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Compensation Expenditures
and
Payroll Hours

Motor Passenger Transportation




Industries, 1964

B u lle tin N o . 1561
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

REGION I—NEW ENGLAND
J ohn F . K en n ed y F e d e r a l B u ild in g
G o v e r n m e n t C e n t e r , R o o m 1 6 0 3 -B
B o s to n , M a s s . 0 2203
T e l . : 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2

REGION II—MID-ATLANTIC
341 N inth A v en u e
N ew Y o r k , N. Y . 10001
T e l . : 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5




REGION III—SOUTHERN
1371 P e a c h t r e e S t r e e t , N E .
A tla n ta , G a . 30309
T e l . : 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8

REGION TV—NORTH CENTRAL
219 South D e a r b o r n S tre e t
C h ic a g o , 111. 60604
T e l . : 3 5 3 -7 2 3 0

REGION V—WESTERN
450 G o ld e n G a te A v en u e
B o x 36017
San F r a n c i s c o , C a lif. 9 4102
T e l . : 5 5 6 -4 6 7 8

REGION VI—MOUNTAIN-PLAINS
F e d e r a l O ffic e B u ild in g , T h ir d F lo o r
911 W alnut S tre e t
K a n s a s C ity , M o . 6 4106
T e l . : 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1

Compensation Expenditures
and
Payroll Hours

Motor Passenger Transportation
Industries, 1964

Bulletin N o . 1561
September 1967

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 40 cents






Preface

T he co n c e p t o f e m p lo y e e
c o m p e n s a tio n h as b e e n
b r o a d e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in th e p a s t s e v e r a l d e c a d e s b y th e
a d o p t io n o r l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y p a y p r a c t i c e s .
S ta tis tic s on s tr a ig h t -tim e w a g e s f o r tim e w o r k e d no lo n g e r
s u f f i c i e n t l y a p p r o x i m a t e th e l e v e l o f e m p l o y e r p a y m e n t s f o r
h i r e d l a b o r . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to a c c o u n t f o r s u c h
o u t la y s a s v a c a t i o n a n d h o l i d a y p a y , d a i l y o r w e e k l y o v e r ­
tim e and s h ift d if f e r e n t ia ls , t e r m in a l ( s e v e r a n c e ) p a y , c o n ­
t r i b u t i o n s t o p r i v a t e p e n s i o n an d h e a lt h a n d w e l f a r e fu n d s ,
and p a y m e n ts u n d e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s .
T h is b u l l e t i n a n a l y z e s th e l e v e l a n d s t r u c t u r e o f e m ­
p l o y e r o u t la y s f o r th e c o m p e n s a t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s , c o n ­
s i d e r i n g th e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r e a c h c o m p o n e n t a s a p e r c e n t
o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n o u t la y s a n d in c e n t s - p e r - h o u r .
F u r­
t h e r m o r e , th e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f w o r k i n g a n d l e a v e
h o u r s a s p e r c e n t s o f t o t a l h o u r s p a id f o r i s d i s c u s s e d .
T h is s tu d y o f th e m o t o r p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
i n d u s t r i e s i s p a r t o f th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s
pro­
g r a m o f s t u d ie s o f e m p l o y e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u p p l e m e n ­
ta r y co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t ic e s .
A lis t o f p r e v io u s ly is s u e d
r e p o r t s i s fo u n d a t th e e n d o f t h is b u l l e t i n .
T h e s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d in th e B u r e a u 's O f f i c e o f
W a g e s a n d I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s b y th e D i v i s i o n o f N a t io n a l
W a g e a n d S a l a r y I n c o m e , N o r m a n J . S a m u e l s , C h i e f.
The
a n a l y s i s w a s p r e p a r e d b y R o b e r t E . P o p e u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
d ir e c t io n o f A r n o ld S t r a s s e r .




iii

Contents
Page
C h ap ter 1. In tro d u ctio n _________________________________________________________________________
C h ap ter 2. L o c a l t r a n s i t ________________________________________________________________________
L e v e l and str u c tu r e o f c o m p e n s a t io n _______________________________________________________
P r e v a le n c e o f su p p lem en ts ___________________________________________________________________
P a id lea v e ______________________________________________________________________________________
P a id v a c a tio n s and h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S ick lea v e and o th e r p a id l e a v e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m en ts ___________________________________________________________________________
N on p rod u ction b o n u s e s and te r m in a l p a y m en ts ____________________________________________
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s _______________________________________________________
P riv a te w e lfa r e plans _________________________________________________________________________
L ife , a c c id e n t, and h ealth in s u ra n ce ____________________________________________________
P e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t p la n s _____________________________________________________________
C h ap ter 3. I n te r c ity b u s e s ______________________________________________________________________
L e v e l and s tr u c tu r e o f c o m p e n s a t io n _______________________________________________________
P r e v a le n c e o f su p p lem en ts ___________________________________________________________________
P a id lea v e ______________________________________________________________________________________
P a id v a ca tio n s and h o lid a y s ______________________________________________________________
S ick le a v e and o th e r p a id le a v e ___________________________________________________________
P r e m iu m p a y m en ts ___________________________________________________________________________
N on p rod u ctio n b o n u s e s and te r m in a l p a ym en ts ____________________________________________
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s _______________________________________________________
P riv a te w e lfa r e plans _________________________________________________________________________
L ife , a c c id e n t, and h ealth in s u ra n ce ____________________________________________________
P e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t p la n s _____________________________________________________________
C hap ter 4. T a x ic a b s _____________________________________________________________________________
L e v e l and str u c tu r e o f c o m p e n s a t io n _______________________________________________________
P r e v a le n c e o f su p p lem en ts ___________________________________________________________________
P a id le a v e ______________________________________________________________________________________
P r e m iu m p a y m en ts ___________________________________________________________________________
N on p rod u ctio n b o n u s e s ________________________
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s _______________________________________________________
P r iv a te w e lfa r e plans _________________________________________________________________________
C h ap ter 5. C o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h o u r s _________________________ . ___________________________
_
P a id le a v e h o u r s _______________________________________________________________________________
P a id v a ca tio n p r a c t i c e s _______________________________________________________________________
P a id h o lid a y p r a c t ic e s ________________________________________________________________________
N o rm a l w o r k w e e k p r a c t i c e s __________________________________________________________________

C h a rts:
1. L e v e l o f c o m p e n s a tio n , m o to r p a s s e n g e r tr a n sp o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 ________
2. The str u c tu r e o f co m p e n s a tio n , lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 _________________________________
3. E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r su p p le m e n ta ry co m p e n sa tio n fo r o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s , lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 ________________________________________
4. The s tr u c tu r e o f co m p e n s a tio n , in t e r c it y b u s e s , 1964 _______________________________
5. E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r su p p le m e n ta ry co m p e n sa tio n fo r o p e ra tin g and
n on op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , in t e r c it y b u se s , 1964 _____________________ _______________
6. The str u c tu r e o f c o m p e n s a tio n , t a x ic a b s , 1964 _______________________________________
7. E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r su p p le m e n ta ry co m p e n sa tio n fo r o p e r a tin g and
n on op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , ta x ic a b s , 1964 _____________________________________________




iv

1
6
6
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
11
12
12
18
18
18
18
21
21
21
22
22
22
23
23
28
28
28
30
30
30
30
32
37
37
37
37
38

3
7
9
19
20
29
31

Contents— Continued
Page
T a b le s :
C h ap ter 1.
1.

E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
m o to r p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 ___________________________________
C hapter 2.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

14

15

15

16

16

17

17

In te r c ity b u se s

E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
in t e r c it y b u s e s ,
1964 __________________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a p e r c e n t o f
tota l ex p e n d itu re s fo r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
in t e r c it y b u s e s ,
1964 __________________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n s a tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , in t e r c it y b u s e s , 1964 ______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the c o m p e n sa tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , in te r c ity b u s e s , 1964 ______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r ,
in t e r c it y b u s e s ,
1964 __________________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r, in te r c ity b u s e s , 1964 ________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p aid h o u r, in t e r c it y b u s e s , 1964 ________________________________________




5

L o c a l tr a n s it

E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
lo c a l tr a n s it,
1964 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a p e r c e n t o f
tota l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
lo c a l tr a n s it,
1964 ---------------P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 _______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 _______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , in ce n ts p e r p aid h o u r,
lo c a l tr a n s it,
1964 _____________________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r, lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 ___________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r, lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 ___________________________________________
C h ap ter 3.

9.

In trod u ction

24

25

25

26

26

27

27

Contents— Continued
Page
T able s— C ontin ued
C h ap ter 4.
16.
17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
t a x ic a b s , 1964 _____________________________________________________________ — ----------------P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a p e r c e n t o f
tota l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f e m p lo y e e s ,
t a x ic a b s , 1964 _______________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s f o r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , ta x ic a b s ,
1964 ____________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r the co m p e n sa tio n o f
e m p lo y e e s , ta x ic a b s ,
1964 ____________________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f a ll e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s , in ce n ts p e r p a id h o u r ,
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r, ta x ic a b s , 1964 ________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s b y e m p lo y e r
ex p e n d itu re s fo r s e le c t e d c o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e s ,
in cen ts p e r p a id h o u r, ta x ic a b s , 1964 ________________________________________________
C hapter 5.

23.
24.

25.
26.
27.
28.

29.
30.

T a x ic a b s

34

34

35

36

36

C o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h o u rs

C o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h o u r s , m o t o r p a s s e n g e r
tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 _______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s b y p a id le a v e h o u rs as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l p a id h o u r s , m o t o r p a s s e n g e r
tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 _______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s b y p a id le a v e h o u rs as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l p a id h o u r s , lo c a l tr a n s it, 1964 __________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s b y p a id le a v e h o u rs as a
p e r c e n t o f tota l p a id h o u r s , in t e r c it y b u s e s , 1964 ________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s b y p a id le a v e h o u rs as a
p e r c e n t o f to ta l p a id h o u r s , t a x ic a b s , 1964 ________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv in g v a c a tio n p a y
b y n u m b er o f w e e k s p a id f o r , m o t o r p a s s e n g e r
tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 _______________________________________________________
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s b y n u m b er o f p a id h o lid a y s ,
m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 _______________________________ __
P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b y n o r m a l
w o rk w e e k fo r a m a jo r it y o f e m p lo y e e s , m o t o r
p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s , 1964 __________________________________________

A p p en d ix es:
A . E x p e n d itu re s as p r o p o r tio n s o f p a y r o l l ________________________________________________
B . S cop e and m e th o d o f s u r v e y _____________________________________________________________
C . Q u estio n n a ire ______________________________________________________________________________




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42

43

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49

Compensation Expenditures and Payroll Hours

Motor Passenger Transportation, 1964
Chapter 1.
C o m p e n s a t io n 1 ou tla y s o f m o t o r p a s s e n ­
g e r tra n s p o rta tio n e m p l o y e r s 2 am ou n ted to
$ 2 .4 4 fo r e a ch 1964 h ou r o f w o rk in g t i m e . 3
T h ir ty -e ig h t cen ts (16 p e r c e n t) o f th e s e e x ­
p en d itu res w e r e f o r su p p lem en ts to s tr a ig h t tim e p a y f o r w ork in g tim e ; 23 cen ts o f w h ich
w e r e fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s
and p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s , and 15 cen ts w e r e
fo r p a y r o ll su p p le m e n ts , su ch as p aid le a v e ,
p r e m iu m p a y , b o n u s e s , and te r m in a l p ay.

The m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n in ­
d u s try g rou p is m a d e up o f s e v e r a l d iv e r s e
in d u s trie s — a ll o f w h ich a r e bound to g e th e r
b y one co m m o n attrib u te— the o p e r a tio n and
m a in ten a n ce o f a p a s s e n g e r c a r r y in g m o to r
v e h ic le .
A lth ou gh th e ir m o d e o f o p e r a tio n
v a r ie s g r e a tly and th e ir p a y p r a c t ic e s d if ­
fe r w id e ly , e a ch in d u stry has th is c o m m o n
a ttrib u te.

M o st o f the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta ­
tion in d u stry e m p lo y m e n t and c o m p e n s a tio n
ou tlays d u rin g 1964 w e r e in the lo c a l tr a n s it,
in t e r c it y b u s, and ta x ica b in d u s tr ie s .
The
th re e in d u s trie s a cco u n te d fo r 85 p e r c e n t o f
a ll m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t and 92 p e r c e n t o f a ll c o m p e n s a ­
tion e x p e n d itu re s.
T a x ic a b s c o n s t i t u t e d
40 p e r c e n t o f a ll in d u stry e m p lo y m e n t; lo c a l
tr a n s it a lm o s t 30 p e r c e n t; and in t e r c it y b u s e s
about 15 p e r c e n t.
The m akeu p o f a g g re g a te
c o m p e n s a tio n was som ew h a t d iffe r e n t; ta x ica b
ou tla ys b ein g on ly 30 p e r c e n t o f the to ta l,
w h ile lo c a l tr a n s it ou tla ys w e r e 38 p e r c e n t,
1 Compensation, for purposes of this study, is defined as
the sum of the payments, subject to Federal withholding taxes,
that were made by employers directly to their em ployees, before
deductions of any type, and the expenditures made by employers
for legally required insurance programs and private welfare plans
to provide the worker with full or partial econom ic security
against a future contingency (e. g. , unemployment, retirement,
m edical expenses, etc. ).
2 The motor passenger transportation industry group includes
privately owned companies classified, in accordance with the
1957 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual and
the 1963 Supplement, in SIC 41— Local and Suburban Transit and
Interurban Highway Passenger Transportation.
This major industry
group includes local and suburban transit, taxicabs, intercity bus
lines, charter bus services, school buses, and sm all miscellaneous
industries such as ambulances, limousine rental, etc.
Publicly
owned companies are excluded from this industry classification
and hence were not in the scope of the survey.




Introduction
and in t e r c it y b u se s 24 p e r c e n t. The r e s t o f
the e m p lo y m e n t and c o m p e n s a tio n o u t l a y s
in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s ­
t r ie s w e r e s p r e a d am ong the s c h o o l b u s ,
c h a r te r b u s, a m b u la n ce , and lim o u s in e re n ta l
s e g m e n ts .
In 1964, a p p r o x im a te ly tw o -th ir d s o f a ll
e m p lo y e e s in p r iv a te ly ow ned lo c a l tr a n s it
co m p a n ie s w e r e d r iv e r s ; the re m a in in g o n e th ird w e r e n o n s u p e r v is o r y c l e r i c a l (7 p e r ­
ce n t); e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and s u p e r v i­
sory e m p l o y e e s
(7 p e r c e n t); and o t h e r
n o n s u p e r v is o r y n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (19
p e r c e n t ). A lm o s t a ll lo c a l tr a n s it e m p lo y e e s
w e r e p aid e ith e r b y the h ou r o r w e r e s a la r ie d .
B oth o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in
the lo c a l tr a n s it in d u stry w e r e h e a v ily u n io n ­
i z e d ; 4* 85 p e r c e n t o f a ll b u s d r iv e r s and 75
p e r c e n t o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e
in co m p a n ie s in w h ich the m a jo r it y o f su ch
w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by b a rg a in in g a g r e e ­
m e n ts.

The in t e r c it y bus in d u stry , in te r m s o f
e m p lo y m e n t, is the s m a lle s t o f the th r e e
m a jo r m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s ­
t r ie s .
B u s d r iv e r s co n stitu te ju s t o v e r o n e h a lf o f to ta l in d u stry e m p lo y m e n t w ith n o n ­
s u p e r v is o r y c l e r i c a l (8 p e r c e n t); e x e c u tiv e ,
p r o fe s s io n a l, and s u p e r v is o r y (7 p e r c e n t); and
o th e r n o n s u p e r v is o r y n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s (31 p e r c e n t) m a k in g up the r e m a i n d e r .
S lig h tly o v e r t h r e e -q u a r t e r s o f a ll d r iv e r s
and se v e n -te n th s o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s w e r e e m p lo y e d in c o m p a n ie s w h e re a
m a jo r it y o f the e m p lo y e e s w e r e c o v e r e d b y
c o ll e c t iv e l y b a rg a in e d a g r e e m e n ts .
In this
in d u stry , n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s u s u a lly a r e
p a id on an h o u r ly o r s a la r ie d b a s is ; d r iv e r s
a r e n o r m a lly p aid on a c e n t s - p e r - m i l e b a s is .
3 Paid hours consist of aggregate hours worked and paid
leave hours, rest periods, coffee breaks, machine downtime, and
other nonleave hours paid for but not worked, for which employers
made direct payments to workers during the year. See appendix C
(p. 57 ) for a more detailed definition of total man-hours for oper­
ating em ployees.
Working tim e excludes paid leave hours.
4 The term "u n ion " and the phrase "c o lle c tiv e bargaining
agreement covering a majority of nonsupervisory em ployees" are
used synonymously in this report.
Sim ilarly, the term "nonunion"
and the phrase "c o lle c tiv e bargaining agreement covering none or
a minority of nonsupervisory em ployees" are also used synony­
mously in this report.

1

2
T a x ica b w o r k e r s m a k e up a p p r o x im a te ly
40 p e r c e n t o f a ll e m p lo y m e n t in m o t o r p a s ­
s e n g e r tra n sp o r ta tio n . 5 C om p a n ies v a r y in
s iz e fr o m an in dep en den t o n e -d r iv e r o p e r a ­
tion to a la r g e fle e t ca b co m p a n y e m p lo y in g
s e v e r a l thousand w o r k e r s .
C a b d r iv e r s c o n ­
stitute a lm o s t 85 p e r c e n t o f tota l in d u stry
em p loy m en t; the re m a in in g 15 p e r c e n t b ein g
n o n s u p e r v is o r y c l e r i c a l (4 p e r c e n t); e x e c u ­
tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and s u p e r v is o r y (3 p e r ­
cen t); and oth er n o n s u p e r v is o r y n o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s (8 p e r c e n t).
M o s t o f the d r iv e r s
a re p aid on a c o m m is s io n b a s is (co m p u te d on
the b a s is o f a s p e c ifie d p e r c e n ta g e o f m e t e r
r e c e ip t s ); oth e r in d u s try e m p lo y e e s , su ch as
d is p a tc h e r s , and m a in te n a n ce and s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s a re p a id on an h o u r ly o r s a la r ie d
b a s is .
M ost o f the w o r k e r s in the ta x ica b
in d u stry w e r e s t i l l u n o rg a n ize d in 1964.
F e w e r than o n e -th ir d o f a ll c a b d r iv e r s and
le s s than o n e -s ix t h o f the n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s w e re in c o m p a n ie s in w h ich a m a ­
jo r i t y o f w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by n e g o tia te d
a g r e e m e n ts .

The co m p e n s a tio n ex p en d itu res p e r paid
h ou r am on g the m a jo r se g m e n ts o f the m o t o r
p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry r e fle c t the
d iffe r e n t p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e s , e m p lo y m e n t p a t­
te r n s , and union sta tu s, am on g o th e r fa c t o r s ,
in the s e g m e n ts . E m p lo y e r s in the in te r c ity
bus and lo c a l tr a n s it in d u s tr ie s had e x p e n d i­
tu res o f $ 3 .3 9 and $ 2 . 9 2 an h o u r, r e s p e c ­
tiv e ly ; e m p lo y e r s in the ta x ica b in d u s try e x ­
pen ded on ly $ 1 . 5 9 a paid h ou r.
The lo c a l
tra n sit and in te r c ity bus in d u s tr ie s , w h ich
had h ig h er co m p e n s a tio n ou tla ys p e r p aid
h o u r, had lo w e r r a tio s o f w o rk in g h o u rs to
tota l paid h o u rs (92 p e r c e n t each) t h a n the
ta x ica b in d u stry (98 p e r c e n t ), w h ich had lo w e r
co m p e n sa tio n ou tla ys p e r p aid h ou r.

The d iffe r e n c e s in co m p e n s a tio n ou tla ys
in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s ­
t r y a re even m o r e m a rk e d when in d iv id u a l
com p a n y e x p e n d itu re s a r e e x a m in ed .
In the
total in d u stry , co m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g about
o n e -h a lf o f the w o r k e r s expen ded $ 2 . 15 a
paid h ou r o r m o r e . T his am ount was w eigh ed
h e a v ily b y t a x i c a b co m p a n ie s w h e re the
m ed ia n ou tla y w as $ 1 . 6 3 c o n tra s te d w i t h
$ 3 . 0 8 in the lo c a l tr a n s it and $ 3 . 2 5 in the
in te r c ity bus se g m e n t.
The fo llo w in g ta bu lation show s the m id d le
5 0 -p e r c e n t ra n ge and m ed ia n e x p e n d itu re s,
in cen ts p e r p aid h o u r, in the m o to r p a s ­
s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr ie s du rin g 1964.

Some taxicab companies explained that a sizable propor
tion of their em ploym ent was part tim e.




Company
expenditures
per paid hour

Industry and em ployee group
Motor passenger industries:
A ll e m p lo y ees---------------------------Operating e m p lo y e e s ---------------Nonoperating em ployees --------Local transit:
A ll em p lo y ees---------------------------Operating e m p lo y e e s ---------------Nonoperating e m p lo y e e s --------Intercity buses:
A ll em ployees — ----------------------Operating e m p lo y e e s ---------------Nonoperating em ployees --------T axicabs:
A ll e m p lo y ees---------------------------Operating e m p lo y e e s ---------------Nonoperating e m p lo y e e s ---------

Middle
50 percent 1

Median*

$1. 6 3 -$ 3 . 05
1 . 5 4 - 2 .8 5
2 . 2 5 - 3 .4 3

$ 2 . 15
1 .8 5
2. 83

2 . 5 4 - 3 .2 8
2 . 4 7 - 3 .2 5
2 . 7 8 - 3 .4 9

3 .0 8
3 .0 2
3. 37

2 . 7 3 - 4 . 18
2. 5 1 - 4 .8 8
2 . 4 4 - 3 .4 9

3. 25
3 .3 2
3. 11

1 . 3 1 - 1 .9 2
1 . 2 7 - 1 .7 4
1 . 5 5 - 2 .7 2

1 .6 3
1 .5 6
2. 07

The m iddle range was determined by expenditures in the
companies that cum ulatively em ployed workers at the 25th and
75th percentiles. These two points were selected from an ascend­
ing magnitude array of company em ploym ent ranked by c o m ­
pensation outlays.
^ O n e-h alf of the workers were em ployed by companies
whose expenditures were below this value, and on e-h alf were
em ployed by companies having expenditures above this value.
In some cases, however, there may be a clustering of observations
at the m edian value.

C o m p e n sa tio n fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
(d r iv e r s ) in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r ta ­
tion in d u s t r y 6 am ounted to $ 2 . 1 7 fo r ea ch
p aid h o u r.
N in e ty -o n e p e r c e n t ( $ 1 . 9 7 ) o f
th ese e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s c o n s is t e d o f d i ­
r e c t p a y m en ts to w o r k e r s , o f w h ich $ 1 . 8 4
w e r e p a y m e n t s at s tr a ig h t -tim e ra te s fo r
w o rk in g tim e , and 13 cen ts w e r e ex p e n d itu re s
fo r le a v e tim e ; p r e m iu m s fo r o v e r t im e , w e e k ­
end, h o lid a y , and sh ift w o rk ; n o n p ro d u ctio n
b o n u s e s ; and te r m in a l p a y m e n ts.
The r e ­
m a in in g 20 cen ts— 9 p e r c e n t o f a ll c o m p e n ­
sa tion ex p e n d itu re s— was fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d
in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s and p r iv a te w e l f a r e
p la n s.
E xp en d itu res fo r the c o m p e n sa tio n o f
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in the in d u stry grou p
am ounted to $ 2 . 7 5 a p aid h our— 58 cen ts an
h ou r h ig h e r than the co m p e n sa tio n ou tla ys fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
The sa m e p r o p o r tio n
o f th ese e x p e n d itu re s (91 p e r c e n t) w as fo r
d ir e c t p a y m en ts to n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
as w as r e p o r te d fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
T w o d o lla r s and tw e n ty -e ig h t cen ts a paid
h ou r was fo r e x p e n d itu re s at s tr a ig h t -tim e
ra te s fo r w o rk in g tim e , and 21 cen ts w e r e
ex p en d itu res fo r le a v e tim e ; p r e m iu m s fo r
o v e r t im e , w eek en d , h o lid a y , and sh ift w o rk ;
6 The terms "operating em ployees" and "drivers" are used
synonymously in this report since the term "operating em ployees"
includes only drivers or drivers' helpers.
A ll other em ployees
were classified as "nonoperating personnel. "

Chart 1 LEVEL O COM
.
F
PENSATION, M TO PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION
O R
INDUSTRIES, 1964
CENTS PER PAID HOUR
$4.00
SUPPLEMENTS
3.50 -

STRAIGHT-TIME PAY FOR WORKING TIME

18.2%

3.00
18.4%

2.50 -

16.6%

10.5%

2.00

15.9%

1.50 -

1.00

-

.50

All

Oper. Nonoper.

Taxicabs
-J

All

Motor Passenger Trans-,
portation Industry G roups

Includes data for industries not presented separately.




Oper. Nonoper.

All

Oper.

Nonoper.

Local Transit

All

Oper. Nonoper.

Intercity Buses

4
n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ; and t e r m i n a l p a y ­
m e n ts. N o n p a y r o ll e x p e n d itu re s o f 26 cen ts
a paid h ou r w e r e r e p o r te d fo r le g a lly r e ­
q u ire d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s and p r iv a te w e l­
fa r e p la n s.

B oth to ta l co m p e n s a tio n ou tla ys and e x ­
p en d itu re s fo r su p p lem en ts w e r e g r e a te r in
la r g e co m p a n ie s than in s m a ll c o m p a n ie s .
T h e re a ls o a p p e a re d to be a c lo s e r e la t io n ­
ship b etw een the s tr a ig h t -tim e le v e ls o f e m ­
p lo y e e s ea rn in g s fo r tim e w o r k e d , and the
am ount o f m o n e y exp en ded fo r su p p le m e n ts;
c o m p a n ie s w h ich had lo w e r a v e r a g e h o u r ly
ea rn in g s had s m a lle r ou tla ys fo r su p p lem en ts
than co m p a n ie s w h o se e m p lo y e e s had h ig h e r
a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s .
S ig n ifica n t d i f f e r ­
e n ce s a r e a ls o found when c o m p a n ie s a r e
c o m p a r e d on the b a s is o f the union status o f
the m a jo r it y o f th e ir o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s .
C o m p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s
fo r union d r iv e r s w e r e about 80 p e r c e n t
h ig h e r than fo r nonunion d r iv e r s , and e x ­
p en d itu res fo r u nion n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l
w e r e a lm o s t 30 p e r c e n t h ig h e r than th o se fo r
nonunion n on o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l.

A ll m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n in ­
d u stry e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s that p aid
f o r l e g a l l y r e q u ir e d in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s ;
n in e -te n th s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s p r o v id in g le a v e
p a y m e n ts; th r e e -fo u r t h s in c o m p a n ie s m ak in g
p r iv a te w e lfa r e e x p e n d itu re s ; and s l i g h t l y
o v e r o n e -h a lf in c o m p a n ie s p r o v id in g p r e ­
m iu m p a y m e n ts .
In g e n e r a l, e x p e n d itu re s
fo r the su p p lem en ts to s tr a ig h t -tim e p a y fo r
w ork in g tim e , e x c e p t fo r b o n u s e s and the
le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e s , w e r e m o r e p r e v ­
alen t fo r n on o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s than fo r o p ­
era tin g e m p lo y e e s .

N in e ty -fiv e p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f a ll e m ­
p lo y e e s , in both the lo c a l tr a n s it and in t e r ­
c ity bus in d u s tr ie s , w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich
p r o v id e d p aid le a v e , p r e m iu m p a y m e n ts , and
p r iv a te w e lfa r e e x p e n d itu re s ; le s s than 25
p e r c e n t o f a ll e m p lo y e e s in b oth in d u s tr ie s
w e r e in co m p a n ie s w h i c h p aid b o n u s e s o r
te r m in a l p a y .
The p r e v a le n c e o f e x p e n d i­
tu r e s fo r su p p le m e n ta ry c o m p e n s a tio n in the
ta x ica b in d u s tr y , v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly fr o m
the two bus in d u s tr ie s : A lm o s t 85 p e r c e n t
o f a ll taxi e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d fo r co m p a n ie s
p r o v id in g paid le a v e ; 70 p e r c e n t w o rk e d fo r
co m p a n ie s m ak in g p r iv a te w e lfa r e p a y m e n ts;
s lig h tly o v e r 50 p e r c e n t w o rk e d fo r c o m p a ­
n ie s who p aid n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ; and ju s t
o v e r 25 p e r c e n t w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s m a k ­
ing p r e m iu m p a y m e n ts.




