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Comparative Growth in Manufacturing
Productivity and Labor Costs in
Selected Industrialized Countries
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1977
Bulletin 1958




Comparative Growth in Manufacturing
Productivity and Labor Costs in
Selected Industrialized Countries
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1958




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock N o. 029-001-02044-9







Preface
This bulletin is one of a series of BLS studies providing comparative measures of
productivity for the United States and other industrialized countries. Other studies in­
clude Unit Labor Cost in Manufacturing: Trends in Nine Countries, 1960-65 (Bulletin
1518, 1966); An International Comparison o f Unit Labor Costs in the Iron and Steel
Industry, 1964: United States, France, Germany, United Kingdom (Bulletin 1580, 1968);
and the chartbook Productivity: An International Perspective (Bulletin 1811, 1974).
Jerome A. Mark, Assistant Commissioner for Productivity and Technology, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, presented the findings of this study at the Workshop on Recent Progress
in Productivity Measurement and Prospects, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October
1976. This bulletin incorporates certain data refinements and minor textual revisions.
The bulletin was prepared by Assistant Commissioner Mark and by Arthur Neef,
Patricia Capdevielle, and other staff members of the Bureau’s Office of Productivity and
Technology, Division of Foreign Labor Statistics and Trade, John Chandler, Chief.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without
the permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics
and cite the name and number of the publication.

in




Contents
Page

Page

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1
Concepts and methods ............................................................................................... 2
What the data s h o w ...................................................................................................... 3
Productivity ...................................................................................................... 3
Labor c o s t s ......................................................................................................... 6
Effects of shifts within c o u n trie s ..................................................................... 7
Trends by manufacturing i n d u s t r y .....................................................................15
Comparative productivity levels
................................................................. 16
Bilateral com parisons.................................................................................. 16
Iron and steel i n d u s tr y ...............................................................................17

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Charts:
1.
2.

Indexes of output per hour, output, and hours in manufacturing,
12 countries, 1960-75 .........................................................................
Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing,
12 countries, 1960-75 .........................................................................

Summary tables:
1. Output per hour, output, and hours in manufacturing: Average
annual rates of change, 12countries, 1960-75 ...................................
2. Output per hour in manufacturing: Average annual rates of change,
12 countries, 5-year periods, 1960-75 . . . . •.................................
3. Hourly compensation in manufacturing: Average annual rates of
change, 12 countries, 5-year periods,1960-75 ...................................
4. Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on national currency values:
Average annual rates of change,12 countries, 1960-75




11.
4

Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on U.S. dollar values:
Average annual rates of change, 12 countries, 1960-75 ................ 7
Productivity change in manufacturing by source: Average annual
rates, 4 countries, 1960-74
14
Productivity change in 15 manufacturing industries: Average annual
rates, 4 countries, 1960-74
15
Ranking of 15 manufacturing industries by productivity change:
Average annual rates, 4 countries, 1960-74 . „ ................................16
Relative output per hour in manufacturing, Canada/United States,
1960-75 ............................................................................................... 17
Relative output per hour in manufacturing, Japan/United States,
1958-75 ............................................................................................... 18
Estimates of relative levels of output per hour, hourly labor costs,
and unit labor costs in the iron and steel industry, 5 countries,

8

12.

3

1964 and 1972-75 ............................................................................... 19
Estimates of indexes of output per hour, hourly labor costs, and unit
labor costs in the iron and steel industry, 5 countries,
1964 and 1972-75 ............................................................................... 20

Appendixes:
A.
Sources and m e th o d s .................................................................................21
B.
Reference tables ........................................................................................27
C.
Selected re fere n ces.................................................................................... 72

6
6
7

v




Introduction
For many years the Bureau of Labor Statistics has provided comparative measures
of labor statistics for the United States and other industrialized countries to shed
light on U.S. economic performance relative to these countries. The principal mea­
sures developed cover productivity, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs, as
well as labor force, employment, and unemployment.
With regard to productivity, comparative trends in output per hour in the manu­
facturing sector are compiled and published annually for the United States and 11
other industrialized countries. These are time series generally starting with 1950 and
expressed in index form (1967=100). Because of its principal interest in labor costs
and the greater availability of current labor input data, the Bureau has directed its
attention to measures of output per unit of labor input, i.e., labor productivity
measures. In addition, the Bureau prepares corresponding hourly compensation and
unit labor cost indexes to indicate the relationship between productivity movements
and cost movements in the various countries.
The all-manufacturing measures are limited to trend comparisons, i.e., inter­




country series of productivity and cost changes over time, rather than level compari­
sons, because of the difficulties involved in developing an adequate and comprehen­
sive set of intercountry measures of absolute levels of productivity and because of
the need to have current information on changes in relative performance of the
countries. The requirements for developing a suitable set of level comparisons gen­
erally preclude the possibility of deriving current measures.
In comparing productivity levels, the data needs are rigorous, because any incon­
sistency is likely to be reflected fully in the relative level measure. Therefore, it is
extremely important that data on output and input within each country be carefully
matched and that coverage and definitions be closely aligned between countries. In
addition, when making bilateral comparisons, it is desirable to use weighting systems
from both countries wherever possible.
In comparing trend measures, some data inconsistencies can be tolerated because
their effects are not likely to alter the comparative trends appreciably. This is so
especially where a consistent error is carried within a series over a period of years.

1

Concepts and Methods
Another indication is that, in the eight countries that have more than one production
series, the differences between series are often substantial.
Employment customarily means wage and salary employment, excluding the sellemployed and unpaid family workers. However, a preferable concept would cover all
persons engaged in manufacturing. For the United States and Canada, the labor input
measure pertains to all persons. For Switzerland, the data cover wage earners only,
and for the other countries, the data apply to employees only, because of a dearth of
information about other employed persons. Also, the employment data for one
country (Germany) do not cover persons in establishments of less than 10 workers.
Total hours data represent “hours worked” for most of the countries but “hours
paid” for the United States and Switzerland. The preferred measure is hours worked,
rather than hours paid for. Hours worked are also described as hours at work or plant
hours. The Bureau has explored the problems of developing a series on hours worked
in the United States, but it may be a long time before such a change can be made.
Estimates of total hours generally must be made without information on the
number of hours worked by salaried employees.
The concept of compensation presents difficulties that involve both the source of
payment and the purpose of payment. The Bureau’s general view is that compensa­
tion (labor cost) should cover all employer expenditures that are ordinarily allocated
to labor. Included would be direct pay in cash or in kind, before any deductions, and
all payments into funds for the benefit of employees. Because of measurement
difficulties, certain costs of hiring and retaining an effective work force, such as
recruitment and training costs, subsidies for lunchrooms and similar plant facilities,
and plant medical and welfare services, are not included. On ther other hand, certain
payroll-related taxes that are not of direct benefit to employees have been included.
Examples are the 5-percent payroll tax that applied in France until December 1968
and the British Selective Employment Tax (SET) that was introduced in 1966 and
discontinued several years later. Employee benefits that are not derived directly from
employers or from employer-financed funds are not included as compensation. An
example is the value of benefits received from the British National Health System,
which is financed out of general public revenues.
Data on total compensation are available from national accounts for nine of the
countries studied. For France, Belgium, and Switzerland, estimates are constructed
from data on average earnings, average compensation, employment, and average
hours.

The BLS indexes of manufacturing output per hour, hourly compensation, and
unit labor costs in 12 countries are derived from available country sources of data.
Comparisons are necessarily limited because statistical concepts and methods in each
country are fashioned to meet domestic needs rather than international needs. In
some cases, a country’s data can be adjusted, if necessary, to achieve greater consis­
tency with other countries’ series. More often, however, it is only possible to point
out the main inconsistencies. Inconsistencies can arise from differing definitions or
concepts, and from differing methods of compiling data among countries. For in­
stance, it cannot be taken for granted that each country means precisely the same
thing when using such common terms as manufacturing, or production, or employee,
or hours, or compensation. Denmark, for example, excludes handicraft work from its
manufacturing classification. Other countries have regarded certain repair work, such
as auto repair or shoe repair, as manufacturing production.
In deriving these measures the Bureau has confronted many of the conceptual
problems and data limitations that are inherent in international comparisons, and it
has developed some accommodations that satisfy practical needs, at least, if not all
theoretical conditions.
The output component of the measures refers to constant value gross product
originating or value added in all countries.1 The data are from the national accounts
for all countries except Japan and Switzerland. The methods used to compile the real
output measures, however, differ considerably among the 12 countries.
The United States, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Sweden measure the trend in
real output by using some variant of a deflated value measure, involving deflation of
both material input values and output values by appropriate price indexes. In the
other countries, the estimation procedure involves some form of extrapolation of
base-year value added, using deflated values, quantity indicators, or a mixture of the
two. Canada and France extrapolate both inputs and outputs, and the remaining
countries generally use gross output indicators only. In addition, the weighting struc­
ture, the frequency of revision, the use of proxy measures, and the method of
linking with earlier series vary considerably. An indication of the problems with
present measures of manufacturing output can be found in the magnitude of revi­
sions that have been made from time to time in several countries, including the
United States.
1 A description of the measures for each country is presented in appendix A to this report.



2

What the Data Show
As indicated earlier, the Bureau’s series for most of the countries begin with the
year 1950. However, principal attention has been given to the period from 1960 to
the present. The decade of the 1950’s was an important period of reconstruction and
growth, but it was a period of transition in several respects. For many of the coun­
tries, the post-World War II phase of restoration and rebuilding of capital facilities
lasted well into the 1950’s, the worldwide dollar shortage tended to dominate inter­
national economic decisions, and many restrictions on the movement of goods and
supplies were still in effect. Consequently, the productivity and cost experience of
the period is no longer very pertinent to current international conditions. Also, the
data systems for all of the countries were less refined than they have become, so that
measures of productivity and labor costs during the 1950’s may be less reliable than
recent measures.

past 15 years are summarized in table 1. Supporting details are shown in appendix
tables B-l through B-17.
Within the period, there were marked changes in the relative productivity growth
rates both within and among the countries. During the first 5 years—
from 1960 to
1965—
although most countries showed productivity increases averaging from 4 to 7
percent per year, the United States had a substantially higher rate than it did for the
entire period and was much more in line with the rates for most of the other
countries (table 2).
Japan led in productivity growth during the early years as it did throughout the
entire period, but the difference between its rate and that of other countries during
the first 5 years was not as great as it was to become. On the other hand, Switzerland

Productivity
Table 1. Output per hour, output, and hours in manufacturing: Average
annual rates of change, 12 countries, 1960-75

Looking at the results over the past 15 years, output per hour in manufacturing
has risen at an annual rate between 4 percent and 7 percent for most countries. The
conspicuous exceptions are the United States, which shows an average rise of less
than 3 percent per year, and Japan, where the average rate has been over 9 percent
per year. Within Europe, the smaller nations have shown a much better performance
than the larger countries. The European countries included here showing the most
vigorous gains since 1960 have been Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, and Sweden.
Similarly, in North America, the smaller economy, Canada, has shown the higher rate
of productivity gain.
The productivity gains in each of the countries reflected different output and
input movements. In North America and Japan, manufacturing output rose more
than productivity so that the productivity gains were associated with labor input
increases. In most European countries, however, the pattern was reversed; average
productivity gain over the entire period 1960-75 exceeded output growth, reflecting
a general decline in total hours. The exceptions were France and Italy, where average
output gains slightly exceeded productivity gains. The relationship between trends in
productivity, output, and hours is shown graphically in chart 1. The changes over the




(Percent)

Country

Output per
hour

Output

Hours

United States ...........................................................
Canada .....................................................................
Japan ........................................................................
B e lg iu m .....................................................................
Denmark ..................................................................
France ........................................................................

2.7
4.0
9.7
7.0
7.2
5.6

3.8
5.7
11.2
6.1
5.7
6.0

1.1
1.6
1.4
-.8
-1 .4
.4

Germany ..................................................................
I t a l y ............................................................................
Netherlands..............................................................
Sweden .....................................................................
Switzerland ..............................................................
United Kingdom........................................................

5.7
6.2
7.1
6.6
5.1
3.8

5.0
6.4
5.8
5.2
4.1
2.7

-.7
.2
-1 .2
-1 .4
-.9
-1.1

N O T E : T h e p e rce n t changes are c o m p u te d fro m th e least squares tren d o f th e lo garithm s o f
th e in dex n u m b ers.

3

Chart 1. Indexes of output per hour, output, and hours in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75

(1960=100; ratio scale)
—

Output per hour

—

Output

—

Hours




4

Chart 1. Indexes of output per hour, output, and hours in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

ITALY




SWEDEN

UNITED KINGDOM

5

recession of 1974 and 1975 that sharp declines in output occurred in most countries
and were accompanied by productivity declines in most cases.

Table 2. Output per hour in manufacturing: Average annual rates of change,
12 countries, 5-year periods, 1960-75
(Percent)

Country

1960-75

1960-65

1965-70

1970-75

United States ........................................................
Canada .....................................................................
Japan .....................................................................
Belgium ..................................................................
Denm ark..................................................................
France .....................................................................

2.7
4.0
9.7
7.0
7.2
5.6

4.9
4.5
8.5
4.8
5.4
5.2

1.4
4.5
13.4
8.0
8.7
6.7

1.8
2.7
5.4
7.6
6.8
3.4

G erm any..................................................................
I t a l y .........................................................................
Netherlands ............................................................
Sweden ..................................................................
Switzerland ............................................................
United K ingdom .....................................................

5.7
6.2
7.1
6.6
5.1
3.8

6.4
6.8
5.0
7.1
2.3
4.1

5.6
5.3
8.7
7.6
6.7
3.7

5.4
6.0
5.8
5.0
3.5
3.1

N O TE : The percent changes are computed from the least squares trend of the logarithms of
the index numbers.

experienced very modest productivity growth during the period, substantially lower
than all the countries examined.
During 1965-70 some pronounced changes took place. Japan’s rate of increase
rose to the remarkable level of 13.4 percent per year, and four other countries
showed gains of over 7 percent per year. In the United States, however, the average
fell to 1.4 percent per year. Altogether, 8 of the 12 countries equalled or exceeded
their rates of gain in the previous period.
In the most recent 5-year period, 1970-75, the situation reversed itself to a great
extent. All but two of the countries showed a slower rate of gain in productivity than
in the previous 5 years. Most noteworthy was the change for Japan, which dropped
from a 13.4-percent to a 5.4-percent rate of gain, still a very substantial rate of
productivity improvement. Only the United States and Italy were able to improve
upon their 1965-70 performance, but the United States continued to show the
slowest rate (1.8 percent) among all the countries.
It is difficult to ascertain the sources of the differences in productivity growth
among the countries, particularly at the manufacturing level. It is also difficult to
separate the short-term cyclical effects on productivity change from the longer term
factors. BLS has not attempted to do this. It would appear, however, that the
decelerations which occurred in most countries in recent years were strongly influ­
enced by the greater severity of the recent recessions. The years between 1960 and
1970 were remarkably free of serious industrial recession, judging from trends in
manufacturing output. In most countries there was a mild slowdown in growth
during 1966-67 and a sharper slowdown during 1970-71, but few countries showed
actual output declines during either period. It was not until the recent widespread




Labor costs

Productivity movements can be viewed in conjunction with changes in hourly
compensation in order to understand the implications for unit labor cost changes
among countries.
The average rate of gain in employee compensation in manufacturing has acceler­
ated in almost all countries since the early 1960’s (table 3). In the latter half of the
1960’s, 7 of the 12 countries showed a higher rate of gain in hourly compensation.
During 1970-75, the rate of gain accelerated in all countries without exception.
However, the countries that showed the lowest annual gain in compensation since
1960 were also those that showed the least productivity gain (United States, United
Kingdom, Canada, and Switzerland). Japan showed the highest rate of increase in
average compensation and also in productivity.
In brief, the rate of change in compensation has accelerated since the 1960’s while
the rate of productivity gain has slowed down. Consequently, unit labor costs have
surged in recent years in close association with price increases.
The decade of the 1960’s was a period of relative cost stability, with manufactur­
ing unit labor costs rising at annual rates ranging from 1.5 percent to 4 percent
among the countries. An important shift occurred during the decade, however. The
United States showed an average annual decline in costs of 1 percent during 1960-65,

Table 3. Hourly compensation in manufacturing: Average annual rates of change,
12 countries, 5-year periods, 1960-75
(Percent)

Country

1960-75

1960-65

1965-70

1970-75

United States ........................................................
Canada .....................................................................
Japan .....................................................................
Belgium ..................................................................
Denm ark..................................................................
F ra n c e .....................................................................

5.6
7.0
15.6
11.6
12.2
10.4

3.5
3.6
13.2
9.6
9.6
9.2

6.1
7.6
15.3
9.3
12.5
9.3

8.0
10.0
20.7
16.9
15.5
15.1

G erm any..................................................................
I t a l y ........................................................................
Netherlands ...........................................................
Sweden ..................................................................
Switzerland ...........................................................
United Kingdom .....................................................

10.2
13.3
13.0
10.9
9.0
9.7

9.6
13.6
11.3
10.2
8.8
6.4

8.3
9.4
12.0
9.8
7.1
7.6

13.3
22.1
16.0
14.1
11.9
16.4

N O T E : T h e p e rce n t changes are c o m p u te d fro m th e least squares tren ds o f th e lo g a rith m s o f
th e in d e x n u m b ers.

Table 4. Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on national currency values:
Average annual rates of change, 12 countries, 1960-75

unit costs and thereby reducing the inflationary pressures that can be generated by
high wage increases.

(Percent)

Country

1960-75

1960-65

1965-70

1970-75

United States ........................................................
Canada .....................................................................
Japan .....................................................................
Belgium ..................................................................
Denm ark........................................................ . . .
France .....................................................................

2.9
2.8
5.4
4.2
4.6
4.5

-1 .3
-.9
4.3
4.6
4.0
3.8

4.6
3.0
1.7
1.2
3.5
2.4

6.1
7.1
14.5
8.7
8.1
11.4

G erm any..................................................................
I t a l y .........................................................................
Netherlands ...........................................................
Sweden ..................................................................
Switzerland ...........................................................
United Kingdom .....................................................

4.2
6.7
5.5
4.0
3.8
5.7

3.0
6.3
5.9
3.0
6.3
2.2

2.5
3.8
3.0
2.1
.4
3.7

7.5
15.2
-9 .7
8.7
8.2
12.9

N O TE : The percent changes are computed from the least squares trend of the logarithms of
the index numbers.

while Japan and most European countries showed increases averaging from 3 percent
to 6 percent (table 4). During 1965-70, the situation reversed as U.S. unit labor costs
rose at a 4.6-percent annual rate while the rate was below 4 percent for all other
countries. Then, in 1970-75, unit labor costs rose explosively. The average annual
increase in 1970-75 was higher than in 1965-70 for all 12 countries, ranging from 6
percent for the United States up to about 15 percent for Japan and Italy.
For international comparisons, currency revaluation is an additional factor that
influences the trend in unit labor costs. When trends in national units are converted
to a U.S. dollar basis, the measures of increase in unit labor costs are more pro­
nounced, especially in recent years (table 5). During the 1970-75 period, the ex­
change value of the U.S. dollar declined in relation to the currencies of nine of the
other countries. Consequently, unit labor costs in those nine countries rose more
sharply in U.S. dollar terms than in national currency terms. Only in Italy and the
United Kingdom, where severe devaluations occurred in recent years, did unit labor
costs on a dollar basis rise somewhat less than on a national currency basis.
Where there is relative stability in growth of hourly compensation, changes in unit
labor costs display a close inverse relation to changes in output per hour. When
changes in these two rates are charted, they tend to show a mirror image of each
other. (See chart 2.) This is particularly true of the United States, Sweden, and, until
recently, Canada. Where the changes in hourly compensation are more volatile or
erratic, as in Italy, the inverse relationship between productivity and unit labor costs
is less pronounced. Hourly compensation and unit labor costs show very similar
movements in several countries, notably Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the United
Kingdom. These relationships illustrate the key role of productivity in holding down



Effects of shifts within countries

It is well known that labor productivity indexes based on real gross product and
unweighted employee hours reflect the effects of shifts among industries with differ­
ent net output per hour as well as movements in output per unit of labor input
within component industries. In these measures, shifts in industry shares of output
and input can affect productivity for manufacturing as a whole even in the absence
of productivity growth in the component industries.
For some purposes an overall productivity index should reflect shifts over time in
the importance of industries in addition to productivity changes within industries.
For other purposes it should not. In any event, it is useful to explore how much of
the total productivity change was a result of the contribution of each of these
components; that is, to disaggregate the total change into the portion resulting from
component industry productivity changes, the portion resulting from shifts in the
mix, and the portion resulting from the interaction between productivity changes
and changes in the mix.
Since productivity is the ratio of output to input, the relative importance of the
industries can be defined in terms of either the numerator or the denominator.
Consequently, the total productivity change can be partitioned into the contribution
from shifts in the shares of industry output, industry productivity change, and

Table 5. Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on U.S. dollar values:
Average annual rates of change, 12 countries, 1960-75
(Percent)

Country

1960-75

1960-65

1965-70

1970-75

United States ........................................................
Canada .....................................................................
Japan .....................................................................
Belgium ..................................................................
Denm ark.............................................. ...................
France .....................................................................

2.9
3.1
7.1
6.1
5.4
4.8

-1 .3
-3 .0
4.2
4.7
3.9
3.8

4.6
3.5
1.9
1.1
1.6
.2

6.1
7.8
19.8
16.1
14.7
17.3

G erm any..................................................................
I t a l y ........................................................................
Netherlands ...........................................................
Sweden ..................................................................
Switzerland ...........................................................
United Kingdom .....................................................

7.6
6.7
7.7
5.2
6.5
4.0

3.7
6.2
6.7
3.0
6.2
2.1

4.1
3.8
3.0
2.0
.5
-.3

17.3
14.0
18.6
13.9
20.3
11.2

N O T E : T h e p e rce n t changes are c o m p u te d fro m th e least squares tre n d o f th e lo g a rith m s o f
th e in dex nu m b ers.

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75

UNITED STATES

CANADA
Percent
change

Percent
change




Output per hour

8

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

JAPAN_________
Percent

BELGIUM
Percent
change

1960




1965

19 7 0

1975

9

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

FRANCE

DENMARK
Percent
change

Percent
change
12
8

Output per hour

/

•

r

\

4
0

i

i

V

-4
Unit labor costs

24
20 -

/-

16 w

/

12 »
8

-

/

J

-

4
0
-4
24
20 —

|S .

/

i

— -

Compensation per hour
/ \-

16
12
8
4

1960




1965

1970

0 ________
I960

1975

10

i _____________________ i ___________________—
1965
1970
1975

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

GERMANY
Percent
change

Percent
change




11

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

JffiXHERLANDS________________________________________________

JSMEDEN

Percent
change

Percent
change

Output per hour

Output per hour

12 -

12

8

8

4

4 ^

0

i

i

V

0

-4

V

1

N /

A -

*

-4 *
»
20

Unit labor costs

16

Unit labor costs

16

12

12

8

8

4

4

0

\ /

i

1

0

-4
-4 -

Compensation per hour

20 m
16 12 . / \

\

-

«
■

16

Y

A

/

20 “
■

-

-

Compensation per hour

12 m

S

yr

\ /

«

8

8

4

4 -

0 __ ___________ i_______ _____ _i_____________ _

0 —
___________ 1 ___ ____ ___ i_ ____ ____ _
___
_
_
_
I960
1965
1970
1975

1960




1965

1970

1975

12

Chart 2. Changes in output per hour and labor costs in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1960-75— Continued

SWITZERLAND

UNITED KINGDOM
Percent
change

Percent
change




13

interaction or into the contribution from shifts in the share of industry hours,
industry productivity change, and this interaction.2
To estimate these separate effects, the Bureau assembled the necessary disaggre­
gated output and input data for separate groups of industries within manufacturing
for four countries— United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan. In
the
order to obtain the desired detail, it was necessary to use some data sources other
than those used for the all-manufacturing measures. The individual industry mea­
sures, therefore, and the resultant all-manufacturing totals should be considered as
preliminary estimates compiled primarily for purposes of analyzing the effect of
shifts in output or hours.
For the United States, unpublished output data for the U.S. two-digit Standard
Industrial Classification industry groups were available from the national accounts.
These output figures are entirely consistent with the published all-manufacturing
measure. The labor input figures by industry differ slightly, however, because they
exclude the hours of self-employed persons. Data that match the published all-manu­
facturing measures were not available for the other three countries. For Germany,
the necessary output figures were not available in sufficient detail from the national
accounts so industrial production indexes were used. For the United Kingdom and
Japan, it was necessary to substitute alternative measures of labor input.3 Conse­
quently, the all-manufacturing productivity indexes constructed from data for the

Table 6. Productivity change in manufacturing by source: Average annual rates,
4 countries, 1960-74
(Percent)

Source of change
Country

Change in
output
per hour

United States..........................
United K in g d o m ....................
G erm an y.................................
Japan (1 9 6 0 -7 2 ) ....................

2.68
3.67
5.69
9.46

Productivity
change1

Shift
in
hours

Interaction:
productivity
and shift

Number
of
industry
groups

2.70
3.59
5.71
9.30

-0 .0 2
.08
-.01
.12

-0.01
-.01
-.01
.03

20
17
33
17

1 Productivity change excluding change due to shift in hours and interaction.
N O TE : Components may not add to total because of rounding. Percent changes are a simple
average of year-to-year changes.

component industries differ from the published all-manufacturing measures. How­
ever, while there are some significant year-to-year differences in productivity move­
ments, the constructed and published measures for each country show very similar
rates of productivity change over the 1960-74 period (1960 to 1972 for Japan).
Results of the shift analysis based on the constructed measures, therefore, probably
also apply in general to the published all-manufacturing measures.
It would have been desirable to have separate industry data in as fine detail as
2
The following formula was used to estimate the separate effects of shifts in the share of
possible and at the same time roughly comparable among the countries. However,
industry hours, industry productivity change, and interaction:
such data are generally available only at the major industry group level. Moreover,
APt = (AP, 1 - S1, . , ) + (AP, 2 • S2, . , ) + . . . + (APt n • Sn(_j)
since systems of industry classification are not identical from country to country, it
(Productivity effect)
is not possible to achieve precisely matched coverage even for some of the major
+ (AS, 1 • P1, . , ) + (ASt 2 • P2t. j ) + . . . + '(A P,n • Snt. j )
industries. As a result, the Bureau used data .for different groupings of industries
which comprise all manufacturing in each country.4
(Shift effect)
Table 6 shows the average annual rat§s of change in manufacturing labor produc­
+ (AS, 1 • A P ,1) + (AS, 2 • A P ,2) + . . . + (A S ," ° A P,n)
tivity separated into the effects from shifts in the shares of industry hours, industry
(Interaction effect)
productivity change, and their interaction in each o f these countries. Annual data for
where:
the four countries can be found in appendix tables B-18 through B-21. As can be
is output per hour in all manufacturing in year t
readily seen, shifts in the importance of industries in terms of hours had virtually no
impact on the total productivity change in most years. In each country, the few years
is output per hour in the first industry group in year t
rt
ptn
St1

is output per hour in the nth industry group in year t
is the share of total manufacturing hours in the first industry group in year t

st"
t-1
A

3
There are also some differences in the all-manufacturing output measures for the United
Kingdom and Japan. This is because a constant set of weights was used to combine the individual
manufacturing industries over the entire period for each country whereas the published all-manu­
facturing production indexes for both countries include shifts in the weights.
4For the United States, all manufacturing was divided into 20 industry groups; for the United
Kingdom, 17 groups; for Germany, 33 groups; and for Japan, 17 groups. For industry-by-indus­
try comparisons, data for all four countries were combined into 15 industry groups.

is the share of total manufacturing hours in the nth industry group in year t
refers to the value of a variable for the previous year
is a first difference operator:
APt denotes Pt —Pt l
ASt denotes St — St j




14

in which shifts in hours had any appreciable impact were usually recession years. In
Germany, for example, the greatest effect was in 1974, where the contribution of
shifts in hours was 0.7 percentage points to the total productivity change of 3.8
percent. In the United States, large effects also took place in 1974 (with 0.3 per­
centage points and a total change of — percent) and in 1961 (w ith— percent­
3.9
0.3
age points and a total change of 2.4 percent). Both were recession years in the United
States but the effects were in the opposite direction. The United Kingdom had a very
substantial shift effect in 1 y e a r-1961—
with 0.15 percentage points and a total
change of -0 .2 2 percent. In Japan, the effect of shifts in hours has been rather slight
in relation to overall productivity gains. The greatest shift effect in Japan was 0.38
percent in 1968, when the total productivity change was 12 percent.
For the period as a whole, however, in each country the productivity growth
within industries was virtually the entire source of the overall productivity change.
For the most part this was because in each country industries maintained almost the
same proportions of total manufacturing hours over the entire period. In Germany,
for example, with the exception of textile mill products, no industry’s share of total
manufacturing hours changed by more than 2 percentage points, and even textiles
changed by only 3 percentage points.
The industry group productivity changes, however, reflect the effects of shifts
among the industries comprising the group. We were not able to extend the analysis
for any of the countries except the United States, where we had available unpub­
lished measures for 400 manufacturing industries on a gross output basis. The total
shift effect based on this additional detail was increased but not appreciably.
With regard to the effects of output shifts on manufacturing productivity, for the
period 1960-74 the results for the United States show a slight negative effect,
amounting to —
0.16 percent per year. For the United Kingdom, the effect of output
shifts was negligible for the period. For Germany and Japan, however, the effects
were substantial, amounting to 0.45 percent for Germany and 0.82 percent for Japan
(1960-72).
Trends by manufacturing industry

As mentioned earlier, the productivity growth rates for manufacturing in the four
countries are almost entirely a reflection of the productivity movements of the
component industries. Table 7 summarizes these movements for the 1960-74 period
for the 15 industry groups included; appendix tables B-22 through B-45 show annual
data.
The results for the period show a low variance among rates of productivity change
for individual industries in three of the countries. In other words, the industry rates
cluster closely around the mean for all manufacturing. For the United States, the
average annual increase for all manufacturing was 2.7 percent, and 14 of the 15
industries showed gains within 2 percentage points of that average, i.e., between 0.7



Table 7. Productivity change in 15 manufacturing industries: Average annual
rates, 4 countries, 1960-74
(Percent)

U.S. SIC
number

Industry

United
United
Germany
States Kingdom

Japan
(1960-72)

20-39

All manufacturing industries...............

