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C om pensation E xpenditures
and
P ay roll H ours

WATER TRANSPORTATION, 1964




Bulletin No. 1577
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF

LABOR

S TA T IS T IC S

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I - New England
Jo h n F . K ennedy F e d e r a l B u ildin g
G o v e rn m e n t C e n te r , R oom 1 6 0 3 -B
B o s to n , M a s s . 02203
T e l . : 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2

Region II - Mid-Atlantic
341 Ninth A venue
New Y o rk , N . Y . 10001
T e l . : 971 -5 4 0 5




Region III - Southern
1371 P e a c h tr e e S tr e e t , N E .
A tla n ta , G a . 30309
T e l . : 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8

Region IV - North Central
219 South D e a rb o rn S tr e e t
C h ic a g o , 111. 60604
T e l . : 3 5 3 -7 2 3 0

Region V - Pacific
450 G o ld e n G a te A venue
B o x 36017
San F r a n c is c o , C a lif . 94102
T e l . : 5 5 6 -4 6 7 8

Region VI - Mountain-Plains
F e d e r a l O ffice B u ild in g , T h ir d F lo o r
911 W alnut S tr e e t
K a n s a s C ity , M o. 64106
T e l . : 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1

Compensation Expenditures
and
Payroll Hours

WATER TRANSPORTATION, 1964

Balietii No. 1577
March 1968

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary

rso

[igj

BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S

Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sa le b y th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o cu m en ts , U .S . G o ve rn m en t P rintin g O ffic e , W a s h in g to n , D .C . 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 4 0 cents







P r e fa c e
T he co n ce p t of e m p lo y e e c o m p e n s a t io n h a s b e e n
b r o a d e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in the p a s t s e v e r a l d e c a d e s by
the ad option o r l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of s u p p le m e n t a r y p a y p r a c t i c s . S t a t i s t i c s on s t r a i g h t - t i m e w a g e s f o r t im e w o r k e d
no lo n g e r s u ffic ie n tly a p p r o x im a t e the l e v e l of e m p lo y e r
p a y m e n ts fo r h ir e d l a b o r .
T h e r e f o r e , it i s now im p o r t a n t
to ac co u n t fo r oth er e l e m e n t s of c o m p e n s a t io n , su c h a s
v a c a tio n an d h olid ay pay, d a ily or w eek ly o v e r t i m e pay,
sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s , t e r m i n a l ( s e v e r a n c e ) pay, c o n trib u tio n s
to p r iv a t e p e n sio n and h ealth and w e lfa r e fu n d s, and p a y ­
m e n ts un der l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s .
T h is b u lle tin a n a l y z e s the l e v e l and s t r u c t u r e of
e m p lo y e r e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a tio n of e m p l o y e e s ,
c o n s id e r in g e a c h com ponen t a s a p e r c e n t of to t a l c o m p e n ­
sa tio n and in c e n ts p e r h ou r. F u r t h e r , the r e l a t i v e i m ­
p o r ta n c e of w o rk in g and le a v e h o u r s a s p e r c e n t s of t o t a l
h o u r s p a id fo r i s t r e a t e d .
T h is stu dy of the w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in d u s t r y
i s p a r t of the B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m of
s t u d ie s of e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t io n
of e m p l o y e e s . A l i s t of p r e v i o u s l y p u b lish e d s t u d ie s is
found at the end of th is bu lletin .
The stu d y w a s conducted in the B u r e a u ' s O ffice of
W ag e s and I n d u s t r i a l R e la t io n s b y the D iv is io n of N a tio n a l
W age and S a l a r y In c o m e , N o r m a n J . S a m u e l s , C h ief. The
a n a l y s i s w as p r e p a r e d by W illiam M. S m ith , u n d er the
s u p e r v i s i o n of A rn o ld S t r a s s e r .




Contents
Pa ge

C h a p t e r 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ____________________________________________________________
L e v e l a n d s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n __________________________________________ P r e v a l e n c e o f p a y s u p p l e m e n t s __________________________________________________
C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a y r o l l h o u r s ____________________________________________________
I n d u s t r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s _________________________________________________________
D e e p s e a s h i p p i n g _____________________________________________________________
I n la n d s h i p p i n g _________________________________________________________________
S t e v e d o r i n g _____________________________________________________________________
C h a p t e r 2. V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l ______________________________________________________
I n t r o d u c t i o n _______________________________________________________________________
P r e v a l e n c e o f p a y s u p p l e m e n t s __________________________________________________
P r e m i u m p a y ______________________________________________________________________
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a n d t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s _______________________________
P a i d l e a v e _________________________________________________________________________
P a i d v a c a t i o n s _________________________________________________________________
S i c k l e a v e a n d o t h e r p a i d l e a v e _______________________________________________
L e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s __________________________________________
P r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s ____________________________________________________________
L i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e ________________________________________
P e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ________________________________________________
V a c a t i o n a n d h o l id a y f u n d s ____________________________________________________
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l pay and S U B fu n d s; sa v in g s
#
a n d t h r i f t p l a n s ; a u t o m a t i o n f u n d s __________________________________________
C h a p t e r 3. L o n g s h o r e m e n __________________________________________________________
I n t r o d u c t i o n _______________________________________________________________________
P r e v a l e n c e o f p a y s u p p l e m e n t s _____________________________________________
P a i d l e a v e _________________________________________________________________________
P r e m i u m p a y ______________________________________________________________________
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a n d t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s ________________________________
L e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s __________________________________________
P r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s ____________________________________________________________
L i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e ________________________________________
P e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ________________________________________________
V a c a t i o n a n d h o l id a y f u n d s ____________________________________________________
O t h e r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s __________________________________________________
C h a p t e r 4. N o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s _______________________________________________
I n t r o d u c t i o n _______________________________________________________________________
P r e v a l e n c e o f p a y s u p p l e m e n t s __________________________________________________
P a i d l e a v e _________________________________________________________________________
P a i d v a c a t i o n s _________________________________________________________________
P a i d h o l i d a y s __________________________________________________________________
S i c k l e a v e a n d o t h e r p a i d l e a v e _______________________________________________
P r e m i u m p a y ______________________________________________________________________
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a n d t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s ________________________________
L e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s _________________________________________
P r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s ____________________________________________________________
L i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e ________________________________________
P e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _____ __________________________________________
O th e r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s ____ _____________________________________________




iv

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Contents— Continued
Page

C h a p t e r 5. C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a y r o l l h o u r s _________________________________________
I n t r o d u c t i o n _______________________________________________________________________
V a c a t i o n p a y p r a c t i c e s ___________________________________________________________
P a i d h o l id a y p r a c t i c e s ___________________________________________________________
R e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d w o r k w e e k f o r n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s _________________
C h arts:
1. T h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 ___
2. L e v e l o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , by i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t a n d e m p l o y e e g r o u p ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _____________________________________
3. T h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 ____________________________________
4. T h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , l o n g s h o r e m e n ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _____________________________________
5. T h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _____________________________________
6. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r
o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _________________

T ab le s:
C h a p t e r 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n
1. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n
p r a c t i c e s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 __________
C h a p t e r 2. V e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
2. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f d e e p s e a
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , by r e g i o n s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
i n d u s t r y , 1964 _________________________________________________________
3. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l by
e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c te d co m p e n satio n p r a c t i c e s ,
a s a p e rc e n t of to tal e x p e n d itu re s, w ate r tr a n sp o r ta tio n
i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 __________________________________________________________
4. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , by
e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c te d c o m p e n satio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in c e n t s p e r p a i d h o u r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _____
5. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f in l a n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 ____________
6. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f in l a n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , by u n io n s t a t u s o f n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
e m p l o y e e s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 ____________________
7. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f in l a n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l b y e m p l o y e r
e x p en d itu res fo r se le c te d co m p en sation p r a c t i c e s , a s a
p e rc e n t of to tal e x p e n d itu re s, w ate r tr a n sp o r ta tio n in d u stry ,
1964 _____________________________________________________________________
8. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f in l a n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , by e m p l o y e r
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s e l e c t e d c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , in
c e n t s p e r p a i d h o u r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 _________




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Contents— Continued
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T a b l e s — C o n tin u e d
C h a p t e r 3. L o n g s h o r e m e n
9. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f l o n g s h o r e m e n ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _________________________________
10. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o n g s h o r e m e n b y e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i ­
tu r e s fo r s e le c te d co m p en satio n p r a c t i c e s , a s a p e rc e n t
o f t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _______
11. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o n g s h o r e m e n , by e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s f o r s e l e c t e d c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , in c e n t s p e r
p a i d h o u r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 ____________________
C h a p te r 4. N o n o p e ratin g e m p lo y e e s
12. E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 __________________
13. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s , by e m p l o y e r
e x p en d itu res fo r se le c te d co m p e n satio n p r a c t i c e s , a s a
p e rc e n t of to tal e x p e n d itu re s, w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry ,
1964 _____________________________________________________________________
14. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s , b y e m p l o y e r
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s e l e c t e d c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , in c e n t s
p e r p a i d h o u r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 ________________
C h a p t e r 5. C o m p o s i t i o n o f p a y r o l l h o u r s
15. L e a v e h o u r s a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p a i d h o u r s ,
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 _________________________________
16. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s by n u m b e r o f w e e k s
o f v a c a t i o n p a i d f o r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 4 _________
17. P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s by n u m b e r o f h o l i d a y s
p a i d f o r , w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , 1964 ______________________
A p p en d ixes:
A . E x p e n d i t u r e s a s p r o p o r t i o n s o f p a y r o l l ____________________________________
B . S c o p e a n d m e t h o d o f s u r v e y ________________________________________________
C . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e _________________________________________________________________




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Compensation Expenditures and Payroll Hours
Water Transportation, 1964
Chapter 1.

Introduction

L e v e l and S t r u c t u r e of C o m p e n s a t i o n

W a te r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e m p l o y e r s , w h o s e
o p e r a t i o n s w e r e c e n t e r e d on the N a t i o n ’ s w e s t
c o a s t , a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y h a d h i g h e r l e v e l s of
c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s th an d id e a s t c o a s t
e m p l o y e r s , w hose ou tlays c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d
the i n d u s t r y w i d e a v e r a g e . 5

In 1964, c o m p e n s a t i o n 1 f o r w a t e r t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n e m p l o y e e s 2 a m o u n t e d to $ 4 .3 0 p e r
h o u r o f e m p l o y e e w o r k in g t i m e . 3 A p p r o x i ­
m a te ly tw o -th ird s of th ese e x p e n d i t u r e s
($2.84) w e r e s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y m e n t s f o r work­
ing t im e and o n e - t h i r d ($ 1 .4 6 ) w e r e f o r p a y
s u p p l e m e n t s — a b o u t h a l f of w h ich (72 c e n t s )
w a s p a i d d i r e c t l y to the w o r k e r s f o r l e a v e
t i m e , p r e m i u m p a y , n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ,
an d t e r m i n a l p a y , an d h a l f (74 c e n t s ) w a s
paid fo r v a r io u s le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u ra n c e
p r o g r a m s and p riv a te w e lfare p lan s.

In g e n e r a l , e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s ( m e a s ­
u r e d on a n h o u r l y b a s i s ) f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n
of o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s w e r e a b o u t o n e - s i x t h to
o n e - t h i r d g r e a t e r th a n s i m i l a r o u t l a y s f o r
o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l . H o w e v e r , the c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n of l o n g s h o r e m e n w a s a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t
h i g h e r than th a t f o r the o f f i c e f o r c e of s t e v e ­
do ring f i r m s . The lev el of c o m p e n sa tio n fo r
l o n g s h o r e m e n ( $ 4 .8 8 a n h o u r) w a s e x c e e d e d
only b y th a t of the d e e p s e a c a r r i e r ’ s o f f i c e
f o r c e , w h ich w a s 80 c e n t s a n h o u r h i g h e r th a n
f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ( $ 4 .2 9 ) ; a n d the l o n g ­
sh o re m e n e x c e e d e d t h e in d ustryw ide a l l ­
e m p l o y e e c o m p e n s a t i o n l e v e l ($ 4 .3 0 ) b y a b o u t
20 p e r c e n t . E x p e n d i t u r e s of i n la n d c a r r i e r s
of $ 3 .2 4 a n h o u r w e r e h e a v i l y w e ig h t e d by
the c o m p e n s a t i o n of v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , w h ich
w a s $ 1 .0 8 a n h o u r l o w e r than f o r o f f i c e
e m p lo y e e s ($ 3 .9 8 ).

Th e p a t t e r n of c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t la y s in
the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y r e s u l t s
f r o m a m i x t u r e of d i f f e r e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n
p r a c t i c e s f o r o p e r a t i n g an d n o n o p e r a t i n g e m ­
p l o y e e s 4 in the v a r i o u s s e g m e n t s of the i n ­
dustry.
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , w h ich a r e r e ­
f l e c t e d in v a r y i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n l e v e l s a n d
s t r u c t u r e s , r e s u l t f r o m the w ide d i f f e r e n c e s
in c o n d it io n s of e m p l o y m e n t , a n d m a n y o t h e r
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n iqu e to the w a t e r t r a n s p o r ­
t a ti o n i n d u s t r y .

3 Paid hours consist of aggregate hours worked, paid leave
hours, rest periods, coffee breaks, machine down-time, and other
nonleave hours paid for but not worked, for which employers
made direct payments to workers during the year. See appendix
C for a more detailed definition of total man-hours for operating
employees. Working time excludes paid leave hours. Unless
otherwise noted, all expenditures expressed in hourly terms relate
to employer expenditures per hour of working time.
4 The terms operating and nonoperating employees, which
were used on the survey questionnaire, are used synonomously
with vessel em ployees, longshoremen (or pier personnel), and
office employees. The latter terms are used frequently in this
bulletin for purposes of interpretative clarity. The survey defini­
tions of employee groups are reproduced in appendix C.
5 For purposes of this study, the geographic location of
firms (and all of their employees) was based on the location of
the companies' main office. Some firms, particularly those
operating vessels on the deep seas, may employ workers on both
the east and west coasts* other firms may employ workers on one
or both coasts as well as in the central areas of the country. The
term coast, as used in this report, is defined to include all
coastal and inland areas in two broadly defined regions. These
regions are: East Coast—Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Dela­
ware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Loui­
siana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hamp­
shire, New Jersey, New York, N o rth Carolina, Oklahoma,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia; and West Coast—Alaska,
Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada,
New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Data
for the other 12 States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota,
and Wisconsin) are included in the industry totals.

1 Compensation for purposes of this study is defined as the
sum of the payments, subject to Federal withholding taxes, that
were made by employers directly to their employees, before de­
ductions of any type, and the expenditures made by employers
for legally required insurance programs and private welfare plans
to provide workers with full or partial economic security against
a future contingency (e. g . , unemployment, retirem ent, m edical
expenses, etc. ).
By definition, employer expenditures made in accordance
with the provisions of workmen's compensation laws are an inte­
gral element of compensation. However, they were generally
excluded from this study because of the inability of many deep
sea carriers to separate the disbursement for workmen's compen­
sation coverage of vessel personnel from aggregate outlays for
blanket protection and indemnity insurance policies which cover
many contingencies in addition to work connected injuries or
illness. Nevertheless, to permit comparison of data presented
in this bulletin with that published in other bulletins in this
series (see list in the back), and to present a more complete picture
of compensation in the water transportation industries, approxi­
mations of the magnitude of these payments were made and are
presented in footnotes. For all employees in the water trans­
portation industry, these estimated payments amounted to about
17 cents an hour of working time, resulting in an estimate of
total compensation outlays of $4. 47 per 1964 hour of working
time, including supplements to straight-time pay for working time
which accounted for 36 percent ($1.63) of the total.
2 See scope and method of survey (appendix B) for defi­
nition of industrial coverage of the survey.




1

C h a rt 1.




The Structure of Compensation, Water Transportation Industry, 1964
( E x p e n d itu r e s per paid hour)

$0.54
P rem ium
paym ents

P riv a te
w elfare
p la n s

7
I

\ $0.15
\

le g a lly ''
req u ire d
\ in s u ra n c e
P a y fo r \ p r o g r a m s
le a v e
\
S
tim e
\
\

$0.03
T e rm in a l p a y m e n ts ,
and n o n p r o d u c t i o n bo n u s e s

Employer expenditures for the compensation of—
All employees

Compensation practice

Water
transpor­
tation
industries

Deep
sea
carriers

Inland
carriers

Operating employees___________

Stevedoring
firms

Water
transpor­
tation
industries

________ Nonoperating employees

Deep
sea
carriers

Stevedoring
firms

Water
transpor­
tation
industries

Deep
sea
carriers

Inland
carriers

Inland
carriers

Stevedoring
firms

Percent of compensation
Total expenditures-----------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100 . 0

100.0

100.0

Straight-time pay for working tim e --------

65.9

57.2

81.1

70.8

58.7

53. 5

79.7

70. 3

78. 2

74. 6

83. 1

76. 4

Supplementary compensation----------------Paid directly to workers 1----------------Expenditures in addition to payroll2 ----

34. 1
16.9
17.2

42.8
22. 4
20.4

18.9
10.4
8 .5

29.2
12.4
16.8

41. 3

46. 5
24. 3
22 . 2

20.3

29.7
12.3
17.4

21 . 8
11 . 6
10.2

25. 4
13.9
11. 5

16.9
8. 6
8. 3

23. 6
12 . 2
11.4

21 .8

19. 5

11.8

8 .5

Per paid hour
Total expenditures-------------------------

$4.13

$4.22

$3.07

$4. 70

$4. 12

$4. 15

$2. 74

$4. 79

$4. 19

$4. 59

$3. 19

$4. 06

Straight-time pay for working tim e ----------

2. 72

2.41

2. 48

3.32

2.56

2 .2 2

2. 19

3. 37

3.26

3.41

3. 15

3.09

Supplementary compensation-----------------Paid directly to workers1------------------Expenditures in addition to payrollc ------

1.41
.70
. 71

1.81
.95

. 59
. 33
.26

1.38
. 59
. 79

1.56
.82
.74

1.93

. 55
. 32
.23

1. 42
. 59
.83

.93
. 50
.43

1 . 18

. 65
. 53

. 64
. 32
. 32

.97
.50
.47

.8 6

1 .0 0

.93

Per hour of working time
Total expenditures-------------------------

$4.30

$4.41

$3. 24

$4.83

$3.92

$4. 29

$2. 90

$4. 88

$4. 56

$5.09

$3.98

$4. 42

Straight-time pay for working tim e ----------

2.81

2.52

2 . 62

3. 42

2. 30

2. 30

2.31

3. 42

3. 56

3.80

3. 31

3. 37

Supplementary compensation-----------------Paid directly to workers 1 -----------------Expenditures in addition to payroll 2 ------

1.46
. 72
.74

1.89
.99
.90

.62
. 34
.28

1.41
.60
.81

1.62

1.99
1.04
.95

. 59
. 34
.25

1. 46
. 60
. 86

1 .0 0

1.29
. 71
. 58

. 67
. 34
. 33

1.05
. 54
. 51

.8 6

.76

. 54
.46

1 Includes leave payments, premium payments, nonproduction bonuses, and terminal payments made by the employer directly to employees.
2 Includes legally required insurance programs (except workmen's compensation and related programs) and private welfare plans.




4

E xp en ditu res for su p plem en tary com pen ­
s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
i n d u s t r y a c c o u n t e d f o r 34 p e r c e n t of a l l e m ­
p l o y e r d i s b u r s e m e n t s d u r i n g 1964 f o r the
c o m p e n s a t i o n of h i r e d l a b o r . 6 T h i s r a t i o w a s
s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than that w h ich p r e v a i l s
in o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s an d e x c e e d s the e s t i m a t e d
p r o p o r t i o n of s u p p l e m e n t s to t o t a l o u t l a y s in
the p r i v a t e n o n f a r m e c o n o m y (20—
25 p e r c e n t )
b y a w ide m a r g i n . 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o ­
p o r t i o n of c o m p e n s a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r b y p a y
s u p p l e m e n t s in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n ­
d u s t r y , a s in a l l o t h e r s e c t o r s of the e c o n ­
o m y , v a r i e s by i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t an d e m ­
p lo y e e g r o u p .
S u p p l e m e n t a r y o u t l a y s of i n ­
la n d c a r r i e r s — a c c o u n t in g f o r 19 p e r c e n t of
t h e i r t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s , 20 p e r ­
c e n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ,
a n d 17 p e r c e n t f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s — m o r e
c l o s e l y fo l l o w e d the n ation w id e p a t t e r n than
t h o s e of s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s o r d e e p s e a
c a rrie rs.
A b ou t 30 p e r c e n t of the c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n o u t l a y s of s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s and
43 p e r c e n t of t h o s e of d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s w e r e
fo r pay su p p le m e n ts.
In e a c h of t h e s e two
se g m e n ts , su p plem en ts fo r o p erating e m ­
p l o y e e s (a b o u t 30 a n d 47 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c ­
t iv ely ) c o n s t i t u t e d a m u c h g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n
of t h e i r t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n than s i m i l a r ou t­
l a y s f o r n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s (a b o u t 24 and
25 p e r c e n t ) .
Th e two m o s t i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s of s u p ­
p le m e n ta ry co m p e n satio n for op eratin g e m ­
p l o y e e s in 1964 w e r e p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n s
and p r e m i u m p a y m e n t s — the f o r m e r a c c o u n t ­
ing f o r a l m o s t 7 p e r c e n t of in la n d v e s s e l
e m p l o y e e s c o m p e n s a t i o n , 11 p e r c e n t f o r l o n g ­
s h o r e m e n , a n d 22 p e r c e n t f o r d e e p s e a v e s s e l
p e rso n n e l; p re m iu m p aym en ts fo r each group,
r e s p e c t i v e l y , a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 5, 13, and
19 p e r c e n t .
A lth o u g h p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n
e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t e l e ­
m e n t of p a y s u p p l e m e n t s f o r the i n d u s t r y ’ s
8 As indicated in footnote 1, expenditures for occupational
injury and illness programs required under State and Federal laws
is estimated to have increased the proportion of compensation
accounted for by pay supplements to 36 percent.
To a large although unknown extent, supplementary com­
pensation outlays for all water transportation employees and for
vessel personnel are skewed upward because of the impact of
penalty and special rates (extra payments) paid vessel personnel
for specified work tasks performed during and outside regular
hours. The inclusion of these extra payments to vessel em­
ployees, which when made may equal or exceed the regular rate
of pay in the premium pay category, constitutes a substantial
broadening of the survey definition of premiums (see appendix C).
This extension of the survey definition for vessel employees
premiums was necessitated by the recordkeeping practices of the
industry. To the extent that premium pay for vessel employees
exceeds the more stringent survey definition, straight-time pay
for working time is understated.
7 Strasser, Arnold, "The Changing Structure of Compen­
sation," Monthly Labor Review, September 1966, pp. 954-955.




o f f i c e f o r c e ( c o n s t it u t in g 7 p e r c e n t of t h e i r
c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d a m o u n ti n g to 32 c e n t s p e r
w o r k in g h o u r ) , p a i d l e a v e (6 .9 p e r c e n t — 31
cents) w as a lm o s t a s g r e a t.
P rem iu m pay­
m e n t s to o f f i c e w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r on ly
1.5 p e r c e n t of t h e i r c o m p e n s a t i o n — a b o u t h a l f
that a c c o u n t e d f o r b y n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s
(3 .2 p e r c e n t — 14 c e n t s an h o u r ) , and b y the
leg ally re q u ired in su ran ce p ro g r a m s (e x ­
c lu d in g w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a t i o n ) .
C o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s of s t e v e d o r e s
and in la n d c a r r i e r s w h o s e o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y ­
e e s w e r e c o v e r e d b y u n io n c o n t r a c t g r e a t l y
e x c e e d e d (by 20 and 40 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y )
t h o s e of t h e i r nonunion c o u n t e r p a r t s . 8 The
c o m p e n s a t i o n p a t t e r n f o r u n i o n iz e d o f f i c e e m ­
p lo y e e s, e x c ep t those em ployed by deep s e a
c a r r i e r s , w a s qu ite d i f f e r e n t f r o m th a t of the
o p eratin g p e r s o n n e l. C o m p e n sa tio n fo r office
e m p l o y e e s of s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s an d in la n d
c a r r i e r s , w h e r e none o r a m i n o r i t y of the
w o r k e r s w e re c o v e r e d by co lle ctiv e b a r ­
g a i n i n g a g r e e m e n t s , e x c e e d e d th a t f o r o f f i c e
w o rk e rs em ploy ed by f ir m s w here a m a jo r ity
w e re c o v e r e d by co lle ctiv e b a rg ain in g a g r e e ­
m e n t s . T h e e x t e n t of the d i f f e r e n t i a l b e t w e e n
e x p e n d i t u r e s of u nion a n d nonunion f i r m s ,
h o w ev er, v a r ie d sign ifican tly betw een th e se
two t y p e s of f i r m s — in la n d c a r r i e r s h a v i n g
m a j o r i t y b a r g a i n i n g a g r e e m e n t s s p e n t $ 3 .9 5
an h o u r — t h e i r nonunion c o u n t e r p a r t s d i s ­
b u r s i n g $4; u n o r g a n i z e d s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s
h a d e x p e n d i t u r e s of $ 4 .8 3 a n h o u r — a b o u t o n e t h i r d m o r e th a n c a r g o h a n d lin g f i r m s w h o s e
o f f i c e f o r c e s w e r e c o v e r e d b y m a j o r i t y agre e­
m ents.
D e e p s e a c a r r i e r s , w h ose office
sta ffs w e re c o v e r e d by m a jo r ity b a rg a in in g
s i t u a t i o n s , h a d s o m e w h a t h i g h e r o u t l a y s ($5.36
a n ho ur) than did nonunion f i r m s ($ 5 . 0 6 ) .
P r e v a l e n c e of P a y S u p p l e m e n t s
V irtually all w ater tran sp o rtatio n e m ­
p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r f i r m s that h a d e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s , d u r i n g 1964, f o r l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n ­
s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , and m o s t w e r e e m p l o y e d
b y c o m p a n i e s th a t h a d o u t l a y s f o r p r e m i u m s ,
le a v e tim e , and p riv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.
The
p r e v a l e n c e of e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u p p l e m e n t a r y
co m p e n satio n p lan s, h o w ev er, v a rie d s ig n if­
i c a n t l y b y e m p l o y e e g r o u p and i n d u s t r y
segm ent.
The terms union and nonunion are used here for clarity.
Union firms include those companies in which a majority of nonsupervisory employees were covered by collective bargaining
agreements. The discussion here deliberately omits reference
to deep sea vessel employees, since all of them worked for firms
in which a majority of the nonsupervisory vessel employees were
covered by collective bargaining agreements.

Chart

2.

Level of Compensation, by Industry Segment and Employee Group,
Water Transportation Industry, 1964

E xp en ditures

per

paid

hour

E xp en d itu res

per

$5.00

p a id

hour

$5.00

4 .5 0

-

4.50

4.00

-

4.00

3.50

3.00

3.50

-

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

.50
0
All

O p e r a t i n g N on ope rat ing

W a t e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n

CD




S u p p le m en ts

CD

All

in d u stry

Straight-tim e

O perating N o n o p e ra tin g

Deep

pay

for

sea

working

shipping

tim e

All

O p e r a t i n g Non op e ra tin g

In la n d

shipping

All O p e r a t i n g N o n o p e r a t i n g

S te v e d o rin g

6
Percentage 1 of wodcers employed by firms with expenditures for—
Legally
required
insurance
programs

Premium
pay

Paid
leave
time

Nonpro­
duction
bonuses

Terminal
pay

All employees---------------------- -------------

94

93

70

29

100

^97

Deep sea vessel personnel--------------- ------------Inland vessel personnel------------------ ------ -----Longshoremen----------------------------- —........... —

100

60
77
56

13
36
55

18

100
100
100

100

7

Nonoperating employees----------------- - ............. —
Deep sea carriers--------------------- ------------Inland carriers------------------------- ------------Stevedoring firms--------------------- -------------

77

96

54
69
40
47

25
34
15
23

100
100
100
100

71
99
93
55
86

100

91
99

1

Private
welfare
plans

91
100
88
100

73
93

1 Unless otherwise noted, the percentages used throughout this report apply to all workers in the group cited that were employed
by firms that actually had an expenditure for the practice, and not the proportion receiving the payment.