In c o m p a r in g lo c a l tr a n sit 7 and in te r c ity
b u s e s , the in t e r c it y bus in d u stry had g r e a te r
e x p e n d itu re s p e r p aid h ou r fo r b oth a g g re g a te
co m p e n s a tio n and fo r su p p le m e n ts. E m p lo y ­
e r s in the in t e r c it y bus in d u stry had e x p e n d i­
tu re s am ounting to $ 3 . 3 9 fo r ea ch h ou r fo r
w h ich e m p lo y e e s w e r e p aid d u rin g 1964 as
c o m p a r e d with $ 2 . 9 2 in the lo c a l tr a n s it in ­
d u stry .
T h is d iffe r e n c e in the le v e l o f e x ­
p e n d itu re s w as due a lm o s t e n tir e ly to d i f ­
fe r e n t l e v e l s o f c o m p e n sa tio n ou tla y s fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in the two in d u s tr ie s ;
both in d u s tr ie s had s im ila r le v e ls o f c o m ­
p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s (abou t $3 a paid h ou r)
fo r th e ir n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
The e x ­
p e n d itu re s ( $ 3 . 7 9 an hour) fo r the c o m p e n ­
sa tio n o f d r iv e r s in the in te r c ity bus in d u stry
was 97 ce n ts a p a id h ou r h ig h e r than th o se
fo r d r iv e r s in the lo c a l tr a n s it in d u stry ($ 2 .8 2
an h o u r). M o s t o f th e se h ig h e r ex p e n d itu re s
(81 ce n ts) w e r e p a y m en ts fo r s tr a ig h t -tim e
p a y fo r w o rk in g tim e ; the re m a in in g 16 cen ts
w e r e fo r p a id su p p le m e n ts.
The s tr u c tu r e o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r su p ­
p le m e n ts w as v e r y s im ila r in b oth in d u s tr ie s .
B oth had paid le a v e e x p e n d itu re s o f a lm o s t
7 p e r c e n t o f to ta l co m p e n sa tio n ; p r iv a te w e l­
fa r e e x p e n d itu re s o f b e tw e e n 6 to 6. 5 p e r ­
cen t; p r e m iu m p a y m en ts o f u n d er 2 p e r c e n t;
le g a lly r e q u ir e d p a y m en ts o f arou nd 4 p e r ­
cen t; and b oth had v e r y lo w e x p e n d itu re s
(u n d er 0. 3 p e r c e n t) f o r n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
and te r m in a l p a y .
T he ta x ic a b in d u str y had a r a th e r unusual
co m p e n sa tio n ex p e n d itu re p a tte rn in r e la tio n
to the tw o o th e r m a jo r m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in ­
d u s tr ie s .
M o st o f the t a x i c a b c o m p a n ie s
co m p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s o f $ 1 . 5 9 a paid
h ou r w e r e s tr a ig h t -tim e p a y m en ts fo r w o r k ­
ing tim e ; su p p lem en ts to s tr a ig h t -tim e p a y
fo r w o rk in g tim e m a d e up o n ly 11 p e r c e n t
(17 ce n ts p e r paid h ou r) o f a ll co m p e n sa tio n
o u tla y s.
O f th e se su p p le m e n ta l e x p e n d itu re s ,
60 p e r c e n t w e r e f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d p r o ­
g r a m s (i. e. , s o c ia l s e c u r it y , u n e m p lo y m e n t
co m p e n sa tio n in s u r a n c e , and w o r k m e n ’ s c o m ­
p e n sa tio n ); o n ly 40 p e r c e n t w e r e fo r co m p a n y
in itia ted o r c o ll e c t iv e l y b a rg a in e d
s u p p le ­
m e n ts. T he m a jo r d iffe r e n c e in the str u c tu r e
o f c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu re s in the in d u stry
w as b etw een the o p e r a tin g (c a b d r iv e r s ) and
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
E m p lo y e r s in the
in d u stry exp en ded $ 2 . 1 7 fo r ea ch h ou r fo r
w h ich n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e p aid d u r ­
ing 1964; o n ly $ 1 , 4 7 a p aid h ou r w as e x ­
pen ded fo r the c a b d r iv e r s .

m
m

The study of local transit was lim ited to the private sector
only (SIC 4111 ). A ll publicly owned transit companies were e x ­
cluded from the scope of the study.

Table 1.

E m ployer Expenditures fo r the Com pensation of E m p loyees, M otor P a sse n g e r T ransportation Industries, 1964
A l l c o m p a n ie s

E m p lo y e e g r o u p and in d u s t r y

C om pen­
sa tio n

S tr a ig h tt im e p a y
fo r
w o rk ing
t im e

P r e m iu m
p a y m e n ts

P ay fo r
le a v e
tim e

B onuses

C o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r p a y s u p p le m e n ts

T e r m in a l
p a y m e n ts

L e g a lly
r e q u ir e d
in s u r a n c e
p rogra m s

P r iv a t e
w e lf a r e
p la n s

P r e m iu m
p a y m e n ts

P ay fo r
le a v e
t im e

B onuses

T e r m in a l
p a y m e n ts

L e g a lly
r e q u ir e d
in s u r a n c e
progra m s

P r iv a t e
w e lfa r e
pla n s

P e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n
A l l e m p l o y e e s 1 ------------------------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s it —------------ — — —------ ----- ----- —
I n t e r c it y b u s e s —— -------------------------------------T a x i c a b s ------------- ----- -------------------------------------

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

84. 1
81. 3
81. 6
8 8 .9

0 .9
1. 6
.9
. 1

5. 1
6. 8
6 .9
2. 0

O p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1 -------------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s i t -------------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s ---------------- ------------------------------ ----- —

100.0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

84. 4
8 0 .9
81. 8
88 . 6

1.0
2. 0

4.
6.
7.
1.

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1--------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s i t ------------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s ---------------------------------------------------------

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0

83. 4
81. 6
8 0 .9
89. 5

.9
.9
1. 5
. 3

.7
-

7

0.
.
.
.

1
7

.
.
.
.

5. 8
6 .9
6. 5
3. 2

.
.
.
.

8

5

2
3
7
4

1
2

(!)
(2)
( 2)

0

(2)
( 2)

7

8
4

6

(*)
( 2)
( 2)

7

4 .9
4 .0
3. 8
6. 5

4.
6.
6.
1.

5. 2
4. 2
3. 7
7 .0
4. 2
3. 8
4. 0
5 .0

5

8

1. 3
1. 7
.9
. 3

5. 3
6. 8
6 .9
2. 3

1.
1.
2.
1.

4. 3
6. 0
6. 5

1.8
2. 2
.8

2 .0

-

5.
6.
7.
2.

1.
.
1.
1.

4 .9
6. 4
6. 5
1. 3

1. 2
.9
1. 5
1. 2

1
5

3

8
2

0

6. 0
6 .9
6. 5
3. 6

5

1

( 2)
(2)

5
3

0. 1

4

(*)
( 2)
. 1
-

8
5
7

-

4 .9
4 .0
3. 8
6. 5

5.
6.
6.
2.

5.
4.
3.
7.

5.
6.
6.
2.

2
2
7
0

4. 2
3. 8
4. 0
5 .0

1

2
5
4
1

2
5

6

5 .7
6. 7
6. 5
2. 3

3. 9
2. 4
15. 5
1 .9

(2)
(2)

$ 0 . 03
.0 3
. 07
. 02

( 2)
(2)
(2)

$ 0.
.
.
.

11
12

(2 )
(2 )
( 2)

.
.
.
.

11
12
10

. 12
. 18
. 25
.0 4

.
.
.
.

12
12
12
11

.
.
.
.

$ 0.
.
.
.

12
13
14

$ 0 . 14
. 20
. 24
.0 4

0

P e r p a id h o u r
A l l e m p l o y e e s 1 ------------------------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s it -----------------------------------------------I n t e r c i t y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

$ 2 . 33
2 . 92
3. 39
1 .5 9

$ 1.96
2. 36
2. 77
1 .4 2

$ 0 .0 2
.0 5
.0 3
(2)

O p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1 -------------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s i t -----------------------------------------------I n t e r c i t y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

2. 17
2 . 82
3 .7 9
1 .4 7

1 .8 4
2 . 28
3 .0 9
1. 31

. 02
.0 6
.0 3
-

.
.
.
.

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1 ------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s it ----------------- ------ ----------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

2.
3.
2.
2.

2 . 28

.0 3
. 03
. 04
. 01

.
.
.
.

75
17

98
17

2 .5 9
2. 42
1 .9 3

$ 0 . 12
. 20
. 23
.0 3

$ 0.01

10

.01

19
27

02

( 2)
. 01
. 01

16

. 02

22

.01
.0 2
. 02

19
07

.01
. 01
. 01

(!)
(2)
(2)

$ 0.
.
.
.

11
12

(2)
( 2)
(2)

.
.
.
.

11
12

(*)
2)
(2)
-

.
.
.
.

$ 0.
.
.
.

11

$ 0 . 04
.0 5
. 03
( 2)

$0.
.
.
.

10

.0 9
. 17
. 25
.0 3

.0 6

12
12
12
11

.
.
.
.

13

10

14

18

22
03

14

20
19
03

13

20
24
04

-

.
.
.
.

19
27
03

. 02
. 02
. 04
.0 3

.0 4
.0 3
. 04
. 04

. 17
. 22
. 19
.0 9

. 11
. 08
. 38
.0 5

(!)

$ 0 . 03
. 03
. 07

(2 )
(2 )
(2)

.0 6
. 03

12

2

(2 )

13

10

14

$ 0 . 13
. 18
. 22
.0 4

17

22
19
06

P e r h o u r o f w o r k in g tim e

62

$ 2 . 06
2. 56
3. 00
1 .4 4

O p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1 -------------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s it -----------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

2 . 26

1.90

3. 06
4. 09
1 .4 9

2. 48
3. 35
1. 33

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s 1 ------------------------------L o c a l t r a n s it -----------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

2 .9 3
3. 43
3. 20
2. 24

2 .4 5
2 . 79
2. 58

. 03
. 03
.0 5

2.00

.01

A l l e m p l o y e e s 1 ------------------------------ —----------------L o c a l t r a n s it -----------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s --------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s --------------------------------------------------------

$2.
3.
3.
1.

44
16

66

$ 0 . 02
. 05
. 02
(2 )

$ 0.
.
.
.

. 02
. 06
.0 3

.
.
.
.

-

.
.
.
.

12
22
25
03

11
21

$ 0.01
. 01
. 01

.01
.01

29

(2 )
. 01

02

.01

17
24

.0 2
. 02
. 02
.0 2

21
07

(2)
(2)
( 2)

$ 0.
.
.
.

12

(!)
(2)
(2)

.
.
.
.

12

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)

.
.
.
.

13
14

11
13
15

10
12
13
13

11

$ 0 . 11
. 19
. 24
.0 3

$ 0 . 04
. 05
. 03
( 2)

$0.
.
.
.

10

.0 6

18
26
03

.0 7
. 04

.
.
.
.

14

.0 4
. 03
.0 5
. 04

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

22
21
03

14

22
25
04
13

.0 2
.0 3

21

.0 2

30
03

. 04
. 03

. 18
. 24
. 21
.0 9

.11
.0 8
. 40
.0 5

(2)
(2)
$ 0 . 01
(* )
(2)
(2 )
-

.
.
.
.

11
12
13
15

10

. 12
. 13
. 13

.11

.1 3
. 19
. 27
.0 4
. 18
. 24
. 21
.0 6

1 In c lu d e s d a ta f o r in d u s t r ie s n ot p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
2 L e s s than 0 . 05 p e r c e n t o r 0 . 5 c e n t s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a ls .




01

C hapter 2.

L ocal T ransit

L e v e l and S tru ctu re o f C o m p e n sa tio n

b etw een the tw o -e m p lo y e e g r o u p s .
Only a
slig h tly h ig h e r p r o p o r tio n o f tota l c o m p e n s a ­
tion (19. 1 p e r c e n t) w as ex p en ded fo r su p p le ­
m e n ts fo r op era tin g e m p lo y e e s than fo r n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (18.4 p e r c e n t). The on lv
r e a lly sig n ific a n t d i f f e r e n c e
w as in the
am ount exp en ded ( 1 . 8 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m ­
p en sa tion ) fo r o v e r t im e , w eek en d , and h o lid a y
w o rk by o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s c o m p a r e d with
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s (0. 7 p e r c e n t).
T he
v a r ia tio n b etw een e m p lo y e e g ro u p s fo r a ll
oth er su p p lem en ts d id not e x c e e d 0 .4 p e r c e n t
o f total co m p e n sa tio n .

C om p en sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s in the lo c a l
tra n sit in d u stry am ou n ted to $ 2 . 9 2 p e r paid
h ou r.
E m p lo y e r ou tla ys w e r e 35 ce n ts an
h ou r h ig h e r fo r n on op era tin g p e r son n el ($ 3. 17
p er paid h ou r) than fo r o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l
($2.82 p e r p aid h o u r ). E m p lo y e r ex p en d itu res
fo r su p p lem en ts w e r e 4 cen ts an h our h ig h e r
fo r n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s (58 c e n ts ) than fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (54 c e n ts ).
The u p per 55 p e r c e n t o f a ll lo c a l tra n sit
e m p lo y e e s , about tw o -th ir d s o f the n o n o p e r ­
ating and o n e -h a lf o f the o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ,
w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s w h ose c o m p e n s a tio n
ex p en d itu res ra n g ed fr o m $ 3 to $4 a paid
h ou r. 8 M o s t o f the re m a in in g w o r k e r s w e r e
e m p lo y e d by c o m p a n ie s w h o se ex p e n d itu re s
ran ged b etw een $ 2 to $ 3 a paid h o u r.

C o m p a n ie s in w h ich a m a jo r it y o f the
d r iv e r s w e re c o v e r e d by n e g o tia te d a g r e e ­
m en ts had c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu re s o f m o r e
than $ 1 a paid h ou r h ig h e r than c o m p a n ie s in
w h ich none o r a m in o r ity o f the d r iv e r s w e r e
c o v e r e d by su ch a g r e e m e n ts .
The d iffe r e n c e
in c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu re s w as not as g r e a t
b etw een union and nonunion n on op era tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s ; the e x p e n d itu re s fo r the u n io n iz e d
w o r k e r s w e r e 58 ce n ts an h ou r h ig h er than
fo r the nonunion p e r s o n n e l. P a y m e n ts fo r a ll
su p p le m e n ts, e x c e p t n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u se s
a n d le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e p r o g r a m s ,
w e r e h ig h e r in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had u n io n iz e d
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , and in co m p a n ie s w hich
had u n io n ize d n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s than in
fir m s in w h ich none o r a m in o r ity o f th ese
workers
w e r e c o v e r e d by b a r g a i n i n g
a g r e e m e n ts .

S u pplem en tal e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d a l ­
m o s t 19 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n . A b ou t
tw o -th ir d s of th ese d is b u r s e m e n ts w e re fo r
paid le a v e (6. 8 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n sa tio n
ou tlay s) and p riv a te w e lfa r e plans (6. 1 p e r ­
cen t); e x p en d itu re s fo r the le g a lly r e q u ir e d
in su ra n ce s (4 p e r c e n t), p r e m iu m paym en ts
(1. 6 p e r c e n t), and n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s (0. 2
p e rce n t) a cco u n te d f o r the b a la n ce o f the
d is b u rs e m e n t.
E m p lo y e r s in the n o r th e a s te r n a r e a o f
the cou n try had the h ig h e st co m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p en d itu res in the c o u n try . D uring 1964, they
had ex p en d itu re s of $ 3 . 11 fo r ea ch h ou r fo r
w h ich th eir e m p lo y e e s w e r e p a id .
The lo w ­
est e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s w e r e in the South
( $ 2 . 6 3 ) ; ex p e n d itu re s in the N orth C en tra l
and w e s te r n a r e a s fe ll b etw een th ose in the
N o rth e a st and the South.
The p a ttern o f r e ­
g ion a l e x p en d itu re s w as s im ila r fo r both o p ­
eratin g a n d n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s .
The
N o rth e a st had the h ig h e st co m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p en d itu res fo r both g ro u p s ( $2. 97 an h ou r fo r
o p e ra tin g ; $ 3 . 4 0 fo r n o n o p e ra tin g ); the South
had the lo w e s t e x p e n d itu re s ( $ 2 . 5 1 p e r hour
fo r o p e ra tin g ; $ 2 . 9 0 fo r n o n o p e ra tin g ). The
n u m ber o f la r g e m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s having
p riv a te ly ow ned tr a n s it s y s te m s w as d is t r ib ­
u ted fa ir ly even am on g a ll r e g io n s .
The l o ­
ca tion of m o r e s m a ll- and m id d le -s iz e d n o n ­
union co m p a n ie s in the N orth C e n tra l and
sou th ern a r e a s than in the N o r t h e a s t 9 m ay
ca u se the a re a d iffe r e n tia ls .

W hen c o m p e n s a tio n ou tla y s a r e c o m p a r e d
b etw een co m p a n ie s d iv id e d b y e m p lo y m e n t
s iz e in to th re e g ro u p in g s (under 100, 1 0 0 -4 9 9 ,
500 and o v e r ), c o m p a n ie s having 500 o r m o r e
employees
had e x p e n d itu re s w h ich w e re
26 c e n ts an h ou r h ig h e r than did c o m p a n ie s
having b etw een 100 and 499 e m p lo y e e s , and
96 ce n ts an h o u r h ig h e r than did c o m p a n ie s
having fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y e e s . *
2
1

For ease of reading in this and subsequent discussions, the
lim its of the class intervals are designated as 2 to 5 percent,
1 to 6 cents, etc. , instead of using the more precise term inology,
2 and under 5 percent, 1 and under 6 cents, etc.
9 The regions used in this study are:
Northeast— C onnecti­
cut, M aine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Verm ont; South— A labam a,
Arkansas, Delaware,
District of C olum bia,
Florida,
Georgia,
Kentucky,
Louisiana,
Maryland,
Mississippi,
North Carolina,
O klahom a, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia,
and
West Virginia; North Central— Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
M ichigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; and W est— Alaska, Arizona, C a li­
fornia, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New M exico,
Oregon, Utah, Washington, and W yom ing.

G e n e r a lly sp ea k in g , th ere w e re no m a jo r
d iffe r e n c e s in the typ es o f su p p lem en ts o r in
the le v e l o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r the su p p lem en ts




6




Chart 2. THE STRUCTURE O COMPENSATION, LOCAL TRANSIT, 1964
F
(CENTS PER PAID HOUR)

8
P r e v a le n c e o f Supplem en ts
D u ring 1964, m o r e than 7 out o f 8 lo c a l
t r a n s i t e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d fo r c o m p a n ie s
w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s fo r v a c a tio n s , h o l i ­
d a y s, o v e r tim e p r e m iu m s , h ealth in s u r a n c e ,
and p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p la n s ; tw o -th ir d s
o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d fo r c o m p a n ie s that
had ou tla y s fo r s ic k le a v e . F e w e r than o n e h a lf o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d fo r c o m p a n ie s
that had e x p e n d itu re s fo r o th e r su p p le m e n ts.
The p r e v a le n c e o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r th ese s u p ­
p lem en ts w as v a r ie d ; a lm o s t o n e -h a lf o f a ll
e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had c iv i c
and p e r s o n a l le a v e e x p e n d itu r e s ; about tw o fifth s in co m p a n ie s w ith sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls ;
and o n ly o n e -fift h w o r k e d fo r c o m p a n ie s
w h ich had ou tla y s fo r n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u se s
and te r m in a l p ay.
S om e su p p le m e n ts , su ch as p a id h o lid a y s ,
s ic k le a v e , o v e r tim e p r e m iu m s , sh ift d i f f e r ­
e n tia ls , and te r m in a l p a y w e r e m o r e p r e v a ­
len t fo r n on op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s . O th e r s , su ch
as c iv i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e , h ealth in s u r a n c e ,
and p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t plans w e r e m o r e
p re v a le n t f o r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
P a id
v a ca tio n s and n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s w e r e
e q u a lly p r e v a le n t fo r b oth e m p lo y e e g r o u p s .
A ll co m p a n ie s had e x p e n d itu re s fo r s o c ia l
s e c u r it y and u n em p lo y m e n t co m p e n s a tio n and
a lm o s t a ll had e x p e n d itu re s fo r w o r k m e n 's
co m p e n sa tio n .
T h e re w as v e r y little d iffe r e n c e in the
p r e v a le n c e o f the v a r io u s su p p lem en ts in the
fo u r b r o a d g e o g r a p h ic r e g io n s .
H ow ever, a
la r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f u n io n ize d o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d fo r fir m s
w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s fo r the v a r io u s s u p ­
p lem en ts than did u n o rg a n ize d w o r k e r s . The
sin g le e x c e p tio n to this g e n e r a l p a ttern w as
b o n u s e s fo r nonunion d r iv e r s .
P a id L ea v e
P a y fo r v a ca tio n s and h o lid a y s a cco u n te d
fo r m o r e than 90 p e r c e n t o f a ll 1964 le a v e
p a y m e n ts. The oth er le a v e e x p e n d itu re s w e r e
fo r s ic k lea v e and c iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e .
V a c a t i o n e x p e n d itu re s (4 .6 p e r c e n t o f
tota l c o m p e n s a tio n ) alon e a cco u n te d fo r o v e r
tw o -th ir d s o f a ll le a v e e x p e n d itu r e s ; h o lid a y s
( 1. 6 p e r c e n t) s lig h tly under o n e -fo u r th ; and
s ic k le a v e ( 0. 6 p e r c e n t) s lig h tly u nder o n e tenth.
The le v e l o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r b oth o p e r a ­
ting and n on op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w as a lm o s t
the sam e fo r to ta l le a v e p a y m en ts and fo r
e a ch o f the le a v e c o m p o n e n ts .
A lm o s t o n e h a lf o f b oth the o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g




e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h e re le a v e
e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d 7 to 9 p e r c e n t o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a tio n , and a lm o s t th r e e -fift h s w e r e
in c o m p a n i e s
w h o se e x p e n d itu re s w e r e
20 cen ts o r m o r e a p a id h ou r.
A bout o n e h a lf o f both o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s w e r e i n c o m p a n ie s having h o lid a y
p a y m en ts o f b e tw e e n 4 to 8 ce n ts an h o u r ,
and o v e r se v e n -te n th s o f e a c h g rou p w e r e in
c o m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s c o n s tit u ­
ting 1 to 3 p e r c e n t o f to ta l co m p e n sa tio n .
C om p a n y s ic k le a v e e x p e n d itu re s w e r e g e n e r ­
a lly under 2 p e r c e n t o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n
and b e tw e e n 2 to 6 ce n ts a p a id h o u r.
A ll
c iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e e x p e n d itu re s w e r e
under 1 p e r c e n t o f to ta l co m p e n sa tio n and
2 cen ts a p a id h o u r.
L e a v e p a y m en ts in co m p a n ie s w h ich had
u n io n ize d d r i v e r s
w e r e about 75 p e r c e n t
h ig h e r as a p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n
(7. 1 p e r c e n t) than in co m p a n ie s w h ich had
nonunion d r iv e r s (4 p e r c e n t).
A lthough the
exten t o f the d iffe r e n c e w as s m a lle r fo r n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , c o m p a n ie s having u n io n ­
iz e d w o r k e r s s t ill had s ig n ific a n tly h ig h e r
e x p e n d itu re s ( 7 . 4 p e r c e n t) than did c o m p a n ie s
having nonunion w o r k e r s (5 p e r c e n t).
S m a lle r bus c o m p a n ie s had le a v e e x p e n d i­
tu re s fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w h ich c o n s t i­
tuted a m u ch lo w e r p r o p o r tio n (3. 8 p e r c e n t)
o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n than d id m i d d l e -s i z e d
(6.9 p e r c e n t) and la r g e c o m p a n ie s (8 p e r c e n t).
The h i g h e s t le a v e e x p e n d itu re s w e r e
found in the N o rth e a st (7. 5 p e r c e n t o f tota l
co m p e n s a tio n and 26 ce n ts a w o rk in g h o u r );
the n ext h ig h e st ( 6. 6 p e r c e n t and 21 cen ts a
w o rk in g h o u r) in the N orth C e n tra l r e g io n ;
and the lo w e s t (6. 2 p e r c e n t and 17 cen ts a
w o rk in g h o u r) in the South.
The sa m e r e ­
g ion a l ran kin gs in the le v e l o f le a v e p a y ­
m e n ts, b oth as a p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n and in cen ts a w o rk in g h o u r, w e r e
found a ls o in e x p e n d itu re s fo r b oth the o p e r ­
ating and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .

P a id V a ca tio n s and H o lid a y s . M o r e m o n e y
w as exp en d ed fo r p a id v a c a tio n s in the lo c a l
tr a n s it in d u stry than fo r any o th e r sin g le s u p ­
p le m e n t. T h e se e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d 4. 6
p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n and am ou n ted
to 15 cen ts fo r e a c h h ou r o f w o rk in g tim e in
1964. P a id h o lid a y s , w h ich w e r e the s e c o n d
la r g e s t le a v e s u p p l e m e n t , a cco u n te d fo r
5 cen ts a w o rk in g h ou r and co n stitu te d 1. 6
p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n . T h e se e x p e n d ­
it u r e s , as a p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n ,
w e r e a lm o s t the sa m e fo r o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .

Chart 3. EMPLOYER EXPENDITURES FOR SUPPLEMENTARY COM
PENSATION FOR
OPERATING AND NONOPERATING EMPLOYEES, LOCAL TRANSIT, 1964




0

1

2

PERCENT OF COMPENSATION
3
4

5

6

7

10
V a ca tion and h o lid a y e x p e n d itu re s, both
as a p r o p o r tio n o f co m p e n s a tio n and in cen ts
a w ork in g h ou r, w e r e h ig h e r fo r u n ion ized
d r iv e r s and n o n op era tin g e m p lo y e e s than fo r
th eir nonunion c o u n te r p a r ts .
The sp re a d ,
h o w e v e r, w as not as g r e a t b etw een union and
nonunion n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s as it w as
betw een union and nonunion d r iv e r s . In a d d i­
tion, v a ca tio n and h olid a y p a ym en ts fo r both
op era tin g and n o n op era tin g p e r s o n n e l w e r e
g r e a te r in the m id d le -s iz e d and la r g e c o m ­
p a n ies than they w e r e in the s m a ll c o m p a n ie s .

S ick L ea v e and O th er P a id L e a v e . O v er
o n e -h a lf o f both the o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e r a t­
ing e m p lo y e e s w e r e e m p lo y e d b y co m p a n ie s
that p aid fo r s ic k le a v e . E xp en d itu res w e re
s lig h tly h ig h er (0. 8 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n ­
sa tion and 3 cen ts a w o rk in g h ou r) fo r n o n ­
o p era tin g e m p lo y e e s than w e re p a ym en ts fo r
the o p era tin g e m p lo y e e s (0. 6 p e r c e n t and
2 cen ts a w ork in g h ou r).

S ick lea v e ex p e n d itu re s w e r e h ig h er fo r
both u n ion ized d r iv e r s and u n ion ized n o n o p ­
era tin g e m p lo y e e s than fo r th eir nonunion
co u n te rp a rts .
P a ym en ts fo r s ic k le a v e in
co m p a n ie s having 500 e m p lo y e e s or m o r e c o n ­
stituted a lm o s t tw ice as la r g e a p r o p o r tio n o f
tota l co m p e n sa tio n as did p a ym en ts in c o m ­
p a n ies having b etw een 100-499 e m p lo y e e s ; and
th ese exp en d itu re le v e ls w e r e c o n s id e r a b ly
h ig h er than in co m p a n ie s having fe w e r than
100 e m p lo y e e s . 10
A lth ou gh a lm o s t h a lf o f a ll o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s
p ro v id in g som e type o f c iv ic and p e r s o n a l
le a v e , the p a ym en ts fo r this type o f le a v e
am ou n ted to on ly o n e -te n th o f 1 cen t a paid
h ou r.
T his low le v e l o f ex p en d itu res w as
due p a rtly to the in freq u en t o c c u r r e n c e o f
this type o f le a v e , and p a rtly b e c a u s e m o st
co m p a n ie s m ay have had on ly one or two
ty p es o f c iv i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e . 1
1

P r e m iu m P ay m en ts
A lm o s t a ll p r e m iu m p a ym en ts in the lo c a l
tr a n s it in d u stry w e r e fo r o v e r tim e , w eek en d ,
and h olid a y w o r k .
Shift d iffe r e n tia ls w e r e
v e r y s p a r s e . A few b u s d r iv e r s r e c e iv e d o w lrun 12 p r e m iu m s , and a few co m p a n ie s had
so m e m a in ten a n ce w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e d a
d iffe r e n tia l fo r w ork in g on a se co n d shift.
O v e rtim e p r e m iu m s fo r b u s d r iv e r s c o n ­
stituted a m u ch h igh er p r o p o r tio n o f tota l
co m p e n sa tio n (1. 8 p e r c e n t) than did the p r e ­
m iu m s fo r n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s (0. 7 p e r ­
cen t).
T h ese lo w e r p r e m iu m p a ym en ts to




n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l a r e p r o b a b ly due to
lim ite d o v e r tim e w o r k b y c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s
and an a b s e n c e o f p r e m iu m p a ym en ts to s a l­
a r ie d s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s .

N o n p rod u ction B o n u se s and
T e r m in a l P a y m en ts
Both b o n u s e s and te r m in a l p a ym en ts w e r e
sca n t in the lo c a l tr a n s it in d u stry du rin g 1964;
on ly a fe w co m p a n ie s r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s
fo r e ith e r su p p lem en t. No co m p a n y r e p o r te d
bonus p a y m en ts in e x c e s s of 4 p e r c e n t of
tota l c o m p e n sa tio n o r 8 ce n ts an h our fo r o p ­
era tin g e m p lo y e e s .
Som e c o m p a n ie s , h o w ­
e v e r , r e p o r te d b o n u se s fo r n on op era tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s that a m ou n ted to as m u ch a s 8 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n sa tio n and 23 c e n ts an h ou r.
Un­
lik e e x p e n d itu re s fo r o t h e r
su p p lem en ts,
bonus p a y m en ts (in cen ts-p er-pa id -h ou r te r m s )
in fir m s e m p lo y in g nonunion d r iv e r s and in
fir m s w i t h nonunion n o n o p e ra tin g w o r k e r s
w e r e tw ice as high as th o se in fir m s in w h ich
a m a jo r ity o f su ch w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by
c o n tr a c tu a l a g r e e m e n ts . A ll c o m p a n ie s w h ich
had e x p e n d itu re s fo r te r m in a l p a ym en ts r e ­
p o r te d ou tla ys o f under 1 p e r c e n t o f tota l
co m p e n s a tio n and under 2 ce n ts a p aid h ou r.