2.7

4.1

5.8

9.8

20,21
22
23,31
24, 25
26, 27
28
29
30, 39

Food and tobacco.................................
Textile mill products.............................
Apparel and leather goods....................
Lumber and furniture ..........................
Paper and printing.................................
Chemicals and allied products.............
Petroleum and coal products...............
Rubber and miscellaneous
manufactures.....................................
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete
products ............................................
Primary metals........................................
Fabricated metal products....................
Machinery, except electrical ...............
Electrical equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment....................
Instruments and related products

3.0
4.6
2.9
3.8
2.3
4.5
3.6

3.3
6.0
3.7
3.6
3.0
7.1
7.0

5.0
6.8
4.4
6.7
5.4
9.2
8.5

6.4
4.4
3.5
14.2
28.9
14.0
14.9

2.4

4.6

6.7

7.7

1.4
1.2
2.0
1.7
5.0
2.6
2.7

4.9
2.4
51.8
64.2
5.4
2.8
6.6

35.7
4 5.4
4.4
7 2.8
6.5
84.5
4.7

7.5
12.2
9.6
11.8
12.3
12.6
8.2

Standard deviation (unweighted)9 . . . . 1.134

1.641

1.607

3.533

32
33
34
35
36
37
38

1 Excludes fu rn itu re.
2 E x c lu d e s p r in t in g .

3 Includes quarrying.
4 Includes railroad and street cars.
5 Includes jew elry and precious metals.
6 Includes ordnance and small arms.
7 Includes locomotives.
8 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.
9 For the United States, standard deviations weighted by o u tp ut or by hours are about the
same as the unweighted; fo r the United Kingdom and Japan, weighted standard deviations are
lower; fo r Germ any, the output-weighted standard deviation is higher than the unweighted.
N O T E : The percent changes are computed from the least squares trend o f the logarithms of
the index numbers. The standard deviations were computed from simple averages of the
unweighted industry rates of productivity change: 2.9 percent fo r the United States; 4 .4 percent
for the United Kingdom; 5.8 percent for Germany; and 9 .2 percent fo r Japan.

percent and 4.7 percent. Furthermore, 10 of the 15 industries were within 1 percent­
age point of the average. For the United Kingdom, the average was 4.1 percent, and
11 of the 15 industries showed gains within 2 points of that average. Similarly, for
Germany, the all-manufacturing average gain was 5.8 percent, and 12 of the 15
industries gained within 2 points of that average.
For Japan, the outcome is noticeably different. Japan has six major industries that
have been expanding rapidly since 1960—
chemicals, petroleum refining, primary

metals, machinery, electrical equipment, and transportation equipment. These indus­
tries, combined, accounted for 43 percent of Japan’s manufacturing output in 1960,
rising to 60 percent of output by 1972. They each achieved productivity gains of
over 12 percent per year, compared to a 9.8-percent average gain for all manufactur­
ing. Most of the remaining industries had productivity gains well below 9 percent per
year and accounted for a diminishing share of Japanese manufacturing output. Thus
the pattern of Japanese productivity improvement does not resemble the cluster
pattern found in the other three countries. The structure of Japan’s manufacturing
output and productivity has undergone profound changes since 1960.
In general, in none of the countries can the overall rate of gain be attributed in
large measure to an outstanding performance by just one or two industries.5 Nor can
a relatively low overall rate, such as in the United States, be attributed to a laggard
performance by one or two industries.
Although the variance in industry growth rates is low within most of the coun­
tries, there appears to be a similarity in the rankings of industry growth rates among
countries. For example, chemicals, petroleum, and electrical manufacturing were
among the six industries with the largest productivity gains in each country (table 8).
On the other hand, primary metals, fabricated metals, machinery, food and tobacco,
and paper and printing were among the industries with the smallest rates of gain in all
or most cases. With very few exceptions, Japan shows the highest productivity gains
in each industry, followed by Germany, then the United Kingdom, and finally the
United States. Thus, the ranking of countries by productivity increase in all manufac­
turing holds true as well for individual industry groups.

Table 8. Ranking of 15 manufacturing industries by productivity change: Average
annual rates, 4 countries, 1960-74
U.S. SIC
number
36
22
28
24,
29
20,
23,
38
37
30,

21
31

39

26, 27
34
35
32
33

Electrical equipment and supplies
Textile mill products............................
Chemicals and allied products.............
Lumber and furniture ..........................
Petroleum and coal products...............
Food and tobacco.................................
Apparel and leather goods....................
Instruments and related products
Transportation equipment....................
Rubber and miscellaneous
manufactures ...................................
Paper and printing.................................
Fabricated metal products....................
Machinery, except electrical ................
Stone, clay, glass, and
concrete products.............................
Primary metals........................................

United
United
States Kingdom

Germany

Japan
(1960-72)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

5
4
1
10
2
11
9
3
13

6
3
1
4
2
10
13
11
12

4
13
2
14
1
12
15
9
3

10
11
12
13

7
12
15
8

5
8
15
14

10
8
7
6

14
15

6
14

7
9

11
5

nomic Commission for Europe (ECE) has contributed significantly as a sponsor of
comparative studies among the European countries. More recently, E. C.West has
conducted comparisons between U.S. and Canadian manufacturing and K. Yukizawa
has conducted Japan-United States comparisons, also for manufacturing.
West’s study is based upon a comparison of output and employment in Canada
and the United States during 1963. West calculated net output by double deflation
for a sample of 30 three-digit manufacturing industries as reported in the Census of
Manufactures for each country. In order to estimate relative levels for all manufactur­
ing, he adjusted the Canadian employment data to account for head office employ­
ment and he added an adjustment to account for the nonsample industries. His
results showed that Canadian output per manufacturing employee was 64.4 percent
of the U.S. level, using Canadian price weights, or 68.5 percent using U.S. price
weights.
In order to estimate relative levels for more recent years, BLS has made an
adjustment to the West estimates to account for a slight difference in average hours
worked between the two countries. Then the Canada-to-United States ratios were
calculated for other years by using the BLS indexes of manufacturing output per
hour for the two countries. The results for 1975, for example, show the ratio of
Canadian to U.S. output per hour to be 76 percent, using Canadian weights, and 81
percent, using U.S. weights. The BLS results, presented in table 9, correspons closely
with similar estimates made by Professor D. J. Daly of York University, Downsview,
Ontario.

Comparative productivity levels

A number of efforts have been made over the past 30 years to compare levels of
output or productivity between major countries. Some have been highly aggregative
in coverage, such as the studies undertaken for the Organization for European Eco­
nomic Co-operation (OEEC) by Milton Gilbert and Irving Kravis during the 1950’s.
(See appendix C for these and other studies discussed below.) Other studies have
been bilateral in nature.
Bilateral comparisons. An early bilateral comparison, covering U.S. and U.K. outputs,
was conducted by Deborah Paige and Gottfried Bombach for the OEEC. The Eco-

5 The German chemical industry may offer an exception. This major industry has expanded
rapidly since 1960 and has shown an average productivity increase o f 9.2 percent per year,
compared to an all-manufacturing increase o f 5.8 percent per year. It has been calculated that,
excluding the chemical industry, the rate o f increase for all German manufacturing would have
been just 5.2 percent, so the influence o f the chemical industry was to raise the all-manufacturing
rate by 0.6 percent.




25

Industry

16

Table 9.
1960-75

figures therefore are not necessarily representative of all manufacturing industries
and appear to cover a higher proportion of relatively efficient industries in Japan
than in the United States.
BLS has adjusted Yukizawa’s ratios to account for the difference in average hours
worked between the two countries and has calculated the ratios for other years on
the basis of its trend series on output per hour. These estimates for 1975 show a
Japan-to-United States ratio of 65 percent, using Japanese price weights, and 76
percent using U.S. price weights, (table 10).

Relative output per hour in manufacturing, Canada/United States,

(U.S. = 100)

Ratio in percent
Item and year

Ratio, Canadian to U.S. net output per employee, 19631 ......................
Ratio, Canadian to U.S. average annual hours worked per
employee, 19632 ......................................................................................
Ratio, Canadian to U.S. net ouxpui per hour worked, 1963 ....................
Ratio, Canadian to U.S. net output per hour3 :
1 9 60.....................................................................................................
1 9 6 1 .....................................................................................................
1 9 6 2 .....................................................................................................
1963 .....................................................................................................
19 6 4 ................................................................................................. . .
1 9 6 5 .....................................................................................................
19 6 6 ..................................... ...............................................................
1 9 6 7 .....................................................................................................
19 68.....................................................................................................
1 9 69.....................................................................................................
19 70.....................................................................................................
19 71.......................................................................................... ..........
19 72.......................................................................................... ..........
1973 .....................................................................................................
19 7 4 .....................................................................................................
1975 .....................................................................................................

Canadian
price
weights

U.S.
price
weights

64.4

68.5

101.4
63.5

101.4
67.5

63.1
65.0
65.4
63.5
62.9
63.3
64.2
65.9
68.2
71.2
72.6
73.4
72.1
72.4
75.2
76.3

67.1
69.1
69.6
67.5
66.9
67.4
68.3
70.1
72.6
75.7
77.3
78.1
76.7
77.0
80.0
81.2

Iron and steel industry. The BLS has undertaken some comparisons of productivity
levels with the concentration on selected manufacturing industries. The principal
effort has been to compare levels of productivity and labor costs in the iron and steel
industry of five countries. The steel industry was selected for the first absolute
measurement project because it ranks high among basic industries in terms of size,
public interest, and availability and comparability of data. The initial report on iron
and steel was issued in 1968, and indexes have been used to keep the comparisons up
to date since that time. Just recently the Bureau has introduced more current weights
and made other revisions in the data; the preliminary findings are presented here for
the first time.
The BLS studies involve one serious technical problem— weights—
the
and numer­
ous problems that arise from insufficient data or unmatched data. The weights in use
until very recently were 1961 unit labor requirements for the industry in the United
States, applied to the United States and each of the other countries. These are the
same weights that have been used by the ECE in its steel productivity project. The
Bureau has recently introduced later U.S. weights, for the year 1967, which were
obtained mainly for the domestic measure of steel productivity. The shift from 1961
to 1967 weights did not have an appreciable effect on the international comparisons
of productivity levels. The results are about the same, using either set of weights.
Nevertheless, the U.S. weights may be inadequate for use in international compari­
sons.
One reason for being cautious about the use of U.S. weights is that there has been
a major expansion of the industry in most countries since 1967, accompanied by
widespread introduction of steelmaking innovations that might alter unit labor re­
quirements for certain products. A second reason is that the Bureau has weights from
no other country to permit balanced international comparisons.
The absence of complete matching data on steel output and labor input for each
country obliges the analyst to make a series of assumptions and extrapolations in
order to bridge the data gaps. A few examples will illustrate the nature of the
problem. The European data on pipe and tubing are reported in two categories,
welded and seamless. The U.S. data system, on the other hand, covers seven cate­
gories of pipe and tubing, some with sharply different labor requirement weights.
The European data on stainless steel give an overall tonnage figure but no product

1 Ratio of Canadian to U.S. net ou tp u t per em ployee in total manufacturing, as estimated by
C. West in C a n a d a -U n ite d S tates P ric e a n d P ro d u c tiv ity D iffe re n c e s in M a n u fa c tu rin g
Industries, 1 9 6 3 ; S taff S tudy No. 32 prepared fo r the Economic Council of Canada, 1971, p. 26.
2 BLS estimate, calculated after reducing U.S. average paid hours by 7 percent in order to
compare w ith Canadian hours w orked series.
3 Calculated from BLS index series on m anufacturing ou tp u t per hour in the tw o countries.
E.

A somewhat similar bilateral comparison has been prepared by Professor Kenzo
Yukizawa, covering productivity in Japanese and U.S. manufacturing. Yukizawa
compared U.S. gross output per employee with Japanese gross output per employee
for three time periods, 1958-59, 1963, and 1967, based mainly on physical quantity
measures of output for a sampling of matched products. Yukizawa’s results for 1967
show Japanese manufacturing output per employee to be 49 percent of the U.S.
level, using Japanese price weights, and 58 percent using U.S. price weights. Daly
points out that the results may show a higher Japan-to-United States ratio than
would be shown if net output data were used. In addition, the comparisons are based
on only 60 industries at approximately the 4-digit U.S. level of classification. The
industry coverage in 1967 accounted for only 25 percent of U.S. gross value added
and 32 percent of Japanese net value added in manufacturing, and for 21 percent of
U.S. employment and 24 percent of Japanese employment in manufacturing. The



17

Table 10.
1958-75

detail; alloy and stainless tonnage are combined in the product listings. Yet the U.S.
weights are vastly different between products of alloy and products of stainless steel.
In Japan, there is substantial employment of contract labor in steelmaking activities,
and the use of contract labor is said to vary from period to period. The Bureau has
not been able to obtain adequate data on how many contract workers are employed
or the number of hours or rates of pay for these workers. In each case it is obliged to
estimate the output or inputs on the basis of inadequate information.
The initial results therefore contain a degree of uncertainty or variance that
reaches beyond any normal amount of statistical discrepancy. The method of dealing
with these uncertainties has been to present the results as ranges rather than single
best estimates. The Bureau feels reasonably confident that a particular measure of
productivity or labor cost falls within the given range, but it does not have the
precise measure.
In brief, as indicated in table 11, the findings show some sharp contrasts among
the five major countries studied. Preliminary estimates for 1975 show that produc­
tivity in the Japanese steel industry is above the U.S. level, ranging between 111 and
132 percent of the United States. The German industry reached a level between 81
and 90 percent of the United States. The French productivity level was about onehalf, and the British was less than one-half, the U.S. level.
It should be noted that 1975 was a recession year for the steel industry in all of
the countries. Steel output dropped sharply in every country, but most acutely in
France (table 12). Productivity showed virtually no change in Japan, but dropped 10
to 11 percent in the United States and Germany, 14 percent in the United Kingdom,
and 28 percent in France.
Estimates of grotvth in steel productivity illustrate very clearly the changes that
have occurred since 1964. In the 10 years from 1964 to 1974, productivity in the
steel industry increased at a rate of 3 percent per year in the United States, 2 percent
per year in the United Kingdom, 5.6 percent per year in France, and 7 percent per
year in Germany. The rate for Japan was 11 percent per year.
In order to develop better measures, however, a broader effort seems called for
than BLS alone can offer. It is important to obtain weights from the other countries
besides the United States. The ECE project of several years ago attempted to do this
but was not successful. Also, improved matching of products could be achieved. To
do this, however, closer collaboration on a bilateral basis among country statisticians
is called for. Or a stronger coordinating effort by international organizations could be
undertaken and perhaps would be more successful now because of the greater inter­
est in productivity within nations.

Relative output per hour in manufacturing, Japan/United States,

(U.S. = 100)

Ratio in percent
Item and year

Ratio, Japanese to U.S. output per employee1:
1958-592 .............................................................................................
19583 ...................................................................................................
19593 ...................................................................................................
1 9 6 3 .....................................................................................................
1 9 67......................................................................................................
Ratio, Japanese to U.S. output per hour worked4 :
1 9 5 8 ......................................................................................................
1 9 5 9 .....................................................................................................
1963 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 7 ......................................................................................................
Ratio, Japanese to U.S. output per hour worked5:
1 9 5 8 ......................................................................................................
1 9 5 9 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 0 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 1 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 2 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 3 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 4 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 5 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 6 ......................................................................................................
1967 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 8 ......................................................................................................
1 9 6 9 ......................................................................................................
19 7 0 ......................................................................................................
1 9 7 1 ......................................................................................................
1 9 7 2 ......................................................................................................
1973 ......................................................................................................
1 9 7 4 ......................................................................................................
1 9 7 5 ......................................................................................................

Japanese
price
weights

U.S.
price
weights

31.6
27.2
30.2
34.0
49.3

37.5
32.2
35.8
39.7
57.8

21.3
23.8
27.8
41.0

25.2
28.1
32.4
48.1

21.6
23.9
27.4
30.1
30.0
30.4
32.7
33.0
35.8
41.0
44.6
50.8
57.5
56.4
58.0
63.4
67.1
64.9

25.3
28.1
32.1
35.4
35.3
35.7
38.4
38.8
42.0
48.1
52.3
59.6
67.5
66.2
68.0
74.3
78.7
76.2

1 (Rates converted to U.S. = 100) from ratios of U.S. gross output per employee to Japanese
gross output per employee, as estimated by K. Yukizawa in Japanese and American Productivity:
An International Comparison of Physical Output Per Head’ Discussion Paper No. 08 7, K yo to
,
Institute o f Econom ic Research, March 19 75, p. 17.
2 Ratio of Japanese gross o u tp u t per em ployee in 19 59 to U.S. gross o u tp u t per em ployee in
1958.
3 BLS estimates based on indexes o f U.S. and Japanese o u tp u t and em plo ym ent in the 2 years.
4 Based on BLS estimates of annual hours w orked per em ployee in the tw o countries.
5Calculated from BLS index series on m anufacturing o u tp u t per hour in the tw o countries
linked in 19 67 by the ratio of U.S. to Japanese ou tp u t per hour worked.
N O T E : Comparison is based on 6 0 industries (59 in 1 9 6 7 ) at approxim ately the 4-dig it U.S.
level of classification.




18

Table 11.

Estimates of relative levels ot output per hour, hourly labor costs, and unit labor costs in the iron and steel industry, 5 countries, 1964 and 1972-75

(U nited States = 1 0 0 )

Year

United
States

Japan
Minimum

Germany

France
Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

United Kingdom

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

55
77
77
82
81

63
85
86
91
90

48
50
48
44
42

51
53
51
46
45

37
58
74
76
76

39
58
74
76
76

29
33
34
33
35

30
34
35
34
36

60
68
86
84
84

70
76
96
93
93

57
62
66
72
79

61
67
71
78
86

Output per hour
1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
.............................................................................................

100
100
100
100
100

48
87
98
100
111

55
103
117
119
132

48
62
60
61
49

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.............................................................................................
............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................

100
100
100
100
100

16
33
42
44
44

16
34
43
46
45

34
48
60
59
67

52
69
67
68
54
Hourly labor costs I1)
35
48
60
59
67
Unit labor costs

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................

100
100
100
100
100

29
32
36
37
33

33
39
44
46
41

1 Labor costs converted to U.S. dollars at the annual average exchange rate fo r each year.

has b e e n a d ju s te d f o r d iff e r e n c e s in p r o d u c t m ix a m o n g c o u n tr ie s a n d

over tim e by weighting the com ponent products of the iron and ste«*l industry w ith U.S. 1967
labor requirements (hours of labor required per ton of each product). The weights used are
cumulative, th at is, fo r each ena product, they reflect all stages of production w ithin the industry




72
77
100
97
138

from coke through the end products. No adjustments have been made fo r possible differences
among countries in the degree of vertical integration or the quality o f steel produced. The results
are presented in ranges because of gaps in the data.
The estimates fo r 19 73-7 5 were obtained by applying trend indexes fo r each
co un try—unadjusted fo r strict com parability among countries—to the 1972 relatives. W hile the
1973-7 5 o u tp u t index fo r the United States is based on the 1967 labor requirements weights, the
o u tp ut indexes fo r the other countries are based on the weights underlying their own production
indexes.

N O T E : W ith the exception o f a few items (wire and w ire products are excluded for the
United Kingdom and wheels and axles are excluded fo r Germ any), the estimates fo r 1964 and
1972 are based on the U.S. definition of the iron and steel industry. In addition, the ou tp u t of
each c o u n t r y 's in d u s t r y

66
69
89
87
124

i1 )

19




Table 12. Estimates of indexes of output per hour, hourly labor costs, and unit labor costs in the iron and steel industry, 5 countries,
1964 and 1972-75
(1 9 6 4 = 100)

Hourly labor costs

Year

Output
per
hour

Based on
national
currency
values

Based on
U.S.
dollar
values1

Unit labor costs
Based on
national
currency
values

Based on
U.S.
dollar
values1

Output

Hours

Total
labor
costs

100.0
133.5
130.3
150.6
198.2

100.0
107.2
127.6
127.5
96.5

100.0
88.8
95.9
95.0
80.3

100.0
143.2
166.3
192.0
191.4

100.0
149.8
165.5
199.6
233.9

100.0
253.2
312.4
311.2
270.7

100.0
114.5
113.3
110.0
96.2

100.0
317.5
386.9
500.4
518.9

100.0
141.4
178.1
201.2
376.8

100.0
130.0
137.7
147.2
98.1

100.0
81.7
81.5
85.1
79.1

100.0
180.1
222.0
290.4
322.9

100.0
148.4
182.5
205.2
271.9

100.0
143.2
163.1
171.6
134.0

100.0
85.8
88.0
87.0
76.2

100.0
170.5
198.4
228.8
225.0

100.0
145.6
151.4
190.7
276.0

100.0
94.4
105.1
93.5
78.6

100.0
74.7
78.4
76.7
74.5

100.0
153.5
181.3
212.8
272.6

United States
1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................

100.0
120.7
133.1
134.2
120.2

100.0
161.2
173.4
202.1
238.3

100.0
161.2
173.4
202.1
238.3

100.0
133.5
130.3
150.6
198.2
Japan

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................

100.0
221.1
275.8
282.9
281.4

100.0
277.2
341.5
454.9
539.4

100.0
331.1
456.3
564.7
658.2

100.0
125.4
123.8
160.8
191.7
France

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................

100.0
159.2
169.0
173.0
124.1

100.0
231.6
272.6
341.3
408.4

100.0
225.0
301.1
348.0
467.5

100.0
145.5
161.2
197.3
329.2
Germany

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.................................... ................................................

100.0
166.9
185.4
197.2
175.8

100.0
198.8
225.5
262.9
295.1

100.0
247.8
338.5
404.7
477.8

100.0
119.1
121.6
133.3
167.9
United Kingdom

1964
1972
1973
1974
1975

.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................
.....................................................................................

100.0
126.4
134.1
122.0
105.5

100.0
205.5
231.3
277.7
366.0

1 Indexes in national currencies adjusted fo r changes in prevailing
exchange rates.

100.0
184.0
203.1
232.7
291.2

100.0
162.6
172.5
227.5
346.8

the fo ur foreign countries, they are based on the m idp oint of m inim um
and m axim um
estimates fo r each year. Indexes fo r 19 73 to
1 9 7 5 —unadjusted fo r strict com parability among countries—have been
linked at 1974. See note to table 11.

N O T E : W ith the exception of a fe w items, the indexes fo r 1 9 6 4 and
1972 are based on the U.S. definition of the iron and steel industry. For

20

Appendix A. Sources and Methods
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) compiles and publishes indexes of output
per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing for the United
States .and 11 other industrial countries. The indexes are constructed from three
aggregate measures—
manufacturing output, total hours, and total compensation. For
most countries, the measures refer to total manufacturing as defined by the Inter­
national Standard Industrial Classification, but some countries depart from these
definitions to one degree or another.
The output measures refer to constant value gross product originating or value
added in all countries. The methods used to compile the real output measures,
however, differ considerably among the 12 countries. In the United States, Belgium,
Germany, Italy, and Sweden, the estimation procedure is wholly or primarily that of
double deflation, that is, adjustment of both gross outputs and inputs to eliminate
price change. In the other countries, the estimation procedure involves some form of
extrapolation of base-year value added, using either quantity indicators or deflated
values. Canada and France extrapolate both inputs and outputs while the other
countries generally use gross output indicators.
The hours and compensation measures refer to all persons engaged in the United
States and Canada, wage workers only in Switzerland, and to all employees in the
other countries except Germany. For Germany, the compensation data refer to all
employees including workers in the handicraft industries while the hours data ex­
clude handicraft workers but include the self-employed. Hours refer to paid hours in
the United States and Switzerland, hours worked for the other countries. Compensa­
tion includes all wages and salaries paid directly to employees plus employer expendi­
tures for social insurance programs, and— France, Sweden, and the United King­
for
dom-employment or payroll taxes that are not compensation to employees but are a
labor cost to employers.
The definitions and data sources for the output, hours, and compensation mea­
sures used by the Bureau are outlined briefly for each country in this appendix. To
simplify the discussion, only the long-term measures used from 1960 are covered.
The statistical measures used for the years before 1960 and the statistical series used
for recent year estimates—
until the long-term measures are available— not men­
are
tioned.




United States

Output Gross product originating in market prices in 1972 dollars. Obtained by
deflation of product originating in current prices based on income statistics by means
of implicit price deflators. Deflators computed using value added in current prices,
based on production statistics, divided by value added in constant prices, estimated
by deflation of the current-price data on both outputs and inputs by wholesale price
indexes. Publication: Survey o f Current Business (U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, D.C»)

Hours. Total hours paid of all persons engaged. Compiled by BLS as denominator for
national productivity index. Based on employment for wage workers and salaried
employees and average paid hours for wage workers from BLS monthly establish­
ment survey covering all sizes of establishments; normally scheduled hours (unpub­
lished data) from BLS biennial employee compensation survey; and number of selfemployed and average hours from BLS labor force sample survey of households.
Publication: Employment and Earnings (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Washington, D.C.).

