outside BLS and USD A--------------------------------

68
68
68
70

Appendixes:
A. Comparability of the Survey of Consumer Expenditures in 1960-61 and in 1950 ------------------- 74
B. Supplementary ta b le s--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
C. Exhibits ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109
Index------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




vi

217

Chapter 1.

Introduction
the extensive experim ental work which contributed
to the development of methods fo r collecting and
analyzing the 1950 data. The present bulletin is a
sequel to the 1950 monograph. Its purpose is s im ila r
to that set forth in the e a rlie r monograph4
.

The Survey of Consumer Expenditures, 1960-61 was
the seventh m ajor survey of spending patterns of A m e r­
ican fa m ilies conducted by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics. These periodic investigations rank among the
Bureau’s oldest data collecting functions. Although they
have changed in purpose and design since th e ir incep­
tion in 1888, a ll were based on the prem ise that knowl­
edge of how fam ilie s use th e ir incomes is essential to
understanding and solving m ajor economic and social
problem s.

“To use the 1950 study p ro perly, the analyst should
know something of its background and recognize the
d iv e rs ity of purposes it serves and the complexity
of the experiences it attempts to record. The p u r­
pose of this mongraph is to describe the 1950 survey
in its h isto rical setting and to sum m arize im p o r­
tant details of the technical and adm inistrative p ro ­
cedures used in collecting and tabulating the data.
Some appraisal of the findings is included, but the
re a l evaluation must come fro m discerning use of
the data in specific analyses.” 2

The need to revise the Consumer P ric e Index (CPI)
provided the im m ediate stimulus fo r the 1960-61 su r­
vey. The previous comprehensive revision of the
index was based on the Bureau’ s Survey of Con­
sumer Expenditures in 1950. During the fiftie s ,
fa m ilie s ’ real incomes increased, extensive housing
developments surrounding m ajor cities had been ac­
companied by growing proportions of hom e- and c a r­
owning fa m ilie s , and many new services and products
had come on the m arket. These were some of the
numerous indications of changes in buying habits
that needed measuring to update the C P I. In addition,
a la rg e -s c a le survey would provide new detail fo r
analyzing consumers’ purchases which totalled almost
tw o-th ird s of the gross national product (GNP).
The Bureau reverted to its p re-1950 practice and
spread the survey over 2 years, p a rtly to hedge against
the possible abnorm ality of a single year. As it turned
out, the 1960-61 survey spanned a m ild recession that
began in the fir s t half of 1960 and reached its trough
in F ebruary 1961. Unemployment was h ig h in 1961.
(See table 1.) Sharp cutbacks in new home construction
occurred in 1960, and homebuilding rem ained at a low
level in 1961. Although 1960 was a good year fo r sales
of new passenger ca rs , volume dropped sharply in 1961.
Expansion of consumer cre d it and mortgage debt out­
standing was restrain ed , p a rtly because purchases of
m ajo r consumer durable goods were lagging. N e v e r­
theless, the total picture was one of continued economic
growth in 1960-61, but at a slower pace than in the
rem ain der of the 1960’ s. Personal consumption ex­
penditures increased, even on a per capita basis and
a fter allowance fo r ris in g p rices. The Federal Reserve
Board’ s industrial production index and the GNP also
continued upward.
Concepts, techniques, and publications fo r the Survey
of Consumer Expenditures, 1960-61, were planned to
provide m axim um continuity and com parability with the
Bureau’ s 1950 survey, and also to trace the h isto rical
and theoretical background of fa m ily expenditure s u r­
veys fro m the e a rlie s t European investigations in the
m id-19th century. The 19501 monograph sum m arized




Historical Background
As p a rt of a 5 -y e a r revision project fo r m odernizing
the Consumer P ric e Index, Congress authorized the
Bureau to begin planning in June 1959 fo r a new ex­
penditure survey. The B ureau’ s com m itm ent to in tro ­
duce the new series with the January 1964 C P I governed
the tim ing and numerous other aspects of the Survey of
Consumer Expenditures (CES). This tim etable called
fo r fu ll-s c a le collection of CES data to begin e a rly in
1961, following a lead city survey in 1960.
The Bureau has been interview ing A m erican fa m ilies
about th e ir spending since 1888. F o r alm ost 7 5 years,
independently or in collaboration with theU .S. D epart­
ment of A griculture (USDA) and other agencies, the
Bureau has conducted research on a wide range of
problem s encountered in collecting and using such in ­
form ation. The d iv e rs ity of this experience is sug­
gested by b rie f reference to the Bureau’ s m ajor fa m ily
expenditure surveys.3
The survey of expenditures fo r the period 1888-91
was made to study livin g costs of A m erican w orkers
in connection with setting ta riffs . Rapid changes in the

1 Helen H. Lamale, Study of Consumer Expenditures. Incomes
and Savings— Methodology of the Survey of Consumer Expenditures in
1950 (monograph), (Wharton School of Finance and Commerce,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1959).
2 Ibid.
3 The subject of fam ily living studies before 1935 has an
excellent bibliography in Studies of Family Living in the United
States and Other Countries by Faith M. W illiams and Carle C.
Zimmerman (U. S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publi­
cation No. 223, 1935). Miss W illiams appended a bibliography of
consumer expenditures covering 1946 or later years to her chapter
on "International Comparisons of Patterns of Family Consumption,"
in Consumer Behavior, Research on Consumer Reactions, edited by
Lincoln H. Clark (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1958).
1

Table 1. Selected rcoBomir indicators, United States, selected yean, 1M l # 1

Year
1949 ----------------1950 ......................
1951 - - - ...............

Total
Private
F actory
Total Personal consumption Consumer Mortgage Civilian
Consumer
industrial
nonfarm
sales of
expenditures
gross
price
credit debt out­ unemploy­
production
housing passenger
national Total Per capita, outstanding standing
ment
starts
1958 prices (billions) (billions) (percent)
product
(1957-59=100)
(1957-59=100)
(thousands) (thousands)
(billions) (billions) (dollars)
$256.5
284.8
328.4

$176. 8
191.0
206.3

$1,451
1,520
1,509

$17.4
21.5
22.7

$62.7
72.8
82.3

5. 9
5.3
3 .3

64.7
7 4.9
81.3

83.0
83.8
90.5

1 ,4 2 9 .8
1, 908. 1
1 ,4 1 9 .8

5, 119.5
6, 665. 9
5, 338.4

1957
1958
1959
I960
1961

......................
-------------------------------------------------

441.1
447.3
483.6
503.7
520.1

281.4
290.1
311. 2
325.2
335.2

1,683
1,666
1,735
1,749
1,755

45.0
45. 1
51. 5
56.1
58.0

156. 5
171.8
190. 8
206.8
226. 2

4 .3
6. 8
5. 5
5. 6
6. 7

100.7
93.7
105.6
108.7
109.7

98.0
100.7
101. 5
103. 1
104. 2

1, 174.8
1 ,3 1 4 .2
1 ,4 9 4 .6
1, 230.1
1 ,284.8

6, 113.3
4, 257. 8
5, 591.2
6, 674. 8
5, 542. 7

1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

------------------------------------------------......................
............... — -

560. 3
590.5
632.4
684.9
749.9

355.1
375.0
401. 2
432.8
466.3

1,813
1,865
1,945
2,044
2,123

63. 8
71.7
80.3
90.3
97.5

248.6
274. 3
300. 1
325. 8
347.4

5. 5
5. 7
5. 2
4. 5
3. 8

118.3
124.3
132. 3
143.4
156.3

105.4
106.7
108.1
109.9
113. 1

1, 439.0
1, 582. 9
1,5 0 2 .3
1,4 5 0 .6
1 ,1 4 1 .5

6, 933.2
7, 637.7
7, 751.8
9, 305. 6
8, 598. 3

1967 ----------------1968 ----------------19691......................

793.5
865.7
932.3

492.3
536.6
576.0

2,161
2, 250
2, 293

102. 1
113. 2
122. 2

1370. 2
1397. 5
424.7

3 .8
3 .6
3. 5

158. 1
165.5
172.7

116.3
121.2
127.7

1, 268.4
1 ,4 8 3 .6
1 ,4 4 5 .5

7, 436. 8
*8, 822.2
18, 822. 2

Preliminary.
SOURCE: Economic Report of the President, Transmitted to the Congress, February 1970, Together With the Annual Report of the
Council of Economic Advisers (U. S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, 1970); and Automobile Manufacturers Association, Automobile
Facts and Figures (1969 Edition, Automobile Manufacturers Association, In c., Detroit, 1969).
p ric e level at the close of the 19th century and during
W orld W ar I led to new la rg e -s c a le urban surveys in
1901 and during 1917-19. These two surveys form ed
the basis fo r developing the o riginal Consumer P ric e
Index, then called the Cost of Living Index. The main
purpose of the B ureau’ s urban surveys fo r 1934-36
and in 1950 was to revise the “m arketb asket” of goods
and services to be p riced fo r the C P I.
In the severe and prolonged economic depression of
the 1930’ s, in terest in consumer surveys expanded
fro m study of the w elfare of selected groups to general
economic analysis. To this end, the Bureau cooperated
with four other F ederal agencies in the Study of Con­
sum er Purchases in 1935-36, which was undertaken
to show consumption of a ll segments of the population
in both urban and ru ra l communities. The Bureau also
collaborated with the USD A in a s m a lle r scale nation­
wide survey of urban and ru ra l fa m ilie s in 1941-42,
to obtain facts on which to base decisions fo r the c iv il­
ian economy during w artim e.
T h e re a fte r, the Bureau conducted a series of urban
surveys. Its Survey of P ric e s Paid by Consumers in
1944 covered a nationwide sample of urban fa m ilie s .
F o r each year fro m 1946 through 1949, the Bureau
collected inform ation on consumer income and ex­
penditures in \ to 3 la rg e cities. These surveys,
culm inating with the 1949 Memphis Consumer Expend­
itu re Survey, produced both substantive and procedural
resu lts.




2

The Memphis survey, which was based on four equally
representative samples of 150 livin g q uarters each,
was designed to serve as a test of various procedures
that might be used in the nationwide urban survey fo r
1950. The p rincipal tests pertaining to schedule design
and data collection are:
1. D ia ry (or account) vs. re c a ll fo r reporting food
purchases (page 1 1 ).4
2. In te rv ie w e r- or respondent-recorded sched­
ules (pages 14-15).
3. Question wording and design and content of
schedule (pages 19-20).
4. In te rv ie w e r re v is its to balance accounts (pages
24-25).
Experim entation with publicity, supervision, editing,
and use of machine tabulating equipment was also p a rt
of the 1949 p ilot survey.

Collection of data
The importance of com parability with 1950 data and
the short tim e available to prep are fo r the 1960-61
4
Results of these Memphis tests were summarized on the
indicated pages of the 1950 Methodology Monograph cited in foot­
note 1.

in Indianapolis, Ind., in 1945, showed that the refusal
ra te was not reduced by using a shorter schedule.8 The
design of the Indianapolis experim ent did not provide
fo r a control sample. T herefo re, there was no basis
fo r statistical tests of the accuracy of the expenditure
averages obtained by the split-schedule method.
The USD A conducted a s im ila r test of the s p litschedule technique, using a control sample. According
to a re p o rt based on that test: “It was found that the
split-schedule technique was open to considerable
field e r r o r . It required a la rg e r sample than did a
complete schedule; it increased tra v e l and supervi­
sory costs.” F o r these and other reasons, USD A con­
cluded that this technique “probably should not be at­
tempted in a survey of a heterogeneous population,
especially if interrelationships of several factors are
to be studied.”9 The split schedule also precludes
examining rep o rts fo r completeness by comparing r e ­
ported expenditures and savings with reported income.
Global o r detailed questions. Tests made by BLS
and USD A p rio r to the 1950 survey indicated that global
estim ates of broad classes of expenditures were in
most cases substantially below totals obtained by
item izin g the detail of expenditures within the class.
M o re recent research by the Bureau of the Census1
0
confirm ed findings that a detailed probing question­
n aire was needed, p a rtic u la rly if sm all expenditures
are of significance. Use of a detailed questionnaire
in effect presumes the use of the “ch eck-listing ”

survey led to basically the same type of “te s t” sched­
ule and methods used in 19505 that was the fir s t la rg e scale expenditure survey in which the Bureau used
machine tabulating equipment to produce tabulations
ready fo r reproduction in published reports. The ex­
perim ental w ork in that area g reatly expedited sched­
ule design and other plans fo r collecting and tabulating
the 1960-61 data.
The principal procedural features of the 1960-61
survey which were c a rrie d over fro m 1950 and e a rlie r
experience w ill be discussed b rie fly .
Schedule o r d ia ry (account). F a m ilie s ra re ly keep
complete records of th e ir spending and savings; thus,
the basic choice of a method of collecting such in fo r­
mation was between the schedule and the accounts
method. The schedule method re lie s on an in terview er
to record inform ation supplied by responsible fa m ily
mem bers fro m m em ory o r p a rtia l records. The a lte r­
native is to leave an account book or d ia ry in which
fa m ily m em bers keep a daily record of household ac­
counts with varying degrees of supervison and fo llo w ­
up by interview ers.
H is to ric a lly , the choice of methods has hinged on a
v a rie ty of considerations. These include the length of
the recording period; whether the objective is to obtain
a complete statement of fa m ily accounts o r expendi­
tures fo r a single category, such as medical care o r
housing; the availab ility of records (e.g., income tax
returns, mortgage payment books, and department
store b ills) which the respondent may consult; the
frequency and seasonality of purchases of various
goods and services; the lite ra c y of the population; and
the availab ility of in terview ers. Each method has ad­
vantages and disadvantages.6 The account book method
has been used generally in Europe. In the United
States, the schedule method has been p re fe rre d fo r
la rg e -s c a le surveys of annual expenditures and in ­
comes of fam ilies , but it is recognized that m ore de­
fin itive research and experim entation is needed to de­
term in e the specific areas where account keeping
could be used effectively.7
Split or complete schedules. The tim e and effort
required fo r cooperating fa m ilie s to give a complete
rep o rt of th e ir annual income, expenditures, and sav­
ings suggest that the total lis t of expenditures might
be “sp lit” into separate categories; e .g ., housing,
food, clothing, etc. Thus, inform ation fo r the separate
categories could be obtained fro m d ifferen t subsamples
of fam ilies. The category averages (mean) would then
be combined to obtain the complete pattern of expendi­
tu re s, rep re senting a ll fa m ilie s. Proponents argue that
the reduction in interview tim e would increase coop­
eratio n among respondents and would reduce the
response e r r o r caused by fatigue. L im ite d e x p e ri­
mentation in the use of split schedules in a BLS survey




5 After the 1950 survey, the Bureau had virtually no staff
available for research and collection and tabulation of information
on fam ily expenditures.
6 United Nations Statistical Office, Handbook of Household
Surveys: A Practical Guide for Inquiries on Levels of Living, Pro­
visional Edition. (Studies in Methods, Series F. No. 10, United
Nations, New York, 1964), pp. 53-54 and 137-139.
Extensive research on this and numerous other aspects of sur­
vey techniques has been conducted in recent years as part of the
U, S. National Health Survey. The studies have been conducted
in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of the Census, and the results
published by the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and W el­
fare. See reports from the National Health Center for Health Sta­
tistics, Public Health Service Publication No. 1000— Series 1, Pro­
grams and C ollection Procedures and; Series 2, Data Evaluation
Methods Research. See also, Methodology in Two California Health
Surveys. Public Health Monograph No. 70. These publications are
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government
Printing O ffice, Washington, D. C.
7 BLS and US DA experiments with the diary and schedule
method have been mainly in collecting food data. Results of some
experiments with the two methods of obtaining expenditures for both
food and nonfood items in other countries are summarized in: "Some
Problems in the Measurement of Price Changes with Special Refer­
ence to the Cost of Living— A Discussion Opened by Dr. S. J. Prais, "
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A (General), vol. 121,
pt. 3, 195$), pp. 312-332.
8 Lamale, op. cit. (monograph), pp. 16-17. See also p. 24.
9 Barbara B. Reagan and Evelyn Grossman, Rural Levels of
Living in Lee and Jones Counties. Mississippi. 1945, and A Com­
parison of Two Methods of Data Collection (U. S. Department of
A g r i c u l t u r e , Agricultural Information Bulletin 41, 1951), p. 3.
10 John Neter and Joseph Waksberg, Response Errors in Collec­
tion of Expenditures Data by Household Interviews: An Experi­
mental Study (Bureau of the Census, Technical Paper No. 11, 1965),
pp. 14-15 and 73-79.
3

technique ra th e r than “fr e e -lis tin g ,” i.e ., providing
blank space fo r w ritin g in each item the respondent
re c a lls purchasing.11 The global and fre e -lis tin g tech­
niques have obvious advantages if a short schedule is
desired. On the other hand, the growing use of e lec­
tronic d ata-p r oce s sing equipment favors m axim um use
of precoded checklists fro m which data can be tra n s ­
fe rre d d ire c tly to punch-cards o r other machine input
with a m inim um of manual editing and coding.
Sequence of questions. The sequence of questions
is an im portant consideration in a successful interview .
In the long histo ry of fa m ily expenditure surveys, c e r­
tain common-sense guidelines have evolved:

importance of h isto rical continuity has influenced the
Bureau’s classification system over the years. The
United Nations and International Labour Office have
worked toward standardization of classifications to
fa c ilita te international comparisons.
In p rin c ip le , the p revailin g p ractice has been to
classify household expenditures according to the kind
of commodity or service, not according to the occasion
or purpose of the purchase. To illu s tra te ; a ll food,
whether purchased in connection with a wedding, at
school, or during a vacation tr ip , is classified under
“food” ra th e r than “other expenditures,” “education,”
“re c re a tio n ,” etc. In p ra c tic e , it is not possible to ad­
here s tric tly to this p rin ciple. Cost of m eals may not
be shown separately in b ills rendered fo r all-expense
tours or by sum m er camps and re s o rt hotels.1
5
P resent classifications bear a strong resemblance
to those suggested by Engel and other e a rly students
of fam ily expenditures. Changes in the scope and p u r­
poses of the surveys, as w ell as shifting emphasis in
spending, have lengthened the lis t of m ajor categories.
F o r instance, transportation, which had become the
th ird largest category by 1960-61, was included in
“ sundries” p rio r to W orld W ar I.
H is to ric a lly , it has been custom ary to c ro s s -c la ssify
expenditure data by some indicator of fa m ily composi­
tion and by income o r expenditure level. The BLS has
used annual fa m ily income as the p rim a ry fa m ily c h a r­
a c te ris tic classification in a ll of its m ajor surveys,
except fo r the 1934-36 p erio d .16 However, a m easure
of expenditure or consumption level is p re fe rre d fo r
some purposes, especially in countries where income
data are p a rtic u la rly d ifficu lt to obtain. Choice of
other fa m ily c h aracteristics fo r classifying the BLS

“Questions should be arranged lo g ically if con­
fusion and misunderstanding are to be avoided. When
inform ation is to be secured by the in terview er
method, the questions should be grouped so that con­
versation leads lo g ically fro m one question to the
next. If general and specific questions are used, the
general ones should precede specific ones. The
opening question should have human in terest appeal.
If in terest is aroused at the start, the respondent is
less lik e ly to refuse to cooperate. The opening ques­
tions should be easily answered. . . .
Those on economic status, those that re fle c t on
the knowledge o r ab ility of the respondent, those of
an intim ate personal nature are best asked after
rap p ort has been e s t a b l i s h e d with the in te r­
view ers. . . .” 12
Adherence to these United Nations guidelines is
evident in BLS schedules used fo r both the 1960-61 and
the 1950 surveys.13 Questions on liv in g arrangem ents
and housing expenditures, which were recalled easily
or fo r which records frequently were re a d ily a v a il­
able, were asked e a rly to help establish rapport be­
tween respondent and in te rv ie w e r. A t this tim e , income
fro m ro o m ers, boarders, o r ren tal p roperty was r e ­
quested ra th e r than delayed until the la tte r p a rt of the
in terview when questions on earnings and other income
w ere asked. S im ila rly , the concensus was that amounts
of debts outstanding were recalled m ore easily when
inform ation was recorded on home mortgages, auto­
m obiles, and other goods and services purchased on
c re d it, ra th e r than when assets and lia b ilitie s were
discussed generally at the v e ry end of the question­
n a ire .14

11 See p. 26.
12 United Nations, op. cit. , p. 135.
1 3 Schedules
used in 1960-61 are reproduced in exhibits,
pp. 117-91. Schedules used in U. S. Department of Labor surveys for
1901, 1918, and 1950 were reproduced in Lamale, op. cit. (mono­
graph), appendixes B and G.
*
14 See also discussion of revisions after survey in Cincinnati,
p. 17.
15 This classification principle has had general international
acceptance. See United Nations, op. cit. , p. 103.
However, the Japanese classify expenditures in two ways: By
use and by kind of commodity. Beginning in January 1953, they
have classified expenditures according to a use classification in
summing fam ily incom e and expenditures. Prior to then, they
classified expenditures according to a commodity classification. For
the sake of comparability between the two series, expenses of onethird the current sample are reclassified monthly according to the
commodity classification. See General Report on the Family In­
come and Expenditure Survey, 1946-1962 (Bureau of Statistics, Office
of the Prime Minister, Japan), p. 34.
16 In the 1934-36 study, the major classification was by total
annual unit expenditures, called econom ic level or consumption
level. This classification involved grouping the fam ilies by number
of equivalent adult m ales, based on fam ily-size scales for food,
clothing, and all other com m odities, and determining the total ex­
penditure per equivalent adult. Thus, the econom ic level was de­
fined as the annual unit expenditure for the fam ily, i. e. , its conrsumption level. See Lamale, op. cit. (monograph), pp. 32-35.

Classification and tabulation
The im mense detail obtained in expenditure surveys
req u ires careful classification into a manageable num­
b er of m ajo r expenditure categories fo r analysis. The




4

In addition to the sample fo r the lead city survey,
the Bureau submitted to the Bureau of the Budget a
proposal to select a supplementary sample of C in­
cinnati fa m ilie s fo r use in a series of experim ental
studies related to the CES. The in itia l proposal, sub­
m itted in January 1960, included the following eight
projects:

expenditure data has varied over the years, depending
on the areas and population covered by the survey and
the purposes it is to serve.

Preliminaries to 1960—61 Survey
Two im portant decisions guided the Bureau in p re ­
paring fo r its new nationwide expenditure survey. F irs t,
the Bureau set up the Consumer Expenditure Survey
Advisory Com m ittee, composed of experts from ac­
ademic and m arketing research c irc le s . M em bers
were chosen fo r the contribution they could make in
advising on consumer expenditure survey content and
coverage, sampling, evaluation and appraisal of the
re lia b ility of the data, classification of expenditure
data, tabulations and publication, and methods of mak­
ing consumption data available fo r research purposes.
The m em bers were:
D orothy S. B rady, Chairm an
Wharton Sch o o l o f Finance
and Com m erce
University o f Pennsylvania
Angus Cam pbell
Survey R esearch Center
(A ltern ate: Ida Irene H ess)
University o f Michigan
R obert Ferber
Bureau o f E conom ic and
Business R esearch
University o f Illinois
E lizabeth G ilboy
D epartm ent o f E conom ics
H arvard U niversity
Sidney H ollander, Jr .
Sidney H ollander, A ssociates

P ro je c t 1.
Long-range expenditure su rveys. The m ajor p u r­
pose of this p roject was to develop a proposal fo r
m aintaining an expenditure survey program between
m ajo r C P I revisions. Emphasis was on experim enting
with alternative methods of (a) sampling, e.g., contin­
uous panel of the same fa m ilie s , p a rtia lly overlapping
samples, and independently drawn samples in succes­
sive years; and of (b) data c o lle c tio n ,e .g ., abbreviated
schedules to identify the amount of detail on expendi­
tu res, and income and savings needed fo r classifying
fa m ilie s and estim ating the level of total consumption
expenditures.

R obert J . L am pm an
D epartm ent o f E conom ics
U niversity o f W isconsin
R uth P. M ack
N ation al Bureau o f
E conom ic R esearch, Inc.

P ro je c t 2.
L o n g -te rm incom e. The purpose of this p ro ject was
to provide data fo r use in the analysis of the p e rm a­
nent income hypothesis as it relates to the quantityincome e lasticity technique, which is basic to the
Bureau’ s methods fo r deriving quantities specified fo r
some components of its standard budgets.1 It would
7
(a) obtain income of the same or s im ila r fa m ilie s over
several years, and (b) test the possibility of obtaining
a 4 -y e a r record of income change in connection with
periodic expenditure surveys.

Jo se p h A . Pechm an
The B rookin gs In stitution

M abel A. R ollins
New Y ork State College
o f Hom e E conom ics
Cornell University
Edwin H. Sonnecken
M arket Planning C o rp o ­
ration , Division o f
C om m unication A ffiliates, Inc.

P ro je c t 3.
Annual food expenditure estim ates. This project
was designed to resolve differences between BLS and
USD A in the method of obtaining estim ates of annual
food expenditures. USD A emphasized taking account of
seasonal variatio n in food purchases, and BLS was
concerned p rim a rily with rem oving purchases of non­
food item s in food stores fro m estim ates of food ex­
penditures.

Second, the Bureau decided to conduct a lead city
survey e a rly in 1960 in preparation fo r the fu ll-s c a le
field collection to be started in 1961. The lead city
survey was conceived as a “d ry ru n ” fo r schooling
personnel in survey techniques and fo r obtaining c u r­
ren t experience in the ad m in istrative, operational, and
technical procedures in all phases of the survey, in ­
cluding tabulation and u tiliza tio n of the results.
The Standard M etropolitan Statistical A rea (SMSA)
of Cincinnati was selected fo r the lead c ity survey.
Among the c rite ria fo r choosing a lead city were the
following: It should be reasonably representative of all
urban places in te rm s of population, industrial com­
position, income, and clim ate; it should be a c ity s u r­
veyed in 1950 and p re fe ra b ly in the sample fo r the CPI;
and it should be close enough to the Bureau’s Washing­
ton headquarters to p e rm it observation and tra v e l at
reasonable expense but without in te rfe rin g with norm al
operations of the fie ld staff.




P ro ject 4.
Changes in assets and lia b ilitie s . In connection with
projects using an abbreviated schedule of expenditures
(e.g., project 1), the purpose of this p ro ject was to ex­
p erim ent with consolidating all questions on debts in
one p a rt of the schedule ra th e r than distributing them
among the expenditures sections.

17
For an explanation of the quantity-incom e elasticity tech­
nique, see Helen H. Lamale and Margaret S. Stotz, "The Interim
City Worker's Family Budget, " Monthly Labor R eview . August I960,
pp. 802-803.
5

the fa m ily ’ s cooperation on the in itia l v is it. The most
im portant of these were to:

P ro ject 5.
Weekly food expenditures and food consumption.
This p ro ject developed out of differences in the kind
of food data collected by the Bureau (expenditures)
and USD A (consumption). It was proposed to test the
operational fe a s ib ility of collecting food consumption
data along with a fu ll-s c a le expenditure survey and
to compare the two types of data.

1. Stress the confidentiality of the data.
2. Sell the respondent on the in te rv ie w e r’ s sin­
c e rity and in teg rity.
3. State at the outset that the schedule is not
b rie f, that it may take m ore than one in terview ,
but that the length and tim ing of the interview s
w ill be e n tire ly at the respondent’ s convenience.
4. Point out, if the respondent notes the size
of the schedule, that a ll parts are not applicable
to any one fam ily.

P ro ject 6.
Nonresponse on expenditure surveys. This p ro ject
proposed analysis of data collected on other projects.
The ch aracteristics of matched supplementary and
p rim a ry sample fa m ilie s could be compared d ire c tly .
Hypotheses as to the effects of actual and assumed
nonresponse could be evaluated m ore fu lly than when
only actual alternate fa m ily data are availab le.18

Actual in terview tim e averaged 8 lk hours p er as­
signment in the Cincinnati survey, compared with a
national average of 8 hours in 1950.22 Widespread
concern about the length of the in terview , in te rm s
of its effect on the refusal ra te and inaccuracy of
reporting because of fatigue, as well as the cumu­
lative effect on survey costs, added pressure to
shorten and sim plify the schedules. Some sections
w ere elim inated; others were consolidated.
M a jo r schedule changes would necessitate r e v i­
sions in machine program s, because the schedule
was precoded fo r tra n s fe rrin g data to punch cards
fo r automatic data processing. The shortage of p ro g ram ers and the tight tim e schedule fo r the nation­
wide survey resulted in a decision not to w rite a
complete set of program s fo r tabulating the lead
c ity schedules. A t this tim e , data fro m the Cincinnati
schedules were used fo r only one set of p re lim in a ry
tabulations fo r Bureau use. Hence, the lead c ity survey
fe ll short of providing the fu ll range of experience in
machine editing, machine tabulating procedures, and
publication of rep o rts developed around machine
printouts that had been anticipated.
The CES advisory com m ittee m et again in m id October 1960, to discuss m a te ria ls compiled by the
BLS staff fro m the Cincinnati experience. They also
considered proposals fo r tabulating the nationwide
data fo r publication, and alternatives fo r making it
available fo r m ore specialized research projects.
The com m ittee’ s suggestions w ill be noted in sections
describing procedures fo r the 1960-61 survey.23

P ro ject 7.
Where goods are bought. The purpose of this
p ro ject was to test the fe a s ib ility of recording the
percent of purchases fa m ilie s made in each type
of store or other outlet instead of only a check (v )
to indicate the type of outlet in which purchases
usually are made.
P ro ject 8.
R ural nonfarm su rvey. The purpose of this p ro ject
was to collect the reg u lar consumer expenditure
schedules fro m a sm all number of ru ra l nonfarm
fa m ilie s in the Cincinnati m etropolitan area to obtain
operational data in anticipation of extending the nation­
wide survey into ru ra l a reas.19
The pressures of other w ork in preparation fo r
starting the lead c ity survey in m id -M a y led the
Bureau to decide, late in F eb ru ary 1960, to postpone
p rojects 2, 3, 5, and 8. Other experim ents are r e ­
fe rre d to la te r in this re p o r t.20
The CES advisory com m ittee fir s t m et with the
Bureau staff in m id -A p ril, about the tim e fie ld work
started in C incinnati.21 Plans and objectives fo r the
fu ll-s c a le p ilot survey, as w ell as the experim ental
projects, were discussed, and the questionnaires ex­
amined in detail. One of the com m ittee’ s suggestions
fo r u tilizin g the Cincinnati experience was that the
Bureau prepare a fo rm fo r questioning the in terview ers
on th e ir experiences with fa m ilie s in the Cincinnati
sample. Acting upon this advice, the Bureau obtained
fro m the in terview ers numerous suggestions which
w ere helpful in revisin g the schedules and instruction
m anuals, as w ell as insights into ways of enlisting




18 For explanation of use of alternates, see pp. 14,16, 25, and 42.
19 See p. 7.

20 See pp. 17 and 24.
21, At the request of the Bureau o f the Budget to avoid con­
flict with the Decennial Census of Population taken for Apr. 1, 1960,
BLS did not begin field work on the lead city survey of approximately
300 fam ilies until mid-April.
22 See Lamale, op. cit. (monograph), p. 61.
23 See pp. 13, 17, 42, 43, and 69.

6

Chapter 2.

Purpose, Scope, and Organization

Multi-Purpose Survey

Joint BLS—USDA Responsibility

The 1960-61 survey was planned to collect in fo r­
mation on annual fa m ily expenditures, income, and
changes in assets and lia b ilitie s . The p rim a ry p u r­
pose was to obtain detailed expenditure data to revise
the Consumer P ric e Index fo r Urban Wage E arn ers
and C le ric a l W orkers ( C P I) .1
F ro m the outset,
however, the Bureau planned to conduct a m u lti­
purpose survey of urban fa m ilie s generally, fro m
which inform ation fo r fam ilies meeting the index
c r i t e r i a 2 would be selected. This broadened cov­
erage had been customary since the m id -1930* s,
when the im portance of consumer expenditure studies
fo r economic research and policymaking was recog­
nized. Specifically, the Bureau planned to use the CES
data: (1) To continue work it had initiated in the
1940’ s on the development of fa m ily budget standards
and in te rc ity comparisons of livin g costs, and (2) in
a broad p rogram of fa m ily livin g conditions studies.
Beyond these needs, the survey would provide data
to public and p rivate users responsible fo r developing
economic and social policy and fo r m arketing and con­
sumption economics research.
L arg ely on the basis of its 1950 experience, the
Bureau planned to resume its practice of extending
its infrequent larg e -s c a le surveys over m ore than a
single year. As already indicated, a longer period
presum ably would im prove the chances of obtaining
typical spending patterns. 3 F u rth e r, this tim e spread
had adm inistrative and operational advantages. It would
p e rm it recruitm en t and training of a s m a lle r number of
field supervisors who could be u tilized over a longer
period.
A fte r the urban survey was underway, the Bureau, in
cooperation with the U.S. Departm ent of A griculture
(USDA), extended the 1961 survey to fam ilies living in
ru ra l areas. The p rim a ry objective of widening the
scope of the survey at this tim e was to obtain con­
sumer income, expenditures, and savings data fo r
ru r a l fam ilies which could be combined with the urban
data to obtain averages fo r a ll United States consumers.
Thus, fo r the fir s t tim e since 1941, inform ation would
be available fo r a cross section of the population in
urban, ru ra l nonfarm, and ru ra l fa rm areas of the
United States; and, fo r the fir s t tim e since 1935-36,
fro m a sample large enough to p e rm it extensive cro ss­
classification of ru ra l fa m ilie s . (See chapter 7.)
However, throughout the survey— in the design of
the sample and the questionnaires, and in the p ro ­
gram ing and running of the in itia l tabulations— C P I
revisio n requirem ents and tim e schedules had p rio rity
o ver other uses of the data.

About 73 percent of the fa m ilie s in the universe fo r
the 1960-61 survey lived in urban places, 21 percent
in ru ra l nonfarm areas, and 6 percent in ru ra l fa rm
areas of the 50 States and the D is tric t of Columbia.
The CES classification of fam ilies by place of residence
follows the definitions adopted fo r the 1960 Census of
Population. The urban segment includes persons living
in incorporated or unincorporated areas of 2,500 popu­
lation or m ore and in the densely settled (urbanized)
areas im m ediately adjacent to cities of 50,000 popu­
lation or m ore. The ru ra l population, located outside
these urban areas, is subdivided into the r u r a l-fa r m
population, which constitutes a ll ru ra l residents livin g
on fa rm s , and the ru ra l-n o n fa rm population, com­
posed of the rem aining ru ra l population. A fa rm ,
according to the 1960 census, is a place of 10 acres
o r more fro m which the sale of crops, livestock
products, etc. (and government fa rm program pay­
ments) amounted to $50 o r m ore; or a place of less
than 10 acres with sales (and payments) of $250
o r m ore.
The BLS was responsible fo r collecting data from
a ll urban residents. The BLS and USD A shared this
responsibility in the ru ra l areas of Standard M e tro ­
politan S tatistical A reas (SMSA’ s), and the USDA had
sole responsibility fo r interview ing ru ra l households
in nonmetropolitan areas.




Considerations Affecting Sample Size
The selection of a new sample of cities 4 in which
p ric e s of commodities and services would be collected
was p a rt of the C P I revision project. Continued re p re ­
sentativeness of the sample fo r measuring national
changes in consumer p rices was the overriding con­
sideration. A core sample of 50 c ities fo r C P I pricing
was established as the m axim um size consistent with
anticipated resources fo r continuing the C P I pricing

1 For a detailed account of this revision, see The Consumer
Price Index: History and Techniques (BLS Bulletin 1517, 1966).
2 See appendix A.
3 The outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June 1950 gave
an inflationary stimulus to an already prosperous economy. Buying
of consumer durables, particularly, expanded faster than incom e in
the second half of 1950.
4 Although the CPI sample consists of the urban portions
of SMSA's, as w ell as urban places outside SMSA's, customarily it
is referred to as the "city" sample and the selected localities as
"cities. " This is partly due to historical usage dating from periods
when CPI data were collected in large cities only, and partly be­
cause use of the term "city" emphasizes the urban coverage of the
index. The term "city" is used in this bulletin to designate the
entire urban part of the SMSA.
7

program. Analyses of expenditure data from previous
consumer surveys indicated a much higher variability
in spending patterns among small places than among
large cities. Consequently, the CES resources available
to supplement the regular CPI sample were allocated
to urban places with populations of less than 50,000.
The 16 additional small cities, plus the core sample
of 50 CPI cities, resulted in a 66-area sample for
the urban CES.

BLS Organization for CES7
The Office of Prices and Living Conditions was the
center of BLS activities for the Survey of Consumer
Expenditures. Other parts of the Bureau provided
significant support to the survey in advisory capacities
or in specialized operations. Chief among these were
the six regional offices, the then Division of Statistical
Standards, the Division of Data Processing, and the
then Division of Publications.
Within the Office of Prices and Living Conditions,
the added activities occasioned by the survey were,
with few exceptions, superimposed on regular func­
tions of the organization. In general, the Washington
office was responsible for the planning and adminis­
tration of the survey; for maintaining liaison and
cooperating with the USDA in the rural segment of
the survey; and for the review, tabulation, analysis,
and publication of information recorded in the field.
The field staff was assigned to administrative and
operational units established in cities in the survey
sample. These temporary offices were responsible
for collecting the information specified on the sched­
ules by personal interviews with families in the sam­
ples. Operations of the field offices and their rela­
tionships to the regional offices and the Washington
headquarters are discussed in chapter 4.
The accompanying chart shows the organization of
the Office of Prices and Living Conditions in April
1960, when the field staff was interviewing families
in the lead city survey in Cincinnati. Pressures built
up by a nationwide survey of this scope pervaded the
entire office. However, some divisions8 had limited
continuing responsibilities, but their staffs served
generously in consultative and advisory capacities as
required. The Division of Consumer Prices and Price
Indexes and part of the Division of Living Conditions
Studies were in a sense customers for semifinished
products of the survey—namely, CES data on machine
input tapes ready for tabulation and arranged to their
specifications. The staffs served on various com­
mittees and reviewed manuals and other instructional
materials to make certain that their requirements
were met.
On July 1, 1961—about the half-way point in the field
collection timetable—a total 149 full-time positions
were budgeted for the CPI revision project, of which

The total number of living-quarter addresses5 in
the 1960-61 urban sample was approximately 12,000.
An additional 5,000 addresses were allocated to rural
areas. The inclusion of 275 addresses in the 1959 sur­
vey for Anchorage, Alaska, made a nationwide sample
for the combined urban and rural population of ap­
proximately 17,300 addresses. (See table 4, p. 25.)
A minimum sample size in each city was regarded
as necessary, because the Bureau publishes individual
city price indexes and budgets for a number of major
areas. Samples for cities having individual CPFs
ranged from 250 to 625 assignment addresses. The
minimum city sample was 65 addresses. The distri­
bution of assignment addresses among the 66 cities
in the urban sample is shown in appendix table B -l.
Determination of sample sizes for individual cities
was based on the cost of data collection and process­
ing, the city size, and the estimated variability in
the reported data. The 1960-61 allocation among
cities followed the pattern for the 1950 survey. That
pattern, in turn, had been developed from the Bureau’ s
1934-36 study of Money Disbursement of Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers. Tabulations of 1934-36 data
collected in 42 cities provided coefficients of varia­
tion in expenditures for major classes of goods and
services within and between cities, which served
as guides in determining the size of the samples for
the 1950 study. 6
The sample of rural families was to be large enough
and of a design that would provide separate tabulations
for families residing in (a) rural nonfarm, and (b)
rural farm areas. This subdivision of families in the
rural sample corresponded to the census classifica­
tions of demographic and economic data which would
have to be used in combining and analyzing the CES
data. The total of 5,000 addresses in the rural sample
was divided about equally between the farm and non­
farm segments. A sample of 2,500 families in each
segment was considered essentially the minimum
necessary for publishing averages for the census’
four broad regions, cross-classified by the family
characteristics contemplated in the tabulation plans.
The rural farm sample was more than double the
size that would have been allocated solely on the basis
of the population distribution.




5

For d e f in it io n , s e e p . 14.
S e e L a m a le , o p . c i t . , (m o n o g r a p h ) p p . 8 4 - 8 5 .
7
T h e o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e B ureau n o lo n g e r co r re sp o n d s t o
th at d e s c r ib e d in this c h a p t e r .
O n e c h a n g e w as th e e s ta b lis h m e n t
o f th e O f f i c e o f D ata C o l l e c t i o n a n d S u rv e y O p e r a tio n s , in 1 9 6 7 .
T h is c h a n g e w as t o im p le m e n t a r e c o m m e n d a t io n th a t th e B ureau
m a k e a b a s ic d is t in c t io n b e t w e e n f i e l d d a ta c o l l e c t i o n a n d s u rv ey
o p e r a t io n s ; a n d p ro g ra m d e v e l o p m e n t , s u rv e y s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , an d
r e s e a r c h a n d a n a lys is .
I n d ic a t e d b y s h a d in g o n ch a r t 1 , p . 10.

6

8

8

for data collection in the fiscal year beginning July
1961.
None of the above figures included full-time or parttime positions for the CPI Revision in the BLS outside
the Office of Prices and Living Conditions. These were
principally for machine tabulations and related work
in the Division of Data Processing.
In planning overall staff requirements for a nation­
wide expenditure survey, it should not be overlooked
that the USDA had staff in Washington and in the field
engaged in collecting and processing information from
the farm segment of the CES sample.

120 were filled. These positions were set up in the
Office of Prices and Living Conditions and in the field
as follows:
B u d g e te d

F ille d

T o t a l , f u l l t i m e -----------------------

1 49

120

P ro fe s s io n a l and s u p p o r t i n g -------------S e c t io n o f s t a t is t ic a l s e r v i c e s ---------F i e l d -------------------------------------------------------

70
45
34

56
37
27

In addition to this full-time staff, it was estimated
that about 85 man-years of part-time employment,
also referred to as “daily rate,” would be necessary




9

Chart 1. Organization C hart, April 1960

Shading indicates organizational units having
limited continuing responsibility for CES.




Chapter 3.

Design o f Samples

Customarily, the Bureau has selected samples of
consumer units for expenditure surveys by probability
methods. For the 1960-61 CESs separate stratified
area samples were selected for urban areas, rural
areas in metropolitan counties, and rural areas in non­
metropolitan counties. A three-stage sample design
was used within each of these three segments to obtain
a sample of consumer units representative of all
United States consumer units as defined for this survey.

Marketing, published by Bill Brothers Publications,
since data from the 1960 Census of Population had not
become available.
Several possible size groupings were considered.
It was decided to retain the 12 largest SMSA’ s then in
the CPI sample (the A stratum) as certainty selec­
tions, that is, to represent only themselves. On the
basis of the population data then being used, the lower
limit for this stratum was described as being 1,250,000.
However, when 1960 population figures became avail­
able, the cutoff for the 12 largest areas in effect be­
came 1,400,000. For the other three population strata,
it was believed that commonly used size groups would
facilitate comparison with other data. The four size
strata were defined as follows:

Urban Sample
The first stage in the urban sample was the selec­
tion of cities to be surveyed. At the second stage, a
sample of living-quarter addresses was obtained in
each city from the Comprehensive Housing Unit Survey
(CHUS) conducted by the BLSor from listings recorded
in the 1960 Census of Population and Housing (pages
13-14). In the third stage, the CES samples were
chosen as subsamples of the housing unit addresses
obtained in the CHUS or census. This double sam­
pling procedure in each city was used because of
the small CES samples to be selected.

A. SMSA’ s having a 1960 urban population of over
1.400.000.
B. SMSA’ s with urban population of 250,000 to
1.400.000.
C. SMSA’ s with urban population of 50,000 to
250.000.
D. Nonmetropolitan urban places with population
of 2,500 to 50,000.

Selection of cities1
Alaska and Hawaii posed special problems. Although
their urban population did not justify the allocation of
a sample city to each, their cities were so different
from cities in the other 48 States and from each other
that there appeared to be no alternative to making
each a separate stratum with a sample place for
each. The urban population of Alaska is concentrated
in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Ketchikan. On
the basis of probability proportional to urban popu­
lation, Anchorage was selected to represent Alaska in
the CPI and CES.3 Honolulu was designated to represent
Hawaii, since almost seven-eighths of the State’ s
urban population lived in the Honolulu SMSA.
The certainty selection of the 12 largest cities and
the allocation of one sample place each to Alaska and
Hawaii left 36 cities to represent theB,C,and D urban
strata in the remaining 48 States. These 36 were
divided among strata on the basis of the relative im­
portance of their urban population, and the estimated
annual costs of operating a pricing program in cities
of different size.

The primary sampling units (PSU’ s) were Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA’ s), as defined
by the Bureau of the Budget prior to the 1960 census,
plus individual urban places in the nonmetropolitan
segment of the United States. For New York and
Chicago, the PSU’ s were the Standard Consolidated
Areas, rather than the constituent SMSA’ s. However,
in the collection and analysis of the data, the New
York-Northeastern New Jersey Standard Consolidated
Area was divided into two subareas—New York, N.Y.,
and Northeastern New Jersey. The entire urban part
of an SMSA, including some small noncontiguous urban
places that were outside the “urbanized area,” was
included in the urban sample. (See also page 50.)
T e s t s 2 of the effectiveness of some of the more
obvious modes of stratification, such as region, size
of city, and climate indicated that no elaborate stra­
tification was justifiable for a sample of only 50 areas.
Region and size of city were selected as the most ef­
fective stratification v a r i a b l e s . The four census
regions—Northeast, North Central, South, and West—
were used for the areas. (See chart 2 page 12.) The size
stratification was of particular importance because of
differential cost factors in the pricing program to
maintain the CPI in different size cities. The measure
of size was the urban population on January 1, 1959,
as estimated in Sales Management, the Magazine of




1
T h e s e l e c t i o n o f th e c i t y s a m p le is d e s c r ib e d in g r e a te r
d e t a il b y M a r v in W ilk e r s o n in " T e c h n i c a l N o te — T h e R e v i s e d C ity
S a m p le fo r th e C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x , " M o n th ly L abor R e v i e w .
O c t o b e r 1 9 6 0 , p p . 1 0 7 8 -1 0 8 3 .
(BLS R e p r in t 2 3 5 2 . )
2
A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e t e c h n iq u e s w e r e a p p lie d t o p r ic e
m o v e m e n t s f o r t h r e e d iffe r e n t t im e p e r io d s fo r 25 ite m s a n d groups
o f it e m s ; s im ila r a n a ly s e s u t iliz e d e x p e n d itu r e d a ta fr o m th e 1 95 0
CES.
S e e W ilk e r s o n , i b i d . , p . 1 0 7 8 .
3
S e e p. 3 8 .

11




Chart 2. Survey of Consumers Expenditures, 1960-61

Location of Cities in the Urban Sam p le

UNITED STATES, by Geographic Region

★ Large cities in 1960 and 1961 samples
• Cities in 1960 sample only, and Anchorage, Alaska, 1959
o Cities in 1961 sample only

Selection of samples of consumer units

An important goal in selecting the specific cities
was to achieve good regional dispersion. After con­
siderable consultation and experimentation, the BLS
decided to utilize the procedure usually referred to as
“controlled selection.” 4 This procedure involves the
probability selection of a sample “pattern” from a set
of patterns which have been purposively established
so that, taken as a group, they give to each primary
sampling unit its proper chance of appearing in the
final sample. Each pattern is set up according to con­
trols, which may be as rigid as desired, to insure that
it satisfies selected criteria of proper distribution.
In selecting the CES sample, controls were used only
on size of city and location, with the latter control
carried to the State (or group of small States) level.

The samples of consumer units for the urban CES
were drawn as subsamples of living-quarter addresses
enumerated by the BLS in the Comprehensive Housing
Unit Surveys (CHUS) conducted in each city6 and in
the urban part of each SMSA late in the year preceding
the CES field work. The housing unit surveys were
based on area block samples designed to give propor­
tionate representation to all noninstitutional living
quarters, including nontransient accommodations in
hotels and rooming houses. Because the CHUS also
was designed for use in the CPI, the actual size
of the CHUS sample in an area was determined
primarily by the sample desired to measure price
changes in rents for the CPI and by the proportion
of renters in the area, as estimated from census
data. The total of approximately 130,000 addresses
of homeowners and renters enumerated in the CHUS
was many times larger than the CES sample: The
overall CES ratio for urban places averaged 1 out of
every 12.24 CHUS addresses. (See appendix table B -l.)

To expedite the work, the BLS established patterns
for each of the four regions of the country separately.
Briefly, the BLS procedure consisted of establishing
for each region a set of selection “patterns,” each of
which satisfied certain criteria of representation of
different sizes of cities, as well as being reasonably
well spread over the region. Probability values based
on population factors were assigned to each pattern
and one was selected by random means. Although each
pattern was set up purposively, probabilities were so
assigned that the entire set of patterns constituted a
probability system that retained the initially assigned
probabilities of selection. These were proportional to
the size of the PSU as measured by urban population.

The CHUS covered the entire urban portion of the
sample SMSA’ s including: (a) The central city or
cities, (b) the urbanized areas surrounding the central
cities, and (c) noncontiguous urban places within the
SMSA. Census maps showed the urban boundaries.
For urban places outside SMSA’ s, the CHUS covered
only the city proper.

The Bureau also selected two alternate city samples
in the event that an expanded CPI sample was desired
later. Analyses of consumer expenditure data from
previous surveys indicated a much higher variability
in expenditure patterns among small places than among
large cities. Consequently, the resources available to
supplement the regular CPI sample were allocated to
the D stratum, permitting the sample size in this
stratum to be doubled. Accordingly, the sample for
the CES included the 16 “D” stratum cities in the first
alternate sample as well as the 16 nonmetropolitan
places in the basic CPI sample.

Slightly different procedures7 were used to sample
the three urban segments inside SMSA’ s. A two-stage
design was used in the central cities: A probability
sample of blocks was chosen from Census Block
Statistics Books, and a subsample of addresses selected
within blocks. A classification of blocks by size was
incorporated in the design with variable-block (and
within-block) sampling fractions for large and small
blocks (based on number of housing units) and for
apartment and nonapartment blocks.
4
T h is m e t h o d w as r e c o m m e n d e d at th e i n i t ia l m e e t in g o f
th e CES a d v is o r y c o m m it t e e . It is d e s c r ib e d b y R o e G o o d m a n and
L e s lie Kish i n " C o n t r o ll e d S e le c t i o n — A T e c h n iq u e in P r o b a b ilit y
S a m p l i n g ," jo u rn a l o f th e A m e r ic a n S ta t is t ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n , S ep ­
t e m b e r 1 9 5 0 , pp. 3 5 0 - 3 7 2 .
For th e 1 95 0 s u r v e y , th e L a tin S quare t e c h n iq u e h a d b e e n
u se d to s e le c t th e c i t y s a m p le . S e e L a m a le , o p . c i t . (m o n o g r a p h ),
p p . 4 3 - 4 8 , a n d M a r v in K o g a n , " S e l e c t i o n o f C it ie s for C o n s u m er
E xp e n d itu re s S u r v e y , 1 9 5 0 , " M o n th ly L abor R e v i e w , A p r il 1 9 5 1 ,

Since CES interviews with urban families were to be
conducted in 2 years (in 1961, covering 1960 expend­
itures; and in 1962, covering 1961 data), it was nec­
essary to divide the sample into two balanced subsam­
ples, each r e p r e s e n t i n g the United States urban
population. In the 12 largest SMSA’ s, data were col­
lected each year from half the sample of living-quarter
addresses. Cities in the B, C, and D strata were as­
signed alternately to the two subsamples. Because of
a special price program in Alaska, the expenditure sur­
vey for Anchorage covered 1959.5 The cities in the
CES sample are listed in appendix table B -l by stratum
and survey year.




pp.

4 3 0 -4 3 6 .
(BLS R e p r in t 2 0 6 0 .
5
S e e fo o t n o t e 7 , p . 38.
B e ca u s e o f th e sh o rta g e o f
a CHUS in a ll s a m p le p la c e s w ith
(S e e p. 14.
7
Steps in s e le c t i n g th e s e

6

)
t i m e , th e BLS d id n o t c o n d u c t
p o p u la tio n s o f 2 , 5 0 0 t o 5 0 , 0 0 0 .
s a m p le s are d e s c r ib e d i n a p u b ­

lis h e d p a p e r b y M a r v in W ilk e r s o n , S a m p lin g A s p e c ts o f th e R e v is e d
CPI (U . S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r, B ureau o f L a b or S ta t is t ic s ), O c t o ­
b e r 1 9 6 4 , pp . 4 - 8 . T h e C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x : H isto ry a n d T e c h ­
n iq u e s (BLS B u lle tin 1 5 1 7 ), p p . 4 0 - 4 2 , c o n ta in s m o r e e x t e n s iv e
e x c e r p t s fr o m M r. W ilk e r s o n 's p a p e r th a n th o s e p r e s e n te d h e r e .

13

In the urban fringe, a first-stage selection of census
enumeration districts (ED’ s) was made. Since census
block statistics were not available for areas outside
central cities, the sampling of blocks (or segments)
and of addresses within blocks was based on BLS
field surveys using central sources or personal ob­
servation. An apartment block- nonapartment blockclassification was used here also.
If there were only a few urban places outside the
urbanized area of the SMSA, all were covered, using
the two-stage central city procedure. If these places
were numerous, a first-stage sample of the places
was selected with subsequent sampling of blocks
and of addresses within blocks.
Sampling fractions for each stage were selected
so that the entire urban part of the SMSA was sampled
at a uniform rate; that is, the product resulting from
the two or three sampling fractions was uniform for
all strata within the SMSA.
All separate living quarters or housing units in
sample blocks were listed by address on BLS 2549.
(See exhibit A.) A housing unit was defined as a
group of rooms or a room occupied or intended
for occupancy as separate living quarters by a family
or other group of persons living together or by a
person living alone. To be considered a housing
unit, the room or rooms must have a separate en­
trance and/or separate cooking equipment (either
installed or portable). Housing units in detached
or row houses; apartment buildings; hotels and rooming
houses where more than half the units were rented
to nontransients; and in occupied trailers, houseboats,
etc. were listed. Units in public housing projects
were listed separately for inclusion in the CES
sample,8 but units on military reservations or posts
were not listed.
To the addresses listed on BLS 2549, the indicated
in-block sampling ratio was applied. Living quarters
that fell on the ratio were classified by type of
housing unit, occupancy status, and a number of other
characteristics of the housing unit and occupants as
shown on BLS 2549.
In selecting the CES urban sample from this
larger sample, punch cards containing CHUS data
were stratified by variables known to influence con­
sumption patterns, the most important being size
of family and income level. Specifically, each livingquarter address was arrayed by type of unit and loca­
tion (i.e., in the central city or in the surrounding
urban area). The cards were then sorted by race,
family income, and number of persons in the housing
unit. From these arrays, a systematic selection was
made by choosing a random start and selecting every
n-th unit in the array, n being selected to give a
primary sample of the desired size (i.e., number




of assignment addresses) for each city shown in ap­
pendix table B -l. Then beginning with the unit im­
mediately following the first primary sample unit,
every n-th unit was drawn for a matched alternate
sample of the specified size. For the largest SMSA’ s
(stratum A), the matched pairs of primary and al­
ternate addresses were divided into two subsamples,
one subsample to be surveyd for 1960 and the other
for 1961.
For some of the smaller cities9 ( s t r a t um D),
time did not permit a CHUS before selecting the
sample for the 1960 CES. Therefore, with the co­
operation of the Bureau of the Census and observing
procedures respecting census confidentiality restric­
tions, samples of addresses were selected from
enumeration schedules used for the 1960 census.
A double sampling procedure also was used to take
advantage of census information on family char­
acteristics. Briefly, a first-stage sample of approx­
imately 500 addresses of living quarters (housing
units and group quarters) was selected by starting
with a random number and taking every n-th address.
Census information for each of the 500 addresses
selected was transcribed to cards. The cards then
were arrayed, keeping housing units separate from
group quarters (such as rooming and boarding house s,
but excluding dormitories, student nurses quarters,
etc.). Housing unit cards were arrayed by race of
occupants, and group quarter cards were arrayed
similarly. Using a random starting point and a
sampling ratio to end with 65 addresses, the starting
point card and the next card were selected, and the
process was repeated until 65 pairs of cards were
selected from the arrays of housing units and group
quarters.

Rural Sample

Selection of the rural sample followed similar
procedures. The first stage in selecting the rural
sample in metropolitan areas utilized all 34 SMSA’ s
selected for the urban sample. In the second stage,
BLS conducted a Rural Housing Unit Survey (RHUS)
which consisted of a listing of housing unit addresses
in a stratified sample of census ED’ s and a subsample
of smaller segments or blocks in the designated ED’ s.
Each housing unit was visited and classified as farm
or nonfarm, and as to whether the family included

8

U nits i n p r o je c t s w it h " a d ju s t e d r e n t, " i * e . , t e n t a d ju s te d
o n th e basis o f t e n a n t 's i n c o m e , a n d lo w e r th a n e c o n o m i c r e n t,
w e r e i n c lu d e d i n th e s a m p le fo r th e CES b u t n o t in th e CPI ren t
s a m p le .
9

14

S e e fo o t n o t e s 5 a n d 8 ,

a p p e n d ix t a b le B - l .

a fa rm o perato r.10 In the th ird stage, subsamples
of ru ra l nonfarm and ru ra l fa rm housing unit ad­
dresses were selected fro m the RHUS listing by
applying a ratio based on census data fo r ru ra l
fa rm and ru ra l nonfarm households in each stratum .
In the fir s t stage of the USDA’ s d e s i g n 1 fo r
1
the ru ra l sample in nonmetropolitan are a s , counties
were grouped by State Economic A reas into 126
strata equal in weighted counts of ru ra l fa rm and
ru ra l nonfarm dwellings, as the sample of counties
was to be used fo r both fa rm and nonfarm house­
holds. F o r each stratum , the county was chosen
at random with a probability proportional to its
weighted count. Counties were selected from 41
States. A t the second stage, within each sample
county, a selection of ru ra l segments was made
separately fro m ru ra l places (100 to 2,500 inhab­
itants) and the open country. Addresses of a ll housing
units in these segments were listed and classified
as fa rm and nonfarm. F a rm operators also were
identified. In the th ird stage, subsamples of nonfarm
and fa rm housing unit addresses were selected from
the survey listings.

c le a r that some of the group, such as m a rrie d children
livin g with parents, kept th e ir household finances
separately. N e v e r-m a rrie d children, regardless of
age, always were considered mem bers of the CU.
Even when there is an apparent separation of finances,
and the unm arried children pay a specified sum fo r
room and board, they usually do not pay prevailing
ra te s , have m ore p rivileg es than generally are ex­
tended to a room er, and sometimes are p a rtly sup­
ported by or p a rtly support the CU.
An u nm arried child living away fro m home or at
school was considered a mem ber of the CU if the
parents provided the m ajo r p a rt of his support.
Other persons supported by contributions from the
fa m ily income but not living in the housing unit
w ere considered separate CU’ s. F oster children
(i.e ., children fo r whose care the fa m ily is paid
by a w elfare agency, parent, o r other person, and
whose m ajor excpenses fo r clothing, m edical care,
etc., are not paid by the fam ily) were considered
boarders.

Definition o f Consumer Unit and
Eligibility Requirements
The survey was planned to represent a y e a r’ s
income, expenditure, and saving experience of a ll
noninstitutional consumer units livin g in the United
States. A ll persons residing at a selected sample
address were elig ib le fo r the survey except fo r
periods in the survey year that they resided in
m ilita ry posts, camps, o r reservations (except for
periods of 45 days or less fo r train in g with National
Guard or reserve units); in homes fo r the aged,
asylums, ja ils , and s im ila r “long-stay” institutions;
or in foreign countries (except on vacations or busi­
ness trip s ).
The fa m ily or consumer unit (CU) re fe rs to: (1)
A fa m ily of two persons o r m ore usually living
together who pooled th e ir income and drew fro m a
common fund fo r th e ir m ajor item s of expense, or
(2) a single consumer— who is finan cially independent
of any fa m ily group. The single consumer (or oneperson fam ily) may be living either by him self in
a separate housing unit; as a room er in a private
home, lodging house, o r hotel; or sharing a unit.
With ra r e exceptions, the m em bers of a fam ily
are related by blood, m a rria g e , o r adoption. Groups
of unrelated persons who share both income and
expenses seldom a re found. In classifying persons
into CU’ s, related persons livin g in one housing
unit were considered as one CU unless it was v ery




15

If m ore than one fa m ily o r single consumer lived
in a housing unit and shared household excpenses but
did not pool th e ir incomes, they were counted as
separate CU’ s. A fa m ily m em ber working away from
home during the survey year but contributing regu­
la r ly to the pooled fa m ily fund and returning home
as his work p erm itted was treated as a m em ber of
the consumer unit unless he was livin g in a m ilita ry
camp or reservation.
Interview s fo r the 1960 and 1961 CES were con­
ducted in the spring and summer of 1961 and 1962,
respectively. (See table 2, page 20.) Interview ers
asked fo r excpenditures, income, and savings fo r the
calendar year 1960 or 1961, and recorded this in fo r­
mation fo r the fa m ily as it was composed during
that y e a r, i.e ., the “reconstructed fa m ily .” 12
In
about 7 of 8 cases ( appendix B -1 3 ), the composi­
tion of the fa m ily (or CU) did not change during
the survey year. The rem aining fa m ilie s had p a rtyear mem bers (i.e ., persons who joined or left
the fa m ily during the survey year) because of m a r­
riag es, b irths, deaths, m ilita ry duty, o r other reasons.
Income and excpenditures fo r p a rt-y e a r mem bers were
recorded fo r that portion of the year they were in
the fa m ily and were combined with inform ation for
the fu ll-y e a r mem bers of the consumer unit.

1
0

T h e s e c l a s s ific a t io n s , w h ic h w e r e o n th e basis o f cen su s
d e fin it io n s , e n a b le d BLS t o r e fe r addresses o f a ll h o u se h o ld s m e e t in g
th e cen su s d e f i n i t i o n o f fa rm o p e r a t o r o r fa rm r e s id e n t t o th e US D A
fo r in c lu s io n in th e ru ral s a m p le .
(S e e e x h ib it B. )
11
S e e C o n s u m e r E xp en d itu res a n d I n c o m e , R u ra l Farm P o p ­
u la t io n , U n it e d S ta te s, 1961 (U . S. D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r ic u lt u r e , A g r i­
c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , 1 9 6 5 , C o n s u m e r E xp en d itu re S u rv e y R e ­
p o rt 5 ), p p . 8 - 9 .
12
For a d e s c r ip t io n o f th e e f f e c t o f th is d e f in it io n o n f a m ily
size a n d i n c o m e , s e e pp . 5 2 - 5 4 .

the m aster assignment was not at home; (4) the r e ­
spondent at the m aster assignment refused o r was

P a rt-y e a r consumer units, i.e ., units containing
no m em ber who m et the e lig ib ility requirem ents
fo r the en tire calendar ye a r, were included in the
1960-61 survey. Examples of p a rt-y e a r consumer
units are a newly m a rrie d couple, if both were
m em bers of other CU’ s during the re s t of the su r­
vey y e a r;13 o r a fa m ily returning to the United States
a fte r livin g abroad p a rt of the year. Inform ation fo r
p a rt-y e a r consumer units was obtained fo r special
analytical re s e a rc h ,14 but was not included in the

unable to give enough inform ation to complete the
nonresponse section (i.e ., item s 4 through 13) of
the BLS 2648-A .
The alternate was not used if: (1) The interview
had progressed beyond the Household Record and
the respondent had answered some questions in the
basic schedule (BLS 2648B); (2) the respondent had
answered item s 4 through 13 of the Household Record;
(3) the respondent at the m aster assignment was
ineligible; or (4) two CU’ s o r m ore w ere found at
the m aster assignment address, and a schedule was
obtained fro m one of them.
The p rim a ry purpose of this “matched altern ate”
procedure, which had been used in the 1950 survey,
was to cut down the high rate of a ttritio n that is
typical of the complex consumer expenditure surveys
while maintaining the p ro p e r representation of fa m ilies
having specified ch aracteristics. This does not reduce
any bias which may be associated d ire c tly with
nonresponse.1
5

survey reports.

Substitution Procedures
As explained e a r lie r , a “matched altern ate” was
drawn fo r every address in the p rim a ry or m aster
sample. F ield supervisors assigned alternate ad­
dresses to the in terview ers on the basis of inform ation
the in terview er had recorded on the back of the
Household Record F o rm , BLS 2648A (page 116) used
fo r the address in the m aster sample. The alternate
assignment was used only: (1) If the in te rv ie w e r could
not locate the address of the m aster assignment even
a fte r additional identifying inform ation had been ob­
tained fro m Washington; (2) if, a fte r one v is it, the
livin g quarters at the m aster assignment were vacant;
(3) if, after at least two v is its , 1 or 2 days apart
and at d ifferen t hours of the day, the respondent at




13
c l u d e d as
y e a r p r io r
14
b y s u rv e y

It s h o u ld b e n o t e d th a t e a c h p e rs o n w o u ld h a v e b e e n in ­
a p a r t -y e a r m e m b e r o f th e s e f a m ilie s fo r t h e part o f th e
t o th e ir m a r r ia g e .
S e e p . 5 4.
T h e d is t r ib u t io n o f p a r t -y e a r c o n s u m e r units
area is s h o w n in a p p e n d ix t a b le B - 2 .

15
For e x a m p l e , f a m ilie s in w h ic h b o th h u sban d a n d w ife
w o r k m a y b e h a rd er t o c o n t a c t , e v e n a fte r r e p e a t e d v is its , th a n
th o s e in w h ic h o n ly o n e m e m b e r is e m p lo y e d . I f th e r e is a t e n d ­
e n c y fo r f a m i l i e s o f th e la tt e r t y p e t o b e s u b stitu te d fo r m u l t i e a rn e r f a m i l i e s , th e re s p o n s e r a te m a y b e i m p r o v e d w it h o u t a
c o r r e s p o n d in g r e d u c t io n o f the n o n re sp o n se b ia s a risin g fr o m dis­
s im ila r c o n s u m p t io n pattern s o f th e t w o grou p s.

16

Chapter 4.

Data Collection

Reporting Forms
The reporting form s fo r the Survey of Consumer
Expenditures, 1960-61, w ere developed fro m the long
experience of both the Bureau and theU .S. Departm ent
of A gricu ltu re (USDA) in collecting inform ation on
fam ily accounts. Revision of the three schedules
used in the 1959 pilot survey began im m ediately upon
completion of data collection in Cincinnati. Modified
form ats used in the 1960-61 nationwide survey were
adopted after consultation with the CES advisory
com m ittee, the Office of Statistical Standards of
the Bureau of the Budget, USDA, other government
agencies, and some p rivate organizations planning
to use the CES results in th e ir research program s.
F acsim iles of the principal reporting form s used
in the nonfarm survey 1 appear in exhibits D, E , and F .

Household Record Sheet— BLS 2648A
In terview ers used this two-page fo rm to open all
interview s. Inform ation recorded on it served to:
(1) Determ ine the fa m ily ’ s e lig ib ility fo r the survey,
(2) “reconstruct” the consumer unit as it was com­
posed in the survey y e a r, and (3) classify “nonresponse” fa m ilies by selected ch aracteristics.

Annual Income, Savings, and Expenditures
Record— BLS 2648B
This schedule was used fo r each eligible consumer
unit w illin g to p articipate in the survey. It form ed
the basic fram ew o rk of the survey and underwent the
most extensive p o s t-1959 revision. Revisions were
aim ed at shortening the in terview tim e , rem oving
am biguities in questions and responses, im proving
sequence and arrangem ents of sections, and reducing
the 2648B’ s bulk.
Several types of questions were removed en tirely
o r consolidated. Questions about the type and location
of stores at which fa m ilie s purchased various goods
and services were removed. It was decided that such
inform ation, needed to select a sample of outlets fo r
collecting p rice inform ation fo r the C P I, should be
collected in a separate s u rv e y 2 in o rd er to shorten
the CES interview . So-called “Standard Questions”
on the value of goods or services given to or r e ­
ceived fro m persons outside the CU and changes in
amounts owed on installm ent o r other c re d it purchases
w ere consolidated and appeared in only four places
on the schedule (e.g ., on page 17) instead of after
each expenditure section. Unbound duplicates of some




sections of the schedule (e.g., clothing and automobiles)
were provided fo r interview ing large fam ilies or
fa m ilie s owning m ore than two cars, e tc ., ra th e r
than providing space in each schedule fo r maximum
anticipated needs.
In the revision, schedule content was expanded in
only two places. Questions on seasonal variations
in food expenditures were added to the schedule in
section J, question 8, page 18, to assist the respondent
in a rriv in g at a b etter estim ate of annual food ex­
penditures. A question on fa m ily income 2 years
preceding the survey year was added in section W,
p. 58. On balance, the revisions cut schedule 2648B
fro m 76 to 59 pages. A ll pages ra re ly applied to a
single fam ily.
Questions on annual expenditures, income., and
savings in 2648B were grouped in 23 m ajor sections.
Inform ation on fa m ily composition throughout the year,
livin g arrangem ents, and a ll transactions relatin g to
owned or rented housing—including receipts fro m
room ers and boarders—were recorded in the firs t
six sections. Twelve sections on expenditures, in ­
terspersed with four sets of “Standard Questions,”
followed. D etailed checklists 3 w ere used to obtain
expenditures fo r specific item s in the m ajo r categories
of fuel, light, and water; miscellaneous household
expenses; housefurnishings and equipment; food; cloth­
ing; medical care; personal care; recreatio n , reading,
and education; transportation; and
miscellaneous
fa m ily expenditures. The rem aining five sections were
devoted to income fro m earnings and other sources;
taxes, insurance, gifts and contributions, and savings.
Throughout the design and arrangem ent of the
schedule, one goal prevailed. The phrasing and se­
quencing of the questions were to enable the in te r­
vie w e r to produce complete and accurate reports of
the fa m ily ’ s accounts, in the shortest possible tim e
and with the m inim um inconvenience to the fa m ily.
Hence, after obtaining a description of the fa m ily and
its living arrangem ents—subjects easily recalled and

1

F or th e 1961 ru ra l fa r m s u r v e y , th e U SD A u sed th e H o u s e ­
h o ld R e c o r d S h e e t (2 6 4 8 A )
and a m o d if i e d v e r s io n o f th e A n n u a l
R e c o r d (2 6 4 8 B ).
T h e m o d if i c a t i o n s c o n s is t e d o f a d d itio n s t o th e
h o u s in g s e c t io n s t o c o v e r fa r m r e a l e s ta t e ; t o th e i n c o m e s e c t io n s
t o o b t a in in fo r m a t io n o n p r o d u c t io n e x p e n se s and assets o f fa r m
o p e r a to r s ; and to th e f o o d s e c t io n t o r e c o r d d e t a il o n q u a n titie s o f
h o m e - p r o d u c e d f o o d fo r f a m i l i e s e s tim a t in g th a t th e v a lu e o f s u ch
f o o d e x c e e d e d $ 1 0 0 . C o d e s fo r t a b u la t in g th e a d d it io n a l in fo r m a tio n
w e r e a ss ign e d so th at in th e f i n a l t a b u la t io n s th e ru ra l f a r m , u rb a n ,
and ru ral n o n fa r m a v e ra g e s w e r e c o m p a t i b l e .
T h e w e e k ly fo o d
s c h e d u le (2 6 4 8 C ) w a s n o t u se d in in t e r v ie w in g fa r m f a m i l i e s ,
S e e T h e C o n s u m e r P r ic e I n d e x :
H is to ry an d T e c h n iq u e s ,

2
3

BLS B u lle tin 1 51 7 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 6 0 .
S c h e d u le 2 64 8 c o n t a in e d a b o u t 1 ,8 0 0
ite m s f o r w h ic h s e p a ra te f a m i l y e x p e n d itu r e s
O p , c i t , , B u lle tin 1 5 1 7 ,

17

p.

46.

" l i n e i t e m s ," i , e , ,
c o u ld b e o b t a in e d .

generally reported fre e ly —the in terview er moved on
to “sh elter” expenditures 4 and related home financ­
ing data. This inform ation is generally of two types:
(1) R ecurrent payments, such as fo r ren t, mortgages,
taxes, or u tility b ills ; and (2) irre g u la r, but sometimes
la rg e , outlays fo r home re p a irs or im provem ents. A l­
though the homeowner ship sections contained d ifficu lt
conceptual distinctions, requiring painstaking training
of the in terview ers about various types of mortgages
and insurance, the respondent usually was inform ed
o r could consult records about his p a rtic u la r housing
payments.
The section on housefurnishings and equipment was
the fir s t of the detailed checklists that requested not
only total expenditures, but also quantities bought and
p rices paid fo r numerous item s. These details, r e ­
quested fo r homefurnishings and also fo r clothing
item s, were included to fa c ilita te re c a ll and to provide
specific quantity and p rice inform ation needed to
determ ine C P I weights and the content of the BLS
budgets fo r d ifferen t fa m ily types.
The section on food (J), which followed the housing
sections, illu s tra te s how the interview ing and recording
techniques w ere planned to overcome difficulties
peculiar to p a rtic u la r types of purchases. F o r example,
a fa m ily ’ s annual food expenditure custom arily was
estim ated by the housewife, who recalled the usual
weekly or monthly expenditure and adjusted it to an
annual total, by allowing fo r variations because of
changing fa m ily mem bership, vacations, holidays, and
other special occasions affecting the food b ill. The
widening v a rie ty of merchandise in food stores of the
superm arket type leads to overestim ates of food ex­
penditures because of the inclusion of nonfood item s.
On the other hand, underreporting may re s u lt from
fa ilu re to re c a ll expenditures fo r food delivered to
the home o r purchased in special m arkets. The BLS
and USDA collaborated to adjust Section J fro m the
comparable section of the 1950 schedule. That version
had been designed to obviate shortcomings in e a rlie r
schedules, such as those mentioned.

previous surveys. A feature introduced in 1950 to
overcome the fa m ily ’ s reluctance to re p o rt total hold­
ings was therefore repeated in the 1960-61 schedules.
The fir s t page of section V , Changes in F a m ily Assets
and L ia b ilitie s , was designed as a te a r sheet on which
the fa m ily recorded the aggregates needed to compute
the annual changes recorded on the facing page. If they
p re fe rre d , respondents could therefore te a r out the
f ir s t page of section V , complete it in p riv a te , and
keep it a fte r they had reported the changes over the
year to the in terview er.
The growing number of employed wives and of
husbands who worked at m ore than one job, as w ell
as the increasing prevalence of stock ownership and
other sources of income through a wide range of
fa m ilie s caused the Bureau, in 1960-61, to repeat
the 1950 practice of recording income inform ation
by fa m ily m em ber and source. 6
Some expenditures
also were recorded fo r individual mem bers (e.g.,
clothing, m edical c are, transportation, and m eals
away from home), to provide sex and age detail
needed fo r the C P I o r budgets and to im prove re c a ll.

Food and Other Items Purchased in a 7-Day
Period— BLS 2648C
A t the completion of the food section on the annual
expenditure reco rd , the in terview er fille d in sched­
ule C fo r C U ’ s re g u la rly buying food to prep are at
home. This supplementary questionnaire, involving
only a 7-day re c a ll, was designed to get ite m detail
on food and related purchases in the week preceding
the interview . The approximate periods in which
schedule C ’s were collected in each survey area
a re shown in appendix table B -2 , page 82.
The
Bureau used this detail p rim a rily in deriving C P I
food w eights.7

4
5

S e e G lo s s a r y , p. 2 0 7 .
F or e s tim a te s o f th e w e a lt h ( i . e . , v a lu e o f assets m in u s
d e b ts s e c u r e d b y th e s e assets) o f in d iv id u a l c o n s u m e r s , s e e D o r o th y S.
P r o je c t o r an d G e r tr u d e S . W e is s , S u rv e y o f F in a n c ia l C h a r a c t e r is t ic s
o f C o n s u m e r s . B oard o f G o v e rn o r s o f th e F e d e r a l R e s e r v e S y s te m ,
W a s h in g to n , D . C . , A u g u st 1 9 6 6 .
E liz a b e th W a ld m a n , " M a r it a l and F a m ily C h a r a c t e r is t ic s
o f W ork ers, M a rch 1 9 6 6 ,"
M o n th ly L abor R e v i e w ,
A p r il 1 9 6 7 ,
p p. 2 9 -3 6 .
7
O p . c i t . , B u lle tin 1 5 1 7 ,
p. 50.
M a il c o l l e c t i o n o f
a d d it io n a l in fo r m a t io n fo r s e a s o n a l a d ju s tm e n t o f w e e k l y f o o d e x ­
p e n d itu re s is d e s c r ib e d o n p. 27.
A l l a v e r a g e s o f 1 9 6 0 -6 1 f o o d e x p e n d itu r e s p u b lis h e d b y th e
B ureau in its b a s ic s ta t is t ic a l rep orts o n C o n s u m e r E xp e n d itu re s and
I n c o m e , 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 , r e fe r t o th e a n n u al d a ta r e c o r d e d in s e c t io n J.
T h e N a tio n a l In d u strial C o n f e r e n c e B oard has p u b lis h e d B ureau t a b ­
u la tio n s o f w e e k ly e x p e n d itu r e s in 1961 and 1 9 6 2 r e c o r d e d o n s c h e d ­
u le
2648C
fo r n o n fa r m f a m i l i e s , c la s s if ie d b y s e le c t e d f a m i l y
c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ,
in E x p e n d itu re Patterns o f th e A m e r ic a n F a m ily
(1 9 6 5 ).

S im ila rly , the section fo r recording changes in
fa m ily assets and lia b ilitie s , other than those reported
in the expenditures sections, was adapted to the special
problem s in collecting such data. Repeatedly, in p re 1950 surveys, respondents had been reluctant to divulge
th e ir total assets or lia b ilitie s . Since the Bureau
needed only the net change over the ye a r in assets
and lia b ilitie s to complete the evaluation of the annual
fa m ily accounts, the Bureau concentrated on the change
ra th e r than the level of assets5 to m inim ize the ris k
of refusals to complete the schedules. The complex­
itie s of estim ating net changes accurately without
recording total holdings at the beginning and end of
the year had contributed to serious underreporting in




6

18

Other forms

Staff requirements

In addition to the three form s used in questioning
the fam ily, two other form s were prepared fo r
each CU.
A sum m ary sheet, BLS 2648D, was developed to
allocate the various section totals in 2648B to the
expenditures, income, or a s s e t/lia b ilitie s accounts.
Thus, the balance between the receipts and dis­
bursements as reported by the fa m ily was d eter­
mined. The field editor fille d in the “D ” sheets from
the 2648B’ s turned in by the in terview er. In itia lly ,
schedule D was used by the field supervisor in
evaluating the completeness and consistency of entries
on 2648B and in determ ining whether the schedule
should be reassigned to the in te rv ie w e r to obtain
additional inform ation fro m the fa m ily . (See also

Staff was needed at three levels of fie ld operatio
outside the Washington headquarters: (1) Senior s u r­
vey supervisors in the regional offices, (2) field
survey supervisors who set up and were in charge
of tem porary offices in each survey are a , and (3)
in te rv ie w e rs , re fe rre d to as “daily ra te s ” because
they were tem porary employees hired lo c a lly fo r
a few weeks to in terview fa m ilie s in th e ir city.
Senior Survey Supervisors. The regional price
supervisor in each region assumed the added r e ­
sponsibilities of senior survey supervisor fo r the
CES. A ll had participated in the 1950. expenditure
survey eith e r as senior supervisor o r survey super­
viso r. Since the fie ld collection was to be spread
over 2 years and assistance was available fro m the
Washington headquarters, the senior supervisory staff
needed to be expanded in only two regions.
F ield Survey Supervisors. The only field super­
visors with experience in conducting a CES were
the few who had participated in the Cincinnati lead
c ity survey. Estim ates of requirem ents fo r super­
v is o ry staff w ere based on the decision to spread
data collection over 2 years (1961 and 1962) and
to begin collection as e a rly as possible each year,
the production rate in Cincinnati, and the number
of assignment addresses in each survey area. (See
appendix table B -2 .)
F o r technical and adm inistrative reasons, it was
advantageous to begin data collection as e a rly in
1961 or 1962 as possible. Technically, it was de­
sirable to in terview fa m ilie s close to the end of
the survey ye a r, 1960 or 1961, in o rd er to reduce
e rro rs of re c a ll and to take advantage of most U.S.
fa m ilie s ’ preoccupation with income and expenditures
fo r income tax reports to be filed in the spring. Ad­
m in is tra tiv e ly , an e a rly s ta rt increased the number
of surveys or reassignments each supervisor could
handle in a year. Holding the number of supervisors
to a m inim um and reassigning them added to the
u nifo rm ity of the collection and field editing of the
schedules and reduced the cost of re c ru itin g and
train in g field supervisors.
F ield supervisors w ere selected fro m three sources:
Staff re g u la rly engaged in fie ld collection of p rice
data fo r the C P I and other BLS p ricin g program s
and who had participated in the CES in Cincinnati;
supervisors of the Bureau’ s Comprehensive Housing
U nit Surveys conducted late in 1960; and new p ro ­
fessional personnel recruited by the BLS regional
offices. New employees were selected fro m U.S.

pages 32 and 34.)
Assignment Record— PB 715, served a dual purpose:
To furnish a record fo r cost accounting purposes of
the tim e required fo r completing and fie ld editing
a schedule; and to provide inform ation fo r evaluating
the quality of the data reported by the respondent.
The in terview er made entries on this fo rm after
each v is it to an assignment address.

Field Operations
Success in a survey using the personal interview
technique requires w orkers who can enlist the co­
operation of a high proportion of the individuals or
fa m ilie s approached and who can reco rd responses
with precision, speed, and accuracy. T h e re fo re , the
Bureau made great efforts to select and tra in the
la rg e staff needed fo r this key phase of the CES and
to see that the Washington headquarters and the
regional offices gave the field personnel ample and
sustained support.
Since the Bureau had had no funds fo r conducting
expenditure surveys a fte r completion of the 1950
operations, it approached the Cincinnati lead city
survey fo r 1959 with only a nucleus of staff with
field experience. The Branch of Enum erative Surveys
worked closely with the BLS regional offices in Boston,
New Y ork, A tlanta, Chicago, and San F ran cisco 8 in
recru itin g , training, assigning, and supervising the
staff necessary fo r a nationwide survey. In Wash­
ington, these functions were divided between the
Branch’ s Section of F ield Operations, which admin­
istered the field data collection fo r the CES and
other program s of the office, and the Section of
Technical Train ing . That section ascertained training
needs, developed training m a te ria ls , and conducted
train in g courses. (See ch art 1, page 10.




8

T h e C le v e la n d r e g io n a l o f f i c e w as e s ta b lis h e d a fte r CES
f i e l d o p e r a t io n s h ad b e g u n ; in J u ly 1 96 7 fu n c t io n s o f th e C le v e la n d
o f f i c e w e r e tra n sfe rre d to K ansas C i t y .

19

C iv il Service Commission reg isters of persons who
had passed the Federal Service Entrance Examination
qualifying them at the GS-5 or GS-7 level.
T h irty -tw o supervisors were trained fo r the fie ld
operations that began e a rly in 1961. Late in 1961,
15 new employees were hired and trained to replace
losses and to build up the supervisory staff fo r the
1962 collection.
The number of fie ld supervisors fo r the 2 years is
sum m arized in table 2. In February 1961, tem po rary
field offices were opened in the largest SMSA’ s.
Thus, in Round 1, the e n tire supervisory staff was
distributed among 12 Stratum A cities (population of
1.400.000 and over) and 3 Stratum B cities (250,0001.400.000 population). Five field supervisors were
assigned to fie ld offices in New Y o rk C ity (3) and
N ew ark, N .J. (2), with responsibility fo r 563 addresses
in the New Y ork-N orth eastern N.J. Standard Con­
solidated A rea. Two supervisors were assigned to
each of the other “A ” and “B ” cities which had sam ­
ples of 187 to 250 addresses. (See appendix table
B -2 .) Each supervisor set up a separate office and,
except fo r in tervie w e r training, operated independ­
ently, having complete responsibility fo r half the
sam p le.9
Toward the end of A p ril, the reassignment of field
supervisors to Round 2 cities began. This included
the rem aining “A * and “B ” c itie s , a ll “C ” c itie s ,
and 13 of the 16 “D ” cities. In late June, three
supervisors began th ird assignments in the re m a in ­
ing “D ” cities. Only one supervisor was assigned
to each “C ” and “D ” city which had samples of
160 and 65 addresses, respectively.

A s im ila r assignment pattern was followed fo r
the second y e a r’ s fie ld operations. However, the
15 new supervisors had been brought to Washington
fo r training late in 1961. Both staff and m aterials
were in a g reater state of readiness fo r the 1962
fie ld operations than they had been in the previous
year. Thus, supervisors began opening offices e a rly
in January 1962— about a month sooner than in 1961.
Sixteen field supervisors rem ained throughout the
2 years and contributed substantially to the continuity
and u niform ity of data collection fo r the CES. The
m a jo rity of supervisors completed two to four s u r­
veys each, but four conducted five surveys and one
conducted six surveys over the 2 -y e a r period. Six
completed one survey. In 1961, tw o-thirds of the
supervisors were men, but in 1962, replacem ents
pulled the proportion down to less than half.
Local In te rv ie w e rs . H is to ric a lly , the BLS has used
local people as CES in terview ers. The m a jo rity of
these s h o rt-tim e “daily ra te ” w orkers have been
housewives or re tire e s . The number of “daily ra te s ”
needed in each city was determ ined by the number
of survey assignments; the most effective superviso rin terview er ratio; and the production rate in Cincinnati.
In 1960-61, the BLS used the same method of r e ­
cru itin g “d aily ra te s ” which it had developed in co­
operation with the U.S. Employment Services (USES) fo r
the 1950 survey, but on a wider and m ore successful
9
In 1 9 5 0 , a ss ig n m e n ts w e r e m a d e t o a t e a m o f o n e s u p e r ­
v is o r and o n e e d ito r t r a in e d in W a s h in g to n . T h e m a x im u m n u m b e r
o f assign m en ts fo r a o n e - s u p e r v i s o r - e d i t o r t e a m w as 2 5 0 . A s in g le
t e a m w as u sed in a l l b u t 10 c i t i e s , w h e re th e s a m p le w as t o o la r g e
f o r o n e t e a m t o c o m p l e t e th e s u rv e y in an a c c e p t a b l e t im e spa n .
S e e L a m a le , op* c i t . (m o n o g r a p h ), p . 6 1 .

Table 2. Span of data collection period for 1960-61 C S urban sample,1 by population stratum
E
D a te ^

N um ber o f—

S u rv e y y e a r and
p o p u la t io n stratum

Tnt-nl I 9 6 0
1 (J Ldi.| 1 y Uv
S tratu m A , R o u n d
S tratu m A , R o u n d
S tratu m B, R o u n d
S tratu m B, R o u n d
S tratu m C , R o u n d
S tratu m D , R o u n d

S u rv ey
c o m p le te d

C o lle c t io n

----——
---------— ------------------------

F e b ru a ry 2 2, 1961
M a y 17, 1961
F e b ru a ry 24, 1961
M a y 9 , 1961
M a y 1, 1961
M a y 4 , 1961

June 2, 1961
July 1 4 , 1961
M a y 5, 1961
Ju ly 19, 1961
July 2 8 , 1961
A u g u st 18, 1961

T o t a l , 1 9 6 1 3 .............. S tratu m A , R o u n d 1 ---------S tratu m B, R o u n d 2 ---------S tratu m C , R o u n d 1 ---------S tratu m C , R o u n d 2 ---------S tratu m D , R o u n d 2 ----------

F ie ld

1
2
1
3
2
5
16

24

2
6
4
5

16

M a y 10, 196 2
A u g u st 14, 1 962
A p r il 19, 1 962

13

27

Ju ly 14, 1 96 2
A u g u st 28, 1 962

3
16

16

6
2

5 8 45
2* 5 67
188
750
5 00
8 00
1 ,0 4 0

60 8 5
,

40
Jan uary 17, 1 9 6 2
A p r il 5 , 1 96 2
Jan uary 2 6 , 1 96 2
A p r il 2 4 , 1 96 2
A p r il 18, 1 96 2

A s s ig n addresses

39

w
1
2
1
2
2
2

S u rv ey
areas

1
2
4
6

2, 7 4 5
1, 5 00
3 20
480
1 ,0 4 0

1 D o e s n o t in c lu d e A n c h o r a g e , A la s k a , s u r v e y e d in sprin g 1 9 6 0 .
T h is in fo r m a t io n fo r in d iv id u a l su rv e y areas is sh ow n in a p p e n d ix t a b le B - 2 .
C o n c u r r e n t ly w ith th e 1961 u rba n s u rv e y , su p ervisors a lso h a n d le d 4 6 5 rural n o n fa r m a ssign m e n ts in ­
s id e S M S A 's in th e 1961 s a m p le , d is tr ib u te d as f o l l o w s :
S tratum A ( 1 7 2 ) ; S tratu m B ( 1 4 7 ) ; an d S tratum C ,
R o u n d 1 ( 5 9 ) and R o u n d 2 ( 1 0 7 ) .
F igu re s in this t a b l e d o n o t c o v e r 271 ru ra l n o n fa r m a ss ign m e n ts in s id e
S M S A ’ s in S trata B an d C in th e 1 9 6 0 s a m p le .




20

its assignment might be reassigned to another super­
viso r so that m ore efficient use of in terview er tim e
resulted. On the average, supervisors gave 10.5 as­
signments to each “daily ra te ” in te rv ie w e r in 1960-61.
The Bureau’ s long experience has indicated that
women usually are b etter qualified than men fo r
collecting fa m ily purchase data (much of which is
obtained fro m the housewife). They also are m ore
available fo r s h o rt-te rm employment. In the 1960-61
survey, only about 10 percent of the in terview ers
w ere men.

scale. In 1950, the USES Aptitude Test B attery B -2 1 0 ,
consisting of five tests fro m the General Aptitude
T est B attery, was set up, and norms fo r the battery
w ere based on aptitude scores fo r four general ap­
titudes. These were: (1) General intelligence, (2) verbal
a b ility , (3) num erical ab ility, and (4) c le ric a l p e r­
ception. 1 The USES T est B attery B -210 had been
0
used by State and local employment offices fo r all
types of interview ing requests since 1950. The scoring
procedure had been refined in a decade’ s use.
In advance of opening an office, the BLS regional
supervisor notified the local State Employment Service
of the starting date fo r the survey, the approximate
number of in terview ers required, and the estim ated
duration of th e ir employment. Also, the supervisor
asked the employment office to test applicants whom
the CES field supervisors could interview in the
fir s t week of survey operations in a city. F o r ex­
am ple, fo r the Cincinnati survey, the Ohio employ­
ment office was asked to supply 60 applicants fo r
interview s fro m whom the CES supervisors could
select 35 to 40 “d aily ra te s .” Among other things
discussed during the interview were the applicants’
a vailab ility fo r 6 to 8 weeks, th e ir willingness to
work irre g u la r hours and th e ir willingness to tra v e l
to specified addresses in the survey sample. There
w ere no specific educational requirem ents fo r the
in terview ers, but, because of the com plexity of the
survey, some fo rm al education beyond the high school
level was desirable. Applicable types of experience
were social work, teaching, survey w ork, home
economics, economics, and statistics.

Training
The two levels of fie ld supervisors m et in Wash­
ington fo r train in g at in tervals throughout the CES.
T h e ir training was planned around the following series
of manuals and other m ate ria ls developed fo r the
CES by the Section of Technical Training:

T ra in in g G u id e
In te rv ie w e rs ’ C o lle c t io n M anu al
In te rv ie w e rs ’ W o r k B o o k
In te rv ie w e rs ’ W o r k B o o k (A n s w e r
B o o k ) an d S a m p le S c h e d u le s
F ie ld E d itin g M an u al

The rate of pay fo r “daily ra te s ” was $14.48 fo r
and 8-hour day, o r $1.81 an hour fo r each hour
worked. In terview ers were never required to work
m ore than 40 hours a week, but might work less
because of difficu lties in scheduling appointments
with respondents.
Each Cincinnati supervisor had supervised only
six o r seven in terview ers and had only 50 assign­
ment addresses. How ever, it was evident that they
could manage m ore in te rv ie w e rs .1 Balanced against
1
the supervisors’ capacity was the knowledge that
there are measurable lim its to the number of in te r­
views that a field agent can handle successfully. 12
F o r 1960-61, supervisors in most m etropolitan
areas (Stratum A , B, or C) had between 80 and
125 assignments and were p erm itted to h ire as
many as 15 in terview ers. H irings depended some­
what on the supply of qualified applicants, and most
supervisors started train in g classes with approxi­
m ately 12 in terview ers. In “D ” c itie s , having 65
assignments, 5 to 7 in terview ers w ere adequate.
Where there were two supervisors or m ore in a
c ity , in terview ers in the fir s t office to complete




21

F ilm S tr ip “ S o m e H e lp fu l
G u id e s t o In te r v ie w in g ”
F la n n e l G r a p h B o a r d and
C h a ra cte rs ( f o r use in
te a c h in g fa m ily c o m p o s i t i o n )
F ie ld S u p e rv is o rs ’ M a n u al

Senior Survey Supervisors. The regional super­
viso rs attended a b rie fin g conference in September
1960 to discuss changes in survey procedures and
m aterials on the basis of the Cincinnati experience,
and to determ ine and coordinate tim etables fo r su­
pervision of the upcoming surveys. Following com­
pletion of field operations in the 39 survey areas in
the fir s t y e a r’ s pro gram , senior supervisors returned
to Washington fo r a c ritiq u e to evaluate the work of
the fie ld supervisors assigned in th e ir respective
regions and to appraise the management of the s u r­
veys in term s of production rates and the s im ila rity
and d is s im ila rity of problems encountered by in ­
dividual supervisors. F in a lly , they reevaluated the
supervisors’ assignments or workload fro m the stand­
point of im proving supervision of in terview ers.
F o r a d e s c r ip t io n o f th e e x p e r im e n t a l re s u lts, s e e B e a t r ic e J.
D v o r a k , F ra n c e s C . F o x , and C h a rle s M e ig h , " T e s t s f o r F ie ld Sur­
v e y I n te r v ie w e r s , " T h e Journal o f M a r k e t in g , p t. 1, Jan uary 1 9 5 2 ,
p p. 3 0 1 -3 0 6 .
O n th e basis o f e a r lie r e x p e r ie n c e , 1 95 0 s ta ffin g p lan s
t o o k in to c o n s id e r a t io n :
" T h e t r a in in g an d r e v ie w o f th e in t e r ­
v ie w e r s ' w o r k is s u ch th a t o n e su p e rv is o r and o n e e d ito r c a n n o t
o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y w it h m o r e th a n a b o u t 15 t o 20 in t e r v ie w e r s ."

1
1

12

S e e L a m a le , o p . c i t . , (m o n o g r a p h ), p . 6 1 .
S e e L a m a le , op* c i t . (m o n o g r a p h ), p . 6 1 .
In th e 1 95 0
C E S, it w as fo u n d th a t th e t im e and c o s t o f th e firs t fe w in te r v ie w s
b y a " d a i l y r a t e " w e r e h ig h b u t d e c r e a s e d v e r y r a p id ly as th e in t e r ­
v i e w e r g a in e d e x p e r ie n c e .
M in im u m c o s t w as a c h i e v e d b y th e
f i f t h in t e r v ie w an d w a s m a in t a in e d th ro u g h a b o u t th e t w e lft h or
f i f t e e n t h i n t e r v ie w .
T h e r e a ft e r co s ts r o s e , an d th e in t e r v ie w e r 's
e f f i c i e n c y and en th u sia sm s e e m t o r e f l e c t th e strain o f th e j o b .

F ield Survey Supervisors. P rio r to in itiatin g field
w ork in 1961 and 1962, 6-w eek intensive train in g p ro ­
gram s fo r the survey supervisors were held in Wash­
ington. They w ere instructed in survey management
(e.g., the establishment and adm inistration of offices
in survey areas and the h irin g, train in g , and super­
vision of in terview ers) and in CES background and
methods (purposes, concepts, definitions, content of
questionnaires, interview ing techniques, etc.).
The training classes were conducted by six m em ­
bers of the Section of Technical T rain ing . A ll were
thoroughly fa m ilia r with the en tire set of CES sched­
ules and training m a te ria ls . However, because of the
length and com plexity of the schedules, each mem ber
specialized in selected subject m atter segments of
the schedules, such as a ll sections dealing with hous­
ing (sections B through I). They were responsible also
fo r training the supervisors in these related sections.
To keep training classes a manageable size and to use
the train in g staff efficien tly, the supervisors were
divided into two classes that started a week apart.
The supervisors fir s t were trained as if they were
to be in terview ers. The training staff followed the
daily program outlined in the T rain in g Guide fo r p re ­
senting the CES schedules, Collection Manual, and
workbooks. They tested the supervisors on various
sections of the schedules and on o v e ra ll CES concepts.
The supervisors then were taught to conduct s im i­
la r train in g classes fo r d a ily -ra te in terview ers whom
they would h ire in each survey area. They practiced
using the T rain in g Guide and other teaching aids by
conducting train in g sessions on selected sections of the
schedules fo r th e ir fellow supervisors. This was con­
cluded by a train in g critique. The la s t week in Wash­
ington was devoted to use of the F ield Editing Manual
and the F ield Supervisors’ Manual. The la tte r manual
was concerned with survey management, including r e ­
cru itm en t of in terv ie w e rs , selection of fie ld editors
fro m among the in te rv ie w e rs , determ ining in terview er
workload, m aintaining the flow of schedules through
field editing and tra n s m itta l to Washington, and com ­
piling the records to in fo rm the regional and Washington
headquarters on the status of the survey in each area.
A critiq u e on the 1961 surveys was held in Washington
fo r the fie ld survey supervisors, followed by a re tra in ­
ing session p rio r to th e ir reassignment fo r the 1962
surveys.

train in g staff assigned related sections of the CES
schedules to each supervisor in the team fo r in te r­
view er train in g . These team assignments w ere based
on the evaluation of each supervisor’ s interests and his
m astery of the related sections and demonstrated
ab ility to teach them.
Supervisors trained approxim ately 1,200 in te r­
view ers fo r the 1960-61 CES. (See appendix table B - 3.)
The size of the training class ranged fro m fiv e “daily
ra te s ” in the “D ” c ities to 24 in the la rg e r SMSA’ s,
except the New Y o rk-N o rth eastern New Jersey area.
On the average, the local in terview ers attended
seven consecutive 8-hour train in g sessions. In these
sessions, the field supervisors followed the pattern
of th e ir Washington train in g and covered basically
the same m a te ria l. They used the same Tra in in g Guide
and related m a te ria ls to teach interview ing techniques,
basic survey concepts and purposes, and to c la rify
and in te rp re t the content of the CES schedules. A fte r
the interview ing was started, the field supervisor
selected one or m ore of the in terview ers to assist
in editing the schedules before tra n s m itta l to Wash­
ington and gave them additional training in using the
F ie ld Editing Manual.
F ie ld train in g in each city was observed and e v a l­
uated by eith e r a m em ber of the Washington train in g
staff o r the regional senior survey supervisor.

Communications
Channels of o fficial communication w ere v e ry im ­
portant factors throughout the data collection phase
of the nationwide CES. Two types of communication
w ere necessary: (1) P ublicity to in fo rm local residents
about the survey and thus aid the in te rv ie w e rs , and
(2) the intercom m unication of the local survey office,
regional, and Washington offices on survey progress
and problem s.
P ublicity was prepared fo r the news m edia. Com­
m issioner of Labor Statistics Ewan Clague taped a
short description of the survey fo r use on radio and
television in each of the survey c ities. The regional
offices arranged to have these broadcast just p rio r
to the dates when in terview ers would begin calling
on fa m ilie s . The BLS regional d irecto rs also held
press conferences with the local newspapers, rad io ,
and television stations and supplied them o fficial
press releases describing the survey.
A le tte r fro m the Com m issioner was m ailed to
each assignment address just before the in te rv iew er
called. (See exhibit C, page 114.) The le tte r inform ed
the occupants that they had been selected fo r inclusion
in the study, gave the purpose and a short d escrip­
tion of the CES, and requested th e ir cooperation. The
in te rv ie w e r also c a rrie d a copy of the le tte r in case

Local In te rv ie w e rs . The Washington train in g staff
stressed that a successful CES depended upon uni­
fo rm ity in train in g local in terview ers, and they em ­
phasized the responsibility of each fie ld supervisor
in achieving this goal. In survey areas req u irin g two
supervisors o r m ore who operated separate offices
fo r a ll other purposes, train in g was conducted as a
team p ro ject to prom ote uniform ity. The Washington




22

the fa m ily had not received th eirs or had not read it.
No scientific study was made of the effectiveness of
the. publicity. However, most in terview ers reported
the le tte r was v e ry helpful in identifying them and
gaining some response.
The m ajor provisions fo r the communications be­
tween the survey city offices and the regional and
Washington offices were the W eekly P rogress Report
(F o rm 142), the Question and Answer F o rm (PB 218),
and the N a rra tiv e Reports. The progress re p o rt was
prepared and m ailed each F rid ay. It provided a status
re p o rt on assignments, personnel, and survey costs.
Each weekly rep o rt was cum ulative, so the final r e ­
p ort provided a complete accounting of assignments
and survey costs. The question and answer fo rm p ro ­
vided a quick means fo r the survey supervisor to
get specialized assistance fro m Washington on prob­
lem s or specific schedules. In re v e rs e , the Washington
office could get c la rific a tio n of schedule entries which
were inconsistent, incomplete, o r not c le a r. The PB
218’ s were kept in the folder with the fa m ily ’ s sched­
ule and became p a rt of the permanent CES files.
Before closing an office, each supervisor was r e ­
quired to prepare a N a rra tiv e Report covering the
following aspects of the survey in that area: E ffective­
ness of publicity, supervisor’ s contact with local of­
fic ia ls , daily rate employees, and technical and admin­
is tra tiv e problem s.
Under “effectiveness of p u b lic ity ,” the supervisor
evaluated the publicity described above on the basis
of his personal observations, on those of his in te r­
view ers, and on comments of respondents with whom
he talked.
“Supervisor’ s contact with local o ffic ia ls ” covered
cooperation received fro m the local police department,
other city o fficials, business and civic organizations,
and the local employment office. Before interview ing
started, supervisors were required to notify the police
department that the BLS was conducting a fa m ily survey
and to supply the names of in terview ers. Frequently,
both the city engineering office and local planning of­
fices were visited to obtain inform ation on assignment
addresses which in terview ers could not locate. In many
areas, the CES fie ld supervisor was the only re p re ­
sentative of the Departm ent of Labor in the city. T h e re ­
fo re , the supervisor received many calls fro m organi­
zations and individuals interested in obtaining in fo rm a ­
tion on a v a rie ty of Labor Departm ent program s and in
knowing when CES results would be available.
In the section “daily ra te em ployees,” the super­
viso r reported pertinent inform ation about the in te r­
view er which was not covered on the in te rv ie w e r’ s
personnel sheet. In the larg est SMSA’ s to be s u r­
veyed in 2 years, these comments on 1961 staff were
p a rtic u la rly valuable fo r supervisors re c ru itin g in ­
terv ie w e rs fo r the 1962 round.