L e g a lly R e q u ire d In su ra n ce P r o g r a m s
F o u r p e r c e n t o f a ll 1964 c o m p e n sa tio n
e x p e n d itu re s o f p r iv a te ly ow ned lo c a l tr a n s it
fir m s w e r e fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su ra n ce
p rogram s.
S ix ty -fo u r p e r c e n t o f th ese p a y ­
m en ts w e r e fo r s o c ia l s e c u r ity ; 23 p e r c e n t
fo r u n em p loy m en t c o m p e n sa tio n ; 12 p e r c e n t
fo r w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n sa tio n ; and 1 p e r c e n t
fo r oth er le g a lly r e q u ir e d p r o g r a m s .
The e m p lo y e rs * le g a lly r e q u ir e d pa ym en ts
fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s co n stitu te d a slig h tly
h ig h er p r o p o r tio n (4. 2 p e r c e n t) o f tota l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n than did the p a y m en ts m ad e fo r
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s ( 3 . 8 p e r c e n t). S o c ia l
s e c u r ity p a y m en ts and w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a ­
tion w e r e slig h tly h ig h er as a p r o p o r tio n of
co m p e n s a tio n fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ; u n e m ­
p lo y m e n t co m p e n sa tio n co n stitu te d about the
sa m e p r o p o r tio n fo r b oth e m p lo y e e g ro u p s.

0 Differences in expenditures for sick leave do not n e c ­
essarily mean that there was a greater incidence of sickness— it
may reflect more liberal provisions for pay for such tim e.
1 1 A study of 31 local transit contracts on file with the
Bureau showed that only 10 of the contracts provided for jury pay,
6 contracts provided for funeral leave, and 1 contract provided
for voting tim e .
12 A run which begins at or about midnight,
through all or most of the night.

and continues

11
E x p en d itu res fo r s o c ia l s e c u r i t y 13 c o n ­
stitu ted 2. 6 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n
c o s t s and am ou n ted to 8 cen ts a p a id h o u r.
M o st co m p a n ie s had s o c ia l s e c u r it y e x p e n d i­
tu re s o f b e t w e e n 2 to 3 p e r c e n t o f to ta l
co m p e n s a tio n and 6 to 10 cen ts a p aid h ou r
fo r both o p e r a t i n g
and n o n o p e r a t i n g
e m p lo y e e s .

C om pany p a y m e n ts fo r State and F e d ­
e r a l 14 u n em p loy m e n t in s u r a n c e co n stitu te d
s lig h tly le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n
and am ou n ted to 3 cen ts an h ou r o f w o rk in g
tim e .
A lm o s t a ll c o m p a n ie s r e p o r te d e x ­
p e n d itu re s o f u n d er 2 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n
and 6 cen ts an h o u r.

P a y m en ts f o r w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a tio n
con stitu ted o n ly o n e -h a lf o f 1 p e r c e n t o f to ta l
compensation
c o s t s in .t h e in d u s try and
am ounted to on ly s lig h tly o v e r 1 cen t a p aid
h ou r in 1964. E x p e n d itu re s f o r o th e r le g a lly
re q u ir e d p r o g r a m s 15 a r e found in o n ly a fe w
S tates and e m p lo y e r c o s t s a r e r e la t iv e ly in ­
s ig n ifica n t.
E ven am ong c o m p a n ie s w h ich
h ave th e se e x p e n d itu r e s , th ey am ou n ted to
le s s than o n e -h a lf o f 1 p e r c e n t o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a t i o n c o s t s and u nder 2 ce n ts a
p aid h o u r.

P r iv a t e W e lfa r e P la n s
E m p l o y e r p a y m en ts w e r e h ig h e r fo r
p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s than f o r any o th e r g rou p
o f su p p lem en ts e x c e p t p a id le a v e .
These
p r iv a te p lan s r e q u ir e d e x p e n d itu re s o f o v e r
6 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n d u rin g 1964
and 18 cen ts a p a id h o u r.
A ll p r iv a te w e l­
fa r e p a y m en ts w e r e fo r li f e , a c c id e n t, and
h ealth in s u ra n ce (2 .4 p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a tio n )
and f o r p e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t p la n s (3 .8 p e r ­
ce n t).
No o th e r p r iv a te w e lfa r e p lan s w e r e
r e p o r te d .

S lig h tly g r e a t e r p e n s io n o u tla y s fo r n o n ­
op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s r e s u lte d in som ew h a t
h ig h e r p r iv a te w e lfa r e e x p e n d itu re s (6. 4 p e r ­
cen t) fo r this e m p lo y e e g rou p than f o r o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s (6 p e r c e n t ). A lth ou gh
70
p e r c e n t o f a ll b u s d r iv e r s w e r e in co m p a n ie s
w h ich had p r iv a te w e lfa r e e x p e n d itu re s o f b e ­
tw een 4 to 8 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n ,
e x p en d itu res f o r the n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ,
on the oth er hand, ra n g ed fr o m u nder 1 to
13 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n .
The o n ly
d is c e r n ib le co n c e n tr a tio n s o f n o n o p e ra tin g
w o r k e r s at any g iv e n in te r v a ls w e r e b etw een
8 and 9 p e r c e n t (23 p e r c e n t o f a ll w o r k e r s )
and b etw een 5 and 6 p e r c e n t (18 p e r c e n t ).




C om p a n ies in the n o r th e a s te r n a r e a o f
the c o u n t r y had the h ig h e st e x p e n d itu re s
(6. 4 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n and 19 cen ts an
h ou r) fo r p r iv a te w e lfa r e p lan s f o r th e ir b u s d r iv e r s ; c o m p a n ie s in the South and in the
N orth C e n tra l r e g io n s had s im ila r le v e ls o f
e x p e n d itu re s (both 5. 9 p e r c e n t) f o r th e ir o p ­
era tin g e m p lo y e e s . E x p e n d itu re s fo r n o n o p ­
e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s sh ow ed a so m e w h a t s im ila r
p a tte rn . E m p lo y e r s in the N o rth e a st had the
h ig h e st (7. 1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n ); the
S o u t h the next h ig h e st ( 6 . 8 p e r c e n t ); and
the N orth C e n tra l a r e a the l o w e s t ( 5 . 8
p e r c e n t ).

The union status o f both o p e ra tin g and
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s s e e m s to h ave a
m a r k e d e ffe c t on the e x p e n d itu re le v e l fo r
p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s. C om pany p a y m en ts fo r
u n io n ize d d r iv e r s co n stitu te d o v e r two and
o n e -h a lf tim e s as la r g e a p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l
co m p e n sa tio n as did p a y m en ts f o r nonunion
d r i v e r s , and the p a y m en ts fo r u n io n ize d n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e o v e r tw o tim e s as
la r g e as the p a y m en ts fo r nonunion n o n o p e r ­
ating em p lo y e e s .

C om p a n ies h avin g 100 e m p lo y e e s o r m o r e
had e x p e n d itu re s f o r p r iv a te w e lfa r e plan s
that w e r e n e a r ly tw ic e as h igh as co m p a n ie s
h avin g fe w e r than 100 e m p l o y e e s .
The
w id e s t ra n g e in the le v e l o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r
p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s , a m on g c o m p a n ie s in
d iffe r e n t s iz e g r o u p s , w as f o r n o n o p e ra tin g
p e r s o n n e l. C om p a n ies havin g 500 e m p lo y e e s
o r m o r e had e x p e n d itu re s con stitu tin g th re e
tim e s as la r g e a sh a re o f c o m p e n s a tio n a s d id
p r iv a te w e l f a r e e x p e n d itu re s in c o m p a n ie s
w h ich had fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y e e s . T h e r e
w a s a n a r r o w e r ra n g e in the le v e l o f e x p e n d i­
tu r e s fo r d r i v e r s ' p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s b e tw e e n
d iffe r e n t s iz e g r o u p s .
C o m p a n ie s w h ich had
fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y e e s had e x p e n d itu re s
am ounting to about 60 p e r c e n t o f th o se m a d e
b y c o m p a n ie s w h ich had 500 e m p lo y e e s o r
m ore.

3 In 1964, the employer's rate of contribution for social
security was 3 -5 /8 percent of the first $4, 800 of each employee's
annual earnings.
14 For 1964, employers in all but nine States were taxed
at a rate of 0 .4 percent o f payroll. A rate of 0. 7 percent was
paid in California, Delaware, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, New Jersey, and West Virginia. Alaska had a rate
of 0.8 5 percent. In all States, the tax applied only to the first
$3,000 paid to an employee.
15 Employers in a few States are subject to temporary dis­
ability insurance laws which may require expenditures on their
part. See appendix A, Digest of 100 Selected Health and In­
surance Plans under C ollective Bargaining. Early 1966 (BLS Bul­
letin 1502, 1966) for details on the financing of these plans.

12
A n oth er in te r e s tin g r e la tio n s h ip is found
w hen the le v e l o f p r iv a te w e lfa r e and legallyr e q u ir e d in su ra n ce e x p e n d itu re s in the d i f ­
fe r e n t s iz e g ro u p s a re c o m p a r e d . C o m p a n ie s
w h ich had fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y e e s e x p en d ed
o v e r 1 p e r c e n t m o r e o f to ta l co m p e n sa tio n
fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s than
th ey did fo r p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.
On the
oth er hand, co m p a n ie s w h ich had 100 e m p lo y ­
e e s o r m o r e e x p en d ed a m u ch la r g e r p r o p o r ­
tion o f co m p e n s a tio n fo r the p r iv a te w e lfa r e
plan s than th ey d id fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in ­
s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s .
T h e s e co n tr a s tin g r e l a ­
tion sh ip s a re p r o b a b ly an ou tg row th o f the
u n ion iza tion and e a rn in g s le v e l p a ttern s o f
th ese two s iz e g r o u p s . S in ce p r iv a te w e lfa r e
p lan s in this in d u s try a p p ea r to be m o r e o f an
ou tg row th o f c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g than c o m ­
pan y in itia tio n , su b sta n tia l e x p e n d itu re s fo r
th ese plan s a re m o r e lik e ly to be found in
large
u n io n iz e d c o m p a n ie s ra th e r than in
s m a ll nonunion c o m p a n ie s . On the o th e r hand,
e x p e n d itu re s fo r u n e m p lo y m e n t in s u ra n ce and
s o c ia l s e c u r it y in s m a ll c o m p a n ie s a re u s u ­
a lly g r e a te r as a p r o p o r tio n o f co m p e n sa tio n
than are e x p e n d itu re s fo r th ese sa m e p r o ­
g ra m s in a la r g e co m p a n y .
T h is d iffe r e n c e
o c c u r s b e c a u s e u n em p loy m en t in s u ra n ce and
s o c ia l s e c u r it y a re funded on the b a s is o f a
rate ap p lied a g a in st a s p e c ifie d m a x im u m o f
e a ch e m p lo y e e ’ s e a r n in g s .
S in ce the le v e l
o f ea rn in g s is g e n e r a lly lo w e r in s m a ll c o m ­
p a n ies than in la r g e , the u n e m p l o y m e n t
insurance
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y p a ym en ts
con stitu te a la r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f c o m p e n s a ­
tion in th ese s m a lle r c o m p a n ie s .

L ife , A c c id e n t, and H e a l t h In s u r a n c e .
A lm o s t e v e r y co m p a n y in the in d u stry had
ex p en d itu res f o r one li f e , a c c id e n t, and h ealth
in su ra n ce plan o r m o r e .
A lth ou gh in d u stry
ex p en d itu res fo r th ese plans c o n stitu te d 2 .4
p e r c e n t o f a ll co m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu r e s ,
th ey v a r ie d w id e ly fr o m co m p a n y to co m p a n y .
S om e co m p a n ie s had p a ym en ts o f le s s than
1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n ; o th e r s had p a y ­
m en ts a m o u n t i n g to a lm o s t 6 p e r c e n t o f
co m p e n s a tio n . 1
6

The le v e l o f in d u s try e x p e n d itu re s f o r
b oth o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
w as s im ila r (about 2 .4 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a ­
tion and 7 cen ts p e r h o u r ); a m a jo r it y o f b oth
o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s b e in g
in co m p a n ie s having e x p e n d itu re s o f b etw een
1 to 3 p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a tio n and 4 to 10
cen ts a p a id h o u r.
E x p en d itu re s fo r u n io n iz e d d r iv e r s c o n ­
stitu ted 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n as c o m ­
p a r e d w ith 1 .7 p e r c e n t fo r nonunion d r iv e r s .




E x p e n d itu re s fo r b o t h union and nonunion
n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l co n stitu te d about 2. 3
p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n c o s t s .
A bout th r e e -fift h s o f b oth o p e ra tin g and
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s
having c o n tr ib u to r y li f e , a c c id e n t, and h ea lth
in su ra n ce p la n s.
C om p a n y co n trib u tio n s to
th e se p lan s co n stitu te d about 2 p e r c e n t o f
th e ir to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n c o s t . T h is w as about
1 p e r c e n t le s s than e x p en d ed b y the c o m p a n ie s
having n o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s. S lig h tly fe w e r
than 10 p e r c e n t o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g and o n ly
3 p e r c e n t o f a ll o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in
c o m p a n ie s w ithout h ealth in s u ra n ce p la n s.

P e n s io n and R e tir e m e n t P la n s . E m p lo y e r
co n trib u tio n s fo r p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t plans
a cco u n te d fo r a lm o s t 4 p e r c e n t o f a ll c o m ­
p e n sa tio n e x p e n d i t u r e s
du rin g 1964 and
am ou n ted to 11 ce n ts a p a id h o u r.
T h e re
w as a w ide ran ge in c o m p a n y c o n t r ib u ­
tion s fo r th e se p la n s.
S om e c o m p a n i e s
co n trib u te d le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f th e ir tota l
co m p e n sa tio n o u tla y s ; o th e r s co n tr ib u te d as
h igh as 9 p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a tio n . 1
7

C o m p a n ie s co n tr ib u te d a slig h tly h ig h er
p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n (4. 1 p e r c e n t)
fo r n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l than th ey did fo r
the o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (3. 7 p e r c e n t).
T his
d iffe r e n c e m a y be due to the in c lu s io n o f e x ­
e c u tiv e , a d m in is tr a tiv e , and s u p e r v is o r y p e r ­
so n n e l in the n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e g ro u p . In
s o m e in s ta n c e s , th e se e m p lo y e e s a re c o v e r e d
b y se p a ra te r e tir e m e n t and p e n sio n p la n s—
co m p a n y co n trib u tio n s m a y be at a som ew h a t
h ig h e r ra te than fo r o th e r e m p lo y e e s .
E m p lo y e r s havin g u n io n iz e d d r iv e r s and
u n io n iz e d n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l had e x p e n d i­
tu re s fo r p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p lan s w h ich
w e r e m o r e than fiv e tim e s g r e a te r than the
e x p e n d itu re s b y c o m p a n ie s w h ich had n o n ­
union p e r s o n n e l.
C o m p a n ie s w h ich had 500 e m p lo y e e s o r
m o r e had su b sta n tia lly h ig h e r e x p e n d itu re s
than did c o m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g 1 0 0 -4 9 9 , o r

^ One possible factor in this wide variation is that although
per-em p loyee costs for these plans m ay be sim ilar for different
com panies, the compensation levels in these different companies
m ay vary considerably.
Thus, similar outlays per em ployee for
health insurance plans in different companies m ay constitute vary­
ing proportions of total compensation.
17 Many different factors, of course, can effect the le v e l
of a com pany's contribution during a given year to a pension and
retirement plan. Am ong these are the lev el of funding in the plan;
the unfunded past service lia bility; and the number of em ployees
covered by the plan.

13
co m p a n ie s w h ich had fe w e r than 100 e m p lo y ­
ees.
S in ce a ll co m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g 500 o r
m o r e and a lm o s t a ll co m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g
betw een 1 00-499 e m p lo y e e s r e p o r te d c o l l e c ­
tive b a rg a in in g a g r e e m e n ts c o v e r in g a m a j o r ­
ity o f both th e ir d r iv e r s and n o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s and s in c e a lm o s t a ll c o m p a n ie s
e m p lo y in g fe w e r t h a n 100 e m p lo y e e s w e r e
u n o rg a n ize d , the in flu e n ce o f c o lle c t iv e b a r ­
gain in g on le v e ls o f p e n s io n and r e tir e m e n t
e x p e n d itu re s is ap p aren t.

In c o n tr a s t to the p r a c t ic e s fo r li f e , a c ­
cid e n t, and h ealth in s u ra n ce p la n s , th e re w e r e
m o r e co m p a n ie s w h ich had n o n c o n tr ib u to r y




p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p lan s than th e re w e r e
w h ich had c o n tr ib u to r y plan s fo r b oth o p ­
e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s . E xp en d ­
itu r e s fo r
th ese n o n c o n tr ib u to r y p lan s fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s co n stitu te d 4. 5 p e r c e n t
o f c o m p e n s a tio n ; e x p e n d itu re s fo r the c o n t r ib ­
u to ry p la n s
co n stitu te d o n ly s lig h tly o v e r
3 p e r c e n t. S im ila r ly , the e m p lo y e r p a ym en ts
fo r n o n c o n tr ib u to r y p lan s f o r n o n o p e ra tin g
p e r s o n n e l w e r e h ig h e r (5.2 p e r c e n t) than w e r e
the p a y m en ts fo r c o n tr ib u to r y p lan s (3. 8 p e r ­
ce n t).
A bout 18 p e r c e n t o i a ll n on op era tin g
p e r s o n n e l and 14 p e r c e n t o f a ll o p e ra tin g
p e r s o n n e l w e r e in c o m p a n ie s that d id not have
any e x p e n d itu re s d u rin g 1964 fo r a p e n sio n
and r e tir e m e n t plan .

Table 2.

Em ployer Expenditures fo r the Com pensation o f E m ployees, L o ca l Transit, 1964
O p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s

A ll e m p l o y e e s
C o m p e n s a t io n p r a c t i c e

T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s -----------------------------------------------------------------G r o s s p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------------------S t r a ig h t -t i m e p a y m e n t s f o r w o r k in g t i m e ------------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s —------------------------------------------------- -------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , an d h o lid a y w o r k ------------------------------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s --------------------------------------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t im e — — — — — ——- — —--------------------------— —— —
V a c a t io n s —------ —----------------------------------------- --------------------------H o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e -------------------------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ----------------------------------------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d it io n to p a y r o l l -----------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e an d p r o t e c t i o n -------------------------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n -----------------------------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y a n d i l l n e s s -------------------------------------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s --------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s -----------------------------------------------------------------L ife , a c c i d e n t , an d h e a lth in s u r a n c e --------------------------------P e n s i o n an d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s -----------------------------------------------

P ercen t
o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a t io n

C en ts p e r h o u r
P a id f o r

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




N o n o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s

C en ts p e r h ou r
P a id f o r

W o rk in g tim e

P ercen t
o f tota l
c o m p e n s a t io n

C en ts p e r h ou r
P a id f o r

W o rk in g t im e

100 . 0

$ 2 .9 2

$ 3 . 16

100 . 0

$ 2. 82

$ 3 . 06

100 . 0

$ 3 . 17

$ 3 . 43

8 9 .9

$ 2 . 62

$ 2 . 84

8 9. 8

$ 2 . 53

$ 2 . 75

8 9. 8

$ 2 . 85

$ 3 . 08

2. 36
. 05
. 04
(‘ )
. 20
. 13
. 05
. 02
(* )
. 01
(* )

2. 56
. 05
. 05
(* )
. 22
. 15
. 05
. 02
(M
. 01
(‘ )

9
0
8
1
8
6
6
6

2. 28

2. 48
. 06
. 06
(*)
. 21
. 14
. 05
. 02

6

2. 59

2. 79

10. 1

. 30

. 32

4. 0
2. 6
.9
. 5
(* )
6. 1
2. 4
3. 8

. 12
. 08
. 03
. 01
(* )
. 18
. 07
. 11

8 1.
1.
1.
.
6.
4.
1.
.
n
.
(‘

3

6
5

1
8
6
6
6
2
)

1 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r 0. 5 c e n t s .
NOTE:

W o rk in g t im e

P ercen t
o f t o ta l
c o m p e n s a t io n

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot e q u a l to ta ls .

. 13
. 08
. 03
. 02
(* )
. 19
. 08
. 12

80.
2.
1.
.
6.
4.
1.
.
n
.
(‘

1
)

. 06
. 05
(M
. 19
. 13
. 04
. 02
(!)

(!)

( >
(l )

()
( 1)

10 . 2

. 29

4. 2
2. 6
.9
. 5
(* )
6. 0
2. 4
3. 7

12

.
.
.
.

n

07
03

02

. 17
. 07
. 10

. 31
.
.
.
.

13
08
03

02

(* )
. 18
. 07
. 11

81.
.
.
.
6.
4.
1.
.

9
7

1
9
5

6
8
C)

. 4
(‘ )

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

03

02
01
22
14
05
03

C)
. 01
(M

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

03
03

01
24
15
06
03

n
. 02
C)

10 . 2

. 32

. 35

3. 8
2. 4
.9
. 4
(M
6. 4
2. 3
4. 1

. 12
. 08
. 03
. 01
(M
. 20
. 07
. 13

. 13
. 08
. 03
. 02
(*)
. 22
. 08
. 14

Table 3.

P e rce n t D istribution o f A ll E m p loyees by E m p loyer Expenditures fo r S elected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P ercen t of T otal Expenditures fo r the Com pensation o f E m p lo y e e s, L o c a l T ra n sit, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v era g e
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

1. 6

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d itu res fo r
the p r a c t ic e

1. 5
. 1

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s -----------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ----S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ------------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t im e — ---------—---------------- --------—
V a c at io n s — ------------- --------------—------------- --------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------------------- ----C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ------------------——----N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s
------------ -------------- -----T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s — -----—--------- —---------------—
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ---------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n -----------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n — ------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y a n d i l l n e s s ----------------O t h e r l e g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s ------------------------------------------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s ---------------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e ——
P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p la n s ——— — ——

1 .7
1 .5
.3

6 .8

6 .8

4. 6

4 .6

1 .6
.6

1.6

(*>
.2
(M
4 .0
2. 6
.9
.5
(M

6.1
2 .4
3 .8

.9
<l )

1.1
<M
4 .0

2 .6
.9

.6
.4

6 .2
2 .4
4 .1

T otal

W ith no
ex pen d i tu res
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r th e p r a c t i c e a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n
U n d er

1

I
and
u n d er

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

5
5
63
(» )

38
38
35

1
6

1
1
20

33
51
78
77

28
49
13
23

-

-

-

47
78

11
91
3
3
13

9
(M
7
3

2

3

4

5

6

2
2

4

5

6

7

20

7
7
-

5
3
_

(* )

(*)
0 )

11

2

10

10

13

32

31
_
-

5
.
_
-

23

2
8
15
25

49
37
-

8

9

10
and

3

24
24
(l )

7

2

-

6

3

-

-

-

-

-

3

51

1

86

12

50
9

3

-

_

( ')

_

8

9

10

over

>
18
(* )

„
7
_
_
_
_

-

_
_
_

„
_
30
_
_
_
_
_

(M

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
..
_
_
.

-

-

-

-

(l )

_
-

_

2

9
-

2

-

34
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

6

26

5

_

1
21

8

_

_

_

12

18
4
7

8

16

7
18
13

14

35

5
32

6

1

7

-

-

_

-

1 L e s s than 0 . 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n o r 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot e q u a l t o t a ls .

T a b le 4 .

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f O p e r a tin g E m p lo y e e s by E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
as a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l E x p e n d it u r e s f o r the C o m p e n s a tio n o f E m p lo y e e s , L o c a l T r a n s i t , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v era g e
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a tio n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s
P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ----- --------— — — ------------—
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ----S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ---------------- —----------------------P a y f o r le a v e t im e ----- ----- -— ----- ----------------- ----V a c a t io n s --------— — ----- ----------------------— -------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ----------------- —------------------- ----- ---------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e — ----------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------- —— — — --------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s -------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ---------R e t ir e m e n t i n c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ----- ——
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n --------- —........—
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y an d i l l n e s s ------ — ------O t h e r l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s --------— ------ ------------— ------------- —
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s --------------------------- —--------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e -------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ------------- ——

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu res fo r
the p r a c t ic e

2 .0
1 .8
. 1
6. 8

2.2
2.0

4 .6

4 .7

1 .6
.6

1.8
1.1

( ')
. 1

(l )

(*)
4. 2
2. 6
.9
.5

.5

6.8

.8
(l )

4 .2

2.6
.9

.6
.5

(l )
6 .0

6.2

2 .4
3 .7

2 .4
4 .0

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

B ecau se o f rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals,




W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r th e p r a c t i c e a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n

14
14
75
(l )

1
19
48
51
82
94
-

11
91
3
3
14

U n d er

1
31
31
23

1
1
10
31
49

11
6
47
76
9

I
and
under

2

2

T ota l

1 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f com pensation o r 0. 5 p ercen t of w o rk e rs .
NOTE:

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

3

4

5

6
3
3

3

4

22
22

8

11

8

9

13

_

{ ')

7
_
5
32
_
_
_
35
-

2
2
28
18
_
3
3
50

10
-

1

6

7
4

31
18

5
7
43
4
_

1
12
21
_
_

2

1

3
77

48

1
2
7
35
7

20
1
3
16
7

5

_

6

7

8

9
"

and

7

8

"
9

10

over

2

_
_

_
_

_

6

(M

_
_

11

12

30
_
_
_
-

5
_
_
_
3
_
_

10
-

17
5

-

10
2

11

30

19
_
_
_
.
_

1
_
_

(* )
0 )
25

_
_
_
_

_

_

_
_
6
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
_

2

1

-

_
_
_
_
_

13

_
30
_

_

1

6

_

------TO------

1

n

_
_
.
_

_

_
_

T able 5.

P e r c e n t D istribution of Nonoperating E m ployees by E m ployer Expenditures fo r S elected Com pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P e rce n t of Total Expenditures fo r the C om pensation of E m p lo ye e s, L o c a l T ran sit, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v era g e
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

0. 9
.7
. 1
6 .9
4. 5

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s -------------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ----S h ift d i ff e r e n t ia l s ----------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e --------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e -------------------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ----------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s -------------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s --------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n -----------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n ---------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s -----------------------------------------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s ---------------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e -------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------

1 .6
.8
n
.
(l
3.
2.
.
.

4
)

8

4
9
4

(M6. 4
2. 3
4. 1

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d itu r e s fo r
the p r a c t ic e

T o ta l

2 .4
(l )
3. 8
2. 4
.9
.5
.
6.
2.
4.

100
100
100
100

1 .2
0 )

3
7
5
7

W ith no
e x p e n d itu r e s
f o r the
p r a c tic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e a s a p e r c e n t o f to t a l c o m p e n s a t io n

2

1
U n der

1

4

3

62
(!)
(M

6

36
53
82
80
-

6

3

4
3

71
36
-

9

9
7
-

1
1

3

1
18
27
47

-

-

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1

-

1

-

1

-

4
-

-

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-

-

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_
-

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-

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-

-

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45

11
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2

54

6

8
-

-

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-

-

-

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3
-

-

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-

over

.

-

8

1
3

10

9

33
-

-

9
17
-

-

28

-

_

31
-

7

4

8

_

n

2

52
83

10

lb

9

_
15
-

8
11

3
9
49
35

7

_

5

11

8
20

90
9
9
18

8

7

and

66

10
10

6

5

and
u n d er

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

0 .9
.8
. 3
6 .9
4. 5
1 .7

0)

8
12

-

-

_
_
-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

6

3

23

5

8

10

-

-

-

_

3

16

41
13

8
1

5

22

9
9
5

18

6

5

5

3

(M

4

9
(M

7

1
21

1 L e s s th a n 0 . 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot eq u al to ta ls .

T a b le 6 .

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f A l l E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C ents P e r P a id H o u r , L o c a l T r a n s i t , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in ce n ts p e r h ou r)
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s --------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k —
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ---------------------------------- ----V a c a t i o n s --------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ----- ---------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y ------------------------------- -----------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ----- —
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n ---------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s ------------ —
O th e r le g a ll y r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s ------------------------------- -----------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s ---------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e - —
—
P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s -------------- •

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu r e s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

T o ta l

7. 5
2. 7
1. 5

7. 5
2 .7
1 .7

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

rl
17. 9

1 .4
18. 4
7. 1
1 2 .5

100
100
100
100

4. 7
4. 3
.4
20 . 0
1 3 .4
4. 6
1 .9
. 1
.7

( ')
11 . 8

6 .9

11.0

4 .9
4. 5
. 1
20 . 1
1 3 .5
4 .9
2. 8
. 1
2 .9
(*)

1

11.8

1 L es s than 0. 05 cents o r 0. 5 p e rce n t o f w o rk e rs .
NOTE:

B ecau se o f rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.




W ith no
e x p e n d itu r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

5
5
63
(* )

1

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e in ce n t s p e r p a id h ou r

2
U n der

2

and
u n d er
4

4

10

12

14

6

8

10

12

14

16

15
15

14

7
9

5
3

4
4

16

2

-

-

-

6

2

15
32
6

9
15

5

1
6

1
33

29

2
1

1
2
12

16

_

8

18

20

22

24

26

28

30
and

17
33
35

12

6

(M
3
3

16
2
10

6
33
51
78
77

19
27
49

29

5

11

6

4

-

-

_

_

-

C )

-

2

6

3
62

20

_

40

40

20

11

68

16

3

7
C)
5
3

5

4

12
10

22

7
34
17

22

24

.

.

-

-

-

8

7

7

-

26

28

_

4

11

2

12

14

31

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

over

_

-

C)
0 )

-

30

.

-

-

3

12

-

-

20
-

.

2

91
3
3
13

20
.

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

n

23

-

30

4

6

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4
13
6

12

13

3

8

4

1

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6

2
2

2

-

-

-

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1
1

-

8

3

8

1

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1

1

5

29

1

2
7

6
5

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-

T a b le 7.

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f O p e r a tin g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r , L o c a l T r a n s i t , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —
p e r h ou r)

A ll
co m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s --------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k S hift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ---------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ----------------------------------------------------H o lid a y s S ic k le a v e C iv ic an d p e r s o n a l le a v e -------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ---------------------------T e r m in a l p a y --------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s R e t ir e m e n t i n c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n —
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s —
O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
prog ra m s
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s --------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e ■
P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------

5.
5.
.
19.
13.
4.