Compensation Total compensation of employees from national accounts, adjusted
by BLS for estimated compensation of self-employed. Employee compensation com­
piled on the basis of data from unemployment insurance reports to estimate aggre­
gate wages and salaries, and statistics from the Social Security Administration and
other Government insurance agencies and from various tax and insurance reports for
private plans to estimate employer insurance contributions. Compensation imputed
for self-employed by assuming that hourly compensation of self-employed equals
that of employees. Publication: Survey o f Current Business (U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, D.C.).
21

costs derived from Census of Manufactures and, for commodity weights, Current
Production Survey. Index recalculated back for 2 years preceding new base year.
1970-based index linked to 1965-based index at January 1968 and 1965-based index
linked to 1960-based index at January 1963. Publications: Industry Statistics
Monthly (Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo), or Monthly Statis­
tics o f Japan and Japan Statistical Yearbook (Bureau of Statistics, Office of the
Prime Minister, Tokyo).

Canada

BLS uses productivity, hourly compensation, and unit labor cost data compiled
by Input-Output Division, Statistics Canada. Publication: Aggregate Productivity
Measures, 1946-74 (Statistics Canada, Ottawa).
Output. Index of real domestic product at 1971 factor costs, linked at 1971 to index
at 1961 factor costs, compiled as part of system of national accounts. Index com­
puted monthly as well as annually, and for manufacturing and other industry, also
called index of industrial production. Estimation procedure consists of extrapolation
of base year value added. Value-added weights derived from detailed input-output
tables for base years. Extrapolation primarily by means of volume indexes based on
deflated current values. Both inputs and outputs deflated for over 80 percent of
value added. Manufacturing census or annual survey provide current value data for
annual indexes, other sources for monthly indexes and recent years. Industry selling
price indexes are most frequently used deflators. Publications: Indexes o f Real Do­
mestic Product by Industry or Canadian Statistical Review (Statistics Canada,
Ottawa).

Hours. BLS estimates of total hours worked by all employees based on employment
data published with the national accounts and average monthly hours worked by
regular employees from the Monthly Labour Survey. Employment computed by
extrapolating manufacturing employment from the population census using data
from the Labour Force Survey. Average monthly hours obtained from establishment
sample survey and refer to all “regular” employees in establishments with five or
more regular employees. Publications: Annual Report on National Income Statistics
(Economic Planning Agency, Economic Research Institute, Tokyo); Year Book o f
Labour Statistics (Ministry of Labour, Statistics and Information Department,
Tokyo).

Hours. Total hours worked by all persons engaged. Compiled on basis of data on
wage and salary worker employment and average hours worked by wage workers
from Annual Census of Manufactures; average hours worked by salary workers, using
paid hours from deflated Census salaries, adjusted to hours worked basis using hours
structure data from Labour Cost Survey; number of self-employed based on working
owners and partners series from Annual Census of Manufactures; and average hours
worked by self-employed from Labour Force Survey.

Compensation Total compensation of employees from Japanese national accounts.
Compiled by estimating regular wages and salaries using average per capita wages and
employment for various employee and establishment size groups, and estimating
value of other pay, allowances, and employer social insurance expenditures. Average
wages based on data from Monthly Labour Survey and Enterprise Welfare Facility
Survey. Employment estimated from Population Census data extrapolated using
Labour Force Survey data; 1966 Business Establishment Statistics for large firm
employment, also extrapolated; and Monthly Labour Survey statistics. Other com­
pensation estimated using Dwelling Statistics Survey data, for value of companysupplied housing, and various Government tax statistics. Publication: Annual Report
on National Income Statistics (Economic Planning Agency, Economic Research In­
stitute, Tokyo).

Compensation. Total compensation of employees from national accounts, adjusted
for estimated compensation of self-employed. Employee compensation compiled on
the basis of data from Annual Census of Manufactures for aggregate wages and
salaries, and data from various supervisory agencies for employer contributions to
pension and other insurance funds. Compensation imputed for self-employed by
assuming that hourly compensation of self-employed equals that of employees.

Belgium
Japan

Output. Gross product originating at market prices in 1970 francs, obtained by
double deflation of current-price value added. Data calculated using 1970 valueadded price weights linked at 1966 to data for previous years calculated using 1963
value-added price weights. Estimating procedure consists of deflation of current price
data on both outputs and inputs, these data having been used to compile estimates of
value added in current prices. Publication: Bulletin de Statistique or Etudes Economiques (Institut National de Statistique, Brussels).

Output. Index of industrial production, calculated using quantity indicators exclu­
sively, combined with value-added weights for 1960, 1965, and 1970. Printing and
publishing, wood furniture and fixtures, and ordnance and accessories not covered by
index. Indicators measure directly 65 percent of value added in manufacturing indus­
tries covered. Monthly Current Production Survey of Ministry of International Trade
and Industry provides most indicators of quantity. Base-year value added at factor




22

Hours. BLS estimates of total hours worked by all employees. Calculated using
employment statistics published with the national accounts and average hours
worked of wage workers and of salary workers. Employment data compiled primarily
on basis of social security statistics on covered wage and salary worker employment.
Average hours worked of wage workers and average scheduled hours of salary
workers obtained from semiannual survey of establishments with 10 or more
employees, and benchmarked to annual hours worked for 1966 and 1969 obtained
from the EEC harmonized labor cost survey of establishments with 50 or more
employees. Publications: National Accounts Yearbook (Statistical Office of the
European Communities, Luxembourg) and lEconomie Beige (Ministere des Affaires
Economiques, Direction Generale des Etudes et de la Documentation, Brussels);
Annuaire Statistique de la Belgique (Ministere des Affaires Economiques, Institute
National de Statistique, Brussels); Statistiques Sociales or Bulletin de Statistique
(Institut National de Statistique, Brussels); Labor Costs in Industry, Social Statistics
series (Statistical Office of the European Communities, Luxembourg).
Compensation. BLS estimates of total compensation of all employees. Compiled
using total hours worked by wage workers and by salaried workers, explained in
previous section, and estimates of average hourly compensation of wage workers and
of salaried workers. Average hourly earnings of wage workers obtained from semi­
annual survey of establishments with 10 or more employees. Average hourly earnings
of salary workers estimated by BLS using hourly earnings in 1966, 1969, and 1972
obtained from the EEC harmonized labor cost survey extrapolated on the basis of
earnings trend obtained from the index of contractual monthly salaries, converted to
an hourly basis and adjusted for estimated wage drift. Earnings adjusted for addi­
tional compensation using primarily EEC labor cost survey data. Publications: Sta­
tistiques Sociales (Institut National de Statistique, Brussels); Labor Costs in Industry,
Social Statistics series (Statistical Office of the European Communities, Luxem­
bourg); Revue du Travail (Ministere de L’Emploi et du Travail, Brussels).
Denmark

Danish statistics on manufacturing output, total hours, and compensation exclude
manufacturing activities classified as handicrafts, including all firms with less than 6
employees and certain manufacturing industries for which statistics do not corres­
pond well with those available for other industry. Those manufacturing activities
excluded accounted for approximately 20 percent of production value in manufac­
turing in 1966.
Output. Gross product originating at factor cost in 1955 kroner, obtained by extra­
polation of base-year value added using single indicators—
output volume indexes
compiled from gross output values in current prices deflated by appropriate price




indexes. Publication: “Nationalregnskabsstatistik,” in Statistiske Efterretninger (Danmarks Statistik, Copenhagen).
Hours. Total hours worked in manufacturing computed by BLS using wage and
salary worker employment and total wage worker hours data from monthly establish­
ment survey, benchmarked to data from annual census of manufacturing establish­
ments employing six or more workers, both conducted by Danmarks Statistik.
Homeworkers and persons working less than 15 hours per week excluded. Census
statistics linked at 1965 and 1970 to account for sample revisions. Publication:
“Industribeskaeftigelsen,” in Statistiske Efterretninger (Danmarks Statistik, Copen­
hagen).
Compensation. Total compensation of employees, from Danish national accounts.
Publication: “Nationalregnskabsstatistik,” in Statistiske Efterretninger (Danmarks
Statistik, Copenhagen).
France

Output. Gross product originating in 1963 market prices from European Economic
Community harmonized national accounts for 1960-70, and gross product origi­
nating including mining in 1970 market prices from French national accounts for
later years. Estimation procedure involves extrapolation of output and inputs within
the framework of detailed annual input-output tables. Extrapolation using quantity
indicators. Publication: National Accounts Yearbook (Statistical Office of the Euro­
pean Communities, Luxembourg) and Rapport sur les Comptes de la Nation (Minis­
tere de l’Economie et des Finances, Institut national de la Statistique et des Etudes
economiques (INSEE), Paris).
Hours. BLS estimate of total hours worked by all employees. Compiled using em­
ployment data published with national accounts and adjusted average scheduled
hours of wage and salary workers. Employment estimates by INSEE based on popu­
lation census, annual labor force survey, and quarterly establishment survey. Average
scheduled hours obtained from the quarterly survey of establishments with 10 or
more employees. Scheduled hours adjusted by BLS for changes in holiday and vaca­
tion leave and for time lost due to strikes, using information from various sources.
Publications: National Accounts Yearbook (Statistical Office of the European Com­
munities, Luxembourg) and Rapport sur les Comptes de la Nation (INSEE, Paris);
Bulletin Mensuel et Supplements des Statistiques du Travail (Ministere du Travail,
Division de la Statistique, Paris).
Compensation. For 1960-65, total compensation of employees compiled by INSEE
for EEC harmonized national accounts; for 1966 and later years, BLS estimates.

1971. Aggregate wages and salaries estimated by BLS on basis of wage, salary, and
employment data for manufacturing excluding handicrafts from the Monthly Indus­
try Report. Wages and salaries adjusted for changes in employer social insurance
contributions using employee compensation data for the total economy from the
German national accounts. Publications: Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen,
Konten und Standardtabellen (Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden); Industrie und
Handwerk: Beschaftigung und Umsatz, Brennstoff- und Energieversorgung (Statis­
tisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden).

Compensation in 1960-68 adjusted by BLS for 5-percent payroll tax for general
government revenues. BLS estimates compiled on basis of total employment pub­
lished with national accounts; annual employment structure survey data; average
hourly earnings of wage workers obtained from semiannual surveys of establishments
with 10 or more employees; average hours worked by wage workers computed using
data sources and procedures cited in previous section; monthly earnings of salary
workers obtained from same establishment survey as wage worker earnings; and
additional compensation data from EEC labor cost surveys extrapolated to other
years on the basis of other information. Publications: National Accounts Yearbook
(Statistical Office of the European Communities, Luxembourg); Statistiques du
Travail, selected supplements (Ministere du Travail, Division de la Statistique, Paris);
Labor Costs in Industry, Social Statistics series (Statistical Office of the European
Communities, Luxembourg).

Italy

Output. Gross product originating at factor costs in 1963 lire, and for years since
1970, gross product originating, including mining but excluding energy products, at
market prices in 1970 lire, linked to manufacturing series. Constant price estimates
obtained by deflating current price data on both gross output and inputs, these data
having been used to compile the estimates of value added by industry in current
prices. Publication: Annuario di Contabilita Nazionale (Institute Centrale di Statistica, Rome).

Germany

Output Gross product originating -in market prices in 1962 marks, obtained by
double deflation of current-price output and input data which are benchmarked to
the 5-year census of manufactures and irregular craft censuses. Ratios of inputs to
gross output are obtained from the censuses and from periodic cost structure surveys,
and are assumed to be fixed between benchmark years. Constant-price value added
estimated by deflating gross output by means of output price indexes and adjusting
input ratios for changes in input prices. Publication: Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen, Konten und Standardtabellen (Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden).

Hours. Total hours worked by manufacturing employees, estimated by BLS using
data on total employment and average hours worked by production workers. Begin­
ning in 1965, employment data are from a quarterly survey of establishments with
10 or more employees conducted by the Ministry of Labor and National Insurance,
benchmarked to April all-establishment employment estimates made by the Ministry
for the Statistical Office of the European Communities. Statistics on the number of
permanent employees (employees working more than 32 hours per week) from the
quarterly labor force survey are used for the years betore 1965 and are linked to the
establishment-survey-based data at 1965. Average hours worked by production
workers are also obtained form the quarterly establishment survey. Publications:
Rassegna di Statistiche del Lavoro (Servizio Italiano Publicazioni Internazionali,
Rome); Social Statistics (Statistical Office of the European Communities, Luxem­
bourg); Bollettino Mensile di Statistica, August 1966 supplement (Instituto Centrale
di Statistica, Rome).

Hours. Computed by BLS using wage and salary worker and proprietor employment
and wage worker average hours from Statistisches Bundesamfs Monthly Industry
Report covering manufacturing enterprises, excluding licensed handicrafts, with 10
and more employees.
Total hours exclude employees in handicrafts and small establishments and in­
clude the self-employed, while output includes licensed handicrafts and compensa­
tion covers all wage and salary workers including those in licensed handicrafts consid­
ered manufacturing activity. Preliminary calculations of handicraft worker hours by
BLS indicate that this discrepancy has little effect on the productivity or hourly
compensation trends over time, although it does affect some year-to-year changes.
Publication: Industrie und Handwerk: Beschaftigung und Umsatz, Brennstoff- und
Energieversorgung (Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden).

Compensation. Total compensation of
including mining but excluding energy
have information concerning details of
nuario di Contabilita Nazional (Instituto

Compensation. Total compensation of employees, from German national accounts
for 1960-71. Beginning in 1972, BLS estimates of manufacturing wages and salaries
plus employer social security contributions linked to natioanl accounts measure at




24

employees from Italian national accounts,
products from 1970. The Bureau does not
the estimation procedure. Publication: A n­
Centrale di Statistica, Rome).

of manufactures and labor force survey. Publication: Nationalrakenskaper (Statistiska Centralbyran, Stockholm).

Netherlands

Output. Gross product originating at market prices in 1963 guilders for 1961-69;
index of industrial production for 1970 and later years. Real value added compiled
within the framework of detailed input-output tables. Preferred method of estima­
tion-extrapolation of base-year value added using single indicators of quantities of
gross output. Double deflation of gross output and inputs used for a few industries.
Index of industrial production calculated using data on quantities produced, deflated
values of deliveries, quantities of materials used, and other estimates, combined with
1970 factor cost value-added weights. Publications: National Accounts Yearbook
(Statistical Office of the European Communities, Luxembourg); Maandschrift (Cen­
tral Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague).

Compensation. Total compensation of employees from Swedish national accounts.
Compensation adjusted by BLS for an employment tax for general Government
revenues introduced in 1969. Publication: Nationalrakenskaper (Statistiska Central­
byran, Stockholm).
Switzerland

Output. Index of industrial production, calculated using quantity indicators pri­
marily, combined using gross value-added weights. Handicrafts and manufacture of
transport equipment, musical instruments, and jewelry not covered by index. Indi­
cators used are quantities produced, quantities of materials used, volume of exports,
and deflated value of sales, which together measure 85 percent of value added in the
manufacturing industries covered. Gross value added in 1964 market prices used to
combine the indexes for 1964 and later years; gross value added in 1958 market
prices used to combine the indexes for 1958 to 1963. Publication: La Vie Economique (Departement Federal de L’Economie Publique, Berne).

Hours. Total hours worked by all employees, estimated by BLS using data on
(1) number of employees (in man-years) from Dutch national accounts; and (2) aver­
age weekly scheduled hours including overtime of wage and salaried workers in
industry, obtained from a semiannual survey of earnings and hours in establishments
with 10 or more employees, and adjusted by BLS for changes in holiday, vacation,
and personal leave. Published employment statistics are adjusted by BLS, beginning
in 1970, to exclude employment in natural gas and oil extraction. Publications:
Nationale Rekiningen (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague); Sociale
Maandstatistiek and Jaarcifers (Central Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague).

Hours. Total paid hours of wage workers in manufacturing, excluding handicrafts,
computed by BLS using data on wage worker employment and average weekly paid
hours from quarterly reports of industrial establishments subject to the “Federal Act
respecting work in industry, handicrafts, and commerce” (Labor Act). The reports
cover one-third of the establishments subject to the act and two-thirds of all wage
workers engaged in manufacturing. Publication: Yearbook o f Labour Statistics (In­
ternational Labour Office, Geneva).

Compensation. Total compensation of employees from Dutch national accounts.
Published compensation adjusted by BLS, beginning in 1970, to exclude compensa­
tion in natural gas and oil extraction. Publication: Nationale Rekeningen (Central
Bureau voor de Statistiek, The Hague).

Compensation. Total compensation of wage workers, calculated by BLS using data
on (1) average hourly earnings, obtained from an annual October earnings survey
covering establishments employing approximately 85 percent of all workers engaged
in manufacturing; (2) additional compensation, estimated by the Swiss Employers’
Confederation; and (3) total paid hours. Publications: La Vie Economique (Departe­
ment Federal de L’Economie Publique, Berne); and Wages and Total Labour Costs
for Workers, International Survey (Swedish Employers’ Confederation, Research De­
partment, Stockholm).

Sweden

Output. Gross product originating in 1968 market prices. Constant-price estimates
calculated by separately deflating data on gross output and inputs used to compile
current price estimates of value added. Current-price data obtained from comprehen­
sive annual industrial surveys. Real gross output estimated using both quantity indi­
cators and price deflation. For inputs, current values deflated by fixed-weight price
indexes.
Hours. Aggregate hours worked by employees, from Swedish national accounts. Em­
ployment data from the quinquennial Census of Population and Housing are adjusted
to labor force survey concepts, and extrapolated for other years. Extrapolation of
employment and estimating of average hours based on data from the annual survey




United Kingdom

Output. Index of real output at 1970 factor costs from the British national accounts
(also published as annual index of industrial production), obtained by single indi­
25

cator extrapolation of base-year value added. Indicator most frequently used is de­
flated value of sales or deliveries. 1970 value-added weights, derived from inputoutput table compiled using 1968 and 1970 Census of Production data, used to
combine index since 1968; other weight bases are 1958 and 1963. At time of each
earlier rebasing, estimates of real output revised to take account of Census of Produc­
tion data. Long-term index linked using coefficients derived from 3-year overlaps.
Index for whole period recalculated on 1968 SIC. Publication: National Income and
Expenditure or Monthly Digest o f Statistics (Central Statistical Office, London).

prises in Great Britain with 25 or more employees. Publications: National Income
and Expenditure (Central Statistical Office, London); Labour Costs in Great Britain,
1968 (Department of Employment, London); Department o f Employment Gazette
and British Labour Statistics Year Book (Department of Employment, London).
Compensation. Total compensation of employees from national accounts, adjusted
by BLS for net premiums from the selective employment tax (SET) introduced in
1966. Compensation compiled using data on (1) aggregate wages and salaries, ob­
tained primarily from periodic Census of Production statistics, extrapolated to non­
survey years using annual data on numbers employed and average wages and salaries;
and (2) employer expenditures for pay in kind and social insurance programs, esti­
mated on the basis of Government tax statistics, Department of Employment labor
cost survey results, and Government surveys of pension programs. Publication: Na­
tional Income and Expenditure (Central Statistical Office, London).

Hours. Total hours worked by manufacturing employees, estimated by BLS using
data on total employment, published with the national accounts, and average weekly
hours worked by production workers. Employment figures based on census of pro­
duction coverage and definitions. Average hours are estimated by applying the
monthly index of average weekly hours worked by operatives to 1968 annual hours
worked by all employees from the 1968 labor cost survey of manufacturing enter­




26

Appendix B. Reference Tables
Page

Page
B -l.
B-2.
B-3.
B-4.
B-5.
B-6.
B-7.
B-8.
B-9.
B-10.
B-l 1.
B-l2.
B-l3.
B-l4.
B -l5.
B-16.
B-17.

Output per hour in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75 .....................
Hourly compensation in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75 . . .
Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on national currency
values, 12 countries, 1950-75
Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on U.S. dollar values, 12
countries, 1950-75
Output in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, United States, 1950-75 ........................................................
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Canada, 1950-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Japan, 1950-75 ....................................................................
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Belgium, 1960-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Denmark, 1950-75 ................................................................
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, France, 1950-75 ....................................................................
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Germany, 1950-75 ................................................................
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Italy, 1950-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Netherlands, 1950-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Sweden, 1950-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, Switzerland, 1960-75
Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manu­
facturing, United Kingdom, 1950-75




B-l 8.

29
30

B-l9.
31
B-20.
32
33

B-21.

34

Productivity
1960-74
Productivity
1960-74
Productivity
1960-74
Productivity

change in manufacturing by source, United States,
46
change in manufacturing by source, United Kingdom,
46
change in manufacturing by source, Germany,
change in manufacturing by source, Japan, 1960-72 . . .

47
47

United States

35

B-22.
B-23
B-24
B-25.

36
37

B-26.

38

B-27.

39

Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Output, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74

48
49
50
51
52
53

40
United Kingdom
41

43

B-28.
B-29.
B-30.
B-31.

44

B-32.

45

B-33.

42

27

Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Output, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74

54
55
56
57
58
. 59

Page

Page

Japan

Germany
B-34.
B-35.
B-36.
B-37.
B-38.
B-39.

Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries,1960-74
Output, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74
.................................
Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-74 .........................................
Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-74
Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturingindustries, 1960-74
.




B-40.
B-41.
B-42.
B-43.

60
61
62
63

B-44.
64
65

B-45.

28

Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-72
Output, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-72
Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, 1960-72
Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-72
Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries,
1960-72
Percent distribution, 15 manufacturing industries,1960-72

66
67
68
69
70
71

Table B-1. Output per hour in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

YEAE
1950 ......
1951 ......
1952 .......
1953 ......
1954 .......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
I960 ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1964 ......
1965 ......
1966 .......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1S 71 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1974 ......
1975p .....

UNITED
STATES

CANADA

JA FAN

BEL­
GIUM

DEN­
MARK

FRANCE

64.9
67.0
68.2
69.4
70.5
74.0
73.5
75.0
74.6
78.1
78.8
80.7
84. 5
90.4
95. 2
98.2
99.7
100.0
103. 6
1 04 .9
104. 5
110.3
116, 0
119.4
114. 7
114.9

51. 9
54.0
55. 5
57 .4
59. 8
63.8
66. 5
66 .9
69. 2
73.0
75. 5
79.6
83. 9
87.1
90. 9
94 .4
97. 2
100.0
107. 3
113.3
115. 2
122.9
126. 9
131.1
131. 0
133.1

21.4
26.8
28.2
32.0
34. 3
36.0
38.4
41.9
39. 2
45.6
52. 6
59.3
61.9
67.1
75. 9
79.1
87. 1
100.0
112. 6
130 .0
146. 5
151.7
163. 9
184.3
187. 5
181.7

0.0
0.0
0. C
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
70.5
71.7
76.7
79.3
84.1
88.0
94.2
100.0
109.1
118.6
129.2
136.3
152.6
164.2
174.0
183.3

50.3
50.9
50.5
51.2
53 .4
54.8
56 .3
58. 4
60.4
64. 5
66 .6
70.4
74.0
76. 4
82 .6
86.7
91 .1
100.0
109.8
120.3
129.3
138.8
150.7
159.8
166 .9
180.8

43.9
46. 2
47 .7
50. 2
51 .6
54. 2
57.7
58. 6
60.9
65. 3
68.7
71.9
75 .2
79.7
83 .7
88. 5
94 .7
100.0
111.4
115. 4
121 .2
127. 5
135 .9
142.2
146.1
139. 8

p = preliminary.
NOTE: The data relate to all employed persons (wage and salary earners, the self-employed,




GERMANY

ITALY

36 .6
37.7
41 .2
44.2
46 .0
48.9
50.2
54.6
57 .4
62.0
66 .4
70.0
74 .4
78.4
84 .5
90.4
94 .0
100.0
107 .6
113.8
116.6
122. 5
130.3
138.6
145 .6
150.4

36.5
40.7
42.3
44.1
46.6
51.1
54.4
56. 5
58.5
62.9
65.1
67.4
74.1
76.5
81.5
91.6
96.0
100.0
108.4
112.2
117.8
123.5
132.9
147.8
155.5
150.7

NETHER­
LANDS SWEDEN
42.9
44.4
45. 5
49.1
51.0
53.6
56. 8
59.0
60.3
64.7
68. 1
71.9
73.8
75.7
82.9
87.8
93.1
100.0
110.9
120.5
132.2
140.6
152.0
163.9
173.3
169.9

45.0
46.3
46.2
48.7
48.7
48.3
52. 4
55.1
57.6
61.1
63.1
66.1
7 1.0
75.1
8 1.9
88.5
9 2.1
100 .C
110.1
118.3
124.5
128.0
137.9
147.4
154.7
154.7

SWITZ­
ERLAND
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
77.7
80. 4
80.5
79.9
82.2
85. 8
90.5
95. 2
100.0
105. 2
116.1
125. 5
131.3
137.9
147.7
150.7
144. 8

UNITED
KINGDOM
61.9
62 .5
59.9
62.7
64.8
66.9
66.9
68.5
69.7
72 .5
76.8
77.4
79.3
83.6
89.7
92.4
9 5.7
100.0
10 6.9
108.4
109. 1
114.3
121. 2
127.9
127. 1
125.4

and unpaid family workers) in the United States and Canada, wage earners in Switzerland, and
all employees (wage and salary earners) in the other countries.

29

Table B-2. Hourly compensation in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

YEA B
1950 ......
1951......
1952 ......
1952 ......
1 9 5 4 ......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
I960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1 9 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1 5 7 1 ......
1572 ......
1973 ......
1974 ......
197 5 p .....

UNITED
STATES

CANADA

JAPAN

BEL­
GIUM

45.0
49. 5
52.7
55.7
58.2
60.4
64.3
68.1
71.1
74.0
77.0
79.3
82.5
85.1
88.9
90.9
95.2
100.0
107.0
114.0
121.7
129.8
137.0
147.0
161.7
179.8

39. 3
44.5
48.9
51.3
54. 2
55.9
58.9
62.9
66.1
68.7
72.2
74. 1
76. 3
79.0
82.0
86.1
92.9
100.0
107. 3
115.3
124. 3
133.1
142.6
155.2
174. 4
203.0

17. 7
22.6
26. 1
27.4
30. 1
31.5
32.8
34.4
3 5. 1
39.1
43. 1
50.2
57.3
64.0
71.9
81.0
89. 3
100.0
116. 3
137.9
164. 2
190.2
219.5
267.9
352.2
406.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
52.5
55.6
59. 8
66.2
74. 2
82.3
91.4
100.0
106. 3
116.2
130. 9
149.7
173.8
199.0
240.4
286.9

DEN­
MARK

FRANCE1 GERMANY

26.6
21.6
29.5
27.7
32.0 , 32. 1
33 .0
33.0
34.5
34.9
36.3
37.6
39.0
40.5
41 .3
43.6
48.7
43.2
46.2
51.8
49.2
56.0
55.2
61.6
60.5
67,. 8
65.7
74.9
71.1
80.5
78.9
86.7
89.6
92.4
100.0
100.0
111.2
113.3
124.1
120.0
134.7
145.0
157.2
150.6
168.4
176. 1
203 .4
190.0
244.9
231.2
272.5
295.3

1 Compensation adjusted to include changes in employment taxes that are not compensation
to employees, but are labor costs to employers,
p = preliminary.