C o m p o s i t i o n of P a y r o l l H o u r s
W ork in g t im e a c c o u n t e d f o r 96 p e r c e n t
of a l l h o u r s p a i d f o r in 1964 by w a t e r t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n e m p l o y e r s . P a i d v a c a t i o n t im e c o n ­
s t i t u t e d m o r e than h a l f of a l l p a id l e a v e h o u r s
(the r e m a i n i n g 4 p e r c e n t of a l l p a id h o u r s ) ;
h o l i d a y s , s i c k l e a v e , and c i v i c and p e r s o n a l
l e a v e h o u r s a c c o u n t e d f o r the o t h e r p a id
leav e h o u rs.
P aid leav e h o u rs w ere a p a r tic u la r ly
s m a l l p a r t of p a y r o l l h o u r s f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n
and d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l (2 an d 3 p e r ­
c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s w a s due m a i n l y to
the m o r e p r e v a l e n t p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g v a ­
c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e w o r k e r s t h ro u g h e m p l o y e r
c o n t r i b u t i o n s to v a c a t i o n and h o l i d a y fu n d s
r a t h e r than by d i r e c t p a y r o l l o u t l a y s .
P aid
l e a v e h o u r s c o m p r i s e d 6 p e r c e n t of a l l p a i d
h o u r s f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l and 8 p e r ­
c e n t of a l l p a i d h o u r s f o r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s .
Industry C h a r a c t e r is t ic s
In 1964 a b o u t 5 out of 11 w a t e r t r a n s ­
p o r t a t io n e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r s t e v e d o r i n g
f i r m s ; o n e - t h i r d of the i n d u s t r y ' s w o r k f o r c e
w a s e m p l o y e d b y d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s , and a b o u t
o n e - f if t h by in la n d c a r r i e r s . O p e r a t in g p e r ­
so n n e l, in the i n d u s t r y a s a w h o le, a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b ou t 82 p e r c e n t of to ta l e m p l o y m e n t .
The r a t i o of o p e r a t i n g to n o n o p e r a t i n g e m ­
p lo ye es, how ever, v a rie d c o n s id e ra b ly am on g
ind ustry se g m e n ts . L o n g sh o re m e n accounted
f o r m o r e than 90 p e r c e n t of a l l s t e v e d o r i n g
e m p l o y e e s , and v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b o u t f o u r - f i f t h s of a l l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d
by d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s , but only a b o u t twot h i r d s of t h o s e e m p l o y e d by in la n d c a r r i e r s .
C o m p e n s a t i o n o u t la y s w e r e d i v i d e d
a m o n g the i n d u s t r y ' s t h r e e s e g m e n t s in p r o ­
p o r t i o n s wh ich d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m
t h e ir e m p l o y m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . A b o u t h a l f of
a l l 1964 c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t la y s b y w a t e r t r a n s ­




po rtatio n co m p a n ie s w e re m ade by deep se a
sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s ; s t e v e d o r i n g c o m p a n i e s
a c c o u n t e d f o r 37 p e r c e n t an d in la n d s h ip p in g
c o m p a n i e s m a d e up 15 p e r c e n t of a g g r e g a t e
c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s in the i n d u s t r y .
A ll d e ep s e a v e s s e l e m p lo y e e s , p r a c t i ­
c a l l y a l l l o n g s h o r e m e n , a n d a b o u t h a l f of a l l
in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s
in w h ich a m a j o r i t y of the n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
e m p l o y e e s w e r e c o v e r e d by u nion c o n t r a c t s .
C o l l e c t i v e l y , m o r e th a n 90 p e r c e n t of a l l
o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r ­
t a t i o n i n d u s t r y w o r k e d f o r u n i o n iz e d f i r m s .
O ffic e w o r k e r s , u n lik e the o p e r a t i n g p e r ­
s o n n e l , g e n e r a l l y w e r e not r e p r e s e n t e d b y
the u n i o n s . Only 20 p e r c e n t of a l l o f f i c e e m ­
p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r f i r m s in w h ic h a m a j o r i t y
of the n o n s u p e r v i s o r y o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e
c o v e r e d b y u nion c o n t r a c t s . A m o n g the t h r e e
i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t s , a b o u t o n e - t e n th of the
d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s o f f i c e f o r c e , o n e - f o u r t h of
t h o s e e m p l o y e d by in la n d c a r r i e r s , a n d o n et h i r d of the s t e v e d o r i n g o f f i c e s t a f f w o r k e d
f o r f i r m s in w h ic h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g
a g r e e m e n t s c o v e r e d a m a j o r i t y of the
w orkers.
In g e n e r a l , the w o r k in g a r e a of m o s t
office w o r k e r s em p lo y e d by w a te r t r a n s p o r ­
t a t i o n f i r m s i s not n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m th a t
of o f f i c e w o r k e r s in o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s .
The
w o r k in g e n v i r o n m e n t and c o n d it i o n s of e m ­
p l o y m e n t of o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s in the w a t e r
tra n sp o rta tio n industry, how ever, is c o n sid ­
e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m that of m o s t o t h e r
A m eric an w o rk ers.
T h i s uniqu en ess has
g i v e n r i s e to s p e c i a l p r a c t i c e s w h ich v a r y
a m o n g the d i f f e r e n t s e g m e n t s of the w a t e r
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y an d r e f l e c t the s p e c i a l
c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n h e r e n t in e a c h .
D e e p S e a S h i p p i n g . A ll d e e p s e a v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s in w h ic h a
m a j o r i t y of the n o n s u p e r v i s o r y o p e r a t i n g e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e u n i o n iz e d . T h e s e f i r m s , h o w ­
e v e r , n e g o t i a t e with a n u m b e r of u n i o n s , e a c h

7

of wh ich b a r g a i n s f o r a d i f f e r e n t g r o u p of
em ploy ees.
L i c e n s e d and u n l i c e n s e d p e r ­
so n n e l a r e p r a c t i c a l l y a l w a y s r e p r e s e n t e d by
s e p a r a t e u n i o n s , and in a d d it i o n , d i f f e r e n t
u n io n s often r e p r e s e n t l i c e n s e d and u n l i ­
c e n s e d p e r s o n n e l in the d e c k , e n gin e r o o m ,
s t e w a r d ' s , an d o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s . N e v e r t h e ­
l e s s , t h e r e a r e m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s in the
v a r io u s co n tra c tu a l a g r e e m e n t s co n cern in g
w a g e s , h o u r s , a n d w o r k in g c o n d it i o n s .
In g e n e r a l , l i c e n s e d an d u n l i c e n s e d s e a ­
m e n a r e p a i d a t v a r y i n g m o n t h ly b a s e r a t e s
w h ich a r e d e p e n d e n t , a m o n g o t h e r f a c t o r s , on
the " p o w e r t o n n a g e " ( s u m of the g r o s s to n ­
n a g e and h o r s e p o w e r ) of the v e s s e l , a n d the
m a r i t i m e d i s t r i c t in w h ich the c o m p a n y i s
h e a d q u a r t e r e d o r the d i s t r i c t in w h ich the
sh ip r e g u l a r l y s a i l s .
S e a g o in g p e r s o n n e l a r e r e g u l a r l y s c h e d ­
u le d to w o r k a n 8 - h o u r , 7 - d a y w e e k a t s e a
and an 8 - h o u r , 5 - d a y w e e k in p o r t .
Dayw o r k e r s (t h o se th a t do not s t a n d w a t c h e s )
a r e g e n e r a l l y s c h e d u l e d to w o r k 40 h o u r s a
w e e k a t s e a a s w e l l a s in p o r t .
O v e rtim e
p r e m i u m s (o fte n f l a t h o u r l y r a t e s ) a r e p a id
f o r w o r k in e x c e s s of 8 h o u r s in 1 d a y and
f o r w o r k on S a t u r d a y s , S u n d a y s , and s p e c i f i e d
h o lid ay s.
A lth ou g h p r e m i u m p a y i s e a r n e d
f o r S a t u r d a y , S u n d ay , a n d h o l i d a y w o r k —
w a t c h t e n d e r s r e g u l a r l y w o r k s u c h d a y s when
at se a . 9
In a d d it io n to t h e ir r e g u l a r w a g e s , sh ip
p e r s o n n e l a r e p a id p e n a l t y r a t e s often e q u a l
to or g r e a t e r than t h e i r b a s e r a t e s f o r p e r ­
fo rm in g obn oxiou s, o n e ro u s, or u n p le asan t
t a s k s 10 o r d u t i e s o th e r th a n n o r m a l l y p e r ­
f o r m e d w ithin the r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d w o r k
period.
S e a g o i n g p e r s o n n e l g e n e r a l l y do not r e ­
c e i v e p a y f r o m t h e i r e m p l o y e r f o r t i m e not
w o r k e d (o th e r th an when i l l a b o a r d sh ip ).
H o w e v e r , if t h e i r s h ip i s in p o r t on a s p e c ­
i f i e d h o li d a y , th e y m a y g e t the d a y off with
p a y . In s p i t e of the g e n e r a l a b s e n c e of h o l i ­
d a y s an d v a c a t i o n s , a s c o m m o n l y u n d e r s t o o d
in m o s t o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t s i t u a t i o n s , v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l do r e c e i v e p a y f o r s u c h t i m e .
9 The monthly base rates specified in major west coast
contracts, unlike those pertaining to the east coast, include remu­
neration for woik on Saturdays and Sundays. For detailed infor­
mation about negotiated base wages, supplemental rates of pay,
employer contributions to private welfare funds, and other ele­
ments of labor cost, see: United States Department of Commerce,
Maritime Administration, Seafaring Wage Rates, Atlantic, Gulf,
and Pacific Districts, June 1967 (Report No. MAR-750-1), U. S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. , 1967.
For example: cleaning bilges, removing soot from smoke
stacks, cleaning fuel tanks, going ashore to take lines, chipping
paint when not part of regular duties, etc.




T h ese p aym en ts r e s u lt fr o m em p lo y e r c o n tri­
b u tio n s to s p e c i a l f u n d s th a t w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d
th ro u g h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r th is p u r ­
pose.
A n u m b e r of o t h e r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e
p la n s th a t a r e fu n d e d by e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u ­
t io n s a l s o e x i s t in the i n d u s t r y . A lth o u g h the
p la n b e n e f i t s v a r y , th e y g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e
r e t i r e m e n t i n c o m e , d i s a b i l i t y p a y , lif e and
h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e , and v a r i o u s t y p e s of b e n e ­
fits fo r dependen ts.
In a d d it i o n , e m p l o y e r s
p r o v i d e f o o d and l o d g in g to the e m p l o y e e s —
u s u a l l y on b o a r d s h ip , but when r e p a i r s o r
o th e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e q u i r e the c r e w to liv e
off sh ip , c a s h a l l o w a n c e s (w hich w e r e e x ­
clu d e d f r o m t h i s st u d y a s w a s the v a l u e of
o n b o a r d p e r q u i s i t e s ) a r e p a i d . 11
D eep se a v o y a g e s take v e s s e l p e rso n n e l
a w a y f r o m la n d an d o ften f a r f r o m t h e i r h o m e
p o r t f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s of t i m e . If a s e a ­
m a n sh o u ld b e c o m e i l l o r be i n j u r e d in the
s e r v i c e of the sh ip , h i s e m p l o y e r i s o b l i g a t e d
u n d e r the t e r m s of the F e d e r a l E m p l o y e r s
L i a b i l i t y A c t an d b y n e g o t i a t e d a g r e e m e n t to
p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y m e d i c a l c a r e . L i m i t e d
c a r e i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e a b o a r d s h ip . H o w ­
e v e r , s e r io u s illn e s s or in ju ry m a y re q u ir e
that the s e a m a n be h o s p i t a l i z e d in a f o r e i g n
p o r t . In s u c h c a s e , the e m p l o y e r , u n d e r the
" m a i n t e n a n c e and c u r e " p r o v i s i o n s of m a r i ­
t im e la w and u nion c o n t r a c t s , p r o v i d e s t r e a t ­
m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e p a y to the e m p l o y e e
a n d , when the e m p l o y e e h a s s u f f i c i e n t l y r e ­
c o v e r e d h i s h e a lt h , b r i n g s h i m b a c k to the
U nited S t a t e s 12 w h e r e the s a i l o r i s e l i g i b l e
f o r m e d i c a l , h o s p i t a l , an d d e n t a l c a r e t h ro u g h
the M a r i n e H o s p i t a l S e r v i c e of the U n ited
S t a t e s P u b l ic H e a l t h S e r v i c e .
In land S h i p p i n g . 13 The in la n d sh ip p in g
s e g m e n t of the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y
i n c l u d e s f i r m s o p e r a t i n g on the G r e a t L a k e s ,
the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r s y s t e m , the i n t r a ­
c o a s t a l w a t e r w a y , and f i r m s o p e r a t i n g f e r ­
r i e s , t u g s , c h a r t e r s e r v i c e s , and o th e r h a r b o r
re late d s e r v ic e s.
C o m p en satio n p r a c t ic e s fo r G r e a t L a k e s
v e s s e l e m p lo y e e s c lo s e ly r e s e m b le those for

The survey definition of compensation excludes employer
expenditures which do not provide employees with income subject
to Federal withholding taxes or economic security against a future
contingency. The value of perquisites and the allowances in
lieu of perquisites for vessel personnel are not subject to Federal
withholding taxes and were, therefore, excluded from the study.
*2 All employer outlays for medical treatment, hospital­
ization, maintenance pay, and repatriation were excluded from
this study. See footnote 1 for details.
For additional information about the pay practices in this
segment of the water transportation industry, see Appendix Vol­
ume IV to the Report of the Presidential Railroad Commission,
U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. , 1962,
pp. 146-153 and 171-191.

8

deep se a v e s s e l p erson n el. H ow ever, n a v ig a ­
tion on the G r e a t L a k e s i s s e a s o n a l in n a t u r e ,
an d s e a m e n often r e m a i n with the s a m e sh ip
fo r an e n tire s e a so n .
T o e n c o u r a g e th is
p r a c t ic e , so m e n egotiated a g r e e m e n t s p rovide
f o r the p a y m e n t of a 10 p e r c e n t b o n u s ( b a s e d
on w a g e s e a r n e d d u r i n g the c o n t r a c t y e a r )
to t h o s e v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s who r e m a i n with
t h e ir sh ip until l a y o f f a t the end of the n a v i ­
g a t io n s e a s o n .
V irtually a ll G re a t L a k e s
s e a m e n w o r k f o r u n io n iz e d f i r m s . H o w e v e r ,
s o m e of the u n io n s that n e g o t i a t e c o n t r a c t s
f o r G r e a t L a k e s s a i l o r s a r e not p r i m a r i l y
m a r itim e unions.
P a y p r a c t i c e s f o r v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s on
t o w b o a ts o p e r a t i n g on the M i s s i s s i p p i —
Ohio
R iv e r s y s t e m g e n e ra lly d iffer fr o m those fo r
d e e p s e a and G r e a t L a k e s v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l .
T o w b o a t p e r s o n n e l u s u a l l y w o r k s e v e n 12h o u r d a y s a w e e k and g e n e r a l l y s t a y with the
tow b o a t f o r 30 or 45 d a y s a t a t i m e . A l l o w ­
a n c e f o r t im e off u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s
i s d i f f i c u l t to h a n d le in ro u t in e f a s h i o n , and
a p r a c t i c e known a s s w in g t i m e h a s e v o l v e d .
E m p l o y e e s t y p i c a l l y r e c e i v e 1 d a y off with
p a y f o r e a c h d a y w o r k e d . 14 In a d d it io n to
sw in gtim e, m o s t e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e r e g u la r
vacation s,
a lth o u g h an i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r
g e t p a y in l i e u of the e x t r a t im e off. A bout
h a l f of the e m p l o y e e s ( m a i n l y in the l a r g e r
c o m p a n i e s ) in th is i n d u s t r y a r e u n io n iz e d .
V e s s e l p e r s o n n e l in the i n t r a c o a s t a l and
l o c a l w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e g m e n t s of the
i n d u s t r y a r e l a r g e l y u n o r g a n i z e d , e x c e p t on
the w e s t c o a s t , and p a y p r a c t i c e s v a r y f r o m
c o m p a n y to c o m p a n y .

h a v e p r e f e r e n c e o v e r t h o s e w ith l e s s s e ­
n i o r i t y or only a c a s u a l a t t a c h m e n t to the
i n d u s t r y . 15
The l o n g s h o r e h i r i n g s y s t e m
and p r o c e d u r e s , c o n d it i o n s of e m p l o y m e n t ,
and c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e d e t a i l e d in
c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a g r e e m e n t s and in s o m e
p o r t s by the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of p o r t
a u th o r itie s.
In 1964, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l o n g s h o r e m e n
w ere c o v e r e d by co lle ctiv e b a rg a in in g a g r e e ­
m e n t s . H o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n t u n io n s b a r g a i n on
the e a s t a n d w e s t c o a s t s , and a g r e e m e n t s
for e a s t c o a s t p o rts a r e g e n e ra lly negotiated
on a p o r t b y p o r t b a s i s . N o t w it h s t a n d in g the
v a r i a t i o n s in the a g r e e m e n t s c o v e r i n g the
d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , the s a m e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s ,
m o d i f i e d to m e e t l o c a l n e e d s , a r e found in
all c o n tra cts.
If w o r k i s not a v a i l a b l e , p a y i s g u a r a n ­
t e e d in m o s t l o n g s h o r e a g r e e m e n t s . In g e n ­
e r a l, lo n g sh o re m e n a r e paid p r e m iu m r a t e s
f o r w o r k p e r f o r m e d b e f o r e or a f t e r s p e c i f i e d
h o u r s or d u r i n g m e a l p e r i o d s a s w e ll a s f o r
o v e r t i m e , w e e k e n d , an d h o l i d a y w o r k .
A
s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of l o n g s h o r e w o r k e r s a r e
e m p l o y e d in s o m e p o r t s w h e r e d i f f e r e n t i a l s
a r e p a id f o r night sh if t w o r k .
S k il l d i f f e r e n t i a l s a r e p a i d to l o n g s h o r e ­
m en (e .g ., boom m en, b u lld o zer o p e r a to r ,
g a n g b o s s , h a t c h t e n d e r , w in ch d r i v e r , e t c .)
th a t p e r f o r m f u n c t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y e n u m e r ­
a t e d in the n e g o t i a t e d a g r e e m e n t s .
In a d d i ­
tio n, p e n a l t y c a r g o r a t e s a r e p a i d to l o n g ­
s h o r e m e n who w o r k on d e s i g n a t e d c a r g o ( e . g . ,
e x p l o s i v e s , e t c .) o r who w o r k u n d e r a d v e r s e
c o n d it i o n s ( e . g . , in c r a m p e d s p a c e ) .
These
p e n a l t y r a t e s , w hich a r e in a d d it i o n to the
b a s e w a g e p lu s s p e c i f i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , r a n g e
up to m o r e than $1 a n h o u r .

S te v e d o rin g . L o n g sh o re em ploym en t, un­
lik e a l m o s t iTI o th e r r e g u l a r e m p l o y m e n t
s i t u a t i o n s in the U n ited S t a t e s e c o n o m y , i s
a l w a y s t e m p o r a r y in n a t u r e an d often l a s t s
for o n l y l d a y
at a tim e.
Longshorem en
a r e g e n e r a l l y h i r e d d a y - b y - d a y t h ro u g h a
s h a p e - u p s y s t e m , m o d i f i e d in m a n y p o r t s ,
so th a t m e n who r e g u l a r l y w o r k l o n g s h o r e

P aid leav e fo r lo n g sh o re m e n is u su a lly
p r o v i d e d t h ro u g h v a c a t i o n and h o l i d a y f u n d s
r a t h e r than t h r o u g h p a y r o l l e x p e n d i t u r e s ; and
p r o v i s i o n s f o r union h e a lt h and w e l f a r e f u n d s ,
f in a n c e d by e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , a r e c o n ­
t a in e d in a l l l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s .
In a d d it i o n , s o m e b a r g a i n i n g a g r e e m e n t s p r o ­
vide f o r e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to a u t o m a ­
tio n f u n d s .

14 For purposes of this study, all such wages were considered
to have been paid for hours worked, i. e. , the days off with pay
were not added to vacation pay or vacation hours.

Thus, some longshoremen regularly work for the same
employer, and through prehiring procedures, do not have to shapeup for the next day's woik.




T a b le 1.

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s fo r S u p p le m e n ta ry C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u stry , 1964
A ll c o m p a n ie s

E m p lo y e e g ro u p and
ty p e o f co m p an y

T o ta l
co m p e n ­
sa tio n

S tra ig h ttim e pay
fo r w o rk ­
ing tim e

P re m iu m
p a y m e n ts

P a y fo r
le a v e tim e

C o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d itu r e s fo r p a y su p p le m e n ts

B o n u se s

T e r m in a l
pay

L e g a lly
r e q u ir e d
in su r a n c e
p rogram s

P r iv a t e
w e lfa r e
p la n s

P r e m iu m
p a y m e n ts

P a y fo r
le a v e tim e

B o n u se s

T e r m in a l
pay

L e g a lly
r e q u ir e d
in su r a n c e
p rog ram s

P r iv a te
w e lfa r e
p la n s

P e r c e n t of c o m p e n s a tio n
A ll e m p l o y e e s --------

100. 0

65. 9

13. 0

3. 1

0. 7

0. 1

3. 7

13. 5

13. 6

3. 3

1. 1

0. 2

3. 7

13. 7

D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---L o n g s h o r e m e n -----------------

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

53. 5
79. 7
70. 3

21. 5
6. 6
10. 9

2. 7
4. 2
1. 3

. 1
1. 0
. 1

n
(M
( L)

3. 5
4. 0
4. 2

18. 7
4. 5
13. 2

21. 6
8. 6
11. 0

4. 4
5. 3
2. 6

1. 6
2. 7
. 3

. 2
6. 6
n

3. 5
4. 0
4. 2

18. 7
4. 8
13. 3

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s -D eep s e a c a r r i e r s ------Inlan d c a r r i e r s ----------S te v e d o rin g f i r m s --------

100.
100.
100.
100.

77.
74.
83.
76.

6.
8.
4.
6.

3.
4.
1.
2.

. 2
. 3
(l )
. 1

3.
3.
3.
3.

2. 0
.9
3. 7
2 .9

7. 1
8. 4
5. 2
6 .9

5.
6.
4.
5.

.
1.
.
.

3.
3.
3.
3.

0
0
0
0

8
6
1
4

1.
.
2.
2.

5
8
1
4

9
4
9
8

2
4
6
9

2
0
6
1

7.
8.
4.
8.

2
5
7
3

8
6
1
3

8
0
2
5

2
0
6
1

7.
8.
5.
8.

7
5
5
8

C e n ts p e r p a id h our
A ll e m p l o y e e s --------

$ 4 . 13

$ 2 . 72

$0. 54

$ 0 . 13

$ 0 . 03

(l )

$ 0 . 15

$ 0 . 56

$ 0 . 58

$ 0 . 14

$ 0 . 04

$ 0 . 01

$ 0 . 15

$ 0 . 57

D eep s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---L o n g s h o r e m e n -----------------

4. 15
2. 74
4. 79

2. 22
2. 19
3. 37

.8 9
. 18
. 52

. 11
. 11
. 06

(*)
. 03
. 01

(J)

. 15
. 11
. 20

. 78
. 12
. 63

.8 9
. 27
. 53

. 18
. 15
. 12

. 02
. 07
. 01

. 01
. 16
n

. 15
. 11
. 20

. 78
. 14
. 63

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s —
D eep s e a c a r r i e r s -----Inlan d c a r r i e r s ----------S te v e d o r in g f i r m s --------

4.
4.
3.
4.

3.
3.
3.
3.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
•
.
.

19
59
79
06

26
41
15
09

06
04
08
10

.
.
.
.

29
39
18
28

13
20
06
12

(l)
$ 0 . 01
. 02
(l )
(l )

14
14
14
13

30
39
18
34

08
04
13
11

30
39
20
28

25
29
17
26

.
.
.
.

03
05
01
02

14
14
14
13

33
39
23
36

C e n ts p e r h o ur of w o rk in g tim e
A ll e m p l o y e e s --------

$ 4 . 30

$ 2 . 84

$0. 56

$ 0 . 13

$ 0 . 03

(M

$ 0 . 16

$ 0 . 58

$ 0 . 60

$ 0 . 14

$ 0 . 05

$ 0 . 01

$ 0 . 16

$ 0 . 59

D eep s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---L o n g s h o r e m e n -----------------

4. 29
2. 90
4. 88

2. 30
2. 31
3. 42

. 92
. 19
. 53

. 12
. 12
. 06

(*)
. 03
. 01

(l )

. 15
. 12
. 21

. 80
. 13
. 65

.9 2
. 28
. 54

. 18
. 16
. 12

. 03
. 07
. 01

. 01
. 16
(l )

. 15
. 12
. 21

.8 2
. 15
. 65

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s —
D eep s e a c a r r i e r s -----Inlan d c a r r i e r s ---------S te v e d o rin g f i r m s --------

4.
5.
3.
4.

3.
3.
3.
3.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

53
09
98
42

53
80
31
37

07
04
08
11

31
43
19
30

1 L e s s th an 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf cen t.
N O TE:

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g ,




su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s .

.
.
.
.

14
22
07
13

n
(i )

$ 0 . 01
. 02
(l )
n

15
15
14
14

32
43
19
37

09
04
14
12

32
43
21
30

28
33
18
28

.
.
.
.

04
05
01
02

15
15
14
14

36
43
24
39

Chapter 2.

Vessel Personnel
w h o s e e x p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to l e s s th a n $ 3
a p a i d h o u r . In g e n e r a l , d e e p s e a c o m p a n i e s
l o c a t e d on the w e s t c o a s t h a d h i g h e r c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n o u t l a y s ( $ 4 . 5 4 a w o r k in g h o u r ; $ 4 . 4 5
a p a i d hour) th a n did e a s t c o a s t f i r m s ( $ 4 . 26
a w o r k in g ho u r; $ 4 . 12 a p a i d h o u r).
These
d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e m o s t l y the r e s u l t o f h i g h e r
l e v e l s of s t r a i g h t - t i m e a n d p r e m i u m p a y m e n t s
on the w e s t th a n o n the e a s t c o a s t .

I n t r o d u c t io n
In 1964, e x p e n d i t u r e s of w a t e r t r a n s p o r ­
t a t i o n e m p l o y e r s f o r t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n of
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l a m o u n t e d to $ 3 .9 2 a n h o u r—
59 p e r c e n t o f w h ich w a s s t r a i g h t - t i m e p ay f o r
w o r k in g t i m e , a n d 41 p e r c e n t ( e q u iv a le n t to
70 p e r c e n t o f s t r a i g h t - t i m e pay) w a s f o r p ay
su p p lem en ts. The le v e l and str u c tu r e of total
o u t l a y s o f d e e p s e a sh ip p in g f i r m s ( $ 4 . 2 9 a n
hour) a n d in la n d c a r r i e r s ( $ 2 . 9 0 ) f o r t h e i r
v e s s e l p erson n el, how ever, w ere e s se n tia lly
different.
T h e $ 1 . 3 9 d i f f e r e n c e in o u t l a y s of
t h e s e two t y p e s o f f i r m s w a s p r i m a r i l y the
r e s u l t of v a r y i n g l e v e l s of s u p p l e m e n t a r y
e x p e n d itu r e s— p rin c ip a lly for p r e m iu m s and
p riv a te w e lfa r e p la n s— a s s t r a ig h t - t im e pay
f o r d e e p s e a a n d in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w a s
the s a m e ( $ 2 . 3 0 — 2 . 3 1 a n h o u r ) . 16
$
S u p p le m e n tary c o m p e n sa tio n expenditures
f o r d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l a m o u n t e d to
$ 1 . 9 9 a n h o u r 17— a l m o s t 3 . 5 t i m e s g r e a t e r
than f o r in la n d v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s (59 c e n t s ) .
O u tl a y s f o r p r e m i u m s a n d p r i v a t e w e l f a r e
p l a n s f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w e r e the m a j o r
e l e m e n t s of s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n in
both s e g m e n t s . H o w e v e r , p r e m i u m p a y m e n t s
to d e e p s e a s a i l o r s (92 c e n t s a n hour) w e r e
5 t i m e s that f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , a n d
p r i v a t e w e l f a r e o u t l a y s of d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s
(80 c e n t s ) w e r e 6 t i m e s g r e a t e r th a n t h o s e o f
in la n d f i r m s (13 c e n t s ) . E x p e n d i t u r e s o f d e e p
s e a a n d i n la n d c a r r i e r s f o r m o s t of the o t h e r
s u p p l e m e n t a r y p a y p r a c t i c e s w e r e a b o u t the
s a m e , a lth o u g h t h e s e o u t l a y s a c c o u n t e d f o r
su b sta n tia lly d ifferen t p ro p o rtio n s of total
e x p e n d i t u r e s in e a c h s e g m e n t .
S e v e n - e i g h t h s of the d e e p s e a s a i l o r s
w o r k e d f o r sh ip p in g f i r m s w h o se o u t l a y s f o r
co m p e n sa tio n of v e s s e l p erso n n el ra n g ed b e ­
tw e en $ 3 a n d $ 5 a p a id h o u r .
S o m e in la n d
c a r r i e r s had o u t l a y s o f the s a m e m a g n i t u d e --but s l i g h t l y m o r e th an h a l f (5 4 p e r c e n t ) of the
in la n d v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r f i r m s

Percent of vessel personnel by
type of firm and region, water
_____transportation, 1964____
Total compensation
(company expenditures
per paid hour)
All em ployees---------Under
$ 1 . 60
$ 1 . 80
$2 . 00
$2. 20
$2. 40
$2 . 60
$2. 80
$3. 00
$3. 20
$3. 40
$3. 60
$3. 80
$4. 00
$4. 20
$4. 40
$4. 60
$4. 80
$5. 00
$5. 20

100

100

100

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
-

-

-

3
-

-

-

1

17
2

Inland
shipping
100
10
8
6
8

-

10

20
1

11

16
3
3
4
9
9

-

3

4

-

8

8

8

6

4

13
14

13
15
4
7
18

7

1

-

2

47

8

8
6

16
3
6

8

-

-

1

2

11

7

2

( ')
(*)

Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100 .

A l l d e e p s e a a n d a b o u t h a l f the in la n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d f o r f i r m s in w h ich
co llectiv e b argain in g a g re e m e n ts c o v e r e d all
o r a m a j o r i t y o f the v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s . C o m ­
p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s of u n io n iz e d i n la n d e m ­
p l o y e r s a m o u n t e d to $ 3 . 3 4 a n h o u r— a b o u t
38 p e r c e n t m o r e th an w a s e x p e n d e d by f i r m s
in w h ich none o r a m i n o r i t y o f the e m p l o y e e s
w e r e c o v e r e d by n e g o t i a t e d a g r e e m e n t s
($ 2 .4 1 ).
S tr a ig h t - t im e pay and pay s u p p le ­
m e n t s w e r e h i g h e r in u n io n iz e d f i r m s than
in u n o r g a n i z e d c o m p a n i e s .
S u p p l e m e n t s in
o r g a n iz e d co m p a n ie s accoun ted for a b o u t
23 p e r c e n t o f a l l o u t l a y s — a b o u t a t h i r d
m o r e th a n in nonunion f i r m s w h e r e s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y p a y c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t 16 p e r c e n t of
co m pe n satio n .

16 Expenditures for legally required workmen's compensation
for all vessel personnel are estimated to amount to 17 cents an
hour— 22 cents for deep sea vessel personnel and 6 cents for inland
water vessel employees. Total compensation, including these
estimates, amounts to $4.09 for all vessel personnel, $4.51 for
deep sea, and $2.96 for inland vessel employees.
17 These expenditures are among the highest in the United
States and exceed those of manufacturing employers by a wide
margin. See Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary
Compensation Practices for Production and Related Workers; Com­
position of Payroll Hours; Manufacturing Industries, 1962 (BLS
Bulletin 1428, 1965). Although the manufacturing data are for a
period 2 years previous to that for water transportation, and the
definition of premium pay used in this study (see footnote 6 ) is
different from that used in the manufacturing study, the general­
izations presented are considered to be valid.




$1. 60-----------------and under $ 1. 80 -----and under $2 . 0 0 -----and under $2 . 2 0 -----and under $2. 40 -----and under $2. 60-----and under $2 . 8 0 -----and under $3. 0 0 -----and under $3. 20-----and under $3. 4 0 -----and under $3. 60 -----and under $3. 8 0 -----and under $4. 0 0 -----and under $4. 20-----and under $4, 4 0 -----and under $4. 60-----and under $4. 80 -----and under $5. 0 0 -----and under $5. 20-----or m ore---------------

Deep sea shipping
East
West
All
coast
coast

10

11

C h a rt 3.