5
2
4

2
1
4

1. 6

.1

. 3
(l )
1 1 .7
7. 4

.

2 6
1. 5

.1
1 6 .9
6. 7
10. 2

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d itu r e s fo r
the p r a c t ic e

6. 3
5 .9
1. 5
19. 3
13. 2
5. 4
3. 2
. 1
1. 9
. 1
11. 7
7. 4
2. 6
1. 7
1.
17.
7.
12 .

5

6
0

0

T ota l

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

W ith no
2
e x p e n d it u r e s
U n d er and
f o r the
2 u n d er
p r a c tic e
4
14
14
75
n

14
30
23

25

1
1

2

19
48
51
82
94
_
-

7

1

11
91
3
3
14

W ith e x p e n d itu r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r
4

6

8

10

12

14

16

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

8
8
0 )
6
10

8
8
1
8
12
12
2

8
10

6
8

5
3

C)

3

2
8

26

5
9
13

20

22

24

26

22

24

26

28

2

-

-

_

_

C)
16

13
4

7
30

7

3
_

6

8

-

31

5

6

3

2

»

3
4
3

14

5

11

1

2

2
22

4

_
3

^

8^

“ TO”
and

5
14
23

9
9
5
3
13
13

8
6

8

2

38
65

4
40
17

1
8
22

3
58

23
29

3

3

5
37

(* )

8

8

3

30

3

over

2

3
13

20

12

8
-

32

2

6
2

(l )

(l )
(*)

_

_

24
_

6
2

_

_

_

_

23
-

3

1

“

_
5

9

-

4
_
3

49

1

1
8

5
4

15
9

7

n

_
6

4

2

-

1 L e s s than 0 .0 5 c e n t s o r 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a ls .

T a b le 8 .

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n of N o n o p e r a t in g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r , L o c a l T r a n s i t , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e ex p e n d itu r e s
p e r h ou r)
P r a c t ic e
A ll
co m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ----------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k —
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s --------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e -----------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ----------------------------------------------------C iv ic and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ----------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y ---------------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ------R e t ir e m e n t i n c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n --------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n -----------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s -------------------------------------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s -----------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ---P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s -----------------

.

2 8

2. 2
. 5

21. 8
14. 2
5. 2

2. 6
(*)
1. 3
0 )

C om p an ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu re s fo r
the p r a c t ic e
3.
2.
1.
22 .
14.
5.
4.
.
7.

0
5

2
0
2
4
0

1
6

12.0
7. 6

0 )
12 . 0
7. 6

2 .9
1. 4

2 .9
1. 5

.1

20. 3
7. 4
1 2 .9

I.
22 .
8.
15.

0
0
0
4

T ota l

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 L es s than 0. 05 cents o r 0. 5 p ercen t o f w ork ers.
NOTE:

B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.




W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c tic e

10
10
62
n

6
36
53
82
80
-

W ith e x p e n d itu r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

and
u n d er
4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

43
44
35

26
28

9
7

6

4

(l )

_

_

1
1

_

7
3

2
1

_

_

_

1

-

4

7

2

1

7
16

6
8

3
5

26

2
12

3

10
16

4
5
4

5

1

2
10
10

11

2

_

_

_

6
1

1

_

_

U n der

2

15
17
47

24

26

26

28

’""30 "
and

1

8

24

_

30
_

_

_

1

_

_

15

6
20

3

3

_

3

1

_

_

_

1

_

_

-

1

-

2

9

6

1

58

_

1

_

_

_
_

_

1

5
34
3

_
_

_

C
1)
32
18

30
3

34

1

17
32

3
17
5

5
29
7

2
8
8

4

7

2

4

1

_

_
_

6

1

11
2
1

5

10

_

_

23

2

2

3

1

10

34
69

90
9
9
18

8

4

3

10
8

10
8

6

14

_
_

1
(l )

n

_
_
_

_

1

_
_

2

(M
4
3

_

3

29

35
26

over

1

4

■

22
■

13

3

6

_

_

Chapter 3.
L e v e l and S tru ctu re o f C o m p e n sa tio n
E x p en d itu re s fo r p a y su p p lem en ts in the
in te r c ity bus in d u s try am ounted to 18 p e r c e n t
(62 cen ts p e r h our) o f a ll e m p lo y e r ou tla y s
du rin g 1964 fo r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y ­
ees ( $ 3 , 3 9 cen ts p e r h o u r). T h e r e w as v e r y
little d iffe r e n c e in the s tr u c tu r e o f c o m p e n ­
sa tion fo r o p e ra tin g a n d n on op era tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s .
H o w e v e r, tota l c o m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p e n d itu re s fo r both s tr a ig h t -tim e p a y ( $ 3 . 09
p e r h our) and su p p lem en ts (70 cen ts an hour)
w e r e c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r fo r o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s than fo r n on op era tin g e m p l o y e e s
( $ 2 . 4 2 an h ou r and 56 cen ts an h o u r , r e ­
s p e c tiv e ly ).
A lm o s t h a lf (46 p e r c e n t) o f a ll e m p lo y e e s
w o rk e d fo r co m p a n ie s w h o se 1964 c o m p e n s a ­
tion ou tlay s am ounted to m o r e than $ 3 .9 0 a
p aid h o u r.
T h e r e w as a m u ch w id e r ran ge
in the d is trib u tio n o f ex p e n d itu re s fo r d r iv e r s
than fo r n on op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s . C o m p e n s a ­
tion ou tlays fo r d r iv e r s ran ged fr o m $ 1 . 70 an
h ou r to o v e r $ 4 an h ou r; th o se fo r n o n o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s ran ged fr o m ju s t u nder $ 2 to
$ 3 .5 0 an h ou r.
E xp en d itu res fo r c o m p e n s a tio n in the in ­
d u stry g e n e r a lly d iv id e d into th r e e d is tin c t
p a tte rn s .
The la r g e co m p a n ie s in the in d u s ­
t r y had su b sta n tia lly h ig h e r le v e ls o f c o m p e n ­
sa tion (o v e r 60 cen ts an h ou r m o r e ) than
m id d le -s iz e d c o m p a n ie s , and the s m a ll c o m ­
p a n ies tr a ilin g the m id d le -s iz e d co m p a n ie s
by 20 cen ts o r m o r e an h o u r.
T he le v e l o f
com p a n y d is b u r s e m e n ts fo r su p p lem en ts a r e
c lo s e l y re la te d to the le v e l o f the e m p lo y e e s '
s tr a ig h t -tim e ea rn in g s fo r tim e w o rk e d . T h is
fa c t w as p a r t ic u la r ly tru e o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r
p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s , and to a l e s s e r exten t,
f o r p aid le a v e e x p e n d itu re s .
P r e v a le n c e o f Supplem en ts
A lm o s t a ll c o m p a n ie s had ex p e n d itu re s
f o r p aid v a c a tio n s , paid h o lid a y s , o v e r tim e
p r e m iu m s , and h ealth in s u r a n c e . A ll c o m p a ­
n ie s r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s fo r s o c ia l s e c u r it y
and u n em p loy m e n t in s u r a n c e , and a lm o s t a ll
had e x p en d itu re s fo r w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n .
A lm o s t t h r e e -fo u r t h s o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w e r e
in co m p a n ie s havin g ex p en d itu res fo r p e n sio n
p la n s ; s lig h tly o v e r th r e e -fift h s w e r e in c o m ­
p a n ies w h ich had ex p e n d itu re s fo r s ic k le a v e ;
and a l m o s t tw o -fifth s w e r e in co m p a n ie s
w h ich had sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls .
H o w e v e r, o n ly
o n e -fift h o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d in c o m p a ­
n ie s w h ich had ex p e n d itu re s fo r c iv i c and




Intercity Buses
p e r s o n a l le a v e ; o n e -s e v e n th in c o m p a n ie s
w h ich had n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s ; o n e -te n th
in c o m p a n ie s w h i c h had e x p e n d itu re s fo r
o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ;
and o n ly 1 p e r c e n t in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had
te r m in a l p a y m e n ts.
T h e r e w e r e s o m e d iffe r e n c e s in the
p r e v a le n c e o f su p p lem en ts fo r o p e r a tin g and
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
A ll ty p e s o f p aid
le a v e , p r e m iu m p a y , and p r iv a te w e lfa r e
plans w e r e m o r e p r e v a le n t f o r n o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s than f o r d r iv e r s ; o n ly n o n p r o d u c ­
tion b o n u se s w e r e m o r e p r e v a le n t fo r the
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .

P a id L e a v e
L e a v e p a y m en ts w e r e the la r g e s t su p p le ­
m en t in the in d u str y , b e in g s lig h tly h ig h e r
than e x p e n d itu re s f o r p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.
In a d d ition , p a y fo r le a v e tim e a cco u n te d fo r
85 p e r c e n t o f a ll su p p le m e n ta ry co m p e n sa tio n
ou tla y s p a id d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e e s .
L e a v e e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d a lm o s t
7 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n , and v a c a tio n s
and h o lid a y s a cco u n te d fo r a lm o s t 90 p e r c e n t
o f th is to ta l. S ick le a v e a cco u n te d fo r a lm o s t
a ll o th e r le a v e p a y m e n ts.
T h e r e w as s o m e
v a r ia tio n in the le v e l o f le a v e p a y m en ts w ithin
the in d u stry . H alf o f the tota l in d u stry e m ­
p lo y m e n t w e r e in c o m p a n ie s h avin g le a v e e x ­
p e n d itu re s o f 8 to 10 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n ; the re m a in in g 48 p e r c e n t w e r e in
c o m p a n ie s having e x p e n d itu re s o f le s s than
6 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n .
The la r g e
c o m p a n ie s in the in d u stry had m o s t o f the
e x p e n d itu re s in the 8 to 10 p e r c e n t ra n g e ; the
m id d le -s iz e d and s m a lle r c o m p a n ie s u su a lly
had le a v e e x p e n d itu re s o f under 6 p e r c e n t o f
tota l co m p e n sa tio n .
L a r g e c o m p a n ie s u su a lly had m o r e l i b ­
e r a l p r a c t i c e s , p a r t ic u la r ly fo r v a c a tio n and
s ic k le a v e , than did o th e r c o m p a n ie s in the
in d u stry .
L e a v e e x p e n d itu re s fo r d r iv e r s
w e r e s lig h tly h ig h e r (7 . 1 p e r c e n t) than fo r
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ( 6 . 5 p e r c e n t ).
The
d iffe r e n c e is m o r e m a rk e d w hen c o m p a r e d on
a c e n t s -p e r - h o u r b a s is ; le a v e e x p e n d itu re s
fo r d r iv e r s (27 cen ts an h ou r) w e r e o v e r
40 p e r c e n t h ig h e r than th o se fo r n o n o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s (19 ce n ts an h o u r).
T h is
d iffe r e n c e w as la r g e ly due to h ig h e r v a c a ­
tion e x p e n d itu re s f o r d r iv e r s in the la r g e r
c o m p a n ie s .

18




Chart 4. THE STRUCTURE OF COM
PENSATION, INTERCITY BUSES, 1964
(CENTS PER PAID HOUR)

(0

Chart 5. EMPLOYER EXPENDITURES FOR SUPPLEMENTARY COM
PENSATION FO
R
OPERATING AN NONOPERATING EMPLOYEES, INTERCITY BUSES, 1964
D
0

1

PERCENT OF COMPENSATION

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Paid leave
Premium pay
Bonuses,
terminal pay
Legally required
insurance
programs
Private
welfare plans

0
Paid leave
Premium pay
Bonuses,
terminal pay
Legally required
insurance
programs
Private
welfare plans



5

10

CENTS PER PAID HOUR
15

20

25

30

21
P a id V a ca tio n s and H o lid a y s .
V a c a tio n
p aym en ts (4. 4 p e r c e n t) co n s titu te d the m a jo r
e le m e n t o f p aid le a v e .
O v e r tw o -fifth s o f
a ll in d u stry e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s
w h ose v a ca tio n e x p e n d itu re s m ade up 4 to 5
p e r c e n t o f th e ir to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d i­
tu r e s . V a ca tio n p a y m en ts (19 ce n ts a w o rk in g
h ou r) fo r d r iv e r s w e r e a lm o s t 60 p e r c e n t
h ig h e r than fo r n o n o p e r a t i n g e m p lo y e e s
(12 cen ts a w o rk in g h o u r). 18

V a ca tio n ex p e n d itu re s fo r d r iv e r s c o n s t i­
tuted 4. 7 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n with
a lm o st o n e -h a lf o f the d r iv e r s b ein g in c o m ­
p a n ies in w h ich s u c h ex p e n d itu re s ran ged
b etw een 5 and 6 p e r c e n t.
E xp en d itu res fo r
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s a cco u n te d fo r s lig h tly
le s s than 4 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n ,
with th r e e -fift h s o f the e m p lo y e e s b ein g in
co m p a n ie s h aving v a c a tio n p a y m en ts o f b e ­
tw een 3 to 4 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n .
E x p en d itu res fo r h o lid a y p a y con stitu ted
the s e co n d la r g e s t co m p o n e n t o f p aid le a v e ,
w ith e m p lo y e r p ay m en ts m ak in g up 1 .7 p e r ­
cen t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n . A m o n g co m p a n ie s
h aving h olid a y e x p e n d itu r e s , the p a y m en ts fo r
both o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
am ou n ted to a lm o s t 2 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n . A t the a ll-c o m p a n y le v e l, h o lid a y
e x p en d itu res fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e
l o w e r ( 1 . 5 p e rce n t) than fo r n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s ( 1 . 9 p e r c e n t ), s in c e s m a ll n o n ­
union b u slin e s g e n e r a lly did not p a y th e ir
d r iv e r s fo r h olid a y s not w o rk e d .
A lm o s t a ll
n on o p era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in co m p a n ie s
that had p aid h o lid a y s .
T h e re w e r e v e r y s ig n ific a n t d iffe r e n c e s
b etw een the le v e ls o f h o lid a y p a y in union
and nonunion co m p a n ie s , p a r t ic u la r ly fo r o p ­
era tin g e m p lo y e e s .
E m p lo y e r s in u n ion ized
co m p a n ie s had e x p e n d itu re s o f a lm o s t 2 p e r ­
cen t o f co m p e n sa tio n ; e m p lo y e r s in nonunion
co m p a n ie s had e x p e n d itu re s o f on ly 0. 1 p e r ­
cen t. T h is d iffe r e n c e r e s u lts fr o m m o s t n on ­
union co m p a n ie s not p a yin g th e ir d r iv e r s fo r
h o lid a y s not w o rk e d .

S ick L ea v e and O ther P a id L e a v e .
A l­
m o s t tw o -th ir d s o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w e r e in
co m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d itu re s fo r s ic k le a v e ,
w ith a h ig h er p r o p o r t i o n o f n o n o p e r a t­
ing e m p lo y e e s (67 p e r c e n t) t h a n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s (55 p e r c e n t) b e in g in co m p a n ie s
h aving su ch e x p e n d itu r e s .
E xp en d itu res fo r
a ll e m p lo y e e s am ounted to s l i g h t l y under
1 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n ; th o se fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e b etw een 1 to 2 p e r ­
cen t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n , and ex p en d itu res




fo r n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e sp lit e v e n ly
b etw een u n d er 1 and fr o m 1 to 2 p e r c e n t o f
tota l co m p e n sa tio n . C o m p a n ie s h avin g u n io n ­
iz e d o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
had a m u ch h ig h e r le v e l o f s ic k le a v e e x ­
p e n d itu re s than did nonunion c o m p a n ie s .
C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e e x p e n d itu re s
d u rin g 1964 am ounted to le s s than o n e -h a lf
cen ts a p aid h ou r fo r b oth o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .

P r e m iu m P a y m en ts
P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts, although v e r y p r e v ­
alent in the in d u stry , am ounted to s lig h tly
le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n sa tio n e x ­
p e n d itu r e s .
P r e m iu m s fo r o v e r t im e , w e e k ­
end, and h o lid a y w o r k co n stitu te d 90 p e r c e n t
o f th ese p a y m e n ts, and sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls a c ­
cou nted fo r the r e s t .
P r e m iu m p a y c o n s t i­
tuted m o r e than tw ic e as la r g e a p r o p o r tio n
o f co m p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s fo r n o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s than th ey did o f co m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p e n d itu re s fo r o p e r a t i n g e m p lo y e e s .
A ll
p r e m iu m p a y fo r o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s was
fo r o v e r t im e , w eek en d , and h o lid a y w o rk . 19
A lm o s t a ll (s e v e n -e ig h t h s ) o f the p r e m iu m
p a y fo r n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e fo r
o v e r t im e , w eek en d , and h o lid a y w o r k , o n ly
0. 2 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n was e x ­
pen ded fo r sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls .
A lm o s t tw o -th ir d s o f a ll e m p l o y e e s
w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s in w h ich th e se e x p e n d i­
tu re s am ou n ted to le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f tota l
c o m p e n sa tio n .
P r e m iu m p a y m en ts to n o n ­
o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l co n stitu te d 1. 5 p e r c e n t
o f co m p e n sa tio n e x p e n d itu re s and am ounted to
5 cen ts a w o rk in g h o u r; e m p lo y e r ou tla y s fo r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s co n stitu te d o n ly 0. 7 p e r ­
cen t o f co m p e n sa tio n and am ou n ted to o n ly
3 cen ts a w o rk in g h o u r.
T h r e e -fo u r t h s o f *

Norm ally, drivers would be covered under a single v a ­
cation policyj w hile nonoperating em ployees' policy m ay have
consisted of several different plans for office clerical, m ainte­
nance, term inal, and supervisory em ployees. A n analysis of union
contracts on file with the Bureau indicates that vacation plans for
office clerical em ployees m ay differ from vacation plans for other
unionized nonoperating em ployee groups.
*9 None of the companies included in this study reported
paying shift differentials to their drivers.
Although 76 percent
of the drivers worked for companies which had premium expendi­
tures, the low level of premiums paid to them suggests that most
drivers did not receive any premium pay. When premiums were
m ade, the payments usually resulted from one or more of the
following practices:
Premium pay for hours worked outside of
the normal tour of duty; premium pay for hours worked in excess
of a specified number of hours; and premium pay for hours worked
on scheduled days off or on the sixth or seventh consecutive day.

22
the n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a ­
n ie s w h ich had p r e m iu m p a y m en ts o f le s s
than 2 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n , and
tw o -th ir d s o f a ll o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d
fo r co m p a n ie s in w h ich th ese e x p e n d itu re s
am ou n ted to le s s than 1 p e r c e n t.
In c o n tr a s t to the situ a tion fo r m o s t oth er
su p p le m e n ts, in te r c ity bus c o m p a n ie s having
nonunion o p era tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s r e p o r te d h ig h e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r p r e ­
m iu m p a ym en ts than did c o m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g
u n ion ized w o r k e r s .
S in ce e x p e n d itu re s fo r
p re m iu m p ay m en ts a r e p a rtly dependen t on
the n u m ber o f p r e m iu m h o u rs w o r k e d , the
h ig h e r p re m iu m e x p e n d itu re s fo r th ese n o n ­
union w o r k e r s m a y be due to the n u m b er o f
p re m iu m h ou rs paid fo r ra th e r than m o r e
lib e r a l p re m iu m b e n e fits .
N on p rod u ction B o n u se s and
T e r m in a l P a y m e n ts
Both n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s and te r m in a l
pay con stitu te d v e r y m inu te p o r tio n s o f the
total ou tlay f o r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y ­
ees.
O nly 14 p e r c e n t o f the in d u s tr y 's e m ­
p loy m en t w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had bonus
e x p e n d itu re s, and on ly 1 p e r c e n t w as in c o m ­
p an ies w h ich had te r m in a l p a y m e n ts. N e v e r ­
th e le s s , co m p a n ie s w h ich had n o n p ro d u ctio n
b on u ses h a d e x p e n d itu re s con stitu tin g 2 .5
p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n and am ounting
to 7 cen ts a p aid h o u r .
T e r m in a l p a ym en ts,
even am ong c o m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d i­
tu res fo r the p r a c t ic e , am ou n ted to le s s than
o n e -h a lf cen t a p aid h o u r.

3 c e n ts a p aid h o u r. N in ety p e r c e n t o r m o r e
o f both o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
w e r e in co m p a n ie s w h o se e x p e n d i t u r e s
am ou n ted to le s s than 2 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n , and 95 p e r c e n t o f both e m p lo y e e
g rou p s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ose p a y m en ts
w e r e under 6 cen ts a p a id h o u r.
W o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu re s o f
2 ce n ts a p a id h ou r a c c o u n te d fo r on ly o n e h a lf o f 1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n . A ll w o r k ­
m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n e x p e n d itu re s r e p o r t e d
am ou n ted to le s s than 3 p e r c e n t o f a ll c o m ­
p e n sa tio n ou tla y s and 6 ce n ts a p aid h o u r.
E x p e n d itu re s fo r o th e r le g a lly r e q u ir e d
in su ra n ce p r o g r a m s (p r in c ip a lly State te m p o ­
r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e ), r e p o r te d by c o m ­
p a n ies e m p lo y in g o n e -te n th o f the in d u s tr y 's
tota l w o r k f o r c e , a m ou n ted to le s s than o n e h a lf cen t a paid h o u r .

P r iv a te W e lfa r e P la n s
O u tlays fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plans in the
in te r c ity bus in d u stry c o n s is t e d e n tir e ly o f
e x p e n d itu re s fo r p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p lan s
(15 cen ts a paid h ou r) and fo r l i f e , a c c id e n t,
and h ealth in su ra n ce (7 ce n ts a paid h o u r ).
N e v e r t h e le s s , p riv a te w e lfa r e p l a n s w e r e
s e co n d on ly to p aid le a v e as o b je c t s o f e m ­
p lo y e r e x p e n d itu r e s .
T h ey co n stitu te d 6. 5
p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n ; p e n sio n and
r e tir e m e n t plans a c c o u n te d fo r tw o -th ir d s o f
th ese e x p e n d itu r e s , and li f e , a c c id e n t, and
health in su r a n c e t h e re m a in in g o n e -th ir d .

S o cia l s e c u r ity e x p e n d itu re s a c co u n te d
fo r a lm o s t 2. 5 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n sa tio n
o r 9 ce n ts a w o rk in g h o u r.
S e v e n -e ig h th s
o f a ll in d u stry e m p lo y e e s w e r e in co m p a n ie s
w h ose s o c ia l s e c u r ity p a ym en ts co n stitu te d
2 to 3 p e r c e n t o f to ta l c o m p e n s a tio n , and 99
p e r c e n t w e re in co m p a n ie s w h ose c o s t ra n g ed
betw een 6 to 10 cen ts a p aid h ou r.

A lm o s t a ll e m p lo y e e s (98 p e r c e n t) w e r e
in co m p a n ie s having at le a s t one type o f p r i ­
vate w e lfa r e plan.
O n e -h a lf o f a ll e m p lo y e e s
w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s o f
7 to 9 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n , and a l ­
m o s t o n e -h a lf w e r e in c o m p a n ie s having p a y ­
m en ts o f b etw een 30 to 32 cen ts a p aid h o u r.
H o w e v e r , 30 p e r c e n t o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w e r e
in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s o f u n d er
2 p e r c e n t and 6 cen ts a p aid h o u r , and 16
p e r c e n t w o r k e d fo r c o m p a n ie s having e x p e n d ­
itu re s o f b etw een 4 to 6 p e r c e n t and 12 to
18 cen ts a p aid h o u r .
E x p e n d itu re s ranging
b etw een 7 to 9 p e r c e n t w e r e found p r im a r ily
in the la r g e c o m p a n ie s ; th ose fr o m 4 to 6
p e r c e n t w e r e m ade u su a lly by m i d d l e -s i z e d
c o m p a n ie s ; and the s m a ll co m p a n ie s g e n e r a lly
had e x p e n d itu re s fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e p lan s
that am ount to le s s than 2 p e r c e n t o f th e ir
co m p e n sa tio n p a y m e n ts.

E m p lo y e r p a y m en ts fo r State and F e d e r a l
u n em p loy m en t in s u r a n c e c o n stitu te d 1 p e r c e n t
o f total co m p e n s a tio n c o s t s and am ou n ted to

T h e r e w e r e n o sig n ific a n t d iffe r e n c e s in
the am ount o f ou tla y s fo r o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s ' p riv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.

L e g a lly R e q u ir e d In su ra n ce P r o g r a m s
E m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s fo r le g a lly r e ­
q u ir e d in su ra n ce p r o g r a m s a m ou n ted to a l ­
m o s t 4 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n during
1964.
P a y m e n ts fo r s o c ia l s e c u r ity c o n s t i­
tuted 61 p e r c e n t o f the tota l; u n em p loy m en t
in s u r a n c e , 25 p e r c e n t; w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a ­
tion , 13 p e r c e n t; and oth er le g a lly r e q u ir e d
in s u ra n ce p r o g r a m s , 1 p e r c e n t.




23
T h e re w e r e , h o w e v e r , sig n ific a n t d iffe r e n c e s
b etw een u n ion ized o p e ra tin g and n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s and th e ir nonunion c o u n te r p a r ts .
E x p en d itu res fo r u n io n ize d o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s w e r e tw o and o n e -h a lf tim e s g r e a te r than
th ose fo r nonunion o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ; fo r
u n ion ized n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s , they w e r e
a lm o s t d ou ble th o s e o f the nonunion g rou p .

L i f e , A c c id e n t, and H ealth I n s u r a n c e .
A ll c o m p a n i e s havin g li f e , a c c id e n t, and
health in su ra n ce p la n s r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s
o f under 4 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a tio n and 12
cen ts a p aid h ou r; o v e r tw o -th ir d s o f a ll e m ­
p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d ­
itu re s o f betw een 1 to 3 p e r c e n t and 6 to 12
cen ts a p aid h ou r.
T o ta l e x p e n d itu re s fo r
a ll c o m p a n ie s co n stitu te d abou t 2 p e r c e n t of
tota l co m p e n sa tio n , and p a y m en ts fo r n o n ­
op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e slig h tly h ig h e r (2. 3
p e r c e n t) as a p r o p o r tio n o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n
than th ose fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (2 p e r ­
cen t). Only 7 p e r c e n t o f a ll in d u stry w o r k e r s
w e r e e m p lo y e d b y co m p a n ie s having no e x ­
p en d itu re s d u rin g 1964 fo r the p r iv a te in ­
su ran ces.
C om p a n ies having n o n c o n tr ib u to r y p lan s
fo r o p era tin g e m p lo y e e s r e p o r te d som ew h a t
h ig h er e x p e n d itu re s (ju s t u nder 10 ce n ts an
h ou r) than did c o m p a n ie s having c o n tr ib u to r y
p lan s (7 cen ts an h o u r).
A bou t t h r e e -fift h s o f the o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s in c o m p a n ie s w ith
e x p e n d itu re s w o r k e d f o r fir m s w ith c o n tr ib u ­
to r y p la n s.
H o w e v e r, th e re w a s a m u ch
w id e r d iffe r e n c e in ou tla ys fo r c o n tr ib u to r y
and n o n co n tr ib u to r y p la n s fo r n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s w ith c e n t s -p e r - h o u r e x p e n d itu re s
fo r n o n co n tr ib u to r y p la n s (10 ce n ts a paid
h ou r) b ein g d ou b le th o se fo r c o n tr ib u to r y
p lan s (5 cen ts a p a id h o u r).
A bout 12 p e r ­
cen t o f a ll op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w o r k e d fo r
co m p a n ie s w ith ou t h ealth in s u ra n ce p la n s, but
on ly 1 p e r c e n t o f the n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s
w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w ithout p la n s.
U n ion ization s e e m s to h ave little e ffe c t
on the le v e l o f ex p e n d itu re s fo r life , a c c id e n t,
and health in s u ra n c e . E x p e n d itu re s fo r union




and nonunion e m p lo y e e s (both o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g ) w e r e at abou t the sa m e le v e l
as a p r o p o r tio n o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n and in
c o s t s - p e r - p a i d h ou r.

P e n s io n and R e tir e m e n t P la n s .
A lm o s t
th r e e -fo u r t h s o f a ll e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m ­
p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s fo r p r i v a t e
p e n sio n and r e tir e m e n t p la n s.
P r a c t ic a l ly
a ll c o m p a n ie s h avin g e x p e n d itu re s had p lan s
c o v e r in g b oth o p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s .
T h e re w as little d iffe r e n c e in the
le v e l o f p a y m en ts du rin g 1964 fo r o p e ra tin g
and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s 1 p e n sio n p la n s ;
p a y m en ts fo r b oth c o n stitu te d slig h tly o v e r
4 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a tio n .
The e x ­
p e n d itu re s fo r th o se p lan s v a r ie d w i d e l y ;
th ose in la r g e co m p a n ie s ra n g e d b etw een 6 to
8 p e r c e n t o f to ta l co m p e n s a tio n , b e tw e e n 3 to
5 p e r c e n t in m i d d l e -s i z e d c o m p a n ie s , and
le s s than 1 p e r c e n t in s m a lle r c o m p a n ie s .
The c o s t s in c o m p a n ie s h aving e x p e n d itu re s
fo r th e se p lan s co n stitu te d 5 .4 p e r c e n t o f
c o m p e n s a tio n and a m ou n ted to 20 ce n ts a p a id
h o u r.
P e n s io n p lan e x p e n d itu re s fo r u n io n ­
iz e d d r iv e r s w e r e m u ch h ig h e r (5. 9 p e r c e n t
o f to ta l co m p e n sa tio n ) than w e r e e x p e n d itu re s
fo r nonunion d r iv e r s (0. 8 p e r c e n t).