24.#
27.6
29.6
31.0
32.®
34.2
36.9
41.3
44.8
48.6
54.3
60.6
68.5
73.2
78.9
86 .7
94.5
100.0
105.9
115 .5
133.0
151.5
169.4
191.8
221.9
247 .6

ITALY
25.8
28.3
3®.5
32.5
33.9
37.0
40.3
42.5
45.5
47.1
49. 5
52.5
61.5
73.2
82.3
89.0
91.4
100.0
107.2
117.6
141.1
165.9
189.2
237.6
297.3
383.2

SWITZ­
NETHER­
LANDS SWEEIN1 ERLAND
22.7
25. 1
26.7
27.5
3®.2
33.0
36.6
40.7
42.4
4 3. 4
46.6
53. 3
56.7
62.2
72.1
80.5
90.0
100.0
110.4
124.4
143.8
163.8
188.0
220. 2
261.8
297. 4

23.1
27.0
31.7
33. 5
34.3
36.6
3 9.3
42.0
45.2
47. 2
50.8
55.7
62 .2
68.7
74.9
82. 5
90.2
100.0
109.2
119. 5
131 .9
148. 2
168 .6
185. 5
217.2
259. 3

f.O
0. 0
®.®
0. 0
®.«
0.0
0.®
0. 0
0.9
54. 4
57.1
62. 2
68.1
74. 3
80.5
86. 6
94.1
100. 0
105.2
112. 2
124.7
141. 1
157.4
177. 9
201.4
216. 0

ONI TED
KINGDOM1
33.6
36.5
4®.®
42.0
44.4
47.6
51.7
55.0
58.6
60.4
64.5
69.5
73.1
76.5
8 2.0
89.7
97.2
100.0
107.2
115.8
132.8
151.7
170.3
193.7
230.0
291.8

NOTE: The data relate to all employed persons (wage and salary earners, the self-employed,
and unpaid family workers) in the United States and Canada, wage earners in Switzerland, and
all employees (wage and salary earners) in the other countries.

30

Table B-3. Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on national currency values, 12 countries, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967= 100)

YE AB
19 E C ......
1 9 5 1 ......
19 5 2 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 4 ...............
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1956 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
196 U ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 4 ......
1S75p .....

UNITED
STATES

CANADA

JAPAN

69.4
73.9
77.3
80. 2
82.5
81.6
87.5
90.8
95.4
94.8
97.7
98.3
97.7
94.2
93.4
92.6
95.4
100.0
103.3
108.7
116. 5
117.6
118.1
123.2
140.9
156.4

75.8
82.4
88.1
89.4
90.5
87.6
88.6
93.9
95.6
94. 1
95.6
93.0
90.9
90.7
90.2
91.3
95.6
100.0
99.9
101.7
107.9
108. 3
112.3
118.4
133.1
152.6

82.7
8 4. 5
92.7
8 5. 5
87.6
87. 4
85.4
8 2. 2
89.6
8 5. 6
82.0
8 4. 5
92.5
9 5. 4
94.8
10 2. 3
102.5
100.0
103.4
106. 1
112.1
125. 4
134.0
145. 4
187.8
223. 5

BEL­
GIUM

DENMABK

FBANCE

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

52.8
57.8
63.4
64.5
64.6
66.2
69.2
70.8
71.5
71.6
73.8
78.4
81.7
86.0
86 .0
91,0
98 .4
100.0
101.3
103.2
112.2
113.3
116.8
127.3
146.7
163.3

49.2
60.0
67.2
65.8
67.6
69.3
70.1
74.4
80.0
79.2
81.4
85.7
90. 1
94.0
96.2
98.0
97.5
100.0
101.7
104.0
111.1
118.2
123.9
133.6
158.3
195.0

0.0
0.0
74.5
77. 6
78.0
83. 4
88.2
93. 5
97.0
100.0
97.4
97. 9
101.4
109. 8
113.9
121. 2
138.1
156. 5

p = preliminary.
NOTE: The data relate to all employed persons (wage and salary earners, the self-employed,




GEFMANY

ITALY

65.7
73.4
71.7
70.2
69.6
69.9
73.6
75.6
78. 1
78.4
81.8
86.5
92.0
S3.3
93. 3
95.8
100.5
1C0.0
98. 5
1C1.4
114.0
123.7
130.0
138.4
152.4
164.6

70. 7
69.5
72. 0
73.7
72. 8
72.4
74. 0
75.3
77. 8
74.8
76. 1
78.0
82. 9
95.7
101.0
97.2
95. 2
100.0
98. 9
104.8
119. 8
134.3
142. 4
160.8
191.2
254.2

NETHER­
LANDS SWEDEN
52.9
56.6
58.6
56.0
59.2
61.6
64. 5
68.9
70.3
67.0
68.4
74.1
76.8
82.2
87.0
91.7
96.6
100.0
99.6
103.3
108.8
116.5
123.7
134.4
151. 1
175.0

51.3
58.3
68.7
68.7
70.3
74.1
75.1
76.2
78.4
77.2
80.6
84.2
87.6
91.5
91.4
93.2
97.9
100.0
99.2
101.0
105.9
114.8
122.2
125.8
140.4
167.6

SWITZ­
ERLAND
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
70. 1
71.0
77,3
85.3
90.5
93. 8
95.6
98.9
100.0
100.0
96.7
99.4
107.4
114.2
120.4
133. 7
149.2

UNITED
KI NGDCM
54.3
58.4
66.8
67.0
68.5
71.2
77.3
80.3
84.1
83.3
84.0
89.8
92.2
91.5
91.4
97.1
101.6
100.0
100.2
106.8
121.7
132.6
140.5
151.4
180.9
232.7

and unpaid family workers) in the United States and Canada, wage earners in Switzerland, and
all employees (wage and salary earners) in the other countries.

31

Table B-4. Unit labor costs in manufacturing, based on U.S. dollar values, 12 countries, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 - 100)

YEAH
1 9 5 0 ...................
1 9 5 1 ...................
1 9 5 2 ..................
1 9 5 3 ...................
1 9 5 a ...............
1 9 5 5 ...................
1 9 5 6 ...................
1 9 5 7 ..................
1 9 5 8 ..................
1 9 5 9 ...................
1 9 6 0 ...................
1 9 6 1 ..................
1 9 6 2 ..................
1 9 6 3 ...................
1 9 6 a ...............
1 9 6 5 ...................
1 9 6 6 ...................
1 9 6 7 ..................
1 9 6 8 ...................
1 9 6 9 ...................
1 9 7 0 ...................
1 9 7 1 ...................
1 9 7 2 ...................
1 9 7 3 ...................
1 9 7 4 ..................
1 9 7 5 p ................

UNITED
STATES

CANADA

JA EAN

69. a
73.9
77. 3
80.2
82. 5
81 . 6
87. 5
90.8
95. 4
94.8
97.7
98.3
97.7
94.2
93. 4
92 . 6
95. 4
100.0
103. 3
108.7
116.5
117.6
118. 1
123.2
140.9
156.4

74. 8
84.4
97. 0
98.0
100. 3
95.8
97. 1
105.7
106. 2
105.8
106. 3
99.1
91. 8
90.7
90. 2
91.3
95. 7
100.0
100. 1
101.9
111. 5
115.7
122. 3
127.7
146. 9
161.8

83.2
85.0
93.3
86.1
88. 1
87.9
85.9
82.7
90. 1
86.1
82. 5
84.8
92.8
95.6
94. 8
102.5
102. 4
100.0
103. 8
107.2
113.3
130.7
160. 1
194.3
233.4
272.9

BEL­
GIUM

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
o.c

0.0
7a . 2

77.3
77.S
83.1
88.1
93.6
96.8
100.0
96.9
97.0
101.5
1 1 2 .a
128.5
155.2
176.5
211.9

DENMABK

FRANCE

53.4
58.5
64.2
65.3
65.3
66.9
70.0
71.5
72.3
72.5
7a .7
79.2
82.6
87.0
86.8
91.8
99.5
100.0
101.5
95.8
ica.a

106.8
117.3
ia7 . 6
1 6 8 .a
198.8

69.2
84.3
94.5
92.5
94.9
97.4
98.5
87.0
81 . 7
79.5
81 . 7
85.9
90.5
94.3
96.6
98.3
97.6
100.0
101.1
98.8
98.9
105.5
120.8
148.1
162.0
224.1

p = preliminary
NOTE: The data relate to all employed persons (wage and salary earners, the self-employed,




GERMANY

ITALY

62.4
€9.7
€ 8.2
66.8
66.1
66.2
69.7
71.7
74.2
74.7
78.1
85.9
91.7
93.3
93.6
95.7
100.2
100.0
98.3
103. 1
124.6
141.8
1 €2 . 5
208.3
235.2
267.3

70.6
69. 4
71 . 9
73. 6
72.7
72. 3
73.9
75. 2
77.8
75. 2
76.5
78. 3
83.4
96. 1
1 01 . 0
97. 1
95.1
100.0
99.0
104. 3
119.2
135. 6
152.2
172. 5
183.4
243. 2

NETHER­
LANDS SWEDEN
50.0
53. 5
55.6
53. 1
56.3
58. 2
60.6
65.0
66.9
64.0
65.4
73.6
76.8
82. 2
86.9
91. 8
96.2
100.0
99.1
102.7
108.4
120. 3
138.9
174. 1
202.8
249. 8

51.2
58.2
68.5
68. 5
70.2
7 4 .C
74.9
7 6 .C
78.2
77.0
80.5
84.1
87.7
9 1 .C
9 1.6
93.3
97.8
1 0 0 .C
99.1
100.8
105.4
116.1
132.6
149.2
163.6
208.9

SWITZ­
ERLAND

0.0
0. 0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
o.c
o,.o

0. 0
0.0
70.2
71. 1
77.4
8 5. 4
90.6
9 3.9
95.6
98. 9
100.0
100. 3
97.1
99.7
113.1
129. 5
165.2
194.9
2 5 C .2

UNITED
KINGDOM
55. 2
59.4
67.8
68.6
70.0
72.3
78.6
81 . 5
85.9
85.1
8 5.7
91.4
94. 1
93.1
9 2.8
98.7
10 3. 1
100.0
87. 2
92.8
10 6 . 0
117.9
127.7
134.9
153.9
187.9

and unpaid family workers) in the United States and Canada, wage earners in Switzerland, and
all employees (wage and salary earners) in the other countries.

32

Table B-5. Output in manufacturing, 12 countries, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

YEA B
1950 ......
19 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 4 ......
1 9 5 5 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ___ _ . .
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1 9 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
19 7 C ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 97 a .....
1975p .....

UNITED
STATES

CANADA

JAPAN

BEL­
GIUM

DEN­
MARK

FRANCE

51 .7
57.5
59.3
63. a
58.9
65.3
65.7
66. 1
60.3
67.2
67.7
67.4
73.3
79.1
84.9
92.5
100.0
100.0
105.6
108.7
102.6
103.9
113.6
123.2
116.8
106.3

41. a
44.9
46.6
50.0
48.9
53.6
58.6
58.5
57.4
61.6
62.7
65.2
71.3
76.1
83.4
91.0
97.4
100.0
106.7
114.4
112.9
119.6
127.5
137.8
141.7
134.8

8.6
12.1
13.1
16.2
17.8
19.2
23.7
28.1
27.6
33.5
42.0
50.3
54.6
61.0
70,8
73.5
83. 3
100.0
115.4
134.3
152.9
157.0
168.7
195.4
189.3
168.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
69.6
72.7
78.4
82.3
89.8
93.2
98.6
100.0
107.2
119.7
131. 3
136.6
148. 3
158.8
165.6
149.0

45.0
45 .4
43.2
44.8
48.5
49.4
50.1
53 .1
55.3
62.0
68.5
72.2
78.4
79.4
88.7
94.6
96.5
100.0
107.0
120.7
127.7
132 .2
142.5
148.2
152.7
142.0

37. 6
41 .2
41.9
43.1
45.0
47.7
52.2
55.2
57. 1
59.5
64. 5
68.7
73.3
79.1
84.9
88.4
95. 8
100.0
106. 4
116.2
123. 7
13 0.6
138. 8
146 .6
150. 1
136 .7

p = preliminary.




33

GERMANY

ITALY

26.9
30.9
35.1
39.1
43.5
50.7
54.4
57.9
60.3
65 .5
73.5
78.7
82.3
84.9
92.5
100.3
102.3
100.0
111.5
124.8
132.2
134 .7
138.8
147.9
146.9
137.1

26.4
30.2
31.4
34.0
37. 5
40.9
44.1
47.0
48.0
53.3
60.2
66.3
73.4
78.2
79.2
83.3
91.0
100.0
109.3
116.4
125.6
126.0
131.1
145.3
154.4
139.4

NETHER­
LANDS SWEDEN
36.4
38.0
38.0
42.0
45.9
49.9
53.8
56. 2
56.2
61.8
68.9
71.3
74.8
77.6
85.4
91.3
96.2
100.0
109.5
120. 1
129.5
134.6
138.5
145.6
148.9
138.5

44.3
47.2
46.0
47.0
49.1
51.3
54.0
56.8
58.0
61. 2
65.9
70.4
75.8
79. 5
87.2
94.0
96.7
100.0
106.1
114. 2
122.1
122.0
124.7
132.8
140.3
137. 1

SWITZ­
ERLAND

0.0
0 .0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
68. 5
74.8
80.0
83.5
87.0
91.3
93. 9
96.5
100. 0
104.3
114. 8
123.5
127. 0
129.6
136.5
138.3
118.3

UNITED
KINGDOM
60.9
63.3
60.1
64.4
67.9
72.2
72.0
73.7
72.9
77.2
83.4
83.5
83.7
86.7
94.8
97.6
99.3
100.0
106.8
110.9
111 .4
110.9
114.0
123.5
120.0
112.9

Table B-6. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing,
United States, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOUEIY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTEOT

HOURS

COMPEN­
SATION

OUTPUT
PEB
HOUR

NATICNAL
CURRENCY

UNIT LABOR COSTS

BASIS

1950 ......
1 9 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 4 ......
1 9 5 5 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1964 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1 9 7 C ......
1971 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1974 ......
1 9 7 5 p .....

.51 .7
57.5
59.3
63.4
58.9
65.3
65.7
66.1
60.3
67.2
67.7
67.4
73.3
79. 1
84.9
92.5
100.0
100.0
105.6
108.7
102.6
103.9
113.6
123.2
116.8
106.3

79.6
85.7
87.0
91.4
83.5
88.1
89.4
88.1
80.9
86.0
85.9
83.5
86.8
87.6
89.2
94.3
100.3
100. 0
101.9
103. 7
98.2
94. 2
98.0
103. 2
101.8
92. 5

35.8
42.5
45* 9
5C.9
48.6
53.3
57.5
6C.0
57.5
63.7
66.1
66.3
71.6
74.5
79.3
85.7
95.4
1CO.O
109.1
118.2
119.5
122.3
134.2
151.8
164.6
166.3

64. 9
67.0
68. 2
69.4
70. 5
74.0
73. 5
75.0
74.6
78.1
78. 8
8C.7
84. 5
90.4
9 5. 2
98.2
99. 7
100.0
103. 6
104.9
10 4. 5
11C.3
115.0
119.4
114. 7
114.9

p = preliminary.




34

EOILAE
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
COLLAR
BASIS

45.0
49.5
52.7
55.7
58.2
60.4
64.3
68.1
71.1
74.0
77.0
79.3
82. 5
85.1
88w 9
90 .9
95.2
100.0
107.0
114 .0
121.7
129 .8
137.0
147.0
161.7
179 .8

45. 0
49.5
52.7
55.7
58.2
60.4
€4. 3
68. 1
71.1
74.0
77.0
79.3
82. 5
85. 1
88.9
90.9
95.2
100.0
107.0
114.0
121.7
129.8
137.0
147.0
161.7
179.8

69.4
73. 9
77.3
80. 2
82.5
81. 6
87.5
90.8
95.4
94. 8
97.7
98. 3
97.7
94. 2
93.4
92. 6
95.4
100.0
103.3
108.7
116.5
117.6
118.1
123.2
140.9
156.4

69.4
73.9
77.3
80. 2
82.5
81. 6
87.5
90. 8
95.4
94. 8
97.7
98.3
97.7
94. 2
93.4
92.6
95.4
100.0
103.3
108.7
116.5
117.6
118.1
123.2
140.9
156.4

u. s.

Table B-7. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Canada, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

COMPEN­
SATION

1950 ......
1 9 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
195*1......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1956 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1 9 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1 9 7 0 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 4 ......
1975 ......

41 •4
44.S
46.6
50.0
48.9
53.6
58.6
58.5
57.4
61.6
62.7
65.2
71.3
76.1
83.4
91.0
97.4
100.0
106.7
114.4
112.9
119.6
127.5
137.8
141 .7
134.8

79.6
83. 2
84.0
87. 1
81.6
84. 0
88.2
87. 4
83.0
84. 4
83.0
81. 9
85.0
87. 4
91.7
96.4
100.2
100. 0
99.4
101. 0
98.0
97.3
100.4
105. 1
108.2
101. 3

31.3
37.0
41.1
44.7
44.2
47.0
52.0
55.0
54.9
58.0
59.9
60.7
64.8
65.1
75.3
83.0
93.1
1CO.O
106.7
116.4
121.8
129.5
143.2
163.1
188.6
2C5.6

OUTPUT
PER
HOUR
51.9
54.0
55. 5
57.4
59.8
63.8
66. 5
66.9
69. 2
73. C
75. 5
79.6
83.9
87.1
90. 9
94.4
97. 2
1 00.0
107. 3
113.3
115. 2
122.9
126.9
131.1
131.0
133.1

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASIS

U.S,
DOLLAR
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

39.3
44.5
48. 9
51 .3
54.2
55 .9
58.9
62 .9
66. 1
68.7
72.2
74.1
76.3
79 .0
82.0
86.1
92.9
100.0
107.3
115.3
124.3
133.1
142.6
155 .2
174.4
203.0

38. 8
45. 6
53. 9
56. 3
60. 0
61. 2
64. 6
70. 7
73. 5
77. 2
80. 3
78. 9
77. 0
79. 0
82. 0
86. 2
93. 0
100. 0
107. 4
115. 5
128. 5
142. 2
155. 3
167. 4
192. 4
215. 3

75. 8
82. 4
88. 1
89. 4
90. c
87. 6
88. 6
93. 9
95. 6
94. 1
95. 6
93. 0
90. 9
90. 7
90. 2
91. 3
95. 6
100. 0
99. 9
101. 7
107. 9
108. 3
112. Z
118. 4
133. 1
152. 6

74. 8
84. 4
97. 0
98. 0
100. 3
95. 8
97. 1
105. 7
106. 2
105. 8
106. 3
99. 1
91. 8
90. 7
90. 2
91. 3
95. 7
100. 0
100. 1
10 1.9
111. 5
115. 7
122. 3
127. 7
146. 9
161. 8

p = preliminary.

1Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT' LABOR COSTS

35

EXCHANGE
SATE1

98.7
10 2.4
11 0.2
109.7
110.8
109.4
109.6
112.5
111.2
112.5
111 .3
106.5
100.9
100.0
100.0
100. 1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100. 2
103 .4
10 6.8
108.9
10 7 .9
,
11 0.3
10 6. 1

Table B-8. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Japan, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOUFIY COMPENSATION
YE AB

OUTPUT

HOURS

COBFENSAT ION

1 9 5 C ......
1 9 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 4 ......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1 9 6 ? ......
1963 ......
1 9 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 4 ......
1975P......

8.6
12.1
13.1
16.2
17.8
19.2
23.7
28.1
27.6
33.5
42.0
50.3
54.6
61.0
70.8
73. 5
83.3
100.0
115.4
134. 3
152.9
157.0
168.7
195. 4
189.3
168. 3

40.0
45.2
46.4
50. 5
51.7
53. 3
61.7
67. 1
70.5
73. 3
80.0
84. 8
88.1
91. 0
93.2
93. 0
95.7
100.0
102.6
103. 3
104.4
103. 5
102.9
106. 0
101.0
92.6

7.1
1C.2
12.1
13.8
15.5
16.8
20.3
23.1
24.7
28.6
34.5
42.5
50.5
56.2
67.1
75.3
85.4
1CC.0
119.3
142.4
171.4
196.9
225.9
284.1
355.6
376.3

OUTPUT
PER
HOUR

21. 4
26.8
28. 2
32.0
34. 3
36.0
38. 4
41.9
39. 2
45.6
52. 6
59.3
61. 9
67.1
75. 9
79.1
87. 1
10C.C
112. 6
130.0
146. 5
151.7
163.9
184.3
187. 5
181.7

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S,
DCILAB
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U,S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

17.7
22.6
26. 1
27.4
30. 1
31 .5
32.8
34.4
35. 1
39.1
43.1
50.2
57.3
64 .0
71.9
81 .0
89.3
100.0
116.3
137.9
164.2
190.2
219.5
267.9
352.2
406 .3

1 Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT LABOR COSTS

17. 8
22.8
26.3
27.6
30.2
31.7
33.0
34.7
35.3
39.3
43. 4
50.3
57. 5
64.1
72.0
81.1
89.2
100.0
116.9
139.3
166.0
198.2
262.3
358.2
437.6
495.9

82.7
84. 5
92.7
85.5
87.6
87.4
85.4
82.2
89.6
85.6
82.0
84.5
92.5
95.4
94.8
102. 3
102.5
100.0
103.4
106.1
112.1
125.4
134.0
145.4
187.8
223.5

83. 2
85. 0
93. 3
86. 1
88. 1
87. 9
85. 9
82. 7
90. 1
86. 1
82. 5
84. 8
92. 8
95. 6
94. 3
102. 5
102. a
100. 0
103. 8
107. 2
113. 3
130. 7
160. 1
194. 3
233. a
27 2. 9

p = preliminary.

36

EXCHANGE
BATE1

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.4
101. 1
101.1
10 4. 2
119.5
133.7
124.2
122. 1

Table B-9. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Belgium, 1960-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOUBIY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

COMPEN­
SATION

1 9 6 C ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
196(1......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1 S 7 0 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 4 ......
1975 p......

6 9„ 6
72.7
78.(1
82.3
89.8
93.2
98.6
100.0
107.2
119.7
131 .3
136. 6
148.3
158. 8
165.6
149.0

98.7
101. 4
102.2
103. 8
106.7
105. 8
104.7
100.0
98.2
100. 9
101.7
100.2
97.2
96. 8
95.1
81.3

51.8
56.4
61.2
68.7
79.2
87.1
95.7
1CC.0
104.4
117.2
133.1
15C.0
168.9
192.6
228.7
233.2

OUTPUT
FEB
HOUR
70. 5
71.7
76.7
79.3
8 4. 1
88.0
94. 2
100.0
109. 1
118.6
129. 2
136.3
152. 6
164.2
174.0
183.3

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S,
DOLLAB
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
EOLLAB
BASIS

52.5
55.6
59.8
66 .2
74.2
82.3
91.4
100.0
106.3
116.2
130.9
149.7
173.8
199.0
240. 4
286.9

'Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT LABOR COSTS

52.3
55.4
59.7
65.9
74. 1
82.4
91. 1
100.0
105.7
115.1
131.0
153.2
196. 2
254.8
307. 1
388.5

74.5
77.6
78.0
83.4
88.2
93.5
97.0
100.0
97.4
97.9
101.4
109.8
113.9
121.2
138.1
156.5

74.2
77.3
77.9
83. 1
88.1
93.6
96.8
100.0
96.9
97.0
101.5
112.4
128.5
155.2
176.5
211.9

p = preliminary.

37

EXCHANGE
RATE1

99.6
99.6
99.8
99.6
99.9
100.1
99.7
100.0
99.5
99. 1
100.1
10 2.4
112.9
128.0
127.8
135.4

Table B-10. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Denmark, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HCUBIY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

COMPEN­
SATION

1950 ......
1951 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1954 ......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
19 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1 9 6 6 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1971 ......
1972 .......
1973 ......
1974 .......
1975p .....

45.0
45.4
43.2
44. 8
48.5
49.4
50.1
53. 1
55.3
62.0
68.5
72.2
78.4
79.4
88.7
94.6
96.5
100.0
107.0
120.7
127.7
132.2
142.5
148.2
152.7
142.0

89.4
89. 1
85.6
87.4
90.9
90.2
88.9
91.0
91.6
96. 1
102.8
10 2.5
105.9
103.9
107.4
109.d
106.0
100.0
97.4
100. 3
98.8
95. 2
94.6
92.7
91.5
78. 5

23.7
26.3
27.4
28.9
31.4
32.7
34.7
37.6
39.6
44. 4
5C.5
56.6
64.0
68.3
76.3
86.0
95.0
100.0
108.4
124. 5
143.2
149.7
166.5
188.7
224.0
231.8

•

OUTPUT
PER
HOUR
50.3
50. 9
50.5
51.2
53.4
54. 8
56.3
58.4
60.4
64. 5
66.6
70. 4
74.0
7 6. 4
82.6
86. 7
91.1
100,. 0
109.8
120. 3
129.3
138. 8
150.7
159.8
166.9
180. 8

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASIS

u,s.
DOLLAR
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

26.6
29.5
32.0
33.C
34.5
36.3
39.0
41.3
43.2
46.2
49.2
55.2
60.5
65.7
71. 1
78.9
89.6
100.0
111.2
124.1
145.0
157.2
176. 1
203.4
244.9
295.3

26.9
29.8
32. 4
33.4
34.9
36.7
39. 4
41.8
43. 7
46.8
49. 8
55.8
61. 2
66.5
71. 7
79.6
90. 6
100.0
111. 5
115.2
135.0
148.3
17 6. 8
235.8
281. 1
359.4

52. 6
57.8
63. 4
64.5
64.6
66.2
69.2
70.8
71.5
71.6
73.8
78.4
81.7
86.0
86.0
91.0
98. 4
100.0
101.3
103.2
112.2
113.3
116.8
127.3
146.7
163.3

53.4
58.5
64.2
65.3
65.3
66.9
70.0
71.5
72.3
72.5
74.7
79.2
82.6
87.0
86.8
91.8
99.5
100.0
101.5
95.8
104.4
106.8
117.3
147.6
168.4
198.8

p = preliminary.

1Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT LABOR COSTS

38

EXCHANGE
BATE1

101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.1
101. 1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.3
101.3
101.1
101.2
101.1
100.9
100.9
101.0
100.0
100.3
92.8
93.1
94.3
100.4
115.9
114.8
121.7

Table B-11. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, France, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

UNIT LABOR COSTS

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

COMPEN­
SATION

1 9 5 0 ...................
1 9 5 1 ...................
1 9 5 2 ...................
1 9 5 3 ...................
1 9 5 0 ...................
1 9 5 5 ...................
1 9 5 6 ...................
1 9 5 7 ...................
1 9 5 8 ..................
1 9 5 9 ...................
1 9 6 0 ...................
1 9 6 1 ...................
1 9 6 2 ..................
1 9 6 3 ...................
1 9 6 <1..................
1 9 6 5 ...................
1 9 6 6 ...................
1 9 6 7 ..................
1 9 6 8 ...................
1 9 6 9 ..................
1 9 7 0 ..................
1 9 7 1 ..................
1 9 7 2 ...................
1 9 7 3 ...................
1 9 7 0 ...................
1 9 7 5 p ................

37.6
01.2
01.9
03.1
05.0
07.7
52.2
55.2
57.1
59.5
60.5
68.7
73.3
79.1
80.9
88.0
95.8
100.0
106.0
116.2
123.7
130.6
138.8
106.6
150.1
136.7

85.8
89. 2
87.8
85.8
87.1
88.0
90.0
9 0. 1
93.7
91.0
93.8
95. 5
97.5
99. 2
101.0
99.9
101.2
100.0
95.6
100.6
102.0
102. 5
102.1
103.0
102.8
97.8

18.5
20.7
28.1
28.3
30.0
33.0
36.6
01. 1
05.7
07. 1
52.5
58.8
66.1
70.3
81.6
86.6
93.0
100.0
1 C8 . 2
120. 8
137.0
150. 3
172.0
195.8
237.7
266.5

OUTPUT
PER
HCUB
03.9
06.2
07.7
50.2
51-6
50.2
57.7
58. 6
60.9
65. 3
68.7
71.9
7 5.2
79.7
83.7
88.5
90.7
100. 0
111.0
115.0
121.2
127. 5
135.9
102. 2
106.1
139. 8

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASIS
21.6
27.7
32. 1
33. C
30.9
37.6
00.5
03.6
08.7
51.8
56.0
61.6
67.8
70.9
80.5
86.7
92.0
10C .0
113.3
1 2 C.C
130.7
15C .6
168.0
19C .0
231.2
272.5

1Compensation adjusted to include changes in employment taxes that are not compensation
to employees, but are labor costs to employers.




