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^ th e ir employment and educational opportunities
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T h e Interagency Committee on Youth Employ­
ment and Education was organized in April 1945
to work out common principles and consider plans
of action for meeting the education and employment
problems of young people, and to bring to bear
on this planning the background and experience of
the various Federal agencies concerned with youth.
The Committee is composed of representatives of
the following Federal agencies with programs that
particularly concern youth:
c h i l d r e n ’s


w o m e n ’s



Suggestions for Use of This Leaflet M ay Be Found
on Back Cover Page
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

their EMPLOYMENT end


Prepared by the Interagency Committee
on Youth Employment and Education •
U. S. Department of Labor • Children's
Bureau Publication No. 316 •


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


F O R E W O R D .................................................................
YOUNG P E O P L E ? ..........................................................................

What is the employment situation now
for young people?......................... .
Is the community educating all of its
young p e o p le ? ....................................... 13
How is the present employment and
school attendance situation for young
people likely toc h a n g e ? ........................ 15
Do the school opportunities attract young
people and serve their needs? . . . .
Would financial aid to students help to
keep more young people in school? . . 19
Are there counseling services to help
young people, both those in school and
those out of school, to make wise choices
leading to good occupational and social
a d ju s tm e n t? ............................................. 21
Are placement services that include job
counseling available for young people? 23
Can sufficient suitable job opportunities
be provided for youth who are ready
for t h e m ? ............................................ 25
What action is needed to deal with these
problems? ............................................







FOR IN F O R M A T I O N ..................................................... 29
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Back cover page

A Nation Depends on its Youth.— The world has
entered a new age. The importance of developing
the skill, knowledge, and strength of the young people
of every nation to meet the new age, is recognized
now as never before. The hope for a real and lasting
world peace rests on them. Theirs is the task of
rebuilding the world. So it is not enough to work for
the welfare of some. All young people must be served,
and all citizens share the responsibility of planning
and working for and with them.
To the thousands of boys and girls who were swept
from school into industry by war demands, and to the
thousands about to leave school who will be looking
for jobs, the shift from wartime to peacetime living
requires profound readjustments. During the war
many young people cut short their education, thus
handicapping their future. Many received higher
wages than customary in normal times for the jobs
they held. For many, wartime community conditions
interfered with a home life favorable to 'their best
development. The disturbing effects upon young
people of finding new kinds of jobs, adjusting to new
living and working conditions, building up new asso­
ciations, and acquiring new values, will be heightened
by the fact that adults are undergoing similar diffi­
» culties at the same time.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


What Does Your Community Know
About Its Young People?
A community that is to help its young people attain
their best possibilities both for useful citizenship and
for personal success and happiness must know many
things about them, about itself, and about what it
wants to do to help them. It must realize that the
effect of wartime dislocations and the sudden release
of wartime tensions have brought new problems for
youth. It must be aware of the new situations boys
and girls are facing or are likely to have to face.
The young people of this generation have in their
hands immense power for working out satisfactory
ways of peaceful living for this country and for the
world. It is the communities where they live that
can give them the opportunity for the personal
development that will enable them to use this power
wisely. To help them grow into their best selves the
community must provide many varied services to
assure to all youth health, education, welfare, and
protection from employment at too early an age and
under harmful conditions. All children and young
people need access to adequate health services, school­
ing adapted to their interests and needs, student aid to
overcome individual handicaps to continued education,
counseling to help them make wise social and occupa­
tional choices, and facilities for leisure ¡time activities.
When they are ready to enter employment, young
persons need job-opportunity and placement services.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In many communities facilities to satisfy these needs
are often lacking or inadequate. In many others
they were discontinued or neglected during the war.
All these needs are interrelated in the individual,
and services to meet them must be interrelated in the
community if the individual is to have a chance to be
of the greatest possible usefulness to his community.
This leaflet, while recognizing the wide variety of
community services that are needed for young people,
is pointed to the employment and educational aspects
of those services and to the age group 14 through 20
years of age, at work, in school, or entering the working
The following topics are briefly discussed:
I. W hat is the employment situation now for
young people?
II. Is the community educating all of its young
III. How is the present employment and school
attendance situation for young people likely to
IV. Do the school opportunities attract young
people and serve their needs?
V. Would financial aid to students help to keep
more young people in school?