Sixty p e r c e n t o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g p e r ­
son n el and 40 p e r c e n t o f a ll o p e ra tin g p e r ­
son n el w e r e in c o m p a n ie s having c o n tr ib u to r y
p e n sio n p la n s; 30 p e r c e n t o f the o p e ra tin g
p e r s o n n e l and 13 p e r c e n t o f n o n o p e ra tin g p e r ­
son n el w e r e in c o m p a n ie s h aving n o n c o n tr ib u ­
to r y p la n s. The oth er e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d fo r
c o m p a n ie s that had no e x p e n d itu re s during
1964 fo r p e n sio n p la n s. C o n tra ry to the u su al
e x p en d itu re p a tte rn in the m o to r p a s s e n g e r
tra n sp o r ta tio n in d u stry and in oth er in d u s ­
t r i e s , e m p lo y e r p a y m en ts fo r c o n tr ib u to r y
p lan s b y in t e r c it y bus c o m p a n ie s w e r e c o n ­
s id e r a b ly h ig h e r fo r b oth o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (6 .6 and 6 p e r c e n t o f
c o m p e n s a tio n , r e s p e c t iv e ly ), than fo r n o n c o n ­
tr ib u t o r y p lan s (2. 5 p e r c e n t fo r o p e r a tin g ;
1.3 p e r c e n t fo r n o n o p e ra tin g ). T h is d iffe r e n c e
is d ir e c t ly a ttrib u ta b le to v e r y high le v e ls o f
e x p e n d itu re s b y so m e o f the la r g e co m p a n ie s
that had c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s.

Table 9-

T o t a l e x p e n d it u r e s __________________________________________

P ercen t
o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a t io n

100 . 0

C en ts p e r h o u r
P a id fo r

$3. 39

W o rk in g tim e

$ 3. 66

P ercen t
o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a tion

100 . 0

G r o s s p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s ______________________________________

89. 7

$3. 04

$ 3. 28

89. 8

S t r a ig h t -t im e p a y m e n t s f o r w o r k in g t im e --------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts ____________________________________________
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k __________________
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ___________________________________________
P a y f o r le a v e t im e --------------------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s _____________________________________________________
H o l i d a y s _______________________________________________________
S ic k l e a v e _____________________________ ________________________
C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s _________________________________________
T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s ____________________________________________

8 1 .6
.9
.8
. 1
6. 9
4. 4
1. 7
.8
(M
. 3
(l )

2. 77
. 03
. 03

2. 99
. 03
. 03

81. 8
.7
.7

C )

n

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l ---------------------------------------------

10. 3

L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ---------------------------------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ----------------------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ______________________________
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s ----------------------------------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s __________________________________________
L if e , a c c id e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e -----------------------------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _____________________________

3. 8
2. 4
1. o
.5
(M
6. 5
2. 1
4. 3

)

. 35

. 38

10 . 2

. 13
. 08
. 03
. 02
(M
. 22
. 07
. 15

. 14
. 09
. 03
. 02
(M
. 24
. 08
. 16

3. 7
2. 2
.9
.5
(M
6. 5
2. 0
4. 4

23
15
06
03

n

. 01
C)

1 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o r 0. 5 c e n t s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




-

7. 1
4. 7
1. 5
•9
(M
.2
(M

.
.
.
.

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot eq u a l t o t a l s .

N o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s

O p e r a t in g e m p lo y e e s

A ll e m p l o y e e s
C o m p e n s a t io n p r a c t i c e

10

E m ployer Expenditures fo r the C om pensation of E m p lo ye e s, In tercity B u ses, 1964

.
.
.
.
O
.
(‘

25
16
06
03

01

C en ts p e r h ou r
P a id fo r

$3. 79
$3. 40
3.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(*
.

09
03
03
27
18

06
03
)

01

(1 )

W o rk in g t im e

$4. 09
$3. 68
3.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(*
.
(*

35
03
03
29
19
06
04
)

01
)

. 39

. 41

.
.
.
.

14
08
03

15
09
04

02

.
.
.
.

(l
.
.
.

)
25
08
17

(l
.
.
.

)
26
08
18

02

P ercen t
o f to ta l
c o m p e n s a t io n

100 . 0
89. 5
80.
1.
1.
.
6.
3.
1.
.
(*
.
(*

9
5
3

2
5

8
9

C en ts p e r h o u r
P a id f o r

$ 2 . 98

$ 3. 20

$ 2. 67

$ 2 . 86

2.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

42
04
04

01
19

11
06

)

6

02
i1 )
. 02

)

(* )

8

10. 5

. 31

4.
2.
1.
.

. 12
. 08
. 03
. 01
(M
. 19
. 07
. 13

0
5

0
5

C )
6. 5
2. 3
4. 2

W o rk in g tim e

2.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
('
.

58
05
04

01
21
12
06
03
)

02
C)
. 34

.
.
.
.
(l
.
.
.

13
08
03

02
)

21
07
14

Table 10.

P e rce n t Distribution o f A ll E m ployees b y E m p loyer Expenditures fo r S elected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P e rce n t of Total Expenditures fo r the C om pensation o f E m p lo y e e s , In tercity B u se s, 1964
A vera ge
e x p e n d itu r e s
(p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n )

P r a c tic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s __________ __ _____ _ ______ _ ----- _
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ____________
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ________ _ —_____
P a y f o r le a v e t i m e _________ __ — —
—
-------V a c a t i o n s _____ _ _
_ _ ____ _
____
Ho li d a y s _____ __________________________________________
S ic k l e a v e ____ _
_ _
__ - _ _ C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ____
__
__
__ _
___ ____ ___ ____
_____
T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s -------------------__—
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n __
_
_ _
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n .
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s . — -------- _. __
O th e r l e g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s _______
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s -------- -------- —
L if e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ______________
P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _______________________

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu re s fo r
the p r a c t ic e

0. 9
. 8
. 1

0. 9
.8
.2

6 .9
4. 4
1 .7
.8
(2 )
. 3
(2 )
3. 8
2. 4
1. 0
.5
(2 )
6. 5
2. 1
4. 3

6 .9
4 .4
1. 7
1. 1
. 1
2. 5
. 1
3. 8
2 .4
1. 0
.5
. 1
6. 5
2. 2
5. 4

P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

T ota l

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e as a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n

1
U n der

1

2

5
5
61

63
63
39
5
27
31
19

3

20
26

6
4
19
50
14
87

6

42
84

90

10

7
4
18
31
52
9
-

2

18
14

12

1

26

41

2
2
5
37
81

86
99
-

7
28

10
1

4

12

5

5

and

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3

and
u n d er

2
2
-

“

4
5
5
7

8
40
13
3
-

12
10

5

6
.
.

_
18
43
27
-

14
14
-

6

10

5

~

12

-

over1

.
50
5
_
4
5
50
45

1 T h e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s o f 6 p e r c e n t o r m o r e is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot e q u a l t o t a ls .

T a b le 11..

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f O p e r a t in g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
a s a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l E x p e n d it u r e s f o r the C o m p e n s a tio n o f E m p lo y e e s , I n t e r c it y B u s e s , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n i e s —

A vera ge
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s
__
_ _ _ _ _
_
__
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ____________
P a y f o r le a v e t i m e _________ _ __________ _
----- _
V a c a t io n s __ ________ ___ — _ _ __
__ _ _ _ _ _ _
H o l id a y s __________ _____________ ______
__ __ S ic k l e a v e _____________
_ __ __
_ _
----C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e
__ _ _
__ _
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s _ ____ _____ __ ____ ___ ___
T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s _______ ______________________
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ___ _____
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ____
_______ _
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n _______________________ _
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s __________________ __
O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ___ _
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s _____ __ _ _________
_____ _
L i f e , a c c i d e n t , an d h e a lth in s u r a n c e ______________
P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p la n s _ _ _ _
___

0. 7
.7
7. 1
4. 7
1. 5
.9
(2 )
.2
(2 )
3 .7
2. 2
. 9
.5
(2 )
6. 5
2. 0
4 .4

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu res fo r
the p r a c t ic e

0. 8
.8
7. 2
4. 8
1. 9
1. 2
. 1
1. 5
. 1
3. 7
2. 2
.9

.6
. 1
6. 5
2. 1
5 .4

T ota l

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n

1
U n d er

1

2

3

24
24
4
4
28
45
81

52
52
7
13
14
19

86

10
1

3

4

7

10
10
6
21

14
14
13

35
18
41
4

35
18

1

2
24
41
42

99
-

68

10

81

90
4

10

-

16
9
13

16
16
1

12
29

-

22
8

-

1
51

6

B ecau se o f rounding,




sums o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.

6

5

-

10
6
4
-

6
-

11
47
-

over1

48
7
-

-

-

-

-

-

14
-

-

6

10

12

-

-

"

7

6

10

1 T h e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d itu r e s o f 6 p e r c e n t o r m o r e is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
N OTE:

5

and

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4

and
u n d er

22

11
-

47
41

Table 12.

P e rce n t D istribution o f Nonoperating E m ployees by E m ployer E xpenditures fo r S elected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P ercen t o f T otal Expenditures fo r the Com pensation o f E m p lo y e e s , In tercity B u ses, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A vera ge
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
co m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts ____________________________________
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k
__ __
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s __________________________________ _
P a y f o r le a v e t im e ________________________________________
V a c a t io n s _________________________________________ ____
H o lid a y s
S ic k l e a v e ___________________________________________ __
C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------- --------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s _________________________________ T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s _______________________________________
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s -------------------------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n --------------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ________________________
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s _____________________
O th e r le g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s _ ----P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s ________________________________ _
L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e --------------------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _____________________

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d itu r e s fo r
the p r a c t ic e

T ota l

.6

(2 )
4. 0
2. 5
1. 0
.5
(2 )
6. 5
2. 3
4. 2

2.6
1. 0
.
.
6.
2.
5.

2

1
U n der

1

5

1
5
3
3

61
45
-

3

4

5
5
-

1

1
1
-

10

9
-

_

-

8

ov er1

2
2

19
-

63
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

33

86

12
1

55
-

64

2
1

11
12

1

-

6

5

34

33
19
(2 )

43
9
-

90

10

-

1

19
19

1

7

-

4

-

_

"

"

49

-

12

10

7
-

-

(2 )
3
(2 )
52

24

27

_
62
_
_
_
4
4
-

10

1

56
87

6

14
14
13
60
-

21

1

5

and

47
13
3

26

5
5
55
5
33
81
96
99
-

4

3

and
u n d er

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 .5
1. 3
.4
6. 5
3. 8
1. 9
1. 1
(2 )
15. 5
(2 )
4. 0

1. 5
1. 3
.2
6. 5
3. 8
1. 9
.8
(2 )

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d itu r e * f o r the p r a c t ic e as a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n
s

-

-

1 T h e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s o f 6 p e r c e n t o r m o r e is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

T a b le 13.

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .

P e r c e n t D is t r ib u t io n o f A ll E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s , in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r , I n t e r c i t y B u s e s ,
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in c e n ts p e r h o u r )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ____________________________
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k —
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ___________________________
P a y f o r le a v e tim e _____________________________
V a c a t i o n s ____________ __________ __________
H o l id a y s ____________ __ __________________ ___
S ic k l e a v e ------------------- --------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e --------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ______________________
T e r m in a l p a y _________________________________ _
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ______
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n _______
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n _____________
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s __ ____
O th e r l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s -----------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s _________________________
L i f e , a c c id e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e _____
P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _____ 1---------

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu r e s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

3. 0
2. 8
. 3
23. 4
14. 8
5. 7
2. 8
(2 )
1. 2
(2 )
13. 0
8. 0
3. 2
1. 7

3.
2.
.
23.
14.
5.
4.
.
7.
.
13.
8.
3.
1.

(2 )
22 . 0
7. 3
14. 7

.
22 .
7.
19.

2
9
7
5
9

8
3
3
0
3
0

0
2

8
3

1
5

6

1964

T o ta l

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

5
5

61
2
2
5
37
81

86
99
-

6
90

2
7
28

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e in ce n t s p e r p a id h ou r

2
U n der

2

and
u n d er
4

4

6

8

6

8

.

10

12
_
-

50
19
5
(2 )

23
23
-

8

10

14
-

-

10
1

-

-

-

39
9

-

(2 )
45
-

2

10
10
6
4

13
13
7

12

14

16

2

6

5
5
5

4

9
5
31

45
-

-

1
34
9

-

14

_

16

_

18




sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.

20

.

_
_
_
_
_
_

37
_
-

_
50
14
_
_
_
4
-

-

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

54
3
-

43
-

39
-

5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-•

-

-

-

-

10

_
-

50

12

1
12

6

10
-

_

1

_

6

8

24

31

11

-

_
_

10

5

"

-

-

over 1

.

_
13
_
_
-

16

7

-

20

.

-

1 T h e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s o f 20 ce n t s o r m o r e p e r p a id h o u r is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 c e n t s o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
N OTE: B ecau se o f rounding,

18

and

17
48
39
5
27
18
19

24
77

10

-

45

Table 14.

P e r c e n t D istribution o f Operating Em ployees b y E m ployer Expenditures for Selected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s , in Cents P e r Paid H our, In tercity B u ses, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in ce n t s p e r h ou r)
P r a c t ic e
A ll
co m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ----------- ----------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o l id a y w o r k _
P a y f o r le a v e tim e _____________________________
------------------------------------------------ V a c a t io n s
H o l i d a y s _________________________ - - -------S ic k l e a v e __ __________________ _ ----------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e __________________
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s _________________ __ ___
T e r m in a l p a y _________ _____ ________________
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s --------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n _______
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n _____________
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s _______ ___
O th e r l e g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s ________________________________ P r iv a t e w e lf a r e p la n s _________________________
L i f t , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ----P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s -------------------

*

C o m p a n ie s
w ith ex p u n d itu r e s fo r
the p r a c t ic e

2.6
2. 6
2 7.
18.
5.
3.
.

1

3

1
.6

(2 )
13. 9
8. 4
3. 5
2. 0

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r

2
U n der

2

8

6

4

and
u n d er
4

. 3
24. 9

8.2
22 . 0

12

10

14

16

20

18

and

6

8

10

12

24
24
4
4
28
45
81

39
39
7
13

13
13
7
-

10
10
2

_
-

7
7

10

8

7

19

-

-

(2 )
17
41

11

1

7
7
15
4
29

-

86

10
1

39
43

(2 )
25
-

100
100
100
100

2.2

(2 )
2 4. 5
7. 8
16. 8

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3. 4
3. 4
2 7 .4
18. 2
7 .7
5 .4
.4
3. 8
.5
13. 9
8 .4
3. 5

0
8

T ota l

3

7
34
7

16

18

20

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
34
-

35
-

7
-

-

-

6

5
19
-

14

_
-

1
1

2

17

62

6

6

-

6
6

over1
.

53
48
-

6

99
-

22

10

40

90
4

10

-

-

-

-

15

6

-

1

10

-

6

7

16

41

7

-

6

-

-

48

8

5
5

6

12
29

7

6

■

11

7

■

"

41

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

T h e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s o f 20 c e n t s o r m o r e p e r p a id h o u r is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .

2 L e s s than 0. 05 c e n t s o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

T a b le 15.

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a ls .

P e r c e n t D is t r ib u t io n o f N o n o p e ra tin g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s , in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r , I n t e r c i t y B u s e s ,
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e:x p en d i tu re s
(in ce n ts p e r h o u r )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ____________________________
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k __
S h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l s ________________________«_«_
P ew f o r le a v e t i m e ___ ___________________
V a c a t io n s ___________ __ __ ___ ___ — __
H o l i d a y s _________________________________ __
S ic k l e a v e ______ ______________________________
C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e __________________
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ________________________
T e r m in a l p a y ______ ___________________________
L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ______
R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n _______
U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n __________ „
O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s __________
O th e r l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s __________________________________
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s _________________________
L if e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ___
P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s _____ ___

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu re s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

T ota l

19. 3
11. 3
5 .6
2. 3
(2 )
1. 7
(2 )
12 . 0
7. 5
3. 0
1. 4

4.
3.
1.
19.
11.
5.
3.
.
38.
.
12.
7.
3.
1.

0
4

(2 )
1 9 .4
6. 7
12. 7

.4
1 9 .4
6. 8
17. 1

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4 .4
3. 8

.6

5
9
3
3
3

8
5

1
4

1
0
6

5
5
55
-

5
33
81
96
99
-

1
90
-

1
27

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

2

and
u n d er
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

11
11

52
52

11
11

10
10

10
10

.

2
2

-

4
7

7
15
53
_
-

15

-

1

19
42
-

U n d er

45
_
(2 )
16
32
19
(2 )

1

(2 )
3

6

20

-

-

34
_

-

-

31
81

(2 )
34
14

35
3

10
12
12
1

-

-

1
12

-

2
22
1
-

16

2

-

15

17
4

7
~

8

-

_
-

11
64
-

-

1

7
44

-

“

10

-

_

-

_

-

-

4
-

35
-

9
19
_
_
_
_
3
_
-

-

_

4

4

_

_

_
34
-

10
_
-

-

-

1 T h e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s o f 20 ce n t s o r m o r e p e r p a id h ou r is w ith h e ld to a v o id d i s c lo s i n g da ta f o r in d iv id u a l c o m p a n i e s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 c e n t s o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
N OTE: B ecau se o f rounding,




1964

sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

over 1

_
.
53
_
>
_
4
_
_
_
-

59
_

49

Chapter 4.

L e v e l and S tru ctu re o f C o m p e n sa tio n
C om p en sa tio n in the ta x ica b i n d u s t r y am ou n ted to a p p r o x im a te ly $ 1 . 5 9 f o r ea ch
p aid h ou r du rin g 1964.
E m p lo y e r ex p e n d ­
itu r e s f o r the co m p e n s a tio n o f ta x ica b d r iv ­
e r s w e r e m u ch lo w e r ($ 1. 47 an h o u r) than
fo r n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s ( $2. 17 an h o u r).
T ip s fr o m p a s s e n g e r s , h o w e v e r , m a y c o n ­
stitute a su b sta n tia l p r o p o r tio n o f a taxi d r i v ­
e r s ' total e a rn in g s .
T his study d e a ls on ly
w ith e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s f o r the c o m p e n ­
sa tion o f e m p lo y e e s , h e n c e , d r i v e r s ' tip in ­
c o m e w as n ot stu died.
M o s t (abou t 90 p e r c e n t) co m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p e n d itu re s in this in d u stry w e r e f o r s tr a ig h ttim e p ay f o r w o rk in g tim e .
S u p p lem en ta ry
co m p e n s a tio n o u tla y s , am ounting to 17 cen ts
a p aid h o u r, w e r e v e r y lo w .
T h r e e -fift h s o f
a ll su p p lem en ta l e x p e n d itu re s w e r e fo r le g a lly
r e q u ir e d in s u ra n c e p r o g r a m s , su ch as s o c ia l
s e c u r it y , u n em p lo y m e n t in s u r a n c e , w o rk m e n 's
c o m p e n s a tio n , and State te m p o r a r y d is a b ility
in s u r a n c e .
A lm o s t a ll o th e r s u p p le m e n ta ry
p a y m en ts w e r e f o r p a id le a v e and p r iv a te
w e lfa r e p la n s.
D u ring 1964, a lm o s t t h r e e -fo u r t h s o f a ll
ta x ica b e m p l o y e e s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n ie s
w h ose ou tla y s f o r the c o m p e n s a tio n o f e m ­
p lo y e e s ran g ed fr o m $1 to $2 a p a id h o u r;
a p p ro x im a te ly 1 out o f 7 e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d
fo r c o m p a n i e s
having co m p e n s a tio n e x ­
p e n d itu re s o f b e tw e e n $ 2 . 1 0 and $ 2 . 8 0 , and
the rem a in in g o n e -e ig h th w e r e e m p lo y e d by
cab co m p a n ie s havin g e x p e n d itu re s o f le s s
than $ 1 a p aid h o u r. 20 A ll o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had c o m ­
p e n sa tio n ex p en d itu re s o f u n d er $ 3 an h o u r,

20 Prior to 1967, taxicab companies were not covered by
the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The 1966
amendments to the act required cab companies which had annual
receipts of $500,000 or more to pay employees a minimum o f $1
for each hour worked. In addition, new union agreements have
been negotiated in the taxicab industry since this study was con­
ducted. Thus, although some small companies are still not
covered by FLSA and many are still unorganized, the dual impact
of these recent developments may have caused a considerable up­
ward shifting in this distribution of company expenditures for the
compensation of employees. This shift, however, may not have
any discernible impact on companies which have the lowest levels
of expenditures since some of these have less than $500, 000 in
receipts, and thus are not covered by the FLSA and may,
in
addition, still be unaffected by the changing union situation in
the industry.




Taxicabs

tw o -fifth s o f th e se d r iv e r s b e in g in co m p a n ie s
w h o se e x p e n d itu re s r a n g e d fr o m $ 1 . 5 0 to
$ 1 . 8 0 a p a id h o u r.
A som ew h a t d iffe r e n t
co m p e n sa tio n d is tr ib u tio n w as e v i d e n t fo r
n on op era tin g p e r s o n n e l.
E x p e n d itu re s f o r
th e ir c o m p e n sa tio n ra n ged fr o m le s s than $ 1
a p a id h ou r to m o r e than $ 4 with 2 out o f 3
b e in g e m p lo y e d b y c o m p a n ie s w h ose e x p e n d i­
tu r e s ran ged fr o m $ 1 . 5 0 to $ 2 . 8 0 .
T h e re w e r e so m e d i f f e r e n c e s in the
s tr u c tu r e o f e x p e n d itu re s fo r su p p lem en ts b e ­
tw een the o p e ra tin g and n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e
g r o u p s . The m o s t sig n ific a n t d iffe r e n c e w as
that although o v e r th r e e -fift h s o f a ll su p p le ­
m en ta l e x p e n d itu re s f o r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s
w e r e f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d p r o g r a m s , le s s than
o n e -h a lf o f a ll su p p lem en ta l e x p e n d itu re s f o r
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e fo r th e se p r o ­
gram s.
T h e r e w e r e a ls o im p o rta n t d i f f e r ­
e n c e s in the p r o p o r tio n s o f p a y m e n t s
fo r
le a v e tim e and p r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s.
P a id
le a v e e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d 30 p e r c e n t o f
the su p p le m e n ta l e x p e n d itu re s f o r n o n o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s , but o n ly 15 p e r c e n t o f the
to ta l fo r c a b d r iv e r s .
On the o t h e r hand,
e x p e n d itu re s fo r p riv a te w e lfa r e plans c o n ­
stitu ted a lm o s t 20 p e r c e n t o f the su p p le m e n ta l
e x p e n d itu re s fo r c a b d r iv e r s , but o n ly 12 p e r ­
ce n t o f the to ta l fo r n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
P r e v a le n c e o f S u pp lem en ts

O nly tw o p r iv a te ly in itita ted su p p le m e n ts,
v a ca tio n s and li f e , a c c id e n t, and h ea lth in s u r ­
a n ce w e r e fa ir ly c o m m o n in the ta x ica b in d u s­
tr y . A bout th r e e -fo u r t h s o f a ll o p e ra tin g and
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in co m p a n ie s
havin g e x p e n d itu re s f o r v a c a tio n s , and tw o th ird s o f a ll o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in
c o m p a n ie s having e x p e n d itu re s f o r life , a c c i ­
dent, and health in s u r a n c e p la n s. L e s s than
o n e -h a lf o f o p e ra tin g o r n o n op era tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s w e r e in co m p a n ie s w h ich had e x p e n d itu re s
f o r any o f the o th e r su p p lem en ts to s tr a ig h ttim e pay f o r w o rk in g tim e that w e r e s u b je c t
to p r iv a te d e c is io n .
None o f the c o m p a n ie s
stu d ied r e p o r te d h avin g m ad e te r m in a l p a y ­
m en ts f o r e ith e r e m p lo y e e g ro u p , and none
o f th em r e p o r te d any e x p e n d itu re s fo r s ic k ,
c iv i c , a n d /o r p e r s o n a l le a v e , o v e r t im e p r e ­
m iu m s , o r sh ift d iffe r e n tia ls f o r o p e ra tin g
employees.
In a d d ition , on ly a m in im a l
n u m b er (3 p e r c e n t) o f a ll o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s w o r k e d f o r c o m p a n ie s h aving h o lid a y
p a y m e n ts.

28




Chart 6. THE STRUCTURE OF COMPENSATION, TAXICABS, 1964
(CENTS PER PAID HOUR)

30
A ll co m p a n ie s had e x p e n d itu re s fo r s o ­
c ia l s e c u r ity and u n em p lo y m e n t co m p e n s a tio n
in s u r a n c e , and a lm o s t a ll had e x p e n d itu re s
fo r w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n .
P a id L ea v e
P a y f o r le a v e tim e m a d e up 2 p e r c e n t
o f a ll co m p e n s a tio n ou tla y s in the in d u stry .
E ig h ty -fiv e p e r c e n t o f th e s e le a v e p a y m en ts
w e r e f o r v a c a tio n s ; 14 p e r c e n t fo r h o lid a y s ;
and le s s than 1 p e r c e n t f o r s ic k , c iv i c , and
p e r s o n a l le a v e .
A lm o s t a ll p a id le a v e fo r
c a b d r iv e r s w a s fo r v a c a tio n s ; on ly a s m a ll
am ount o f h o lid a y pay w as r e p o r te d .
T h reefou rth s o f a ll le a v e e x p e n d itu re s f o r n on ­
op era tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e fo r v a c a tio n s ; a l­
m o s t a ll o th e r le a v e p a y m en ts w e r e fo r p aid
h o lid a y s .
L ea v e e x p e n d itu re s f o r n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s con stitu te d a lm o s t tw ic e as la r g e a
proportion
( 3 . 2 p e r c e n t) o f tota l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n as did the e x p e n d itu re s ( 1. 7 p e r ­
cen t) f o r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s . A lthough m o s t
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich
had le a v e p a y m en ts o f u n d er 3 p e r c e n t o f total
c o m p e n s a tio n , t h e n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s
w e r e d is trib u te d fa ir ly e v e n ly am on g c o m ­
p a n ies h avin g e x p e n d itu re s o f b etw een 1 to 6
p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a tio n .
P a id v a ca tio n s co n stitu te d 2 p e r c e n t o f
tota l c o m p e n s a t i o n ou tla y s o f c o m p a n ie s
having th is type o f le a v e .
V a ca tio n p a y m en ts
to n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s c o n s t i t u t e d a
h ig h e r p r o p o r tio n (2. 6 p e r c e n t) o f c o m p e n ­
sa tion than did p a y m en ts to o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
ees ( 1. 9 p e r c e n t). P r a c t ic a lly a ll co m p a n ie s
had v a ca tio n e x p e n d itu re s o f u n d er 4 p e r c e n t
o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n , although v a c a tio n p a y ­
m en ts fo r o p era tin g e m p lo y e e s in a few c o m ­
p a n ies ran as high as 6 p e r c e n t.
H olid a y pay fo r n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s
con stitu ted slig h tly le s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f the
in d u s tr ie s tota l c o m p e n s a tio n ou tla ys f o r su ch
w o r k e r s . A m on g c o m p a n ie s having e x p e n d i­
tu re s f o r p aid h o lid a y s , th e se p a y m en ts c o n ­
stitute about 1 .5 p e r c e n t o f n on op era tin g
w o r k e r s co m p e n s a tio n . A lm o s t a ll co m p a n ie s
r e p o r te d h o lid a y e x p e n d itu re s f o r n o n o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s o f l e s s than 2 p e r c e n t of
co m p e n sa tio n .
H olid a y pay fo r c a b d r iv e r s
w as re p o r te d by on ly a handful o f union c o m ­
p a n ie s .
H o w e v e r , th ese c o m p a n ie s ' h o lid a y
e x p e n d itu re s co n stitu te d s lig h tly o v e r 2.5 p e r ­
cen t o f th e ir co m p e n s a tio n c o s t s .
In g e n e r a l, le a v e e x p e n d itu re s w e r e m o r e
p r e v a le n t in co m p a n ie s having u n io n ize d d r i v ­
e r s o r u n ion ize d n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s than
in nonunion co m p a n ie s .
A lthough p a id le a v e




e x p e n d itu re s c o n stitu te d 2. 6 p e r c e n t o f c o m ­
p e n sa tio n fo r u n io n iz e d c a b d r iv e r s , they c o n ­
stitu ted on ly 1. 2 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n sa tio n fo r
nonunion d r iv e r s . S im ila r ly , e x p e n d itu re s fo r
u n io n iz e d n o n o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s w e r e a
g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n (4 .2 p e r c e n t) o f tota l c o m ­
p e n sa tio n than f o r th e ir nonunion c o u n te r p a r ts
(3 p e r c e n t).
P r e m iu m P a y m e n ts
D uring 1964, p r e m iu m o v e r tim e and sh ift
pay w e r e r a r e in the ta x ica b in d u stry .
A ll
the e x p e n d itu re s r e p o r te d in th is study w e r e
co n fin e d to p a y m en ts to n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s w ith a lm o s t a ll o f th e se p a y m en ts b ein g
f o r o v e r tim e . A ll co m p a n ie s having o v e r tim e
p r e m iu m s r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s o f le s s than
5 p e r c e n t o f tota l co m p e n sa tio n , and on ly a
few r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s o f 3 p e r c e n t o r
m ore.
N o n p ro d u ctio n B o n u se s
A p p r o x im a te ly o n e -th ir d o f both the o p e r ­
ating and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in
co m p a n ie s that p a id n o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s
d u rin g 1964.
A lthough b o n u s e s f o r both e m ­
p lo y e e g ro u p s co n stitu te d on ly 0. 7 p e r c e n t o f
tota l c o m p e n s a tio n , th e re w as c o n s id e r a b le
v a r ia tio n in the le v e l o f b o n u se s in the v a r io u s
c o m p a n ie s .
B onus p a y m en ts f o r o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s ra n ged up to 9 p e r c e n t o f tota l
c o m p e n s a tio n , and b o n u s e x p e n d itu re s fo r
n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s ran ged up to 5 p e r ­
cen t o f total co m p e n s a tio n o u tla y s.
L e g a lly R e q u ire d In su ra n ce P r o g r a m s
In c o n tr a s t to m o s t in d u s tr ie s , e m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s f o r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su r a n c e
p r o g r a m s in ta x ica b co m p a n ie s du rin g 1964
co n stitu te d the m a jo r e le m e n ts o f su p p le m e n ­
tal co m p e n sa tio n .
E x p e n d itu re s f o r t h e s e
p r o g r a m s w e r e 2>l U tim e s as la r g e as the next
h ig h e st su p p le m e n t, p aid le a v e , and w e r e a p ­
p r o x im a t e ly 40 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r than e x p e n d i­
tu re s f o r a ll o f the o th e r su p p lem en ts (in c lu d ­
ing p aid le a v e ) co m b in e d . A lm o s t o n e -h a lf o f
th e se le g a lly r e q u ir e d e x p e n d itu re s w e r e fo r
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and the rem a in in g o n e -h a lf
w e r e a lm o s t e v e n ly d iv id e d b e tw e e n u n e m ­
p lo y m e n t in s u r a n c e and w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n ­
sa tio n c o s t s . E x p e n d itu re s fo r o th e r le g a lly
r e q u ir e d i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s w e r e v e r y
m in o r .
L e g a lly r e q u ir e d e x p e n d itu re s f o r o p e r ­
ating e m p lo y e e s m a d e up a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n
(7 p e r c e n t) o f a ll co m p e n sa tio n ou tla y s than
did lik e e x p e n d itu re s f o r n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s (5 p e r c e n t). H ig h er c o s ts f o r w o r k ­
m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n fo r the c a b d r iv e r s a c ­
cou nted f o r m u ch o f this d iffe r e n c e .