The Structure of Compensation, Vessel Personnel,
Water Transportation Industry, 1964




(E x p e n d itu re s per paid hour)
DeepSea Vessel Employees

Inland Vessel Employees

T erm in a l p aym ents
a n d n o n p r o d u c t i o n bo n u s e s

12
P r e v a le n c e of P a y Su pp lem en ts
In 1964, a l l v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r
f i r m s th a t h a d e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r one o r m o r e
legally re q u ired insuran ce p ro g ra m s; m o re
t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s that
had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o v e r t i m e p r e m i u m s ,
h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t
p l a n s ; a n d m o r e th a n t h r e e - f i f t h s w e r e e m ­
p lo y e d by f i r m s h a v in g e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a id
v a c a t i o n s a n d f o r v a c a t i o n a n d h o li d a y f u n d s .
E x p e n d itu r e s fo r other su p p le m e n ta ry pay
p r a c t i c e s w e r e m a d e by f i r m s e m p l o y i n g l e s s
th a n o n e - f if t h of a l l v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l .
A lm o st all deep se a c a r r i e r c o m p an ie s
had ex p en d itu res fo r o v e rtim e p r e m iu m s ;
w h e re a s, p rem iu m expen ditures w ere m uch
l e s s f r e q u e n t in the in la n d v e s s e l s e g m e n t of
the i n d u s t r y .
O th e r d i f f e r e n c e s in p r a c t i c e s
r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s in d e g r e e s
of u n i o n iz a t io n .
C o lle ctiv e b arg ain in g a g r e e ­
m e n ts betw een deep se a c o m p a n ie s and m a r i ­
t i m e u n io n s r e q u i r e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s
f o r l i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e p la n s ;
pen sion and re t ir e m e n t p lan s; and v a c a tio n
a n d h o lid a y f u n d s .
In the in la n d s e c t o r ,
w h e r e u n i o n iz a t io n i s not u n i v e r s a l , a s m a l l e r
p rop ortio n of w o r k e r s w ere em ploy ed by com ­
p a n i e s that had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e s e p r a c ­
t i c e s . H o w e v e r , i n la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w e r e
m o r e l i k e l y to be e m p l o y e d by a c o m p a n y that
m ad e d ire c t p ay m en ts fo r le a v e tim e and non­
p rodu ction b o n u s e s— su ch p ay m en ts re p la c in g
the v a c a t i o n a n d h o li d a y fund e x p e n d i t u r e s of
u n i o n iz e d c o m p a n i e s .
P rem iu m Pay
P r e m i u m p a y m e n t s 18 f o r o v e r t i m e ,
w e e k e n d , h o li d a y , a n d p e n a l t y w o r k a c c o u n t e d
f o r n e a r l y o n e - f if t h of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n e x ­
p en d itu re s m a d e by w ater c a r r i e r s and w e re
the l a r g e s t s u p p l e m e n t to v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ' s
s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y f o r w o r k in g t i m e .
These
e x p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to 73 c e n t s a n h o u r,
s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than f o r a n y o f the o t h e r
g r o u p s o f e m p l o y e e s s t u d ie d .
P r e m iu m pay fo r deep se a v e s s e l p e r ­
s o n n e l a m o u n t e d to 92 c e n t s a n h o u r— e q u a l
to 40 p e r c e n t of t h e i r s t r a i g h t - t i m e p ay r a t e .
T h e s e p a y m e n t s w e r e 10 c e n t s a n h o ur h i g h e r
on the w e s t c o a s t than on the e a s t c o a s t .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , due to the h i g h e r l e v e l of c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n on the w e s t c o a s t , the r a t i o o f p r e ­
m i u m p a y to s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y w a s the s a m e
on both c o a s t s .

In land v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l r e c e i v e d a m u c h
l o w e r a m o u n t (19 c e n t s ) o f p r e m i u m p ay than
did d e e p s e a v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s , a l t h o u g h p r e ­
m i u m p a y w a s the l a r g e s t s u p p l e m e n t to
s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y f o r bo th g r o u p s o f e m p l o y ­
ees.
A lth o u g h 78 p e r c e n t o f d e e p s e a v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d in c o m p a n i e s with p r e m i u m
p a y e x p e n d i t u r e s o f a t l e a s t 15 p e r c e n t of
c o m p e n s a t i o n , on ly 11 p e r c e n t o f in la n d v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d in s u c h c o m p a n i e s .
Pre­
m i u m p a y a m o u n t e d to 6. 6 p e r c e n t of c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n f o r i n la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l a n d w a s
e q u a l to 8 p e r c e n t of s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y m e n t s
f o r w o r k in g t i m e .
N o n p r o d u c t io n B o n u s e s a n d T e r m i n a l
P aym ents
E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r n o n p r o d u c t io n
b o n u ses a n d te r m in a l p aym en ts com bined
a m o u n t e d to a b o u t 1 c e n t a n h o u r .
Exp en di­
t u r e s f o r n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s , w h ic h a c ­
c o u n te d f o r p r a c t i c a l l y t h e e n t i r e o u t la y ,
a m o u n t e d to 1 c e n t a n h o ur f o r a l l v e s s e l
e m p l o y e e s , but w e r e m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t b e ­
t w e e n the two s e g m e n t s of the s h ip p in g i n ­
dustry.
B o n u se s w ere lo w est fo r deep se a
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l who r e c e i v e d only o n e - t e n t h
o f one p e r c e n t ( l e s s th an 1 c e n t p e r hour
w o rk e d ) o f t h e i r c o m p e n s a t i o n in t h i s f o r m ,
w h e r e a s f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l (3 c e n t s ) ,
they c o n s t i t u t e d 1 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n .
T h e h i g h e s t e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r n o n p r o d u c t io n
b o n u s e s w e r e found in u n i o n iz e d c o m p a n i e s
o p e r a t i n g in the N o r th C e n t r a l r e g i o n , w h e r e
n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s in f i r m s h a v i n g s u c h
exp en d itu res accoun ted fo r about 4 p ercen t
of c o m p e n s a t i o n (1 3 .6 c e n t s ) . A m a j o r f a c t o r
l e a d i n g to t h is l e v e l of e x p e n d i t u r e , the h i g h ­
e s t in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y , w a s
the c o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n t c o v e r i n g v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l of G r e a t L a k e s sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s
th a t p r o v i d e d f o r a b o n u s of 10 p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s e a r n e d d u r i n g the c o n t r a c t y e a r to e m ­
p l o y e e s who w e r e on duty b e f o r e A u g u s t 1 a n d
r e m a i n e d on duty u ntil l a i d off a f t e r the c l o s e
of the s h ip p in g s e a s o n .
P a i d L e a v e 19*
E m p lo y e r e x p en d itu res fo r paid leav e for
v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s a m o u n t e d to 12 c e n t s a n
h o u r— 3 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i ­
tures.
P a y fo r le a v e constituted a l a r g e r

Paid leave, as defined in this study, excludes holiday pay
for vessel personnel. Most vessel employees do not receive pay for
holidays not worked as the work routine on-board ship usually pre­
cludes the granting of time off on holidays. Nevertheless, contrac­
tual agreements in both the deep sea and inland segments of the in­
dustry generally provide that hours worked on designated holidays
are to be paid for as premium overtime hours. These contracts fur­
ther provide that if the vessel is in port, those crew members who
can be spared from shipboard duties be given the holiday off. The
premiums paid for holiday hours are integral components of pre­
18
The definition of premium pay for vessel personnel mium pay. The hours of and pay for holiday hours worked (which
in
could not be segregated from hours worked and base wages as re­
this study is slightly different from that used for other employee
corded in the aggregate records of the shipowners) were treated in
groups in the water transportation and other industries. For detail,
this study as hours of and pay for working time.
see footnote 6 .




13
p ro p o rtio n of a ll co m p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s
f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l (4. 2 p e r c e n t ) th a n
fo r deep se a v e s s e l p erso n n el ( 2. 7 p ercen t),
but e x p e n d i t u r e s by b oth g r o u p s o f e m p l o y e r s
a m o u n te d to 12 c e n t s a w o r k in g h o u r .
P aid V a c a tio n s .
M o r e th a n 90 p e r c e n t
of all em p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r paid le a v e
w e re for v a c a t i o n s .
T h ese expen ditures
(11 c e n t s a n hour) c o n s t i t u t e d 2. 8 p e r c e n t o f
a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , o r the
equivalen t of about 7 d a y s ’ pay p e r e m p lo y e e.
E x p e n d i t u r e s o f i n l a n d f i r m s (11 c e n t s )
a c c o u n t e d f o r 3. 9 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n
f o r t h e ir v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ; t h o s e of d e e p s e a
e m p l o y e r s (w hich a l s o a m o u n t e d to 11 c e n t s
a w o rk in g hour) a c c o u n t e d f o r on ly 2. 5 p e r ­
c e n t o f t h e ir c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s .
M o st
c o m p a n i e s , e s p e c i a l l y d e e p s e a c a r r i e r s , that
did not m a k e d i r e c t p a y m e n t s to e m p l o y e e s
f o r v a c a t i o n s , a s w e ll a s m a n y th a t did, c o n ­
t r i b u t e d to fu n d s f r o m w h ich p a y m e n t s w e r e
m a d e to v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l f o r - o r i n - l i e u - o f
v a c a t i o n t i m e off. 20
W ate r c a r r i e r s ' t o t a l v a c a t i o n e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s p lu s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to v a c a t i o n an d
h o li d a y fun ds w e r e 3 V3 t i m e s l a r g e r than
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r d i r e c t p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s
for vacation s.
T h e se com bined exp en ditures
(37 c e n t s a n hour) c o n s t i t u t e d 9 . 4 p e r c e n t o f
a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n , a n d w e r e e q u i v a l e n t to
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 V2 d a y s ' p ay p e r e m p l o y e e .
A lth ou g h p a y r o l l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a i d v a c a ­
t io n s by inland e m p l o y e r s w e r e e q u i v a l e n t to
m o r e v a c a t i o n d a y s th an t h o s e of d e e p s e a
c a r r i e r s , deep se a em p lo y e rs' expen ditures
f o r d i r e c t a n d fun ded v a c a t i o n p a y m e n t s a p ­
p r o x i m a t e d 26 V2 d a y s of p a i d l e a v e f o r e a c h
e m p l o y e e ; t h o s e o f in la n d e m p l o y e r s w e r e
e q u i v a l e n t to on ly a b o u t 10 d a y s of p a i d l e a v e
fo r each v e s s e l em ployee.
V a c a t i o n p a y m e n t s m a d e by e m p l o y e r s
d i r e c t l y to t h e i r e m p l o y e e s w e r e h i g h e r in
in la n d c o m p a n i e s in w h ich none o r a m i n o r i t y
o f the n o n s u p e r v i s o r y v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s w e r e
c o v e r e d by union c o n t r a c t s than in u n io n iz e d
in la n d o r d e e p s e a f i r m s . V a c a t i o n e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s by nonunion in la n d c o m p a n i e s t h a t
m a d e s u c h p a y m e n t s a m o u n t e d to 26 c e n t s a n
h o u r— tw ic e that of the u n i o n iz e d c o m p a n i e s
(13 c e n t s ) .
On the o t h e r han d, u n i o n iz e d
c o m p a n i e s had s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r fun ded
o u t l a y s than u n o r g a n i z e d f i r m s — p r a c t i c a l l y
none of w h ich had a n y o u t l a y s f o r v a c a t i o n
a n d h o lid a y f u n d s .

S ick L e a v e and O ther P a id L e a v e . E m ­
p lo y e rs s p e n t re la tiv ely s m a l l a m o u n t s
d u rin g 1964 f o r e m p l o y e e s * s i c k l e a v e and
c i v i c an d p e r s o n a l l e a v e . 21 E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
both t y p e s of l e a v e a m o u n t e d to l e s s than
2 c e n t s an h o u r w o r k e d .
No c o m p a n y r e ­
p o r t e d h a v in g sp e n t a s m u c h a s 15 c e n t s an
hour fo r th e se types of le a v e fo r th e ir v e s ­
sel em ployees.

L e g a lly R equ ired In su ran ce P r o g r a m s
In 1964, e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s a m o u n t e d to
14 c e n t s a n h o u r o r 3. 6 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l . 22
S o c i a l s e c u r i t y a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 60 p e r c e n t
of t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s , a n d S t a t e a n d F e d e r a l
unem ploym en t c o m p e n sa tio n in su ra n c e a c ­
co u n ted f o r the b a l a n c e . 23 E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
these i t e m s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a m o u n t e d to 8 c e n t s
and 6 c e n t s a n ho ur w o r k e d .
L e g a lly r e q u i r e d in su ra n c e paym en ts
m a d e u p 4 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t ­
l a y s by e m p l o y e r s o f in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ,
a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n than f o r e m ­
p l o y e r s of d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , w h o se
le g a lly r e q u i r e d in su ra n c e p aym en ts a c ­
co u n ted f o r 3. 5 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t ­
l a y s . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f the o v e r a l l h i g h e r
l e v e l of c o m p e n s a t i o n in the d e e p s e a s e c t o r
21 Deep sea employers reported payments, related to sick
leave, which were made to seagoing personnel under "maintenance
and cure" provisions of union contracts. These expenditures, how­
ever, are part of their workmen's compensation outlays which were
excluded from this study. See footnote 1 for detail.
22 In general, legally required programs are funded on the
basis of a rate applied against a specified maximum of each em­
ployee's earnings. For example: In 1964 the employer's rate of
contribution for social security was 35/ 8 percent of the first
$4,800 of each employee's annual earnings.
T h e se d a t a ,

a s n o te d p r e v io u s ly , e x c lu d e e m p lo y e r o u t la y s

made under the provisions of workmen's compensation and related
State and Federal laws. If data on employer payments for work­
men's compensation and related programs had been available and
included in the compensation statistics, an estimated 8 percent of
all compensation expenditures would have been for legally required
insurance programs, and all expenditures for legally required in­
surance programs would be distributed as follows: 56 percent for
workmen's compensation, 26 percent for social security, 18 percent
for unemployment compensation insurance, and less than 1 percent
for other legally required insurance programs.
23 For 1964, employers in all but 9 States were taxed for
Federal unemployment compensation at a rate of 0 .4 percent of
payroll. A rate of 0. 7 percent was paid in California, Delaware,
Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and
West Virginia. Alaska had a rate of 0. 85 percent. In all States,
the
20
Only 15 percent of the deep sea and 49 percent of the tax applied only to the first $3,000 paid to an employee.
Tax rates for State unemployment compensation varied.
inland vessel employees received vacation pay directly from their
Employers in a few States were required to contribute towards
employers (see table 16 for detail). In general, many of those
that did receive such payments were supervisory employees or
State temporary disability insurance covering their employees.
These payments, which are included in the total but not presented
employees whose shipboard function was not directly related to the
separately, were inconsequential components of compensation.
operation of the vessel.




14

of the i n d u s t r y , d e e p s e a e m p l o y e r s did s p e n d
m o r e (15 c e n t s ) p e r ho ur w o r k e d f o r l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e s th an in la n d e m p l o y e r s
(12 c e n t s ) .
P r iv a t e W elfare P la n s
In 1964, n e a r l y 16 p e r c e n t o f v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h e m with
p r o t e c t i o n a g a in s t v a r io u s co n tin ge n c ie s
a n d /o r ev e n tu alities.
T h is high l e v e l of e x ­
p e n d i t u r e f o r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n s p r i m a r i l y
r e f l e c t s l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s by e m p l o y e r s of
d eep s e a v e s s e l p e rso n n e l. E x p e n d itu r e s for
p riv a te w e lfa r e p lan s fo r d eep s e a e m p lo y e e s
a m o u n t e d to 80 c e n t s a n h o u r a n d c o n s t i t u t e d
1 8 .7 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir c o m p e n s a t i o n — s i m i l a r
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
a m o u n t e d to 13 c e n t s a n h o u r--- 4. 5 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n s a t i o n . S l ig h t ly o v e r 80 p e r c e n t of
a ll deep se a v e s s e l p erso n n el w orked for
c o m p a n i e s w h o s e p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n e x ­
p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to m o r e than 15 p e r c e n t
of c o m p e n s a t i o n ; none of the in la n d v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l w o rk e d f o r c o m p a n i e s whose p r i v a t e
w e l f a r e p la n e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e th at l a r g e .
The s t r u c t u r e a s w e ll a s the m a g n i t u d e of
p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s w a s n o ta b ly d i f f e r e n t
f o r d e e p s e a a n d in la n d v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s .
E m p l o y e r s spend m o r e fo r v a c a tio n and
h o li d a y fu n d s f a r d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
th a n f o r a n y o t h e r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n .
T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h e s e fu n d s a c c o u n t e d
f o r 43 p e r c e n t o f a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p r i v a t e
w e lfa r e p lan s fo r deep s e a p e rso n n e l.
The
o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s of p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n s f o r
w h ich d e e p s e a e m p l o y e r s h a d e x p e n d i t u r e s
w e r e : p e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t p la n s (5. 6 p e r ­
cent of total co m p e n satio n ); life , acc id en t,
a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e (4. 3 p e r c e n t ) ; s a v i n g s
a n d t h r i f t p l a n s (0. 5 p e r c e n t ) ; s e v e r a n c e o r
d i s m i s s a l p a y a n d S U B fu n d s ( 0 . 2 p e r c e n t ) ;
a n d a u t o m a t i o n fu n d s ( l e s s than 0. 1 p e r c e n t ) .
In c o n t r a s t , n e a r l y a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p r i ­
v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
w e r e e i t h e r f o r l i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a lt h
in s u ra n c e p lan s or fo r p en sion and re t ir e m e n t
p lan s.
E a c h of th e se p lan s acc o u n ted for
a b o u t h a l f o f a l l p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s f o r in la n d v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s .
E xp en di­
t u r e s f o r p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n s f o r in la n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l in u n io n iz e d c o m p a n i e s c o n ­
s t i t u t e d a b o u t tw ic e a s l a r g e a p r o p o r t i o n o f
a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s a s t h o s e in
nonunion c o m p a n i e s , a n d w e r e 3 t i m e s l a r g e r
when m e a s u r e d in c e n t s p e r h o u r.
L i f e , A c c i d e n t , a n d H e a lth I n s u r a n c e .
E m p lo y e r ex p en d itu res fo r life , a cc id e n t, and
h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e p la n s f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l




a c c o u n t e d f o r 3. 9 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n
e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d a m o u n t e d to 15 c e n t s a n
hour.
E x p en ditures for deep se a v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l (4. 3 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n
o u t l a y s — 18 c e n t s a n hour) w e r e s o m e w h a t
higher than the i n d u s t r y w i d e a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s
expen ditures fo r i n l a n d v e s s e l p erson n el
(6 c e n t s ) w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r th a n the
o v erall a v e ra g e .
Exp en ditures for deep se a v e s s e l p e rso n ­
n el w e r e a b o u t the s a m e on the e a s t c o a s t
a n d the w e s t c o a s t when m e a s u r e d on a
c e n t s - p e r - h o u r b a s i s . H o w e v e r , w ide d i f f e r ­
e n c e s e x i s t e d in the p r o p o r t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s
found in e a s t a n d w e s t c o a s t c o m p a n i e s in
w h ich l i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e
p la n s w e r e p a i d f o r p a r t l y by e m p l o y e e c o n ­
tributions.
On the e a s t c o a s t , a b o u t 20 p e r ­
c e n t of a l l d e e p s e a v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d
f o r c o m p a n i e s with c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s ; the
o t h e r 80 p e r c e n t w e r e e m p l o y e d by f i r m s with
n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s .
On the w e s t c o a s t ,
the p r o p o r t i o n s w e r e r e v e r s e d , a b o u t 20 p e r ­
c e n t w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s with n o n c o n t r ib u ­
t o r y p l a n s a n d a b o u t 80 p e r c e n t f o r c o m p a n i e s
with c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s .
On the e a s t c o a s t ,
e x p e n d i t u r e s o f e m p l o y e r s with c o n t r i b u t o r y
p l a n s a m o u n t e d to 9 c e n t s a p a i d h o u r; in
t h o s e c o m p a n i e s w ith n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s ,
o u t l a y s w e r e m o r e th a n t w i c e a s h ig h (20
cents).
Expen diture p attern s w ere m a rk e d ly
d i f f e r e n t on the w e s t c o a s t .
Exp en ditures
a m o u n t e d to 19 c e n t s a n h o ur in c o m p a n i e s
with c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s a n d 15 c e n t s in c o m ­
p a n i e s with n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s .
F o r t y p e r c e n t o f a l l i n la n d v e s s e l p e r ­
s o n n e l w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s that h a d c o n ­
t r i b u t o r y l i f e , a c c i d e n t , a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e
p l a n s ; 51 p e r c e n t w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s that
had n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s ; a n d t h e o t h e r
9 p e r c e n t w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s th a t h a d no
p la n .
T h e r e w e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s
in the l e v e l of e x p e n d i t u r e s b e t w e e n c o m ­
p a n i e s that had c o n t r i b u t o r y l i f e , a c c i d e n t ,
a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s , a n d c o m p a n i e s
that had n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s .
P e n sio n and R e tire m e n t P l a n s . F iv e p e r c e n t of a l l 1964 e x p e n d i t u r e s by w a t e r c a r ­
r i e r s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f v e s s e l p e r s o n ­
n el w e r e f o r p e n s i o n a n d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s .
A ll deep s e a v e s s e l p e rso n n e l w ere e m p lo y e d
by c o m p a n i e s h a v in g s u c h p l a n s , but a l m o s t
h a l f the in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w o r k e d f o r
c o m p a n i e s th a t did not h a v e a p e n s i o n a n d
r e t i r e m e n t p la n .
O u tl a y s by e m p l o y e r s of d e e p s e a v e s s e l
p e rso n n e l for p en sio n and re t ir e m e n t p lan s
m a d e up 5.6 p e r c e n t of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d

15
r a n g e d b e t w e e n 1 a n d 11 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m ­
p e n s a t io n ; 44 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w e r e
e m p l o y e d by c o m p a n i e s w h o s e e x p e n d i t u r e s
c o n s t i t u t e d 5 to 6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a ­
t io n .
When d i v i d e d a m o n g t o t a l w o r k in g
h o urs, exp en ditures fo r a ll deep se a v e s s e l
e m p l o y e e s a m o u n t e d to 24 c e n t s a n h o u r .
E m p l o y e e s in c o m p a n i e s with p la n s that did
not r e q u i r e a n e m p l o y e e c o n t r i b u t i o n o u t n u m ­
b e r e d t h o s e in c o m p a n i e s with c o n t r i b u t o r y
p l a n s by a r a t i o o f a b o u t 9 to 1. E m p l o y e r s
s p e n t a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t o r 3 c e n t s a n h o ur
m o r e f o r n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s th a n f o r c o n ­
trib u to ry p la n s.
P r a c t ic e s and exp en d itu res
in e a s t a n d w e s t c o a s t c o m p a n i e s w e r e
sim ilar.
E x p en d itu res fo r p en sion and r e tire m e n t
p l a n s f o r in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l a m o u n t e d
to 11 c e n t s p e r p a i d hour o r 3 . 4 p e r c e n t o f
a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s in c o m p a n i e s th a t
had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h i s i t e m .
T h is w as
about on e-h alf a s m u ch an hour a s equivalen t
exp en ditures for deep se a p e rso n n e l. P e n sio n
a n d r e t i r e m e n t p la n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r in la n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l in c o m p a n i e s w i t h s u c h
p l a n s w e r e a b ou t t w ic e a s h igh a n h o u r in
u n io n iz e d c o m p a n i e s a s in nonunion c o m p a n ­
i e s . N on contributory p lan s w e re four t im e s
a s c o m m o n a s c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s f o r in la n d
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , but e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e
s i m i l a r f o r both t y p e s o f p l a n s .
V a c a t i o n an d H o lid a y F u n d s .
E m ployer
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r v a c a t i o n a n d h o li d a y fu n d s
w e r e h i g h e r than f o r a n y o t h e r p r i v a t e w e l ­
f a r e p lan , a n d w e r e 2 V2 t i m e s g r e a t e r than
t h e i r d i r e c t p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s f o r l e a v e
tim e.
V i r t u a l l y a l l o u t l a y s w e r e m a d e by
d e e p s e a s h ip p in g c o m p a n i e s ; e m p l o y e r s o f
in la n d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l h a d p r a c t i c a l l y no
e x p en d itu res fo r this ite m . E x p e n d itu r e s fo r
v a c a t i o n an d h o lid a y fun ds a c c o u n t e d f o r 8. 1
p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n in the d e e p s e a s e g ­
m e n t o f the i n d u s t r y a n d a m o u n t e d to 35 c e n t s
a n h o u r o f w o rk in g t i m e . T h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s
w e r e s u f f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e a b o u t 4 w e e k s o f




p a i d l e a v e to a l l d e e p s e a v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s .
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r v a c a t i o n a n d h o lid a y fun ds
w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e in both e a s t a n d
w est c o a st co m p an ie s.
S e v e r a n c e o r D i s m i s s a l P ay and SU B
F u n d s; S a v in g s and T h rift P la n s; A utom ation
Fun ds.
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e s e t h r e e p la n s
w e r e q u ite low, due a t l e a s t in p a r t to t h e i r
r e l a t i v e r a r i t y in the i n d u s t r y . E x p e n d i t u r e s
fo r sa v in g s and th rift p lan s fo r v e ss e l p e r s o n ­
n el a m o u n t e d to 2 c e n t s a n h o ur o f w o rk in g
t i m e ; e x p e n d i t u r e s for s e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l
p a y a n d S U B fu n d s a m o u n t e d to 1 c e n t a n
ho u r; a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r a u t o m a t i o n fun ds
a m o u n t e d to l e s s than 1 c e n t a n h o ur of
w o r k in g t i m e .
Taken to ge th er, expen ditures
f o r t h e s e p la n s c o n s t i t u t e d 0.6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
co m pen satio n .
S a v i n g s a n d t h r i f t p la n s a c ­
co u n te d f o r t w o - t h i r d s of the t o ta l; the r e ­
m a i n d e r w a s c o m p o s e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y of
se v e r a n c e or d i s m i s s a l pay and SU B funds.
T h e h i g h e s t l e v e l of e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r a n y
of t h e s e i t e m s w a s f o r s a v i n g s an d t h r i f t
p l a n s in t h o s e few d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m ­
p a n i e s that p r o v i d e d s u c h a p la n f o r t h e ir
v e s s e l p erson n el.
E x p e n d itu r e s for sa v in g s
a n d t h r i f t plans in t h e s e c o m p a n i e s c o n s t i t u t e d
3. 2 p e r c e n t of a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d a m o u n t e d
to 12 c e n t s a n h o u r o f w o r k in g t i m e .
N e a r l y 3 out o f 4 w e s t c o a s t d e e p s e a
v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s that
c o n t r i b u t e d to a u t o m a t i o n fu n d s d u rin g 1964.
H o w e v e r , t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to l e s s
than 1 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n . 24 No
in la n d e m p l o y e r r e p o r t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
a u t o m a t i o n fu n d s o r s e v e r a n c e p a y a n d S U B
fu n d s f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l .
24
Most of the companies that made such payments reported
making them to the Mechanization and Automation Fund estab­
lished on the west coast by collective bargaining. Most employers
also reported that this fund was discontinued during the middle
of 1964.

T a b le 2.

0)

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s f o r the C o m p e n sa tio n of D eep S e a V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l, by R e g io n s ,
W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964
P e r h our
P e r c e n t of co m p e n sa tio n
W orking tim e

P a id fo r

C o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t ic e
U nited
S ta te s

E a st
C o a st

W est
C o a st

U nited
S ta te s

E a st
C o a st

W est
C o a st

U nited
S ta te s

E a st
C o a st

W est
C o a st

T o ta l e x p e n d itu r e s -----------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

$ 4 . 15

$ 4 . 12

$ 4 . 45

$ 4 . 29

$ 4 . 26

$ 4 . 54

G r o s s p a y m e n ts to w o r k e r s ------------------------------

77. 8

77. 6

78. 7

$ 3. 22

$ 3 . 20

$ 3 . 51

$ 3. 34

$3. 30

$3. 58

S t r a ig h t - t im e p a y f o r w o rk in g tim e --------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts -------------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and p e n a lty
w o r k ------------------------------------------------------

53. 5
21. 5

5 3 .3
2 1 .4

54. 5
22. 3

2. 22
. 89

2. 20
. 88

2. 44
.9 9

2. 30
.9 2

2. 27
.9 1

2. 49
1 .0 1

2 1 .5

21. 4

22. 3

. 89

. 88

. 99

.9 2

. 91

1 .0 1

P a y fo r le a v e tim e --------------------------------------V a c a tio n s -----------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -----------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e --------------------------

2. 7
2. 5
.1
(M

2. 8
2. 7
. 1
('1 )

1 .8
1 .6
.2

. 11
. 11
.0 1
(M

. 12
. 11
. 01
(*>

. 08
. 07
.0 1
(X)

. 12
. 11
. 01

. 12
. 11
.0 1
('1 )

. 08
. 07
. 01
(1 )

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ---------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts --------------------------------------

.1
(X)

. 1
(X)

.

(!)

n

(l )

.i

(1 )

(1 )

(1)

(M

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l --------------------

22. 2

22. 4

21. 3

3. 5
2. 1
1. 5

3. 5
2. 1
. 14

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 2 --------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t io n -----------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n -------------------P r iv a t e w e lf a r e p la n s ----------------------------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth in s u r a n c e -------P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ------------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s ----------------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s ---------------------------------------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ---------------------------A u to m a tio n fu n d s -------------------------------------

18.
4.
5.
8.

7
3
6
1

.2
.5
(M

18.
4.
5.
8.

n

4. 1
2. 1
2 .0

9
3
7
2

17. 2
4. 1
5. 1
7 .9

.2
.5

(1 )
.1
(M

(l )

( !)
(x )

(1 )

n

.9 2

.9 4

.9 5

.9 6

.9 6

. 15
.0 9
. 06

. 14
. 08
.0 6

. 18
.0 9
.0 9

. 15
.0 9
. 06

. 15
.0 9
.0 6

. 18
. 09
. 09

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

. 76
. 18
. 23
. 35

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.9 3

78
18
23
34

. 01
. 02
n

78
18
23
34

. 01
. 02

1

( )

n

.0 1
(M

80
18
24
35

. 01
. 02
(M

1 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf cent.
2 In c lu d e s o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
NO TE:




B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

su m s of in d iv id u a l it e m s m ay not e q u a l to t a ls .

81
18
24
35

. 01
. 02
C)

78
19
23
36

(X)
. 01
(M

T a b le 3.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of D e e p S e a V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l E x p e n d it u r e s , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
co m p en sa tio n )
C o m p an ie s
with
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
co m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P r a c tic e

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

T o ta l

W ith no
1
e x p e n d itu re s
U n d er and
fo r the
p r a c t ic e
1
u n d er
2

With e x p e n d itu re s fo r the p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t of to ta l e x p e n d itu re s
2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

n

12

13

14

15
and

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

o v er

A ll d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r so n n e l
21. 5

21

.

6

100

( X)

21. 5

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s __ ____ ____ ___________
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , an d

21

.

6

100

.

.

(M

5

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

24
70
24

47

20

2

1

"

-

>
24
13
_

_
23
3
( X)

_
26

3
12

11

44

7

1

_
9
3
7

2

78

2

yg

1

-

15
1 «;
10

2

5

P a y fo r le a v e tim e __
V a c a t i o n s _____
__
_
---S ic k l e a v e __________ _____________ ___ __ _____

2. 7
2. 5
. 1
( i)

4 .4
4. 2
1. 1
. 2

100
100
100

40
41

100

93

40
40
7
7

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s _______________________
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s ______________________ —____

.
(')

.
.