VI. Are there counseling services to help young
people, both those in school and those out of
school, to make wise choices leading to good
occupational and social adjustment?
V II. Are placement services that include job counsel­
ing available for young; people?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


V III. Can sufficient suitable job opportunities be
provided for youth who are ready for them?
IX. W hat action is needed to deal with these prob- ’*■
' ! tBÊ- ||ff§ ira
These questions are intended as a help to groups of
adults and young people seriously concerned with
satisfying the needs of boys and girls under changing
social and economic conditions. This leaflet points
out the different areas where a knowledge of the
facts is essential and suggests the type of information
necessary before wise decisions on objectives and
policies can be made. It suggests kinds of community
services related to education and employment that,
together with health, leisure-time, and other social ^
services, are essential to enable young people to meet
their present needs and to gain the adult independence
and competence they must have to meet postwar

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

What Can Your Community Do ?
The impetus to begin a program of study and plan­
ning such as is here outlined may come from any
group, agency, or committee working on the problems
of young people in a community. To carry on effec­
tively with the backing of the whole community,
joint study and action are essential. In some places,
committees representing many agencies and groups,
and calling upon all community resources, may al­
ready be at work. In other places, there is needed a
review of community resources to find out what
groups are working on the problems of youth and
what their programs are, in order to determine the
best way of working together toward the common end.
During the war many communities found that an
active interchange of ideas among organizations,
public and private, resulted in more cooperative
action than they had ever believed possible. Local
groups developed ways of discovering facts and
tackling their problems together. They uncovered
unsuspected qualities of leadership in individuals.
They found that they could improvise bridges between
organizations with different programs and could work
together. The values of this war experience should
not be lost, but should be carried over to deal with
peacetime problems.
Some of the general sources of information on the
various topics discussed in this leaflet are listed on
pages 29 and 30. Resources will differ in different
communities. Inquiry of one agency or individual
695347°— 46-------2
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


will open up other possibilities. In many communities
it will not be possible to obtain specific answers to all
the questions, but often a general picture of facts and
public opinion can be obtained that is as valuable as
statistical details. Group study and discussion at
organization meetings and interorganization confer­
ences may be preliminary steps in blocking out the
problem itself and the work which different groups and
individuals can do. Exploration of different topics
may be assigned to different groups, to be followed by
joint consideration. The interest of educational insti­
tutions in the community may be sought to help ob­
tain the information that is needed. To give reality
to the inquiry, groups of young people should be
drawn into the discussion and planning. As informa­
tion is collected, study and analysis of results will be
necessary and can be made the basis for wider discus­
sions through public forums and round tables, and for
preparing newspaper, magazine, and radio publicity.
From this bringing together of all community re­
sources and the development of a strong public
opinion, informed of the facts and conscious of the
dangers of inaction, there should emerge effective
community organization and action that will work
toward development of services in the community
to meet the basic employment and educational needs
of all its young people.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I. W hat is the employment situation now
fo r young people ?


The last 2 years of the war saw about 3 million young
people 14 through 17 years of age holding full-time
or part-time jobs, compared with less than a million
in 1940. These figures represent the situation in
April of each year, while schools were in session.
Half of these 3 million young people were in full-time
work and not attending school, many of them thus
being deprived of their full chance for education.
Half were working in addition to attending school.
Employment of young people 18 through 20 years
of age who were not in the armed forces was at
peak levels.
A third of the million children 14 and 15 years of age
at work in April 1945 had left school. For children
under 16, full-time school is most important, and
a 16-year minimum age for employment during
school hours is widely recognized as necessary if
children are to have opportunity for a minimum
of schooling to fit them for satisfaction in adult life.
Continuation of education of 16- and 17-year-olds
at least through high school, with opportunity for
part-time employment where desirable, is a goal that is
gaining increasing acceptance. Yet in 1940, 5 percent
of all the children in this country 7 through 13 years of
age, 10 percent of the 14- and 15-year-olds, and 31
percent of those 16 and 17, were not in school. In
some States the percentages were much higher.
Although it is difficult to get complete information
on the employment of the boys and girls in any
particular community, many facts can be obtained
from work-permit offices, placement services, and
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