23

“Technical and ad m in istrative problem s” covered
difficulties in obtaining office equipment o r coopera­
tion of the building management; adm inistrative prob­
lem s with the in te rv ie w e rs , such as reasons fo r r e ­
leasing some in terview ers e a rly in the survey; flow of
w ork and editing problem s; etc.

Quality control
Evaluation of the quality of in terview er training,
supervisory training, data recording, and field editing
was continuous throughout the survey. This was c a rrie d
out in a v a rie ty of ways. Regional supervisors o r
m em bers of the Washington headquarters training
staff observed some parts of the in te rv ie w e r train in g
done by the survey supervisors on th e ir fir s t round
of the 1961 survey. They evaluated the train in g and
provided assistance to the field supervisors where
required.
The quality of survey supervision, interview ing, and
fie ld editing was evaluated continuously by review of
the weekly status reports (F o rm 142) submitted to the
regional and Washington offices, by systematic review
and evaluation of the schedules in Washington, and
by periodic v isits to field offices by senior staff
throughout the survey. F ield supervisors were r e ­
quired to tra n s m it to Washington completed schedules
in groups of 10. Staff in the section of Consumer E x­
penditure Surveys prom ptly examined schedules sent
in by each supervisor 13 and worked closely with the
Branch of Enum erative Surveys so that problem areas
could be c la rifie d and corrected while the supervisors
and in terview ers were s till in the survey area.
A fte r completing re v ie w of schedules collected in
1961, the review ing staff of the Section of Consumer
Expenditure Surveys sum m arized th e ir records on
types of re c u r ringproblem s (e.g., automobile purchase
and financing). This staff also evaluated the supervisors
on th e ir understanding of the schedule, th e ir use of
PB 218’s, the number of schedules that were rejected
a fte r review in Washington, etc. These quality evalua­
tions and the evaluation of the survey management
by the Branch of Enum erative Surveys w ere used in
the re fre s h e r train in g course fo r those supervisors
who continued in the 1962 survey. The same quality
control p rogram was used in 1962.

Timing and Man-Hours in
the Field Operations
As noted in chapter 2, the Bureau was responsible
fo r collecting 1960-61 data at assignment addresses
in urban places and in the ru ra l nonfarm segments

1 See
3

d is c u s s io n o f r e v ie w p r o c e d u r e s ,

pp.

2 9 -3 3 .

of m etropolitan areas. It is estim ated that fie ld opera­
tions (salaries of supervisors and in terview ers and
tra v e l costs) covered almost one-th ird of the total
$2.8 m illio n 14 spent by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
on the Survey of Consumer Expenditures in the fiscal
years July 1959 through June 1964. P ro ratin g the $2.8
m illio n over the sample of urban and ru ra l nonfarm
assignments fo r which the BLS was responsible gives
an average cost of approxim ately $225 fo r each assign­
ment and $275 fo r each usable schedule.
D a ily -ra te in terview er tim e on a ll phases of BLS
fie ld operations averaged just under 20 hours fo r each
assignment. The “d a ily -ra te ” hours fo r each assign­
ment averaged about the same as in the 1950 urban
survey, but the distribution among activities differed
as shown below:

livin g by h im self in a furnished room , without a car,
could give a complete annual account quickly, and he
probably would not be eligible fo r the weekly food
schedule. In contrast, respondents fo r a large home­
owning fa m ily having substantial income fro m various
sources would spend m ore tim e , spread over several
v is its , to complete the annual and weekly schedules.
The in te rv ie w e r probably would talk with the fa m ily
head, his w ife, and others to obtain inform ation from
the best inform ed m em ber.
Some inform ation on the relationship of length of
in terview and response rate was obtained fro m an
experim ent in data collection methods conducted in
Cincinnati in July 1960, just after completion of the
“lead c ity ” survey. An abbreviated schedule, composed
of selected sections and item s in schedule 2 6 4 8 -B tZ
was used to interview a subsample of fa m ilie s at ad­
dresses selected fro m the same sampling fram e and
by the same methods as the lead city sample. The con­
densed schedule required about 4 hours to complete, on
the average, or roughly half as long as the fu ll sched­
ule B and schedule C used in the lead city survey. The
proportion of usable schedules was about the same fo r
both surveys—75.6 percent fo r the lead c ity survey
and 76.5 percent fo r the experim ental abbreviated
schedule.

A v e r a g e hours
1 9 6 0 -6 1 1
T o t a l , d a i l y - r a t e in t e r v ie w e r s --------------------

1 9 .9

T r a i n i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------I n t e r v ie w in g f a m i l y ------------------- -----------------------------E d itin g , o f f i c e c o n s u lt a t io n , e t c ---------------------------

5 .2
6 .4
3 .2

19502
2 0 .0
3. 5
8 .0
2 .5

1

T h e n u m b e r o f hours spen t fo r tr a in in g w as ta k e n fr o m s u p ­
e rv is o rs ’ p rogress re p o rts , and th e d is tr ib u tio n a m o n g o t h e r a c t iv it ie s
fr o m th e fo r m PB 7 1 5 's (p . 1 9 7 ), a d ju s te d up w ard t o e q u a l c o s t a c ­
c o u n t in g r e c o r d s o f t o t a l d a il y - r a t e s ' hours p a id fo r , as s h o w n in
a p p e n d ix t a b l e B -3 .
L a m a le , o p .

2

c it .

(m o n o g r a p h ),

p.

6 1.

The “d aily ra te s ” spent less tim e in interview ing
the fa m ilie s and in tra v e l during 1960-61 than in 1950,
but m ore in train in g and in office consultation, editing,
and other work in preparing the schedules fo r tra n s ­
m itta l to Washington. Average interview tim e fo r each
assignment was reduced fro m about Sl/2 hours in the
1959 “lead c ity ” survey in Cincinnati and 8 hours in
1950 to less than 7 hours in 1960-61.
Average hours fo r each assignment is a convenient
and useful unit of m easurem ent, p a rtic u la rly fo r ad­
m in istrative and budgetary purposes. However, this
average length of in terview covers tim e spent with all
fa m ilie s contacted, including those ineligible o r not
w illin g or able to complete the schedules. Special
tabulations of fam ilie s who completed schedules have
been made fo r three cities and a re sum m arized in
table 3 to indicate the in terview pattern and tim e
contributed to the survey by participating fa m ilie s .
The selection of the cities has no special significance.
The tabulations were read ily available 15 fo r only a
few citie s , and these three cover the range of sm all
and larg e places in different parts of the country. E x ­
cept in Boston, the great m a jo rity of fa m ilie s spent
fro m 3 to 7 hours with the in terview er who may have
called on the fa m ily as many as five tim es. A few
schedules were completed in a single v is it lasting
less than 3 hours. In addition to the in te rv ie w e r’ s
s k ill, many factors affected the tim e required to obtain
a y e a r’ s re c a ll of fa m ily accounts. A salaried w orker




24

Table 3. Length of interview and num of visits w urban fam
ber
ith
ilies
com
pleting C S schedules, 3 cities, 1960 and 1961
E
Ite m

B oston,
M ass. ,
I9 6 0 1

F lo r e n c e ,
A la .,
1961

W i c h it a ,
1961 ’

A v e r a g e d a il y - r a t e hours p er
a s s ig n m e n t ---------------------------------------N u m b e r o f a s s ig n m e n t a d d r e s s e s ----C o m p l e t e d s c h e d u le s :
N u m b e r as r e p o r t e d b y f i e l d
s u p e r v i s o r s ----- ----------------------------P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n a c c o r d in g
t o le n g th o f in t e r v ie w and
n u m b e r o f v is it s '--------------------------Less th a n 3 hours, 1 o r

1 7 .6
187

1 7 .8
65

13. 9
2 50

132

56

196

10 hours o r m o r e , 3 th ro u gh
7 v i s i t s --------------------------------------

10
0
214

48

70

25

F ro m 3 t o 7 h ou rs, 1 th ro u gh
5 v i s i t s -------------------------------------F ro m 7 t o 10 h ou rs, 2 th ro u g h

10
0
27

49

2
0

7

10
0
2
5
3 66

2
2
7

* C o v e r s o n ly th a t h a lf o f s a m p le s u rv e y e d fo r 1 9 6 0 .
^ I n c lu d e s 1 f a m i l y v is it e d 3 t im e s .
In c lu d e s 1 f a m i l y v is it e d 6 t im e s .
In c lu d e s 1 f a m i l y v is it e d 1 t i m e .
14 T h is c o v e r s co s ts in th e f i e l d and in W a s h in g to n f o r s a la r ie s ,
t r a v e l, a u t o m a t ic d a ta p r o c e s s in g , an d n o n la b o r an d a d m in is tr a t iv e
c o s t s . It in c lu d e s p r e p a r in g th e ra w s c h e d u le d a ta r e a d y t o b e u sed
in th e CPI r e v is io n , b u t d o e s n o t in c lu d e o th e r c o s t s p e c i f i c a l l y
a s s ig n a b le t o th e C PI r e v is io n .
It d o e s n o t c o v e r s a la rie s and
o th e r c o s t s in p re p a rin g CES t a b u la t io n s and p u b lic a t io n s a fte r
June 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 .
15 T h e in fo r m a t io n w as c o m p i l e d fr o m f i e l d su p e rv is o rs ’ s u m ­
m a r ie s o f d a ta o n PB 7 1 5 's .
T h e n u m b e r o f c o m p l e t e d s c h e d u le s
w as as r e p o r t e d b y th e f i e l d s u p e rv is o rs , p r io r t o f i n a l r e v ie w in
W a s h in g t o n , an d m a y d i f f e r fr o m th e n u m b e r sh o w n in o t h e r t a b le s .
l o S e e P r o je c t 1, p. 5.

Chapter 5.

Analysis of Sample Returns

Samples Assigned for Interviews
A ll consumer units residing at the assignment ad­
dress were included in the survey. Schedules giving
detailed expenditures, income, and changes in assets
and lia b ilitie s were taken fo r a ll elig ib le CU’ s, d e te r­
mined on the basis of c rite ria outlined in chapter 3.
A total sample of 17,283 living q uarter addresses,
with an alternate fo r each, was selected as the sample
of assignments in urban and ru ra l places. These ad­
dresses produced an effective sample of 16,987 fu llyear consumer units eligible fo r scheduling. Usable
schedule B ’ s were obtained fro m 13,728 CU’s, o r
about 80 percent of the eligible units. The total usable
schedules included 1,956 schedules fo r one-person
fam ilies and 11,772 fo r fa m ilie s of two persons o r
m ore. Comparable sum m ary inform ation fo r the urban,
ru ra l nonfarm, and ru ra l fa rm segments of the 196061 sample is shown in table 4.
A m ore detailed analysis of the returns fo r the
urban sam p le1 is presented in appendix table B -4 .
In the urban segment, 2,772 alternates were substituted,
o r 23 percent of the 12,205 m aster addresses. Among
the SMSA’ s having populations of 250,000 o r m ore,
this proportion varied fro m a tenth in A tlanta, Ga.,
to approxim ately a th ird in New Y o rk , N .Y ., and
H artfo rd , Conn., (appendix table B -2 ). In a survey
aim ed at obtaining data fo r individual c itie s , the
matched alternate procedure is a m ore economical

method of achieving a reasonably balanced in te rc ity
distribution than use of a la rg e r sample fo r each city.
M ore than th re e -fifth s of the 2,772 alternate ad­
dresses in the nationwide urban sample were substi­
tuted, because (a) the in terview er could not contact
a respondent at the m aster address (38 percent), o r
(b) the unit was vacant (23 percent). The rem aining
39 percent were substituted fo r fa m ilie s who refused
to give the m inim um required to complete the House­
hold Record (2648A).
Of the 13,661 urban CU’ s
actually contacted in both the m aster and alternate
samples, 2,306 refused to rep o rt th e ir fa m ily accounts,
but 707 of these in the m aster sample cooperated
to the extent of completing the Household Record.
An additional 1,031 C U’ s who started to give inform ation
fo r the fa m ily accounts schedule (2648B) w ere eith er
unw illing o r unable to complete it. No alternates were
substituted fo r these 1,738 C U ’ s.
The net effective urban sample of elig ib le fu ll-y e a r
CU’ s, after substitution of alternates, totaled 11,970
units. About 79 percent of these furnished usable
schedules. The response rate was about the same
among fa m ilie s in sm all c ities as in the larg est
m etropolitan areas, as the following classification
by population stratum shows:
1 S im ila r d e t a il is a v a i l a b l e fo r th e ru ra l n o n fa r m s a m p le
in s id e S M S A 's , b u t th e U SD A a n a ly s is o f th e ru ral n o n fa r m s a m p le
o u t s id e S M S A 's w as o n a s o m e w h a t d iffe r e n t b a s is .
t a b le B - 5 . )

( S e e a p p e n d ix

Table 4. Sum ary of returns for the C
m
onsum E
er xpenditure Survey, 1960-61
U s a b le

E f f e c t iv e s a m p l e 1
U rb a n iz a tio n
and y e a r

s c h e d u le s —

A s s ig n m e n t

R e s p o n s e r a te

fu ll-y e a r
con su m er

C o l . d 4-

C o l. d +

addresses

1 950
d e fin itio n

1 9 6 0 -6 1
d e fin itio n 2

(a)

(b )

(c )

fd l

(e )

(f)

U rb a n , 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 3 — .............. R u r a l n o n fa r m , 1961 -------------R u r a l f a r m , 1961 — ----------------

12, 205
2, 4 9 7
2, 581

12, 5 2 4
2 ,6 7 9
2, 381

4

1 1 ,9 7 0
2, 636
4 2 ,3 8 1

9 ,4 7 6
2 , 2 85
1 ,9 6 7

7 5 .7
8 5 .3
8 2 .6

79. 2
8 6 .7
8 2 .6

T o t a l , u rban and
r u r a l -------------------------------

1 7 , 283

1 7 ,5 8 4

16, 987

1 3 ,7 2 8

7 8 .1

8 0 .8

U rb a n , 1 95 0 5 --------------------------

1 5 ,1 8 0

15, 6 7 6

-

1 2 ,4 8 9

7 9 .7

-

1 T h e p o t e n t ia l n u m b e r o f f u l l - y e a r c o n s u m e r u n its fr o m w h o m a s c h e d u le c o u ld b e e x p e c t e d a fte r
a lte r n a te a s s ig n m e n t a d d resses w e r e s u b s titu te d .
It in c lu d e s a d d it io n a l c o n s u m e r u n its fo u n d at a ss ig n m e n t
a d d resse s, b u t e x c lu d e s i n e l i g i b l e an d p a r t -y e a r c o n s u m e r u n its . It d o e s n o t in c lu d e th e o r ig in a l a ss ig n m e n t
address w h e r e a s u b stitu te address w as u s e d .
2
C o lu m n ( c ) d iffe r s fr o m (b ) , b e c a u s e ( c ) e x c lu d e s v a c a n t un its an d " n o c o n t a c t s " in t h e a lte r n a te
s a m p le fo r w h ic h n o fu rth e r s u b stitu tio n w as p o s s ib le and a s m a ll n u m b e r o f v a c a n t un its an d " n o c o n t a c t s "
in t h e m a s te r s a m p le fo r w h ic h it w as n o t a p p r o p r ia te t o s u b stitu te a lte r n a te s .
(F o r d e t a i l , s e e a p p e n d ix
t a b le B - 4 . )
3 I n c lu d e s A n c h o r a g e , A la s k a , w h ic h w as s u r v e y e d f o r 1 9 5 9 .
4 E s tim a te d b y BLS o n b a s is o f re s p o n s e ra te ( 8 2 . 6 p e r c e n t ) c o m p u t e d b y U S D A .
3 H e le n H . L a m a le , S tu d y o f C o n s u m e r E xpen ditu res,, I n c o m e an d S a v in g s — M e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e S u rv e y
o f C o n s u m e r E x p e n d itu re s in 1 95 0 a p . 4 1 .




25

P o p u la tio n stratu m
A rea
T o t a l, e lig ib le f u l l y e a r c o n s u m e r u n its ----P e r c e n t o f t o t a l e l i g i b l e -----U s a b le s c h e d u l e s -----------I n c o m p l e t e s c h e d u le s -----R e f u s a l s ----------------------------R e j e c t e d s c h e d u le s ----------

A l l urban
p la c e s

A

B

C

D

1 1 ,9 7 0

5 ,4 6 4

2 ,7 1 5

1 ,5 5 2

2 , 2 39

10 10 10 10 10
0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0
8 0 .3
7 8 .9
7 8 .1
8 0 .5
7 9 .2
7 .6
8 .3
8 .9
9 .7
8.6
1 .6 7 . 9 9 . 9
1
1 0 .4
1 0 .3
.2
1
.8 2
.0 1 . 9 2
1 .9

have some basis fo r adjusting the weekly inform ation
to represent annual expenditures fo r individual item s,
because of the seasonal v ariatio n in food purchases.
Id eally, such inform ation is obtained by re in te r­
viewing the cooperating fa m ilie s at q u a rte rly o r
m ore frequent in tervals over a fu ll-y e a r cycle. This
was deemed im p ra c tic a l, p rim a rily because of the
co^t of personal interview s.

Experimental survey in Cincinnati
The percentage of usable schedules in each city is
shown in appendix table B -2 .
The proportion of usable schedules obtained fro m
the urban sample was somewhat low er in 1960-61 than
in 1950. (See table 4.) F o r 1950, records are not a v a il­
able to make an analysis in the same detail as in 196061, but it is evident that the loss attributable to vacant
units was higher fo r the 1960-61 period than in 1950
when the p ost-w ar housing shortage was s till a
national problem . 2
In addition to the fu ll-y e a r CU’ s, the urban sample
also included 386 p a rt-y e a r fa m ilie s , 293 of whom
gave usable schedules. (See appendix table B -4 .) As
indicated in chapter 3, the p a rt-y e a r schedules were
not included in computing the survey averages but
some analytical tabulations3 w ere made fo r t h i s
group which made up 3 percent of the total 9,769 usable
schedules obtained fro m fu ll-y e a r and p a rt-y e a r urban
fa m ilies.
The larg est category of p a rt-y e a r fa m ilie s —35 p e r­
cent of the total—was composed of persons who had
m a rrie d during the survey year but had lived with
another CU p rio r to th e ir m a rria g e . The next la rg e s t
group—21 percent of the p a rt-y e a r units—w ere in d i­
viduals who le ft th e ir fa m ilie s to become finan cially
independent. This would include a son, fo r exam ple,
who got a job and moved into his own apartm ent.
Another 13 percent had returned during the survey year
fro m m ilita ry service, an institution, o r fro m living
abroad. The rem aining 31 percent had joined o r le ft
another CU during the survey year fo r a v a rie ty of re a ­
sons, including m a rrie d couples who separated o r ob­
tained divorces.

Mail Questionnaires for Weekly
Food Expenditures

Since it is cheaper to collect data by m ail than by
personal in terview , an experim ental m ail survey was
undertaken in the “lead c ity ” of Cincinnati in the spring
of 1961. The experim ent was designed: (1) To compare
response rates fo r fa m ilie s previously interview ed
and fo r “new” fa m ilie s , and (2) to obtain guidance in
schedule design if it w ere decided to undertake an
extensive m a il survey.
The new addresses, which were divided into two
groups of 150 each, were subsamples of livin g q uarter
addresses drawn fo r experim ental purposes at the
same tim e and following the same procedures used
in drawing the subsample of addresses visited fo r the
1959 CES in Cincinnati. (See p. 13.)
T hree sim plified versions of schedule C (identified
as C l, C2, and C 3), were tested. A ll w ere lim ite d to
the food and nonalcoholic beverages sections of sched­
ule C and requested only m inim al inform ation about
fa m ily ch a ra c te ris tic s , specifically the number of p e r­
sons in the fa m ily and the number of persons served
each m eal in the previous week.
Questionnaire C l listed only the 28 m ajo r food and
beverage categories (e.g., d a iry products) and le ft
space fo r the respondent to w rite in the quantity and
cost of each specific ite m purchased.
Questionnaire C3 contained the complete checklist
of food and nonalcoholic beverages included in the basic
schedule 2648C.
Questionnaire C2 combined features of C l and C3.
It had a p a rtia l checklist of item s and provided space
fo r the respondent to w rite in a ll purchases in some
categories (e.g., frozen vegetables).
Questionnaire C l was m ailed to one subsample of
150 new addresses, and questionnaire C2 to the other
150. Questionnaire C3, which was most s im ila r to the
schedule C used in personal in terview s, was m ailed to

As indicated e a r lie r , schedule 2648C (see ex­
h ib it F) was used during the in terview to supplement
the inform ation recorded on annual expenditures fo r
food, * beverages, household supplies, and related
item s purchased frequently. The detail of such item s
purchased during the 7 days preceding the in terview
was essential fo r determ ining the C P I weights fo r
specific item s of food. It also was necessary to




2

T h e d e c e n n i a l ce n su s e s o f h o u sin g s h ow th a t th e n a t io n a l
v a c a n c y r a t e f o r a v a i l a b l e y e a r - r o u n d s ou n d h o u s in g in 1 9 6 0 w as
m o r e th a n d o u b le th e 1 95 0 r a t e .
S e e U .S . C en su s o f H o u s in g
1 9 6 0 , U n it e d S ta tes S u m m a r y , F in a l R e p o r t H C (1 ) - 1 , p. x x x .
3 T h e s e t a b u la t io n s a p p e a r in T h e C o n c e p t o f P a r t -Y e a r
F a m ilie s in C o n s u m e r E x p e n d itu re S u rv e y s .
CES R e s e a r c h N o te
N o . 1 , U . S . B ureau o f L a b o r S ta t is t ic s , D iv is io n o f L iv in g C o n ­
d itio n s S tu d ie s , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 8 , ( m im e o g r a p h e d ) .
4 F o r a c o m p a r is o n o f r e p o r t e d a n n u al a n d w e e k l y f o o d e x ­
p e n d itu r e s ,

26

see

p.

6 6.

183 fam ilies who were fa m ilia r with the schedule.
These fam ilies had cooperated when in itia lly in te r­
viewed in the spring of 1960, and they had not refused
to cooperate in a second personal in terview in which
schedule C was used to collect inform ation on th e ir
food purchases during a week in the period between
October 17 and November 18, 1960.
A ll three types of questionnaires were m ailed on
A p ril 30, 1961. Three weeks la te r, when response had
p ra c tic a lly ceased, a followup inquiry was m ailed to
a ll nonrespondents. The response fo r the three sched­
ules is shown in table 5.

Schedules were m ailed to these addresses fo r only
one reporting period in the 12 months, October 1961September 1962. The sample thus consisted of 12
independent subsamples.
The schedule, BLS 2648CM , was the same fo r both
m a il surveys, but the le tte rs on the cover sheet d if­
fered. (See exhibits I and J.) F o rm 2648CM was a
composite of the schedule form ats used experim entally
in Cincinnati; the instructions and questions on page 2
w ere fro m questionnaire C2 and the complete check­
lis t of item s fro m C3. A fte r each m ailing in both the
followup and independent samples, a second request
was m ailed to all fa m ilie s who had not returned the
2648CM approxim ately 2 weeks a fte r it had been sent.
Comparison of responses fro m the two types of sam­
ples showed that the CES followup group maintained
a b etter ra te of re tu rn than had been anticipated in
planning the m a il survey. To sum m arize, the com­
parison showed:

Table 5. C parison of response rates for three types of weekly food
om
schedules used in experim
ental m survey, C
ail
incinnati, Ohio,
spring 1961
N um ber
o f s c h e d u le s

P ercen t o f
s c h e d u le s m a i l e d

R e tu r n e d

S c h e d u le
M a ile d 1

T otal

U s a b le

T ota l
re tu r n e d

U s a b le

T o t a l ----------------

470

173

1 25

36. 8

2 6 .6

C l ------------------------------C 2 — ............- ...............
C 3 ......................................

145
1 44
181

49

37

2 5 .5

51
73

33
55

3 3 .8
3 5 .4
40. 3

2 2 .9
3 0 .4

1 T h ir t e e n o f th e 4 8 3 s c h e d u le s m a i l e d w e r e re tu r n e d b y th e
Post O f f i c e .

On the basis of the response rates in the Cincinnati
experim ent, it was decided to re ly on m ail question­
naires to obtain inform ation fo r seasonal adjustment
of weekly food expenditures needed fo r the C P I weights.

Mail survey in selected cities
Successive m ailings to fa m ilie s interview ed, reg ard ­
ing both th e ir weekly food and other expenditures
(2648B), was the p re fe rre d way to collect inform ation
fo r seasonal adjustment of weekly food expenditures.
The reason was that the annual schedule contained
fa m ily characteristics fo r evaluating the effect of non­
response in the m ail reports. Although the Cincinnati
experim ent showed that previously interview ed fa m ­
ilie s returned the highest proportion of usable sched­
ules in the m ail survey (the C3 group in table 5) grave
doubt rem ained about the “staying pow er” of such fa m ­
ilie s over three q u a rte rly m ailing periods.
T h erefo re, a m a il survey of seasonal food expend­
itu res was undertaken, using two types of samples:
1. CES followup involved three successive m a il­
ings to about 4,500 fa m ilie s who had furnished weekly
food data on schedule 2648C when interview ed in the
spring of 1961 in a ll c ities in the 1960 CES sample.
2. Independent consisted of approxim ately 16,000
addresses selected fro m the residual CHUS sample
in 16 cities a fte r the CES samples had been selected.




27

1. Over the en tire period (October 1961-Septem ­
b er 1962), the gross ra te of re tu rn was about the
same fro m both surveys. F ro m every 100 sched­
ules m ailed, 38.6 were returned by fa m ilie s in the
followup sample and 39.5 fro m the independent
sample.
2. F a m ilie s previously interview ed in the CES
returned a higher proportion of usable schedules
(32.1 percent) than did fa m ilie s approached only by
m ail in the independent survey (28.2 percent).
3. The ra te of re tu rn of usable schedules varied
m ore fro m month to month on the followup than
on the independent survey. However, in a ll but
2 months, the ra te of retu rn was higher on the
followup than the independent survey. Returns were
lowest in the late sum m er months on both surveys.
Low fo r the followup was 22.4 percent in Septem­
b e r, and fo r the independent it was 23.2 percent
in August.
Weekly food expenditures collected fro m both types
of m a il surveys w ere used fo r seasonal adjustments
in deriving food weights fo r the C P I.5
Plans fo r
collating fa m ily characteristics on the annual sched­
ule with weekly data in the CES followup survey were
not accomplished, m ainly because of the shortage of
p rogram m ers.

Characteristics o f Families Cooperating
in Cincinnati
Tabulations of fa m ilie s in the three collections of
weekly food data in Cincinnati are indicative of sample

5

S e e T h e C o n s u m e r P r ic e In d e x :
BLS B u lle tin 1 5 1 7 , p . 5 0 .

H is to ry and T e c h n iq u e s .

attritio n over approxim ately 1 year. Of the 227 fa m ­
ilie s reporting weekly food expenditures to an in te r­
view er in spring 1960, 126 (about 56 percent) furnished
data when reinterview ed in fa ll 1960, and 49 of these
126 (almost 40 percent) returned a usable m a il ques­
tionnaire in spring 1961. (See appendix table B -6 .)
The 44-percen t loss between 1960 spring and fa ll
interview s was divided about equally between fa m ­
ilie s who were contacted but did not give a usable
schedule (25 percent) and those who were not reached
fo r re in terview because they had moved, were not at
home, etc. Nonrespondents to the spring 1961 m ail
survey cannot be classified by the reason of non­
response.
Comparisons of ch aracteristics of fa m ilie s coop­
erating in the th ree Cincinnati weekly food surveys
suggest that the loss in response was greatest among
the youngest (head under 25 years) and oldest (head
65 years or older) fa m ilie s , among one-person fa m ­
ilie s , among those whose heads had completed less
than 8 years of education, and among the nonwhite
population. The average money income a fte r taxes in
1959 was $6,534 fo r the fam ilies s till cooperating in
spring 1961, or about $1,000 higher than the 1959 in ­
come fo r the 227 fa m ilie s interview ed the previous




28

spring. The 49 fa m ilie s cooperating fo r a ll three
periods reported higher weekly food expenditures than
the fa m ilie s participating in only 1 or 2 weekly surveys.
This inform ation is presented as illu s tra tiv e —and
not necessarily as typical o r representative—of the
d iffe re n tia l nonparticipation that may be experienced
over tim e among fa m ilie s with various ch aracteristics.
The 227 fa m ilie s had cooperated in providing a fu ll
account of th e ir expenditures and income in 1959, but
those who could not o r did not wish to continue through
the m ail survey resem bled the fa m ilie s who refused to
be m em bers of the M .S.U. Consumer Panel in Lansing,
M ic h ., in 1951-58.6

6

[to

"S tu d ie s o f re fu sa ls
b e p a n e l m e m b e r s / i n d ic a t e d th a t:
(1 ) H o u s e w iv e s w ith lo w e r e d u c a t io n w e r e m o r e apt t o r e fu s e th an
h o u s e w iv e s w it h h ig h e r e d u c a t io n s , ( 2 ) h ig h an d lo w i n c o m e f a m ­
ilie s w e r e less c o o p e r a t i v e th a n m e d iu m i n c o m e f a m i l i e s , ( 3 ) size
o f f a m i l y m a d e n o s ig n ific a n t d i f f e r e n c e , ( 4 ) s in g le p e rs o n h o u s e ­
h o ld s and " a l l o t h e r " h o u se h o ld s w e r e less c o o p e r a t i v e th a n th e
h u s b a n d -w ife or h u s b a n d - w i f e - c h i l d r e n t y p e s , and (5 ) o l d e r h o u s e ­
w iv e s w e r e le ss l i k e l y t o a c c e p t p a n e l m e m b e r s h ip th a n y o u n g e r
w iv e s ."
S e e G . G . Q u a c k e n b u s h an d J. D . S h a ffe r , C o l l e c t i n g F o o d
P urchase D a ta b y C o n s u m e r P a n e l— A M e t h o d o l o g i c a l R e p o r t o n th e
M . S. U . C o n s u m e r P a n e l. 1 9 5 1 - 5 8 . T e c h n i c a l B u lle tin 2 7 9 , M ic h ig a n
S tate U n iv e r s it y , A g r ic u lt u r a l E x p e r im e n t S ta tio n , D e p a r tm e n t o f
A g r ic u ltu r a l E c o n o m ic s ,
East L a n sin g,
M ic h . ( A u g u s t
1 9 6 0 ),
pp. 1 1 -1 2 .

Chapter 6. Preparation of Schedules for Tabulation
M axim um u tilizatio n of electronic data-processing
equipment was the c rite rio n fo r v irtu a lly a ll decisions
in handling the CES schedules a fte r they a rriv e d
in Washington fro m the field . B rie fly , program s
were w ritten fo r using electronic equipment at a ll
stages of checking, editing, coding, computing, and
generating copy of tabulations fo r the p rin te r. This
required e a rly and extended involvement not only
of staff representing a ll organizational subdivisions
of the Office of P ric e s and L iving Conditions, but
also of the Bureau’ s Office of Systems Analysis
and Economic Growth, D ivision of Data Processing,
and the then D ivision of Publications, and th e ir
organizational counterparts in the U.S. Departm ent
of A griculture.

1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000

Income
Assets and lia b ilitie s
Expenditures fo r cu rren t consumption
Insurance, gifts, and contributions
Other money receipts
Goods and services received as pay or gifts
Food received through public o r private
assistance

The following example illu s tra te s the application
of the coding system fo r fa m ily accounts:
S e c t io n
code
E x p e n d it u r e s fo r c u rr e n t c o n s u m p t i o n ------H o u s i n g ------------------------------------------------------H o u s e f u r n is h in g s a n d e q u i p m e n t -------------H o u s e h o ld t e x t i l e s -------------------------------------B e d s p r e a d s 1 ----------------------------------------------1

3000
3200
3270
3271
3271

It e m

038

S e e s c h e d u le B, s e c t io n I, it e m 5 7 , p. 14.

Precoded Schedules
The machine coding system fo r the 1960-61 CES
followed the pattern developed fo r the 1950 survey.
The classification codes may be sum m arized under
three broad headings: (1) F a m ily ch aracteristics,
(2) item s measured in d o lla r values in fa m ily ac­
counts, and (3) inform ation item s.
M ore than 40 ch aracteristic codes, consisting of
1, 2, or 3 d ig its, were developed to classify fa m ilie s .1
Codes fo r a few characteristics were printed on the
schedule, (e.g., sex of fa m ily m em bers in section A,
item 4). Program s were w ritten fo r mechanical coding
of approxim ately a fourth of the ch aracteristics
(e.g., fa m ily income a fte r taxes and fa m ily size).
The rem ain der, such as occupation and industry,
were coded by the c le ric a l staff.
The classification system fo r the fa m ily accounts
and inform ation item s is based on a 4 -d ig it section
code and a corresponding 3 -d ig it item code. The
code fo r each item was eith e r printed on the schedules
o r has been w ritten on the schedules facsim iles in
exhibits E and F. 2
The fir s t d ig it of the section code indicated the
m ajor distinctions in the classification system, and
successive digits identified lo w er levels of sum­
m arization o r item detail. Thus, a zero (0) in the
fir s t d ig it of a section code indicated an inform ation
item , e.g ., a ll items describing a fa m ily ’ s housing
pattern in section B.
Other numbers (1 through 7) in the fir s t digit of
a section code identified m ajo r categories of fa m ily
accounts as follows:




29

Review of Schedules
Extensive mechanical tabulation of fa m ily expendi­
tu re schedules was introduced in the 1950 survey. That
experience, and awareness of the v a rie ty of in te r­
related machine program s planned fo r the 1960-61
data, led to the decision to have a ll schedule 2648B’ s
c a re fu lly reviewed in the Washington office p rio r to
the c le ric a l editing or coding outlined in the Wash­
ington Coding and Editing M anual. This so-called
“professional re v ie w ” was p rim a rily to determ ine
the conform ity of the entries to the survey concepts
and techniques. It also provided instruction fo r unusual
situations that were not covered e x p lic itly in the
various manuals and train in g guides. This Washington
review was done in two stages; in itia l review and
detailed review .

Initial review
The in itia l rev ie w e r examined a ll 2648B’ s r e ­
ceived fro m the fie ld (including those the field super­
vis o r classified as incomplete or fo r p a rt-y e a r
1 T h e c h a r a c t e r is t ic c o d e s u s e d to c l a s s if y f a m il ie s i n th e
G e n e r a l P u rp o se T a b u l a t i o n P r o g r a m a re d e s c r ib e d o n p. 4 6.
The
c o m p le t e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r is t ic c o d e s w e re a s s e m b le d f o r in t e r n a l
u se a n d f o r l i m i t e d d is t r ib u t io n in S u r v e y o f C o n s u m e r E x p e n d it u r e s ,
1 9 6 0 - 6 1 , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C o d e s (r e v is e d D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 4 a n d w it h a d d i ­
t io n s S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 5 ). M im e o g r a p h e d , 31 pp . S e e a ls o a p p e n d ix
t a b le B - 1 2 .
2 T h e it e m r e fe r e n c e c o d e s w e re lis t e d in n u m e r c ia l o r d e r f o r
in t e r n a l u se a n d f o r l i m i t e d d is t r ib u t io n in S u r v e y o f C o n s u m e r E x ­
p e n d it u r e s , 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 , C o d i n g S y s t e m — C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C o d i n g o f
I t e m D e t a i l in s c h e d u le 2 6 4 8 B
( N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 1 , r e v is e d O c t o ­
b e r 1 9 6 2 ) M u l t i l it h e d , 4 8 pp.

fam ilies) to determ ine the completness and general
quality of the schedule and to detect problem s r e ­
quiring detailed review .
The in itia l re v ie w e r ex­
amined each schedule B, section by section, giving
special attention to all notes made by in terview ers
and fie ld editors. A t this point, the in itia l rev ie w e r
rem oved schedules fo r p a rt-y e a r consumer units and
incomplete schedules. These schedules w ere file d
fo r fu rth e r study, but were excluded fro m subsequent
processing of the sample of complete schedules fo r
fu ll-y e a r consumer units.
The in itia l re v ie w e r decided which schedules could
be sent d ire c tly fo r routine coding and editing and
which should be routed fo r detailed review . Some
item s, with a h istory of reporting problem s in previous
surveys, were re fe rre d consistently to detailed review;
others w ere re fe rre d , if, in the judgment of the
in itia l re v ie w e r, they required additional attention.
R e fe rra l to detailed review was automatic fo r sched­
ules on which reported receipts and disbursements
w ere out of balance by m ore than 20 percent (page 32)
and fo r schedules with entries relatin g to: Business
use o r ren tal of p a rt of home; purchase o r sale of
home or other re a l estate; mem bership in certain
types of plans fo r prepaid health care; business use,
purchase, o r sale of automobile; reim bursem ent fo r
expenses fo r out-of-tow n tra v e l; income fro m s e lfemployment.
The in itia l revie w e r attached a lis t of questionable
sections and item s, with a b rie f explanation to guide
the detailed review to schedules req u irin g detailed
review . A pproxim ately 65 percent of the complete
schedules in the 1960-61 urban sample were re fe rre d
fo r detailed review . A somewhat la rg e r fractio n
(77 percent) of the 1961 ru ra l nonfarm sample in
m etropolitan areas was re fe rre d to detailed review .
Possibly, this difference is attributable to large
numbers of automatic re fe rra ls because of the higher
incidence of self-em ploym ent and ownership and
business use of home and autos in ru ra l nonfarm
compared with urban areas.

Detailed review
The staff assigned to detailed rev ie w consisted of
four to eight persons, usually economists in grades
G S -5, G S -7, o r G S-9. They prepared w ritte n in ­
structions fo r a ll changes to be made by the coding
and editing staff, including an explanation of the
basis fo r the change. These instructions (on a fo rm
identified as PB 721), were reviewed by a super­
v is o ry economist and became p a rt of the permanent
reco rd file d with the schedule.




30

As the detailed review progressed and procedures
fo r handling re c u rre n t problems emerged, an in ­
fo rm a l manual was compiled fo r in ternal use to
standardize procedures and to have a centralized
record of decisions reached in review . A ll review ers
contributed to com piling this manual by submitting
w ritten statements and by participation in staff m eet­
ings. These procedural statements supplemented man­
uals and train in g m a te ria ls used in the fie ld o r by
the Washington coding and editing staff. In developing
these specialized procedures, review ers re fe rre d to
o ffic ia l tables of re a l estate taxes; m ilita ry pay
scales; income tax rates; and deductions fo r social
security o r F ed eral re tire m e n t, etc., as guides to
the reasonableness of entries.
R eviewers could request field supervisors to c la rify
doubtful en tries on individual schedules or groups of
schedules. To illu s tra te , the Washington staff ques­
tioned the lack of entries fo r re a l estate taxes on
schedules of numerous homeowners in one community.
The fie ld c la rifie d this by explaining that a homestead
exemption law reduced o r elim inated the tax lia b ility
of many fa m ilie s . The fie ld staff’ s knowledge of
local situations and personal contact with fa m ilie s
was recognized, and unless there was a c le a r-c u t
basis fo r change, review ers accepted the fie ld editing.
As shown in appendix table B -4 , Washington re v ie w ers
rejected some 2 percent of the urban schedules be­
cause they had significant internal inconsistencies
which could not be reconciled by the combined efforts
of the Washington and fie ld personnel.
Some examples w ill illu s tra te the types of changes
made in the detailed review . Sorting out a v a rie ty
of business-connected expenses to obtain a “clean”
reco rd of fa m ily expenditures and income accounted
fo r a substantial volume of review work. This in­
cluded re v ie w of reim bursed expenses in section Q.
The guidelines fo r the p rin cipal tran sfers and ad­
justments of business expenses are indicated in the
definitions of income in the glossary (page 215).
Frequently, a fa m ily ’s monthly home mortgage pay­
ment included p rin c ip a l, in terest, taxes, insurance,
and other item s. Respondents were encouraged to
re fe r to th e ir personal re c o rd s ,3 but some could
re p o rt only the total monthly payment. In the CES
classification, some item s included in these monthly
mortgage payments w ere considered expenditures fo r
c u rren t consumption (i.e ., p roperty taxes, in te re s t,
p roperty insurance, and F H A mortgage guarantee
insurance) and w ere in the 3000 series of the section
codes. (See page 29.)
Payments on the mortgage
p rin cip al, however, were considered decreases in
lia b ilitie s in the 2000 series. The F ie ld Editing
3

S ee p.

43.

Manual contained guides fo r allocating these items
when the respondent was unable or unwilling to
furnish the detail. The field manual, however, did
not cover all contingencies, p a rtic u la rly fo r prop­
e rtie s bought, sold, or refinanced during the survey
year. The Washington review ers were responsible
fo r decisions in these circum stances.
Washington review ers also were responsible fo r an
analogous type of distribution of combinations that
involved only expenditures, i.e ., item s classified in
the 3000 series. 4
Often, fam ilies were unable to
separate expenditures fo r two items or m ore, other
than those fo r which entries of combinations were
provided specifically, e.g ., children’ s clothing in sec­
tion K -V , item 28. Allocations were made if the codes
of the combined categories differed in the second or
th ird digit of th e ir section codes. With few excep­
tions, 5
no allocation was made if the differences
were in the fourth digit only because of the tim e in ­
volved. Also, the allocation procedures were not r e ­
fined enough to w arran t this detailed level of estim a­
tion. The wide v a rie ty of nonfood artic le s routinely
purchased in food superm arkets resulted in many
instances of combined expenditures entered in section
J. Following the ru le of allocating if the second or
th ird digits of the section code d iffered, a review er
might distribute an en try in section J of expenditures
in grocery stores among the following m ajor expend­
itu re categories:
S e c t io n
code
F o o d p u r c h a s e d in g r o c e r y s t o r e s ----L a u n d r y a n d c le a n in g s u p p lie s ,
e t c . ------------------------------------------------T o b a c c o ------------------------------------------A l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s -----------------------T o i l e t so ap , c l e a n s in g tissu e s,

expenses. The Collection Manual instructed the in te r­
view ers on a few sharing situations. However, these
rules did not cover the numerous variations in arrange­
ments fo r sharing expenses encountered among fam ­
ilie s surveyed. In general, the presence of sharing
fa m ilie s did not affect computations of average expend­
iture s per fa m ily (computed by dividing aggregate ex­
penditures by number of fam ilies). However, question­
able p rice and quantity data resulted if, fo r example,
half the price of a stove was reported on two sched­
ules. The review er tailo red instructions fo r shared
item s to fit the situation as re a lis tic a lly as possible.
No counts w ere made of sharing fa m ilie s , but it is
estim ated that 8 to 9 percent of the nonfarm fam ilies
shared th e ir food expenses or had boarders (reported
in section F - I) .

Account balancing difference

E x p e n d it u r e
ca te gory

3110

Food

3260
3810
3820

H o u s e h o ld o p e r a t io n s
Tobacco
A lc o h o lic b e ve ra ge s

3620

P e r s o n a l c a re

The allocations involved a determ ination of the
re la tiv e importance of expenditures of the same
types as those in the combined group. In general,
the re la tiv e im portances were obtained fro m a test
tabulation of 1960 CES data fo r D etro it. 6
Expendi­
tures at subcategory or section level fo r D e tro it
fa m ilies classified by fa m ily size and income, were
used to compute the re la tiv e importance ratio s. In
computing the ratio s, certain income and fa m ily size classes were combined to avoid computations
based on too few fa m ilie s in a cell.
Another category of problem schedules requiring
detailed review was “sharing fa m ilie s .” 7
These
were fam ilies or individuals livin g in the same housing
unit who were financially independent (i.e ., did not
pool th e ir incomes), but each paid fo r p a rt of shared
food purchases and possibly other shared household




31

If fam ilies kept complete household accounts and
reported them accurately to BLS in terview ers, the
schedules would balance; i.e ., total receipts would
equal total disbursements. The long h isto ry of expend­
itu re studies has shown that such accounting perfec­
tion is alm ost never attained. In e a rly BLS studies,
the difference between income and expenditures was
shown as a surplus (savings) or deficit (dissavings).
In its 1934-36 survey, the Bureau began its current
practice of computing savings fro m reported changes
in assets and lia b ilitie s and introduced the concept
of “balancing d ifference” to represent the discrep­
ancies arising fro m the in ab ility of fam ilies to recall
exactly every financial transaction of the year. 8
The balancing difference is considered positive when
reported receipts exceed disbursements and negative
when disbursements are la rg e r. Although both negative
and positive differences are found among the schedules,
excesses of disbursements predom inate, h isto ric ally.
The balancing differences fo r average groups of fam ­
ilie s tend to be negative. The computation of the b al­
ancing difference is illu strated by the following a v e r­
ages fro m the re p o rt fo r a ll urban fa m ilie s in the
United States in 1960-61:
4 C o m b i n e d e x p e n d it u r e s w e r e t ra n s fe r r e d to s e c t io n X o f
S c h e d u le B d u r in g th e c o d in g a n d e d it in g .
O n s c h e d u le s r e v ie w e d
i n 1 9 6 1 , c o m b in e d e x p e n d it u r e s w e r e r e t u r n e d to th e r e v ie w e r s fo r
a l l o c a t io n in th e first s te p o f m a c h in e s c r e e n in g .
( S e e d is c u s s io n
o f p r o g r a m 1 4 0 1 - D , p. 3 4 . )
I n 1 9 6 2 , to r e d u c e th e v o l u m e o f
p u n c h c a r d c o r r e c t io n s , c o m b in e d e x p e n d it u r e s lis t e d in s e c t io n X
w e re r e tu r n e d fo r a ll o c a t io n a fte r c o d in g a n d e d it in g b u t b e f o r e th e
d a t a w e re p u n c h e d .
5 F o r t e c h n i c a l re a so n s a s s o c ia t e d w it h th e m a c h in e p r o g r a m ,
a ll o c a t io n s w e r e c a r r ie d to th e f o u r th d i g i t fo r a b o u t 2 0 it e m s .
I n t h e 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 C E S , 3 . 3 p e r c e n t o f th e u s a b le u r b a n s c h e d u le s
r e q u ir e d a ll o c a t io n o f c o m b in e d e x p e n d it u r e s.
6 D e t r o it w a s t h e m a j o r C E S c i t y u s e d to te st p r o g r a m s a n d
th e f ir st f o r w h ic h a se t o f m a c h in e t a b u la t io n s w a s c o m p le t e d .
7 F a m i l i e s w e r e c l a s s if ie d as s h a r in g i f t h e y a n sw e re d " Y e s "
t o s e c t io n J, it e m 5,
8 L a m a le , o p . c it . (m o n o g r a p h ) , pp . 2 1 - 2 7 .

R e c e ip t s
In c o m e a fte r t a x e s ------- $ 5 , 9 0 6
+
82
O t h e r m o n e y r e c e ip t s - +
897
D e c r e a s e in a s s e t s --------+
In c r e a s e in l i a b i l i t i e s - -

balance. A distribution of approxim ately 3,200 sched­
ules collected in 22 cities in the 1960 survey shows
that about 7 out of 10 of the schedules accepted as
usable after review in Washington balanced within
plus or minus 1 0 percent. (S eetab le6.) On the m a jo rity
of those with a la rg e r balancing difference, disburse­
ments exceeded receipts. This is in line with the usual
survey experience of the BLS and others. People tend
to underreport th eir incom e.1 M o reo ver, in the
1
Bureau’ s expenditure surveys, the p rim a ry emphasis
is on a complete and reasonable record of fa m ily ex­
penditures. If these conditions appear to be satisfied,

D is b u r s e m e n t s

862

E x p e n d it u r e s fo r c u rre n t
c o n s u m p t i o n ---------------+
P e r s o n a l i n s u r a n c e ----------+
G ift s a n d c o n t r ib u t io n s —
+

$ 5,39 0
324
303

In c r e a s e in a s s e t s ------------

1 ,4 2 3

D e c r e a s e in l i a b i l i t i e s -----

514

T o t a l --------------------

$7,95 4

T o t a l ------------------ $ 7 , 7 4 7

A c c o u n t b a l a n c in g d iff e r e n c e ,

$ 7 , 9 5 4 - $ 7 ,7 4 7 = -$ 2 0 7

the standards fo r completeness of the savings and
income record are less rigorous. On schedules having
notes giving some basis fo r estim ating income or
changes in assets and lia b ilitie s , these item s were
estimated in the Washington review . F o r example,
if only take-hom e pay was recorded* in section S -I,
item 8, gross earnings could be approximated by
adding deductions fro m pay estim ated fro m tables
fo r income tax and fo r social security rates.
To sum m arize, the balancing difference was one of
several c r ite r ia used in the Washington review to de­
term in e whether schedules transm itted fro m the field
as complete were usable, whether they req u ired some

The “percent balancing d ifference” is the percent
the difference is of receipts or disbursements, which­
ever is the la rg e r. Thus, the average balancing d if­
ference fo r a ll cities in the 1960-61 urban sample
was -2 .6 percent, i.e ., -$207 + $7,954 = -2 .6 . The
comparable average fo r cities in the 1950 sample
was -2 .8 p e rc e n t.9
In most of the Bureau’ s expenditure surveys con­
ducted in the 1930’ s and 1940’ s, schedules were r e ­
jected if the balancing difference exceeded a stipulated
percentage. In the Memphis pilot survey in 1949, an
experim ent with the “re v is it to balance” technique was
conducted. Records of changes in the original entries
were kept in o rd er to analyze what items were changed
and the amount and frequency of the change. “The
Memphis test c le a rly indicated that the balancing d if­
ference reflects reporting e rro rs in all three of the
m ajor categories— income, assets and lia b ilitie s , and
expenditures— and cannot be assigned to any one cate­
gory c o rrectly. It also pointed up the danger of placing
too much emphasis on a balancing c rite rio n in the
editing process.” 10
Use of the balancing difference in the 1960-61 survey
followed the p ractice introduced in 1950. Sizable dis­
crepancies w ere considered clues to the presence of
e rro rs in incomes, expenditures, or assets and lia b il­
itie s , but no balancing difference percentage was
specified as allowable or disallowable as such.

Table 6. Distribution of urban families completing usable schedules
in the 1960 CES, by percent of account balancing difference
C o m p le te a nd

Num ber

P e rce n t

T o t a l -----------------------------------------------------

100. 0

68
61
140
403
605

2. 1
1. 9
4. 4
12. 6
1 9.0

T o t a l r e c e ip t s g r e a te r t h a n
d i s b u r s e m e n t s -------------------------------------------

32

3, 1 8 8

+ 2 0 . 0 a n d o v e r ----------------------------------------------+ 1 5 . 0 to + 1 9 . 9 -------- -------------------------------------+ 1 0 . 0 to + 1 4 . 9 ----------------------------------------------+ 5 . 0 to + 9 . 9 --------------------------------------------------0 to + 4 . 9 ---------------------------------------------------------

In the 1960-61 survey, the in itia l calculation of the
balancing difference was made by the fie ld editor on
BLS 2648D, line 32. A large difference signaled pos­
sible e rro rs o r omissions (page 19), and was used to
guide in terview ers on re v is its to the fa m ily to find the
source of e r r o r . S im ila rly , a high balancing difference
alerted Washington review ers to reexam ine the sched­
ule and a ll explanatory notes. F o r example, a note in
section D1 m ight explain that the fa m ily used an in h e r­
itance fo r the downpayment on th e ir house. If there was
no record of the inheritance on the “receipts” side of
the fa m ily accounts, the re v ie w e r would w rite in struc­
tions to enter the amount of the downpayment as an in ­
heritance in T -1 9 to bring the schedule into better




u s a b le s c h e d u le s 2

A c c o u n t b a l a n c in g ^
d if f e r e n c e (p e rc e n t )

1, 2 7 7

4 0. 1

0 to -4 . 9 ------------------------ --------- -----------------------5 . 0 to -9 . 9 --------------------------------------------------- 1 0 . 0 to -1 4 . 9 ----------------------------------------------- 1 5 . 0 to - 1 9 . 9 -----------------------------------------------2 0 . 0 a n d o v e r -----------------------------------------------

614
563
324
174
236

1 7.6
10. 2
5 .4
7 .4

T o t a l r e c e ip t s le ss t h a n
d is b u rs e m e n t s -----------------------------------------

1, 9 11

5 9.9

19. 3

1 T h e b a l a n c in g p e r c e n t f o r e a c h s c h e d u le re p r e se n t s th e d i f ­
fe re n c e b e t w e e n th e t o t a l r e c e ip t s a n d th e t o t a l d is b u rs e m e n t s , d i ­
v id e d b y th e la r g e r o f th o se t w o a m o u n t s.
2 C o m p i l e d f r o m r e c o r d s f o r 2 2 s u r v e y a re a s in th e 1 9 6 0
C E S s a m p le .
NOTE:
B e c a u se o f
n o t e q u a l t o ta ls.
9
10
11

r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f i n d iv id u a l

L a m a le , o p . c it . ( m o n o g r a p h ) , p . 2 7.
L a m a l e , o p . c it . (m o n o g r a p h ) , p . 2 5 .
S.ee pp. 51 a n d 59.

it e m s m a y

adjustment, or whether they should be rejected. Some
schedules w ere rejected, even though they showed a
low balancing difference, if the schedule had incon­
sistent en tries, the respondent had resorted to
“estim ates” fo r numerous item s, fa m ily and business
accounts were inextricable, or if there had been insuf­
ficien t probing, unsatisfactory explanatory notes, or
other evidence indicating a lack of care or interest in
preparing the schedule. The balance of some schedules
was improved by estim ating income, assets and lia b il­
itie s , or other money receipts, when the review er
could determ ine the nature and approximate size of
the missing item . Such estim ates were made on only
about 50 of the approxim ately 4,900 usable schedules
fro m the 1961 urban survey. Many more schedules
that were out of balance by 15 percent or m ore were
accepted and tabulated if the schedules had a complete
and reasonable account of expenditures, and the r e ­
view er could not pinpoint the cause of the lack of b al­
ance as sufficiently serious to w arran t rejecting the
schedule.

Manual Editing and Coding
Despite extensive use of printed codes and of p ro ­
gram s fo r mechanical editing and coding, some c le r i­
cal editing and coding of the schedules was required.
The Washington Coding and Editing Manual contained
specific instructions fo r these operations. One of the
fir s t steps in this editing was to c a rry out the
Washington re v ie w e rs ’ instructions on PB 721’ s. The
manual also specified c le ric a l verific a tio n of some
fie ld computations.
P rio rity was given to coding and editing the annual
schedules, 2648B, but the manual also contained in ­
structions fo r the weekly food schedules, 2648C,
which were coded and edited as received from the
fie ld without the intensive review given to the 2648B’ s.
The coding and editing of schedule C entailed adjusting
quantities and sizes of many item s to standard units
(e.g., quarts, pounds) to p e rm it mechanical su m m ari­
zation of data and to provide meaningful p rice/q uan tity
relationships fo r the C P I revision and other tabulations.

Transfer of Data to Punch Cards
A ll inform ation inside the heavy black lines of sched­
ules 2648B and C was tra n s fe rre d to 80-colum n punch
cards. Eleven types of cards were used fo r schedule B
and three types fo r schedule C. An average of about 200
input punch cards were used fo r each fa m ily (160 fo r




33

schedule B and 40 fo r schedule C). Most inform ation
was recorded fo r the fa m ily as the spending unit. How­
e v e r, each fa m ily m em ber was assigned a code (sec­
tion A, item 1), starting with the head as number 01 and
other members as 02, 03, etc. W herever the “F a m ily
m em ber N o.” (F M No.
) was shown on the schedule
(e.g., section K, Clothing, or section S, F a m ily E a rn ­
ings), inform ation was punched fo r the individual m em ­
b er and could be combined fo r the fa m ily group.

Computer Editing, Coding, and
Summarizing Programs
Computer editing, or screening, followed punching
and was the final series of steps in getting the raw
punched data ready to tabulate. T ypically, reports that
were indicated as questionable on the computer p rin t­
outs underwent careful human review , and decisions
were made fo r resolving questions. Specifically,
screening of the schedule B data involved manual review
of the listings produced by three machine program s 12
(re fe rre d to as 1401-1R, 1401-2R , and 1401-D ). These
program s provided checks on c le ric a l computations and
on coding and punching e rro rs , as w ell as consistency
checks on the reasonableness of the entries fo r individ­
ual schedules. Some e rro rs were “flagged” mechani­
c a lly , i.e ., they had assigned e r r o r codes that were
printed in specific card columns on the machine out­
put listings. The 1 4 0 1 -1R program included approxi­
m ately 25 such e r r o r codes. Others w ere detected
manually; these required systematic comparison of
machine input and output data fo r a ll schedules to
determ ine the presence of e rro rs . The principal phases
of screening schedule B data are described b rie fly .

Screening and coding of family characteristics
P ro gram 1401-1R was used fo r screening five types
of characteristic cards, containing data fro m the sec­
tions of schedule B indicated below:
Card 10. F a m ily ch aracteristics, section A, col­
umn (m)
Card 11. Individual fa m ily m em ber ch aracter­
istic s , section A, columns (b) - (1)
Card 12. Housing ch aracteristics, section B ,c o l­
umn (b)
12 I n i t i a l p r o g r a m s fo r m e c h a n ic a l p r o c e s s in g o f th e C E S d a ta
w e r e w r it t e n f o r I B M 6 5 0 e q u ip m e n t w h ic h u s e d p u n c h c a r d s o n ly .
D a t a fo r the f ir s t 20 c it ie s in t h e 1 9 6 0 s a m p le w e re s c r e e n e d o n
th e 6 5 0 . M e a n w h il e , la t e i n 1 9 6 1 , th e B u r e a u a d d e d the I B M 1 40 1
c o m p u t e r , a n d th e p r o g r a m s w e r e r e w r it t e n f o r t h is m o r e a d v a n c e d
" h a r d w a r e " t h a t c o u ld u se m a g n e t ic t a p e .
T h e s c r e e n in g r e su lts
w e re s im i l a r , b u t o n l y p r o c e d u r e s o n th e n e w e q u ip m e n t are d e s c r ib e d .

Card
column
Card
column

13. F a c ilitie s included in ren t, section C,
(b)
14. Automobile ch aracteristics, section P-1,
(b).

A fter extensive testing and experim entation, the
1 4 0 1 -1R program was used to:
1. Check the va lid ity of the ch aracteristics codes
2. Check the punching of cards 10 and 11 by com­
paring “hash”13 totals punched in card 10 with totals
fro m card 11 fo r each fa m ily
3. Compute 12 averages or machine codes
4. Test the consistency of certain codes
5. T est fo r m issing cards or duplicate cards
6. Move 20 fa m ily ch aracteristic codes into fa m ily
m em ber cards (card 11) in the output deck.
D etailed instructions were prepared fo r detecting
and co rrectin g m echanically “flagged” and other
e rr o r s . A few examples w ill illu s tra te how the screen­
ing p rogram was used to detect e rro rs .
E r r o r codes flagged invalid codes fo r sex (only codes
1 o r 2 were valid ), m a rita l status (codes 1 through 6
w ere v a lid ), etc. E r r o r codes also appeared if the sum
of weeks at home and weeks away fro m home, o r weeks
working and not working, was g re a te r than 52 weeks fo r
any fa m ily m em ber listed in section A.
E r r o r codes indicated inconsistencies in the housing
data. To illu s tra te , if a stove, re frig e ra to r, garage,
e tc., was checked as included in the rent in section C,
an e rr o r code appeared if the same item was not
checked in the lis t of fa c ilitie s available in the housing
unit in section B.
Manual screening (i.e ., without machine codes to flag
e rro rs ) of the 1401-1 R listings was used to v e rify c le r i­
cal coding of occupation and to determ ine consistency in
certain item s listed , e .g ., m a rita l status and sex codes
o r housing tenure and ren tal o r m arket value of occu­
pied housing. To illu s tra te , in husband-wife fa m ilie s ,
the listings w ere scanned to make sure the husband was
coded m ale and the spouse, fem ale.
Screening data fro m schedule B , with its many
in terrelated item s, was a pioneering operation that
took advantage of the rapid advances in electronic
data-processing techniques a fte r 1950. To a degree, the
choice between mechanical and manual screening of
fa m ily ch aracteristics was determ ined by e^qpediency.
Some consistency and other checks in itia lly planned to
be done mechanically w ere done m anually, because p ro ­
gram ing them would have delayed getting the 1401-1R
p ro gram operational.
The ch aracteristics coded14 m echanically by p ro ­
g ram 1401-1R included: (a) Education of each fa m ily
m em ber, (b) fa m ily size based on the average number




34

of persons in the fa m ily during the y e a r, (c) fa m ily
type, (d) age of each fa m ily m em ber, (e) m arket value
of owner-occupied housing, (f) monthly ren t paid by
re n te rs , and (g) change in housing occupancy during
the year.

Checking dollars values on schedule B
against schedule D
A computer program , re fe rre d to as 1401-D , p ro ­
vided the basic check of the punching of d ollar values
fro m schedule B against the balance sheet, schedule D.
This 1401 computer p rogram obtained about 100 totals
fro m the d ollar values punched fro m schedule B
and had e r r o r codes to flag mismatched cards (i.e .,
cards that did not match the lis t of valid codes) or
m isfiled cards (i.e ., cards out of num erical sequence
in the coding system). C lerks compared the 1401-D
listing and schedule D lin e -b y -lin e , checked dis­
crepancies against schedule B, and wrote instructions
fo r card corrections. This combination of manual
and mechanical checks detected a high proportion
of punching e rr o r s , invalid item codes, and also some
e rr o r s made in the fie ld or in subsequent processing
of the schedules. On schedules collected in 1961,
allocations of combined expenditures were included
with instructions fo r card corrections on program
1401-D , but in the following y e a r, the allocations
were made before the schedules were sent fo r
punching. (See p. 31.)

Summarization and tests for reasonableness
of expenditures
The next program (re fe rre d to as 1401-2R) sum­
m arized each fa m ily ’ s expenditures to m a jo r group
levels and computed the percentage of each group to
total expenditures. It fu rth e r sum m arized the fa m ily ’ s
accounts to higher levels—total receipts and total
disbursements. A t this stage, the totals and subtotals
fo r individual fa m ilie s were developed to correspond
with the sum m arization tables designed fo r publica­
tion. (See appendix table B -9 .) On the basis of this
sum m arization, the 1401-2R program also developed
the following fa m ily ch a ra c te ris tic codes:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

F a m ily income before taxes
F a m ily income after taxes
Savings
Income-savings ra tio
F a m ily m em ber income

13 "Hash" totals are sums of codes or other items for checking ?
purposes only; these totals may be meaningless*
14 See also p. 29 for description of principal family charac­
teristic codes.

p ric e tolerance “fla g ” caught an item miscoded because
it had been w ritten on the wrong line (e.g., ski boots
listed as “rubbers and boots” ra th e r than as “special
sport shoes”). Such miscoding was co rrected, but gen­
e ra lly the flagged item was accepted a fte r review .
Schedules flagged because the distribution of expend­
itures fe ll outside the tolerances were reexamined to
establish the cause fo r the deviation, e.g ., an e ld e rly
couple living in a m ortgage-free home might have
atypical distribution of expenditures because of large
m edical and funeral expenses. At this final stage of
screening, before the individual fa m ily records were
approved fo r tabulation, p a rtic u la r attention was given
not only to “flagged” schedules, but also to those
having large differences between income before and
a fte r taxes, to those having low incomes (including those
with negative incomes fro m business losses), to those
having unusually high incomes, o r to those having large
gifts o r other money receipts. In b rie f, this screening
was used as an opportunity fo r a fin a l pretabulation r e ­
view of the schedule B data, including changes in tro ­
duced in the Washington review , coding, and editing.

The 1401-2R program also printed two types of e rr o r
codes or “flags” fo r screening the individual fam ily
records. F irs t, fo r housefurnishings (section I) and
clothing (section K ), e r r o r codes flagged item s fo r
which expenditures did not equal the product of quantity
and p ric e , with a 5-percent allowance fo r sales tax. If
such e rro rs had been introduced in punching, they were
corrected routinely. However, if field entries w ere in ­
consistent, despite field verificatio n and editing, it was
d ifficu lt in the 1401-2R screening in Washington to de­
term in e whether the e r r o r lay in quantity, p ric e , o r the
field m ultiplication. To m inim ize questionable p ric e quantity data in calculations fo r the C P I, the following
rules were followed in screening these e rro rs :
a. If the difference between total expenditures on
the schedule and the machine-computed product of
quantity tim es p rice plus tax was g re a te r than the
cost of an additional unit, the expenditure on the
schedule was accepted and p ric e and quantity were
deleted.
b. If the difference was less than the cost of an ad­
ditional unit, all three entries (quantity, p ric e , and
expenditure) were accepted.

In retrospect, both BLS and USD A participants were
disappointed somewhat in the computer screening of the
CES data. P rim a rily , these operations had not reduced
the c le ric a l load or speeded up data processing as much
as anticipated. Expectations may have been u nrealistic.
F u rth e r, a mammoth screening program was under­
taken without benefit of the “d ry -ru n ” , using the C in­
cinnati le a d -c ity schedules as o rig in a lly planned.
Nevertheless, CES experience would seem to w arrant
endorsement of the following evaluation:

The second type of e r r o r code compared the
fa m ily accounts with predeterm ined “tolerance lim ­
its ” on: (a) The quantities and p rices of housefurnish­
ing item s (section I) and clothing (section K), and
(b) the proportions of total expenditures reported fo r
th e

f o llo w in g

11

m a jo r

c a t e g o r ie s

of

go od s

and

s e r v ic e s :
Low er lim it
( i n p e r c e n t)
F o o d ---------------------------------------------S h e l t e r -------------------------------------------------F u e l, lig h t , r e f r ig e r a t io n ,
a n d w a t e r ------------------------------------H o u s e h o ld o p e r a t i o n s ------------------- -----H o u s e f u r n is h in g s a n d e q u ip m e n t -■ -----C l o t h in g a n d c l o t h in g s e r v i c e s ------ -----T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ------------------------------M e d i c a l c a r e --------------------------------- -----P e r s o n a l c a r e --------------------------------R e c r e a t io n , r e a d in g a n d
e d u c a t i o n ------------------------------------O t h e r ( i n c l u d i n g a lc o h o l a n d
t o b a c c o ) --------------------------------------

U p p e r lim it
( i n p e r c e n t)

1 0 .0
5 .0

5 0 .0
3 0 .0

1 .0
1 .0
1 .0
1 .0

1 5 .0
1 5 .0
2 0 .0
2 5 .0
3 0 .0
1 0 .0
5 .0
2 0 .0
1 5 .0

These tolerance lim its had been determ ined on the
basis of experience in the 1950 fa m ily expenditure su r­
vey. They were reviewed after p re lim in a ry tabulations
became available fro m the 1959 Cincinnati le a d -c ity
survey and the 1960 D e tro it survey.
“ Flagged” amounts w ere compared with the schedule,
and, again, punching e rro rs were corrected routinely.
If the schedule had notes that housefur ni shings or
clothing item s had been purchased second-hand, at
wholesale, e tc ., this explanation was noted on the lis t­
ing, and the en tries w ere accepted. Occasionally, the




35

“ . . . it is obvious that we have just scratched the
surface of the potential of computer review . The
human review of enormous masses of data is not
only inefficient, but is so deadening that it constructs
a vicious c irc le resulting often in the overlooking of
some v e ry significant e rro rs which would have been
detected by any w ell-constructed computer routine.
It also quite often results in the underutilization of
highly experienced clerks who have developed a ‘fe e l’
fo r the data which should be focused on figures which
have a high probability of e r r o r . The development of
an integrated m an-m achine screening logic has the
effect of designating human ro les which req u ire
tru ly human s k ills , and mechanical processes which
req u ire unfeeling machine capabilities. Thus, it can
be of advantage to data quality, cost reduction, m a­
chine u tilizatio n , and perhaps most im portantly, the
dignity of the human being.” 15

15
W a lt e r J. S t u a r t , " C o m p u t e r E d i t i n g o f S u r v e y D a t a — F i v e
Y e a r s o f E x p e r ie n c e in B L S M a n p o w e r S u r v e y s , " J o u rn a l o f th e
A m e r i c a n S t a t is t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ^ Ju n e 1 9 6 6 , p. 3 8 3 .

Chapter 7.

Tabulation and Publication

The in itia l tabulations fro m the 1960-61 survey were
directed towards determ ining expenditure weights fo r
revising the C P I. T h erefo re, p rio rity was given to av­
eraging fa m ily expenditures fo r each item of consump­
tion goods and services purchased by w age-earner and
c le ric a l-w o rk e r fam ilie s in each m etropolitan area or
nonmetropolitan place in the urban sample. Such
“Index” fam ilies 1 numbered 4,860 of the total 9,476
urban consumer units giving usable schedules. How­
e v e r, e a rlie s t plans specified that the BLS should de­
sign and publish tabulations covering a ll fa m ilie s (re ­
gardless of index status) in each sample area. These
c ity tabulations were the “building blocks” to be com­
bined with population weights to obtain regional and
U.S. urban averages. T his program , la te r extended to
include results of the ru ra l surveys conducted in coop­
eration with the USDA, is re fe rre d to as the General
Purpose Tabulations P rogram . Its objective was to p ro ­
vide tabulations to serve the great m a jo rity of needs
fo r consumer expenditure data, as demonstrated from
experience with e a r lie r BLS and USDA surveys.
To release m axim um inform ation prom ptly and eco­
nom ically, the publication p rogram was built around
photo-off sets of printouts of standardized machine
tabulations designed fo r use as copy fo r photo-offset r e ­
production. Success in such a program requires in te­
g ration of data collecting, coding, tabulating, and pub­
lishing plans as e a rly as possible. The Bureau’ s
experience using machines in tabulating its 1950 data
fo r publication by the Wharton School at the U niversity
of Pennsylvania g reatly facilitated the 1960-61 opera­
tions. Under its General Purpose Tabulations program ,
the Bureau issued 182 reports and supplements (ex­
h ib it K). These, plus 15 USD A ru ra l fa rm reports using
the same table fo rm ats, contained nearly 6,300 pages of
machine tabulations.

Classification o f Items
In its General Purpose Tabulations, the Bureau con­
tinued to classify item s into groups according to the na­
tu re of the goods and services ra th e r than the purpose
fo r which they were used. (See page 4.) Definitions of
groups and subgroups of item s, as used in the General
Purpose Tabulations, appear at the end of supplement 3
to each regional and U.S. rep o rt. Selected definitions
fro m Supplement 3 a re reproduced in the Glossary.
The item classifications fo r 1960-61 and 1950 are gen­
e ra lly comparable; differences are listed in appendix A.




Computation o f Averages
The averages and percentages in all tables were
based on a ll fa m ilie s in each class, whether or not they
reported receipts or disbursements fo r a p a rtic u la r
item . Averages were calculated by dividing the aggre­
gate amount of income, expenditures, or savings by the
total number of fa m ilie s in the class. Since a ll averages
fo r a class w ere based on a common d iv is o r, they w ere
additive.
The percent of fa m ilie s reporting was obtained by d i­
viding the number of fa m ilie s reporting the specified
item of income, expenditures, o r savings by the total
number of fa m ilie s in the class. Average amounts fo r
fa m ilie s reporting a specified ite m can be calculated by
dividing the average fo r a ll fa m ilie s by the correspond­
ing percent of fam ilies reporting.
The urban sample fo r each SMSA or other urban place
(i.e ., the p rim a ry sampling unit) was designed to be
self-w eighting, and tabulations in the individual c ity r e ­
ports are unweighted sum m aries of a ll usable sched­
ules. Averages w ere shown fo r a ll classes of fa m ilies
fo r which any observations w ere available, even though
only one reporting fa m ily fe ll in a class. This practice
of elim inating no inform ation had been adopted in 1950.
In publishing results of e a r lie r surveys, 2 it had been
customary to elim inate fro m tabulations a ll averages
based on few er than three or four observations, o r to
combine classes until a sufficient number of observa­
tions fo r re lia b le averages was attained.
B efore publishing data fo r individual m etropolitan
areas, any schedule representing an en tire class in a
tabulation was reexam ined to make sure that nothing
published would p e rm it identification of the respondent
and violate the Bureau’ s pledge of confidentiality of the
inform ation he furnished. F o r guidance to users of the
data, the number of fa m ilie s included in each class was
printed in every tabulation of the city re p o rts , and it
was assumed that analysts would recognize the lim ita ­
tions of averages computed fo r sm all numbers of fam ­
ilie s . An advantage of this procedure was that the in ­
clusion of a ll observations in the tabulations allowed the
analyst to regroup the data fo r his p a rtic u la r needs
without loss of inform ation and thus make maxim um use
of the data. Each re p o rt c a rrie d the warning that p a rtic ­
u la r caution was required in using averages fo r fa m ilies
at the extrem es of the income scale. These averages
were based on sm all numbers of fa m ilie s that m ight
d iffe r sharply in th e ir spending patterns.
1 For criteria for "Index” fam ilies, see appendix A, p. 77.
2 The 1950 survey was the first in which printouts of machine
tabulations were used for copy for photo-offset reproduction* Use of
standardized machine printouts is more efficient if the tables are
published without m odification.

36

Content o f Statistical Reports

1960-61 re p o rt series in that it presents data fo r in d i­
vidual fa m ily m em bers. In a ll other rep o rts, the a v e r­
ages cover the entire fa m ily as an earning and spend­
ing unit.

In November 1962, the Com m issioner of Labor Sta­
tistics and the d irecto rs of the BLS regional offices
held press conferences to release simultaneously r e ­
ports on 1960 spending and income of fa m ilie s in the
urban parts of the Washington, D .C . m etropolitan area
and of a m ajor SMSA in each region. E a r lie r , staff fro m
the regional offices had met in Washington fo r briefing
on these reports and on the Bureau’ s o verall plans fo r
making CES data available.
Each “c ity ” r e p o r t3 contained b rie f analytical and
interpretative text, definitions and statements on m eth­
ods, and tables presenting averages fo r m ajor compo­
nents of fam ily accounts fo r consumer units classified
by five characteristics: F a m ily income a fte r taxes,
fa m ily size, age of fa m ily head, occupation of the head,
and housing tenure. Supplement 1 to each of these r e ­
ports presented the same inform ation classified by four
additional characteristics: Education of the head, race,
fam ily type, and number of fu ll-tim e earners. These
ch aracteristics are described on pages 46-51.
In supplement 2, data fo r eig h t-fa m ily c h a ra c te ris ­
tics in the above sum m aries were c ro ss-classified (two
variables) with each of the selected ch aracteristics,
as follows:

Age

Fam ­
ily
ty p e

X

X

X

X

-

-

X

-

-

-

X

E d u c a tio n o f h e a d - R a c e ----------------------------N u m ber of f u ll­
t i m e e a r n e r s ------------H o u s in g t e n u r e ----------F a m i l y t y p e ---------------

No attempt was made to have the urban samples p ro ­
portionate or self-w eighting except within each SMSA
o r urban place. Because the Bureau published Con­
sumer P ric e Indexes fo r m ore than 20 individual areas
or c itie s , a m inim um sample size in each area 4 was
regarded as desirable. To describe the spending and
saving of all fam ilies in the United States, data fro m the
various CES samples were combined to regional and
U.S. le v e ls .5 Aside fro m differen tial sampling rates
fo r strata representing the urban population, unequal
o verall sampling rates were used fo r the urban, ru ra l
nonfarm , and ru ra l fa rm components. To compensate
fo r disproportionate sampling and fo r response d iffe r­
ences, a system of weights based on the 1960 Census
of Population was used to sum m arize inform ation fo r
each of the three urbanizations and fo r the entire
population.

X

In -

F a m i l y s i z e -----------------A g e o f h e a d --------------O c c u p a t io n o f

Weighting Data to United States
and Regional Averages

X
X
X

T en-

1

R ace

p a t io n

-

P o p u la tio n
X

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

„

„

„

X

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

X

-

X

-

-

The standard table fo rm at used in the basic reports
and supplements 1 and 2 is reproduced in appendix
table B -9 .
Supplement 3 presented in detail the components of
consumer expenditures, income, and changes in sav­
ings, which were sum m arized in the basic reports and
supplements 1 and 2. To illu s tra te , the category “auto­
mobile transportation” was broken down into 10 sub­
groups of expenditures. These detailed tabulations
provided data fo r consumer units cro ss-classified by
fa m ily size and income a fte r taxes and by fa m ily size
and location of the fa m ily ’ s residence inside or out­
side SMSA’ s.
In addition, the BLS has published Clothing fo r Urban
F am ilies: Expenditures p e r M em ber by Sex and Age,
1960-61 (B ulletin 1556). This bulletin is unique in the




a d ju s tm e n ts

X

37

As a fir s t step in deriving the weights, adjustments
were made in the census total of p er sons in the popula­
tion on A p ril 1; 1960, to c o rre c t fo r definitional d iffe r­
ences between the Census and the CES universe. The
institutional population and on-post m ilita ry personnel,
which were not included in the CES, w ere deducted from
the census population. The CES data apply to the full
survey year, and fa m ily size is measured in y e a requivalent persons. T h e re fo re , the census total on
A p ril 1 was adjusted to take account of b irth s , deaths,
and net civ ilia n m igration during 1960. F o r the United
States, the net effect of the adjustments was to low er
the population total fro m 179,323,175 to 177,391,360.
Procedures fo r adjusting the 1960 census data in
general p aralleled those employed in 1950 and are de­
scribed b rie fly .
3 These were designated as advance reports to distinguish
them from the subsequent regional and U .S . reports in the publica­
tion series BLS Report 237 . For a com plete list of reports,
see pp. 203-4.
4 See p. 8.
5 The sample was not designed to provide tabulations by State.

B irths. The census count on A p ril 1 included infants
born in January, F ebruary, and M arch, and could not in ­
clude births occurring a fte r A p ril 1. CES counted all
infants born in 1960 in proportion to equivalent fu ll-y e a r
fa m ily membership during 1960. Adjustments fo r
b irth s w ere based on V ita l Statistics of the United
States, 1960, Volume I, published by the Departm ent of
H ealth, Education, and W elfare. This publication
showed liv e b irths by month. Total liv e b irths in 1960
were adjusted fo r length of fa m ily membership in 1960
by applying the following ratio s to the estim ates fo r
teach of the 12 months: January 1 2 /1 2 , F ebruary
1 1/12, . . . Decem ber 1/1 2 . The resulting estim ates of
fu ll-y e a r equivalent infants under 1 year of age were
comparable to the “under 1 year of age” in the CES.
Deaths. F u ll-y e a r equivalent fa m ily membership of
persons who died during 1960 was estim ated fro m vita l
statistics records by analagous procedures.
M ilita r y Personnel. The Departm ent of Defense e s ti­
mated that an average of 1,020,000 m ilita ry personnel
lived on-post during 1960. They based this estim ate on
the number of quarters available and average size of
fa m ily fo r m ilita ry personnel— 4.0 persons.
In 1950, when the m ilita ry population increased
sharply because of the outbreak of hostilities in Korea,
it was deemed necessary to adjust fo r this change.
During I9 6 0 , the m ilita ry establishment changed v e ry
little , and in view of the basis fo r the estim ate, it was
decided not to make any adjustment fo r change in the
number of m ilita ry liv in g on-base. (Had such an ad­
justment been undertaken, the total c iv ilia n population
would have been reduced by about 21,000).
Institutionalized Persons. The Bureau of the Census
estim ated 1,897,106 inmates of in s titu tio n s .6 This
total was accepted as the best estim ate of institution­
alized persons who were excluded fro m the CES
universe.
N et C ivilian M igratio n . Because of changes in the
data available and in survey coverage* m ino r d iffe r­
ences fro m the 1950 procedure were necessary fo r this
component. Net m igration figures no longer are com­
piled. Accordingly, the a rriv a l (i.e ., admitted fo r re s i­
dence) data fo r 1960 supplied by the Im m ig ratio n and
N atu ralizatio n Service w ere accepted as the basis fo r
calculation. An estim ate of 83,005 fu ll-y e a r equivalent
m em bers was computed by procedures analagous to
those used fo r b irths and deaths. On the basis of im m i­
gration and em igration figures fo r 1948-57, the e s ti­
mated number of em igrants was slightly m ore than 10
percent of the number of im m igrants p er year. This
facto r was applied to the a rr iv a l data adjusted to fu llyear equivalent m em bership, reducing 83,005 to an es­
tim ated net im m ig ratio n of 74,005.




38

Recapitulation. The effects of these adjustments are:
Census count as of April 1, 1960 -----------------------Births:
Less births January, February, and M a r c h --------Plus full-year equivalent fam ily membership
of infants born in 1960 ------------------------------Deaths:
Less deaths April through D e cem b er---------------Plus full-year equivalent fam ily membership
of persons who died in 1960------------------------Military:
Less estim ated on-post military personnel--------Institutionalized persons:
Less institutionalized p e r so n s------------------------Migration:
Plus estimated net civilian m igration --------------Adjusted 1960 population t o t a l ---------------------------

179,323, 175
-1 ,0 2 4 ,9 3 6
+2, 261,791
-1, 235, 398
+909, 829
-1 ,0 2 0 ,0 0 0
-1 ,8 9 7 , 106
+74, 005
177, 391, 360 -

The total adjusted population was distributed among
the sampling strata in accordance with the distribution
of the unadjusted population. The adjusted 1960 popula­
tion was used as urban weights fo r both 1960 and 1961.

C o m p u ta tio n

and

a p p lic a tio n

of

w e ig h ts

Weights were computed fo r 67 urban s tra ta , including
Anchorage, A laska, which was surveyed fo r 1959 (ap­
pendix table B -8 ). Since a ll SMSA’ s having urban popu­
lation of 1,400,000 o r m ore were surveyed, each of
these largest SMSA’ s was assigned its own adjusted
population. The rem ainder of the adjusted urban popu­
lation was divided equally among the sample of s m a lle r
SMSA’s or other urban places in each regional c ity size stratum . This assumption of equal area weights
within a size stratum was derived d ire c tly fro m the
sampling operation its e lf. As a resu lt of using the
method of probability proportionate to size (page 13),
the sample cities represented equal numbers of th eir
total regional c ity -s iz e s tra tu m .7
R ural nonfarm weights w ere computed fo r 42 strata—
34 SMSA’ s and a fa rm o p e ra to r8 and nonoperator
stratum fo r each of the four regions. Since fa rm oper­
ators were sampled at a higher rate than nonoperators,
adjusting the nonmetropolitan universe estim ates was
necessary to compensate fo r the oversampling of fa rm
operators. T h e re a fte r, the weight calculations were ex­
actly the same as those fo r the urban segment.
6 U. S. Census of Population: 1960, General Rspulation Char­
acteristics, United States Summary, Final Report FC(1)-1B (U. S.
Bureau of the Census), p. 157.
7 For a single year such as 1961, the city weights differed
from the 1960-61 weights, since cities surveyed in that year carried
the entire weight for their respective region city-size stratum in the
1961 tabulations. In combining 1960 and 1961, each year's sam ple
represented approximately half of the adjusted population. The 1959
data for Anchorage were weighted into the combined 1960-61 tab­
ulation for the West and the United States, but not into the tabu­
lations for 1960 or 1961.
8 A farm operator in the rural nonfarm sam ple did not live
on a farm but operated one elsewhere.

The ru ra l fa rm sample was designed to be self­
weighting within regions. To take care of d ifferen tial
response rates, weights consistent with those used in
weighting the urban and ru ra l nonfarm sample were ap­
plied to the ru ra l fa rm averages fo r the four regions to
obtain U.S. averages.
The estimated number of fa m ilie s o r CU’ s in the uni­
verse were the ultim ate weights. These weights were
estim ated by dividing the adjusted population in each
sampling stratum by the average fa m ily size fo r the
stratum as determ ined from the survey. Altogether, the
stratum weights totaled 55,306,253 CU’ s in the universe
fo r the United States. The effective weights (“blow-up”
o r “expansion factors”) were the estimated number of
C U ’ s in the universe represented by each usable sched­
ule in a sampling stratum ; they were obtained by divid­
ing the estimated number of CU’ s in the universe fo r
each sampling stratum by the number of CU’ s in the
stratum fo r which there were usable schedules. The
expansion factors averaged 4,029 fo r the universe of
urban and ru ra l fa m ilie s (55,306,253-^13,728 usable
schedules).
Data fo r selected urban areas in the Northeast illu s ­
tra te steps in deriving the 1960-61 expansion factors.
A d­
Aver­
justed
age
1960
fam ily
popula(CU)
tion
size
Boston, Mass-----Buffalo, N .Y -----Hartford, Conn----

(1)
2,408,729
2,760,695
2,760,695

(2)
3 .0
3 .2
3.3

Esti­
mated
CU's in
universe
(1 + 2)
(3)
802,910
862,717
836,574

Num —
ber
Expan­
of usable sion
schedfactor
ules
(3 + 4)
(4)
268
199
175

(5)
2,995. S
4,335.3
4 ,7 8 0 .4

The estim ated number of CU’ s in the universe, the
number of C U ’s giving usable schedules, and the ex­
pansion factors fo r each stratum are sum m arized in
appendix tables B -7 and B -8 .
Weights were applied mechanically. P re fe rab ly , a ll
weighted tabulations should have been obtained by ap­




plying expansion factors to individual fa m ily data, ag­
gregating the results to the desired le v e l, and dividing
the aggregates by the corresponding number of C U ’ s in
the universe. F o r a v a rie ty of reasons, this method was
not followed fo r tables in the basic sum m ary reports
and supplements 1 and 2. Tabulations fo r individual city
rep o rts, based on self-w eighting samples, were made
before the weights had been computed. Also, they were
run on an IB M 650 machine using cards, shortly before
BLS replaced the 650 with computer equipment u^ing
magnetic tape. Adding weights to the cards would have
been cumbersome. Since the city tabulations were
available and because of the pressure to produce r e ­
gional and U.S. urban sum m aries prom ptly, weights
w ere applied to the city averages ra th e r than to in d i­
vidual schedules in the urban sample. This procedure
required m ultiplying the number of CU’ s in each fa m ily
c h aracteristic class of the c ity tabulations by the s tra ­
tum expansion factor and then by the average expendi­
tu re , incom e, etc. fo r the class. The regional and U.S.
averages w ere obtained by dividing the sum of the s tra ­
tum aggregates by the number of consumer units in the
universe fo r the class.
Since city averages had not been prepared in the fo r ­
m at needed fo r supplement 3, aggregates fo r supple­
ment 3 were obtained by applying the stratum expansion
factors to the individual fa m ily records. F o r these and
other reasons associated with variations in the machine
program s fo r rounding and applying the weights,
weighted averages in supplement 3 may d iffe r slightly
fro m those in other publications. Headnotes in the r e ­
ports a le rt users to these discrepancies in the
tabulations.9
9
Distributions of fam ilies sim ilar to those in appendix table
B-10 were included with each copy of the Supplement 3 so that
users could see the actual number of individual fam ily reports on
which published estim ates for the universe of fam ilies were based.
Each such table carried the following caution: "Particular care is
required in using the averages based on sm all numbers of fam ilies
which may differ sharply in their spending patterns. "

39

Chapter 8.

Reliability of Information

The accuracy of statistics obtained fro m any sample
survey is affected by two kinds of e rro rs : Sampling
e r r o r s , which resu lt fro m conducting a p a rtia l, instead
of a complete, enum eration of the population under
study; and nonsampling e rr o r s , which occur whether
the enum eration is p a rtia l or complete. Nonsampling
e rr o r s include both; (a) nonresponse e rr o r s , i.e ., the
fa ilu re to obtain fu ll cooperation of a ll units approached
in a survey relyin g on voluntary cooperation; and (b)
response e rr o r s , i.e ., eith er accidental or deliberate
inaccuracy in reporting or recording inform ation.
Techniques fo r m easuring and controlling sampling
e rr o r s have reached a re la tiv e ly high level of develop­
ment. Measurem ent of nonsampling e rro rs is in a com­
p aratively elem entary stage.

Sampling Error
The Bureau o rig in a lly planned a ra th e r complete p ro ­
g ram of e r r o r computations relatin g to sampling e rro rs
both in individual c ity data and in regional and national
averages. L im itations of personnel and computer fa c il­
itie s , however, prevented implementation of this p ro ­
g ram . A short-cut method of computing e r r o r estim ates
fo r the urban CES data was substituted. This procedure,
which was s im ila r to that used in the computation of
sampling e r r o r in the C P I, compared estim ates fo r
“p a ire d ” c itie s .1 The basis fo r pairing cities was s im ­
ila r ity in stratum size and geographic location. This ap­
proach is a variatio n of the commonly used “ultim ate
c lu s te r” procedure fo r estim ating sampling e r r o r . No
suitable p airin g was possible fo r either Anchorage or
Honolulu. Since Anchorage c a rrie d less than 0.1 percent
weight in the CES and Honolulu about 0.3 percent, th e ir
omission could not significantly affect the results.
Table 7 shows the lis t of pairings fo r SMSA’ s and
urban places in the CES. The lis t includes a ll cities
surveyed in eith er ye a r, and is applicable to estim ates
of e r r o r fo r the combined 1960-61 tabulations. A com­
parable procedure fo r the 1960 and 1961 tabulations
would req u ire p airin g only cities surveyed fo r those
p a rtic u la r years. 2 This pairin g would be somewhat
d ifficu lt fo r stratum B and C c itie s , since only five of
each size group were surveyed each year. Thus, such
pairings as the following would be required fo r 1960 B
cities: B uffalo-Indianapolis, D ali as-A tlanta, with Se­
attle le ft unpaired. S im ila rly , in 1961, C pairings would
be L ancaster-G reen Bay, D urham -Baton Rouge, with
B akersfield unpaired.




40

Be tw een-city variances were computed using all
c itie s , because of an uneven number of cities in each
survey year. These same variances can be used for
1960 and 1961 individually, adjusting the weights to take
care of the half sample of cities. It might be argued that
since the estim ates fo r a single year are made fro m
half the c itie s , the widely separated pairings are ap­
p ro priate. It should be rem em bered, however, that it
was necessary to collapse strata fo r the 1960-61 p a ir­
ings. Since the half sample is used fo r an individual
y e a r, the collapsed strata a re , in fact, the actual strata
used fo r separate years. Conceptually, the collapsing
fo r 1960-61 would cause some overstatem ent of the
sampling variance, since the collapsed strata are
la rg e r than those effectively used. Since in any single
year only one city was actually surveyed in each col­
lapsed stratum , the conceptual overstatem ent is non­
existent. To collapse strata fu rth e r would be to re in ­
troduce this overstatem ent.
Most pairings involve comparisons between 1960 and
1961 data. F o r each of the 13 largest SMSA’ s (s tra ­
tum A ), the h alf samples fo r each year w ere paired.
This procedure presum ably would include any trends
fro m one year to the next. Although this is appropriate
fo r 1960-61 averages, the sampling e r r o r fo r a single
year perhaps would be overstated. This method, how­
ever* appears to be the most acceptable of alternate
expedients.
In the actual computations, which were perform ed
with electronic computers, the averages fo r each ex­
penditure item , group, subgroup, e tc ., had the v a l­
ues X and X 2 fo r each p a ir of citie s . It was necessary
to d erive an appropriate measure of the sampling v a r i­
ance fo r each stratum before computing the sampling
variance fo r sum m ary estim ates across strata. The
variance fo r the i-th stratum , a?, is computed as
follows:
(1)

In p aired citie s ,

„ 2 _ < x2>2
xr
ai
2
(2) In stratum
themselves,
a

2

ai

.

(x r V

A

c itie s ,

which

represent

only

2

4

* Marvin Wilkerson, " Measurement of Sam pling Error in the
Consumer Price Index: First Results, " 1964 Proceedings of the Busi­
ness and Economics Section—Am erican Statistical Association (Wash­
ington, D .C .) , pp. 220-230. See also The Consumer Price Index:
History and Techniques (BLS Bulletin 1517) pp. 28-29. '
2 See appendix table B-2.

T a b le 7 . P airin gs o f S M S A ’ s a n d o t h e r p la c e s in t h e 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 C E S u rb a n s a m p le f o r c o m p u t a t i o n o f
s a m p lin g er ro r

A

Region

Paired SMSA''s or cities

Stratum

Boston, Mass.
New York, N. Y.
Northeastern New Jersey
Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Chicago, 111.
C leveland, Ohio
Detroit, Mich.
St. Louis, Mo.
Baltimore, Md.
Washington, D. C.
Los Angeles-Long Beach, C alif.
San Francisco-Oakland, C alif.

(i)
(i)
( i)
(i)
(i)
(1)
(0
(0
(0
(0

t1
)
C1
)
(*)

Northeast
Northeast
Northeast
Northeast
Northeast
North Central
North Central
North Central
North Central
South
South
West
West
Northeast
North Central
North Central
South
South
West

B2

Hartford, Conn.
Dayton, Ohio
/D allas, Tex^/
D allas, T ex.
Atlanta, Ga.
Denver, Colo.

Buffalo, N .Y .
Indianapolis, Ind.
Wichita, Kans. _
/W ichita, Kans._/
N ashville, T enn.
Seattle, Wash.

c2

Lancaster, Pa.
Champaign-Urbana, 111.
Green Bay, Wis.
Durham, N. C.
Austin, T ex.
/Austin, Tex^y

Portland, Ma ine
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
/Cedar Rapids, Iow_a/
Orlando, Fla.
Baton Rouge, La.
Bakersfield, C alif.

Northeast
North Central
North Central
South
South
West

D2

Southbridge, Mass.
Kingston, N. Y .
M illville, N .J.
Findlay, Ohio
Logansport, Ind.
Niles, Mich.
Crookston, Minn.
Devils Lake, N. Dak.
M artinsville, Va.
Union, S. C .
Florence, A la.
Vicksburg, Miss.
Mangum, OkLa.
McAllen, T ex.
Orem, Utah
Klam ath Falls, Oreg.

Athol, Mass.
Burlington, Vt.
Lewistown, Pa.
Cambridge, Ohio
LaSalle, 111.
Menasha, Wis.
Owatonna, Minn.
Manhattan, Kans.
Griffin, Ga.
Sebring, Fla.
Cleveland, Tenn.
Okmulgee, Okla.
Reserve, La.
G ainesville, Tex.
Gallup, N. Mex.
Eureka, C alif.

Northeast
Northeast
Northeast
North Central
North Central
North Central
North Central
North Central
South
South
South
South
South
South
West
West

1 H alf samples for 1960 and 1961 paired.
2 Each city in the first column is paired with opposite city in next column. City in brackets
usecf in special pairing to compute variance estimates for other city in pair.

I f the average stratum expenditure is represented
by X -l, and the weight fo r the stratum by W ± , then
the United States urban average expenditure and sample
variance would be:
X -

EW. X.

l

l

and
o f = ZW i 2 a2
X

1

No division was required fo r the United States, since
the sum of the weights was 1.00. F o r the regional e s ti­
m ates, however, the cumulated values w ere divided by
the sum of the stratum weights and the corresponding
squares of these weights. The population weights used
in combining the variances were uniform fo r a ll item s.




41

J

is

E r r o r estim ates are presented in appendix table B - l l
fo r miscellaneous item s, groups of item s, total expend­
itu re s , income, and net changes in assets and lia b ilitie s .
F o r the United States, the sampling e r r o r (one sigma)
fo r total expenditures fo r cu rren t consumption was $46,
o r 0.9 percent of the total expenditures estim ate of
$5,393. Money income a fte r taxes had a slightly higher
sampling e r r o r , $59, o r 1 percent of the average
($5,890) fo r a ll fa m ilie s . M a jo r groups of expenditure
item s, such as total food, housing, clothing, transp o rta­
tion, m edical c a re , personal c a re , recreatio n , reading,
and education had s m a lle r absolute e r r o r s , but except
fo r food, they had slightly higher re la tiv e e rro rs . Item s
infrequently purchased, such as washing machines,
sm all appliances, etc. showed higher re la tiv e e rro rs .-

This was also true of clothing fo r boys and g irls in the
16- and 17-y e a r age group and fo r children under
2 years, in which the samples of fa m ily mem bers were
sm all compared with those in other age categories. The
larg est re la tiv e e r r o r , 16.8 percent, was fo r net
changes in assets and lia b ilitie s . This value can be ex­
pected to v a ry widely in both plus and minus directions.
In spite of the rough method of estim ating e r r o r ,
the results appear to be reasonable. The total na­
tional sample fo r the urban CES was 9,476 schedules.
S tratification by region, and p a rtic u la rly by city size,
has improved considerably the efficiency of the CES
sample. This factor would p a rtia lly offset the losses
due to cluster sampling elsewhere in the design.
Regional e r r o r estim ates are less re iable than those
fo r the United States and should be us^d with caution.
They tend to be considerably higher in both absolute and
re la tiv e te rm s , with the southern and w estern regions
above the Northeast and North C entral in alm ost all
categories of cu rre n t expenditures. Sampling v a ria b il­
ity in money income a fte r taxes was s im ila r to that of
total expenditures fo r a ll regions except the Northeast,
where betw een-city income differences w ere p ro ­
nounced in spite of groupings by c ity -s iz e and geo­
graphic p ro xim ity. These groupings, however, p ro ­
duced less v a ria b ility in total expenditures fo r cu rren t
consumption— $81 compared with $150 fo r income—
since higher income fa m ilie s saved m o re, and low er in ­
come fam ilies often used past savings o r increased
th e ir lia b ilitie s to meet livin g expenses.
Plus and minus values in the c ity averages influences
the standard e r r o r fo r net changes in assets and lia b il­
itie s . In regions where the between-city differences
spread across plus and minus values, the lowest nu­
m e ric a l average w ill produce the highest v a ria b ility .
This is shown by the sampling e r r o r of $67 in the
Northeast, where the average net change was $89. In
the North C entral region, the sampling e r r o r was $48,
and the average net change $326.

Characteristics o f Nonrespondents
Nonresponse is an unavoidable feature of any sample
survey relyin g on voluntary cooperation. A fte r various
tests to determ ine whether any significant bias resulted
fro m nonresponse in the 1950 expenditure survey, it was
decided not to attempt to introduce adjustments fo r non­
response in the basic 1950 tabulations.3 A t the fir s t
meeting of the advisory com m ittee on the 1960-61 ex­
penditure survey, the treatm en t of nonrespondents was
discussed. Among other considerations, it was pointed
out that any adjustments fo r nonresponse introduced in
the basic distributions would affect the com parability of
the extensive cross-tabulations planned fo r the 1960-61




42

expenditure survey. Although adjustments were ruled
out as im p ra c tic a l, 4 plans were made to use a House­
hold Record (exhibit D) to obtain lim ite d inform ation on
the fa m ily ch aracteristics of nonrespondents fo r com­
parison with fa m ilie s furnishing usable schedules.
E a r lie r , it was noted that 79 percent of the urban
consumer units elig ib le fo r the CES in 1960-61 fu r­
nished usable reports. (See page 25.) The rem aining
21 percent was composed p rim a rily of consumer units
who refused to supply any inform ation fo r the detailed
schedule 2648B, and those who started but did not
complete schedule B. The net nonresponse, a fte r sub­
stitution of alternates described on page 16, is sum­
m arized below:
Some inform a­
tion obtained
on fam ily
characteristics

Master
sample

Alternate
sample

707
833
187
80

522
198
47
248

1, 229
1,031
234
328

1, 105
1,031
234
154

1, 807

1,015

2,822

2,524

5

223

228

-

Net total — -------------- 1,812

1,238

3,050

R e f u s a ls ----------------Incomplete schedules—
R ejected sc h ed u les---No co n tact1 —--------T o t a l -----——
V acant u n its------------

Total

1 See footnote 5, appendix table B-4. If the fam ily at an
alternate address could not be reached, the interviewer attempted
to complete the nonresponse section of the Household Record (except
for questions on race and income) by talking with a neighbor, land­
lord, or apartment manager.

C haracteristics of the nonrespondents and the fam ­
ilie s who gave usable schedules are compared in ap­
pendix table B -12. E ntries on the Household Record,
2648A, were not uniform ly complete, accounting fo r
the variatio n in the number of nonrespondents on which
the distributions by characteristics are based. In fo r­
mation on fa m ily income was obtained least frequently,
both because of the fa m ily ’ s reluctance to discuss in ­
come and because interview ers were instructed never
to ask others about the fa m ily ’s income. The p a rtia l
income inform ation (from slightly m ore than half the
nonrespondents) suggests that nonresponse was g reat­
est among fa m ilie s having the lowest and the highest
3 See Lam ale, op. cit. (monograph), pp. 94-95.
* In surveys of fam ily expenditures in the United Kingdom
and C anada, no attempt has been made to adjust for differences
in the fam ily characteristics of nonrespondents, partly because their
bharacteristics cannot be ascertained fully. See Fam ily Expendi­
ture Survey Report for 1964, Ministry of Labour, London (1965),
p. 31; and Urban, Fam ily Expenditure 1959., Dominion Bureau of
Statistics, Ottawa (1963), p. 8.
The section describing adjustments for nonresponse in the Cur­
rent Population Survey, states: "We do not know of any unbiased
or even consistent method of making adjustments for nonresponse.
The magnitude of the biases resulting from the adjustment proce­
dures used in CPS are not known , • . , " The Current Population
Sqrvey—A Report on Methodology, Technical Paper No. 7, U. S.
Pepartment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D .C .,
(1963) p. 53.

This generally favorable comparison of o verall s u r­
vey average expenditures is in line with results of
s im ila r validation of u tility b ills fo r 194 7 -4 8 .8 As
would be expected, averages computed fro m reports
fo r subgroups of fa m ilie s (e.g., classified by fa m ily
size) differed fro m the u tility records by w ider m argin
than the averages shown.

incomes. Such differences would be offsetting, had the
combined usable and nonresponse income distribution
been used to adjust average fa m ily expenditures. How­
e v e r, schedule A contained only a global question on
fa m ily income. The generally low er amounts reported
on global income questions, compared with the item ized
income questions in schedule B, are discussed in
chapter 9.

R esponse

E rro rs

Among fam ilies participating fu lly and giving usable
schedules, inaccurate reporting is a source of e r r o r
despite continued research in schedule design and in­
tensive training of in terview ers. Such inaccuracies r e ­
sult fro m m em ory e rr o r s , misunderstanding of a ques­
tion o r reluctance to answer it, and in co rrect entries
by the in terview er. Study of various aspects of response
e r r o r has a long history. 5
In recent years, numerous
la rg e -s c a le validation studies (i.e ., checks of survey
data against records of financial institutions, hospitals,
etc.) have been c a rrie d out. 6
Unlike sampling e r r o r ,
however, little theory on which to base estim ates of
response e r r o r has been form ulated.