6
2

100
100

87
82

3. 5
2. 1
1. 5

3. 5
2. 1
1. 5

100

“

27

30
48

18. 7
4. 3
5. 6
8. 1

18. 7
4. 3
5. 6
9. 0

100
100
100
100

_

_

1

2

11

. 2
.5
( *)

1. 0

100
100
100

81
84
90

.

.

18

6

R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t i o n _______
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n
__
__ __
P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s ___ __ __
___ __
L if e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ______
P e n s io n an d r e t ir e m e n t p la n s V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y fu n d s _ ____ ____
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
SIT R f u n d s

S a v in g s an d th r ift p la n s
A u to m a tio n

_

_

____

fu n d s

1

3. 2
. 1

100
100

86

8

1

1

( X)
4

( X)
3

_
_

1
1

-

_

5
7

-

_

_
_

3
_

1

-

_

i
3

-

-

-

-

( X)

3
_
_

7
_
_

1

1

_
_
_

4

2

.
_
_
_

5

1

2

5
4

5
6

-

1

1

3
_

2
2

_
17

2

2

15
35

2

16

-

-

2

16

-

-

6

1
1

_
_

2

_

3

3
_

1

_
_

( X)

1
8

1

3
_
_

7
_
_

2

1

.
_
>
_

_
_
_

15

6

1

17

6

4

7
2

81
_
_
_

2

6

10

D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r so n n e l em p lo y e d by E a s t C o a s t f ir m s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts
------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , an d
p e n a lty w o r k _______________________________
P a y fo r le a v e tim e V a c a tio n s __ __ __
„
Sin k lpa vp
C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e

21. 4

100

2 1 .4

100

“

.8
2. 7
, 1
(*)

5. 0
4. 8
1. 1

100
100
100
100

44
45
87
94

36
36
7

. 1
(*)

.

6
. 2

100
100

85
85

9
15

3. 5
2. 1
1. 4

3. 5
2. 1
1. 4

100
100
100

2

___

___

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n ts
L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s

3

_______

R e tir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c tio n
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a tio n

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s __________________________
L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ______
P e n sio n an d r e t ir e m e n t p la n s _
V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y fu n d s
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S T IR f u n d s
S a v in g s a n d t h r ift p la n s
A u t o m a t io n fu n d s

S e e fo o tn o te s a t en d o f ta b le .




21. 4
2 1 .4

18. 9
4. 3
5. 7
8. 2
.2
.5
( *)

. 2

18.
4.
5.
9.

_
_
10

1. 1

100
100
100

80
83
98

_
3

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

48

17

1

_
_

75

1

8

6

5

6

6

100
100
100
100

1

6

30

9
3
7
0

3. 3
. 1

_
3

575

30
49

_
_
_
_

_

4
7

26
70

1

20

16

2

2

3
_

1

_
26
14
_

2

_
22

3
( X)

_
24

2

10

13
42

7

1

_
10
2
8

6

2
2

_
18

_
(l >

13

17
39

1

6

84

_
_
_

T a b le 3.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n o f D eep S e a V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t o f T o ta l E x p e n d it u r e s, W a ter T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964— C o n tin u ed
A v e r a g e e x p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
co m p e n sa tio n )
C o m p a n ie s
with
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P r a c tic e

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

T o tal

W ith no
e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d itu re s fo r the p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s
2

3

4

5

6

7

8

U nder and
1
u nder
2

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
and

3

4

5

6

7

9

8

10

11

12

13

14

15

over

D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r so n n e l e m p lo y e d by W est C o a s t f ir m s
P r e m iu m paym A nfa
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , an d
p e n a lty wotIc

22. 3

P a y fo r le a v e tim e _ ...
. .
_ .. ....
V a c a tio n s
Si
1
\rf>
C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ___________________
T e r m in a l p aym p n to

23. 0

100

2

7

98

22. 3

23. 0

100

2

7

98

1. 8
1. 6

1. 8
1. 7
1 i

?
(; )

(*)

100
100
100

78
84

72
72
7
16

6

2
2

_

_

_

34

54

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s __ „
L if e , a r r id e n t , and h ealth in s u r a n c e
P pn ainn anil t p H rp m p n t p la n a
V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y fu n d s _
_____
S e v e r a n c e o r d i m i s s a l p a y and
SU B f u n d s _________________________ _
S a v in g s an d th r ift p la n s _ __ __
___

32
Q
7

_
39
19

_

_

9

_

_
_

_
10

_
_

_
_

13

55

-

-

-

7

1

R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n _________
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n __ __
____

7
_

10

9
3
15

6

100

.3

100

58

4. 1
2. 1
2. 0

100
100
100

-

-

-

29
40

17. 2
4. 1
5. 1

100
100
100
100

_
_

_
7

_
9

_

(‘ )
. 1

(M
1. 6
(l )

_'

_
_

2

_

_

.

-

-

-

3

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

71
60

17. 2
4. I
5. 1
1. 9

9
_

42

4. 1
2. 1
2. 0

7 '

i 1)

9. 0

100
100
100

2

16

_

_

_

90
91
28

10
-

9

-

72

16
_
59

_
_
13

2

-

-

-

-

8

82

L e s s th an 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n o r 0. 5 p e rc e n t of e m p lo y e e s.
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s :
2 p e rc e n t a t 16 and u nder 17; 2 p e r c e n t a t 18—19; 2 p e rc e n t at 19—
20; 5 p e r c e n t a t 2 0 -2 1 ; 15 p e r c e n t a t 21—22; 8 p e r c e n t a t 22—
23; 13
29; 2 p e r c e n t a t 2 9 -3 0 ; and 3 p e r c e n t a t 30 o r o v e r .
p e r c e n t a t 23—24; 1 p e r c e n t a t 24—25; 1 p e r c e n t a t 2 5 -2 6 ; 14 p e rc e n t at 2 6 -2 7 ; 4 p e r c e n t a t 27—28; 6 p e r c e n t a t 28—
3
In c lu d e s o th e r le g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S tate t e m p o r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
4
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s:
5 p e rc e n t a t 16 and
u nder 17; 9 p e rc e n t at 17—18; 13 p e r c e n t a t 18—19; 14 p e r c e n t at 1 9 -2 0 ; 17 p e r c e n t a t 20—
21; 4 p e r c e n t a t 21—
22; 2
26; 1 p e r c e n t a t 27—28; and 1 p e r c e n t at 29—30.
p e rc e n t a t 22—23; 15 p e r c e n t a t 25—
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s :
2 p e rc e n t at 16 and
under 17; 2 p e r c e n t a t 18—19; 1
p e r c e n t a t 19— 4 p e r c e n t a t 20—
20;
21; 16 p e r c e n t a t 21—22; 4 p e rc e n t a t 22—
23; 14
27; 4 p e rc e n t at 27—
28; 6 p e r c e n t a t 28—
29; 2 p e r c e n t a t 29—
30; and 3 p e r c e n t a t 30 o r o v e r .
p e rc e n t a t 23—24; 1 p e r c e n t a t 24—25; 16 p e r c e n t a t 26—
6 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s:
6 p e rc e n t at
16 and
u nder 17; 9 p e r c e n t a t 17—18; 15 p e r c e n t a t 18—19; 10 p e r c e n t at 19—
20; 18 p e r c e n t a t 20—
21; 5 p e r c e n t a t 21—22; 2
p e r c e n t a t 22—23; 17 p e r c e n t a t 25—
26; 1 p e r c e n t a t 27—28; and 1 p e rc e n t at 29—30.
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s :
12 p e rc e n t a t 19 and u nder 20; 13 p e rc e n t a t 20—
21; 43 p e r c e n t a t 22—23; 10 p e r c e n t a t 23—
24; 9 p e r c e n t a t 25—
26; S p e r c e n t a t 27—
28; an d3
p e r c e n t a t 30 o r m o r e .
8 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s :
17 p e rc e n t a t 17 and u n der 18; 55 p e r c e n t a t 1 9 -2 0 ; and 10 p e r c e n t at 20—21.
N OTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




s u m s of in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not e q u al t o t a l s .

T a b le 4.

P e r c e n t D istr ib u tio n of D eep S e a V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l, by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d
C o m p en sa tio n P r a c t i c e s , in C e n ts P e r P a id H o u r, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964

A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(in c e n ts p e r h our)

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—
With e x p e n d itu r e s in c e n ts p e r h o u r of—

A ll
c o m p a n ie s

w ith
e x p e n d itu re s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

T o ta l

4
e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the
U nder and
p r a c t ic e
4
u n der
8

8

12

16

20

24

28

40

32

44

48

~T T ~

56

64

60

and
12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

o v er

A ll d e ep s e a v e s s e l p e r so n n e l
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts O v e r tim e , w eek en d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o rk ----— ---- — ................—

$ 0 . 89

$ 0 . 89

100

(l )

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

(l )

-

-

15

-

-

-

1

-

280

. 89

.8 9

100

( 1)

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

(l )

-

-

15

-

-

-

1

-

2 80

1
-

1
1

(J)
(M

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_
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1

5
8

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1

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6

14
62
25

43

25
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25
9
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13

1
16
24

2
3

1

9
_
18

!
_

(M

1
27
27
9

2

_

_

P a y fo r le a v e tim e •
V a c a t i o n s ----- —
S ic k l e a v e --------C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e ■

. 11
. 11
. 01
n

.
.
.
.

18
17
04
01

100
100
100
100

40
41
86
93

40
40
7
7

4

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ------

n

. 02
. 01

100

87
82

8

5

17

_
-

.
26

34
45

_

_

_

-

-

3
3

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100

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t io n --U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t i o n ----------

. 15
. 09
. 06

. 15
.0 9
. 06

100
100
100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s ■
L if e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth in su r a n c e ■
P e n s io n an d r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ----------V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y f u n d s ----—------ —
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
SU B f u n d s ----------------------— —
---S a v in g s an d th r ift p la n s A u to m a tio n fu n d s ------—

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

78
18
23
38

100
100
100

11

. 05
. 12

100
100
100

81
84
90

78
18
23
34

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. 05
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100

1

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5

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5

8

4

16

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_
_
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_

_

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1
1

20
_
_

460
_
_

-

_

D»eep s e a v e s s el pe:rson ne1 em p lo y e d 1 y E a i3t C o a s t firn ns
b
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o rk --------------- — —— —
P a y fo r le a v e tim e ■
V a c a tio n s --------S ic k l e a v e --------C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e ■
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts —

88

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

(l )

-

-

17

-

-

-

1

-

577

.8 8

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

(*)

-

-

17

-

-

-

1

-

5

. 12
. 11
. 01
(*)

. 19
. 19
. 05
. 01

100
100
100
100

44
45
87
94

36
36
7

_
3

1

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-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

6
8

1

2

1

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.
-

_
3

3
-

_
-

.
-

7
7

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n

.
.

02

100
100

9
13

6

01

85
85
_
_
-

_
_
31

5
35
46

15
65
19

45

29

2

3

_

1

4

-

1

_
.

_

_

_
28
29

<l >

_

_

1

_

679

1

-

10

1

3
3
-

2

21

-

_
15
9
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5

2

_
27

2

-

.
15

2

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-

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-

1

$0 .8 8
.

88

$0 .

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s * R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o te c tio n U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n ------ —

. 14
. 08
. 06

. 14
. 08
. 06

100
100
100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s ■
L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth in s u r a n c e P e n s io n an d r e t ir e m e n t p la n s —------—
V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y fu n d s
............
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s --------------------------------------S a v in g s an d th r if t p la n s A u to m a tio n fu n d s 1

.
.
.
.

78
18
23
34

.
.
.
.

78
18
23
38

100
100
100
100

.
.

01
02

. 05
. 12

100
100

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




(M

(M

100

10

80
83
98

3

77

6

_
3
7
2

1

3
-

8

16
1

2

_
15

8
6

2

15

4

15

-

-

-

11
-

1
-

4

19
4

18

_

-

-

1

_

-

-

4

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b le 4. P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of D eep S e a V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l, by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s fo r S e le c te d
C o m p en sa tio n P r a c t ic e s , in C e n ts P e r P a id H our, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u stry , 1964— Continued
A v e r a g e e x p en d itu re
(in c e n ts p e r hour)
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

C o m p an ie s
with
e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

8

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

T o ta l

With no
4
e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the
Under and
4
p r a c t ic e
under
8

With ex p e n d itu re in c e n ts p e r h o ur of—
8

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64
and

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

o v er

D eep s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l em p lo y ed by W est C o a s t f i r m s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts -----------------------------O v e r tim e , w eek en d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o r k ------------------— — -------P a y fo r le a v e t i m e -----------------------------V a c a t i o n s --------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l l e a v e ----------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts -----------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3—
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n ---U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t i o n ---------P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s -------------------------L ife , a c c id e n t, an d h ea lth in s u r a n c e —
P e n sio n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ---------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s --------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s ------------— —------—— —
■——•
S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ------------------A u to m a tio n f u n d s ---------------------------- 1
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 L e s s th an 0. 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e - h a lf cent.
2 E m p lo y e e s
w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s:
2 p e rc e n t at 6 6 and u n d er 70 c e n ts ; 5 p e r c e n t a t 70—74 c e n ts ; 2 p e rc e n t at 78—
82 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t a t 82—86 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t a t 86—
90 ce n ts;
p e r c e n t at 93—
96 c e n ts ; 14 p e r c e n t a t 99—102 c e n ts ; 23 p e rc e n t a t 105—108 c e n ts ; 12 p e r c e n t at 108-111 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t a t 111—114 c e n ts ; 5 p e r c e n t at 114—117 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t at 117—120
c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 120—123 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t at 123—126 c e n ts; 1 p e rc e n t a t 135—138 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t a t 141—144 c e n ts ; and 1 p e r c e n t a t 144—150 c e n ts .
3 I n c lu d e s o th e r le g a l ly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in su r a n c e , not
p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
4 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a,s
fo llo w s: 9 p e rc e n t at 64 and u n d er 6 6 c e n ts ; 7 p e r c e n t a t 66—
70 c e n ts ; 20 p e rc e n t a t 70—74 c e n ts ; 4 p e r c e n t a t 74—78 c e n ts ; 7 p e r c e n t a t 78— ce n ts;
82
8 p e r c e n t a t 82—86 c e n ts ; an d 5 p e r c e n t a t 90—
94 c e n ts.
5 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s
fo llo w s: 2 p e rc e n t at 6 6 and u n d er 70 c e n ts ; 5 p e r c e n t a t 70—74 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t a t 82—86 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 86— c e n ts ; 6 p e r c e n t a t 93— ce n ts;
90
96
8 p e r c e n t a t 99—102 c e n ts ; 28 p e r c e n t a t 105—108 c e n ts ; 15 p e rc e n t a t 108—111 c e n ts ; 5 p e r c e n t at 114—117 c e n ts ; 2 p e rc e n t at 120—
123 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 123—126 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t at 135—138
c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 141—144 c e n ts ; an d 1 p e r c e n t at 147—150 c e n ts .
6 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s:
17 p e rc e n t a t 6 6 and u n d e r 70 c e n ts ; 16 p e r c e n t a t 74—78 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t at 78— c e n ts ; 13 p e r c e n t a t 82—86 c e n ts ; 7 p e r c e n t a t 86— ce n ts;
82
90
2 p e r c e n t a t 93—
96 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 105—108
c e n ts ; 2 p e rc e n t a t 108—111 c e n ts ; 18 p e r c e n t a t 1 2 6 -1 2 9 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t 129—132 c e n ts ; and 1 p e r c e n t a t 138-141 c e n ts .
7 E m p lo y e e s
w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s:
15 p e rc e n t a t 78 and u n d er 82 c e n ts ; 10 p e r c e n t a t 82—
86 c e n ts ; 12 p e rc e n t a t 86— c e n ts ; 9 p e r c e n t a t 93— c e n ts ; 33 p e r c e n t at 99—
90
96
102 ce n ts;
9 p e r c e n t a t 111—114 c e n ts ; and 10 p e r c e n t at 117—120 c e n ts.
8 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s:
8 p e rc e n t at 6 6 and u n d er 70 c e n ts ; 12 p e r c e n t a t 70—
74 c e n ts ; 9 p e r c e n t a t 78— c e n ts ; 12 p e r c e n t a t 82—86 c e n ts ; 33 p e r c e n t a t 86— c e n ts;
82
90
and 10 p e r c e n t a t 1 0 5 -1 0 8 c e n ts .
6

NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al t o t a l s .

T a b le 5.

T a b le

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s fo r the C o m p en satio n
o f Inlan d V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l, W ater
T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964

6

.

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r the C o m p e n sa tio n of Inlan d V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l,
by U nion S ta tu s of N o n s u p e r v is o r y E m p lo y e e s ,
W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964
E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s by union s t a tu s of
n o n s u p e r v is o r y v e s s e l p e r so n n e l_____

E m p lo y e r ex p e n d itu re s
in a ll c o m p an ies
C o m p e n sa tio n p r a c t ic e

T o t a l e x p e n d itu r e s -----------------

P ercen t
of
co m p e n ­
sa tio n
1 0 0 .0

P e r h our

C o m p e n sa tio n p r a c t ic e

P a id fo r

W orking
tim e

$ 2 . 74

$ 2 . 90

2. 51

91. 5
7 9 .7
6. 6
6

.

6

P a y fo r le a v e t i m e ---------------------V a c a tio n s -----------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e --------

4. 2
3 .9
.3
n

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ---------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts --------------------

1 .0

. 19
. 18

2. 31
. 19

. 18

2

. 19

.

.
.

(l )

(M

. 03
(M

.0 3
(M

. 23

4. 0

.

.

2. 5
1. 5

. 07
. 04

. 07
. 04

4. 5

.

P r i v a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s ----------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h ea lth
in s u r a n c e ---------------------------P e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t
p l a n s -----------------------------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s -----S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ----------

0

100

.0

M a jo r ity
u n io n ized

W orking tim e

$3.

20

.

89

M a jo r ity
not
u n io n ize d

M a jo rity
u n io n ized

M a jo rity
not
un io n ized

$ 2 . 24

$ 3 . 34

$ 2 . 41

. 08

3. 02

2. 24

93. 0

2

77. 1
9 .0

83.
2.

6
8

2. 47
. 29

1 .8 7
.0 6

2. 57
. 30

2 .0 1

9 .0

2

.

8

.2 9

.0 6

. 30

.0 7

P a y fo r le a v e t i m e -----------------------V a c a tio n s -------------------------------S ic k le a v e -------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e ----------

3. 2
3. 0
.1

5. 7
5. 2
.5

. 10
. 10
( !)

. 13

.1 1
. 10

. 14
.1 3

n

n

n

N o n p rod u ctio n b o n u s e s -----------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ----------------------

1

S tr a ig h t- tim e p a y fo r w orkin g
t i m e -----------------------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts ---------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y ,
and p e n a lty w o r k --------------------

2

.0 7

. 13

8

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s 2 -------------------------------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and
p r o t e c t io n --------------------------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n —

.

. 25

(M

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l —

100

M a jo r ity
not
u n io n ize d

90. 4

G r o s s p a y m e n ts to w o r k e r s --------------S t r a ig h t - t im e p a y fo r w o rk in g
t i m e ----------------------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts -------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y ,
and p e n a lty w o r k ----------------- -

P a id fo r

2. 65

M a jo rity
u n io n ized
T o ta l e x p e n d i t u r e s --------------------

G r o s s p a y m e n ts to w o r k e r s -------------

P e r h our

P e r c e n t of
co m p en s a tio n

2
2

.5

.
.

n

2
2

.i

.1 1
11
.01

11

12

. 06
. 06
( !)
(M

12

11
.0 1

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l ----12

.0 6
.0 6
( !)
n

L e s s th an 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf cent.
2 In c lu d e s o th e r le g a l ly r e q u ire d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly
S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b i li t y in s u r a n c e , not p r e se n t e d s e p a r a te ly .

L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e
p r o g r a m s 2 --------------------------------R e tire m e n t in c o m e and
p r o t e c t io n -----------------------------U n em p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n ----P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s ------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h ea lth
in su r a n c e -----------------------------P e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t
p la n s ------------------------------------V a ca tio n and h o lid ay f u n d s -------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s -------------

.

.
.

1

.1 2
.0 1

(l >

. 03
-

. 02
(2 )

. 04
-

. 16

. 32

6

7 .0

. 31

3.

8

4. 4

.

.
1.

8
6

. 07
.0 5

.

6

. 19

2. 5

1 .9

.0 8

3. 2
.1
. 1

.7

.

.0 2
-

2

5.

2

8

-

-

12

10

( !)
( )

.

.01

(M

n

8
1

9.

2. 3
1. 5

(M

.0 2

(2)
. 17

10

. 13

.

. 06
. 04

. 08
. 05

. 07
. 04

.0 6

. 19

.0 6

. 04

. 08

.0 4

.

.0 2
-

11

( !)

11

i1 )

1

NO TE:
eq u al to ta ls.

B e cau se




of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

o f in d iv id u a l ite m s

1 L e s s th an 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf cen t.
2 In clu d e s o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su ra n c e
not re p o rte d s e p a r a t e ly .

m a y not
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s of in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al t o t a l s .

T a b le 7.

IS

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of Inland V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c te d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t of T o ta l E x p e n d it u r e s, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
c o m p en sa tio n )
C o m p an ie s
with
ex p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in co m p a n ie s-

T o ta l

With no
e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

With e x p en d itu re s fo r the p r a c t ic e ! a s a p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu r e s—
1

U nder and
1
u n d er

Z

7

5

8

9

TO

n

12

13

14

15
and

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

o v er

6

.

6

8

.

6

100

29

7

12

3

3

2

4

10

-

2

1

8

2

2

3

1

11

6

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts -------------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and p e n a lty

.

6

8

.

6

100

29

7

12

3

3

2

4

10

-

2

1

8

2

2

3

1

20

3

16
9

19

(*)

6

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

2

3

(M

20

( ')

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

11

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ■
V a c a tio n s S ic k l e a v e ---------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e -

4. 2
3 .9
.3
(*)

5. 3
5. 6
.8
. 1

100

100

23
33
67
87

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ------

1 .0

100
100

64
99

13
-

_

1

2

-

7
-

11

(*)

2. 7
6. 6

-

-

-

2
1

L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 1
2
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n —
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n ---------

4. 0
2. 5
1. 5

4. 0
2. 5
1 .5

100
100
100

_
( *)

_
18

_
9
53

8

39
24
5

27
-

19
-

6

1

67
23

-

-

_
-

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la
L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e P e n sio n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s -----------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s ---------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ---------------------

4. 5
2. 2
2. 2
n
. i

4. 8
2. 5
3. 4
.9
.9

7

7

12

4

_

1

_

_

_

1

.

100
100
100

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1
2

100
100

100
100

9
14
46
97
95

11
22

11
11

13

12
10

4
3
5

10

31
15

6
20

9

26
16
7

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u al t o ta ls .




(*)

.
-

_
-

1

5
9
11

"

L e s s th an 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s.
In clu d e s o th e r le g a l ly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .

N O TE:

12
12

T a b le 8.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of Inlan d V e s s e l P e r s o n n e l, b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C e n ts P e r P a id H o u r, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu re
(in ce n ts p e r paid h o ur)

W ith e x p e n d itu r e s in c e n ts p e r h o u r (
w ith
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

T o ta l

e x p e n d itu re s
3
f o r the
U n der and
3 u n d er
p r a c t ic e

9

6

27

24

21

30

33

36

42

39

48

45

and
9

6

18

15

12

18

15

12

24

21

27

33

30

36

42

39

45

48

over

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts _____________________
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o r k ________________________

$ 0 . 18

$ 0 . 27

100

29

9

9

4

2

5

10

1

3

_

_

3

1

_

_

3

8

13

. 18

. 27

100

29

9

9

4

2

5

10

1

3

-

-

3

1

-

-

3

8

13

P a y fo r le a v e t i m e ______________________
V a c a t i o n s _____________________________
S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ____________

. 11
. 11
. 01
(*)

. 15
. 16
. 02

100
100
100
100

23
33
67
87

23
13

6

7
7

14
14
(X)

10

3
3
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

0)

1

6

_

5
3
_

_

_

1
1

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -----------------------T e r m i n a l p a y m e n ts _____________________

. 07
. 16

100
100

64
99

13
-

7
-

3
-

8

2

_

_

(M

-

-

1

. 11
. 07
. 04

100
100
100

_
_

_
_
32

6

19
57

32

25

8

29
45

12

2

1

.
.
.
.
.

100
100
100
100
100

. 03

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 2_.
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t io n _
_
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ________

. n
. 07
. 04

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s -------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth in su r a n c e
P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s _______
V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s ___________
S a v in g s and th r if t p l a n s ______________

. 12
. 06
. 06
( !)

1
2

C)

C)

14
07
11

03
03

(l 2
)

9
14
46
97
95

22

14
3

8

13

18
17
8

15
23
4

6

11

22

(l )

-

(l )

(M

8

15
5
5

4

_

_

1

_

6

_

_

2

n

i

_

_

_

_

1

_

.

_

5

8

4

_

2

_

1

_

_

1

10

n

_
_

19
16

16
4

3
10

1

5

1

1

2
1

3
5

L e s s th an 0. 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf ce n t.
In c lu d e s o th e r l e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e , no t p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s .

1
0

G
)

Chapter 3.
I n t r o d u c t io n
In 1 96 4 , s t e v e d o r e s ' e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the
c o m p e n s a t i o n o f l o n g s h o r e m e n a m o u n t e d to
$ 4 . 8 8 a n h o u r — 30 p e r c e n t ( $ 1 . 4 6 ) o f w h ic h
w e r e f o r s u p p l e m e n t s to s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y fo r
w o r k i n g t i m e . 25 T h e s e s u p p l e m e n t a r y e x p e n d ­
2
i t u r e s w e r e e q u a l to 42 p e r c e n t o f s t r a i g h t t i m e p a y f o r w o r k in g t i m e . E x p e n d i t u r e s fo r
p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s and p r e m i u m p a y ,
a m o u n t i n g to 13 and 11 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a c c o u n t e d f o r the
b u lk o f a l l s u p p l e m e n t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s ; the r e ­
m ain in g ex p e n d itu re s c o n s is te d of o u tla y s for
l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p a id
l e a v e , n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s , and t e r m i n a l
pay m en ts.

Longshoremen
an d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ; and v a c a t i o n and h o l i ­
d a y f u n d s . In a d d i t i o n , f i r m s e m p l o y i n g a b o u t
o n e -h a lf o f a l l lo n g sh o re m e n p aid s o m e w o r k ­
e r s f o r v a c a t i o n and h o li d a y t i m e o f f 26 a n d
had s o m e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r n o n p r o d u c t io n b o ­
n uses.
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s , p a i d s i c k l e a v e ,
p a i d c i v i c an d p e r s o n a l l e a v e , t e r m i n a l p a y ­
m e n ts , State te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e ,
s e v e r a n c e p a y an d S U B f u n d s , s a v i n g s and
t h r i f t p l a n s , an d a u t o m a t i o n fu n d s w e r e i n ­
f r e q u e n t l y found— l e s s than 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l
p i e r e m p l o y e e s w e r e e m p l o y e d by c o m p a n i e s
th a t had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e s e i t e m s .
P aid L e a v e
In 1964, l e a v e p a y m e n t s o f 6 c e n t s p e r
w o r k in g h o u r a c c o u n t e d f o r 1. 3 p e r c e n t —
a b o u t the e q u i v a l e n t o f 3 d a y s o f p a id l e a v e
for eac h lo n g sh o re m a n — o f a ll c o m p e n sa tio n
e x p e n d i t u r e s o f s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s . 27 In a d d i ­
tion to t h e s e d i r e c t p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s ,
m a r i n e c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s p a id 21
c e n t s to v a c a t i o n and h o li d a y f u n d s .
These
c o m b i n e d e x p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to 27 c e n t s
an h o u r o f w o r k in g t i m e and 5. 6 p e r c e n t o f
t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n --- the e q u i v a l e n t o f 14 d a y s
of paid le a v e for eac h e m p lo y e e .

M o st p ie r e m p lo y e e s w ork ed for s t e v e ­
d o r e s w h ose c o m p e n s a t i o n exp en ditures
r a n g e d f r o m $ 4 . 6 0 to $ 5 . 4 0 a p a id h o u r d u r ­
ing 1964. The t a b u l a t io n below sh o w s the d i s ­
t rib u t io n o f w o r k e r s by c o m p a n y e x p e n d i t u r e s :
Percent of longshoremen
Total compensation
(expenditures per paid hour)
All em ployees---------------------Under
$4. 00
$4. 20
$4. 40
$4. 60
$4. 80
$5. 00
$5. 20
$5. 40
$5. 60
$5. 80
$ 6 . 00

$4. 0 0 -----------------------------and under $4. 20-----------------and under $4. 40-----------------and under $4. 60----------------and under $4. 80 ------and under $5. 0 0 ----------------and under $5. 20----------------and under $5. 40 ---------- ------ and under $5. 60 -----------------and under $5. 80-----------------and under $6 . 0 0 -----------------or m ore----------------------------

United
States
100

E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r p aid v a c a tio n s
a m o u n t e d to 4 c e n t s a n h o u r w o r k e d by a l l
lo n g sh o re m e n accoun tin g fo r tw o -th ird s o f a ll
l e a v e p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s . P a y f o r h o l i d a y s
n ot w o r k e d a c c o u n t e d f o r fou r-tenths o f 1 p e r ­
c e n t o f a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s and a m o u n t e d
to 2 c e n t s a n h o u r o f w o r k in g t i m e .
Expen­
d i t u r e s f o r s i c k and c i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e
a m o u n t e d to l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n , e v e n in c o m p a n i e s w ith e x p e n d i t u r e s
for these leave p r a c t ic e s .

12
2
6

38
14
6

10
4
2
3
2

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100 .

P rem iu m Pay
P r e m i u m p a y , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 11 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n s a t i o n (53 c e n t s an h o u r o f w o r k i n g
tim e ) w a s a m a j o r c o m p o n e n t o f the c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n p a c k a g e f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n d u r i n g 1964.
T h e s e ex p e n d itu r e s w e r e paid a l m o s t e n tir e ly
f o r o v e r t i m e , w e e k e n d , and h o li d a y w o r k .

P r e v a l e n c e o f P a y S u p p le m e n t s

In 1964, a l l s t e v e d o r i n g c o m p a n i e s had
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and u n e m ­
p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e , and c o m p a n i e s e m p l o y ­
ing s e v e n - e i g h t h s o r m o r e o f a l l l o n g s h o r e ­
m en paid p r e m iu m s fo r o v e r tim e , w eekend,
and h o li d a y w o r k , and had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
l i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e ; p e n s i o n

25 Only 13 percent of the longshore employees actually re­
ceived vacation pay directly by their employers, and most of
these workers were employed on the piers in a supervisory capac­
ity or in nonsupervisory position not directly related to the
handling of marine cargo (see table 16 for details).
27
Stevedoring firms generally do not make direct payment
to longshoremen for leave time. Hence, most workers that did
receive the payments reported here were supervisors and other non­
office employees of marine cargo handling firms.