Chart 7. EMPLOYER EXPENDITURES FOR SUPPLEMENTARY COM
PENSATION
FOR OPERATING AN NONOPERATING EMPLOYEES, TAXICABS, 1964
D
0

1

2

PERCENT OF COMPENSATION

3

4

5

6

7

Paid leave
Premium pay
Bonuses
Legally required
insurance
programs
Private
welfare plans
CENTS PER PAID HOUR
6

2

0

8

10

T

Paid leave
-

Premium pay

h

] OPERATING
NONOPERATING

Bonuses
Legally required
insurance
programs
Private
welfare plans




3

-^N o premium payments were reported for operating employees during 1964.

12

32
P r iv a te W e lfa re P la n s
P r iv a te w e lfa r e p la n s in the ta x ica b in ­
d u stry a re a r e la t iv e ly m in o r fa c t o r in the
co m p e n sa tio n p ic t u r e .
The la r g e n u m b er o f
tra n sie n t and p a r t -t im e e m p lo y e e s in the in ­
d u stry and the low in c id e n c e o f u n io n iza tio n
d u rin g 1964, the r e fe r e n c e y e a r o f the study,
m a y be r e s p o n s ib le .
L ife , a c c id e n t, and h ealth in s u r a n c e p lan s
w e r e the on ly p r iv a te w e lfa r e su p p lem en ts o f
any co n s e q u e n ce in the in d u stry .
T w o -th ir d s
o f a ll c a b d r iv e r s and a lm o s t h a lf o f a ll n on ­
o p e ra tin g e m p l o y e e s
w e r e in co m p a n ie s
having p a y m en ts fo r th e se p la n s . E x p e n d itu re s
as a p r o p o r tio n o f tota l co m p e n s a tio n w e r e
a lm o s t tw ice as la r g e ( 1. 5 p e r c e n t) f o r the
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s than f o r the n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s (0. 8 p e r c e n t).
E x p e n d itu re s fo r
the o p e r a t i n g e m p lo y e e s r a n g e d fr o m
u n d er 1 to 7 p e r c e n t o f tota l c o m p e n s a tio n ,
but a ll ex p e n d itu re s r e p o r te d f o r n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s w e r e le s s than 4 p e r c e n t o f tota l
co m p e n sa tio n .
O v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f a ll c a b d r iv e r s and
about 25 p e r c e n t o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l




w o rk e d f o r c o m p a n ie s having n o n co n tr ib u to r y
health in s u r a n c e p la n s; 15 p e r c e n t o f a ll d r iv ­
e r s and about 20 p e r c e n t o f a ll n on op era tin g
p e r s o n n e l w e r e in co m p a n ie s havin g c o n t r ib ­
u to ry p la n s.
N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p lan e x p e n d i­
tu re s fo r ' c a b d r iv e r s c o n stitu te d a slig h tly
h ig h e r p r o p o r tio n o f c o m p e n sa tio n (2. 1 p e r ­
cen t) than did e x p e n d itu re s in c o m p a n i e s
having c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s.
N o n co n trib u to ry
plan e x p e n d itu re s f o r n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l
con stitu ted about 1% p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n sa tio n
as c o m p a r e d with 1 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n sa tio n
in co m p a n ie s with c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s.
A bout
o n e -th ir d o f a ll c a b d r iv e r s and o v e r o n e -h a lf
o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e in c o m ­
p a n ies w ithout h ealth in su r a n c e p la n s.
P e n s io n p lan s w e r e r a r e in this in d u stry
du rin g 1964.
Only 1 cen t a p a id h o u r , c o n ­
stituting le s s than o n e -h a lf o f 1 p e r c e n t o f the
in d u s tr y 's to ta l co m p e n sa tio n o u tla y s, w as
exp en ded f o r p e n s io n p la n s.
S im ila r low
le v e ls o f e x p e n d itu re s w e r e m a d e f o r both
o p e ra tin g and n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s .
A ll
p e n sio n p la n s r e p o r te d f o r n o n o p e r a t i n g
e m p l o y e e s , and m o s t p la n s r e p o r te d f o r
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e n o n c o n tr ib u to r y
du rin g 1964.

Table 16.

E m p loyer Expenditures fo r the Com pensation o f E m p lo y e e s , T a x ica b s, 1964
O p e r a tin g e m p l o y e e s

A ll e m p l o y e e s
C en ts p e r h o u r

P ercen t
o f tota l
c o m p e n s a t io n

N o n o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s

C e n ts p e r h o u r

P ercen t
o f to t a l
W o rk in g t im e c o m p e n s a t io n

P ercen t
o f t o ta l
co m p e n s a tion

P a id f o r

W o rk in g tim e

100 . 0

$ 1 .5 9

$ 1 .6 2

100 . 0

$ 1. 47

$ 1 .4 9

G r o s s p a y m e n t s to w o r k e r s ------------------------------- ------------------------- —
S t r a ig h t -t i m e p a y m e n t s f o r w o r k in g t i m e ----------------------------P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s ______________________________ _________ _____
O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ------------- --------------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s _____________________________________________
P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ____________ — ---------------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ______________________________________________ ________
H o l i d a y s ------------------- -------------------------------- ------ ---------------- --------S ic k l e a v e ____________________ ______________________________ ___
C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ____________________ ___ _________ ________

91. 7
88 . 9
. 1
. 1
<M
2. 0
1. 7
. 3

$ 1 .4 6
1. 42

$ 1 .4 8
1. 44
(M
( )
(* )
. 03
. 03

91. 0

$ 1 . 34
1. 31
-

$ 1 . 36
1. 33
-

E x p e n d it u r e s in a d d itio n to p a y r o l l ------------------------------------ --------L e g a l l y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s -----------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n -------------------- —-------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n --------- ---------- —-----------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s ________________ —--------------O th er le g a lly r e q u ir e d p r o g r a m s —
-----------------——
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s -----------------------------------------------—-------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lt h i n s u r a n c e ____________ _— -------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s __ _______
_ ---------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y a n d / o r s u p p le m e n ta l
u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit f u n d s ______________________________

8. 3
6. 5

C o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t ic e

T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s -----------------------------------------------------------------

(!)
(M
.7

3. 1
1. 7
1 .7
. 1
1. 8
1 .4
.4
. 1

88.6

C)

n
< )

(M
. 01

(l )
. 01

1. 7
1. 5
. 1
.7

. 13
. 10
. 05
. 03
. 03
(M
. 03
. 02
. 01

. 14
. 11
. 05
. 03
. 03
(M
. 03
, 02
. 01

9. 0
7. 0
3. 2
1. 8
2. 0
. 1
2. 0
1. 5
.4

(* )

(M

(!)
< >
(l )
. 03
. 03

. 1

P a id f o r

-

-

. 02
. 02
(M
. 01

. 02
. 02
(l )
. 01

C en ts p e r h ou r
P a id f o r

W o rk in g tim e

100 . 0

$ 2 . 17

$ 2 . 24

93. 7
89. 5
. 3
. 3
n
3. 2
2. 3
.8
•1
C)
.7

$ 2 .0 3
1. 93
. 01
. 01

$ 2 . 10
2 . 00
. 01
. 01
(M
. 07
. 05
. 02

C)

. 07
. 05
. 02
C)
(M
. 02

6. 3

(M
. 03
. 02
. 01

. 13
. 10
. 05
. 03
. 03
(M
. 03
. 02
. 01

1. 3
.8
(M
1. 3
. 8
. 5

.
.
.
.
.
(l
.
.
.

C)

(M

(M

(M

.
.
.
.
.

13

10
05
03
03

5. 0

2. 8

14

11
06
03

02
)
03

02
01

(!)
C)
. 02
.
.
.
.
.

14

11
06
03

02

( X)
. 03
. 02
. 01

(l )

1 Less than 0. 05 percent or 0. 5 cents.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




C
O
C
O

Table 17.

P e rce n t D istribution of All E m ployees by E m ployer Expenditures fo r S elected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P e rce n t of Total Expenditures fo r the C om pensation of E m ployees, T a xicabs, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v era g e
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

0. 1
. 1

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts --------------------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ---------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -------------------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ---------------------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------------------------H o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ---------------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e -----------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------------------------------------------L e g a lly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ----------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s ----------------------------------------------L if e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ------------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y a n d / o r s u p p le ­
m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit f u n d s -------------

(M

2. 0
1. 7
. 3

C)
C )

.7

6. 5
3. 1
1 .7
1 .7
. 1

1.8
1 .4
.4
. 1

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu r e s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

T ota l

2

1
U n d er

1

1.8
1 .4

100

73
76

86
17
17
55
77
94
48
-

26
24
14
16
17
39
23

6

73
31
33
80

26
19
23
27
31
30
9

97

6

5

8

7

10

9

5

4

_
30
30
3
7
19
29
19
7

22
28

2
16
-

2
51
24
9

11
and

3

(!)
(* )
-

"

21

4

3

and
under

2
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

0. 3
. 3
(* )
2. 3
2. 0
.5
. 1
(M
1. 3
6. 5
3. 1
1 .7
2. 0
.2
2 .4
1 .9

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c o m p e n s a t io n

_
9

3

6

_

6

1

-

-

2
3
79

2

12
6

10

5
7
4

(* )

1

3

7
_
-

-

2
0)

1

8

_

-

(* )
35
-

11

21

5
-

-

1

2

-

2

6

5

5
3

]
-

"

*

9

_
15
3
-

_

10

_

_
-

5
-

8
-

11
.
3
-

-

“

“

_
-

2
-

"

■

■

over

'

1 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l t o t a ls .

T a b le 18.

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f O p e r a tin g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,
as a P e r c e n t o f T o ta l E x p e n d it u r e s f o r the C o m p e n s a tio n o f E m p lo y e e s , T a x i c a b s , 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v era g e
e x p e n d it u r e s
(p e r c e n t o f co m p e n s a t io n )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
co m p a n ie s

P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ---------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ----------------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s -------------------------------------------L e g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ----------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s ----------------------------------------------L ife , a c c id e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ------------P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------------S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
fu n d s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. 7
1 .5
. 1
.7
7. 0
3. 2
1. 8
2. 0
. 1
2. 0
1. 5
.4

. 1

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
t u re s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

2. 0

T o ta l

1

1 .7
7. 0
3. 2
1. 8
2. 3
.2
2. 6
2. 1
2. 1

26
97
65
17
72
32
34
83

1 .7

100

97

“

1 .9

2 .6

2

26

4

3

6

5

8

7

10

9

and
under

2
14
14
13
15
19
28
30
28
9

B ecau se of rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.




1
U n der

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e a s a p e r c e n t o f to t a l e x p e n d it u r e s

3

21

31
31
5
-

24
3
15
-

2

8

46

32
25
7
5
-

21
13
14
4

3

11
and

4

5
3
3
-

2
1
89
7
7
3
4
-

■

6

7

1
1

4

-

-

10

20

-

7
-

2
3

6
1

'

1

6
6
3

'

O
C)
27
-

2
3
3
-

8

9

_
17
-

(M
-

-

-

(M
ii
i
-

over

10

11

_

_

_

9
-

3
-

■

-

-

2
3

-

T able 19.

P e rce n t D istribution of N onoperating E m ployees by E m p loyer Expenditures fo r Selected Com pensation P r a c t ic e s ,
as a P e rce n t of T otal Expenditures fo r the Com pensation o f E m p loyees, T a x ica b s, 1964
Average

Percent of workers in companies —

(percent of compensation)
With no
expenditures
for the practice

Companies with
expenditures for
the practice

Total

0. 3
.3
(*)
3. 2
2. 3
.8
. 1
(M
.7
5. 0
2.8
1. 3
.8
(*)
1. 3
.8
.5

1. 2
1. 3
.2
3 .6
2. 6
1.6
.4
(M
1.9
5. 0
2. 8
1. 3
1. 1
.2
2. 3
1.4
2 .9

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

80
82
89
23
23
63
83
96
70
37
85
52
55
86

9
7
11
8
8
5
15
4
12
30
36
15
25
23
7

(M

.5

100

99

1
and
under
2

1

All
companies
Premium paym ents----------------------------------------------Overtime, weekend, and holiday w o rk --------Shift differentials--------------------------------------------Pay for leave t im e -----------------------------------------------V acations---------------------------------------------------------Holidays------------------------------------------------------------Sick leave---------------------------------------------------------Civic and personal le a v e --------------------------------Nonproduction bonuses-----------------------------------------Legally required insurance programs -------------Retirement income and protection----------------Unemployment compensation-------------------------Occupational injury and illn e ss---------------------Other legally required insurance programs—
Private welfare p la n s------------------------------------------Life, accident, and health insurance------------Pension and retirement plans------------------------Severance or dism issal pay and/or
supplemental unemployment benefit
funds ---------------------------------------------------------------

With expenditures for the practice as a percent of total compensation
Under
1

3

2

4

5

7

6

and
4

3

5

7
7

3
3

-

-

14
23
2

"

"

-

8
1
36
16
3
9
8

_
17
-

_

_

-

-

3
_

-

-

2
43
5

-

-

( !)
(M

11
30
1
3
11
55
5
6

-

over

7

-

-

14
17
29
2
5
9
54
24
3
8
4

6

-

1
1

11
(*)

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

25
-

-

-

19
-

1
_

2

"

1

~

"

“

1 Less than 0. 05 percent of compensation or 0 .5 percent of workers.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 20.

Percent Distribution of All Employees by Employer Expenditures for Selected Compensation Practices, in Cents Per Paid Hour, Taxicabs, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in ce n t s p e r h ou r)
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s --------------------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k -----------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -------------------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ---------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ___________— — — — — — — __
H o l id a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e --------------------------------------------------------------- •
C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------------R e t i r e m e n t i n c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ---------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------------O t h e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s ----------------------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e -------------P e n s i o n an d r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------------S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
fu n d s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu re s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

T ota l

0. 5
.5

(M
3. 2
2 .7
.4
(l )
(‘ )
1. 1
10. 3
4. 9

3 .8
3. 3
.9
. 1
(* )
2. 1
10. 3
4 .9

2 .6
2. 6
. 1
2. 9
2. 1
.6

-1

3. 3
.4
4. 1
3. 2
3 .4

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3. 2

100

.1

2 .6

B eca u se of rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.




W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t i c e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r

2
U n d er

2

and
under
4

6

4

10

8

12

14

16

18

20

73
76

86
17
17
55
77
94
48
-

27
24
14
23
23
39
23

6

23
32

1
-

10

73
31
33
80

34
29
23
27
35
33
13

49
29
7
9
3

97

■

3

-

21

3

21

22
and

6

8

10

12

.
26

-

3
-

22
5
-

-

54
23
16
9
13

"

18

20

22

_
-

11

_
_
_
9

3
-

-

_
_
_
_
-

'

■

"

-

over

.
4
4

6
8

14

16

'

0. 1
. 1

1 L e s s than 0. 05 cents o r 0. 5 percen t o f w o rk e rs.
NOTE:

W ith n o
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

2

2

3
-

15
23

22
2

-

-

-

-

-

9

0)
20
C )

(M
-

5
-

6
1
1

6

1

9
(‘ )

3
3

"

■

-

3
-

-

-

(l )

"

2
_
-

-

_
_

C)
.
3
(* )

_
_
_
_
(M
_
3
_
'

Table 21.

P e r c e n t D istrib ution of Operating E m ployees by E m ployer Expenditures fo r S elected C om pensation P r a c t ic e s , in Cents P e r Paid H our, T a xica b s, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in ce n ts p e r h o u r )
P r a c t ic e

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d itu r e s f o r
the p r a c t ic e

A ll
co m p a n ie s

'Pfiy fn r
Ume
V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s -----------------R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ----------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------------O t h e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
P riv e t*
p la n *
3
.....
.......
- L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ------------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------------S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
fu n d s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

2. 4
2. 3
.2
1. 1
10. 3
4. 7
2. 6
2 .9
. 1
2. 9
2. 2

.6
. 1

T o ta l

W ith no
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c tic e

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e in c e n t s p e r p a id h o u r

2
U n d er

2

4

and
under
4

6

26
26
97
65
17
72
32
34
83

33
26
28
31
29
13

4
28
44
30
13
13
■

3. 3

i

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

97

-

3

3.
3.
5.
2.
10.
4.
2.
3.
.
4.
3.
3.

3
1
5

8
3
7

6
5
4
2
3

18
18
16
-

1

33
33
-

10

6

8

10

12

14

16

20

18

22
and

6

10

12

1
1

1
1

-

-

21
3
7

2
16
10
C )
1

28
5
3

14

-

10

5

■

1

_

3

(M
ii
i
3
■

-

-

-

-

-

8
60
23
18
9

18

20

22

_
-

-

3
-

-

_

3

8

18

16
(M

-

3
-

2

6
5

16

4
~
-

11
-

_

n

"

-

-

over
(* )
n
(M

3

“

-

-

~

-

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot eq u a l to ta ls .

T a b le 22.

P e r c e n t D is t r ib u t io n o f N o n o p e ra tin g E m p lo y e e s b y E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s , in C en ts P e r P a id H o u r , T a x i c a b s ,

A v e r a g e e x p e n d itu r e s
(in ce n ts p e r h o u r )
P r a c t ic e
A ll
c o m p a n ie s

P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s --------------------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y w o r k ----------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -------------------------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t i m e ----------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------------H o lid a y s ----------------------- --------- -------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ---------------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e -----------------------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s --------------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s ----------------R e t i r e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ------------------U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t io n ----------------------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s -----------------------O t h e r le g a ll y r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s ----------------------------------------------L i f e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth i n s u r a n c e ---------------P e n s i o n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s --------------------------S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pa y a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
f u n d s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

C o m p a n ie s
w ith e x p e n d i­
tu res fo r
the p r a c t ic e

T ota l

1.8
1. 1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

80
82
89
23
23
63
83
96
70
37
85
52
55

<*)

2. 2

100

W ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e in c e n t s p e r p a id h ou r

2
U n d er

2

99

C)

1.
10 .
6.
2.

5

8
1
8
1.8
. 1

2 .9

86

9
7
9

10
10
4
16
4

11
-

1
35
29
15

21
21
4

m ay not equal totals.

4

and
under
3

6

6

8
4

20

1

10
12
1

5

5

2
12
12
13

6
10
37
16
5

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22
and

3
5
9

3
3

2
5

10
1
1
-

8

6

10

36
23
16
5
5

32
5

23
3
3
27
18
-

2

(M

3
5

3

6

6

4

-

2

8

1
'

L e s s than 0. 05 c e n t s o r 0. 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s .

N OTE: B ecau se of rounding, sum s o f individual item s




W ith n o
e x p e n d it u r e s
f o r the
p r a c t ic e

3. 5
3. 6
.7
8. 7
6. 4
4. 7
1. 1
. 1
4. 5
10. 8
6. 1
2. 8
2. 7
.6
5. 8
3 .9
7. 4

0. 7
.7
. 1
7. 0
5. 1
1 .7
.2

1964

P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s —

-

"

12

_
7

1
1
-

1
14
3
-

2
2

14
_
7
13

16

18

_
-

-

11
1

6
1

5
-

-

1

C)

1
1

13
-

-

“

“

(M

4

20

_

22

over

_
(M

-

_

-

-

2
1
4
-

'

1
(M

i

-

'

Chapter 5.

Composition o f Payroll Hours

D u rin g 1964, 96 p e r c e n t o f a ll p a id h ou rs
fo r d r iv e r s and 94 p e r c e n t o f a ll p aid h ou rs
fo r n on op era tin g p e r s o n n e l in the m o t o r p a s ­
s e n g e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n in d u stry w e r e fo r
w ork in g tim e .
T h e s e in d u stry w id e a v e r a g e s ,
w h ich r e s u lt la r g e ly fr o m the lo w in c id e n c e
o f le a v e h ou rs in ta x ic a b c o m p a n ie s ( 1 . 8 p e r ­
cen t o f to ta l h o u r s ), a r e m a r k e d ly d iffe r e n t
fr o m th o se in the lo c a l tr a n s it and in te r c ity
bus seg m e n ts w h e re le a v e h o u rs a cco u n te d
fo r about 1 o f e v e r y 13 to 14 p a id h o u r s .
P a id L e a v e H ours
P a id v a ca tio n h o u rs co n stitu te d ju s t o v e r
tw o -th ir d s o f a ll le a v e h o u rs in the m o t o r
passenger
tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry g ro u p ;
h o lid a y h o u rs co n stitu te d s lig h tly o v e r o n e fifth ; and s ic k le a v e h o u rs s lig h tly u n d er o n e tenth.
C iv ic and p e r s o n a l le a v e a cco u n te d
fo r on ly a m in im a l n u m b er o f h o u r s . V a c a ­
tion h ou rs con stitu te d a lm o s t 9 out o f 10 le a v e
h o u rs in the ta x ic a b in d u s try and o v e r 6 out
o f 10 le a v e h o u rs in the lo c a l tr a n s it and
in te r c ity bus in d u s tr ie s .
H olid a y h o u rs a c ­
cou nted fo r a lm o s t a ll o f the r e m a in d e r o f
the ta x ica b in d u s tr y 's le a v e h o u rs and m o s t
o f the rem a in in g l e a v e h o u rs in the lo c a l
tra n sit and in t e r c it y b u s e s . O nly in the t a x i­
ca b in d u stry w as th e re any su b sta n tia l d i f f e r ­
en ce in the c o m p o s itio n o f p a y r o ll h o u rs fo r
op e ra tin g a n d n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .
In
that in d u stry , l e a v e tim e f o r d r iv e r s a c ­
cou nted fo r 50 p e r c e n t fe w e r p a id h o u rs
(r e la tiv e to to ta l p aid h o u r s ) than fo r o th e r
cab com p a n y e m p lo y e e s .
P a id V a ca tio n P r a c t ic e s
T h re e out o f e v e r y fiv e w o r k e r s in the
m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry
grou p r e c e i v e d v a c a tio n p a y d u rin g 1964.
F o u r -fift h s o f the n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l and
s lig h tly o v e r o n e -h a lf o f the d r iv e r s r e c e iv e d
su ch p a y , and a lm o s t tw o -th ir d s o f the d r i v ­
e r s and s lig h tly o v e r fo u r -fift h s o f the n o n ­
op e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l, who r e c e iv e d v a ca tio n
p a y , w e r e p aid f o r 2 w eek s o r m o r e o f v a ­
ca tion tim e .
M o st o f the v a c a tio n e x p e n d itu re s r e s u lt ­
ing fr o m th e se p r a c t ic e s w e r e c e n te r e d in the
lo c a l tra n sit and in t e r c it y bus in d u s tr ie s — the
ta x ica b in d u stry h aving a m u ch lo w e r i n c i ­
d e n ce o f v a ca tio n p a y .
A b ou t 80 p e r c e n t o f
a ll lo c a l tra n s it e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e d 2 w eek s
o r m o r e o f v a ca tio n p a y , with 55 p e r c e n t r e ­
ce iv in g 3 w eek s o r m o r e ; m o s t (67 p e r c e n t)




i n t e r c i t y bus e m p lo y e e s a ls o r e c e iv e d 2
w e e k s o r m o r e o f p aid v a c a tio n .
T a x ic a b
e m p lo y e e s , g e n e r a lly r e c e iv e d le s s than 2
w eek s o f p aid v a c a tio n s .
O p e ra tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in
the lo c a l tr a n s it in d u stry g e n e r a lly r e c e iv e d
the sa m e le v e l o f v a c a tio n b e n e fit s .
O ver
h a lf o f b oth e m p lo y e e g ro u p s r e c e iv e d pay fo r
3 w e e k s o r m o r e o f v a ca tio n , w ith tw o -fifth s
o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv in g pay
fo r 4 to 5 v a c a tio n w e e k s . O nly about 12 p e r ­
ce n t o f e ith e r o p e r a tin g o r n o n o p e ra tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e d no v a ca tio n pay d u rin g 1964.
T h e re w as s o m e v a r ia tio n in the p a tte rn s
o f v a ca tio n p a y b etw een o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in the in te r c ity bus in ­
d u s tr y . A lth ou gh o n ly o n e -te n th o f the n o n ­
o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l r e c e iv e d no v a c a tio n p ay
du rin g 1964, a lm o s t o n e -fo u r th o f the d r iv e r s
r e c e iv e d no v a ca tio n p a y .
T his d iffe r e n c e
w as p r im a r ily the r e s u lt o f s m a ll bus c o m ­
p a n ie s p a y i n g n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s fo r
v a c a tio n s but not the d r iv e r s . A lth ou gh th e re
w as a lo w e r in c id e n c e o f v a c a tio n p a y fo r
d r i v e r s , p r o p o r t io n a lly m o r e o f them (42
p e r c e n t) r e c e iv e d 3 w eek s o r m o r e o f v a ­
ca tio n than did n on op era tin g e m p lo y e e s (32
p e r c e n t).
T a x ic a b c o m p a n ie s , in m an y in s ta n c e s ,
do not h ave v a c a tio n p a y fo r e ith e r d r iv e r s
o r n on op era tin g p e r s o n n e l. 2 M o r e than h a lf
1
the d r iv e r s and s lig h tly o v e r tw o -fifth s o f
the n o n o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l r e c e iv e d no v a c a ­
tio n p ay d u r i n g 1964.
A m a jo r it y o f the
d r i v e r s , w h o r e c e iv e d v a ca tio n p a y , w e r e
p a id f o r le s s than 2 w e e k s ; a lm o s t a ll n o n ­
o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l, who r e c e iv e d v a c a tio n
p a y , w e r e p aid f o r b etw een 1 to 3 w e e k s .
P a id H olid a y P r a c t ic e s
T h e r e w as a s h a r p d if fe r e n c e , in the
m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u s tr y , in
the p r a c t ic e s o f p ayin g o p e ra tin g and n on ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s f o r h o lid a y s not w o rk e d .
T w o -t h ir d s o f a ll d r iv e r s w o rk e d f o r c o m ­
p a n ie s that did not p a y d r iv e r s f o r h o lid a y s
not w o r k e d ; on the o th e r h and, o v e r 70 p e r ­
cen t o f a ll n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d
fo r c o m p a n ie s w h e re the p r e v a ilin g p r a c t ic e
w as to p a y th em fo r 3 h o lid a y s o r m o r e .

^ Some cab c o m p a n y em ployees, however, may have
worked in fu ll-tim e c a p a c i t i e s in other industries— in which
situations they may have received pay for vacations and other
leave tim e.

37

38
T his sh a rp co n tr a s t is b e c a u s e c a b d r iv e r s ,
who con stitu te about 45 p e r c e n t o f a ll d r iv e r s
in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in d u stry g r o u p , s e l ­
d om r e c e iv e d p aid h o lid a y s .
D u rin g 1964, o v e r th r e e -fo u r t h s o f a ll
lo c a l tra n s it d r iv e r s w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s
w h e re the u su a l p r a c t ic e w as to p a y them fo r
4 h olid a y s o r m o r e ; the g r e a te s t c o n c e n tr a tio n
o f d r iv e r s (30 p e r c e n t) b ein g in c o m p a n ie s
having a p r a c t ic e o f p ayin g fo r 7 h o lid a y s .
N on op era tin g p e r s o n n e l in the in d u s try n o r ­
m a lly r e c e iv e d 5 to 8 p a id h o lid a y s .
S e v e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f a ll in t e r c it y b u s d r iv e r s w e r e e m p lo y e d by c o m p a n ie s w ith a
p r a c t i c e o f p ayin g fo r h o lid a y s ; 47 p e r c e n t
w e r e in co m p a n ie s w h ich had 7 p a id h o lid a y s ;
and 19 p e r c e n t w e r e in c o m p a n ie s w h ich had
6 p aid h o lid a y s . In 1964, o v e r fo u r -fift h s o f
a ll n on op era tin g p e r s o n n e l in in t e r c it y bus
c o m p a n ie s w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s having a
p r a c t ic e o f payin g f o r e ith e r 6 o r 7 h o l i ­
d a y s— the m a jo r it y (58 p e r c e n t) b ein g in c o m ­
p a n ies h aving 7 p aid h o lid a y s .
A lth ou gh a lm o s t a ll c a b d r iv e r s r e c e iv e d
no p a id h o lid a y s ; about o n e -th ir d o f the n o n ­
o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l w e r e in c o m p a n ie s that
did p ay them f o r h o lid a y s not w o rk e d — 5 o r
6 p aid h o lid a y s b ein g the u su a l p r a c t ic e .