Utility record check
Because of the Bureau’ s policy of not putting the
fa m ily ’ s name on any CES reco rd s, opportunities fo r
validating a fa m ily ’ s re p o rt have been lim ite d . How­
e v e r, in connection with research on C P I weights
fo r fuels, BLS enlisted the cooperation of the Cin­
cinnati Gas and E le c tric Company to obtain gas and
e le c tric b ills fo r customers identified by address in
the 1959 CES in Cincinnati. The comparison of CES
entries and u tility records was re s tric te d to 133
residential customers paying fo r gas an d/o r e le c tric ­
ity , who had lived at the same address throughout
1959, and were identifiable in u tility records. 7 Only
45 of the 133 reported separate expenditures fo r gas
and 46 (including 1 using bottled gas) separate ex­
penditures fo r e le c tric ity . The rem ainder reported
expenses fo r gas and e le c tric ity combined. F o r the
133 fa m ilie s , expenditures fo r gas and e le c tric ity
reported to the CES averaged 4 percent above the
u tility b illin g s, with detail by type of fuel as follows:

Utility
Gas only (45 fam ilie s)------- Electricity only
(46 f a m ilie s ) ---------------Combined gas and
electricity (133 fam ilies) —

Percent of
Average
average
annual
amount
expenditure billed by
reported
utility
Coefficient
to CES
company of correlation
$150

98.7

.5030

84

105.0

.7888

206

104.0

.4868

1 A ll correlations are significant at the 5 percent level.




43

Use of records
To reduce m em ory e rro rs that are inherent in
any survey depending on re c a ll, in terview ers were
trained to encourage respondents to consult records
in answering questions on schedule 2648B. Space
was provided in the low er half of fo rm PB 715
(exhibit H) fo r the in te rv ie w e r to record a fte r each
v is it whether the fa m ily re fe rre d to records (such
as receipts, canceled checks, income tax returns,
savings passbooks, etc.) fo r selected categories of
fa m ily accounts.9
The PB 715’ s w ere not edited nor w ere they p re ­
pared fo r machine tabulation as o rig in a lly planned,
but records fro m 18 survey areas throughout the
United States were hand tabulated and sum m arized
in table 8. Crude and incomplete as these measures
a re , they show that the m a jo rity of fa m ilie s con­
sulted records fo r those areas of fa m ily accounts
in which it was custom ary eith er to b ill the fa m ily ,
or to req u ire the fam ily to keep records fo r income
tax or s im ila r purposes.
To illu s tra te , table 8 shows that approximately
one-half to tw o-th ird s of the fam ilie s reporting pay­
ments fo r mortgages, taxes, or insurance re fe rre d
to some kind of reco rd , and s im ila r proportions con­
sulted a W -2 fo rm or other records in reporting
income. On the other hand, few er than one-fifth of
the fam ilie s re fe rre d to records of expenditures fo r

5 See Lam ale, op. cit. (monograph), pp. 95-98. See also
John Neter and Joseph Waksberg, Response Errors in the Collection of
Expenditures Data by Household Interviews; An Experimental Study,
U. S« Department of C om m erce, Bureau of the Census, Technical
Paper No. 11., Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D .C . (1965).
6 See papers and discussion on "Recent Research on Response
Errors, " 1965 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section, Am erican
Statistical Association. Philadelphia, P a ., Sept. 8-11, 1965, Am er­
ican Statistical Association, Washington, D . C . , pp. 181-197.
Also, Lawrence D. Haber, "Evaluating Response Error in the
Reporting of the Income of the Aged: Benefit Income, " 1966 Pro­
ceedings of the Social Statistics Section, Am erican Statistical Asso­
ciation. Washington, D .C ., pp. 412-419.
7 A total of 235 fam ilies and single consumers in Cincinnati
furnished usable records of their 1959 expenditures and income.
® Lam ale, op. Cit. (monograph), pp. 141 ff.
9
The Bureau introduced this type of report in the 1960-61
survey at the suggestion of the CES advisory council. It was m od­
eled on forms used in studies of consumer savings carried out by the
Inter-University Com m ittee for Research on Consumer Behavior.

P ro ce ssin g

food 10 o r fo r expense when traveling. Such expendi­
tures are accumulated over the year in “d rib le ts ”
and “dabs,” and the sm all proportion of fam ilies
consulting records fo r them is consistent with in te r­
view ers’ rep o rts that slightly more than one-tenth
of the fam ilies kept a budget which they consulted
during the interview . Table 8 also shows that the
use of records fo r a given category of inform ation
varied little by c ity -s iz e stratum . This consistency
is of in terest, since it reflects interview ing tech­
niques and observations of numerous persons calling
on fam ilies in various types of urban places through­
out the country. How ever, such inform ation— even if
tabulated fo r a ll consumer units— is no m ore than
suggestive of the accuracy of response. Another pos­
sible analytical use of the PB 715’ s— not explored—
would be to co rrela te use of records and the number
and length of visits to complete the schedules.

E rro rs

Review procedures and checks instituted in the
field and Washington offices to m inim ize processing
e rro rs have been discussed in chapters 4, 6, and 7.
P reparation of statistical reports fo r each c ity r e ­
sulted in another thorough review of the tabulations
of unweighted fa m ily data, and provided a fin al op­
portunity to c o rre c t the data on punch cards. This
intensive analytical review , and subsequent review
of regional and U.S. tabulations, concentrated on
classifications of fam ilie s by the 10 characteristics
selected fo r publication. (See page 37.) The Bureau
also sold magnetic tapes containing selected CES
data under arrangem ents discussed in chapter 11.
Servicing users of these tapes has uncovered some
m istakes in fa m ily ch aracteristic codes that BLS
had not used in its tabulations. When inform ed of
questionable data on the tapes, the Bureau staff has
attempted to tra c k down the explanation and extent
of the e rr o r . P e rio d ic a lly , BLS notifies a ll organiza­
tions having the tapes about e rr o r s , problem s in
10
For comparison of annual and weekly food expenditures,
program ing, etc. encountered by other users.
reported on schedule 2648B and 2648C, respectively, see p . 66.

Table 8. Percentage of urban families1 using records in reporting specified types of information for the 1960-61 CES

Type of information

Urban
United
States

Population stratum
SMSA,
1,400, 000
and over
(Stratum A)

SMSA,
250, 0001, 400,000
(Stratum B)

SMSA,
5 0 ,000250,000
(Stratum C)

Urban places
2, 50050, 000
(Stratum D)

Percent of " applicables" 2 referring to records
Mortgages ----------------------------------------------------------U t i li t i e s -------------------------------------------------------------Major ap p lian ces---------------------------------------------------Food — --------------------------------------------------------------M edical e x p e n se s------------------------ -----------------------Automobile expenses ---------------------------------------------O ut-of-hom e-city expenses 3 —-------------------------------Fam ily in c o m e ----------------------------------------------------W-2 (incom e-tax withholding f o r m ) --------------------------Taxes and insurance ----- ---------------------------------------Assets and lia b ilitie s-----------------------------------------------

59
39
17
18
33
36
12
63
57
53
32

62
41
19
19
33
38
11
64
63
51
33

53
33
16
13
34
33
13
62
61
52
26

62
37
18
21
34
34
12
64
36
58
30

58
44
12
18
31
37
11
62
53
59
29

1 Based on information from approximately 2,700 of the 9, 476 urban fam ilies and single consumers furnishing usable CES schedules.
Information recorded on form PB 715 was tabulated for fam ilies in 18 survey areas selected from each city-size stratum and geographic region.
2 The percentage of fam ilies for whom a specified type of information was applicable who referred to receipts or other records in
reporting it.
3 Section Q, schedule 2648B. (See exhibit E .)




44

Chapter 9.

Com parisons W ith Data From O ther Sources

C u rren t Population Survey

One approach to gaging the extent and nature of
e rr o r s in sample surveys is to compare survey r e ­
sults with inform ation fro m independent sources. The
fe a s ib ility of this method of evaluating the CES
results depends on the existence of independent
statistics on fa m ily ch aracteristics, income, spending,
and saving fo r broad population groups. A t best, such
comparisons are lim ite d by differences in tim ing,
coverage, classification, definitions, and techniques
of the various studies. The 1960 Census of Popula­
tion provided the sampling fram e fo r the C E S ,1 and
it is possible to compare distributions of fam ilies
according to various ch aracteristics as obtained in
the CES with those in the 1960 Decennial Census
and the C urren t Population Surveys (CPS) of the
Bureau of the Census. Comparisons of aggregate
income, expenditures, and savings have been made
with the Departm ent of Com m erce’ s Office of Busi­
ness Economics (OBE) estim ates fro m the National
Income and Products Accounts.

F a m ilie s include: Same as 1960 census, but in ­
cluding children away fro m home at school, plus
U nrelated individuals include: Same as 1960 census
but excluding the students and m ilita ry personnel in
b arracks on post.
Office of Business Economics (consumer unit, o r
fam ilies and unattached individuals)
F am ilie s include: Same as CPS, plus
Unattached individuals include: Same as CPS un­
related individuals.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (all consumer units, or
a ll fam ilies)
F a m ilie s of two persons o r m ore include: Usu­
a lly related and usually living together who pool
th e ir income and draw fro m common fund fo r th eir
m ajor item s of expense, plus

D ifferen ces in

D e fin itio n s
Single consumers: Persons living alone or with
others with whom they do not pool income and ex­
penditures.

A ll fa m ily characteristics series in the present
comparison cover the c iv ilia n noninstitutional popu­
lation in urban and ru ra l areas, plus m ilita ry p e r­
sonnel in the United States livin g off post. In defining
the incom e-receiving unit, the 1960 census also in ­
cludes all m ilita ry personnel on m ilita ry posts, and
the CPS and OBE cover m ilita ry personnel living
with th e ir fa m ilie s on m ilita ry reservations, a ll
of whom are excluded fro m the C E S .2
In each series, a distinction is ‘ made between
persons livin g as m em bers of a fa m ily and persons
livin g by themselves. These differences in definition
are outlined below:

The most inclusive decennial census data that are
relevant fo r comparison with the CPS, OBE, and CES
distributions of fam ilies (including one-person fam ilies
o r single consumers) relate to income distributions.
The decennial census income distributions show the
following totals: 3
Fam ilies and unrelated individuals----F a m ilie s ------------------------------------Unrelated in d ivid u als---------------------

The compilation in table 9 shows that the several
series agree v e ry closely with respect to the total
number of fam ilie s of two persons o r m ore. D iffe r­
ences in the totals of fam ilies and single consumers
combined are attributable to the la rg e r number of
unrelated individuals who were counted as separate

1960 Decennial Census
F am ilies include: Two persons or m ore living
together and related by blood, m a rria g e , o r adop­
tion, plus:

* See chapter 3.
2 See Fam ily Income Distribution Statistics Published by Fed­
eral Agencies, O ffice of Statistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget,
Statistical Evaluation Report No. 5 (December 1964), pp. 10-11.
3 I960 Census of Population, Vol. I, Characteristics of the
Population, Part 1, U *S . Summary, table 95> p. 1-225. Sm all
variations in numbers of fam ilies and individuals are explained
mainly by whether the information was based on the complete count
or the 25-percent or 5~percent samples of the 1960 census*

U nrelated individuals include: Persons livin g alone
o r with persons to whom they are not related,
including m ilita ry personnel on post and unm arried
children livin g away fro m home while attending
school.




58, 305, 007
45, 128,393
13, 176, 614

45

units in the decennial census,4 and to distinctions
between whether the individual was living in a house­
hold or in group quarters.

conceptually closer to the CES definition of total
consumer units, which also would count as separate
units fo r at least some of the “secondary individuals”
in households and some living in group q uarters, such
as rooming or boarding houses. The CPS total of
56,335,0007 fa m ilie s and unrelated individuals as of
M arch 1961 also fa lls between the two totals fro m
the decennial census.

In 1960 census usage: 5
An unrelated individual is either: (1) A mem ber
of a household who is livin g e n tire ly alone o r
with one person o r m ore all of whom are not
related to him , o r (2) a person livin g in group
quarters who is not an inmate of an institution.
Unrelated individuals who are household heads are
called “p rim a ry individuals.” Those who are not
household heads are called “secondaryindividuals.”

D istrib u tio n s o f C onsum er U n its
by C h a ra cte ristics
The BLS and USD A selected 10 fa m ily c h a ra cter­
istics fo r classifying fa m ilie s in the General Purpose
tabulations of consumer expenditures, incomes, and
savings. CES classifications and codes and co m p ari­
sons with census data fo r eight of these fa m ily ch ar­
acteristics are shown in table 9 .8 Comparable census
data are not available fo r the other two c h a ra cter­
istics— money income a fte r taxes and number of
fu ll-tim e earn ers. However, a special analytical com­
parison has been made of the distribution of census
income and CES money income before taxes. (See

Group q uarters are liv in g arrangements fo r in stitu ­
tional inmates or fo r other groups containing five
persons o r m ore unrelated to the person in charge.
Group quarters are located most frequently in
institutions, lodging and boarding houses, m ilita ry
and other types of b arra c k s , college d o rm ito ries,
fra te rn ity and s o ro rity houses, hospitals, homes
fo r nurses, convents, m onasteries, and ships. Group
quarters also are located in a house or an ap art­
ment in which the livin g quarters are shared by the
person in charge and five persons or m ore un­
related to him .

page 51.)

Family size

Census d e ta il6 fo r “unrelated individuals” is as
follows:
In households------------------------------------------------Primary individu al--------------------------------------Secondary in d ivid u al------------------------------------

10, 434, 328
7, 996, 805
2, 437, 523

I n g r o u p q u a r t e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

4, 9 0 1 , 6 7 6

In stitu tion-in m ate--------------------------------------O th er-----------------------------------------------------Rooming or boarding houses --------------------Military b a r r a c k s -----------------------------------C ollege d o rm ito ry ---------------------------------Institution-resident s t a f f -------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------------

D ifferences in definitions of the fa m ily and in the
period to which the fa m ily composition re fe rre d are
v e ry im portant when comparing the CES distributions
with those of the decennial census and the CPS. The
tim e period to which the fa m ily composition re lates
is the date of the in terview fo r the 1960 census and
the CPS (in A p ril and M arch, respectively). The CES
measure of fa m ily size is the number of equivalent
fu ll-y e a r fa m ily m em bers. It is an average obtained
by dividing 52 weeks into the total number of weeks
during which both fu ll- and p a rt-y e a r mem bers be­
longed to tiie fa m ily , recorded in section A , ite m 8(m ). 9

1, 886, 967
3 ,0 1 4 ,7 0 9
633,732
867, 803
829,112
90,511
593, 551

T o tal unrelated individuals, except inmates —

13,449,037

4
See U# S» Department of Com merce, Bureau of the Census,
Income Distribution in the United States, by Herman P. M iller (a
1960 census monograph). Government Printing O ffice, Washington,
D .C . 1966, pp, 183-185.
* See source cited in footnote 3, pp. LV and LIX.
® Com piled from 1960 Census of Population. Vol. I. Charac­
teristics of the Population. Part 1. U. S. Sum m ary tables 181 and
182, pp. 1-444 and 1-453. •
This Retail is based on "sam ple d ata" and the total may
differ from information derived from a com plete -count basis. (See
p, LXXXDC of volume cited in this footnote. )
7 'this total was adjusted upward slightly after the 1960 census
results becam e availab le. See footnote 1, table 9.
® See also appendix table B-13 for greater d etail for these
characteristics and for classifications of nonfarm fam ilies by. addi­
tional characteristics.
9
Unless otherwise noted, this and sim ilar references are to
section, line, and column in BLS 2648B, reproduced in Exhibit E.

By definition, the CES universe includes a ll unrelated
individuals in households and p a rt of those in group
q uarters— specifically those in shared apartm ents or
houses and in rooming o r boarding houses. The es­
tim ated to tal of 55*307,000 consumer units fa lls about
midway between the decennial census totals fo r fa m i­
lie s and unrelated individuals on which the d istrib u ­
tions in table 9 a re based. The CES total is below
the la rg e r census figu re which includes a ll of the
on-post m ilita ry and counts students in d orm itories
as unrelated individuals. It is somewhat higher than
the census total of 53,024,000 fa m ilie s and the “p r i­
m a ry individuals” in households. The la tte r total is




46

Table 9.

Comparison of family characteristics data from 1960-61 CES and other sources, total urban and rural United States
Fam ilies and single consumers

CES

Characteristic

Consume! 1960 Decennial Census
Fam ilies
expenditures
Total

1960-61
Estimated number (in thousands) ------------------ Average size (m ean number of persons)------------

55, 307
3. 2

primary
individuals

258,305

Fam ilies of 2 persons or more

Current
Consumer
1960
Population Expenditures
Decennial
Survey 1
Survey
Census
1961
1960-61

353, 024
3.38

56,335
3 .36

Current
Population
Survey1
1961

46, 917
3 .6

44 5 ,149
5 3. 65

45, 435
3.71

100.0
35. 5
21.1
19.0
12. 3
12.0

4 100.0
32.7
21.6
19. 9
12. 8
13.0

8100.0
32.7
20 .9
20 .4
13.0
12.9

100.0
89.7
9 .3

10100.0
90 .5
1
9 .5

1* 1

11 100.0
9 0.6
8 .8
.7

-

100.0
6 0 .4
35. 2
4 .4

12 100.0
6 5 .4
3 4.6
-

-

100.0
3 5 .0
44. 6
16. 3
4 .0

14 100.0
39. 2
4 2 .6
\
18.3

Percent

1
2
3
4
5
6

Fam ily size:
Total ---------------------------------------------1 p erso n -------------------------------------------------2 persons or m o r e -------------------------------------2 persons ------------------------------------------------3 p e r so n s------------------------------------------------4 p e rso n s------------------------------------------------5 p e rso n s------------------------------------------------6 persons or m o r e --------------------------------------

6 100.0
15. 2
84.8
30. 1
17.9
16.2
10.5
10.2

2 100.0
22. 6
5 7 7 .4
25. 3
16.7
15.4
9 .9
10. 1

7 100.0
IS. 0
85 .0
27.7
18.4
17.0
10. 8
11. 1

2 100.0
89.7
10.3

9 100.0
90.3
9 .7
-

8100.0
19. 3
8 0.7
26.4
16.9
16.5
10.5
10.4

R ace:
1
2
3

T o t a l ---------------------------------------------W h ite ----------------------------------------------------N e g ro ----------------------------------------------------O th e r -----------------------------------------------------

100.0
89. 3
9 .6
1.1

1
2
3

Housing tenure:
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------Owner----------------------------------------------------R e n t e r ---------------------------------------------------O th e r -----------------------------------------------------

100.0
57. 1
39.0
3 .9

-

9 100.0
6 1 .9
38. 1
-

1
2
3
4

Years of education of fam ily head:
Total -------------------------------------------8 years of l e s s ------------------------------------------9 through 12 years (high sch ool)--------------------13 through 16 years ( c o lle g e ) -----------------------Over 16 years (postgraduate)-------------------------

100.0
3 6.5
43. 1
16.4
4 .0

-

13 100.0
4 0 .6
41. 1
^
18.3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Age of fam ily head:
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------Under 25 y e a r s ----------------------------------------25 to 34 y e a r s ------------------------------------------35 to 44 y e a r s ------------------------------------------45 to 54 y e a r s ------------------------------------------55 to 64 y e a r s ------------------------------------------65 to 74 y e a r s ------------------------------------------75 years and o v e r --------------------------------------

15100.0
100.0
4 .8 >
27.0
18.5
22. 1
20. 9
19.7 1
3 5.2
15.9 j
16.9
13. 1
5.9

16 100.0
5. 1
18.4
22. 1
2 0.4
16.5
12. 1
5 .4

100.0

-

13100.0

11.0
15.6
26.6
10.9
14.8
14.1
13.2
.2
.8
13.7
5 .9

-

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Occupation of fam ily head:
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------Employed—
a. S e lf- e m p lo y e d -----------------------------b. Salaried professional, technical, e tc .--c. Subtotal (a + b ) -----------------------------d. C lerical and s a le s --------------------------e. S k ille d --------- -----------------------------f. Se m isk ille d ----------------------------------g. U n sk illed ------------------------------------h. Occupation not r e p o r te d -----------------i. Member of armed fo r c e s ----------------R e tir e d ----------------------------------------------Others not w orking---------------------------------

X
)

-

-

-

-

S e e fo o tn o t e s at e n d o f t a b le .




47

I

-

i

i
(
J

-

10100.0
89 .7
10.3 1
-

)

2 1.4
11.5
1314.5
14. 5
10. 9
2 .9
( 13)
24.3

i "

|
I

8 100.0
6 .0
18.3
2 1.2
20.3
16.6
17.5

100.0
4. 9
20.3
24.7
20.9
14.8
10.4
4 .0

-

12.0
16.5
28.5
10.3
16.8
15.5
12.8
.2
.9
11.1
3 .9

\
/

(
1
i

1

100.0

-

1

-

-

-

-

)

-

-

-

-

^lOO.O
25.5
24.2
3 6.7
13.5

-

)
?

18100.0

8 100.0
5.1
19. 9
23 .9
21.6
15.8
13.6

19100.0

-

-

-

\

i

-

23. 1
11.5
17. 1
16.7
11.6
2.8
1.7
15.4

27. 1
10.7
15. 1
14.3
10.9
-

-

\

J

21.9
-

Table 9. Comparison of family characteristics data from 1960-61 CES and other sources, total urban and rural United States— Continued
Fam ilies and single consumers
CES

Characteristic

Consumer
Expenditures
Survey
1960-61

1960 Decennial Census
Fam ilies
Total

primary
individuals

Fam ilies of 2 persons or more

Consumer
Current
1960
Population Expenditures
Decennial
Survey 1
Survey
Census
1961
1960-61

Current
Population
Survey 1
1961

Percent
Family type:
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------Husband and w i f e -------------------------------------All other -------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
6
7
5
8
9

Location:
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------Inside S M S A 's -------------------------------------Central city or c it ie s --------------------------Other cities with population of
50, 000 or o v e r -------------------------------Places with population under 50,000
in urbanized a r e a -----------------------------Places with population of 2, 500 to 50, 000
outside urbanized area ---------------------Rural n on farm ---------------------------------Rural f a r m --------------------------------------Outside S M S A 's------------------------------------Urban places with population of
2, 500 to 50, 000 -----------------------------Rural n o n fa r m ---------------------------------Rural f a r m --------------------------------------

100.0
7 5 .9
24.3

16100.0
7 4.7
25.3

2 0 100.0
6 8 .0
32.0

100.0
63 .7
32.7

-

3 .4

-

22100.0
6 4 .5
3 4.9

-

)
>

17.3

-

4 .0
5 .6
.6
36.3

-

-

15. 1
15.5
5 .7

-

-

-

-

-

100.0
89.3
10.6

17100.0
87. 8
12. 2

100.0
6 3.6
3 0.6

23100.0
6 3 .9
32.7

3. 3

)

>

20. 5
2 .5
5 .8
.8
3 5.5
14.4
15.2
5 .9

21100.0
87. 2
12.8

-

4. 2
6. 1
.7
3 6 .4

2 .5
6 .2
.9
36.2

14.4
15.8
6 .3

14.0
15.6
6 .5

-

-

-

-

-

18.6

-

-

21.5

-

f

-

21100.0
70.3
29.7

-

f

-

-

-

1 Income of Fam ilies and Persons in the United States: I960, Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 37,
January F T , 1962 (U. 5. Bureau of the Census). Income is for calendar year 19<0, but characteristics of fam ilies and individuals are as
d
of March 1961. Subsequently, the number of CPS fam ilies was revised upward from 45, 435,000 to 45 ,4 5 6 ,0 0 0 and of unrelated individuals
from 10,9 0 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 1,081,000 (Series P-60, No. 47, Sept. 24, 1965, p. 3).
2 Based on number of fam ilies and of all unrelated individuals except inmates of institutions Census of Population: I960, United States
Summary, General Social and Economic Characteristics PC(1), 1C, (U. S. Bureau of the Census) table 95, p. 1-225.
3 Based on number of households (i. e. primary fam ilies and primary individuals). Census of Population: I960, Fam ilies, PC(2),
4A (U. S. Bureau of the Census) p. xiii.
4 Based on number of fam ilies. Source, footnote 3, p. 21.
5 Distribution of fam ilies by size from Census of Population: 1960, United States Summary, D etailed Characteristics. PC(1), ID
(U. S. Bureau of the Census), p. 1-465.
6 The number of full-year equivalent persons corresponding to the 1-digit CES fam ily size code is: Code 1 = 1 .0 person; 2 = 1.1
to 2.9 persons; 3 = 3. 0 to 3. 9 persons; 4 — 4 .0 to 4. 9 persons; 5 = 5 .0 to 5. 9 persons; 6 = 6. 0 persons or more.

7 Source,

footnote 3, p.

11.

8 Source, footnote 1, p. 27.
9 Based on number of occupied housing units (households). Census of Housing: 1960, United States Summary, Final Report, HC(1),
1 (U. S. Bureau of the Census), p. XXVII.
10 Source, footnote 1, p. 25.
11 Source, footnote 8, p. 1-463.
12 Based on number of fam ilies. Source, footnote 3, p. 37.
13 Based on number of heads of households. Source, footnote 3, p. 195. In the distribution by occupation, the census classified
members of the Armed Forces with craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers.
14 Based on number of fam ilies.
Source, footnote 8, p. 1-470.
18 Based on number of fam ilies and unrelated individuals.Source, footnote 8, p. 1-594.
16 Based on number of heads of households. Source, footnote 8, p. 1-444.
17 Based on number of fam ilies.
Source, footnote 8, p. 1-463.
18 Based on number of fam ilies.
Source, footnote 8, pp.
1-610 and 1-611.
19 Source, footnote 1, p. 30.
20 Based on number of fam ilies and unrelated individuals. Source, footnote 8, pp. 1-459 and 1-463.
21 Source, footnote 1, p. 26.
22 Based on number of heads of households. Census of Population: 1960, Size of Place, PC(3) IB (U. S. Bureau of the Census), pp. 1-3.
23 Based on number of fam ilies. Source, footnote 22, pp. 10-12.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




48

Dashes indicate comparable data not available.

Occupation of family head

The average number of equivalent fu ll-y e a r fa m ily
mem bers was rounded to one decim al place and con­
verted to the one-digit code fo r fa m ily -s iz e class
shown in table 9.
As already mentioned, the correspondence in data
fro m the three sources is closer when the com pari­
son is confined to fam ilie s of two persons or m ore,
and the differences in distribution of these fa m ilie s
by size are in the direction expected fro m definitional
difference. The CES splitting of related fa m ily m em ­
bers on the basis of th e ir economic independence r e ­
sulted in a g reater number of fam ilies and re la tiv e ly
m ore sm all fa m ilie s and few er large ones than the
decennial census or CPS.

The occupation of each fa m ily m em ber was entered
on the schedule when income fro m each job was
recorded in sections S -I or S -II. The occupation of
the fa m ily head was based on his m ajor occupation, i.e .,
the occupation at which he was employed fo r the
greatest number of weeks in the survey ye a r, o r,
if equally long on two jobs o r m ore, the occupation
which paid the highest earnings. If the head was
re tire d (as indicated by re tire m en t income in sec­
tion T or notes in section A , item 17) and also had
some occupation, the occupation was coded only if
the earnings were g reater than the re tire m e n t in ­
come. F a m ily heads who had no income fro m em ­
ployment in sections S -I o r S -II and no evidence of
re tire m e n t were coded as “Others not w orking.”

Age of family head
In the CES, age and several other ch aracteristics
were recorded fo r each fa m ily m em ber, but fa m ilie s
were classified by the characteristics of the fa m ily
head. In husband-wife fa m ilie s , the husband was con­
sidered the head. In other types of fa m ilie s , the p e r­
son recognized as the head by other fa m ily mem bers
was so designated.
Age was recorded on the CES schedule (section A,
item 5) as number of years at the end of the survey
year. If the respondent did not know or refused this
inform ation, the in te rv ie w e r estimated age of fam ily
m em bers. The co m paratively m inor differences be­
tween the CES and census distributions in table 9 are
consistent with differences in fa m ily definitions. F or
exam ple, eld e rly persons livin g with th e ir m a rrie d
children would be counted as a separate consumer
unit in CES if they did not pool th e ir income and ex­
penditures with those of the younger unit.

Years of education of family head
The number of grades completed during o r be­
fo re the survey year in schools offering an elem en­
ta ry o r high school diploma or a college, u niversity,
o r professional school degree was entered fo r each
fa m ily m em ber on the CES schedule (section A ,
item 7). Persons giving no inform ation on the extent
of th e ir education were classified as having “8 years
o r le s s .” Education beyond 4 years of college was
recorded as 17 years, regardless of the number of
years of post-graduate work. Attendance at specialized
business, trade, vocational, and s im ila r schools was
noted on the schedule but not counted in the “years
com pleted.” The census defines years of school com­
pleted sim ilarly.




49

Occupations w ere classified in a th re e -d ig it code
according to the 1960 Census of Population, Alpha­
betical Index of Occupations and In d u stries, except
that the self-em ployed (including businessmen, fa rm
o perato rsf professionals, and artisans) w ere sepa­
rated fro m salaried managers, o fficials, and p ro ­
fessional w orkers. M em bers of the arm ed forces,
livin g off base, were classified separately. In de­
riv in g the one-digit code fo r occupation of the fa m ily
head, c le ric a l and sales w orkers were combined.
Wage earn ers were regrouped and identified by
degree of skill: C raftsm en, forem en, and kindred
w orkers were identified as skilled; operatives, as
sem iskilled; and private household w o rkers, s erv­
ice w o rkers, and lab o rers, as unskilled.
Comparisons of CES, census, and CPS d is trib u ­
tions by occupation of the head (table 9) are affected
by differences in the tim e references and labor
force status used in the classifications. The de­
cennial census distribution fo r fa m ilie s and single
consumers re fe rs to the job held during the week
fo r which employment status was reported; the cen­
sus distribution of fa m ilie s of two persons or m o re,
however, re fe rs to the occupational distribution of
the “experienced c iv ilia n labor fo rc e ,” com prising
the employed and the experienced unemployed. The
distribution fo r heads of fa m ilie s fro m the C urrent
Population Survey (CPS) re fe rre d to the c iv ilian
job held during the survey week. The CES c lassi­
fication, as noted above, was based on employment
experience throughout the survey year.

Race of family head
The in te rv ie w e r recorded the race of the fa m ily
head on the basis of observation, not by d irect
questioning (section A, item 18). The one-digit code

c la s s ifie d

th e

fa m ily

N e g ro , and o th e r.

h eads

in

I n d ia n s ,

and

b u tio n s

fa m ilie s

in th e C E S

of

a re v e ry

H o u s in g

grou p s:

F h it
Wa m ily e ,R e l a t i o n s h ip t o
head c o d e

in c lu d e d J a p a n e s e , C h in e s e ,

A m e r ic a n
su s

th re e

ty p e
cod e

“ O th e r”
a ll

o th e r.

T h e

r a c ia l

s im ila r .

2
3

H u sban d and w i f e o n l y -------------------------------H u sb an d and w i f e , o w n c h ild r e n o n ly :
O ld e s t c h il d u n d er 6 y e a r s -----------------O ld e s t c h il d 6 th ro u g h 17 y e a r s --------O ld e s t c h il d 18 y e a r s an d o v e r -----------4 , 7 , 8 A l l o t h e r hu sband a n d w i f e f a m i l i e s -------5
O n e p a r e n t, o w n c h ild r e n o n l y ----------------1, 6 , 9 A l l o t h e r f a m i l i e s , in c lu d in g
s in g le co n s u m e rs --------------------------------------

2
3
4
5

ten u re

6
7

E n tr ie s
su rv ey

on

th e

of

code

(s e c tio n

in

B ,

ten u re

w h ic h

c o o p e r a tiv e

ite m

d u r in g

3b)

a ll

o f

2 2 .5
1 1 .4
25. 6
1 0. 3
6,1
5 .1
19. 2

th e

a T n e ­ s e v e n c l a s s e s in th e C E S d is t r ib u t io n h a v e b e e n
o h e
c l a s s i f iceo dm b a n e d i n t o t w o b r o a d c l a s s e s f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h
is
o w n e rs,
re n te rs,
o r
o th e r
( i .e ., o w n e r p a r t -y e n s u s d a ta f o r f a m i li e s in c lu d in g b o th h u sb a n d a n d
c e a r,
r e n t e r p a r t - y e a r ) . “ O w n e r ” i n c l u d e d o w n e r - o c c u p ai n et s a n d f o r a l l o t h e r f a m i l i e s i n t a b l e 9 . C o m p a r a b l e
w f
d ig it

y ea r

fa m ily ’ s

C ateg ory

d is tr i­

a n d in th e c1 n ­
e

s a m p le

P e rc e n t
o f CES
fa m i l i e s

fa m ilie s

a p a rtm e n ts.

“R en ter”

s u m e r u n its r e c e iv in g r e n t f r e e .
o c cu p a n ts

a s

d e c e n n ia l

ce n su s.

ow n ers

o r

T h e

p r o v id e d

w ere

T he

re n te rs

C E S

at

and

i n c l u d e d c ec n s u­ s
o n

cen su s
th e

d a ta

r e c oa rvda ei d a b l e .
l

fo r

T h e

t im e th e thp r o p o r tio n
of
e

cen su s

d e f i n c thi o ln sr e n
i i d

th e

w h ic h
and

c e n su s c la s s ifie d
had

th u s

h o u s in g

fiv e

o r

m o re

e x c lu d e d
u n its .

th em

T h is ,

lo w e r

u n it,

ro o m e rs
fro m

as

th e

c o u p le d

w o u ld

ten d

of

grou p

count

w ith

re n te rs

p r o p o r tio n

th e C E S

d is tr ib u tio n

in ta b le

to

of

o c c o fp i e h e
u
td

p r e v io u s ly

e x p la in
in

q u a rg t ee .r1s T h i s
a
0

th e

ot
un n d ee dr

a n d t h e c C El S
h i d

th e

cen su s

th a n

w as

at

in

le a s t
so m e

th e

th e

18

and

of

58

C E S

o r

o v e r
to

(se c tio n

A ,

ite m

2)

w ere

and

a ll

s iz e

o f

sta g e s

c o m b i n e o f i ncto n t i g u o u s
d
o

a o n e -d ig it c o d e , a s fo llo w s :
C ode
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

of

c h ild r e n

th e

a ll

w h o se o ld e s t

C E S

p ercen t of

6 2 .

in

A t

head

and

y e a rs

9.

ty p e

to

had

fa m ilie s

of

p la c e
C E S

s a m p lin g ,

a n d b o u n d a r ie s r e la tin g to S ta n d a
C E S
fa m ilie s
w ere
c la s s ifie d
in
seven
t y p i ss t i c n l
oa
te
A r e a s (S M S A ’ s) an d to
t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f a m i l y m e m b e r is o n n d e r e f o l l o w e d . E x c e p t i n N
a w
t
t h e a g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e h e a d . E n t r i e s o f r e l a a i o n ­m e t r o p o l i t a n s t a t i s t i c a l a r e a
trd
s h ip

18

A bout 48 p ercen t

fa m ilie s
r a is e d

w ith

M arch

o f h u sb a n d

under

not

d a ta on

fa m ilie s

p ercen t

of

a re

C P S

C P S d a ta fo r

ran ge:

in c lu s io n

w ith c h ild r e n

is

w ife

age.

c h ild r e n

h u s b a n d -w ife

and

w as

s o m e a m a lt i e s
fw h i

h u sb a n d

had

su bgrou p s

a p p r o x im a tio n

y e a rs

th a t

C E S
18 ,

L o c a tio n
F a m ily

18

r o o m i n g o r b o a r d i n g h o ui f ee s f a m i l i e s
w s

d if f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n th e c e n s u s ’ h o u s e h o ld
co n su m er

of

under

o f a h o u s i n g u n i t w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o m p a r a b l e ( p a g e 1 9 6 0) , s h o w e d
1 4
but

a g e -o f-c h ild r e n

n ea rest

c ity
w ith

C ateg ory

o f
a

tig u o u s

S in g le c o n s u m e r
H usban d and w i f e o n ly
H usban d a n d w i f e , o w n c h ild r e n , n o o t h e r p erson s in f a m i l y
H u sb an d and w i f e , o w n c h ild r e n , o th e r r e la t iv e s
O n e p a re n t ( h e a d ) , o w n c h ild r e n , n o o t h e r p ersons in f a m i l y
O n e p a ren t ( h e a d ) , o w n c h il d r e n , and o t h e r r e la t iv e s
H u sban d and w i f e , n o o w n c h ild r e n , o t h e r r e la t iv e s
H u sban d and w i f e , n o o w n c h ild r e n , oth e rs n o t r e la t e d
A ll oth er

in g

to

p o lita n

5 0 ,0 0 0

c o u n tie s
c e r ta in
in

th o se

la r g e s t
title s

o f

w ith

th e

a p p e a r in g
S M S A ’ s

th ey

and

th e
in

th e

ew

d e fin itio n s

of

at

a co u n ty o r
at

o r

le a s t

e s ta b lis h e d

b y

m e tro ­

s o c ia lly
C e n tra l

title

S M S A .

C on ­

if, a c c o rd ­

e s s e n tia lly

SM SA

one

c itie s ”

5 0 ,0 0 0 .

in te g r a te d
c ity .

group

le a s t

“ tw in

in a n S M S A
a re

S ta ­

u r b a n iz a ­

E n g la n d , a s ta n d ­

is

m o re ,

c e n tra l

in

c itie s
a re

are

d egree

c o n ta in s

o f

in c lu d e d

c r ite r ia ,

o r

o r

p o p u la tio n
a re

ch a ra cte r

c ity

w h ic h

in h a b ita n ts

c o m b in e d

e c o n o m ic a lly
a re

c o u n tie s

cen su s

rd M e tr o p o lita n

and

and
c itie s

a re

D e fin itio n s
th e

B u reau

th e
and

of

t h e B u d g e t . 11
Ia
th e
u rban
p o p u la tio n
c o m p r is e s
a ll
“ O w n ” c h ild r e n w e r e s o n s a n d d a u g h te r s o f th e h en d , g e n e r a l,
p e rso n s
liv in g
in
u r b a n iz e d a r e a s a n d in p la c e s o f
in c lu d in g s te p c h ild r e n a n d a d o p te d c h ild r e n .
in h a b ita n ts
o r m o r e o u ts id e u r b a n iz e d a r e a s .
F a m i l i e s c o m p o s e d o f a h u s b a n d , w i f e , a n d o n e 2 ,h5 i 0 d
c
l 0
o r

m o re ,

(c o d e

3

a c c o r d in g
in

no

o th e r

p e r s o n s l i v i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l10
y

a b o v e ),

but

w ere

s u b d iv id e d

to

th e

age

s e c tio n A , ite m

and

“age

c o m b in e d

of
in to

o f

c h ild r e n ”
th e

th e

o ld e s t

5. C od es fo r

th re e

c h ild

a s

“ r e la tio n s h ip

(a p p e n d ix

fo llo w in g

in to

ta b le

o n e -d ig it

H o u s e h o ld a n d F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r is t ic s : M a r c h I 9 6 0 . C u r ­
R e p o r t s . P o p u la tio n C h a r a c t e r is t ic s * S e rie s P =20,
N o . 1 0 6 , January 9 , 1 9 6 1 , U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , B ureau
r e c o f r td e d e n s u s, p . 1 6. T h is re p o r t d id n o t s h o w th e p r o p o r t io n o f
o he C
t o h ue aad d -w iffe f a m i l i e s w it h t h e h u sband 6 5 y e a r s and o v e r w h o- h a d
h sb n ”
r
t Ps ,
g r eon u p o p u la tio n

B -1 3 )
“ fa m ily

co d e:




80

c h ild r e n u n d e r 1 8.
w ere
11 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : I 9 6 0 , S e le c t e d A r e a R e p o r t s . S ta n d ­
ty M t
ard p ee ” r o p o lit a n S ta t is t ic a l A r e a s . F in a l R e p o r t PC ( 3 ) - l D , U . S,
D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , B ureau o f th e Census>v p p . v i i i - x .

T h e

p o p u la tio n

th e

ru ral

not

c la s s ifie d

p o p u la tio n .

A n

as

o f e a c h c o n tr ib u tin g
c o n s tt iht e t e es f f e c t
u
o
fa c t th a t n o n e o f th e s e
c o n t a ifn s t hae

u rban

u r b a n iz e d

area

f a c t o r . 13 R e c o g n i t i o n
so u rce s

w as

s p e c ifi­

s u r r o c a ldl y n gd e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f a m i l y i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n
un i
stt i
is
e s s e n tia l
to
u n d e r sta n d in g
th e d iffe r ­
c l o s e l y s e t t l e d i n c o r p o r a t e d p l a c e s a n d u n i n c o r p o r a a et d s t i c s
ean s ce es s,
and
to
p ro p er
in te r p r e ta tio n
and
th e u s e o f
a r e a s , r e f e r r e d to a s th e u r b a n f r in g e . In m o s t c
h
ie
e a c h s o u r c e . O f th e th r e e
u r b a n iz e d
a rea s
are
s m a lle r
t h a n S M S A * s a nt d e a r n c o m e s t a t i s t i c s f r o m
h o u s e h o ld s u r v e y s , th e 1 9 6 0 C e n s u s w a s d e s ig n e d a s
c o n ta in e d
in
S M S A ’ s.
c e n tra l

c ity

T h e

or

C E S

p la c e

c itie s ,

and

a s

cen su s

o f r e s id e n c e

w e ll

as

th e

d is tr ib u tio n s

in t a b le

9

e r
th e
C P S
to o b ta in c u r r e n t
l o c a t i oan d o m o g r a p h i c s u r v e y ;
la b o r fo r c e d a ta ; a n d th e C E S to o b ta in d e ta ile d in ­

b y

m a tc h c lo s e ly .

fo r m a tio n

on

p e n d itu r e s .
s iz e
N um ber

o f

E ach
35

fu ll-tim e

fa m ily

h ou rs

th e

o r

m em b er
m o re

(s e c tio n

48

a s

a

ite m s
w eek s

fu ll-tim e

e a rn e rs

in

a

an d fa m ilie s

w eek ,
a

4

and

o r

T h e

w as

d is tr ib u te d

1
3 -9

a

ta x

of

u n it
its
its

th e

and

w h ic h

am on g

“ f a m i l y ,”
tim e

re fe re n c e ;

th e

th e
ta b le

d a ta

and

o th e r
and

in c o m e
10

th e

th e

d ic ta te d

w ere

so u rce s

a re
in

a

by

p a rt.

d is tr i­
th e n e t
th e

d e f­

in c o m e -r e c e iv in g

u sed

d e fin itio n

an d d e fin i­

d e fin itio n s

w ere

in

i.e .,

and

n a tio n a l

u tiliz in g

th e y

th e

e x ­

s u m m a r iz in g

in

r e fe r e n c e

in

th e

and

d e g re e s,

show n

th e

c o m p o s itio n ;

s e r ie s

o b serv ed

a v e ra g e s

v a r ia tio n s

of

tim e

o f

and

su rv e y s,

c o lle c tin g

v a r y in g

th e

co n c e p ts

sy ste m

each

in

s tu d ie s

and

in itio n

F a m ilie s o f
2 p ersons
or m ore

1 0 .8
.8

fo r

in

th e

th a t

fa m ily

e s tim a te s

fr o m

h o u s e h o ld

f u l l -T i m e d i f f e r e n c e s
th e
e ffe c t

2 5 .2
61. 1
1 2 .7
1.

fo r

in c o m e

d e r iv e d

r e fle c tin g

u sed

d a ta ,

o n e - d i g i t b u ct o o ne s,
i d

3 0 .8
5 7 .5

T h u s,

w a s c ot u n t e db r o a d e r
he
of

w ere

re tu rn s,

p ro on
o c c u p a tci e d u r e s

a s fo llo w s :
F a m ilie s
a n d s in g le
co n su m e rs

a cco u n ts,

s e l f - e m p i lno cyo emd e
3)

nu m ber

g iv e n

N o f u l l - t i m e e a r n e r s -------------------1 f u l l - t i m e e a r n e r ------------------------2 f u l l - t i m e e a r n e r s ------------------------3 f u l l - t i m e earners o r m o r e ---------

2

w as

a n d d is tr ib u tio n o f
fa m ily

a p p r o p r ia te

s u r
d o u i rn cg e s .

m o re

s a la r y

S -I I , ite m

C a te g o ry

0

o r

5 ),

ea rn e r.

w e re

w eek s or

w age

(s e c tio n

fa m ily

C ode

48

tio n s
w h o w of r k e d
o m

s a m p le

le v e l
O B E

d is tr ib u tio n s

in c o m e

in th e C E S

in

S —I ,

at

a

y ea r

su rv ey
le a s t

earn ers

th e
T h e

in
of

d e te r m in in g
“ in c o m e ”

and

a n d in th e c o m p le t e n e s s o f i n c o m e -

r e p o r tin g .

O
f

F a m ily

d e fin itio n .

T he

1960

ce n su s, C P S , and O B E

u s e e s s e n tia lly th e s a m e d e m o g r a p h ic fa m ily d e fin i­
N o
c o m p a r a b le
cen su s
d a ta a r e a v a ila b le . T h e d e ­
tio n .
A s
e x p la in e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f th is c h a p t e r ,
c e n n ia l c e n s u s c la s s i f i e d f a m i li e s b y th e n u m b e r o f
v a r ia tio n s
in th e c o v e r a g e o f o n -p o s t m i li t a r y p e r ­
p e r s o n s in th e la b o r f o r c e (e m p lo y e d o r u n e m p lo y e d )
son n el
and
c h ild r e n a w a y fr o m
h om e at sch ool e x ­
in th e w e e k p r io r to th e c e n s u s in q u ir y . T h e C u r r e n t
p la in s ,
in p a r t , th e h ig h e r t o t a l n u m b e r o f f a m i l i e s
P o p u la tio n
S u rvey
c r o s s -c la s s ifie d
fa m ilie s
b y th e
in
th e se
s e r ie s
th a n
o b ta in e d
by
u se
o f th e C E S
n u m ber
of e a rn e rs
a n d m o n e y in c o m e in I 9 6 0 ; th e
e c o n o m ic f a m i ly d e fin it io n . T h e C E S d e fin it io n w h ic h
n u m b e r o f e a r n e r s in c lu d e d a ll p e r s o n s in th e f a m ily
r e s u lte d
in
a
g re a te r
n u m ber
o f fa m ilie s
o f tw o
w ho
earn ed
a t le a s t
$1
fr o m
w a g es,
s a la r ie s ,
o r
p e rso n s
o r
m o re
but
r e la tiv e ly
m o re
s m a ll
and
s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t . 12
fe w e r
la r g e
f a m i li e s th a n in th e o t h e r s e r i e s , a ls o
c o n tr ib u te d
le v e l
F a m ily
A

in c o m e

b e fo r e

c o m p a r is o n

fa m ilie s
C en su s
th e

by

Q B E
each

son s
a re

ta x e s

s e r ie s

a c co u n ts

a re

cen su s

a ls o

C E S

is

th o se

O B E .

b a sed

p u b lis h e d

N u m erou s

d a ta

re a so n s

fo r




of

upon
b y

s tu d ie s
th ese

and C P S

show n

in

v a r ia tio n s
o f

am on g
in c o m e .

th e

s e r ie s

fa c to r s.

^ S e e p. 29 o f s o u r c e c i t e d in f o o t n o t e 1, t a b l e 9.
f r o m t1 3 e e e t a b le f o o t n o t e r e fe r e n c e s . A ls o , F a m ily I n c o m e D is tr i­
hS
a n d b u t io nmS ta tis tics P u b lish e d b y F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s , O f f i c e o f S ta t is t ic a l
fro
t a b Sltandards,. B ureau o f th e B u d ge t, S ta t is t ic a l E v a lu a tio n R e p o r t N o . 5
e
10
( D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 4 ), r e p r in te d in T h e A m e r ic a n S t a t is t ic ia n . F e b ru a ry

a n d a v e r a g e i n 1 9o 6 , e o l .
c 6m V

and

fo r

2 0 , N o . 1, p p . 1 8 - 2 3 ;
A . E p stein , M e a s u rin g th e S ize o f th e L o w - I n c o m e
P o p u la tio n , in S tu dies in I n c o m e and W e a lt h . N o . 3 3 , P u b lish ed b y
5 th e C E tio n a l B ureau o f E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , I n c . , N e w Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 ,
0 Na S
an d o t h e r v o lu m e s in th is s e rie s; L a m a le , o p . c i t . (m o n o g r a p h ),

th e
h ave

19

p
a n d t h e a v e r p . g 1 0s7 - 1 1 3 ;
a e

in c o m e
th e m ,

th e

and B -1 6 .
d iffe r

C en su s
been

d iffe r e n c e s

E dw ard C . Budd and D a n ie l B. R a d n e r , " T h e OBE S ize D is ­
S e rie s : M e th o d s and T e n t a t iv e R e su lts fo r 1 9 6 4 , " A m e r ic a n

s i g n i f i ctraibnu tioy
tln

B u reau
m ade
and

to
to

c
m
a nEd o ntoh ei c

R e v i e w , M a y 1 9 6 9 , p p . 4 3 5 - 4 4 9 ; and
T h e D is tr ib u t io n o f P e rso n a l I n c o m e , Join t E c o n o m i c C o m m i t t e e

i d Print, i f y th
e n t 88

C o n g r e ss o f th e U n ite d S ta tes, 2nd S e ssio n , D e c e m b e r
P rin tin g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D . C . , 1 9 6 5 .

m e1 9 6s4 , r eo v e r n m e n t
a u G

51

in

H o w ev e r, th e se

s h o w n . A d d i t i o n a l c o m p a r L enore
i­

u rban

d is tr ib u tio n s

w ith t h o s e

cen su s

to

d is tr ib u tio n

th e
e f­

c a n n o t b e is o la te d f r o m th o s e r e s u lt in g f r o m t i m e -

re fe re n c e
d is tr ib u tio n s o f

C E S

n u m b e r o f fa m ilie s

a g g re g a te s

fro m
th e

b e fo r e

d e c e n n ia l

n a tio n a l

w ith

1 9 6 0 -6 1

s h o w n in a p p e n d ix t a b le s B - 1 4

T h e
and

th e

in c o m e

B u reau ’ s

T h e e s tim a te d
fo r

of

fe c ts

ta x es

and

T im e

re fe re n c e .

c o m p o s itio n
r e la tiv e

of

to

fic a n tly

th e

am on g

d iffe r e n c e s

in

T h e

th e
d a te
th e

th e

tim e

fa m ily
of

th e

s e r ie s

p e r io d

w h i c h T thh ee C E S r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e r e t r i e v e s a c o n ­
s r d e e r ,b l e a m o u n t o f i n c o m e w h i c h i s e x c l u d e d f r o m
ie f ra
i n t e r v i e w , d i f f e r s tshi e nc ie­ n s u s d a t a a n d p r o v i d e s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n c o m e
g
and
c o n tr ib u te s
b o t h i mt o t e s f o r u s e i n a n a l y s e s o f f a m i l y e x p e n d i t u r e s .
est
a
and

to

its

in c o m e

e s tim a te d

n u m b e r o f f a m i l i eHs o a n ed v e r , s i n c e
w
a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n s . T h e 1 9 6 0 c eenq suui s a l e n t m e m b
v
and
C P S
d e f i n e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y f a am i o if e s m a y b e
s l
a p o in t in t im e
( A p r i l a n d M a r c h , r e s p e c t i v e l yl ) e sa n d i t h p a r t - y
i
w
in th e in c o m e l e v e ls

re co rd

in c o m e

fa m ily

s iz e

fr a c t io n a l in
e a r

is

b ased

on fu ll-y e a r

in th e f a m i ly , th e r e c o n s t r u c t e d
s iz e

i .e ., fu ll-y e a r fa m i­

m e m b e r s , o r p a r t -y e a r f a m i li e s ..

o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c a l e n d a r Fy a m r i . l i e s h a v i n g m o r e t h a n 1 f u l l - y e a r m e m b e r w e r e
ea
and
th e ir
p r e v i o u s c leaa s rs ’ i sf i e d
y
as
“ fa m ilie s
o f tw o
p erso n s
o r
m o re ”
i n c o m e a s o f D e c e m b e r 3 1 . B L S “ r e c o n s t r u c t f o r t h teh e
s”
C E S
i n c o m e s u m m a r i e s . 15 T o b e c l a s s i f i e d
f a m i l y a s i t w a s c o m p o s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c a l e n d a r ay se a “ i n d i v i d u a l s n o t i n f a m i l i e s , ” t h e C E S o n e - p e r s o n
r
O B E

its

th e

e r s h ip

e s tim a te s

p r e c e d in g
in c o m e

th e

d a te

w h ic h

th e y w e r e

as

fa m ilie s

each

of

th e

in te r v ie w

fa m ily

in th e f a m i l y o r

m em b er

and

re c o rd s

r e c e iv e d

c o n s u m e r u n i t . 14

th e
w h i l e See discussion p. 15, and Epstein op. cit. pp. 167-170.
1 Consumer units ranging in size from 1.1 to 2 .9 were classi­
fied as 2-person fam ilies. (See table B -1 3 .)

T a b le 1 0 . C o m p a r is o n o f d is t r ib u t io n s o f f a m ilie s b y in c o m e b e f o r e t a x e s f r o m 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 C E S a n d o t h e r s o u r c e s ,,
t o t a l u r b a n a n d ru ral U n it e d S t a t e s
195 9 2
In co m e b e fo re tax es *

D e c e n n ia l
C ensus

C onsum er
E xp e n d itu re s
S urveys
1 9 6 0 -6 1 3

O ffic e o f
Business
E c o n o m ic s
19615

C u rren t
P o p u la tio n
S u rv e y
1961 4

F a m ilie s o f 2 persons o r m o r e

-----------------------------

4 5 ,1 4 9

4 6 ,9 1 7

4 6 ,3 4 1

P e rc e n t d is t r ib u t io n , t o t a l -----------------------------------------U n d er $ 1 , 0 0 0
--------------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 , 9 9 9 -------------------------------------- ------------------$ 2 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 , 9 9 9 ------------------------------------------------ --------

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 .6
7 .5
8 .3
9 .5

1 .4
6 .5
9 .0
9 .8

1 1 .0

1 1 .0
1 2 .2

5 ,0
7 .7
8 .7
9 .4
1 0 .5
1 1 .7
3 1 .0

E stim a te d n u m b e r ( in thousands)

$ 3 , 0 0 0 - $ 3 , 9 9 9 --------------------------------------------------------$ 4 , 0 0 0 - $ 4 , 9 9 9 --------------------------------------------------------$ 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 5 , 9 9 9 .............. ................. - ---------- ----------------$ 6 , 0 0 0 - $ 7 , 4 9 9 - .............. - ............... .............................. $ 7 , 5 0 0 - $ 9 , 9 9 9 --------------------------------------------------------$ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 4 , 9 9 9 -----------------------------------------------------

1 2 .3
3 0 .7

-

\
J

1 0 0 .0
7. 5

4 .2

1 1 .3
4 .7

6 .7
8 .9
1 0 .5
1 1 .3
1 6 .2
1 7 .5
1 3 .5
7 .9

$ 6 ,8 1 3

$ 6 ,6 1 6

$ 7 ,7 9 7

1 6 .1
1 7 .8

1 0 .5
4 .6

1 2 .0

! $ 5 , 9 76
5 , 663

$ 1 5 , 0 0 0 an d o v e r ----- --------------------------------------------

4 6 ,1 9 0

-

A vera ge:
M e a n ___________________________________________________
M e d i a n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

5,737

-

Individuals not in fam ilies
Estimated number (in thousands)---------------------

13,171

8,390

11,163

11,100

Percent distribution, t o t a l ----------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Under $1,000 — --------- -------------------------$ 1 ,0 0 0 -$ 1 ,9 9 9 ------------------------------------$ 2 ,0 0 0 -$2, 999 ......................... ..............................
$ 3 ,0 0 0 -$ 3 ,999 —....................................................
$ 4 ,0 0 0 -$4, 999 ......................................................$ 5 ,0 0 0-$5, 999 ..........- -------- -------------------$ 6 , 000-$7,499 --------- ----------------- ---------$7, 500-$9,999 ........................................................
$ 10,000-$14, 999 --------------- -----------------$15,000 and over ----------------------------------

3 7 .6
20.8
12.0
9 .5
7 .4
5 .0
5 .9

1 6.5
2 7.9
15.4
13.1
9 .5
7 .4
4 .8
3 .6
1 .4
.4

3 2 .4
2 2 .0
12.6
9 .7
7 .9
6 .0
7 .0
1 .5
.9

$3,0 7 0

$2, 734
1,755

-

1 .8
-

\
f

35. 6
19.1
16.5
11 .9
6 .8
5 .2
2 .7
1 .5
.7

Average:
M e a n ---------------------------------------------- -—

1'$2, 351
1,597

M e d i a n -----------------------------------------------

S e e fo o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b le .




52

$3, 321
-

T a b le 1 0 . C o m p a r is o n o f d is t r ib u t io n sf a m ilie s b y in c o m e b e f o r e ta x e s f r o m 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 C E S a n d o t h e r s o u r c e s ,
of
t o t a l u r b a n a n d ru ral U n i t e d S t a t e s — C o n t in u e d
C onsum er
E xp en d itu res
S urveys
1 9 6 0 -6 1 3

1 95 9 2
I n c o m e b e fo r e ta x e s 1

D e c e n n ia l
C ensus

O ffic e o f
Business
E c o n o m ic s

C u rren t
P o p u la tio n
S u rv ey
1961 4

1961s

A l l f a m ilie s and in d iv id u a ls

E stim a te d n u m b e r ( i n t h o u s a n d s )-------------------------------

5 8 ,3 2 0

5 5 , 307

5 7 ,5 0 4

5 7 ,2 9 0

P e rc e n t d is t r ib u t io n , t o t a l ------------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

U n d e r $ 1 , 0 0 0 ------------------ ---------------------------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 , 9 9 9 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 , 9 99 ------- ---------- ------------------------------------

1 2 .8
1 0 .5

3 .7
9 .8

$ 3 ,0 0 0 -$ 3 , 999
$ 4 ,0 0 0 - $ 4 , 999
$ 5 ,0 0 0 -$ 5 ,9 9 9
$ 6, 0 0 0 - $ 7 , 4 9 9

9. 2
9 .5

$ 1 5 , 0 0 0 and o v e r

9 .6

1 0 .8

1 0 .7
25. 1

$ 7 , 5 0 0 - $ 9 ,9 9 9 ------------------------------------------------------$ 1 0 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 4 , 9 9 9 ------------------------------------- ------------

1 0 .3

1 0 .2

— ..........................................................
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------— .................- ............................ ..........

1 0 .0

1 0 .4
1 0 .5
9 .4

1 1 .4

1 0 .0
1 0 .6

1 0 .8

-

9 .4

11 . 1

4 .0

6 .5

* $ 5 ,8 9 6
5 ,0 0 9

* $ 6 ,930

$ 6 ,2 4 6

-

1 $ 5 , 6 96

9. 1
1 0 .3

2 6 .1

-

A vera ge:
M e a n -------------------------------------------------------------------------M e d i a n ----------------------------------------------------------------------

12. 9

1 0 .5
1 4 .1
1 4 .7

1 4 .3
1 5 .6
1 0 .4
3 .7

1 2 .0

--------------------------------------------------

)

f

4 ,7 9 1

-

1 A s d e fin e d b y e a c h a g e n c y . D e c e n n ia l ce n su s , C ES, and CPS (C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u r v e y ) d ata are
f a m i l y m o n e y i n c o m e ; OBE d a ta are f a m i l y p e rs o n a l i n c o m e . M e a n in c o m e s fo r f a m i l i e s and u n r e la te d i n ­
d iv id u a ls f o r d e c e n n i a l ce n su s an d CPS are fr o m H e rm a n P. M il l e r , I n c o m e D is tr ib u tio n in th e U n ite d S ta tes A 1 9 6 0 C ensus M o n o g r a p h ( U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , B ureau o f th e C e n su s), t a b le 1 - 4 , p . 11 and
t a b le I I — , p p , 4 3 - 4 6 .
3
T h e OBE 1961 a v e r a g e ( m e a n ) f a m i l y m o n e y i n c o m e w as $ 6 , 6 2 6 , a c c o r d in g t o
M ille r , o p . c it .
2 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n :
1 9 6 0 , S o u rce s an d S tru ctu re o f F a m ily I n c o m e .
P C (2 )-4 C (U . S. B ureau o f
th e C en s u s), t a b le s 1 and 6 .
3 F r e q u e n c y d istrib u tio n s d e r iv e d fr o m u n p u b lis h e d t a b u la t io n s . F o r u n w e ig h t e d d istrib u tio n s o f f a m i l i e s
in u r b a n , ru ral n o n fa r m , and t o t a l n o n fa r m CES s a m p le b y i n c o m e b e fo r e t a x e s , s e e a p p e n d ix t a b le B -1 3 ; fo r
w e ig h t e d d istrib u tio n s o f n o n fa r m f a m i l i e s , s e e t a b le 11 .
4 I n c o m e o f F a m ilie s an d Persons in th e U n ite d S ta tes: 1 9 6 1 , C u rren t P o p u la tio n R e p o r t s , C o n s u m e r
I n c o m e , S eries P -6 0 , N o . 3 9 , F e b ru a ry 2 8 , 1963 ( U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , B ureau o f th e C e n s u s),
p . 18; and T re n d s in th e I n c o m e o f F a m ilie s a n d Persons in th e U n ite d S ta te s. 1947—1 9 6 4 . T e c h n i c a l P aper 17
(B u reau o f th e C e n s u s), p . 1 71 .
5
J e a n n e tte M . F it z w illia m s ,
1 9 6 4 , p p . 5 - 6 ; an d M i l l e r , o p . c i t .
NOTE:

fa m ilie s

had

to

th ro u g h o u t th e

B e ca u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

have

liv e d

a s

su rv ey y ea r.

s in g le

m e m b e rs

w ere

c la s s ifie d

as

e x c lu d e d

fro m

th e

c o n s u m e r t a b liet s
un

in c lu d e d
if

th e y

a s
had

y e a r,

and

T he

net

fe r e n c e
m u ltip e
p ercen t
in c o m e
cen su s

p a r t-y e a r
had
th e

th a t

p a r t-y e a r

sta tu s

fu ll-y e a r

f a m i l i e $ 2 , a n d0
s
0 0

o f fu ll-y e a r

fo r

fa m ily

p art
w as

th e

of

A s

co m p ared

m u ltip e r s o n
about
a ll

A p r il

th e

sa m e ,

th e

of

on page

r e s u lte d

in

an

th e

C E S

th e

under

th e

but

in c o m e s
C E S

average

w as

s u b s ta n tia lly

O B E

d e fin itio n

of

54.

im p o r ta n tly , h o w e v e r , th e C E S

s apm o cl e d u r e
.
r p

O B E ,

w ith

fa m ilie s

b ecau se

a s d isc u ss e d

M ey
s u r vo r e

w ith

fa m ilie s

m u ltip e r s o n

p r im a r ily

f a mi ni lc i o m e
e s

o f th e
in

of
w as

s u m m a r i e is n, c o m ­ e
a l

o f p a r t - y e a r f a m i l i e s lw e r e r ,
o w e

m e m b e rs

S u rv e y o f C u rren t Business,

B -1 4 .

w i t h n o f u l l - p e ra cre n t
y e

s ta tistic a l

th o u g h in d iv id u a l m e m b e r s

in 1 9 6 3 ,"

ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

sum s o f in d iv id

F a m ilie s

C E S

In of
" S iz e D is tr ib u tion c o m e

e s tim a te d

r e c o n s tr u c tio n
8 .4

m illio n

fu ll-

co n su m er
u n its ,
co m p ared
w ith
about
d e f i n i t i o n a ly e da i rf ­ s i n g l e
1
an d o v e r 13 m illio n
s
w as
th a t th e
1 9 6 0 -6 1
C E S r e p o r t e d 1 m o me i l l i o n i n t h e C P S a n d O B E
r
i
he
rso n
fa m ilie s ,
but
a
s ig n ific a n tly
s m n a l lt e r d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s e x p e c t e d ,
of
su ch
fa m ilie s
a t th e
lo w e r
e n d t h e tp r o p o r t i o n o f C E S o n e - p e r s o n f a m i l i e s r e p o r t i n g
o f he
( 1 6 .5 p e r c e n t) w a s v e r y m u c h
d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a n w e r e r e p o r t e d b y t h e i n1 c o m e s u n d e r $ 1 , 0 0 0
960
sm e l
th a n
th e
c e n s u s an d C P S sh o w e d fo r in d i­
a n d C P S : 7 . 9 p e r c e n t u n d e r $ 2 , 0 0 0 , c o m p a r a dl e r
e ffe c t

of

th e se

tim e

and

d E S
T h ev iC u a l s n o t i n f a m i l i e s , 3 7 . 6 a n d 3 2 . 4 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c ­
t i v eal s . T h e a v e r a g e i n c o m e f o r C E S s i n g l e c o n s u m e r s
a v e r a g e (m e a n ) in c o m e f o r m u lt ip e r s o n f a m ilie s w y
$ 6 , 8 1 3 , c o m p a r e d w i t h $ 5 , 9 7 6 f o r t h e d e c e n n i a l c ew a s s $ 3 , 0 7 0 , c o m p a r e d w i t h $ 2 , 3 5 1 f o r t h e c e n s u s a n d
n su
3
a n d $ 6 , 6 1 6 f o r C P S . T h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s i n t a b$ l 2 , 7 1 04 f o r t h e C P S .
e
w ith

re fe r

1 3 .1

to

p a r is o n

and

1 2 .7

a ll u r b a n
fo r

u rban




p e rce n t,

r e s p e c tiv e ly .

and ru ra l fa m ilie s ;
fa m ilie s

is

a

s im ila r

p re se n te d

in

T h
c o m e­

e x c lu s io n

and
t
a p p e n d ixh e i r

53

o f p a r t-y e a r

in c lu s io n

in

th e

fa m ilie s
o th e r

fr o m

s e r ie s

th e

C E S

c o n tr ib u te s

to

th e se

b y

in c o m e ,

d iffe r e n c e s

p o s s ib le
w as

but

to

th e

q u a n tify .

c o lle c te d

c lu d e d

in

p e n d ix

ta b le

te r is tic s
c lu d in g
p a rt

th e

In th e

fr o m

th e

B -1 5

th e

1 9 6 0 -6 1

In

s u m m a r i e s . 16

fa m ilie s

av era g e
y ea r

g e n e r a l,
th e

y ea r

to ta l

and

C E S .

O n

in

in c o m e

w hen

y e a r;

p a r t-y
u s a b le

p a r t-y e a r
th e

c o n ta in e d

f a m i l i e s items.
Nonmoney

Excluded from census, CPS, and
CES except that food and housing
received as pay is included in CES;
OBE includes wages received in
kind, net rental value of owneroccupied homes, an allowance for
the return on the value of a per­
son's equity in life insurance, and
value of services of banks and other
financial intermediaries rendered
to persons without specific charges.

im ­

C E S , in fo r m a tio n

fa m ilie s

but

not

in ­

H o w ever,

th ey

th e

u rban

b e fo r e

ap­

e x is te d

a vera
1 .7

s a m p le ,

ta x e s
a s

c o n s u m e r u n its .
o f

o f

is p r a c tic a lly

p r o v id e s a s u m m a r y o f th e c h a r a c ­

such

th e ir

d is tr ib u tio n
e ffe c t

p a r t-y e a r

s ta tis tic a l

of

of

in

s p e c ific

fo r

in ­
th a t

in d e p e n d e n t
E s s e n tia lly ,

th e

c e n su s,

C P S ,

and

i n c o m e s . 18
y e a rs
C om
o f
in c o m e
r e p o r tin g
f u ll-y e a rp le te n e s s
h o
f a m i l i e s ; a n d h a d i n c o m e w h i c h a v e r a g e d $ 2 , 7 4 0 u f soerh o l d s u r v e y s , t h e C E S a c h i e v e d
o f in c o m e
th a n
th e
d ecen
26
w eek s,
co m p ared
w ith
$ 6 ,6 9 1
f o r 5 2 w e e rke sp of r tri n g
o
t h e t e ­P S b o t h i n 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 a n d i n 1 9 5 0
C
f u l l - y e a r f a m i l i e s . T h e y w e r e c la s s i f i e d in f iv e c a
t i re
to
th e
fa c t
th a t
th e
C E S
g o r ie s
o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r p a r t - y e a r s t a t u s . a tM r o b u t e d
fu ll-y e a r
o ld ,

co m p ared

th a n

o n

b o th

o f

co n su m
se t

fa m ilie s ;

up

w ith

C E S

u se

f r m n y m o n e y in c o m e d e fin itio n , an d th e O B E u s e s
e a r u n it s w e r e a b o u t 3 p e a c e i lt
fa m ily
p erson a l
in c o m e
d e fin itio n in t h e ir in c o m
s c h e d u le s
o b ta in e d
fro m
fu lld i6 s 0t - 6i b u t i o n s .
r 1
T h e
in c lu s io n
of n onm oney
ite m s
u rban
fa m ilie s
in
th e 1 9
t hoe f t hOe B E
s e r ie s
r e s u lts
in
th e
m a jo r
p o r tio n
ge
th ey
e x is te d
fo r
h a lf
b etw e en
th e
O B E
and
C E S
avera
p e r s o n s c o m p a r e d w i t h 3 t.h e f od r i f f e r e n c e
1

w ere
47

headed b y a p erso n
y e a rs

fo r

head

a
a
ein
o
ge

29

o f

e - t h i r d w e r e c o u p l e s m a r r i e d d u r i n g t h e dy ee t aa ri l, e d r e p o r t
v
m em
w h o m h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n m e m b e r s o f r oe tche ei r i n g
er
u n its .
A bou t
o n e -fift h
w e r e p e r s o n cs o m p l e t e a c c o u
w ho
u
o n e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s d u r i n g t h e y e a r e. a cThh e n i t w h i c h

o f in c o m e b y
b er
n t

o f

th e

co n su m er

o f r e c e ip ts

p e r m itte d

so u rce

.

O f

th e

m o re
n ia l
.

th re e

c o m p le te
cen su s

T h is

o b ta in e d :

fo r

or

h as b een

each

(1 ) A

in c o m e ­

u n its ,

and

(2 )

a

an d d isb u r se m e n ts fr o m

in te rn a l c o n s is te n c y c h e c k s

a n d r e tu r n v i s it s to th e fa m ily to c la r if y a n d c o m p le te
r e m a in d e r w a s m a d e u p o f c o n s u m e r u n its th a t fo r m e d
re p o rts.
T h e
d e c e n n ia l
ce n su s and C P S u se d m u ch
o r
b rok e
up
d u r in g
th e
y e a r , re tu r n e d fr o m
m ili­
le s s
d e ta ile d
q u e s tio n in g
and
re co rd ed
o n ly
to ta ls
t a r y s e r v i c e s , o r w e r e o u ts id e th e s u r v e y c o v e r a g e
f o r b r o a d ly d e fin e d ty p e s o f in c o m e , e .g ., w a g e an d
d u r in g
p a r t o f th e
y e a r . 17
s a la r y ,
n o n fa r m
s e lf-e m p lo y m e n t, e tc . T h e 1 9 6 0 -6 1
I n c o m e d e fin itio n . V a r ia tio n s
in
th e
d e fin itio n
of
C E S a v e r a g e a n n u a l in c o m e o f a ll f a m ilie s a n d in d i­
“ in c o m e ”
w h ic h
a ls o
c o n tr ib u te
to
d iffe r e n c e s
in
v id u a ls w a s 8 p e r c e n t h ig h e r th a n C P S , a n d th e C E S
th e in c o m e le v e ls a n d d is t r ib u t io n s in th e fo u r s e r i e s
e s tim a te d
a g g re g a te
in c o m e
w as
5 p e r c e n t h ig h e r .
c o m p a r e d in t a b le 1 0 m a y b e s u m m a r iz e d a s fo llo w s :
(S e e
a p p e n d ix
ta b le
B -1 6 .)
T h ese
a re
som ew h at
n a rro w er
W a g e s and s a la r ie s , i n c l u d ­
in g c o m m is s io n s , b o n u s e s,
an d tip s , b e f o r e p a y r o ll d e ­
d u c t io n s .

I n c lu d e d in a ll s e r ie s , b u t in CES
are n e t o L o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e n s e s ,
and in OBE are n e t o f e m p lo y e e
c o n tr ib u t io n s t o s o c i a l s e c u r it y .

C E S
b le

N e t i n c o m e fr o m s e l f - e m ­
p l o y m e n t in b u sin ess o r p r o ­
fe s s io n .

I n c lu d e d in a l l , b u t in OBE are
n e t o f c o n tr ib u t io n s t o s o c i a l s e ­
c u r ity .

p e rce n ta g e s

S in c e
in

th e

O th e r h a o n e y r e c e ip t s , s u ch
in h e r it a n c e s , lu m p -s u m .

I n c lu d e d in a l l , b u t in OBE in t e r ­
p e r s o n a l tra n sfers, s u ch as a lim o n y ‘r
c o n tr ib u t io n s f r o m person s o u t s id e
t h e f a m i l y , e t c . , a re e x c l u d e d .

E x c lu d e d fr o m

a ll.

s e tt le m e n ts , g ift s , r e c e ip t s
fr o m s a le o f assets ( e . g . ,
H ou se), and w ith d ra w a l o f

th a n

w ere

o b serv ed

in th e

fa m ily
th e y

11

re p o rts

p erso n a l

re co rd s

tio n s ,

fa m ily

w ere

O B E
o f

a re

o f to ta l m o n e y in c o m e
in c o m e

b u sin e ss

th e

m on ey

m o st

and

s e r ie s

govern m en t

c o m p le te

in c o m e

a re

re co rd

a v a ila b le .

tra n sa c­

T h e C o n c e p t o f P a r t -Y e a r F a m ilie s in C o n s u m e r E x p e n d i­

S e e a ls o p p .

5 8 -5 9 .

a g g re ­

H o w ever,

l n d e r iv in g th e p o p u la t io n w e ig h ts u sed in th e n a t io n a l and
r e g io n a l s t a t is t ic a l s u m m a rie s o f th e 1 9 6 0 -6 1 CES ( s e e p . 3 7 ) , th e
e s tim a t e d n u m b e r o f C U 's in th e u n iv e r s e r e s u lt e d f r o m a c o n v e r s io n
o f th e t o t a l n o n in s t itu tio n a l p o p u la t io n ( i n c lu d in g m e m b e r s o f p a r t y e a r f a m i l i e s ) in 1 9 6 0 t o " e q u iv a le n t f u l l - y e a r f a m i l i e s . "
W hen
th e s e e s tim a t e d n u m b e rs o f C U 's a re u s e d as m u ltip lie r s w it h a v e r ­
a g e f a m i l y e x p e n d itu r e s t o o b t a in a g g r e g a t e i n c o m e and e x p e n d i ­
tu re s , t h e r e is an i m p l i c i t a s s u m p tio n th a t th e a v e r a g e in c o m e s and
e x p e n d itu r e s o f p a r t -y e a r un its a re t h e s a m e as th o s e o f e q u iv a le n t
f u l l - y e a r f a m i l i e s . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , a g g r e g a te s so d e r iv e d w o u ld
b e o v e r s t a te d f o r cla s s e s o f e x p e n d itu r e s f o r w h ic h p a r t - y e a r units
spe n d le ss th a n f u l l - y e a r units and u n d e rs ta te d f o r t h e o p p o s it e s itu ­
a t io n . T h e e f f e c t w it h r e s p e c t t o i n c o m e a v e r a g e s a n d a g g r e g a t e s
w o u ld b e s im ila r *

18

u sed

o b ta in e d

o f

*6

17

54

1950

an d 7 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c tiv e ly .

tu re S u rv e ys. CES R e s e a r c h N o t e N o . 1 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 8 . ( A v a i la b l e
o n re q u e s t fr o m t h e O f f i c e o f P rice s a n d L iv in g C o n d it io n s , B L S .)

b a n k d e p o s its or m o n e y b o r ­
row ed, e tc.




th e

fro m
g a te

I n c o m e o th e r th a n ea rn in g s:
F r o m r e n t, in te r e s t, d i v i ­
d e n d , s o c i a l s e c u r it y , p e n ­
s ion s, d is a b ilit y in s u ra n c e ,
trust fu n d s , p r iv a t e an d p u b ­
l i c a ss ista n ce o r o th e r g o v ­
e r n m e n ta l p a y m e n t s ,
and
r e g u la r c o n tr ib u t io n s fr o m
p erson s o u t s id e t h e f a m i l y .

d iffe r e n c e s

c o v e r in g u r b a n f a m i l i e s , f o r w h ic h th e c o m p a r a ­

th e

O B E

p erso n a l

ta b u la tio n s
d a ta

w h ic h

sta te m e n ts

in c o m e

of

F ed era l
m a y

d is tr ib u tio n s
ta x

re tu rn s

c o n tr ib u te

in t h e s e

to

in
r e m a in in g a fte r p a y m e n t o f in c o m e an d
b a steh de o n c o m e
h
s oo tu re cr e p e r s o n a l t a x e s . T h e s h i f t i n g o f f a m i l i e s b e t w e e n

art

and

o th er

o v e r -

and

iun nc d e r e
om ­

c la s s e s

c la s s e s ,

e s tim a te s .

but

th ro u g h o u t
r e m a in e d
m e n ts

Family income before and after taxes

w as

th e

th e

g re a te r

boxed

in c o m e

in

fig u r e s

in

th e

h ig h e r

ta b le

ra n g e th e m a jo r ity

11

in c o m e

show

th a t

o f fa m ilie s

in th e s a m e b r o a d in c o m e c l a s s a f t e r t a x p a y ­

w ere

d e d u c te d . T h is

e x p la in s , in p a r t , th e c lo s e

co rresp on d en ce
o f th e b e f o r e - a n d a f t e r -t a x “ p a i r s ”
In
th e
p r e c e d in g
c o m p a r is o n
fa m ilie s
have been
o f e x p e n d itu r e d is t r ib u t io n s in e a c h s u c c e s s iv e in c o m e
d is tr ib u te d
a c c o r d in g
to
th e ir
to ta l
in c o m e
b e fo r e
c l a s s , s h o w n i n a p p e n d i x t a b l e B - 1 7 . 21 T h i s t a b l e o f
d e d u c tio n s
o f in c o m e
ta x e s, b ecau se
th e d e c e n n ia l
s p e n d in g p a t t e r n s o f th e e s t im a te d 5 1 ,7 9 5 ,0 0 0 n o n fa r m
cen su s
and
C P S
h o u s e h o ld
su rv ey s
ask
o n ly
fo r
f a m ilie s an d s in g le c o n s u m e r s , c la s s if ie d o n th e a lt e r ­
b e fo r e -ta x
in c o m e .
T he
B L S
in tr o d u c e d th e “ a ft e r
n a tiv e in c o m e b a s e s , i s p r e s e n te d to fa c ilit a t e r e la tin g
ta x ”
o r
“ d is p o s a b le
in c o m e ”
r e fin e m e n t o f in c o m e
th e
B u reau ’s
p e r io d ic
c o n s u m e r e x p e n d itu r e in fo r ­
to c la s s i f y f a m ilie s f o r e x p e n d itu r e s a n a ly s e s in r e ­
m a tio n to d is tr ib u tio n s o f fa m ilie s b y in c o m e b e fo r e
p o r ts b a s e d o n it s S u r v e y o f P r i c e s P a id b y C o n s u m e r s
ta x e s c o m p ile d b y o th e r a g e n c ie s .
in
1 9 4 4 . 19 T h e B u r e a u ’ s p r e v i o u s s u r v e y h a d s h o w n
T h e c o m p a r is o n o f c o n s u m e r s p e n d in g p a t t e r n s r e ­
th a t
in
1941
th e a v e r a g e u rb a n fa m ily p a id in c o m e
la te d to b e f o r e - a n d a f t e r -t a x c la s s e s in d ic a te s th a t
and
o th e r
p erso n a l
ta x es
o f $37
on
a b e fo r e -ta x
w ith in e a c h b r o a d in c o m e c l a s s th r o u g h o u t th e e n t ir e
m on ey
in c o m e
o f $ 2 ,4 0 9 .
R u ra l n o n fa r m
fa m ilie s
in c o m e r a n g e :
p a i d $ 1 1 o n i n c o m e o f $ 1 , 3 1 1 . 20 T h e s h i f t t o t h e a f t e r ­
ta x

con cep t

ta x ra te s
e n te re d

and

b e tte r
he

F e d e r a l in c o m e
1 . T h e le v e l o f a v e r a g e in c o m e an d to ta l e x p e n d i­
S ta te s
t u r e s fo r c u r r e n t c o n s u m p tio n a s w e ll a s th e le v e l
W a r II. I n c o m e a ft e r th e d e d u c tio n o f
fo r
each
subgrou p
o f e x p e n d itu r e s , is h ig h e r fo r
th e r
p e r so n a l ta x e s w a s c o n s id e r e d a
th e
a ft e r -t a x
g r o u p o f f a m ilie s th a n fo r th e c o r ­
in g v a r ia b le b e c a u s e su c h ta x e s r e d u c e
r e s p o n d in g b e fo r e -t a x g r o u p , b u t
in c o m e th e r e c ip ie n t is fr e e to u s e a s
2 . T h e p e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f to ta l e x p e n d itu r e s

W o r ld

in c o m e
th e

fo llo w e d

e a r ly in
o

c la s s ify

am ount

of

th e

in c r e a s e

1 9 4 2 , s h o r tly

s e e s fit.
T h e

sp read

w id e n e d

in

in c o m e s
tu rn ed

b etw e en

b e fo r e -

and

s u b s e q u e n t e x p e n d itu r e

c lim b e d .

A ls o ,

in c r e a s in g ly

in

a ft e r th e U n ite d

S ta te

a m o n g th e m a jo r c a t e g o r ie s a r e
in c o m e
e a c h p a ir o f b e fo r e - an d a ft e r -t a x
s u r v e y s , a s fa m ily
a fte r -ta x

T a b u la tio n s
tim e

fa m ilie s

fro m
a

in c o m e

th e

1 9 6 0 -6 1

c o m p a r is o n

c la s s ifie d

b y

th e ir

ta x es

as

of

C E S p rov
s p e n d in g

to ta l

S e e W a r tim e F o o d P urchases (BLS B u lle tin 8 3 8 , 1 9 4 5 ), p. 25.
S p e n d in g a n d S a v in g in W a r tim e . (BLS B u l­
l e t in 8 2 2 1 9 4 5 ), p p . 73 and 1 0 2 .
21 M in o r d if f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n th e d istrib u tio n s fo r t o t a l f a m i l i e s
in t h
i d e d f o r t a bele 11 , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e d is trib u tio n s o f f a m i l i e s at th e t o p
o f a p p e n d ix t a b le B -1 7 re s u lt fr o m th e in c lu s io n o f th e 1 9 6 0 s e g ­
p a t t e rm e s t oo fth e e n tire u rba n s a m p le in t a b l e B - 1 7 , w h ile t a b le 11 in ­
n n
f
c
en o
i n c o m e lu da s d n l y th e 1961 s e g m e n t .

a

m on ey

so u rce

20f S e e F a m ily
o

T a b le 1 1 .
C E S fa m ilie s cr o s s -c la s s ifie d b y in c o m e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t a x e s , all n o n f a r m
c o n s u m e r s , U n it e d S t a t e s , 1 9 6 1

fa m ilie s a n d sin g le

M o n e y i n c o m e b e f o r e ta x e s
M on ey in c o m e
a fte r ta x e s

T ota l

U nder
$ 3 ,0 0 0

$ 3 ,0 0 0
to
$ 4 .9 9 9

$ 5 ,0 0 0
to
$ 7 ,4 9 9

$ 7 , 5 00
to
$ 9 .9 9 9

$ 10 , 000
to
$ 1 4 .9 9 9

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0

P e rc e n t d is tr ib u tio n

T o t a l ----------------------

10
0 .0

22. 7

2 .1
0

U n d er $ 3 , 0 0 0 -------------------$ 3 , 0 0 0 t o $ 4 , 9 9 9 ------------

2 4 .2
2 3 .9

[22771

$5, 000 to $ 7 ,4 9 9

2 8 .4
1 4 .1
7 .4

-

1
.1

-

-

------------

$ 7 , 5 0 0 t o $ 9 , 9 9 9 -----------$ 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o $ 1 4 , 9 9 9 ------$ 1 5 , 0 0 0 and o v e r ------------

2
.0

1
.1

2 5 .7

1 6 .6

ii. i

3 .8

1 .5

118.41

5 .4

10. 31
2

-

8
.0
18. 6 1

-

(?)

-

<2 )
5 .5
1 5. s i

-

1.8

12 . 0 1

1 T h e a p p a r e n t in c o n s is t e n c y o f i n c o m e a fte r ta x e s b e i n g h ig h e r th a n b e f o r e ta x e s m a y b e e x p la in e d
b y th e f a c t th a t part o f th e t a x p a id in th e s u rv e y y e a r and ta x refu n ds in t h e s u rv e y y e a r a re b a s e d o n
i n c o m e r e c e i v e d in e a r lie r y e a r s .
2 Less th a n 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .




NOTE:

s im ila r

a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t 19
s

to

reven u e.
fir s t

v e ry

grou p s.

B e ca u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

sum s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o ta ls .

55

fo r

Chapter 10. Reconciliation of Aggregates From
CES, OBE, and Other Sources
T h e
of

C E S

fa m ily

how

fu r n is h e s

d iffe r e n t

s iz e s

d iffe r e n t lo c a litie s
th e

C E S

a s

u se

of

good s

a s

s a le s

ta x es

d is tr ib u tin g

o r

and

th e

of

fa m ilie s

c a se s ,

th e

O B E

d iffe r

t
c o m p a r i s o nn i s i o on f s

so

fu n d a m e n ta lly

a
l i v c n g pi n r i s o n
io m

se e m s

sh ow

p er

to

r e g io n s

co n su m er
th e

co n v ert

to ta ls

or

th e

O ffic e

ta x

y ie ld

average

th e

to ta ls

n ext

w ith

co n c e p ts
th a t

an d d e fi­

no

b a s is

fo r

v a lid .

d iffe r e n t

m ark et

of

fo r

e x c is e
a

of

p r o dDu ect te, r m i n i n g
th e

s p e c ific

ste p

is

v
f a m i l y e lio p o n g
nti

p er

ty p es

fro m

1 i e
f a m 9 l6i 0 -s 6. 1

of

to

m a te d
b y

and

of

averages

a fte r
b y

a p p r o p r ia te
p er

w ith O B E

th re e

a v e ra g e s

d e s c r ib e d
to
of

th e
ta x es

su rv ey

m eth o d

fa m ily

u se :

in
(1 )

u rban

co n su m er

m u ltip ly in g

In

t h e
b r ie f,

(2 )

th e
in

in

th e

in t a b le s
su rv ey

12

1960
e s ti­

1960

co n su m er

d e te r m in e d
p u b lis h e d

d e­

c o m b in e d
u n its

of

in
fo r

c h a p t e r '7 .

d is tr ib u tio n
a s

in v o lv e d

p u b lis h e d
T he

e x ­

n a tio n a l

fo llo w e d

fa m ilie s ;

a g g re g a te s

fo r

in to

a g g re g a te s

p ro ced u res

5 5 ,3 0 6 ,0 0 0

(3 )

u n a d ju s te d

d e v e lo p e d

of

w h e th e r

o r

in c o m e

T h e

m o st

s a m p le s

to ta l

w e ig h ts ;

Aggregate Income, Expenditures,
and Savings

CES

a v e ra g e s

w e ig h te d

C E S

nd
s oa u r c e 1 9 6 1
s.

o th er

fro m

co m p are

th e

t
t h e e s t i m hae tye d w e r e

to c o m p a r e

a g g re g a te s

th e
C E S

c nt
u s e r s 1 m a yr e w oa n s i d e r a t i o n

a re a s,

e x p e n d itu r e s

fo r

a g g reg a tes

or

E c o n p a n idc isn g
o m

o f B u sin e s s

s m a lle r

a g g re g a te s

F r e q u e n t ly
C E S

o r

C E S

in fo r m a tio n
fo r

D
i
H o w e v e r , f o r esr u vcaht i o n

s e r v ic e s.
th e

th is

fa m ily

a
( O B E ) n a t i o n a l a g g r e g a t e s o f c o n s u m p t i o n e x p e n d i t ug rgerse g a t e s
am on g

and

th e ir in c o m e . A s s ta te d e a r lie r ,
re p o rts

fo r e c a s tin g

o r

n
c o m p i lIa t i obno t h

c o m p le te

p e r m its

ty p es

e x p e n d itu r e s

c a te g o r ie s
p u rp o ses

o n ly

th a t

and

s ta tis tic a l

average

fo r

th e

e x p e n d itu r e s

as

u n its

su rv ey .
and

13,

a v era g es

b y
5 5 ,3 0 6 ,0 0 0
co n su m er
u n its ,
r e fle c t th e
e a r lie r
c o m ­
d e c is io n s .
p ile d b y O B E , in c lu d e e s t im a t e s o f a g g r e g a te in c o m e ,
In
te rm s
of
c o m p a r is o n
w ith
O B E
d a ta ,
th e se
e x p e n d itu r e s ,
and
s a v in g s,
w h ic h
are
m o r e n e a r ly
p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d a c tu a l o r p o te n tia l b ia s . F a ilu r e
a p p r o p r ia te th a n o th e r in d e p e n d e n t e s t im a t e s fo r c o m ­
to
ta k e
in to
accou n t
th e
in c r e a s e
in
n u m ber
of
p a r i s o n w ith a g g r e g a t e s d e r iv e d f r o m th e C E S . H o w ­
co n su m er
u n its
fro m
1960
to
1961
c le a r ly
w o u ld
e v e r,
m a jo r
d iffe r e n c e s
in
co n c e p t,
c o v e ra g e , and
u n d e r s ta te th e s u r v e y a g g r e g a t e s . T o th e e x te n t th a t
m e th o d r e q u ir e a n u m b e r o f a d ju s tm e n ts o f b o th O B E
average
in c o m e s,
e x p e n d itu r e s
o r
s a v in g s ch a n g ed
and
C E S
d a ta
to
fa c ilita te
a c o m p a r i s o n .2 D e s p it e
s ig n ific a n tly
b e tw e e n
1960
and
19 6 1 ,
th e
su rv ey
th e s e a d ju s tm e n ts , c e r ta in d iffe r e n c e s r e m a in an d th e ir
a g g re g a te s
m ig h t b e
o v e r o r
u n d e rsta te d .
M o re ­
e ffe c ts
cannot b e
m ea su red
in
r e c o n c ilin g th e tw o
o v e r , o n ly u r b a n d a ta w e r e a v a ila b le f o r 1 9 6 0 , w h ic h
se ts
o f d a ta .
W ith in th e r e la t iv e ly n a r r o w r e s id u a l
w o u ld
r e q u ir e
e s tim a tin g
th e
p r o p o r tio n
of O B E
d iffe r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , a c o m p a r is o n p r o v id e s a r e a ­
a g g re g a te s
a p p r o p r ia te
fo r
th e
u rban
se g m e n t.
A
s o n a b ly s o u n d b a s is fo r e v a lu a tin g t h e ir v a lid ity a n d
c le a n c u t
1961
c o m p a r is o n
seem ed
p r e fe r a b le .
T he
g i v e s c lu e s to th e n a tu r e o f r e p o r t in g e r r o r s in th e
c o m p a r is o n
o f
1950
su rv ey
d a ta
w ith
in d e p e n d e n t
C E S d a ta . 3
e s tim a te s 5 and
e v a lu a tio n s
o f th e
1 9 6 0 -6 1
su rv ey
O n e d iffe r e n c e i s th a t th e r e le v a n t O B E d a ta r e la t e
T h e

to

N a tio n a l

th e

o m y . 4

e n tir e
In

a c co u n ts
tio n s,
on

In com e

p erson a l

a d d itio n
in c lu d e

in m a te s

p o st.

O B E

and

to

P rod u ct

se cto r

th e

C E S

tr a n s a c tio n s

o f

of

A cco u n ts,

th e

n a tio n a l

u n iv e r se ,
of

th e

n o n p r o fit

econ ­
1

P r o b le m s o f c o m p a r in g th e OBE t im e series and th e CES
cross s e c t io n d a ta are a n a ly z e d and d isc u ss e d in d e t a il b y H . S.
H o u th a k k e r an d Lester D . T a y l o r in c h . 6 ,
" E v id e n c e fr o m th e

o r g a n iz a ­

i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d m i l i t a r y p e r s o 9 6n -6 1
1n 0 e l

d a ta

cannot

be

a d ju s te d

S e e ch a p te r 11 fo r uses o f CES d a ta .

n a t i o n a^ l

to

H o u s e h o ld S u rv e y , " o f th e ir b o o k C o n s u m e r D e m a n d in th e
( s e c o n d and e n la r g e d e d it io n ), s c h e d u le d fo r p u b l i c a ­

it e
e l i mUinn a dt eS tates

t io n b y th e H arvard U n iv e r s ity Press, S u m m e r 1 9 7 0 .
F o r a s u m m a ry o f e a r lie r c o m p a r is o n s and a d e t a i l e d r e ­
f p o rt o n ­th e c o m p a r is o n o f th e 1 95 0 BLS su rv e y w ith in d e p e n d e n t
n on
s o u r c e s , s e e L a m a le , o p . c i t .
(m o n o g r a p h ), p p . 1 1 3 - 1 3 6 .

c o m p le t e ly th e s e s o u r c e s o f n o n c o m p a r a b ility , th e m o s t
3
im p o r ta n t

o f

w h ic h

are

p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s .
v a lu e s

fo

ex c l

b u rsem e n
(1 )

R en ta

fu r n is h e d

e x p e n d itu r e s

o

4

O BE's o f f i c i a l d e s c r ip tio n s o f th e p e r tin e n t s e g m e n ts o f n a ­
a c c o u n t s r e l i e d o n in this c o m p a r is o n a r e p u b lis h e d b y th e
r
c e r ta in
i t e m s p r o v i d e a b e t t e r e s t U . S.a De p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e in th e S u rv e y o f C u rre n t Business,
im
t e
A u g u st 1 9 6 5 , pp . 6 - 2 2 , and as a se rie s o f s u p p le m e n ts t o th e S u rv ey
u s i v e r e l i a n c e o n m o n e y r e c e i p t s a n d o f dC u rren t Business u n der t h e f o l l o w i n g t it le s : N a tio n a l I n c o m e ,
is ­
4 e
ts.
T h e
m o st
im p o r ta n t
i m p u t a t i o n s 1 9 5a r E d: itio n (1 9 5 4 ). U . S. I n c o m e and O u tp u t (1 9 5 8 ) , T h e N a tio n a l
I n c o m e and P ro d u ct A c c o u n t s o f th e U n it e d S ta te s, 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 6 5 , S ta ­
l
v a lu e
o f o w n e d h o m e s , a n d ( 2 ) s e r tv it icc a l s T a b le s (1 9 6 6 ).
e
is
w i t h o u t p a y m e n t b y f i n a n c i a l i n t e r m e d i a r i e s .5 L a m a le , o p . c it . (m o n o g r a p h ), p p . 1 0 7 - 1 1 3 .

A n o th e r d iffe r e n c e
th a n

th e




is

t h a t f o r O B E p u r p o s e s i m p tu t e l
io n a d

56

suggested that the CES distribution by income classes
might understate consumer units at the extrem es

of the income distribution, especially in the higher
income classes.

Table 12. Comparison of income, expenditures, and changes in savings as reported in the 1960-61 CES with estimates based on CES reports
adjusted by Office of Business Economics income distribution of families and unrelated individuals, total urban and rural United States
Percent distribution
of expenditures

Average per CU
1960-61
unadjusted
Money income before t a x e s -----------------Other money re c e ip ts--------------------------Money income after t a x e s ------------------Expenditures for current consumption,
totals -------------------------------------------F o o d -------------------------------------------Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s -----------------------Tobacco -------------------------------------Shelter ---------------------------------------Other real e s t a t e ---------------------------Fuel, light, and re frig e ra tio n -----------Household operations-----------------------Housefurnishings and e q u ip m e n t--------Clothing, clothing m aterials, and
services ------------------------------------T ran sp ortation ------------------------------M edical c a r e --------------------------------Personal c a r e --------------------------------R ecreation, reading* and education----Miscellaneous ------------------------------Gifts and contributions -----------------------Personal insurance -----------------------------Net change in assets and liabilities -------Account balancing d iffe re n c e -----------------

19611
adjusted

Unadjusted

$6,246
81
5, 557

2$7,054
96
6, 181

5,054
1, 234
78
91
658
6
249
288
266

5, 398
1, 291
83
92
700
8
262
319
279

100.0
24.4
1.5
1.8
13.0
.2
4 .9
5 .7
5.3

518
770
340
145
298
111
280
299

570
813
365
154
332
129
320
330

10. 3
15, 2
6 .7
2. 9
5 .9
2.2

199
-186

386
-156

Adjusted

Aggregate (millions)
Unadjusted
(U)

Adjusted
(A)

Difference
(A) - (U)

$345,425
4,495
307,362

$395, 054
5, 380
346,178

$49,629
885
38,816

100.0
23.9
1. 5
1.7
13.0
.1
4 .9
5 .9
5. 2

279,497
68,274
4, 306
5,032
36,398
338
13,787
15,954
14,695

302,289
72, 295
4,627
5, 141
39, 175
453
14,686
17,860
15, 652

22,792
4,021
321
109
2,777
115
899
1,906
957

10.6
15. 1
6 .8
2 .8
6. 1
2 .4

28,673
42,581
18,802
8,034
16,443
6,132
15,490
16,523

31,949
45, 545
20, 452
8,601
18,605
7, 244
17,923
18,463

3,276
2, 964
1,650
567
2, 162
1, 112
2, 433
1,940

10,993
-10,287

21,614
-8, 744

10,621
1,543

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 Adjusted to (a) exclude 1960 urban data; (b) reflect increase from 1960 to 1961 in estimated number of consumer units (from
5 5 ,3 0 6 ,0 0 0 to 56 ,0 0 3 ,000); and (c) reflect OBE distribution of fam ilies and unattached individuals among income classes. See text,
pp. 56-58.
2 Excludes occupational expenses (averaging $39) and includes gifts of cash from persons outside the consumer unit (averaging $46),
which account for difference in average money income before taxes from that shown in table 13.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

The specific decisions affecting derivation of the
CES aggregates can be sum m arized b rie fly . The in ­
crease in the number of households fro m M arch 1960
to M arch 1961, as measured in the C urren t Popu­
lation Survey,6 was adjudged the most re a lis tic e s ti­
m ator of increases in consumer units fro m 1960 to
1961. The increase of 1.26 percent applied to 55,306,000
consumer units resulted in an estim ate of 56,003,000
units— an addition of 697,000.
The decision to exclude the urban data fo r 1960
rested p rim a rily on considerations of presenting a
clearcut comparison fo r 1961 and avoiding the poten­
tia l source of e r r o r noted above. OBE data fo r the
en tire population indicated that fro m 1960 to 1961
p er capita disposable personal income increased
2.4 percent; personal consumption expenditures, 1.3




57

percent; and personal savings, 22.7 percent. The
CES averages p e r urban fam ily showed increases
of 2.2 percent in income a fte r taxes, of 0.2 percent
in total expenditures fo r c u rren t consumption, and
of 44.1 percent in net changes in assets and li a ­
b ilitie s . Although the change in CES estim ates of
total expenditures was c le a rly within sampling e r r o r ,
as were changes in most of the m ajor components
of expenditures, it appeared that including the 1960
data would tend to understate the income and savings
aggregates. (See appendix table B - l l . )

6 Households and Fam ilies, by Type: 1965, Current Popu­
lation Reports, Population Characteristics, Series P-20, No. 140,
July 2, 1965, U. S. Department of Com m erce, Bureau of the Census,
p. 4.

Table 13. CES 1961 estimates of average and aggregate family money income before taxes distributed by source of income and compared
with estimates derived from OBE National Accounts, total urban and rural United States
Consumer Expenditures Survey estim ates
Adjusted - 1961 2

Unadjusted - 1961 1

Source of income

Aggregate
Average
income
income
(per fam ily) (millions)
Money income before taxes,
t o t a l -----------------------------Wage and salary earnings4—
Self-em ploym ent and
business in co m e-----------Income from rent (in­
cluding roomers and
s- boarders)--------------------Military pay, allotm ents,
pensions, e t c --------------Interest -----------------------D iv id e n d s--------------------Income from all other
sources 5----------------------Estimated number of fam ilies
and single consumers
(thousands)-----------------------

Aggregate
Average
income
income
(per fam ily) (millions)

Percent
of total
income

Percent
of total
income

Fam ily money income estim ates
from Office of Business
Economics data - 1961 3
Average
Aggregate
Percent
income
income
of total
income
(per fam ily) (millions)

$6, 286
4, 743

$352,045
265,633

100.0
7 5 .5

$7,047
5,145

$394,649
288,118

100.0
7 3 .0

$6,697
4,727

$383,645
270,792

100.0
7 0 .6

682

38,195

10. 8

963

53, 952

13.7

764

43,781

1 1.4

84

4 ,704

1 .3

95

5, 304

1 .3

112

6,408

1 .7

80
81
98

4,470
4 ,536
5,488

1.3
1.3
1 .6

81
98
149

4, 554
5, 470
8, 347

1 .2
1 .4
2.1

119
258
237

6 ,792
14,755
13,594

1.8
3 .8
3 .5

518

29,019

8. 2

516

28, 904

7 .3

480

27,523

7 .2

56,003

-

56,003

-

57, 290

-

-

-

-

1 Averages as reported in the survey before deduction of occupational expense from wage and salary earnings and excluding gifts of
cash from persons outside the consumer unit. Aggregates are reported averages m ultiplied by the estim ated number of consumer units in
the 1961 survey universe.
2 See footnote 1, table 12.
3 Fam ily personal income estim ate of the OBE, adjusted to the CES fam ily money income definition. Derived from unpublished
data furnished by the OBE.
4 CES estim ates include food and rent received as pay; OBE includes farm and nonfarm nonmoney wages.
5 Includes income from public unemployment and social security benefits and pensions; private pensions and retirement benefits;
private insurance annuities and trust funds; public social assistance and private relief; contributions for support from persons outside the
fam ily, including alimony (CES only); and all income not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal total.

The OBE distribution of consumer units by in ­
come a fte r F ederal tax lia b ility , as shown in table
14, was substituted fo r the CES distribution. The
OBE distribution is integrated both sta tis tic a lly and
definitionally with the personal income series in
National Accounts, as explained in the footnote to
table 14. Although this total includes imputed in ­
come, no substitute fo r a fte r-ta x income was a v a il­
able. (See pages 53 -5 4 .) CES average values fo r a ll
fa m ilie s w ere classified only by income a fte r taxes. ?
The OBE and 1961 CES, and 1960-61 CES percent
distributions of income before taxes are compared
in table 1&

and a fte r adjustment. The adjustment of the compon­
ents of expenditures does not a lte r the percentage
d i s t r i b u t i o n significantly, but the increases in
d o lla r te rm s , shown in the la s t column, are sub­
stantial.
Although conceptually distinct, the three adjust­
ments were perform ed in a single operation. How­
e v e r, during consideration of the problem , calcula­
tions were made separately to appraise the effect
of each adjustment. These calculations are shown
in table 15.
C le a rly , the substitution of the OBE income d is­
trib utio n was the dominant factor in the adjustments
shown in table 15. F o r income and expenditures,
taking account of the increase in consumer units
was considerably m ore im portant than re s tric tin g
the urban data to 1961. The re v e rs e was true fo r

Effect of adjustments to CES
Table 12 sum m arizes aggregates of the CES data
fo r m a jo r components of fa m ily accounts, before




58

^ Average expenditures for all nonfarm fam ilies, classified
by income before taxes, based on the 1960-61 CES, were published
by the National Industrial Conference Board in Expenditure Patterns
of the Am erican Fam ily. New York, (1965). See also table B-17.