2^ Expenditures for the compensation of longshoremen, in­
cluding outlays for workmen's compensation, amounted to $5. 11
an hour of working time, $1.79 of which were for supplements.




24

Chart

The




4

S tru c tu re

of

C o m pe n sa tio n ,

Lo ng sho rem en,

(Expenditures per

W ate r

T ra n s p o rta tio n

In d u s try ,

paid hour)

$0 52
$ 3.37

S tr aight -time
pa y for
w o rk in g time

P rem ium
$ 1.42

Pay
supplements

p a y m e n ts
Private

w e lfa r e
plans

tegafty

;

required
insurance
program s

$0.01
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n ts
and n o n p ro d u c t io n
bonuses

$ 0.06

Pay for
leave tim e

10
0
1

26
S h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l s , though p r o v i d e d f o r in
so m e b a rg a in in g a g r e e m e n t s , a ccou n ted for
an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the
c o m pen satio n of lo n g sh o rem en .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n B o n u s e s an d T e r m i n a l
Paym ents
A lth o u g h m o r e than h a l f o f a l l c o m p a n i e s
re p o r te d so m e s m a ll p ay m en ts for n o n p ro ­
du c tio n b o n u s e s , t h e s e a m o u n t e d to on ly 1 c e n t
a n h o u r o f w o r k in g t i m e in c o m p a n i e s th a t
did m a k e s u c h p a y m e n t s . T e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s
acc o u n ted for an even l e s s sig n ific a n t p a r t
o f c o m p e n satio n .
L e g a lly R equ ired In suran ce P r o g r a m s
D u r in g 1 96 4 , 4 . 2 p e r c e n t (21 c e n t s an
h o u r o f w o r k in g tim e ) o f a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n
expen ditures w e re for leg a lly re q u ired in s u r ­
ance p r o g r a m s . F ifty - s e v e n p e rc e n t of these
p a y m e n t s w e r e f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , 43 p e r ­
cent w e re for u n em ploym en t co m p e n satio n
i n s u r a n c e , an d a v e r y s m a l l p a r t ( l e s s than
1 p ercen t) w a s fo r other le g a lly re q u ir e d
p r o g r a m s . 281
*
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y am ou n ted
to 12 c e n t s a p a i d h o u r and c o n s t i t u t e d 2 . 4
p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s . E ig h ty se v e n p e rc e n t of a l l lo n g sh o re m e n w o rk ed for
c o m p an ie s w h ose s o c ia l s e c u r ity exp en ditures
a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 to 3 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n .
E m p l o y e r p a y m e n t s f o r F e d e r a l and S t a t e u n ­
e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n i n s u r a n c e a m o u n te d
to 9 c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r o r 1 . 8 p e r c e n t o f
a ll co m p e n satio n o u tlay s.

P r iv a te W elfare P la n s
E m p lo y e r exp en ditures for p riv ate w e l­
f a r e p l a n s w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t s u p p l e ­
m e n t to s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n .
T h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s a m o u n t e d to 65 c e n t s a n
h o u r and c o n s t i t u t e d 1 3 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
co m p e n satio n .
P r a c t ic a lly a ll p riv a te w e l­
f a r e e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e d iv id e d in a l m o s t
e q u a l a m o u n t s a m o n g l i f e , a c c i d e n t , and
h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e ; p e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t
p l a n s ; an d v a c a t i o n and h o li d a y f u n d s .
L i f e , A c c i d e n t , an d H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e .
P r a c t i c a l l y a l l c o m p a n i e s had e x p e n d i t u r e s
f o r l i f e , a c c i d e n t , an d h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e .
T h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s , a v e r a g i n g 20 c e n t s a n
h o u r , r a n g e d b e t w e e n 16 an d 26 c e n t s p e r
paid hour.
S o m e c o m p a n i e s , h o w e v e r , had
e x p e n d i t u r e s a s h ig h a s 32 c e n t s p e r p a id
h o u r and o t h e r s r e p o r t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s l o w e r
than 1 c e n t p e r p a i d h o u r .
P e n sio n and R e t ir e m e n t P l a n s .
Steve­
doring c o m p a n ie s sp en t abou t 5 p e rc e n t— o r
1 c e n t a n h o u r— m o r e f o r p e n s i o n a n d r e ­
t i r e m e n t p l a n s than f o r l i f e , a c c i d e n t , and
h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s . P e n s i o n p la n e x p e n d ­
i t u r e s in c o m p a n i e s
e m p l o y i n g 83 p e r c e n t
o f a l l l o n g s h o r e m e n r a n g e d b e t w e e n 17 a n d
27 c e n t s p e r p a i d h o u r , and a v e r a g e d 21
c e n t s an h o u r .
V a c a t i o n and H o l i d a y F u n d s .
E m p lo y er
c o n t r i b u t i o n s to fu n d s w h ic h p r o v i d e d v a c a ­
tion an d h o li d a y p a y f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n
a m o u n t e d to 21 c e n t s a n h o u r w o r k e d — 4.3
p e rc en t of a ll co m pen satio n ex p en d itu res—
and w e r e 3 V2 t i m e s a s l a r g e a s a l l d i r e c t
e m p l o y e r p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s f o r l e a v e t i m e .

O ther P r iv a t e W elfare P l a n s .
Severa n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y an d S U B fun ds w e r e
r a r e an d w e r e n ot a m a j o r p a r t o f the t o t a l
28
Outlays for legally required insurance programs, includings t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n .
workmen's compensation, accounted for 8 . 6 percent of all com­
T h e c o s t o f t h e s e b e n e f i t s to c o m p a n i e s th a t
pensation expenditures. The outlays for legally required insurance
did h a v e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r th e m w a s 13 c e n t s
programs, adjusted to include workmen's compensation, are dis­
p e r p a i d h o u r o r 2. 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p e n ­
tributed as follows: 53 percent for workmen's compensation,
sation ex p en d itu re s. E m p lo y e r contribution s
27 percent for social security, 20 percent for unemployment com­
to a u t o m a t i o n fun ds a m o u n t e d to 1 c e n t a n
pensation insurance, and less than 1 percent for other legally re­
h o ur o f w o r k in g t i m e in 1964.
quired insurance programs.







T a b le 9 .

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s fo r th e C o m p e n sa tio n of L o n g s h o r e m e n ,
W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
P erc e n t of
c o m p e n sa tio n

C o m p e n sa tio n p r a c t ic e

T o ta l e x p e n d i t u r e s ------------------------------

.

P e r hour
P a id f o r

W orking tim e

0

$ 4 .7 9

$ 4 .8 8

8 2 .6

$ 3 .9 6

$ 4 . 02

S tr a ig h t- tim e p a y fo r w o rk in g t i m e ---------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 -------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid ay w o rk —

70. 3
1 0 .9
10. 9

3. 37
. 52
. 52

3 .4 2
. 53
.5 3

P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ----------------------------------V a c a t io n s ________________________________
H o lid a y s --------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------

1. 3
.9
.4
. 1
(2 )

. 06
. 04
. 02
(2 )
(2 )

. 06
. 04
. 02

N onprodu ction b o n u s e s ----------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s ----------------------------------

. 1
(2 )

. 01
(2 )

. 01
(2 )

E x p e n d itu re s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l ----------------

1 7 .4

.8 3

.8 6

L e g a lly r e q u ire d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3-----R e tire m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n -------U nem ploy m en t c o m p e n s a tio n ----------------

4. 2
2 .4
1 .8

. 20
. 12
. 09

. 21
. 12
. 09

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s -----------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h ea lth i n s u r a n c e -----P e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p l a n s --------------V a ca tio n and h o lid ay f u n d s ------------------S e v e ra n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
SU B fu n d s----------------------------------------A utom ation fu n d s --------------------------------

1 3 .2
4. 2
4 .4
4. 3

. 63
. 20
. 21
. 21

.6 5
. 20
. 21
. 21

.
.

.
.

G r o s s p a y m e n ts to w o r k e r s --------------------------

100

.

1

.2

01
01

0

(2 )

01
01

In clu des sh ift d if f e r e n t ia ls not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf ce n t.
In clu des o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y
in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
1
2
3

N O T E : B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y no t e q u a l t o t a l s .

1
0
vl

T a b le 10.

P r a c tic e

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of L o n g s h o r e m e n by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e rc e n t o f T o t a l E x p e n d it u r e s , W a ter T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964

A v e r a g e e x p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
co m p en sa tio n )
C o m p an ie s
with
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

12

13

14

15

16

over

15
15

6
6

5
5

4
4

2
2

11
11

1
-

_

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

16

9

4

29

15

-

-

_

-

"

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1
1

7
9

4

-

3
3

2
2

21
21

9
9

5
5

( 2)
-

2
1

_

_

-

.6
1. 7
.8
.4
.3

100
100
100
100
100

44
47
50
84
91

37
36
40
14
9

2
2

4
3

1
2

8

. 1
( 2)

. 3
( 2)

100
100

45
93

52
7

4. 2
2. 4
1. 8

4. 2
2. 4
1. 8

100
100
100

-

-

7
57

3
2
5
2

100
100
100
100

(?)
(2)
3
14

2. 4
.8

100
100

97
81

11

4

1. 3
.9
.4
. 1
( 2)

2

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s _______________________
T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts __________________ ______
L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3 ____
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t i o n _______
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n „ ________

13.
4.
4.
4.

2
2
4
3

.
.

2

1

13.
4.
4.
5.

o

( 2)

10

( 2)
3
-

1

16

_

2

_

2

1
1

10

-

25

23

( 2)

5
5

1

1

7
-

(2)

8

43

87
31

6
2

2

.
14

1

2

1

1
1

-

8

_
54
83

6

7

.
19

1

-

2

2

1

-

-

4

25

12

4

29

8

2

1

"

-

1

2
2

In c lu d e s sh ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s th an 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n o r 0 . 5 p e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s.
In c lu d e s o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .




a p e rc e n t of to ta l

y

4

and

1
1

P a y fo r le a v e tim e _________________________
V a c a tio n s ________ ________ __ ____ ___
H o lid a y s ____ _____________________ ______
S ic k le a v e _________________________________
C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e — ---- -----------

3

y
2

100
100

10. 9
10. 9

1
2

T o ta l

11. 0
11. 0

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ________________________
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , an d h o lid a y w o rk __

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s _______________________
L if e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth in su r a n c e ----P e n sio n an d r e t ir e m e n t p la n s ____________
V a c a tio n and h o lid a y fu n d s _ __ ------ __
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B fu n d s ________________________________
A u to m a tio n fu n d s _______ __ __ _________

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—
With no
e x p e n d itu re s
1
fo r the
U nder and
1
p r a c t ic e
u n d er

5

(2)
"

"

"

T a b le 11.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n o f L o n g s h o re m e n , by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C e n ts P e r P a id H o u r, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964

A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(in c e n ts p e r h our)

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

C o m p an ie s
A ll
with expen4
T o ta l
co m d itu r e s
U nder and
fo r the
p a n ie s
fo r the
4
u n d er
p r a c t ic e
p r a c t ic e
8

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ---------------------------2
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o r k --------------------------------

$ 0 . 52

$ 0.^53

100

1

(3 4
)

. 52

. 53

100

1

(3 )

P a y fo r le a v e t i m e -----------------------------V a c a t i o n s --------------------------------------H o li d a y s ----------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----------------

. 06
. 04
. 02
(3 )
(3 )

. 12
. 08
. 04
. 02
. 01

100

44
47
50
84
91

37
37
40
14
9

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s -----------------------------

. 01
(3 )

. 01
(3 )

100

51
7

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 5
—
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n ---U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n -----------

. 20
. 12
. 09

. 20
. 12
. 09

100
100
100

_

.

-

-

(3 )

-

10

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s -------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth
in s u r a n c e ------------------------------------P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ---------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s --------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s ------------------------------------A u to m a tio n fu n d s ----------------------------

. 63

.6 3

100

(3 )

_

.
.

20
21
.2 1

. 20
. 22
. 26

100
100
100

(3 )
3
14

.
.

. 13
. 04

100
100

97
81

12

16

16

12

24

20

24

20

28

28

32
36

32

36
“
40

40

44

44

48
52

48

52
56

56

60

60

64

64

68

68

72

72

76
and

76

over

5

100

45
93

With e x p e n d itu r e s in c e n ts p e r h o u r of—
8

01
01

100
100
100
100

1

5

2

5

4

2

1

23

7

6

5

7

9

2

4

1

2

4

16

.1

6

2

4

3

2

1

23

7

6

5

7

9

2

4

1

2

4

16

3
3

5
3

(3 )

1

_
3

5

1

2

5

6

(3 )

1

-

_
_

.
_

_
_

_
_

_

2
2

_
_

-

1

-

_
_

1

_

_
_
_

2

1

_

_

_

_

_

(3 )

-

46

16
37
14

43
3
4

13

57
26

2

1

_

_

_

3

2

4

2

-

(3 )

1

3

59
70

4

12

17
14
14

6

-

-

1

-

16

1

1

1

14

1

_

_

._

_

_

_

.

_

2

2

11

(3 )

(3 )

(3 )

3

_

8

1

1

1

1

4

20

12

5

9

2
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

8

-

1

1

9

22

7

8

(3 )

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

-

6

23

-

1

In c lu d e s sh ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e se n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s th an 0. 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e -h a lf cent.
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s: 3 p e r c e n t a t 76 and u n d er 80 c e n ts ; 3 p e r c e n t a t 80— c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 84—
84
88 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t at 92—
96 c e n ts ; 3 p e r c e n t at 100—104 c e n ts;
3 p e r c e n t a t 104—
108 c e n ts ; and 1 p e r c e n t at 116—
120 c e n ts .
4
In c lu d e s o th e r le g a l ly re q u ir e d p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
1
2
3




10
C
O

Chapter 4.

Nonoperating Employees

In t ro d u c t io n

w o r k e d f o r f i r m s w h o se o u t l a y s w e r e l e s s
than $ 2 . 9 0 p e r h o u r, a n d a b o u t 25 p e r c e n t of
a l l o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s o f c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m ­
p a n i e s w o r k e d f o r s t e v e d o r e s w h o se o u t l a y s
a m o u n t e d to l e s s than $ 2 . 9 0 .
On the o t h e r
hand, a l m o s t o n e - t e n th o f the i n d u s t r y ' s o f f i c e
f o r c e (7 p e r c e n t o f the d e e p s e a , 10 p e r c e n t of
the inland, and 12 p e r c e n t o f the o f f i c e e m ­
p lo y e e s of steved orin g fir m s) worked fo r e m ­
p lo y e r s w h o s e co m p en satio n exp en d itu res
a m o u n t e d to m o r e than $7 p e r p a i d h o u r . The
f o llo w in g t a b u l a t io n sh o w s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of
o f f i c e w o r k e r s in v a r i o u s s e g m e n t s of the i n ­
d u s t r y by c o m p a n y e x p e n d i t u r e s .

E m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n o f the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y ’ s
n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s a m o u n te d to $ 4 . 53 an
h o u r o f w o r k in g t im e in 1 9 6 4 . 29 S t r a i g h t tim e p a y f o r w o rk in g t im e ( $ 3 . 53) a c c o u n t e d
f o r 78 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s , and o u t ­
l a y s f o r p a y s u p p l e m e n t s ($ 1) a c c o u n t e d f o r
the r e m a i n i n g 22 p e r c e n t .
A b out f i v e e i g h t h s o f the s u p p l e m e n t a r y p a y m e n t s w e r e
f o r p a i d l e a v e and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s and
s l i g h t l y m o r e than o n e - f o u r t h w e r e f o r n o n ­
p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s and l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n ­
surance p ro g ra m s.
The l e v e l and s t r u c t u r e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n
for office e m p lo y e e s w ere m a rk e d ly d iffere n t
in e a c h s e g m e n t of the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
ind ustry.
S tra ig h t-tim e p ay m en ts fo r office
e m p l o y e e s ’ w o rk in g t im e w e r e 15 p e r c e n t
h i g h e r in d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s (w h e r e
the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y e x i s t e d )
than in in la n d s h ip p in g c o m p a n i e s (w h e r e the
lo w e st lev e l of stra ig h t-tim e pay ex iste d ).
Total co m p e n satio n fo r e m p lo y e e s of deep s e a
f i r m s , h o w e v e r , w a s 28 p e r c e n t h i g h e r than
f o r t h o s e o f f i r m s o p e r a t i n g on the in la n d
w aterw ays.
The d i f f e r e n c e in the two m e a s ­
u r e m e n t s w a s due to the l a r g e r s u p p l e m e n ­
t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s o f the d e e p
s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s .
The f o llo w in g t a b ­
u la t i o n sh o w s the l e v e l a n d s t r u c t u r e of the
m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s of c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s in e a c h of the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
in d u stry se g m e n ts:

Percent of office workers by type of
_____ water transportation firm_____
Total compensation
(cents per paid hour)
All employees-----Under
$2. 40
$2 . 60
$2. 80
$3. 00
$3. 20
$3. 40
$3. 60
$3. 80
$4. 00
$4. 20
$4. 40
$4. 60
$4. 80
$5. 00
$5. 20
$5. 40
$5. 60
$5. 80
$6 . 00
$ 6 . 20
$6 . 40

Employer expenditures per hour
_____________ of working time

Type of firm
Deep sea shipping--Inland shipping------Stevedoring-----------

Total
compensation
$5.09
3.98
4. 42

Straight-time
pay for
working time
$3.80
3.31
3. 37

Pay
supple­
ments
$1. 29
. 67
1.05

100

100

100

5
3

<»>
-

8

6

-

13

15

4
13

1
2

-

1
1

10

7

7

8

2
2
12
6

7
15

7
4

4
5
4
5
7
8

3
5
( l)
f 1)
1
1
2

9

3
13
13
4
12

(l )
-

13

100

( l)
3
21

7
7

8

1

(J)
5
5

4
( 2)
7
5

2
2

(*>
2
1
1
1

2
1

<l >

7

10

-

2
1
-

<*>
1
2
1

5
12

Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100 .

C o m p en satio n exp en ditu res fo r o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y f r o m c o m p a n y to
c o m p a n y and within i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t s . V i r ­
t u a lly a l l d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s s p e n t
m o r e than $ 2 . 80 p e r p a i d h o u r f o r the c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n of t h e i r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s .
On the
o t h e r hand, m o r e than 30 p e r c e n t o f a l l
o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s o f in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s

P r e v a l e n c e of P a y Su p p lem en ts
D u r in g 1964, a l l w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
c o m p a n i e s had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i ­
ty a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n i n s u r a n c e
c o v e r i n g t h e i r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s , and m o r e
than 9 out of 10 o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r
f i r m s that p a i d f o r v a c a t i o n s a n d h o l i d a y s .
In a d d itio n , o n e - h a l f o r m o r e o f the w o r k e r s
w ere em ployed by w ater tra n sp o rta tio n f ir m s
th a t had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o v e r t i m e p r e m i u m s ,

29

Expenditures for legally required workmen's compensa­
tion for office employees are estimated to amount to 4 cents a
working hour. Total compensation including these estimates
amounts to $4. 57 a working hour, 4 percent of which are
legally required expenditures.




$ 2.40-------------and under $2. 60 —
and under $2 . 80 —
and under $3. 00 —
and under $3. 20 —
and under $3. 40 —
and under $3. 60 —
and under $3. 80 —
and under $4. 00 —
and under $4. 20 —
and under $4. 40 —
and under $4. 60 —
and under $4. 80 —
and under $5. 00 —
and under $5. 20 —
a n d under $5. 40 —
and under $5. 60 —
and under $5. 80 —
and under $ 6 . 00 —
and under $6 . 20 —
and under $6 . 40 —
or m ore-----------

Deep sea Inland
carriers carriers Stevedoring

All

30

Chart 5.




The Structure uf Compensation, O ffice Employees, Water Transportation Industry, 1964
( Expendi tur es per paid hour)

Pay
leave

for
time

$0.30
Private

- — ‘

welfare

Terminal
. and

plans

$0.14
payments

nonproduction
bonuses

insurance
/Premiun

p a y m e n ts

programs

32

s i c k l e a v e , c i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ; n o n ­
p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s ; lif e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lt h
i n s u r a n c e ; and p e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s .
In g e n e r a l , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y m o r e o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s o f d e e p s e a s h i p p e r s than o f e i t h e r
s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s o r in la n d c a r r i e r s w o r k e d
f o r f i r m s that had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a y s u p ­
p le m e n ts.
H o w e v e r , s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s had
a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r sh if t
d i f f e r e n t i a l s , v a c a t i o n and h o lid a y fu n d s, and
a u t o m a t i o n f u n d s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s than
f i r m s in the o t h e r s e g m e n t s of the i n d u s t r y .
P aid L eave
I n d u s t r y w id e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a i d l e a v e
o f 31 c e n t s a n h o u r of w o rk in g t im e c o n s t i ­
tuted 6 . 9 p e r c e n t o f a l l o u t l a y s f o r the c o m ­
p en satio n of office e m p lo y e e s.
Leave e x ­
p e n d i t u r e s by d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s
a m o u n t e d to 43 c e n t s an h o u r of w o r k in g t im e ,
m o r e than tw ic e a s m u c h a s t h o s e of in la n d
sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s (19 c e n t s ) and a b o u t o n e t h i r d h i g h e r than the e x p e n d i t u r e s of c a r g o
h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s (30 c e n t s ) .
Leave e x ­
p e n d i t u r e s a m o n g the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c o m ­
p a n i e s v a r i e d on ly s l i g h t l y a m o n g r e g i o n s .
P aid V a c a tio n s.
P ay for v acatio n s m ade
up 3 .6 p e r c e n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n and a m o u n te d
to 17 c e n t s an h o u r of w o rk in g t im e ; it a c ­
co u n te d f o r 55 p e r c e n t of a l l p a i d l e a v e f o r
o f f i c e w o r k e r s in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
in d u stry.
T h ese exp en d itu res w ere su ffi­
c i e n t l y l a r g e to p r o v i d e e a c h e m p l o y e e with
about 9 d a y s of p aid v a ca tio n .
V acatio n e x ­
p e n d itu re s fo r office e m p lo y e e s ,
how ever,
v a r i e d a m o n g the d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t s .
V a c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s of
d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s a m o u n te d to 22
c e n t s an h o u r o f w o r k in g tim e , 11 c e n t s f o r
e m p l o y e e s of in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s , and
16 c e n t s f o r e m p l o y e e s of c a r g o h a n d lin g
co m pan ie s .
P aid H o lid a y s.
P a i d h o li d a y e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s whic h a c c o u n t e d f o r 2. 3 p e r c e n t o f a l l
c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s and a m o u n t e d to
10 c e n t s an h o u r o f w o rk in g t im e w e r e a b o u t
th re e - fifth s a s la r g e a s p aid v a c a tio n e x ­
pen ditu res.
H o lid a y e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s r a n g e d f r o m 1 .6 p e r c e n t of c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n in in la n d c a r r i e r s , to 2 . 4 p e r c e n t
in s t e v e d o r i n g f i r m s , and 2. 7 p e r c e n t in d e e p
sea c a r r ie r s.
S i c k L e a v e and O th e r P a i d L e a v e . P a y ­
m e n t s to o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s f o r s i c k l e a v e ,
w h ich a c c o u n t e d f o r 13 p e r c e n t o f a l l l e a v e
p ay m en ts, c o m p r is e d ju s t under 1 p e rc e n t of
c o m p e n s a t i o n and a m o u n te d to 4 c e n t s a
w o r k in g h o u r.
E x p e n d itu r e s fo r sic k leav e
f l u c t u a t e d a m o n g r e g i o n s and type o f f i r m in
e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e way a s did e x p e n d i t u r e s
f o r p a i d v a c a t i o n s an d p a i d h o l i d a y s .




A lth oug h m o r e than h a l f of a l l o f f i c e e m ­
p l o y e e s w o r k e d in c o m p a n i e s that h a d e x ­
p e n d i t u r e s f o r c i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e , d i s ­
b u r s e m e n t s f o r t h is type o f l e a v e a m o u n t e d
to 1 c e n t an h o u r and a c c o u n t e d f o r on ly
3 p e r c e n t of a l l l e a v e e x p e n d i t u r e s .
P rem iu m

Pay

P r e m i u m p a y m e n t s , 30 a lth o u g h r e p o r t e d
by m o s t c o m p a n i e s , c o n s t i t u t e d only 1. 5 p e r ­
c e n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s and
a m o u n t e d to 7 c e n t s a n h o u r o f w o r k in g t im e
d u r i n g 1964.
T h is w a s in s h a r p c o n t r a s t to
the r o l e o f p r e m i u m p a y in the s t r u c t u r e of
c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r n o n o ff ic e e m p l o y e e s w h e r e
it w a s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t s u p p l e m e n t .
Pre­
m i u m p a y m e n t s w e r e s m a l l e r in d e e p s e a
s h ip p in g c o m p a n i e s (4 c e n t s an h o u r o f w o r k ­
ing tim e ) than in e i t h e r in la n d s h ip p in g c o m ­
p a n i e s (8 c e n t s ) o r c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s
(11
cents).
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s
w e r e u n i f o r m l y low, a m o u n ti n g to l e s s than
o n e - t e n t h o f 1 p e r c e n t of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n B o n u s e s an d T e r m i n a l
Paym ents
N onproduction b o n u se s accou n ted fo r 3 .2
p e r c e n t o f a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s by w a t e r t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n c o m p a n i e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n of
o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s and a m o u n t e d to 14 c e n t s
an h o u r o£ w o rk in g t i m e ; t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s
w e r e m u c h l o w e r , c o n s t i t u t i n g l e s s than 1
p e r c e n t of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n and a m o u n ti n g
to 1 c e n t an h o u r .
The l e v e l s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s
r e f l e c t the lo w i n c id e n c e o f t h e s e p a y m e n t s ,
b u t o u t l a y s by f i r m s that had e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
t h e s e p r a c t i c e s d u r i n g 1964 w e r e quite h igh.
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r n o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s in
f i r m s that p a i d them a m o u n t e d to 28 c e n t s a n
h o u r of w o rk in g t im e and r a n g e d up to m o r e
than 90 c e n t s a n h o u r in s o m e c o m p a n i e s ;
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s in c o m ­
p a n i e s that m a d e t h e s e p a y m e n t s a m o u n t e d to
4 c e n t s an h o u r o f w o r k in g t im e and r e a c h e d
a s h ig h a s 15 c e n t s an h o u r in s o m e f i r m s .
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r b o n u s e s and t e r m i n a l
p a y m e n t s by f i r m s with the p r a c t i c e w e r e
c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r in d e e p s e a sh ip p in g
c o m p a n i e s (22 and 2 c e n t s an ho u r, r e s p e c ­
t iv ely ) than in in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s
(7 c e n t s and l e s s than 1 c e n t s ) ; e x p e n d i t u r e s by
c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s w e r e b e t w e e n the
e x t r e m e s o f the o t h e r two i n d u s t r y s u b g r o u p s .
L e g a lly R equ ired In su ran ce P r o g r a m s
Com pany e x p en d itu res fo r le g a lly r e ­
q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s c o n s t i t u t e d 3. 2
p e rc e n t of a ll c o m p e n sa tio n o u tlay s du rin g
These include premium pay for overtime, weekend,
holiday work, and shift differentials.

33

Chart 6.

Em ployer Expenditures for Supplementary Compensation for
Office Em ployees, Water Transportation Industry, 1964
P e rce n t
i0

2
1

I

o f c o m p e n s a tio n

4
i

I

Deep sea shipping
P a id

- ......................................

Stevedoring firms

Deep

sea shipping

Inland sh ip p in g

pay

S te v e d o rin g

Deep sea
Bonuses,

te r m in a l

pay

Inland

firm s

Deep sea shipping
L e g a lly

r e q u ir e d

in s u r a n c e

n
:
j

................ i

.............

i

1

.......... -.........................

I

_

1

............................

Inland shipping

p ro g ra m s

i

Stevedoring firms

1

............................

Deep sea shipping
P r iv a te

w e lfa r e

p la n s

......................... ........................................ i

.. .. J

Inland shipping

:

Ste ved o rin g firm s

............................................. ................ 1

C e n ts
0

Deep sea shipping

Ste ved o rin g

Deep
P r e m iu m

sea shipping

Stevedoring

Deep
t e r m in a l

pay

Inland

firm s

shipping

hour

1

30
1

”

40
1

1

............................... ......