U.S.
DOLLAR
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

30. 0
38.9
05.0
06.0
09. 0
52.8
56. 8
51.0
09. 7
51.9
56. 1
61.8
68. 1
75.2
80.9
87.0
92. 5
100.0
112. 5
110.0
119. 9
130.5
160. 3
210.7
236. 7
213.2

2 Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars,
p = preliminary.

39

09.2
60.0
67.2
65.8
67.6
69.3
70. 1
70.0
80. 0
79.2
81.0
85.7
90. 1
90.0
96.2
98.0
97.5
100.0
101.7
100.0
111.1
118.2
123.9
133.6
158. 3
195.0

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS
69.2
80.3
90.5
92.5
90.9
97.0
98.5
87.0
81.7
79.5
81.7
85.9
90.5
90.3
96.6
98.3
97.6
100.0
101.1
98.8
98.9
105.5
120.8
108.1
162.0
220.1

EXCHANGE
BATE2

100.6
100 . 5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
116.9
102.1
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.0
95.0
89.0
89 .3
97.5
110.9
102.0
110.9

Table B-12. Output per hour, hourly comoensation. and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Germany, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

1950 ..... .
1 9 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 0 ......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
I960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
196 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 0 ......
1975p .....

26.9
30.9
35.1
39.1
03.5
50.7
50.0
57.9
60.3
65.5
73. 5
78.7
82.3
80.9
92. 5
100.3
102.3

73.7
82.0
85.0
8 8 .6
94.7
10 3. 5
108.2
106.0
105.0
10 5.6
110.7
112. 3
110.5
108. 2
109.5
1 1 1 .0

108.8

COMPEN­
SATION

OUTPUT
PER
HCUB

17.7
22.7
25.1
27. 5
3C.3
35.0
OC.O
«!3.8
07.0
51. 3
6 C.1
68. 1
75.6
79. 2
86.3
96. 2
1 0 2 .7

36.6
37. 7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

111.5

103.6
109.7
113.0
109.9
106.5
106.7
100.9
91. 2

109.8
126.6
15C.7
166. 6
18C.0
20 0.6
223.8
225.8

1 2 0 .8

132.2
130.7
138.8
107.9
106.9
137.1

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASTS

U.S.
DOLLAR
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

65.7
73.0
71.7
70.2
69. 6
69.9
73.6
75.6
78. 1
78.0
81.8
86.5
92.0
93.3
93.3
95.8
100.5

62.0
69.7

69.7
71.7
70.2
70.7
78.1
85.9
91.7
93.3
93. 6
95.7
1 0 0 .2

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

105.8
117.0
105. 0
173.8
211.7
288.7
302.5

98.5
101 .0

98. 3
103.1
1 2 0 .6

2 0 .0

6 6 .0

70. 0
70.0
78. 0
80.5
90. 0
90.0
100.0
107.6
113. 8
116.6
122. 5
130.3
138.6
105.6
150. 0

0 2 .6

08.6
50.3
60.6
68.5
73.2
78.9
86.7
90.5
1 0 C.0
105.9
115.5
133.0
151.5
169.0
191.8
221.9
207.6

06.0
08. 9
50.2
50.6
57.0
62. 0

26.3
28. 1
29.5
30.0
32.0
35.0
39.2

0 0 .8

0 1 .2
0 0. 2

2 2 .8

27.6
29.6
31.0
32.0
30.2
36.9
01.3

1Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT LABOR COSTS

06.0
51. 9
60.2
68.3
73.2
79. 1
86.5
90. 2

p = preliminary.

40

0 0 2 .0

1 1 0 .0

123.7
130.0
138.0
152.0
160.6

6 8 .2
6 6 .8
6 6 .1
6 6 .2

1 0 1 .8

162. 5
208.3
235.2
267.3

EXCHANGE
BATE1

95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
9 0.7
90.8
90.9
95.1
95.0
95.6
99.3
99.7
1 0 0 .0

100.3
99.8
99.7
100 .0
99.9
1 0 1 .6

109.3
110.7
125.0
150.5
150.0
162.0

Table B-13. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Italy, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YE/IB

1 9 5 0 ......
1 9 5 1 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
1 9 5 4 ......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1 9 6 1 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
196 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1 9 7 1 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1 9 7 4 ......
1975p .....

OUTPUT

HOURS

26.4
30.2
31.a
34.0
37. 5
ao.9
4a.1
47.0
48.0
53.3
60.2
66.3
73.4
78.2
79.2
83.3
91.0

72.5
74. 2
74.2
77. 1
80.6
80.0
81.0
83. 2
82.1
84.7
92.4
98. 4
99.1
102. 3
97.2
91.0
94.7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

109.3
116.4
125. 6
126.0
131.1
145.3
154.4
139.4

100.9
10 3.7
106.6
10 2.0
98.7
98. 3
99.3
92. 4

COMPEN­
SATION

18.7

OUTPUT
PER
HCUE

108.1
1 2 2 .0

150.5
169. 3
186.7
233. 6
295.1
354. 3

117.8
123.5
132.9
147. 8
155.5
150. 7

8 6 .6
1 0 0 .0

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

25. 7
28.2
30.4
32.4
33.9
36.9
40. 2
42.5
45.5
47.3
49. 8
52.8
61. 8
73.5
82.3
88.9
91.3

70.7
69.5
72.0
73.7
72.8
72.4
74.0
75.3
77.8
74.8
76. 1
78.0
82.9
95.7

70.6
69.4
71.9
73.6
72.7
72.3
73.9
75.2
77.8
75.2
76.5
78.3
83.4
96.1

99.9
99.9
99.9
99 .9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.4

1 0 1 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 1 .0

97.2
95. 2

97.1
95. 1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

107.2
117.6
141.1
165.9
189.2
237.6
297.3
383.2

1 Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




u,s.
DOLLAR
EASIS

25.8
28.3
30.5
32.5
33.9
37.C
40.3
42.5
45.5
47.1
49.5
52.5
61.5
73,. 2
82.3
89.C
91.4

1 1 2 .2

25.0
27.3
29.6
32.6
35.4
37.4
39.9
45.8
51.7
60.9
7 4.9
80.0
81.0

EXCHANGE
KATE1

NATIONAL
CUBBENCY
EASIS

36.5
40.7
42.3
44. 1
46.6
51. 1
54.4
56. 5
58.5
62.9
65.1
67. 4
74.1
76. 5
81.5
91.6
96.0
1 0 C.0
108.4

2 1 .0
2 2 .6

UNIT LABOR COSTS

107.3
117.0
140. 4
167.5
202.3
255.0
285.3
366.6

98.9
104.8
119.8
134.3
142.4
160.8
191.2
254.2

99.0
104.3
119. 2
135.6
152. 2
172.5
183. 4
243.2

p = preliminary.

41

99.9
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .1

99.5
99.5
100.9
106.9
107.3
95.9
95.7

Table B-14. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Netherlands, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HO UR IY COMPENSATION
YEAR

1950 ......
1 9 5 1 ..... .
1952 ......
1953 ......
195<l......
1955 ......
1956 ......
1957 ..... .
1958 ......
1959 ......
1960 ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
196*1......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1971 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
197*1 ......
1975p .....

OUTPUT

36.**
38.0
38.0
**2.0
**5.9
**9.9
53.8
56.2
56.2
61.8
68.9
71.3
7**.8
77.6
85.**
91.3
96.2

HOURS

85.0
85.6
83.6
85. 5
90.1
93. 1
94.8
95. 3
93.2
95.4
1 0 1 .2

1 0 0 .0

109.5
1 2 0 .1

129. 5
134.6
138.5
145.6
148.9
138.5

99. 1
101.4
10 2. 4
103.0
10 3.9
103.3
1 0 0 .0

98.8
99.7
98.0
95. 8
91.2
88.9
85.9
81. 5

COMPEN­
SATION

19.2
21.5
22.3
23.5
27.2
30.7
34.7
38.7
39.5
41. 4
47.1
52.8
57.5
63.7
74.2
83.7
93.0
1 0 0 .0

109.1
124.0
14C.8
156.9
171.4
195.7
224.9
24 2. 4

OUTPUT
PER
HCUB

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASIS

6 8 .1

71.9
73.8
75. 7
82.9
87. 8
93. 1
1 0 0 .0
110.9
120. 5
132.2
140. 6
152.0
163.9
173.3
169.9

U.S,
DOLLAR
EASIS

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

U.S.
DOLLAR
BASIS

22.7
25.1
26.7
27.5
30.2
33.C
36.6
4C.7
42.4
43.4
46.6
53.3
56.7
62.2
72.1
8C.5
90.0
10C.C
110.4
124.4
143.8
163.8
188.0
22C.2
261.8
297.4

42.9
44, 4
45.5
49. 1
51.0
53.6
56.8
59.0
60.3
6 4. 7

21.4
23.8
25.3
26.1
28. 7
31.2
3 4.4
38.3
40. 4
41.4
44. 5
52.9
56. 7
62.2
72. 0
80.6
89. 5

52.9
56.6
58.6
56.0
59.2
61 .6
64.5
68.9
70.3
67.0
68.4
74.1
76.8
82.2
87.0
91.7
96.6

50. 0
53. 5
55. 6
53. 1
56. 3
58. 2
60. 6
65. 0
6 6 .9
64. 0
65. 4
73. 6
76. 8
82. 2
8 6 .9
91 .8
96. 2
1 0 0 .0
99. 1
1 0 2 .7
108. 4
1 2 0 .3
138. 9
174. 1
2 0 2 .8
249. 8

p = preliminary.

1Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




UNIT LABOR COSTS

42

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

109.9
123.7
143. 2
169.1
2 1 1 .0
285.4
351.5
424.6

99.6
103.3
108.8
116.5
123.7
134.4
151. 1
175.0

EXCHANGE
BATE1

94.6
94.6
94.8
94.9
95.0
94.5
94.1
94.3
95.2
95.4
95.5
99 .3
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

99.9
1 0 0 .1

99.5
1 0 0 .0

99.5
99.4
99.6
103.2
1 1 2 .2

129 .6
134.3
142.8

Table B-15. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Sweden, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

UNIT LABOR COSTS

HO UR IY COMPENSATION
YEAR

1 9 5 0 ......
1951 ......
1952 ......
1953 ......
19 5 «4......
1955 ......
19 56 ......
1957 ......
1958 ......
1959 ......
I960 ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1963 ......
1964 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1971 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
19 74 ......
1S75p .....

OUTPUT

HOURS

44.3
47.2
46.0
47.0
49.1
51.3
54.0
56.8
58. 0
61.2
65.9
70.4
75.8
79.5
87.2
94.0
96.7

98.4
101.9
99.5
96. 4

1 0 0 .0

106.1
114.2
1 2 2 .1
1 2 2 .0

124.7
132.8
140.3
137.1

1 0 0 .8

10 3.9
103.1
10 3.0
1 0 0 .6
100 . 2

104.5
106. 5
1 06.8
105.9
106.4
106.2
105.0
1 0 0 .0

96.4
96. 6
98.1
9 4. 6
90.4
90.0
90.7
8 8 .6

COMPEN­
SATION1

OUTPUT
PER
HCUE

22.7
27.6
31.6
22.3
34.5
38.0
4C.5
43.3
45.5
47.3
53.1
59.3
66.4
72.7
79.7
87.6
94.6

45. 0

1 0 0 .0

105.3
115.4
129.3
140. 1
152.4
167. 1
197.0
229.9

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
E AS IS

U.S*
DOLLAR
BASIS

23.0
27.0
31.7
33.4
34. 2
36. 5
39.2
41.9
45.1
47. 1
50.8
55.6
62.2
68.3
75.0
82. 6
90.1
1 0 0 .0
109.1
119.3
131.3
149.8
182.9

51. 3
58. 3
6 8 .7
6 8 .7
70. 3
74 .1
75. 1
76. 2
78. 4
77. 2
80. 6
84. 2
87. 6
91 .5
91. 4
93. 2
97. 9
1 0 0 .0
99. 2
101 .C
105. 9
114. 8
1 2 2 .2
125. 8
140. 4
167. 6

51. 2
58. 2
6 8 .5
6 8 .5
70. 2
74. 0
74. 9
76. 0
78. 2
77. 0
80. c
84. 1
87. 7
91. 0
91. 6
93. 3
97. 8
1 0 0 .0
99. 1
1 0 0 .8
105. 4
116. 1
132. 6
149. 2
163. 6
208. 9

1 0 0 .0

109.2
119.5
131.9
148.2
168.6
185. 5
217.2
259.3

1 Compensation adjusted to include changes in employment taxes that are not compensation
to employees, but are labor costs to employers.




NATIONAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

23.1
27.C
31.7
33.5
34.3
36.6
39.3
42.0
45.2
47.2
50.8
55.7
62.2
68.7
74.9
82.5
90.2

46. 3
46. 2
48. 7
48. 7
49. 3
52. 4
cc 1
57. 6
61. 1
63. 1
66.1
71. 0
7 5. 1
81. 9
8 8 .c
92. 1
1 0 0 .0
1 1 0 .1
118. 3
124. 5
129. 0
137. 9
147. 4
154. 7
154. 7

U.S.
DOLLAR
EASIS

2 2 0 .0

253.0
323.1

2 Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars,
p = preliminary.

43

EXCHANGE
FATE2

99.8
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.9
1 0 0 .1

99.5
1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .1

99.9
1 0 0 .0

99.9
99.8
99.5
1 0 1 .1

108.5
118 .6
116.5
124.6

Table B-16. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, Switzerland, 1960-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YEAR

I960 ......
1961 ......
1962 ......
1 963 ......
19 6 4 ......
1965 ......
1966 ......
1967 ......
1968 ......
1969 ......
1970 ......
1971 ......
1972 ......
1973 ......
1974 ......
19 7 5 p .....

OUTPUT

HOURS

7H. 8
80.0
83.5
87.0
91.3
93.9
96. 5

93.0
99. 4
104.5
105.9
106.4
10 3.7
101.4

1 0 0 .0

104.3
114.8
123.5
127.0
129. 6
136.5
138.3
118.3

1 0 0 .0

99.1
98. 9
98.4
96.7
94.0
9 2. 4
91.8
81.7

COMPEN­
SATION

53.1
61.8
71.2
76.7
85.6
89. 8
95.4

OUTPUT
PER
HCUE

NATICNAL
CURRENCY
E AS I S

122.7
136. 4
148.0
16 4.4
184.9
176.5

57. 2
62.3
6 8 .2
74.5
80.6

71.0
77.3
85. 3
90.5
93. 8
95.6
98. 9

71. 1
77.4
85. 4
90.6
93.9
95.6
98. 9

8 6 .6

8 6 .6

94.1
10C.0
105.2

94. 1

1 1 2 .2

124.7
141.1
157.4
177.9
201.4
216.0
p = preliminary.

1Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars.




U .S .
DOLLAR
BASIS

74.3
80.5

105.2
116. 1
125.5
131.3
137.9
147.7
150.7
144.8

1 1 1 .0

NATICNAL
CURRENCY
BASIS

6 8 .1

1 0 0 .0

104.3

U .S .
DOLLAR
EASIS

57.1
62.2

80.4
80. 5
79.9
82.2
85.8
9C. 5
95.2

1 0 0 .0

UNIT LABOR COSTS

44

1 0 0 .0

105.6
112.7
125. 2
148.5
178.5
244. 1
293.7
362.3

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

96.7
99. 4
107.4
114. 2
120.4
133.7
149.2

EXCHANGE
PATE 1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .1
1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .2
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

100. 3
97.1
99.7
113.1
129. 5
165 .2
194. 9
250.2

100.3
100.4
100.4
105.3
113.4
137 .2
145.8
167.7

Table B-17. Output per hour, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs in manufacturing, United Kingdom, 1950-75
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

HOURLY COMPENSATION
YEAR

OUTPUT

HOURS

COEEENSAHON1

1 9 5 0 ...................
1 9 5 1 ...................
1 9 5 2 ...................
1 9 5 3 ...................
1 9 5 4 ...................
1 9 5 5 ...................
1 9 5 6 ...................
1 9 5 1 ...................
1 9 5 8 ...................
1 9 5 9 ...................
1 9 6 0 ...................
1 9 6 1 ..................
1 9 6 2 ..................
1 9 6 3 ..................
1 9 6 9 ..................
1 9 6 5 ..................
1 9 6 6 ..................
1 9 6 7 ..................
1 9 6 8 ..................
1 9 6 9 ..................
1 9 7 0 ..................
1 S 7 1 ...................
1 9 7 2 ...................
1 9 7 3 ...................
1 9 7 9 ...................
19 7 5 p ................

60.9
63.3
60. 1
69.9
67.9
72.2
72.0
73.7
72.9
77.2
83. 9
83 . 5
83.7
86.7
99. 8
97.6
99. 3
100.0
106. 8
110.9
111.9
110.9
119.0
123 .5
120.0
112.9

98. 4
101.3
100. 9
102.6
109. 8
107.9
107. 7
107.6
109.7
106.9
108. 6
107.9
105. 6
103.7
105.7
105.6
103.7
100.0
99. 9
102.9
102. 1
97.0
99. 1
96.5
99. 9
90.0

33.0
36-9
9 C .2
93.2
46-5
51.9
55.7
59.2
61.9
69.3
7 C.C
75.0
77.2
79.3
86.6
99.7
1CC.9
100.0
1 C7.0
118.5
135.5
197.1
16C.2
187.0
217.2
262.7

OUTPUT
PER
HCUB

NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASTS
33 .6
36.5
90.0
92.0
99.9
97.6
51 . 7
55.C
58.6
60.9
69.5
69.5
73.1
76.5
82.0
89.7
97.2
1 0 0 .C
107.2
115.8
132.8
151.7
170.3
193.7
230.0
291.e

61.9
62- 5
59.9
62. 7
64.8
66. 9
66.9
68. 5
69.7
72. 5
76.8
77. 9
79.3
8 3. 6
89.7
92. 9
95.7
100.0
106.9
108. 9
109.1
119. 3
121.2
127. 9
127.1
125. 9

1Compensation adjusted to include changes in employment taxes that are not compensation
to employees, but are labor costs to employers.




U .S .
COLLAR
EASIS
39.2
37. 1
90.6
93.0
95.3
98.3
52.6
55.9
59.9
61.7
65.9
70.8
79.6
77.9
83.2
91.2
98.7
100.0
93.3
100.6
115.6
139.8
159.8
172.6
195.7
235.7

UNIT LABOR COSTS
NATIONAL
CURRENCY
EASIS
59.3
58.9
66.8
67.0
68.5
71.2
77.3
80.3
89.1
83.3
89.0
89.8
92.2
91.5
91.9
97.1
101.6
100.0
100.2
106.6
121.7
132.6
190.5
151.9
180.9
232.7

2Value of foreign currency in U.S. dollars,
p = preliminary.

45

U .S .
DOLLAR
EASIS
55. 2
59.9
67.8
68.6
70.0
72.3
78.6
81.5
85.9
85.1
85.7
91.9
99. 1
93.1
92.8
98.7
.10 3 . 1
100.0
87.2
92.8
106.0
117.9
127.7
139.9
153.9
187.9

EXCHANGE
RATE 2

101.8
101 . 8
10 1. 5
102.3
10 2 . 1
101 . 5
10 1 . 6
101 . 6
10 2 . 2
102.1
10 2 . 1
101 . 9
10 2 . 1
101 . 8
101.5
101.7
10 1. 5
100.0
87.0
86.9
87. 1
88.9
90.9
89.1
8 5. 1
80.8

Table B-18.
1960-74

Table B-19.
1960-74

Productivity changes in manufacturing1 by source, United States,

Productivity change in manufacturing1 by source. United Kingdom,

(Percent)

(Percent)

Source of change

Source of change
Period

Change in
output
per hour

2.39
4.40
6.86
5.10
3.34
1.19
.26
3.59
1.15
-.2 3

Period

Interaction:
productivity
and shift

Change in
output
per hour

Productivity
change2

Shift
in
hours

Interaction:
productivity
and shift

Productivity
change2

Shift
in
hours
-0 .3 3
-.1 5
-.1 9
.04
-.0 9
-.0 2
.15
.02
-.0 2
-.0 2
-1 .8 9
-.31
.18
.31

0.01
.01
-.0 2
.00
.00
-.0 4
-.01
.04
.01
.07
-.0 5
-.0 3
-.0 3
-.0 3

1 9 6 1 .............................................................
1962 .............................................................
1963 .............................................................
1964 .............................................................
1965 .............................................................
1966 .............................................................
1967 .............................................................
1968 .............................................................
1969 .............................................................
1970 .............................................................
1 9 7 1 .............................................................
1972 .............................................................
1973 .............................................................
1974 .............................................................

-0 .2 2
2.08
4.09
7.62
3.68
3.63
3.04
6.29
2.92
2.34
5.04
5.47
7.34
-1 .9 6

-0.36
2.10
3.88
7.65
3.59
3.56
2.82
6.37
2.79
2.14
5.04
5.50
7.41
-2.22

0.15
.00
.20
-.0 4
.10
.06
.23
-.0 4
.13
.22
.03
-.0 6
-.0 4
.25

-0.01
-.0 2
.00
.01
.00
.01
-.01
-.0 4
.00
-.0 2
-.0 2
.03
-.0 3
.00

-.0 2
.00
.02
-.0 7

-.01
-.0 4
.01
.00

Average annual rate:
1960-74
....................................................
1970-74
.....................................................
1965-70
.....................................................
1960-65
.....................................................

3.67
3.97
3.64
3.45

3.59
3.93
3.54
3.37

.08
.04
.12
.08

-.01
-.01
-.01
.00

1 9 6 1 ............................................................
1962 ............................................................
1963 ............................................................
1964 .............................................................
1965 .............................................................
1966 .............................................................
1967 .............................................................
1968 .............................................................
1969 .............................................................
1970 .............................................................
1 9 7 1 .............................................................
1972 .............................................................
1973 .............................................................
1974 .............................................................

5.00
2.91
-3 .8 5

2.72
4.54
6.69
5.06
3.34
1.25
.11
3.54
1.15
-.2 8
5.66
5.35
2.76
—
4.14

Average annual rate:
1960-74
.....................................................
1970-74
.....................................................
1965-70
.....................................................
1960-65
.....................................................

2.68
2.37
1.19
4.42

2.70
2.41
1.15
4.42

1 Based on 2 0 industry groups.
2 Productivity change excluding change due to shift in hours and interaction.

1 Based on 17 industry groups.
2 Productivity change excluding change due to shift in hours and interaction.

N O T E : Components may not add to to tal because o f rounding.

N O T E : Components may not add to to tal because of rounding.




46

Table B-20.
1960-74

Table B-21.
1960-72

Productivity change in manufacturing1 by source, Germany,

Productivity change in manufacturing1 by source, Japan,

(Percent)

(Percent)

Source of change

Source of change

Period

Change in
output
per hour

Productivity
change1

Shift
in
hours

1 9 6 1 .............................................................
1962 .............................................................
1963 .............................................................
1964 .............................................................
1965 .............................................................
1966 .............................................................
1967 .............................................................
1968 .............................................................
1969 .............................................................
1970 .............................................................
1 9 7 1 .............................................................
1972 .............................................................
1973 .............................................................
1974 .............................................................

4.61
5.80
4.99
8.53
4.94
3.57
5.91
8.47
7.09
2.91
5.27
7.05
6.82
3.76

4.94
5.79
4.99
8.57
5.29
3.58
5.03
9.07
7.72
3.21
5.04
6.73
6.89
3.06

-0 .2 4
.08
.01
-.0 4
-.3 0
-.01
.76
-.5 6
-.6 0
-.2 8
.20
.31
-.11
.67

Period

Average annual rate:
....................................................
1960-74
1970-74
....................................................
1965-70
........................ ' .........................
1960-65
....................................................

5.69
5.72
5.59
5.77

5.71
5.43
5.72
5.92

-.01
.27
-.1 4
-.1 0

-.01
.03
.00
-.0 4

Interaction:
productivity
and shift

9.00
5.84
7.26
11.15
4.86
10.20
14.71
12.04
12.76
11.16
3.80
10.70

8.84
5.63
7.35
11.08
4.74
10.38
14.60
11.54
12.32
10.87
3.93
10.32

0.05
.12
.04
.03
.06
-.1 6
.06
.38
.31
.29
-.1 0
.35

0.12
.08
-.1 3
.03
.05
-.0 3
.05

9.46
7.25
12.17
7.62

9.30
7.13
11.94
7.53

.12
.12
.17
.06

1 Based on 17 industry groups.
2 Productivity change excluding change due to shift in hours and interaction.

1 Based on 33 industry groups.

N O T E : Components may not add to total because of rounding.

2 P r o d u c t iv it y c h a n g e e x c lu d in g c h a n g e d u e t o s h if t in h o u rs a n d in t e r a c t io n .

N O TE : Components may not add to total because of rounding.




Shift
in
hours

Average annual rate:
1960-72
....................................................
1970-72
.....................................................
....................................................
1965-70
1960-65
....................................................

-0 .0 9
-.0 6
.00
.00
-.0 5
.00
.12
-.0 5
-.0 3
-.0 3
.03
.02
.03
.03

Productivity
change2

1 9 6 1 ............................................................
1962 .............................................................
1963 ............................................................
1964 .............................................................
1965 ............................................................
1966 ........................................................ ....
1967 ............................................................
1968 ............................................................
1969 .............................................................
1970 .............................................................
1 9 7 1 .............................................................
1972 .............................................................

Interaction:
productivity
and shift

Change in
output
per hour

47

.11

.13
.01
-.0 3
.03

.03
.00
.05
.03 .

Table B-22. Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1973

1 974

115.7

119. 1

1 14. 5

118.8

119.8

121.8

19 60

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

7 9. 4

81.3

84.9

90. 8

95.4

98.6

99.7

10C.0

103.6

104.8

104.5

110. 2

FOOD AND TOBACCO ...................................................... ..................,.............................

80.1

82.4

86. 1

91.9

93. 2

94. 8

99.5

1CC.C

1 01 . 9

104.8

109.5

112.1

T E XTI LE

MI LL PRODUCTS

APPAREL

AND LEATHER GOODS

I NDUSTEY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

62.3

65. 6

68. 3

88. 1

92.2

95.9

1 CO . 7

100.0

1CC.8

102.3

112. 1

114. 5

117.8

115. 5

124. 2

............................................................................

86. 9

86.9

88.5

91.0

94.2

96.5

1 00.4

100.0

104.0

103.6

104. 9

108. 0

115.3

128.6

134. 8

AND F U R N I T U R E ...................................................................... ....................

LUMBER
PAPER

.............................................................................................................

........................................................................................

70. 2

70.7

70.5

80.2

91 . C

98.2

95.7

100.0

102.8

103.2

108. 9

107. 3

111.8

110.8

114.9

84.6

86.7

89.2

93.7

99.9

100.8

102.0

100.0

103.7

107.6

101.4

108.0

114.6

123.2

117.7

75.4

78.5

82.4

90.1

96.1

101.3

102.0

100.0

110.1

112.7

115. 4

124.2

134.7

142.5

135.2

.....................................................................

69.3

75.8

83.8

89.8

93.9

98.5

100.0

100.0

106.0

110.0

111.4

113.6

116.1

122 .7

116.3

M F R S ..................................................................

82.0

86.3

89.1

94. 1

96. 2

95. 9

97.7

1C0.0

104.9

110.1

105.7

113.8

117.9

121.3

107. 3

.......................................................