N o r m a l W ork w eek P r a c t ic e s
S ix t y -fiv e p e r c e n t o f a ll n on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r ­
ta tion in d u stry w e r e e m p lo y e d b y c o m p a n ie s
in w h ich 40 h o u rs w as the u su a l w o rk w e e k
f o r the m a jo r it y o f the e m p lo y e e s ; 26 p e r c e n t
in co m p a n ie s havin g a u su a l w o rk w e e k o f o v e r
40 h o u r s ; and o n ly 9 p e r c e n t in c o m p a n ie s
havin g a u su a l w o r k w e e k o f le s s than 40
hours.
C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s g e n e r a lly w e r e
sch e d u le d to w o rk 40 h o u rs o r le s s ; m a in te ­
n a n ce and t e r m i n a l e m p lo y e e s 22 n o r m a lly
w e r e sch ed u led to w o r k 40 h o u rs o r m o r e a
w e e k . A lth ou gh 56 p e r c e n t o f a ll e x e c u tiv e ,
p r o fe s s io n a l, and s u p e r v is o r y p e r s o n n e l w e r e
in co m p a n ie s h a v i n g a u su a l w o rk w e e k o f




40 h o u r s , about o n e -fo u r th o f th e se e m p lo y e e s
(27 p e r c e n t) w o rk e d fo r c o m p a n ie s w h e re the
u su a l w o rk w e e k w as in e x c e s s o f 40 h o u r s .
In the lo c a l tr a n s it in d u s tr y , a lm o s t a ll
c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s w e r e in c o m p a n ie s in
w h ich the u su a l w o rk w e e k f o r a m a jo r it y o f
th e se e m p lo y e e s w as 40 h o u rs o r l e s s ; o v e r
fo u r -fift h s o f a ll m a i n t e n a n c e e m p lo y e e s
w o rk e d in c o m p a n ie s having a u su a l w o r k ­
w eek o f 40 h o u r s ; and o v e r n in e -te n th s o f the
s u p e r v is o r y p e r s o n n e l w e r e in c o m p a n ie s
w h ich had a u su a l w o rk w e e k o f 40 h o u rs o r
le s s .
T h e r e w as v e r y little v a r ia tio n in the
u su a l w o rk w e e k s fo r the m a jo r g ro u p s o f n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s in the in te r c ity bus in ­
d u str y .
A lm o s t fo u r -fift h s o f a ll c l e r i c a l
e m p lo y e e s w e r e in co m p a n ie s havin g a n o r ­
m a l w o rk w eek o f 40 h o u r s , and m o s t o f the
r e m a in in g o n e -fift h w e r e e ith e r on a 3 5 - o r
37V2-h o u r w o rk w e e k . A ll in t e r c it y bus m a in ­
ten a n ce and te r m in a l p e r s o n n e l w o rk e d fo r
co m p a n ie s h avin g a sch e d u le d w o rk w e e k o f
40 h o u rs o r m o r e . A ll but 1 p e r c e n t o f the
s u p e r v is o r y e m p lo y e e s in the in d u stry had a
u su a l w o rk w e e k o f 40 h o u rs o r m o r e , and
a lm o s t th r e e -fo u r t h s o f th em w e r e sch e d u le d
to w o rk 40 h o u r s .
The w o rk w e e k p r a c t ic e s in the ta x ic a b
in d u stry v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly .
The n o r m a l
w o rk w e e k fo r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ra n g ed fr o m
le s s than 35 h o u rs a w eek to u p w ard s o f 48
h o u rs a w eek .
P r a c t ic a l ly a ll m a in te n a n ce
e m p lo y e e s and d is p a tc h e r s w e r e sc h e d u le d to
w o r k 40 h o u rs o r m o r e a w e e k , and about
t h r e e -fift h s o f a ll s u p e r v is o r y p e r s o n n e l w e r e
on a n o r m a l w o rk w e e k o f 40 h o u r s — but a l­
m o s t o n e -fo u r th u su a lly w o rk e d in e x c e s s o f
48 h o u r s .

22 The terms "maintenance and terminal workers," "main­
tenance e m p l o y e e s , " and "maintenance employees and dis­
patchers" are used in this section for p u r p o s e s o f illustrative
clarity. The questionnaire form (reproduced in a p p e n d i x C)
requested normal workweek data about the majority o f employees
in three groups— the groups referred to above were categorized
on the form as "other nonsupervisory (nonoperating) employees."




Table 23.

C om position o f P a y ro ll H ours, M otor P a sse n g e r T ran sportation In d u stries, 1964
Percent of hours paid for—

Employee group and industry
Total

Working
hours

Paid leave hours
Vacation

All

Holiday

Sick

Civic and
personal

3.
5.
4.
1.

1
1
5
6

1.
1.
1.
.

0
7
8
2

0 .4
.7
.8
(M

(?)
( )
( >
( )

8
7
6
1

.3
.6
.8
-

A ll employees:
A ll motor passenger industries---------------------------Local tran sit----------------------- ------------------------ --------Intercity b u s e s -------------------------------------------------------T a x ica b s------------------------------------------------------- ------—

100
100
100
100

9 5.5
9 2.4
9 2.9
98, 2

4.
7.
7.
1.

Operating employees:
A ll motor passenger industries-----------------------------Local transit-----------------------------------------------------------Intercity buses--------------------------------------------------------Taxicabs-------------------------------------------------------------------

100
100
100
100

96. 0
9 2.5
92. 8
98. 5

4. 0
7 .5
7. 2
1.5

2. 8
5. 2
4. 8
1.4

.
1.
1.
.

Nonoperating employees:
A ll motor passenger industries----------------------------Local transit----------------------------------------------------------Intercity buses--------------------------------------------------------Taxicabs-------------------------------------------------------------------

100
100
100
100

94.
92.
93.
97.

5.
7.
7.
2.

3.
5.
4.
2.

1.5
1. 8
2. 1
.6

2
3
0
2

5
6
1
8

8
7
0
8

7
1
1
1

.
.
.
.

6
8
8
1

(;>
(M
(!)
()
( >
(M

1 Less than 0. 05 percent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Q

(0

Table 24.

P e r c e n t D istrib u tion of E m ployees by Paid Leave H ours as a P e rce n t o f Total Paid H ours, M otor P a sse n g e r Tran sportation Industries, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s w ith—
E m p lo y e e s
in a ll
c o m p a n ie s

E m p lo y e e g r o u p and ty p e o f le a v e

No
p a id
le a v e
h ou rs

P a id le a v e h o u r s as a p e r c e n t o f t o ta l p a id h o u r s

1
U n d er

1

2

3

6

5

4

8

7

10

9

and
under

2

11
and

6

3

4

5

7
14
5
(l )

12
(')

8

7

11

10

9

over

A ll e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------- ----------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

100
100
100
100
100

13
14
32
57
78

100
100
100
100
100

24
26
65
78
84

100
100
100
100
100

22

11

11

14

17
16

31
24

10

21

15
-

4
-

14
13
7

15
17
15

6
10
6

10

2

(M

-

-

5

9
9
36
3

9

22

5
7
-

7

10

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

6

1

(M

7
-

-

1
-

5
7

4
4
-

-

6

7

-

4

-

-

-

4
-

-

4

12

1
10
1

2

O p e r a tin g e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

6
8
5

10
16

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
11

3
4

17

14

-

-

-

-

10
C)

(M

-

-

-

(* )
-

-

7
25
5
-

9
16

-

-

-

2
1

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

7
7
48
74

3
3
15
26
25

11
22
23

1

8

n

10
_

~

~

-

"

-

-

-

2
C)
-

-

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l to ta ls.

T a b le 2 5.

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f E m p lo y e e s b y P a id L e a v e H o u r s a s a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l P a id H o u r s , L o c a l T r a n s it ,

1964

P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s w ith—

E m p lo y e e g r o u p and ty p e o f le a v e

E m p lo y e e s
in a ll
c o m p a n ie s

No
p a id
le a v e
hours

P a id le a v e h o u r s as a p e r c e n t o f t o ta l p a id h o u r s

1
U n der

1

2

6

5

4

3

8

7

10

9

and
under

2

11
and

6

4

3

5

10
12
8
2

6
11

7

8

5
23
-

7
37
-

12
1

10

9

11

9
-

29
-

over

A ll e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t i o n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

100
100
100
100
100 -

33
51

100
100
100
100
100

1

1
1

19
49
51

9
30
49

(*)

1
6

1
1
19
28
49

1
2
22
28
-

4

12
45
9
-

-

-

-

13
-

2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

9
19
-

12

10

12

17
-

_
-

(* )

24
-

6
2

5

16

7

O p e r a tin g e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

(* )

2
2
20
17
-

3
7
41
3
-

13
17

8
2
-

5
9
-

24

2
-

-

-

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A ll p a id l e a v e -----------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ---------------------------

100
100
100
100
100

(l )

(l )
6
36
53

1
2

2
8

17
25
47

38
30
-

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l to t a ls .




8
5
28
9

5
15

5

10

6
1

5
37
-

-

-

"

“

7
14

11

23
(* )

-

-

16
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

1

1

Table 26.

P e rce n t D istribution o f E m ployees by Paid Leave Hours as a P e rce n t o f Total Paid H ours, Intercity B u ses, 1964
P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s w ith—

E m p lo y e e g r o u p an d ty p e o f le a v e

E m p lo y e e s
in a ll
co m p a n ie s

No
paid
le a v e
h ou rs

P a id le a v e h o u r s a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p a id h o u r s

1
U n der

1

2

3

6

5

4

8

7

10

9

and
u n d er

2

n—
and

3

6

5

4

8

7

10

9

11

over

A l l e m p lo y e e s

2
2

.

_

_

31

14

5

5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_

_

_
_
_

14

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

9

_
_

29

12

7

34

6
12

_

8

19
13

6

13
41

7

_

_

_
_

_

_

_
_

_
_

-

11

2

7
45

23
5

-

-

100
100
100
100
100

5
37
81

(M
23
17
19

100
100
100
100
100

4
4
28
45
81

-

7

7
7
14
19

1
17
42

-

-

100
100
100
100
100

A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------------------

_

-

_

7

5
33
81

21

11

31
19

35
“

(l )
7

22
46
-

18
42

16

O p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ------------------------------

_

-

_

-

-

_

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
5
64

4
33

16
36

10

9
19

_
_

34

4

15

_

_

-

-

_

_
_

_
_

-

-

_

_
_

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ------------------------------

-

_

_

_

_

1 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a ls .

T a b le 27.

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f E m p lo y e e s b y P a id L e a v e H o u r s as a P e r c e n t o f T o t a l P a id H o u r s , T a x i c a b s ,

1964

P e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s in c o m p a n ie s w ith —

E m p lo y e e g r o u p and ty p e o f le a v e

E m p lo y e e s
in a ll
c o m p a n ie s

No
paid
le a v e
h ou rs

P a id le a v e h o u r s a s a p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p a id h o u r s

1

2

2

U n der

1
and
under

3

22

27
26

4

3

6

5

7

6

7

4

5

9
13
3
-

2
2

_

-

-

8

5
(M

_
_
-

10

17
17
55
77
94

18
17
40
23

6

23
-

100
100
100

26
26
97

10
10

26
26

30
30

4

_
-

_
_

4

8

-

-

"

3

-

-

-

100
100
100
100
100

23
23
63
83
96

8
8
8

13
18
15
3
-

13
16
14
-

16
_
_

2
-

-

1

-

_

1

10

11

_

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_

_

_

-

100
100
100
100
100

2

9

_
_
-

O p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------

9

(M
(M

1

15
4

L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

N O TE:

B ecau se o f rounding, sums o f individual item s may not equal totals.




"

11

5

10

30

6

1

-

(* )

-

-

-

_

-

-

"

-

_
-

over

_
_

_
-

_
_
-

_

_

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_

_

N o n o p e r a t in g e m p l o y e e s
A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l l e a v e ------------------------------

11
and

A ll e m p lo y e e s
A l l p a id l e a v e ------------------------------------------------------V a c a t io n s ---------------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ----------------------------

8

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

T able 28. P ercen t D istribution o f E m ployees R eceivin g Vacation Pay by N um ber o f
W eeks Paid F o r , M otor P a sse n g e r T ran sp ortation Indu stries, 1964
Percent of employees
Employee group and industry

Employees
in all
companies

Weeks paid for
No
paid
vacations

Under
1

1
and
under
2

1

3

4

5“
and

3

4

5

over

A ll employees
A ll motor passenger industries______________________
Local transit________________________________________
Intercity b u s e s _____________________________________
Taxicabs_____________________________________________

100
100
100
100

39
11
17
51

3
(*)
1
5

16
7
14
26

19
24
31
16

11
24
18
2

12
33
18
(*)

<;>
(*)
2
-

100
100
100
100

48
11
23
53

4
(*)
1
6

15
8
12
26

15
25
22
14

10
26
22
1

9
30
18
-

(!)
(*)
2
-

100
100
100
100

21
12
10
42

(!)
(M

15
6
16
26

31
22
43
27

13
21
13
5

19
39
17
(l )

1
(*)
2
"

Operating employees
A ll motor passenger indu stries______________________
Local transit________________________________________
Intercity buses
T a xicab s_________ ____________________ ____________
Nonoperating employees
A ll motor passenger indu stries______________________
Local transit.
____ _
_
______
Intercity b u s e s ___________________________
_____
T a x ica b s____________________________________________

(M

1 Less than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 29.

N OTE:

Percent Distribution of Employees by Number of Paid Holidays, Motor Passenger Transportation Industries, 1964

B ecau se o f rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals,




T a b le 30.

P e r c e n t D is tr ib u t io n o f N o n o p e ra tin g E m p lo y e e s by N o r m a l W o r k w e e k f o r a M a jo r it y o f E m p lo y e e s , M o t o r P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u s t r ie s ,

E m p lo y e e g r o u p and in d u s tr y

U n der
35 h o u r s

35 h o u r s

O v e r 35
and u n d er
3 7 V2 h o u r s

3 7 V2 h o u r s

O v e r 3 7 V2
and u n d er
40 h o u r s

40 h o u r s

O v e r 40
and u n d er
44 h o u r s

44 h o u r s

O v e r 44
and u n d er
48 h o u r s

1964

48 h o u r s

O v e r 48

N o n s u p e r v i s o r y c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s
A l l m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------L o c a l t r a n s i t ---------------------------------------------------------I n t e r c it y b u s e s ----------------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s ----------------------------------------------------- ----------

6
-

18

9
4
14
3

n

~
-

14

26
6
4

(l )
1
-

-

66

1
1

77
44

3
-

71
83
81
44

4
_

56

1

1

_
_

_
_
3

2

7
(M

21

3
2
_
6

O th e r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y n o n o p e r a t in g
e m p lo y e e s
A l l m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in d u s t r ie s __________________
L o c a l t r a n s i t ______________________________________
I n t e r c it y b u s e s ___________________ ________________
T a x i c a b s ----------------------------------------------------------------

l 1)
-

(*)

(l )
(l )

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

14
33

-

3
4

-

-

56
47
73

1
1

-

-

_

■

4

~

59

2

1

-

1

11

8
2

4
3

5
3

1

10

6
7

9

3

20

23

5

9

4
14
4

9
3

12

_

7

24

_

E x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and
s u p e r v is o r y e m p l o y e e s
A l l m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in d u s t r ie s ---------------------------L o c a l t r a n s i t ------------------------------------------- -----------I n t e r c it y b u s e s ----------------------------------------------------T a x i c a b s -----------------------------------------------------------------

1

L e s s tha n 0 .5

NOTE:

-

~

1
1
1
1

_

4

p ercen t.

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,




2
2

su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot e q u a l t o t a ls .

-ti
G
)




Appendix A.

Expenditures as Proportions of Payroll

In the b o d y o f the tex t, a ll su p p lem en ts h ave b e e n m e a s u r e d as a p r o p o r tio n o f tota l
co m p e n sa tio n .
T his a p p ro a ch a llo w s one to ex a m in e the le v e l and s tr u c tu r e o f c o m p e n sa tio n
e x p e n d itu re s.
H o w e v e r , fo r s o m e p u r p o s e s , ex a m in in g ex p e n d itu re s f o r p a y su p p lem en ts
in d iffe r e n t w ays m a y be d e s ir a b le .
T w o o f the tech n iq u es o ften u sed a r e to e x p r e s s th e se
ou tlays as p e r c e n ta g e s o f g r o s s o r s tr a ig h t -tim e p a y r o l l .23
The app en d ix ta b le e x p r e s s e s
su p p le m e n ta ry e x p e n d itu re s in th ese t e r m s .
The su p p lem en ts when m e a s u r e d as a p e r c e n t
o f g r o s s o r s t r a ig h t -tim e p a y r o ll can not be added to o th e r p a y r o ll s ta t is tic s s in c e so m e
su p p lem en ts a r e p a r t o f p a y r o ll w h ile o th e r s a re in ad d ition to p a y r o ll.
T his ta b le p e r m its
c o m p a r is o n o f e x p e n d itu re s in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry w ith s im ila r s t a ­
tis tic s p u b lish ed b y the B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics in p r i o r y e a r s fo r o th e r in d u s tr ie s .

23

Straight-tim e




pay

is derived by subtracting overtim e, weekend,

45

holiday,

and shift premiums from gross payroll.

T a b le A—1.

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S u p p le m e n ta ry C o m p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s ,

as a P e r c e n t o f P a y r o l l , M o t o r P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t a t io n I n d u s t r ie s ,

1964

Employer expenditures in all companies
P e r c e n t o f s t r a i g h t - t im e p a y r o l l

P e r c e n t of g r o s s p a y r o l l
A ll m otor
passen ger
in d u s t r ie s

C o m p e n s a tio n p r a c t i c e

L o c a l tra n sit

A ll m o to r
p assen ger
in d u s t r ie s

I n t e r c it y
buses

T a x ic a b s

I n t e r c it y
b u ses

T a x ic a b s

L o c a l t r a n s it

E m p lo y e e s
A ll

P r e m iu m p a y m e n ts ------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y
w o r k -------------------------------------------------------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -----------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e t im e -------------------------------------V a c a t io n s --------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ---------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n ts ------------------------------------L e g a l ly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ----U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n --------------O c c u p a t io n a l i n ju r y and i l l n e s s ---------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s -----------------------------------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p la n s --------------------------------L if e , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e —
P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ------------S e v e r a n c e o r d i s m i s s a l p a y a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
fu n d s ---------------------------------------------------------

N on­
O per­
oper­
a ting
ating

A ll

N on ­
O per­
op er­
ating
ating

A ll

N on O p er­
oper­
ating
a tin g

(
7.
2.
5.

(
7.
2.
4.

. 1

0 )

1 .4

1. 0

0. 9

1 .7

1.
.
3.
2.
1.
.

9
2
8
9
9
3
1
9
1
3
7
1
6

. 9
8. 1
5. 4
2. 2
1. 3
. 1
1. 7
. 1
4„ 1
2. 5
L 0
. 6

1 .5
. 5
7. 4
4. 3
2. 2
1. 3

1
3
5
1

.
7.
2.
6.

.
2.
1.
.

.
2.
1.
.

1. 4
o9
. 5

(M
7. 2
2. 3
4. 9

(M
7. 3
2. 5
4. 7

1 ■ . 1
'
0
4. 9
2. 1
1
2. 7
9

(M
5. 5
2. 1
3. 4

(M
6. 9
2. 7
4. 3

.
6.
2.
4.

n
7. 2
2. 6
4. 6

.
6.
2.
4.

1
7
7
1

C)

“

(M
7. 3
2. 4
4. 9

(*)
7. 1
2. 6
4 .5

6
9
0
6

"

1 .4
. 9
. 5

.5
(M
4. 3
2. 7
1. 0
.5

4.
2.
1.
.

(M

1
1
7
4

(l )

2. 1
. 1
7. 8
5. 3
1. 8
. 7
(M
. 1
(M
4. 7
3. 0
1. 1
. 6

o1

n

1. 7
. 2
7. 7
5. 2
1. 8
. 7
(M
. 3
(M
4. 6
2. 9
1. 0
. 6

.8
. 2
7. 7
5. 0
1 .8
. 9

.4
(M
5. 9
3. 1
1. 5
; 1. 2

.9
. 1
6. 5
4. 1
1. 7
. 7
(M
. 9
(M
4. 7
2. 8
1. 2
. 7

C)

(M

.
2.
1.
.

.
.
5.
3.
1.
.
n
.

(M
4. 5
2. 9
1. 0
. 6

(M

.
2.
1.
.

1 .4
. 2
7. 3
4. 3
2. 1
.9
n
. 6

4. 2
2. 7
1.0
.5

8
2
9
3
7
0
)
2
)
1
5
0
6

1.
.
5.
3.
1.
.

.8
7. 1
3. 4
1. 8
1. 8

.
8.
7.
5.
1.
1.
(l
.
(l
4.
2.
1.
.

n

(M
6. 8
2. 6
4. 2

1 .4
. 2
7. 4
4„ 3
2. 1
.9
(M
o7
(M
4. 6
2. 9
1. 1
. 5

. 9
. 1
7. 7
4. 9
1. 9
. 9
(l )
.4

C)

(M
5. 4
2. 1
3. 3

. 8
8. 0
5. 3
1. 7
1. 0
(M
. 2
(M
4. 1
2. 5
1. 0
. 6

. 3
(M
3. 4
2. 5
o8
. 1
(M
. 7
5. 3
3. 0
1. 4
. 9

. 1

1
8
1
7

. 7
5. 3
3. 0
1 .4
. 9

.9
. 1
7. 8
4. 9
1. 9
. 9
(M
.4
(M
4. 3
2. 7
1. 1
. 6

_
1. 8
1. 7
. 1
. 8
7. 7
3. 5
1 .9
2. 1

.8
.2
7. 7
5. 0
1. 8
.9
(M
.5

.
4.
2.
2.

(!)
(M
.8
7. 1
3. 4
1. 8
1. 8

. 3
(M
3. 4
2. 5
o8
. 1

0. 1

2.
.
7.
5.
1.
.

(M
5. 0
2. 1
2. 9

1. 7

1. 8
1. 7
. 1
. 8
7. 7
3. 5
1. 9
2. 1

1 .0

1. 6
. 2
7. 6
5. 1
1. 8
. 7
(M
. 2

8
1
5
2

0. 8

2. 2

1 .0
. 1
5. 2
3. 7
1. 1
. 5
(*)
.4

"

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Errlp lo y e r e x p e n d itu r e s in c o m p a n ie s w ith e x p e n d it u r e s f o r the p r a c t ic e
P e r c e n t o f s t r a i g h t - t im e p a y r o l l

P e rce n t o f g ro s s p a y ro ll
P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s -------------------------------------O v e r t im e , w e e k e n d , and h o lid a y
w o r k --------------------------------------------------------S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -----------------------------------P a y f o r le a v e tim e -------------------------------------V a c a t io n s -------------------------------------------------H o l i d a y s ---------- ----------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e -------------------------------------------------C i v i c and p e r s o n a l le a v e ---------------------N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s ------------------------------T e r m in a l p a y m e n t s -------------------------------------L e g a lly r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s —
R e t ir e m e n t in c o m e and p r o t e c t i o n ----U n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n --------------O c c u p a t io n a l in ju r y and i l l n e s s ---------O th e r le g a ll y r e q u i r e d in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s -----------------------------------------------P r i v a t e w e lf a r e p l a n s ---------------------------------L ife , a c c i d e n t , and h e a lth in s u r a n c e —
P e n s io n and r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s ------------S e v e ra n ce o r d is m is s a l pay a n d /o r
s u p p le m e n t a l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e fit
fu n d s ---------------------------------------------------------

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NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot eq u a l to t a ls .




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Appendix B.

Scope and Method of Survey

S cop e and S u rvey and In du stry C la s s ific a tio n
T his study o f e m p lo y e r e x p e n d itu re s f o r the co m p e n sa tio n o f e m p lo y e e s c o v e r s a ll
co m p a n ie s in SIC 41— L o c a l and Suburban T ra n s it and In teru rb a n P a s s e n g e r T ra n s p o r ta tio n —
c la s s ifie d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the 1957 e d itio n o f the S tandard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual
(SIC) and 1963 S u pplem en t p r e p a r e d by the B u rea u o f the B udget.
The lo c a l and su bu rban
tr a n s it and in teru rb a n p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n in d u stry is c o m p o s e d o f the fo llo w in g 3 -d ig it
in d u stry g r o u p s :
411 --------------4 1 2 -------------4 1 3 -------------4 1 4 -------------4 1 5 -------------4 1 7 ---------------

L o c a l and su bu rban p a s s e n g e r tra n s p o r ta tio n
T a x ica b s
In te r c ity and ru r a l highw ay p a s s e n g e r tra n sp o r ta tio n
P a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n c h a r te r s e r v ic e
S ch o o l b u se s
T e r m in a l and s e r v ic e fa c ilit ie s fo r m o t o r v e h ic le p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n

Data re la te
S u rvey c o v e r a g e exten d ed to the 50 States and the D is t r ic t o f C o lu m b ia .
to the ca le n d a r y e a r 1964 and a re lim ite d to ir r e v o c a b le ca sh d is b u r s e m e n ts o f e m p lo y e e s
(thus e x clu d in g am ounts s e g r e g a te d in b oo k k e e p in g tr a n s a c tio n s o v e r w h ich the com p a n y
reta in ed c o n tr o l) fo r the co m p e n s a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s .
D efin ition o f T e r m s *
3
2
1
C om p en sa tio n , fo r p u r p o s e s o f th is study, is d e fin e d as the su m o f the p a y m e n ts,
s u b je ct to F e d e r a l w ith h old in g ta x e s , m ad e by e m p lo y e r s d ir e c t ly to th e ir e m p lo y e e s b e fo r e
d ed u ction s o f any ty p e, and the e x p e n d itu re s m ade by e m p lo y e r s fo r le g a lly r e q u ir e d in su ra n ce
p r o g r a m s and p riv a te w e lfa r e plans to p r o v id e the w o r k e r s with fu ll— o r p a r tia l— e c o n o m ic s e ­
cu rity ag a in st a fu tu re co n tin g e n cy (e .g . , u n e m p lo y m e n t, r e tir e m e n t, m e d ic a l e x p e n s e s , e t c .).
H ou rs p aid fo r c o n s is t o f a g g re g a te h o u r s , in clu d in g p a id le a v e h o u r s , r e s t p e r io d s ,
c o ffe e b r e a k s , m a ch in e d o w n tim e , and o th e r n on lea v e h o u rs p aid f o r but not w o r k e d , fo r
w h ich e m p lo y e r s m ade d ir e c t p a y m en ts to w o r k e r s d u rin g the y e a r .
See appendix C fo r a
m o r e d e ta ile d d e fin itio n o f tota l m a n -h o u r s fo r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s (p . 5 7 ).
W ork in g
tim e e x clu d e s p a id le a v e tim e .
E xp en d itu re ra tio s fo r "a ll c o m p a n ie s " r e p r e s e n t the e x p e n d itu re s fo r the p r a c t ic e
d iv id ed by tota l co m p e n s a tio n f o r a ll c o m p a n ie s — both th o se w ith and w ithout e x p e n d itu re s —
w h e re a s the ra tio s fo r "c o m p a n ie s with e x p e n d itu re s fo r the p r a c t i c e " re la te the sa m e e x ­
p en d itu res to the tota l co m p e n s a tio n o f on ly th ose e s ta b lish m e n ts that r e p o r te d an a ctu a l e x ­
p en d itu re.
The e x p en d itu re ra te s r e p r e s e n t the sa m e e x p e n d itu re s d iv id e d by the c o r r e ­
sp on din g m a n -h o u r s .
The ex p en d itu re
fo llo w in g fo r m u la s :

r a tio s

u sed

in the b od y o f this

report

w ere

ob ta in ed

b y u sin g the

E x p en d itu re f o r the p r a c t ic e
1.

E x p en d itu re s as a p e r c e n t o f co m p e n sa tio n ^

2.

E x p en d itu re s in cen ts p e r h ou* p a id f o r =

T ota l co m p e n sa tio n (c o m p r is e d
o f g r o s s p a y r o ll, p r iv a te w e lfa r e ,
and le g a lly r e q u ir e d in s u r a n c e
e x p e n d itu r e s ).
E xp en d itu re f o r the p r a c t ic e
X ota l h o u rs paid fo r in clu d in g
h o u rs o f p aid le a v e .
E xp en d itu re fo r the p r a c t ic e

3.