”

1

___________________________ J
1

l
1

............ 1
..

sea sh ip p in g

Stevedoring firms

L e g a lly

1

firm s

Inland shipping

pay

Bonuses,

1

____ _

p a id

20

Inland shipping

le a v e

per

10
1

P a id

1

.......................... i

shipping

firm s

r

...........- , i

shipping

S te v e d o rin g

10

8
i

i

inland shipping

le a v e

P r e m iu m

6
i

i

..................i
................................... i

Deep sea shipping

r e q u ir e d

Inland shipping
in s u r a n c e

p ro g ra m s

Stevedoring firms

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !.
_ _____j
_

Deep sea shipping
P r iv a te

w e lfa r e




p la n s

Inland shipping

...........1

Stevedoring firm s

........................................... -...................1

34
1964 a n d a m o u n t e d to 15 c e n t s a n h o u r of
w o r k in g t i m e .
P ay m en ts for so c ia l secu rity
m a d e up a b o u t f i v e - e i g h t h s o f the t o t a l ; u n ­
em ploy m en t co m pe n satio n in su ra n c e t h r e e e i g h t h s ; an d p a y m e n t s f o r o t h e r l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s a d d e d an i n ­
c o n s e q u e n t i a l a m o u n t to c o m p l e t e the t o t a l . 31
E x p en d itu res fo r leg ally re q u ired in su ran ce
p r o g r a m s (1 5 c e n t s a n h o u r in d e e p s e a s h i p ­
p in g c o m p a n i e s and 14 c e n t s a n h o u r in i n ­
la n d s h ip p in g c o m p a n i e s an d c a r g o h a n d lin g
c o m p a n i e s ) v a r i e d on ly s l i g h t l y a m o n g the
in d ustry se g m e n ts.
E m p lo y e r exp en ditures
f o r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y (O ASD I) c o v e r a g e o f o f f i c e
e m p lo y e e s accou n ted fo r 2 p e r c e n t of total
c o m p e n s a t i o n and a m o u n t e d to 9 c e n t s a n h o u r
o f w o r k in g t i m e ; c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s f o r
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r F e d e r a l and S t a te u n e m p l o y ­
m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n w e r e 1 .2 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
c o m p e n s a t i o n and 5 c e n t s a n h o u r .
P r iv a t e W elfare P la n s
In 1964, e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p r i ­
v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s , a m o u n ti n g to 7 . 2 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t l a y s and 32 c e n t s a n h o u r
o f w o r k in g t im e , w e r e the l a r g e s t s u p p l e m e n t
to s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y f o r w o rk in g t im e f o r
office e m p lo y e e s .
N in e ty p e r c e n t o f the p r i ­
v a t e w e l f a r e p la n e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e f o r l ife ,
a c c i d e n t , and h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s and p e n ­
s i o n an d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s — e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
p e n sio n and r e t ir e m e n t p la n s a ccou n ted fo r
54 p e r c e n t of a l l p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p la n o u t l a y s .
E x p e n d it u r e s fo r p r iv a te w e lfa r e p lan s
v a r i e d by i n d u s t r y s e g m e n t in the s a m e
m a n n e r a s m a n y o f the o t h e r s u p p l e m e n t s .
E x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e h i g h e s t in d e e p s e a s h i p ­
p in g c o m p a n i e s (43 c e n t s a n h o u r o f w o rk in g
t im e ) , f o l l o w e d by c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s
(37 c e n t s ) ,
and in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a n i e s
(19 c e n t s ) .
O u tlays fo r p riv a te w e lfare p la n s c o n ­
s t i t u t e d a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n in u n i o n iz e d c o m p a n i e s than in n o n ­
union c o m p a n i e s .
L i f e , A c c i d e n t , a n d H e a lt h I n s u r a n c e .
C om pany exp en ditures fo r l i f e , accid en t,
a n d h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e f o r o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s
a m o u n t e d to 11 c e n t s a n h o ur of w o r k in g t i m e

Expenditures for legally required insurance programs,
including workmen's compensation, accounted for 4. 2 percent of
all outlays for the compensation of employees and were distrib­
uted as follows: 48 percent for social security; 28 percent for
unemployment compensation insurance; 24 percent for workmen's
compensation; and less than 1 percent for other legally required
insurance programs.




and c o n s t i t u t e d 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p e n s a ­
tion e x p e n d i t u r e s .
H ow ever, th e se e x p en d ­
i t u r e s v a r i e d w id e ly f r o m c o m p a n y to c o m ­
pan y, a c c o u n t in g f o r l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f
c o m p e n s a t i o n in s o m e c o m p a n i e s bu t a l m o s t
10 p e r c e n t in o t h e r s .
E x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e a b o u t t w ic e a s l a r g e
p e r h o u r o f w o r k in g t i m e in d e e p s e a s h i p ­
p in g c o m p a n i e s (1 5 c e n t s ) a s in in la n d s h i p ­
p in g c o m p a n i e s (7 c e n t s ) .
E xp en ditu res of
c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m p a n i e s (11 c e n t s ) , lik e
m o s t other su p p le m e n ta ry o u tla y s, w e re b e ­
tw e e n the s h ip p i n g c o m p a n y l e v e l s .
A b o u t a s m a n y e m p l o y e e s c o v e r e d by
t h e s e p l a n s w e r e in c o m p a n i e s th at h a d c o n ­
t r i b u t o r y p l a n s a s w e r e in c o m p a n i e s th a t h a d
n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s .
E x p e n d i t u r e s in c o m ­
p a n i e s h a v in g c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s w e r e s e v e n te n th s of t h o s e in c o m p a n i e s h a v in g n o n c o n ­
tributory p lan s.
P e n s i o n and R e t i r e m e n t P l a n s .
Expend­
i t u r e s f o r p e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s c o n ­
s t i t u t e d 3 . 9 p e r c e n t (18 c e n t s ) o f the i n d u s ­
t r y 's co m p e n satio n ex p en d itu res fo r office
w orkers.
T h e s e o u t l a y s by c o m p a n i e s that
m ad e p ay m en ts fo r such p lan s, how ever, a c ­
co u n te d f o r 5. 7 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p e n s a t i o n
e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d r a n g e d up to n e a r l y 18 p e r ­
cent of co m p e n satio n .
E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t
p l a n s m a d e up 5. 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l c o m p e n s a ­
tion e x p e n d i t u r e s and a m o u n t e d to 24 c e n t s an
h o u r o f w o r k in g t im e in c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m ­
pan ies.
T h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e l a r g e r than
t h o s e found in any o t h e r type o f w a t e r t r a n s ­
p o rtatio n co m pan y.
H ow ever, ex p en d itu res
in d e e p s e a s h ip p in g c o m p a n i e s , a c c o u n t in g
f o r 4. 4 p e r c e n t of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n and
a m o u n tin g to 23 c e n t s a n h o u r, w e r e a l m o s t
a s great.
T h o s e o f in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a ­
n i e s ( 2 .4 p e r c e n t of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n and
10 c e n t s ) an h o u r w e r e a b o u t h a l f a s m u c h a s
the o t h e r t y p e s o f f i r m s .
T w ic e a s m a n y e m p l o y e e s w e r e in c o m ­
p a n i e s h a v in g p l a n s th a t d id not r e q u i r e e m ­
p lo y e e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a s w e r e in c o m p a n i e s
with c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s .
E xp en d itu res w ere
a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r in c o m p a n i e s h a v ­
ing n o n c o n t r ib u t o r y p l a n s a s in c o m p a n i e s
h a v in g c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s .
O th e r P r i v a t e W e l f a r e P l a n s .
Expend­
i t u r e s f o r s a v i n g s a n d t h r i f t p l a n s a m o u n te d
to only 2 c e n t s a n h o u r o f w o r k in g t im e and
c o n s t i t u t e d l e s s than o n e - h a l f of 1 p e r c e n t

35

o f to ta l c o m p e n s a t i o n .
E x p en d itu res for v a ­
c a t i o n and h o li d a y fu n d s , s e v e r a n c e o r d i s ­
m i s s a l p ay and s u p p l e m e n t a r y u n e m p l o y m e n t
b e n e f i t s , and a u t o m a t i o n f u n d s w e r e l e s s than
h a l f a s l a r g e a s e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s a v i n g s and
thrift p la n s.
T h e s e low l e v e l s o f e x p e n d ­
i t u r e s r e f l e c t the lo w i n c id e n c e of t h e s e p l a n s
fo r office w o rk e rs.
H ow ever, ex p en d itu res
f o r s o m e o f t h e s e s u p p l e m e n t s w e r e of c o n ­
s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e in c o m p a n i e s that had
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r th e m .
In t h e s e c o m p a n i e s ,
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r v a c a t i o n and h o li d a y fu n d s
o f 18 c e n t s an h o u r of w o rk in g t im e c o n ­
stituted 4 .7 p e rc e n t of a l l co m p e n satio n
e x p e n d i t u r e s ; e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s a v i n g s and
t h r i f t p l a n s w e r e 28 c e n t s an h o u r— 3 . 9 p e r ­




c e n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n ; 32 and e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r
s e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p ay and S U B fu n d s
a m o u n te d to 13 c e n t s a n h o u r— 2. 1 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n satio n .
E x p en d itu res for au to ­
m a t i o n fu n d s , a m o u n tin g to l e s s than 1 c e n t
an h o u r o f w o rk in g t im e , w e r e v e r y s m a l l —
ev en in t h o s e fe w f i r m s that m a d e p a y m e n t s
into su c h f u n d s . 2

2 The seemingly high expenditure of 28 cents an hour for
this item reflects the high level of compensation in companies
that had expenditures for this plan. Most of die companies that
had savings and thrift plans were deep sea shipping companies
whose compensation outlays for office employees were among the
highest in the industry.

T a b le 12.

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s fo r the C o m p e n sa tio n o f O ffic e E m p lo y e e s , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
Inlan d c a r r i e r s

D eep s e a c a r r i e r s

A ll co m p a n ie s

P a id fo r

W orking
tim e

P erc en t
of
co m pen­
sa tio n

$ 4 . 59

$ 5 .0 9

$ 4 . 06

$ 4 . 51

6
8
8

3. 41
. 04
. 04

8 .4
4. 3
2. 7

.01

. 31
. 17
. 10
.0 4
. 01

3. 2
.2

. 13
. 01

. 14
. 01

4 .4
.3

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l -----------------------

10. 4

. 44

. 47

1 1 .5

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3 ------------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n --------------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n -----------------------

3. 2

P a id fo r

W orking
tim e

P ercen t
of
com pen­
sa tio n

10 0 .0

$ 4 . 19

$ 4 . 53

1 0 0 .0

89.

6

$ 3 . 75

$ 4 . 06

88

S t r a ig h t - t im e p a y fo r w o rk in g t i m e ----------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ---------------------------------------O v e r tim e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k --------

77. 8
1. 5
1. 5

3. 26
.0 6
.0 6

3. 53
. 07
. 07

P a y fo r l e a v e -------------------------------------------------V a c a tio n s --------------------------------------------------H o li d a y s ----------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ----------------------------

6 .9
3. 6
2. 3
.8
.1

. 29
. 15
. 10
. 04

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -----------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts -----------------------------------------

P ercen t
of
com pen­
sa tio n

C o m p e n sa tio n p r a c t ic e

T o ta l e x p e n d i t u r e s ------------------------------------G r o s s p a y m e n ts to w o r k e r s ---------------------------------

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s ------------------------------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ---------P e n sio n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ---------------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s -------------------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s -----------------------------------------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ------------------------------A u to m a tio n fu n d s ----------------------------------------

1
2
3

P e r hour

P e r h our

W orking
tim e

1 0 0 .0

$ 3 .7 9

$ 3 .9 8

100

9 1 .7

$ 3 . 47

$ 3 . 65

88

3. 80
. 04
. 04

83. 1
2. 1
2. 0

3. 15
. 08
.0 8

1 .2

. 39
. 20
. 13
. 05

. 43
. 22
. 14
. 06

. 18
. 10
. 06
. 02

.

.0 1

.0 1

4 .9
2. 7
1. 6
.4
.1

.
.

.
.

.5

7 4.
.
.

2

20
02

22

1 .6

02

(2 )

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




76. 4
2. 4
2. 4

3. 09
. 10
. 10

3. 37
. 11
. 11

. 19
. 11
.0 6
. 02

6. 8
3. 6
2. 4
.7
. 1

. 28
. 15
. 10
. 03

. 30
. 16
. 11
.0 3

(2 )

.0 7
(2 )

2 .9
.1

(2 )

.

12

(2 )

(2 )

. 13
(2 )

1 1 .4

. 47

. 51

. 14
.0 9
. 05

. 15
. 10
.0 5

. 14
.0 9
. 06

3. 1
1. 3

. 13
. 07
. 05

. 14
.0 8
.0 6

4. 7
1 .7
2. 4
.6

. 18
.0 6
.0 9
. 02

. 19
.0 7
. 10

.3
.6
5. 4
.1

. 34
. 10
. 22
. 01

.5
3 .0
4. 4
-

. 39
. 14
. 20
-

. 43
. 15
. 23
-

.3
.8

. 01
. 04

. 01
. 04

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al t o t a l s .

$ 3 .9 1

3. 31
. 08
. 08

. 33

(2 )

.0 2

-

-

(2 )

1 .8

8
2

(2 )

1

In c lu d e s s h ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e - h a lf cen t.
In c lu d e s o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .

NOTE:

$3. 59

. 14
. 08
. 05

. 32
. 11
. 18
. 01
.0 1
.0 2

$ 4 . 42

6

. 32

. 30
. 10
. 16
. 01

(2 )

$ 4 . 06

.

.3

7. 2
2. 5
3 .9
.2

. 01
. 02

(2 )

.0

3. 6
2. 2
1 .4

. 15
.0 9
. 05

(2 )

.0 6

W orking
tim e

8

. 14
. 08
.0 5

8

(2 )

P e r hour
P a id fo r

. 58

. 53

2 .0
1 .2

. 1
.4

P erc en t
of
com pen­
sa tio n

P a id fo r

3 .0
1 .9
1. 1

(2)

S te v e d o rin g f ir m s

P e r h our

. 37
.11

. 24
.0 1

(2 )

(2 )
. 01

(2 )
.01

C )

(2 )

(2 )

T a b le 13.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n o f O ffic e E m p lo y e e s , b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l E x p e n d it u r e s , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
co m p en sa tio n )
C o m p an ie s
with
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P r a c t ic e

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—

T o ta l

W ith no
e x p e n d itu re s
1
f o r the
U nder and
p r a c t ic e
1
u n d er

w itn e x p e n d itu r e s io r tne p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t ot to ta i e x p e n d itu re s—
3

2

5

7

6

9

8

10

11

14

13

12

15

16
and

3

2

4

4

5

7

6

9

8

10

13

12

11

14

15

16

over

A ll o ffic e em p lo y e e s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1-----------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ___

1. 5
1. 5

.0
1. 9

2

100
100

23
23
4

40
40

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ----------------------------- ----V a c a tio n s ---------------------------------------------H o li d a y s ---------------- ----------------------------S ic k l e a v e ----------------------------------------------

6

.9
3. 6
2. 3
.8
. l

7. 1
3. 8
2. 4
1. 1
.2

100
100
100
100
100

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s _______________________
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n ts ___________________________

3. 2
.2

5.
.

8
8

100
100

46
76

21

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3______
R e t ir e m e n t in co m e and p r o t e c t io n _______
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a tio n _____________

3. 2
.0
1. 2

3. 2

2

2. 0
1. 2

100
100
100

-

32

7. 2
2. 5
3. 9
.2

7. 7
2. 7
5 .7
4. 7

100
100
100
100

.1
3 .9
.2

100
100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s --------------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ____
P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ____________
V a c a tio n and h o lid a y fu n d s _ __ ______
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
55ITR fu n d s .
S a v in g s an d th r ift p l a n s ___________________
A u to m atio n fun ds

. 1
.4
(2 )

2

100

13
13

11

41
4

22
-

2

6

8

1

(2 )

6

5

5
29
44

34
55

7
17
32
(2 )

(2 )
1

12

5

14
34
95

12
2

95
93
96

3

(2 )

1
2

3
1

(2 )
(2 )

4
4

(2 )
(2 )

1
1

1
1

5
37
55

2

27
55
8

7

6
22

22

4

11

1

(2 )

(2 )
1

4

(2 )

43
7
5

1
1

-

(2 )
(2 )

-

-

-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

.
_

(2 )

_
_

13
_
_
_

4
(2 )
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

7

4

4

2

(2 )

1

(2 )

7
_

4

7
_

1

_

4
_

(2 )

7
_

1

1

4
_
4

2

(2 )

(2 )

1

_

(2 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

3

2

7

5
5
3
33

6
11

7
7

10

10

7

18
3
(2 )

17
(2 )

-

(2 )

2

2

7

15

7

3

1

18

21
1

7
9
4
(2 )

8
12

6

13

4

3

10

10

10

1
1

(2 )
4

1

1

_

_
_

1

1

2

(2 )
(2 )

4

2
2

3

(2 )

2

_

1

O ffice e m p lo y e e s of d e ep s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n ie s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1-----------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , an d h o lid a y w o r k ___

0 .8
.8

0 .9
.9

100
100

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ___________________________
V a c a tio n s __________________________________
H o lid a y s
S ic k l e a v e
C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e _________________

.4
4. 3
2. 7
1. 2
.2

8 .4
4. 3
2. 7
1. 2
.2

100
100
100
100
100

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s _______________________
T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ___________________________

4. 4
.3

6 .6
1. 0

100
100

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3______
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n _
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n _____________

3. 0
1. 9
1. 1

3. 0
1 .9
1. 1

100
100
100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s ________________________
L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ____

.5
3. 0
4. 4

8.

5
3. 0
5. 8

100

.3
.8

.1
4. 0

100
100

P e n s io n

an d r e t ir e m e n t p la n s

S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S T T R f u n d s .............. . _
_
_
S a v in g s an d th r ift p l a n s __
_

..........
___ ___

8

8

2

100
100

7
7
_
_
_
3
16

31
66

_
-

73
73

_

14
14

1
1

_
_

1

12

_
4
47

40
84

51
_

6

>

(2 )
32
37

(*)
(2 )

-

34
55
4
28
4

36

3

1

12

18

-

-

-

(2 )

11

6

33
4

_

1

31
_
_

29

29

_
_

18

_

3
_
_

1

13

15

8

7

_

2

5

28

6

6

15

4

8

2
2

(2)

6

_

_

1

10

_

8
1

(2 )

2

8

62

9
10

5
17

7

21

1

4

90

(2 )

3
44
64

(*)
(2 )

23

-

-

"

86

1
1

6

5
26

1
1

1

5
13

11

1

(2 )

12

2

2

9

(2 )

(z \
(
)

S e e fo o tn o te s at en d o f ta b le .




C
O

T a b le 13.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n o f O ffice E m p lo y e e s , b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t o f T o ta l E x p e n d it u r e s, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964— C on tin u ed
A v e r a g e e x p en d itu re
(p e rc e n t of
co m p en s ation )
C o m p an ie s
w ith
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P r a c t ic e

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e si in c o m p a n ie s—

T o tal

W ith no
1
e x p e n d itu r e s
fo r the
U n d er and
u nder
p r a c t ic e
1

W ith e x p e n d itu r e s fo r the p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t o f to ta l ex p e n d itu re s—
12
14
13
7
8
10
11
5
3
6
4
9

2

16
and

4

3

2

15

5

7

6

9

8

10

14

13

12

11

15

over

16

O ffic e e m p lo y e e s o f in lan d sh ip p in g c o m p a n ie s
4
4

3. 7
3. 5

100
100

45
45

18
18

5. 2
3. 0
1. 8
.9
.3

100
100
100
100
100

9
16
13
58
75

25
35
25

4. 1
.2

100
100

60
85

3. 6
.2
1 .4

100
100
100

-

28

100
100

27
34
54
91

9
15
-

iz \
l /

5. 5
2 . 2
4. 4
5. 8
1. 5

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1-----------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , an d h o lid a y w o r k ----

2 .4
2. 4

2 .9
2. 9

100
100

14
14

P a y fo r le a v e tim e _
_ - ------- ----- —
V a c a t i o n s _____ —
—
_
—
—
H o lid a y s
------ ------------------_
S ic k le a v e _
_
—
— -- --------C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e _ _
__ _ _

6

.8
3 .6
2 .4
.7

6

.9
3 .6
2 .4
1. 2

1
1

1

_

1

1

7

28
46

.
.

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 __________________________
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , an d h o lid a y w o r k ___

2

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ____________________________
V a c a tio n s __ ___________ _____ ____ ____
H o li d a y s _____ ___ __ ------ --------------- S ic k l e a v e ----- --- ------- ----------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ________ - -------

4. 9
2. 7

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ---- ------- ----------- _
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n ts ------------------------------------

1.6

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3-------R e t ir e m e n t in co m e an d p r o t e c t io n ________
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n -----------------P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s _______________ _______
L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ____
P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p la n s _ ----- -—
_
V a c a tio n an d h o lid a y f u n d s ---------------------s a v in g s an d tn rix t p la n s
— .....

2

1
0

1 .6

.4
. 1
(2 )
3 .6
.2
1. 4

2

4. 7
1. 7
2 .4
.6

2

100
100
100

_

_

_

_

-

-

“

1

1

_

_

_

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

(2 )

4

2

1

1

3

4

(2 )

-

-

-

-

(2 )

14

7

11

2

9

(2 )

2

-

-

1

5

8

-

1

-

9
(2 )
-

8

1
8

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

4
-

-

-

-

-

(2 )
(2 )

g>
(2 )

“

(?■ )
(2 )

_

1

6
6

_

1

5

2

10

.

-

_

_

-

(2 )

-

-

1

2

“

"

~

”

2

21

21

1

25
45

55
18

18
9

13
17
3
(2 )

6

17
25
-

7
7
3
1

22

35

-

-

1

1

77

]
1
O ffic e e m p lo y e e s of st e v e d o r in g f ir m s
11
11

21

_

21

-

3
25
40

6

7

10

37

16

14

20

22

44

9

15
(2 )

41

6
22
2

5
23

7
-

7
"

8

8

3
“

(2 )
"

(2 )
"

13
43
55

26
55
7

45

6

3

2

14
18

4
8

6
8

12

-

2

3

4

9

24

1

-

-

1

(2 )

-

_

2

-

_

3. 1

-

1. 3

100
100
100

-

1 .8

-

(2 )
32

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s _______________________ _
L if e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth in s u r s i n c e -----P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p la n s
V a c a tio n and h o lid a y fu n d s
S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and

8. 3
2 .6

8

.8
2. 7
.9
1 .9

100
100

7
7

4
5

5 .4

6

100

22

100

93

1. 1

100
100
100

99
98
80

(2 >
. 1

4 .5

(2 )

. 2

(2 )

31
31

43
15
5

7

2
2

_
-

1

1

_

-

-

-

-

4

“

“
-

2
6

5

4

2
-

20
6

_

-

5
(?)
(2 )

_

5

4

-

4

8

-

6

-

-

-

5

1

-

-

5

4

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
20

In c lu d e s s h ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s th an 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s.
In c lu d e s o th e r l e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly State t e m p o r a r y d is a b i li t y in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s .

_

6

51

13
13

1. 3




_

1

-

1 .8

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

g)
(2 )

11

6

13

3. 1

NOTE:

1
1

1

1
1

11

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3„_____
R e t ir e m e n t in co m e an d p r o t e c t io n ________
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ---- ------- ------

1
2
3

_

14

-

53
77

S a v in g s an d th r ift p l a n s ----A u to m a tio n fun ds — --------------------------------------------

11
10

1

5

100
100

C TTR

1

6

5. 3
.5

. 1

_

4

4
32

. 1

_

!z
2)
(2 )

5

4
12

36

2 .9

__

7
3
8

6
16
20

. 1

_

(2 )
4
3

15

. 1

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
T e rm in a l paym ent
_

2
2

12

100
100
100
100
100

—
__

12
12

T a b le 14.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n o f O ffic e E m p lo y e e s , by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s
in C e n ts P e r P a id H o u r, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(in c e n ts p e r hour)

C o m p an ie s
with
A ll
ex p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

P ra c tic e

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s—
With no
3
e x p e n d itu re s
T o ta l
fo r the
U n d er
and
3
p r a c t ic e
u n d er
6

With e x p e n d itu re s in c e n ts p e r h o u r o f--9

6

12

15

Hi

21

24

27

30

“ 3T“

39

42

4b

48'
and

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

2

30

39

42

45

48

(2 )

(2 )
(2 )

(2)
(2 )

(2 )
(2 )

5

5
2

5
_
-

8

1

33

36

(2)
(2)

3
3

2

5
7
(2 )

8

3
(2 )

2
1

-

-

over

A ll o ffic e e m p lo y e e s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ---------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ----

$ 0 .0 6

P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------H o li d a y s ------------------------------------------------

.2 9
. 15
. 10

.0 6

$ 0 . 08
. 08

100
100

23
23

. 30
. 16
. 10

100
100

4

100

5

6

34
34
6

5

18
18
1
6

01

1 01

100

44

53

13
36
3

. 13

. 25
.0 3

100

46
76

6

2

100

17

. 14
.0 8
.0 5

. 14
.0 8
- .0 5

100
100
100

. 30
. 10
. 16
. 01

. 33
. 12
. 24
. 17

100

12

100
100
100

14
34
95

2

4

(2 )

. 01
. 02
(2 )

. 12
. 25

100
100
100

95
93
96

-

.0 1

$ 0 . 04
. 04

$ 0 .0 4
.0 4

100
100

7
7

66
66

P a y fo r le a v e t i m e ------------------------------------V a c a t io n s -----------------------------------------------

. 39
. 20
. 13
. 05
. 01

. 39
. 20
. 13
. 06

100
100
100
100
100

-

-

3

20

16

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ------------------------------p y

.

100

31

.0 2

.2 9
.0 5

100

66

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3 ------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ---------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ------------------

. 14
.0 9
.0 5

. 14
.0 9
.0 5

100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s --------------------------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, an d h e a lth i n s u r a n c e -----P e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p l a n s ----------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s -------------------------------------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s --------------------------

. 39
. 14
. 20

.3 9
. 14
. 26

100

. 01
.0 4

. 12
. 25

100
100

6
6

3

!

1

2

2

1

1
2

2

4
13
18
3

5
17-

6
8

4

8

8

3

20
2

8

7

2

3

4

1

11

4

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ----------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid a y w o rk -----

6
6

11
20

C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e

.

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -------------------------------

.01

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s

3

-------

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s --------------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e -----P e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p l a n s ----------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B fu n d s —— — — — — — ----—------ —----S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s --------------------------

_

5
1

(!)
(2)
16

14
52

4
9

12

5

13

4

10

5
(2)

1

34
35
4

26

26

2

(2)

4

2

3
15

5
13

6

8

1

3
(2 )

1

(2)

(2)

(2)

1

-

_
_

13
1

_

5

.

5

_

3

(2)

_

_

_

_

_

5
3
5

4
-

(2)

3

6

1

1

2

(2)

3

(2)

_
4

-

_
-

_
-

_
(2)

_
-

-

7

1

_

6

5

( !)
(2)

2

_

2

7
7
7

9

2

6

1

2

1
2

1
1

(2 )
4

(2 )

1
1

-

(2 )
(2 )

(2)

1

(2 )

3
-

5
7
10

3

(2)

2
1

1

9
11

3

5
46
26

11

-

3
3

416

(2 )

-

-

1

1

-

1

O ffic e e m p lo y e e s o f d e e p s e a sh ip p in g c o m p a n ie s

20

.01

100
100
100
100

_

_
1

18
18

_
-

12

3
3
_
10
4

_
3

1

3

32
46
-

34
3

1
16

_
16

22
2

81
5
17

_
q
7

_

10

(2)

( !)
(2)
23

2

1

7
4

6
-

90

-

8

-

■

1

-

2

58

51
24
4
19
(2)

.
-

2

18

( !)
(2 )
15

2
2

9
9
13
3

52
3

-

86

.

(2)
24
36

g

<2 )

8

■

(2)

.

1
1

_
14
Q
7

-

-

-

(2 )
5

9
15
(2)

4
9

16
5

3
1

_

_

_
-

3
-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

4

7

8

2

2

_

8

_

13
_

S 21
1

13

8

_

9

1

4

_
-

_
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

1

14

2

_

12

29
-

(2)
3

_
-

_
-

5
4
19

8
16

7
5
7

10

9

_

1

2

-

8

-

-

4

1

8

11

3

_

3

•

-

-

1

2

2

1

-

-

-

3

_

14

_
3

_
3
1

_
-

620

_

_
7

"

2

-

-

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




0)
(0

T a b le 14.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of O ffice E m p lo y e e s , by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s fo r S e le c t e d C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r, W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964— Continued
P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s---

A v e r a g e ex p en d itu re
(in ce n ts p e r h our)
with
A ll
e x p e n d itu re s
c o m p a n ie s
fo r the
p r a c t ic e

With e x p e n d itu re s in ce n ts p e r h our of—
T o ta l

4
4

11

20
21

4
13
14
14
4

8

3

13

18

21

24

16

.0 1

100
100

9
16
13
58
75

. 17
. 01

100
100

60
85

. 14
. 08
. 05

. 14
.0 8
.0 5

100
100
100

. 18
. 06
.0 9
. 02
(2)

. 23
.0 9
. 17
. 22
. 11

100
100

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ■
V a c a t i o n s --------H o lid a y s S ic k le a v e ---------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e ■

. 18
. 10
. 06
. 02
(2 )

. 20
. 12
. 07
. 04

100
100

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ------------

. 06
(2)

100

100

100
100
100

_

12

13
27

_

4
7

3
3

3
3

3
5
T

_
3

2
2

9

9
3
4

15

6

17

6

8

30

33

36

39

42

4?

48

5
-

30

_

45

48

"

(2 )

(?)
(2)

2

2

-

-

(2 )
-

39

42

_

1

_

1

-

33

36

9
9

(2 )
-

over

_

1

8

1

(2)

7
3
-

7

8

2
2

-

2

9

-

2

1

1

(2 )

7

1

5

4

-

-

(2)

3

-

-

3

-

3

2

1

18
4
(2 )

26
7

9
-

(?)
(2)

4

-

2

(2 )

-

-

-

-

-

15

6
11

9
(2 )
3
_

3
-

3
-

-

1

1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

4
-

-

13
3
-

"

"

_

(?)
(2 )

(?)
(2 )

5
5

_

1
1

3

34
27

-

5
44
32

27
34
54
91
99

8

10
8

3

15
"

6

.
16
15

4
“

-

7

17
48

2

10

11

1
12

-

27

1

12

100

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s ----------------------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth in s u r a n c e ---P e n s io n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s -----------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s ----------------------

15

TZ

9

and

14
14

45
45

$ 0 . 13
. 13

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 34
7
6
5
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n —
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ----------

6

21
24
27
15
12
18
6
9
O ffic e e m p lo y e e s of in la n d sh ip p in g c o m p a n ie s

$ 0 . 08
. 08

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1
O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k -----

3
e x p e n d itu re s
U n der
and
fo r the
3
u n d er
p r a c t ic e

6
-

6

2
1

11
8
-

2

4
-

“

-

1
8

~

1

O ffic e e m p lo y e e s o f ste v e d o r in g f ir m s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ---

$0 .
.

10
10

$0 .
.

11

100
100

11

14
14

4
4

_

27
27
_

14
14

27
27

1
22

33

35

11

1
1

0

_

(2)

-

14

7
3
9

28
3
3

12

(2)

6
2

10

-

11
1

2
2

1

-

-

1

■

■

2
1

-

5
-

10

-

4
-

4

1

(2 )

-

5
-

1

5

3
7
16
(2)

8

5

1

5

1

3

6

-

-

4

1

-

-

-

5

10

40
23
9

26

15

7

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

1

3
"

3
(2 )
3

-

2

7
4
3
"

(2 )
-

■

(2 )
3
■

(2 )
3

2

-

-

-

■

“

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ■
V a c a t i o n s --------H o lid a y s S ic k le a v e --------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e

. 28
. 15
. 10
. 03
(2)

. 28
. 15
. 10
. 04
. 01

100
100
100
100
100

28
46

_
4
18
52

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s —
T e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s -------

. 12
(2 )

. 26
. 02

100
100

53
77

22

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n ~
U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ---------

. 13
. 07
.0 5

. 13
.0 7
. 05

100

_

100

-

-

100

-

22

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p l a n s --------------------------L i f e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth in s u r a n c e ■
P e n sio n and r e t ir e m e n t p l a n s ----------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s --------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B fun ds S a v in g s and th r ift p la n s A u to m a tio n f u n d s ---------

. 34
. 10
. 22
. 01

. 36
. 11
. 28
. 06

100
100

7
7

100

22

100

93

(2)

.0 9
. 22
. 01

100
100

99
98
80

-

-

1

-

-

-

(2)
.0 1

(2 )

100

1
1
1

3

_

2

17
47

2

1

2

3
1

_
34
46

42

2

2

2
_

39
14
5

5
7

21

1

14
13
4

1

1
1

5

2

2

22

10

6
2

"

4
24
"

1
1

1

3
(2 )

"

1
1

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

2

“

2

~

717
5
“
-

-

20

In c lu d e s sh ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t o r o n e - h a lf ce n t.
In c lu d e s o th e r l e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , p r in c ip a lly S tate te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s ;
9 p e rc e n t at 48 and under 51 c e n ts ; 2 p e rc e n t a t 5 1 -5 4 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t at 5 7 -6 0 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t
1 p e r c e n t a t 81-8 4 c e n ts ; an d 1 p e r c e n t a t 8 7 -9 0 c e n ts .
^
, .
5 E m p lo y e e s w e re d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s ; 11 p e rc e n t a t 51 and u nder 54 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t a t 6 0 -6 3 c e n ts ; 4 p e r c e n t a t 6 3 -6 6 c e n ts ; and 4
6 E m p lo y e e s w e r e d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s : 12 p e rc e n t a t 48 and under 51 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t a t 5 7 -6 0 c e n ts ; 3 p e r c e n t a t 6 0 -6 3 c e n ts ; and 3
7 E m p lo y e e s w e r e d is tr ib u te d
a s fo llo w s : 3 p e rc e n t a t 48 and under 51 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 5 4 -5 7 c e n ts ; 2 p e r c e n t at 5 7 -6 0 c e n ts ; 1 p e rc e n t
1 p e r c e n t a t 84—87 c e n ts ; an d 6 p e r c e n t a t 87—90 c e n ts.
1

2
3
4

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




s u m s of in d iv id u a l it e m s nay not eq u al t o t a l s .

a t 60—
63 c e n ts ; 1 p e r c e n t a t 78—
81 c e n ts;
. . ,, ,Q
.
p e r c e n t a t 6 ^ 6 9 c e n ts.
p e r c e n t a t 7 8 -8 1 c e n ts.
a t 6 3 -6 6 c e n ts ; 3 p e r c e n t

a t 8 1 -8 4 c e n ts;

Chapter 5.