86.7

89.7

92.4

97. 9

101.7

102. 5

100.6

10C.0

101.7

104.2

102.7

104.9

111.0

112.8

104. 2

.............................................................................................................

83.3

83. 9

86. 8

90. 7

95.6

98.0

100.8

1CC.0

99.0

94.5

91.6

92.6

97. 4

103. 2

104. 1

85.2

86.8

89.5

90.6

94.7

99.0

99.6

100.0

102.5

104.7

102. 7

106.6

112.8

117.1

107. 0

85. 4

88. 6

93.0

94.3

99.1

99.8

99.9

100.0

101.0

101.5

104. 6

108. 7

113. 9

115.2

105.4
126.5

AND P R I N T I N G

.................................................................................................

CHEMI CALS

AND ALLI ED PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM

AND COAL PRODUCTS

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS
S TONE,
PRIMARY

CL AY,

GLASS,

METALS

................................................................

AND CONCRETE

F ABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEET E L E CT R I C AL

ELECTRICAI

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S ....................................................

T R ANS PORTATI ON EQUI PMENT

............................................................................
...................................................................

...............................................................................

I NSTRUMENTS AND RELATED PRODUCTS




.......................................................

€6.0

69.2

73.4

82.0

87.5

95.9

97.2

100.0

104. 5

109. 5

109. 9

119.6

128.2

130.4

77.6

79.0

85.5

92.4

97.8

101.7

100.2

100.0

106.2

102.8

98. 8

114.4

118.2

117.6

105.1

82.4

81.9

87.5

91.5

9 1.8

99.5

102. 1

100.0

106.0

114.7

106.8

111.0

115.5

117.9

115.7

48

Table B-23. Output, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1S 60

1961

1962

1963

1 964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1 974

............................................................................................................

67.7

67. 4

73. 3

79. 1

84.9

92.5

1C 0 . 0

10C . 0

105.6

108.7

102.6

103.9

113.6

123. 2

116. 8

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................

8C.9

82.3

85.3

90.4

91.7

93. 5

99.3

T E X T I L E MI L L

59.2

59. 8

63. 9

80.9

86.2

94. 4

103.5

78.2

77.0

82. 4

84. 8

88.5

94.9

1C2.4

66.

63.0

65.0

75. C

88. C

98.6

99.4

76.2

79.5

84.1

91 . 4

95.0

100.4

I NDUSTBY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

...............................................................

62.6

65.0

69.9

77.9

84.4

92.4

98.7

.....................................................................

78.8

82.1

88.0

91.2

93. 1

97.6

100.0

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS ME RS ..................................................................

65.8

68.1

75.1

79.8

84.9

91.4

98. 8

1C C . 0
1C C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

S T O NE r CL AY,

.......................................................

81.7

81.6

86.0

93. 1

99. 6

103. 2

104.0

............................................................................................................

7*1. 4

70.3

75.2

80. 3

90.6

98.4

105.1

FABRI CATED

METAL P R O D U C T S ............................................................................

68.6

67. 6

73. 5

76. 1

81.8

90.8

98.5

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C AL

...................................................................

61. 6

62. 1

69.5

72.2

80.8

88.8

98.9

E L E CT R I C AL EQUI PMENT AND S U F E L I E S ............................... ....................

49. 2

52. 1

59.1

65.2

69.3

82.3

96.3

APPAREL

PRODUCTS

AND LEATHER GOODS

LUMBER AND F UBNI T URE
PAPER AND P R I N T I N G
CHEMI CALS

...........................................................................

..........................................................................................

................................................................................................

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

PRIMARY

.......................................................................................

GLASS,

METALS

TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

PRODUCTS

AND CONCRETE

EQUI PMENT

...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRCEUCTS




.......................................................

1

74.2

61.2

58.0

68.7

77.1

80.9

91.6

99.5

64.1

62.6

69.2

73.6

74.8

86.2

99.0

49

101.3

104.6

108.4

108.6

114 . 0

114.0

115. 6

105.2

1C6.9

111.7

113.8

123. 4

123.6

123.9

104.9

103.2

99.3

100.6

110. 5

124.0

122.

105.4

106.9

105. 0

106. 3

120. 9

124.2

122.4

105.5

112.6

104.7

108. 2

117. 1

128.2

122.1

113.6

119.7

12 C.

1C 8 . 0
110.6

1C9.4

116.0

120.3

1 CC . C

1C3.4

1C9.6

10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10C . 0

99.5

98.6

6

125.1

135.9

147.7

142.7

lr9 .1

122.4

129.0

125.9

11C . 6

117.7

132.0

144.1

125. 5

1 04.0

105.9

117.2

125.5

114.0

89.9

85.0

92.3

106.0

107. 0

8

110.0

99.9

98.2

109. 8

122. 7

110.

99.9

104.5

102. 7

96. 7

108. 2

122.3

118. 0

105.5

113.3

106.9

107. 6

121.6

135.0

130.2

105.3

8

112.8

108. 3

88.

4

97.9

105.4

112.5

93.2

107.5

120.3

107.2

105.4

116.3

129.0

131.2

Table B-24. Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1S60

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

................................. .................... ......................................................

FOOD AND TOBACCO

......................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

1969

1965

1966

85.2

82. 9

86. 3

87. 2

69.C

93.9

1 C1.0

99.9

99.0

98.3

98.9

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1979

100.2

1C C . 0

10 2 . 0

103.8

98.1

99.3

98. 2

103. 9

102.0

98.6

99.8

99.9

99.8

99.0

96.9

96.0

95.2

99.9

102.8
1C 2 . 0

100.0
10C . 0
100.0
10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

109.7

107.0

........................................................................................

93.7

91.2

93.6

91. 8

93. 9

98. 9

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS ............................................................................

90.0

88. 6

93. 1

93. 3

99.C

98.3

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................. ..............................

99. 1

89.0

92. 3

93. 6

96.8

100.9

1 09.0

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G

87.7

87. 9

89.1

89.7

91.5

99.2

98.9

86.5

87.8

91.2

96.7

TEXTILE

Mill

CHEMI CALS

EECDUCTS

.................................................................................................

AND AL LI E D

................................................................

83.0

82.8

89.8

.....................................................................

113.8

108.3

105.0

MFFS...................................................................

8C.2

79.0

AND CONCRETE .......................................................

99.3

PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS
STONE,

CL AY,

GLASS,

PRI MARY METALS

.......................................................................................................

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT

ELECTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

TRANSPORTATI ON

.............................................................................

E L E CT R I C AL

EQUI PMENT

...................................................................

99.1

99.1

89.3

89.8

88.2

95. 2

100. 1
101. 2

91.0

93. 1

95.2

97.9

100.7

103.9

99. 5

100.

109.3

89.2

83.8

86.6

88.

80.6

77.9

82. 1

83.9

86.3

91.7

98.9

73.3

70.1

79.7

76.6

81.5

89.0

99.1

5

$

....................................................

79. 6

75. 2

80.5

79.5

79.2

85.8

99.1

...............................................................................

78.9

73.9

80.3

83.9

82.7

90.1

99.3

77.8

76.5

79.2

80.9

81 . 5

86.6

97.0

I NSTRUMENTS AND RELATED PRODUCTS




101.6

.......................................................

50

1C9.3

1C9.5

99.6

99.9

100.9

99.6

99.6

93. 2

95.8

102.5

103.6

96.9

99.0

108.1

112.

1

106. 5

101.7

109.6

103. 3

100.

102.

109. 1

103.7

103. 2

106.1

109.6

100.7

100.9

103.6

105.5

2

1

96. 5

99. 8
90. 9

101.9

99. 9

109. 1

109.9

105.9

105.1

108.2

105.9

1C9.2

1C9.6

103.5

111.9

118.8

117.0

101.7

105.2

10 1 . 2

100.9

105.5

111.2

109. 5

1CC.5

1C9.9

98.2

91.8

99.8

102.7

102 .

10 2 . 8

1C5.0

97.2

92. 1

97. 3

109. 8

103. 5

98.9

103.0

98. 1

88.9

99.9

106.2

111. 9

101.0

103.5

97. 3

90.0

99.8

103.6

102.9

106. 2

105.3

89.5

85.6

89.2

95.7

88.7

101.9

109.9

100. 9

95.0

100.7

109.3

113.9

8

Table B-25. Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

1S 60

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

.............................................................................................................

FOOD AND TOBACCO .............................. .......................................................................
TEXTI LE

MI LL PRODUCTS

........................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS

............................................................................

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...........................................................................................
PAPER

AND P R I N T I N G

.................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

196 0

1965

1966

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

115.2

115.7

115.8

115.7

111.6

109.9

47.7

48.3

48.2

57.5

56.1

54.7

72.8

71.6

68.

100.0

104. 1

102.5

3

58. 2

58.0
51.8

1968

100.0

1CC. C

1 CO. O

114.0

110.2

112.0

59.9

58.3

60.5

52.7

1971

1972

1973

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

110.3

119.7

116.2

117.2

114.9

121.5

58.5

64.2

62.2

61.0

58.1

65.0

51.9

52.7

51.4

52.3

56.7

61.8

52.9

78.5

82.0

79.0

82.3

81 . 7

81 . 1

85.8

80.2

79.6

76. 6

82.

1C2.3

99.8

99.8

97.6

97.7

100.2

90. 7

95. 7

96.7

101.0

1CC.0

72.7

52.5

1970

1969 ,

51. 0

52.6

100.8

58. 3

1967

6

...............................................................

113. 9

115.9

116.5

119.2

12C.9

123.4

122.8

120.0

127.6

129.1

132.5

135. 2

139.7

103.6

101.7

.....................................................................

219.8

235.0

248.8

2 49.4

248.2

252.0

252.6

252. 1

258.0

260.8

268. 8

259.8

252.8

259.8

256.1

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS M F R S ..................................................................

€8.1

90.5

89.6

88.5

86.5

89.7

86.0

88.1

87.0

87.0

80.0

.......................................................

109.4

110.6

109.1

108.2

106.9

104.3

101.

1

100.3

98.5

99.8

98.6

95.5

............................................................................................................

14C.4

138.0

136.7

133.8

130. 0

133.0

135.2

133.8

127.8

12C.7

117.2

112.4

86.6
102.2

105.6

CHEMI CALS

ANE AL L I E D PROEUCTS

PETROLEUM ANE COAL PRODUCTS

STONE,

CL AY,

GLASS,

PRIMARY METALS

AND CONCRETE

FABRICATE!

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NFRY,

EXCEPT ELE CT RI CAL

...........................................................................
..................................................................

E LE CTRI CAL EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S
TRANS PORTATI ON EQUI PMENT

..............................................................................

I NSTRUMENTS AND RELATED PRODUCTS




....................................................

......................................................

86.1

86.0

83. 1

83. 6

85.0

86.6

92.9

92. 5

91.3

86.5

87.0

86.5

113.4

114.9

115. 5

109. 6

109.1

106.8

1 C5.6

71. 5

73.2

74.3

77.7

78.9

83 . 7

83.8

86.0

86.8

89.9

128. 5

127.7

132.4

133.9

134.8

135.6

132.1

131.5

134.9

102. 4

99.5

99.7

95.1

99.8

101.2

98.8

101.

101.8

51

105.5

85.7
102.9

1

85. 1

83.8
104. 1

96.2

95.0

91.2

112.6

115.9

121. 7

84. 5
10 3 . 9

85. 1

81. 0

102 . 0

97. 2
95. 1

90. 5

93. 0

95. 3

90.2

129.1

120. 3

136.5

134. 3

129. 8

120.7

108. 2

100. 9

99. 5

98.6

97.9

99.8

Table B-26. Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUSTRY

1960

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................
T E X T I L E MI LL

ERODUCTS

........................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS

CHEMI CALS

RUBBER ANE

1963

1964

1965

1966

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

1967

10C.CC0

1968

19 69

1970

197 1

1972

1973

1974

100. CCO 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

13.121

13.405

12.775

12.548

11.868

11.096

10.909

10.564

10.535

10.567

11.609

11.481

11.018

10.164

10.865

2.614

2.647

2.600

3.049

3. 025

3.042

3.086

2.582

2.969

2.931

3.247

3.264

3.238

2.990

3. 164

...........................................................................

4.979

4.922

4.841

4.619

4. 492

4. 416

4.412

4.3C7

4.279

4.088

4.170

4.169

4.187

4.335

4.521

4.343

4. 154

3. 9 4 3

4. 2 1 7

4.611

4.736

4.423

4.446

4 .437

4.374

4.551

4.547

4.731

4. 4 8 4

4. 6 5 7

................................................................................................

8.984

AND AL LI E D

PETROLEUM AND CCAL

1962

...........................................................................................

LUMBER AND F URNI TURE
PAPER ANE P R I N T I N G

19 61

9 . 4 26

9.719

9.317

9. 130

9. 253

8.821

8.632

8.556

8. 5 8 7

8.899

8.778

8.953

8.857

8.945

...............................................................

5. 7 5 7

6.002

5. 934

6.129

6.185

6. 2 1 1

6. 1 4 3

6.223

6.694

6.8 48

7 . 329

7. 4 8 8

7. 441

7. 459

7.601

......................................................................

2.636

2.967

2.925

2.807

2.671

2.570

2 . 4 37

2.426

2. 490

2. 4 5 1

2.755

2.791

2.623

2.550

2.626

PRODUCTS

PRODUCTS

MI SCELLANEOUS M F R S ..................................................................

4.C25

4.187

4.246

4.178

4.140

4.089

4.093

4 . 142

4.338

4. 583

4 . 468

4.693

4.812

4.846

4.450

.......................................................

4.C05

4.015

3.890

3.903

3.889

3.697

3. 448

3. 216

3.245

3.344

3.361

3.377

3.419

3.377

3.237

............................................................................................................

10.128

9.614

9.448

9.351

9 . 821

9. 802

9.690

9 . 2 16

8.679

8.360

8.081

7.535

7.484

7.928

8.443

FABRI CATED

METAL P R O D U C T S ............................................................................

7.004

6.933

6.931

6.642

6.

656

6.780

6.810

6.510

6.890

6.990

6.729

6.530

6.673

6.883

6.553

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C AL

10.226

10. 195

1 0. 4 8 2

10.097

10.525

10.608

10.945

11 . 0 5 9

10.461

10.629

11.068

10.284

10.527

10.974

11. 172

E L E C T R I C AL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

.....................................................

6.267

6.654

6.941

7.095

7 . C35

7.664

8 . 2 97

8.6 14

8. 6 0 7

8.977

8.979

8. 9 2 0

9. 214

9.441

9.601

...............................................................................

13.C78

12.437

13.544

14.083

13.773

14.314

14.384

14.457

15.437

14.402

12.457

13.622

13.411

13.201

11.530

2.1SC

2.149

2.184

2.151

2.038

2.153

2. 2 1 2

2. 2 5 2

2. 5 5 8

2 . 417

2.346

2.366

2.420

2.597

S T O NE ,
PRIMARY

CL AY,

GLASS,

METALS

AND CONCRETE

TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT
I NSTRUMENTS

..................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS




.......................................................

52

2.29 1

Table B-27. Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries, United States, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

---------

|

1960

IN D U S T FY

ALT.

TND USTR TP S

........................................................................................................ ...

FOOD AND T O R AC C C
TEXT TT .F

MTI.T.

APPARFT.

AND

LUMBER
P APE R

AND
AND

..............................................................................................................

P R O DU C TS
LEATHER

..............................................................................................

GOODS

FURNITURE

....................... ............................ ...

P R I N T I N G ........................................................................................ ...

C H E M IC A L S

AND

PETROLEUM

AND COAT,

ALLIED

PRODUCTS

PRODUCTS

RURRER

AND M I S C E L L A N E O U S

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

..................................................................................

100.000

100.000

1965

1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . ooc

1973

1974

1 CO 0 00 1 CC.C C 1 0 0 . CCO 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 CC.000 1O0. 000 100 . 0 0 0
..
C

100 . 0 0 0

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

197 1

1972

11.394

11.587

11.031

10.845

10.634

10.100

9. 573

9. 616

9. 374

9. 249

9.700

9.883

9. 399

8. 845

8.943

5.475

5.480

\52399

5. 241

5. 225

5.218

5. 103

4.877

5. C92

5. 011

5. 054

5 . 247

5.309

5.148

4.87 0

8 . 666

8. 774

8.844

8.773

8. 666

8. 590

8.348

8. 2C3

8. 118

7.875

7.911

8.105

8.007

7.649

7 . 312

^

5. 966

5. 803

5. 772

5 . 7 98

5.871

5.773

5.602

5 . 4C1

5.428

5.391

5 . 306

5.67 1

5.946

5. 854

5.639

9.067

9. 338

9. 090

9.058

9. 049

8. 835

8. 648

8. 806

8. 785

8.879

9.269

9.358

9. 161

8. 858

8. 950

5. 054

5. 181

5. C95

5.142

5. 115

5.035

5. 003

5. 185

5.246

5. 30 4

5. 529

5. 539

5. 328

5. 193

5.362

1. 291

1.263

1. 176

1.126

1 . 076

1 . 020

0 .965

0.966

0.965

C.926

1. 025

1. 075

1. 037

0. 982

1.025

4.570

4.625

4. 740

4.720

4.807

4 .923

4 . 898

4.853

5. 0 16

5. 107

5. 174

5.325

5.532

5.572

5.563

3.660

3. 631

3. 564

3. 608

3.637

3.545

3. 410

3. 3 C6

3.296

3. 352

3. 409

3.536

3. 553

3.554

3.547

6. 966

6.912

6.991

7.314

7.370

7. 166

6. 887

6.789

6.929

6.896

6 . 701

6.647

6. 840

6.940

7.541

7.497

7.589

7.679

7. 735

7.793

7.873

7.976

8. 038

8.073

7.905

7. 791

7.901

8.083

8.094

AND

C O N C R ET E

PRODUCTS

EXCEPT

FT. ECTRT CAT

E Q U IP M E N T

AND

1 0 0 . CO 1 0 0 . 0 0 0
O

1964

7. 214

M AC HI N ER Y ,

INSTRUMENTS

1963

...........................................................

FA R RTC A TE T METAT.

TRANSPO RTA TION

M E R S ........................................................................

1962

.....................................................................................................................

GLASS,

MET ALS

.....................................................................

....................................................... ...

1961

.................................................................................

9 . 0 18

8. 872

9. 076

9.212

9 . 6C2

9.934

10 . 362

10.482

10. 168

1 C. 400

10.483

9.879

10. 134

10.757

11. 498

.......................................................

8. 768

9.087

9. 339

9. 129

8.912

9.152

9. 899

10. 011

9 . 913

9. 9 8 1

9.923

9.551

9. 666

10. 023

10.098

....................................................................................

10. 177

9.738

1C. 228

10. 519

10.216

10. 554

10.887

10. 992

11.447

11.157

10.022

9. 981

9. 982

10.168

9.557

2. 137

2. 159

2. 146

2.159

2.142

2.158

2.264

2. 3 4 0

2.326

2. 365

2.395

2.358

2.400

2. 473

2.602

ET.ECTRTC AT
AND

E Q U IP M E N T
RET. ATED




.......................................................................

SU PPLIE S

P RO D U C TS

...........................................................

53

Table B-28. Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1960

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

1S€ M

1965

1,966

1967

1968

1969

1970

79.2

79.0

80.6

83.9

90. 3

93.7

97. 1

100.0

106.3

1C9.4

112.0

97. 1

104.7

107.1

108. 3

116.5

118.5

104.9

103.7
99.2

1 03.8

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................

8C . 7

82.7

84.1

87.1

90.0

93.3

TEXTILE HI LL

72.7

74.4

75.0

82.7

87.3

92.0

94.6

...........................................................................

81.9

83.3

81.5

83.0

88.

4

94. 8

98.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

..........................................................................................

74.8

78.7

78.4

81. 1

92. 5

92. 1

94.1

10C.O

101.0

................................................................................................

EBODUCTS

........................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOOES
LUMBER ANE F URNI TURE

197 1

1972

1973

1974

117.6

124.0

133.1

130. 5

112.3

119.4

124.5

125.3

125.2

137.4

144.4

154.8

145.8

108.7

115.5

119.6

130.2

133.0

109.3

117.2

129.5

116. 1

87.5

85.7

85.9

87.8

95.2

96.2

99.3

1CC.0

1 03.3

105.7

107.2

110.9

119. 5

132. 3

127. 3

...............................................................

64.5

66.0

69.5

74. 7

82.6

88.8

93.5

112.3

114.4

123.0

129. 2

140.3

157.3

163. 5

................................. , ................................

55.7

60. 1

67.3

72.7

82.8

89.4

97.4

101.5

108.6

110.

126. 1

133. 6

148.4

141.9

RUBBER ANE MI SCELLANEOUS M F R S ..................................................................

€9.8

68.9

72.6

75.8

84.6

88.9

94.7

106. 1

108. 1

108. 4

111.4

115.8

124.4

122.1

STONE,

72.3

74.8

75.9

79.9

88.6

90.3

93.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1C 0 . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.6

106.0

106. 2

119.5

128.7

141.6

135.5

PAPER ANE P R I N T I N G
CHEMI CALS

AND AL LI E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

C L AY,

PRODUCTS

GLASS,

AND CONCRETE .......................................................

.............................................................................................................

91.9

85.5

88.1

90.6

98.2

102. 4

101.0

METAL PRODUCTS1 ............................................................................

97.7

90.5

89.9

92. 3

103.0

105.4

99.9

MACHI NERY, EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 2 ...................................................................

77.4

80.5

81.1

82.9

88.

92. 3

97.6

ELEC TR IC A L

74.8

75. 8

78.0

84.8

92.0

83.0

80.8

84.8

87. 6

94.C

96.6

101 . 3

€4. 6

64. 9

69.9

73.5

84.6

94 . 7

98.6

PRIMARY

METALS

FABRI CATED

EQ U IP M E N T

AND

TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT
I NSTRUMENTS

S U PPLIE S

...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Includes jewelry and precious metals




.........................................................

.......................................................

81.7

2

85. 1

2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

54

8

104.8

1C8.7

108.5

109.9

115.5

124.4

117.6

107.2

112.4

108.6

108.3

112.8

118.5

117. 2

105.3

1C 6 . 6

111.3

121.3

123.0

132. 1

132. 1

104.3

111 .4

117. 1

123.3

135.8

153. 2

141. 8

106.9

110.7

108.0

111.9

117. 3

116.0

113. 4

114.7

126.4

134. 4

133. 7

129. 5

139.8

147.6

Table B-29. Output, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1960

I NDUSTEY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1 S 67

1968

1969

1970

84.3

84.3

84.4

87.1

95.2

98.0

99. 6

100.0

1C6.2

110.3

110.9

110.6

113.5

123.0

119.6

83.9

86.5

88.1

90.9

92.9

95.3

98.2

102. 8

106.0

107. 5

108.2

112.9

117.6

118.3

115.5

119.1

116.9

119.7

118.0

1C3.1

1C2.4

107.6

122.6
110.0

129.1

104.6

115.6

112.7

107.8

1 CO. 9

10 1 . 2

104.3

114.9

134.2

113.9
117.6

.......................................................................................

94.2

91.0

89.3

93.8

99.5

102.4

102.

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOCDS ............................................................................

99.7

100.1

95.4

95.4

100.6

104. 3

104. 2

100.0
100.0
100.0

LUMBER AND FURNI TURE . . . . * ................ ..............................................................

79.7

82.6

80.9

84. 1

9 8. 1

99. 1

97. 1

1CC.0

POOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTI LE

MILL

......................................................................................................

ERCDUCTS

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G
CHEMI CALS

.................................................................................................

AND AL LI E D

PRODUCTS

................................................................

1

1971

1972

197 3

1974

86.6

85.2

85. 1

87.7

95.7

97.7

1 CO. 3

10C.C

104.0

107.4

108. 1

105.2

110.9

121.

67.0

68.0

70.6

75. 9

83.6

89.4

94.5

10C.0

107.8

113.9

119.9

122.4

129. 6

145. 3

153. 1

78. 6

83. 0

81.4

84.0

92.1

98.2

1 04.3

109.9

120.5

130. 9

135. 3

134.3

144.C

138.7

112.3

116.8

117.4

117.0

122. 3

136.7

134.2

104. 6

106. 1

102. 4

110.2

116.9

130.9

120.3

2

67. 6

67. 1

70.5

75.1

86.9

92.3

96.1

......................................................

75.8

79.0

80.5

83.0

95.8

97.0

96.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

.............................................................................................................

1C1.8

95.9

90.5

94.8

107.6

112.5

106. 2

10C.0

106.4

1C9.0

108.7

99.2

99.3

108.7

99.7

FABRI CATED METAL PRODUCTS1 ...........................................................................

96.7

92.4

89.2

92.0

106.4

110. 4

104. 3

100.0

109.0

115.4

110.9

103.8

106.1

114.3

113.7

MACHI NERY,

75.3

81.7

81.2

81. 1

88.7

93.7

99.4

10C.C

1C4.2

1C9.9

113.3

113.4

107.6

117.1

117. 1

1C C . 0
100.0
100.0

103.4

110.1
110.2
120.2

1 13.4

116.3

124.9

142.0

136.4

105.6

106. 1

104.9

107.8

109. 6

104. 8

130.0

131. 1

120.9

132.2

136.4

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

GL AS S ,

PRIMARY METALS

EXCEET

................................................ .....................

MP RS ...................................................................

AND CONCRETE

E L E C T R I C AL 2 ..................................................................

I NSTRUMENTS

86.8

....................................................

70.0

72. 8

76.0

79.9

85.6

93.4

..............................................................................

98.2

92.7

94. 3

95. 9

102.7

101.9

1C1 . 4

61.9

65. 5

7C.C

74.8

83.2

94.0

S I . 5

E LE CTRI CAL EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S
TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

.......................................................

1 Includes jewelry and precious metals.




2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

55

111.8

Table B-30. Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

196C

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

15 67

1S68

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

.....................................................................................................................

1C6.5

1 06.7

104.7

103 . 8

105.4

104.7

102. 6

100.0

SS. 9

1C0.8

99. 1

94.0

91 . 5

92 .4

91.6

AND T O P A C C O ................................. - ..........................................................................

1C3.9

104.6

104.8

104.3

103.”
2

102.1

10 1 . 1

1 00. 0

98. 2

99.0

99. 3

96.3

94.5

94.5

94.4

I NDUST FY

ALL

TN DU ST R T F S

FOOD

TEXTILE

MTT.L

APPARET.

12*/. 7

122.2

119.0

113.4

114.0

111.3

1 08. 0

100. 0

99. 1

100. 5

95. 0

87.2

84.9

83.4

80.9

.............................................................. - ................

121.7

120.2

117.0

115.0

113.8

11 0 . 0

105. 5

100.0

99.7

9 9. 4

9 4. 2

93.2

91 . 9

88.8

84.7

...........................................................................................

106 . 5

105 . 0

10 3 . 2

10 3 . 7

106.0

107.6

1C3. 2

100.0

106.8

1C1. 7

97.5

95.4

98.1

103.6

98. 1

................................................................................................

98.9

99.4

99.1

99.8

100.5

101. 6

101. 1

1CC.0

1 CC.6

101.5

100.9

94.9

92.8

9 1. 6

92. 4

...............................................................

104. 0

103. 0

101. 7

101.7

1C1.2

1 CC. 7

1C1 .1

10C. 0

96.0

99.6

97.5

94.7

9 2. 4

92. 4

93. 6

...............,_______ _____ _____ _______

142. 9

138. 2

120 . 9

115. 6

111.3

109.8

1 C7.1

100.0

108.3

111. 0

11 8. 2

107. 3

1 00. 5

97.0

97. 8

M F F S ..................................................................