Table 14. Comparison of CES and OBE distributions of families by
income after taxes, 1961

Income after taxes

1961 ($219), an increase of 44 percent, probably
overstates the actual gain. P e r capita personal savings,
as derived by OBE, rose 23 percent fro m 1960 to 1961.

Percent of fam ilies and
unattached individuals
O ffice of
Consumer Expend­
Business
itures Survey
Economics
1961
1960-61
19611

T o t a l ---------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

Under $2, 000 -----------------------$2, 000-$2, 999
------ ------------$3,0 0 0 -$ 3 , 999 ---------------------$4, 000-$4, 999 ---------------------$5, 000-$5, 999 ...................- .............
$6, 000-$7, 499 --------- ------------$7,5 0 0 -$ 9 , 999 ---------------------$ 1 0 ,000-$14, 999 ..............................
$15, 000 and o v e r --------------------

13.7
10.0
11.5
12. 1
11.7
14.0
12. 8
9 .6
4 .6

14. 2
11.0
11. 5
12.6
12. 7
15.2
13.7
7. 2
2 .0

Although OBE data re fle c t savings of the total popu­
lation (including on-post m ilita ry and the institutional­
ized) and are derived as a residual subject to various
re s e rv a tio n s ,8 the discrepancy suggests that the CES
data overstate the actual increase.
Although each y e a r’ s urban sample was designed
to yield re lia b le national estim ates, use of only half
the total sample obviously increases the sampling
e r r o r . F o r savings as fo r a ll other components,
however, nonsampling e rro rs (in reporting by r e ­
spondent, recording by the in te rv ie w e r, processing,
etc.) may be of g reater importance than the sam­
pling e rr o r .
A number of re la tiv e ly m inor adjustments of eith er
the OBE or CES data might have enhanced com para­
b ility of the two sets of data. Some involved e s ti­
m ating OBE data not available publicly and possibly
introducing unnecessary e r r o r . F o r various m inor
survey components, the possible im provem ent did
not w arran t the onerous hand calculation of adjusted
survey aggregates. In term s of the large aggregates
involved, the additional possible adjustments appar­
ently would not have reduced or increased discrep­
ancies between the two sets of data significantly.

13. 9
11. 1
11.8
13.3
12. 7
15. 1
13.4
6. 8
2 .0

1 Fam ily personal income after Federal individual income tax
liability. OBE derived aggregate fam ily personal income from per­
sonal income by making two sets of subtractions, the first for the
personal income of institutions and the second for the personal in­
come of the institutional population.
The former consists of property income of nonprofit institu­
tions— religious organizations, nonprofit schools and hospitals, chari­
table and welfare organizations, and other nonprofit organizations
serving individuals— of transfer payments (grants and gifts) to such
institutions from government and business (net of transfers by non­
profit insitutions to individuals), and of the undistributed income
of private trust, pension and welfare funds.
The income of the institutional population consists of the in­
come of m ilitary personnel on post (net of fam ily allowances and
allotments) and of the income of the civilian institutional population.
SOURCE: Income Distribution in the United States, By Size,
1944-1950 (U. S. Department of C om m erce, O ffice of Business E c­
onomics, 1953), pp. 17-18. Distribution for 1961 from Jeannette M.
Fitzwilliams, "Size Distribution of Income in 1963, " Survey of Cur­
rent Business, April 1964, p. 10.

Family money income before taxes
Table 13 provides a comparison of the OBE e s ti­
mate of fa m ily money income by source with the
CES average and aggregate income before taxes by
source, as reported in the survey and after the ad­
justm ents described fo r table 12. F o r this com pari­
son, the OBE provided unpublished data fo r two
adjustments of th e ir estim ates of personal income
before taxes to agree with the CES definition of
fa m ily money income. The fir s t involved p rim a rily
the elim ination of income received by nonprofit o r ­
ganizations and such m ilita ry pay as would not
accrue to c iv ilia n fa m ilie s covered by the CES.
T his adjustment reduced the OBE personal income
estim ate fo r 1961 fro m $417,377 m illio n to $396,992
m illio n fo r fa m ily personal income. The second ad­
justm ent elim inated a ll nonmoney (imputed) income
except fa rm and nonfarm nonmoney wages to conform
with the CES definition of fa m ily money income before
taxes which includes the value of food and rent

Table 15. Effect of adjustments on aggregates of major components of
1961 CES family accounts
Effect of adjusting for—

Category

Total
adjust-

O ffice of
Business
Economics
income

Increase

Exclusion
of 1960

bution
In millions
Income after t a x e s ---- $38,816
22,792
Expenditures-----------10,621
S a v in g s------------------

$32,897
19,693
8,795

$3,899
3,511
160

$2,020
-412
1,666

Percent distribution
Income after t a x e s ---Expenditures-----------S a v in g s------------------

100.0
100.0
100.0

84 .8
8 6 .4
8 2.8

10*0
15.4
1 .5

5 .2
-1 .8
15.7

received as pay. The 1961 OBE estim ate of fam ily
money income obtained by this adjustment was $383,645
m illio n , including $1,970 m illio n fo r nonmoney wages.

net changes in savings: The v e ry substantial d if­
ference between the averages fo r 1960 ($152) and




59

8 For a more thorough discussion of the two estimates of
changes in savings, see pp. 65-66.

Adjustments to the CES increased the average
income fro m dividends fro m $98 to $149, and from
in te re s t from $81 to $98, but the income fro m these
sources was s till only half of the OBE average
dividend and in terest income.
The comparisons of the aggregate income estim ates
derived fro m the CES and OBE averages, shown
in table 16, are affected by the difference in the es­
tim ated number of consumer units in 1961 as defined
fo r the two sets of data— 56,003,000 in the CES
and 57,290,000 in the OBE. The OBE uses the cen­
sus definition of “demographic” fa m ily , while the
CES uses the “economic” fa m ily definition.9
The differences in the CES and OBE aggregates
of income in 1961 exhibit the same pattern as was
observed in the 1950 CES and in e a rlie r BLS surveys.
T here is ra th e r close agreement fo r the m ajo r
sources after allowance is made fo r "differences in
definitions and coverage, but the survey estim ates
are substantially below the OBE estim ates fo r income
fro m rent, in terest, dividends, and m ilita ry pay,
etc. P a rt of the understatement in the CES ren tal
income may account fo r the overstatem ent in the s e lfemployment and business income component. Although
some attempt was made to elim inate m ilita ry pay
which would not be received by fam ilies in the CES,

The survey estim ate fo r food and rent received as
pay was $1,512 m illio n .
The adjustments of the CES data tended to bring
the OBE and CES distributions of 1961 income by
source closer together. The net effect was to reduce
the proportion fro m wage and salary earnings fro m
75.5 to 73.0 percent, compared with 70.6 in the OBE
e s t i m a t e s . The survey proportion fro m s e lfemployment and business income, the second largest
component, was raised fro m 10.8 to 13.7 percent,
compared with O B E’ s 11.4 percent. The adjustments
increased the levels of CES in terest and dividend
income although the re la tiv e importance of these two
sources of income in the survey estim ates was s till
substantially below the OBE estim ates.
The CES unadjusted average income per fa m ily
of $6,286 was 6 percent below the OBE average of
$6,697. A fter adjustment, the CES average was
$7,047, or 5 percent higher than the OBE average.
The survey averages fo r two of the three m ajor
sources (wage and sala ry earnings; and income
fro m social security, pensions, etc.) were equal
to or higher than the comparable OBE averages
both before and after adjustment. F o r the th ird
m ajor source (self-em ploym ent and business income),
adjustments shifted the CES average fro m 11 percent
below to 26 percent above the OBE estim ate fo r
such income.

^

See discussion p. 45.

Table 16. Comparison of CES and OBE National Accounts estimates of average and* aggregate family money income by source of income,
1961 and 1950
Total urban and rural United States - 1961

Urban - 195CT

Difference between Bureau of Labor Statistics and

Money income before taxes,
total -----------------------------Wage and salary earnings —
S elf-em ploym ent and
business in co m e-----------Income from rent ( including
roomers and b o ard ers)----Military pay, allotments,
pensions, e t c --------------In te r e st-----------------------D iv id e n d s--------------------Income from all other
s o u r c e s ----------------------

94
100

105
109

$ -31,600
-5 ,159

$+11,004
+17,326

92
98

103
106

88
93

94
95

89

126

-5, 586

+10,171

87

123

92

121

75

85

-1 ,704

-1, 104

73

83

50

55

67
31
41

68
38
63

-2 ,322
-10,219
-8, 106

-2, 238
-9,285
-5, 247

66
31
40

67
37
61

82
21
37

80
26
55

108

108

+ 1 ,4 9 6

+1,381

105

105

95

106

-

-

98

-

Estimated number of fam ilies
and single consum ers---------

-1, 28

1 Derived from table 13.
2 Lam ale, op. cit. t pp. 129-130.




Percent: Consumer
Expenditure;s Survey of
O ffice of Business

Percent: Consumer
Expenditures Survey of
O ffice of Business
Economics
Unadjusted 1 Adjusted 2 Unadjusted1 A djusted2 Unadjusted1 Adjusted2 Unadjusted
Adjusted
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Consumer
Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures Expenditures
Survey
Survey
Survey
Survey
Survey
Survey.
Surveys
Survey
Aggregate (millions)

60

8
O

Source of income

Percent: Consumer
Expenditures Survey of
Office of Business
Economics

-1,0415, 000
1
_____________

the adjustment may not have been sufficient. The
CES and OBE estim ates fo r in terest and dividend
income are substantially closer in 1961 than in 1950.
The 1961 CES adjusted estim ates were 37 and 61
percent, respectively, of the OBE estim ates, while

M edical care

42

Personal care

18

Transportation

60 plus 1/3 of 81 (wheel goods,
boats, aircrafts, e t c .) plus 1/4 of
99 (foreign travel) plus line 5 of
table 3 .3 (motor vehicle licenses)

in 1950 they were 26 and 55 percent.

To include estimate of aircraft, boats, etc.
involved in personal foreign travel; and of
cense fees.
Recreation, reading, and
77 plus 93, plus
education
1/3 of 81, and

Regrouping of expenditure categories
Adjustments of personal consumption expenditures
(PC E) required fo r optimum com parability with the
CES estimates fo r each category shown in table 17
Line number

Food

1, footnote 1, minus 4 and 6

Miscellaneous

To exclude food furnished government (including m ilitary) and
com m ercial em ployees, alcoholic beverages, and tobacco.
For com parability, the CES estimates were adjusted to e x ­
clude m eals as pay and to include food produced and con­
sumed on farms.
Alcoholic beverages

1, footnote 1

Tobacco

6

Clothing, clothing m aterials,
and services

1/8 of 99, minus
minus 84

To include estimate of recreation involved in personal foreign
travel; and to transfer estimate of aircraft, boats, etc. to
transportation, and flowers, seeds, and potted plants to house­
hold operations.

a r e : 10
Category

; of transportation
motor vehicle l i ­

To
Of
tion
were

53, 54, 57, 58, 59, and line
25 of table 2.1 (interest paid by
consumers)

include in terest paid by consumers.
O B E’ s $335,152 m illio n total personal consump­
expenditures, $51,075 m illio n or 15.2 percent
excluded. In addition to the exclusions indicated

above, totalling $1,354 m illio n , other accounts deemed
noncomparable with the CES estim ates were:

7, minus 13 and minus 1/3 of 14
and 15 combined
Line number

To exclude standard clothing issued to m ilitary personnel and
to transfer estim ated expense for laundry sent out and for clean ­
ing and dyeing to household operations.
Shelter, fuel, light, and
refrigeration

23 plus 34

The OBE housing component is made up of: Space-rental
value of owner-occupied nonfarm dwellings (line 22), space
rent of tenant-occupied nonfarm dwellings including lodging
houses (line 23), rental value of farmhouses (line 24), and
other, i. e . , transient hotels, motels, clubs, schools, and in­
stitutions (line 25). Space rent covers the living quarters,
heating, plumbing, lighting fixtures, e t c ., but excludes fur­
niture, stoves, refrigerators, fuel, and utilities that may be
included in contract rent.
The CES housing component includes expenditures for con­
tract rent by tenants of all kinds of living quarters and the
expenditures of owners for current consumption items, such as
taxes, insurance, interest on mortgage, and repairs and re­
placem ents. Mortgage principal payments, cash purchases and
down payments, and expenditures for improvements are not
classified as expenditures but as savings (i. e. , changes in assets
or liabilities).
The basic definitions of expenditures for owner-occupied hous­
ing in the two sets of data are so different that there is no
basis for comparing estimated aggregates. However, since the
OBE definition of rent for tenant-occupied quarters differs from
the CES definition primarily in the treatment of fuel and u til­
ities, a comparison is made for rent (line 23) plus household
utilities (line 34).
Lodging out of home city

25

Housefurnishings and equipment

27, 28, 29, 30, 31

Household operations




1/3 of 14an d 15 combined, plus
32, 33, 39, 40, 41, and 84 (flow­
ers, seeds, and potted plants)

Lines 22 and 24, rental value of owned h o m e s--Lines 55 and 56, services furnished without pay­
ment by financial intermediaries and expenses
of handling life in su ran ce---------------------------Line 97, expenditures made by religious and
welfare a c tiv itie s---------------------------------------5/8 of line 99, foreign travel and other, net,
which was assumed to be government and
business travel, with no effort to net for re­
mittances to foreigners versus expenditures by
foreigners in the United S ta te s----------------------

Total
(in
millions)
$34,498

9,001
4, 926

1,296

The two item s not included in PCE by OBE but
equivalent to item s included in CES total expendi­
tures add $8,465 m illio n to PCE: In terest paid by
consumers, $7,624 m illio n , and motor vehicle l i ­
censes, $841 m illio n . The total (in m illions) fo r com­
paring PCE with CES is therefore $292,542 (i.e .,
$335,152 less $51,075 plus $8,465).

Comparisons of expenditures
F o r obvious reasons, agreement of two independent
estim ates usually is accepted as tending to validate
both as approximating the true values involved,
b a rrin g compensating e rro rs . In the present case,
10
Unless otherwise specified, line numbers refer to table 2. 5,
The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States,
1929-1965. Statistical T ab les.

61

such e rro rs could have had little effect, since most
components fo r which fa irly wide differences were
found were re la tiv e ly sm all percents of the aggregates.

1950 data several tim es; the 1958 rev sion in p a r­
tic u la r resulted in v e ry large changes, especially
fo r food. Recomputed ra tio s fo r 1950, substituting
O B E’ s revised estim ates fo r 1950, are shown in
the la s t two columns of table 17.
The 1950 CEL covered only the urban population,
but it was such a large proportion of total popula­
tion (about 67 percent of a ll consumer units) that
comparison of 1950 and 1960-61 ratios of CES to
OBE aggregates casts considerable additional light.

Table 17 presents the salient data fo r m a jo r ex­
penditure categories. The fir s t five columns re la te
to the 1961 comparison. The rem aining columns re fe r
to the 1950 comparison and are divided into two
parts; before and after OBE revisions. The p re ­
viously published 11 ratios of CES to OBE aggregates
employed OBE data as reported in the 1954 edition
of National Incom e. Subsequently, OBE revised the

11 La m ale, op. cit.

(monograph), table 11, p. 126.

Table 17. Comparison of CES and OBE National Accounts estimates of aggregate expenditures for current consumption, excluding owned
housing, 1961 and 1950
Total urban and rural Unites States, 1961

Aggregate (millions)

Category

Consumer
Expenditures
Survey
estimates
1961
1960-61
unadjusted 1 adjusted ^

Urban, 1950

Percent: Consumer
Expenditures Survey of
Office of Business
______ Economics_____

O ffice of
Business
Economics
estimates
19613

Percent: Consumer Expenditures Survey of
O ffice of Business Economics
Before Office of
Business Economics
revisions4

Unadjusted

Adjusted

Unadjusted
Consumer
ExpendiSurvey

Expenditures for current con­
sumption, excluding owned
housing, plus goods and
services given to persons
outside fa m ily ----------------Expenditures for current
co n su m ption -----------------Food ------------------------Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s -----Tobacco --------------------Rented dwelling, fuel,
light, and refrigeration -Lodging out of home
c i t y ------------------------Household operations-----Housefumishings and
e q u ip m e n t----------------Clothing, clothing m ate­
rials, and se rv ices-------T ran sp ortation -------------M edical c a r e --------------Personal c a r e --------------Recreation, reading, and
ed u ca tio n -----------------M iscellaneous--------------Goods and services given to
persons outside f a m i l y ------

After O ffice of
Business Economics
revisions 5

Adjusted
Consumer
Expendi­
tures
Survey

Unadjusted
Consumer
Expendi-

110. 1

9 8 .6

(7)
121.1

3 8.6
70. 2

38.3
7 4 .0

(7)
123.1
3 9 .4
72. 9

103. 1

102. 1

101.5

Survey

Adjusted
Consumer
Expendi­
tures
Survey

$264,052

$284,846

$292,542

90. 3

9 7 .4

(6
)

259,591
68,751
4, 306
5,032

280,009
72,799
4,627
5,141

292, 542
70,774
10, 805
7, 248

88.7
97. 1
39 .9
69.4

95.7
102.9
4 2.8
70. 9

95.3
108.3
37.5
71. 2

28, 248

29,012

26,102

108.2

111. 1

103.6

1,940
15, 954

2,522
17,860

1,517
16, 964

127.9
94.0

166.2
105.3

8 9 .9

98.5

8 9 .9

9 8 .5

14, 695

15, 652

18,581

79.1

84. 2

92.3

95 .8

8 3.9

87. 1

28,673
42,581
18, 802
8,034

31,949
45, 545
20,452
8, 601

32,796
43, 586
20, 321
5,792

8 7 .4
97.7
92.5
138.7

97*4
104.5

97 .8
100.9

148.5

9 2 .9
9 7 .4
109.2
171.7

175.7

8 8 .9
9 1 .9
103.2
160.3

9 3 .6
95. 1
105.8
164.0

16, 443
6,132

18,605
7, 244

22,412
14,642

7 3 .4
4 1 .9

8 3 .0
4 9 .5

8 6 .4
50. 2

90.
54.

8 6 .4
4 5 .8

9 1 .0
4 9 .9

4,461

4, 837

100.6

(6
)

112.0

(6)

(9)

1 Averages as reported for 1960-61 in CES m ultiplied by the estimated number of consumer units— 55, 306,000.
2 See footnote 1, table 12.
3 From The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929-1965, Statistical T ab les, a Supplement to the Survey
of Current Business, adjusted to conform with CES coverage and definitions. See text, pp. 56-58.
4 Lam ale, op. c it .. p. 126. These ratios were based on OBE (there referred to as NID) estimates published in 1954 National
Income Edition of Survey of Current Business. (See source for details of
d erivation .)
5 Developed from 1950 data reflecting revisions in 1958 and 1966 as published in source cited in footnote 3.
6 Not included in 1950 comparison.
7 Data not availab le to re-calcu late total expenditures for current consumption of urban consumer units.
8 Survey estim ates exclude m eals as pay and include value of food produced and consumed on farms.
9 OBE includes such expenditures in respective categories; CES estim ates were m ade only for total.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal total.




62

Because available data do not provide a basis fo r
estim ating total expenditures of the urban popula­
tion in the OBE accounts in the same manner as
Lam ale estim ated them , her estim ate ($111,534 m il­
lion) was retained so that no change in ra tio fo r the
total is shown a fte r OBE revision of National Accounts.
G ifts of goods and services to persons outside the
fa m ily were not taken into account in the 1950 com­
parison, p rim a rily because the CES data could not
be allocated among OBE categories of personal con­
sumption expenditures (PC E). The same difficulty
applies to the 1960-61 survey data. Nevertheless,
such gifts (unlike gifts of cash) a re included in PCE
by OBE which uses data that make no distinction
between purchases fo r fa m ily use and fo r gifts to
other fa m ilies. Accordingly, CES gifts of goods and
services— $4,461 m illio n unadjusted and $4,837 m illio n
adjusted— have been added to the survey total expendi­
tu res, increasing both the unadjusted and adjusted
ratios to OBE data by about 2 percentage points.
Again, data available did not provide a basis fo r
calculating an adjusted aggregate fo r 1950, preventing
addition of gifts to the e a rlie r comparison.
Because gifts are re la tiv e ly m ore im portant fo r
some categories of expenditures (clothing, housefurnishings, food, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages)
than fo r others, it is unfortunate that these expendi­
tures cannot be allocated among the various CES
components as they necessarily are in the National
Accounts. To some extent, th erefore, CES estim ates
fo r each component are understated by the amount
of these gifts.
The CES estim ate of total 1961 expenditures, ex­
cluding gifts, fa lls m ore than 10 percent short of
OBE on an unadjusted basis and 4.3 percent after
adjustment. Each is somewhat low er than the c o rre ­
sponding 1950 ratio s. Including gifts, the 1961 CES
estim ates are 90.3 percent of OBE unadjusted and
97.4 percent adjusted. On the assumption that the
adjusted data constitute the b etter estim ates of the
CES aggregate, such close correspondence with the
OBE estim ate indicates that the survey covered
v irtu a lly a ll consumption expenditures of fa m ilie s
since, as pointed out e a r lie r , OBE includes non­
p ro fit organizations and persons not in the CES
universe.
The adjusted CES aggregates are within 5 percent
of the OBE aggregates fo r food, clothing, medical
c a re , and transportation, and b arely over this c r i­
te rio n fo r household operations. The survey aggre­
gate fo r fuel, light and re frig e ra tio n , not shown
separately in table 17, but item ized in appendix
table B -1 8 , was 102 percent of the OBE data. These
components w ere 67 and 71 percent of the OBE and
CES totals, respectively.




The 1961 CES adjusted food aggregate is 2.9 p e r­
cent higher than OBE. F o r 1950, BLS was 10 percent
higher before OBE revised its data and 23 percent
higher after revision. OBE reduced its figure fo r
1950 by about $5 b illio n on the basis of the 1954
Census of R etail T ra d e , which indicated that use of
annual re ta il sales figures as an extrapolator was
faulty because of shifting proportions of food and
nonfood item s sold in food s to re s .12 That the CES
estim ate is substantially closer to OBE in 1961 than
in 1950 no doubt reflects considerably g re a te r e ffo rt
in the 1960-61 survey to assist respondents in d is­
tinguishing between food and nonfood expenditures in
food stores. L ike a ll other components, of course,
differences in the two aggregates fo r food cannot
be explained fully; and it cannot be assumed that
differences re s u lt only fro m weaknesses in the su r­
vey data. As OBE indicates in a ll m ajo r reports
on its national income and product accounts, weak­
nesses in data available to them and the highly com­
plicated estim ating procedures re q u ired throughout
th e ir computations may re s u lt in considerable e rr o r .
Transportation is another component fo r which the
1950 comparison was affected significantly by an OBE
revisio n in 1958. A t that tim e , OBE changed its
ra tio fo r allocating personal and business use of
automobiles fro m 70-30 to 83 -1 7 , re s p e c tiv e ly.13
The change affected automobile purchases, gasoline
and m otor o il, re p a irs , etc. F o r 1950, this increased
the PCE transportation aggregate by about $1.5 b il­
lion. F o r the comparison of the two sets of data,
it reduced the C ES/O BE ra tio fro m 100.9 to 95.1.
F o r 1961, the adjusted CES transportation aggregate
is 4.5 percent higher than OBE. Although reasons
fo r the difference cannot be quantified, several are
known. F o r exam ple, OBE includes only the gross
m argin on sales of used c a rs , whereas BLS reflects
total expenditure fo r purchase of used cars. Also,
presum ably OBE does not include trucks in PCE;
BLS would re fle c t expenditures fo r th e ir purchase
and operation to whatever extent fam ilies reported
they used trucks fo r camping o r other nonbusiness
transportation.
It seems only fa ir to point to m edical care as
an example of close agreement in the aggregates
in the face of fundamental differences between CES
and OBE coverage and definitions. The CES gives
the out-of-pocket expense of p rivate households fo r
health insurance prem ium s and m edical care goods
and services not covered by insurance. The OBE
component is defined as the value of m edical care
consumed by the total population including in stitu ­
tionalized persons and care paid fo r by insurance.
C laim s a re netted fro m prem ium s paid fo r insurance.
12 U. S. Income and Output, p. 76.
13 Ibid., pp. 80-82*

63

S im ila r but less w eighty reservatio n s m ight be
noted fo r the o th er components showing sm all d if­
ferences between OBE and adjusted BLS aggregates.
C onsideration of expenditure categories showing sub­
stan tial d ifferen ces (a ll exceeding 15 p ercen t), how­
e v e r, seems m ore im po rtant.
H ousefurnishings and equipm ent aggregates fro m the
CES fe ll short of OBE data s ig n ifican tly fo r 1950,
e s p ecially a fte r the OBE revisio n s. The 1961 CES
data indicate a la rg e r discrepancy, the ra tio being
84.2 percent of OBE com pared w ith 87.1 percent
fo r 1950. A p a rtia l explanation is that OBE includes
a ll sales of stoves, re frig e ra to rs , w ashers, and sim ­
ila r appliances in its housefurnishings aggregate.
F o r dw ellings in which any of these appliances o r
other furnishings are included in the contract re n t
o r in the sale p ric e of a house, the CES house­
furnishings aggregate would not re fle c t th e ir cost.
T his was a fa c to r in 1950 and probably a m ore im ­
p ortan t elem ent in 1960-61 because of the trend
tow ard b u ilt-in kitchen and laundry fa c ilitie s . In ­
d ire c tly , it could account fo r p a rt of the apparent
o verstatem ent of re n t in the CES aggregate fo r re a ­
sons noted e a rlie r in the d efin itio n of co ntract re n t.
A nother consideration, m entioned in the discussion of
g ifts , is that housefurnishings a re an im po rtant
category of g ifts which are not re flected in the CES
expenditure aggregates.
A lso , the housefurnishing and equipm ent group is
affected m ore serio u sly than other components by
exclusion of data fo r expenditures reported by p a rtyear consum er units fro m calculation of the CES
averag es.14 Special tabulations of p a rt-y e a r units
(about 35 p ercent of whom w ere couples m a rrie d
during the survey y e a r but who had been m em bers
o f fu ll-y e a r consum er units p rio r to th e ir m a r­
ria g e ) indicated that the inclusion of a ll p a rt-y e a r
units would have increased the aggregates fo r house­
fu rn ish ing s and equipm ent by 2.5 percent but would
have added only 1.4 percent to to ta l consumption
expenditures.15T h ere is a m ore subtle survey prob­
le m if e ith e r the b rid e o r groom purchased house­
furnishings w hile s till liv in g w ith parents p rio r to
m a rria g e . Such expenditures m ight have been com ­
p le te ly unknown to the parents (i.e ., the fu ll-y e a r
unit) o r forgotten by the tim e they w ere in terview ed
fo r the CES.
The adjusted CES aggregate fo r re c re a tio n , reading,
and education is 83 p ercent of the 1961 OBE aggregate.
Both the unadjusted and adjusted BLS aggregates
fo r 1961 a re ap preciab ly lo w er than corresponding
data fo r 1950. A djustm ents lis te d on page 61 show
allow ances fo r some d ifferen ces in the CES and OBE
re c re a tio n , read in g , and education category th at could




64

be id en tified . H ow ever, the g re a te r problem of recon­
c ilia tio n in this component probably lie s in the spend­
ing by nonprofit organizations fo r lib ra ry , educational,
and other c u ltu ra l a c tiv itie s that OBE includes in
its personal com sum ption expenditures. On the other
hand, toys, books and m agazines, re c o rd s , and photo­
graphic equipm ent are popular g ifts , and, fo r reasons
stated e a rlie r, g ift item s could not be included in
the expenditure categories in d erivin g the CES ag­
gregates. F u rth e r, the CES “M iscellaneous” category
includes all-exp en se to u rs , fees fo r cam ps, and allo w ­
ances to c h ild re n , which unquestionably contained
some spending fo r re c rea tio n that could not be d is ­
tinguished and quantified in the fa m ily accounts.
The two sets of data d iffe r ra d ic a lly fo r fiv e
re la tiv e ly m ino r categ o ries, which makeup only 10
percent of the CES and 14 p ercent of the OBE ag­
gregates. They are personal c a re , alcoholic bev­
erag es, tobacco, lodging out of home c ity , and m is ­
cellaneous. Except fo r lodging, which was not shown
sep arately in the 1950 com parison, both the m agnitude
and d ire c tio n of the d ifferen ces a re quite s im ila r fo r
1950 and 1961.
Unquestionably, household surveys here and abroad
consistently find th at fa m ilie s tend to u nd errepo rt
expenditures fo r alcohol and tobacco. The under­
rep o rtin g of alcohol probably is re la te d to the o v e rre p o rtin g of food away fro m home in the CES aggre­
gate. (See appendix table B -1 8 .) In the CES, if
fa m ilie s could not separate the cost of food and
beverages when eating out, the to ta l was recorded
as expenses fo r m eals. In g en eral, how ever, nothing
can be added to L am ale’ s 16 exhaustive treatm en t of
survey techniques fo r co llectin g expenditures fo r
alcohol. T h ere is the additional consideration that
the OBE data m ay o verstate such expenditures.
T h e ir estim ates a re based on tax re c o rd s , which
p e rm it no d iffe re n tia tio n between purchases by con­
sum er units e lig ib le fo r the survey and by individuals
o r organizations outside the CES u niverse.
P ersonal c a re , fo r which the o rig in a l 1950 com ­
p arison indicated the survey aggregate was 76 p e r­
cent higher than O B E, rem ained 64 percent higher
a fte r O B E’ s revisio n s. F o r 1961, the com parable
fig u re was down to 48 p ercen t. P ersonal c a re con­
sists of both supplies and services; and the re p o rtin g
o f to ile t soap, toothpaste, and other personal care
supplies could be affected sharply by the change in
14 See pp. 53 and 102 for definition and classification of
part-year consumer units. In effect, the part-year units are in­
cluded in the weighting system, which was applied to averages for
full-year units only.
15 This comparison was developed in CES Research Note
No. 1, cited in footnote 17, p. 54.
16 Lamale, op, cit. (monograph), pp. 124 and 137-141.

handling food store sales re fe rre d to e a rlie r. How­
e v e r, Lam ale had found that the 1950 BLS estim ates
fo r personal c a re supplies and fo r personal care
services exceeded OBE by about the same p e r­
centages, 17 and the same phenomena w ere observed
in 1961. The CES was 45 percent m ore than OBE
fo r supplies and 53 percent m ore fo r services.
The higher CES aggregates fo r services m ight be
attrib u ted p a rtly to tip s . F a m ilie s included tips in
re p o rtin g th e ir personal care expenses, but tips r e ­
ceived by em ployees would not be included in receip ts
of b a rb e r shops o r beauty p a rlo rs rep o rted in the
Census of R e ta il T rad e and s im ila r sources used by
OBE in d erivin g th e ir estim ates.
F o r both the CES and O B E , “m i s c e l l a n e o u s ”
is a catch all fo r item s that need to be included
in com paring the respective to tal expenditures. R e­
g re tta b ly , the components of the two m iscellaenous
categories d iffe r m arkedly. About h alf of the $14,642
m illio n shown under “m iscellaneous” fo r OBE in
1961 is nonmortgage in te re s t paid by consum ers.

1950 are equally p ertinen t to the 1960-61 CES.
Savings, m easured as net change in assets and lia ­
b ilitie s , a re obtained p rim a rily to supplement the
expenditure data. Individual classes of saving w ere
defined and grouped to agree w ith fa m ily accounting
p ractices to fa c ilita te rep o rtin g and balancing the
fa m ily account of receip ts and disbursem ents. P a rtly
to avoid incom plete schedules fro m fa m ilie s who co­
operated in rep o rtin g d etailed expenditures but w ere
relu ctan t to disclose th e ir fin an cial position, the CES
schedule did not re q u ire the d etailed and sp ecialized
tre a tm e n t d esirab le fo r a high o rd e r of accuracy
on saving.
P ersonal saving, as estim ated by O B E , is a r e ­
sidual obtained by subtracting personal outlays fro m
disposable personal incom e. The resid u al obviously
poses the same d efin itio n al and other problem s of
re c o n c ilia tio n th at have been discussed in the p re ­
ceding sections on expenditures and incom e. OBE’ s
estim ate of personal saving in 1961 was $21,151 m il­
lio n , com pared w ith the adjusted CES aggregate of
net change in assets and lia b ilitie s of $21,614 m illio n .
(See table 12.)
Lam ale c a rrie d the analysis of saving as rep o rted
in BLS expenditure surveys through 1950, com paring
them w ith data fro m independent sources including
the F e d eral R eserve Board (FR B ) Survey of Con­
sum er Finances fo r 1950. The B oard of G overnors
of the F e d eral R eserve System has published a
technical paper that includes a com parison of saving
aggregates d erived fro m the 1960-61 CES and fro m
F R B ’ s 1963 Survey of Changes in F a m ily Finances
w ith the FR B ’ s flow of funds data fo r 1960-61 and
1963. The FRB com parison is reproduced in appendix
tab le B -1 9 . In h er analysis of this ta b le , P ro je c to r
stated:

(See page 61 and table 17.) In the CES, how ever,
finance charges fo r in stallm en t c re d it on automo­
b ile s and other consum er goods w ere recorded in the
purchase p ric e and would be c la s s ifie d as expendi­
tu res fo r tran sp o rtatio n , housefurnishings, etc. Only
in te re s t on personal loans was in the “m iscellaneous”
category of CES. A pproxim ately one-fo urth of the
OBE “m iscellaneous” consisted of expenses fo r leg al
services and fo r fu n erals and b u ria ls . These are
also cla s s ifie d as “m iscellaneous” in the CES but
such expenditures n ecessarily a re underreported in
household surveys to the extent that they cannot
include consum er units that disappeared because of
death during the survey year o r p rio r to the survey
in the follow ing y e a r. M any leg al fees would be p a rt
o f settlem ent of estates 18 and, unquestionably, non­
p ro fit organizations a re responsible fo r some of the
leg al fees and also of charges fo r bank, b rokerage,
and investm ent services combined into the “m is c e ll­
aneous” category fo r O BE. To su m m arize, the “m is ­
cellaneous” category is included to com plete the
accounting of consum er expenditures in both sets
o f data, but fo r a v a rie ty of reasons the CES aggre­
gate fa lls fa r short of the OBE to ta l.

. . W ith respect to the to tal of saving in the fo rm
of increases in assets, both sets of survey data are
in good agreem ent w ith the flow of funds aggregates.
H ow ever, as has been found in com parisons b efo re,
the components that make up these to tals a re in
such substantial disagreem ent as to suggest that
the agreem ent of the totals is accidental. Saving
in the fo rm of additions to demand deposits and
cu rren cy and savings accounts was $12 b illio n in
1960 and $18 b illio n in 1961 according to flow of
funds estim ates. The Survey of Consum er E x ­
penditures average fo r 1960-61 re s u lts in an ag­
gregate of less than $1 b illio n . In 1963 demand

Saving
R econciliation of the CES aggregates of saving
w ith independent estim ates is even m ore d iffic u lt
and less d e fin itiv e than the com parisons of incom e
and expenditures. As L a m a le 19 pointed out, saving
data in BLS expenditure surveys are of secondary
im portance. H e r observations on surveys through




17 Lamale, op. cit. (monograph), p. 125.
18 See "Other money receipts, " Glossary, p. 215.
*9 Lamale, op, cit. (monograph), pp. 130-135. See also,
"Who Saves?" by Irwin Friend and Stanley Schor in Proceedings of
the Conference on Consumption and Saving, edited by Irwin Friend
and Robert Jones, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, Uni­
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (1960).

65

deposits and cu rren cy and savings accounts in ­
creased by about $27 b illio n com pared to the Sur­
vey of Changes in F a m ily Finances estim ate of
$13 b illio n . In both cases the absolute discrepancy
is of the o rd e r of $14 to $15 b illio n , but the re la ­
tiv e discrepancy is much g re a te r fo r the Survey
of Consum er E xpenditures.

and relevance of such com parisons w ith resp ect to
the design and methods of fu tu re household surveys.

Other Comparisons
In addition to the com prehensive com parisons of
CES and w idely used s ta tis tic a l com pilations o f the
D epartm ent of C om m erce, a few com parisons fo r
selected categories a re presented.

On the debt side the increase of $17 b illio n shown
by the Survey of Consum er E xpenditures is in
close agreem ent w ith the increase shown by flow
of funds data. The debt in crease of $14 b illio n
shpwn by the Survey of Changes in F a m ily F i­
nances is $11 b illio n less than the flo w of funds
fig u re . In p a rtic u la r the Survey of Changes in
F a m ily Finance data fo r debt on autom obiles and
other consum er durable goods a re in substantial
disagreem ent w ith flo w of funds fig u re s .

Annual and weekly food expenditures
As noted in chapter 4 , d e ta il o f w eekly expendi­
tu res fo r food p rep ared at home was co llected p r i­
m a rily fo r d erivatio n of C P I food w eights. H ow ever,
lim ite d com parisons of the average w eekly to tals
and the published annual average food expenditures
can be made.
The annual estim ate developed fro m the w eekly
expenditures was about 9 percent higher than the
rep o rted annual expenditures fo r food p rep ared at
hom e. (See table 18.) Some of th is d ifferen ce is
in h eren t in the d erivatio n of the two sets of data.

On the basis of this com parison it is d iffic u lt
to argue that the data on asset changes fro m one
survey a re p re fe ra b le to those fro m the oth er.
On the o ther hand, the com parison indicates that
debt on consum er durable goods was underreported
in the Survey of Changes in F a m ily F in an ces.” *°

20
Dorothy S. Projector, Survey of Changes in Family Fi­
nances. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Systems, Wash­
ington, D. C . , November 1968, pp, 6-13. The author points out
that some of the discrepancies between survey estimates and the
flow of funds aggregates used for comparison result from differences
in concepts and coverage. In most of the flow of funds statistics,
estimates for the household sector are derived as residuals rather
than made directly; that is, the amounts attributed to households
are what is left after subtracting estimates for all other sectors from
totals for the entire economy. Moreover, in the flow of funds a c­
counts, the household sector covers the activities of personal trusts
and of nonprofit organizations, which are excluded from the survey
aggregates shown in table 12.

P ro je c to r’ s finding that the m ost substantial d if­
ference between the BLS survey aggregates and flo w
of funds estim ates is in the demand deposits and c u r­
ren cy and savings accounts is consistent w ith a ll p re ­
vious ap praisals of the B ureau’ s CES change in saving
data. In view of the vast d ifferen ces in the concepts,
coverage, and methods underlying the two sets of
e s tim ates, th ere is re a l question as to the meaning

Table 13. Com
parison of anneal expenditures for food prepared at home, as reported and as estim
ated from
weekly expenditures by fam in the 1960-61 C S nonfarm sam
ilies
E
ple
Percent distribution

All
families

House­
keeping
families

All
families
(annual)

Ca)

Family size

Ratio, annual
estimate for
housekeeping
Housekeeping families
families to
annual expendi­
tures of all
families
(Weekly) Col. (d) x 52
Col. (e) -f (c)

Average: expenditures for food
Pre pared at home

fbl

(cl

(d)

(e)

_

m

T o t a l -----------------------1
2
3
4
5

100.0

100.0

$1,006

$21.17

$1, 101

1.09

person -------------------------persons------------------------—
persons---------------------------persons---------------------------persons or m o r e ------- ------

17.4
28.6
17.9
16.2
20.0

14.3
28.9
18.7
16.9
21.2

378
835
1,887
1,290
1,495

9.00
16.47
22. 52
26.46
30.40

468
856
1,171
1,376
1,581

1.24
1.03
1.08
1.07
1.06

1 Includes families of 1.0 to 1. 9 full-year equivalent persons, but 91 percent had only 1.0 person through­
out the survey year.
SOURCE: Expenditures Patterns of the.American Family, prepared by the National Industrial ConferenceBoard, based on a survey conducted by the U. S. Department of Labor, New York (1965), pp. 17 and 25.




66

The annual data a re averages based on a ll fa m ilie s
and single consum ers in the nonfarm sam ple. The
schedule of w eekly expenditures fo r food prepared
a t home w ere collected only fo r housekeeping fa m i­
lie s , that is , consum er units having at le a s t one
m em ber eating 10 m eals at home during the week.
About 96 percent of the nonfarm CU’ s in the CES
sam ple w ere housekeeping fa m ilie s . (See appendix
tab le B -1 3 .) Adjusting the annual average fo r a ll
fa m ilie s to rep resen t expenditures fo r housekeeping
fa m ilie s ($1,006 -r 96.3) ra is e s it to $1,045, o r w ith ­
in 5 percent of the $1,101 estim ated fro m the w eekly
rep o rted fro m housekeeping fa m ilie s . Table 18 shows
that “a ll fa m ilie s ” (colum n a) include a la rg e r p e r­
centage of one-person fa m ilie s than housekeeping
fa m ilie s (colum n b ), and the d is p a rity between the
two averages is g reatest (24 percent) fo r these sm all
fa m ilie s , many of whom eat m ost of th e ir m eals in
restau ran ts, etc.
Another consideration is the tim e lag of the w eekly
data and the g en erally ris in g food p ric e s during the
CES. The w eekly rep o rts covered food purchases in
the week preceding the in terview s which took place
several months a fte r the end of the calendar year
covered by the annual data. (See appendix tab le B -2 .)

In its survey of consum er w ealth and saving as of
the end of 1962, the F e d e ra l R eserve B oard found
th at 57 percent of a ll consum er units rep o rted equity
in owned homes and 33 percent of the to tal rep o rted
m ortgage d e b t.21 In the 1960-61 CES sam ple, 57 p e r­
cent of a ll CU’ s w ere hom eowners and 34 percent
rep o rted paying in te re s t on home m ortgages.
In the same re p o rt, the F ed eral R eserve Board
rep o rted that 73 percent of a ll consum er units owned
a t le a s t one autom obile and 27 percent rep o rted
autom obile debt. 22 S eventy-six p ercent of the CES
fa m ilie s rep o rted that they owned cars and 24 p e r­
cent that they had purchased o r w ere m aking pay­
m ents on c ars during the survey y e a r.
Ow nership of televisio n sets, rad io s,, and a lim ite d
num ber of household appliances rep o rted in the CES
sam ple com pared v e ry favo rab ly w ith data obtained
by the Bureau of the Census fro m la rg e r sam ples
o f households. (See appendix table B -2 0 .) The c o r­
re la tio n between the two sets of data was esp ecially
close fo r food fre e z e rs , clothes d ry e rs , a ir condi­
tio n e rs , and televisio n sets. 23

Housing and household durables

21 Dorothy S. Projector and Gertrude S. Weiss, Survey of Fi­
nancial Characteristics of Consumers. Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System, Washington, D. C ., 1966, p. 10.
22 Ibid., p. 11.
22
Thomas R. Tibbetts, "Expanding Ownership of Household
Equipment. " Monthly Labor Review. October 1964, pp. 1131-1132.
Also published as BLS Report 238-7 (1964).

In addition to the homeowner ship com parisons in
appendix table B -9 , a fu rth e r com parison of the p ro ­
portions of fa m ily w ith home m ortgages is possible.




67

Chapter 11.

Uses of Survey Data

Because the CES 1960-61, was a m ultipurpose
in q u iry , the re s u lts w ere tabulated and released in
a v a rie ty of fo rm s . The purposes can be divided
into two broad categories: (1) To provide the basis
fo r re v is in g and expanding BLS s ta tis tic a l m easure­
m ents, and (2) to make availab le m axim um in fo r­
m ation fo r b roader types of an alytical and policy
determ in atio n purposes both w ithin the BLS and
elsew here.

Updating BLS Statistical Measures
Consumer price index
The B ureau’ s p rim a ry use of the 1960-61 consum er
expenditure in fo rm atio n was fo r another of its p e ri­
odic revisio n s of the Consum er P ric e Index. Although
the survey covered a cro ss-sectio n of a ll United
States consum ers, the index re fle c ts spending patterns
o f urban w ag e-earn er and c le ric a l-w o rk e r consum ers
only. Top p rio rity was given to tabulating expendi­
tu re s of “index” fa m ilie s to obtain a new sam ple
of item s re p resen tative of the kinds of goods and
services these fa m ilie s bought in 1960-61 and to
d e riv e expenditure weights fo r the new lis t. In fo r­
m ation on in ven to ries of household durable goods
and p ric e s paid fo r selected item s was tabulated to
develop p ric in g specifications and to supplement
expenditure data in determ ining the weighting p attern .
Uses of the expenditure data fo r the re v is e d index
(introduced in the January 1964 C P I re p o rt) are
described in g re a te r d e ta il in the BLS B u lle tin 1517,
The Consum er P ric e Index: H is to ry and Techniques.

P ric e s collected in selected urban areas throughout
the United States in the fa ll of 1966 w ere updated
and annual costs of the budgets at th ree le v e ls w ere
calculated at spring 1967 and at spring 1969 p ric e s .
In addition to th e ir use as a m easure of incom e
adequacy and changes in the standard of liv in g , they
provide a basis fo r com paring in te rc ity o r p la c e to -p la c e differences in liv in g costs. R evised budgets
fo r two types of fa m ilie s — fo u r-p e rs o n , husband-w ife
fa m ily which has two school-age ch ild ren and a r e ­
tire d couple— a re described in a s e rie s of BLS b u l­
le tin s and a rtic le s .1
Since it has not been feasib le to p rep are sepa­
ra te budgets fo r the many d iffe re n t sizes and types
of fa m ilie s fo r which they a re needed, the BLS and
others have used expenditure data to d e riv e “fa m ily
equivalence scales” fo r estim atin g budget costs fo r
o th er fa m ily types. Follow ing techniques developed
to u tiliz e its d etailed 1950 expenditure survey data,
the BLS made special analyses of income and food
expenditures rep o rted by urban fa m ilie s in the 1960-61
survey to update its “scale of equivalent incom e.”
The scale assumes that fa m ilie s spending the same
p roportion of incom e on food have attained equal
le v e ls of liv in g . When applied to costs of the C ity
W o rker’ s F a m ily Budget, th is scale provides the
basis fo r estim ating budget costs fo r fa m ilie s of
d iffe re n t s ize , age, and type. Concepts and methods
of the la te s t re v is io n of the scale are discussed
in another b u lle tin on budget re s e a rc h .2

Availability o f Data for Other Purposes
Family budgets
Statistical reports
The B ureau used additional special tabulations of
the 1960-61 expenditure data fo r selected groups of
urban consum ers to re v is e and expand its w ork in
d e riv in g budgets fo r d iffe re n t standards of liv in g .
Such budgets m easure the to ta l costs o r amounts
of incom e req u ire d to m aintain a specified le v e l
of liv in g (e .g ., in term ed iate) according to p re v a ilin g
standards. The survey data, along w ith other in fo r­
m ation, have been used to tran slate a g eneralized
concept of an in term ed iate budget and budgets lo w er
and higher than th at le v e l into lis ts and quantities
of com m odities and services which can be p riced .




Publications based on the B ureau’ s G eneral Purpose
Tabulations P ro g ram and com parable ru ra l fa rm r e ­
p orts published by the USDA’ s A g ric u ltu ra l R esearch
S ervice (chapter 7) w ere designed to provide fa m ily
1 See Three Standards of Living for an Urban Family of Four
Persons. Spring 1967 (BLS Bulletin 1570-5, 1969), and "Measuring
Retired Couples' Living Costs in Urban Areas, " in Monthly Labor
Review. November 1969, pp. 3-16. See also Three Budgets for a
Retired Couple in Urban Areas of the United States. 1967-68 (BLS
Bulletin 1570-6, 1970).
2 See Revised Equivalence Scale for Estimating Equivalent
Income or Budget Costs by Family T y p e jBLS Bulletin 1570-2, 1968).

68

accounts tabulations th at both agencies’ experience
had indicated w ere needed m ost frequ en tly. D espite
th is extensive publication p ro gram , the Bureau r e ­
ceived num erous requests fo r additional in fo rm atio n .
A v a rie ty of arrangem ents w ere devised to p e rm it
m axim um use o f the data, com patible w ith the Bu­
re a u ’s resources of s ta ff and fa c ilitie s and w ith its
nondisclosure reg u latio ns.
F o r requests that could be fille d fro m unpublished
m achine tabulations, the Bureau arranged through
its regional o ffices to provide photocopies of tables
at a nom inal cost. In g en eral, th is service made
availab le fo r the urban segment of each of the
34 m etropolitan areas in the sam ple d e ta il s im ila r
to that published in supplements 2 and 3 to the
regional and national re p o rts , described on page 37.
A t the request of the N ational In d u s tria l C onfer­
ence B oard, the Bureau also made some special
tabulations which combined fo r the to tal nonfarm
fa m ily universe some in fo rm atio n that the BLS and
USD A had published fo r the urban and ru ra l nonfarm
segments sep arately. The N IC E planned th e ir tabu­
latio n s to supplem ent BLS publications and issued
th e m 3 in two re p o rts , the fir s t e n title d , Expendi­
tu re P atterns of the A m erican F a m ily and the second,
M a rk e t P ro file s of Consum er Products. The N IC B
volum es concentrated e n tire ly on expenditures, which
w ere shown in somewhat fin e r d etail than in the
B ureau’ s supplem ent 3’s, and w ith d iffe re n t fa m ily
c h a ra c te ris tic c la s s ific a tio n s . They also included p re ­
vio u sly unpublished data on w eekly expenditures fo r
alm ost 200 item s of food, beverages, tobacco, and
household supplies recorded on BLS schedule 2648C. 4

Magnetic tapes for electronic data processing
D iffic u ltie s and delays in com pleting its G eneral
Purpose Tabulations P ro g ram dem onstrated th at the
B ureau had n eith er staff nor com puter fa c ilitie s to
undertake special tabulations of the survey data
as o rig in a lly contem plated. The d e s ira b ility and the
problem s of m aking disaggregated fa m ily expenditure
and incom e in fo rm atio n availab le fo r m icroeconom ic
analysis w ere discussed w ith the CES advisory com ­
m itte e , the com m ittee fo r the P re s e rv a tio n and Use
of Econom ic D ata of the Social Science R esearch
C ouncil, and other groups and individuals. V arious
means of dissem inating data w ere considered—
including supplying the reco rd s on m agnetic tapes
to a u n iv e rs ity -a ffilia te d s ervice cen ter which would
tabulate the data as requested.
U ltim a te ly , the Bureau decided to p rep are a Gen­
e ra l Purpose Tape containing selected inform ation
fo r each of the 13,728 urban and ru ra l consum er
units giving usable schedules. Since BLS had no




69

funds fo r such w ork, the sale of each tape had to
cover a ll costs to the Bureau in p rep arin g and s e rv ­
icing the tape. P urchasers of the set of three standardlength (2,400 feet) re e ls of m agnetic tape w ere p ro ­
vided binders of d escrip tive m a te ria l on use of the
tape, and experienced s ta ff was made availab le fo r
consultation.
B efore undertaking this experim ent in m aking its
basic reco rd s availab le fo r others to analyze w ith
electro n ic data-processing equipm ent, the BLS p re ­
pared a p re lim in a ry proposal on the content of the
G eneral Purpose Tape. T his proposal was c ircu lated
by the Bureau in answer to in q u ire s , and by the Social
Science R esearch Council and the F e d e ra l S tatistics
U sers Conference. A fte r review ing comments on
th is p re lim in a ry proposal, the BLS determ ined the
content of the G eneral Purpose Tape. In the tape’s
fin a l fo rm , the ite m d e ta il was n e a rly doubled over that
proposed in itia lly , m ore fa m ily c h a ra c te ris tic s w ere
included, and reco rd s fo r consum er units in ru ra l
areas w ere added w ith the USDA’s cooperation. As
is custom ary in a ll its basic data co llectio n opera­
tion s, the BLS had obtained the CES info rm atio n
fro m each fa m ily w ith the understanding that the
in fo rm atio n would not be made availab le outside the
BLS in a fo rm that id en tified the fa m ily w ith the
data. Observance of the B ureau’s nondisclosure ru le s
re s tric te d the amount of d etail that could be included
on the tape; fo r c itie s which have populations of
fe w e r than 50,000 the c ity id en tificatio n code was
deleted.
E a rly in 1970, 28 u n iv e rs itie s and business o r­
ganizations had purchased the tape. In addition, BLS
made availab le copies of the m aster tapes used by
BLS and USDA in th e ir tabulation program s to six
F e d e ra l agencies on a lo n g -te rm loan basis fo r the
cost of p rep aratio n . These agencies agreed to enforce
the B ureau’s nondisclosure regulations and not to
m ake the tapes availab le to others.

Analytical reports
H is to ric a lly , expenditure survey data have been
used w ith other economic and dem ographic data
to describe and evaluate the liv in g conditions of
A m erican fa m ilie s and to com pare the economic
status and consumption patterns of variou s groups
in the population. Such in te rp re ta tiv e re p o rts of the
3 The NICB supplied machine programs which the BLS ran
on a reimbursable cost basis with the understanding that the data
would be made available to others.
4 Although initially included in its General Purpose Tabula­
tions Program, the BLS tabulated this weekly information from sched­
ule C (p. 177) only in the form and to the extent needed for re­
vising the CPI.

1960-61 findings, p rep ared by BLS s ta ff, w ere published
in BLS R eport S eries 238 (page 205). Some of these
re p o rts evaluated changes that had occurred since
the B ureau’ s previous la rg e -s c a le survey in 1950
and probed fo r fundam ental changes in fa m ily liv in g
arrangem ents, in p ric e s , inpopulation m ovem ents, and
other economic and dem ographic developm ents that
have influenced fa m ily spending and a re road signs
to fu tu re trend s. O ther re p o rts , prom pted by in ­
ten sified in te re s t during the 1960’s in im proving the
lo t of the p oo r, discussed the an a ly tic a l methods
ap prop riate fo r using the 1960-61 expenditure data
to define poverty and to describe the le v e l and m an­
n er of liv in g of the poor. Approaching the d e fin i­
tio n of poverty fro m the consumption side focused
attention on the lim ita tio n s of c u rre n t money income
as a m easure of the to ta l resources of fa m ilie s in
the low -incom e classes.
The A g ric u ltu ra l R esearch S ervice (ARS) of the
D epartm ent of A g ric u ltu re also augmented its s e rie s
o f basic s ta tis tic a l re p o rts on expenditures of ru ra l
fa rm consum ers w ith a num ber of an alytical rep o rts
covering both urban and ru ra l fa m ilie s . M any of
these appear in its q u a rte rly publication, F a m ily
Econom ics R eview . ARS also used the fa m ily ex­
penditure re p o rts to develop a s e rie s o f estim ates
o f the cost of ra is in g a child fro m b irth to age
18 y e a rs .5

Uses o f Data Outside BLS and USD A
P ublication of s ta tis tic a l re p o rts , in itia te d in the
fa ll of 1962, was com pleted in the sum m er of 1966.
D e liv e ry of m agnetic tapes began in 1965; the m a­
jo rity went to o ther F e d eral agencies o r to u n ivers­
itie s . These data dissem ination methods give the
BLS less sp ecific knowledge of uses of the CES
than would have been the case if the B ureau had
established a c e n tra l service to provide special
purpose tabulations. H ow ever, the p ric e of tapes
included consultative services that gave BLS s ta ff
some “feedback,” and they have accum ulated some
in fo rm atio n on planned o r com pleted p ro jects using
the 1960-61 CES tabulations o r tapes which a re
sum m arized below.

Economic analysis

5 Jean L. Pennock, "Cost of Raising a C hild," Family Eco­
nomics Review. March 1970, pp. 13-17.
6 This work is now under the new Department of Transpor­
tation, which also is using CES data as background for its study of
the probable relative costs to families of the use of electric motor
vs. internal combustion engine automobiles.

F a m ily expenditure surveys provide the sole source
o f in fo rm atio n fo r benchm ark estim ates o f many
components of personal consumption expenditures used
in estim ates of the gross national product. The




1960-61 expenditure data fo r an extensive lis t of
item s (concentrated in the areas of housing, tra n s ­
p o rtatio n , re c re a tio n , and such services as appliance
re p a irs , moving and storage, and postage) w ere made
availab le in advance of publication to the U.S. D ep art­
m ent of C om m erce, O ffice of Business Econom ics
(O B E ), fo r th e ir la te s t com prehensive benchm ark
re v is io n . R esults of th is la rg e -s c a le e ffo rt w ere
sum m arized in an a rtic le , “The N ational Incom e and
Product Accounts of the U nited States: Revised E s­
tim a te s , 1 9 2 4 -6 4 ,” in the August 1965 issue of Survey
of C u rre n t Business. OBE also has underway a fe a ­
s ib ility study of the use of reg io n al d e ta il fro m the
1960-61 CES to d istrib u te th e ir national estim ates
o f personal consumption expenditures by State. T his
would com plete the extension of a m ajo r component
o f the national incom e and product accounts to a
reg io n al basis.
In addition to using CES data in its national and
reg io n al estim ates of personal consumption expenditu re s , the D epartm ent of Com m erce obtained un­
published CES d e ta il fo r individual m etropolitan areas
and s m a lle r urban places fo r several special r e ­
search p ro jects to assist in p olicy fo rm ulatio n and
evaluation. Among these w ere studies of the demand
fo r passenger transp o rtatio n in the W ashington-Boston
c o rrid o r as p a rt of a b roader investigation requested
by the Congress on the fe a s ib ility of high-speed
ra ilw a y fa c ilitie s along th is c o rrid o r. A nother use
was to develop im proved estim ates of the secondary
effects of A re a Redevelopm ent A d m in istratio n ac­
tiv itie s on various com m unities throughout the N ation,
in fo rm atio n also requested by the Congress. 6
The U .S. T re a s u ry D epartm ent re lie d on fa m ily
expenditure d e ta il fo r two m a jo r p ro jects. The In te rn a l
Revenue Service (IRS) used average expenditures of
fa m ilie s c la s s ifie d by incom e and fa m ily size in its
1964 re visio n of the “A verage State Sales T ax T ab les”
which taxpayers m ay use in filin g individual incom e
ta x re tu rn s , F orm s 1040 and 1040W. These tables
reduce the taxp ayer’ s burden of ite m izin g and sub­
stan tiatin g sales ta x deductions and provide standards
fo r IRS agents in auditing. The second p ro je c t was
undertaken by the T re a s u ry ’s O ffice of T ax A nal­
ysis (O TA ) follow ing the 1964 excise tax hearing
befo re the House Ways and Means C om m ittee. O TA
obtained CES data in advance of publication to im ­
plem ent a suggestion made at the h earing that T re a s u ry
undertake studies of consumption of taxed item s
by fa m ilie s of d iffe re n t incom e le v e ls . The expen­
d itu res surveys also have potential value in T re a s u ry

70

studies of proposals for other types of taxes, e.g.,
negative income tax.
Privately sponsored studies of national taxes using
information from the 1960-61 surveys included: Eco­
nomic Aspects of the Social Security Tax and Tax
Burdens and Benefits of Government Expenditures
by Income Class, 1961 and 1965, published by the Tax
Foundation, Inc. (1966 and 1967, respectively); and
Joseph A. Pechman, Federal Tax Policy, published
by the Brookings Institution (1966).
The Bureau’ s data have been used in formulating
models for consumer demand. The National Planning
Association, under contract with the Office of Emer­
gency Planning, Executive Office of the President,
originated a personal consumption model using 1950
CES data to compute regressions of expenditures
on income for groups of related items by family
size .7 They used the 1960-61 data to make the
regression analysis necessary to check the preliminary
equations derived from the 1950 analysis. The Battelle
Memorial Institute also used the Bureau’ s 1950 and
1960-61 consumer expenditure studies to develop
projections of consumer spending.8
In his book, The American Economy to 1975: An
Interindustry Forecast, 9 Clopper Almon, Jr. cited
use of two basic bodies of data: The 1960-61 survey
to determine the effect of income increases on con­
sumption; and the time series in OBE’ s national
accounts to determine the influence of prices, the
rate of growth of income, and other trends.
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Board regards the CES as a basic source for its
projected studies of consumers’ ability to use con­
sumer credit to purchase automobiles and household
durables. In a related area of inquiry, the National
Planning Association was applying CES data to the
question, “How much can a nonfarm family at a given
income level afford to pay for shelter?”
Other articles and books that have drawn exten­
sively on survey data include:
Carolyn Shaw Bell, Consumer Choice in the American
Economy, New York, Random House, 1967.
Marguerite C. Burk, Consumption Economics: A
Multidisciplinary Approach, New York, John
Wiley k Sons, Inc., 1968.
Betty G. Fishman, Economic Effects of Internal
Migration - An Exploratory Study, West Virginia
University (Morgantown), Bureau of Business
Research, Business and Economic Studies, Vol. 10,
No. 4, June 1968.
Elizabeth Gilboy, A Primer on the Economics of
Consumption, New York, Random House, 1968.
Lester C. Thurow, “The Optimum Lifetime Dis­
tribution of Consumption Expenditures,” Amer­
ican Economic Review, June 1969, pages 324-30.




71

These uses, though diverse, had in common a
national or regional orientation. Individual city data
have been studied in connection with similar eco­
nomic problems at the State and local level. These
included studies of tax structures by State tax com­
missions, projections of retail sales under various
assumptions, plans for urban renewal, and justifica­
tions for grants under programs of the Office of
Economic Opportunity and other Federal agencies.
Local utilities have used expenditures for telephone,
gas, and electricity by families at different income
levels in hearings before public utility commissions.
Individual area data also have been referred to in
studies of pay differentials. For example, theU.S. De­
partment of State referred to data for Washington!
D.C., in reviewing its cost-of-living indexes for
overseas personnel.1 The CES also was cited as
0
a source in Geographical Wage Standards for Re­
classification of Work Locations in the Telephone
Industry, a report prepared by Robert R. Nathan
Associates, Inc., for Communications Workers of
America, AFL-CIO, January 1965.
The potential of CES area data in a relatively
new field of economic analysis—the costs of air
pollution—is being explored. For example, Helen H.
Lamale presented a paper, “The Uses of Consumer
Expenditure Data in Air-Pollution Control,” at a
seminar held at American University (Washington,
D.C.) with the support of the U.S. Public Health
Service.1
1

Social welfare research
Many social welfare research studies have used
family expenditure data—both at the national and city
level. Foremost among these are projects of the
Social Security Administration and the Welfare Ad­
ministration in the U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare (HEW). Expenditures for medical
care and spending patterns of the aged and of lowincome families with children have been especially
relevant in HEW studies. Also, the Social Security
Administration used tabulations of transfer payments
7 Eleanor M. Snyder and J. Harvey Edmonston, "Personal
Consumption M odel," NREC Technical Report No. 15, National
Planning Association, Washington, D .C ., October 1963.
8 Joseph W, Duncan, "A Framework for Forecasting Socio*
Economic Change," Battelle Technical Review. Vol. 15, Sep­
tember 1966, pp. 12-13.
9 Published by Harper & Row, New York (1966).
1° "U.S. Department of State Indexes of Living Costs Abroad
(Excluding Quarters)," Labor Developments Abroad. October 1966,
p. 17.
11
See The Economics of Air Pollution - A Symposium, edited
by Harold Wolozin, New York, W. W. Norton and Company, Inc,
(1966J, pp. 115-26.

and taxes from the CES tapes in a study of the re­
distributive effects of old-age income assurance
programs for a Joint Economic Committee com­
pendium.1
2
The Office of Economic Opportunity’ s far-reaching
attack on poverty multiplied uses of CES statistics
as both Washington policymakers and local planning
organizations sought objective criteria for defining
and measuring poverty. One such study1 undertaken
3
for OEO was to construct poverty cut-off levels that
take into account size of family, farm-nonfarm dif­
ferences, and age of the family head. Another was
Eleanor M. Snyder’ s, Measures of the Dimensions
of Poverty in New York City. This paper was part
of a larger study which the Urban Medical Economics
Research Project conducted on the indigent and their
relation to planning and financing health services in
New York City. The New York City Department of
Health and the Urban Research Center of Hunter
College jointly sponsored this project. The Community
Council of Greater New York also used New York
City CES tabulations for revising its standard budget.
The National Council on the Aging reported ex­
tensive use of CES information, and Sidney Goldstein
drew heavily on it in two articles: “Changing Income
and Consumption Patterns of the Aged, 1950-1960,”
published in the October 1965 - issue of Journal of
Gerontology, and “Urban and Rural Differentials in
Consumer Patterns of the Aged, 1960-61,” in Rural
Sociology, September 1966. T h e California State Schol­
arship Commission found the survey helpful in a study
of student aid. The U.S. Department of Agriculture
used the individual city reports to compare cities
under consideration for testing the Food Stamp Plan.

community that are involved in any aspect of
marketing consumer products and services.”
The U.S. Chamber of Commerce based an article,
“Preview of Your Markets in ’ 75,” on the CES and
data from other Federal agencies. This article ap­
peared in the November 1964 issue of Nation’ s
Business.

Expenditure Patterns of the American Family, pub­
lished by the National Industrial Conference Board
in 1965, exemplifies the value which business groups
attach to the BLS expenditure surveys for marketing
research. The foreword to this 175 page report, fi­
nanced by Life magazine, contains the following
appraisal:

The Stanford Research Institute (SRI) made exten­
sive use of the survey data in Upper Income Fami­
lies, a report published by its Long Range Planning
Service for industrial and financial clients. The SRI
also used CES individual area reports in projections
of retail trade in specific communities.
The Super Market Institute, Inc. of Chicago cited
the expenditure surveys in A Guide to Source Ma­
terial for Store Location Research.
The U.S. Department of Commerce has used family
expenditure data to estimate markets for particular
commodities and for selected groups of consumers.
To illustrate, they have studied trends in clothing
expenditures for what they may reveal about the
market for textiles. Andrew F. Brimmer, while
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce, drew upon
the CES for a speech on “Economic Trends in the
Negro Market” before the National Association of
Market Developers. A Guide to Negro Marketing
Information, issued in 1966 by Commerce’ s Business
and Defense Services Administration (BDSA), shows
expenditure trends based on the 1950 and 1960-61
CES tabulations. Facts for Marketers, a regional
compilation of marketing information for major metro­
politan areas, also issued in 1966 by BDSA, includes
summaries of family spending patterns for individual
SMSA’ s in the CES sample.
A chapter on “Fact-Finding about Consumers” in
a book of readings on marketing entitled, Consumer
Behavior and the Behavioral Sciences—Theories and
Applications, 1 includes data from the CES which
4
the author characterized as “a true benchmark survey.”
Advertising agencies, newspapers, and other busi­
ness firms have used the published CES reports.
Some also have indicated interest in the CES data
for market analysis through their purchases of the
General Purpose Tapes or photocopies of tables.

“Based on a broad nationwide survey conducted
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United
States Department of Labor, it (the report) pro­
vides a statistical profile of how America lives.
. . . There are market demand statistics for some
700 individual products and services. For many
years to come this book will be an indispensable
source of information, both for observers of the
social scene and for those sections of the business

12 Benjamin Bridges, Jr., "Current Redistributional Effects of
Old-Age Income Assurance Programs," Old-Age Income Assurance:
A Compendium of Papers on Problems and Policy Issues in the Public
and Private Pension System. Joint Economic Committee, U, S. Con­
gress, Part II: The Aged Population and Retirement Income Pro­
grams, 1967, pp. 95-176.
13 Elliot Wetzler, Determination of Poverty lines and Equiv­
alent Welfare. Research Paper P-277, Institute for Defense Analyses,
September 1966, p. 23.
14 Edited by Steuart Henderson Britt and published by John
Wiley and Sons, In c., New York (1967).

Marketing research




72

Consumer information and counseling
Newspapers, magazines, and institutional publica­
tions have drawn freely on published CES reports
for material on popular-style articles about typical
spending and saving patterns of American families.
Sylvia Porter referred repeatedly to BLS reports
to substantiate observations in her syndicated column,
“Your Money’ s Worth.”
The Pittsburgh National Bank initiated a new com­
puter service called “Family Money Profile” in 1966.
Families were invited to fill out a confidential appli­
cation giving monthly income, age, family size, and
occupation. Computer analysis, based on CES aver­
ages for similar families in the Pittsburgh area,
prepared a guide to spending and saving for the
individual family. The bank provided this service
“to encourage greater restraint and prudence in
borrowing and spending.”
Changing Times—The Kiplinger Service for Fami­
lies published several articles based on information
from the 1960-61 survey. Typical of these were




73

“Why You Feel Pinched” in the November 1964
issue and “How Much to Raise a Child?” in the
February 1965 issue. In the April 1967 issue of
Changing Times, Kiplinger offered on a nationwide
scale a computer analysis of CES data to prepare
individal family spending guides similar to those
introduced by the Pittsburgh National Bank. Also,
a Kiplinger book, Make Your Paycheck Pay Your Way,
organized as a handbook for a family budgeting
program, included family expenditures in selected
cities in the CES sample to illustrate typical spend­
ing patterns.
Uses listed in this chapter are illustrative rather
than exhaustive. They suggest the variety of users
and range of inquiries that are served by the Bureau’ s
periodic surveys of consumer expenditures and income.
The Bureau hopes to extend its analytical and pro­
cedural studies based on the 1960-61 survey and to
follow closely the results of research undertaken
by purchasers of magnetic tapes containing the dis­
aggregated CES data.

Appendix A. Comparability of the Survey of Consumer Expenditures in 1960—61 and in 1950
E sse n tia lly data from the 1960-61 and 1950 expend­
itu re su rv e y s a r e co m p arab le.
In designing the codes
and planning the tabulations fo r the 1960-61 C E S, co m ­
p arab ility with 1950 w as a p rim ary con sid eration .
The following co m p ariso n is r e str ic te d to d ata co m ­
piled from Schedule 2648B for the urban segm en t of the
1960-61 sam p le and published in B L S re p o rts in S e r ie s 237
and the Supplem ents 1 and 2 to th ese r e p o r ts.
Within
th ese lim its, it m ay be assu m e d that data from the two
su rv e y s a r e co m parab le except a s noted below.
The co m p ariso n does not co v er c la s sific a tio n codes
not u sed in the 1960-61 published re p o r ts nor the d etail
published in the Supplement 3* s.
In g en eral, the 1950
data w ere published in g re a te r d etail than a p p e a rs in the
Supplem ent 3 ' s.

G uides for co m paring su rv e y s of con su m er expen d itu res for 1960-61 and fo r 1950
Survey of consu m er expen d itu res, 1960-61
(CES)

Survey of consu m er expen d itu res, 1950
(CES)
A gen cies resp o n sib le

U. S. D epartm ent of L ab o r, B u reau of L ab o r S ta tistic s (urban
U .S . D epartm ent of L a b o r, B u reau of L ab o r S ta tistic s .
fa m ilie s and r u r a l nonfarm fa m ilie s living in sid e S M S A 's) in
cooperation with U. S. D epartm ent of A g ricu ltu re , A g ricu ltu ral
R e se a rc h Se rv ic e (ru r a l fa rm fa m ilie s and r u r a l nonfarm
fa m ilie s outside S M S A 's).

P u rp o se of study
The p rim a ry pu rpo se of the su rvey of urban fa m ilie s w as to
co llect inform ation on fam ily p u rc h a se s needed to r e v ise the
B ureau* s C onsum er P ric e Index. A s w as tru e in 1950 and
e a r lie r su rv e y s, the data m eet m any other need s, p a rtic u ­
la rly in a n a ly se s of the relatio n sh ip between lev e l of living
and g en eral econom ic and so c ia l conditions.

P u rp o se s w ere the sam e a s fo r the 1960-61 su rvey of urban
fa m ilie s.

The 1961 co v erag e w as extended to r u r a l a r e a s so that for the
f ir s t tim e since 1941 inform ation w as av ailab le on spending
h abits for a c r o s s - s e c tio n of the total noninstitutional popu­
lation in urban and r u r a l a r e a s of the U. S.

N ature and siz e of the u n iv erse
C iv ilian noninstitutional population living in the U .S . (including
A la sk a and H aw aii) plus m ilita ry person n el not living on p o sts
or b a s e s .

C iv ilian noninstitutional population plus o ff-p o st m ilita r y p e r ­
sonnel living in urban a r e a s of the conterm inous U. S.

Survey period
The calen d ar y e a r s I960 and 1961. U rban p a r ts of a ll of the
12 la r g e s t SMSA* s w ere su rveyed in both y e a r s with d ata
co llected from h alf the sam p le of fa m ilie s each y e a r. H alf
of the rem aining sam p le of sm a lle r SMSA* s and urban p la c e s
w as su rveyed each y e a r, i. e. , for I960 and 1961. The r u r a l
fa rm and nonfarm sam ple w as su rveyed for 1961. A lso , food
p u rc h a se s in a 7 -day period w ere co llected at the tim e urban
and r u r a l nonfarm fa m ilie s w ere interview ed in the sp r in g su m m er of 1961 and 1962. USDA did not co llect w eekly food
p u rc h a se s from r u r a l fa rm fa m ilie s. (The co llection p eriod
extended from late F e b ru a ry through m id -A u gust 1961 and
from Ja n u a ry through A ugust, 1962 se e table 2 , p .20).




The calen d ar y ear 1950. A lso food p u rc h ase s in a 7 -day period
in the sp rin g of 1951. (The total co llection p erio d extended
from Jan u ary through May 1951, with in terview s in m o st c itie s
during the period F e b ru ary through A pril. )

74

G uides for com paring su rv e y s of consum er expenditu res for 1960-61 and for 1950—
-Continued
Survey of con su m er expen d itu res, 1960-61
(CES)

Survey of co n su m er expen d itu res, 1950
(CES)

Size and co v erag e of the sam ple
C om plete and u sab le q u estio n n aires w ere obtained from
9, 476 fa m ilie s and sin gle co n su m ers in the 67 SM SA1 s or
other urban p la c e s (including A nchorage, A lask a, su rveyed
for 1959) se le cte d to r e p re se n t a ll urban p la c e s in the U. S. ,
and from 1, 967 r u r a l fa rm and 2, 285 r u r a l nonfarm fa m ilie s
and sin gle co n su m ers se le cte d to re p re se n t the en tire r u r a l
population. The national sam ple w as d esigned to p erm it ta b ­
ulation by region, d eg ree of u rbanization, and SMSA, c r o s s c la s s ifie d by incom e and other fam ily c h a r a c t e r is tic s .

C om plete and u sab le in terview s w ere obtained from 12, 489 fa m ­
ilie s and sin gle co n su m ers in the 91 su rvey c itie s se le cte d to
be re p re se n tativ e of a ll urban p la c e s in the U. S. The sam ple
allow s for tabulation by comm unity (city or urban a r e a ), c r o s s c la s sifie d by incom e and fam ily c h a r a c te r is tic s.

A rea sam pling m ethods w ere u sed in the selectio n of the
su rvey fa m ilie s.

A rea sam pling m ethods w ere u sed in the selection of the
fa m ilie s.

su rvey

Survey rep o rt fo rm s
The schedule fo rm s u sed in in terview s w ere: (a) "H ousehold
r e c o r d " form for determ ining e lig ib ility of the consum er
unit and reco rd in g m inim um inform ation for nonrespondents;
(b) d etailed qu estionnaire for obtaining an annual re co rd on
fam ily com position, housing a rran g e m e n ts, expen d itu res,
incom e, and sa v in g s; and (c) schedule with d etailed listin g of
item s of food and b e v e r a g e s, household su p p lies, tobacco,
and p e rso n a l c a r e pu rch ased in 7 -day period precedin g in ­
terview . F a c s im ile s of these and other fo rm s u sed in the
su rvey a re shown in exhib its, pp.

The schedule fo rm s u sed w ere: (a) "H ousehold r e c o r d " form
for determ ining the elig ib ility of the consu m er unit, (b) expend­
itu re schedule carry in g d etailed qu estion s on fam ily c o m p o si­
tion, incom e, expen d itu res, and sav in g s in 1950, (c) schedule
coverin g item s of food, household su p p lies, tobacco, d ru gs and
p e rso n a l c a re pu rch ased in a 7 -day period , and (d) schedule
sim ila r to that d e sc rib e d in " c " which w as left with resp o n d ­
ent fo r se lf record in g.

C ollection m ethods
R espondents furn ish ed inform ation voluntarily during p e rso n al
interview s in th eir h om es.

Sam e a s in 1960-61.

D efinitions of fam ily and household
The fam ily , o r con su m er unit (CU). r e fe r r e d to: (1) A group
of people u su ally living together (including children tem po­
r a r ily away fro m home at school or co llege) who pooled their
incom e and drew from a comm on fund for th eir m ajo r
item s of expense, or (2) a p erso n whose incom e and expendi­
tu res w ere not pooled with o th ers, whether living alone or in
a household. H ow ever, n e v e r-m a r r ie d children living with
p aren ts alw ays w ere co n sid ered a s m em b ers of the
p a ren ts' CU.

Sam e a s in 1960-61.

The household c o n sists of a ll p e rso n s resid in g in the sam ple
living q u a rte r s. In addition to fam ily m e m b e rs a household
m ay contain b o a rd e r s, ro o m e rs, g u e sts, or paid help.

Sam e a s in 1960-61.

E lig ib ility req u irem e n ts for total sam ple
Inform ation w as reco rd ed fo r the fam ily a s com posed in the
su rvey y e a r, including p a r t-y e a r m e m b e rs. F am ily m e m ­
b e r s w ere not elig ib le for p erio d s in the su rvey y ear that
they lived in m ilita ry cam p s, p o sts, or r e se r v a tio n s ; in in ­
stitu tio n s; abroad (except on vacation, etc. ); or w ere m em ­
b e r s of another CU.

Sam e a s in 1960-61 for fu ll-y e a r un its.

To qualify a s a fu ll-y e a r consu m er unit, the fam ily m u st inelude at le a s t one m em b er who w as elig ib le over the entire
52 w eeks of the su rvey y e a r.
P a r t- y e a r con su m er u n its, i. e. those with no fu ll-y e a r m em b e r, w ere interview ed on th eir expen d itu res, incom e, etc. ,
for that p a rt of the su rvey y e ar they w ere elig ib le , but their
sch ed ules w ere u sed only for sp e c ia l an aly tical r e se a r c h and
w ere not included in the b a sic tabulations of com plete and
u sab le sch ed u les.




Any fam ily identified on the "H ousehold R e co rd " form a s having
no fu ll-y e a r m em ber w as not elig ib le for furth er interview ing.

75

G uides for co m paring su rv e y s of consu m er expenditu res fo r 1960-61 and for 1950— Continued
Survey of con su m er expen d itu res, 1960-61
(CES)

Survey of consu m er expen d itu res, 1950
(CES)

M etropolitan a r e a s in a r e a s in urban sam p le s
In I960 and 1961:
B a ltim o re , Md.
Boston, M a ss.
C hicago— orthw estern Indiana Standard C onsolidated A rea.
N
C levelan d, Ohio.
L o s A n geles—
Long B each , C alifo rn ia.
New Y o rk -N o rth eastern New J e r s e y Standard C onsolidated

Sam e a s in 1960-61.

P h ilad elph ia, P a . — J .
N.
P ittsb u rgh , P a .
St. L o u is, Mo. —
111.
San F r a n c isc o —
Oakland, C alif.
In I960:
A tlanta, Ga.
In dian apolis, Ind.
Portlan d , M aine.
Se attle, W ash.
In 1961:
B a k e rsfie ld , C a lif.
H artford , Conn.
W ichita, K an s.

C la ssific a tio n of c itie s in urban sam p le
A.

P rim a r y sam plin g unit (PSU ). The SMSA in the m e tr o ­
politan segm en t of the U. S. and the individual urban
place o v er 2, 500 population in nonm etropolitan a r e a s .
Includes en tire urban p art of SM SA.

A.

P rim a r y sam pling unit (PSU). The cen su s urbanized a r e a
for a ll p la c e s of 50,000 or m ore and the individual urban
place (over 2,500 population) for sm a lle r p la c e s.

B.
1. G eograph ic regio n . F o u r m ajo r reg io n s a s defined by
the B u reau of the C en su s: N orth east, North C en tral,
South, and W est.
2. City s iz e . F ou r population siz e str a ta :
A. S M S A 's of over 1, 400, 000 population.
B . S M S A 's of 250, 000-1, 400, 000.
C. SM SA’ s of 50, 000-250, 000.
D. Urban p la c e s of 2, 500— 000.
50,
3. P la c e s in sid e S M S A 's. Coded by population from listin g
of B L S block nu m bers in CHUS from which C E S sam ple
w as se lecte d :
C en tra l city or c itie s.
Other c itie s of 50, 000 and over.
C itie s under 50 ,0 0 0 and unincorporated p la c e s in
u rb an ized a r e a .
Sm all urban p la c e s of 2, 500— 000 outside u rbanized
50,

1. G eographic region.
T h ree reg io n s a s defined by B L S :
North, South, and W est.

N OTE: The urban p a rt is u su ally sligh tly m ore exten sive
than the urb an ized a r e a , en com p assin g som e sm a ll non­
contiguous urban p la c e s not included in the u rbanized
B.




76

2. City type. T h ree ty pes a s defined by B L S :
L a r g e city.
G en erally ce n tral city and other c itie s
with population of 50, 000 and o v er.
Suburb. C itie s and other urban p la c e s with population
below 5 0 ,0 0 0 , predom inantly re sid e n tia l, within e a sy
com m uting d istan ce of la r g e city.
Sm all city. C itie s and p la c e s urb an ized a r e a s , with
population of 2,500—
50,000, not c lo se to a la r g e r e ta il
m ark etin g cen ter.

G uides fo r com paring su rv e y s of co n su m er expenditu res for 1960-61 and for 1950--- Continued
Survey of con su m er expen d itu res, 1950
Survey of co n su m er expen d itu res, 1960-61
(CES)
(CES)
D iffe ren ces between 1960-61 and 1950 in fam ily c h a r a c t e r is tic s u sed a s
______ c la ssify in g v a r ia b le s in 1960-61 g en eral pu rpose tabulations_______
(F o r com plete 1960-61 co d e s, se e table B -13)
Income a fte r ta x e s:
1. H igh est c l a s s e s :
$ 10, 000-$ 14,999 \
$ 15, 000 and over.)

Income after ta x e s:
1. H ighest c la s s .
$ 10, 000 and over.

m ay be combined

O ccupation of head:
1. M em b ers of A rm ed F o r c e s (not living on m ilita ry post
o r re se rv a tio n ) coded se p a ra te ly .
2. O ccupation not reported .
3. R e tire d (including p a rtia lly re tire d ).
4. O thers not w orking.

O ccupation of head:
1. M em bers of A rm ed F o r c e s (not living on m ilita ry post or
reserv atio n ) included with sk ille d wage e a r n e r s.

Tenure:
1. Owner a ll y e a r.

T enure:
1. Owner a ll y ear— shown se p a ra te ly fo r 3 c l a s s e s a c c o r d ­
ing to y e ar home bought, but m ay be combined.
2. Owner end of y e a r, ren te r e a r lie r .
3. R enter at end of y ear (includes re n te rs a ll y ear and
re n te rs at end of y e ar who w ere ow ners e a r lie r ).

2.

)

3.> Com bined into
4J

2. R enter a ll y ear
3. O ther, i. e. , owner p art of y e a r, ren ter p art of y e a r.

'Not gainfully em ployed.

2 and 3 m ay be combined into "R en ter a ll or p art of y e a r. 1

2 and 3 m ay be combined into "R en ter a ll or p a rt of y e a r. "

F a m ily type:
1. Husband and w ife, own children, no other p e rso n s in
fam ily .
O ldest child 6— y e a r s .
17

F am ily type:
1. H usband and w ife, no other adu lts in fam ily
O ldest child, 6—
15
t May be com bined; assu m e
O ldest child, 16 or 17; d ifferen ce between "no other
a d u lts" and "no other p e r ­
son s in fa m ily " not sig n ifi-

2. A ll other husband and wife fa m ilie s (includes husband
and wife fa m ilie s with or without own children but with
other p e rso n s in fam ily ).
3. One parent (the head), own children only.
4. A ll other fa m ilie s (includes 1-person fa m ilie s).

D.

2. A ll other (includes fa m ilie s with children with other
adults p resen t and m ay include other types of fa m ilie s
not c la s sifie d elsew h ere).
3. One parent (the head), old est child under 18.
4. Other adults only (18 and over), no ch ild ren of any age
(includes 1-p erson fa m ilie s).

2 would be sp lit between 2 and 4 in 1950, depending on
w hether any p e rso n s under 18 w ere in fam ily .
2, 3, and 4 in both y e a r s m ay be combined to include a ll
fa m ilie s except those com posed of husband and wife and
husband and wife and own children only.
E.

C odes w ere the sam e in both su rv ey s for the following fam ily c h a r a c t e r is tic s :
F am ily siz e
Age of fam ily head
Education of fam ily head
Num ber of fu ll-tim e e a r n e r s
E lig ib ility for C onsum er P ric e Index (CPI)

C P I fa m ilie s (2 or m o re p e rso n s, but a lso including 1-person
C P I fa m ilie s (2 or m ore p e rso n s only) C r ite r ia :
fa m ilie s). C r ite r ia :
1. At le a s t 1 fam ily m em b er (FM ) earning w ages and
1. F am ily head whose lon gest em ploym ent in 1950 w as in
s a la r ie s in following occu pational g rou p s: C le ric a l
sam e occupational groups a s in 1960-61.
or s a l e s ; c raftsm e n , o p e ra tiv e s, or kindred w o rk ers;
se rv ic e w o rk ers (except household) or la b o r e r s;
en listed p erson n el in A rm ed F o r c e s .
2. T o tal incom e from above occupations equal to at le a st
2. No r e str ic tio n on so u rc e s of incom e, but fa m ilie s whose
one-h alf total fam ily incom e before ta x e s.
total 1950 incom e a fte r ta x e s exceeded $ 10, 000 w ere
excluded.
3. At le a s t 1 FM em ployed at le a s t 37 w eeks in su rvey
3. No lim itation, except fa m ilie s whose h eads w ere unem ­
y e a r, r e g a r d le s s of occupation.
ployed en tire su rvey y e ar w ere excluded.




77

G uides fo r com parin g su rv e y s of con su m er expenditu res for 1960-61 and fo r 1950— Continued
Su rvey of consu m er expen d itu res, 1960-61
(CES)

Survey of con su m er expen d itu res, 1950
(CES)

Sum m ary c a te g o rie s u sed in g en eral pu rpose tabulations
(for com plete 1960-61 su m m ary c a te g o rie s, see page 99 )
A.

A.
P e rso n a l in su ran ce :
Includes d isa b ility incom e in su ran ce (i. e. protection
a g a in st lo s s of incom e b e cau se of d isab ility ) when not
p a rt of a g en eral health policy; and other p e rso n al in ­
su ra n ce, excluding com preh en sive (hom eow ners' p o lic ie s).

B.

H ousing, total:
Includes ex p en se s on r e a l estate not u sed for fam ily b u s i­
n e s s and not occupied or rented.

B.

H ousing, total:
See "O ther expen d itu res. "

C.

Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls , and s e r v ic e s :
Includes a ll a p p are l and footw ear.

C.

Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls , and s e r v ic e s :
E xclu d es athletic clothing and sp e c ia l athletic sh o e s.
"R e c re atio n . "

D.

M ed ical c a r e :
"P r e p a id c a r e " does not include d isab ility incom e in ­
su ra n ce . See " P e r s o n a l in s u r a n c e ."

D.

M edical c a r e :
"G roup plan s and in su ran ce " includes d isab ility incom e
in su ran ce.

E.

R e creatio n :
D oes not include ath letic clothing or sh oes fo r p a r tic ip a ­
tion in sp o r ts. See "C lothing. "

E.

R e creatio n :
Includes athletic clothing and sh o e s.

F.

Other expen d itu res (m isce llan eo u s):
D oes not include ex p en se s on r e a l esta te not u sed for
fam ily b u sin e ss, etc. (see "H o u sin g"); and does not in ­
clude other p e rso n a l in su ran ce (see " P e r so n a l in su r-

F.

Other expenditu res (m isce llan eo u s):
Includes ta x e s, in te re st, in su ran ce , m aintenance, etc. on
r e a l e state not u sed for fam ily b u sin e ss and not occupied
or rented; and other p erso n al in su ran ce.




78

P e rso n a l in su ran ce:
E x clu d es d isab ility incom e in su ran ce (se e "M ed ical c a r e "
below); and other p e rso n a l in su ran ce (see "O ther expendi­
tu r e s, m isc e lla n e o u s").

See

Appendix B. Contents
Page
B -l. Summary of samples from Comprehensive Housing Unit Survey used in
selecting 1960-61 CES urban samples------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-2. Summary of data collection in individual survey areas in the 1960-61 CES
urban sample---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-3. Summary of BLS time records for daily rates in field collection of 1960-61 CES
data in urban and rural nonfarm areas-----------------------------------------------------------------------------B-4. Analysis of returns for the 1960-61 CES urban sample -------------------------------------------------B-5. Analysis of returns for the 1961 CES rural nonfarm sample, inside and outside
metropolitan areas---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-6.* Comparison of weekly food expenditures of CES housekeeping families who
responded in 3 surveys with those who responded in 1 or 2 surveys,
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1960 and 1961-------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-7. Estimated number of consumer units in universe, number giving usable
1960-61 CES schedules, and effective weights or expansion factors, all
urbanizations, by region------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-8. Estimated number of consumer units in universe, number giving usable
1960-61 CES schedules, and effective weights or expansion factors, urban
and rural nonfarm population, by region and sampling stratum---------------------------------------------B-9. Summary of family expenditures, income, and savings, by income class, all
urban and rural families and single consumers, United States, 1960-61---------------------------------B-10. Number of consumer units giving usable CES schedules, by income class,
family size, and region, total urban and rural United States, 1960-61 -----------------------------------B -ll. Estimates of absolute and relative sampling errors for selected items reported
by consumer units in the 1960-61 CES urban sample----------------------------------------------------------B-12. Comparison of consumer units giving usable schedules and other consumer units
in the 1960-61 CES urban sample, by selected family characteristics-----------------------------------B-13. Distribution of consumer units giving usable schedules in the 1960-61 CES
nonfarm sample, by detailed family characteristics------------------------------------------------------------B-14. Comparison of distribution of families by money income before taxes from
1960 CES and Census, Urban United States------------------------------------------------------------------------B-15. Selected characteristics of full-year and part-year families in urban
B-16. Comparison of CES and Census (CPS) estimates of money income before taxes,
1960-61 and 1950 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B-17. Comparison of expenditures of CES families classified by income before and sifter
taxes, all nonfarm families and single consumers, United States, 1960-61 ------------------------------B-18. Comparison of CES and OBE national accounts estimates of aggregate expenditures
for selected sub-categories of current consumption, 1961---------------------------------------------------B-19. Comparison of survey estimates of change in assets and liabilities with flow of
funds aggregates for the household sector, 1960-61 and 1963------------------------------------------------B^20. Comparison of data on ownership of selected household durables, reported in
CES and Census, United States, 1960-64 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------




79

80
82
83
84
85

86

87

88
90
92
94
98
99
102

103
104
106
107
108

Appendix B. Supplementary Tables

B-l. Summary of samples from Comprehensive Housing Unit Survey
used in selecting 1960-61 CES urban samples
Population stratu m , 1
SM SA, or other
urban p lace

S e p arate

Survey

Block

Sam pling

q u arter
a d d r e sse s 2

fo r C E S

United S ta te s, total u rb a n 3-------------------

A ssign m en t
a d d r e sse s
in C ES
sam p le

A ssign m en ts
requ irin g
alte rn ate
ad d re sses

12,205

A r e a s with C ES sam p le se lecte d from
CHUS-------------------------------------------------Other a r e a s -------------------------------------------

2, 772

4 130, 726
5 12,000

1:12. 24

10,645
1,560

2,405
367

Stratu m A-SM SA 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 and over—
B a ltim o re , Md--------------------------------------B oston, M a s s ---------------------------------------C hicago, 1116 ----------------------------------------C levelan d, O h io------------------------------------D etro it, M ic h ---------------------------------------L o s A n ge les-L o n g B each , C a li f ---------------New Y ork, N. Y-------------------------------------N o rth eastern New J e r s e y 7----------------------P h ilad elph ia, P a -----------------------------------P ittsb u rg h , P a --------------------------------------St. L o u is, Mo---------------------------------------San F r a n c is co-Oakland, C a li f -----------------W ashington, D. C ------------------------------------

1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61
1960-61

422
276
418
255
656
235
430
95
472
291
392
288
473

6, 127
3 ,4 5 9
4 ,0 8 7
4, 554
8 ,0 7 8
5,041
3, 786
1,256
7 ,039
5,031
4 ,4 4 5
4 ,2 8 0
3 ,6 2 7

1:16. 34
1:9. 22
1:8. 18
1:12. 14
1:21. 54
1:11. 13
1:5. 95
1:2. 92
1:18. 77
1:13. 42
1:11. 86
1:11.43
1:9. 67

375
375
500
375
375
500
625
500
375
375
375
375
375

86
114
103
60
78
95
200
131
80
71
87
107
71

Stratu m B-SM SA 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 -1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 —
A tlanta, G a ------------------------------------------B u ffalo, N. Y-----------------------------------------D a lla s, T e x ------------------------------------------In dian apolis, In d -----------------------------------S e a ttle, W ash ----------------------------------------

I960
I960
1960
I960
1960

292
220
225
256
338

4, 043
4,091
3 ,4 3 7
4 ,4 0 6
5,231

1:16.
1:16.
1:14.
1:17.
1:20.

17
36
09
62
88

250
250
250
250
250

25
84
30
54
33

Dayton, O h io_______________________________
D enver, C olo----------------------------------------H artford , C onn-------------------------------------Honolulu, H aw aii-----------------------------------N ash v ille, T en n ------------------------------------W ichita, K a n s----------------------------------------

1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961

385
254
240
319
302
268

4 ,4 5 3
3,481
3 ,0 6 0
3 ,6 9 8
4 ,0 7 9
3 ,522

1:17.
1:13.
1:12.
1:14.
1:16.
1:14.

83
93
25
78
30
09

250
250
250
250
250
250

61
59
87
78
39
57

Stratu m C-SM SA 5 0 ,0 0 0 -2 5 0 ,0 0 0 —
A ustin, T ex------------------------------------------C ed ar R ap id s, Io w a-------------------------------C ham paign-U rbana, 111---------------------------O rlando, F l a ----------------------------------------P o rtla n d , M ain e-------------------------------------

I960
I960
I960
I960
1960

117
180
88
229
116

4 1, 121
2, 557
1,253
3 ,4 7 2
1,567

1:7.
1:15.
1:7.
1:21.
1:9.

00
98
83
87
83

160
160
160
160
160

29
24
34
36
38

B a k e rs fie ld , C a lif ---------------------------------Baton Rouge, L a --------------------:--------------D urham , N. C ---------------------------------------G reen B ay , W is------------------------------------L a n c a ste r, P a ---------------------------------------

1961
1961
1961
1961
1961

236
146
88
146
230

4 1,657
1,659
1,245
1,843
2, 063

1:10.
1:10.
1:7.
1:11.
1:12.

32
40
76
52
89

160
160
160
160
160

31
38
25
40
32

Stratu m D -urban p la c e s 2 ,5 0 0 -5 0 ,0 0 0
(in CPI) 8—
D evils L ak e, N. Dak-------------------------------Fin d lay , O h io---------------------------------------K ingston, N. Y —
------------------------------------K lam ath F a l l s , O reg ------------------------------M cA llen, T e x ---------------------------------------N ile s, M ich------------------------------------------Union, S. C ---- --------------------------------------V ick sb u rg, M iss ------------------------------------

1960
1960
1960
I960
1960
1960
1.960
I960

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

15
12
26
18
18
6
14
14

C rooks ton, M inn-----------------------------------F lo re n c e , A la ---------------------------------------L o g an sp o rt, In d ------------------------------------M angum, O k la --------------------------------------M artin sv ille, V a -----------------------------------M illv ille, N. J ---------------------------------------O rem , U tah9 ----------------------------------------Southbridge, M a s s ----------------------------------

1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961

68
125
73
109
55
84
86
30

646
782
769
780
419
951
1,545
342

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

12
10
17
7
16
18
17
22

A n ch orage, A la s k a ---------------------------------

1959

241

1,744

275

69

See footnotes at end of tab le.




80

1 :9 .9 4
1:12. 02
1:11. 83
1:12. 00
1:6. 45
1:14. 63
1:23. 77
1:5. 26

B-l. Summary of samples from Comprehensive Housing Unit Survey
used in selecting 1960-61 CES urban samples— Continued
Population stratu m , 1
SM SA, or other
urban p lace

Survey

Se p arate
B lock

Sam pling

qu arter
ad d re sses 2

for CES

A ssign m en t
a d d r e sse s
in CES
sam ple

A ssign m en ts
requ iring
altern ate
a d d re sse s

Not in C P I 5
Burlington, V t-----------------------------------------C leveland, Tenn---------------------------------------G allup, N. M ex-----------------------------------------G riffin, G a----------------------------------------------L a S a lle , 111----------- ---------------------------------Lewistow n, P a -----------------------------------------Owatonna, M inn---------------------------------------R e se rv e , L a ---------------------------------------------

I960
I960
I960
I960
I960
I960
1960
1960

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

12
16
13
11
12
17
13
8

Athol, M ass---------------------------------------------C am b rid ge, Ohio--------------------------------------E u rek a, C a lif ------------------------------------------G ain sv ille, T ex----------------------------------------Manhattan, K a n s --------------------------------------M enasha, W is------------------------------------------Okm ulgee, O k la ---------------------------------------Sebrin g, F la ---------------------------------------------

1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961
1961

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

13
19
29
20
9
13
14
25

1 C la ssifie d on b a s is of estim ated urban population as of Ja n . 1, 1959.
2 Includes units in public housing p r o je c ts.
3 Includes A n chorage, A la sk a , surveyed for 1959.
4 Does not include 389 a d d re sse s in A ustin, Tex. , and 802 a d d re sse s in B a k e rsfie ld , C alif. , which w ere se lecte d to
augm ent the CHUS after the C ES sam p le w as drawn; also does not include CHUS a d d re sse s for 8 citie s liste d in footnote 8.
5 The C ES sam p le for each Stratum D city not in the C PI, and for those CPI citie s liste d in footnote 8 was a su bsam ple
of 65 a d d re sse s drawn from a sam p le of approxim ately 500 a d d re sse s p e r city se lecte d from re co rd s of the I960 C ensus of
Housing and Population.
6 Standard C onsolidated A re a , C hicago-N orthw estern Indiana.
7 Standard C onsolidated A re a , New Y o rk-N ortheastern New J e r s e y .
8 In Stratum D citie s in the C PI, but for which the I960 CES sam ple had been drawn from C ensus re c o r d s, it la te r was
n e c e ss a ry to conduct C om prehensive Housing Unit Surveys to obtain sa m p le s for CPI rent p ricin g.
The total of 5 ,289 living
q u arter a d d r e s s e s obtained in the CHUS for these 8 citie s w as distribu ted as follow s: D evils L ak e, 557; Fin dlay, 685;
Kingston, 646; Klam ath F a lls , 713; M cAllen, 711; N ile s, 734; Union, 648; and V icksbu rg, 587.
9 O rem is now c la s sifie d by the B u reau of the Budget as p a rt of the Prove-O rem SM SA, but was not at the tim e the
CES sam p le of citie s was se le cte d .




81

B-2. Summary of data collection in individual survey areas in the 1960-61 CES urban sample
Y e ar
su rvey

Region, SM SA, or other
urban place

United S ta te s 3 __ --------N orth east
Boston, M a ss _______

Date 1
C o llec-

Survey

ducted

11,930

---- ------1961
1962
1961
1962

F eb .
Ja n .
F eb .
Ja n .

1961
1962
1961
1962
•1961
1962

M ar. 2
Ja n . 27
M ar. 3

B u ffalo, N . Y __________________________
H artford , C o n n _
_ __ ________________
P ortlan d , M a in e _____ __________________
L a n c a ste r , P a ________________________
B urlington, Vt _ __ ____ __
__ __ „
K in gston, N .Y ___ ____ — — --L e w is town, P a -------- ----------------- —
Athol, M as s ----- --------- --- —
M illv ille, N. J _________________________
Sou th b rid ge, M a s s --- __ ____
_
_ —

_____________

„

New Y ork, N. Y ................................................

U sab le
P a rtR espon se
y ear
requ irin g con su m er
fu ll-y e a r
(percent
ad d re sses
con su m er u s a b le ) 2
A ssig n -

A ssig n -

22
26
28
26

A pr. 21
A pr. 3
A pr. 25

2, 703

356

9, 342

3,460
188
187
313
312

945
48
66
93
107

89
4
10
8
10

2, 677
131
137
212
236

71.
72.
65.
75.

2
1
6
2

F eb . 28
Ja n . 30

May
A pr.
M ay
A pr.
A pr.
A pr.

15
10
4
20
18
17

250
250
188
187
188
187

58
73
29
51
25
46

4
5
5
2
5
5

168
188
155
158
153
170

64.
70.
78.
79.
78.
84.

9
9
7
8
9
6

1961
1962
1961
1962
1961

M ay
A pr.
May
May
May

Ju ly
Ju ly
Ju ly
June
June

19
10
7
23
28

250
250
160
160
65

84
87
38
32
12

6
3
4
3
6

199
175
135
151
52

79.
66.
84.
90.
76.

0
8
9
4
5

1961
1961
1962
1962
1962

June 16
May 10
Ju ly 19

A ug.
Ju ly
Aug.
June
Aug.

18
25
3
30
17

65
65
65
65
65

26
17
13
18
22

3
1
0
2
3

47
41
60
56
53

71.
63.
84.
84.
84.

2
1
5
9
1

1961
1962
1961
1962

F eb .
Ja n .
F eb .
Ja n .

23
19
27
29

A pr.
A pr.
A pr.
A pr.

26
13
29
4

3, 505
250
250
188
187

726
52
51
21
39

103
4
5
3
5

2, 722
182
189
155
139

70.
72.
80.
69.

8
2
3
5

F eb . 23

In d ian ap o lis, Ind ______________________

1961
1962
1961
1962
1961

May 16
Ja n . 17
May 9

A pr.
M ar.
Ju ly
A pr.
Ju ly

7
23
14
13
13

188
187
188
187
250

29
49
31
56
54

2
4
5
3
4

141
149
157
162
173

71.
76.
83.
81.
68.

6
9
5
8
1

Dayton, Ohio _________________ _______
Wic h ita , K ans _________________________
C ed ar R a p id s, Iowa ------------------------C h am paign-U rbana, 111
G reen B ay , W i s -- ----- ------------- —

1962
1962
1961
1961
1962

A pr. 18

Ju ly 9

May 1
May 1
A pr. 24

June 30
Ju ly 14
Ju ly 7

61
57
24
34
40

6
10
3
10
3

180
189
125
126
130

66.
76.
76.
84.
79-

7
5
8
6

tie v ils L a k e , N. D _____________________
F in d la y , Ohio ______________ ________
L a S a lle , 111
_ ___
N ile s , M ich _
_
_ ____
__ ___
Owatonna, M in n __ __

1961
1961
1961
1961
1961

May
May
May
May
May

4
5
11
31
10

June
June
June
Aug.
June

9
23
21
2
16

65
65
65
65
65

15
12
12
6
13

3
4
0
4
5

49
55
55
61
48

77.
84.
79.
87.
76.