Composition of Payroll Hours

In t ro d u c t io n
D u r in g 1 964, w o r k i n g t i m e a c c o u n t e d
f o r 96 p e r c e n t o f a l l h o u r s f o r w h ic h w a t e r
tran spo rtation em p lo y e rs m ade d ire c t p a y ­
m e n t s to e m p l o y e e s .
The r e la tio n sh ip of
w o r k in g h o u r s to t o t a l p a i d h o u r s , h o w ­
e v e r , v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly betw een differe n t
gro u p s of em p loy ees.
L o n g s h o r e m e n an d
d e e p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ' s w o r k in g t im e
a c c o u n t e d f o r a l l b u t 2 and 3 p e r c e n t , r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e ir p a i d h o u r s ; inland v e s ­
s e l e m p l o y e e s ' w o r k in g t im e m a d e up 94
p e r c e n t ; and the w o r k in g h o u r s o f the i n d u s ­
t r y ' s o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 92 p e r ­
c e n t o f t h e ir p a y r o l l h o u r s .
The v a ria tio n s
in t h e s e r a t i o s r e f l e c t s the e x t e n t to w h ic h
the d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d
p a y f r o m t h e ir e m p l o y e r s f o r l e a v e t i m e .
A lth o u g h few l o n g s h o r e m e n and d e e p s e a
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l w e r e p a id by t h e ir e m p l o y ­
e r s for leave tim e, m o st of these em p lo y ees
w o r k e d f o r f i r m s th a t a l s o m a d e c o n t r i b u ­
tio n s to v a c a t i o n o r v a c a t i o n and h o li d a y
fun ds w h ic h p a id w o r k e r s f o r t h e ir a c c u m u ­
l a t e d l e a v e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith c o l l e c t i v e l y
bargained fo rm u la s.
E x p e n d i t u r e s by e m ­
p l o y e r s to s u p p o r t t h e s e fu n d s w e r e e q u a l
to the c o s t o f a b o u t 4 and 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l
p a id h o u r s , f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n and d e e p s e a
v e s s e l p erso n n el, re sp ectiv e ly .
V a c a t i o n s , a c c o u n t in g f o r a b o u t 51 p e r ­
c e n t o f a l l p a id l e a v e h o u r s f o r o f f i c e e m ­
p l o y e e s , 66 p e r c e n t f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n , and
90 p e r c e n t f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l , w e r e the
m a j o r c o m p o n e n t o f p a i d l e a v e t im e in the
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y d u r i n g 1964.
H o l i d a y h o u r s w e r e the s e c o n d l a r g e s t c o m ­
ponent of p aid le a v e h o u rs for office e m p lo y ­
e e s an d l o n g s h o r e m e n b u t w e r e v i r t u a l l y
n o n e x i s t e n t f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l . 33 S i c k
4
*
l e a v e f o r the i n d u s t r y ' s o f f i c e f o r c e a c ­
co u n ted f o r a b o u t 1 ou t o f 8 p a id l e a v e h o u r s
but o n ly 1 o u t o f 10 f o r v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
an d a b o u t 1 o u t o f 20 f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n . 34
V acatio n P a y P r a c t i c e s
T h r e e ou t o f ten e m p l o y e e s in the w a t e r
tra n sp o rta tio n i n d u s t r y re c e iv e d vacation
p a y f r o m t h e i r e m p l o y e r in 1964. H o w e v e r ,
33 See footnote 20 for a description of the industry's holiday
practice for vessel personnel and the way that such hours were
treated in this study.
4 Practically all of the sick leave payments were made by
stevedoring firms to pier personnel who worked in supervisory ca­
pacities or in nonsupervisory positions not directly related to the
handling of marine cargo.




8 out of 10 o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s , h a l f the o p e r ­
a t in g e m p l o y e e s of i n la n d c a r r i e r s , a n d f e w e r
th an 2 out of 10 l o n g s h o r e a n d d e e p s e a
v e s s e l e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d s u c h p ay .
M o r e than t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s who r e c e i v e d p a i d v a c a t i o n s w e r e
p aid for 2 o r 3 w e e k s , about on e-ten th w e re
p a i d f o r l e s s than 2 w e e k s ; a n d a b o u t o n e tenth f o r 4 w e e k s o r m o r e .
In g e n e r a l ,
o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s o f inland sh ip p i n g c o m p a ­
n i e s w e r e l e s s l i k e l y to r e c e i v e a p a id v a ­
c a t i o n o r w e r e p a id f o r l e s s v a c a t i o n t i m e
than o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s in o t h e r s e c t o r s o f
the i n d u s t r y .
A lth o u g h on ly 15 p e r c e n t o f a l l d e e p s e a
v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l r e c e iv e d paid v a c a tio n s ,
10 p e r c e n t ( t w o - t h i r d s o f t h o s e that did)
w e r e p a id f o r a t l e a s t 5 w e e k s o f v a c a t i o n
and m o s t o f the o t h e r s w e r e p a i d f o r 4
w eeks.
A lth o u g h h a l f o f a l l inland v e s s e l
p e r s o n n e l got a p aid v a c a tio n , m o s t w e re
p a i d f o r 1 o r 2 w e e k s and on ly 9 p e r c e n t
(a b o u t o n e - f if t h o f the w o r k e r s who r e c e i v e d
v a c a t i o n pay) w e r e p a i d f o r 5 w e e k s o r m o r e
o f vacation tim e.
P r o p o rtio n a lly few er lo n g sh o re m e n r e ­
c e i v e d p a i d v a c a t i o n s than a n y o t h e r g r o u p
of em p lo y e es stu died.
O nly 13 p e r c e n t o f
a l l l o n g s h o r e m e n r e c e i v e d p a id v a c a t i o n s in
19 64 , and m o s t o f th e m w e r e p a i d f o r 2 o r
3 w eeks.
P a i d H o lid a y P r a c t i c e s
P r o v is io n s for p a y i n g e m p lo y e e s for
h o l i d a y s n ot w o r k e d v a r i e d w i d e l y in the
w a te r tra n sp o rta tio n in d u stry.
V essel p e r­
s o n n e l u s u a l l y w o r k e d 7 d a y s a w e e k and
r e c e i v e d a p r e m i u m r a t e f o r w o r k on d e s i g ­
n a t e d h o l i d a y s a n d g e n e r a l l y w e r e n o t p a id
f o r h o l i d a y s n ot w o r k e d . 35 L o n g s h o r e m e n
n o r m a l l y did n ot r e c e i v e a n y c o m p e n s a t i o n
d i r e c t l y f r o m e m p l o y e r s f o r h o l i d a y s n ot
w o r k e d , but p r e m i u m r a t e s a p p l i e d on h o l i ­
days w orked.
O nly 13 p e r c e n t o f a l l l o n g ­
s h o r e m e n w e r e in c o m p a n i e s th a t p a i d f o r
h o l i d a y s n ot w o r k e d , an d m o s t o f the w o r k ­
e r s that r e c e i v e d h o li d a y p a y w e r e in s u p e r ­
v i s o r y c a p a c i t i e s o r in n o n s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i ­
t io n s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the h a n d lin g o f
m arin e cargo.

33 See footnote 20 for detail about holiday pay practices
for vessel employees.

41

42

In s h a r p c o n t r a s t to the h o li d a y p a y
p r a c t i c e s th at a p p l i e d to v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l
and l o n g s h o r e m e n , m o s t (84 p e r c e n t ) o f f i c e
e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s th a t had a
p r a c t i c e o f p r o v i d i n g t im e o f f w ith p a y on
h o lid ay s.
N e a r ly a ll office e m p lo y e e s of
d e e p s e a s h ip p in g and c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m ­
p a n i e s and a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f the o f f i c e
w o r k f o r c e o f i n l a n d sh ip p i n g c o m p a n i e s
r e c e iv e d paid h o lid ay s.
In g e n e r a l , inland
s h ip p i n g c o m p a n i e s g r a n t e d 8 p aid h o l i d a y s
o r l e s s , w h e r e a s the p r e v a l e n t p r a c t i c e in
d e e p s e a s h ip p in g and c a r g o h a n d lin g c o m ­
p a n i e s w a s to p a y f o r 8 h o li d a y s o r m o r e ,




and 19 p e r c e n t o f the o f f i c e w o r k e r s in the
l a t t e r s e c t o r s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n i e s th a t
p aid f o r 11 d a y s o r m o r e .
R e g u la r ly Sch eduled W orkw eek for
N on operating E m p lo y e e s
In 19 64, the r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d w o r k ­
w e e k f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the w a t e r t r a n s p o r ­
ta tio n i n d u s t r y ' s n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s
c o n s i s t e d o f 40 h o u r s .
H o w e v e r , 35 and
3 7 l/z h o u r w o r k w e e k s w e r e r e g u l a r l y s c h e d ­
u le d f o r a l a r g e m i n o r i t y o f t h e s e w o r k e r s .

T a b le 15.

E m p lo y e e g ro u p and
ty p e o f co m p an y

L e a v e H o u rs a s a P e r c e n t o f T o ta l P a id H o u r s , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u str y , 1964

P a id le a v e h o u rs a s
a p e rc e n t o f to ta l
p a id h o u rs

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s w ith —

E m p lo y e e s
in a ll
C o m p a n ie s c o m p a n ie s
(p e rc e n t)
A ll
th at p a id
co m p a n ie s fo r le a v e
h o u rs

No
p a id
le a v e
h o u rs

U n der
1

-- 1-and
u n d er
2

P a id le a v e h o u rs a s a p e r c e n t of to ta l p a id h o u rs—
T ~

3

4

8

7

10

9

11

12

13

14

15
and

3

5

4

6

7

12

13

10

11

3
1

3
5

2
1

-

-

-

14
13
13
17

5
10
8
11
15

1
16
24
2
27

3
18
38
3
7

1
1

2
1

1
8

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

-

8

9

15

over

A ll p a id le a v e
A ll e m p l o y e e s --------------------------D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l --------L o n g s h o r e m e n ---------------------N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s -------D ee p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s —
Inlan d w a te r c a r r i e r s ------S te v e d o r in g f i r m s -------------

3 .9
3. 2
5. 6
1 .9
7 .5
9 .8
4 .6
8. 1

4. 2
5 .0
7. 4
3. 4
7. 7
9. 8
5 .0
8. 1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

7
40
23
44
4

31
40
20
37
5

21
1
3
4
2

11
H
6
1
1

-

-

-

-

9

14

5
1

3
2

1

7

4

2
1

1

1
2

1
-

2

-

-

-

C)

2
4

(l )

-

-

-

6

(*)

1
-

(')

1

3
6
11

-

13
1
5

1
9

-

-

10
4

17
12

6
1
6
2
8
9

3

3

4

2

-

-

-

-

6
1
26
29
29
13

14
1
17
11
10
43

2
7
25
49
5
13

3
2
5
9
1
2

-

(l )

n
(*)
i
-

1
1
2

i

.

.

.

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
1
1

-

17
(l )
2
(M
4
1

-

n
n

1

6
12

-

-

“

V a c a tio n s
A ll e m p l o y e e s --------------------------D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l --------L o n g s h o r e m e n ---------------------N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s -------D ee p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s —
In lan d w a te r c a r r i e r s -------S te v e d o r in g f i r m s -------------

3 .0
3 .0
5. 3
1 .2
3 .8
4 .9
2 .5
4 .1

3. 2
4. 8
8. 2
2. 3
4. 1
4 .9
3 .0
4. 1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

8
41
33
47
6

51
40
11
34
5

-

-

16
1

13
1

17
(l )
10
5
7
(*)
16
4

4
(*)
10
1
8
1
9
21

2
(M

-

1

-

C)

_
-

.
2
_

.
-

3
6
11
-

_

_

-

-

H olidayis
A ll e m p l o y e e s -------------------------D eep s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l --------L o n g s h o r e m e n ---------------------N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s -------D ee p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s —
Inlan d w a te r c a r r i e r s ------S te v e d o r in g f i r m s ------------

0 .6

0 .7

_
-

_
_

.5
2 .6
3 .3
1 .8
2 .9

1

.

1

2. 8
3. 3
2. 1
2 .9

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10
100
100
50
5
_

13
1

77
-

6

2

4

1

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
13
12
16
10

1
30
18
35
47

7
28
49
6
25

1
11
18
3
14

-

-

-

39
11
1
25
4

-

1

1
2
~

“

■

■

"

-

-

2
“

~

S ic k le a v e
A ll e m p l o y e e s ----------------------D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ----L o n g s h o r e m e n -----------------N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
D ee p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s
Inlan d w a te r c a r r i e r s —
S te v e d o r in g f i r m s --------

0 .3
.2
.3
. 1
1. 0
1 .4
.4
1. 1

0 .4
1 .4
.8
.5
1. 3
1 .5
.9
1. 5

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

37
86
67
84
29
3
58
28

56
7
16
14
19
11
29
16

6
4
16
2
44
79
12
31

1
2

(M

1
n
7
6

1
1

n

-

-

23

1

C)

(M

i

-

i

(M
i

C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e
A ll e m p l o y e e s -------------:--------D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r so n n e l
Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ----L o n g s h o r e m e n -----------------N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s ---D e e p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s
In lan d w a te r c a r r i e r s —
S te v e d o r in g f i r m s --------

0.1
.2
. 1
.4
.2
.2
. 3
.2

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 L e s s th an 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.
NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f ro un din g, su m s o f in d iv id u al it e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s .

58
93
87
91
44
16
75
46

42
7
13
9
55
84
25
51

-

(*)
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b le 16.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of E m p lo y e e s by N u m b e r of W eeks of V a c a tio n P a id F o r , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u stry , 1964

*
*

P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s withW o rk e rs in
a ll co m p a n ie s

E m p lo y e e g ro u p an d ty p e of co m p an y

P a id v a c a t io n s ofNo paid
v a c a tio n s

T o ta l

U nder
1
w eek

1 and
u n der
2 w eeks

2 and
u n der
3 w eeks
9

3 and
u n der
4 w eeks

A ll e m p l o y e e s ---------------- -----------------------

100

70

30

1

4

D ee p s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ------------------------------Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ----------------------------------L o n g s h o r e m e n ------------------------------------------------

100
100
100

85
51
87

15
49
13

(M
3
(l )

1
13
2

(M
14
4

( )
6
6

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s --------------------------------D ee p s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s ---------------------------Inlan d w a te r c a r r i e r s --------------------------------S te v e d o rin g f i r m s --------------------------------------

100
100
100
100

19
6
38
11

80
95
62
88

1
n
i
i

8
4
12
7

34
35
33
37

29
45
9
36

1

5 w ee k s
and
o v er

4 and
u nder
5 w eeks

9

3

4

1

4
4
1

10
9
(l )

7
11
3
7

4
(M

1
-

L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls.

T a b le 17.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tio n of E m p lo y e e s by N u m ber of H o lid a y s P a id F o r , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u stry , 1964
P e r c e n t of e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s w ith—

In d u stry g ro u p , e m p lo y e e g ro u p

W o rk e rs
in a ll No p aid
c o m p a ­ h o lid a y s
n ie s

D eep s e a v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l -----------------------Inlan d v e s s e l p e r s o n n e l ---------------------------L o n g s h o r e m e n ------------------------------------------

100
100
100

100
100
87

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s -------------------------D eep s e a w a te r c a r r i e r s ---------------------Inlan d w a te r c a r r i e r s -------------------------S te v e d o rin g f i r m s ---------------------------------

100
100
100
100

16
3
36
5

P a id h o lid a y s of—
U nder
5

_

5

7

O v er
7 and
u n d er
8

O v er
8 and
u nder
9

9

O v er
9 and
u nder
10

10

O v er
10 and
u nder
11

ii

O ver
11

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

2

-

1

-

-

-

6

-

1

-

-

( M

( M

(])

-

7
16
7

1
1
2

15
9
24
12

4
8
2

14
10
11
26

3
6
1

7
13
1
7

(l )
(l)
"

12
21
17

( !)
( ')
n

5
5
15

6
12
1
4

C)

3
2
5
n

7
10
5
2

-

_

8

-

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls.




6

O v er
6 and
u n der
7

.

3

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
NO TE:

O v er
5 and
u nder
6

Appendix A. Expenditures as Proportions of Payroll
In the b o d y of the t e x t , a l l s u p p l e m e n t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s h a v e b e e n m e a s u r e d a s a
p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n .
T h i s a p p r o a c h a l l o w s an e x a m i n a t i o n of the l e v e l and
s t r u c t u r e of c o m p e n s a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s .
H o w e v e r , f o r s o m e p u r p o s e s , it m a y b e d e s i r a b l e
to e x a m i n e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a y s u p p l e m e n t s in d i f f e r e n t w a y s . Tw o of the t e c h n i q u e s often
u s e d a r e to e x p r e s s t h e s e o u t l a y s a s p e r c e n t a g e s of g r o s s o r of s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y r o l l . 36
T h e a p p e n d i x t a b l e e x p r e s s e s s u p p l e m e n t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s in t h e s e t e r m s . It sh o u ld b e n o ted
th a t the s u p p l e m e n t s , w h en m e a s u r e d a s a p e r c e n t of g r o s s o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e p a y r o l l , can not
b e a d d e d to o t h e r p a y r o l l s t a t i s t i c s s i n c e s o m e s u p p l e m e n t s a r e p a r t of p a y r o l l and o t h e r s
a r e in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l .

Straight-time payroll is derived by subtracting overtime, weekend, holiday,




45

and shift premiums from gross

payroll.

T a b le A - l .

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s fo r S u p p le m e n tary C o m p e n sa tio n P r a c t i c e s , a s a P e r c e n t o f P a y r o ll , W ater T r a n s p o r t a t io n In d u str y , 1964
P e r c e n t of s t r a ig h t - t im e p a y r o ll

P e r c e n t of g r o s s p a y r o ll
V e ssel
p e r so n n e l
P r a c tic e

A ll
p lo y e e s

D eep
se a

Inland

V e sse l
p e r so n n e l

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
Long­
sh o re ­
m en

A ll

W ater c a r r i e r s
se a

Inlan d

S te v e ­
d o rin g
f ir m s

A ll
em ­
p lo y e e s

D eep
se a

Inlan d

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
Long­
sh o re­
m en

A ll

W ater c a r r i e r s
D eeP
se a

Inland

S te v e ­
d o rin g
fir m s

A ll c o m p a n ie s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ---------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o rk ----------------------------------------

15. 7

27. 6

7. 2

13. 2

1. 7

0 .9

2. 2

2. 7

18. 7

38. 2

7. 7

15. 2

1 .7

0 .9

2. 3

15. 7

27. 6

7. 2

13. 2

1 .7

.9

2. 2

2. 7

18. 6

38. 2

7. 7

15. 2

1 .7

.9

2. 3

2. 8

P a y fo r le a v e tim e ------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ----------------------------------------------H o li d a y s -----------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ---------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------------

3. 8
2. 8
.6
.3
(2 )

3. 5
3. 3
_
.2
(2 )

4. 6
4. 3
.3
(2 )

1 .6
1 .0
.5
.1
(2)

7. 7
4. 1
2. 6
.9
.1

9. 5
4 .9
3. 1
1. 3
.2

5. 3
3. 0
1. 8
.5
.1

7.
4.
2.
.
.

7
1
7
8
1

4. 5
3. 3
.8
.4
(2 )

4. 8
4. 5

4 .9
4. 6

-

-

.3
(2)

.3
(2)

1 .8
1. 2
.5
. 1
(2)

7. 8
4. 1
2. 6
1 .0
.1

9. 6
4 .9
3. 1
1. 3
.2

5. 4
3. 0
1 .8
.5
.1

7 .9
4. 2
2. 8
.9
.1

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ------------------------------------

.9
.1

.1
(2 )

1. 1
(2 )

.2
(2)

3. 5
.2

5 .0
.4

1. 8
(2 )

3. 3
. 1

1. 1
. 1

. 1
.1

1. 2
.1

.2
(2)

3. 6
.2

5. 0
.4

1 .8
(2 )

3. 4
.1

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3 ------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t io n ----------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n ------------------

4. 5
2. 7
1 .8

4. 6
2. 7
1 .9

4. 4
2. 7
1. 7

5. 1 ,
2 .9
2. 2

3. 6
2. 2
1 .4

3. 4
2. 2
1. 2

3 .9
2. 4
1. 5

3. 5
2. 1
1 .4

5. 4
3. 2
2. 2

6. 3
3. 7
2. 6

4. 8
2 .9
1. 8

5 .9
3. 4
2. 5

3. 7
2. 3
1 .4

3. 5
2. 2
1 .2

4. 0
2. 4
1. 5

3. 6
2. 1
1 .5

8.
2.
4.
.

0
7
4
3

9. 6
3. 4
5. 0
-

5.
1.
2.
.

1
8
6
6

9. 3
2 .9
6. 1
. 1

3
6
0
5

5. 4
2. 6
2. 6
(2)

18. 5
5. 8
6. 1
6 .0

8.
2.
4.
.

1
8
5
3

9 .7
3. 4
5. 1
-

5. 2
1 .8
2. 7
.7

9.
3.
6.
.

. 1
.5
(2 )

.3
.9
"

(2 )
.2
(2 )

.4
.8
(2)

_

.2

(2 )

. 1
"

.3

.1
.5
(2 )

.3
.9
"

(2 )

(2)
.2
(2)

10. 4

15. 4

2. 3

1 .0

4. 2

3 .4

10. 4

15. 3

2. 2

1 .0

4. 1

3. 4
8 .0
4. 2
2. 8
1. 3
.2

P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s --------------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth in s u r a n c e ------P e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t p l a n s ----------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s ---------------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S U B f u n d s -------------------------------------------S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s -------------------------A u to m a tio n f u n d s -----------------------------------

16.
4.
5.
5.

3
5
5
7

.2
.3
. 1

1
5
2
5

5. 0
2. 4
2. 4
(2)

.3
.6
(2)

. 1
"

24.
5.
7.
10.

16.
5.
5.
5.

1
1
3
2

.1
.
.3

19.
5.
6.
6.

3
3
6
7

.2
.4
. 1

33.
7.
10.
14.

-

_

2. 8

6
0
2
1

C o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d itu re s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts 1 ----------------------------------O v e r tim e , w ee k e n d , h o lid a y , and
p e n a lty w o r k ----------------------------------------

16. 5
16. 5

27. 7
27. 7

9 .4
9 .4

P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ----------------:--------------------V a c a tio n s ---------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e --------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------------

4. 0
3 .0
.7
.4
.1

5. 5
5. 3

5. 8
6. 2

1. 3
.2

N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s -------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s ------------------------------------

1. 3
.2

L e g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s 3 ------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n --------U n e m p lo y m en t c o m p e n s a t io n -----------------P r iv a t e w e lfa r e p la n s --------------------------------L if e , a c c id e n t, and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e -----P e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t p l a n s ----------------V a c a tio n and h o lid a y f u n d s ---------------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y and
S a v in g s and th r ift p l a n s -------------------------A u to m a tio n fun ds -----------------------------------

13. 3
13. 3

2. 2
2. 2

1 .0
1 .0

4. 1
3 .9

3. 3
3. 3

7. 4
7. 1
_
1 .7
.2

6. 4
6 .8
.9
.1

3.
2.
1.
.
.

4
3
1
5
4

8. 0
4. 3
2 .7
1. 3
.2

9. 6
4 .9
3. 1
1 .4
.2

6. 1
.6

1. 6
.2

1 .0
.4

3. 1
7. 7

.4
(2)

6. 5
.9

7. 4
1. 2

4. 5
.3

6. 2
.6

3 .9
2. 4
1. 5

3. 5
2. 1
1. 4

5. 4
3. 2
2. 2

6. 3
3. 7
2. 6

4. 8
2 .9
1. 8

5 .9
3. 4
2. 5

3. 7
2. 3
1 .4

3. 5
2. 2
1. 2

4. 0
2. 4
1. 5

3. 6
2. 1
1 .5

9. 7
3. 4
6. 6
-

6.
2.
4.
7.

9 .9
3. 1
7 .9
2. 1

3
6
0
6

5. 7
2 .9
4. 1
1 .0

18. 5
5 .8
6. 3
7. 5

8.
3.
6.
6.

8
1
6
2

9 .7
3. 4
6. 7
-

6.
2.
5.
7.

2. 5
4. 6
-

1 .9
4. 7
. 1

.

3. 7

1. 6
-

1. 3

2 .4
4. 6
.3

2. 5
4. 6
•

1 .6

.8
.1

9 .5
4 .9
3. 1
1 .4
.2

5. 7
3. 3
1 .9
1 .0
. 3

7.
4.
2.
1.
.

.7
.3

2 .9
7. 0

.3
(2)

6. 4
.9

7. 4
1. 2

4. 5
. 3

4. 5
2. 7
1 .9

4. 6
2. 7
1. 9

4. 4
2. 7
1 .7

5. 1
2 .9
2. 2

3. 6
2. 2
1 .4

3. 4
2. 2
1. 2

16. 5
4. 6
5 .9
8. 1

24. 1
5. 5
7. 2
1 1 .7

5. 3
2 .7
3. 7
1 .0

16. 1
5. 1
5. 5
6 .4

8.
3.
6.
5.

6
1
5
5

1 .4
3. 3
.6

1 .4
3. 7
. 1

1 .0
'

2. 4
4. 5
.3

3 .0

.

.9

1
5
9
0

_

8
1
7
3
2

1. 2
5. 6
. 3

4.
3.
.
.
.

19.
5.
7.
10.

7
5
1
0

1. 8
3. 9
.7

1 In clu d e s s h ift d if f e r e n t ia l s not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a te ly .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t
3 In clu d e s o th e r le g a l ly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e , p r in c ip a lly S ta te te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e , not p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
NO TE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls.




38. 4

7
5
8
5
1

7 .9
4. 2
2. 6
1. 3
.2

_

19. 8

38. 4

5. 8
3. 4
2 .0
1 .0
.3

3. 1
2. 1
1 .0
.4
.3

_

19. 8

33.
7.
10.
16.

_

1. 2

2
5
1
8

_
_

10.
3.
8.
2.

2
2
2
3

1. 2
5. 8
.3

Appendix B.

Scope and Method of Survey

S c o p e o f S u r v e y and I n d u s t r y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
T h is stu d y of e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s c o v e r s a l l
c o m p a n i e s in SIC 44— W a te r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c e p t f o r t h o s e in SIC 44 64— c a n a l o p e r a t i o n ) —
c l a s s i f i e d in a c c o r d a n c e with the 1957 e d i ti o n o f the S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n ­
u a l (SIC) and 1963 S u p p le m e n t p r e p a r e d by the U. S. B u r e a u o f the B u d g e t .
T h is m a j o r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n c l u d e s p r i v a t e l y ow ned c o m p a n i e s e n g a g e d in f r e i g h t and p a s s e n g e r t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n on the d e e p s e a s o r in la n d w a t e r s , a n d s t e v e d o r i n g and o t h e r c o m p a n i e s f u r n i s h ­
ing s e r v i c e s i n c id e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
S h ipp in g f i r m s o p e r a t i n g u n d e r f o r e i g n
f l a g s w e r e in c lu d e d in th is stu d y .
H ow ever, d ata obtained fro m th e se f i r m s w ere lim ite d
to i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e m p l o y e e s who w e r e b a s e d and p a i d in the U n ited S t a t e s .
F or purposes
o f th is stu dy , a l l c o m p a n i e s in the i n d u s t r y w e r e g r o u p e d into t h r e e s e g m e n t s — D e e p s e a
c a r r i e r s , Inland c a r r i e r s , and S t e v e d o r i n g .
T h e s e s e g m e n t s in c lu d e the f o llo w in g i n d u s t r i e s
a s d e f in e d in the SIC M a n u a l:
D e e p s e a c a r r i e r s — S I C ' s 441 and 4 42 ; In land c a r r i e r s —
S I C ' s 443, 444, 445, and 4 4 6 9 ; and S t e v e d o r i n g — SIC 4 4 6 3 .
D a t a r e l a t e to the c a l e n d a r y e a r 1964 and a r e l i m i t e d to i r r e v o c a b l e c a s h d i s ­
b u r s e m e n t s o f e m p l o y e r s (th u s e x c l u d in g a m o u n t s s e g r e g a t e d in b o o k k e e p i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s
o v e r which the c o m p a n y r e t a i n e d c o n tro l) f o r the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s , and the h o u r s
f o r which e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d p a y f r o m t h e ir e m p l o y e r s ( p a y r o l l h o u r s ) .
D e fin itio n o f T e r m s 3
2
1
C o m p e n s a t i o n , f o r p u r p o s e s o f th is study, i s d e f in e d a s the s u m o f the p a y m e n t s ,
s u b j e c t to F e d e r a l w ithho ld ing t a x e s , m a d e by e m p l o y e r s d i r e c t l y to t h e ir e m p l o y e e s b e f o r e
d e d u c t i o n s o f an y type, and the e x p e n d i t u r e s m a d e by e m p l o y e r s f o r l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d i n ­
s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e p l a n s to p r o v i d e the w o r k e r with f u ll— o r p a r t i a l —
e c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t a f u t u r e co n tin g e n c y ( e . g . , u n e m p l o y m e n t, r e t i r e m e n t , m e d i c a l
expen ses, e tc .).
P a i d h o u r s c o n s i s t of a g g r e g a t e h o u r s w o rk e d , p a i d l e a v e h o u r s , r e s t p e r i o d s ,
c o ff e e b r e a k s , m a c h i n e d o w n tim e , and o t h e r n o n l e a v e h o u r s p a i d f o r bu t not w o rk ed , f o r
which e m p l o y e r s m a d e d i r e c t p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s d u r i n g the y e a r .
W orking t i m e e x c l u d e s
p a i d l e a v e t im e .
E x p e n d i t u r e r a t i o s f o r " a l l c o m p a n i e s " r e p r e s e n t the e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e
d i v i d e d by t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a l l c o m p a n i e s — both t h o s e with and without e x p e n d i t u r e s —
w h e r e a s , the r a t i o s f o r " c o m p a n i e s with e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e " r e l a t e the s a m e
e x p e n d i t u r e s to the t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n of on ly t h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s that r e p o r t e d an a c t u a l
expen diture.
The e x p e n d i t u r e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t the s a m e e x p e n d i t u r e s d i v i d e d by the c o r r e ­
sp o n d in g m a n - h o u r s .
The e x p e n d i t u r e
f o llo w in g f o r m u l a s :




1.

r a t i o s u s e d in the bod y o f th is r e p o r t w e r e o b t a in e d by u s i n g the

E x p e n d i t u r e s a s a p e r c e n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n
_______ E x p e n d i t u r e f o r the p r a c t i c e _____________
Total co m pen satio n (c o m p r ise d of g r o s s pay r o ll , p r i v a t e w e l f a r e , and l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d
in su ran ce expen ditures).