96.9

97. 4

97.2

99.1

102.7

1 03.8

101 . 5

100.0

105.9

108. 1

108. 3

105. 1

105. 6

109.9

109.9

1C4. 9

105.6

106.0

104.0

1C8. 1

107 . 4

103.2

100. 0

100. 9

100. 1

96.4

92.2

90.8

9 2. 5

88. 8

AND T.FATHFR

PRO DU C TS

................................. - ..........................................................

ROODS

LUMBER AND F URNI TURE
PAPER ANE

PRINTING

CHEMI CALS

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM ANT c o a t
RUBBER ANE
STC1NE
PRIMARY

r T Ay ,
,

RT AS S r

MACHI NERY,

C O N C R ET E

...........................................................

11C. 9

112. 1

102.7

104.6

109.6

109.9

105.2

100 . 0

101. 6

100.3

100. 2

90.3

86.0

8 7. 4

84.7

S5.0

102.0

99.2

99.7

103.3

104.7

104. 4

100.0

101.7

102.7

1C2. 1

95.8

94. 1

96.5

97.1

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 2 . . . . . . . ................ .. ...........................

97.3

101.5

100.1

97. 8

100. 6

101.5

131.9

100.0

98.9

1C3. 0

101.8

93.4

87.5

88.6

88. 6

93.5

96.0

97.4

97. 8

102. 1

101.0

101.6

1CC.0

99. 1

9 8. 9

96.8

94.3

92.0

92.6

96. 2

................................................................................................... ...

E L E C T R I C AT E Q U I P M E N T
TRANSPORTATION
IN S T R U M E N T S

AND

METAL PRODUCTS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................ ...

METALS

FABRI CATED

product^

MI SCELLANEOUS

AND

SnPFLTES

E Q U IP M E N T

ARD RE T.ATED

........................................... ...

.....................................................................................
PRODUCTS

........................... ................................

118.4

114. 8

111.2

109. 6

109.3

1C5. 5

1C0.1

1GC.0

98.8

99.6

98.2

93.8

91.8

94. 5

92. 4

95.8

101. 0

100.1

101. 8

98. 4

99.3

98.9

100.0

97.5

95.1

96. 7

98. 0

93.4

94.6

92. 4

1 Includes jewelry and precious metals.




2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

56

Table B-31. Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

1960

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

....................................................................................... .....................

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTILE

MI LL

......................................................................................................

PRODUCTS

.......................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS

............................................................................

CHEMI CALS

AND AL L I E D

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1S 6 8

1969

1 970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1CC. C

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

10C . 0

1C 0 . 0

100.0

100. 0

1CO. O

100.0

100.0

100.0

128. 3

131.7

131.2

130.6

125.5

125.4

125.9

125.9

124.0

123.2

121.8

117.7

120.9

71.5

70.6

74.8

73.3

74.5

74.0

75.9

83. 1

82.2

84.8

120. 2
88.6

121.2

7C.7
72.0

73.4

70.3

68.8

68.1

70.4

70.8

6S . 6

68.7

66.0

67.5

68.4

67.1

88.2
68.0

70.9

88.3

86.7

89.3

113.2

116.8

114. 6

146.5

146.5

150.8

157.5

167. C

164. 2

178.0

178. 8

185. 1

180. 5

99.2

99.3

91.8

87.2

83.2

85.1

117.5

114.3

113.6

112.5

85.3

91.4

89.2

88.7

94.0

90.2

89.0

127.5

125. 1

122.9

123.9

120. 7

120.2

................................................................

108.5

111.3

114. 8

118.6

121.9

126. 4

128.3

133.3

14C.9

139.4

.....................................................................

116.8

126. 2

138. 6

143. 8

152.1

158.4

166.6

1 6 6 .C

1 58.5

164 .8

92. 6

95.6

95.9

99.4

1 00.7

103.6

106 . 2

106.0

104.9

100. 5

99. 1

PRODUCTS

84.7

110.8

86.7

.................................................................................................

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS

1962

129.9

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ........................................... ...................................... . . .
PAPER AND P R I N T I N G

1961

81.6

.......................................................

84.9

87.5

88.4

91.2

89 . 6

89.4

93.0

90.6

90. 1

94. 5

96. 4

98.8

96.5

...........................................................................................................

12C.8

88.0
112.6

102. 8
88. 1

113.8

112.4

113.1

113.8

108.3

104. 1

102. 6

103.4

1CC. 9

97.3

96.9

97.3

93.8

FABRI CATED METAL PRODUCTS1 ...........................................................................

114.8

106.6

103.8

102.3

106.1

104.7

95.7

93.C

93.8

95.6

90.2

85.7

84.6

82.8

83.5

RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

GL AS S ,

METALS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT

AND CONCRETE

95.6

99.6

98.4

96.6

95.5

96.4

98. 4

97.8

96.9

95.3

97.2

100.9

97.0

97.1

99. 0

85.9

87.2

87.9

85. 6

82. 3

86.

SC . 9

89.2

92.5

95.1

95.3

99.5

104.6

98. 8

..............................................................................

102.7

102. C

101.1

102.3

98.0

98.6

99.2

94.6

93.2

9 2.7

85. 4

83.C

88.6

95.7

102.4

106.4

100.8

9 2. 5

93. 1

AND S U P P L I E S

EQUI PMENT

I NSTRUMENTS AND RELATED PRODUCTS
1 Includes jewelry and precious metals




92. 6

...................................................

E L E C T R I C AL 2 ..................................................................

ELE CTRI CAL EQUI PMENT
TRANS PORTATI ON

MF RS ..................................................................

.......................................................

7 2.4

2

103.0

88. 5
102. 2

72. 8

76. 8

77. 6

100.

2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

57

89.6

1

90.0

85. 1

100.

2

Table B-32. Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

1960

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T F I E S

............................................................................................................

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................
T E X T I L E MI L L

EBODUCTS

........................................................................................

CHEMI CALS

S T O NE ,
PRIMARY

1963

I 960

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

10C.COC 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0

100.000

100.000

100.000

100.000

1971

1972

1973

1970

1CC.00C 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 . OCO 1 0 0 . 0 0 0

11.€14

11.970

12. 182

12.171

11.393

11. 307

11. 507

11. 670

11.300

11.226

11.315

11. 021

11.608

11.160

11.509

6.601

6.606

6.080

6.592

6.002

6.397

6.280

6.120

6. 658

6. 618

6. 560

6. 631

6.612

6.029

6.001

............................................................................

0.677

0.698

0.070

0. 331

0.181

0.209

0. 137

3.955

3.895

3. 700

3. 651

3. 850

3.830

3.717

3.727

3.C3C

3. 101

3.073

3.095

3.300

3. 202

3. 125

3. 207

3^.255

2.935

2.926

3.020

3.205

3.099

3.050

................................................................................................

9. C55

8. 906

8.887

8.869

8. 860

8. 790

8.879

8.815

8.633

8 . 5 83

8.591

8.386

8.611

8.685

8.67 2

...............................................................

5. 766

5. 808

6.069

6.316

6. 367

6.619

6. 880

7*252

7.362

7.093

7.839

8. 030

8.279

8.568

9.288

.....................................................................

0.795

0.829

0. 812

0.812

0. 815

0.803

0.882

0. 802

0. 872

0. 9 2 1

0.990

1 . 031

0.996

0. 986

0. 977

MI SCELLANEOUS MF R S ...................................................................

3. 150

3.131

3. 287

3.390

3.588

3.702

3.796

3.933

0.160

0. 166

0. 161

0.162

0. 236

0.37 2

0.013

AND CONCRETE .......................................................

3. 508

3.650

3.717

3.710

3.920

3.860

3 . 770

3.899

3.801

3.750

3. 597

3. 887

0. 010

0.150

3.922

.............................................................................................................

9.017

8.863

8.363

8.078

8.812

8.907

8.311

7.795

7.811

7. 708

7. 638

6. 996

6. 82C

6.888

6.098

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM ANE COAL
RUBBER ANE

1962

...........................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS
LUMBER AND F UBNI TURE
PAPER ANE P R I N T I N G

1961

CL AY,

GLASS,

METALS

PRODUCTS

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS1 ............................ ...............................................

7. 362

7. 032

6.789

6.779

7.178

7.233

6.725

6.020

6.588

6. 720

6. 016

6.025

5.999

5.966

6.108

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 2 .............................................. ,....................

11. 793

12. 780

12.701

12. 283

12.297

12. 615

13.179

13.20 1

12.952

13.153

13. 077

13.530

12.509

12. 567

12.929

E L E CT R I C AL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S ...................... ..............................

7.269

7.562

7.885

8.035

7.992

7. 6 51

8. 217

8. 76C

8.530

8. 707

8 . 95 3

9.21b

y .600

10.109

9.99 3

13.390

12.909

12.600

12. 017

12 . 307

12,-016

11 . 879

11.786

11.780

11.065

10.88 3

1 . 09 2

1. 637

1 . 671

1 . 706

1 . 79 7

1 . 859

2.000

2. 022

1. 817

1. 830

1. 906

TRANS PORTATI ON EQUI PMENT
I NSTRUMENTS

...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRCEUCTS

1 Includes jewelry and precious metals.




.......................................................

10 . 068

13.650

13.870

13.671

1.253

1. 326

1. 010

1. 060

2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

58

Table B-33. Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries, United Kingdom, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUSTRY

1960

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

........................................................................... ................................

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTILE

MI LL

......................................................................................................

ERCDUCTS

.......................................................................................

1 0 0 . CCC

1961

100.000

1962

1963

1964

1 0 0 . OCO

100.000

1 0 0 . OCC

1965

1966

1967

1568

1969

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

1570

1971

1 0 0 . COO 1 C C . 0 0 0

1972

100.000

1973

1 0 0 . OCO

197 4

100.000

9.C51

9.086

9. 283

9.318

9 . C81

9.050

9.141

9.275

9.117

9.110

9 . 293

9. 497

9. 577

9.488

9.553

9 . 681

9.241

9. 180

8.818

8.731

8.583

8.491

8.072

8.010

8.052

7.739

7. 482

7. 488

7. 290

7.131

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS ...........................................................................

6.495

6.399

6.355

6.298

6.138

5.976

5.843

5.685

5. 672

5. 6 0 8

5. 405

5.632

5.709

5.464

5.255

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E .................................................... ................. ....................

3.493

3.438

3.445

3.490

3.514

3.593

3.512

3 . 45 4

3.734

3.526

3.439

3.545

3.742

3.919

3.742

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G ..................................... . . . . ...............................................

6.970

6.984

7.102

7.214

7 . 152

7.283

7.389

7 . 5C2

7.556

7.558

7.63 5

7.570

7.607

7.437

7.567

CHEMI CALS

AND AL L I E D

PRODUCTS

........................................................... .

5.313

5.253

5.285

5.328

5. 2 2 5

5. 237

5.360

5.441

5.226

5.376

5.352

5.483

5.490

5.439

5. 561

.......................................... ..........................

0.681

0.657

0 . 5 86

0.565

0.536

0.532

0.529

0.5C7

0.550

0.559

0.605

0.579

0. 557

0 . 532

0.541

MFRS...................................................................

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS
STONE,

CLAY,

3.369

3. 381

3. 4 40

3.535

3.611

3.675

3.664

3.705

3 .926

3.972

4.048

4 . 140

4 . 27 3

4. 4 0 7

4. 442

.......................................................

4 . 131

4. 152

4.248

4.200

4.303

4.306

4.217

4.195

4.237

4 . 16 6

4.081

4. 115

4. 162

4 . 158

4.065

.............................................................................................................

7. 796

7.869

7.351

7.544

7.791

7.865

7.677

7.489

7.614

7.453

7.57 2

7.193

7.038

7.081

6.927

GL AS S ,

PRIMARY METALS

AND CCNCRI TE

FABRICATEt

METAL PRODUCTS1 ...........................................................................

6.415

6.596

6.544

6.630

6.767

6.908

7.024

6.9C2

7.026

7. 031

7 . 114

7.034

7.091

7.205

7.313

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 2 ..................................................................

12.331

12.830

12.907

12.716

12.882

13.092

13.397

13.456

13.363

13.796

13.861

13.413

12.902

12.949

13.059

ELECTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

....................................................

8.460

8.669

8.970

..............................................................................

14.083

13.625

13.464

AND RELATED PRODUCTS .......................................................

1.731

1.822

1. 840

TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT
I NSTRUMENTS

9.083

9 . 335

9.30 2

9 . 540

9. 639

9. 565

9.455

9.416

9.668

9.686

9.665

10.117

13.37 4

13. 136

12.773

12.359

12.671

12.526

12.522

12.562

12.642

12.712

12.954

12.782

1.887

1.798

1.826

1.856

1.525

1.878

1. 8 1 6

1.879

2.007

1.964

1.971

1. 9 4 2

1 Includes jewelry and precious metals.




2 Includes ordnance and small arms.

59

Table B-34. Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1867

1S 6 8

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

............................................................................................................

68.9

72.1

76.2

80.1

86.9

91.2

94.4

100.0

108. 5

116.2

119. 5

125.8

134.7

143.9

149.3

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................

69. 3

73. 5

77. 4

81.0

87.2

92.4

95 . 6

110.7

112. 8

120.

1

125. 1

131.2

139. 2

66. 3

71.2

77.3

82.2

87.4

93.5

96 . 3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10C . 0
100.0
1CC. C
1C C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10C . 0

106.1

T E X T I L E MI LL

113.1

120.8

124. 7

141. 1

148. 8

157.9

169.C

109.7

116. 5

116.4

123.2

129.2

128.1

134.1

106. 2

117.5

123. 5

133.3

142.3

149.9

152.3

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

APPAREL

PRODUCTS

........................................................................................
............................................................................

76. 11

81.7

85.4

87.7

92.7

99.2

101.2

...........................................................................................

611. 3

67.3

72.6

75.5

84.1

90.3

94.8

................................................................................................

72.0

74.4

77.9

80.9

87.1

92. 4

95. 9

...............................................................

55.3

57.3

63.5

69. 8

77.2

82.6

89.8

.....................................................................

40.5

48.9

55. 1

65.9

72.0

79.7

92.9

AND LEATHER GOODS

LUMBER AND F URNI TURE
PAPER AND P R I N T I N G
CHEMI CALS

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

PRODUCTS

66.9

70.0

75.8

78. 3

86.9

92.0

94.2

AND CONCRETE1 .......................................................

65. 1

69.7

75.4

80. 3

87.9

91.0

95.2

METALS2 .............................................................................................................

76. 7

75. 4

77.2

77.2

88.5

88.7

90.4

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS
S T O N E , CL A Y ,
PRIMARY

GLASS,

MF R S ...................................................................

F ABRI CATED

METAL P R O D U C T S ......................... ...................................................

76.5

79.4

84.0

86.0

92.1

96.2

96.5

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT ELECTRI CAL' 3 ...................................................................

85.8

89.3

91.5

91 . 7

96.7

99.5

99.6

.....................................................

69.5

73.0

75.8

78.4

84.9

92.0

92.8

EQUI PMENT4 ...............................................................................

77.4

81.4

83.4

9 3. 3

98. 1

99, 2

74.3

76.0

79.0

82. 5

94. 4

99.7

1C 2 . 8
101. 3

E L E C T R I C A L EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S
TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Includes quarrying.
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




.......................................................

3 Includes locomotives.
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

60

1 C9 . 5

117.1

12C.5

125.3

135.0

144.8

152.3

115.1

125.8

130.6

141.4

155.4

172.5

176. 8

1C7.5

107.3

119.0

122.2

120.7

135.0

127. 6

113.7

120.4

125.4

133. 1

143. 5

154. 6

162. 3

108.2

11 3 . 3

118.5

125. 2

133.4

138.0

141. 4

111.6

120.1

1 18. 3

118. 3

129. 9

143.6

152.5

100. 3

115.8

1 18. 9

122.0

127.7

136.2

139.6

100.9

108.3

113.7

117.3

121.0

123.5

126.9

111.7

120.1

124.8

130.8

144.5

156.1

162.2

112.3

122.3

123.7

127.1

136.1

144. 1

138. 5

112.0

121 . 6

123.6

119.3

128.0

136.0

137.0

Table B-35. Output, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

19 60

I NDUST BY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

..............................................................................................................

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTILE

MI LL

......................................................................................................

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

197 4

76. 3

81.0

84.3

86.6

95.1

101 . 2

102.8

100.0

112.3

127.3

135. 4

138. 0

143. 4

153.4

1 5C.5

73. 3

77. 5

82. 2

85. 8

91.3

95.5

98.3

1CC.0

105.3

110.1

114.0

120.6

122. 3

127. 3

128. 8

115.9

126.9

128. 0

124. 9

138.6

138.4

13C.3

112. 1

121.1

117.5

119. 1

122. 0

111.6

102.4
156.3

92. 4

95.2

97.9

99.3

103. C

107.5

107.5

89. 0

94. 5

98.4

99.4

104.3

111.8

112 . 0

...........................................................................................

78.2

81.4

85.7

84.0

93.4

99.8

102.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

108. 3

123.6

132. 4

143.5

156.3

166.5

.................................................................................................

75.0

78.4

82.5

85.4

9 1.4

97. 1

100.3

10C.0

111.4

123.1

128.9

129.4

135.4

142.4

141.8

................................................................

52.9

56.0

61.8

67.7

76.5

84. 1

92. 2

100.0
1CC. C
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1CC. C

117.1

134.3

142.5

150.4

160.6

180.7

185.6

LUMBER AND FURNI TURE
PAPER AND F R I N T I N G

.......................................................................................

AND AL L I E D

PRODUCTS

.......................................... ..........................

42.7

52.1

58.2

67. 1

77. €

86.0

95.6

MF RS ..................................................................

€2.7

66. 9

73. 4

77.1

89.2

98.9

102. 4

AND CONCRETE1 .......................................................

77.7

83. 1

88. 3

90. 6

101.4

1 C4.3

1C5.8

METALS2 .............................................................................................................

54.7

94. 8

91.7

88.0

103.5

104.8

88.

5

93. 5

93.9

95.9

105.C

111.8

108.5

102.4

109.2

108.0

103.8

102. 3

112.6

115. 8

104. 8

104.7

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

1962

............................................................................

ERCDUCTS

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS

CHEMI CALS

1961

GL AS S ,

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT

...........................................................................

88.4

96.8

98.C

95.5

...................................................

73.0

81.0

83.0

84.6

EQUI PMENT4 ..............................................................................

81.8

85.7

91.6

100.5

107.7

83.8

85.7

84.9

85. 8

98. 7

E L E C T R I C A L 3 ..................................................................

ELECTRI CAL EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S
TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

......................................................

93. 1

1 Includes quarrying.
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




99.7

111.1

116.2

127.8

129.2

133.4

141.2

130. 1

123.3

143.5

155.3

162.9

175.3

192. 8

189. 0

107.8

115.0

123.0

129.4

136. 8

137. 4

126. 8

115.8

131.0

131. 6

121. 5

126. 8

143-8

148.8

104.8

130.0

139.4

139. 9

141.8

152.5

145.7

105. 8

123. 1

133. 2

132.2

129.5

133.6

133.8

117.3

138.4

157.4

158.8

173.2

193 . 2

195. 1

122.8

147.4

162.5

165.5

1 66 . 8

179.7

157.9

113.8

131 . 3

136.8

121.1

122.9

134.0

131. 5

3 Includes locomotives.
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

61

Table B-36. Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany, 1960-74
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

1960

I NDUSTBY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

1960

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

110.8

112. 0

110.5

108.2

109.5

111 . 0

1C8.8

1C C . 0

103.6

109.6

113. 3

109. 7

106. 4

106.6

100.8

................................................................

95.6

97.7

97.0

97.1

99. V

101. 8

102.

.....................................................................

105.0

106.0

105.8

101.8

107. 7

107.8

1C3.0

1CC. C
10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS M F F S ...................................................................

93.8

95.5

96.9

98. 0

102 . 6

107. 0

108.7

10C. O

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

FOOD AND TOEACCO .......................................................................................................

105.8

105. 0

106. 1

106.0

1C 0 . 7

103.0

102.7

TEXTILE HILL

139.3

133.8

126.7

120.

117.S

115.0

111 . 7

116. 5

115.7

115.2

113.3

112.5

110.7

100.5

PRODUCTS

........................................................................................

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS
LUMBER AND F UFNI TURE
PAPER AND P R I N T I N G
CHEMI CALS

PRIMARY

...........................................................................................

................................................................................................

AND AL LI E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

STONE,

...........................................................................

PRODUCTS

8

121.5

121.0

118.0

111.3

111.1

112 . 6
110.6

100.2

105.3

106.0

105.5

105.0

105.1

108.5

6

AND CONCRETE1 .......................................................

119.2

119. 3

117. 1

110.6

111 . 1

123.6

125.8

118.8

112. 8
110.0

115.0

METALS2 .............................................................................................................

117.C

118.1

110.3

115.7

117.7

111.8

111.5

113.9

116.2

112.0

CL AY,

GIASS,

FABRI CATED

META I

PRODUCTS . . .....................................................................

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 3 ................................................. ..................

103.1

108.3

107.2

100.1

105.9

109.7

108.5

E L E C T R I C AL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P E L I E S ...................... . . ........................

1C5.1

111.0

109.0

108.0

109.7

112.9

110.3

TRANS PORTATI ON EQUI PMENT4 ...............................................................................

105.7

105.3

109.8

107.6

109.8

113. 5

112.7

I NSTRUMENTS

112.8

112.8

107.0

100.0

100.6

105.2

1C3.3

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Includes quarrying.
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




.......................................................

3 Includes locomotives.
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

62

1974

95.2

99.5

97.7

97.0

92. 5

105.1

101.1
102.6

100.4

102.4

95.6

93.2

87. 6

77. 1

102.1
102.0
101.8

103.9

100. 9

96. 7

94. 4

87.1

76.3

105.1

1 C7. 1

1C7.6

109.8

111.1

102.6

105.2

107. 0

103.2

100.3

98.4

93.1

101.7

1C6.7

105.1

106.3

103.3

104.8

105.0

103.4

1C8.4

1C7.4

105.7

110.5

104.6

101.9

1C8.4

119.2

123.8

122.4

124.7

116. 5

99.7

101.5

103.7

103.4

122.2
102 . 6

103.7

109.1

111.2

102.7

97.6

104.5

112.2

117. 2

114. 7

104.9

113.7

117. 2

112.7

105. 1

115-3

126. 1

121. 4

1C5.4

12<2. 5

131.4

130.2

101.6

1C8.0

110.7

1 01 . 5

99. 6

89. 7

100. 1
112.0

97. 6
104.4

107.0

108.2

105.4

119.9

123.8

120.2

122 . 6

124.7

114.0

96.0

98.5

96.0

111.

1

Table B-37. Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

19 69

1970

1971

1972

1973

1 974

100.0

10C. C

100.0

1CO. O

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

177.8

176. 2

178. 1

178.0

175.7

171 . 9

167.4

165.8

167.7

163.2

160. 3

163.9

1960

I NDUSTRY

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

................................................................................................... ,. . .

FOOD AND TOBACCO

......................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

100.0

100. 0

100.0

176.6

179.2

178.4

.......................................................................................

71.2

73.0

75.0

75. 9

74.4

75.9

75.4

74 . 0

77.1

76.9

77.2

82.9

81.7

81. 2

83. 7

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS ...........................................................................

67.5

69.0

68.2

66.7

65.C

66.2

65.2

60.9

61.6

61 . 1

59. 3

59. 6

58.4

54.2

54.7

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................. ............................. ..............

76. 1

76. 1

77.6

76.8

78.9

80.7

81 . 8

81.5

79.8

82.5

84. 2

86.

86.

84.9

83.1

TEXTILE

MILL

PRODUCTS

1

95.6

94.5

93.4

92 . 5

91 . 7

92.7

93.0

91.5

92. 4

92.2

62. 2

91.1

91.7

92.1

................................................................

1 ( 13. 1

1 41 . 7

148.4

155.4

158.4

161. 5

169. 5

178.3

189.2

193.1

194. 8

200.3

205.7

213.7

211.

................................. ................................ ...

552.(4

637.9

678.7

773.3

778.8

821.9

924. 2

939.6

921.2

867.9

935.6

912.6

842.0

881 . 7

803. 2

MERS...................................................................

83.3

83.4

85.3

84.0

85.9

86.7

65.6

85.8

9C.0

89.0

90.1

90.8

91.5

92.2

9 3. 3

AND CONCRETE1 .......................................................

95.2

97.3

99.5

101.0

101.9

100. 5

101.5

100.7

10 C . 4

98.2

99.8

100.2

99.6

96.6

95. 3

METALS2 ............................................................................................................

112.3

105. 5

2

97. 3

102.8

98.2

96.6

10C.9

103.8

1C4.3

99.8

94.8

97. 3

100.7

103. 0

...........................................................................

82. 5

81.9

81.9

79.8

76.8

78.5

75.9

74.3

68.7

74.1

73. 9

72. 0

70. 5

70.4

69.5

ELE CT R I C AL 3 ..................................................................

92. 4

92.0

89.0

85.0

82.5

81.0

78.2

74.2

69.0

69.2

70.5

69. 1

66.6

63.7

63.1

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G .................................................................................................
CHEMI CALS

AND^AI LI ED

PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

3

GL AS S ,

FABRI CATED METAL PRODUCTS
MACHI NERY,

EXCEET

E LE CTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

....................................................

84.0

TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT4 ..............................................................................

11C.5

I NSTRUMENTS AND BELATED PRODUCTS
1 Includes quarrying.
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




......................................................

65.5

84.3

111.0
68.0

102 .

82.8

81 . 5

81.4

84.0

81.9

83. 3

85.8

107.6

114.6

111.0

107.0

107.0

96.3

1C1.7

66.4

70.0

70.5

69. 2

64.4

66.8

3 Includes locomotives.
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

63

66.6

86.

1

87. 0

1C3.5

101.7

67.4

66.6

93.4
1

86.6

89.3

9C.4

90.5

99.3

99.3

98.4

91.2

61.1

61 . 2

60.9

59. 1

Table B-38. Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUSTRY

I 9 60

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

FOOD AND TOEACCO .......................................................................................................
T E X T I L E MI LL
APPAREL

EBODUCTS

........................................................................................

AND LEATHER GOODS

...........................................................................

1963

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

1964

1965

1966

10C. CCC

100. o o c

100.000

1967

1968

1969

197 0

1971

1972

1973

1 974

100. OCO 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

12.560

12.804

13.008

12.607

12.397

12.557

13.132

12.309

11.351

11.053

11.480

11.205

10.898

11.234

5.64 1

5. 4 78

5. 4 19

5.343

5 . C51

4.953

4 .879

4.662

4.808

4.647

4.407

4.558

4. 5 0 8

4. 2 0 5

4. 0 36

4.503

4.506

4. 510

4. 4 3 0

4.236

4.265

4.210

3.862

3.852

3.672

3.351

3. 333

3.288

2.810

2.

3.338

12.609

626

...........................................................................................

3. 2 9 4

3.231

3.270

3.119

3.159

3.173

3.220

3.216

3.101

3 . 1 21

3 . 1 43

3. 344

3. 5 0 7

3 . 491

5.C35

4.958

5. 019

5.050

4.927

4.916

5.002

5 . 12 6

5.084

4. 9 5 6

4.879

4.806

4.840

4.760

4.82 7

...............................................................

8.999

8.974

9.524

10.150

10.445

10.782

11.643

12.983

13.528

13.692

13.663

14.147

14.546

1#295

16.004

.....................................................................

2.096

2.409

2.590

2.902

3.057

3. 183

3. 488

3.747

3.7C7

3.421

3.536

3.508

3.487

3.449

3.238

MI SCELLANEOUS M F R S ..................................................................

2.952

2.965

3 . 131

3. 19 5

3 . 3 70

3.509

3.579

3.592

3.942

4.047

4.118

4.240

4.392

4.513

4.510

AND CONCRETE1 .......................................................

6.037

6.089

6.216

6.