8
7
8
2
2

C a m b rid g e , Ohio __ __ __ _______
C rookston, Minn
__
__ __
L o g a n sp o rt, I n d _______________________
Manhattan, K an s
__ __ __ __
M enash a, Wis __
__
__ __ __

1962
1962
1962
1962
1962

May
A pr.
May
A pr.
A pr.

1
25
7
26
26

June 22
June 18
June 22
June 7

65
65
65
65
65

19
12
17
9
13

2
1
1
16
0

43
61
50
45
58

57.
87.
69.
75.
85.

3
2
4
0
3

1961
1962
1961
1962

M ar.
Ja n .
M ar.
F eb .

1
30
2
1

A pr.
A pr.
May
May

24
20
19
10

188
187
188
187

552
35
51
40
31

76
3
3
8
6

2, 307
142
171
152
171

70.
83.
74.
82.

6
0
9
6

1961
1961
1962
1961
1961

M ar.
M ar.
A pr.
May
May

1
3
20
17
17

A pr.
May
June
Ju ly
Ju ly

28
3
15
20
28

250
250
250
160
160

25
30
39
29
36

6
8
4
8
10

198
178
201
110
106

73.
71.
74.
70.
69.

3
2
4
1
3

N o rth e astern

New J e r s e y ____________

P hilad elph ia, P a ____ _________ _
_

—

P ittsb u rg h , P a ___

__

__ _____________

N orth C en tral __ __ __ _______ __________
C h icago, 111____________________________
C levelan d, Ohio __________________
D etroit, Mich

__ __ __________

____

South __ _ ____ _ __ __ _______ __ __ __
B a ltim o r e , M d ___ __ _
_ „
____ __
W ashington, D. C

— __________

__

Atlanta- G a ___________________________
D a lla s, T e x ___________________________
N a sh v ille , T e n n _______________________
A ustin, T ex _ __ __ __ __ _____________
O rlando, F la ________ __ __ „ „

23
19
3
9
12

Ju ly 1

See footnotes at end of tab le.




82

250
250
160
160
160

2,

920

,

3,

B-2. Summary of data collection in individual survey areas in the 1960-61 CES urban sample— Continued
Region, SM SA, or other
urban place

Y ear
su rvey

Date 1
C o llec-

A ssig n -

Survey

A ssig n -

P a rt-

U sable

requiring con su m er fu ll-y ear
a d d r e sse s
consum er
n ates

ducted

R espon se
(percent
u sab le) 2

South— Continued
Baton Rouge, L a ______________________
D urham , N. C _____ _______ _______
C levelan d, T e n n _______________________
_
— __ __
G riffin , Ga — ____ ____ _
McAllen", T ex __
__ __ _ _
_
____

1962
1962
1961
1961
1961

Jan .
Ja n .
Ju ly
May
May

26
31
10
17
22

M ar.
A pr.
A ug.
June
June

30
19
18
17
28

160
160
65
65
65

38
25
16
11
18

4
6
0
0
1

112
135
43
61
38

68.
78.
65.
89.
62.

4
5
2
7
4

R e se r v e , L a ___________________________
Union, S. C _________________________
V ick sb u rg , M iss __ ___________________
F lo re n c e , Ala _________________________
G a in sv ille, T ex __ __ __ ____ ____

1961
1961
1961
1962
1962

June 22
May 8
May 22
June 18

Aug.
June
Ju ly
Ju ly
Ju ly

10
20
13
7
17

65
65
65
65
65

8
14
14
10
20

0
3
1
0
2

64
50
55
54
56

90.
75.
78.
80.
85.

2
8
6
6
0

M angum , O k l a ___ _____________ _ __
M a rtin sv ille , Va _
_ _
_
_______ _
_
O km ulgee, Okla _ __ _
_ _____
Seb rin g, F l a ________
__________ __

1962
1962
1962
1962

May
A pr.
Ju ly
May

8
18
9
11

June
May
Aug.
June

14
21
24
22

65
65
65
65

7
16
14
25

0
3
0
0

50
55
48
57

74.
83.
71.
86.

6
4
6
4

1961
1962
1961
1962

F eb .
Ja n .
F eb.
Ja n .

24
27
27
26

A pr.
A pr.
May
May

26
10
12
8

2, 045
250
250
188
187

480
50
45
58
49

88
16
12
12
11

1,636
179
209
156
146

72.
79.
81.
79.

2
2
3
4

____ ______
__ „
_
_ _
_ _______ __
________________ __
__ _ _______

1961
1962
1962
1962

F eb .
A pr.
May
A pr.

24
23
21
24

May 5
Ju ly 18

250
250
250
160

33
59
78
31

7
5
9
5

209
204
215
120

83.
77.
83.
75.

6
9
7
5

G allup, N. M ex
__ __
_ __
_
__
K lam ath F a l l s , Or eg _______ _____ __
E u rek a , C a lif __ __ _____
_ _ _
_
O rem , Utah _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1961
1961
1962
1962

May
May
Ju ly
June

17
11
24
29

June
June
Aug.
A ug.

65
65
65
65

13
18
29
17

2
5
1
3

58
44
42
54

86.
77.
61.
84.

6
2
8
4

W est 3..........................................................................
L o s A n geles—
Long B each , C a l i f _______
San F r a n c isc o —
Oakland, C a l i f _________
S e a ttle, W ash _
_
D en ver, Colo _ __
Honolulu, H aw aii __
B a k e rsfie ld , C alif

Ju ly 11
30
14
28
10

1 See footnote 3, table 2.
2 Method of computation shown in appendix table B -4.
3 D oes not include A n chorage, A la sk a .

B-3. Summary of BLS time records for daily rates1 in field collection of 1960-61 CES data
in urban and rural nonfarm areas
Item
1961, U .S . : A ll u r b a n .................................. ................
: R u ral nonfarm inside
m etropolitan a r e a s
_ __
I960, U .S . : A ll urban ................................................
: R u ral nonfarm inside
m etropolitan a r e a s __ ____ ____
T o tal ________ ___________________ ____ __ __
I960, U. S. : R u ra l nonfarm inside
m etropolitan a r e a s _____ _______
1959, A n ch orage, A l a s k a ______________ _______
T o tal — __________ — _______ __ __ __ _______

A ssign m en ts
ad d re sses

D aily ra te s
train ed

6,085

)

465
5, 845

J

\

D aily r a te s
hours paid 2

644

130,610

534

116,495

271
12,395

27
1, 178

( 3)
247,105

271
275
5 12, 941

27
19
1, 224

(3)
(4)
(4)

1 D aily r a te s w ere in terv iew ers and field ed ito rs hired in each su rvey a r e a at a daily rate of pay.
2 T o tal num ber of hou rs for which daily r a te s w ere paid while being train ed , interview ing fa m ilie s, travelin g to and
from a ssig n m e n ts, in office consultation, editing, etc.
3 T h is inform ation is not av ailab le for assig n m en ts in the r u ra l nonfarm segm en ts of the 10 m etropolitan a r e a s in
S tra ta B and C in the I960 urban sam p le . Data for 1961 w ere co llected for these nonfarm fa m ilie s a s su p e r v iso r s com pleted
their a ssig n m e n ts in the su rvey a r e a s in the 1961 sam p le.
4 C om parab le data not av ailab le.
5 T h is total, plus the 1,761 r u r a l nonfarm assig n m en ts outside m etropolitan a r e a s for which USDA w as re sp o n sib le ,
equal the 14, 702 urban and r u ra l nonfarm a ssig n m en ts in appendix tab le s B -4 and B -5 .




83

B-4. Analysis of returns for the 1960-61 CES urban sample)
I960
Item

M aste r
sam p le

1961

A ltern ate E ffective
total
sam p le 2
| sam p le 3

M aster
sam p le

1960-61 co m b in ed 1

A ltern ate E ffective
total
sa m p le 2
sam p le 3

M aste r
sam p le

A lternate
sam p le 2

E ffective
total
sa m p le 3

2, 772
223

N um ber
A ssign m en t a d d r e s s e s --------------V acant u n its ------------------------R equiring a lt e r n a t e s --------O th ers----------------------------No c o n ta c ts-------------------------Requiring a lt e r n a t e s --------O th er5-----------------------------

5,845
269
267
42
513
487
26

1, 181
90

1,522
126

119

6,085
361
358
43
574
522
52

120

12,205
651
646
45
1, 129
1,049
80

Contacted a d d r e s s e s -----------------Additional C U 's at contacted
a d d r e s s e s -------------------------

5, 063

972

5, 150

1,276

10,425

2, 301

306

58

437

120

753

182

T otal C U 's at contacted
a d d r e s s e s -----------------------------In eligible C U 's 6------------------P a r t- y e a r C U 's 6------------------

5 ,369
58
143

1,030
20
40

5, 587
78
136

1,396
38
37

11,178
164
305

2,483
64
81

E ffective sam p le of fu ll-y e ar
C U 's ------------------------------------U sable sc h e d u le s------------------Incom plete sc h e d u le s-----------R e f u s a l s -----------------------------R equiring a lte r n a t e s --------O thers 7 -------------------------R ejected sc h e d u le s8 -------------

5, 168
3,8 2 4
473
795
427
368
76

970
639
89
224

5, 711
4 ,4 6 3
562

1,321
905
103
284

6,052
4, 879
442

11,970
9,4 7 6
1,031

592
94

284
29

593
138

10,709
7, 905
833
1,784
1,077
707
187

2,338
1,571
198
522

224
18

5,373
3, 974
339
951
642
309
109

522
47

1,229
234

100. 0
5. 3
9. 3

100. 0
8. 0
8 .9

100.
73.
7.
16.
1.

100.
67.
8.
22.
2.

90
119

126
120

223
248
248

P ercen t
A ssign m en t a d d r e s s e s --------------V acant u n its ------------------------No c o n ta c ts--------------------------

100. 0
4. 6
8. 8

100. 0
7. 6
10. 1

E ffective sam p le of fu ll-y e a r
C U 's-------------------------------------U sab le sc h e d u le s-----------------Incom plete sc h e d u le s-----------R e f u s a ls -----------------------------R ejected s c h e d u le s---------------

100. 0
74. 0
9. 2
15.4
1. 4

100. 0
65. 9
9. 2
23. 1
1.8

100. 0
5 .9
9 .4
100. 0
78. 2
9 .8
10. 4
1. 6

100. 0
8. 3
7. 9

100.
74.
6.
17.
2.

100.
68.
7.
21.
2.

0
0
3
7
0

0
5
8
5
2

100. 0
80. 6
7. 3
9 .8
2. 3

0
8
8
7
7

0
2
5
3
0

100. 0
79. 2
8. 6
10. 3
1 .9

1 Includes A n chorage, A la sk a , which was su rveyed for 1959.
2 The sam plin g proced u re provided that a sp e c ific su bstitu te a d d re ss was to be drawn from an altern ate sam p le , if the
unit in the m a ste r sam p le w as vacant or the a d d re ss could not be located , no contact could be m ade with the occu pants, or
the occupants refu se d or w ere unable to give the m inim um inform ation req u ired to com plete a n on response sheet.
3 The potential num ber of con su m er units (C U 's) from whom a schedule could be expected after alte rn ate assig n m en t
a d d r e sse s w ere su bstitu ted , e. g. , for I960, 5 ,1 6 8 + 970 - 427 = 5,7 1 1 .
4 Vacant units record ed here for the m a ste r sam p le w ere unoccupied second living q u a rte rs found at a d d re ss from
which a sch edule w as obtained from occupants of f ir s t living q u a rte rs and th erefore no altern ate was drawn.
5 No contacts with occupants at altern ate assig n m en t a d d r e sse s or with additional consu m er units found at a d d r e sse s
in m a ste r sam p le ; no furth er substitution p o ssib le .
6 A ll C U 's resid in g at a sam p le a d d re ss w ere eligib le for inclusion in the su rv ey except for the tim e in the su rv ey
y ear during which they w ere living in m ilita ry cam p s, p o st s, or r e se rv a tio n s (other than p erio d s of 45 days or le s s in a
r e se r v e or N ational Guard unit); in in stitution s; in ru r a l com m unities (applicab le only for I960 and dropped for the 1961
su rv ey which w as extended to r u ra l a r e a s ) ; abroad (except on vacation , e tc .); or w ere m em b ers of another consu m er unit.
F o r p u rp o se s of tabulation, how ever, the sam p le included only full-y ear consu m er u n its, i. e. , units with at le a s t 1 m em ber
who w as elig ib le for the entire su rv ey y e a r.
7 Respondents in the m a ste r sam p le who gave the m inim um inform ation to com plete a non response sheet but refu sed
o r w ere unable to p a rtic ip a te further in the su rv ey ; and a ll respondents at alte rn ate assig n m en t a d d r e s s e s who refu se d to
p a rtic ip a te , r e g a r d le s s of whether they gave com plete inform ation for the non response sh eet.
8 Sch edules counted a s com plete in the field but re je c te d afte r review in Washington.




84

B-5.

Analysis of returns for the 1961 CES rural nonfarm sample, inside and outside metropolitan areas
Item

Inside
m etropolitan

Outside
m etropolitan

T otal
nonfarm

Num ber
A ssign m ent a d d r e s s e s in m a ste r sa m p le 2------------------Net tr a n sfe r s of a d d r e s s e s 3 ------------------------------------A ssign m en t a d d r e sse s requ irin g alte rn ates 2 --------------Additional C U 's at contacted a d d r e s s e s ----------------------

736
10
187
25

1,761
134
132
58

T otal C U 's v isite d o r attem pted-------------------------

958

2, 085

Ineligible C U 's 4 -----------------------------------------------------A d d r e sse s requ irin g a lte rn a te s---------------------------------V acant units in alte rn ate s a m p le 5------------------------------No contacts in alte rn ate s a m p le 5 -----------------------------P a rt-y e a r C U 's 4------------------------------------------------------

10
187
24
10
8

Total not effective sa m p le ---------------------------------

239

U sable sc h e d u le s----------------------------------------------------Incom plete sc h e d u le s----------------------------------------------R e fu sa ls 6--------------------------------------------------------------R ejected sch ed ules 7 ------------------------------------------------

608
40
61
10

1,677
58
96
86

2, 285
98
157
96

T o tal effective sam p le of fu ll-y e a r C U 's-------------

719

1,917

2, 636

132
9
27

P ercen t
E ffective sam p le of fu ll-y e a r C U 's ----------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

U sable sc h e d u le s----------------------------------------------------Incom plete sc h e d u le s----------------------------------------------R e f u s a ls ---------------------------------------------------------------R ejected sch ed ules --------------------------------------------------

84. 5
5. 6
8. 5
1 .4

87.
3.
5.
4.

86.
3.
6.
3.

5
0
0
5

7
7
0
6

1 The B u reau of L ab or S ta tistic s w as resp o n sib le for collectin g data from con su m er units (C U 's) in r u ra l nonfarm a r e a s
in sid e Standard M etropolitan S ta tistic a l A r e a s (SMSA) and the U. S. D epartm ent of A g ricu ltu re from those in r u ra l nonfarm
a r e a s outside SM SA 's.
2 The sam pling p ro ced u re provided that a sp e c ific su bstitu te a d d re ss was to be drawn from an altern ate sam ple if the
unit in the m a ste r sam p le w as vacant or the a d d re ss could not be located , no contact could be m ade with the occu pants, or
the occupants refu sed or w ere unable to give the m inim um inform ation requ ired to com plete a non response sheet.
Data w ere
not av ailab le to B L S to c la s s ify the sch ed ules requ irin g alte rn ates in the USDA sam ple in the sam e d etail a s w as done for
the B L S sam p le .
3 Som e assig n m en ts w ere m ade in c o rrec tly on the b a s is of the housing unit su rv e y s. If B L S in terview ers found a farm
op erator at an a d d r e ss, the assig n m en t was tr a n sfe r re d to USDA; sim ila r ly , if an a d d re ss o rigin ally a ssig n e d to USDA did
not include a farm o p erato r, it was returned to B L S .
Within USDA, tr a n sfe r s w ere m ade between their sam p le s of ru ra l
nonfarm and ru ra l farm fa m ilie s.
4 A ll C U 's resid in g at a sam p le a d d re ss w ere eligible for inclusion in the su rv ey except for tim e in the su rvey y ear
during which they w ere living in m ilita ry cam p s, p o sts, or re se rv a tio n s (other than p erio d s of 45 days or le s s in a r e se r v e
or N ational G uard unit); in in stitution s; abroad (except on vacation , e tc .); or w ere m em b ers of another CU.
F o r p u rp o ses
of tabulation, how ever, the sam p le included only fu ll-y e ar C U 's i. e. , units with at le a s t 1 m em ber who w as eligible for the
entire su rv ey y e a r.
5 V acant units or no contacts with occupants at altern ate assig n m en t a d d r e sse s or with additional consu m er units found
at a d d r e sse s in m a ste r sam p le ; no furth er substitution p o ssib le .
6 Respondents in the m a ste r sam p le who gave the m inim um inform ation to com plete a non response sheet but refu sed
or w ere unable to p articip ate further in the su rvey; and all respondents at alte rn ate assign m en t a d d r e sse s who refu se d to
p a rtic ip a te , r e g a r d le s s of whether they gave com plete inform ation for the non respon se sheet.
7 Schedules counted a s com plete in the field but rejected afte r review in Washington.




B-6. Comparison of weekly food expenditures of CES housekeeping families who
responded in 3 surveys with those who responded in 1 or 2 surveys,
Cincinnati, Ohio, I960 and 1961
R eporting period
June 8— ly 7, I960: Interview —
Ju
T otal r e p o r t i n g -------------------------------C ooperating in f a l l -------------------------------N onresponse in f a ll-------------------------------C ooperating in sprin g 1961---------------------N onresponse in sprin g 1 9 6 1 ------------------Oct. 17—
Nov. 18, I960: R einterview —
T o tal r e p o r t i n g -------------------------------

Number of
fa m ilie s
in sam ple

A verag e weekly expenditures
P er fam ily

P er p e rso n 1

P e r m eal

227
126
101

$21. 80

$7. 70

$0. 366

49
178

22. 76
21. 53

21. 82
21. 78

7.
7.
8.
7.

74
64
04
61

.
.
.
.

368
363
382
362

126

20. 29

6. 90

. 327

C ooperating in sprin g 1961---------------------N onresponse in sprin g 1961 --------------------

49
77

22. 96
19. 05

7. 78
6. 31

. 370
. 300

A pr. 26—
June 6, 1961: M ail—
T o tal r e p o r t i n g --------------------------------

49

26. 52

9. 14

. 463




B ase d on av e rag e household siz e .

B-7. Estimated number of consumer units in universe, number giving usable 1960-61 CES schedules,
and effective weights or expansion factors, all urbanizations, by region
U rbanization and location inside
and outside SMSA1s

Total
United States

N ortheast

North C entral

South

West

Utimate w eights (estim ated number of consum er units in u niverse)
Total urban and r u r a l

5 5 ,3 0 6 ,2 5 3

14, 198, 451

15, 774, 941

16 ,5 6 6 ,5 7 6

8, 766, 285

Inside SM SA1s ------------Outside SMSA* s -----------

35, 237, 347
20, 068, 906

11, 440, 698
2, 757, 753

9, 382, 435
6, 392, 506

8, 073, 283
8, 493, 293

6, 340, 931
2, 425, 354

40,
31,
8,
11,
3,
8,

11,
10,
1,
2,

Inside SM SA1s 1 ----------O utside SM SA 's 1 --------R u ral n o n fa rm ----------------Inside S M S A 's1 ----------Outside SM SA 's ----------F a rm o p e r a t o r s ------N onoperator s ------ ---R u ral f a r m --------------------Inside SM SA 's ------------O utside S M S A 's -----------

130, 895
804, 152
326, 743
663, 237
094, 529
568, 708
97, 521
8, 471, 187
3, 512, 121
338,666
3, 173, 455

705, 292
397, 504
307, 788
250, 515
971,239
1, 279, 276
7 ,932
1, 271, 344
242, 644
71,955
170,689

11,
8,
2,
3,
2,
2,
1,
1,

135, 161
488, 754
646, 407
273, 325
781,344
491,981
34, 888
457, 093
366, 455
112, 337
254, 118

10,
7,
3,
4,
3,
3,
1,
1,

324,
060,
263,
656,
911,
744,
40,
704,
585,
101,
484,

457
484
973
454
659
795
069
726
665
140
525

6,
5,
1,
1,

965, 985
857, 410
108, 575
482, 943
430, 287
1, 052,656
14, 632
1, 038, 024
317,357
53, 234
264, 123

Number of consum er units giving u sable schedules
Total urban and r u r a l —

13, 728

3, 228

4, 092

4, 180

2, 228

Inside SM SA 's ---------------Outside S M S A 's --------------

8, 476
5, 252

2, 565
663

2, 432
1, 660

1, 911
2, 269

1, 568
660

9,
7,
1,
2,

2, 677
2, 368
309
406
154
252
4
248
145
43
102

2, 722
2, 197
525
628
174
454
16
438
742
61
681

2, 307
1, 676
631
948
176
772
21
751
925
59
866

1, 770
1, 438
332
303
104
199
7
192
155
26
129

Inside S M S A 's1 -------------Outside SM SA 's 1 -----------R u ral n o n fa rm -------------------Inside S M S A 's1 -------------O utside S M S A 's -------------F a rm o p e r a t o r s ---------N o n o p erato rs-------------R u ral f a r m -----------------------Inside S M S A 's ---------------Outside S M S A 's --------------

1,
1,
1,
1,

476
679
797
285
608
677
48
629
967
189
778

E ffective w eights (expansion fa c to rs)
(l )

(l )

(l )

(l)

R u ral n o n fa rm ---------------------Inside S M S A 's -----------------Outside SM SA 's ---------------F a rm o p e r a t o r s -----------N onoperator s ----- ---------R u ral fa rm --------------------------

(l )

(M

1, 983. 0
5, 126. 4
1, 673. 4

2, 180. 5
5, 609. 8
1, 841. 6

1 See appendix table B -8 for sam pling str a ta rep resen tin g this population segm ent.




87

1, 908. 0
4, 933. 1
1, 714. 2

(l)
(l )
2, 090. 3
5, 406. 4
2, 047. 5

B-8. Estimated number of consumer units in universe, number giving usable 1960-61 CES schedules,
and effective weights or expansion factors, urban and rural nonfarm population,1
by region and sampling stratum
Urban, 1960- i 1
6
Region, population stratu m ,
location SM SA, or city

N orth east— inside S M S A 's --------------Population 1, 400, 000 and over—
Boston, M a s s ----------------------New York, N. Y --------------------N orth eastern New J e r s e y --------Philadelph ia, P a ------------------P ittsb urgh , P a -----------------------

City

E stim ate d
number of
C U 's in
u n iverse

Number of
u sable
sch ed ules

R u ral nonfarm , 1961
E xpansion

10, 397, 504

2, 368

07
36
37
41
42

802, 910
3, 552, 389
1, 240, 402
1, 203, 885
628, 007

268
448
356
313
323

2,
7,
3,
3,
1,

Population 250, 000 to 1, 400, 000—
Buffalo, N. Y ------------------------H artford, C o n n ---------------------

08
23

862, 717
836 ,5 7 4

Population 50, 000 to 250, 000—
L a n c a ste r, P a ----------------------P ortland, M aine---------------------

28
43

N ortheast— outside SM SA 's ------------Population 2, 500 to 50, 000—
Burlington, V t----------------------Kingston, N. Y ----------------------Lewistow n, P a ----------------------Athol, M a ss ------------------------M illv ille, N. J ----------------------Southbridge, M a s s -----------------

E stim ate d
number of
C U 's in
u n iv e rse 1

Number of
usable
sch ed ules

E xpansion

154

9
4
3
3
3

39,281
69,718
44, 382
116,232
1 1 1 ,767

9
15
11
12
14

4,
4,
4,
9,
7,

199
175

4, 335. 3
4, 780. 4

165, 344
139,237

21
21

7, 873. 5
6, 630. 3

624, 542
646, 078

151
135

4, 136. 0
4, 785. 8

142,639
142, 639

25
26

5, 705. 6
5, 486. 1

1 ,3 0 7 ,7 8 8

309

198, 109
243, 827
218,603
243, 827
192, 106
211, 316

52
47
41
60
56
53

-

-

-

8, 488, 754

53
26
61
52
34
47

971,239

2, 197

781,344

174

3,
5,
5,
4,
3,
3,

North C entral— in sid e SM SA 's --------Population 1, 400, 000 and over—
Chicago, 111--------------------------C leveland, O h io--------------------Detroit, Mich ----------------------St. L ou is, M o -----------------------

11
12
17
44

1, 927, 371
511,912
1, 068, 644
545, 701

371
294
290
319

5,
1,
3,
1,

Population 250, 000 to 1, 400, 000—
Indian apolis, Ind ------------------Dayton, O hio------------------------W ichita, K a n s -----------------------

25
15
51

975, 922
914, 927
887,202

173
180
189

Population 50, 000 to 250, 000—
C edar R apid s, Iowa --------------C ham paign-U rbana, 111----------G reen Bay, W is---------------------

09
10
22

557,426
576, 007
523, 642

125
126
130

North C entral---outside SM SA’ s --------Population 2, 500 to 50, 000--D evils Lake, N. Dak--------------Findlay, Ohio ----------------------L a S a lle , 111----------------------- .—
N iles, M ich--------------------------Owatonna, M inn--------------------C am bridge, O h io ------------------C rookston, M in n ------------------L ogan sp ort, In d --------------------Manhattan, K ans ------------------M enasha, Wis -----------------------

2, 646, 407
236,150
268,722
251, 385
268,722
268,722
311, 718
288,628
278,320
251, 385
222, 655

49
55
55
61
48
43
61
50
45
58

7, 060, 484

809.
187.
331.
063.
430.
987.

8
8
8
8
5
1

1, 676

364.
647.
034.
686.
983.

6
9
7
0
4

525

18
20
60
38
65
54
13
29
62
63

995.
929.
484.
846.
944.

5, 641. 2
5, 082. 9
4, 694. 2

74, 985
81, 412
74, 985

23
25
19

3, 260. 2
3, 256. 5
3, 946. 6

4, 459. 4
4, 571. 5
4, 028. 0

102, 287
137,981
109, 677

22
17
21

4, 649. 4
8, 116. 5
5, 222. 7

-

4, 819.
4, 885.
4, 570.
4, 405.
5, 598.
7, 249.
4, 731.
5, 566.
5, 586.
3, 838.

4
9
6
3
4
3
6
4
3
9

088.
211.
383.
058.

4
5
2
8

176

1 ,4 9 6 .3
1, 812. 2

64, 994
42, 365

12
13

5, 416. 2
3, 258. 8

198
178
201

6, 192. 1
7, 117. 4
6, 302. 9

8 6,652
128, 580
120, 787

19
20
16

4, 560. 6
6, 429. 0
7, 549. 2

110
106
112
135

5,
5,
4,
4,

136,561
128,285
92, 030
111, 405

19
25
21
31

7,
5,
4,
3,

468, 342
585, 345

313
323

Population 250, 000 to 1, 400, 000—
A tlanta, G a --------------------------D a lla s, T e x --------------------------N a sh v ille , Tenn--------------------

02
14
35

1, 226, 024
1, 266, 891
1, 266, 891

Population 50, 000 to 250, 000--A ustin, T e x --------------------------Orlando, F l a ------------------------Baton Rouge, L a ------------------Durham, N. C ----------------------

03
40
06
19

593, 250
574, 113
523, 456
556,172




7,
1,
4,
4,

85,
13,
56,
44,

-

05
50

88

12
11
13
11

1
2
0
7

911, 659

South— in sid e S M S A 's -------------------Population 1, 400, 000—
B a ltim o re, Md----------------------W ashington, D. C -------------------

See footnote at end of table.

061
327
982
647

195.
741.
685.
710.

393.
416.
673.
119.

2
2
7
8

187.
131.
382.
593.

4
4
4
7

B-8. Estimated number of consumer units in universe, number giving usable 1960-61 CES schedules,
and effective weights or expansion factors, urban and rural nonfarm population,1
by region and sampling stratum— Continued
Urban, I960- 61
Region, population stratu m ,
location SMSA, or city

South— outside SM SAl s ------------------- — ---Population 2 , 500 to 50, 000—
Cleveland, Tenn— ----- — ----------------G riffin, G a --------------- ------------------McAllen, T e x --------- --------------------R e se rv e , L a ------ — ----------------------Union, S. C ----------- -—------------------V icksbu rg, M iss • ----------------------- —
-------F lo re n c e , A l a -------------------- —
G ain esv ille, Tex -------------------------Mangum, O k la -----------------------------M a rtin sv ille, Va ---------------------- -—
O km ulgee, O k la----------------------------Sebring, F l a --- -----------------------------

City

E stim ate d
number of
C U 's in
u n iverse
3, 263, 973

43
61
38
64
50
55
54
56
50
55
48
57

E xpansion

1, 438

E xpansion

631

286,626
237,490
230, 893
237, 490
244, 475
258,755
268,134
307,857
307,857
277,072
319,698
286, 626
5, 857, 410

55
59
31
66
48
49
21
57
32
33
64
67

6,
3,
6,
3,
4,
4,
4,
5,
6,
5,
6,
5,

665.
893.
076.
710.
889.
722.
965.
497.
157.
037.
660.
028.

7
3
1
8
5
8
4
4
1
7
4
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

430, 287

104

388
302

5, 648. 7
3, 197. 4

24, 597
40, 479

10
12

2, 459. 7
3, 373. 2

9 7 8,430
946, 868
136, 783

209
204
215

4, 681. 5
4, 641. 5
636. 2

125, 721
90, 191
37,886

22

16
17

5, 714. 6
5, 636. 9
2, 228. 6

638,025

120

5, 316. 9

1 1 1 ,413

27

4, 126. 4

1, 108, 575

332

-

-

-

West— inside SM SA 's ----------------------------Population 1, 400, 000—
L os A n geles—
Long B each , C a l i f -----San F r a n c isc o —
Oakland, C alif----------

30
45

2, 191, 678
965, 626

Population 250, 000 to 1, 400, 000—
Seattle, W a s h ------ ------------- ---------Denv e r , Co 1o----- -— -— ---- — --------—
—
Honolulu, H a w a ii---------------------------

46
16
24

Population 50, 000 to 250, 000—
B a k e rsfie ld , C alif ----------- —
-----------

04

We st— outside SM SA1s ---------------------------—
Population 2 , 500 to 50, 000—
A nchorage, A lask a ------------—
---------Gallup, N. M e x --------- ------------------K lam ath F a l l s , O re g ---------- —---------E u rek a, C alif — --------- —
---------------Orem , Utah----------------------------------

01
58
27
56

39

26,
245,
342,
290,
203,

513
674
189
342
857

1 In sid e S M S A 's on ly .




Number of
u sable
sch ed ules

R u ral nonfarm , 1961
E stim ate d
number of Number of
u sable
C U 's in
schedules
u n iverse 1

89

134
58
44
42
54

4,
7,
6,
3,

197.
235.
777.
912.
775.

9
8
0
9
1

B-9. Summary of family expenditures, income, and savings, by income class, all urban and rural families
and single consumers, United States, 1960-61
Money income after tax es
F am ily c h a r a c te ris tic s, incom e,
and expenditures

F am ily c h a r a c te ris tic s:
E stim ate d number of fam ilie s in u n iverse (in thousands)--P ercen t of f a m ilie s --------------------------------------------------A verage:
Money income before tax es ------------------------------------Net change in a s s e t s and lia b ilit ie s ----------- --------------Number of fu ll-tim e e a rn e rs ------------------- --------------Age of head
____________ ____ _
_____ _________
Education of head
—
__. - . r _________ _____
Num ber of children under 18 y e a r s --------------------------P ercen t:
H om eow ners, a ll y e a r ---------------------- ------------------Auto ow ners, end of y e a r ---------------------------------------Nonwhite------------------------------------------------------------Reporting savin gs i n c r e a s e ------------------------------------No change-----------------------------------With children under 18 y e a r s __________________________
With p erso n s 65 y e a rs and o v e r ------------------------------A verage incom e, ex p en d itu re s,.and sav in g s:
Money income after tax es --------------------------------------Other money r e c e ip t s --------------------------------------------D e c re a se in a s s e t s -----------------------------------------------In crea se in lia b ilit ie s ---------------------------------------

Total

$ 1, 000

$ 1,000
to
$ 1 ,9 9 9

55, 307
100.0

2,052
3.7

5, 630
10. 2

6, 112
11. 1

6, 529
11. 8

7, 338
13. 3

7, 012
12. 7

8, 352
15. 1

7, 421
13.4

3, 742
6. 8

1, 118
2. 0

3. 2
$6, 246
$199
.8
48
10
1. 2

1.6
$573
$-7 2 2
.2
66
6
.3

2. 0
$ 1, 545
$-201
.2
61
7
.5

2.6
$ 2, 618
$-181
.4
54
8
.9

2 .9
$ 3 ,7 4 6
$-193
.6
48
9
1. 1

3. 2
$4, 922
$ -4
.8
44
10
1. 3

3. 6
$6, 045
$69
.9
43
11
1.6

3.7
$ 7 ,4 9 9
$210
1. 1
43
11
1. 6

3 .9
$ 9 , 716
$524
1. 2
44
12
1. 6

4. 1
$13,583
$ 1 ,0 9 9
1.4
47
13
1.5

3. 8
$27,753
$ 5 , 158
1. 2
51
14
1. 2

57
76
11
52
42
6
51
24

51
25
17
16
60
24
13
61

46
33
23
29
50
22
20
57

46
53
18
40
49
11
33
38

45
71
15
43
49
7
45
25

47
82
10
54
43
3
55
16

56
89
8
58
40
2
63
12

67
92
6
62
36
2
67
10

71
95
4
67
32
1
67
13

78
96
4
69
30
1
64
15

87
96
1
78
19
2
54
19

$ 7, 397
5,557
81
947
812

$ 1,774
535
71
1,098
70

$ 2 , 207
1, 521
70
510
106

$ 3j 439
2, 507
71
608
253

$ 4 ,8 2 3
3, 515
52
754
502

$5, 974
4, 504
122
650
698

$ 7 , 134
5, 491
87
668
888

$ 8 , 939
6, 707
70
921
1, 241

$11, 034
8, 554
45
1, 130
1, 305

$15,292
11,723
101
1, 970
1,498

$29, 434
21,926
340
5, 092
2, 076

-99
2, 306
359
56
40
70
1, 781
533
465
68
36
17
626
304
204
94
6
145
105
72
119
52
156
38
16
5
139
113
26
44

-130

-179
5, 002
745
317
149
155
3,636
954
783
171
79
49
1,090
505
318
173
14
201
205
179
328
114
267
121
31
20
519
465
54
64

-239
6, 213
986
358
236
205
4, 428
1, 125
920
205
94
67
1, 271
579
337
224
18
228
239
225
420
130
293
161
37
26
726
664
62
78

-229
7, 363
1, 147
477
302
265
5, 172
1, 291
1, 078
213
103
76
1, 508
684
316
343
25
263
277
284
508
155
341
190
45
39
826
768
58
90

-253

-245

-112

-14

3, 569
533
146
89
131
2, 670
753
628
125
60
29
847
408
258
142
8
174
148
117
222
86
218
73
23
10
294
251
43
55

9, 192
1, 686
686
388
307
6, 125
1, 480
1, 199
281
115
100
1,756
788
252
496
40
293
335
340
641
175
399
254
55
59
967
892
75
124

11, 279
2, 131
828
503
401
7, 416
1, 766
1, 382
384
125
121
2, 043
903
255
594
54
326
407
407
830
212
469
327
65
83
1, 222
1, 117
105
153

15,404
3, 486
1,081
688
628
9, 521
2, 100
1,560
540
121
173
2,581
1, 106
226
774
106
381
572
522
1, 133
256
600
471
90
183
1, 571
1, 390
181
242

29,448
10,854
1,473
1, 178
1,735
14,208
2, 720
1, 848
872
140
259
4, 205
1, 771
240
1, 247
284
489
1, 180
765
1, 745
336
878
665
121
395
2, 048
1, 589
459
696

Account balancing difference _____________________________

-186

-27

T o tal d isb u rsem en ts -------------------------------------------------In crease in a s s e t s _____________________________________
D e c re a se in lia b ilit ie s -------------------------------------------P e rso n a l in su ra n c e -----------------------------------------------G ifts and c o n trib u tio n s------------------------------------------E xpen ditures for cu rren t consum ption-----------------------

7,583
1, 470
487
299
280
5,047
1, 235
989
246
91
78
1,461
658
269
354
35
249
288
266
518
145
340
200
45
53
770
693
77
111

1,801
399
47
31
48
1, 276
370
309
61
22
7
462
225
131
86
8
118
71
48
79
32
130
27
11
14
85
67
18
37

Food prep ared at h o m e----------------------------------Food away from home -----------------------------------T o b a cc o ---------------------------------------------------------Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s ------------------------------------------H ousing, to t a l-------------------------------------------------S h e lt e r ----------------------------------- -----------------Rented d w elling----------------------------------------Owned d w e llin g ----------------------------------------Other s h e lt e r -------------------------------------------F u el, light, refrig eratio n , w a t e r --------------------H ousehold operation s ------------------------------------H ousefurnishings and equipm ent----------------------Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls, s e r v i c e s -----------------P e rso n a l c a r e --------------------------------------------------M edical c a re -_ ___-_-_____-_____ -____ -__-_________
_
R e c r e a tio n ------------------------------------------------------R e a d in g ___________ _______________ _________________
E d u catio n -------------------------------------------------------T ra n sp o rta tio n -------------------------------------------------A u tom ob ile-------------------------------------------------Other trav e l and tran sp o rta tio n -----------------------Other expenditures --------------------------------------------




$2, 000
to
$ 2 ,9 9 9

$ 3 ,0 0 0
to
$ 3 ,9 9 9

$ 4 ,0 0 0
to
$ 4 ,9 9 9

$ 5 , 000
to
$ 5 ,9 9 9

$ 6 , 000
to
$ 7 ,4 9 9

$ 7 , 500
to
$ 9 , 999

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0
to
$14, 999

$ 15,000

B-9. Summary of family expenditures, income, and savings, by income class, all urban and rural families
and single consumers, United States, 1960-61—Continued
r am ily c h a r a c t e r is tic s , income,
and expenditures

Total

Money income after tax es
$4, 000
$5 , 000
to
to
$ 4 ,9 9 9
$ 5 ,9 9 9

$ 1, 000

$ 1, 000
to
$ 1 ,9 9 9

$2, 000
to
$ 2 ,9 9 9

$3, 000
to
$ 3 ,9 9 9

$6 , 000
to
$ 7 ,4 9 9

$ 7 ,5 0 0
to
$ 9 ,9 9 9

$ 10,000
to
$ 1 4 ,9 9 9

$ 15,000

Value of item s receiv ed without e x p en se---------------------------F o o d ---------------------------------------------------------------------She lte r ____ ___________ ________ _________________________
Other ____________________________________________________

195
15
12
168

170
41
26
103

178
24
31
123

15-9
20
14
125

171
13
15
143

174
13
10
151

208
11
15
182

208
12
5
191

219
10
6
203

260
13
5
242

297
15
5
277

P ercen t distribution:
E xpen ditures for cu rren t consum ption--------------------------Food, to t a l____________________________________________
Food p rep ared at h o m e-------------------------------------Food away from home --------------------------------------T o b a c c o _______________________________________________
Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s ---------------------------------------------H ousing, to t a l-----------------------------------------------------S h e lt e r ----------------------------------------------------------Rented d w ellin g-- ----------------- -----------------------Owned d w e llin g -- ----------------------------------------Other sh e lt e r ----------------------------------------------F u el, light, refrig eratio n , w a t e r ------------------------H ousehold operation s ______________________________
H ousefurnishings and equipm ent— -----------------------Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls, se rv ic e s --------------------P e rso n a l c a r e -----------------------------------------------------M edical c a r e -------------------------------------------------------R e c r e a tio n ---------------------------------------------------------R e a d in g -------------------------------------------------------------E d u cation _____________________________________________
T ra n sp o rtatio n ----------------------------------------------------A utom obile-----------------------------------------------------Other trav el and tran sp o rtatio n ---------------------------Other expenditures -----------------------------------------------

100. 0
24.5
19.6
4 .9
1. 8
1. 5
28. 9
13.0
5. 3
7. 0
.7
4 .9
5.7
5. 3
10. 3
2 .9
6. 7
4. 0
.9
1. 0
15. 3
13. 7
1. 5
2. 2

100. 0
29. 0
24. 2
4 .8
1.7
.5
36. 2
17. 6
10. 3
6 .7
.6
9. 2
5. 6
3. 8
6. 2
2. 5
10. 2
2. 1
.9
1. 1
6 .7
5. 3
1. 4
2 .9

100.0
29.9
26. 1
3.8
2. 0
1. 0
35. 1
17. 1
11. 5
5. 3
.3
8. 1
5 .9
4. 0
6. 7
2 .9
8. 8
2. 1
.9
.3
7. 8
6. 3
1. 5
2. 5

100.0
28. 2
23. 5
4. 7
2. 2
1. 1
31. 7
15. 3
9. 7
5. 3
.3
6. 5
5. 5
4. 4
8. 3
3. 2
8. 2
2. 7
.9
.4
11. 0
9 .4
1. 6
2. 1

100.0
26. 2
21. 5
4 .7
2. 2
1. 3
30. 0
13.9
8 .7
4. 8
.4
5 .5
5. 6
4 .9
9 .0
3. 1
7. 3
3. 3
.9
.6
14. 3
12. 8
1.5
1. 8

100.0
25. 4
20.8
4 .6
2. 1
1.5
28. 7
13. 1
7. 6
5. 1
.4
5. 1
5. 4
5. 1
9 .5
2 .9
6. 6
3. 6
.8
.6
16. 4
15. 0
1. 4
1. 8

100.0
25. 0
20. 8
4. 1
2.0
1. 5
29. 1
13. 2
6. 1
6. 6
.5
5. 1
5. 4
5. 5
9 .8
3. 0
6 .6
3. 7
.9
.8
16. 0
14.8
1. 1
1. 7

100.0
24. 2
19.6
4 .6
1.9
1. 6
28. 7
12.9
4. 1
8. 1
.7
4 .8
5. 5
5. 5
10. 5
2 .9
6. 5
4. 1
.9
1. 0
15. 8
14. 6
1. 2
2. 0

100.0
23. 8
18.6
5. 2
1.7
1. 6
27. 5
12. 2
3. 4
8. 0
.7
4. 4
5. 5
5. 5
11. 2
2.9
6. 3
4. 4
.9
1. 1
16. 5
15. 1
1. 4
2. 1

100. 0
22. 1
16.4
5. 7
1. 3
1, 8
27. 1
11. 6
2. 4
8. 1
1. 1
4. 0
6. 0
5. 5
11. 9
2. 7
6. 3
4 .9
.9
1.9
16. 5
14. 6
1. 9
2. 5

100. 0
19. 1
13.0
6. 1
1. 0
1. 8
29. 6
12. 5
1.7
8. 8
2. 0
3 .4
8. 3
5. 4
12. 3
2. 4
6. 2
4.7
.9
2. 8
14.4
11. 2
3. 2
4. 9

T o ta l------------------------------------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

99.9

100. 1

100. 1

100. 0

99. 9

100. 1




B-10. Number of consumer units giving usable C S schedules, by income class, family size,
H
and region, total urban and rural United States, 1960-611
M on ey in co m e a f t e r ta x e s
F a m ily s i z e and
g e o g r a p h ic re g io n

A ll c o n su m e r u n its:
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------So u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

T o ta l

$ 1 ,0 0 0

$ 1 ,0 0 0
to
$ 1 ,9 9 9

$ 2 ,0 0 0
to
$ 2 ,9 9 9

$ 3 , 000
to
$ 3 , 999

$ 4 , 000
to
$ 4 ,9 9 9
1 ,7 9 9
448
566
511
274

1 3 ,7 2 8
3, 228
4 ,0 9 2
4 , 180
, 228

2

535
74
153
268
40

1 ,4 0 6
240
363
635
168

1 ,5 0 9
281
426
635
167

1 ,5 8 0
342
464
572

1 ,9 5 6
490
560
537
369

320
60
93
137
30

563
144
170
152
97

357
94

10
1
97
56

268
74
72
58
64

4 , 084
945

139
13
37
83

528
79
125
267
57

638
127
189
244
78

556
137
176
173
70

143

21
0

22
9

22
0

1p e r s o n :

U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

22
1
59
55
46
52

2p e r s o n s :

U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t----------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

10
,2 6
1 ,2 9 4
639

6

3 p e rso n s:
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

2 ,4 8 6
618
732
783
353

24

4 p e rso n s:
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ------------ ---------------So u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

2 ,2 4 1
558
676
637
370

17

5 p e rso n s:
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------So u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ......... ............................. ........................

1 ,4 4 9
347
441
401
260

7
17
-

1
2

33
90

8

6
6

24
52
115

1
0

11
1

-

3
16
44
3

18
37
47
9

1
2

43

73
9
15
39

6
1
1

3

1
1
1

3

31
-

1 ,5 1 2
270
477
528
237

23

63

1 1 ,7 7 2
2, 738
3, 532
3, 643
1 ,8 5 9

215
14

6

59
79
126
28

21
0
39
64

8
6
1
2

16
0

559
143
177
161
78
383
99

12
2
16
0
56

280
76
87
81
36

16
30
48

184
41
56
62
25

129
9
23
93
4

157
17
43
81
16

181
30
69
55
27

1, 152
187
316
538

1 ,3 1 2
268
392
514
138

1 ,5 8 7
389
511
465

1
0

1
2

6p e r s o n s

or m o re :
U n ited S t a t e s ------- -------------------- ---- —
No r th e a s t ------------------------------- —
N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------So u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

2p e r s o n s

or m o re :
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------So u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

1

7
14

1

6
0
131
1
0

S e e fo o tn o te a t end of ta b le .




92

1
8

51
3
843
96
193
483
71

11
1

22
2

B-10. Number of consumer units giving usable CES schedules, by income class, family size,
and region, total urban and rural United States, 1960-611—Continued
M on ey in co m e a ft e r ta x e s
F a m ily s i z e and
g e o g r a p h ic re g io n

A ll c o n su m e r u n its:
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

$ 5 ,0 0 0
to
$ 5 ,9 9 9
1 ,7 1 "'
445
550
445
277

$ 6 ,0 0 0
to
$ 7 ,4 9 9

2 061
,
549
621
472
419

$ 7 , 500
to
$ 9 ,9 9 9

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0
to
$ 1 4 ,9 9 9

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0

1 ,8 5 7
500
592
397
368

971
260
276
196
239

293
89
81
49
74

39

3
3

7
18

17
4
5
4
4

1p e r s o n :
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t----------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------ ---------------

94
18
31
24

83
26
18

1
2

2
1

27

8
6

2p e r s o n s :
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------- 1-—

-

74
26
13
15

504
150
158
114
82

504

10
2
150
12
2
12
1

399
107
130
77
85

183
43
51
38
51

417
118
123
98
78

394
117

218
63
57
50
48

59

W e s t ------------------------------------------

355
104
117
91
43

4 p erso n s:
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r th e a st ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------- ----------------

338
79
104
96
59

486
135
142

447

228
75
64
41
48

67
13
16
15
23

5 p e rso n s:
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r th e a st ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W est---------------------------- -------- -

218
52
71
56
39

301
89
94
63
55

162
40
46
34
42

52
13

208
42
69
64
33

270
61
94
67
48

280
62
103

1 ,6 2 3
427
519
421
256

1 ,9 7 8
523
603
460
392

1 ,8 1 8
492
586
390
350

3 p e rso n s:
U nited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r th e a st ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l -----------------------------

6p e r s o n s

or m o re :
U nited S t a t e s ------------- -------------------N o r th e a st ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u t h ----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------- --------------

2p e r s o n s

o r m o re :
U n ited S t a t e s ---------------------------------N o r t h e a s t ---------------------------------N o rth C e n t r a l ----------------------------S o u th -----------------------------------------W e s t ------------------------------------------

1

E n t r ie s fo r the W est and U. S.




10
1
99

10
2
84
73

10
2

140
106
81

28
9
8
6
93
57
62

6
6

49

2
2
2
2
6
9

2
2
5
1
2

163
35
53
29
46

38

954
256
271

290

12
9

235

in c lu d e t o ta l fo r A n c h o r a g e , A la s k a , w hich w as s u r v e y e d fo r 1959.

98

2
0

1
2
8
8
1
0

8
6

81
49
74

B-ll. Estimates of absolute and relative sampling errors for selected items reported by consumer units in
the 1960-61 CES urban sample
U n ited
S ta t e s

N o r th e a st

S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________ __ __ „ __ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______ __ ___________

$ 5 , 393. 00
46. 00
.9

$ 5 , 834. 00
81. 00
1. 4

$ 5 , 272. 00
61. 00
.2

F o o d , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ________________________________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ ___________ ___________
R e la tiv e .e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ ____ ____ __

1, 309. 00
. 00
.8

1,4-93. 00
18. 00
. 2

1, 263. 00
7. 00
.6

F o o d aw ay fr o m h o m e:
A v e r a g e ___ __ ____ ________ ______________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________ ____ __ __ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) _ _
_

274. 00
5. 00
1. 9

303. 00
. 00
. 6

H o u sin g , to ta l:
______
_
A v e r a g e __ ____ __ __
___ __ ___
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ ___________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ __ __ __ ____ __

1, 594. 00
18. 00
. 1

S h e lt e r , fu e l, lig h t, e tc . :
A verage _
S a m p lin g e r r o r _________ ____ _________ ___
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______ ________________

G ro u p o r ite m 1

N orth
C e n tr a l

South

W est

T o ta l e x p e n d itu r e s fo r c u r r e n t c o n su m p tio n :

1

$ 4 , 769. 00
1 1 4 .0 0
2. 4

1 112. 00
,
2 . 00
1

$ 5 , 777. 00
116. 00
. 0

2

1. 9

1, 366. 00
40. 00
. 9

2 5 3 .0 0
. 00
4. 1

239. 00
. 00
4. 9

311. 00
. 00
3. 4

1, 746. 00
39. 00
. 2

1, 563. 00
23. 00
1. 5

1 ,4 0 8 . 00
44. 00
3. 1

1, 664. 00
. 00
. 2

9 1 00
9.
1. 00
0
10
.

1 119. 00
,
25. 00
22
.

9 9 5 .0 0
. 00
.2

1
2
1

820. 00
. 00
2. 7

1, 025. 00
14. 00
1. 3

324. 00
5. 00
1. 5

401. 00
. 00
.9

1
2
2

3 0 4 .0 0
. 00
.0

6
2

24 5. 00
. 00
3. 8

9

34 5. 00
13. 00
3. 7

380. 00
. 00
. 1

388. 00
16. 00
4. 2

399. 00
. 00
.6

1
0
2

325. 00
. 00
. 1

2
0
6

41 9 . 00
16. 00
3. 8

3. 00
2. 4

137. 00
4. 00
.8

124. 00
5. 00
3. 7

67. 00
. 00
. 2

6
9

1 0 00
1.
8 00
.
69
.

H o u se h o ld o p e r a t io n s , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ___________ __ __
________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ __
__ __ __ ____ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
____ __ ___________

319. 00
5. 00
1. 5

338. 00
. 00
2. 7

291. 00
. 00
.6

316. 00
13. 00
4. 1

338. 00
5. 00
1. 5

L o c a l te lep h o n e :
A verage
____ — ___ __ __ __ __ ________
S a m p lin g e r r o r _____
__________ _________ ___
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
____
________

6 . 00
9
100
.
11
.

81. 00
. 00
.0

1. 5

57. 00
. 00
3. 9

70. 00
. 00
. 6

H o u s e fu r n ish in g s and e q u ip m en t:
A v e r a g e ________ _____________________ ________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________

277. 00
4. 00
.6

285. 00
7. 00
2. 3

272. 00
7. 00
2. 7

2 6 5 .0 0
. 00
4. 1

H o u se h o ld t e x t i le s , to ta l:
A v e r a g e _______ ______________________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r
____ __
_______ ____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
___ __
____ ___

36. 00
. 00
2. 4

41 . 00
. 00
3. 9

33. 00
. 00
5. 0

3 2 .0 0
. 00
5. 8

37. 00
. 00
4. 7

2 00
.

. 12
5 .4

2 00
.
. 13
63
.

2 00
.
. 15
62
.

4. 00
4. 6

84. 00
. 00
2. 5

77. 00
5. 00
. 6

59. 00
. 00
3. 1

65. 00
. 00
3. 7

75. 00
3. 00
3. 9

73. 00
3. 00
3. 9

13. 00
. 00
9. 0

1 . 00
2
100
.
1. 0
0

15. 00
. 00
13. 8

1
0

1

1

8
2
2

1
0

1
2

2
2

2

1
1

2
0
1

R e n te d d w e llin g, to tal:
__ ______
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ ____ ______
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________
Owned d w e llin g , to ta l:
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___
__ __ ____ __ __ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______ ______ __ ___
T a x e s due in s u r v e y y e a r , on owned d w e llin g:
A v e r a g e ____
______
_
_
S a m p lin g e r r o r
________ ____
___ __ ____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ____ _ __ ____ ____

T o w e ls:
A v e r a g e ______ ________
______ _ __ ____
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ___________
_______ _

8
2

1 1 00
1.

1

1

2 00
.

. 08
3 .4

F u r n it u r e , to ta l:
A v e r a g e __ ________ __ __ __ ___ ___ __ ____
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ __ __
__
___ ____ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)

83. 00
. 00
2 .4

M a jo r a p p li a n c e s , to ta l:
A v e r a g e _____
___
S a m p lin g e r r o r
__ ___
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)

_ _
______
___ __ __ ________
______ __
___

76. 00
. 00
.8

__ __
__ __ ___ __ ______

13. 00
. 00
4. 6

2

1
1

W ashin g m a c h in e s:
S a m p lin g e r r o r _________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)

1

S e e fo o tn o tes a t end o f ta b le .




94

2

9

1
1

2

3. 00
. 19
7. 4

8 . 00
6

2

1. 00
2
(2)
3. 9

8
2

6 . 00
8
1 00
.

2

2

2

1

2

1
1

2

6

2
2

2 2 00
9.
1 . 00
2

4. 0

2

8 . 00
6

4. 00
5. 0

2

B-ll. Estimates of absolute and relative sampling errors for selected items reported by consumer units in
the 1960-61 CES urban sample—Continued
U n ited
S ta t e s

G ro u p o r ite m 1

N o r th e a st

N o rth
C e n tr a l

South

W est

S m a ll a p p li a n c e s , to ta l:
A v e r a g e __ ______ ___ __ __ ________ _______ _
______ — — ____ ____
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) _____________________

$7. 00
. 25
3. 4

$7. 00
. 33
5. 0

$7. 00
.4 5
.3

6

$9. 00
. 67
7 .4

$7. 00
. 54
7. 8

H o u s e w a r e s , to tal:
A v e r a g e ____ ________ __
___ __ __ _ — _
_____________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ __ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
_________ __ ____

14. 00
. 00
3. 9

15. 00
. 00
.0

13. 00
. 00
5. 2

13. 00
. 00
7. 3

17. 00
. 00
.2

C lo th in g , m a t e r i a l s , s .e r v ic e s :
A v e r a g e __ ____ __ __ __ __ ____ __ _______
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ __ __ ____ __ __________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ _______

558. 00
7. 00
1. 3

620. 00
. 00
.0

1
2
2

5 3 9 .0 0
. 00
. 8

1
0
1

506. 00
. 00
3. 8

561. 00
. 00
.2

1 4 4 .0 0
. 00
1. 5

163. 00
3. 00
. 1

2

1 3 9 .0 0
4. 00
2. 7

127. 00
5. 00
4. 0

148. 00
. 00

43. 00
. 00
. 1

50. 00
. 00
.9

40 . 00
. 00
4. 3

38. 00
. 00
4. 5

42. 00
3. 00
.2

6 00
.
16
.

7. 00
. 13
1. 9

6 00
.

5. 00

7. 00
. 35
5. 2

7. 00
.4 8
7. 0

2 00
.

1

1
8

1

1

1
9

2
1
0

1
2
2

M en, 18 y e a r s and o v e r—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e _________________________
_______
S a m p lin g e r r o r
__
__
__________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
S u it s , s p o r t s c o a t s , and t r o u s e r s :
A v e r a g e ______
_
_
S a m p lin g e r r o r
____ ____ _ _
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
____

2

1
2

_ _ _ _ _

____

H o s ie r y :
A v e r a g e ______ _ _ _ _ ___________
S a m p lin g e r r o r _ ____________
_
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__
__
__

__

_

__

_

__

__

_

__

__

_

_

. 10

1
2

2

2

18
3. 0

. 20

8 00
.
. 91
1. 8
1

8 00
.
. 98
1. 9
2

6 00
.

2 00
.

2 00
.

.

3. 9

6

3. 9

6

B o y s , 16 and 17—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ----------------- ---------- _ _ _ _
S a m p lin g e r r o r
___________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__

__

__

_______

______

_________

_

__

S u it s , s p o r t s c o a t s , and t r o u s e r s :
A v e r a g e ___ _ _ _ _
_
_ __
______
S a m p lin g e r r o r
________ _ _ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r ( p e r c e n t ) __________________
H o s ie r y :
A v e r a g e ____ _______ _ _
S a m p lin g e r r o r
_______________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) _____ _ _

. 11

7. 1
.

_______

__

_

__

__

_

__

30

. 02

66
.

1. 04
1 7 .4

5. 00
. 61
. 1

1
2

1 . 00

1 . 00

. 23.
13. 0

. 25
17. 0

. 19
19. 6

7. 3

. 36
. 05
13. 2

. 27
. 04
13. 9

2. 2
1

47. 00
3. 00
.0

47 . 00
. 00
4. 3

43. 00
. 00
4. 7

52. 00
3. 00
5. 2

7. 00
.4 7
.7

7. 00

. 21

10. 5
.

30

. 02

.
.

25
05

B o y s , 2 to 15—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e __
„
__
____ _ _
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ _ _ ____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__

47. 00

_____________
__________
_____

_____

__
_

_
_

S u i t s , s p o r t s c o a t s , and t r o u s e r s :
__________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) __________________

S h o e s:
A v e r a g e ______
___ _ _ _ _
_____ _______
_
S a m p lin g e r r o r
__
__
__
_____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________________

1 . 00

26
.
8 00
.
29
3. 6

.

6
9 00
.

67
7. 1

.

2

8 00
.
59
7. 4

.

1 . 00
0
26
26
.

9 00
.
57
61
.

1. 00
0

216. 00
4 . 00
1. 6

2 5 3 .0 0
. 00
3. 1

37. 00

43. 00

.

.

.4 1
4. 1

2

6
9 00
.
46
5 .4

.

33

4. 7

1. 00
2

65
5. 2

.

.

2 0 6 .0 0
5. 00
2. 3

191. 00
. 00
4. 1

206. 00
7. 00

35. 00

34. 00

34. 00
. 00
4. 8

W om en, 18 y e a r s and o v e r—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e _____ _____
__
_____________
S a m p lin g e r r o r
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
___

__
_

_ _ _ _ _
______

D re sse s:
A verage
___
___
S a m p lin g e r r o r _ _ _
_
R e la tiv e e r r o r ( p e r c e n t ) ___________________ __________

1. 0 0

20
.

H o s ie r y :
S a m p lin g e r r o r _________________ __________
R e la tiv e e r r o r ( p e r c e n t ) _________ __ ______

17. 00
.3 1
1.

8

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




96

8

1. 00

3. 2

2 . 00
2
63
2 .9

.

1. 0 0

28
.

17. 00
.4 4
. 6

2

8

2 00
.

5. 8
14. 00
. 78
5 .4

3. 3

2

16. 00
. 43

2. 7

B-ll. Estimates of absolute and relative sampling errors for selected items reported by consumer units in
the 1960-61 CES urban sample—Continued
U n ited
S ta t e s

G ro u p o r ite m 1

N o r th e a st

N o rth
C e n tr a l

$12. 00
. 00
. 2

$ 1 1 .0 0
. 00
13. 2

$ 9 . 00
. 00
22. 7

100
.

South

W est

G i r l s , 16 and 17—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ____ ____ ____
_ — -------S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ ___
____ „ __ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
-_______ ________

$ 1 0 .0 0
. 00
7. 6

D re sse s:
A v e r a g e ____ — ____ __ — _
____ __
S a m p lin g e r r o r
- — ___________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ___ __ __ ____ __

I. 00
. 10
.2

8

. 22
15. 3

1 00
.
. 18
1. 6
2

. 00
. 21
20. 5

H o s ie r y :
A v e r a g e ________ ___________________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ ___________ ____ „
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ____ __
___

. 67
. 06
.8

. 87
. 15
17. 1

. 90
. 12
13. 2

.4 0
. 08
20. 3

. 38
. 05
12. 5

C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v erage
_ _
_
___ _____
S a m p lin g e r r o r
____ __ ____ ________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ___________________

54. 00
. 00
2. 5

5 7 .0 0
. 00
.6

53. 00
. 00
4 .4

49 . 00
3. 00
5. 9

60. 00
5. 00
. 0

D re sse s:
___
___
A v erage
S a m p lin g e r r o r _____________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e r c e n t)
_______ _ ______

7. 00
. 23
3. 3

6 00
.

6 00
.

S h o es:
A v e r a g e __ ____ ____ __ __
___ ____ ___
S a m p lin g e r r o r _____________________________
____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)

9 00
.
. 24
26
.

9 00
.

6 00
.

. 22
3. 7

1

1
1
0

8

2

2

$8. 00
. 00
16. 0

1

100
.

1

. 17
18. 6

G ir ls 2 to 15—

1

1
2

. 18
3. 0

2

.4 8
7 .4

9 00
.

7. 00
.4 7
. 2

6

8

8 00
.

. 75
9. 2

1 . 00
2

. 36
4. 1

9. 00
. 50
5. 8

6 00
.
. 53
89
.

7. 00
. 34
4 .9

4. 00
. 37
.3

7. 00
.4 7
. 9

58. 00
. 00
.8

62. 00
. 00
. 6

54. 00
. 00
3 .4

2

60. 00
3. 00
5. 5

5 7. 00
. 00
. 1

792. 00
. 00
1. 4

1
1

74 9. 00
. 00
1. 3

1
0

802. 00
23. 00
.9

743. 00
24. 00
3. 2

9 2 4 .0 0
35. 00
3. 7

309. 00
9. 00
3. 0

283. 00
. 00
4. 4

327. 00
. 00
.2

2
0
6

2 2 00
9.
18. 00
61
.

348. 00
27. 00
7. 7

G a so lin e :
A v e r a g e ________________________________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r
__ ___________________________
________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
_

1 6 5 .0 0
. 00
1. 5

132. 00
. 00
1. 3

175. 00
4. 00
.2

168. 00
. 00
3. 4

L o c a l p u b lic t r a n sp o r ta tio n :
A v erage_
__ __
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r ( p e r c e n t ) _____ ___ _______ __

38. 00
. 00
.8

62. 00
. 00
3. 6

2

33. 00
. 00
4. 8

25. 00
. 00
9. 2

2 . 00
1
2 00
.
1. 8
0

M e d ic a l c a r e , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ________________________________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ ___ _ _ ___________ ____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
-------

355. 00
4. 00
. 1

367. 00
. 00
2. 7

341. 00
7. 00
. 1

319. 00
5. 00
. 6

411. 00
7. 00
. 8

99. 00
4. 00
3. 7

82. 00
4. 00
4. 7

97. 00
. 00
.7

. 31
3. 5

. 86
7. 3

C h ild re n u n d er 2—
C lo th in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ____
__ ____ __
___________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___________ ___ __ ____ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ ____ ________

8

6

C loth in g u p k e ep , to ta l:
S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ __ ____ __ __________
__ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) _ ___ _
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , to tal:
A v e r a g e ___________ ____
_________
_ ____
____ _
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________ __ _____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ ____ ___ ______

1
1

1
1

2

A u to m o b ile p u r c h a s e :
S a m p lin g e r r o r __________ !______________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ ________ __ __

P r e p a id c a r e and h o s p ita liz a tio n :
A v e r a g e _____________________ ___________

____

R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ____________

___

1
2

2

2

1
2

1
0

1

8 . 00
8

91. 00
. 00
1. 9

2

3. 00
3. 5

S e e fo o tn o te s at end of ta b le .




96

2

2

2

6

2

1

1
2

2 1 00
0.
9 00
.

4. 4

1

2
1

|
B-ll. Estimates of absolute and relative sampling errors for selected items reported by consumer units in
the 1960-61 CES urban sample— Continued
U n ited
S ta t e s

G ro u p o r ite m 1
P h y s ic ia n s , e tc . , not in h o s p ita l:
A v e r a g e ___
_____________ _________________
S a m p le e r r o r __________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________

N o r th e a st

N o rth
C e n tr a l

South

W est

$58. 00
. 00
1. 9

1

$ 6 4 .0 0
. 00
3. 1

2

$57. 00
. 00
3. 7

2

$50. 00
. 00
3. 8

2

$64. 00
3. 00
4. 7

--- --------------- ----------------S a m p lin g e r r o r
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) — ___________________

1 5 5 .0 0
. 00
.0

2
1

157. 00
3. 00
.2

2

150. 00
. 00
.6

2
1

1 5 7 .0 0
4. 00
. 2

157. 00
. 00
. 2

H a ir c u t s , m en and b o y s:
A v e r a g e ______ -__________ ___________________ ___
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ __ __________ _ — ________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________

33. 00
(2)
.2

34. 00
. 00
1. 7

1

33. 00
. 00
.0

1
2

32. 00
. 00
3. 1

1

33. 00
. 00
3. 1

P e r s o n a l c a r e s u p p lie s :
____________________
A v e r a g e _________________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ _ ________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t)
_____________________

83. 00
. 00
.0

83. 00
. 00
. 1

80. 00
. 00
1. 3

1

84. 00
. 00
2. 3

8 . 00
8
2 00
.
26
.

R e c r e a t io n , to ta l:
__
_
____
_______
A v e r a g e _______ S a m p lin g e r r o r ______ ________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
____ ______________

217. 00
3. 00
.6

2 1 4 .0 0
. 00
3. 0

187. 00
. 00
3. 4

262. 00
. 00
4. 1

M o v ie s:
___ ____ __ ___________ ____
A v e r a g e — __
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ______________________

18. 00
. 37
. 1

. 78
3. 6

16. 00
. 55
3. 5

14. 00
. 85
5. 9

19. 00
. 63
3. 4

R e a d in g , to ta l:
A v e r a g e ________ ___ ____________ ____________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
___
______________

49. 00
. 00
1. 7

1

57. 00
. 00
2. 5

1

50. 00
. 00
3. 2

40. 00
. 00
4. 8

48. 00
. 00
4. 2

__ ____________ ____

60. 00
3. 00
4. 7

70. 00
7. 00
9. 8

58. 00
5. 00
. 1

56. 00
5. 00
9. 5

54. 00
4. 00
. 1

P e r s o n a l in su r a n c e :
_
___ ______ ________
A v e r a g e ________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ________________________________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ________ __ ________

323. 00
4. 00
1. 3

341. 00
. 00
2. 3

8

3 3 0 .0 0
7. 00
.0

G ifts and c o n tr ib u tio n s:
A v e r a g e ______ ___
___ ______
S a m p lin g e r r o r _________ ________ ___________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t) ______________________

302. 00
7. 00
.2

341. 00
. 00
3. 4

___

6 678. 00
,
72. 00
11
.

W age and s a l a r y e a r n in g s :
A v e r a g e ___ _________________ ____________ __
S a m p lin g e r r o r
________ ________ ___________
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t) ___ ______________ __

5, 192. 00
53. 00
.0

P e r s o n a l c a r e , to ta l:

E d u c a tio n , to tal:
A v e r a g e ________

_ _ _ _ _

R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t)

__ _ ___________

M on ey in c o m e b e fo r e t a x e s :
A v e r a g e ___________ ______
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t)

___
____

_____________
______

1

1
1
1

2

2

1

M on ey in c o m e a ft e r t a x e s :
________________
_____
___

5, 890. 00
59. 00
.0

N et ch an ge in a s s e t s and li a b i li t i e s
A v e r a g e ________ ________ ___ ____ ___________
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___ __ _ _ ___ _ _ ____ __
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc e n t)
__ ______________ __

176. 00
30. 00
16. 0

D iv id e n d s:
A v e r a g e ___ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ ________ ___
S a m p lin g e r r o r ___
__ ___ ________ __ ____
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t)
_ ____

10 0
0 .0
9 00
.
89
.

___ _ ____
S a m p lin g e r r o r
R e la tiv e e r r o r (p e rc en t)

1

1
2

2
2

2 0 00
2.

5. 00
2. 4

2 . 00
1

6

2

8

2

2

6

2

2 2 00
9.
8 00
.

2
1
1

1
1

2

8

2. 7

329. 00
15. 00
4. 5

277. 00
. 00
3. 2

272. 00
13. 00
4. 8

320. 00
23. 00
7. 3

7, 212. 00
183. 00
2. 5

6 708. 00
.
76. 00
11
.

5, 752. 00
132. 00
2. 3

7, 112. 00
152. 00
. 1

5, 5 9 L 00
. 00
.0

5, 378. 00
95. 00
.8

4, 396. 00
. 00
. 1

5, 409. 00
129. 00
2. 4

5, 933. 00
64. 00
. 1

5, 153. 00
109. 00
. 1

6 251. 00
,
125. 00
20
.

67. 00
75. 4

326. 00
48. 00
14. 7

128. 00
59. 00
46. 1

155. 00
52. 00
33. 4

153. 00
24. 00
15. 7

65. 00
13. 00
.8

97. 00
14. 00
14. 0

71. 00
. 00
15. 0

1
2

11
1
2

6 291. 00
,

150. 00
2. 4

8 - 00
9

2

9

1

1

2
0

9
2
2

2

2

1
1

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s, in c o m e , e tc . m a y d iffe r s lig h tly fr o m th o se p u b lish e d in C E S r e p o r t s b e c a u se o f the o m is s io n
of A n c h o r a g e , A la s k a , an d H on olulu, H a w aii fr o m the co m p u tatio n s o f sa m p lin g e r r o r .
L e s s than $ 0 .5 0 .




97

B-12. Comparison of consumer units giving usable schedules and other consumer units in the 1960-61
CES urban sample, by selected family characteristics
T o ta l

C h a r a c te r istic

9 ,4 7 6

________ —

— ____

1 1 ,0 6 2

9 ,4 7 6

1 ,5 8 6

10 0
0.
2. 7
80
.
83
.

10 0
0.

100
0.

F a m ily s iz e :
N u m b er r e p o r t i n g ______________________________
P e r c e n t a g e d istr ib u tio n _ — ____ —
S in g le c o n s u m e r ____
— __ ___
p e r s o n s ____ ____ ____
__
3 p erso n s
__ — __
___
__ - ____
4 p erso n s
5 p e r s o n s ____________ ____ — ~
p e r s o n s o r m o r e ______
— —

2

6

_____

________
____ —
___
________
— — —
— —
_____ -

— — ----

P e r c e n t a g e d istr ib u tio n _
______
____ —
U n d er 2 5 ..........................................................................
25 to 34 ............................................................................
34 to 4 4 ............................................................................
45 to 54 „ .....................................................................
55 to 64 .......................................
..............
65 to 74
........................................................................
75 and o v e r _ __
__
____________ __
O ccu p atio n of fa m ily h e ad :
N u m b e r r e p o r t i n g _______

____

„

__

__________

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n _____ __ ___________________
S e lf - e m p lo y ed __ ______
__ ________ __ __ __
S a la r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s , o f f i c i a l s ___ ____
____
C le r ic a l, s a le s
__ _________________
W age e a r n e r s :
S k ille d and s e m i s k i l l e d ________ ____ —
U n sk ille d
________ ________ ___________________
O ccu p atio n not r e p o r t e d __________________________
I n A r m e d F o r c e s _______

N ot w o rk in g:
R e t i r e d ___________ —
O th e rs ______________
R ace:
N u m b e r r e p o r tin g

_

______

________

__

__________

— __ i _____ __ ______
_______________________ —

______

__

2 822
,

1 ,2 8
29

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n ____ __ ____ __ ____
U n d e r $ 1 ,0 0 0
...........................................................
$ 1, 000 to $ 1, 999 ......................................................
$ 2 , 000 to $ 2 , 999 ...................................................
$ 3 , 000 to $ 3 , 999 __________________________
$ 4 , 000 to $ 4 , 999 ......................................................
$ 5 , 000 to $ 5 , 999 ......................................................
$ 6 ,0 0 0 to $ 7 ,4 9 9 ......................................................
$ 7, 500 to $ 9 , 999 ...................................................... '
$ 10, 000 to $ 14, 999 .............. ..................................
$ 15, 000 and o v e r _________________ ____ —

A g e of fa m ily h ead :
N u m b e r r e p o r tin g _ ________

O th er 1
(n o n re sp o n se )

_________

T o t a l, c o n su m e r u n i t s __________
In c o m e b e fo r e t a x e s :
N u m b e r r e p o r tin g „ ___

G ivin g u s a b le
s c h e d u le s

________

____

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n _____________________ __ __
W h i t e ............................................................................................
N egro
__ __________ ______ __ ___________________
Othe r
___• _
_
__ __
___________________

9 .4
1 0 .4
1 1 .4
15. 4
16. 9
1 2 .4
5. 1

1 ,9 2
18
10 0
0.

2. 3
7. 8
8 .4
9. 1
10. 3
.6
15. 6
17. 8
12. 5
4. 6

1
1

5. 7
9 .4
7. 7
.6
.8
10. 7
13. 7
11. 3
1 1 .9
.2

1
0
1
0
8

9 ,4 7 6

2, 506

10 0
0.

10 0
0.

17. 3
29. 2
17. 6
16. 6
1 0 .4
.9

16. 5
29. 7
18. 2
16. 5
1 0 .4
.7

1 1 ,8 9 7

9 ,4 7 6

2 ,4 2 1

10 0
0.

10 0
0.

100
0.

5. 0
18. 9
2 2 .4
.2
16. 3
11. 7
5. 5

5. 2
19. 5
.6
1 9 .9
15. 6
1 1 .9
5. 3

4. 3
1 6 .4
21. 5
.6
19. 0
.9
.3

1 1 ,3 6 6

9 ,4 7 6

100
0.

1, 890

10 0
0.
68
.

8

2
0

8

2
2

2 0 .4
27. 2
15. 3
17. 0
.6
9. 5

1
0

2
1
1
0
6

100
0.

17. 9
13. 0

6 .4
17. 9
.8

1
2

9. 2
18. 0
14. 0

29. 2
13. 0

30. 2
13. 0

24. 2
13. 2

. 2

. 2

10
.
1. 9
2
60
.

11
.

. 3
. 5

13. 0
5 .4

1. 1
2
85
.

1 1 ,7 1 8

9 ,4 7 6

2, 242

10 0
0.
8. 7
6
11. 1
22
.

10 0
0.
8. 5
6

11. 1

100
0.
8. 2
8

10. 7

2 .4

1. 1

1 1 ,7 2 6

9 ,4 7 6

2, 250

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

28. 7
58. 4
.0

29. 3
58. 5
11. 5

__

. 9

. 7

26. 2
57. 5
1 4 .4
1. 9

______

1 1 ,8 2 3

9 ,4 7 6

2, 347

P e r c e n t a g e d istr ib u tio n _________ __ __ ________
O w ner a l l y e a r
_
__ _ ____ ________
R e n te r a ll y e a r
____ ____
__ __ __________
O th er _
____ ___ _____ __ __________ __________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

55. 5

54. 0
42. 3
3. 7

62. 0
38. 0

N u m b e r o f fu ll- t im e e a r n e r s :
N u m b e r r e p o r tin g _ ________________

________________

P e r c e n t a g e d istr ib u tio n _ __ __ ______ ______ „
None
..............................................................................................

1
2

3

o r m o r e ___

__

______

H ou sin g te n u re :
N u m b er r e p o r t i n g _____

__

______

__

______________

__

41. 5
3. 0

1

C o m p i l e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d o n th e b a c k o f S c h e d u l e 2 6 4 8 - A . (S e e p . 1 1 5 ). T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e n o t s t r i c t l y
c o m p a r a b l e w it h t h o s e f o r c o n s u m e r u n it s g i v in g u s a b l e s c h e d u l e s .
F o r e x a m p l e , th e n u m b e r o f f a m i l y m e m b e r s w a s r e ­
c o r d e d o n 2 6 4 8 - A a s o f th e d a te o f th e i n t e r v i e w .
T h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s in f a m i l i e s g i v in g u s a b l e s c h e d u l e s r e p r e s e n t s
th e n u m b e r o f e q u i v a l e n t , f u l l - y e a r m e m b e r s . (S e e e x p l a n a t io n o n p . 1 7 ).




98

B-13. D is trib u tio n o f consum er units g iv in g usable schedules in the 1960-61 CES nonfarm sam ple,
by detailed fam ily characteristics
Num ber of consum er units
Code

C h a ra c te ristic

A ll con su m er units __
1
2

H eaded by:
_ _____ __________
M ale _
F e m a l e ________ __________

1960^61

R u ral
nonfarm
1961

11,627

9, 342

2, 285

9 ,468
2, 159

7, 490
1, 852

Total
nonfarm
_

____

__

__________ ____
_______ _______

P erc en t d istribu tion
1960^61

R u ral
nonfarm
1961

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1, 978
307

8 1.4
18. 6

80. 2
19. 8

86. 6
13. 4

T otal
nonfarm

11
12
23
24
35
36
47
18

Education of head
__
_
______
L e s s than 8 y e a rs _ ____ ___ _
_ ___ — —
8 y e a r s _____ __ ____ ___________________ __
_ _
_ __ _
_ _______ __
9 through 11 y e a r s _
12 y e a rs (high school g r a d u a te ) __ __________
13 through 15 y e a rs ____ _______ __________
16 y e a rs (college gradu ate) _____ __________
M ore than 16 y e a rs (p o stg r a d u a te )___________
Not r e p o r te d ________ __ _______ __________

11, 627
1, 857
1,904
2, 143
2, 946
1,099
897
490
291

9, 342
1, 313
1,450
1, 725
2 ,458
952
790
423
231

2, 285
544
454
418
488
14 7
107
67
60

100. 0
16. 0
16.4
18.4
25. 3
9. 5
7. 7
4. 2
2. 5

100.
14.
15.
18.
26.
10.
8.
4.
2.

0
1
5
5
3
2
5
6
3

100.
23.
19.
18.
21.
6.
4.
2.
2.

0
8
9
3
4
4
7
9
6

11
22
23
34
45
56
67
68
69

F am ily siz e ____________________________________
1. 0 p e r s o n ________
_
_ _
1. 1 to 1.9 p e r s o n s ____________ _______ ____
2. 0 to 2. 9 p e r s o n s ________ ________________
3. 0 to 3. 9 p e r s o n s ____________ _______ ____
4. 0 to 4. 9 p e r s o n s _____ ____ _____________
5. 0 to 5. 9 p erso n s
_ _________ ________
6. 0 to 6. 9 p e r s o n s ________ __ __ __________
7. 0 to 7. 9 p e r s o n s _____ ___________________
8. 0 p erso n s and over _______ _ _________

11, 627
1,814
181
3, 276
2, 086
1,905
1,232
612
286
235

9, 342
1, 545
150
2, 614
1, 703
1, 545
971
450
210
154

2, 285
269
31
662
383
360
261
162
76
81

100. 0
15. 0
1. 6
28. 1
17. 9
16.4
10. 6
5. 3
2. 5
2. 0

100.0
16. 5
1. 7
28. 0
18. 2
16. 5
10. 4
4. 8
2. 2
1. 7

100.
11.
1.
29.
16.
15.
11.
7.
3.
3.

0
8
3
0
8
8
4
1
3
5

1
2
3

F a m ily m em b ersh ip -------------------------------------F u ll- y e a r m em b ers o n ly _____________________
F u ll-y e a r and p a r t-y e a r m e m b e r s ___________
P a rt- y e a r m em b ers only ____________________

11, 627
10,038
1,589
(2)

9, 342
8, 082
1, 260
( 2)

2, 285
1, 956
329
( 2)

100. 0
86. 3
13. 7
( 2)

100. 0
86. 5
13. 5
(2)

100. 0
85. 6
14. 4
(2)

R elation sh ip of fam ily m e m b e r s ---------------------Single c o n su m e r __ ________
__ _______ __
Husband and wife only _______________________
Husband and w ife, own children, no
__
other p erso n s in fam ily ______________
Husband and w ife, own children,
other re la tiv e s __ __ __ _ _______________
_
One parent (head), own children, no
other p erso n s in fam ily ________ __________
One parent (head), own children,
other r e l a t i v e s ______
____ __ _____
Husband and w ife, no own children,
other r e l a t i v e s _____________________________
Husband and w ife, no own children,
oth ers not r e la t e d __________________________
A ll o t h e r ________
_ ___
_ _
__ _____

11, 627
1,809
2, 560

9, 342
1, 541
2, 016

2, 285
268
544

100. 0
15. 6
22. 0

100. 0
16. 5
21. 6

100. 0
11. 7
23. 8

5,4 8 9

4, 326

1, 163

47. 1

46. 2

50. 9

480

373

107

4. 1

4. 0

4. 7

624

54 2

82

5. 4

5. 8

3. 6

A ge of children of h e a d ----------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4

5-9

O ldest child under 6 y e a rs _ __ __ __________
O ldest child 6 through 11, youngest
under 6 y e a rs ___________ __ _______ ____
A ll children 6 through 11 ____________________
A ll children 12 through 1 7 ___________________
O ldest child 12 through 17, youngest
under 6
_ _
_ _ _
_
_
_ ____
O ldest child 12 through 17, youngest
6 through 11 ____ ___________________ ____
O ldest child 18 and o ver, youngest under 6 _
_
O ldest child 18 and over, youngest
6 through 1 7 ___ ___ _____________________
A ll children 18 and over ________ __________
N um ber of e a r n e r s --------------------------------------No fam ily m em ber em ployed ________________
1 fam ily m em ber e m p lo y e d __________________
2 fam ily m em b ers e m p lo y e d _________________
3 fam ily m em b ers e m p lo y e d _________________
4 fam ily m em b ers e m p lo y e d _________________
5 or m ore fam ily m em b ers e m p lo y e d ________

123

97

26

1. 1

1. 0

1. 1

201

164

37

1. 7

1. 8

1. 6

6
335

5
278

1
57

.1
2. 9

. 1
3. 0

( 3)
2. 5

11,627
4, 889
1,489

9, 342
3, 984
1, 224

2, 285
905
265

100. 0
42. 0
12. 8

100. 0
42. 7
13. 1

100. 0
39. 6
11. 6

1,012
531
705

797
430
571

215
101
134

8. 7
4. 6
6. 1

8. 5
4. 6
6. 1

9. 4
4. 4
5. 9

544

401

143

4. 7

4. 3

6. 3

684
139

519
104

165
35

5. 9
1. 2

5. 6
1. 1

7. 2
1. 5

687
947

535
777

152
170

5 .9
8. 1

5. 7
8. 3

6. 7
7. 4

342
151
696
769
537
157
32

2, 285
375
1, 099
622
135
41
13

100.0
13. 1
49. 8
29. 2
5. 8
1. 7

100. 0
12. 3
50. 4
29. 6
5. 7
1. 7

11,627
1, 526
5, 795
3, 391
672
198
45

See footnotes at end of table.




99

9,
1,
4,
2,

.4

. 3

100.
16.
48.
27.
5.

0
4
1
2
9

1. 8
. 6

B 43.

D is trib u tio n o f consumer units g iv in g usable schedules in the 1960-61 CES nonfarm sam ple,1

by detailed fam ily characteristics— Continued
Num ber of consu m er units
Code

0
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

000
110
120
11
2
122
130
199

210
220
221
222
230
231
232
240
241
242
250
251
252
253
254
260
261
262
299
300
3 --

0
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9

0
2

C h a r a c te r istic

P erc en t d istribu tion

Head and any F M 's of other age com binations
em ployed, not w ife ----------------------- ■■--------Head and any other e arn e r com bination,
Head not em ployed; no other FM
em p loy ed ----------------------------------------------Head not em ployed; wife only em ploy ed --------Head not em ployed; any FM of any age
em ployed, except wife ---------------------------Head not em ployed; any other earn er
com bination including w ife ----------------------Occupation of head _____________________________
Not w orking, but not r e tir e d -----------------------Self-em ployed :
P ro fe ss io n a l and tech nical ------------------------P r o p r ie t o r s :
E xcept f a r m ----------------------------------------Helping in fam ily b u sin e ss, without p ay -------Occupation not r e p o r t e d ----------------------------S a la rie d and wage e a r n e r s:
P ro fe ss io n a l and te c h n ic a l------------------------M an agers and o ffic ia ls:
E xcept f a r m ----------------------------------------F a r m -------------------------------------------------C le ric a l and s a le s :
C le r ic a l------------------------------------------ ----S a le s --------------------------------------------------Sk illed and se m i-sk illed :
C raftsm en , forem en, e tc-----------------------O p eratives and kindred w o rk e rs-------------U nskilled:
S e rv ic e w ork ers (except household) -------Household w o r k e r s -------------------------------L a b o re rs (except farm )-------------------------F a r m l a b o r e r s ------------------------------------M em bers of A rm ed F o r c e s :
E n listed p erso n n el--------------------------------C om m ission ed o f fic e r s --------------------------O ccupation not rep o rted ----------------------------R e tire d , not working for p a y ----------------------R e tire d , p a r tia lly em ployed, but earning
le s s than retirem en t in c o m e -------------------Industry of head -------------------------------------Industry not re p o r te d 4--------------------------A g ricu ltu re , fo re s try , f is h e r i e s ------------Mining -----------------------------------------------C o n str u c tio n --------------------------------------M a n u factu rin g ------------------------------------T ran sp o rtatio n , com m unication, and
other public u t ilit ie s --------------------------T rad e (w holesale and r e ta il)------------------F in an ce, in su ran ce, and r e a l e s t a t e -------S e rv ic e s (b u sin e ss, p erso n al,
re cre atio n , and p ro fe ssio n al)---------------P ublic ad m in istratio n ---------------------------C la ss of work of head __________________________
P r iv a te ---------------------------------------------------G overnm ent----------------------------------------------

T otal
nonfarm

1960-61

R u ral
nonfarm
1961

11,627
5 ,437
2,574

9, 342
4 ,4 3 4
2,096

2, 285
1,003
478

100. 0
46. 9
22. 1

100. 0
47. 6
22. 4

100. 0
44. 0
20. 9

667

546

121

5. 7

5. 8

5. 3

203

159

44

1. 7

1. 7

1 .9

158

135

23

1 .4

1 .4

1. 0

621

E a rn e r com position ------------------------------------Head only em p loy ed ----------------------------------Head and wife only em p loy ed ----------------------Head and only F M 's 18 and over
em ployed, not w ife --------------------------------Head and only F M 's under 18 em ployed,

1960-61

R u ral
nonfarm
1961

491

130

5. 3

5. 3

5. 7

1,477
173

1,092
134

385
39

12. 7
1. 5

11. 7
1. 4

16. 8
1. 7

266

208

58

2. 3

2. 2

2. 5

51

47

4

4

.5

.2

11,627
701

9, 342
514

2, 285
187

100. 0
6. 0

100. 0
5. 5

100. 0
8. 2

Total
nonfarm

95

86

9

.8

.9

.4

674
41
2
0

483
20
0
0

191
21
2
0

5. 8
.4
(3)
0

5. 2
.2
. 0
0

8. 4
.9
. 1
0

1,189

1,047

142

10. 2

11.2

6. 2

741
9

619
1

122
8

6 .4
.1

6. 6
(3)

5. 3
.4

840
504

771
429

69
75

7. 2
4. 3

8. 3
4 .6

3. 0
3. 3

1,816
1,696

1,485
1,323

331
373

15. 6
14. 6

15.9
14. 2

14. 5
16. 2

741
169
573
96

646
143
400
27

95
26
173
69

6. 4
1. 4
4. 9
.8

6 .9
1. 5
4. 3
.3

4.
1.
7.
3.

79
31
21
1,298

66
29
19
1,008

13
2
2
290

311

226

11, 627
2,082
238
62
800
3, 000

7
3
2
2

.7
.3
.2
10. 8

.1
12. 7

85

2..7

2. 4

3. 7

9, 342
1,592
93
19
573
2,485

2, 285
490
145
43
227
515

100. 0
17.9
2. 0
.5
6. 9
2 5 .9

100. 0
i 7 .e
1. 0
.2
6. 1
26. 7

100. 0
2 1 .4
6. 3
1 .9
9 .9
22. 6

876
1,526
370

710
1., 259
326

166
267
44

7 .5
13. 1
3. 2

7. 6
13. 5
3. 5

7. 3
11. 7
1. 9

1,806
867

1,544
741

262
126

15. 5
7. 5

16. 5
7 .9

11. 5
5. 5

11, 627
2, 003
8, 113
1,511

9, 342
1,527
6, 570
1,245

2, 285
476
1,543
266

100. 0
17. 2
69. 8
13. 0

100. 0
16. 3
7 0 .4
13. 3

100. 0
20. 8
67. 6
11. 6

See footnotes at end of tab le.




100

.
.
.
11.

2
1
6
0

.6

B-13.
D is trib u tio n o f consumer units g iv in g usable schedules in the 1960-61 CES nonfarm sam ple,1
by detailed fam ily characteristics— Continued

Code

01
02
11
12
21
22
30
40
50
61
62
71
72
73
81
82
91
92
93
01
02
11
12
21
22
30
40
50
61
62
71
72
73
81
82
91
92
93
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2

C h a r a c te r istic
F am ily incom e before tax es ____________________
N egative incom e---------------------------------------0 to $ 9 9 9 --------------------------------------------$ 1,000 to $ 1 ,4 9 9 --------------------------------$ 1,500 to $ 1 ,9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 2 , 000 to $ 2, 4 9 9 ----- -------------------- --$ 2 , 500 to $ 2, 9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 3 , 000 to $ 3, 9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 4 , 000 to $ 4 , 9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 5 , 9 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 6 , 000 to $ 6 , 9 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 7 ,0 0 0 to $ 7 ,4 9 9 --------------------------------$ 7 ,5 0 0 to $ 7 ,9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 8 ,0 0 0 to $ 8 , 999 --------------------------------$ 9 , 000 to $ 9 , 9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 10, 000 to $ 1 2 ,4 9 9 -----------------------------$ 12,500 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 -----------------------------$ 15,000 to $ 1 9 ,9 9 9 -----------------------------$2 0 , 000 to $24, 9 9 9 -----------------------------$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 and o v e r --------------------------------F a m ily incom e a fte r tax es ----------------------------N egative incom e--------------------------------------0 to $ 9 9 9 --------------------------------------------$ 1,000 to $ 1 ,4 9 9 --------------------------------$ 1,500 to $ 1 ,9 9 9 --------------------------------$ 2 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 ,4 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 2 ,5 0 0 to $ 2 ,9 9 9 -------------- ---------------$ 3 ,0 0 0 to $ 3 , 9 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 4 ,0 0 0 to $ 4 , 9 9 9 --------------------------- --$ 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 5 ,9 9 9 ---------- ----------------------$ 6 ,0 0 0 to $ 6 ,9 9 9 --------------------------- —
$ 7 ,0 0 0 to $ 7 ,4 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 7 , 500 to $ 7 , 9 9 9 ------------------------ --- -$ 8 , 000 to $ 8 , 9 9 9 ---------------------------------$ 9 ,0 0 0 to $ 9 ,9 9 9 - - ---------------------- $ 10, 000 to $ 12,499 ------------------------ ---$ 12,500 to $ 1 4 ,9 9 9 -----------------------------$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 9 ,9 9 9 -----------------------------$ 2 0 ,0 0 0 to $ 2 4 ,9 9 9 -----------------------------$ 25, 000 and o v e r ---------------------------------Incom e-savings ratio 5 ---------------------------------Net sa v in g s of 10 percen t or m o re --------------Net sav in g s of 1 to 9. 9 p e r c e n t------------------No sav in g s (net sav in g s or d issa v in g s
ratio of le s s than 1 p e r c e n t)--------------------Net d issa v in g s of 1 to 9. 9 p e r c e n t--------------Net d issa v in g s of 10 percen t or m o re ----------A ll o th e r 6-----------------------------------------------Housing o ccu p an cy ---------------------------------------Owner a ll y e a r, sam e d w ellin g------------------Owner a ll y e a r, changed dw elling---------------O w ner end o f y e a r ,

re n te r e a r l i e r -----------------------

R enter end of y e a r -----------------------------------H ouse-------------------------------------------------A partm en t, fla t------------------------------------R oom (s)----------------------------------------------O th e r-------------------------------------------------O th e r-----------------------------------------------------Y ear of home p u r c h a s e ---------------------------------R enter end of y e a r ------------------------------------Owner end of y e a r, bought home in:
1961- ------------------------------------------------I 9 6 0 - ------------------- -------------------------1 9 5 8 - --------- -------- ---------1957---------------------------------------------------1950—
56 ----------------------- ---------------- 1946-49 -------------------------- -...................
1940-45 ........................................... ........................—
B e fo re 1940, or no r e p o rt---------------------H ousekeeping arran g em en ts --------------------------H ousekeeping during su rv ey y e a r ---------------N onh ousekeeping---------------------------------------

N um ber of consum er units
R u ral
nonfarm
1960-61
1961
11, 627
2, 285
9, 342
4
2
2
358
211
147
366
503
137
165
374
539
390
529
139
552
151
401
1,115
867
248
967
262
1,229
1,363
1,087
276
1,005
1, 196
191
538
454
84
521
435
86
828
711
117
595
86
509
930
833
97
51
368
317
285
255
30
65
8
73
101
93
8
11, 627
2, 285
9, 342
4
2
6
147
357
210
135
515
380
572
396
176
592
153
439
452
157
609
1,285
1,002
283
324
1,573
1,249
1,505
1, 237
268
1,116
203
1, 319
515
438
77
382
458
76
625
95
720
492
431
61
538
81
619
215
25
240
13
143
130
57
54
3
44
6
50
2, 285
11,627
9, 342
3,408
2, 685
723
405
2, 358
1,953
Total
nonfarm

P erc en t distribution
Rural
nonfarm
1960-61
1961

Total
nonfarm
100. 0
(3 )
3. 1
4. 3
4. 6
4. 5
4. 7
9. 6
10. 6
11. 8
10. 3
4. 6
4. 5
7. 1
5. 1
8. 0
3. 2
2. 5
.6
.9
100. 0
. 1
3. 1
4. 4
4. 9
5. 1
5. 2
11. 1
13. 6
13. 0
11. 3
4. 4
3 .9
6. 2
4. 2
5. 3
2. 1
1. 2
.5
.4
100. 0
29. 4
20. 3

100. 0
(3)
2. 3
3 .9
4. 0
4. 2
4. 3
9. 3
10. 4
11.6
10. 8
4 .9
4. 7
7. 6
5 .4
8 .9
3. 4
2. 7
.7
1. 0
100. 0
(3)
2. 2
4. 1
4. 2
4. 7
4. 8
10. 7
13. 5
13. 2
11.9
4. 7
4. 1
6. 7
4. 6
5. 8
2. 3
1. 4
.6
.5
100. 0
28. 7
20. 9

100. 0
0. 1
6 .4
5 .9
7. 2
6. 1
6. 6
10. 9
11. 4
12. 1
8. 4
3. 7
3. 8
5. 1
3. 8
4. 2
2. 2
1. 3
.4
.4
100. 0
.1
6 .4
5 .9
7. 7
6. 7
6 .9
12. 4
14. 1
11. 7
8 .9
3. 4
3. 3
4. 2
2. 7
3. 5
1. 1
.6
.1
.3
100. 0
31. 7
17. 7

1,340
1,746
2, 761
14
11,627
6,365
193
315
11,627
1,852
2, 589
268
13
32
11, 627
4, 733

1,098
1,392
2, 205
9
9, 342
4, 891
144
225
9, 342
1,277
2, 519
245
10
31
9, 342
4, 062

242
354
556
5
2, 285
1,474
49
90
2, 285
575
70
23
3
1
2, 285
671

11. 5
15. 0
23. 7
.1
100. 0
54. 7
1. 7
2. 7
100. 0
15.9
22. 3
2. 3
. 1
.3
100. 0
40. 7

11. 8
14. 9
23. 6
. 1
100. 0
52. 4
1. 5
2. 4
100. 0
13. 7
27. 0
2. 6
.1
.3
100. 0
43. 6

10. 6
15. 5
24. 3
.2
100. 0
64. 6
2. 1
3. 9
100. 0
25. 2
3. 1
1. 0
.1
(3 )
100. 0
29. 4

307
476
546
439
382
2, 338
694
640
1,072
11, 627
11,196
431

180
372
415
343
296
1,890
526
480
778
9, 342
8,9 5 9
383

127
104
131
96
86
448
168
160
294
2, 285
2, 237
48

2.
4.
4.
3.
3.
20.
6.
5.
9.
100.
96.
3.

1. 9
4. 0
4. 4
3. 7
3. 2
20. 2
5. 6
5. 1
8. 3
100. 0
9 5 .9
4. 1

5. 6
4. 6
5. 7
4. 2
3. 8
19. 5
7. 4
7. 0
12. 8
100. 0
9 7.9
2. 1

6
1
7
8
3
1
0
5
2
0
3
7

1 D oes not include A nchorage, A lask a, surveyed in 1959.
2 Sch edules for consu m er units containing no m em ber who m et the elig ib ility req u irem en ts for the entire su rvey y ea r
w ere not included in the total of u sab le sc h ed u les.
3 L e s s than 0. 05 percent.
4 Includes fam ily heads who w ere not working for pay.
5 The ratio of net sav in g s or d issa v in g s to fam ily incom e after ta x e s.
6 Includes con su m er units with negative incom e.
N OTE: B e ca u se of rounding, su m s of individual item s m ay not equal to tals.




101

B-14.

Com parison o f d istrib u tio n o f fam ilies by m oney incom e before taxes fro m I9 6 0 CES and Census,

U rb an U n ite d States
F a m ilie s of 2 p e rso n s
or m ore
1959
CPS
CES
D ecennial
I9603
I9601
c e n su s2

before ta x e s
E stim a te d num ber (in thousands)--P erc en t distribu tion , total ---------TTnr^-r $ 1 nfiO
$ 1, 000-$ 1, 999 __
$ 2 , 0 00-$ 2, 999 —
$ 3 ,0 0 0 -$ 3 ,9 9 9 __
$ 4 ,0 0 0 - $ 4 ,9 9 9 __
$ 5 ,0 0 0 - $ 5 ,9 9 9 —
$ 6 ,0 0 0 - $ 7 ,4 9 9 —
$ 7 , 5 0 0 -$ 9 , 999 —
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 -$ 14,999 $ 15, 000 and over .
A verag e:
M e d ia n ---------------------------------

33,406
100.0
.4
4. 3
7. 3
9. 1
11. 0
13. 1
17.5 |
19.2
13.4
4. 7
$ 7 , 260
6, 411

31,940
100.
3.
5.
7.
8.
10.
12.
34.

0
8
6
0
5
5
7
1

Individuals not in fa m ilie s
CES
I9601
6, 725

(5)
100.
3.
6.
8.
9.
10.
13.

0
1
6
2
3
5
5

11. 5
4. 1

$ 7, 272
6, 166

$ 6 ,8 0 5
5, 911

10,434

100.0
12. 1
25. 1
17. 0
15. 3
12. 3
7. 7
5. 5 f
3. 3
1.0
.7

33. 2

12. 3
5. 5

1959
D ecennial
c e n su s2

A ll fa m ilie s and individuals

CPS
I9603
(5 )

1959
D ecennial
c e n su s2

40,131

1. 2
.8

.9
.4

100. 0
2. 4
7. 8
8 .9
10. 1
11. 2
12. 2
15. 5
16.6
11. 3
4. 0

$ 2 , 572
1, 745

$ 3 , 289
2 ,753

100. 0
35. 2
19.9
12. 3
10. 2
8. 2
5 .6
6 .6

CES
I9601

100.
28.
21.
13.
11.
10.
6.

0
9
2
6
6
1
1

$ 2 , 752
1,992

42, 374

$ 6 , 595
5, 951

7. 2

CPS
I960 4

\

(5 )

100. 0
11.5
9. 2
8. 3
8 .9
10. 0
10.9
27. 3

100. 0
9. 5
10. 2
9 .5
9 .9
10. 4
11. 7
26. 7

9 .6
4. 3

8. 9
3. 2

$ 6 , 115
5, 199

$ 5 , 807
(5 )

1 Frequ en cy d istrib u tio n s d erived from unpublished tabulations from the I960 portion of the Survey of C onsu m er Expen d­
itu re s, 1960*61.
M edians calcu lated from the d istrib u tio n s.
2 C om piled from C en su s of Population; I960, S o u rce s and Stru ctu re of F am ily Incom e, P C (2)-4C , tab le s 6 and 7; and
G en eral S o c ia l and Econom ic C h a r a c t e r is tic s , P C (1)- 1C, table 95 (U. S. D epartm ent of C o m m erce, B u reau of the C en su s).
3 Income of F a m ilie s and P e rso n s in the United S ta te s: I960, C u rren t P opulation R e p o rts, C onsum er In com e, S e r ie s
P -6 0 , Nbl 37, Ja n v T , 1962, pi 25; and T ren d s in Income of F a m ilie s and P e rs o n s in the United S ta te s: 1947 to I9 6 0 ,
T ech nical P ap er No. 8, p. 37 (U. S. D epartm ent of C o m m e rce, B u reau of the C en su s).
4 D istrib ution for fa m ilie s and individuals com bined w as calcu lated by applying the C P S d istrib u tion s to the decennial
ce n su s e stim a te s of num ber of fa m ilie s (3 1 ,9 4 0 ,0 0 0 ) and individuals (1 0 ,4 3 4 ,0 0 0 ).
5 Not av a ila b le.
N OTE: B e ca u se of rounding, su m s of individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

B-15.