E x p en d itu re s in cen ts p e r w o rk in g h o u r =




47

T ota l h o u rs p aid f o r m inus
le a v e h o u rs p aid fo r .

x 100

48

The o th e r te r m s u sed in this b u lle tin a r e d e fin e d on the q u e stio n n a ir e fo r m ,
in a p p en d ix C, that w as u se d in the study.

rep rod u ced

C o lle c tio n o f Data
Data w e r e c o lle c t e d by p e r s o n a l v is it s and m a il q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
P e r s o n a l v is its a ls o
w e r e m ad e to a sa m p le o f c o m p a n ie s that had not re sp o n d e d to tw o m a il r e q u e s ts .
S am pling P r o c e d u r e s
The s u rv e y w as co n d u cte d on the b a s is o f a h igh ly s tr a t ifie d p r o b a b ility sa m p le .
The
sa m p le w as d e sig n e d to p e r m it s e p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data f o r lo c a l and su bu rban tr a n s it
co m p a n ie s (SIC 4 1 1 1 ), in te r c ity and r u r a l h ighw ay p a s s e n g e r tr a n s p o r ta tio n (SIC 4 1 3 ), and
f o r ta x ica b s (SIC 4 1 2 ).
The lis t o f c o m p a n ie s fr o m w h ich the sa m p le w as s e le c t e d w as d e v e lo p e d f r o m lis ts
m a in ta in ed by the State a g e n c ie s a d m in is te r in g the u n e m p lo y m e n t co m p e n sa tio n la w s, and fr o m
lis t s m a in ta in ed by the In tersta te C o m m e r c e C o m m is s io n fo r r e g u la to r y p u r p o s e s .
The sa m p le w as s o s e le c t e d w ithin the in d u stry as to y ie ld the m o s t a c c u r a te e s tim a te s
p o s s ib le u sin g the r e s o u r c e s a v a ila b le .
T his w as done b y re q u e stin g com p a n y w id e r e p o r ts
and by in clu d in g a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e r co m p a n ie s than o f s m a ll in the sa m p le .
In
g e n e r a l, a c o m p a n y ’ s ch a n ce o f s e le c t io n w as about p r o p o r tio n a te to its e m p lo y m e n t s iz e .
Data w e r e ob ta in ed fr o m 206 co m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g a p p r o x im a te ly 7 3 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s —
a lm o s t 30 p e r c e n t o f the tota l e m p lo y m e n t in the m o t o r p a s s e n g e r in d u stry d u rin g 1964.
A m on g the th re e m a jo r s e g m e n ts , data w e r e obtain ed fr o m c o m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g a p p r o x i­
m a te ly 45 p e r c e n t o f a ll lo c a l tr a n s it e m p lo y e e s ; 40 p e r c e n t o f a ll in te r c ity bus e m p lo y e e s ;
and fr o m co m p a n ie s e m p lo y in g 20 p e r c e n t o f a ll ta x ica b e m p lo y e e s .
M ethod o f E stim a tio n
Data f o r ea ch s a m p le m e m b e r w e r e w eig h ted in a c c o r d a n c e with the p r o b a b ility o f s e ­
le c t io n o f that com p a n y .
F o r in s ta n c e , w h e re 1 com p a n y ou t o f 2 w as s e le c t e d in a s i z e in d u stry c la s s , it r e p r e s e n te d it s e lf as w e ll as a n oth er co m p a n y , i. e. , it w as g iv e n a w eig h t
o f tw o.
T hu s, if the com p a n y had 1 , 0 0 0 h o u rs o f v a ca tio n le a v e and 50, 000 h o u rs o f p a id
h o u rs of a ll c la s s e s , it w ou ld co n trib u te 2, 000 v a ca tio n h o u rs and 100, 000 to ta l h o u rs to the
fin a l e s tim a te .
R ep ortin g P r o b le m s
S ep a ra te data by com p a n y and type o f su p p le m e n ta ry co m p e n s a tio n p r a c t ic e w e r e c o l ­
le c t e d in m o s t c a s e s . H o w e v e r , a ll c o m p a n ie s do not k eep r e c o r d s in su ch a m a n n er as to
be able to fu rn ish a ctu a l fig u r e s in this d e ta il, and s o m e a p p r o x im a tio n s had to b e a c c e p te d .
E s tim a te s , u sin g c o lla t e r a l data, w e r e m a d e in c e r ta in c a s e s w h e re r e c o r d s w e r e not kept
o r w e r e s u m m a r iz e d on ly f o r s p e c if ic p r a c t i c e s .
E r r o r s in the u se o f e stim a tin g p r o c e d u r e s w ou ld h ave to be in the sa m e d ir e c t io n in
e a ch c a s e (o v e rs ta te m e n t o r u n d e rsta te m e n t o f a ctu a l v a lu e s) to h ave a cu m u la tiv e e ffe c t on the
a c c u r a c y o f the r e s u lts .




Appendix C.

Questionnaire

Budget Bureau No. 44*6542
Approval expires 6-30-66

BLS2863
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B U R E A U O F LA B O R S T A T IS T IC S
W a sh in g t o n , D.C. 20212

Employer Expenditures for Selected Compensation Practices in Transportation Industries, 1964

Company Identification
Your reply w ill be
held in confidence.

This report should cover all units of the company
which are primarily engaged in transportation activ­
ities, and should not be limited to activities at the
address shown. If the company was engaged in two
or more substantially different transportation activ­
ities, e. g . , o il tanker and pipeline operations,
separate reports should be submitted.

1.

P r in c ip a l T ra n sp o rta tio n A ctivity

(Check only one box)
A.

j

l Intercity bus line

F.

[

j Marine cargo handling

|Local or suburban transit

G.

I

l Air transportation,
cated carrier

H.

|

|Pipelines, except natural gas

I.

|

l Other (specify) ______________

B.

|

C.

I

D.

I

|Deep sea foreign transportation

E.

|

l Other water transportation

l Taxicab operator

certifi­

2. Employment

For each employee category, enter the total number of fu ll- and part-time em ­
ployees on the payroll who worked or received pay for any part of the payroll
period which included September 12, 1964. Include officers of corporations, but
exclude proprietors and partners of unincorporated firms*
Also exclude pen­
sioners and members of the Armed Forces on active duty carried on the rolls
but not working during the period*
(Definitions of the terms "operating" and
"nonoperating" employees are on page 2 of this questionnaire.
If there were no
workers in one of the employee categories, enter "none*")
Employment
Operating employees— ------------- -----_ _ _ _ _ _
Nonoperating employees -------- ------- ---------------------For BLS use only

Schedule
number




Reg.

State

City
size

49

SIC

Est*
size

Weight

Special
char*

50

G E N E R A L E X P L A N A T IO N S

P le a s e a n sw e r the q u e stio n s w h ich fo llo w se p a r a te ly fo r o p e r a tin g and
n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s . If r e c o r d s do not p e r m it r e p o r tin g se p a ra te
fig u r e s fo r the two g r o u p s , and e s tim a te s can not be m a d e , en ter a
c o m b in e d fig u r e and in d ica te that it is fo r o p e r a tin g and n o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s .

O p era tin g E m p lo y e e s a re s u p e r v is o r y and n o n s u p e r v is o r y e m p lo y e e s
w ho w o r k a b o a r d m o v in g v e h ic le s , su ch as bus and ta x i d r iv e r s ;
m a r in e e n g in e e r s , se a m e n , c o o k s ; and a ir lin e p ilo t s . H o w e v e r , e x ­
clu d e w o r k e r s w ho m e r e ly m o v e v e h ic le s to o r fr o m lo a d in g , m a in ­
te n a n ce , o r p a rk in g a r e a s and o p e r a t o r s o f c o n s tr u c tio n eq u ipm en t
o r lo a d in g d e v ic e s su ch as b a g g a g e o r fo r k lift t r u c k s .
R e p o r t s fo r
m a rin e c a r g o h a ndlin g sh ou ld tr e a t a ll p ie r p e r s o n n e l as o p e r a tin g
e m p lo y e e s .

N on o p e ra tin g E m p lo y e e s in clu d e a ll s u p e r v is o r y and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
e m p lo y e e s not c la s s ifi e d as o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s , su ch as p u m pm en ,
sh op m a in te n a n ce e m p lo y e e s , and o f f ic e w o r k e r s . R e p o r ts fo r p ip e ­
lin e s sh ou ld tr e a t a ll e m p lo y e e s as n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s .

If the on ly fig u r e a v a ila b le c o m b in e s data fo r s e v e r a l lin e s on this
q u e s tio n n a ir e , r e p o r t the co m b in e d fig u r e and b r a c k e t the lin e s in ­
clu d e d o r o th e r w is e in d ica te what is in clu d e d in the fig u r e "r e p o r te d .

If e x a c t in fo r m a tio n is not a v a ila b le f o r an ite m , w h e r e p o s s ib le p le a s e
p r o v id e a c a r e fu lly c o n s id e r e d e s tim a te .
If any o f the fig u r e s r e ­
p o r te d a r e e s tim a te d , p le a s e lis t on page 8 the ite m s w h ich w e r e
e s tim a te d and in d ica te how the e s tim a te s w e r e m a d e .

IF NO E X P E N D IT U R E S OR M A N -H O U R S W E R E IN V O L V E D DURING
1964 F O R A G IVE N IT E M , E N T E R " 0 " IN TH E A P P R O P R IA T E S P A C E .
P L E A S E DO N O T L E A V E ANY LINES B L A N K .

C O M P A N IE S IN THE AIR T R A N S P O R T A T IO N , M A R IT IM E , IN T E R ­
C IT Y BUS, AND L O C A L TRA N SIT INDUSTRIES SHOULD R E A D THE
A C C O M P A N Y IN G S U P P L E M E N T A R Y E X P L A N A T IO N SH EET B E F O R E
C O M P L E T IN G THIS Q U ESTIO N N A IR E.




51

3.

P a ym ents M a d e D ire c tly to E m p lo y e e s a s P a rt of the P a yro ll in 1964

In th is s e c tio n r e p o r t on ly p a y m en ts w h ich w e r e p a rt o f the c o m p a n y 's 1964 g r o s s
p a y r o ll. In clu d e on ly p a y m en ts to e m p lo y e e s as d e fin e d in Item 2. Do not r e p o r t
p ay m en ts to fu n d s, t r u s t e e s , in s u ra n ce c o m p a n ie s , o r g o v e rn m e n t a g e n c ie s ; th e se
p ay m en ts sh ou ld be r e p o r te d in Item 5.
A.

G r o s s P a y r o ll:
E n ter to ta l e m p lo y e e e a rn in g s d u rin g 1964,
b e fo r e d e d u c tio n s . T h is am ount sh ou ld eq u a l the
su m o f the fig u r e s show n on in d iv id u a l e m p lo y ­
e e s ' W -2 fo r m s under the h eadin g " T o ta l
W ages P a id " — -----------------------------------------------------------

B.

E m p lo y e r p a y m en ts to
O p e ra tin g No nope r at'ifig
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
j ___________ _ $

P a id L e a v e :
E n ter to ta l am ounts p aid d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e e s
fo r e a ch typ e o f le a v e . In clu d e p a y m en ts u nd er
fo r m a l p lan s and in fo r m a l s a la r y con tin u a tion
p la n s . If e m p lo y e e s w o rk e d on p a id h o lid a y s o r
d u rin g v a c a tio n s and r e c e iv e d both pay in stea d
o f tim e o ff and pay fo r w o r k p e r fo r m e d , in clu d e
h e r e on ly the pay in lie u o f tim e o ff.

2
2. H o lid a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------

4

4. M ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e s s , v o tin g , and p e r s o n a l
le a v e (e x clu d in g pay fo r s e r v in g as a w itn e ss
f o r the e m p l o y e r ) --------------------------------------------------C.

3

3. S ick l e a v e ----------------------------------------------------------------

5

P r e m iu m s A b o v e R e g u la r P a y :
1. P r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e , w eek en d , and
h o lid a y w o r k .
E n ter to ta l p a y m en ts a b ov e the r e g u la r
s tr a ig h t -tim e pay fo r w o r k p e r fo r m e d . F o r
e x a m p le , if o v e r tim e is paid f o r at tim e and
o n e -h a lf, r e p o r t o n ly the h a lf-t im e h e r e .
F o r w o r k on h o lid a y s , e x clu d e pay at the
r e g u la r ra te fo r w o r k p e r fo r m e d and pay in
lie u o f tim e o ff; r e p o r t on ly p a y m en ts a b ov e
th e se su m s (that is , if to ta l pay f o r h o lid a y
w o rk is d ou b le tim e and o n e -h a lf, in clu d e
on ly the h a lf-t im e pay h e r e ) ---------------------------------

6

2. Shift d iffe r e n tia ls .
E n ter to ta l paym en ts a b o v e r a te s fo r the day
sh ift. If la t e -s h ift w o r k e r s r e c e iv e 8 h o u r s '
pay fo r 7Vz h o u r s ' w o r k , c o m p a r e d with
8 h o u r s ' w o rk fo r the day sh ift, r e p o r t the
V2 h o u r 's pay a s a sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------




7

52

D.

N on p ro d u ctio n B o n u s e s :
R e p o r t to ta l c a s h bonus pa ym en ts that w e r e not
d ir e c t ly r e la te d to e m p lo y e e s 1 p r o d u c tio n . In ­
clu d e y e a r end and C h r is tm a s b o n u se s and
a tten d a n ce, lo n g e v ity , s a fe ty , su g g e stio n , m e r it,
and r e la te d a w a r d s . A ls o in clu d e c a s h fr o m
p r o fit -s h a r in g p lan s a ctu a lly paid out to e m p lo y ­
e e s in 1964 in the f o r m o f b o n u s e s . E xclu d e
p r o d u c tio n in c e n tiv e p a y m e n ts, c o m m is s io n s ,
p r e m iu m s fo r h a z a rd o u s w o rk , c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a d ju stm e n ts , te r m in a l p a y m en ts (r e p o r te d b e lo w
in Ite m 3 -E ), p a y m en ts f o r e d u ca tio n a l a s s i s t ­
a n c e , p e r d ie m , e x p e n s e a cco u n t p a y m e n ts, and
p a y m en ts in the fo r m o f m e r c h a n d is e --------------------

E.

E m p lo y e r p a y m en ts to
O p era tin g N on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s

$

$

T e r m in a l P a y m e n ts :
R e p o r t to ta l p a y m en ts m ade d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y ­
e e s b e c a u s e o f te m p o r a r y o r p erm a n e n t s e v e r ­
a n ce o f e m p lo y m e n t. In clu d e lu m p -s u m c a sh
p a y m en ts m ad e to r e tir in g e m p lo y e e s . E xclu d e
p a y m en ts to fu n d s, t r u s t e e s , o r in s u ra n ce
c o m p a n ie s ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------

4.

M a n -h o u rs P a id F o r in 1964

R e p o r t as to ta l h o u rs p aid f o r th o se h o u rs f o r w h ich the p a y m en ts r e p o r te d in
Item 3 - A w e r e m a d e .
T h e y c o n s is t o f h o u rs on duty (o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ) o r
p aid f o r h o u rs at th e w o r k p la c e (n o n o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ), a d d itio n a l h o u rs p aid
f o r to m ake up g u a r a n te e s , and the m a n -h o u r s eq u iv a len t to d ir e c t e m p lo y e r p a y ­
m en ts f o r le a v e tim e . Do not c o n v e r t o v e r t im e o r o th e r p r e m iu m p aid h o u rs to
s tr a ig h t -tim e e q u iv a len t h o u r s . Do not in clu d e h o u rs eq u iv a len t to p a y m en ts by
fu n d s, t r u s t e e s , o r in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s .
R e p o rt as p a id le a v e h o u rs the m a n -h o u r s f o r w h ich the le a v e pay e n te r e d in
Item 3 -B w a s m a d e . R e p o r t on ly the m a n -h o u r s eq u iv a len t to th e p ay r e c e iv e d .
F o r e x a m p le , if an e m p lo y e e w ho is r e g u la r ly p aid $ 2 an h ou r w as g iv e n $5 f o r
a d a y 's a b s e n c e , r e p o r t Z l / z h o u rs ($ 5 4- $ 2 ).
M a n -h o u r s paid fo r
O p era tin g N o n o p e ra tin g
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
A.

T o ta l H ou rs P a id F o r , In clu d in g P aid
Tcd vp
u . pa v c

B.

T - x
n u uT _o n —-

______. _ ...... .

- ir-- —
r-- r

h rs.

-■--

P a id L e a v e H o u r s :
1.

V a c a t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------

2.

H o lid a y s ------------------------------------------- ------ —

3.

S ick le a v e —--------------------------------------------- ----

4.

M ilita r y , ju r y , w itn e s s , v o tin g , and
p e r s o n a l le a v e (e x clu d in g pay fo r s e r v in g as
a w itn e s s fo r th e e m p lo y e r ) --------------------------




-

h rs.

53

5.

A.

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d itu re s in A d d itio n to Pa y ro ll in 1964

Private Welfare Plans:
Enter total employer expenditures for the plans listed below. Exclude em ­
ployee contributions, employer payments already reported as payroll expend­
itures, those for legally required programs, and administrative costs (in­
cluding actuarial and legal expenses) incurred by the company.
Include
payments to funds, trustees, insurance companies, employees or their bene­
ficiaries, and to plans financed through profit sharing.
However, exclude
payments made by funds, trustees, or insurance companies and income earned
by funds. For payments to insurance carriers report only net expenditures
(i. e . , premiums less refunds).
Include payments for current employees,
employees on layoff status, retired employees, and dependents of these em ­
ployee groups.
1.

2

.

Enter payments for life insurance; acci­
dental death and dismemberment insurance;
death benefits; travel accident insurance;
hospitalization, surgical, medical, major
medical, dental, optical, and drug plans; and
sickness and accident (wage and salary con­
tinuance) insurance. Exclude expenditures
for in-plant medical facilities-----------------------Pension and retirement plans.
Include direct payments to pensioners under
a pay-as-you-go plan. For funded plans,
report payments in 1964 for past and
current service liabilities. Include pay­
ments under profit-sharing plans deferred
until retirement and payments for disa­
bility retirement program s----------------------------

3.

Vacation and holiday funds------------ ------------------

4.

Severance or dism issal pay funds and/or
supplemental unemployment benefit funds----

5.

Savings and thrift plans (including company
expenditures for contributions in the form

6.

Automation funds.
Report here payments to special automation
funds. Do not include these payments else­
where on the questionnaire. For example,
if an automation fund provides retirement
benefits, report the payment to the fund
here and not in Item 5 -A -2 , above. (How­
ever, do not report regular payments to
a retirement fund h e r e .) Specify the name
of the automation fund and the benefit
provided. _____________________________________

7.

Employer
expenditures for
Operating Nonoperating
employees
employees

Health, accident, and life insurance.

Other (specify) _______________________________




$

$

54

B.

L e g a lly R e q u ir e d In s u ra n ce :
R e p o r t the c o m p a n y ’ s net lia b ility f o r 1964 u nder e m p lo y e e b e n e fit p r o g r a m s
r e q u ir e d by la w .
E xclu d e e m p lo y e e c o n tr ib u tio n s .
R e p o r t p a y m en ts to g o v ­
ern m en t a g e n c ie s , in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s , and d ir e c t ly to w o r k e r s u n d er s e l f in s u r e d p la n s. R e p o r t net in s u r a n c e p r e m iu m s (i. e. , p r e m iu m s le s s re fu n d s ).
If a s e lf -in s u r e d plan w as in e ffe c t, e x clu d e the c o m p a n y 's a d m in is tr a tiv e
costs.
R e p o r t the lia b ility in c u r r e d in 1964 r a th e r than the am ount a ctu a lly
p aid d u rin g 1964. Do not r e p o r t any e x p e n d itu re s that w e r e e n te r e d in Item 3
as p a y r o ll e x p e n d itu r e s .
L
E m p lo y e r
e x p e n d itu re s fo r
I
O p era tin g N on op era tin g N
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
E
1. P a y m en ts f o r p e n s io n p r o g r a m s (S o c ia l
S e c u r ity and R a ilr o a d R e t i r e m e n t ) -------$
$
2. U n em p loy m en t in s u r a n c e (State u n e m p lo y ­
m ent co m p e n s a tio n and R a ilr o a d U n e m p lo y ­
m ent In s u ra n ce )—
a.

P a y m en ts to F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t--------------

b.

P a y m en ts to State g o v e r n m e n t -------------------

3. P a y m e n ts fo r w o r k -c o n n e c t e d d is a b ilit y .
In clu d e p a ym en ts u n d er w o r k m e n 's c o m ­
p e n sa tio n la w s , p a y m en ts in co m p a n ie s s u b ­
je c t to the F e d e r a l E m p lo y e r s ' L ia b ility A c t,
and p a y m en ts into the O hio D isa b le d
W o r k m e n 's R e lie f F u n d -------------------------------------4. O th e r, in clu d in g State te m p o r a r y d is a b ility
in s u r a n c e .
S p e c ify typ e o f paym en t r e p o r te d . If o b ­
lig a tio n s under a State te m p o r a r y d is a b ility
in s u r a n c e law w e r e m et by e m p lo y e r e x ­
p e n d itu re s r e p o r te d e ls e w h e r e on th is q u e s ­
tio n n a ir e , e n te r " O " and in d ica te the ite m
con ta in in g the exp en ditu re. ____________________
6.

A.

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c tic e s and P o lic ie s

P a id H o lid a y s O b s e r v e d D u ring 1964:
E n ter n u m b er o f days p e r e m p lo y e e .
If m o r e than
an e m p lo y e e c a te g o r y , r e p o r t that w h ich a p p lied to
the c a t e g o r y . Do not in clu d e d a y s fo r w h ich p r e m iu m
w as p e r fo r m e d , but no pay w as g iv e n if the days w e r e

one p r a c t ic e e x is t e d in
the g r e a te s t n u m b er in
r a te s w e r e p aid if w o r k
not w o r k e d .

D ays p e r e m p lo y e e
O p era tin g N on op era tin g
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
1. F u ll-d a y h o lid a y s —
2.




H a lf-d a y h o lid a y s —

55

B.

Paid Vacations:
Report below the approximate number of employees who received vacation pay
directly from the company according to the amount of pay received during 1964
and not the time taken for vacation. If vacation pay was not a direct multiple of
weekly or hourly rates, report according to the number of weeks equivalent
to the pay reqeived. For example, if the amount of vacation pay was a per­
centage of annual earnings, report payments of about 2 percent as 1 week's
vacation pay, about 4 percent as 2 weeks' pay, etc.
Exclude employees
whose vacation payments were received from funds.

L

Number of employees receiving—

I
Employee
category

2 and
1 and
3 and
4 and
No
Under
5 weeks'
under
under
under
under
vacation 1 week's
pay or
2 weeks' 3 weeks' 4 weeks* 5 weeks*
pay
pay
more
pay
pay
pay
pay

Operating

E

1

Nonoperating

C.

N

2

Welfare and Pension Plans (Other Than Legally Required):
1

.

Were any employees covered by a private
plan paid entirely or in part by the comadministrative expenses)? (Answer "y e s "
if there were such plans even if there
were no employer expenditures in 1964.)

Ope rating

(Check one ) (Check one)
Yes

a.
b.
2.

Nonope rating

No

No

Yes

Health, accident, or life insurance (as
defined in Item 5 - A - l ) ____ — ----------------

□

□

□

□

3

Pension or retirement benefits (as
defined in Item 5 - A - 2) ____________________

□

□

□

□

4

□

□

□ □

5

□

□

^

□

□

□

T

If "y e s " was answered to either or both parts
of C - l , did any employees contribute to the
costs of any of the benefits? (Check "n o " if
employee contributions only purchased sup­
plemental benefits or dependents* coverage.)
a.

Health, accident, or life insurance— —

b.

Pension or retirement benefits -—

1

___ __ □

1

Collective Bargaining Agreements:
Did collective bargaining agreements cover a
majority of the nonsupervisory employees?




□

56

E.

Normal Workweek for Nonoperating Employees:
How many hours per week were normally worked by the majority of employees
in each of the following categories (or the workweek applying to the largest
number of employees if no single workweek applied to a majority)?
What
was the approximate average number of persons employed in each category?
Number of Average
hours per number of
week
employees
1.

1

Nonsupervisory clerical workers---------------------

2.

^
^

Other nonsupervisory (nonoperating)
2

3.

Executive, professional, and
supervisory employees------------ — ------------------

3

Remarks
List the items for which data were estimated and indicate the method of estimation.
Include any other pertinent explanation of the data you have reported.

Authorizing official

Title______________ Date
(Please print or type)

Do you want a copy of the Bureau*s report for this survey?—
.




Yes Q 3

No □

57

Employer Expenditures for Selected Compensation Practices in
Transportation Industries, 1964
S u pp lem en ta l E xplan ation s fo r I n te r c ity Bus and L o c a l T r a n s it C om p a n ies

E m p lo y e e C o v e r a g e
Do not in clu d e p e r s o n s who p e r fo r m p u r c h a s e d tr a n s p o r ta tio n s e r v ic e .
If the e m p lo y m e n t fig u r e s re q u e ste d in Item 2 a r e not a v a ila b le , C la ss I
c a r r ie r s filin g annual r e p o r ts to the In te rsta te C o m m e r c e C o m m is s io n m a y su bstitu te
the fig u r e s on a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s in 1964 (s e p a r a te ly fo r o p e ra tin g and n o n ­
o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s ) show n on th o s e annual r e p o r t s .
If fig u r e s fr o m ICC annual
r e p o r ts a re u se d , p le a s e note th is fa c t.
G r o s s P a y r o ll
T he fig u r e s r e q u e s te d in Item 3 -A a r e a p p r o x im a te ly the sa m e as th o se r e ­
p o rte d as " T o t a l C o m p e n s a tio n " on the ICC A nnual R e p o r t fo r m s fo r C la ss I c a r r i e r s .
Such c a r r i e r s m a y en ter in Item 3 - A the sa m e fig u r e s as a r e r e p o r te d to the IC C .
H o w e v e r, r e t r o a c t iv e w age p a y m en ts a p p lic a b le to a p r io r y e a r should b e added to the
fig u r e re p o r te d to the IC C .
C la ss II and III c a r r i e r s m a y b a s e th e ir e n tr ie s on the sta tem en t o f tota l
w a g es and s a la r ie s paid e m p lo y e e s in 1964, as show n on th e ir annual r e p o r ts to the
IC C .
(T h at fig u r e should b e b ro k e n down to sh ow in fo r m a tio n s e p a r a te ly fo r o p e ra tin g
and n on op era tin g e m p l o y e e s .)
P r e m iu m P a y fo r O v e r t im e , W eek en d, and H olid a y W ork
R e p o r t in Item 3 - C - l p r e m iu m s a b o v e r e g u la r p a y fo r w o r k o u tsid e r e g u la r
s tr a ig h t -tim e w o r k in g h o u r s .
E xclu d e p r e m iu m o r p en a lty p a y not re la te d to the h o u rs
at w h ich w ork is p e r fo r m e d , f o r e x a m p le , e x tra p a y fo r ch anging t ir e s if p e r fo r m e d
d u rin g re g u la r h o u r s .
In clu d e p r e m iu m s fo r s p r e a d runs (s p lit s h ifts ).
Shift D iffe r e n tia ls
In clu d e d iffe r e n tia ls fo r o w l ru n s.
T ota l M a n -H o u rs
F o r o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , r e p o r t as to ta l h ou rs p aid f o r , h ou rs on duty plus
oth e r h o u rs p aid f o r , su ch as p aid le a v e h o u r s , tim e in v o lv e d in gu aranty a llo w a n c e s ,
runaround tim e , and p aid la y o v e r h o u rs when d r iv e r s a r e r e le a s e d fr o m duty.
In clu ded
am on g h ou rs on duty a r e d r iv in g h o u r s ; stan dby tim e ; and tim e spen t in d ea dheading
at e m p lo y e r 's d ir e c t io n and in attendan ce at c o u r t, in v e s tig a tio n s , o r h e a rin g s o r at
sa fe ty o r oth e r m e e t in g s , when r e q u ir e d b y the e m p lo y e r .
If d r iv e r s a r e on sp re a d
runs (s p lit sh ifts) e x clu d e h o u rs n ot on duty, i f not p aid f o r .
Do not r e p o r t as h ou rs
p aid fo r the eq u iv a len ts o f p a y r e c e iv e d if a ctu a l h ou rs w e r e not in v o lv e d , fo r e x a m p le ,
o n e -h a lf h o u r 's p a y fo r fillin g out an a c c id e n t r e p o r t du rin g r e g u la r w o rk in g h o u r s .
The fig u r e s r e q u e s te d in Item 4 -A m a y b e ob ta in ed fr o m th o se r e p o r te d as
" T o t a l m a n -h o u r s o r days p aid f o r " on IC C A nnual R e p o r t fo r m s fo r C la ss I c a r r i e r s .
If fig u r e s f o r Item 4 - A a r e d e r iv e d fr o m d ata su p p lied to the IC C , m a n -d a y s sh ou ld
be co n v e r te d to m a n -h o u r s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the stan d ard w o rk d a y fo r the e m p lo y e e s
in q u estion .




* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1967 0 -2 7 6 - 9 7 8




Other B L S P u b licatio n s on Compensation Expenditures
and Payroll Hours

B u lle tin
num ber

152 8

1470

142 8

1419

P r ic e

C o m p e n s a t io n
1964.

E x p e n d itu r e s and P a y r o ll H o u r s ,

1332

13 0 8

25 c e n t s

S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m p e n s a t io n f o r N o n p r o d u c tio n W o r k e r s ,
1 9 6 3 (1 9 6 5 ) .

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m ­
p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n and R e la te d W o r k e r s ;
C o m p o s i t i o n o f P a y r o l l H o u r s : M a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r i e s ,
1 9 6 2 (1 9 6 5 ) .

70 c e n t s *

$ 1 . 00

Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Re­
muneration Practices in Finance, Insurance, and Real
E s ta te I n d u s tr ie s ,

1413

P ip e lin e s ,

1961 ( 1 9 6 4 ) .

45 c e n t s

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m ­
p e n s a tio n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t io n an d R e la te d W o r k e r s ,
M e a t p a c k in g a n d P r o c e s s i n g I n d u s t r i e s , 1 9 6 2 (1 9 6 4 ) .

25 c e n t s

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d S u p p le m e n ta r y R e ­
m u n e r a t i o n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t i o n W o r k e r s in M in in g
I n d u s t r ie s , I9 6 0 (1 9 6 3 ).

45 c e n t s *

E m p lo y e r E x p e n d it u r e s f o r S e le c t e d S u p p le m e n ta r y R e ­
m u n e r a t i o n P r a c t i c e s f o r P r o d u c t i o n W o r k e r s in M a n u ­
fa c t u r in g I n d u s t r ie s , 1959 (1 9 6 2 ).

65 c e n t s *

* O u t o f p r in t .
T h e s e b u lle tin s a r e g e n e r a lly a v a ila b le f o r r e f e r e n c e
p u r p o s e s a t le a d i n g p u b l i c , c o l l e g e , o r u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s , o r in th e B u r e a u 1s
r e g io n a l o ffic e s .
NOTE:
P u b l i c a t i o n s m a y b e o r d e r e d f r o m th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u ­
m e n ts,
U. S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
W a s h in g t o n , D . C. , 2 0 4 0 2 , o r f r o m
th e B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s .
(S e e i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s . )
A 25p e r c e n t d i s c o u n t is g iv e n f o r b u n d le o r d e r s o f 100 c o p i e s o r m o r e .