4.999

10.452

9. 858

9. 168

6. 20 3
8. 5 5 5
8. 1 0 4

6.

METALS2 ............................................................................................................

PAPER ANE
CHEMI CALS

PRINTING

AND AL LI E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER ANE

PRIMARY

1962

................................................................................................

LUMBER ANE F URNI TURE

S T ONE ,

1961

C L AY,

GLASS,

114

6.113

5.934

5.694

5.359

5.388

5.566

5.661

5. 316

9 . 16 7

329

8.721

8.173

8.420

8.676

8.665

8.180

7.411

7.448

7. 891

8.

8.084

8.091

7 .734

7.324

6. 8 3 4

7.474

7.542

7.423

7.247

7.282

7.089

325

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS ............................................................................

8.494

8.456

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L 3 ...................................................................

12.160

12.536

8. 1 6 2
12.212

11.566

11.295

11 . 3 2 5

11 . 0 3 5

10.495

9.882

1 0 . 1 48

10.325

10.052

9. 481

9. 143

9.326

E L E C T R I C AL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P F L I E S ...................... .. ...........................

8.948

9.350

9 . 211

9.136

9.156

9.593

9.313

9.351

9.768

1C.165

10.871

1C.765

11.296

11.776

12.118

7.359

7.262

7.459

7.958

7.773

7.635

7 . 7 37

6.863

7 . 503

7. 946

8. 2 3 6

8.230

7.986

8.039

7.197

1.422

1 .371

1.305

1.283

1.344

1.342

1. 3 1 9

1. 295

1.312

1.336

1.309

1.137

1. 1 1 0

1 .131

1 . 131

TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

EQUI PMENT4 ...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Includes quarrying.
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




.......................................................

3 Includes locomotives
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

64

Table B-39. Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries, Germany, 1960-74
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

1960

IN D O S T F Y

ALL

IN D U S T R IE S

..................................................................................................... ...

10C. OCC

6.436

4.0C4

3.930

3 .936

5.373

5.301

5.380

6.532

6.595

6. 6 7 8

6. 8 6 7

7.501

7.229

7.035

6.670

6. 5 2 9

6.

617

6. 6 4 3

FU F N I T U R E ..................................................................................................

AND

if. 3 3 0

4.248

4. 214

4.060

5. 2 67

5. 2 4 4

5. 3 7 1

5.458

6.267

6.332

6.417

PRIN TIN G

C H E M IC A L S

AND

P ET RO L E U M

GOODS

.................................................................................. ......................

ALLIED

AND C O A L

P R O D U C T S .....................................................................

1971

1972

1973

1974

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000
6.780

6.843

6.865

6.800

6.856

5.710

5.496

5.519

5 . 180

4.820

5.651

5.59 4

5 . 6 30

5. 186

4. 8 0 4

3.732

2.874

4. 072

4.111

4.017

5 . 290

5. 2 7 3

5. 2 7 7

5. 168

5.171

7.062

7.072

7.158

7.581

6.667

7.474

7.162

6.470

6.3C3

6.233

6.040

6.454

6. 3 4 5

6.256

6.014

3.947

3.886

3.785

5.601

5.503

5.373

7.283

7 . 1 49

7.069

7 . C13

0.379

0.378

0.382

0.375

0.392

0.387

0.377

0.399

0.398

0.394

0.378

C.384

0.414

0.391

0.403

3.542

3.556

3.670

3.805

3.923

4.048

4 . 180

4 . 184

4 . 379

4.548

4.571

4.671

4.802

4.893

4.832

AND C O N C R E T E 1 ...........................................................

6.342

6.258

6.248

6. 1 4 1

6.

€.084

6. C 2 1

5.695

5.672

5.457

5.397

5.557

5.681

5.505

5. 245

9.310

9.345

8.973

8.794

8.916

.................................................................................

10.294

10.321

9. 971

10.149

10.256

E L E C T R I C AT 3 .......................................................................

STONE,

CLAY,

GLASS,

M E T A L S 2 .....................................................................................................................

FABRICATED

METAL

MACHINERY,

EYCFPT

FT.FCTRT CAT,

EQUIPMENT

AND

1970

...........................................................................

AND M I S C E L L A N E O U S

INSTRUMENTS

521

1969

M F R S ....................... ......................... ......................

PR O DUCTS

R UBBER

TRAN SPO RTA TIO N

1 0 0 . CCC

6.

7.926

....... ..........................................................................

E R CD U C TS
LEATHER

100.000 100.000 1OO. CCO

6.790

..............................................................................................

M IL L

1968

1966

7.056

7 . 150

..............................................................................................................

1967

1965

6. 9 6 2
6. 5 2 9

7.317

AND

PRIMARY

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

1964

7 . 177

A P PA RE L

AND

1963

7 .010

TEXTILE

P AP ER

1962

7.138

FOOD AND TU BA CC O

LUMBER

1961

PRODUCTS

212

8.

882

8.458

8.347

8.355

8.304

8.196

7.817

7.656

7 . 8 37

8.080

10.313

10.182

9.855

9.946

1 0 . 0 84

10.199

10.30 6

10.283

10.351

10.204

1 2 . 163

13.633

13.724

13.613

13.686

13.985

14.103

14.148

14.324

14.668

14.637

14.541

14.227

14.363

14.791

........................................................

10.647

11.087

11.119

11.203

11.250

11.419

11 . 3 7 7

11.228

11.389

11.807

12.499

12.435

12.646

13.034

13.391

E Q U I P M E N T 4 ....................................................................................

6.660

6.541

6.935

6.944

7.006

7.139

7 .229

6.982

7 . 275

7. 675

8.C96

8.287

8.044

8.166

7.892

2.C45

2.016

1.953

1.931

1.920

1.904

1.908

2. C 1 0

1.972

1 . 9 80

1.964

1.860

1.813

1.857

1.913

AND

RET.ATFD

1 Includes quarrying
2 Includes railroad and street cars.




SU PPL IE S

P R O D U C T S ...........................................................

3 Includes locomotives.
4 Excludes aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and street cars.

65

Table B-40. Output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

I NDUST FY

1960

1961

1962

1963

1960

1965

1966

1967

............................................................................................................

50.9

59. 8

63.3

67.9

75.0

79.1

87.2

1CC.0

POOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................

65.1

66.0

70.5

83. 1

87. 1

91.7

98.0

100.0

10

T E X T I L E MI LL

77.8

80. 1

78.7

81.7

80. 5

90.0

92.9

1CC.0

107.0

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

PRODUCTS

........................................................................................
............................................................................

69.5

72.9

92.9

80.3

82.6

89.2

101 . 0

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E 1 ...........................................................................................

79.9

80.9

82. 1

83. 9

87.7

90.1

90 . 2

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G 2 ................................................................................................

57. 5

66.2

7C.2

73.3

79.C

82.1

90.3

05.6

50.2

57.8

65.7

72.0

82.9

05.9

50.1

63.0

72.2

80.8

59.5

01.8
68.1

73.2

75.7

80.6

82.0

89. 1

.......................................................

61.0

67.2

72.6

70. 0

82.2

80.0

88.8

10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.............................................................................................................

05.6

50.8

50.3

56.7

68.

71. 0

82.3

10C.C

66.

10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS

CHEMI CALS

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

...............................................................

02.0

.....................................................................

37.9

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS MF B S ...................................................................
S T O NE ,
PRIMARY

CL AY,

GLASS,

METALS

PRODUCTS

AND CONCRETE

2

FABRI CATED

METAL P R O D U C T S .................................................... .. .....................

60. 1

60.9

60. 0

1

73.5

75.0

85.0

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L

09.9

56.0

59. 2

60. 1

71.8

72.0

78.2

ELECTRICAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S ...................... . ..........................

09. 1

55.6

59.6

61.1

69.5

69.8

83.2

TRANS PORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRCLUCTS

1 Excludes furniture.




EQUI PMENT

...................................................................

.......................................................

39.0

06.0

51.6

50.8

71.1

78.5

85.6

55.2

60.7

72.7

81.2

87.3

86.9

95.5

2 Excludes printing.

66

1968

112.0
.3

1969

1970

1971

1972

126.3

14C.4

145.8

161. 4

112.8

122.0

126.5

137 . 4

1C9.8

114.9

119.1

126.3

10C.3

106.3

108.3

110.9

112.1

118, 0

102.
120.

1

1 0^ . 5

1

126.3

112.0
112. 1

127.7

143. 3

147. 9

158.5

131.2

156.0

170.7

185.4

118.0

136.7

157. 6

165. 1

171 . 3

103.8

113.5

126.4

136.5

160.3

109.6

118.7

13C.7

133.8

146 . 4

111.2

129.6

142.4

143.9

164.2

118.2

130.7

142.4

147.4

164. 7

127.0

141.5

160. 2

156.7

169.9

118.6

142.8

154. 4

161. 4

187. 4

106. 1

119.2

135. 1

150.1

161.8

106. 3

123.2

141. 6

140.2

151.8

Table B-41. Output, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

I NDUSTRY

1560

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

...............................,.............................................................................

43.7

1961

51.3

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

55.6

62. 2

71.8

74.6

84.2

10 C. C

114.4

132.4

150.8

154.9

166.3

127.5

52. C

56.2

60.8

75. 3

81.7

86.9

95. 2

100.0

102.5

1C8.9

117.1

120.7

.......................................................................................

76.7

80.6

78.1

81.8

86.

1

91.3

94.4

1CC.C

104.4

1C4.9

108.3

109.0

107.8

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS . . ......................................................................

42.7

48.4

65.6

70.4

75. 5

81. 4

96.4

102.9

113.3

119.9

123.3

125.3

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E 1 . , .......................................................................................

71.4

75. 6

77. 3

81.7

86.7

87.7

93.1

104.3

111.0

115.7

114. 1

117.0

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G 2 .................................................................................................

H€ . 2

58.3

62.3

69.0

78.1

80.0

89.7

110.4

124.4

141. 0

144. 4

153.3

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTI LE

B ill

CHEMICALS

......................................................................................................

ERCDUCTS

.......................................................

49.1

57.0

62.3

66.0

76. 1

78. 4

85. 4

10C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

111.8

124.0

138.7

140.9

150.5

.............................................................................................................

39.1

48.6

48.2

54. 6

67. 5

68.

7

78.9

1CC.C

114.5

136.7

153.8

151.1

165.6

4 1.7

49. 1

51.7

57. 9

67.6

69.1

81.8

121.0

143.3

165.3

170.7

189. 3

39.3

50. 8

55.3

61.9

70.8

68.0

75.3

131 . 8

156.1

186.9

180.4

186.7

22. 3

43. 8

50.2

53.6

63.3

61 . 6

75.9

1C C . 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

128.9

170.9

199. 2

203.0

229. 9

115. 1

131.0

15C.6

166.9

184. 9

109. 8

131.1

158. 0

158.3

169.2

AND AL L I E D

................................................................

38.0

43.6

49.7

58.3

68.1

74.5

84.7

....................................... ..............................

32. 9

39.5

44.5

53.2

63.0

72.4

83. 1

MF RS ...................................................................

43.9

53.2

58.8

65.8

73.9

75.4

86.0

PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

GL AS S ,

METALS

AND CONCRETE

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT

ELE CTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

E LE CTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT

..................................................................
....................................................

..............................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Excludes furniture.




...........................................................................

................................................

26.4

33. 9

38.1

42.5

59.3

66.9

77.1

42.5

52.9

63.0

74.2

83.1

82.3

93.7

2 Excludes printing.

67

112.2

131.4

156. 3

167. 0

173. 1

118.3

141. 4

166. 1

182.1

190.4

106.3

120.2

136.8

145.8

164.8

Table B-42. Hours, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, 1967 = 100)

I NDUSTFY

19 6 C

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

............................................................................................................

1961

1962

1963

1960

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

79.6

85.8

87.8

91.7

9 5. 2

90. 3

96.6

1CC. C

1 C2. 1

104.8

107.4

106.3

103.0

56.2

96.6

56.0

95.4

92.8

57.6

55.5

94.3

91.5

85.3

1C 2 . 6

106.6

110.8

120.8

95.8

99.0

98. 1

95.0

92. 6

98.4

97.6

96.8

............................................................................................................

85.7

96.3

95.9

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS . . .....................................................................

69.3

75.6

80.3

87. 5

92.0

92. 1

96.3

100. C
100.0
1C 0 . 0
10C. O
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1CC. C

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L ..................................... .............................

78.6

90. 2

93. 0

96. 5

56.7

90.0

96.0

ELECTRICAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S ........ ...........................................

67.7

78.9

80.3

87. 8

51.2

88.2

91 . 2

67.0

73.0

73.9

77.0

83.5

85.1

90.0

76.9

81.8

86.7

91.5

95.2

90.7

98.1

FOOD AND T O E A C C O .......................................................................................................

79.8

80.7

86.3

T E X T I L E MI L L

98.6

100.7

99.2

............................................................................

61.4

66.3

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E 1 ...........................................................................................

89.0

93. 0

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G 2 ................................................................................................

83.9

88.0

88.8

CHEMI CALS

...............................................................

9C. 3

95.6

99.C

.....................................................................

86.9

90.6

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS M F R S ..................................................................

73.8

STONE, CLAY,

.......................................................

79.9

APPAREL

ERODUCTS

AND LEATBER GOODS

AND AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND CCAL

PRI MARY

............................................... ......................................

GLASS,

METALS

TRANS PORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

AND CONCRETE

EQUI PMENT

...............................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Excludes furniture.




PRODUCTS

.......................................................

93.8

90.7

96.7

1

101. 9

101. 5

1C 1 . 6

70.7

83. 5

91. 0

91. 3

95.0

90. 2

97. 0

9 6.5

97.0

98.8

90.6

100.

90. 1

96.5

97.0

100.9

1C3.6

103.6

96.9

98.2

99.3

78.1

80.3

86.9

80.8

85.8

88.8

95.5

9 5.7

96. 2

2 Excludes printing.

68

99.0

100.0

102.2
102.8

91.6

91.9

96.6

92.7

92.9

96. 2

99.C

113.0

98.6

97.4

100.1
100. 2
102. 4
102.0

100.2

100.

2

97. 8

93. 4

1C 3 . 4

1 C 5. 4

110.2

106.0

108. 2

1C6.9

104.4

106.1

1C5.4

111.1
102.8
102.8

102.9

105.5

108.0

105.0

100.9

1C2.3

1C9.7

116.0

115.8

114.9

1CC.0

1C3.7

110.3

116.7

115. 1

109.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

108.7

119.7

129. 0

125.8

122.7

108 .4

109.9

111. 5

111.

1

114. 3

103. 3

106. 5

111.

112.9

111.4

6

Table B-43. Relative levels of output per hour, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUST FY

1960

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

................................................................................................... . . .

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTI LE

MILL

......................................................................................................

ERCDUCTS

1961

1962

1963

1964

1CC.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.

1C5.1

98.2

98.5

108.4

68.0
122.6

73. 4

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

0

1C0.0

1 CC . C

1 CC.0

1C0.0

1C C . 0

1C0.0

102.2

102.6

99.9

88.5

82.4

79.0

76.9

76.8

65.8

61.2

62.2

58. 2

54.6

52.2

47.5

44.7

44.7

42 . 8

10 3. 8

91.5

94. 2

96.8

83.5

74.8

70.3

64.4

58.5

57.4

69.0

67.6

64.2

59.4

55.4

52.7

49.9

48.9

46. 5

1 97 1

1972

100.0
75.4

.......................................................................................

77.5

73.2

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOODS .............................................................................

105.9

101.9

LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E 1 ............................................................. .............................

86.5

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G 2 .................................................................................................

110.5

116.6

116.9

113. 8

11C.3

109.4

1C9.1

105 .4

105.3

106.5

107.6

106.9

10 3 . 5

CHEMI CALS

................................................................

18!. 9

185. 2

192.6

2C6.7

211.7

220.9

231 . 0

242.9

243.1

252.2

269. 9

284. 5

279. 1

................................................... .................

.266.0

269. 3

279.7

307.2

324.0

351.6

357.1

385.4

4 06.0

417.0

432.5

436.7

409. 1

78.9

82.9

84.2

81 . 1

77.8

75.4

74.3

72.7

67. 4

65.3

65. 5

68.1

72.3

.......................................................

116.5

117.0

119.3

114.0

113.3

110.9

105.9

104.0

1C1.7

97.8

96.8

95.5

94.4

............................................................................................................

118.2

120.9

113.0

118.8

128.5

128.3

134. 2

142. 2

141.2

145.8

144.2

140.4

144.7

95.2

94.2

88.4

84. 5

84.6

82. 3

84.6

86.8

91.6

89.8

88.1

87.8

88 . 6

92. 1

96. 4

95. 8

96.6

97.2

93.6

91.7

102.3

116.0

114 .6

116.7

110.0

107.7

AND AL L I E D

PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

GL AS S ,

PRIMARY METALS

MF RS ...................................................................

AND CONCRETE

FABRI CATED METAL PRODUCTS

...........................................................................

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT EL E CT R I C AL

ELECTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

TRANSPORTATI ON

EQUI PMENT

..................................................................
....................................................

90.2

...............................................................................

92. 5

I NSTRUMENTS AND RELATED PRODUCTS
1 Excludes furniture.




.......................................................

81.7

80. 4

93. 6

77.0

88.8

94. 8

90. 6

92.8

96 .1

1CC.7

106.6

113.9

110.7

111.5

116.9

1

105.1

104.2

121.5

128.0

126.7

128.9

122.1

121.7

124.0

132. 8

129. 3

87. 8

93.3

97.0

93.9

89.2

88.9

81.2

81.8

78.0

76. 4

100.

2 Excludes printing.

69

77.0

79. 1

Table B-44. Percent distribution of output, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUST FY

1960

1961

1962

1964

1963

1965

1966

1967

1 968

1970

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 1C C . 0 0 0 100. OCO 100.000 10C . 0 0 0 100.000

............................................................................................................

1 0 0 . COO

FOOD AND T 0 E A C C 0 .......................................................................................................

12.235

11.251

11.234

12.431

11.695

11.967

11.616

10.276

9.201

TEXTILE HI LL

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

1969

8.

453

7.979

197 1

1CC.000

197 2

100.000

8.009

7.881

12.951

11.577

10.360

9.689

8.842

9.025

8. 2 6 1

7. 372

6 . 7 29

5.841

5.296

5.188

4.780

............................................................................

3.503

3.377

4 . 230

4.053

3.766

3.908

4.101

3.583

3.223

3.067

2.849

2.852

2.699

LUMBER ANE F U R N I T U R E 1 ...........................................................................................

5.041

4.899

4 . 6 27

4.368

4 . 0 16

3.912

3.676

3.327

3.032

2.790

2.553

2.451

2.342

PAPER ANE P R I N T I N G 2 ................................................................................................

3.881

3.987

3. 9 40

3. 893

3. 823

3.766

3.742

3.513

3 .391

3.301

CHEMI CALS

...............................................................

9. 631

9.601

10.106

10.587

10.725

11 . 2 9 4

11 . 3 6 9

11.306

11.084

11.222

.....................................................................

1.039

1.062

1. 104

1.178

1 .209

1 .339

1 .360

1 .379

1.425

APPAREL

EFODUCTS

........................................................................................

AND LEATHER GOODS

ANE AL L I E D PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM AND COAL

PRODUCTS

1.472

3.286

3.276

3. 240

11.713

12.192

1 1.772

1. 5 1 9

1. 6 2 1

1. 5 7 9

RUBBER AND MI SCELLANEOUS MF R S ...................................................................

5.102

5.259

5.369

5.364

5.219

5.126

5.184

5.073

4 . 7 13

4. 6 0 8

4 . 602

4.777

5.03C

S T O N E , CL A Y ,

6.301

6.223

6.278

5.944

5.942

5.886

5.685

5.6C4

5.475

5. 249

5 . 154

5.099

5.072
10.109

PRIMARY

GLASS,

METALS

AND CCNCFETE

.......................................................

.............................................................................................................

9.C83

9.599

8.789

8.898

9.542

9.348

9.505

1 0 . 147

10.151

10.480

10.347

9.898

FABRI CATED

METAI

P R O D U C T S ............................................................................

6.118

6.133

5.969

5.961

6.037

5.939

6.231

6.413

6.781

6.942

7.C29

7.070

7.300

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT E L E C T R I C A L .................................. ................................

9.274

10.218

10.268

10.255

10.177

9. 408

9.228

1 C.316

11.880

12.163

12.786

12.014

1 1.586

ELECTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

.....................................................

7.437

8. 3 3 4

8.

816

8.405

8.611

8.054

8.798

9.762

10.995

12.604

12.895

12.794

13.497

...............................................................................

6.214

6.796

7.057

7.025

6. 5C6

9.227

9.426

10.295

10.352

10.189

10.281

11.091

11.451

1. 5 9 0

1.684

1.852

1.949

1.890

1. 8 0 2

1 .817

1.633

1.567

1.618

1.711

1.669

1. 6 6 2

TRANS PORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

EQUI PMENT

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Excludes furniture.




.......................................................

2 Excludes printing.

70

Table B-45. Percent distribution of hours, 15 manufacturing industries, Japan, 1960-72
(Indexes, all manufacturing = 100)

I NDUSTRY

I960

ALL I N D U S T R I E S

.................................................................................................. ,. . .

1 0 0 . COO

1961

1963

1962

1964

1965

1966

100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000

1967

1 0 0 . OCC

1 968

1969

100.000 10C . 0 0 0

1970

19 7 1

1 0 0 . COO 1 C C . 0 0 0

1972

100.000

11.649

11.453

11.401

11.472

11.444

11.662

11.626

11.609

1 1 . 163

10.697

10.379

1C.424

10.454

.......................................................................................

16.006

15.822

15.237

14.734

14.441

14.513

14.190

1 3 . M51

12.888

12.299

11.840

11.615

11.173

APPAREL AND LEATHER GOCDS ............................................................................

3.3C8

3.313

3.450

3.906

4.116

4.149

4.236

4. 288

4. 309

4.364

4.423

4.875

4.703

LUMBER AND F U R NI T U R E 1 ...........................................................................................

6.292

6.094

6.006

5.950

o
IN
O
O
in

5.786

5.727

5.6C3

5.476

5.295

5.118

5.011

5.037

PAPER AND P R I N T I N G 2 .................................................................................................

3.512

3. 4 1 8

3. 371

3.422

3.465

3.444

3.430

3.334

3.219

3.100

3.055

3.063

3. 1 30

FOOD AND TOBACCO
TEXTI LE

MILL

......................................................................................................

PBCDUCTS

CHEMI CALS AND AL L I E D

PRODUCTS

................................................................

5.289

5. 184

5. 2 4 6

5. 122

5. 066

5.112

4.922

4.654

4 .560

4.449

4.341

4.285

4. 218

.....................................................................

0 . 290

0.394

0.395

0.383

C.373

0 .381

0.381

0.358

0.351

0.353

0.351

0.371

0. 386

MFRS...................................................................

6.465

6.346

6.376

6.612

6.712

6. 7 9 7

6.975

6.975

6.992

7. 053

7.030

7.015

6.961

PETROLEUM AND COAL PRODUCTS
RUBBER

AND MI SCELLANEOUS

STONE,

CLAY,

PRIMARY

.......................................................

5.411

5.320

5.262

5.216

5.245

5.306

5.367

5.387

5. 281

5. 3 6 8

5. 323

5.341

5.374

.............................................................................................................

7.684

7.941

7.777

7.491

7.424

7.285

7.082

7 . 138

7.191

7.187

7.176

7.052

6.987

6.427

6.509

6.753

7.051

7 . 138

7.214

7. 362

7.287

7 . U01

7.732

7.983

8.053

8.238

9.962

10.595

10.722

10.612

10.459

10.055

10.062

1 0 . C€ 5

10.244

1C.616

10.957

1C.926

10.760

8.249

8.906

9. 301

9.277

9.283

9.068

9.155

9.694

10.314

11.070

11.644

11.476

11.542

6.716

6.788

6.

716

6.744

7.CC3

7.207

7.442

7.985

8.476

8.373

8.289

8.352

8.8 59

1.946

1.918

1.986

2.008

2.C13

2.021

2.043

2.013

2.035

2.045

2.091

2. 1 3 9

2. 1 7 7

GL AS S ,

METALS

AND CONCRETE

FABRI CATED

METAL PRODUCTS

MACHI NERY,

EXCEPT

ELE CTRI CAL

EQUI PMENT AND S U P P L I E S

TRANSPORTATI ON
I NSTRUMENTS

E LE CTR I C AL

EQUI PMENT

..................................................................
....................................................

..............................................................................

AND RELATED PRODUCTS

1 Excludes furniture.




...........................................................................

......................................................

2 Excludes printing.

71

Appendix C. Selected References
Kux, Jaroslav. Methodological Problems o f International Comparison o f Levels o f
Labour Productivity in Industry. New York, United Nations, 1971, 99 pages.
(United Nations Statistical Commission and Economic Commission for Europe,
Conference of European Statisticians, Statistical Standards and Studies, No. 21).

Chandler, John H., and Patrick C. Jackman. Unit Labor Cost in Manufacturing;
Trends in Nine Countries, 1950-65. Bulletin 1518. U.S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1966, 34 pp.
Daly, D. J. Estimates o f Manufacturing Productivity Levels, United States, Canada
and Japan. Downsview, Ontario, York University, July 1976, 9 pages. (Part of a
study supported by the Canadian Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources).

Paige, Deborah, and Gottfried Bombach. A Comparison o f National Output and
Productivity o f the United Kingdom and the United States. Paris, Organization for
European Economic Co-operation, 1959,245 pp.

Gilbert, Milton, and associates. Comparative National Products and Price Levels; a
Study o f Western Europe and the United States. Paris, Organization for European
Economic Co-operation, 1958,168 pp.

Shelton, William C., and John H Chandler. “Technical Note—
International Compari­
sons of Unit Labor Cost: Concepts and Methods” , Monthly Labor Review, May
1963, pp. 538-47.

Gilbert, Milton, and Irving B. Kravis. An International Comparison o f National Prod­
ucts and the Purchasing Power o f Currencies. Paris, Organization for European
Economic Co-operation, 1954,203 pp.

Siegel, Irving H. “On the Design of Consistent Output and Input Indexes for Produc­
tivity Measurement” In Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, Studies in
Income and Wealth, vol. 25,1961, pp. 23-46.)

Grossman, Michael, and Victor R. Fuchs. “Intersectoral Shifts and Aggregate Produc­
tivity Change” In American Statistical Association, Business and Economic Statis­
tics Section, Proceedings, 1972, pp. 66-75.

United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe. International Comparisons o f
Labour Productivity in the Iron and Steel Industry. Report No. ST/ECE/Steel 20,
1967.

Hill, T. P. The Measurement o f Real Product. Paris, Organization for Economic
Co-operation and Development, February 1971,119 pp.

West, E. C. Canada-United States Price and Productivity Differences in Manufactur­
ing Industries, 1963, Staff Study No. 32. Ottawa, Economic Council of Canada,
1971,81 pp.

Kravis, Irving B. “A Survey of International Comparisons of Productivity” , In The
Economic Journal, the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Economic Society, Cam­
bridge University Press, March 1976, pp. 1-44

Wise, David A. An International Comparison o f Unit Labor Cost in the Iron and Steel
Industry, 1964: United Slates, France, Germany, United Kingdom. Bulletin 1580.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1968, 64 pp.

Kravis, Irving B., and associates. A System o f International Comparisons o f Gross
Product and Purchasing Power. Produced by the Statistical Office of the United
Nations, the World Bank, and the International Comparison Unit of the University
of Pennsylvania, 1975,294 pp.




Yukizawa, Kenzo lapanese and American Manufacturing Productivity: A n Interna­
tional Comparison o f Physical Output per Head. Discussion Paper No. 087,
Kyoto, Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, March 1975, 39 pp.
☆

72

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