Selected characteristics o f fu ll-year and p art-year fam ilies in urban 1 n ite d States, 1960-611
U
A verage
Number
of
CU* s

F am ily c la ssific a tio n

P a r t- y e a r fa m ilie s o r con su m er units (CU1 s):
T o tal found at sam p le a d d r e s s e s ----------------------------------------------M oved from r u r a l a r e a s --------------------------------------------------------T o tal, excluding those from r u r a l a r e a s -----------------------------------N um ber giving u sab le sch ed u les, to tal--------------------------------------C la s s ifie d by re a so n for p a r t-y e a r sta tu s:
1. M a rrie d in su rvey y e a r; ineligible fo r fu ll-y e a r
b e ca u se both had been m e m b e rs of ex istin g CU* s --------2. B ecam e independent CU in su rvey y e a r; in eligible
for fu ll-y e a r b e cau se of m em b ersh ip in
ex istin g CU------------------------------------------------------------3. Independent before m a r ria g e or joining another
CU during the su rvey y e a r ---------------------------------------4. Split of a CU, with o r without b reak -u p of m a r ria g e
by se p a ratio n or d ivorce in su rvey y e a r ----------------------5. Returned from m ilita ry se rv ic e , institution, or
abroad in su rvey y e a r ---------------------------------------------F u ll- y e a r fa m ilie s (CU* s) giving u sab le s c h e d u le s --------------------------

Num ber
of
w eeks
CU
e x isted

F am ily

Age
of

Money
incom e
b efore

386
22
364

-

-

-

-

2293

26

1.7

29

$ 2 , 740

104

26

2. 0

23

3, 380

61

27

1.0

25

1, 915

47

26

1 .4

35

2,707

44

24

1. 6

38

2, 363

37

27

2 .4

32

2, 789

9, 476

52

3. 1

47

6 ,6 9 1

1 Includes A nchorage, A lask a, su rveyed for 1959.
2 The num ber of p a r t-y e a r fa m ilie s giving u sab le sch ed ules d iffe r s from the num ber found at sam p le a d d r e s s e s b e cau se
som e sch ed u les w ere m is c la s s ifie d , incom plete, or from fa m ilie s who m oved from r u r a l a r e a s .




102

B-16.

Com parison o f CES and Census (CPS) estim ates o f m oney incom e before taxes, 1960-61 and 1950
F a m ilie s of 2 p e rso n s or m ore
Number

Individuals not in fa m ilie s
Number
A verage A ggregate
annual
incom e
m illion s
income
(billion s)

A ll fa m ilie s and individuals
m illion s

A verage
annual
incom e

A ggregate
income
(billion s)

$ 2 9 .4
25. 8

5 6 .9
55. 3

$ 5 ,7 9 1
6, 246

$329. 5
345. 4

115

88

97

108

105

6 .9
4. 2

1, 745
2, 069

12.0
8. 8

32.7
31. 5

3, 826
4, 237

125.0
133. 6

61

119

73

96

111

107

m illion s

A verage
annual
incom e

A ggregate
incom e
(billion s)

T o tal U. S. urban and r u r a l
1960-61:
C en su s - (C P S)1 -----------.s_(r.F\c)
P erc en t: C E S of
c e n s u s ________________

45. 9
46. 9

$ 6, 510
6, 813

$298. 8
319. 6

11. 0
8. 4

$ 2 , 659
3, 070

102

105

107

76

Urban U. S*.
1950:2
C e n su s-(C P S )-------------B L S -(C E S ) ----------------P erc en t: C E S of
c e n s u s ---------------------

25. 8
27. 3

4, 381
4, 572

113. 0
124. 8

106

104

110

Item

N umber

1 D ata fo r a ll fa m ilie s and u nrelated individuals combined from H erm an P . M ille r, Income D istribution in the United States
(U. S. D epartm ent of C om m erce, B u reau of the C en su s), table 1-4, p. 11; av erag e incom e for fa m ilie s and for u n related in ­
d ividuals from unpublished tabulations furnished by the B u reau of the C en su s.
2 H elen H. L am ale , Study of C onsum er E xp en d itu res, Incom es and Savin gs— Methodology of the Survey of C onsum er
E xpen d itures in 1950, (m onograph). (Wharton School of Finance and C om m erce, U n iversity of P ennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1959).
N OTE: B e ca u se of rounding,




su m s of individual a g g re g a te s m ay not equal total.

103

B-17.

Com p arison o f expenditures o f CES fam ilies classified by incom e before and after taxes, a ll nonfarm fam ilies and single consumers,

U n ite d States, 1960-61
Money income
Item

Total

Under $3, 000
B efore

After

$ 3, 000 to $4, 999

$ 5, 000 to $7, 499

B efore

B efore

A fter

$7, 500 to $9, 999

After

After

$ 10,000 to $ 14,999
B efore

A fter

B ^ e rse
t

$ 15, 000 and over
B efore

A fter

P ercen t of fa m ilie s:
B efo re t a x e s --------------------------------A fter t a x e s -----------------------------------

100.0
100.0

22. 4
-

24. 0

20. 8
-

25. 0

26. 2
-

28. 3

16. 1
-

13. 8

10. 7
-

6 .9

3.7
-

2. 0

A verage fam ily s i z e ---------------------------

3. 2

2. 1

2. 1

3. 0

3. 0

3 .5

3. 6

3.7

3 .9

3 .9

4. 0

3.8

3.8

A verage:
Money income before tax es ------------Money income after t a x e s --------------P e rso n a l t a x e s ------------------------------

$6, 348
5, 634
714

$1,804
1, 767
37

$1, 900
1, 839
61

$4,018
3, 771
247

$4,387
4, 048
339

$6,178
5, 593
585

$6,850
6, 155
695

$8,569
7, 590
979

$9,739
8,555
1, 184

$11, 740
10, 167
1, 573

$13,615
11, 718
1, 897

$22, 734
18,060
4, 674

$27,997
21, 943
6, 054

5, 152
1, 260
1, 007
253
93
81
1, 504
682
280
366
35

2,043
600
511
89
42
21
703
348
228
113
7

2, 087
606
512
94
44
21
715
356
234
115
7

4, 096
1, 058
865
193
88
61
1, 209
562
343
203
16

5, 315
1, 318
1, 088
230
105
81
1, 547
705
309
369
27

5 ,742
1, 408
1, 155
253
111
92
1, 668
756
288
435
33

6, 788
1, 624
1, 290
333
123
117
1, 928
858
261
554
43

7,493
1, 786
1, 396
390
127
124
2,078
918
260
606
52

8, 679
1/970
1, 484
486
126
152
2, 366
1, 026
244
702
81

9, 677
2, 135
1, 583
552
122
178
2, 640
1, 128
231
790
107

12,687
2, 550
1, 762
788
134
242
3, 692
1, 558
262
1, 072
225

14,648
2,789
1, 882
907
142
271
4, 386
1, 830
249
1, 295
286

250
297
269

153
118
83

152
122
84

208
216
185

214
228
202

263
290
284

278
314
315

311
375
376

326
413
410

348
502
476

382
585
528

448
959
690

494
1, 228
782

525
148
342
205
46
54
781
700
81
113

145
61
174
48
18
8
176
143
33
47

150
63
175
51
19
8
188
153
35
46

348
118
269
133
34
22
560
501
59
69

375
124
278
144
35
23
629
568
61
72

528
156
350
201
46
41
848
783
65
93

580
167
373
228
51
50
905
836
69
110

7 20
194
425
291
60
66
1, 093
1, 005
89
147

833
214
470
331
66
82
1, 227
1, 121
106
155

1, 001
241
539
419
81
135
1, 450
1, 293
157
201

1, 146
260
604
480
92
187
1, 586
1,399
187
247

1, 550
312
771
597
115
325
1, 891
1, 541
350
508

1,787
345
894
685
125
469
2,095
1, 611
484
7 20

81

113

-

96

E xpen ditures for cu rrent consum ption--Food p rep ared at h o m e--------------Food away from h o m e ---------------T o b a c c o --------------------------------------Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s ----------------------H ousing, to tal1 ----------------------------Shelter -----------------------------------Rented d w elling--------------------Owned d w ellin g ________________
Other sh e lt e r __________________
F u el, light, refrig eratio n ,
and w a te r ------------------------------H ousehold o p e r a tio n s ----------------H ousefurnishings and equipm ent--Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls,
and s e r v i c e s ------------------------------P e rso n a l c a r e ------------------------------M edical c a r e --------------------------------R e c r e a tio n ----------------------------------R e a d in g --------------------------------------E d u cation ------------------------------------T ra n sp o rta tio n -----------------------------A utom obile------------------------------Other tra v e l and tra n sp o rtatio n ---Other expenditures -----------------------E xpen ditures a s percent of income
before tax es ----------------------------------See footnote at end of table.




-

3, 859
1, 015
835 .
180
84
55
1, 152
540
337
190
13

-

86

-

79

-

74

-

56

-

B-17.

Com parison o f expenditures o f CES fam ilies classified by incom e before and a fte r taxes, a ll nonfarm fam ilies and single consumers,

U n ited States, 1960-61— Continued
i
Money : ncome
Item

Total

Under $3, 000

$3, 000 to $ 4, 999

After

$ 5, 000 to $7, 499

After
Saxe's6

B le rse
ta

After
tax es

$7, 500 to $9, 999
After

$ 10, 000 to $ 14, 999
B efore

After

B ese
tax

$ 15, 000 and over
to la s 6

A fter
tax es

P ercen t distribution:

105

E xpen ditures for cu rrent consum ption--Food, t o t a l----------------------------------Food p rep ared at h o m e--------------Food away from h o m e ---- --------T o b a c c o --------------------------------------Alcoholic b e v e r a g e s ----------------------H ousing, to t a l------------------------------Shelter -----------------------------------Rented dw elling--------------------Owned d w e llin g --------------------Other sh elter _________________
F u el, light, refrig eratio n ,
and w a te r ------------------------------Household o p e r a tio n s _____________
H ousefurnishings and equipm ent--Clothing, clothing m a te r ia ls,
and s e r v i c e s ------------------------------P e rso n a l c a r e ------------------------------M edical ca re -------------------------------R ecreation -----------------------------------R e a d in g --------------------------------------E d u cation ------------------------------------T ra n sp o rta tio n ____________________ —
A utom obile------------------------------Other tra v e l and tran sp o rtatio n ---Other expenditures ------------------------

100.0
24.5
19.6
4 .9
1.8
1.6
29. 2
13. 2
5 .4
7. 1
.7

100. 0
29. 4
25. 0
4. 4
2. 1
1. 0
34. 4
17. 1
11. 2
5. 5
.3

100.0
29. 1
24. 5
4. 5
2. 1
1. 0
34. 2
17. 1
11. 2
5. 5
.3

100.0
26. 3
21. 6
4 .7
2. 2
1.4
29. 8
14. 0
8 .7
4 .9
.3

100. 0
25. 8
21. 1
4. 7
2. 2
1. 5
29.5
13. 7
8. 4
5. 0
.4

100. 0
24. 7
20. 5
4. 3
2.0
1. 5
29. 1
13. 3
5. 8
6 .9
.5

100. 0
24. 5
20. 1
4. 4
1.9
1.6
29. 0
13. 2
5 .0
7. 6
.6

100.0
23.9
19. 0
4 .9
1. 8
1.7
28. 4
12. 6
3. 8
8. 2
.6

100. 0
23. 8
18. 6
5. 2
1. 7
l.z7
27. 7
12. 3
3.5
8. 1
.7

100.0
22. 7
17. 1
5 .6
1.5
1. 8
27. 3
11. 8
2.8
8. 1
.9

100. 0
22. 1
16. 4
5. 7
1. 3
1.8
27. 3
11. 7
2 .4
8. 2
1. 1

100.0
20. 1
13. 9
6. 2
1. 1
1.9
29. 1
12. 3
2. 1
8. 4
1. 8

100. 0
19. 0
12.8
6. 2
1. 0
1.9
29 .9
12. 5
1.7
8. 8
2 .0

4 .9
5.8
5. 2

7. 5
5. 8
4. 1

7. 3
5. 8
4. 0

5. 4
5. 6
4. 8

5. 2
5. 6
4 .9

4 .9
5. 5
5. 3

4. 8
5. 5
5. 5

4. 6
5. 5
5. 5

4. 4
5. 5
5. 5

4 .0
5. 8
5. 5

4 .0
6. 1
5. 5

3. 5
7. 6
5. 4

3. 4
8. 4
5. 3

10. 2
2.9
6 .6
4. 0
.9
1. 0
15. 2
13. 6
1.6
2. 2

7. 1
3.0
8. 5
2. 3
.9
.4
8. 6
7. 0
1. 6
2. 3

7. 2
3. 0
8 .4
2. 4
.9
.4
9.0
7. 3
1. 7
2. 2

9 .0
3. 1
7. 0
3. 4
.9
.6
14.5
13. 0
1. 5
1. 8

9. 2
3. 0
6. 8
3. 5
.9
.6
15. 4
13.9
1. 5
1. 8

9 .9
2.9
6. 6
3. 8
.9
.8
16. 0
14. 7
1. 2
1. 7

10. 1
2 .9
6. 5
4. 0
.9
.9
15. 8
14. 6
1. 2
1. 9

10. 6
2 .9
6. 3
4. 3
.9
1. 0
16. 1
14. 8
1. 3
2. 2

11. 1
2 .9
6. 3
4. 4
.9
1. 1
16.4
15. 0
1. 4
2. 1

11. 5
2. 8
6. 2
4. 8
.9
1. 6
16. 7
14. 9
1. 8
2. 3

11.8
2. 7
6. 2
5 .0
1. 0
1.9
16. 4
14. 5
1. 9
2. 6

12. 2
2. 5
6. 1
4. 7
.9
2. 6
14. 9
12. 1
2 .8
4. 0

12. 2
2. 4
6. 1
4. 7
.9
2. 8
14. 3
11. 0
3. 3
4 .9

1 Includes expen ses on re a l estate not used for fam ily b u sin e ss, not occupied or rented, which are not liste d se p arate ly in this table.
NOTE:

B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal to tals.

SOURCE: Survey of Consum er Expenditures, 1960-61: C onsum er E xpen ditures and Income, Total United S tates, Urban and R u ral, 1960-61, B L S R eport 237-93 (1965),
p. 21; and E xpenditure P attern s of the A m erican Fam ily (prepared by the N ational In d ustrial C onference B oard b ased on a survey conducted by the U. S. D epartm ent of
L ab or and U. S. D epartm ent of A griculture 1965), pp. 18, 58, and 142; and unpublished tabulations.




B-18.

C om parison o f CES and OBE n ation al accounts estim ates o f aggregate expenditures fo r selected

sub-categories o f cu rren t consum ption, 1961
A g g r e g a t e ( m illio n s )
S u b -c a t e g o r y

C E S e s tim a t e s
1 9 6 0 -6 1
u n a d ju s te d 1

F o o d p r e p a r e d at h o m e ----------------------------------------------------------------------F o o d aw ay f r o m h o m e - ----------------------------------------------------- — ----R e n t, t e n a n t -o c c u p ie d d w e l l i n g s -----------------------------------------------------F u e l, lig h t, and r e f r i g e r a t i o n ---------------------------------------------------------G a s and e l e c t r i c i t y --------------------------------------- -------------------- -----------M a jo r a p p li a n c e s -------------------------------- ------------------------------------- — T e le p h o n e and t e l e g r a p h ---------------------------------------------------------C lo th in g , m e n 's and b o y s ' , e x c e p t f o o t w e a r ------ ------------------C lo th in g , w o m e n 's and c h i l d r e n 's , e x c e p t f o o t w e a r -------------J e w e lr y and w a t c h e s --------------------------------------------- -------- -------- -----A u to m o b ile p u r c h a s e ------------------------------------------ --------G a s o lin e and m o t o r o i l ---------------------------------------------------------P e r s o n a l c a r e s u p p li e s ----------------------------------------------------------------------P e r s o n a l c a r e s e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------- ----------------S p e c ta to r a d m is s io n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------T e le v is io n , r a d io , and m u s ic a l i n s t r u m e n t s -------------------------------R e a d in g , t o t a l ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------E d u ca tio n , t o t a l -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1961
a d ju s t e d 2

$ 5 4 ,6 9 3
1 3 ,5 8 1
5 1 4 ,4 6 1
1 3 ,7 8 7
8, 790
3 ,7 9 1
4 , 321
8, 412
1 1 ,6 9 6
4, 065
787
1 6 ,5 5 2
10, 179
4, 426
3 ,6 0 8
1, 334
3, 934
2, 467
2, 908

$ 5 7 , 286
1 5 ,0 1 0
5 14, 326
1 4 ,6 8 6
9 ,0 9 5
3, 918
4 , 658
9 ,4 5 1
1 3 ,2 7 0
4, 364
878
17, 146
1 0 ,7 4 3
4 ,6 4 0
3, 961
1, 456
4, 332
2, 635
3 ,6 7 6

OBE
6 stim a.te s
19613
$ 5 7 , 395
4 1 2 ,2 7 4
1 2 ,7 0 2
1 4 ,4 0 0
8 ,7 5 5
4, 821
4, 822
8, 228
1 5 ,1 1 5
4 ,5 1 0
2, 155
1 5 ,9 9 1
1 2 ,3 8 6
3, 199
2, 593
1, 625
4, 507
3, 744
4, 028

P ercen t:

U n a d ju sted

9 5 .3
1 1 0 .6
1 1 3 .8
9 5 .7
100. 4
7 8 .6
8 9 .6
102. 2
7 7 .4
90. 1
36. 5
103. 5
8 2. 2
138. 4
139. 1
82. 1
87. 3
65. 9
72. 2

CES o f OBE

A d ju s te d

9 9 .8
122. 3
1 1 2 .8
102. 0
103. 9
81. 6
9 6 .6
114. 9
87. 8
9 6 .8
40. 7
107. 2
8 6. 7
145. 0
152. 8
8 9. 6
96. 1
70. 4
91. 3

1 A v e r a g e s as r e p o r t e d fo r 1 9 6 0 -6 1 in C E S m u ltip lie d by the e s tim a t e d n u m b e r o f c o n s u m e r u n its— 5 5 ,3 0 6 ,0 0 0 .
2 S ee fo o tn o te 1, ta b le 12.
3 F r o m T he N a tion a l I n c o m e and P r o d u c t A c c o u n ts o f the U nited S ta te s, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 6 5 , S ta t is t ic a l T a b le s , a S u p p lem en t to
the S u rv e y o f C u rre n t B u s in e s s , a d ju s te d to c o n fo r m w ith C E S c o v e r a g e and d e fin itio n s .
See te xt, p. 57.
1 O B E e s tim a t e s f o r fo o d and b e v e r a g e s a d ju s te d to fo o d o n ly b y B L S e s tim a t e o f r a t io o f e x p e n d itu r e s f o r a lc o h o lic
b e v e r a g e s f o r co n s u m p tio n at h o m e v s . aw ay f r o m h o m e .
5 E x c lu d in g r e p a ir s p a id by tenant and s p e c ia l f e e s .




106

B-19.

Com parison o f survey estim ates o f change in assets and lia b ilitie s w ith flo w

o f funds aggregates

fo r the household sector, 1960-61 and 1963
(In b illio n s o f d o lla r s )

1960-61
F lo w o f fun ds tr a n s a c tio n c a t e g o r y

S u rv ey o f
con su m er
expen d-

1963
S u rv e y
l e s s flo w
o f fun ds

F lo w o f
fu n d s 1

S u rv e y o f
ch a n g e s
in f a m ily
fin a n c e s

F lo w o f

N et in c r e a s e in a s s e t s ____________________________________

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

1
0

30. 3

28. 4

1 .9

45. 5

39. 8

R e s id e n t ia l c o n s t r u c t i o n --------------------------------------------------N et in v e s tm e n t in n o n c o r p o r a t e b u s in e s s 2 -------------------D em a n d d e p o s it s and c u r r e n c y __________________________
S av in gs a c c o u n ts ----------------------------------------------------------------U. S. s a v in g s b o n d s 3 _________________________ ____________
U. S. g o v e rn m e n t s e c u r i t i e s o th e r than s a v in g s
b on d s ______________________________________________________
State and l o c a l o b l ig a t i o n s ---------------------------- ,------------------C o r p o r a t e and f o r e i g n b o n d s -------------------------------------------C o r p o r a t e s t o c k _______________________________ 1---------------M o r t g a g e s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22. 2
3. 6

18. 6
-4 . 7
-. 1 .
'
14. 9
-.9

3. 6
8. 3

26.
3.
2.
10.
1.

19.
-6 .
4.
23.
.

.4

-1 4 .4

-. 8
1. 5
-. 2
. 1
(4 )

4. 1

4. 4

N et i n c r e a s e in lia b ilit ie s _______________________________

1
1
1
2
13
14
15
16
17

17. 0

16. 1

.9

1— fa m ily m o r t g a g e s --------------------------------------------------------4
In s ta llm en t a u to m o b ile p a p e r 5 ------ --------------------------------In sta llm en t c r e d i t o th e r than a u t o m o b ile 5 -------------------N on in s ta llm e n t c r e d i t e x c lu d in g ch a r g e a c c o u n t s 5 -----B ank lo a n s n. e . c ----------------------------------------------------------------S e c u r ity c r e d i t --------------------------------------------------------------------O th er lo a n s --------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. 2
.4
3. 1

11. 2
.4
1. 7
.8
.7
.6
.7

-1 . 0
.0
1. 4

3. 3

4
3
2
8
8

. 1
.9
. 1
.4
-.6

0
2
3
0
5

S u rv ey
l e s s flo w
o f funds
5. 7
7. 4
9 .5
-2 . 1
-1 2 . 2
1. 3

2. 3
.7
-1 .0
-2 . 5
-. 3

-2 .
.
1.
3.
-.

1 3 .7

24. 9

-1 1 . 2

11. 1
-. 8
-.8

1 4 .8
2 .9
3. 2

-3 . 7
-3 . 7
- 4 .0

2
2
1
0
3

1. 9
.5

\- n

.5

2. 1
. 2

2. 0
.6

. 1
-. 4

1 A v e r a g e o f flo w o f fun ds data f o r I9 60 and 1961.
2 F o r flo w o f funds fi g u r e s , net in v e stm e n t in n o n c o r p o r a t e b u s in e s s le s s the lia b ilit y c a t e g o r y " o t h e r m o r t g a g e s ."
3 F o r flo w o f fun ds fi g u r e s , a c c r u e d in t e r e s t has b e e n d e d u cte d .
4 L e s s than .0 5 .
N O T E : N. e . c . — ot e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f ie d .
n
5 I n flo w o f funds a cco u n ts in clu d e d in the tr a n s a c tio n c a t e g o r y " c o n s u m e r c r e d i t " ; show n s e p a r a t e ly in c o n s u m e r c r e d it
s e r ie s .
NOTE:

F o r p u r p o s e s o f th is c o m p a r is o n ch a n g es in a s s e t s and l ia b ilit ie s a r e g r o u p e d as f o l l o w s :
S u rv e y o f C h a n ges in F a m ily F in a n c e s

S u rv ey o f C o n s u m e r E x p e n d itu re s
P u r c h a s e , im p r o v e m e n t , and s a le o f ow n n o n fa rm
d w ellin g
In v estm en t in b u s in e s s ; o th e r r e a l p r o p e r t y ; i m p r o v e ­
m e n ts to fa r m d w e llin g s ; l e s s m o r t g a g e on o th e r
re a l p rop erty

Own h o m e g r o s s o f d ebt
B u s in e s s , p r o f e s s i o n (u n in c o r p o r a t e d o n ly ); b u s in e s s not
m a n a g e d b y the unit (u n in c o r p o r a t e d o n ly ); eq u ity in in ­
v e s tm e n t r e a l e sta te
C h e ck in g a cco u n ts

L in e 3

|

C a sh in bank, on hand, m o n e y o w e d to fa m ily

S av in gs a cco u n ts
U. S. sa v in g s bon d s
U .S . g o v e rn m e n t m a r k e t a b le s e c u r i t i e s g r o s s o f d ebt

L in e 7

State and l o c a l g o v e rn m e n t m a r k e t a b le s e c u r i t i e s g r o s s o f
d ebt

I
S to ck s and b on d s

L in e 8

C o r p o r a t e and fo r e i g n g o v e rn m e n t
o th e r than s to c k g r o s s o f d ebt

1

m a r k e ta b le s e c u r it ie s

P u b lic ly t ra d e d s to c k g r o s s o f d ebt

L in e 9
L in e 10

S ee lin e 3

M o r tg a g e a s s e t s

L in e 11

M o r tg a g e on ow n n o n fa r m d w e llin g

D eb t s e c u r e d by ow n h om e

M on ey o w e d on the p u r c h a s e o f a u to m o b ile
L in e 13

A u to m o b ile in s ta llm e n t d ebt

M on ey o w e d on the p u r c h a s e o f h o u s e fu r n is h in g s and
eq u ip m e n t; m o n e y o w ed on the p u r c h a s e o f o th e r
go o d s and s e r v i c e s

O ther in s ta llm e n t d ebt

N o n in s ta llm e n t debt

L in e 14
L in e 15

D eb t s e c u r e d b y s to c k ; debt s e c u r e d by m a r k e t a b le s e c u ­
r it ie s o th e r than s to c k

M on ey o w e d to b an k s, in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s , e tc.

D eb t on life in s u r a n c e

L in e 17
NOTE:

T h is is a r e p r in t fr o m P r o j e c t o r , o p . c it . , ta b le 6, p. 12.

S O U R C E : 1960—61 data fr o m "S u r v e y o f C o n s u m e r E x p e n d itu r e s , " C o n s u m e r E x p e n d itu re s and I n c o m e , T o t a l U nite d S ta tes,
U rb a n and R u r a l. 1960—6 1 . S u p p lem en t 3— P a r t A to B L S R e p o r t 2 3 7 -9 3 (USDA R e p o r t C E S -1 5 ), 1966.




107

B-20.

Com parison o f data on ownership o f selected household durables, reported in CES and Census,

U n ite d States,1 1960-64

Source and year
freezer
Survey of consum expend­
er
itures (CES) ------------------Census of housing-------------Census quarterly survey of
consum buying in­
er
tentions9—

16
91

I9 0
6
I9 0
6

16
94
16
93

16
92
16
91
I9 0
6

Percent of families2ow specified item
ning
s
Clothes Clothes
Air
Television Radio6
washing
conditioner4 set5
m
achine3

1. 3
5
1. 0
3
1. 0
3

6.2
6

7 .0
0
7.4
0

(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)

7.2
2
7 .5
2
71.6
7.6
3
7.5
4

1. 4
8
1. 9
7
1.0
7

1. 8
8
1. 4
3
1. 2
4

9.4
1
8. 3
9
8.4
9

2.8
3
1 .9
9
1. 7
8
1. 4
7

1. 1
5
1. 5
3
1.4
2
1 .9
1
1. 8
2

8 .8
8
8.2
8
8.7
6

2.6
1

9.5
0
8.3
9

71 3
8.
79 1
7.

Refrig- Dishwasher

9.4
2

8.7
2
7.9
9
(8)

57
.
57
.
(8)

(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)

8.1
5
8.9
4
8.4
4
8. 1
5
8. 1
6

88
.
77
.
67
.
61
.
4.9

1 C ES and C e n s u s o f H ou sin g data a re f o r the u rba n p op u la tio n ; in fo r m a tio n f r o m the S u rv ey o f C o n s u m e r B uyin g In ten ­
tio n s is f o r the e n tire u rba n and r u r a l p op u la tion r e p r e s e n t e d in the sa m p le o f the C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y .
2 C e n s u s o f H ou sin g data r e p r e s e n t p e r c e n ts o f o c c u p ie d h o u sin g un its w ith s p e c ifie d it e m s , e x c e p t that c lo t h e s w a sh in g
m a c h in e s and d r y e r s w e r e to be r e p o r t e d o n ly if ow n ed b y a m e m b e r o f the h o u s e h o ld . M a ch in e s su ch as th o s e p r o v id e d by
the m a n a g e m e n t o f an a p a rtm en t b u ild in g w e r e not to b e r e p o r t e d . D ata f r o m the C ES and S u rv e y o f C o n s u m e r B uyin g In ten ­
tio n s r e p r e s e n t p e r c e n ts o f fa m ilie s ow n in g the eq u ip m e n t.
3 In clu d es c o m b in a tio n w a s h e r - d r y e r s .
4 In clu d es d em ou n ta b le r o o m un its and c e n tr a l a ir -c o n d it io n in g s y s t e m s . T he C e n su s o f H o u s in g sh o w e d 2. 1 p e r c e n t o f
the h ou sin g un its eq u ip p ed w ith c e n tr a l a ir -c o n d it io n in g and 12. 1 p e r c e n t w ith 1 r o o m unit o r m o r e .
5 In clu d es t e le v is io n co m b in a tio n s e ts .
6 T h e ce n s u s cou n ted a ll h o u s e h o ld s h avin g r a d io s , w h eth er s e p a ra te o r in co m b in a tio n w ith a n oth er ite m .
T h e CES
r e c o r d e d s e p a r a t e ly fa m ilie s w ho had r a d io s and th os e w ho had r a d io -p h o n o g r a p h s e ts . S in ce s o m e f a m ilie s had both , the sum
o f the p e r c e n ta g e s o f the fa m ilie s w h o had e a ch type e x c e e d e d 100 p e r c e n t. T he C ES a ls o o b ta in e d s e p a ra te cou n ts f o r w a sh in g
m a c h in e s and w a s h e r - d r y e r c o m b in a tio n s , c e n tr a l a ir -c o n d it io n in g and d e m o u n ta b le r o o m u n its , and T V and T V co m b in a tio n
s e ts . H o w e v e r , f o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r is o n w ith ce n s u s d ata, the c o m b in e d p e r c e n ta g e s f o r th e s e ite m s a r e show n h e r e s in c e
the p o s s ib le d ou b le cou n tin g o f fa m ilie s ha vin g th e s e ite m s s e e m e d n e g lig ib le .
7 D o e s not in clu d e r a d io -p h o n o g r a p h s e ts .
8 N ot a v a ila b le .
9 D ata a r e f o r J a n u a ry 1 o f e a ch y e a r .
N OTE:

T h is is a r e p r in t fr o m M on th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , O c to b e r 1964, tab le 1, p.

1132.

SOURCE: Census of Housing: I960, Vol. I, States and Sm Areas, United States Sum ary, Final Report HC(l)—1
all
m
(U. S. Bureau of the Census), pi XLIII; and Current Population Reports, Series P— 5i No. fe Consum Buying Indicators
6~
,
er
(U. S Bureau of the Census), February 2 , 1 6 , p. 1 .
.
8 94
1




108

Appendix C. Exhibits
Exhibit A
BLS 2549
Rev 5 -1 -6 0

REPORTS WILL BE
HELD IN CONFIDENCE

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor Statistics
Washington 25, D.C.

BLOCK BOUNDARIES:

Budget Bureau No. 44-R1081.2
Block N o.

Page

of

Pages

North______________________________________
C O M P R E H E N S IV E

East________________________________________

H O U S IN G

U N IT

(City and State)

SU RVEY

L is t in g F o r m

South_______________________________________

(Suburban Area)

West_______________________________________
City

In-Block Ratio 1:

ALL HOUSING UNITS

1
ALL
H L IVIN G

>ENTIFICATION

TP O H0 IN
YE f 0 S 6
U IT*
N*
W s p r te
ith e aa
at
p.

■0.
ot
IO .*
C

1 K hnfa ili­
. itc e c
tie inta d
s s lle
2 K hnfo ili. itc e c

l!M
W
.

into d
s lle
3 N k hn
. o itc e
fa ilitie
c s
W o t s pr te
ithu e aa
4 Kc e
. it hn

2

3

5

4

ALL
I
VACANT 1
1
H O U SIN G I
I
U N ITS
|
|

(Col. 5, code 1 or 2)
SRCUE
TUTR

QUARTERS

S E
tK T
*0.

TP
YE
1Sg,
. in le

KM I
OI
E
O
f
UI S
N
T

2Sg,
. in le
dtahd
e ce
3 Sg,
. in le

YA BI T
ER U
L
1 . Bfoe
0 er
12
90
2. 120 90
12
99
3. 130 98
13
99

CNI I N
OD O
T
1 Sud
. on

(Col. 5, code 1 or 2 and no entry in Col. 10)
TNR
EUE
1. Tnn
eat
3 Cnes n
. o c sio
4 le t fr e
. n e

3. D p a d
ila id te

1 Wite
. h
2 Ngo
. er
3 Ohr
. te

5 Ohr
. te
(S e ify
pc )

2igits
d
8

7

n me is
u br

s otio 1
fr c n

9

10

11

12

3

I

5

6
7
8

9
10

11

12

13

14

15

♦Code

**If column 5, code 1, complete reverse side.

Floor Number-1st FL, 2d FI;, etc.

F-Front

B-Basement

R-Rear

L-Left

TLPOE
EEHN
NME
UBR

aa b
v ila le

2

4

NME
UBR
o
r
PROS
ESN
I
N
UI
N
T

o c s nl 1
c aio a

4 Mlti. u

6

1

ALL OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS

1




Page No.

Block

Area

Not for
field use

Rt.-Right
Interviewer_____________________________________________ Date

1 09

13

14

E X P L A N A T IO N S

LINE
NO.

COLUMN
NO.

COMMENT

ALL OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS WITH INSTALLED KITCHEN FACILITIES

OWNER OCCUPIED UNITS

(Col. 5, code 1 and Col. 11, code 1 to 4)

UE
■0.

15

HT
AH
MINT
(aid ealy

C MU E
OPT
lA H O M
T RO
1. H cem
e.
-

H T AW cote
O
P IV T
R AE
H
eated by:
2. O ealy
ae
3. Gs
a
3. Tweet
4. E
lectricity
S AO
HK
4. S ared
h
bath
reeai
7. O er
th
ealy
16

17

18

lA H O e
T OO
FC T
A IU IB
P IV T O M
R AE H
1 Iten
.
e
2. Wsh h l
a ew
3. F
lesh
teilet
4. Taber
sh er
ew
5. A tw
ay e
19

COH
OKK
H
El

HAH
ET *
BL
E

1 H
. ern
2. Gs
a
3. E
lectricih
r
4. teal
$. O
il
4. O er
th

11

Bathroom Facilities
O
f
mm
m
m

HAH
ET *
E Iim H
Q KT
1. H
eee
2. C tre!
en
3. O er,
th

1. H
eee
2. Gs
a
3. E
lecfru­
ity
4. (eel
5. O
il
4. O er
th

stalled
4. O er,
th
n
et
stalled

(Col. 11, code 2)

A*
CH T H
O MIQ H
K

U J OY
UMR
EH ET
O IH H
1. H w er
e ash

1 H
. eee
2. C
eatrel

2. lasher
h ne
at
d
ryer

3. leem
eeit(s)

4. D
ryerelec.
$. C
eia

1. H
eee
2. 1 ter
3. 2 cars
4. (T"
pert

(E T A
HR l
SV E
B tC S
AA K
V IU E
L slrihhT
beard
3. E S
ler.
S.I.
4. O er
th
(Spwjr

DT O
AE f
M
OUSE
(E
ater
lest 2
digits

N C AE
OHS
PC
UE
(tem
plate
if 1957
er after
la (el.
» .)
(T
e

ET AE
S IMT D
M MT
AE
VL E
AU
(T
e
$100)

$100)

aete.)
$. H
eee
20

21

22

24

23

25

26

27

28

29

30

1

2
3
4
5

6
7
8

9

10
11

12
13
1

14
15




-------- TH— H-1,

110

E X P L A N A T IO N S

LINE
NO.

COLUMN
NO.

COMMENT

ALL TENANT-OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS W ITH INSTALLED KITCHEN FACILITIES

ALL OCCUPIED
HOUSING
UNITS

(Col. 5, code 1 and Col. 11. code 1)
Equipment Included in the Rent in Col.
F W M smsW S -1
M S E 1I
B
U0

1 How 1 W
.
. e
2. Nrt 2. Ye
3. fell

II-

sruia
CD
OE
SO
TW

1 le
.

HAI G
E TN
EU
Q tr-

j

1H
. e
2. Ye

1LAWNY

W Yil
A

1 lew
.

n
ot
2. Ye

2. Ye

31

32

33




Services Included in Rent in

EW
ir-

A
M
M
G

1M
. o
2. Ye

44 or 46J

2. C ld
e
wly

| 3. »e

H
K
mtI1
Y

1H
. e
2. Ye

Cdf. 44

or

CS
A

WT
A

mm

1 le
.

1 le
.

1 le
.

2. Ye

2. Ye

2. Ye

o*d

eld

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

46j

^

ZT*

MC .
AH
CW
O

MC .
AH

OMNI

tew

samte
1 Here*
.
2. S itch
w ­
ba
o rd
3. tier. A
S.I.
4. O er
th
(Spetif,

. rent

A H LFM Y
W A A IL

1
—
2ra

m

WtK

42

43

44

45

1

1

2

1

47

2

1

s-s,ow-s,ooo
1—
6,000-7,400
7-7,500-0,000
0-10,000-14,000
0-15,000 ead ere

2

1

46

O er $2,W
ed
O

2,000-2,ooo

34—
4,000-4,000

*

2

2
1

'

2

*

2

2
1

1

1

2

2
1

*

1

1

2

I

2

1

2

1

2

1

2
1.8. «OVE*NNENT Fit INTI M OFFICE : I HO OF—H S 7 I 0

111

3,WO-3,m

E X P L A N A T IO N S

LINE
NO.

COLUMN
NO.




COMMENT

112

BLS 2763
SMSA,

REPORTS WILL
BE HELD IN
CONFIDENCE
(City and State)

Budget Bureau Mo.44-6120
Approval expires 3*31-62

D .S . DEPARTMENT OF UBCB
Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s
W ashington 2 5 , D, C.
RURAL HOUSING UNIT SURVEY

P a g e _______ o f ^ _

2

10

2

3

3

-1 0

3

$ 50

$ 2 5 0

Block

NUMBER
RACE
OF
1.
White
Rent PERSONS
2.
Megro
3 .Other
Vacant IN UNIT

$ 50

1

113



0
2
03
04
05

0
6
07
08

09

1
0
Continue on other aide before startin g new page.

1

ANNUAL
FAMILY
INCOME
1.
Under
$2,000 OFFICE
2.
$2,000
- 4,999 USB
3.
$5.000
- 9.999
4.
$
A over
1
.I2J_ (13)
1 0 ,0 0 0

$ 5 0

0
1

page No.

UPJ

..JL1U..

Exhibit B

In te r v ie w e r
link fnp ■ SMSA
fie ld
use
TYPE OF PIACB (If code 2 or 3 DOES ANY MEMBER (If code 3 or 4 ,c o l.7)
I D E N T I F I C A T IO N
1.
City loIn oro l. 5)
t c
OF THE HOUSEHOLD 7ALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS
APARTMENT NO.
apt. bldg.
OPERATE A FARM SOLD FROM OTHER PLACE TENURE
STREET MO.
LIMB (Skip to 7) ANNUAL SALES OF OR W ANY LAND? From place of le ss
ORK
MAW OF STREET
OR LOCATION
No (Skip to 9) 10 acres:
.
Rural-less PRODUCTS 1 .
than
FARM
1 .Tenant
OR LOCATIOM
NO. than
Y es-thls place
1.
Less than $250
FROM THIS PLACE .
2.Owner
OR ROAD
.
OF OMIT
only(Skip to 9) 2 $250 or more
acres
3.
OF STRUCTURE
1
.
Yes-other From place of 10
place
.
Rural . or Less than
free
only
IN STRUCTURE
$50 to $249
more acres 2 .
acres or more:
4.
.
or4 .more Y es-thls place
3.
Less than
and other place 4 .
or more
(2)
(6)
(1)
(4)
(3)
(5)
............. ® __ _ .AIL .
m .........
L is t in g Form

p a g es

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

F A M IL Y S P E N D I N G IN 1 9 5 0

B U R E A U O F L A B O R STATISTICS
W

a s h i n g t o n

25, D.C.

A s i m i l a r s u r v e y m a d e b y th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s in 1 9 5 0 fo u n d
t h a t , o n t h e a v e r a g e , f a m i l i e s l i v i n g in c i t i e s o f 2 5 0 0 p o p u la t i o n a n d o v e r
s p e n t t h e ir d o l l a r s in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y ;

o r p u t a n o t h e r w a y , fo r
e a c h d o l l a r th e y s p e n t IM P O R T A N T N O T IC E F R O M
TOUR GOVERNM ENT

3 1 < w e n t fo r f o o d a n d
beverages
2 8 £ w e n t fo r h o u s i n g ,
fu r n it u r e , f u e l , e t c .
1 2 £ w e n t fo r c l o t h i n g
1 3 < w e n t fo r t r a n s p o r t a t io n
1 6 < w e n t fo r m e d i c a l a n d
p e r s o n a l c a re and o th er
g o o d s and s e r v i c e s

T h e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r i s m a k in g a S U R V E Y O F C O N S U M E R E X P E N D I ­
T U R E S in y o u r c i t y to fin d o u t w h a t k in d s o f g o o d s an d s e r v i c e s p e o p le b u y a n d h o w m u c h
t h e y p a y f o r th e m . T h e l a s t s u r v e y o f t h is t y p e w a s m a d e 1 0 y e a r s a g o . S i n c e 1 9 5 0 , t h e r e
h a v e b e e n m a n y c h a n g e s in h o w p e o p l e l i v e w h ic h h a v e h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on t h e c o s t
o f l i v i n g . U p -t o - d a t e in fo r m a tio n i s n e e d e d fo r th e c a lc u la t io n o f th e C O N S U M E R P R I C E
I N D E X , w h ic h i s t h e o f f i c i a l m e a s u r e o f c h a n g e in li v i n g c o s t s p u b lis h e d b y t h e B U R E A U
O F L A B O R S T A T I S T I C S in W a s h in g t o n .

Exhibit C

114

S o o n y o u w i l l b e v i s i t e d b y a B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s in t e r v ie w e r w h o w i l l a s k
y o u q u e s t i o n s a b o u t p u r c h a s e s y o u h a v e m a d e an d o t h e r th in g s a b o u t y o u r f a m ily b u d g e t .
Y o u r a d d r e s s (a n d th e a d d r e s s o f m a n y o t h e r h o u s e h o ld s in y o u r c i t y ) h a s b e e n c a r e f u l l y
s e l e c t e d f o r t h is p u r p o s e . S i n c e w e h a v e o n ly y o u r a d d r e s s , w e c a n n o t s e n d t h is l e t t e r
F r o m 1 9 5 0 to I 9 6 0 c o n s u m e r p r i c e s i n c r e a s e d 2 3 % . D i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f
md
t o y o u b y n a m e . Y o u r n a m e p o s i t i v e l y w i l l n o t b e u s e d in c o n n e c t io n w ith th e s u r v e yi ,t e a n s i n c r e a s e d m o r e o r l e s s th a n t h i s . F o r e x a m p l e , f o o d p r i c e s i n c r e a s e d
th e in fo r m a tio n y o u g i v e w i l l b e h e l d in d ie s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . A n y d a t a y o u fu r n is h % id lu r in g t h is p e r i o d , w h i l e p e r s o n a l c a r e i t e m s i n c r e a s e d 3 2 % .
18 w l
b e u s e d fo r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s o n l y , in c o n ju n c t io n w ith s im i l a r in fo r m a tio n fo r m a n y o t h e r
GROUP
I N C R E A S E - 1 9 5 0 to I 9 6 0
h o u s e h o ld s .
T h i s s u r v e y i s im p o r ta n t to y o u in a v e r y p e r s o n a l w a y . T h e C o n s u m e r P r i c e C l o t h i n g a n d f o o t w e a r
I n d e x i s u s e d in t h e a d ju s t m e n t o f w a g e s a n d s a l a r i e s o f m i l l i o n s o f w o r k e r s , a n d i t i s an
R e c r e a t i o n an d r e a d in g
im p o r ta n t e c o n o m i c f a c t o r in d e c i s i o n s m a d e b y g o v e r n m e n t, p r o f e s s i o n a l , b u s i n e s s , a n d
F ts
la b o r g r o u p s . T h e i n d e x n o t o n ly m e a s u r e s c h a n g e s in th e p r ic e s y o u p a y , b u t th ro u g h oio d in s t o r e s a n d r e s t a u r a n t s
m a n y u s e s i t h a s a d i r e c t b e a r in g o n th e c o s t o f th e t h in g s y o u b u y . T h e r e f o r e , w e A l ln tg o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s c o m b in e d
wa
i t to b e a s a c c u r a t e a s p o s s i b l e . Y o u r p a r t i c ip a t i o n in t h is s u r v e y w ill h e l p m a k e i t H o .u s i n g c o s t s
so
I e a r n e s t l y r e q u e s t th a t y o u g i v e o u r i n t e r v ie w e r y o u r w h o le h e a r te d
in t h i s im p o r ta n t e f f o r t .
V e r y tru ly y o u r s ,

1 11%

1 - - . J 17%
( ■,
- 1 3 18%
C Z Z Z Z Z H Z □ 23%
: ..r Z3 24%
M is c e lla n e o u s g o o d s and s e r v ic e s \
~ ZZ3 26%
c o o p e r a t io n
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a u t o m o b i l e a n d p u b l i c ___L.ZZI ______J 31%
I 32%
P e r s o n a l ca re
l— IZ H
.

M e d ic a l c a r e

I . . . _______

] 47%

T h e B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s c a lc u la t e s th e s e fig u r e s by c o lle c t in g
t h o u s a n d s o f p r i c e s from r e t a i l s t o r e s a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a n d c o m ­
b in in g th em a c c o r d in g to t h e ir im p o r t a n c e in fa m ily s p e n d i n g .
T o c o n t i n u e to m e a s u r e t h e s e p r ic e c h a n g e s a c c u r a t e l y , th e B u r e a u m u s t
f in d o u t h o w p e o p l e a r e n o w s p e n d i n g t h e ir m o n e y .
T H E R E V E R S E S ID E O F T H IS L E T T E R I L L U S T R A T E S A F E W U S E S O F T H E IN F O R M A ­
T IO N Y O U G IV E U S .




T h e s u r v e y w e a r e c u r r e n tly m a k in g i s d e s i g n e d to g e t t h e s e f a c t s .

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T

Budget Bureau No. 44-A
933.1.
Approval expires 0-30-62.

B

u r e a u

W

o f

L

a b o r

a s h i n g t o n

O F
S

L A B O R

A ss ig n m e n t N o .

ta ti sti cs

25, D . C .

B lo c k N o .

SURVEY OF CONSUMER EXPENDITURES IN 19.

HOUSEHOLD RECORD
(City)

T e le p h o n e N o .

(Suburb)"

(Number)

(Street)

(Apartment number or location)

( 1 ) H o w m a n y p e o p l e l i v e h e r e , c o u n t i n g c h ild r e n , in f a n t s , r o o m e r s , s e r v a n t s , a n d s o o n ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOUSEHOLD MEMBERSHIP AND DESCRIPTION
(2A)

(3)

FULL- AND PART-YEAR MEMBERSHIP
(5)

(4)

(6)

Persons
over age 1
4
Who lives here now? Not their names, just
their relationship to the head of the house
(wife, son, daughter-in-law, roomer, serv­
ant, etc.)

Relationship
to other
mem
bers

Sex:
Male.-.l
Fem
ale-2

N u m b e r o f C o n su m e r U n its F o u n d

bfrth-°
during
SY

Marital status in SY:
Married..... — 1
Never married—2
Divorced-------- 3
Separated____ 4
Widowed......... 5

CONSUMER UNIT DETERMINATION

(7)
Was everyone living together as a household during entire SY? Yes D No D

(8)

(10)

(9)

(Ask about each P.C.U. if
more than one.) In fi­
nancial matters did you
consider—
part of your
family or a separate fam­
Potential
ily in SY?
Financially independ­
er
ent during rest of sum
Unit
year (paid for food,
No.
rent, and clothing
(P.C.U.)
with own money)

IF NO, ASK ABOUT PERSONS NOT IN HOUSEHOLD ENTIRE SY

persons
household
all of SY

(b)

(d)
Yes

Consumer
Unit No.

Separate1
No
(•)

115

Exhibit D

(a)

Weeks in this
household in SY

During rest of
year lived with: »
Parents---- P
Spouse..... .S
Alone........A
Institution, 1
military or }T
abroad.
1
Newborn lx.
Deceased f y
Other2
...... 0
(c)

(b)

1. HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD_____________
2. ________ ______ _______ ________________
3. ______________________ ____ _____________
4. ______ ___ _____________________ _
5. ________________ __________ ____________
6. ______ ___ _____ _________________________
7. _________ _____________ ___ ____________
8. ______ ______________________ ___ _______
9. ____________________ _______ ____________
10. _______________ __________________ ______

Did anyone live" with you in SY who is not here now? Yes □
If yes, who?

No Q

1................................................... ...................... .
1
1. ____ ___ ______ ______ ___ ____________
2
13______________________ _______ ...______ _
14. __________ ___ ____ _____ ____________
1 Ask 1 directly of each potential consumer unit checked in 9(b).
1

Do not ask questions about roomers, boarders, or servants listed under (2B).
1If 2 or more arrangements, enter each of the applicable codes in (e).
Abo indicate here the number of weeks In each.
Code_____________ weeks______________
Code................... weeks______________
Code_____________ weeks______________
*Specify here the number of persons In the unit and whether it still exists................................




(11) Were you financially independent last year—that is did you pay for your food, rent, and
clothing with your own money?
Line number of head for
the Potential Consumer
Unit

Check
Yes

IF NO, what items did you pay for yourself?
No

Food

Rent

Clothing

None

IN ELIGIBLE UNITS AND OTH ER NONRESPONSE
Time:

First unsuccessful visit— Date:
Co) Occupied...................................
(6) Closed for

2 or more weeks...

(c) Vacant.......................................

2.

3.

•D

Occupants expected to be present:

Informant:

Schedule second visit

•D

Occupants expected to be present:

Informant:

Report to supervisor

Informant:

Report to supervisor

Second unsuccessful visit— Date:
No contact in two visits..............

Refusal— Date:

NOTES

Time:
Informant:

Report to supervisor

4-11 below
Reason:

Enter: 4-13 below

C.U. No...............

C.U. No....... .

C.U. No...............

4. Number of members in your family...........
5. Number of family members employed 48 w<aeks or more in SY. . . .
116

6. Number of familv members emnloved 13 toi 48 weeks in SY ...........

7. Approximate age of family head..............................................................
8. Sex of family head (M—F )........................................................................
9. Occupation of family head.........................................................................
10. Home owned (0) or rented (R) by family............................................
11, Rent or market value of dwelling............................................................
12. (Ask of members of unit only):
Under $1,000................

$

$

$1,000-$1,999...............
$2,000-$2,999...............
$3,000-$3,999...............
$4,000-$4,999...............
Estimated family income class in S Y . .«
$5,000-$5,999...............
$6,000-$7,499...............
$7,500-89,999...............
$10,000-814,999..........
$15,000 and over.........
13. (By observation) Race of family head. White— 1
Negro—2
Other (specify)—3




U .GVRM T RT GFIC:1 6 -0 7 4 7
.S OENE PININ OF E 9 0 -5 3 5
N

$

Exhibit E
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

B L S 9648-B

B ureau of Labor S tatistics
W ashington 25, D.C.

Budget Bureau No. 44-6633.1.
Approval expires 9-30-62.

Schedule N o .
C i t y .................
A ddress ..........

(For editor)
YEAR

REGION

/ DlG,

i D m2

I




SCHEDULE NO.

CITY

I Dl6
5

A ' t>

G~ D

L D C A T i D txt
IW 5 N S A
X
CARD NO.

t

-

J> i<3

1G

<-

CflRj) C L .
-C

THIS INFORMATION WILL BE HELD IN CONFIDENCE
IT WILL NOT BE USED FOR TAXATION OR REGULATORY PURPOSES

Survey of Consumer Expenditures in 1 9 __
ANNUAL INCOME, SAVINGS, AND
EXPENDITURES RECORD

(1)

117




A. FAMILY COMPOSITION
FAMILY MEMBER CHARACTERISTICS

(»)
1. Family member number____
2. Relationship to head (cod e):
Head................... ....... .........= 0
Spouse............ ...................- = 1
Never married child______= 2
Other child........... ...............= 3
Grandchild.... ................... = 4

In-law...................................= 5
Brother or sister................ = 6
Mother or father.......... .....= 7
Otherwise related.............. = 8
Unrelated............................ = 9........... (2)

3. Relationship to other members.

.(2
)

4. Sex: M a le = l; Female= 2 .........
5. Age on SY birthday....... ................... .
. Marital status at end of S Y :
Married................................ = 1
Never married___________ = 2
Divorced.................. .......... = 3

6
7.

.......... -......................................................(3)
Separated..... .......................= 4
Widowed..............................= 5
Deceased..............................= 6 ______(2)

Education— highest grade completed............................................................... (3)

F

U

V R CHCWIE.

& 0 U ( s i I T )C C ftR M & K .

C O W F Q 5 | T ( Om)

I E (P ) (CLASS ofr W QRlO U\(D.lC tC.O?ft~nOtsL).......... m
E

X V l f t S T & R - A r - f t W U L - O ..........................
(3)

8
.

NUMBER OF WEEKS IN SY F.M. WAS:
In family— Total...............................................
(a) at home.
(b) temporarily away (business trip, hospitalized, vacation, etc.)............

9.

Not living at home (in military service, residing abroad, institutionalized,
etc.) (Specify).......... ...................................................................................................

FOR F.M.'s 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, ENTER NUMBER OF
WEEKS IN SY:
10. Working for pay....................................

...................................................................

£ToTAL_ C A R E R S ) U rO L L T iW fNOT W O R K IN G F O R P A Y BECAUSE:
11. Looking for work or on layoff from a jo b .............................. ..................................
12. Ill or disabled and unable to work.............................. ...............................................
13. On unpaid absence from work (strike, vacation, etc.)............................................
14. Keeping house (women only)......................................................................................
15. Going to school (persons under 30)................................. ................ ...........................
16. Helping in family business or working on family farm...........................................
17. Other (Specify)......... .....................................................................................................
18.

Race of head (code b y observation).

N otes : .............

(2)

118

AND WORK STATUS
FAMILY MEMBERS SOMETIME IN SY—BUT NOT
AT TIME OF INTERVIEW

FAMILY MEMBERS AT TIME OF INTERVIEW AND DURING SY

A l Ohers
l t
Head
(husband if

(b)

(O

(d)

n m
0011-001

a m
0011-001

n m
0011-001

TOTAL
(Office use)

Wife

HfcAO

CLf
Us

IN D E X

M -rt

<)
h

(I)

U
)

(k)

(1
)

ii C D
0011-001

n m
0011-001

n m
0011-001

ii C D
0011-001

ii m
0011-001

ii C D
0011-001

(m)

10 1 1 1
0010-000

00

SEK

O D

1>
4.

o/ivtaud

n m
1 CD
1
0011-001 0011-001

<>
«

ALL F m

h e a ti

...ja-Bis..

(f)

RCL.T0

\ -"DIB.
ciL

(e
)

OO
..._0QO .

00
CC toed
U

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0(30000

SOfc-fAM.
016 .

ooo

.....Vr.Bi*.. 3

ooo

8

coo

(a)
(b)

coo
ooo

10

ov m

OO
ooo

2.—
DIB.

CoL* b - i

3 - Dl B£

..... o o „
OO
O0
CO
...... Q ...
.Q

00
White □ 1 Negro □ 2 Other (Specify)............................... ................................................. □ 3
N otes :




(3)

119

11

/ n=M
12

13
14
15
16
17
18

it-in

B. HOUSING PATTERN
ITEM

(»)

J& L

I LIVING ARRANGEMENTS

1. Where did the family live on December 31, SY?
This housing unit? □
Other housing unit? □ ...............................

0031-715

o3_?„o:

C±

2. (a) Did the family move in SY?....................... .
(b) If yes, where from?........... ..............................

(Locality of form residence)
er
3. (a) Tenure of family on December 31, SY: Owner............. ............................. — ............
Renter............ — ....... ............ ........................
(b) Tenure of family during all of SY : Owner all year----------------- ------ -----------Renter all year.................. ............. ....... ........ .......
Owner part year, renter part year.........................
OTHER OWNED REAL ESTATE
Check Each Type Owned in SY
4. Vacation home---- ------------------- ---------------- ------------ ------ --------------- -.....
5. Residential property (not occupied by family in SY )............................... ....... ...................
6. Commercial property (not used in family business)..................... ....... —..........................—
■7 Unimproved land......................................................................................-.............................
.
8. Structure under construction-------- ------------ ----------- --------- ..................................
9. Other (Specify)..... ................................. —............................................................. -....... .....

Yes □ 1 No D 0

m

„Q&.

□ i
□ 2
□ 1
□ 2

..03
'.Q.i

□

...il.
-J&

..J3
.
..11
.1 5 .

H
*

□
□
□
□
□
□

3

□
□
□
□
□
□

1

VALUE OF HOUSING UNIT OCCUPIED DECEMBER 31, SY

10. If rented, enter December SY rent to nearest dollar. If rent free, enter rental value-

-M .

11. If owned, enter December SY estimated market value in dollars................ ..................
DESCRIPTION OF HOUSING OCCUPIED ON DECEMBER 31, SY

12. Type of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

housing:
House..................... ................ ....... ................................ ....................................
Apartment, flat.......... ..... .................................. ......... ................. .......................
Room(s)............................... ............. ......... ................................. ......................
Trailer, other.......................................... .............................................................. .

31

□ 1
□ 2
□

3

□

4

33

13. Number of rooms occupied (excluding bathroom)...
FACILITIES AVAILABLE

14. Bathroom facilities:
(a) Number of complete bathrooms: Private-

4
1

Shared...
15. Other private bathroom facilities:
(a) Wash bowl.... ....................
(b) Flush toilet................ .......
(c) Tub or shower.............. .
16. Installed cook stove.... ....... ............
17. Refrigerator................................ ....
18. Washing machine......... .......................
19. Air conditioning..............................
20. Water:
(a) None..................................
(b) Cold only..........................
(c) Hot and cold.......... ..........
Heating equipment:
(a) None................................. .
(b) Central, installed..............
(c) Other, installed.................
(d) Other, not installed..........
22. Garage:
(a) None..................................
(b) 1-Car.................................
(c) 2-Car.................................
(d) Car port...................................................................................................
Services available in apartments or rooms (No. 12 (b) or (c) checked above).
Elevator................................................................................................................ .
Central switchboard............................................................................................ .
Maid service....................................................................................... ................
26. Other: (Specify).




(4)

120

*3
□
-S . □
JfcS □
L
..57. □
□ 1
-53 .. □
.Jft. □

sr

□
□
□
□
□ 0
□ 0
□ 0

□ 1
□ 2
□

3

□ 1
□ 2
□
□

.57

3
4

□ 1
□ 2
□

3

□ 4

Q □ i
>
[
□ i
<3 □ i
j

33 L L i

□
□
□
_ J- L

0
0
0
0




C. RENTED DWELLING

(5)

121

D. DWELLING AND OTHER
D -I. Property Owned, Bought or Sold in SY
□ Dwelling occupied earlier and
sold or rented In SY
Dwelling occupied, at end of SY
ITEM

Property No. ;23 1 1 [ 1 | /

□ Rented to others _
Property No.

Property No. 23 |1 | 1
□ Vacation home, cabin, cottage,

|

□ Other (Specify)

Property No. 23 ) 2 | |

Property No. 23 \4 | [

(«>
2118-717

2118-717

(b>

(»)

_ ..
2118-717
0 3 A A ,- H

PROPERTY OWNED AT ANY TIME IN SY

19
«2>

-

19
months

3. Property tax which became due and payable in SY (if unknown, enter

$

No □ 0

Z Z Z V

Yes n 1
$

-

8

$

01

□ * 3

k) y

Z Z Z S 1 -

-

Oi

Zj(

2112-715

3 ~ G(

18

-

ZL i t 71

□ $
□

□ .................... z . Q l k

$

<
J
>

l i

— cb

3

9. Ground rent...... .................................. ........................ ........................................

3 ~ / frJ

3 Z %£T~- CS*
-

-0(c

X

0322-713

0322-713

X X X. X X X X^X X X
X X X X^ X X X X X

— i q>
No D 0

%

......................................... %
Yes D 1

New O 1

Used □ 2,

l l Zj

13. Purchase prion or land and ronat.nifit.ion costa
D *

3 ^ 5 "

—

£>& H

$

x x x x x x x xNF

No □ 0

2113-725

2117-725

2112-725

PROPERTY BOUGHT IN SURVEY YEAR

f(

x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x
*

$

Ct

-

D $

0 (

$

ZU3

-

5" —■C (

-

_<1

17. When was property sold? (enter month 1-12)....................................... .......... x x x x x x x x x x x
18. Sale price (if traded-in, check box) ...

____

XXXXXXXX

19. Seller’s settlement costs_______________

____

XXXXXXXXXXX

20. Commission paid to realtor or agent....................... .......................................... x x x x x x x x x x x
21. Subtotal (items 5, 6, R, 13)
22. Subtotal (items 4h, 1R)

_

f(

3Z Z / S

O R>lZ>~O Z,

□ f Z l Z* 3

~~ c 3
~

$

$____ £ Z J . £ . - : ° L

$

$

$

$

122

$...................................
_ ..

$............... -............... $............... -..............

(6)

t

................... ~A±

........................ 0 ± . .

.$
...

23. Subtotal (items 3, 7a, 7b, 9, 10, 16, 16, 19, 20) $...........................................




$

OZj

2123-714

2122-714
- c (
Zt 1 Z s Z t

X X X

f(

□ $
3 Z* 3

\

2122-714

PROPORTY SOLD OR TRADED-IN DURING SY

y

□ 1 own business

0 3

□ 2 rented to others
/ £
Yes D 1

CL

0322-713

□ 2 rented to others

□ 1 own business

12. Was property purchased new or was it. previously o c c u p ie d ?.......... ....

Ol

2113-715

— / Zj

10. Other expenses (Specify)....................................................................... ............

(b) If for own business, was this percent of the expense deducted as
business expense in figuring net income? (If no, explain in footnote.)..

Ci

cl

~ CZ)

$

14. dash down payment. (Tf trade-in, enter check in H )
ot
15. Settlement charges (includes mortgage placement/finders fee, title search,
title guarantee, payment, of escrow, recording fees, and tax stamps)
16. Other chargee paid at time of settlement (Specify)

'
No D o

O h z z

&

2112-715

□

11. (a) If any part of the dwelling was used for your own business or rented
to others, what percent of the expense is chargeable to this use?

No D O

D

Yes D 1

- 0 1

t%

z .n

6. How much was paid in SY for taxes which became due after Dec. 31, SY?..
7. Property insurance premium paid in SY: (If unknown, enter check in
box and specify in footnote whether brick or frame and amount of
insurance coverage.)

-

Z Z

x x x x x x x x x x

Q $

-

o 'y z z

x x x x x x x x x x
months

01
_ /a

□ $ 3Z%Z
Yes D 1

(d
)

$...................................

$...................................

REAL ESTATE OWNED IN SY
D -II. Mortgage Information
I

1s t

M

ortgage

1 2
1
Other real estate
Property No. 23 | | |
Property No.
__________ (£)
0220-716
0220-816
Is there more than one mortgage on this property? (If yes, com­
No D 0
N n o Yes □ 1
o
plete column d)....................................................—.............-........................ Yes □ 1
0Z2.O' /3»
19..
19. Z f
Of
19........
When was the current mortgage obtained?------------------------------------Was this a new mortgage, or one already on the property and assumed
0&
by you?.....................- ...........-------- ---------------------------- -------------------- New □ 1 Assumed □ 2 New □ 1 Assumed □ 2 New □ 1 A jsumed □ 2
X3
______ years
When obtained or assumed, how many years was it to run?.................
■ 03 .
% °±_.
7 M ..
When obtained or assumed, what was the amount of the mortgage?..
What was the rate of interest?—.......... .................- ------- ------------------.......%
-% 0 5
-%
0220 -826
0220-726
0220-726
What type of mortgage was it?
Conventional (not Government-guaranteed):
(a) Institution (bank, bldg. & loan, etc.)---- -------------------------- ——□ 1
□
□ 1
□ 2
(b) Former owner........................—--------- -------- --------------------------- ----□ 2
□
(c) Other individual.................... ................—........- ......................................
□ 3
□ 3
□
Government-guaranteed:
0 (p
□ 4
□ 4
(d) FHA military......... ...............................................................-.......—........
□
□ 5
(e) FHA non-military___________________________ ________________
□ 5
□
(f) Veterans Administration (VA)...............................................................
□ 6
□ 6
□
Were payments made: Monthly?........ ......... .
□ 1
□ 1
-Z 7
-0 7
□ 2_______
Other? (Specify) ....
□ 2
Yes □ 1
No □ 0 Yes □ 1 'ZtfNo □ 0
Na □ 0 ~ & b □ 1
Did payments include taxes?.............................
ao
Yes □ 1
No D 0 Y e s D 1
No D 0 Yes □ 1 'z N □ o
Did payments include property insurance?3 c
t * - - - .............How much was the total mortgage payment made in SY?______
'3 /
□ $□ $How much of this was principal? (If unknown, check in box.)..
□ $3 2 [ ] l 813
3 2 [] 1-713
3221-713
02,
3 Z Z I-O X . 3 Z $ \ 3±t OL... □
13. How much of this was interest? (If unknown, check in box.)........... □ $...... . '3 & & L Z . Q . L . . □ *...
lirfOf - O f
14. Premium for mortgage insurance (life). (If included in item 11,
4101 -01
□
check in box.)__________ ________ ___ _____________ ___ ___ ______ □
................ &L<?±r.0L.................. ±LQLr..QL..
□ ......
15. If mortgage was refinanced in SY, what refinancing charges were
- OHZ h O H 3&3I
paid?.................. ................................. ......................................... .................... $...........- 3 S _ ^ _ „ - £ 3 ._ $..... __A&AL'0±. 220Q 814
220Q -714
2201-714
16. What was the balance owed on the principal o f the mortgage on
O JZ - Z Z
T l
Jan. 1, SY?.................... .............................................................. .................... $_____
$___ £&&t-JUL.
17. What was the balance owed on the principal of the mortgage on
O&ZZ-IZ opzzz..
____ QZ£&.:AL-.
Dec. 31, SY?....................... ........... .............. ........... .............. .........................
z%it> - iz,
A A U a AL ....... &&AL-1L.
18. If (16) is larger than (17), enter differenceZsdLZj'to zzzz.
.—U — ..............
19. If (17) is larger than (16), enter difference12
2213- $:2
2213-722
2213-722
20. If any interest due in SY was not paid by December 31, SY, how
12
much was it?.................... .............................. ..................... ............ ................
..A.&A&Zll.
21. If any interest due in years before SY was paid in SY, how much
zsziz - t 2
ZK 13-12
. A & ' A - J . 7 ..
..A & JA .rJl.
was it?.___________________ ________________ ____________________
_ 1271 1 „ ^
o- ,14
:
1270-714
PROPERTY SOLD OR TRADED-IN IN SURVEY YEAR
3ZZS- os 32, 3 S ■ 02
3 Z .Z S -0 7
22. What penalty was paid to pay off mortgage?.................... ....................... x x x x x x x x x x x
23. If you financed the sale by taking a mortgage from the new owner,
how much was owed to you at the time of sale?_____ ____________ x x x Zrt x (px — x!(
A U A A JA .
xx/ x x x
l
24. Payments received on principal in SY........................................... ............... x x x 2x> x ^ 6 x -x xIJx
xx
/Z7O
O
Z
25. Payments received on interest in SY___________ $___________ ______ x x x x x x x x -x x x
j.A 7 .n ..r0 ±

Dwelling occupied at,
Property No.

26. Subtotal (items 18, 21, 23)...........................................$_.
27. Subtotal (items 19, 20, 24)............................... ..........
28. Subtotal (items 13, 14, 15, 22)__________________$.,
534 0 - 6 -2
747 0




(7)

123

p M

obtoao x

O

n ly

E. DWELLING AND OTHER PROPERTY: OWNER EXPENSES FOR REPAIRS,
REPLACEMENTS, AND IMPROVEMENTS IN SY

ITEM
(a)
E-I. Repairs, Replacements, and Maintenance

ELLING
PIED EARLIER AND
DW
ELLING O C JeLB 'A EN O SY DW SO OCCU
CU
B T D F
LD O RENTED IN SY
R
PropertyN A
o
O H R (S
.T E pecify)
P
roperty N 23 [ | [
o.
T H 3 \
P
roperty N
o.
one by .
23 C O
D by F.M
one
.
C
ontracted ou
t ----DaterialsF.M
C
ontracted out
(M
only)
(M
aterials only)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3224-716
3224-816
3224-716
3224-816
3234-716
$_____________ $_ ___ ______
_
-J/'v

-

-(3

-3 4 -

- 4
-'S ’

_________

/Z

-

......

1$

________ r

J f

- '3 '

7 J .f.

-It,

6. Electrical repair and replacement_____ ___ __ ____ _____

3224-826

3224-726

3224-826

3224-726

$
8. Furnace or other heating equipment repair and replace-

3234r-726

$

$

____ ____ ..T.S.V.

- 2 , 3 ...... .... - ' t t .
9. Hot water heater repair and replacement.... .... ................
10. Repair and replacement of window panes, screens, storm
doors, storm windows and awnings...... ..........
_________r./y.A-.. . ........... 7 ± 3 l

- as'

11. Termite protection................................. .........

-

.................

-

12. Other repairs, replacement, and maintenance (Specify)
~a,g,

L
>

13.

Total (1 through 12) $..................... ......................... $........ ............... $....... ............

14. Do any of the above expenditures apply entirely or par­
tially to the part(s) of this dwelling rented to others or
used for your own business? (If yes, specify which
items and amount of expense.) ....................... ...... ........

Yes □

$_____________ $___________— $....... ............ —

No □

Yes □

2112-836

1. Completing unfinished room, new bathroom, etc........ .......

2112-836

2112-736
$ ...................

Yes □

2113-736

*
-Z tj

2. Additions (new porch, room, garage, etc.)....... ...................

____

3. General remodeling....................................... .............. .....

............. -2,3

-3 3

4. Central air conditioning installed..................... .................

........

.. -J f

5. New lawn, trees, shrubs, landscaping...___ ____ _______
6. New fences, walls, walks, patios, etc...... ............. ............

No □

*

$

$
2112-736

E-II. Improvements

No □

>5"

-3 £

_________ .‘^yk..
2112-742

2112-842

2112-842

2112-742

................... d
2113-742

k .

7. Other improvements to buildings (Specify)........................ .
*

-Z n

$

- 37

$

$

$

$

.........
8. Other improvements to grounds (Specify)................ •
____ _____ rj& . ................ . . r J l .
9.

Total (1 through 8) $....... ..................... ................

$

$

N o tes:




(8)

124

................ z g J L
$

F.

RECEIPTS FROM ROOMERS AND BOARDERS, AND FROM RENTAL PROPERTIES
If the family did not rent rooms or other property, or take in boarders at any time in SY, skip this section

F-1. Receipts From Roomers and Boarders

NUMBER
(b)

ITEM
(a)

RATE PER WEEK
(c)
$_______________

Persons .......... .

2 Board only..
.
3.

4.

Room only....

... ... ..........

......_ _
_

_

NUMBER OF
WEEKS
(d)

AMOUNT RECEIVED MEALS PER WEEK OF
TOTAL NUMBER PER
(b) IN(c) x (d)
x SY
PERSON
(e)
<f>
$___________________

. ____________ Persons_______

xxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxx

________ ____ __ Rooms________

T ot at. (\ thmnch 3)

%

_______________

F -II. Rents Received From Real Estate
Enter here information about other rent payments received during SY.
Use a separate column for each property.
PROPERTY NO.

PROPERTY NO.

PROPERTY NO.

PROPERTY NO.

(b)

(e)

(d)

(e)

TOTAL

ITEM
(a)

$ .

1. Total rent payments received (less agent’s commission)._. $
2. Did these payments include (C heck):

8

Yes

No

Yes

No

(a) Heat____ ___ ___________________________________

D i

D o

D i

D 0

(b) Electricity/gas___________________________________

□

□ o

□

1

n o

(c) Water___________________________________________

D 1

a

a

i

D 0

1

o

(D

$ ._____ _________ $................... ................
Yes

No

D 1

D 0

D 1
D 1

Yes

No

n

i

D 0

D o

a

i

□ 0

D 0

D 1

D o

a

D o

(d) Janitor service...______ ________________ _____ ____

D i

D o

D l

D o

D i

□ 0

(e) Furnishings— ___ _______________________________

D 1

D o

D i

□ o

D 1

D o

D l

a

(f) Other (Specify)_____ ____________________________

D 1

□ o

a

D 0

D 1

D o

D l

D 0

If any item in 2 is checked “ Yes” ask:
3. How much did you spend for these services for the
rented unit(s)?_________

i

$

$

$

$_______________

$_______________ 1 $________ _____ -

i

o

$________ ______

$____ ............................

$— ........................

$',...................................
2300

4. If family has computed its net income from rental,
enter here____________
Transfers by Editor
5. Current expenses (Sec. D -I, item 23, and Sec. D -I I ,
item 28)
6. Repairs, replacements, and maintenance (Sec. E -I,
item 14)................. . .......................
7. Net rent------------------------------------------------------------------------N otks :




OFFICE
USE

1231-711
—
OO
$ / 2.3 & — O O ^ U &

tZ3i

I2ai

(9)

125

1241-711
—
O O

G. TELEPHONE, FUEL, LIGHT, REFRIGERATION, WATER
TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY

ITEM

(a)

(b)

2300
3264-715

1. Home telephone expense:
(a) Basic charge........

..($_______ _____ per month).

(b) Extra message unit............. ............................................................. . .........

...r./JL

(c) Long distance-.............................................................. ........................... —
(d) Other telephone charges (installation, extensions, color phones, etc.)..

-

(e) Combined home telephone bills (if unable to report separately).........

b
®

3264-723

2. Other telephone expense:
(a) Local calls from coin telephones................
(b) Long distance calls from coin telephones..
3. Telegrams and cablegrams..------------------------ ------Check purposes for which family bought gas and
electricity in the housing unit occupied on
December 31, SY

Hot
Cooking Water Heat
(d)
(e)
(e)

2600

4. Gas:

Refrig­ CA*di
Light eration tioning
(h)
(f)
(S
)

011

□

□

□

□

□

□

(b) Delivered by tank truck....................... .............. ..........

012

□

□

□

□

□

□

(c) Delivered in containers.............. ...................................

013

5. Electricity................ ............... ........ ........... ..................................

029

(a) Delivered in mains...................... ........ ..........................

3252

□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
□
000 XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

6. Combined gas and electricity, if unable to report separately ~

-

2300
3251-715
7. Coal (Specify type): Anthracite □
Bituminous □

Coke □
Other

8. Wood, sawdust, pressed wood logs__

_____ __ ?AL

9. Kerosene, range oil or fuel oil No. 1..

...... .......7*?/...

11. Other fuel (Specify)............................

..............._
r_3a_
-4-a

12. Water: Flat rate □

$_

10. Fuel oil No. 2, 3, 200, 300..................

3253-716
Metered Q ........................................... ........................................................................................... ..........

13. Sewage charges or septic tank cleaning........................... ..............................................................................................................

...............-7.-/2.

14. Garbage and trash collection....................... ...................................................................................................................................

.................... Z J A .

15. Combined charges: Any combination of items 12, 13 and 14 if paid as a single charge.

............. _^oc_

(Specify the items included.)..

16. Water softening service___ ____ ________ _______ _____________ ___ ____ ________ _______________ ______________________
_
3254-713
17. Ice...................... ............... ........... ..............

$..... 3/y.54r.9±

18. Food freezer or locker rent and charges..

............... -T.&t

19. Other related expenses (Specify)....... ......

......... ......

20.

T otal (1 through 19)N otbs: .




GO)

126

H. MISCELLANEOUS HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES
ITEM

(a)

TOTAL EX P E N SE
IN SY

TOTAL E X P E N SE
IN SY
*

ITEM

(a)

W ________
2300

________ 2 2 _____
2300

3262-714

1 C leaning sen t ou t (rugs, draperies, e tc.; not clo th in g )_
.
2 Laundry sent ou t (clothing, household linens)_______
.
3. D iaper service...... ........- _____. _______ ___________________
4. Launderettes, coin-operated washing m achines.............

3265-736

% lW k '_ O J

12. Stam ps and other p ostage--------- ------ -------------

$

____________ r .P

13. Stationery, w riting supplies, greeting cards..

........................

A.

\P A
:Q ±

(b) Gardeners and grass cu tters.......
(c) B ab y sitters_____________________
(d) Other (S p e c ify )____ _____________

6 D a y nurseries, child care center service..
.

8 E qu ipm ent repair and service charges.........
.
9. M ov in g expense........................ ..........................

(Christm as trees and

-5 Z

16. Fresh flowers and plants for the h o u s e ............ ........

$ .3 A P 3 ...r ...U .

:-S i

- S3

17. F low er and lawn seed, fertilizers, sprays, e t c . (not

-M

lan dscapin g)_________________________________________

- ____ _______ --7../&I

3277-714

J .3 .
..T A P .
2t

r r > ii,~ 3 ±

18. Law n m ow ers..
19. Other hand and pow er tools, garden hose, rakes,

3265-725
7. R eupholstering and furniture rep a ir............

decorations

lights, party decorations, e t c .).........................................
15. Other indoor household item s (m atches, candles, e tc .).

3263-715
5. W ages to (including tips, uniform s) and Social Security
paym ents fo r :
(a) H ousehold help_________________________________

14. Special holiday

' V ;/

spades, carts, sprayers, etc. (excluding occu pation al

.3 M - 5 .r - .L L

9,&

tools and those used prim arily fo r h o b b ie s)..........—

2. Paint brushes,
0

nails, sandpaper and o th e r m aterials

±3.

(n o t reported in Section E )----- --------- -----------------------

A .i 2. Other ou td o o r household item s (S pecify)..
1

I t

10. Other freigh t and express charges.............. .

1. S torage charges (except furs and ap p arel)..
1

:n
T o t a l (1 th ro u g h 2 1 )---------------------------------------------

N o tes:




(11)

127

$.

I. HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT
R ead through the following list, asking the respondent to give the quantity o f each item bought in SY, the price paid, and the total expenditure. If more
than one of any item was bought at a different price use blank (X ) lines to list each purchase separately. For example, a second purchase o f pillow cases
would be entered after item 69 like this: “ 5 3X pillow cases.” The inform ation for the other columns should then be com pleted.
T A X E S : T hroughout the list include sales and excise taxes in T O T A L E X P E N S E (col. f), but not in P R IC E P A ID (col. e).
SPEC . C O D E : W hen a code is printed next to an item, enter the appropriate code in the specification colum n (c).

OFFICE USE
(b)

(a)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

(c)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

TOTAL EXPENSE ITEM
(Including tax)
No.
(f)
(g)

2100

FURNITURE
1. Living room: Suites— 1; fully upholstered chairs— 2 tables— 3;
sofas— 4: other— 5. (List below)
_ _

3272

$_______________

0 1

$________ _____

1

0 1
0 1
0 1

2. Dining room: Suites— 1; dinette sets— 2; tables— 3; chairs— 4;
other— 5. (List below)

0 2

2

0 2
0 2
0 2

3. Bedroom: Suites— 1; beds— 2 ; mattresses and springs— 3; dressers;
chests, vanities— 4; cots, rollaways and other— 5. (List below)
3

0 3
0 3
0 3
4. Porch and garden furniture (List below)

4

0 6 9
2 6 9
2 6 9
5. Other furniture, except kitchen, which cannot be included in the
above groups (List below)

5

0 7 9
2 7 9
2 7 9
X
X
X _____________________________________________________
FLOOR COVERINGS
Soft surface: Wool or wool blends— 1; man-made fibers— 2; cotton— 3;
other— 4.
6.

Wall-to-wall (sq. yd.)

7. Room-size rug
8.

Scatter m g...

.)

3273
Enter the above
soft surface
code in col. (c)
for items 6-9

12. Scatter rug

8

0 4

10

0 6

11

0 7

Enter the above
hard surface
code in col. (c)
for items 10-13

9

0 5

13. Tile (composition)

12

0 8

N otes:




7

0 3

9. Stairs and hall
Hard surface: Linoleum— 1 ; plastic— 2 ; asphalt— 3; other-- 4 .
10. Wall-to-wall (sn. vd.)
11. Room-size rug

6

0 1
0 2

(1 2 )

1 2 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

13

I. HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT—Continued
ITEM

N U M BER
BOUGHT
(d)

O FFICE USE

(a)

(b)

FLOOR COVERINGS—Continued

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

TOTAL EX P E N SE
(Including tax)

IT EM
No.

(g)

2100

14. Other floor and stair coverings (S p e c ify )..

0 9 8

15. R u g pads (S pecify k in d )__________________

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

14

0 9 9

3273

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

15

X ________________________ ____ _____________
X . . . ............... ............. ............. .......... .......... .........
X _________ ______________ __________________

TELEVISION, RADIO, MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
(E xcluding am ateur radio h o b b yists’ expenses)
16. T elevision : P ortable or table m odel— 1 ; console— 2;
com b in a tion (e.g. ra d io -T V or radio-ph on oT V )— 3 ......................... ............. .........................................
17. R ad io: P ortable or table m odel— 1 ; console— 2;
com b in a tion (e.g. ra dio-ph on ograph )— 3 ................

TRADE-IN
es
No

Y

- 1

16

0

- 2

17

□

0

- 3

18

□

0

- 6

19

□

1

□

o

□

1

□

18. P h o n o g r a p h s— 1 ; t a p e re c o r d e rs— 2 ........ .............

□

1

19. P ia n o — 1 ; o r g a n — 2 _____________ ________ _____

□

1

3711

2 0 . T e le v isio n r e p a ir a n d p a r t s , in c lu d in g a n te n n a ___________

0

1 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

20

2 1 . R a d io , p h o n o g ra p h , e tc. r e p a ir a n d p a r t s _________________

0

2

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

21

22. H i- F i c o m p o n e n ts, k its, a n d p a r t s (o th e r co m p o n e n ts) .

0 4 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

22

23. P h o n o g r a p h re c o r d s— 1 ; r e c o r d in g t a p e s a n d re e ls— 2 ..___

0 5

24. V io lin , c la r in e t , e t c ___________________ _______ _________ —

X

X

X

X

X

24

8

X

X

X

X

X

X

0 7 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

2 5 . S h e e t m u sic , m u sic s t a n d s, c a se s, e t c ........ ..................................

0

8 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

25

26. Rentals, repairs, other charges fo r m usical instrum ents..

0 9 8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

26

X

□

1

□

X

□

1

□

0

X - - . . . ............. ................... ................. ........................... ....................

□

1

□

23

o

0

CHINA, GLASSWARE, SILVERWARE, ETC. (NOT FOR COOK­
ING USE)
0

1 8

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

27

28. Dishes (sets): China, earthenware— 1; plastic— 2 ; other— 3..

0

2

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

28

29. D ish e s ( s e p a r a t e p ie c e s ) : C u p s a n d sa u c e r s— 1 ; p la t e s — 2 ; o th e r— 3
30. S e r v in g p ie c e s (b o w ls, p i tc h e r s ,,e t c .) : C h in a — 1 ; g la s s — 2 ; silv e r— 3
o th e r— 4 ................................................................................. ......................................
31. K n iv e s , fo rk s , sp o o n s, e tc .: S te r lin g silv e r — 1 ; p la te — 2 ; s t a in le s s
st e e l—-3 ; o th e r— 4 ......................................................... ...................................

0 3

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

29

0 4

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

30

0 5

X

X X

X X

X

X X

X

X

X X

31

X X

X

X

X X

X X

X

X

X X

27. Glasses....................................................... ....... .................................. ...............

3276

X„

X

X X

X

X

X

X „

X

X X

X

X

X

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
32. R efrigerator: E lectric— 1; gas— 2 ; other— 3 ........

□

33. H om e freezer...................................................................

□

34. D ishw asher.......................................................................

□

35. C ook in g stove: E lectric— 1; gas— 2 ; other— 3 —

□

36. G arbage disposal u n it...................................................

□

37. H otp la te: E lectric— 1; gas— 2 ; other— 3._

1
1
1
1
1

□
□
□
□
□

0
0
0
0
0

32
33

-

34

1 9

- 2

129

36

0

1

37

0

(13)

35

- 2 8
3275

38. E lectric toaster................................................ .




- 1
- 1 8

3274

1 8

38

I. HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT—Continued
3E USE

IT EM
_____________________________________ (»)____________________________________

w

N U M BER
BOUGHT
(d)

PR ICE PAID
(Excluding tax)

TOTAL E X P E N S E
(Including tax)
(f)

(e)

IT EM
No.
(«)

100

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT—Continued
39.

SPEC.
CODE
(O

O th e r e le c tric e q u ip m e n t (fry in g p a n , d e e p -fry e r, r o tisse rie , co ffee
m a k e r s, m ix e rs, w affle iro n s, e tc .) ( L is t b elo w )
3275

0

3276

0

6 8

2

6 8

$ ..................................

19

$

39

X _______ __________ _________- ------ ---------------- ----- — -............. ............
X ............... - ___________ ____________________-................................................ X — ___ ____________ ____-..........-............. -..........-............... .................................
X ___________________________ ___________________________ ______ _____
40.

C o o k in g u te n sils, n o n e le ctric (p o ts, p a n s , sk ille ts, e tc .) ( L is t)

4 1 . K itc h e n : C r o c k e r y a n d g la s s w a r e — 1; k itc h e n k n iv e s, fo rk s, a n d
s p o o n s— 2 ; b e a te r s , s p a t u l a s a n d o th e r s— 3 ................. ........................
42. K itc h e n : C h a ir s— 1; s t o o ls — 2 ; t a b le s — 3 ; c a b in e ts— 4; o th e r— 5.
(S p e c ify ) ...........— ------ ---------------- ----------------------- ----------------------

CLEANING EQUIPMENT
43. V a c u u m c le a n e r: U p r ig h t t y p e — 1 ; t a n k ty p e — 2 ;
c a n is te r t y p e — 3 ; e le c tric b ro o m — 4 ; o th e r— 5 .......
4 4 . W a x e rs, e le c tric _____ ________ ________________________
45. B r o o m s— 1; c a r p e t sw e e p e rs— 2 ; w a x e rs (n o n e le c­
t r ic ), m o p s, d u ste r s, p a ils, e t c .— 3 . . ---- -------- ------

X

X

0 7

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

40

X

X

X

X

41

3272

0

8

42

o

3274

- 3

43

o

TR A D E-IN
YES
NO
□
□
X

1

□

1

□

X

3274

- 2 5

X

X

3276

0

□

0

3274

- 4

46
47

44

8

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

45

LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT
46. W a sh in g m a c h in e : A u to m a tic — 1 ; n o n a u to m a tic — 2.
47. A u to m a tic c lo t h e s d r y e r : E le c t r ic — 1 ; g a s — 2 ;
o th e r— 3.
. .
.............. ..........

□
□

1

□

o

- 5

48. W a sh e r -d ry e r c o m b in a t io n s___ ___________________—

□

1

□

0

- 5 8

48

□

0

- 5 9

49

1

49. I r o n in g m a c h in e ......................... ....................................................

□

50. E le c t r ic iro n __________ ____ ____ ________________ _____
51. O th e r la u n d r y e q u ip m e n t ( b o a r d s , tu b s , b a s k e t s ,
c lo th e slin e s, e t c .) ___ _______ ____________ _________

X

X

X

X

3275

0 3 9

X

X

X

X

3276

0 8 9

o

1

X

□

1

□

X

□

1

□

□

1

□

□

1

□

□

1

□

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

51

o

X ................................... ........................................................................

X

o

X

X

,

o

X

50
X

0

HOUSEHOLD TEXTILES
0

1

52

53. P illo w c a s e s ........ ............................................ .........

0

19

53

54. P illo w s .............. .................. .......................................... .............................................-

0 2 5

54

55. C o m fo r t e r s a n d q u ilt s ..............................................................................................

0 2 9

55

52. S h e e ts: P e r c a le — 1 ; m u slin — 2 ; o th e r— 3.

2;

3271

e le c tric — 3 ; o t h e r - r 4 ............................

0

3

56

57. B e d s p r e a d — 8 ; co u c h c o v e r s— 9 . . ......... ....................................... .....................

0

3

57

58. C u r ta in s : D a c r o n — 1 ; c o tt o n — 2; fib e r g la s s— 3 ; o th e r— 4...................
59. R e a d y - m a d e o r c u sto m - m a d e d r a p e r ie s: F ib e r g la s s — 1 ; ch ie fly
c o tt o n — 2; ch ie fly m a n - m a d e fib e rs— 3 .................................................. —
60. W o v en ta b le lin e n s: T a b le c lo th s— 1 ; n a p k in s— 2; p la c e m a t s — 3 ;
s e t s — 4 ...........................................................................................................................

0 4

58

0 5

59

0

CO

61. P la s t ic ta b le c lo th s , p la c e m a t s .............................................................................

0 6 5

62. S lip c o v e r s, r e a d y - m a d e o r c u sto m - m a d e ........................................................

0 6 9

63. T o w e ls: B a t h — 1 ; k itc h e n — 2 ; o th e r— 3 ........... .................................. ..........

0 7

56. B la n k e t s : W o o l— 1; c o tto n —




(14)

130

6

61
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

62
63

I. HOUSEFURN1SHINGS AND EQUIPMENT—Continued
ITEM

OFFICE USE

(a)

(b)

SPEC.
CODE
(e)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)

ITEM
No.
(t)

2 10 0

HOUSEHOLD TEXTILES— Continued
64. Shower curtains: Plastic— 1: other— 2.

3271

______
65. Bath mats— 1: bath sets— 2.
_
6 6 . Other ready-made or custom-made household textiles

$

0 8

$

0 9

64
65

(List
X X X X X

0 8 8

X X X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

66

X .................. . ............................................. .......... . ............. .......................
X _______________________________________________________
67. Material for curtains, draperies, slipcovers, trimmings
(List b elow ):

etc.
67

vris

0 8 9

’

X X

2 8 9

68.

Charges paid for making or sewing household textiles......................
69. Materials for handwork used in home (not for gifts) such as
crochet thread, varn for needlenoint. etc. _

X X X X X X X

0 9 8

X X X X X X X

68

0 9 9

X X X X X X X

69

X ......................... — ............................................. ........................ ................
X
X ...................................................................................................
X ____________________________________________
NURSERY EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS
70. Sheets: Plain— 6 : fitted— 7— __ _____

_________

0 1

70

71. Pillows................. ..................................................... .......................

0 2 6

71

72. Blankets: W ool— 6 ; other— 7..................................................

0 3

73. Pads, rubber sheeting............................ .................... .........

0 7 8

3271

.

74. Mattresses..............................................................................

3272

72
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

73

0 3 6

74

75. Cribs— 6 ; beds— 7 ........ .............................................................

0 4

75

76. Bassinettes— 6 ; baskets— 7 ........... ....................................

0 7

76

77. Chests....................... ..................... .......................................

0 3 7

78. Chairs, babv tenders, toilet seats, nlav Dens, bathinettes

0 5 9

79. Carriages— 6 : strollers— 7____ ____________________

3277
3276

0 6 9

81. Other equipment (List)..................................... .......... .

3277

0 2 9

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

0 1

80. Bottles, nipples, sterilizers, bottle warmers................... ..

77
X

78
79

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

80
81

2 2 9
2 2 9
X ..........................................................................................
X ............................................................................................
X ............................................................................................
X ____________ _____________________________________
TRADE-IN

MISCELLANEOUS ITEM S

Y es

No

82. Heaters: Electric-— 1 ; gas— 2; other— 3.

□

1

□

o

3275

- 4

83. Dehumidifiers___

□

1

□

o

3274

- 7 9

88

- 8 9

84

84. Air conditioners (demountable ty p e )____

□

1

□

o

85. Sewing machines.

□

1

□

o

86.

□

1

□

o

Typewriters.............................................. ........................

- 9 9
3277

573447 0 - 60 -3




82

131

- 4 9

X X

86

I. HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT—Continued
mrPTPr rrav
(b)

(•)

SPEC.
CODE
(c)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)

2 10 0

MISCELLANEOUS ITEM S— Continued
87. Electric licrht bulbs____________

3277

0 3 8

___ __________
Electric fans__________________ ___________ _______ —

3275

0 5 9

89. Hand luggage— 1; trunks— 2; lockers— 3............................ .................

3277

$

0 6

88.

ITEM
No.
(g)

90. Lamps................ ............................................... .............. ...........................

X X X X X X X

87

$

88

89

0 3 9

91. Fireplace equipment (shovels, poker, screen, etc.)....... ...... ...............

X X X X X

0 5 8

90
X X X X X

X X X X X X X

91

92. Clocks, pictures, vases, figurines, bric-a-brac, etc..,— ,......................

0 5 9

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

92

93. Scissors, scales, thermos bottles, lunch kits, etc_____ ___ _____ ____

0 7 8

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

93

94. Blinds, window shades, rods, etc. _______________________________
95. Rental of furnishings and equipment (typewriters, sewing
machines, etc.) _
.
. ...

0 7 9

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

94

0 8 8

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

95

96. Insurance on furnishings, equipment, and apparel____ ___________

0 8 9

X X X X X

X X X X X X X

96

97. Other items (Specify)_____________________ __________ ____ ___ ___

0 9 9

x

it

97

2 9 9
2 9 9
X _____________ ___________________________________

□

1

□ o

X ___ _________________ ____________________________

□

1

□ o

X

□

1

□ o

X

□

1

□ o

ni n

x _______ ________________ _______________________________

98. T

otal

o

(1 through 97)___ ____ ___________________________ _______ ______________________ ____ _________ ______ __________________

$-...............-......... -

98

99. ITEM INVENTORY ON YEAR ACQUIRED
For each of the following items owned by the family enter the last two digits of the year it was acquired.
the date for the item most recently obtained.

If the family owns more than one of an item, enter

| 3300-0927-712
ITEM
Q 95L7

(a) Living room suite

-

(b) Chair, fully upholstered
(c) Radio-phonograph set
(d) Radio

_

.

_______

(e) Phonograph
(f)

T V combination set

(g) Television set
(h) Piano, organ

.........

.

.

Ot
0Z>
03
Qtt
OS
0(o
ol
_c&.

(i)

Dining room suite

09

(j)

Dinette set

10

(k) Bedroom suite
(1)

..................... ..........

Rug or carpet for living room_______ ........................




| 3300-0927-722

YEAR
ACQUIRED

YEAR
ACQUIRED

ITEM

09Z

Cm) Refrigerator
(n) Home freezer.______ _________

____

7 -

if
1(0
n

(o) Cooking stove________ _______________
(p) Dishwasher_________

/3

.

_____ __________

(q) Vacuum cleaner_ ___________________
_

. ............................... i i

(r)

Washing machine______ ___ ________

(s)

Drying machine, automatic___________ _________ ____ ...1 9

(t)

Combination washer-dryer___ ___ _____ ________________ £P_

(u) Garbage disposal............ .................. ..... .............................
fvl Sewinc machine
fw) Air-conditioner (demountable)_
_
(x) Air-conditioner (central, installed)____

(16)

132

.... ___ _________

ZJL

STANDARD QUESTIONS—I
Housing Items—Sections C Through I
(a)

ITEM

TOTAL IN SY
(b)
2300
6200-745

1. If the fam ily received any housing item s as P A Y or G I F T from agencies or from persons not in the fam ily, how m uch were they w orth?
(a) R en t other than rent received as p ay reported in Section C _________________________________________________________________________
(b) R epairs or im provem ents to ow ned real estate___
(c) Fuel, light, refrigeration, w ater or phone service,.

&&f?_Q_ r_?i_3

(d) M iscellaneous household item s or services________

(o& Q>0 ~~ HH

(e) H ousefurnishings and equipm en t_________________
4212-745
2. I f the fam ily paid for any housing item s which were G IV E N * to persons not in the fam ily, how m uch did it spend?
(a) R en t pa id _____________________________ _____ ________________________________________________________________________
___ _________ -

(b) Repairs or im provem ents to prop erty o f oth ers...

M .

(c) Fuel, light, refrigeration, water or phon e service..
(d) M iscellaneous household item s or services________

z fiA

(e) H ousefurnishings and equipm en t__________________
(f) T otal question 2___________________________________

2127-743
3. I f the fam ily S O L D any housing item s, how m uch did it receive?
(a) Fuels_________________________________________________________
(b) M iscellaneous household item s......

........................ - J J L

(c) H ousefurnishings and e q u ip m en t..

____________ zlJLS l

(d) T ota l question 3..
4. H o w m u c h d id fa m ily O W E to c o m p a n ie s , sto r e s , a g e n c ie s, etc .,

REN T

(a ) O n J a n . 1 , S Y ............................................

$

(b) O n D e c . 31, S Y . . . ....... .

(c)
2 204
744
i - ih

IM PROVE­
M ENTS,
REPAIRS
AND
R EP LA C E­
M EN TS
(d)
2207
754
$ .........

O Z % 1r-

<fl

5. I f 4 (a ) is la r g e r th a n 4 ( b ) , e n te r d iffe ren ce.

2 ,Z > tq

ot z z > n ~ u

6.

Z .K Z A — o t

I f 4 (b ) is la r g e r th a n 4 ( a ) , e n te r d iffe re n c e ______________ __________

-

•Space below may be used to itemize expenditures for G IFTS reported in response to question 2.




(17)

133

FU ELS, GAS,
ELEC ., ETC.

MISC.
HOUSEHOLD
ITEM S AND
SER V ICES

FU R N ISH ­
INGS AND
EQUIP­
M EN T

(e)
2207
764

(f)
2207
774

(g)
2206
784

$ ...........

$ .

-W

_______

' _______

-J.2>

r ..(3 . z z /&
~ /3

(h)

........n f 5
________

..............
..............

TOTAL

zM S
a
- Cl

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$ __________ _____ _
$ ----------------------

J. FOOD AND ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN HOME CITY, AND CLEANING
ITEM

1 Did you prepare meals at home during SY?
.

□ Yes

TOTAL IN SY

(»)

(b
)

□ No.

If no, skip questions 6 through 9(a).

2. If yes, did at least 1 family member regularly eat at least 10 meals per week at home, or in the form of lunches carried from home?
□ Yes □ No.
3. Did any family member receive meals as pay (or at no cost) on the job? □ Yes □ No.

F.M. No.

4. If yes, who were they?

23 1 I I
1214-721

Family member(s) No..... —
How much were the meals
worth? ................ .............

How many meals per week?..
Number of weeks in SY..... .
5. Did your family share its food expenses with another family?

OFFICE USE

□ Yes

□ No.

H oo^C K teriM G -

FOOD BOUGHT TO BE EATEN AT HOME OR FOR LUNCHES CARRIED FROM HOME

6 On the average how much do you usually spend at the grocery store $..... ................................. ...................
.
INCLUDED
IN ITEM 6
Yes
No

3110-717

2> i £

.

OSl\

iL □ .L M - .- ^ Y o t h e r )

3 / lO -Oi

Lt )6

USUAL EXPENSE PER

IF NO,
SOURCE OF PURCHASE

Month

Week
$. ifG C T .

(a) M ilk................... .............. ...............................

2300

$ vg>

.

per □ month

7. What other expenditures for food did you make that are not included in the amount spent in grocery stores?
ITEM

sh a k e

^ week

(b) Other dairv p roducts............ .....................
N

(c) Eggs ___ _____________________ _____ ____

--

o m

Other

*' $

$

FGOT>

r « i

J T £_N ivS

4

~37Z%

' 0 /

, 3 i.L0

- C(, c- j

(d) Bread and other bakery p roducts........
(e) M eats, poultry, and fish............................

(f) Fresh fruits and vegetables
(g) Other food items (Specify)

(h)

fctv

T otal________ _______________ ______ ________ ____ _________________________

T } B

f

A 7>y l
$ - - - ...........-

l

3 n c -cf

A f? T)t3C5

tS E 5
fccv Tu ? C H r'----------- $AlLQ_r.°L ~7h
$----------------- $-----

8. The total of 6 plus 7 is $.... ........ . per _______

Did you in SY spend more or less than this usual amount at certain times of
the year?
(Interviewer: Enter amount more or less per week, per month, or other period.)

OCTOBER THROUGH DECEMBER

More
Less

$..... .

Wk.
Mo.
Other

JULY THROUGH SEPTEMBER

More
Less

Wk.
Mo.
Other
$_____

APRIL THROUGH JUNE

More
Less

JANUARY THROUGH MARCH

Wk.
Mo.
Other |
$_____

About the same.......... ..........

About the same...... .............
Don’t know_____ ________

Less

About the same

Don’t know_____________

More

Don’t know......................... .

$....

$ ....

$ ....

Wk.
Mo.
$—....... Other

_
About the same._ ______
5/

Don’t know...--------------L AVJl 'jTmZnT

N otes:




(/-)

(18)

134

3

iI

SUPPLIES, PAPER AND PERSONAL CARE SUPPLIES, AND TOBACCO
ITEM
(a)

,

CLEANING SUPPLIES, PAPER SUPPLIES, PET FOOD, TOBACCO, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, AND PERSONAL CARE
i s u r r u jb o

TOTAL IN SY ITEM
No.
(b)
OFFICE USB
2300

9. (a) Does the amount spent in grocery stores
(Item 6 ) include any of the following non­
food items?

(b) How much did you spend for these items in SY?

BOUGHT IN GROCERY STORES
YES

Week
(e)
10. Laundry supplies (soaps, deter­
gents, bleach, starch, etc.)
1 1 . Cleaning supplies (cleaners, pol­
ishes, scouring pads, sprays,

$

BOUGHT IN OTHER STORES
Usual Expense

Usual Expense

NO

Total SY
Expense

Month
(d)

(e)

$....................

$___________

Total SY
Week
(f)

Month
(s)

$....... ............ $

<h)
•
$

$3.&&iL'CU
............

12. Household paper supplies (nap­
kins, tissue, towels, wax paper,
foil, paper cups and plates,
13. P e t fo o d s .

9

3261-714

11

-o h
3 7 /S -0 2

_______________

3811-717

14
(a)
(b)

.............. .-0-3.

(c)

7.0.4.

(d)

3 2 Z 1 -Q I

15
(a)

..............
X X X X X

X X X X X

$

X X X X X

$

.............. - c a

(b)

-0 3

(c)

(c) Wipes...................................
T otal

___

________

13

or

$ 3 8 //-

(b) Cigars
__ ___
(c) Tobacco, pipe and chew­
ing, snuff
(d) Pipes, lighters, smokers’
supplies............................

(d)

12

.............. _T G&
j

14. Tobacco:
(a) Cigarettes ___

(e)
T otal
15. Alcoholic beverages (to be served
at home or carried from
hom e):
(a) Beer, ale, malt beverages..
(b) Liquors (whiskey, gin,
rum, etc.) __ ______

10

$....................

X X X X X

$ .......... . ....

X X X X X

3621-716

$ 3 Q Z i.7 ..U

16
(a)

- iz

16. Personal care supplies:
(a) Toilet soaps........................
(b) Dental needs (tooth­
brushes, toothpaste,
powder, mouth washes,
etc.)..................................

(b)

-/J

(c) Razors and blades
(d) Shavers, electric; shaver

(c)
(d)

(e) Shaving preparations and
toiletries _

-IS
............. r..lk.

(f) Cleansing tissues................

(e)
(f)

3621-725
(g) Face powder____________

XXXXX

XXXXX

$..........

(g)

________

T.&&

(h)

-3 3
XXXXX

______

XXXXX

Notes:




XXXXX

XXXXX

(h) Face and skin creams___
(i) Shampoos, rinses, sprays
and other hair and
scalp preparations
(j) Home permanent kits
and supplies ...
(k) Hair brushes, combs,
clippers, nets, hairpins
and other hair care
equipment- .
___ ...

(19)

135

(i)

=M .

(i)

________ 7

M .