school-attendance departments, businessmen, and labor
union officials. Facts about their job experience also
can be obtained from the young people themselves.
Following are suggested questions:
1. To what extent are young people working full­
time in your community? Fourteen- and fifteenyear-olds? Sixteen- and seventeen-year-olds?
What about those 18 to 20? How does the
situation now compare with previous years?
2. In what numbers did children leave school for
full-time jobs last year before completing the
high-school course?
3. How have changing demands for young workers
affected high-school enrollment? During the ^
war? This year?
4. Are there many young people working part time
and attending school? At what ages? Under
what supervision?
5. Did many young people come into your com­
munity for war work “on their own”? If so, are
they still working in your community? O r are
they stranded without work?
6. What kinds of work are the employed young
people doing? W hat are their hours of work?
Wages? Opportunity for advancement?
7. In what kinds of employment do you believe that
their working conditions are satisfactory? In
what kinds unsatisfactory?
8. Have you seen evidence that child-labor laws are ^
being violated? W hat kinds of violations? Min­
imum age? Hours? Work permits? Hazardous
occupations? To whom should such violations
be reported?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

II. Is the community educating all o f
its young people ?
After decades of successive increases, high school
enrollment was reduced by the war years from about
7% million in 1940 to about 6 million in 1944. This
means that during the war we lost tremendously in
terms of education and should recoup this loss through
return of young workers to school and through
increased holding power of the schools. More and
more we shall need an educated population if we
are to be equipped to cope with the atomic age and
its new problems. Full-time schooling for all children
up to 16, with further education for all young people
at least up to 18 years of age, is generally accepted as
a goal that should be sought with every resource of a
powerful nation. In the country as a whole only
slightly more than 70 percent of the children of high
school age are enrolled in high school, but in many,
places more than 90 percent are enrolled. However,
only about half the children who enter secondary
school complete the school program.
1. How many of the young people in your com­
munity are in school? Fourteen- and fifteenyear-olds? Sixteen- and [seventeen-year-olds?
How many are out of school?


2. Is present enrollment and attendance in secondary
schools up to what you believe is a desirable
3. To what extent do young people in the outlying
rural areas served by your community attend
secondary-school courses?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


4. At what point do most children in your com­
munity drop out of school? Among those who
enter secondary school, what proportion com­
plete the program? Go on to advanced courses?
5. W hat seems to be the reason for young people
dropping out of school? W hat do teachers and
other school people say about attendance prob­
lems? W hat do the boys and girls say?
6. Does your compulsory-school-attendance law re­
quire children to stay in school up to 16? Are
children of 16 and 17 required to attend school
if they are not at work? O r is there a period in
which they may be neither at school nor at work?
7. How well is the school-attendance law enforced?
Are there groups of children, for example, chil­
dren of migratory workers, Negroes, Mexicans,
who are not fully reached by the enforcement
8. Are there discrepancies between your compul­
sory-school-attendance law and your child-labor

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I I I . H ow is the present employment and school attend­
ance situation fo r young people likely to change?

Few communities are fully conscious of what is
happening to young people who left school for work
during the war and to those who are now finishing
school and looking for their first jobs. However
rapidly industry may swing into peacetime operations,
competent observers believe that the abnormal war­
time demand for young workers is a thing of the past.
Whatever may be the employment situation in the
near future, young people who are ready for work may
have difficulty in obtaining jobs. This may be par­
ticularly true for those without training.
During the depression of the 30’s, the proportion of
young persons 18 through 20 years of age in the labor
force who were unemployed and seeking work was
higher than the proportion of those 21 years of age
and over. For young people 16 and 17 out of school
the situation was serious enough, and for older youth
approaching adulthood the frustrations of unemploy­
ment were even greater.
1. W hat evidences of change are there in the local
situation ¿is to employment of young people?
2. Are firms advertising for young workers? Are
they discharging persons under 18? Under 21?
Do they still hire students on part-time schedules?
3. Are employers becoming more particular about
qualifications of workers they hire? As to age?
Experience? Are boys and girls of minority
groups having a fair chance for jobs?
4. Are employers losing interest in training 16- and
17-year-old workers on the job? Eighteen- and
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5. W hat do placement and unemployment-compen­
sation officials, leading businessmen, labor groups,
and school officials say about the number of
unemployed youth in your community now?
W hat do they believe will be the picture 3 months
from now? A year from now?
6. Do you believe that, if there is unemployment,
it may affect young people more seriously than
7. In what types of jobs will there be openings for
young people? In jobs that will give opportunity
for advancement? In jobs that are undesirable
because of long hours, low wages, or other poor
working conditions?
8. How will the job situation influence school at­
tendance of boys and girls who have reached the
minimum age at which they may leave school for
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IV . D o the school opportunities attract young people
and serve their needs ?