2.

E x p en d itu r es p e r paid hour =
_______ E x p e n d i t u r e f o r the p r a c t i c e _____________
T o t a l p a i d h o u r s in c lu d in g h o u r s of p a i d l e a v e .

3.

E x p e n d i t u r e s p e r w o r k in g h o u r =
T otal

E x p e n d i t u r e f o r the p r a c t i c e
p aid h o u rs m in u s h o u rs of p aid le a v e .
47

x 100

48

The p r a c t i c e s s t u d ie d , which a r e i t e m i z e d in the t a b l e s , a r e b e l i e v e d to c o m p r i s e
the m a j o r e l e m e n t s of c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r w o r k e r s in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y .
Som e
o f the o m i t t e d p r a c t i c e s , h o w e v e r , m a y o c c a s i o n i m p o r t a n t e x p e n d i t u r e s in p a r t i c u l a r c o m ­
pan ies.
A m o n g the e x c l u d e d p r a c t i c e s w e r e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u c h f a c i l i t i e s and p r a c t i c e s
a s in p la n t m e d i c a l c a r e , m a i n t e n a n c e and c u r e , p e r q u i s i t e s a n d a l l o w a n c e s in l ie u of
p erq u isites.
The o t h e r t e r m s u s e d in t h is b u ll e t i n a r e d e f in e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m ,
p r o d u c e d in a p p e n d i x C, that w a s u s e d in the stu d y .

re­

C o lle ctio n of D ata
D a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s .
H ow ever, m a il q u e stio n n a ire s
w e r e s e n t to a f e w c o m p a n i e s in the s a m p l e .
P e r s o n a l v i s i t s a l s o w e r e m a d e to a s a m p l e
o f c o m p a n i e s w hich had not r e s p o n d e d to m a i l r e q u e s t s .
S am p lin g P r o c e d u r e
The s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c te d on the b a s i s o f a h ig h ly s t r a t i f i e d p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l e .
The l i s t of c o m p a n i e s f r o m which the s a m p l e w a s s e l e c t e d w a s d e v e l o p e d f r o m l i s t s m a i n ­
t a in e d by the S t a te a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g the u n e m p l o y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n l a w s .
The s a m p l e
w a s s e l e c t e d w ithin the i n d u s t r y so a s to y i e l d the m o s t a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s p o s s i b l e with the
r e s o u r c e s av a ila b le.
T h i s w a s done by in c lu d in g in the s a m p l e a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of
l a r g e r a t h e r than s m a l l c o m p a n i e s . In g e n e r a l , a c o m p a n y ' s c h a n c e of s e l e c t i o n w a s ro u g h ly
p r o p o r t i o n a t e to i t s e m p l o y m e n t s i z e .
D a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m c o m p a n i e s e m p l o y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 78, 500 w o r k e r s — a b o u t
o n e - t h i r d o f the t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the i n d u s t r y d u r i n g 1964.
M ethod o f E s t i m a t i o n
D a t a f o r e a c h s a m p l e c o m p a n y w e r e w e ig h t e d in a c c o r d a n c e with the p r o b a b i l i t y of
s e l e c t i o n o f that c o m p a n y .
F o r i n s t a n c e , w h e r e 1 c o m p a n y out o f 2 w a s s e l e c t e d in a
s i z e - i n d u s t r y c l a s s , it w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f a s w e ll a s a n o t h e r c o m p a n y ,
i . e . , it w a s g i v e n a w eig h t of 2.
T h u s, if the c o m p a n y h a d 1 , 0 0 0 h o u r s o f p a i d v a c a t i o n
l e a v e an d 50, 000 h o u r s o f p a i d h o u r s of a l l c l a s s e s , it w ould c o n t r i b u t e 2, 000 v a c a t i o n h o u r s
and 100, 000 t o t a l h o u r s to the f i n a l e s t i m a t e .
R epo rtin g P r o b le m s
S e p a r a t e d a t a by c o m p a n y and type o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e w e r e
c o l l e c t e d in m o s t c a s e s .
H o w e v e r , a l l c o m p a n i e s do not k e e p r e c o r d s in a m a n n e r that
e n a b l e s them to f u r n i s h a c t u a l f i g u r e s in t h is d e t a il , an d s o m e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s had to be
accepted.
E s t i m a t e s , u s i n g c o l l a t e r a l d a ta , w e r e m a d e in c e r t a i n c a s e s w h e re r e c o r d s
w e r e not k e p t o r w e r e s u m m a r i z e d only f o r s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s .
It sh o u ld be n oted that e r r o r s in the u s e of e s t i m a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s would h a v e to be
in the s a m e d i r e c t i o n in e a c h c a s e ( o v e r s t a t e m e n t o r u n d e r s t a t e m e n t of a c t u a l v a l u e s ) to
h a v e a c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t on the a c c u r a c y o f the r e s u l t s .




Appendix C. Questionnaire

Budget Bureau No. 44-6542
Approval expires 6-30-66

BLS 2863

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B U R E A U O F L A B O R STA TISTIC S
W ash in g to n ,

D.C.

20212

Employer Expenditures for Selected Compensation Practices in Transportation Industries, 1964
C o m p a n y I d e n t if i c a t io n
Your reply will be
held in confidenceThis report should cover all units of the company
which are primarily engaged in transportation activ­
ities, and should not be limited to activities at the
address shown. If the company was engaged in two
or more substantially different transportation activ­
ities, e. g ., oil tanker and pipeline operations,
separate reports should be submitted.

1.

Principal Transportation Activity

(C h e c k on ly one box)
A.

|

l I n t e r c i t y b u s lin e

F.

[

l M arin e c a r g o handling

B.

|

l L o c a l o r suburban tra n sit

G.

|

C.

I

| A ir tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,
cated c a r r ie r

D.

|

H.

|

| P ip elin es, except n atu ral gas

E.

I

I.

|

l O th e r ( s p e c i f y ) ______________

l T axicab o p erato r
| D eep s e a fo re ig n tr a n sp o rta tio n
| O ther w a te r t r a n s p o r ta tio n
2.

c e rtifi­

Employment

F o r e a c h e m p l o y e e c a t e g o r y , e n t e r the t o t a l n u m b e r o f f u l l - a n d p a r t - t i m e e m ­
p l o y e e s on the p a y r o l l who w o r k e d o r r e c e i v e d p ay f o r any p a r t o f the p a y r o l l
p e r i o d w h ic h in c lu d e d S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 6 4 . In clu d e o f f i c e r s o f c o r p o r a t i o n s , but
e x c l u d e p r o p r i e t o r s and p a r t n e r s o f u n i n c o r p o r a t e d f i r m s .
A lso exclud e p en ­
s i o n e r s a n d m e m b e r s o f the A r m e d F o r c e s on a c t i v e duty c a r r i e d on the r o l l s
but not w o r k in g d u r i n g the p e r i o d .
( D e f in it i o n s o f the t e r m s " o p e r a t i n g " and
" n o n o p e r a t i n g " e m p l o y e e s a r e on p a g e 2 o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
If t h e r e w e r e no
w o r k e r s in one o f the e m p l o y e e c a t e g o r i e s , e n t e r " n o n e . ")
Em ploym en t
O p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s ------------------- -------------------N o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s -------------- -------------------For BLS use only

Sch edule
num ber




Reg.

State

C ity
size

SIC

49

E st.
size

W eight

Sp ecial
char.

50




G E N E R A L EX PLA N A TIO N S

P l e a s e a n s w e r the q u e s t i o n s wh ich follow s e p a r a t e l y f o r o p e r a t i n g and
n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s . If r e c o r d s do not p e r m i t r e p o r t i n g s e p a r a t e
f i g u r e s f o r the two g r o u p s , and e s t i m a t e s c a n n o t be m a d e , e n t e r a
c o m b i n e d f i g u r e and i n d ic a t e th at it i s f o r o p e r a t i n g and n o n o p e r a t i n g
em ployees.
O p e r a t i n g E m p l o y e e s a r e s u p e r v i s o r y and n o n s u p e r v i s o r y e m p l o y e e s
who w o r k a b o a r d m o v i n g v e h i c l e s , s u c h a s b u s and t a x i d r i v e r s ;
m a r i n e e n g i n e e r s , s e a m e n , c o o k s ; and a i r l i n e p i l o t s . H o w e v e r , e x ­
c lu d e w o r k e r s who m e r e l y m o v e v e h i c l e s to o r f r o m l o a d i n g , m a i n ­
t e n a n c e , o r p a r k i n g a r e a s and o p e r a t o r s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t
o r loadin g d e v ic e s su ch a s b a g g a g e or fo rk lift t r u c k s .
R e p o rts for
m a r i n e c a r g o h a n d lin g sh o u ld t r e a t a l l p i e r p e r s o n n e l a s o p e r a t i n g
em ployees.
N o n o p e r a t i n g E m p l o y e e s i n c lu d e a l l s u p e r v i s o r y and n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
e m p l o y e e s not c l a s s i f i e d a s o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s , s u c h a s p u m p m e n ,
s h o p m a i n t e n a n c e e m p l o y e e s , an d o f f i c e w o r k e r s . R e p o r t s f o r p i p e ­
l i n e s sh o u ld t r e a t a l l e m p l o y e e s a s n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s .
If the only f i g u r e a v a i l a b l e c o m b i n e s d a t a f o r s e v e r a l l i n e s on t h is
q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r e p o r t the c o m b i n e d f i g u r e and b r a c k e t the l i n e s i n ­
c l u d e d o r o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e w h at i s in c lu d e d in the f i g u r e ’ r e p o r t e d .
If e x a c t i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r a n i t e m , w h e r e p o s s i b l e p l e a s e
p rovide a c a re fu lly c o n sid e re d e s tim a te .
If any o f the f i g u r e s r e ­
p o r t e d a r e e s t i m a t e d , p l e a s e l i s t on p a g e 8 the i t e m s w h ich w e r e
e s t i m a t e d and i n d i c a t e how the e s t i m a t e s w e r e m a d e .

I F NO E X P E N D I T U R E S O R M A N - H O U R S W E R E I N V O L V E D D U R IN G
1964 F O R A G I V E N I T E M , E N T E R " 0 " IN T H E A P P R O P R I A T E S P A C E .
P L E A S E DO N O T L E A V E A NY L I N E S B L A N K .
C O M P A N I E S IN T H E A IR T R A N S P O R T A T I O N , M A R I T I M E , I N T E R ­
C I T Y B U S , AND L O C A L T R A N S I T I N D U S T R I E S S H O U L D R E A D T H E
A CC O M PA N Y IN G S U P P L E M E N T A R Y E X P L A N A T IO N S H E E T B E F O R E
C O M P L E T IN G THIS Q U EST IO N N A IR E.

51

3.

Payments Made Directly to Employees as Part of the Payroll in 1964

In t h i s s e c t i o n r e p o r t only p a y m e n t s w h ich w e r e p a r t of the c o m p a n y ' s 19 6 4 g r o s s
p a y r o l l . In clu d e only p a y m e n t s to e m p l o y e e s a s d e f in e d in I t e m 2. Do not r e p o r t
p a y m e n t s to f u n d s , t r u s t e e s , i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s , o r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ; t h e s e
p a y m e n t s sh o u ld be r e p o r t e d in I t e m 5.
A.

G r o ss P ay ro ll:
E n t e r t o t a l e m p l o y e e e a r n i n g s d u r i n g 1964,
b e f o r e d e d u c t i o n s . T h i s a m o u n t s h o u ld e q u a l the
s u m of the f i g u r e s sh ow n on in d iv id u a l e m p l o y ­
e e s ' W -2 f o r m s u n d e r the h e a d i n g " T o t a l
W a g e s P a i d " -------------------------------------------------------

B.

E m p l o y e r p a y m e n t s to
O p e r a t i n g N on op e r at lfig
em p loy ees
em ployees
$

P aid L e a v e :
E n t e r t o t a l a m o u n t s p a i d d i r e c t l y to e m p l o y e e s
f o r e a c h ty p e o f l e a v e . In clu d e p a y m e n t s u n d e r
f o r m a l p l a n s a n d i n f o r m a l s a l a r y c o n t in u a tio n
p l a n s . If e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d on p a i d h o l i d a y s o r
d u r i n g v a c a t i o n s and r e c e i v e d both p a y i n s t e a d
of t i m e o ff a n d p a y f o r w o r k p e r f o r m e d , in c lu d e
h e r e only the p a y in l i e u of t i m e o ff.
1. V a c a t i o n s -------------------------------------------------------2. H o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------3. S i c k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------4. M i l i t a r y , j u r y , w i t n e s s , v o tin g , and p e r s o n a l
le a v e (excluding pay fo r se rv in g a s a w itn e ss
f o r the e m p l o y e r ) -------------------------------------------

C.

P r e m iu m s Above R e g u la r P ay:
1. P r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e , w e e k e n d , and
h o li d a y w o r k .
E n t e r t o t a l p a y m e n t s a b o v e th e r e g u l a r
str a ig h t- tim e pay fo r w ork p e r fo r m e d . F o r
e x a m p l e , if o v e r t i m e i s p a i d f o r a t t i m e and
o n e - h a l f , r e p o r t on ly the h a l f - t i m e h e r e .
F o r w o r k on h o l i d a y s , e x c l u d e p a y at the
r e g u l a r r a t e f o r w o r k p e r f o r m e d an d p a y in
l i e u o f t i m e o ff; r e p o r t on ly p a y m e n t s a b o v e
t h e s e s u m s (that i s , if t o t a l p ay f o r h o lid a y
w o r k i s d o u b le t i m e and o n e - h a l f , in c lu d e
o n ly the h a l f - t i m e p a y h e r e ) ---------------------------2. Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s .
E n t e r t o t a l p a y m e n t s a b o v e r a t e s f o r the d ay
s h i f t . If l a t e - s h i f t w o r k e r s r e c e i v e 8 h o u r s ’
p a y f o r 7 1 h o u r s ' wo r k , c o m p a r e d with
fz
i
8 h o u r s ' w o r k f o r the da y shift, r e p o r t thr
V2 h o u r ' s p a y a s a shift d i f f e r e n t i a l ---------------- L
_




■

■ ....

.

_

52




D.

N o n p r o d u c t io n B o n u s e s :
R e p o r t t o t a l c a s h b on us p a y m e n t s th a t w e r e not
d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to e m p l o y e e s ' p r o d u c t i o n . I n ­
c lu d e y e a r e n d and C h r i s t m a s b o n u s e s and
atten d an ce, longevity, sa fe ty , su g g e stio n , m e r it,
and r e l a t e d a w a r d s . A l s o in c lu d e c a s h f r o m
p r o f i t - s h a r i n g p l a n s a c t u a l l y p a i d out to e m p l o y ­
e e s in 1 964 in the f o r m of b o n u s e s . E x c l u d e
p r o d u c t i o n in c e n t i v e p a y m e n t s , c o m m i s s i o n s ,
p r e m i u m s f o r h a z a r d o u s w o rk , c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a d j u s t m e n t s , t e r m i n a l p a y m e n t s ( r e p o r t e d b e lo w
in I t e m 3 - E ) , p a y m e n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t ­
a n c e , p e r d i e m , e x p e n s e a c c o u n t p a y m e n t s , and
p a y m e n t s in the f o r m of m e r c h a n d i s e -----------------

E.

E m p l o y e r ■ p a y m e n t s to
O p e r a t in g N o n o p e r a t i n g
em ployees
em ployees

$

$

T e rm in al P aym ents:
R e p o r t t o t a l p a y m e n t s m a d e d i r e c t l y to e m p l o y ­
e e s b e c a u s e of t e m p o r a r y o r p erm an en t s e v e r ­
a n c e of e m p l o y m e n t . In clu d e l u m p - s u m c a s h
p a y m e n t s m a d e to r e t i r i n g e m p l o y e e s . E x c l u d e
p a y m e n t s to f u n d s , t r u s t e e s , o r i n s u r a n c e
c o m p a n i e s ----------------------------------------------------------

4.

Man-hours Paid For in 1964

R e p o r t a s t o t a l h o u r s p a i d f o r t h o s e h o u r s f o r w h ich the p a y m e n t s r e p o r t e d in
Item 3 -A w e re m ad e.
T h e y c o n s i s t of h o u r s on duty ( o p e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s ) o r
p a i d f o r h o u r s at the w o r k p l a c e (n o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s ) , a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s p a i d
f o r to m a k e up g u a r a n t e e s , and the m a n - h o u r s e q u i v a l e n t to d i r e c t e m p l o y e r p a y ­
m e n t s f o r l e a v e t i m e . Do not c o n v e r t o v e r t i m e o r o t h e r p r e m i u m p a i d h o u r s to
s t r a i g h t - t i m e e q u i v a l e n t h o u r s . Do not in c lu d e h o u r s e q u i v a l e n t to p a y m e n t s by
funds, t r u s t e e s , o r in su ra n ce co m p a n ie s.
R e p o r t a s p a i d l e a v e h o u r s the m a n - h o u r s f o r w h ich the l e a v e p a y e n t e r e d in
Item 3 -B w as m ad e.
R e p o r t only the m a n - h o u r s e q u i v a l e n t to the p a y r e c e i v e d .
F o r e x a m p l e , if an e m p l o y e e who i s r e g u l a r l y p a i d $ 2 an h o u r w a s g i v e n $ 5 f o r
a d a y ' s a b s e n c e , r e p o r t Zl/z h o u r s ( $ 5 ~ $ 2 ) .
M a n - h o u r s p a id f o r
O p e r a t i n g N on op e r a t i n g
em ployees
em ployees
A.
B.

T o t a l H o u r s P a i d F o r , In clu d in g P a i d
L e a v e H o u r s — -------------------------- —------------- -...
P aid L e av e H ou rs:
1.

V acatio n s

?
6.

Hoi rl ^
n o nia a y s ■■

—
—

■-«

3.

S i c k l e a v e ----------------------------------------------------

4.

M i l i t a r y , j u r y , w i t n e s s , v o tin g , an d
p e r s o n a l le a v e (excluding pay fo r s e r v in g a s
a w i t n e s s f o r th e e m p l o y e r ) --------------------------

hr s .

hr s .

53

5.

A.

Employer Expenditures in Addition to Payroll in 1964

P riv ate W elfare P lan s:
Enter total em ployer expenditures for the plans listed below. Exclude e m ­
ployee contributions, em ployer paym ents already reported a s p ayroll expend­
itu re s, those for legally requ ired p ro g ra m s, and adm in istrativ e c o sts (in­
cluding a c tu arial and leg a l exp en ses) incurred by the company.
Include
paym ents to funds, tr u ste e s, in suran ce com panies, em ployees or their bene­
fic ia r ie s , and to plans financed through profit sh arin g. However, exclude
paym ents m ade by funds, tr u ste e s, or insurance com panies and income earned
by funds. F o r paym ents to in suran ce c a r r ie r s repo rt only net expenditures
(i. e. , prem ium s le s s refunds). Include paym ents for cu rren t em ployees,
em ployees on layoff statu s, re tire d em ployees, and dependents of these e m ­
ployee groups.
Em ployer
1. Health, accident, and life in su ran ce.
expenditures for
Enter paym ents for life in su ran ce; a c c i­
O perating Nonoperating
dental death and dism em berm en t in suran ce;
em ployees
em ployees
death ben efits; tra v e l accident in suran ce;
h osp italization , su rg ic a l, m ed ical, m ajor
m ed ical, dental, optical, and drug plan s; and
sick n e ss and accident (wage and sa la ry con­
tinuance) in su ran ce. Exclude expenditures
for in-plant m ed ical fa c ilit ie s ------------------- $
$
Pension and retirem en t p lan s.
2.
Include d ire ct paym ents to p en sio n ers under
a p ay -as-y o u -g o plan. F o r funded plans,
report paym ents in 1964 for p ast and
current se rv ic e lia b ilitie s. Include p ay ­
m ents under p ro fit-sh arin g plans deferred
until retirem en t and paym ents for d is a ­
bility retirem en t p r o g r a m s ---------------------3. Vacation and holiday fu n d s----------------------4.
5.
6.

7.

Severan ce or d is m is s a l pay funds an d/or
supplem ental unemployment benefit fu n d s--Savings and th rift plans (including company
expenditures for contributions in the form
of sto c k )----------------------------------------------Automation funds.
R eport h ere paym ents to sp e c ial automation
funds. Do not include th ese paym ents e ls e ­
where on the q uestion n aire. F o r exam ple,
if an autom ation fund provides retirem en t
ben efits, repo rt the payment to the fund
h ere and not in Item 5 -A -2, above. (How­
ev er, do not rep o rt regu lar paym ents to
a retirem en t fund h e r e .) Specify the name
of the autom ation fund and the benefit
provided. __________________________________
Other (specify) ____________________________




54




B.

L e g ally R equ ired In su ran ce:
R e p o r t the c o m p a n y ' s net l i a b i l i t y f o r 1964 u n d e r e m p l o y e e b e n e f i t p r o g r a m s
r e q u i r e d by la w .
Exclude em ployee co n trib u tion s.
R e p o r t p a y m e n t s to g o v ­
e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s , a n d d i r e c t l y to w o r k e r s u n d e r s e l f i n s u r e d p l a n s . R e p o r t net i n s u r a n c e p r e m i u m s (i. e. , p r e m i u m s l e s s r e f u n d s ) .
If a s e l f - i n s u r e d p la n w a s in e f f e c t , e x c l u d e the c o m p a n y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
co sts.
R e p o r t the l i a b i l i t y i n c u r r e d in 1964 r a t h e r th a n the a m o u n t a c t u a l l y
p a i d d u r i n g 1964. Do not r e p o r t any e x p e n d i t u r e s th a t w e r e e n t e r e d in I t e m 3
a s p ay ro ll expen ditures.
L
E m ployer
exp en ditures for
I
O p e ratin g N on op eratin g N
em ployees
em ployees
E
1. P a y m e n t s f o r p e n s i o n p r o g r a m s ( S o c i a l
S e c u r i t y and R a i l r o a d R e t i r e m e n t ) ------$
$
2. U n e m p lo y m e n t i n s u r a n c e (S t a t e u n e m p l o y ­
m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n and R a i l r o a d U n e m p l o y ­
ment In su ran ce)—
a.

P a y m e n t s to F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ------------

b.

P a y m e n t s to S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t -----------------

3. P a y m e n t s f o r w o r k - c o n n e c t e d d i s a b i l i t y .
In clu d e p a y m e n t s u n d e r w o r k m e n ' s c o m ­
p e n s a t i o n l a w s , p a y m e n t s in c o m p a n i e s s u b ­
j e c t to the F e d e r a l E m p l o y e r s ' L i a b i l i t y A ct,
a n d p a y m e n t s into the Ohio D i s a b l e d
W o r k m e n 's R e l i e f F u n d -------------------------------4. O t h e r , in c lu d in g S t a t e t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y
in su ran ce.
S p e c i f y ty p e of p a y m e n t r e p o r t e d . If o b ­
lig atio n s under a State t e m p o r a r y d is a b ility
i n s u r a n c e la w w e r e m e t by e m p l o y e r e x ­
p e n d i t u r e s r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e on t h i s q u e s ­
t i o n n a i r e , e n t e r " O " and i n d i c a t e the i t e m
c o n t a in in g the e x p e n d i t u r e . ___________________
6.

A.

Establishment Practices and Policies

P a i d H o l i d a y s O b s e r v e d D u r in g 196 4:
E n t e r n u m b e r of d a y s p e r e m p l o y e e .
If m o r e th a n
a n e m p l o y e e c a t e g o r y , r e p o r t th a t w h ich a p p l i e d to
the c a t e g o r y . Do not in c lu d e d a y s f o r w h ic h p r e m i u m
w a s p e r f o r m e d , but no p a y w a s g i v e n if the d a y s w e r e

one p r a c t i c e e x i s t e d in
th e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r in
r a t e s w e r e p a i d if w o r k
not w o r k e d .

D ays p e r em ployee
O peratin g N on op erating
em ploy ees
em ployees
1. F u l l - d a y h o l i d a y s ------2

H a l f - d a y h o l i d a y s -------

55

B.

P aid V acations:
R eport below the approxim ate number of em ployees who received vacation pay
d irectly from the company according to the amount of pay received during 1964
and not the tim e taken for vacation. If vacation pay was not a d ire ct m ultiple of
weekly or hourly r a te s, repo rt according to the number of w eeks equivalent
to the pay receiv ed . F o r exam ple, if the amount of vacation pay w as a p e r ­
centage of annual earn in gs, repo rt paym ents of about 2 percen t as 1 w eek's
vacation pay, about 4 percent a s 2 w eeks' pay, etc. Exclude em ployees
whose vacation paym ents w ere received from funds.
L

Number of em ployees receivin g—

I

Em ployee
category

1 and
4 and
2 and
3 and
5 w eeks' N
No
Under
under
under
under
vacation 1 w eek's 2 under
w eeks' 3 w eeks' 4 w eeks' 5 w eeks' pay or E
pay
m ore
pay
pay
pay
pay
pay

O perating

1

Nonoperating

C.

2

W elfare and Pension P lan s (Other Than L egally R equired):
1.

W ere any em ployees covered by a private
plan paid entirely or in p art by the com ­
pany (other than company paym ents for
ad m in istrativ e ex p e n se s)? (Answer " y e s "
if there w ere such plans even if there
w ere no em ployer expenditures in 1964.)
a.
b.

2.

O perating Nonoperating
em ployees
em ployees
(Check one) (Check one)
Y es

No

Y es

No

Health, accident, or life insurance (as
____________
defined in Item 5 - A - l ) ____ —

□

□

□

□

3

Pension or retirem en t benefits (as
defined in Item 5 -A -2) __________________

□

□

□

□

4

If " y e s " w as answ ered to either or both p a rts
of C - l , did any em ployees contribute to the
c o sts of any of the b en efits? (Check "n o" if
em ployee contributions only p urch ased sup­
plem ental benefits or dependents1 co verage.)
a.

□

□

□

□

5

b.
D.

Health, accident, or life in suran ce-------Pension or retirem en t b e n e fits--- i --------

□

□

□

□

6

___
□

___
□

□

7

C ollective B argain in g A greem en ts:
Did collective bargain in g agreem en ts cover a
___
m ajo rity of the n on supervisory e m p lo y e e s? ------- - □




56

E.

N orm al Workweek for Nonoperating Em ployees:
How many hours per week w ere norm ally worked by the m ajo rity of em ployees
in each of the following ca te g o rie s (or the workweek applying to the la r g e s t
number of em ployees if no single workweek applied to a m ajo rity )? What
was the approxim ate average number of p erso n s em ployed in each category?
Number of A verage
hours per num ber of
week
em ployees
1.

N on supervisory c le r ic a l w o r k e r s ----------------

2.

Other n on supervisory (nonoperating)

3.

Executive, p ro fe ssio n a l, and
su p e rv iso ry em ployees------------------------------

R em ark s
L ist the item s for which data w ere estim ated and indicate the method of estim ation .
Include any other pertinent explanation of the data you have repo rted.

Authorizing o fficial

___________________ Title_____________ Date
(Please print or type)

Do you want a copy of the B u reau *s repo rt for this survey?




Y es □

No □

Other B L S Publications on Compensation Expenditures
and Payrol I Hours

B u lle t in
num ber

1571

1561

1528

1470

1428

1419

1413

1332

1308

P r ic e

C o m p e n s a t io n E x p e n d it u r e s a n d P a y r o l l H o u r s :
A ir T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 1 964 (1 9 6 7 ).

30 c e n ts

C o m p e n s a t io n E x p e n d it u r e s an d P a y r o l l H o u r s :
M o to r P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n d u s t r i e s , 1 9 6 4
(1 9 6 7 ).

40 c e n ts

C o m p e n s a t io n E x p e n d it u r e s an d P a y r o l l H o u r s :
P i p e l i n e s , 1 9 6 4 (1 9 6 7 ).

25 c e n ts

S u p p le m e n t a r y C o m p e n s a t io n f o r N o n p ro d u c tio n
W o r k e r s , 1963 (1 9 6 5 ).

70 c e n ts *

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e l e c t e d S u p p le m e n t a r y
C o m p e n s a t io n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n an d R e l a t e d
W o r k e r s ; C o m p o s itio n o f P a y r o l l H o u r s : M a n u fa c tu r in g
I n d u s t r i e s , 1 962 (1 9 6 5 ).

$ 1.00

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e l e c t e d S u p p le m e n t a r y
R e m u n e r a t io n P r a c t i c e s in F i n a n c e , I n s u r a n c e , an d
R e a l E s t a t e I n d u s t r i e s , 1961 (1 9 6 4 ).

45 c e n ts

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e l e c t e d S u p p le m e n t a r y
C o m p e n s a t io n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n an d R e l a t e d
W o r k e r s , M e a tp a c k in g an d P r o c e s s i n g I n d u s t r i e s ,
1 9 6 2 (1 9 6 4 ).

25 c e n ts

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e l e c t e d S u p p le m e n t a r y
R e m u n e r a t io n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s in
M in in g I n d u s t r i e s , I9 6 0 (1 9 6 3 ).

45 c e n t s *

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e l e c t e d S u p p le m e n t a r y
R e m u n e r a t io n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s in
M a n u fa c tu r in g I n d u s t r i e s , 1959 (1 9 6 2 ).

65 c e n t s *

* O ut o f p r in t .
T h e s e b u lle t in s a r e g e n e r a l ly a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e
p u r p o s e s a t le a d in g p u b lic , c o l l e g e , o r u n i v e r s it y l i b r a r i e s , o r in th e B u r e a u ’ s
r e g io n a l o f fic e s .
N O T E : P u b lic a t io n s m a y b e o r d e r e d f r o m th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts ,
U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O ffic e , W a sh in g to n , D . C . , 2 0 4 0 2 , o r f r o m th e B u r e a u 's
r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . (S e e in s id e fr o n t c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s . ) A 2 5 - p e r c e n t d is c o u n t
i s g iv e n f o r b u n d le o r d e r s o f 100 c o p ie s o r m o r e .




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F IC E : 1968 O - 295-420