(k)

J. FOOD AND ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN HOME CITY, AND CLEANING
ITEM

TOTAL IN SY

______m _____

(a)

CLEANING SUPPLIES, PAPER SUPPLIES, PET FOOD, TOBACCO, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, AND PERSONAL CARE
SUPPLIES— Continued
BOUGHT IN GROCERY STORES
YES

NO

U

sual

E

BOUGHT IN OTHER STORES
U

xpen se

su al

E

Month
(d)

2300

3621-733

xpen se

T otal S Y
E xpen se

Week
(c)

OFFICE USE

T otal SY
E xpense

Week
(f)

(e)

Month

(0

(h)
3&>

16. Personal care supplies— Con.
(1) Sanitary supplies________
(m) Other cosmetics, toiletries
and personal care items
(nail polish, deodor­
ants, perfumes, co­
lognes, bath salts, lip­
stick, rouge, lotions,

A/ / *" 3 i
■

16
(1)

(m )

(n)
T otal______________
17. Other non-food items: (Specify)

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$___________

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$________ —
-3 3

18.

T otal (10+11 + 1 2 + 1 3 +
14(e) + 1 5 (d )+ 16(n) + 1 7 )-.

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$___________

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$___________

19. D i d y o u m a k e a n y lar~e or b u lk pu rc h ase s of food in S Y , su ch as fruits, m eats, or vegetables for hom e ca nning, hom e freezer, etc.,
w h ic h are not reporte d a b o v e ?
□ Yes
□ No.
20. I f Y e s, specify item s b o u g h t a n d a m o u n t s p e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. D i d y o u p u rc h ase a n y p re p a re d foods or beverages in S Y (not includ e d in item s 6 or 7) fro m ca rry -o u t shops, caterers, delicatessens,
etc., for parties, w e d d in gs or other o cc a sion s?
□ Yes
□ N o.
22. I f Y e s, h o w m u c h d id y o u s p e n d ? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

23.

$___________

17

18

3 1 1 0 -7 2 2
20

- Q l.

22

23

T o t a l A t - H o m e F ood E x p e n d i t u r e s i n S Y (for editor)..
3 1 2 1 -7 0 4

FOOD BOUGHT AND CONSUMED AWAY FROM HOM E IN H OM E CITY BY FAMILY MEM BERS LIVING AT H OM E

24.

B o a r d (un less reported in Se ctio n C ) ___________________________ _______ __________________ ________ ____ ___________ ___________________
(a) A t w ork:
F a m ily m e m b e r N o . _

1

23l

|

23l

1

|

3 12 1 -7 1 1
T o t a l expense________
(b) A t rchool:
F a m ily m e m b e r N o..

$___________

23|

312 1 -7 1 1
$ ___________

1

(c) O th e r m eals a w a y fro m hom e:

0l

|

3 12 1 -7 1 1
$_____________

23L..1. 1

23m

23|

3 1 2 1 -7 1 1
T o t a l expense_______

< 3 f^ ^
U

3 12 1 -7 1 1

-o z ,

25(a).

3 1 2 1 -7 1 1

$___________
q

$—

l,,.|

a lcoholic beverages..

-0 3

(b)

- 0 ft.

$ __________- -

..... .

(c)

3 82 1 -7 1 1
(d) A lc o h o lic beverages in bars, cockta il lounges, re sta u ra n ts a n d ta v e rn s (not includ e d a b o v e )..

$3.UArJA

(d)

(e)

$ -£ L Z '.L z9 $

(e)

T o t a l . ............................................................................................................ ...................................................................

3 12 1 -7 3 1
26. Be tw e e n-m e als food s (candy, coffee, ice cream, snacks, so ft d rin ks, etc.)..
27.

$ .__________

T o t a l (item s 24, 25(e) a n d 2 6 ).............. ..... ............... ...................




26
27

(20)

136

SUPPLIES, PAPER AND PERSONAL CARE SUPPLIES, AND TOBACCO—Continued
TOTAL IN 8Y ITEM
No.

ITEM
(»)

______2 !>_____

2300
7119-711
28. If family R E C E IV E D any food through public or private assistance, how much was it worth?_________________
29. If the family R E C E IV E D from persons outside the family gifts listed below, about how much were they worth?

28
6110-736

(a) Food________ ___ __________________________________________________________ ___ ___________ _____ -

29(a)

(b) C andy....________ _____ _____________________________________________________________ ______ _____

(b)

(c) Cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, smokers’ supplies--------- ---------------------------- -----------------------------------

_Q.SjJ'j33

(c)

(d) Alcoholic beverages___________________________________________________________ ___________________

L S Z t'ty

(d)

(e) Personal care items______________________________________________________________________ ___ ____

.k L 2 i.: 3 L

(e)

(f) Household supplies.___________________________ __________________________________________________

..L & k lz A k

(f)

4212-736

30. If family GAVE gifts to persons outside the family of the items below, how much was spent?
(a) Food_____ ________ _______ ______________________________________________________________________

30(a)

(b) Candy------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(b)

(c) Cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, smokers’ supplies_______________________________________________________

(c)

(d) Alcoholic beverages___ ___________________________________ ...i_____________________________________

zH

(d)

(e) Personal care items________________________________________________________

-A l

(e)

(f) Household supplies_________________________________________________________

"„3 >

(f)

(g) Total question 30______________________________________ ________________ ___

(g)
1299-733

FOOD RAISED FOR FAMILY USE
31. Did the family raise any food for its own use?

Yes □

No

If yes, ask items 32-35.

.9A.LL.z.oi

32. How much would this food have cost if bought in a store?__ ___ ______________________
33. How much did the family spend for supplies (e.g., seed, plants, feed, baby chicks, fertilizers, etc.), excluding expenses reported in
H-17_________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______
34. Did the family sell any home produced food to others?

Yes □

32
33

No □ .

35. If yes, how much did the family receive?_______________________________

J.& 23..Z-Q -1

35

If respondent indicated in items 14 and 15 that he purchased tobacco, or alcoholic beverages to be served at home or carried from home, record answers
to questions below.

LAST PURCHASE
36. When did any member of the family last buy the items listed below, and how much
did the family spend for them?
(a) Coffee (except instant)____ ____________________________________________

(WASHINGTON OFFICE
USE)

AMOUNT
SPENT

0811-801

(a)

(b) Cigarettes___________________________

0881-801

(b)

(c) Beer or ale___________________________

0882-801

(c)

(d) Whiskey, gin, brandy, or other liquor_
_

802

(d)

(e) Wine_____________ ___________________

803

(e)

Interviewer: Enter date question 36 was completed..
N otes:




(2 1 )

137

Family Member

N o . 21 I

S
chedule

I ]

K-I. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY

N o .................................

On these pages are listed clothing items for women and girls 16 or over. Prepare a separate list for each fam ily m ember including each item bought for
the fam ily m ember during SY , b y herself or other fam ily members. Space is provided following Section L fo r recording gifts from outside the fam ily.
F IB E R S P E C IF IC A T IO N .— W hen fiber specification is asked for, enter the appropriate code from the b ottom o f the page in the fiber code colum n ( c ) .
M O R E T H A N O N E I T E M B O U G H T .— I f a second item was purchased, which was o f a different fiber, or at a different price from the first, use a blank
line ( X line) to record the inform ation on the second purchase. Enter the number of the item in front of the X and write the kind o f item on the leader line.
(For example, a second sweater would be entered after item 10 like this: “ 8 X Sweater.” )

ITEM

OFFICE USE

(a)

________ (b)________

COATS, SUITS, JACKETS, ETC.
1. Heavy winter coats with fur...

3331

O il

FIBER
CODE
<
e)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)
$ ... ........ ...............

TOTAL EXPENSE ITEM
(Including tax)
No.
(f)
(S)
$

1
2

2. Heavy winter coats without fur

01 2
0 2 9

3

4. Fur coats and jackets............ .................

0 3 1

4

5. Fur scarfs, stoles, muffs______

0 3 2

XXXXX XX

0 4

XXXXXX X

6 Raincoats, rain capes (code fiber).................. .......
.

.......................

5

6

7. Jackets (code fiber)__ .

0 5

7

8 Sweaters (code fiber)..
.

06
07

9

9. Suits (code fiber)
10. Other (Specify)

9 9 9

X ............................................... .......... ............... ........................
X ..................................................................................................
X ....................................... ..............................................

. .

................ .................

3332

12. Housedresses (code fiber)
13. Dresses for formal or semiformal wear

__

XXXXXXX

1
0

2
2
2
2

X ......................................................................... ........... .............

DRESSES, SKIRTS, BLOUSES, ETC.
11. Street dresses (code fiber).......
.......

8

___

1
1
1
2

01
02
02 8

13

XXXXXXX

14. Skirts, jumpers, culottes

0 2 9

15. Blouses, shirts (code fiber)

03

16. Aprons, smocks, brunch coats, dusters

0 3 9

17. Slacks (code fiber)

0 4

17

1
R.

0 4 9

18

Dungarees, blue jeans

19. Shorts, pedal pushers (code fiber)

15

XXXX XXX

16

19

0 5

20. Playsiiits

14

0 5 9

2
0
2
1
2
2

2. Bathing suits
1

0 6 9

22. Other clothing used for sport participation

0 7 9

XXXXXXX

23. Uniforms (military, or for volunteer work such as Red Cross, nurses
aide, Girl Scout, etc.)
_.
____

08 8

XXXXXXX

23

24. Special work clothing (uniform for waitress, nurse, etc.)

0 8 9

XXXXXXX

24

25. Matched separates/snts

0 9 9

2
2
2
2

X
X
X
X ...............................................................................................................................

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally
Principally
Principally
Principally

wool.
cotton.
rayon and/or acetate.
m an-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.




5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.
(2 2 )

138

25

K-I. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY—Continued

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

P r in c ip a lly
P rin c ip a lly
P rin c ip a lly
P r in c ip a lly

w ool.
c o tto n .
ra y o n a n d /o r a c e t a t e .
m a n - m a d e fib e rs o th e r th a n r a y o n a n d a c e t a t e .

5 . P la s tic .
6 . L e a th e r .
7 . O th e r fib e rs a n d b le n d s, in c lu d in g silk .

N oras:.......... ......................................................................................................................... ............................ ..........................

(2 3 )
573447 0 - 60 -4




139

K-I. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY—Continued
ITEM

FIBER
CODE
.(«)

OFFICE USE

(a)

ffc)

H A T S , G L O V E S , A C C E S S O R IE S
46. H ats___ _________________________

3337

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(«)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

$

0 1 9

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f>

$

46

47. G loves_____________

0 2 9

47

48. H andbags, purses..

0 3 9

48

49. U m brellas___________________________________________________ _____ _____
50. Accessories (handkerchiefs, scarfs, belts, collars, dickeys, flowers,
dress shields, e t c .)— ___ _____________________________________________

0 4 9

49

0 5 9

XXX

XXX

XXX XX XX

....................................

50

51. Jew elry and w atches (including costum e jew elry)..

0 6 9

XXX

XXX

XXXXXXX

............................

51

52. O ther (S p e c ify )----------- ---------------------------------------------

0 9 9

XXX

XXX

XXXXXXX

52

2
2
2
2

X ____________________________________________________
X ________________________ ____________________________
X ___________________________________________________

53. L um p sum expenditures (to be used on ly w hen respondent is unable
to item ize exp en d itu res)_____________________________________________

3330

0 9 9

XXX

XXX

XXXXXXX

54.

XXX

XXXX

XXX

XXX

XXXXXXX

T o t a l (1 throu gh 53)..

F IB E R
1.
.
3.
4.

2

CODE:
P rincipally
P rincipally
P rincipally
P rincipally

wool.
cotton .
rayon a n d /o r acetate.
m an-m ade fibers other than rayon and acetate.

5. Plastic.
. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

6

N o tes:




(24)

140

$______________ —

54

F a m il y M e m b e r

N o. 2 l |

1 1

S

ch edu le

K-II. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR MEN AND BOYS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY

N o................................

On these pages are listed clothing item s fo r m en and b oys 16 or over in SY . Prepare a separate list fo r each fam ily m em ber including each item bough t for
this fam ily m em ber during the S Y , b y him self or other fam ily m em bers. Space is p rov id ed follow ing Section L fo r recordin g gifts from outside the fam ily.
F I B E R S P E C I F I C A T I O N .— W hen fiber specification is asked for, enter the appropriate code from the b o tto m o f the page in the fiber code colum n (c).
M O R E T H A N O N E I T E M B O U G H T .— I f a second item was purchased, which was o f a different fiber or at a different price from the first, use a
blank (X ) line to record the inform ation on the second purchase. E nter the num ber o f the item in fron t o f the X , and write the kind o f item on the line.
(F or exam ple, a second sweater w ou ld be entered after item 7 like this: “ 5 X Sw eater.” ) T he inform ation in the colum ns w ould then be com pleted.

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally
Principally
Principally
Principally

wool.
cotton.
rayon and/or acetate.
man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.




5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.
(25)

141

K-II. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR MEN AND BOYS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY—Continued

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally wool.
Principally cotton.
Principally rayon and/or acetate.
Principally man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.




5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

(26)

142

K-II. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR MEN AND BOYS 16 YEARS AND OVER IN SY—Continued
ITEM

OFFICE USE

(a)

________ ___________

HATS, GLOVES, ACCESSORIES
_____ ________ _______________________
49. Felt hats___ __________ ______—

3317

FIBER
CODE
(«)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
<>
d

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(•
>
$

O il

TOTAL EXPENSE ITEM
(Including tax)
No.
(f)
(I)
$

0 12

49
50

0 13

51

52. Gloves, dress___ ____________________________________________ ___ ___

0 2 1

52

53. Gloves, work______________ _______ _________________________ _______

0 2 2

53

54. Accessories (ties, handkerchiefs, belts, garters, wallets, etc.)...............

0 3 9

X X X X X X X

55. Jewelry and watches______ ________________________ _____ ______ ____

0 4 9

X X X X X X X

55

X X X X X X X

56

X X X X X X X

57

56. Other (Specify)-................ ..................... .................... ............. .

..........

0 9 9

X .................................. .. .................................. ..............................................

2

X

54

2

X
57. Lump sum expenditures (to be used only when respondent is unable
to itemize expenditures)____ ___ ___ ____ ___ _____ ________________
58.

T otal (1 through 57)_____________ ___ ________________________

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

2
3310

0 9 9

XXX

X X X X

XXX

X X X X X X X

5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

Principally wool.
Principally cotton.
Principally rayon and/or acetate.
Principally man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate

N otes:




XXX

(27)

143

$............................

58

F a m il y M e m b e r N o . 21 1

I

Sch e d u le

I

K-III. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR GIRLS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY

N o.

On these pages are listed clothing item s fo r girls 2 through 15 years in S Y . Prepare a separate list fo r each fam ily m em ber including each item b o u gh t for
this fam ily m em ber during the S Y , b y herself or other fam ily m em bers. Space is p rovided follow ing S ection L fo r recordin g gifts from outside the fam ily.
F I B E R S P E C I F I C A T I O N .— W hen fiber specification is asked for, enter the appropriate cod e from the b o tto m o f the page in the fiber c o d e colu m n (c).
M O R E T H A N O N E I T E M B O U G H T .— I f a second item was purchased, w hich was o f a different fiber, or at a different price from the first, use a blank
(X ) line to record the inform ation on the second purchase. E nter the num ber of the item in fron t o f the X and w rite the kind o f item on the leader line.
(F or exam ple, a second sweater w ould be entered after item 11 like this: “ 9 X Sw eater.” )

ITEM

FIBER
CODE
(e)

OFFICE USE

(a)

(b)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)

ITEM
No.
(g)

COATS, SUITS, JACKETS, ETC.
3341

$

0 1 1

2. Coat sets (number of p ie ce s ____ ____ , _________________ _____________

0 1 2

3. Lightweight coats, toppers_______________ ___ __________________ ...

$

0 2 9
0 3 1

1
2
3

XXX

4

5. Leggings, ski pants_________________________________________________

0 3 2

5

6. Raincoats, rain capes (code fiber)_______

0 4

6

_________________________

0 5
8. Jackets, lightweight (code fiber)___________ ...

7

__________________

0 6

8

9. Sweaters (code fiber)______ _______________________________________ _

0 7

9

10. Suits (cnde fiber)

0 8

11. Other (Specify)

.

X

_____

. . . .

10
X X X X X X X

0 9 9

.... ________________

_____

11

2

X ...........................

...

_________________________________________

2

X .................

_______________________________________________

2

X __________________________________________________________________

2

....

DRESSES, SKIRTS, BLOUSES, ETC.
12. School and similar dresses
.
13. Party dresses (code fiber)
14. Pinafores, smocks

..

.

____

_
. . . .

15. Skirts and jum pers (co d e fiber)
16. Blouses (cod e fiber)

_
_

3342

0 11

12
13

_ _ . ..
.

.
_

._

0 2

_ .

____ ___

0 2 9

14

. .

_

____ ____

0 3

15

_

_____

0 4

16

____

17. T ee shirts, p olo shirts

0 4 9

17

18, Slacks

0 5 1

18

19. Overalls, dungarees, blue jeans

_

23. B athing suits

.

19

0 5 2

____ _____

20 Shnrt.s
21. P lay suits, sun suits
22. Special play clothes (cowgirl, Indian, etc.)

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

2
0
2
1
2
2

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

24

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

25

0 5 3

06
06
.

_____________

1
2

23

0 7 9

24. Gym suits, leotards and other dancing costumes, etc

08
08

25. U niform s (school, G irl S cout, C am pfire, e t c .)_________________________

1
2

X X X

X X X

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

P rincipally
Principally
P rincipally
Principally

w ool.
cotton .
rayon a n d /o r acetate.
m an-m ade fibers other than rayon and acetate.




5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

(28)

144

K-III. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR GIRLS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY—Continued
ITEM

OFFICE USE

(a)

(*)

FIBER
CODE
(e)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
<)
•

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)

ITEM
No.
(g)

DRESSES, SKIRTS, BLOUSES, ETC.— Continued
3342

0 9 9

X __________________________________________________________________

2

_____________ ____ ____________________ ___ _____________________

26

2

X _________________________________________________________________

$

2

________________________________________________________

X X X X X X X

2

X

X

UNDERWEAR AND NIGHTW EAR
3344

0 1 1

27

0 12

28

0 13

29

0 14

32. Other underwear, e.g., union suits, snuggies, etc.

(Specify)___ ___ _

30

0 1 5

31

0 1 6

X X X X X X X

0 5 1
0 5 2

33
XXX

0 5 3
X

34
X X X X X X X

35

2

____________________________________ ___ _________

2

X

___________________________________________________________

X

______________________________________________________

2

____________________________________________________ ___

2

X
HOSIERY
36 Stockings

_.................... ......... - --- -................... - -

37 Anklets, socks, knee-high socks

_______

... .

Other (Specify)

. .. ..

..

3345

_ _____ ... ... . . _

38. Slipper s o ck s ____ ____ _______________ _________ ______
39.

32

. .................. .. .........

0 3 2

_________

0 3 4

________________ ___ _________________________________ ___

X

36
37

XXX

0 3 3

... ____

X

0 3 1

___________________________________________

38
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

39

2

2

X

________________________________ __________

2

X

_______ ___ ________________________________

2

FOOTWEAR
40. Street and

dress shoes.._____ _____ ... .................... . .. _____
Shoes, casual (code upper fiber).......... ........................ .......... .
42, Specis.1 sport, shoos (golf, riding boots, etc.)
43. Houseslippers, ballet slippers __ _____________________________
44. Rubbers, galoshes, boots _________________ ___ ______ ______ _______
45. Other (Specify)... _______________________________________ _________

3346

40
41

0 19

42

0 2 9

43

0 3 9

44

0 9 9

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

2
2
2
2

X ______________________ ___ _________________ ______________________

X
X

X

0 18
0 1

41.

_________________________________________________________________

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally
Principally
Principally
Principally

w ool.
cotton .
rayon a n d /o r acetate.
m an-m ade fibers other than rayon and acetate.




5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. O ther fibers and blends, including silk.
(29)

145

45

K-III. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR GIRLS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY—Continued
ITEM

OFFICE USE

FIBER
CODE

NUMBER
BOUGHT

i* _____ __ £____
>

(a)

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)

m_______ <L
£

HATS, GLOVES, AND ACCESSORIES
0 19

xx x

....... ........

0 2 9

xx x

............................ ...................

48. Purses_______ ______ _____________________ _______________ _______ ______ _

0 3 9

xx x

......................................... ......

49. Accessories (handkerchiefs, scarfs, ribbons, ear m uffs, um brellas, e t c .).

0

xx x

xx x

46. H a ts ..._____ _________________________________________ ______ _____________

3347

47. G lo v e s ...___ __________ ______ _____ ____ ______ ________________ __________

49

$______ ____ ___

x x x x x x x

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)

_____m_____
$
.

ITEM
No.

(t)
46

47
48
49

50. Jew elry and w atches (including costum e je w e lr y ).___ __________ ______

0

59

xx x

xx x

x x x x x x x

50

51. O ther (S p e c ify )..____ ____________________________ __________ ____________

0

99

x x x

xx x

x x x x x x x

51

2
2
2
2

X
X
X.
X.
52. L u m p sum expenditures (to be used on ly when respondent is unable
t o item ize expen ditures)________________________________ ________ ___
53.

3340

xxxxxxx

T o t a l (1 throu gh 5 2)____________ ______ _______ ___________ ____ _

FIBER CODE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally
P rincipally
P rincipally
P rincipally

w ool.
cotton .
rayon a n d /o r acetate.
m an-m ade fibers other than rayon and acetate.

5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

N otes:




0 9 9

..... ....................................
........................ ..................
........................................ .
..........................................
xxxxxxx

(30)

52
53

Sch ed u le

F a m il y M e m b e r N o . 2 l l 1 J

K-IV. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR BOYS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY

No.

On these pages are listed clothing items for boys 2 through 15 years in SY. Prepare a separate list for each family member including each item bought for
this family member during SY, by himself or other family members. Space is provided following Section L for recording gifts from outside the family.
FIBER SPECIFICATION.—When fiber specification is asked for, enter the appropriate code from the bottom of the page in the fiber code column (c).
MORE THAN ONE ITEM BOUGHT.—If a second item was purchased, which was of a different fiber or at a different price from the first, use a blank (X)
line to record the information on the second purchase. Enter the number of the item in front of the X, and write the kind of item on the line. (For example,
a second sweater would be entered after item 9 like this: “5 X Sweater.”) The information in the columns would then be completed.
ITEM

FIBER
CODE
(e)

OFFICE USE

(a)

0»

COATS, JACKETS, ETC.
___ __________________ _____ ___________
1. Overcoats...........................—

3321

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d>

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(«)
.$

0 1 1

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)
$ .......... .................

ITEM
NO.
(g)
1

2. Coat sets (number of p ieces................).................................. ...................

2

0 1 2

3. Jackets, heavy (code fiber)____ ______ _____________________ ________

0 2

3

4. Jackets, lightweight (code fiber)___ ______ ___________ ______________

0 3

4

5. Sweaters (code fiber)......................... ............................. ...... .....................

0 4

5

6. Raincoats (code fiber)........................................................ .......... ..............

0 5

6

7. Snowsuits, ski suits________________ ___ _____ ____________

0 6 1

7

XXX

8- Ski pants, leggings

0 6 2

8

9. Other (Specify).............. ..... ................ ...... ................. ...... ......

0 9 9

9

X

2

X

2

X

2

X_......................................................................................... .....................

2

SUITS AND TROUSERS
ID. Wool suits
__ __
11. Cotton and other suits (code fiber)..
_ _
12. Sport, coats
13. Trousers, slacks, dress type (code fiber).. ___ _
14. Trousers, slacks, other (corduroy, twill, etc.)
15. Vests . ______________________
16. Other (Specify) ... ___ ._ __
X ______
X ______

3322

_________________

X

PLAY CLOTHES
17.

D u ngarees

,

3323

10 . S h o r t s

20. Summits
21. Special play clothing (cowboy suits, Indian suits, etc.)
22. Bathing trunks_______________________________________ ___________

FIBER CODE:

Principally wool.
Principally cotton.
Principally rayon and/or acetate.
Principally man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.




19
2
39
4
49
59
99

XXXXXXX

O il

0
0
0
0
0

18 . O v e r a lls

1.
2.
3.
4.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
2

12
19
21
22
29

XXX

5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.
(31)

147

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20
21
22

K-IV. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR BOYS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY—Continued
ITEM

FIBER
CODE
(e)

OFFICE USE
(b)

(a)
PLAY CLOTHES— Continued
23. Gym suits, baseball suits, football suits and other clothing for sports
participation___________ ____ _________ ________ _________________

TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(f)

$______________

ITEM
No.
(*)

_

____

„.

. . . .

0 3 1

X X X X X X X

0 3 2

X X X X X X X

24

0 4 9

24. Uniforms (school, band, scouts, etc,)... __

3323

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(e)

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(d)

X X X X X X X

25

X _____ ____ ________________________________________________________

$ _____________

2

X _________ ______ __________________________________________________

23

2

_______________ ___ _______________________________________

X .
X

________ ______ ____

.

2

.... .... ............... ............. .... .

2

SHIRTS
0 5 9

26

0 6

3323
27. Sport shirts, woven (code fiber)___________ _____ _________________ _

27
28

0 7
X X X X X X X

0 9 9
X

____________________________ ______________ _____ ________ .

X

_____ ______________________________________ _ _______ _____

X

..........................................................

X ___ ______ _______ _______________ _

31. Undershirts

._

2

.

2

2
2

..............

__________________ ____

UNDERWEAR AND NIGHTW EAR
30. Undershorts
.....
....................

..........................

32. Union suits
.................................................... ..

34. Bathrobes

.

35. Other (Specify)______

.

______

.

______

.............................

0 5 2

_.

________ ______ ______

0 5 3

.... ___ ______

_______________

.... _______________ ______

33

0 5 1

...

_________ ________ _

__________ _______ ______

34

XXX
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

35

2
2
2
2

...

X
X

32

13

..... ......................

.........

................ - ................... .......

X

30
31

0

33. P ajam as. ...

X

0 1 1
0 1 2

3324

. . . . . . . .

.....

29

..

HOSIERY

36. Socks

3325

38. Other (Specify).. _________________________

_______________ ...

36
37

0 3 3

xxxx

X

X

X

X

X X

X

2
2
2
2

X

X

X
X _______ ___ ____________________________________________ ______

FIBER
1.
2.
3.
4.

0 3 1
0 3 2

__

37. Slipper socks

CODE:
Principally wool.
Principally cotton.
Principally rayon and/or acetate.
Principally man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.

5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

N otes : ___________________________ _________ ________ _ ______ _ _ ____________ ______________
_
_
_




(32)

148

38

K-IV. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR BOYS 2 THROUGH 15 YEARS IN SY—Continued

1.
2.
3.
4.

Principally wool.
Principally cotton.
Principally rayon and/or
acetate.
Principally man-made fibers other than rayon and acetate.

5. Plastic.
6. Leather.
7. Other fibers and blends, including silk.

N otes: ___ ______________ ___ _______________________________________________ _ _____________
_




(33)

149

F

a m il y

M

em ber

N o. 2ll

1 1

S ch ed u le

N o.........................

K-V. CLOTHING PURCHASED FOR CHILDREN UNDER 2 YEARS OLD ON DECEMBER 31 SY

On this page are listed clothing items for children under 2 on December 31, SY. Prepare a separate list for each family member including each item
bought for this family member during the SY. Space is provided following Section L for reporting gifts from outside the family.
MORE THAN ONE ITEM BOUGHT.— If a second item was purchased, which was at a different price from the first, use a blank (X) line to record the
information on the second purchase. Enter the number of the item in front of the X, and write the kind of item on the line. (For example, a second sweater
would be entered after item 27 like this: “ 5 X Sweater.") The information in the columns would then be completed.
ITEM

1.

NUMBER
BOUGHT
(«>

3E USE
OFFI,
b)

(»)
Coats______ ___ ____________ ______ ____________ ________________________
_

3351

0

_
2. Buntings______________ _ ____ ____________ _____ ________________________

PRICE PAID
(Excluding tax)
(4)

TOTAL EXPENSE ITEM
(Including tax)
No.
(*)
(f)

$_______________ $

19

0 2 9

1
2

0 3 9

3

0 4 9

4

0 5 9

5

0 6 9

6

0

7

0

3352

7 9
19

8

0 2 9

9

0 3 9

10

0 4 9

13. Undershirts, vests

__ .

15. Rubberized pants, etc.
16. Diapers

...

15
16

0 1 6

17

0

____________ __________ _________________ ___ ______

0 5 1

. _____

Rnhes, wrappers

20. Receiving blankets

18

0 5 2

18. Sleeping garments

21. Stockings, socks

14

14

0 1 5

______

.......................... ........................... ...........................................................

17. Diapers (disposable)

1 ft.

. . .

13

0 1 3

............ .......................

12

0 12

________ ___ _ _______ _____ _____ ___________________
_

14. Cotton underpants, training pants.....................

11

O il

3354

19

2
0

0 5 9
_______________ _____ _ . ................................

3355

0 4 9

99 RnntieSj sVines

3356

0

19

2
2

93 Rihs

3357

0

19

23

21

94 Mit.tenSj muffs

0 2 9

24

25. Layettes

0 3 9

25

26. Jewelry

0 4 9

27 Other nInthing (Specify)

X

X
X

x_. ...........
28. Lump sum expenditures <to be used only when respondent is unable to
itemize expenditures;............................................................ ...............................
otal

(1 through 28)___________ ____________________________ ________




X

0 9 9

X

T

X

(34)

150

X

X

X

X

X

X

26

X

X

X

X

X

X

27

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

28

X

X X X

2
2
2
2
2
2

X

29.

X

X

X

X

0 9 9

3350
X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

$
.................

29

L. MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING AND CLOTHING SERVICES
ITEM

OFFICE USE

(»)
r iO T H I N r . MATERIALS YARD HOODS
1 . 100% wool— 1 ; wool blends— 2 (Enter code in column c )________
2 . Cotton and cotton blends: Regular— 1 ; wash and wear— 2 (Enter
code in column c )____ _____________ _____ ______ ______ ________

_________
2300

(M________

3361

FIBER
CODE
(*)

NUMBER
OF YARDS PRICE PER YARD TOTAL EXPENSE
(Including tax)
(Excluding tax)
BOUGHT
(*)
(0
(d)
$_____ ___ ______

0 1

$................ ..........

0 2

ITEM
No.
(K
)

1

2

3. Rayon and acetate_____ ____________ ________________

0 3 9

3

4. Nylon, orlon, dacron............... ................ ...............................................

0 4 9

4

5. Other man-made fibers___________________________ __________ ____

0 5 8

5

0 5 9

6

6.

Other yard goods (Specify)___ _______ ____________________________

X ____________________ ____ _________ ___ ______________________

2

X ...,___________ _________ ________ ____________________________

2

X

2

X
................................
7. Combined expense (Use only when respondent is unable to report
items separately)......................... ............. ...... ..... ............ ...................

0 0 0

X X X

T otal (1 through 7)__________________________________ ______

x

X X X

8.

ITEM
(a)

NOTIONS
9. Yarn.................................... ........................... ....... ...........

X X

CLOTHING UPKEEP

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

7

X

____________

(a)
CLOTHING UPKEEP— Continued

TOTAL
EXPENSE
IN SY
(h)
2300
3362-724
• M C A -a /

(b) Women’s and girls’ .______________________ ____ _____ _

......... TAZt

' 45

24. Shoe shines and cleaning...___ ______________ ____ _________
... : a 3 .
25. Total family expense for shoe repairs and services (Use
only when respondent is unable to report items sepa­
rately)______________________________________ _________- _______ ~ £ ±
3362-734
OTHER CLOTHING SERVICES
$
'3 1
26. Hat cleaning, blocking, and repair....... ........... .....................

________- M
3361-724
$

...

"5 9

27. Dressmaker or tailor at home or outside.._____ ___________
28. Alterations, weaving, and repair.......... ............................... .

3362-716

.......

29. Upkeep and storage of furs........ .......... ......... ........................... .............. T3.ir.
3362-744

$ 3 3 M -| |

30. Watch and jewelry repair..................................................... .
31. Dyeing, hosiery, glove repair, etc_________________________

18. Clothing for boys 2 through 15 years

$............r.34C
~ 3(o

32. Other clothing services, including clothing rentals (Specify)

19. W omen’s clothing.........................................................................

-1 3

20. Clothing for girls 2 through 15 years

-/if

21. Clothing for children under 2 years______ ______ _________

-/5

33. Total family expense for other clothing services (Use only
when respondent is unable to report items separately)—

22. Total family expense for cleaning and pressing (Use only
when respondent is unable to report items separately)......

~ (C?
~

34.

-3 7

N otes:




8

...... :_<&

16. Combined expense (Use only when respondent is unable to
report items separately)................. ..................... ...................

DRY CLEANING AND PRESSING
17. Men's clothing.............

X

X

ITEM

14. Clothes hangers and bags, shoe bags, etc______ ____________
15. Shoe polish, laces, etc.......................... .......... ...... ..... ................

X

X

SHOE REPAIRS, SHINES AND CLEANING
23. Shoe repairs:
(a) Men’s and boys’_______ ________________ ____ _________

11. Patterns______________ ____________________________

13. Other clothing materials (Specify)________________________

X X

TOTAL
EXPENSE
IN 8Y
0»)
2300
3361-714

10. Thread............................................... ................. .............

12. Pins, needles, buttons, zippers, snaps, tape, etc___________

2

(35)

151

T otal

"3 ^

(9 through 3 3)....______ _________ ___ _________ $.....................

STA N D A R D

Q U E S T IO N S — II

C lo th in g , C lo th in g M a t e r i a l s a n d S e r v i c e s — S e c t io n s K a n d L

ITEM
(a)
1. If the family received any clothing items, clothing materials or services as PAY or G IFT from agencies or persons not in the family,
how much were they worth?

TOTAL IN SY
(k>
2300
6300-796
s

L 3 i c

- 57

(b) For boys 2 through 15 years old___ ________ _______________________________________________________________________

(o 3

-

(c) For women and girls 16 years old and o v e r_______ _________ __________________

(*3 3 0 ' 5 3

___ _______________________________

f\0

5£>

(*3Y -o ' 5 4 -

g

(f) For total family if not reported separately above--------------- ------------------ --------- ----------------------------------------------2. If the family paid for any clothing items, materials or services which were G IV E N * to persons not in the family, how much did it spend?
(a) For men and boys 16 years old and over---- ---------------------------- ---- -------------------------- ------------------------------------

3

o o

- S

$

-5 1

> 4 - K ,iZ

(b) For boys 2 through 15 vears old.................—
____ .__________ _____ _____________________ ________ _____ _______________

Si

(c) For women and girls 16 years old and over_________ ____ _______ _______ ___ _______________________ ___ ____________
(d) For girls 2 through 15 years old

__

__ - - - - - - - - ______ __ ____ ______________ __________ _____ _________________

S 4 -

-----

(e) For children under 2 years old

-

....... ............ .

. ____ ___ __ _______ ________________________________

(f) For total family if not reported separatelv above________________ ____ _______ ________ ______________ ______________
(g) Total question 2_________

q,

4212-796

s s

S G >

_________________________________ _____________________________________________________ $ ..............................
2127-791

3. I f the fam ily SO LD any clothing items or materials, how m uch did it receive?.----------- -------------- -------- -------------------------------------------------------

,

ZtZ7 - 2 /
2 2 0 7 -7 9 4

4. H ow m uch did the fam ily O W E on charge accounts, installment and other debts to stores for clothing items, materials or services:
(a) On January 1, SY
............................... ________ ______ ____
_
_ _________________ ____ __________________________________
(b) On D ecem ber 31, S Y
5. Tf 4(a) is larger t.h^n 4(h

)t

_____

_______ _________ _______

QZZt 'SO

______________________________________________________________
✓ U '7

differenfle

6 I f 4(b) is larger than 4(a), enter difference
.

_ .

•Space below may be used to itemize expenditures for GIFTS reported in response to question 2.




&

(**)

.

_____

_____

___________________

■ 'ZL

2 ,2 -5 7 -4 /

M . M E D IC A L

CARE

M - I . H e a lth I n s u r a n c e
ITEM
(»)

__152—
2300

2.

L„_.

No D 0

1

No D 0

A ?h

q a ............

—

035*/ - 0 3
Yes D

1

..M z / ...- .. .

(b) I f Y es, w hat was the fam ily expense in S Y for this p lan ?_________________________________________________

No D O

OZU

0351-715

0351-815
d p o lic y

1 p olicy
st

D escribe each general health insurance p o licy (not included in item s 2 or 3) separately in colum n (b) below and on
additional pages, if m ore than tw o policies.

03 S I

1

Yes D

(a) W as any F .M . a m em ber o f a plan that provides care in a health cen ter?_______________________________

4. D escription o f coverage: (C heck)
(a) H osp ita liz a tio n ............... .

Ot

Yes D

(a) W as any o f this insurance single or lim ited purpose coverage, such as polio or school accident policies?..
(b) I f Y es, w hat was the fam ily expense in S Y for this typ e o f cov era ge?— .........-_____ ________________ ____.

3.

3511-715

03Si

1. D id any fam ily m em ber have any health insurance that covers all or part o f the costs for m edical care? (I f N o,
skip to Section M - I I . ) ____ ______ . ______ ___________________________________________________________________________

/ /

2

D l

D 0

D

i

D o

(b) Surgical services......... .......

D 1

D 0

D l

D 0

_______________________ r J . 3 .
— /4
(d) M a jor m edical (m ay be on to p o f hospital, surgical and m edical care— usually has a deductible featu re)...

D i

D 0

D l

D 0

D l

D 0

n

D 0

(e) D en tal care______ ___ _________________________________________________________________________________ — _/_IL

□

□ 0
0351-724

□

(c) Other physician services..

1

i

□ 0
i
0351-824

5. D oes p olicy also co v e r:
(a) D isability incom e (paym en t o f specified am ounts o f w eekly/m onthly incom e in the even t o f illness or

accident)_______________________________ ____ _____ ___ __________________________ — L.

D 0

D 1

D o

D i

D o

D l

D o

D i

D o

D 1

D o

PP—

D i

□ o

D i

(b) D isability benefits (paym ent o f specified lum p sum am ounts for loss if lim b, dism em berm ent or other

disability)............................ ......................................... ...........................................................
(c) L ife insurance........................................................ .......... ............................................................... ................ ....................._
(d) Other (S pecify) ___________________________________ _____ _________ ___________________ __________________

JQ i

3512-717

3512-817

—3(

fb) Total for SY
$
8. If employer also contributed to premiums, check the box and enter the amount, if known.
fal Mont.hlv fweelclv t»t.e \ amount.

F .M . N o. F T

F .M . N o . . r r

-3 *

7. What premiums were paid by the family, including deductions from pay?
Mnnt.hlv fw ^ k lv etc \ am mint,

$____ ____________

$____________ ____

*

____________
“ 3 4

3 iT /£

- Ot $..............................

□ $

D $-......................

D $

D $_____________

-3 5
(b) Total for SY............................................ ...... ................. .
ITEM
(a)
F.M . No.
9. Which F .M .’s were covered by any health insurance in SY?.— 23 j
10. I f any F.M . received hospitalization or medical care in SY,
which was paid by health insurance (either directly to the
hospital, etc., or reimbursed to the family), check services
received by F.M . and enter amount, if known, for:

1 |

TOTAL IN SY
(e)-----------

F.M . No.

(*>
F.M . No.

F.M . No.

231 1 |

»

23

0351
736

m

F.M . No.
23|

1 |

2300

0351
736

0351
736

0351
736

0351
736

1r 1

0351
736

$............................

(a) Hospital care

□

□ %

D *

n

□ $..............

(b) Surgical services.

□

□

□

□

□ ..................

(c) Other physician servicAS

□

□

□

□ _ _____ ___

D -.................

(d) Other medical care (amhulance, drngsJ etc.)

□

□

□

□

□

D __________

$

____

(e) Dental care................................................ ......... ............. .

D -................

□ ..................

D __________

a .................

(f) Total paid by health insurance.........................................

S_____ _____
1299
741

$....................
1299
741

$................—
1299
741

$....................
1299
741

$....................
1299
741

(g) Excess of payment over cost of medical care.................

D $_______

D $.............

D $ - - ......

D $ -

D $------------ $............................




(37)

153

$............................
1299
741

M. MEDICAL
M-II. Medical Expenses Not
Enter medical expenses not covered by insurance, and any part of a bill the insurance
EXPENSE IN 8Y
(*)
ITEM

F.M. No.

IN -HOSPITAL CARE
Hospital Services:
1. R oom (including food and general nursing service)........... ..........

F.M. No.

23 1 1 1

231 1 |

23 | | |

3521
717

(»)
Check services received by each F.M . Enter charges by indi­
vidual item. If separate charges are not known enter combined
expenses on subtotal line.

F.M. No.

3521
717

3521
717

TOTAL EXPENSE
F.M. No.
23 L U

F.M. No.

3521
717

_

. ...

3521
717

3521
717

□ $

□ *

□ $

□ $..............

□ $

□
3, X-ray, laboratory tests, medications, etc

_____ & ________
2300

23 | 1 |

□

□

□ ..................

□

□

□

□ .................

□ _.................

..J £ .& L r ± L
~('£j

□

-

$.

- / 3

□

□

□

□ ..................

□

.....................

□

□

□

□ ..................

□

___________

□

□

□

□ ..................

□

$....................
3521
725

$....................
3521
725

$....................
3521
725

$....................
3521
725

$

s

7.

Subtotal (1 through 6 ).............. .............................. ............... $___________
3521
725
Physicians* Services:
. For childbirth
.... . ..... ____ ____ ___ □ $

8

□

1. Other physicians’ services................................................................
1

□
$___________
3521
501
$........... -.......
3522
716
□ $

12.

S ubtotal (8 through 11)........................... ..................... .........

13.

I n-H ospital C are — T otal (7 + 1 2 )............... ..............

OTHER MEDICAL CARE
Family D octor:
14. Home visits....................................... ............................................... ..
. ....

□ ............ .

□

..................... - & L

□ ............ .

□

_____ _____

$ ................ 3521
501
$— .............
3522
716

$-................3521
501
$....................
3522
716

$....................
3521
501
$ - ....... .........
3522
716

$ - ................. $
3521
501
$.................... $.
3522
716

□ $...............

□ $..............

□ $

.........

□

□

□

□.................

$

$....................

.

$

□ $

____

S ubtotal (1 7 + 1 8 )—.......................... ................. ...... — .......—

.

_

___

_

_

Sttrto a , (20 + 21)
tt

23. Chiropractors and other practitioners........ ....... ......... ..................

'A ± .

3521
501
3522
716

((
................. Z .& .
-1 3
$.
3 5 2 2 -

□ $............... □ $
s.
□
□
____________-3.2.
□
-23
$—
........... $.............. $.............. $.............. $
□ $

□

. . .

□ $

□

$_______ ___

3524
714

3524
714

2. Office visits
1

□$
□
$

□$
□
$

□ $...... .

□ $....... -

N o ra s:




... ...

□

$. ..

___

Other M edical Specialists (excluding dental and e y e ):

22.

□
□ ..................

$

.................... . __

1R. Office visits

20. Home visits

□ $
Q

_ ....

_

SmvroTAT, (1 4+ 1 6 )

Pediatrician:
17. Home visits

19.

. . .

□ .............. .

___

15t Office visits
16.

□ $..............
□ ..................

□ $

10. Anesthesia.............................................................. ...............................

□ $..............

□ ................

□

□

□

9. For surgery................... .......... _....................................................... .....

□ $

- n
3521
725

(38)

164

3524
714

3524
714

□$
□
.$
□
......

□ $.............
□
$....... ............
□ $..........

3524
714

□ $..............
□
$
$
_
□ $.......... $-

3524
714

-3(
.........

-33

CARE—Continued
Covered By Health Insurance
did not meet.

Expenses completely covered by insurance should

not be reported here.
EXPENSE IN SY
(b)

ITEM

F.M. N
o.

F.M. N
o.

F.M. N
o.

23 C D
3526
717

231 1 |
3526
717

231 1 1
3526
717

(a)

23

□ $

r n
3526
717

F.M. N
o.

□ $

□ $...

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY
(e)

23 C D
3526
717
□ $

F.M. N
o.

2300
3526
717

OTHER MEDICAL CARE— Continued
□ $
□

□

□

□

. ...

dd>7 -

//

..

.

....

.....

□ _______

□_........ .

□ ____ _ ............ ____r__u
_
__

□

□

□

.. .

□

□ .......... .

.

—

______

□ _ _ _
_ _

□ _______

~ /3
-

......... .

□

5 u ft TDT/u_

(-2*4-

□

.............

□ ...... .......

□ .......... .

□

□

______

□_....... ......

□ _______ ______ .....T./.fe.

□_....... .

30 )

□

□

□ ...............

□ _______

□_........... .

_
D -.............. _____ _ - i . 7 .

$_______
3523
717

$_______
3523
717

$_______
3523
717

$-........ ....... $______ ___
3523
3523
717
717

□ $

□ $

□ $ ...

□ $_____

□

31.

Subtotal (16+19+22 through 30;------------------------------ $_______
3523
717
Dental Services:
□ $

.

33. Extractions............. ........... .......... ..... ....................................

□

□

34. X-rays_ _ ___ ___________ ___ _________________
_

□

□

__

□_ ........ .

□

□

__

.......

35. Cleaning____________ ____

_____________ _____ _

......... .

....

□ _______

□ ........ ....... _________

........

□

□

Q

□

□

38.

$_______
3524
724

$________
3524
724

$— -__ ___
3524
724

$...... ........3524
724

$_____ _
3524
724

□ $

□ $

□ $

□ $ .

□ $_____

40. Eyeglasses
41. Other (Specify)
42.

_____

________ _______

_____

□ ...... .........

□ ......... .

- --

__ ___ _____ ___ .-/<£.

__ _
$ ...............TJ%
3524
724
3

-

l(

......... ...... ....... ...... .................... .

Drugs and Prescriptions, Medical Supplies, etc.:
43. Vitamins
................. ..... ......................
.. _

45. Drugs and medicines bought without prescriptions_

□

□

□

□

□ ______

□

□

□

□

...

□ ........ ......

$________
3525
716

$_____ _
3525
716

$.............. 3525
716

$_______
3525
716

$________
3525
716

$ ................. <±
3525
716

□ $

. . _

S ubtotal (39 through 41)___________ ____ _____

44. Prescriptions _ ____ _____ _ ______
_

□

□ ........ ...... ____ ___

□

Eye Care:
39. Examination for eyeglasses_______

- /&

□ ........ .......

.............. .....

Subtotal (32 through 37)__ _____ ______________

$.

□ _______

37. Other______________ _ ___ _______________ _ _
_
_ _

36. Dentures, inlays, crowns, etc............................

...........

□ $

□ $

□ $ .........

□ $_____

$. __3SZ.5-r.JL

□

□

□

□

□

□

□

□ ........ .....

.............

.......
□ __ ____

-/ d

46. Medical appliances (artificial limbs, crutches, hearing aids, etc.)-.

□ _ ____
_

□

□

□ ..............

□ ............... .................. - / „ £

47. Other medical supplies (bandages, thermometers, etc.)

Q

□

□

-

.............

□ ............... .............. . . - / i f .

48.

Subtotal (43 through 47).__ ____ _ _____ __ ___
_
_

$ . — ...........

$________

$.— __ ___

$— -............

$.................

49.

Other M edical C are— T otal (31 + 38+42+48)__

$_______

$________

$________

$________

$................. $.........................




(39)

156

-

....... ......T./.4?.

N. PERSONAL CARE SERVICES IN BARBER SHOPS, BEAUTY PARLORS, ETC.
NUM­
BER OF
VISITS

ITEM

(»)

USUAL EXPENSE
PER VISIT FOR
ALL F.M.’s
(Excluding tips)
________ ________

(e
)

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY
(Including tips)

(d
)

2300

CARE OF HAIR AND SCALP

0361
714

Cibj_ -

1. Haircuts:
(a) For men...___ ___________

2300
3611-714

...

«

_____

(b) For women__________ ____

3UK-0
,_= J A .

-

(c) For boys (through 15)_____

.........

(d) For girls (through 15)______

,rJ.±.
0361
725

3611-725

.............

2. Permanent waves or press and curl__

13

rAL

-/

3. Shampoos, other waves____________

-

4. Tinting and coloring..._ ____ _____
_

Z
5>

5. Shaves.----- ------------------------- -

'Z 5"

6. Other care of hair and scalp................
0361
732

3612-733

OTHER PERSONAL CARE SERVICES

.I k iZ .z lL

7. Manicures.___ ___________________

8. M assages and slenderizing treatm ents
9. Other personal care services (Specify).

X

N otes:

I




(40)

166

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

-J A .

X

X

10.______T o tal (1 through 9).

X

$

O. RECREATION, READING, AND EDUCATION IN HOME CITY
TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY

ITEM

____ (b
)____

(a)
RECREATION—
Spectator Admissions:

F . No.
.M

Number of
admissions

Price

Total expense

1. Movies, indoor:
$

$ ____

OFFICE USE
Number of admissions
Adults_________P
Children_______

.'A J—
___

0371-713
2300

Cl

3712-714

G&
03

3_7

T o tal.

______ -o_%

2. Movies, drive-in______________________________________ ___ ...7 ______________________________________________________

-0 3

3. Spectator sports______________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______ _______
4. Concerts, plays, and other admissions_________________________________________________________________________________

_____ r.A t
3713-

Participant Sport:
5. Dues for membership in athletic clubs______________________________________________________________________________

715

$

6. Fees for indoor sports (bowling, billiards, etc.)__________________________________________________________________________
7. Fees for outdoor sports (golf course, tennis courts, etc.)__________________________________________________________________
8. Hunting and fishing equipment and licenses____________________________________________________________________________
9. Other sports equipment (excluding athletic uniforms and shoes)___________________________________________________________
Club Dues and Membership:
10. Social and recreational clubs_______________________________________________________________________________________ $

........... -7_ 2 _
G_
______r J ± .
______- o £ _
3714-

A l i H .---.A L

~0&

11. Other (excluding union dues and insurance premiums)___________________________________________________________________
Hobbies:
12. Cameras________________ ___ _____________________________________ ___ _________________________________________

712

3715-

717

$

A Ij
A-.'-.P-.L

13. Other photographic equipment (films, etc.)________________________________________________________________ ___ ________

______ 77Gv
______ -03

14. Collections (coins, stamps, albums, etc.)_____________________________________________________________________________...

16. Crafts (woodworking, model building, etc., excluding general purpose tools)________________________________________________

_____ r.LH.
_____ .-.e g

17. Pets (purchase, supplies, licenses, etc., excluding food)_________________ ____________________________________ ____________

_____ 7-.C(a

15. Electronic instrument and amateur radio (except Hi-Fi sets and components)_______________________________________________

18. Other hobbies___ ____________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____ ___...
Toys and Play Equipment:
19. Dolls and accessories_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____ 1.9.1
3716-

$

713

1 .7 ./G ....Z .P J ..

21. Tricycles_________________________________________ ____ ________________ ___ _____ ____ __________________________

______ 7JPA
______ Z_PA

22. Wagons, skates, sleds, etc__________________________________________ _________ ____________________________________ $

_____

20. Stuffed toys and infants’ toys______________________________________________________ _________________________________

3716-726

23. Mechanical toys________________________________________________________________ __________________________________

_____ Z 0 f

24. Games and puzzles____________________ ____ ________________________________________________________________________

_____ -0 6 .

25. Children’s playground goods and playground equipment__________________________________________________ — ------ ---------

_____ ~ .m .
_____ - o l .

26. Other toys and equipment (Specify)_______________ _______ ____ _________________ _______ ______________________________
27. Lump sum expenditures (to be used only when respondent is unable to itemize toy expenditures)___ __________ ____________...
_




(41)

*7

____ -.0 3 .

O. RECREATION, READING, AND EDUCATION IN HOME CITY—Continued
TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY
(b)
2300
3717-711

ITEM
(»)

RECREATION— Continued
Other Recreation:
28. Other recreation expense (excluding TV, radio, musical instruments and supplies)
(Specify)_____ _____ _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ $ ..3 7 ; 7 - O .......
29.

S ttbtotal (1 through 28)

_

.$

R E A D IN G 30. Newspapers__ _____ ___ ___________________ ___ _____________________________ ___ ____________________________________ ________ $
31. Magazines (subscriptions and single copies)_______ ____ ___ ____ ________ _____________________________________________________ _

3721-712
2 ? A L

.r ..£ .L

3722-713

CZj

Books Bought (not School or Technical):
32. Pocket editions and other paper backs_____________ ____ _____________ _______ _________ ________ _________________________ ____ $ 3 7 Z > Z - 0 1 .
- ofr
33. Comic books................................ ..... ........ .............................. . ........................... ........ ............................................................... ....................... ...........
34. Hard-bound books______________________ ______________________________ ____ ___________ ____ _____ ___________________________ ............................ 7 . 0 . 1 .
3723-712
Other Reading Expense:
35. Book rentals, library fees and fines
________ _____________________________ $ a . T & . l ~ 0 _ L
36. Other reading expenses (Specify)___._____ _____________________________ ___ ______ _______________________ _____________________ ............... ............ 7 ...0 1 & .
37.

Subtotal

(30 through 36)____ _____________

___ ________________________________________________ ________ _____ _____ $

EDUCATION WHILE LIVING AT HOME—
Tuition and Fees:
38. College and professional...
.
_________________________________________ ,
39. Other school levels__________________ ______________ _______________________________________________________________ _____ ____
School and Technical Books, Supplies and Equipment:
40. College and professional
_______ ____________________ ________ ^
41. Other school levels________ ___ __ ________________________ ________________________ ____________________________ _____ —........ —

3731-712
3 7 5 ( -

of

— CAj
3732-712
3

~~

0 )

- <%
3733-713
Other Educational Expenses:
3 7 .3 .3 - <0(
42. College and professional (Specify)
_ ______________ ________ ______ $
" 0
43. Other school levels (Specify)
. . ___________ ________________ _
44. Music lessons, dancing lessons, etc____________ _______________________ _______________ _______________ __________ ______ ______ ............................ 7 . .. Q A .

45.
46.

S ubtotal (38 through 44)
T otal R ecreation. R eaiuno

.
anth RnncATtON

N tes:
o




(42)

158

..................................... ........... ........................... $.........................................
.. . . . .
$_____________ _____ _

STANDARD QUESTIONS—III
Medical and Personal Care, Recreation, Reading, and Education—Sections M, N, O
____ SSI____

ITEM

TOTAL IN 8Y

(»)

2300
6510-816

1 If the family received any of the goods and services listed below as PAY or GIFT from agencies or persons not in the family, how much
.

was it worth?
(a) Medical care from company doctors, clinics or hospitals....... ................................. — ......................................................................................
(b) Medical care in veterans or public hospitals or paid for by Medicare, welfare agencies, or persons........................................................
<c) Personal care services.............................................................................. .........................................................................................................................
(d) Memberships, toys and recreation equipment................................................ ............................................................ .............................................
(e) Books, magazines and other reading materials........................................................................... ..................................... ......... ............ ...............
(f) Tuition, school books and supplies and other educational expenses................................ ............ ...................................................................

__ toStfO -

L
>!

__ (s& O O-b*
.....
.....b l M - C S
4212-815

2. If the family paid for any goods and services listed below which were GIVEN* to persons not in the family, how much did it spend?
(a) Medical care services, appliances or other items........................................................ — ........... ...........................................................................
.............
(b) Personal care services........................— .................
_______ -<e±
(c) Memberships, toys and recreation equipment..
:± 4
(d) Books and magazines............................... ...............
(e) Tuition, school books and supplies.......................
(f) Total question 2......................................... ..............

2127-814

3. If the family SOLD any items listed below, how much did it receive?
(a) Medical appliances and other items................... — ___ ________
(b) Toys and recreation equipment..
(c) Books and magazines.....................
(d) School books and supplies..........
(e) Total question 3.................... ..........
4. How much did the family OWE on installments and other debts
for:
"' '
......
.............. ..... ■ ■>
(a) On January 1, SY...................... .........
(b) On December 31, SY..........................
5. If 4(a) is larger than 4(b), enter difference..
6. If 4(b) is larger than 4(a), enter difference..

-3 2
-3 3

MEDICAL
CARE

<c)
2207
814

$

O Z Z l'iA

z x n -M

•Space below may be used to itemise expenditures for GIFTS reported in response to question 2.




(43)

1*59

PERSONAL
SERVICES

RECREA­
TION

READING
MATERIALS

EDUCATION

(f)
(«)
(*)
2207
2207
2207
2207
834
824
844
854
£
-(» £ $. . ..-..<?3 $
*
-< o $ x
-6 S
- 6 3 .............r .^ t
- 36 $
-3 3
..............
-3 4
- 3 S
..............
$.
..............
(d)

TOTAL

(h
)

P. TRAVEL AND
P-I. Automobile
(b)

IT
(a)M

(c)

A. CAR OWNERSHIP
(If none, skip to Section P-II.)
C ar No. 14|
B. DESCRIPTION OF CARS OWNED IN SY
(Enter the following for each car, one car to a column.)

1 1

C ar No. 14)

0034-706

-

.

1 |

0034-706

.

m
.................. .

3. Make of car(s) sold, traded or otherwise disposed of in SY_„_..........................

m

□ □

m

a m
..............

19l
□ □

1 1
m

6. Number of cylinders____ ___ _________________ _________ ___________ f . l ? .. .
Automatic □ 1

Automatic □ 1

Hand

Hand

□ 2

□ 2

19| 1 1

i» m
New □ 1

New □ 1

Used □ 2

Used □ 2

Yes □ 1

Yes □ 1

No □ 0

No Q 0

____ _____%

_________%

_________%

________ %

C. USE OF CAR(S) IN SY
11. How many miles was each car driven in SY?
./
(a) Total. ______ ________________ ______________ ___ ______r.;.:./...
(b) For driving to and from work.......................... ................... ...........'I.Zfk-..
'
12. Was car used for business purposes (other than driving to and from work)?

.C J

13. If yes, enter:
jji
(a) Number of miles driven for business in SY..................... .......... ............. ...
(b) Percent of purchase costs chargeable to business use in SY

____

C cJA l

(c) Percent of operating costs chargeable to business use in SY..................

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY

EXPENSE IN SY
C ar No. 23| | |
C ar N o . 23\ 1 1
3411-712
D. CAR(S) PURCHASED IN SY
3411-712
(Enter the following in the column for each car purchased in SY.)
14. Total purchase price (including all charges made, and before trade-in allowance)__ $__________ ______ $________________

2300
3411-712
$

3<H i

-

a

15. Allowance for car trade-in...................................................................... .......... ..........
16. Net outlay (14 minus 15)_______________ ________________ ___ ___________
17. If total purchase price included any of the following, check the box and enter the
amount, if known:
f~ 2 .L L (
n /
(a) Registration fee............... —___ _____ ...
.... ........ .
__ZrJ .

$________________
0341-717

□ •$

□ •$

□

(b) Insurance___________________ ___ ____________________

$________________
0341-717

□

□
(c) Financing charges_____ ________________ _________________ - C . / y . i
—3 lL
18. If no car was traded in, what discount or reduction was given from list price?.-..C $
_ pC
19. Cash payment made at time of purchase... .
________ _____ __ ______.fr.
20. If financed, how many time payments were to be made:
_
(a) Monthly.............................. .
.
.. ................................... ......fyy*
(b) Other (Specify)...




__

...

.......................... .........

(44)

160

$_________________

□
..

. . ... $________________
$_______ _________

TRANSPORTATION
Expenses in SY_____
ITEM
(a)
C ar

22. Amount of each regular oavment_______________________________________

2300
0341-723

0341-723

0341-723

E. CAR(S) ON WHICH TIME PAYMENTS WERE MADE IN SY ^
21. Number of regular payments made in SY_________ __________ Q P . a J.___ : ? J _

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY
(c)

EXPENSE IN SY
(b)
C ar N o. 23 | 1 |
No. 23 [ 1 " j

x x x x x x x x x
$

$

$...___ ___________
2127-712

$_________________ $_________________
2127-712
2127-712

$_________________

23. Amount of other payments made in SY (except cash down paym ent).............- 3 i
24.

T otal (21X22 + 23)..__ ______________________________

F. CAR(S) SOLD IN SY
25. Sale price________________________

.. ___

______ ___________ $

. _____

$

.

. _______

$
i(o

26. Balance owed to family on December 31, SY------------------------ -----------------$

-

$

$

1+

3412-715

3412-715

3412-715

QUANTITY

G. CAR OPERATING EXPENSES

" S t

-

Of

28. Motor oil________________ _____ ________________________

~

o z

29. Antifreeze

-

0 3

.

__
_____ _______

30. Lubrication_____________ ____ ____________________________ _____ _________

-O S ’

31. Washing; air filter, oil filter________________________________________________
32. New tires and tu b es......... ................................. ....... .................... ....................
33. Used and recapped tires; other tire expenses . . . ............

........ ................ .

34. Batteries___ _ ___________________________ ________
_
35. Snark nines

S

$

$

3412-726

3412-726

3412-726

...

-

IZ

j

-1 3

________________

. . .

_____________ - J . ! .

-

36. Other equipment and supplies (not included when car was purchf
37. Combined expenses (when respondent is unable to itemize above) . Includes items

$

38. Tune-ups, electrical and motor repairs..___ ______________ ___ _____ _

f£

-/£>
3412-736

3412-736

H. EXPENDITURES FOR REPAIRS AND PARTS NOT COVERED BY IN SURANCE

39 Clutch and transmission work____ ___

- //

3 4 -! Z,

$

________

3412-736

$_________ z 3 .L .

______ ______ _______ _ .. .

40. Brake adjustments, repairs and service________________ _____ ______________
41 Front, end alignment: steering adiustment: wheel balancing
42. Body work and frame repairs, including painting and glass replacsement

____ ...

43. Combined expenses (when respondent is unable to itemize above) . Includes items

N otes :




(46)

ie i

_____________

-£6>

P. TRAVEL AND
P-I. Automobile Expenses in SY—Continued
ITEM
(a)

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN SY
(O

EXPENSE IN SY
__________________ ____________________
C ar N o. 23 | | |
C ar N o. 23 | | |

I. INSURANCE AND FEES
44. Premiums paid in SY for:
(a) Comprehensive (physical damage) coverage____________ ________ ____

2300
3412-747

3412-747

3412-747
$____ ____ ________

$

$_______________

3//-/ A — 3
y

(

(b) Collision coverage............................................... ....... .........................................
(c) Public liability: bodily injury (including medical payments), and property
damage..............................................................................................................

-3 .3
......................

(d) Total premium (if unable to itemize above)_ _____ ____ _____________
_
45. Registration fees and taxes; inspection fees:
(a) Paid to state________ ___________ ______ ________ _____ ____________
(b) Paid to city/county____________ _____________ __ ___ ______________

____ ________ _ r . l L -

46. Driver’s license fees.............................................. ....... ............... ......................................

________................ r J l .

3412-753

3412-753

J. MISCELLANEOUS
47. Toll eharges (bridges, ferries, parkways)

$

. . ___

$_________________

_______ _______

48. Parking; garage rent; parking meters____________ __________________________
49. Other auto expenses (fines, auto club memberships, etc.).

3412-753
$

(Specify) ____________
....................... . . . n

50.

T

otal

(27 through 49)___________ ______ _____ _______ _________________

$_________ _______

$_________ _______

51. If the family was REIM BU RSED for any of the items below, how much did it rece ive?
fa) On nnreha.se of an automobile
________
(b )

On operating expenses (fuel, parts, repairs, services, etc.)

(c) From car pools and sharing of car

.

...............
. . . .

N otes:




(46)

102

*
.

. . .

___ _________ .
. . . . . .

i l.

$____________ _____
0340-793
C Z f l

-v /
—^
- " h

Aj

TRANSPORTATION—Continued
P-II. Expenses for Local Transportation in Home City
ITEM

F.M.
NO.

(•)

(b)

WORK
—1
COLLEGE—2
SCHOOL —
3
OTHER —
4
(e)

NUMBER OF
RIDES

RATE

TOTAL
(d) x (e)

TOTAL EXPENSE
IN BY

(d)

(e)

(f)

(«)
2300
3421-713

1. Streetcar, bus, subway, etc.
$........................

Family member number......... ........................ ................
Total question 1____ _____ _____ ________ ______

X X X

XXXXXXX

XXXXXXX

XXXX

2. Taxicabs (include tip s):
Family mpmhpr number

XXXXXXX

a

34-Zl

~Ot

$........................

Family member number......................... ........................
Family member number_______________________ ____
Total question 2.............................................. ........

X X X

XXXXXXX

XXXXXXX

XXXX

XXXXXXX

*

-oz,

*

-03

3. Car pool or shared car (not owned):
Family member number

$.....................

Family member number
Family member number..................................................
Total question 3........................................................
4.

XXX

XXXXXXX

XXXXXXX

XXXX

XXXXXXX

T otal (1 through 3 )......................... ........................ ......... ............................ ........................... .............................— ............................

$..............................................
0342-714

FOR OFFICE USE

-

Number nf rifles t.n--- Work

oi

____________________ - O S .

College—

03

Se.hnnl

-

O th e r------

-0 +

P-III. Other Transportation Expenses Not Reported in Section Q
TOTAL IN SY
(b)
2300
3423-717

ITEM
fa)

____ _ ........... ........................................ ....... $

1. Driver’s licenses (for non-car-owning familie.s)

3. Rent of car (including operating expense)

, .....

__

Purchase, operation, and rental of boats outboard motors boat trailers etc

____

7. All other transportation expenses including rental and operation of utility trailer (Specify)

Tor at. fl thromrh 7)




-

03

-0 6

6. Purchase, upkeep and rental of bicycles

R.

OI
0Z

____________ -Oft.

4. Purchase, operation, and rental of motorcycles or s printers
a.

-

2. Operating expenses for borrowed ear (from company nr persons outside the family)

3 4 - 2 ,3

________________________

S

(47)

1£3

-cn
_____________________

Q. EXPENDITURES AND REIMBURSEMENTS FOR FAMILY MEMBERS TEMPORARILY OUT OF THE HOME CITY AT
ANY TIME IN SY
INTERVIEW ER: If any of these expenses are occupational expenses, check the subcolumn preceding the amount of expense for applicable items.

column (c) on the appropriate lines the amounts paid by an employer as reimbursement to a family member.




Show in

R. OTHER FAMILY EXPENSES
ITEM
(»)
1. Interest (not principal payments) that came due in SY on loans from personal loan companies, banks, individuals, etc.
not include mortgage interest on home or farm, or on business loans.) ...... ............ ...........—
2. Charges for checks and other bank service charges_______
3. Safe deposit box rent____________

_„

„ _ ________ ____

TOTAL EXPENSE IN SY
(b)
2300
3831-716

(Do

__ ________ ___

$

...3 J A L

~ o \

___ ___________

___ _____________________________

7Q 2

____ ____ ___ _____________________________________________________

-0 < f

4. Loss (other than business loss) such as money lost or stolen (not covered'bv insurance)____________________ ______________
5. Monev allowances given to children living at home if you don’t know how it was spent......................... . . . .
6. Funerals, cemeterv lots (purchase and upkeep), monuments, etc__________________ _

______________

(Specify)______________________________________________ _____ ____________________________________________

9.

T otal (1 through 8)____________________ _______ _____ ____ _____________________________________________
N o t es:




(49)

165

-o S
-O k

_____ ________________________

7. Legal expenses (not business) „ __
. . ________________________________
. _.
8. Other expenses (Report in this item any other expenses in SY which could not be shown in other parts of the schedule.)

i

-03

$

3831-722

-

o

S

$________________ ___ _

STANDARD QUESTIONS—IV
Transportation and Miscellaneous Expenses—Sections P, Q, R
ITEM

TOTAL IN 8Y

(»)

JiL
2300
6411-917

1. If the family received any of the goods and services listed below as PAY or GIFT from agencies or persons not in the family, how much
was it worth?
(a) Automobile............................................................................ .............. .................................................... ........ -.......-.......—-.........................................
_
(b) Auto operating expenses (fuel, parts, repairs, etc.)..................................
(c) Boat, cycle and other transport equipment and operating expenses..
(d) Local transportation...................................................................................... —
u7 /vi v ” 7-/i/
(e) Travel out of home city...........................................................-.......................
(f) Lodging, food and recreation out of home city............. ............ — .......
- r7G
(g) Legal expenses, funeral costs, and gifts not reported elsewhere-------4212-917
2. If the family paid for any of the goods and services listed below which were GIVEN* to persons not in the family, how much did it
spend?
(a) Automobile.................................. —........................................................................................... ........ .......................................................................—
k A lL
(b) Auto operating expenses.—............—.............. ------ ---------------- ----- -----(c) Boat, cycle and other transport equipment and operating expenses..
(d) Local transportation................. ........ ........ .................. - .................................
(e) Travel out of home city................... ..............................................—...........
(f) Lodging, food and recreation out of home city.......................................
-71
(g) Legal expenses, funeral costs, and gifts not reported elsewhere.......
(h) Total question 2_.
2127-911
$

3. If family SOLD any transportation equipment other than automobile, how much was received?------------------

(c)

(a) On January 1, SY

(d)

Boat, cycle and
other transporta­
tion equipment
and operating
expenses
(e)

2205
914

4. How much did the family OWE on installment
and other debts for «
^

2207
924

2207
934

Auto operating
expenses

Auto purchase

$

O & i 1- n

$ .

$______ _:_73

4 (a ) is la r g e r th a n 4 ( h ) ; e n te r HifTerenee

6. If 4(b) is larger than 4(a), enter difference.................

-

i

•Space below may be ufced to list expenditures for G IFTS reportedl in response to qu<jstion 2.




(50)

166

(*)
2207
954

(f)

$

$_____

................

zdl.

(I)

x x x x x x x x

-H 4

ZJ±

Total

(h)

-7 G

..............

**

2207
964

~7£f $

- I 'i r

2,2,15-01
Z ,'A ) & £ ~ 0

Lodging and
Legal and
meals out of city funeral expenses

2207
944

-1 5

(b) On December 31, SY ....... .....................................

R. If

Travel out of
city

A fU y l

x x x x x x x x

$
-4 5

$ ..................... -............

S.

FAMILY EARNINGS

S-l. Wage and Salary Earnings in SY
F.M . No. 24)
ITEM

Job No.

?□

1

1

F.M . No. 241

1-1211
Job No.

?□

Job No. 8 0

1

1

(b)

(»)

j

1-1211
Job No.

SQ

TOTAL IN SY

1

(e)

(d)
2400

11
21

1. Occupation (kind of work),

2.
3.

4.

_ ____ 0 / & /
_

Business or industry
Class of work (private
— 1)
(government—2)___

601

0 (

0% J

^
0 3

Number of weeks worked in SY .............................._r. . Q . t t ——

5- Usual number of hours per week, _
. —D ! ?
6. Total wages and salaries before deductions (include over­
time pay, tips, commissions, etc.). Check if based on W-2__ $........................... $ - 7.

$........................... $...........................

D

Deductions from wages and salaries:
(a) Federal income tax______ ___________________ _

at

l 2 .l l

-

QC.

D

D

D

/7

0

%

- m

(b) State/local income tax
(c) Social security

>+102, -n t

23l

1

1

231

12 1 1 -7 0 2

(d) Railroad and other government retirement,_

$..........................

1

|

23l

8

1

23l

1

$ .........................

1

1

11- 8 Q 2
21

1 1 -8 2
21 0

1 2 1 1-702

11
21
602

$........................... $..................... :Q3.
.......................... z . C

(e) Non-government retirement________ ______ ____
(f)

2300

IZ IZ

Union dues and assessments

-

±
Cl

- o z

(g) Contributions to Red Cross, Community Chest, etc...

...± L Q .L - 0 1

(h) Group life insurance___ ________________ ______
(i) Subtotal ((c) + (d) + (e) + (g) + (h))................ ............

X X X

X

1211-70 3

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1211-803

12 1 1 -8 0 3

1 2 11-7Q 3

$ _________________
2300

11
21
603

(j)

U .S .

Savings Bonds......................................................

$

$

$

$ ..........................

$ ..................................

$

$

$

$

$ ________________

(k) Group health insurance, hospital, surgical, and
medical plans ______
(1) Other deductions: (Specify)

(m )

Total deductions ((a) through (h) plus (j) through (1))

8. Take home pay (6 minus 7(m))
N otes :




(51)

167

S. FAMILY EARNINGS—Continued
S-II. Income From Profession or Unincorporated Business in SY
2401—
12| I |

2401-12| 1 |

BUSINESS
No. ? Q 6

ITEM

2401- 12I i 1

BUSINESS
No. 7 Q e

(»)

BUSINESS
No. 7 Q g

(d
)

(c)______

TOTAL

(e
)

B>U 3m

OWiYED
N cT

1. Business or profession engaged in...
Yes □ 2
No D 6

2. Did family actually participate in or operate the business?____________

B in

c f C m 'T e p

Yes □ 2
No n@>

3. Number of weeks worked in SY?______________________
lkG i
4. Net income for SY before personal income taxes____________ _________

-

00
CO

Yes □ <$
No □ (>

Z P O- iT
tC 'v
LO 7
-S-^

xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
/

<
R

7070i

1

X,

=-

OO

(0 — CO

J JS 'A .r.P A
1H 0 w " 0 J
j-

5. Federal income tax paid in SY_____________________________ ___ _______

6 State/local income taxes paid in SY___________ _______________________
.

•4 1 07 - ~ O'Aj
j

7. Social security for F .M . paid in SY___ ________________________________

8 Value of goods and services withdrawn from the business in SY_______
.

xxxxxxxx

9. Salary paid to F.M . in SY (before F .M .’s taxes)_______________________

xxxxxxxx

10. Other money withdrawn from the business in SY______________________

XX x x x x x x

11. Family money added to the business in S Y ____________________________

xxxxxxxx

12. Net change in investment in business in SY______
(Use worksheet below to compute this entry.)

(*)$--------------

1 this entry to section V, item 5.
Transfer

If plus, enter in column (e). If minus, enter in column (d).

SUPPLEMENTAL WORKSHEET FOR COMPUTATION OF NET CHANGE IN INVESTMENT IN UNINCORPORATED
BUSINESS OR PROFESSION
______________________________________________ (a)________

(b)

ASSETS:
1. Property, land, buildings, equipment, etc.:
(a) Purchase and improvements (at cost) in S Y __________
(b) Sale and depreciation in S Y ___ ____________ _____________
2 Inventories of merchandise:
.
(a) On January 1, S Y ________________ ________ _______________
(b) On December 31, S Y ____ ______ _________ ________________
3. Accounts receivable:
(a) On January 1, S Y ______ _________________________________
(b) On December 31, S Y ____ ___ ________________________
4. Cash reserve and U.S. bonds or other securities:
(a) On January 1, S Y ............................ ..........................................
(b) On December 31, S Y ...................................................... ....................
LIABILITIES:
5. Mortgages, business debts, accounts payable or other liabilities:
(a) On January 1, S Y ________ ____________________ ____________
(b) On December 31, S Y .............................. ........... ......................

6
.

T otal

xx xxxx xxx x

$____________

$________ ___

x x x x x x x x x x

xxx x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x

$____________

x x x x x x x x x x

x x xxxx xxx x

$
____ _________

x x xxxx xxx x

x x x x x x x x x x

$____________

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x xxx xxx x

$_________ ___

xx xxxx xxx x

x x x x x x x x x x

$____________

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x xxx xxx x

$-..................- .............

xxxxxx xxx x

168

x x x x x x x x x x

$
.
(52)

$ . . . . . ........... .......... ....... -

$_________________

NET CHANGE IN INVESTMENT (6(c) minus 6(b))___________

x x x x x x x x x x

xx xxxx xxx x

(1 through 5)______________ _________________




(C)

$..... .

T. MONEY INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES
Report the total amount received by each family member during SY from each of the sources listed below.
TOTAL
RECEIVED IN SY
(c)

RECEIVED BY
(b
)

ITEM
F.M. N 231
o.

(a)

1

F.M. N 231
o.

INTEREST AND DIVIDENDS
1. Interest received from bonds, savings accounts, mortgages, loans, etc-----

o.
1 ~ | F.M. N 231

2300

1 1

1270-711

1270-711

1270-711

1270-711

$--------------------- $___________
1280-711
1280-711

_
$______ _ — 1280-711

1280-711

izg o

2. Dividends received from stocks and cooperatives-------------------------------1297-714

oc

—

1297-714

1297-714

1297-714

RECEIPTS BASED ON MILITARY SERVICE
$

$

$

4. Veterans’ pensions and compensations (retirement, survivor, and serviceconnected disability pay, educational benefits, and other allowances

— 0£j

5. Dependency allotments from persons in Armed Forces (excluding deduc-

6 Quarters and subsistence allowances to family members in Armed Forces...
.

1293-714

OTHER INCOME
7. Social Security benefits (old-age and survivors insurance benefits)____
. Other public pensions and retirement pay, including Railroad Retirement,
and Federal, State and local Civil Service Retirement, etc

$..........

8

9. Unemployment insurance benefits

.

.

. . . . .

...

03

-

...

$________

1293-714

1293-714

1293-714

..... -..91.

.. $__ _ ______
_

-Q&_

___________

. . ...

10. Workmen’s compensation__________________________________
1294-711

1294-711

1294-711

$___________
1295-711

$___________
1295-711

$___________
1295-711

$___________
1296-712

$.__ _____ _
_
1296-712

$___________

$___________

$___________

1299-713

1299-713

___________ ~Q±_
1294-711

$___________
1296-712

1299-713

11. Private pensions and retirement pay from private employers, labor
unions, and other private sources-------------------------------------------------

$

1 ^ 9 1 -0 0
1295-711

12. Periodic payments received from private insurance annuities and trust

13. Cash received as public social assistance and private relief__ ________

$ ...

$

$

$________ _
_
5111-711

$___________
5111-711

$.......................
5111-711

$___________

........ .............

17. All other income not reported elsewhere.

$___________

(Specifv in footnote.)______

N otes:




j s u p . q>.~..QL

(53)

169

1299-713

- ok
________ ___ -0 ±

16. Payments received from disability income insurance............................. .

18.
T otal (1 through 17)_________________________________
19. Other money received: Inheritances, bequests, lump sum settlements
from casualty insurance, etc. (less attorney’s fees, taxes, and other
expenses required to obtain such money receipts). (Specify source
in footnote.)_ _ _ ___________________________________
_
_

$

-

14. Gifts of cash from other persons not in familv___________________

15. Regular contributions for support (alimony, etc.)..

1296-712

$______________
5111-711

__ ______ $___ £-LLL..7..-Q-L

u. rEKSONAL TAXES, PERSONAL INSURANCE, OCCUPATIONAL EXPENSES, GIFTS, AND CONTRIBUTIONS NOT
DEDUCTED FROM WAGES AND SALARIES
TOTAL
EXPENSE
IN SY
(b)
2300
1702-715

ITEM
(»)

PERSONAL TAXES DUE IN SY
1. Federal income tax for SY, not reported in Section S..........
2. State and local income tax for SY not reported in Section S....

-

4. Personal property taxes................................. ...............

- Cl

5. Other taxes, e.g., head taxes (Specify)......... ....... ................

PERSONAL TAXES FOR OTHER THAN SY
7. Personal taxes due in other than SY and paid ix SY...........

$___ ________
2218-711
$

4211-717
$

H - (y f
70l(

18 Crifts of cash, bonds, or stocks to persons not in the family
19. Community Chest, Red Cross, etc. (not deducted from

Y -2 5 /-0 I

20. Church and other religious organizations...........................

S / 7 C/ - C
<
21. Educational and medical organizations____ __ ______
_

1703-714
9. Other refunds received in SY:
(a) Auto insurance.................... —................ ............ .

$

T otal (10 through 15)

GIFTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
17. Cash contributions for support of persons not in family
(inplnH
inor o1iTYinnv {Joj
^lilvllAlllllg aUiiiUHj no nidi V ).....—----- ......................
o

ZZ/fr ~1
1701-711

REFUNDS
8. Income tax refunds received in SY....... ...... ..... ............ .....

<U C - 3
H-I !

16

C
5

-cu

T otal (1 through 5)....... ............................. ................

15. Other personal insurance (Specify)....................................

$a? ± : o
H
- c4

3. Poll taxes................ :.................................... ................. ......

6.

(»)

TOTAL
EXPENSE
IN SY
(b)
2300
4107-711

ITEM

H?v£3- O
f

-----------------------------------------------(to) Other insurance--------—

HiOt ~'30

22. P olitical and cooperative g r o u p s ..____ ____________ _________ ..............r.C
Z
23. All other gifts and con tributions n ot reported elsewhere
(S p e c ify )................................................................... ................... . ................. r.C:2_

(p.) P rop erty fftYPS

v
5

24.

$

tvh/fo '3 C
Z ~3C

(d) Other (S p ec ify )_____ ______ _________ _________________
(e) T ota l item 9............................................... ....... ............. .........

.m/'z-vc

$
4101-716

O C C U P A T IO N A L E X P E N SE N O T R E P O R T E D E L SE ­
W HERE
25. U nion dues and assessm ents______ ______ _____________ _____

s.i/Lifk-M.

27. T ools, supplies and equipm en t________ ___________ _____ _____ ........... ::.c±.
28. Other occu pation al expenses (S p e c ify ).................... .............. .

(a)

-C 5 "

-03

(h) Othpr

1A P attibinoH in an run pa * Tiifp onH
A1• vOlllUUlCU lilOUlcVlH/Ui AJllC allU

$ ....................1212-714

26. Business and professional association dues................................ _____ -<&_

P E R S O N A L IN SU R A N C E
10. Life, endow m en t insurance, annu ity prem ium s paid, and
insurance dividends applied to prem ium s:

12 M iltiia]

T o t a l (17 through 2 3)________ _________________________

)

j --------------- ------. . . . . . . . .

-c £

inRi^rfi.npp

13. Personal liability insurance (excluding com preh en sive)--------14. D isability, incom e insurance (not reported in Section M ) -----

-c l

29.

T o t a l (25 through 2 8)____ ____________________________

N o tes :




(Page 55 was blank)
(54)

1|70

$-................

V. CHANGES IN FAMILY ASSETS AND
The Bureau o f Labor Statistics will hold this information in the strictest

TOTAL ON JANUARY 1,
SY
(b
)

ITEM
(a)
ASSETS
1. Cash in savings accounts, including credit union shares, building and loan association shares,

TOTAL ON DECEMBER 3
1,
SY
(c)

2300-0212-814
$

C '2 ,.2 ,

-l(

2300-0211-813

c :i •:

$

-■’ !

2. Cash in checking accounts and cash on hand........... ................. ............................ ......... ........
3. Money owed to family members by individuals (not family members).........................................

___ ___

S rren er valu
u d
e

'3

4. Settlement on surrender of insurance policies during SY (life or annuity)........................... .......

$........................... - ± .

x x x x x x x x x x x

5. Net change in investment in business (editor’s transfer from Section S -II).................................

x x x x x x x x x x x
0212-821

x x x x x x x x x x x
0211-821

6. Other assets excluding stocks and bonds (Specify),......................... ...... ................... .............. .

$

$
0212-834
Total pu ase p
rch
rice

0211-834
Total pu ase p
rch
rice

7. U.S. Savings Bonds purchased in SY and held at end of SY.............................................. ....... . x x x x x x x x x x x
8. U.S. Savings Bonds held at beginning of SY and sold during SY (purchase price only; interest
reported in T -l) ....................................................... ............ ................ ............................. $........................
Net received fro sa
m le
(B
roker’s fe s ded cted
e
u )

a

9. Other bonds purchased in SY and held at end of SY............................... ..................................

a

x x x x x x x x x x x
$

' ^rv

*

x x x x x x x x x x x
Total p rch p
u ase rice
(Brokers fee included)
s

x x x x x x x x x x x
$

- 33

11. Mutual fund shares purchased in SY and held at end of SY................ ...... ................................

XXXXXXXXXXX

12. Mutual fund shares held at beginning of SY and sold during SY.... .......... .................... ......... .

$...........................

x x x x x x x x x x x

13. Other stocks purchased in SY and held at end of SY..... .................................................... ......

x x x x x x x x x x x

$........................... -J ±

14. Other stocks held at beginning of SY and sold during SY....... ......................... .............. ..... .....

$ - .......................

x x x x x x x x x x x

15.

x x x x x x x x x x x
0125-814
Total p rch p
u ase rice

x x x x x x x x x x x
0125-914
Total p rch p
u ase rice

T otal (columns (d) and (e)— items 1 through 14).................................................... .........

16. U.S. Savings Bonds purchased in SY and sold during SY (purchase price only; interest reported
in T -l) ......... ................................... ......................... .........................................................

$

C i &S' " / cTotal pu ase p
rch
rice
(B
roker’s fe s in d )
e clu ed

17. Other bonds purchased in SY and sold during SY or retired by company......... ..... .................. .

"

18. Mutual fund shares purchased in SY and sold during SY....................... ...... ...........................

$

c. • ,c s ' - '*'
Net receivedfro sa
m le
(B
roker’s fees d cted)
edu

?vl

-

((

...........................

19. Other stocks purchased in SY and sold during SY......... ........................ ......... ................ ........ ........................
20.
T otal (columns (d) and (e)— items 16 through 19)............................................... ............
LIABILITIES
Money owed by family members (excluding mortgages, installment debts, and charge accounts re­
ported elsewhere):
21. To banks................................................................................ ..........................................

x x x x x x x x x x x
0221-817
$....... _77.y

tk ..
J

.T.-'’ /

V ;"V (V
'V

*- 1

~.7J

23. To credit unions................ ............ ............................ .............. ....... ......... ........ ..................

-

24. To insurance companies.................................................... ...... ................................................

3

tf

~JS

25. To stock brokers___

-3 6

26. To individuals (not family members)................. ............... .......................... ................ ............ .......... .................
_
_
- 37
28. T otal (columns (d) and (e)— items 21 through 27)....................................................................




$

—

22. To small loan companies___________ _ _____ _ ________
_

27. Other liabilities (Specify)_
_

x x x x x x x x x x x
0222-817

(56)

171

x x x x x x x x x x x

- 37
x x x x x x x x x x x

LIABILITIES NOT REPORTED ELSEWHERE
confidence.

I t will never be used for taxation or regulatory purposes.

IF ITEM IN COL. (b) IS LARGER
THAN IN COL. (c), ENTER THE
DIFFERENCE IN THIS COLUMN

IF ITEM IN COL. (c) IS LARGER
THAN IN COL. (b), ENTER THE
DIFFERENCE IN THIS COLUMN
(e)

(d
)

2300-2121-714
$

&(

l

-

zi

$

//

z,l m

01

-

1

i&

2

— /3

R i iC
/
o

/3

3

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Increase in investment

4

e.n+-K&

2.I24--722
*

N o te s :

a

-

Decrease in investment

.........Zi < £ - -

oi

n

& //9

2125-734

Of

"

5

((

6

M

7

2115-734
$

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

$

/ /

/&
-

(f)

2300-2111-713

~

Z/ZG

ITEM
NO.

a /

//

.

_
_

Zll&- _

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

9

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

-

/&

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

________________Z.J3___

-1 3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x

.................................. ..

8

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

-

...............................................
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

10
11
12
13
14

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

$______________________
1251-713

15

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

16

$

$___________ ___ _______
1252-713

17

/ fc 3 T /

O/

-

-

-

02,

- 03
$__________ _ ________
_
2213-717
£

Z Z l3 ' i t
-/3

-1 +
- If
~ / (c>
ZZIO

-

//

$ ..............................................




18
19

$- _________ ______ _____ _

-

20

-

2223-717
*

Z,ZZ,3 - It
-12)

21
22

- /3

23

'I f

25

_'/ 6 >

26

24

...................................................

27

$ .. ........................................... .

-

28

-

(57)

172

W. LONG-TERM INFORMATION
Certain inform ation for periods other than the S Y is needed to provide essential data for research and analysis purposes.
These questions relate to family incom e, excluding “ Other m oney received” as listed in T -1 9 (e.g., inheritances, insurance settlements, etc.).

1 (a) How did your family income in — __ ____
.

Washington Office U se
(SY) compare with family income in _________ (SY minus 1)?

2300
1200-716

Was it:

D 1
Much
higher
(More than 25%)

□ 2
Somewhat
higher
(5 to 25%)

□ 3
About the
same

D4
Somewhat
lower
(5 to 25%)

n 5
Much
lower
(More than 25%)

D6
Don’t
know

□ 7
Not
applicable
O i

Z

O

-

K

I

2. (a) How did your familv income in _________ (SY minus 1) compare with its income in _________ (SY minus 2)1

D 1
Much
higher
(More than 25%)
(b) If higher or lower, why?

D2
Somewhat
higher
(5 to 25%)

□ 3
About the
same

_
_

D4
Somewhat
lower
(5 to 25%)
........ .

D5
Much
lower
(More than 25%)

D6
Don’t
know

D 7

Not
applicable

. . . ................. ......... ....... ..... .... .......................... ....

3. (a) What do you expect your_________ (SY plus 1) family income will be in comparison with_________ (SY)?
Will it be:
D 1
D2
□ 3
□ 4
D5
D 6
Much
Somewhat
About the
Somewhat
Much
Don’t
higher
higher
same
lower
lower
know
(More than 25%)
(5 to 25%)
(5 to 25%) (More than 25%)
(b) If higher or lower, why? _ _

„

„

_____ ____

__ ____

N o tes: .




(58)

173

___ _ _______________ ____
_
_

~3(

■

X. COMBINED EXPENDITURES
(For Washington Office Use Only)
CARD IDENTIFICATION
NO. 21
Item
(»)

PROPERTY
NUMBER, CAR
OR F.M.
NUMBER, OR 00
(b)

MACH. TAB.
CODE
(e)
Section
Item

NUMBER
BOUGHT
<d)

PRICE
(Excluding
tax)
(e)

1

XXXXX

9

XX XXX

a
A

K

fi

X X XX X

7
«
Q
in

. ..
..

11

19
13.

X X X XX

14

XX X X X

X X X XX

1
fi

XX X X X

XXX XX

17,

X XX XX

X X XX X

1
«,

X XX X X

X XXX X

IQ

X XX XX

2
0
2
1
2..........................................................................................................
2

X XX X X

X X X X X

X XXX X

X XX X X

IK

N

X XX X X

otes:




(59)

174

TOTAL
EXPENDITURES
(Including tax)
(f)
$

A

Family Composition and Work Status

B

(Housing Pattern
[Rented Dwelling

D

— Dwelling and Other Real Estate Owned in SY
Dwelling and Other Property: Owner Expenses for Repairs, Replacements and Improvements in SY
Receipts From Roomers and Boarders, and From Rental Properties

f* U

(Telephone, Fuel, Light, Refrigeration, Water
[Miscellaneous Household Expenses

I

— Housefurnishings and Equipment

J

— Food and Alcoholic Beverages in Home City, and Cleaning Supplies, Paper and Personal Care Supplies, and
Tobacco

K

— Clothing

L

— Materials for Clothing and Clothing Services

M

— Medical Care
\

N -0
P

Personal Care Services in Barber Shops, Beauty Parlors, etc.
Recreation, Reading and Education in Home City
— Travel and Transportation

Q R

Expenditures and Reimbursements for Family Members Temporarily Out of the Home City at Any Time in SY
Other Family Expenses and Reimbursements

S

— Family Earnings

T

— Money Income From Other Sources

U

— Personal Taxes, Personal Insurance, Occupational Expenses, Gifts and Contributions Not Deducted FromWages
and Salaries

V

— Changes in Family Assets and Liabilities Not Reported Elsewhere

w

Long-Term Information
Combined Expenditures (For Washington Office Use Only)

-x — |




1175




Exhibit F
H L S 9648-C

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

Schedu le N o.

B reau of L
u
abor S
tatistics
WS IN T N2 , D .
A H G O 5 .C

Bpotaueirs9.4-53.1
ur v le ae o 0 9
Ade BrpuN-342 3 .
pg x
-6.

C i t y ......................

C

A d d r e s s ----------

(For editor)
YEAR

REGION

CITY

SCHEDULE NO.

CARD NO.

TAX AREA

MASTER 41
DETAIL 42

S u r v e y o f C o n s u m e r E x p e n d it u r e s in

FO O D

A N D

S U P P L IE S

B E V E R A G E S , P E R S O N A L

A N D

TO BACCO

IT E M S

C A R E

P U R C H A S E D

19

A N D

H O U S E H O LD

IN

7 -D A Y

A

P E R IO D

Fill in this questionnaire only if at least one family member regularly eats at least 10 meals a week at home or carried from home




SURVEY OF CONSUMER
FOOD AND BEVERAGES, PERSONAL CARE AND HOUSEHOLD
I. FAMILY AND CONSUMER UNIT COMPOSITION DURING PAST 7 DAYS; NUMBER OF MEALS EATEN AT HOME OR
HOME DURING
F r o m ...........................................(Date)

T h r o u g h ..........................___
(Date)

MACHINE TAB.
CODE
Relationship to head of family

Relationship to other
members

(a)

(b)

Head

Section

OFFICE USE

m£ -1
Female—
2

Age on birth­
day during 8Y

(d)

(e)

(f)

_______ &_______
01

(hnshand if present.)

Item

NUMBER OF MEALS FROM FAMILY FOOD
SUPPLIES

0041

001

02

Lunch

Dinner (Supper)

_________________C _________________
D

0

001

03

Breakfast

001

04

001

05

001

06

001

07

001

08

001

09

001

10

001

Other persons living here, not
family members
11

0041

001

12

001

13

001

Persons, not living here, who had
one or more meals from family
food supplies in past 7 days
14

0041

001

15

Total.................................

X X X X X X X

001

16

001

X X

0041

000

the past 7 days?........................................................................
1. Did your family share its food expenses with another family duringthe past 7 days?.........................................................................

Yes □□ 11 No □□ 0
No

2. Is the housewife working outside the h om e?......................................................................................................................................

Yes □ 1 No □ 0

IF “ YES,” how many hours did she work during this 7-day period?............................................................................................................................Hours
3. Do you own a home freezer or rent a frozen food locker?....................................................................................................................
IF “ YES,” did you make any large purchases for storageduring the past 7 days?.............................................................................

Yes □ 1 No □ 0
Yes □ 1

No □ 0

List the item numbers from section II for such purchases ..................................................................................................... .... ............................................




(2)

178

EXPENDITURES IN 19.
SUPPLIES, AND TOBACCO ITEMS PURCHASED IN A 7-DAY PERIOD
CARRIED FROM HOME; AND EXPENSES FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGES PURCHASED AND CONSUMED AWAY FROM
THE PAST 7 DAYS
Sharing or
Boarding

Week
OFFICE
USE

Total meals

(h)

Received as guest
©

Bought and ate
away from home
Cl)

Freeier

Complete-

Seasonal Coopera-

EXPENDITURES BY FAMILY MEMBERS FOR—

NUMBER OF MEALS FAMILY MEMBERS—

Received as pay

Hswf. Working

Meals away from
home for sdf and

Alcoholic beverages
away from home
for self and guests

Tips for food and
drink service

Ice cream, candy,
soft drinks, etc.

If unable to report expenses of family members separately, enter total expense on bottom line
<k)

(m)

(1)

<")

Total expense (If unable
to report items
separately)
(P)

<e)

$

$

$

S

$

_____________

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

x x x x x x x x

$

$

$

$

X




(3)

179

$....................................

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD
PRICE

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Section

evaporated

Site of
unit
bought

Number of
units bought

(O

cb)

(»)
E X A M P L E - M ilk

Item

OFFICE
USE

<)
d

(«)
6

3100

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount
(f)

(E)

2 (for) $0.35

$

S

....................................................................

MILK, CREAM, AND ICE CREAM

No. of
units in

$

111
112
113
114

4 Half and hftlf buttermilk, Pkim m^k, and ehoeolate milk

118

XXX

* x =

* x *

XXx

XXx

XXXX

XXX

X XX

X X X X

XXX

xxxx

XXXX

215
221
222
228
229
CHEESE

3200

338
339
348

x

...........................................................................

X ...............................................................................................................

.................................................................. 3000

900

5300

14 Subtotal (1-13)

110

$

EGGS

FLOUR
16. White flour, all purpose______________________________________

1110

17. Cake flour, whole wheat flour, soybean and other flour___________
PREPARED FLOUR MIXES
18. Biscuit and roll mix_________________________________________
19. Cake mix

.. . . .

,

_
_

$

$

118
119

1120

$

$

XXX

XXX

XXXX

X XX

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

x x x x

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

x x x x

111
112

_ _ ________________

20. Muffins, gingerbread, etc.____________________________________

113

21. Pancake and waffle m ix ________________________ ____________

114

22

P ia m i x

and

filling*

23, O f h p r p r e p a r e d

flmir m i r e *

______
_

___________

115

...

116

_

READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS
24. Cornflakes_________________________________________________

1130

111

2 . Wheat cereals______________________________________________
5

112

2 . Other ready-to-eat cereals (rice, bran, etc.)_____________________
6

113

X

___________________

X _____________________________ ---_________________________________________




(4)

1.05

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued
Price

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Section

(»)

. OFFICE
USE
Item

______________

(e)

Site of
unit
bought

Number of
units bought

(*>

(«)

No. of
units in

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount

<*)

________ ffl________

OTHER CEREAL PRODUCTS
1140
28, finrnmPAl

__

__ _

118

_ _________ _ _
_

XXX

8

119

29. Cornstarch, rice flour, and other thickening..................... .............. .......

128

30. Grits and hominy.......................... ............................................-...................

138

X X X

X X X

X X X X

XXX

X X X

X X X

X X X X

XXX

x x x x

X X X

X X X

X X X X

XXX

x x x x

XXX

XXX

x x x x

XXX

x x x x

129

31. Macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, etc.............................................................—

*

X X X

139
141
142

34. Wheat cereals (cooked).......................................... ............................ ........_

143
BAKERY PRODUCTS
36. Plain rolls, biscuits and muffins (baked or partially baked)___________ 1200
37. Sod* crackers (inclnding salt.ines)

........

118

.

121

38. Other crackers................................. ...... ................... ............. .....................

122

39- White bread

131

_

__

40. Whole and cracked wheat bread____ ________ ___ ____ ______________

132

41. Other bread (rye, pumpernickel, french, etc.).........................................

133

42, Cake, pies, pastry (ready-to-eat.)

141

_______

43. Cookies (Specify kind).............................................................................. —

142

44. Doughnuts

143

_

_____

__„ ... ..

45, Sweet rolls, coffee nuke, ete.
46. Other bakery products

144
_

_

__

X

_

x x x x

XXX

149

X X X

x x x x
XXX

____

X .................................................................................... .................. ..............
47. Subtotal (16-46)........................ ................................ ........................... — -

MEAT
BEEF (FRESH AND FROZEN)
48. Round steak

_

.

_ _
_

1000

900

2113

XXXX

XXX

$............................

8

112

50. Other steak

_ ___
_

113

51. Reef liver

129

52. Groinnd beef (hamburger)
53. Roast, (chuck)

XXX

xxxx

<
n

111

40, Sirloin steak

XXX

__

_ ___

139

____

141

54 Roast (rib)

142

55. Other roast, (rump, brisket., ete )
56. Other beef (corned, dried, sonphone)

.......
.

__

143

______

199

X
X




(5 )

181

XXX

XXX

x x x x

XXX

xxxx

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued
Price

M ACH . TAB.
CODE
Section

Item

(b)

(»)
VEAL (FRESH AND FROZEN)

2123

Stoeof

(e)

IT E M

OFFICE
USE

(d)

Number of
units bought

No. of
units in

|

Amount

_______ ffl_______

(«)

$

(•)

$...........................

129
210

240
299
PORK (FRESH AND FROZEN)

2133

PORK, SMOKED OR CURED

2134

Picnics (should©**) r _ ___________________________________
71 Salt pork (bellies, jowls, fatbacks)_______________________________
72 Other pork (butts Canadian bacon, etc.)
LAMB (FRESH AND FROZEN)
73 Chops (lo in )
______________________________________________________
74 C h o p s (rih )
______________________________________________________
7 5 T(0g
- _____________________________________
76 Other lamb (breast shoulder, >tew,n([, p a tt ie s , s h a n k , e t c .)
VARIETY MEATS
7 7 Cold cuts (bologna salami, boiled ham, etc.)
78 Frankfurters
- - _____ -- -79 Smoke** se,,aAgA
_______
80 Tongue heart, kidney, tripe, brains, etc.
81 Rabbit game and Other me^t (fresh, f m e e n , nr s m o k e d )
CANNED MEATS
H . Ham
O
__
83 Pressed ham
- - ________________________
84 Other canned meat (vicuna sausage, deviled ham, potted meat)_ _ _
Y
__________________.
70

x
X
Y

2143

2154

2153
2156
2135
2155

____
_______________________
______________________________

X.........................................................................................................




(6)

182

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

XXX XXX

X X X X

XXX xxxx

114
115
143
169
242
299 X X X X X X

xxxx

XXX xx x x

171
245
343
344
372
499 XXX

XXXX XXX xxxx

XXX

114
115
140
199 XXX

xxxx

xxxx

XXX x x x x

XXX

159
168
169
199
199 XXX

XXX

xxxx

XXX

x x x x

143
144
199

X X X

x x x x

X X X

x x x x

X X X

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued
Price

M ACH. TAB.
CODE
IT E M
Section
(»)

POULTRY
CHICKEN (FRESH)

________ ___________

85. Fryers and broilers, cut-up or whole.................................................

2211

8fl_ P a r ts (s o ld s e p a r a t e ly ) b r e a s t s , th ig h s , w in g s , liv e r , e t c ____
8 7 . O t h e r c h ic k e n , c u t -u p o r w h o le ..

________________ . . .

CHICKEN (FROZEN)

88. Breasts,

Item

legs, wings, backs, etc. (boxed, packaged)............

OFFICE
USE
(«)

Size of
bought

Number of
units bought

(d)

No. of
units in

(e>

(M)

111
112
199

2212

n o

2235

110

Fish,
2313
Fillets and
95. Shell fish (shrimp, crab, lobster, scallops, oysters, clams, etc.)..........

101
102
103

....

$ .....................................

110

2233

$

112
211

2223

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount

t h ig h s ,

8 0 . W h o l e c h ic k e n

TURKEY
0 0 . T u r k e y , fresh o r f r o z e n .

OTHER POULTRY
POULTRY (CANNED)
92,

Chicken and

o t h e r p o u lt r y , c a n n e d

FISH AND SEAFOOD (FRESH OR FROZEN)
03.

w h o le .

94.

_____

s t e a k ____________

FISH (CANNED)

2315

107
109

101. Subtotal (48-100).............................................................................

2000

900

FRESH FRUITS
102. A p p le s _________________________

4111

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

* * *

X X X X

$ .....................................

$

S

X X X

104
105
106

2314
2316

X X X X

X X X

118

9 6 . T u n a ______
9 7 . S a lm o n

_

___

9 8 . O t h e r c a n n e d fish (s a r d in e s , o y s t e r s , e t c .)

OTHER FISH AND SEAFOOD
99. F is h , c u r e d a n d s m o k e d
1 0 0 . O t h e r fish a n d s e a fo o d

X X X

X __________
X . ..............................................................................................................................................................

108. Bananas .

119
126

_____

104.

B e r r ie s ( S p e c i f y ) ____________

105.

Grapefruit______

106. G rap es
107.
108.

______________

131
_

_

148

_

lem ons and limes ____
Melons ________ . ... _

232
249

333
358
359
434
999

1 0 9 . O r a n g e s _______________________
110. P eaches
11 1, P ears

112.

_______________

___

Tangerines and o t h e r c itr u s fr u i t s ___________
____
.
___

_____

....

___________

113. Other fresh fruit

X . _______________________________________________________________________________________




(7 )

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

_______________

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued

ITEM

Price
MACH. TAB.
CODE
Number of No. in
OFFICE Size of units bought unitsof ! Amount
Section Item USE bSht
<d>
(1M
<«>
<•> _______ _________

(a)
FROZEN FRUITS
114. Strawberries.............................. ................................................................
4112
115. Peaches.........................................................................................
116. Berries (other than strawberries)................................................................
117. Other frozen fruits (Specify) ___
CANNED FRUITS
118. Apples, apple sauce..................................................................................
4113
119. Fruit cocktail and segments........................................................................
120. Peaches......................................................................................
. .
121. Pears..............................................................................................
122. Pineapples............ .......................................................
123. Other canned fruits.................................................................
FRUIT JUICES, FRESH
124. Orange juice..............................................................................................
4121
125. Other (Specify)........... .................... ..........................
FRUIT JUICES, FROZEN
126. Grape juice..................... .........................................................................
127. Lemonade___ ________ ___
128. Mixed fruit juice (Specify) _ . ..... ___

4122

129. Orange juice...........................................................................«...
130. Pineapple juice.................................................................................................
131. Other fruit juices (Specify)____
FRUIT JUICES, CANNED OR BOTTLED
132. Apple juice,.____ . . _____ _
133. Grape juice _ _______
134. Mixed fruit juices (Specify) ___

118
129
158
159
179
999
133
999
148
232
269
333
379
999

4123

135. Orange juice. . ______
136. Pineapple juice. ______
137. Other juices__________________
X_____________
X.........................................................................................................................




121
158
226
999

118
148
169
233
279
999

(8)

1|84

$

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)
<*>
$

II RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued

ITEM
(a)
VEGETABLE JUICES, CANNED OR BOTTLED

FRESH VEGETABLES

Price
MACH. TAB.
CODE
OFFICE Site of units bought uniteof Amount
Number of No. in
unit
Section Item USE bought
_____ (b)_____ («)
(e)
_______ ffl________
<«>
158
178
199

4211

119
129
130
133
138
234
239
248
249
251
321
359
424
461
522
570
662
678
735
752
999

XXX

119
131
132
148
222
321
358
424
471
999

XXX

152. Onions, dry
______________________________________________
153. Peas
.................................................-____ ______________
154. Potatoes, white..................................................... ..................... .......... ......
155. Snap beans, green or wax............................................................................
156. Spinach, kale, or other cooking greens......................................................
157 Sweet p«tatfte*,J yams
158 Tomatoes
159. Turnips and rutabagas
__________________ __
........ ....
160 Other salad green®
161. Other fresh vegetables (squash, radishes, peppers, zuchini, okra, etc.)..
FROZEN VEGETABLES
162, Asparagus
_ ______________________________________ 4212
163 Broccoli
______
_ ____
164 PriissAlfl sprmif.H
166. Corn, out.
__ __
_ _
___
166 Green beans
____ ____________
_
167 T‘imA hearts
166 Mixed vegetables (peas and earrots, succotash, etc.)
160 Peas
_ _ _ __
____ ______
17(1 Rpinaeh
171 O ther frozen vegetables
_ _ _ _________
X

X ........................................................................................................




$ ............ $

4223

(9
)

186

XXX

XXXX
XXX

XXX

xxxx

XXX

XXXX

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)
(X)
_______

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued
Price

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Section

(a)

Item

____________

OFFICE
USE

Siseof
unit
bought

Number of
units bought

(e)

M
>

(e)

No. of
units in ! Amount

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

(f)

(«)

VEGETABLES, CANNED OR BOTTLED
4213

$

119

.$

129
148
221
224
260
322
378
999

DRIED FRUITS, VEGETABLES
181 Beans, peas, lentils, corn for popping___ _________________ ___ ______ 4214
1 M Prunes
5£

_
_

1§3 Rftjaips

_

X X X

x x x x

XXX

XXXX

X X X X

XXX

x x x x

120

________________

4114

168

__ ____ ____________

4114

248

___________________ _____________ ___ ________

4114

999

4214

999

186. Subtotal (102-185).........................................................................................

4000

900

SOUPS
137 Chieken soup, (tanned

5103

110

184. Other dried fruits

_
_

X X X

185 Other dried vegetables
X

______

XXX

x x x x

..................................................................................... -............

X -...,...................................................................................................-.............

_

138 Tom ato soup, (tanned
180

__________ ___________

_ ____

178

________________

Vegetable soup, (tan ned

258

190 Of.her (tanned soups
191

_
_

299

__ ________________________

__ _____ ________________________

5102

299

soups......................................................................................................

5104

299

Frozen soups

192. Dried

_




__

(10)

1|86

XXX

XXX

x x x x

XXX

x x x x

$............................

$..............

$

____

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued

Price
MACH. TAB.
CODE
OFFICE Size of units bought unitsof Amount
Number of No. in
Section | Item USE bought
(b)
(O
(d)
(«)
_______ ffl_______

ITEM

(a)
PREPARED OR PARTIALLY PREPARED DISHES, CANNED,
BOTTLED, PACKAGED, BULK
193. Baked beans......................................................................... ........................... 5213
194. Chicken with noodles, chicken a la king, etc..................... ......................
195. Chili con came................................................................................................
196. Chow mein, chop suey.............................. ....................................................
197. Coleslaw and other prepared salads............................................................
198- Corned beef hash____ ___
_________ __________ ___
199. Enchiladas, tamales, etc............................................................................
200. Sauerkraut......................................................................... .............................
201. Spaghetti with sauce or meat balls...........................................................
202. Other prepared dishes (Spanish rice, macaroni and cheese, instant
mashed potatoes, etc.) (Specify).................................................... .......
203. Potato chips. _
______ ____ ...
204. Com chips, popped com and other snacks. . __
205. Prepared dishes and dinners carried out of restaurants.........................
PREPARED OR PARTIALLY PREPARED DISHES (FROZEN)
20A. Fish sticks
5212
207. Meat, poultry, or fish pies............................................................................
208. Prepared dinners ...
__ _______ . ... ____________
209. Fruit, berry, and cream pies___

20 Other desserts
1T

...

_

. _

....

___

___

.... ...

211. French fried onions.........................................................................................
212. French fried p otatoes, puffs, o r patties
213. O ther frozen prepared dishes (S pecify)

_____
_

_____

_____
_.

___ _______
_

.. .

X........................................................................................................
X-.......................................................................................................




(ID

197

158
159
168
169
178
179
188
189
281
282
360
448
529
118
119
138
231
232
249
260
329

$

Amount spent
(Exdude tax)
(I)
$

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued

Price
MACH. TAB.
CODE
Number of No. in
OFFICE Size of units bought uniteof Amount
unit
Section Item USE bought
(C)
<d)
0»)
(e)
^______ ffi_______

ITEM
(a)
FATS AND OILS

214. R utter
215

5400

T*rd

$

111

216. M argarine

...

113
114

21R. French and oth er salad dressings

121

220. P eanut bu tter

139

122
___

149
222. O ther fata and oila_______

_

159

SUGAR AND OTHER SWEETS

223. C an dy

_

5500

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

111
112

225. Icing, fudge m ixes, e t c __________

113

226. .Tellies, jam s, preserves, apple butter, etc

118

227. M olasses, h on ey, e tc. _________

119

22R. P udding and gelatin m ixes

129

229. Sugar, brow n

221

230. Sugar, w hite, granulated, euhe, p ow dered, etc

222

231. Syrup, corn or m aple

231

232. S yrup, ch ocolate and oth e r flavored

232

_ __

233. O ther sweets (glazed fruits, etc.)

239

COFFEE, TEA
234. C ocoa

235. C offee, in bags

5610
__________

___

__

_ _____

___

139
141

236. C offee, in cans

142

237. Coffee, instant (pow dered)

143

238. Cereal beverages (coffee substitutes)

.. .

239. T ea in bags or leaves

______

_________

_

___

149

___

151

240. T ea concentrates

152

NONALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
241. C ola drinks . . . . . . . .
242. G inger ale

5620

_
_

161
162

243T O ther carbonated drinks —

163

244. N oncarh onated fru it drinks, liquid o r con centrate

171

245. O ther non carhonated drinks

172

X
X .........................................................................................................




(12)

is e

(*)
$

112

217. O ther shortening, ...

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

II. RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD—Continued
Price

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Section

(a)

b0

Item
...

OFFICE
USE

bought

Number of
units bought

(c)

(d)

(e)

No. of
units in

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount

(*)

________ __________

BABY AND JUNIOR FOODS
5700

118

$

$

119
129
249. Strained and chopped fruits................ ...................................... ...................

221

25b. Strained and chopped meats_________ ______________________________

222

251. Strained and chopped mixtures____ ________________________________

223

252. Strained and chopped vegetables___________________________________

224

253. Other prepared baby foods including formula ingredients (Specify)...

339

X X X

X X X

X X X X

XXX

x x x x

XXX

XXX

X X X X

XXX

x x x x

XXX

XXX

x x x x

169

X X X

X X X

X

263. Subtotal (15+187 through 262).......... ........................................... ............ 5000

900

X X X

X X X

264. Total (1 4 + 4 7 + 1 0 1 + 1 8 6 + 2 6 3 )........ ......................................................... 0000

900

X X X

X X X

A L C O H O L IC B E V E R A G E S
265. B eer and ale

169

OTHER FOODS
254. Baking powder, soda, yeast_________ ______________ _______ ____ ____

5800

255. Extracts, flavors....................... .....................................................................

131
132
141

257. Relishes, pickles...................................................................... ......................

142

258. Salt, spices, seasonings, and other condiments....... ................................

151

259- Tom ato catsup, chili paate, other aancea and graviea

152

260. Nuts, in shell........... .......................................................... ............. ..............

5800

261. Nnta ahelled
262, Other food items (Specify)

X X X
x x x x

211
212

_

_

_
_

_____

X X X

x x x x

x x x x

X X X

x x x x

x x x x

X X X

X

X

X

X
X ................................................................................ ...........................................

6100

266. B lended whiaky

$ ............................

«
F

$

x x x x

$

171

267. Bourbon or Scotch whisky, straight rye

$ ............................

172

266. Gin, rnm , brandy, cordials, vod k a

189

269. W ines

198

270. Other alcoholic beverages (Specify) ______ _

_ __ ...
_

199

X

X_.......................................................................................................................
271. T o ta l (2 65 -2 7 0) ...............................................................................................




6000

03)

900

X X X

X X X

x x x x

X X X

------------------------

III. PERSONAL CARE AND HOUSEHOLD SUPPLIES
Price

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Section
(b)

(»)
PERSONAL CARE SUPPLIES
1. Toilet soap......... ................................................................ ............................

7100

OFFICE
USE

Number of
units bought

<e)

Item

Site of
unit
bought
(d)

(e)

No. of
units in

(f)
$...............

110
121

3. Mouthwash and gargles.................................................................. .............

122

4. Razor blades and razors................................................................................

131

5. Shaving creams, lathers, soaps, and toiletries..........................................

132
141

XXX

142

XXX

151

XXX

XXX

152
XXX

158

11. Sanitary supplies.............................................................................................

X X X X
X X X X

153

XXX

X X X X

X X X X

243

___

__

___________

7200

XXX

XXX

244
LAUNDRY SUPPLIES
14 Liquid detergents

XXX

XXX

X X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

111

15. Soap: bars, flakes, chips, granules or powder...........................................

129

16. Synthetic detergents: flakes, chips, granules or powder.........................

212

17 Other detergent-1, water softeners
®

... _____

213

____

231

.................................................. ......... .................. ...............

232

18 Bleaches, disinfectant*
19. Bluing

....
...

20. Starch

_

... _

. __

...... ......

21. Other (Specify)

.

...

.

...

_____

22 Air

*vr

fr e s h e n e r s ,

25 Insect

sp rays,

__

pow ers,

etc

(e x c lu d in g s h o e ,

auto)

....... ..

(S p e c ify )




148
149

...

....

158
159

.... .

161
168

_ .

w o o l a n d o t h e r sc o u r in g p a d s

O t h e r ( S p e c ify )

—

____

138
139

____________

29- S pon ges

31.

7300

___

______________________________ . . . .

2 8 . S c o u r in g p o w d e r

30- Stenl

____

______________________________________

T .iqilid h o u s e h o ld d e te r g e n ts

27. Polishes

__ _ _

___ _ ______ . .

2 4 . "F loor w a x

2fi

__

d e o d o r is e r s

TYry c le a n in g flu id s

233
239

CLEANING SUPPLIES, POLISHES, SPRAYS, ETC.
93

_____

.. .

_____________________

262

_____________________________________

269

_

(14)

190

, ,

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount

(E)
$

IH. PERSONAL CARE AND HOUSEHOLD SUPPLIES—Continued
Price

MACH. TAB.
CODE
ITEM

Swtion

7400

OFFICE
USE

Number of
unite bought

(«)

aw

(»)
PAPER SUPPLIES
32. Aluminum foil.................................................................................................

Item

Site of
unit
bought
(d)

(•)

No. of
units in

Amount spent
(Exclude tax)

Amount

(s)

________ ffl________
&

171

$

181

33. Cleansing tissue..............................................................................................

182

34. Paper napkins.......................................... ......................................................

183
188

1

189
38. Toilet tissue................ ...................................................................................

284

39. Wax paper

....................................................... .........................................

372

40. Other (Specify)..................................... ................................. .......................

399

j
j
XXX

XXX

X X X X

................
TOBACCO
41. Cigarettes.........................................................................................................
42. Cigars

8200

111
112

.......................................................... ......................... .....................
______ _________________________ _____ _____________

113

44 Smokers’ supplies (pipes, lighters, etc.)....................................................

114

43. Other tobacco .

FOOD FOR PETS
45. Biscuits, pellets or meal................................................................ ..............
46. Canned

8100

112

. . __________________ ____________________ ___ ____

X ..................................................................................................
X.............................................................................. -.................—
47. Total (1-46).....................................................................................




111

7000

(16)

191

900

X X X

X X X

X X X X

xxx

X x X X

$ .....................................




Exhibit G
BLS 2048-U

Schedule No..

(Rev. 12-1-60)
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
W ashington 25, D.C.

Survey o f Consumer Expenditures in 19___

SU M M A RY SH EET

I—Income
ITEM
(a)

PAGE
(b)

SECTION
(c>

ITEM NO.
(d)

8

1
2

5

c

7

D -II

3

9

F-I

4

9

F-II

7 (if + )

COLUMN
(e)

DESCRIPTION
(g)

DEDUCTIONS
(f)

(b )

Rent as p ay.

25

(a)

Interest received .

4

(e )

Roomers and boarders.

RECEIPTS
(h)

9

F-II

7( if - )

(0
(0

6

18

J

4

(b)

7

2
1

J

35

(b )

Hom e-produced f o o d .

8

37

M -I

(c)

.
.............

Medical care insurance.

5

Real estate—gains.
$....................................................

Real estate—losses.
Meals as pay

51

S-I

1(g)
0
6

(d)

Wages and salaries..............................

1
0
1
1
1
2

51

S-I

7(a)

(d)

Federal income tax...............................

51

S-I

7 (b )

(d)

State/local income tax.

51

S-I

7 (0

(d )

Union dues, e t c .

13

52

S-II

4

(e )

Net incom e.

14

52

S-II

5

(e)

Federal income ta x ......................... ....

15

52

S-II

6

(e)

State/local income tax ............. ..........

1
6

53

T

(c)

Other in co m e .

17

54

U

(b )

Personal taxes.

18

54

U

19

54

2
0
2
1
2
2

54

u
u

57

V

57

V

9

18

6
8
9 (e )
29

2
0
2
0

(b )

Income tax refunds.............................

(b )

Other refunds.

..................................

(b )

Occupational expenses........................

(d )

Stocks and bonds—losses....................

(e)

Stocks and bonds—gains . ................

23

TO TA L (1 through 2 2 ) ..................

24

Net income after taxes (2 3 (h ) minus 2 3 ( 0 ) ....................

25
26

53

T

19

$ ...................................................

$ ...................................................
Other money received........................

(0

Net deficit (transfer from item 5 9 ) .......................................................

27

TOTAL (24 plus 25 plus 2 6 ) ........... .................

28

Total expenditures (transfer from item 1 0 2 ).....................................

29

Net surplus (transfer from item 5 8 ) ..................................................

3
0

TO TA L (28 plus 2 9 ).

31

DIFFERENCE (27 minus 30; enter with sign + ) .............................

32

BALAN CIN G PERCENT (31 divided by the larger o f 27 or 3 0).




$ ....................................................

........................................................................

1 93

I I — S avin gs

ITEM
(a)

PAGE
(b)

SECTION
(c)

ITEM NO.
(d)

COLUMN
(e)
(a)

$ ..............- ..................................

SAVINGS-DECREASE
(h)

DESCRIPTION
(g)

SAVINGS-INCREASE

(0

34

6
6

35

7

D -II

2
1
2
2
2
6

(a)

M ortgage...............................................

36

7

D -II

27

(a)

M ortgage..............

37

8

E-II

9

(a)

Im provem ents......................................

SQ -I

3 (d )

(b )

Housing item s......................................

33

38

D -I
D -I

17

Real estate.

....................................

(a)

Real estate.............................................

$ ...................................................

.......................

39

17

SQ -I

5

(h )

Housing item s......................................

40

17

SQ -I

6

(h )

Housing item s........... ..........................

41

36

SQ-II

3

(b )

Clothing, e tc .......................................

42

36

SQ-II

5

(b )

Clothing, e t c ................................ ..

43

36

SQ-II

6

(b )

Clothing, e t c ...................................

44

43

SQ—
III

3(e)

(b )

Medical, e t c .........................................

45

43

SQ -II I

5

(h )

Medical, e t c . . .....................................

46

43

SQ-III

6

(h )

Medical, e tc . .......................................

47

45

P-I

25

(c)

A utom obile.

48

45

P-I

26

(c)

A utom obile.........................................

49

50

SQ -IV

3

(b )

Transportation, e t c .............................

50

50

SQ -IV

5

(i)

Transportation, e t c .............................

. . . . . . . . . ..............

51

50

S Q -IV

6

(i)

54

u

7

(b )

Personal taxes.....................................

53

57

V

15

(d )

Assets—decrease................................

54

57

V

15

(e )

Assets—increase.........

55

57

V

28

(d )

.

Transportation, e t c ...........................

52

s

56

57

V

Liabilities—decrease. . .
" 'V '.

28

'

1

V'

..................

-5 v

- -

................

Liabilities—increase.............................

(e )

57

TO TA L (33 through 5 6 ) ...............

58

I f 5 7 (f) is larger than 5 7 (h ), enter difference here—NET SURPLUS..................

$ ...................................................

59

I f 5 7(h ) is larger than 5 7 (f), enter difference here—NET DEFICIT....................

$ ...................................................

$ ...................................................

$ ........................................................

I l l —Expenditures
ITEM
(a)

PAGE
(b)

SECTION
(c)

5

ITEM NO.
(d)

COLUMN
(e)

AMOUNT
(0

C

5

(b )

s ....................................................

c

8

DESCRIPTION
(g)

6
0
6
1

5

62

6

D -I

23

(a)

Real estate.

63

7

D -II

28

(a)

Mortgage.

64
65
66

8
1
0
1
1




E -I
G
H

13

2
0
2
2

Rented dwelling.
Rent as pay.

(b )

(a)

Repairs, replacements.

(b )

Telephone, fuel, light, etc.

(b )

Miscellaneous household expenses.

194

Ill—Expenditures—
Continued
ITEM
(a)

PAGE
<b)

SECTION
<c)

67

1
6

6
8

17

SQ-I

69

18

J

70
71
72
73
74

I

2
0
2
0
2
0
2
1
2
1

ITEM NO.
(d)

COLUMN
(e)

98

(0

DESCRIPTION
(g)

AMOUNT

(0

$ ..................................................

House furnishings.

2
(0

(b )

Housing items—
gifts.

4

(b )

Meals as pay.

J

18

(b )

Non-food items.

J

23

(b )

Food at home.

J

27

(b )

Food away from home.

J

30(g)

(b )

Food, etc.—
gifts.

J

33

(b )

Home-produced food.

75

24

K -I

54

76

27

K -II

58

77

30

K -III

53

78

33

K -IV

51

(0
(0
(0
(0

79

34

K -V

29

(e)

Clothing—children under 2.

(0

Clothing materials.

(b )

Notions, clothing upkeep.

8

Clothing—women, girls 16 and over.
Clothing—men, boys 16 and over.
Clothing—
girls 2-15.
Clothing—boys 2-15.

80

35

L

81

35

L

82

36

SQ-II

Clothing, etc.—gifts.

37

M -I

2
(g)
2
(b)

(b )

83

(b )

Medical insurance—limited.

84

37

M -I

3 (b )

(b )

Health center.

7 (b )

(a)

Medical insurance—general.

(c)

Medical care—in hospital.

34

85

37

M -I

8
6

38

M -II

13

87

39

M -II

49

(c)

Medical care—other.

8
8

40

N

1
0

(d )

Personal care services.

89

42

O

46

(b )

Recreation, etc.

90

43

SQ—
III

(b )

Medical, etc.—
gifts.

91

44

P-I

16

(c)

Automobile purchase.

(c)

Automobile expenses.

2
(0

92

46

P-I

50

93

47

P-II

4

(g )

Local transportation.

94

47

P-III

8

(b )

Other transportation.

95

48

Q

28

(d )

Out o f home city expenses.

96

49

R

9

(b )

Other expenses.

97

50

SQ -IV

2
(h)

(b )

Transportation, etc.—
gifts.

98

51

S-I

7 (0

(d )

Deductions for Social Security, etc.

99

52

S-II

7

(e )

Social Security.

54

U

1
6

(b )

Personal insurance.

54

U

24

(b )

10
0
11
0
12
0

TO TA L (60 through 1 0 1 ).................. ..




.

Gifts and contributions.
$ ..................................................

U.S. G V R M N PR TIN O
O E N E T IN G FFICE : 1961 O S77753
F—

1 95




P age 4 blank

196

P B

U D PA TM N O LA O
.S. E R E T F B R
B
ureau of Labor Statistics
W
ashington 25, D C
. .
C SA S N E T R C R
E S IG M N E O D

715

(1 2 -1 -6 0 )

O F F IC E

USE

O N L Y

0 1 0 0
Y E A R

R E G IO N

C IT Y

S C H E D U L E

NO.

C A R D

S edu Nme _
ch le u b r
City________

NO.
TIM E

(A )

(B )

DATE
C A LL

MO.

(C )

(D )

CO N TAC T
1. P H O N E
2. P E R S O N A L

(E )
1. I N T E R V I E W
2. A P P T . M AD E
3. R E F U S E D
4. IN E L IG IB L E
8. N O T H O M E
6. V A C A N T

IN TERVIEW ER

D A Y

L A S T

N A M E ,

(F )

IN IT IA L S

t r a v e l i n g

(J)

PR E P A R CONSUL-

IN TE R VIE W

M IN .

IN:
(1)

V IE W IN G

H R.

N O .

S P E N T
(H )

(G )

H R.

M IN .

SCH EDULE

H R.

M IN .

H R .

M IN .

A C TIV ITY
(EX PLA IN
IN N O T E S )

H R.

M IN .

„

X X X

X X X

Exhibit H

107

T O T A L

X X X

X

00
20
NTS
OE

O F E E IT R C R
F IC D E O D

D A Y

T O T A L




L A S T

N A M E ,

IN IT IA LS

X X X

(N )

1. A R I T H . C H E C K
2. IN IT IA L EDIT
3. R E -E D IT
C O N F E R E N C E W ITH
4. S U P E R V IS O R
8. S U P E R . & I N T E R .

E D IT O R

D A T E

MO .

(M )

(L )

(K )

NO .

XX

C O D E

XX

H RS.

1 . C O M P L E T E
2. I N C O M P L E T E

M IN .

x x x x

O F E UE O L
F IC S N Y
Y A RG N C Y
E R E IO
IT

S H D L N.
C E UE O

IN R IE E :
TE V W R
A each interview
fter
enter th proper codes
e
for the sections th
at
you com
pleted during th
e
interview U th follow­
. se e
ing codes for questions
1,2,3,5,6, and 7. 0 = N
o
1 = Yes
2 = N Applicable
ot
1. D you experience any
id
reluctance by respondents
to give inform
ation for:
2. D respondent have
id
difficulty furnishing
inform
ation about:
3. W records referred
ere
to for:
4. W ich FM w interh
's ere
view (give F Nos.):
ed
M

00
30
C R N.
AD O

R S O D N IN O M T N
E P N E T F R A IO
04
00

O U T

M O R T G A G E S

(1)

U T IL IT IE S

A P P L IA N C E S

(3
)

(2)

M E D IC A L
F O O D

(4
)

E X P E N S E S

(S
)

A U T O M O B IL E
E X P E N S E S

T A X E S

A N D

C IT Y

F A M IL Y

IN SU R ­

E X P E N S E S

IN C O M E

A N C E

T IE S

(6)

(7)

(8
)

(9
)

L IA B IL I­

(1 )
0

CU

□

□

□

CU

CU

CU

CU

□

CU

CU

□

□

□

□

CU

□

CU

CU

CU

□

□

□

CU

CU

CU

CU

CU

CU

□

5. D respondent refer to the W F ?
id
-2 orm
6. Does fam keep budget to w
ily
hich they refer?
7. Is wife of th head of the C em
e
U ployed outside hom
e?
8. In general did you find the respondent:
a. W
illing to cooperate fully?................................................................................
b. Cooperative reluctantly?
c. Inclined to be uncooperative
d. O (Explain)
ther




A S S E T S

O F

H O M E
M A JO R

CU
CU
CU
(Check one)
I 11
□ 2
□ s
□ 4

NTS
OE

Exhibit I
B 24 C
IS 6 8 M

B d e B re uN 44 1 7 .
u g t u a o. -R 1 5
A p va E ire 3-1-63.
p ro l xp s
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Washington 25, D.C.

O cc u p a n t

c ity .

T hank y o u f o r y o u r r e c e n t h e l p o n a f o o d s u r v e y we m ade i n y o u r
Y ou r c o o p e r a t io n w a s a p p r e c i a t e d .

Y ou w i l l p e r h a p s r e c a l l t h a t y o u w e r e a s k e d t o g i v e u s a c o m p le t e
l i s t o f f o o d i t e m s b o u g h t b y y o u r f a m i l y d u r in g a 7 - d a y p e r i o d . S i m i l a r
l i s t s o b t a in e d fro m o t h e r f a m i l i e s g a v e u s a g o o d p i c t u r e o f f o o d b u y in g
i n y o u r c i t y d u r in g t h a t s e a s o n . H o w e v e r , f a m i l i e s b u y d i f f e r e n t q u an ­
t i t i e s and ite m s o f fo o d in d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n s o f th e y e a r . In o r d e r to
g e t a n a n n u a l r e c o r d , we n e e d s i m i l a r f o o d i n f o r m a t io n f o r t h e c h a n g in g
se a so n s o f th e y e a r .
U s u a l ly we w o u ld m ake t h i s k in d o f s u r v e y b y h a v in g a m em ber o f
o u r s t a f f c a l l o n y o u . To s a v e m o n e y , we a r e a s k i n g y o u t o f i l l o u t t h i s
r e p o r t a n d m a il t h e i n f o r m a t io n t o u s .
I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t io n o f i n d i v i d u a l s ,
f a m i l i e s , b u s i n e s s e s , l a b o r g r o u p s a n d o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t we a r e
a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e in f o r m a t io n w e s o u r g e n t l y n e e d . W i l l y o u p l e a s e
c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s im p o r t a n t w ork b y r e t u r n i n g t h i s r e p o r t a t y o u r
e a r l i e s t c o n v e n ie n c e i n t h e e n c l o s e d e n v e l o p e w h ic h r e q u i r e s n o p o s t a g e .




T hank y o u f o r y o u r h e l p .

V ery t r u ly y o u r s ,

Ewan C la g u e
C o m m is s io n e r o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s

199

I M P O R T A N T
PLEASE READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE ANSWERING
On the following pages you will find a listing of most of the food items usually found in stores
where you shop.
Please check the list carefully and report all items bought by you and other members of your
family during the full week (7 days) which ended the day B EFO R E you fill out this questionnaire.
FOR EXAMPLE: If you decide to fill this questionnaire out on a Thursday, we want to
know all the food item you bought during the full week which started last Thursday
s
and ended on Wednesday.
For all items purchased please fill in the “ number or amount bought" and the "total cost"
in the columns provided. Item listings on the following pages begin with several printed en­
tries showing you how typical purchases would be recorded. PLEASE USE THESE AS A GUIDE.

BEFORE STARTING ON THE LIST OF FOOD ITEMS, WE WOULD
APPRECIATE YOUR ANSWERING THE THREE QUESTIONS BELOW

1. Enter the day and date you fill out this report.

_________________

_________________

(day)

(date)

2. How many persons are there in your family living at this address?

_________(persons)

3. In the spaces provided in the table below, please enter the number of persons who ate
breakfast, lunch, and dinner at your home during the 7-day period for which you are
reporting.




Usually three m meals, breakfast, lunch, and dinner or supper are eaten at
ain
home each day from family food supplies. Please count all persons including
friends, neighbors, relatives, guests, boarders, etc., who were present and ate each
m during the week for which you are reporting.
eal
Count lunches prepared at hom to be eaten at school, work, etc., the sam as if
e
e
the person was present and ate lunch at hom
e.

N M E OF PERSONS WHO:
U BR

D
AY

2

3rd
DY
A

nd
D
AY

Ate BREAKFAST at Home
Ate LUNCH at Hom
e
(or carried from hom
e)
Ate DINNER at Home

2

200

D
AY

5th

DY
A

D
AY

7th

D
AY

RECORD OF EXPENDITURES FOR FO O D

N M S* OR
UB
AM
OUNT
BOUGHT

EXAMPLE:

TO
TAL
CO
ST

3-1/2 gals.

ITEM
S

D NOT
O
W ITS IN
R
TH COLUM
IS
N

$1.50

This is how typical purchases would be recorded:
Fresh Milk, bought in stores
White Flour, all purpose

5 lbs.

.59

Orange Juice (frozen)

3 cans

.74

Ground Beef (hamburger)

2 lbs.

1.10

Lettuce, head or leaf

2 heads

.49

MILK, CREAM, AND ICE CREAM
1. Evaporated and condensed m
ilk
2. Fresh m bought in stores
ilk,
3. Fresh m delivered
ilk,
4. Half and half, buttermilk, skim milk, chocolate m
ilk
5. Malted m and other prepared m powders
ilk
ilk
6. Powdered m
ilk
7. Powdered cream
8. Cream: sweet, sour, and whipping cream
9. Ice cream sherbets, ice m popsicles, etc.
,
ilk,
10. Other m and cream
ilk
CHEESE
11. American cheese, ether solid cheese
12. Cheese spreads
13. Cottage cheese, other soft cheese

EGGS
14. Eggs
FLOUR
15. White flour, all purpose
16. Coke flour, whole wheat flour, and other flour
PREPARED FLOUR MIXES
17. Biscuit and roll m
ix
18. Cake m
ix
19. Muffins, gingerbread, etc.
20. Pancake and waffle m
ix
21. Pie m
ix
22. Other prepared flour m
ixes




•
-

. . . . . ...

-----------...

The remainder, of this 11-page schedule was
a continuation of the item s listed in "11. Record of
.Expenditures for F o o d ,M shdwn on Schedule 2648-C
(Exhibit F).

201

Exhibit J
6LS 2648

CM

•«%■* Bmow No. 44-81175.
Approved Expires 3 -1 -6 3 .

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Washington 25, D.C.

O ccu pan t

T he a m ou n t o f f o o d y o u b o u g h t l a s t w ee k a n d how m uch y o u p a id f o r
i t a r e v e r y im p o r t a n t t o t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e
C on su m er P r i c e I n d e x . T h is in d e x i s t h e g o v e r n m e n t 's o f f i c i a l m e a s u r e o f
c h a n g e i n p r i c e s w h ic h a f f e c t y o u r l i v i n g c o s t s . I t i s v e r y im p o r t a n t t o
y o u b e c a u s e i t i s u s e d b y b u s i n e s s e s a n d la b o r u n io n s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n
d e t e r m in in g p o l i c i e s w h ic h a f f e c t y o u d i r e c t l y .
We e a r n e s t l y r e q u e s t y o u r c o o p e r a t io n i n f i l l i n g o u t t h i s r e p o r t
o n a l l y o u r f o o d p u r c h a s e s f o r t h e l a s t 7 d a y s . Y ou r a d d r e s s , a l o n g w it h a
n u m b er o f o t h e r a d d r e s s e s , w a s s e l e c t e d i n a s a m p le f o r y o u r c i t y . S i n c e
we h a v e o n ly y o u r a d d r e s s , we c a n n o t s e n d t h i s t o y o u b y n am e. A ny d a t a
y ou fu r n is h w i l l be h e ld in th e s t r i c t e s t c o n fid e n c e and w i l l be u se d f o r
s t a t i s t i c a l p u rp o se s o n ly .
U s u a l l y we w o u ld m ake t h i s k in d o f a s u r v e y b y h a v in g o n e o f o u r
e m p lo y e e s c a l l on y o u . To s a v e m on ey we a r e a s k i n g y o u t o m a il t h i s i n f o r ­
m a t io n t o u s .
I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t io n o f i n d i v i d u a l s , fam ­
i l i e s , b u s in e s s e s , la b o r g r o u p s, and o th e r o r g a n iz a t io n s , t h a t we a re a b le
t o o b t a i n t h e i n f o r m a t io n we s o u r g e n t l y n e e d . W i l l y o u p l e a s e c o n t r i b u t e
t o t h i s im p o r t a n t w ork b y r e t u r n i n g t h i s r e p o r t a t y o u r e a r l i e s t c o n v e n ie n c e
i n t h e e n c l o s e d e n v e lo p e w h ic h r e q u i r e s n o p o s t a g e .




T hank y o u f o r y o u r h e l p .
V ery t r u ly y o u r s ,

Ewan C la g u e
C o m m is s io n e r o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s

N O T E : T h is q u e s tio n n a ire and E x h ib it I w e r e the
s a m e e x c e p t f o r d if f e r e n t le t t e r s on the c o v e r s h e e t.

202

Exhibit K

List of CBS statistical reporto-RLS series 237
R e g io n , p o p u la tio n stratum , SMS A ,
or o th er urban p la c e

Survey y e a r

P u blication s

1960

1961

T o ta l urban and ru ra l-U n ite d S ta te s---------------------------------N ortheast-------------------------------------------------------------------------N orth C e n t r a l-----------------------------------------------------------------South — ------------------------- -------------------------------------------------W e s t ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

Rural fa rm -U n ite d S ta te s ------------------------------------------------—
N orth east-------------------------------------------------------------------------N orth C en tra l — -------------------------------------------------------------S o u t h -------------------------------------------------------------------------------W e s t----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

-

R ural n o n fa r m -U n ite d S t a t e s ---------------------------------------N ortheast — --------------------------------- --------------------------------—
North C entral — -------------------------------------------------------------South — ---------------------------------------------------------------------------W e s t ----------------------- --------------------------------------------- ..............

-

_

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

BLS report
num ber
2 3 7 -9 3
2 3 7 -8 9
2 3 7 -9 0
2 3 7 -9 1
2 3 7 -9 2
( 1)
(M
0 )
0 )
t1 )

Supplem ents
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3

(l )
t1 )

(M
(M
0 )

-

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

2 3 7 -8 8
2 3 7 -8 4
2 3 7 -8 5
2 3 7 -6 5
2 3 7 -8 7

1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3

(* )
(* )

(* )
(* )

2 3 7 -3 8
2 3 7 -3 4

1 ,2 ,3
1 ,2 ,3

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

2 3 7 -7 and 57
2 3 7 -4 and 54
2 3 7 -1 3 and 63
2 3 7 -8 and 58
2 3 7 -1 1 and 61

(2)
( 2)
( 2)

SM SA, p o p u la tio n 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 to 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
B u ffa lo, N . Y ............................................. ......................
H artford, C o n n — --------------------------------------------------

(* )
-

(* )

2 3 7 -1 8
2 3 7 -6 8

(2 )
(2 )

SM SA , p o p u la tio n 5 0 ,0 0 0 t o 2 5 0 ,0 0 0
P ortland, M a in e--------------------------- -----------------------L ancaster, P a — ----------------------------------------------------

(* )
-

(* )

2 3 7 -1 4
2 3 7 -6 4

(2 )
(2 )

N on m etr op olita n urban p la c e , p o p u la tio n
2 ,5 0 0 t o 5 0 ,0 0 0
B urlington, V t -----------------------------------------------------K ingston, N. Y --------------------------------------------------—
L ew istow n, P a ------------------------------------------------------

(* )
(* )
(* )

-

2 3 7 -2 4
2 3 7 -2 4
2 3 7 -2 4

(3 )
(3 )

(* )
(* )
(* )

2 3 7 -2 4
2 3 7 -2 4
2 3 7 -2 4

(* )

(* )

2 3 7 -3 5

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

(* )
(* )
(* )
(* )

2 3 7 -5 and 55
2 3 7 -2 1 and 71
2 3 7 -1 and 51
2 3 7 -1 5 and 65

(2)
<2 )
(2 )
(2 )

2 3 7 -1 0
2 3 7 -6 0
2 3 7 -6 7

(2 )
(2 )

Urban— nited States ----------------------------------------------------------U
N orth ea st--------------------------------------------------------------— -------SMS A , p o p u la tio n 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r ----------------Boston, M a ss--------------------------------------------------------N ew Y o r k , N . Y .................. ............................................
N ortheastern N ew Jersey — ----------------------- ---------P h ila d elp h ia , P a -------------------------------------------------Pittsburgh, Pa— ----------------------------------------------------

A th o l, Mass --------------------------------------------------------M i l l v i l le , N . J --------- -------------------------------------------S outhbridge, M a s s -----------------------------------------— North C e n t r a l-----------------------------------------------------------------SM SA , p o p u la tio n 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r
C h ic a g o , 111--------------------------------------------------------C le v e la n d , O h i o -------------------------------------------------D etroit, M ic h -------------------------------------------------------St. L ouis, M o ------------- --— ------------------------------------

_

-

-

SM SA , p o p u la tio n 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 t o 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
In d ia n a p olis, In d -------------------------------------------------D a y ton , O h io -------------------------------------------------------W ic h ita , Kans — --------------------------------------------------

(* )
-

(* )
(* )

SM SA , p o p u la tio n 5 0 ,0 0 0 t o 2 5 0 ,0 0 0
C edar R ap id s, Iow a---------------------------------------------C h a m p a ign -U rba n a , 111 ---------------------------------—
G reen Bay, W i s ----------------------------------------------------

(* )
(* )

(* )

See footnotes at end of table.




-

203

2 3 7 -1 7
2 3 7 -2 3
2 3 7 -7 3

(? )
(2)

(3 )

(\)
(3 )

(3 )
1 ,2 ,3

(p

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)

List o f CBS statistical reporto-BLS series 237— Continued
Survey year
Region, population stratum, SMSA,
or other urban place
Urban-United States— Continued
North Central— Continued
Nonmetropolitan urban place, population
2, 500 to 50,000
Devils Lake, N. D ak ---------------------------------Findlay, Ohio-----------------------------------------LaSalle, 111--------------------------------------------Niles, M ich------------------------------------------Owatonna, Minn---------------------------------------

1960

Publications
1961

BLS report
number

Supplements

(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
<*)
-

-

237-27
237-27
237-27
237-27
237-27

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3>

(*)
(*)
<*)
(*)
(*)

237-77
237-77
237-77
237-77
237-77

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

(*)

<*)

237-36

(*>
(*)

(*)
(*)

237-16 and 66
237-3 and 53

(2 )

<*)
(*)

(*)

237-6
237-20
237-56

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

SMSA, population 50,000 to 250,000
Austin, T e x ------------------------------------------Orlando, Fla------------------------------------------Baton Rouge, L a -------------------------------------Durham, N. C-----------------------------------------Cleveland, Tenn-------------------------------------Giffin, G a --------------------------------------------McAllen, T e x ---------------------------------------Reserve, L a ------------------------------------------Union, S. C--------------------------------------------Vicksburg, Miss---------------------------------------

(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*>

(*)
(*)
"

237-12
237-19
237-62
237-69
237-25
237-25
237-25
237-25
237-25
237-25

(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

Florence, Ala------------------ ----------------------Gainesville, T e x -------------------------------------Mangum, Okla------------------------------- --------Martinsville, V a -------------------------------------Okmulgee, O k la-------------------------------------Sebring, F la-------------------------------------------

(*)
-

(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)
(*)

237-25
237-75
237-75
237-75
237-75
237-75

(*)

(*)

237-37

(*)
(*)

237-22 and 72
237-2 and 52

(2 )

237-9
237-59
237-78

(2 )
(2 )

-

(*)
(*)

-

(*)

237-70

(2)

(4 )

(4 >
-

237-29
237-26
237-26

(3)
(3)

(*)
(*)

237-76
237-76

(3)
(3)

Cambridge, Ohio-------------------------------------Crooks ton, M inn-------------------------------------Logans port, In d --------------------------------------Manhattan, Kans-------------------------------------Mensaha, Wis-----------------------------------------South---------------------------------------------------------SMSA, population 1, 400,000 and over
Baltimore, Md---------------------------------------Washington, D. C-------------------------------------SMSA, population 250,000 to 1,400,000
Atlanta, G a ------------------------------------------Dallas, T e x ------------------------------------------Nashville, Tenn---------------------------------------

West-----------------------------------------------------------SMSA, population 1,400,000 and over
Los Angeles-Long Beach, C alif--------------------San Francisco-Oakland, C alif-----------------------SMSA, population 250,000 to 1,400,000
Seattle, Wash-----------------------------------------Denver, Colo-----------------------------------------Honolulu, H aw aii-----------------------------------SMSA, population 50,000 to 250,000
Bakersfield, C a lif-----------------------------------Nonmetropolitan urban place, population
2, 500 to 50,000
Anchorage, A lask a----------------------------------Gallup, N. M e x --------------------------------------Klamath Falls, Oreg---------------------------------Eureka, C a lif-----------------------------------------Orem, U tah -------------------------------------------

(*)
(*)
(*)

(*)
(*)
-

(3)

1 ,2 ,3

(2 )

(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)
(3)
<;>
(3)
1 ,2 ,3
(2>

(2)

(3)

* Asterisk indicates year of survey.
1 Published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
2 Supplements 2 and 3 not to be published; for a limited time photocopies of tables may be obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
at a nominal cost.
3 No supplements available.
* Survey for 1959.
NOTE: The Bureau also has published reports for the following special-city surveys: Cincinnati, Ohio, 1959 (Report 237-28); Fairbanks,
Alaska, 1959 (Report 237-30); Ketchikan, Alaska, 1960 (Report 237-31); Juneau, Alaska, 1960 (Report 237-32); Las Vegas, Nev., 1962.
(Report 237-33); Houston, Tex., 1963 (Report 237-83); Kansas City, Kans.-Mo., 1963 (Report 237-79); Milwaukee, Wis, 1963 (Rfeport
237-80); Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., 1963 (Report 237-81); and San Diego, Calif, 1963 (Report 237-82).




204

Exhibit L
L is t of C E S A n aly tic al R e p o r ts - B L S S e r ie s

238

BLS
R eport No.
*238-1

W o r k e r s ' W ealth an d F a m i l y L iv in g S ta n d a r d s .
L ab o r R e v ie w , Ju n e 1963.
15 p p .

238-2

H e le n H .

L a m a le .

R e p rin t,

M o n th ly

T h e Im p a c t of R isin g P r i c e s on Y o u n g er and O ld e r C o n su m e r s.
H elen H. L a m a le .
P aper.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e r n o n t o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r , M a r k a r y d , S w e d e n , A u g u s t 6-9> 1 9 6 3 .
28 pp.
(P r e lim in a r y I960 s u m m a r y d ata, all u rb an a r e a s . )

*2 3 8 -3

C h an g in g P a tte r n s
of C on su m er
P r o c e e d in g s o f th e B u s i n e s s an d
tistic a l A sso ciatio n .
18 p p .

*2 3 8 -4

E c o n o m ic s and P u b lic W elfare .
C o n feren ce,
A m erican
P u b lic
27,
1963.
6 pp.

*238-5

C h an g in g P a tte r n s of C o n su m e r E x p e n d itu r e s.
A g r i c u l t u r a l O u tlo o k C o n fe r e n c e , W ash in g to n ,
C on su m er
A rn o ld
E.
S ta tistic s,

238-6

*238-7

E x p e n d itu re s,
1950-60.
A rn o ld E . C h a se .
1963
E c o n o m ic S t a t is t ic s S e c tio n o f th e A m e r i c a n S t a ­

E w an C la g u e .
P aper.
1963 S o u th e a ste rn R e gio n a l
W elfare A sso c ia tio n ,
A sh e v ille ,
N. C. , Sep tem b er

L a u r a M ae W ebb. P a p e r .
4 1 st annual
D. C . N o v e m b e r 18-21, 1963.
10
pp.

E xp e n d itu re s
and
In com e,
w ith
E m p h asis
on
C h ase.
Sum m ary of rem ark s
22nd In te rsta te
M ia m i B e a c h , F la . , Ju n e 16-19,
1964.
8 pp.

E x p a n d in g O w n e rsh ip
of H o u se h o ld
E q u ip m e n t.
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , O c to b e r 1 964.
10 p p .

Thom as

Low -In com e
C o n feren ce

R.

T ib b e tts.

F am ilie s.
on L a b o r

R e p rin t,

238-8

C o n t r a s t s in S p e n d in g b y U r b a n
1960-61.
K ath ry n R. M urph y.
D ecem b er 1964.
13 p p .

238-9

F o o d E x p e n d i t u r e s o f U r b a n F a m i l i e s , 1 9 5 0 to 1 9 6 0 -6 1 .
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , F e b r u a r y 1965.
5 pp.

L a u r a M ae W ebb.

238-10

E x p e n d itu re P a tte r n s of L o w -C o n su m p tio n F a m ilie s .
A n n u al M e e tin g ,
A m erican S t a t i s t i c a l
A sso c iatio n ,
27-30,
1964.
20 p p .

H e le n H .
C h ica g o ,

238-11

C h an g in g C o n su m p tio n P a t t e r n s .
E w an C la g u e .
P aper.
C o n feren ce
E c o n o m ic s , N o rth C a ro lin a S tate U n iv e rsity , R a le ig n , N . C . , M a y 26,

238-12

L e v e l s o f L iv in g A m o n g th e P o o r .
H e le n H. L a m a le .
P aper.
S e m in a r on P o v e rty ,
U n iv e rsity of C a lifo rn ia,
L o s A n g e le s , A p r il 2, 1965.
28 pp.

238-13

U s e s of F a m ily E x p e n d itu re D ata.
H e le n H. L a m a le .
P aper.
A n n u al M e e tin g .
A m e r ic a n H o m e E c o n o m ic s A s s o c ia t io n , A tla n tic C ity , N . J . , Ju n e 22, 1965.
10 p p .

238-14

S p e n d in g a n d S a v in g in U r b a n a n d R u r a l A r e a s .
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , O c to b e r 196 5 .
9 pp.

*

Out




of

F am ilie s:
T re n d s S in ce 1950 and V a ria tio n s
in
R e p rin t,
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , N o v e m b e r and

p rin t.

205

K ath ry n

R.

R e p rin t,

L am a le .
P aper.
111. ,
D ecem ber

on C o n su m e r
1965.
9 pp.

M urph y.

R e p rin t,

Exhibit M
B u lle tin

and

L ist

of

CES

R esearch

N otes

B LS
B u lle tin N o.
1556

C lo th in g fo r U r b a n F a m i l i e s - E x p e n d itu r e s p e r M e m b e r by S e x an d A g e ,
G o v e r n m e n t P rin tin g O ffic e , W ash in g to n , D . C . , J u ly 1967.
149 p p .

1960-61.

CES
R esearch
N ote N o. 1
1
2

M e d ical

3

R e cre atio n
Su rvey s.

4

Im pu ted

5

P erson al

In su ran ce

6

G ifts

C o n trib u tio n s

7

C on su m er

8

fic e

T h e C o n c e p t o f P a r t - Y e a r F a m i l i e s in

F a m ily

C are

E xpen ses

E x p e n d itu re s:
M ay 1969.

Incom e

and

in

fro m

C re d it

In com e

in

E x p e n d itu re

D efin itio n

and

C on su m er
in

C on su m er

H o u sin g .

E x p e n d itu re

Ju n e

Su rvey s.

February

in C o n s u m e r

Ju ly

Su rvey s.

Su rvey s.

O cto b er

1968.

1969.
E xp e n d itu re

1969.

Su rvey s.

E x p e n d itu re

E x p e n d itu re

Su rvey s.

M easu rem en t

E x p e n d itu re

C on su m er

C on su m er

1 M im e o g ra p h e d .
A v ailab le on
of P r i c e s and L iv in g C o n d itio n s,




C on su m er

O w n e r-O ccu p ie d

in

in

C o n su m e r E x p e n d itu re S u rv e y s.

M arch

A p ril
M ay

1969.
1970.

1970.

1970.

r e q u e s t fr o m D iv isio n of L iv in g C o n d itio n S tu d ie s, O f­
B u re au of L ab o r S ta tistic s,
W ash in g to n , D . C . 2 0 2 1 2 .

206

Glossary
The
and

cost of goods

e x c ise

tax es

but

and

se rv ic e s

fo r

of

trad e -in

a llo w a n c e s

net

fa m ily

liv in g
or

(in c lu d in g

refu n d s)

fin a n c in g

ch arges

b ro u g h t d u rin g

and

sa le s

su rvey

th e

y ear,

w h eth er
or
not p ay m en ts w ere
c o m p le te d d u r in g th e y e a r .
C o n su m e r d u rab le go o d s su ch
a s a u to m o b ile s an d h o u se h o ld e q u ip m en t w e re c o n sid e re d a s co n su m p tio n it e m s , but p u r c h a se s
and

sale s

used

of

h om es

p artia lly

c h a rg e a b le

w ere

c o n sid e re d

fo r b u sin e ss,

to

b u sin e ss

su ch

u se.

as

The

as

changes

th e

hom e

v a lu e

of

in

or

fo o d

a sse ts.

c a r,
and

w ere

h o u sin g

v a lu e
of goods
and
se rv ic e s
w ith d raw n
fro m
a
fa m ily
e x p e n d itu re s,
w ith
co rresp o n d in g
b ala n c in g
e n trie s
as
S e lf-E m p lo y m e n t In c o m e .)
In

th e

p u b lish e d

grouped

in to

th e

T h e v a lu e

tab u la tio n s,

fo llo w in g

of hom e produced
ite m s

of

B e e r,
e atin g

to

re c e iv e d

fo r

e x c lu d e

as

pay

th e

and

ite m s
am ount

th e

re ta il

ow ned
b u sin e ss
w e r e in c lu d e d a s
in c o m e .
(See
M e a ls
as
P ay
and

fo o d w a s

e x p e n d itu re s

fo r

not in clu d e d .
curren t

c o n su m p tio n

w ere

Expenditures

B E V E R A G E S

a le , liq u o rs,
and d rin k in g

id e n tifie d

A P P A R E L :

e x p e n d itu re s

c a te g o rie s.

Part I.

A L C O H O LIC

F a m ily
a d ju ste d

an d w in e s e r v e d a t h o m e o r
p la c e s.
S o m e e x p e n d itu re s

se p a ra te ly

See

are

in c lu d e d

w ith

F ood,

c o n s u m e d in r e s t a u r a n t s , b a r s , a n d o th e r
fo r a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s th at c o u ld n o t be

A w ay

F ro m

H om e.

C lo th in g .

A U T O M O B IL E :

See

T ra n sp o rtatio n .

C L O T H IN G
R eadym ade
w ear,
of

h ats,

or

cu stom -m ad e

g lo v e s,

a p p a re l;

sh oe

d re ssm a k in g
cu sto m -m ad e

and

c lo th in g ;

oth er

re p a irs;

c lo th in g m a t e r i a l s

a c c e sso rie s;

and

oth er

je w e lry

clo th in g

(y ard

g o o d s,

n o tio n s,

and w a tc h e s; d ry c le an in g

se rv ic e s.

and
tailo rin g
se rv ic e s
(excep t
a t th e
tim e
c lo th in g ),
g a r m e n t s t o r a g e , clo th in g r e n ta l,

O th er

clo th in g

e tc .);
and

se rv ic e s

fo o t­

p re ssin g
in c lu d e

of p u rch ase
of read ym ad e or
and w atch and je w e lr y r e p a ir .

E D U C A T IO N
T u itio n , f e e s ,
books,
s u p p lie s , an d e q u ip m e n t fo r c o lle g e s an d p r o f
o th er sch o o l le v e ls
su ch
as
d ay o r b o a rd in g s c h o o ls , b u sin e ss
or
te c h n ic a l an d tra d e s c h o o ls, sc h o o ls fo r h a n d ic a p p e d , r e ta r d e d ,
etc.
c e n te r s an d d a y n u r s e r ie s a r e in c lu d e d u n d e r H o u se h o ld O p e r a tio n s.
m e n ts fo r in s t r u c t io n in m u s i c , d a n c in g , s w im m in g , o th e r s p o r t s , an d

FO O D ,

AW AY

M e a ls
and

in

FR O M

H O M E

restau ran ts

m e a ls




as

e ssio n a l sch o o ls and
se c re ta ria l sc h o o ls,
F e e s fo r c h ild c a r e
A lso in c lu d e s p a y ­
d riv in g , etc.

and

o th er

e atin g

p la c e s,

pay.

207

board

(in c lu d in g

in

d o rm ito rie s),

sn ack s,

FO O D ,

P R E P A R E D

A T

H O M E

A l l fo o d p u r c h a s e d to b e s e r v e d a t h o m e o r c a r r i e d f r o m h o m e in l u n c h e s ,
m a t e d c o s t o f fo o d s e r v e d to b o a r d e r s .
(See a lso R o o m e r s and B o a r d e r s ,

F U E L ,

L IG H T ,

R E FR IG E R A T IO N ,

AND

A ll ty p e s of p e tr o le u m
and so lid
ic e ,
se w ag e d isp o sa l and se p tic
fo o d
fre ez er
ren tals.
E x c lu d e s
ta x e s on o w n e r-o cc u p ie d h o m e s.

H O U SE F U R N ISH IN G S
H o u se h o ld

te x tile s

slip c o v e rs
and o th er

(sh eets,

c o v e rin g s,
and

e q u ip m en t,

fu rn ish in g s

and

H O U SEH O LD

f u e l s , g a s , e le c tr ic ity , w a te r and w a te r so fte n in g s e r v ­
tan k
cle an in g ,
garb age
and tr a sh
c o lle c tio n ,
ic e , and
e x p e n s e s w h ich
w ere
covered
by
co n tract
ren t or by

p illo w s,

b la n k e ts,

(in c lu d in g

exp en ses

gas

and

c le an in g

lu g g a g e ,

e le ctric

and

in c lu d e s

b e d d in g ),

c h in a,

o th er

and

ta b le

la b o r),

g la ssw a re ,

ty p e w rite rs,
hand

in su ra n ce

on
th e
d w e llin g s
se ts, ra d io s, and

on

and

lin e n s,

flatw are,

baby

pow er

fu rn ish in g s,

to w e ls,

fu rn itu re ,

rugs

k itc h e n

c a rria g e s

to o ls,

and

and

ren tal

e q u ip m en t,

and

(see P ro p erty
In su ran ce).
E x c lu d e s
m u s ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
(See R e c re a tio n .)

O P E R A T IO N S

T e le p h o n e
and
te le g ra p h ; la u n d ry ,
c le an in g se n t out e x c e p t d ry c le a n in g
w ages,

o th er

m ate rials

p ic tu re s,

m ow ers

A lso

by a p o lic y
of te le v isio n

and
fo r

a p p lian c e s,

e q u ip m en t,

la w n

e q u ip m e n t.

a p p a re l not
covered
p u rc h a se and re p a ir

W A TER

E Q U IP M E N T

d ra p e rie s

la u n d ry

n u rsery
of

and
flo o r

u te n sils,

AN D

e x c e p t th e e s t i ­
In com e
F ro m . )

so c ia l

b a b y sitte rs,

se c u rity ,

but

not fo r

and

o th er

n u rsin g

c le an in g ,
and
h o u se h o ld p a p e r
su p p lie s; lau n d ry and
o f c lo th in g ( s e e C lo th in g ); d o m e s t ic s e r v i c e , in c lu d in g
exp en ses

care

at

fo r

hom e

h o u se h o ld

(see

h e lp ,

M e d ic al

g a rd e n e rs, ja n ito rs,

C are);

fe e s

fo r

ch ild

care

and
at

d a y n u r s e r i e s , bu t n ot k in d e r g a r te n tu itio n ( s e e E d u c a tio n ); r e p a ir s o f fu rn itu r e an d e q u ip ­
m en t; m o v in g , fre ig h t, e x p r e s s , and s to r a g e e x c e p t o f fu rs and o th e r a p p a r e l (se e C lo th ­
in g ); p o s t a g e a n d w r itin g m a t e r i a l s ; h o lid a y d e c o r a t io n s ; f r e s h flo w e r s fo r th e h o u s e ; s e e d s ,
p la n ts, fe r tiliz e r s,

s p r a y s,

etc.

e x cep t fo r

ra isin g

fo o d .

(See

M isc e lla n e o u s) E x p e n d itu re s).

H O U SIN G
O w ned o r
ren ted
d w e llin g ( s e e S h e lte r ); lo d g in g out o f
d o rm ito r ie s; and e x p e n se s fo r r e a l e sta te not u se d fo r
o r ren ted .
A lso in c lu d e s e x p e n d itu re s fo r fu el,
lig h t,
fu rn ish in g s and e q u ip m e n t; an d h o u se h o ld o p e ra tio n s .

hom e
c it y in h o t e l s , m o t e l s ,
or
fa m ily b u sin e ss and not o c c u p ie d
re frig e ratio n ,
and w ater; h o u se-

IN SU R A N C E
A u to m o b ile
D isa b ility

(see

F u rn ish in g s,
H ealth
L ife ;

(see
not

P ro p erty

M E A L S

A S

T ra n sp o rtatio n ).

in c o m e

(see

c lo th in g ,
M e d ic al

c la ssifie d
(see

P erso n a l
etc.

(See

In su ran ce).
H o u se fu rn ish in g s

and

E q u ip m e n t).

C are).
as

P ro p erty

an

E x p e n d itu re

fo r

C urrent

C o n su m p tio n

(see

P e r s o n a l In su ran ce).

In su ran ce).

PA Y

E m p l o y e e ’ s e s t im a t e o f th e v a lu e o f m e a l s
re c e iv e d as pay .
M e a ls and ren t a s p ay re fe r
to fo o d a n d h o u s in g w h ic h th e e m p l o y e r a g r e e s to p r o v id e a s a s u p p le m e n t to c a s h w a g e
and s a la r y p ay m e n ts,
e. g. , m e a ls fo r w a it r e s s e s ,
room
and b o a rd fo r n u r s e s , h o u sin g
fo r
m in iste rs
or
apartm en t m a n a g e r s.
(See a lso M o n ey In co m e B e fo r e T a x e s ,
W ages
and

S a la rie s.)




208

M E D IC A L

C A R E

C overs

p ay m en ts

P re p a id

care

fo r

p re p a id

care

in c lu d e s p a y m e n ts

and

(o r

d ire ct

exp en ses,

d ed u c tio n s

fro m

pay)

as

fo llo w s:

fo r

a ll ty p es

of h ealth

in su ra n ce

o r p la n s p ro v id in g p r e p a id m e d ic a l o r d e n ta l c a r e ; e m p lo y e r 's co n trib u tio n s a r e not in ­
c lu d e d .
C o v e ra g e m a y p ro v id e b ro a d p ro te c tio n a g a in st e x p e n se s fo r h o sp ita l,
su rg ic a l,
a n d n o n s u r g i c a l c a r e ; o r m a y b e lim it e d to p r o t e c t io n fo r s p e c i f i e d h a z a r d s , s u c h a s p o lio
o r sch o o l accid e n ts.
D o e s n o t in c lu d e p r e m i u m s f o r d is a b ilit y i n s u r a n c e , i. e. , p r o t e c t io n
a g a in st lo s s of in c o m e b e c a u s e o f illn e s s o r in ju ry , e x c e p t w h e re su c h c o v e r a g e is p a r t of
a p o lic y w h ic h i s p r i m a r i l y to p r o v id e h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e .
(See P e r s o n a l In su ra n c e . )
D i r e c t e x p e n s e s r e f e r to m e d i c a l e x p e n s e s w h ic h w e r e n o t c o v e r e d
oth er p re p a id
p la n s,
or
an y p o rtio n
of
su c h e x p e n se s th at w e re
T h is in c lu d e s
p ractitio n e rs;
se rv ic e s
tory

e x p e n se s fo r a h o sp italiz e d illn e ss;
dru gs
and m e d ic in e s; g la s s e s
and

of n u rses

te sts,

M ISC E L L A N E O U S
In terest

on

exp en ses

th e p a t ie n t !s
th e rap e u tic

hom e,

care

treatm en ts,

fe e s fo r p h y s ic ia n s , d e n tists, and o th er
o th e r m e d ic a l a p p lian ce s, an d su p p lie s;

in

a

n u rsin g

hom e

or

san itariu m ;

la b o ra ­

etc.

E X P E N D IT U R E S

p erso n al

fo r

a ll-e x p e n se

OW NED

at

X -ra y s,

b y h ealth in su ra n c e o r
not m e t by in su ra n c e .

ra isin g

to u rs,

D W E L L IN G

lo an s,
fo o d

and

fu n eral

fo r

sim ila r

(in c lu d in g

fa m ily

ex p en ses,
u se ,

exp en ses

le g al

m oney

lo st

th at can n o t b e

co o p e ra tiv e

ap artm en ts

exp en ses,
or

sto le n ,

a llo c a te d

and

bank

se rv ic e

allo w a n c e s

to

ch arg es,
c h ild re n ,

e lse w h e re .

h ou se

traile rs).

R eal
estate
tax es, p ro p erty
in su ra n ce
m o rtgage
in te re st,
re p a irs,
and
o th er
curren t
e x p e n d itu re s o f h o m e o w n e rs fo r p rin c ip a l r e sid e n c e and v a c atio n h o m e .
O th er e x p e n ses
in c lu d e s e t t le m e n t an d c o m m i s s i o n c o s t s p a id a t t im e o f th e p u r c h a s e o r s a l e o f d w e llin g ,
p e n a ltie s
to p a y
o ff a m o r tg a g e
e arly ,
groun d
ren t,
and F H A m o rtg a g e g u aran tee in ­
s u r a n c e ; th e y d o n o t in c lu d e m o r t g a g e r e fin a n c in g c h a r g e s w h ich a r e in c lu d e d w ith in t e r e s t
on m o rtg a g e s.
P ay m e n ts
on m o rtg a g e
p rin c ip a l
and
fo r
h o m e im p ro v e m e n ts
a re not
c o n s i d e r e d a s e x p e n d i t u r e s , b u t a r e c o u n te d a s c h a n g e s in a s s e t s a n d l i a b i l i t i e s .

P E R SO N A L

C A R E

P ay m en ts
p u rch ases
and o th er

P R O P E R T Y

fo r

th e

se rv ic e s

and

su p p lie s).

and tip s fo r h a ir c u ts, sh a m p o o s ,
o f to ile t so a p ,
d en tal
su p p lie s,
p e rso n a l c a re su p p lie s.

w a v e s , h a ir tin tin g ,
and o th er
c o sm e tic s,
h a ir
e q u ip m e n t and

se r v ic e s; and
p re p a ra tio n s,

IN SU R A N C E

P re m iu m s
d w e llin g
a d d itio n

(

p aid

d u rin g

th e

su rvey

y ear

on

p o lic ie s

fo r

fire

and

exten d ed

coverage

of

a

and
its
co n ten ts o r
on
c o m p r e h e n s iv e (h o m e o w n e rs') p o lic ie s .
The la tte r,
in
to
in su rin g
th e
d w e llin g
an d its c o n te n ts, p ro v id e p e r s o n a l
lia b ility p ro te c tio n
hom eow ner

p re m iu m s

c o v e rin g

and

h is

m o re

fa m ily ,

th a n th e

b oth

su rvey

at

hom e

y ear

w ere

and

aw ay fro m

hom e.

A m o u n ts

p aid

in

not p ro rate d .

R E A D IN G
S u b sc rip tio n s
n ic al,

see




and

oth er p u r c h a se s

E d u c atio n ),

and

o th er

of

n ew sp ap ers,

re a d in g

m a g a z in e s,

m a te ria ls.

209

books

(n ot

school

or

tech ­

R E C R E A T IO N
P u rch ase

and

re p a ir

of te le v isio n

se ts,

ra d io s,

ph on ograph s,

m u sic a l in stru m e n ts,

and

r e ­

la t e d i t e m s ; s p e c t a t o r a d m i s s i o n s to m o v i e s , s p o r t s e v e n t s ,
c o n c e r ts , etc. ; d u e s,
fees,
an d e q u ip m e n t fo r p a r tic ip a n t s p o r t s ; clu b m e m b e r s h ip s ; h o b b ie s; p e ts ; an d to y s and p la y
e q u ip m e n t.
V ac a tio n
and o th er
r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a v e l e x p e n s e s a r e in c lu d e d in T r a n s p o r ­
tatio n ,
Food A w ar F ro m
c e lla n e o u s E x p e n d itu re s.

R E N T E D

H o m e,

and

H o u sin g .

pen se

fo r

co n tract

rent

(i. e . ,

th e

reim b u rsed
by th e
a r e n t a l d w e llin g ..

ren t a g re e d

upon

re g a rd le ss

s e r v i c e s th at m a y b e in c lu d e d ) a ft e r a d ju s tm e n t fo r
fo r re c e ip ts fro m
s u b le ttin g th e
e n tir e d w e llin g .

R E P A IR S

ON

(See

are

in clu d ed

in

M is­

c o n d itio n in g ,
N et

la n d lo rd ,
and b o n u se s
R e n t is th e n et fa m ily
of any fu rn ish in g s,

and
e x ­

u tilitie s

a n y u s e o f th e d w e llin g fo r b u s in e s s
In c lu d e s th e v a lu e o f re n t a s p a y .

D W E LL IN G S

A m o u n ts sp en t fo r la b o r and m a t e r ia ls fo r
of im p ro v e m e n ts on ow ned h o m e s (su ch a s
a ir

to u rs

D W E LL IN G

In a d d it io n
to
ren t,
in c lu d e s r e p a ir s
not
c o m m i s s i o n s p a id to o b ta in p o s s e s s i o n o f
or
or

A ll-e x p e n se

C hanges

e tc .),
in

are

c o n sid e re d

as

a ll ty p es of r e p a ir s and m ain te n a n c e .
C o sts
ad d ed ro o m s and g a r a g e s , c e n tra lly in sta lle d
in c re a se s

in

a sse ts

and

w ere

not

and

in clu d e d .

o th er

A sse ts. )

S H E L T E R
The

to tal

exp en ses

fo r

ow ned

or

ren ted

d w e llin g s

or

v a c atio n

and

a ll o th er

hom es

sh e lte r.

T O B A C C O
C ig a re tte s,

c i g a r s , p ip e

to b acco ,

p ip e s,

lig h te rs,

s m o k e r s ’ su p p lie s.

T R A N SP O R T A T IO N
A u to m o b ile p u r c h a s e an d o p e r a tio n , a ll ty p e s o f p u b lic t r a n s p o r ta tio n in c lu d in g t a x ic a b s ,
c a r p o o l (i. e . , p a y m e n t s f o r s h a r e d r i d e s in p r i v a t e l y o p e r a t e d c a r s ) , a n d o t h e r t r a n s ­
p o rtatio n .
A u to m o b ile p u r c h a se is n et o f tr a d e - in a llo w a n c e s (o r sa le ) and d isc o u n ts,
but
in c lu d e s fin a n c in g c h a r g e s .
O th er tra n sp o rta tio n in c lu d e s p u r c h a s e , o p e ra tio n , and
ren tal
of b ic y c le s, m o rto r c y c le s, s c o o te r s , b o a ts,
and
a irp la n e s; and e x p e n se s fo r a b o rro w ed
o r ren ted c a r o r tr a ile r .

V A C A T IO N :

See




R e cre atio n .

Part II. Other Teims

ACCOUNT BA LA N CIN G D IF F E R E N C E
The d iffe re n c e betw een re p o rte d to tal r e c e ip ts and rep o rted to ta l d is b u r s e m e n ts . T o tal
r e c e ip ts c o n sist of in com e a fte r t a x e s , oth er m oney r e c e ip t s , and m oney o r c re d it r e ­
ceiv ed fro m d e c r e a sin g a s s e t s o r in c r e a s in g lia b ilit ie s . T o tal d isb u rse m e n ts c o n sist of
ex p en d itu res fo r c u rre n t con su m ption , p e r so n a l in su ra n c e , g ifts and c o n trib u tio n s, and
ou tlays of m oney that re su lte d in in c r e a sin g a s s e t s or d e c r e a sin g lia b ilit ie s .
AGE
Age of each fa m ily m em b er on birth day in su rv e y y e a r .
A S S E T S , N E T CHANGE IN
The a lg e b r a ic sum of in c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e s in a s s e t s . I n c r e a s e s in a s s e t s a r e r e p r e ­
sen ted by in c r e a s e s in c a sh holdings (including in te r e st le ft on d e p o sit), b u sin e ss in v e s t­
m e n ts, and m oney owed to the fa m ily ; p u r c h a se and im p ro vem en t of d w ellin gs and other
r e a l p ro p e rty ; p u rc h a se of sto c k s and bonds which a r e held at the end of the su rv e y y e a r ;
and in c r e a s e s in oth er a s s e t s .
D e c r e a s e s in a s s e t s a r e re p re se n te d by d e c r e a s e s in
c ash h o ld in g s, b u sin e ss in v e stm e n ts, and m oney owed to the fa m ily ; s a le of o w n er-o ccu p ied
dw elling, other r e a l e s t a t e , and p e r so n a l p ro p e rty ; s a le o r re tire m e n t of sto c k s and bonds
owned at the beginning of the su rv e y y e a r ; se ttle m e n t o r su r re n d e r of p e r so n a l in su ra n c e
p o lic ie s held by a fa m ily m e m b e r; and d e c r e a s e s in oth er a s s e t s .
BU SIN ESS E X P E N S E S : S e e O ccu pation al E x p e n se s.
CONSUM ER UNIT: See F a m ily .
E A R N E R S, N U M BER O F F U L L -T IM E
A count of fa m ily m e m b e rs who w orked a s paid em p lo y ees in th eir own b u s in e s s , fa r m ,
o r p r o fe ssio n , 48 w eeks or m o re in the su rv e y y e a r , and fo r 35 h o u rs p e r week o r m o re
in w age and s a la r y o c c u p atio n s. M em b e rs em ployed in in d u strie s w here c u sto m a ry fu ll­
tim e em ploym ent is few er than 48 w eeks o r 35 h o u rs p e r week (e. g. , sch o o l sy ste m s
o r a ir lin e s ) w ere counted a s fu ll-tim e e a r n e r s . The m inim um h o u rs req u irem en t did not
apply to se lf-e m p lo y e d w o rk e rs in a p r o fe ssio n o r an u n in corp o rated b u sin e ss (including
a fa rm ).
EDUCATION
Y e a r s of sch o ol com pleted durin g o r b e fo re the su rv e y y e a r , in e lem en tary o r high sc h o o l,
c o lle g e , u n iv e r sity , o r p r o fe s s io n a l sch o o l. P e r s o n s giving no in fo rm atio n on the extent
of th eir education w ere in cluded in the c l a s s , "8 y e a r s o r l e s s . "
FA M ILY
The fa m ily , o r co n su m er unit, r e f e r s to (1) a group of peo ple u su a lly livin g tog eth er
who pooled th eir in com e and drew fro m a com m on fund fo r th eir m a jo r ite m s of e x p e n se ,
o r (2) a p e r so n living alone o r in a househ old with o th ers but who w as fin an cially
independent, i. e. , h is in com e and exp en d itu res w ere not pooled. N e v e r - m a r r ie d ch ild ren
livin g with p a r e n ts w ere alw ay s c o n sid e re d a s m e m b e rs of the co n su m er unit. In fo rm a ­
tion w as re c o rd e d fo r the fa m ily a s it w as co m p o sed in the su rv e y y e a r .




211

FA M ILY HEAD
In h u sb an d-w ife f a m i lie s , the husband w as c o n sid e re d the head. In oth er types of f a m ilie s ,
the p e r so n reco g n iz ed a s the head by oth er fa m ily m e m b e rs w as so d e sig n ate d .
FA M IL Y S IZ E
The num ber of equ ivalen t fu ll- y e a r m e m b e r s, com puted by dividing the to tal num ber of
w eeks during which both fu ll- y e a r and p a r t - y e a r m e m b e rs belonged to the fam ily in the
su rv e y y e a r by 52 w eek s.
FA M IL Y T Y P E
F a m ilie s w ere c la s s ifie d in sev en typ es on the b a s is of the relatio n sh ip of fa m ily m e m b e r s
and the age of the ch ild ren of the head of the fa m ily . F iv e types c o n siste d of co n su m er
units in which both the husband and w ife w ere p r e se n t: One of th e se w as co m p o sed of
a husband and w ife only; th ree w ere husband and w ife fa m ilie s with th eir own ch ild ren (in ­
cluding adopted and step ch ild ren ) but with no oth er p e r so n s in the fa m ily and w ere c l a s s i ­
fied ac c o rd in g to the age of the o ld e st child (under 6 y e a r s , 6— y e a r s , and 18 y e a r s and
1T
o v er); and the fifth type, "o th er h u sb an d -w ife" f a m ilie s , included th o se with o r without
th eir own ch ild ren but with oth er p e r so n s in the fa m ily . A six th type included fa m ilie s
with ch ild ren and only one p aren t (the head) p r e s e n t and no oth er p e r so n s in the fa m ily .
The rem ain in g type co v ered a ll oth er c o n su m er u n its, including o n e -p e rso n fa m ilie s .
G IF T S AND CO NTRIBUTIONS
C ash con trib u tion s to p e r so n s o u tsid e the fa m ily and to w e lfa re , r e lig io u s , edu catio n al,
and oth er o rg a n iz a tio n s; and the c o st of goods and s e r v ic e s p u rc h a se d in the su rv e y y e a r
and given to p e r so n s o u tsid e the fa m ily .
H O U SE K E E PIN G FA M ILY
A fa m ily in which at le a s t one m em b er
hom e o r c a r r ie d fro m hom e.

r e g u la rly e a ts

at le a s t

10 m e a ls p e r week at

INCOM E: S e e M oney Incom e and S e lf-E m p lo y m e n t Incom e.

L IA B IL IT IE S , N E T CHANGE IN
The a lg e b r a ic sum of in c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e in lia b ilit ie s : C hanges in the m o rtg a g e
debt on ow n er-o ccu p ied d w ellin gs and oth er r e a l p ro p e rty ; m oney owed to b an k s, in s u r ­
ance c o m p a n ie s, e t c .; m oney owed fo r ren t, t a x e s , a u to m o b ile s, h o u sefu rn ish in g s and
equipm ent, and oth er goods and s e r v ic e s ; and ch an ges in other lia b ilit ie s .

LOCATIO N AND S IZ E O F P L A C E
The p r im a r y c la s s ific a t io n w as the lo catio n of the fa m ily ’ s re sid e n c e in sid e o r o u tsid e
S tan d ard M etro p olitan S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s (SM SA ’ s ), a s u sed by the B u re au of the C en su s.
In addition , u rban fa m ilie s livin g in m etro p o litan a r e a s w ere grouped in the follow ing
four s u b c la s s ific a t io n s : C en tral city (the la r g e s t city , or c it ie s , in an SM SA ); other
c itie s with population of 5 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r; c itie s under 50,0 0 0 and u n in corp o rated p la c e s
in u rb an ized a r e a s ; and u rban p la c e s of 2, 500 to 5 0 ,0 0 0 ou tsid e u rb an ized a r e a s . F a m ilie s
living in u rban p la c e s of 2, 500 to 5 0 ,0 0 0 in n on m etropolitan a r e a s w ere c la s s ifie d "O u tsid e
S M S A 's. "




212

MONEY INCOME A F T E R T A X ES
Money incom e a fte r deduction of p e r so n a l ta x e s (F e d e r a l, S ta te , and lo c a l in com e t a x e s ,
po ll t a x e s , and p e r so n a l p ro p e rty ta x e s).
MONEY INCOME B E F O R E T A X ES
T o tal m oney in com e during the su rv e y y e a r of a ll fa m ily m e m b e rs fro m w ages and
s a l a r i e s (including tip s and b o n u ses) a fte r dedu ctions fo r such occu p ation al e x p e n se s as
to o ls, s p e c ia l re q u ire d equipm ent, and union d u es; net in com e fro m self-em p lo y m en t;
and in com e other than e arn in g s such a s net r e n ts, in t e r e s t s , d iv id e n d s, s o c ia l se c u r ity
b e n e fits, p e n sio n s, d isa b ility in su ra n c e , t r u s t fu n ds, s m a ll g ifts of c a sh , r e g u la r con ­
trib u tio n s fo r su p p o rt, pu b lic a s s is t a n c e , o r other go vern m en tal p ay m en ts.
The value
of two nonmoney ite m s— food and housing re c e iv e d a s pay— w as counted a s m oney in com e
and a s ex p en d itu res.
The value of h o m e-p ro d u ced food w as not included in the com pu ­
tation of in com e or e x p en d itu res.
(See O ther M oney R e c e ip ts .)
N E T CHANGE IN A SS E T S AND L IA B IL IT IE S
The a lg e b r a ic sum of in c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e s in a s s e t s and lia b ilit ie s .
N et in c r e a s e s
in a s s e t s o r d e c r e a s e s in lia b ilit ie s r e p r e se n t a net sav in g during the y e a r . Net d e c r e a s e s
in a s s e t s o r in c r e a s e s in lia b ilit ie s r e p r e se n t a d e fic it (-) o r net d issa v in g .
OCCUPATIO N O F FA M ILY HEAD
The m a jo r occu pation at which em ployed fo r the la r g e s t num ber of w eeks in the su rv e y
y ear.
The c la s s ific a t io n w as m ad e in a c c o rd a n c e with the I960 C en su s of P o p u lation ,
A lp h ab etical Index of O ccu pation s and I n d u s t r ie s , except that the se lf-e m p lo y e d (including
f a r m e r s , b u sin e ssm e n , p r o f e s s io n a ls , and a r t is a n s ) w ere se p a ra te d fro m s a la r ie d m a n ­
a g e r s , o f fic ia ls , and p r o fe s s io n a l w o r k e rs.
M em b e rs of the A rm ed F o r c e s , livin g off
b a se , and th e re fo re e lig ib le fo r the su rv e y , w ere c la s s ifie d se p a r a te ly , but the s m a ll
num ber of fa r m e r s and fa rm w o rk e rs living in u rban p la c e s w ere not c la s s ifie d se p a ra te ly .
The r e tir e d included h eads who w ere wholly r e tir e d and so m e with n om in al e arn in g s which
w ere l e s s than th eir re tire m e n t in com e.
S e e p. 49.
O CCU PA TIO N A L E X P E N S E S
Union du es and a s s e s s m e n t s ; du es to b u sin e ss and p r o fe s s io n a l a s s o c ia t io n s ; lic e n s e s ,
to o ls, su p p lie s, and s p e c ia l equipm ent oth er than clothing re q u ire d fo r the jo b ; and e x ­
p e n se s fo r tr a v e l o r u se of the fa m ily ’ s au tom obile on the jo b . A ll occu p ation al e x p en ses
r e p r e se n t the net c o st to the fa m ily a fte r deduction of the am ounts re im b u rse d by the
em p loy er; re im b u rse m e n ts in e x c e s s of ac tu a l ex p e n se s a r e c o n sid e re d a s addition s to
in com e fro m w ages and s a l a r i e s .
O TH ER MONEY INCOM E
C ontributions fo r su p p o rt (alim on y, e t c .) , r o y a lt ie s , pay m en ts fro m d isa b ility in s u r ­
an ce , e x c e s s of p ay m en ts by health in su ra n c e o v er m e d ic a l e x p e n se s, in com e fro m
the s a le of hom egrow n food, r e c e ip ts fro m r id e r s in c a r p o o l, and a ll oth er in com e
not included e lse w h e re .
O TH ER MONEY R E C E IP T S
In h eritan ces and o c c a sio n a l la r g e g ifts of m oney le s s t a x e s , le g a l f e e s , and oth er e x ­
p e n se s re q u ire d to obtain su ch r e c e ip ts; and net r e c e ip ts fro m the lu m p -su m settlem e n t
of fir e and accid en t in su ra n c e p o lic ie s o r a s the b e n e fic ia ry of p o lic ie s on the liv e s of
p e r so n s o u tsid e the co n su m er unit. T h ese am ounts w ere re c o rd e d a s oth er m oney r e c e ip ts
in o r d e r to d iffe re n tia te ’’w in d fall" r e c e ip ts fro m r e g u la r in co m e, and w e re not included
with m oney incom e fo r fa m ily c la s s ific a t io n p u r p o s e s. No r e c o r d w as m ad e of g ifts and
in h eritan ce s in the fo rm of r e a l e s ta te , s e c u r it ie s , and other p ro p e rty u n le ss they had
been so ld durin g the su rv e y y e a r .
In that c a s e the net am ount re c e iv e d fro m the s a le
w as re c o rd e d a s O ther M oney R e c e ip ts.




213

P E R SO N A L IN SU RA NCE
D ire c t p a y m e n ts, in su ra n c e dividen ds ap p lied to p r e m iu m s, o r deductions fro m p ay , fo r
life , endow m ent, and annuity in su ra n c e ; fr a t e r n a l, union, and oth er m utual aid in su ra n c e ;
d isa b ility in com e; s o c ia l se c u r ity ; and r a ilr o a d , go vern m en t, and p r iv a te re tire m e n t and
pen sio n p la n s.
E m p lo y e e s con trib u tion s a r e not in cluded.
P E R SO N A L T A X ES
The net p ay m en ts fo r F e d e r a l, S ta te , and lo c a l in com e ta x , p o ll ta x , and p e r so n a l p ro p e rty
ta x , a fte r su b trac tio n of any tax refu n ds re c e iv e d during the su rv e y y e a r . O c c a sio n a lly
ta x refun ds exceed ed the ta x e s owed during the su rv e y y e a r , so that a f a m ily ^ in com e
a fte r ta x e s w as g r e a te r than its in com e b e fo re ta x e s .
P R O F IT S FROM B U SIN E SSE S OWNED BU T NOT O P E R A T E D
R eturn on in vestm en t in an u n in co rp o rated b u sin e ss o r fa rm .
P R O F IT S FRO M ST O CK S AND BONDS
The d iffe re n c e betw een the p r ic e (including b r o k e r 's fe e s) and the se llin g p r ic e (a fte r
deduction of b r o k e r 's fe e s) of sto c k s and bonds which w ere bought and so ld durin g the
su rv e y y e a r .
(See a ls o A s s e t s , N et Change in .)
RACE
R e fe r s to the c la s s ific a t io n of fa m ilie s into th ree g ro u p s: W hite, N e g ro , and oth er.
"O th e r" in clu d es Ja p a n e s e , C h in ese , In d ian s, and oth er nonwhite r a c e s ex cep t N e g ro e s.
REGION
The fou r m a jo r g e o g rap h ic re g io n s a s defined by the B u re au of the C en su s:
N orth C e n tra l, South, and W est.
S e e m ap , p. 10.

N o rth e a st,

R E N T S , INCOM E FRO M
R e fe r s to the net in com e r e c e iv e d by fa m ilie s having fou r re n tal p r o p e r tie s o r few er
(h o u se s, a p a r tm e n ts, s t o r e s , e t c .) .
Incom e fro m five re n tal p r o p e r tie s o r m o re is
c la s s ifie d a s S e lf-E m p lo y m e n t In com e. N et in com e w as c a lc u late d by deducting ex p e n se s
fo r p ro p e rty t a x e s , in su ra n c e , m o rtg a g e in te r e s t, r e p a ir s and m ain ten an ce, u t ilit ie s , and
fu rn ish in g s fro m g r o s s r e c e ip t s .
ROOM ERS AND B O A R D ER S, INCOM E FRO M
R e fe r s to net in com e re c e iv e d by fa m ilie s having fou r r o o m e r s and b o a r d e r s o r few er.
Incom e fro m five r o o m e r s and b o a r d e r s o r m o re is c la s s ifie d a s S e lf-E m p lo y m en t Incom e.
In cludes m oney re c e iv e d fo r the c a r e of fo s te r ch ild ren . In calc u latin g net in co m e, only
the valu e of food allo c a te d to b o a r d e r s w as deducted fro m g r o s s r e c e ip ts.
R U R A L FA R M
A s defined by the B u re a u of the C e n su s.

S e e pp. 7-15.

R U R A L NONFARM
A s defin ed by the B u re au of the C e n su s.




S e e pp. 7 -1 5 .

214

SAVINGS: S e e Net Change in A s s e t s and L ia b ilitie s .
S E L F -E M P L O Y M E N T INCOME
N et incom e (g r o s s r e c e ip ts m inus ex p e n se s) fro m a p r o fe ssio n o r u n in corp o rated b u sin e ss
(including a fa r m ), which w as o p erate d by the fa m ily during the su rv e y y e a r .
G r o ss
re c e ip ts include the valu e of a ll goods so ld and s e r v ic e s ren d ered .
E x p e n se s include
c o sts of goods p u rc h a se d , ren t, h e at, p o w er, d e p re c ia tio n c h a r g e s , w ages and s a l a r i e s
p aid , b u sin e ss ta x e s (not p e r so n a l incom e t a x e s ), etc.
N et incom e in clu d es the valu e
of goods and s e r v ic e s w ithdraw n fro m the b u sin e ss fo r fa m ily u se ; the r e t a il value of
such ite m s w as a lso re c o rd e d a s fa m ily ex p en d itu res.

STANDARD M ET R O PO LIT A N ST A T IS T IC A L A R E A (SMSA)
A s e sta b lish e d by the B u re a u of the Budget.

See p. 50.

S T A T E ECONOM IC A R EA (SEA )
S E A 's a r e r e la tiv e ly hom ogeneous su b d iv isio n s of S ta te s developed by the B u re a u of the
C e n su s, in c o o p eratio n with the USDA’ s B u re au of A g r ic u ltu ra l E c o n o m ic s, and s e v e r a l
S tate and p r iv a te a g e n c ie s . They c o n sist of sin g le coun ties o r g ro u p s of cou n ties which
have s im ila r econ om ic and s o c ia l c h a r a c t e r is t ic s .
The b o u n d aries of th ese a r e a s have
been draw n in su ch a way that each S tate is sub divided into r e la tiv e ly few p a r t s , with each
p a r t having c e rta in sig n ific a n t c h a r a c t e r is t ic s which d istin g u ish it fro m adjoin ing a r e a s .
SU R V EY YEAR
C alen d ar y e a r to which in fo rm atio n on incom e and e x p e n d itu re s, etc. c o llec ted in su rv e y
r e f e r s , i. e. , the r e fe re n c e p e rio d .
TENURE
The tenu re of
F a m ilie s who
a s "o th e r. "
F a m ilie s who

the fa m ily at its p r in c ip a l p la c e of re sid e n c e during the en tire su rv e y y e a r .
w ere ow ners p a r t of the y e a r and r e n te r s p a r t of the y e a r w ere c la s s ifie d
Owner -occu p an ts of c o o p erativ e a p artm e n ts w ere c la s s ifie d a s ow n ers.
re c e iv e d ren t fr e e w ere included with r e n te r s.

T O T A L NONFARM
Com bined u rban and r u r a l non farm population.
URBAN
A s defined by the B u re au of the C e n su s.

Se e p.

7.

U S A B L E SC H E D U L E S
A ll q u e stio n n a ire s accep ted a s com plete a fte r review in W ashington.
V A LU E O F H O M E-PRO D U CED FOOD
The r e t a il valu e of food which the fa m ily r a is e d fo r its own u se .




215

V A LU E O F IT EM S R E C E IV E D WITHOUT E X P E N S E
T h is in fo rm atio n w as c o llec ted p r im a r ily to ev alu ate the c o m p le te n e ss of in com e and e x ­
p en d itu res a s re p o rte d by the fa m ily , and h as not been included in the a v e r a g e s of in com e
and e x p e n d itu re s, except a s noted under H ousin g, below .
The fig u r e s r e p r e se n t the
fa m ily ’ s e stim a te s of the m oney valu e of goods and s e r v ic e s re c e iv e d a s g ifts fro m p e r so n s
ou tsid e the co n su m er unit, or in exchange fo r trad in g sta m p s is s u e d to c u sto m e r s by
r e t a i l e r s , o r fro m public or p riv a te w e lfa re a g e n c ie s , and of a ll goods and s e r v ic e s
re c e iv e d a s pay except food o r rent. The v alu es w ere nom inal in so m e in sta n c e s when
the fa m ily had little or no know ledge of the tru e value of the goods and s e r v ic e s re c e iv e d ,
such a s the c o st of h o sp ita liz a tio n and re la te d s e r v ic e s fo r an extended illn e s s .
No
v alu es w ere se t on s e r v ic e s c u sto m a r ily a v a ila b le without c h arge to the public in g e n e r a l,
such a s the u se of p a r k s and other r e c r e a tio n a l fa c ilit ie s , public sc h o o ls, p o lic e and
fir e p ro te c tio n , etc.
H ousing
In cludes ren t, r e p a ir s , im p ro v em en ts to owned r e a l e sta te , u t ilit ie s , household
o p e r a tio n s, and h o u sefu rn ish in g s and equipm ent p rov id ed without c o st to the fa m ily .
H ow ever, pay m en ts of p ro p e rty t a x e s , p ro p e rty in su ra n c e , or m o rtg a g e p ay m en ts on
an owned hom e by p e r so n s ou tsid e the co n su m er unit w ere counted a s fa m ily ex p en d i­
tu re s with an o ffse ttin g en try of g ifts of c a sh , which is included in M oney In com e.
M ed ic al C are
In cludes e m p lo y e r’ s con tribution to health in su ra n c e p la n s; and other m e d ic a l c a r e
(h o sp ita liz a tio n , p r e s c r ip t io n s , v is it s to the d o c to r, d e n tist, and outpatient c lin ic ,
e t c .) fu rn ish ed by e m p lo y e r s, h o s p ita ls , w e lfa re a g e n c ie s , o r p e r so n s ou tsid e
the fa m ily .
WAGES AND SA L A R IE S
A ll m oney e arn in g s a s an em ployee in the fo rm of w a g e s, s a l a r i e s , t ip s , b o n u se s, c o m ­
m is s io n s , and pay fo r m ilita r y p e rso n n e l on activ e o r r e s e r v e duty, b efo re deductions
w ere m ade fo r t a x e s , sa v in g s b on ds, s o c ia l s e c u r ity , re tire m e n t p la n s, group life or
health in su ra n c e p la n s, etc.
M oney earn in g s w ere ad ju sted to include the valu e of two
nonmoney ite m s— food and housing re c e iv e d a s pay— and to exclude o ccu p atio n al e x p e n se s.




2 16

Index
Accounts, family account book or diary, 3; codes for
major categories of family accounts, 29; balancing
difference, 31-33, 211; summarization of, 34
Adjustments, effect on aggregates derived from CES,
58-60
Advisory Committee, Consumer Expenditure Survey,
1960-61, 5, 6, 13, 17, 42, 43, 69
Age of family head, 47, 49
Aggregates, derivation of, from CES averages, 56;
comparison with OBE, 56-68; decisions affecting
derivation of, 57
Aging, National Council on, use of CES data, 72
Agriculture, U.S, Department of, cooperation of, 1;
use of split schedule, 3; role in 1961 survey, 7;
see also, rural survey
Alcoholic beverages, underreporting of, 64
Almon, Clopper, J r ., 71
Analytical reports on survey, 69, 70
Anchorage, Alaska, survey in 1959, 8, 11, 13, 38, 40
A ssests and liabilities, changes in, 5; reporting of,
18; sampling e rro rs, 42, 57; see also, savings
Assignment record, as used in 1960-61 CES, 19
Averages per family, computation of, 36
Balancing difference, account, 31; use in editing and
review, 32-33
Bell, Carolyn Shaw, 71
Brady, Dorothy S., 5
Bridges, Benjamin, J r ., 72
Budd, Edward C., 51
Burk, Marguerite C., 71
Business Economic, Office of, see, Commerce, U.S.
Department of
Campbell, Angus, 5
Census, Bureau of, questionnaire detail, 3; use of
census data in design of sam ples, 11-15; in der­
ivation of weights, 37; family definitions, 45-46;
family characteristics, 46-54; ownership of house­
hold durables, 67
“ Check listing,” compared with “free listing,” 3
Checklists, precoded, 4
Cincinnati lead city survey, 1959, proposed experi­
mental projects, 5; interview time, 6; use of ab­
breviated schedule, 24; experimental mail survey,
26-28; characteristics of fam ilies cooperating in,
27; utility record check, 43
City Worker’ s Family Budget, 68
Clague, Ewan, Commissioner of Labor Statistics, 22,37
Classification of expenditures, 4, 36; of fam ilies by
characteristics, 4, 46-51
Clothing, Clothing for Urban Fam ilies: Expenditures
per Member by Sex and Age, 1960-61, 37
Codes, use in 1960-61 CES, 29




Coding, machine coding system, 29; manual, 33;
Washington Coding and Editing Manual, 33; com­
puter, 33
Combined expenditures, allocation of, 31
Commerce, U.S. Department of, definition of family,
45, 51; income distribution of fam ilies and indi­
viduals, 52-53; definition of income, 54; reconcilia­
tion with OBE aggregates, 56-65; use of CES data
for benchmarks, 70
Communications, with field supervisors, 22; “Weekly
P rogress Report,” 23; Narrative Report, 23
Comprehensive Housing Unit Surveys, 13
Computer Program s, see, machine processing of data
Consumer information and counseling, use of CES
data for, 73
Consumer panel, in Lansing, Michigan, Michigan State
University, 1951-58, 28
Consumer Price Index, 1; city sample, 7; application
of CHUS, 13; fam ilies in urban survey, 36; updating
of, 68; criteria for CPI fam ilies, 77
Consumer units, definition of, 15; eligibility require­
ments, 15; reconstructed family, 15; part-year
family, 16, 26, 54; see also, fam ilies
Controlled selection, use by BLS in selection of city
sample, 13
Current Population Survey (Census, Bureau of), com­
parisons of family characteristics, 45-54; use in
derivation of CES aggregates, 57
Debt, evaluation of consumer reporting of, 66
Diary (account) method, 3
Duncan, Joseph W., 71
Dvorak, Beatrice J ., 21
Earners, full-time, 51
Economic Opportunity, Office of, use of CES data, 72
Editing of schedules, manual, 33; computer, 33
Edmonston, J . Harvey, 71
Education, of family head, 49
Emergency Planning, Office of, use of CES data, 71
Engel, Ernst, 4
Enumeration districts, census, use in selection of CES
sample, 14
Epstein, Lenore A., 51, 52
E rro rs, in account balancing, 31, 32; in schedule
analysis, 33; instructions for detecting, 34; codes,
34, 35; sampling, 40, 41; response, 43; proc­
essing, 44
Evaluation, of schedules received from field, 30
Expenditures, combined, 31; reasonableness of, 34;
aggregate, 56; regrouping of categories for com­
parisons with OBE aggregates, 61, 62
Expenses, business, review of, 30

217

Experimental studies, proposals for, 5; mail food
surveys, 26-28
Families, part-year, 16, 26, 52-54; number giving
usable schedules, 25; “ sharing families,” 31; “Index
families,” 36; size, 46; age of family head, 49;
race of family head, 49-50; occupation of family
head, 49; family types, 50; “demographic family,”
51; “reconstructed family,” 52, 53
Family budgets, updating of, 68
Family characteristics, screening and coding of, 33,
34; in statistical reports, 37; characteristics of
nonrespondents, 42; definitions of, 45; distributions
of families by characteristics, 46-51
“ Family equivalence scales,” for estimating family
budget costs, 68
Farm families, definition of, 7
Federal Reserve Board, comparison of savings ag­
gregates, 65; use of CES data, 71
Ferber, Robert, 5
Field operations, staff requirements, 19; supervisors,
number, selection and training of, 20, 21; local
interviewers, number, selection and training of,
20-22; timing and man-hours progress reports,
20-23
Finance charge, as recorded in CES, 65
Fishman, Betty G., 71
Fitzwilliams, Jeannette M., 53
Food, reporting of, 18; mail questionnaires for weekly
food expenditures, 26-28; comparisons of annual
and weekly expenditures, 66
Fox, Frances C., 21
“ Free listing,” compared with “check listing,” 4
Friend, Irwin, 65
General Purpose Tape, description of, 69
Gifts, to persons outside family, 63
Gilboy, Elizabeth, 5, 71
Global or detailed questions, 3
Goodman, Roe, 13
Goods, “where bought,” 6
Grossman, Evelyn, 3
Haber, Lawrence D., 43
Hollander, Sidney, Jr., 5
Houthakker, H. S., 56
Income, collection of annual income record, 17, 18;
estimates for individual consumer units not report­
ing income, 32; use of data for families at extremes
of income range, 36; distributions of income before
taxes, 51-55; after taxes, 55-59; aggregates, 56,
comparison of OBE and CES aggregates, 59-60
Interview, length of, 6, 24; use of records in, 43
Interviewing, techniques, 24
Jones, Robert, 65
Kish, Leslie, 13
Kogan, Marvin, 13




Labor Statistics, Bureau of, organization for CES,
8; Commissioner of, 22, 37
Lamale, Helen H., 1
Lampman, Robert J., 5
Living quarters, addresses, 5; definition of, 14; num­
ber of, 8
Machine processing of data, 4; for selection of CES
urban sample, 14; coding system, 29; transfer of
data to punch cards, 33; coding of family character­
istics, 33; validity checks, 34; error codes, 34-35;
tabulations, 36; for application of weights, 39
Mack, Ruth P., 5
Magnetic tapes, correction of, 44; sale and loan of, 69
Mail questionnaires, for weekly food expenditures, and
related items, 26; use in Cincinnati “lead-city”
survey, 1961, 26; rate of response in Cincinnati,
1961, 27; use in obtaining data for ‘CPI weights,
27; comparison of responses, 27
Marketing research, use of CES data for, 72
Meigh, Charles, 21
Memphis Pilot Survey, 1949, 2
Miller, Herman P., 46, 53
National Industrial Conference Board, use of CES
data for publications, 69
Nater, John, 3, 43
Nonrespondents, characteristics of, 42
Occupation of family head, use of in classification, 49
Organization of BLS for CES, 8
Pay, rate for interviewers, 21
Pechman, Joseph A., 5; Federal Tax Policy (1966), 71
Pennock, Jean L., 70
Population, urban population strata, 11; adjustments
to represent CES universe, 37, 38; institutional,
38; military, 38
Projector, Dorothy S., 1963 Survey of Changes in
Family Finances, 18, 65, 66, 67
Publicity for surveys, 22
Punch cards, for CHUS, 14; type and number for
CES, 33, 34
Quackenbush, G. G., 28
Quality control, as applied to 1960-61 CES, 23
Race, of family head, 49, 50
Radner, Daniel B., 51
Reagan, Barbara B., 3
Records, use by respondents, 43, 44; utility record
check, 43
Reporting forms, 17-19; see also, schedules
Research, privately sponsored, use of CES data
for, 70, 71
Response rate, annual surveys, 25; weekly food, 27
Rollins, Mable A., 5
Rural Housing Unit Surveys, 14
Rural survey, design of sample, 8, 14, 15; schedules
used, 17; response rate, 25; preparation of data

218

for tabulation, 29; population weights, 37-39; defi­
nition of rural population, 51; statistical reports,
68; analytical reports, 70
Sales Management, the Magazine of Marketing, used
to estimate urban population, 11
Sampling, considerations affecting sample size, 7;
selection of living quarter addresses, 8; rural, 8,
14; urban sample city selection, 11; “controlled
selection,” 13; selection of consumer units, 13;
samples assigned for interviews, 25; use of al­
ternates, 16, 25; effective sample, 25; part-year
families, 26; error, 40-42
Savings, 31; aggregate, 56; increase in personal
savings, 57; reconciliation of CES with independent
estimates, 65, 66
Schedules, split schedules, 3; revision after “lead
city” survey in Cincinnati, 17; percent usable,
1960-61, 24; precoded schedules, 29; review of,
29-31; rejection at review, 30, 33
Schor, Stanley, 65
Sequence of questions, 4, 17, 18
Shaffer, J. D., 28
Single consumers, definition of, 52, 53
Snyder, Eleanor M., 71
Social welfare research, use of CES data for, 71
Sonnecken, Edwin H., 5
Split schedules, 3
Staff requirements, Office of Prices, 8, 9; field op­
erations, 19-22
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, in CES sam­
pling, 11; definition of, 50
State, U.S. Department of, use of CES data, 71
Statistical reports on survey, content of, 37
Stotz, Margaret S., 5




219

Stratification, in selection of city sample, 11; in
selection of living quarter addresses, 14
Stuart, Walter J., 35
Substitution procedures, use of alternate addresses,
16, 25
Surveys, consumer expenditure, basic assumptions, 1;
previous BLS surveys, 1-3; experiments in data
collection, 3; 1960-61 preliminaries, 5; Advisory
Committee, 5; “lead city” survey in 1960, 5; com­
parability of 1960-61 and 1950 surveys, 74-78
Tabulations, machine 3; General Purpose, 36, 46,
68; review of, 36; number of pages published, 36;
for individual family members, 37
Taylor, Lester D., 56
Taxes, introduction of after-tax concept of disposable
income, 55
Tibbetts, Thomas R., 67
Tobacco* underreporting of, 64
Tolerance limits, 35
Training, field staff, 21, 22
Treasury, U.S. Department of, use of CES data, 70
United Nations, guidelines for household surveys, 3, 4
Urbanized areas, definition of, 51
Waksberg, Joseph, 3, 43
Waldman, Elizabeth, 18
Weights, self-weighting within SMSA’ s, 37, 39; com­
putation and application of population weight factor,
38, 39, 54; substitution of OBE income distribution
and number of consumer units in deriving aggre­
gates from CES, 56-69
Weiss, Gertude S., 18, 67
Wetzler, Elliot, 72
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 36
Wilkerson, Marvin, 11, 13, 40
Williams, Faith M., 1
Zimmerman, Carle C., 1

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