To serve the needs of all young people, secondary
schools must provide a wide variety of educational
opportunities. There will be many boys and girls who
expect to end their full-time school experience with
high school graduation and who should have a broad
liberal education for social and civic competence.
Many of these will want to secure in the secondary
school industrial, agricultural, commercial, or other
occupational training. Others will want high school
to prepare them for technical or professional training at
a college or university. The modern secondary school
should serve all these needs, and in addition should
provide appropriate instruction for those young people
and adults who have left full-time school but wish to
return for part-time study.
Modem school systems do much to broaden the value
of education and give other direct services to students
through provision of many services outside the class­
room; for example, a school health program, school
lunches, free textbooks and transportation, guidance
and visiting-teacher services, and leadership in extra­
curricular activities.
Not all schools now have facilities and services that
are adequate in quantity, quality, and accessibility.
Fiscal problems in many places are serious handicaps
to developing desired curriculums and other school
services. The United States Office of Education
reports that the average amount spent annually in
public elementary and secondary schools ranges from
$198 per pupil in one State to $42 per pupil in another.
Teachers’ salaries, teaching standards, buildings and
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


equipment, provision of school-bus transportation, and
other aspects of an educational program, vary widely.
1. Is full-time education, both general and voca­
tional, available and free for all children and
young people in your community? Does it
extend through high school? Beyond high school?
Have your young people access to courses which
supplement high school offerings?
2. Have there been recent surveys of your school?
W hat have they revealed? What action has been
taken as a result?
3. W hat changes are the schools planning in order to
make full-time and part-time courses attractive to
young people who left school to go to work but
who should have further education?
4. W hat health services are there for children at­
tending school? What provision for physical
examinations of children going to work?
5. Does your school system provide special instruc­
tion for individuals of limited mental or physical
ability so that they may benefit and succeed to
the fullest extent possible for them?
6. Are short-term, daytime education courses, both
general and vocational, available without cost to
young people who may be out of work or who do
not want to attend regular full-time school?
7. How much does your school system spend per
pupil? How does this amount compare with the m
State averages referred to above? With amounts
spent by other communities of comparable size?
8. What changes would the young people in your
community like to see in the school program?

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

V. W ould financial a id to students help to keep more
young people in school?

To give young people the education they should
have to build a satisfactory life, the wartime trek from
school to work should be reversed. Yet many families
with boys and girls of high-school age find it difficult
to meet the expenses entailed in their continued at­
tendance at school. The report of the Harvard Com­
mittee on the Objectives of a General Education in a
Free Society points out that nearly all the children
from the upper-income group go through high school,
but that from the middle-income group only 60 per^ cent of the children, and from the lower-income group
^ only 30 percent, go through high school. Family in­
comes very clearly limit the educational opportunities
open to some children.
Some attempts to overcome such limitations of family
*■ income have been made in the past. Under the
» National Youth Administration, small amounts were
paid to students to help them remain in school in
return for work done on projects organized by the
schools. Public assistance and private family welfare
agencies give assistance based on family need but are
not always able to make adequate provision for school
expenses. Some other agencies give aid in the form
of scholarships to particularly capable students. Highschool principals sometimes have small funds, made
available by service clubs or from other private sources,
^ t o aid needy students. For young people who are
veterans, educational allowances are provided by the
GI bill of rights.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


1. Is there interest in your community in develop­
ing programs of student aid to help remove finan­
cial obstacles to school attendance?
2. How much does it cost for a young person in
your community to go to school? What are the
fees and personal expenses involved in attendance
at high school? At college?
3. Are textbooks and school supplies furnished free of
charge through high school?
4. What scholarships or other methods of giving aid
to students are available in the community?
What are the part-time job opportunities for
5. Is financial assistance to needy families sufficient
to enable the children to attend high school?
6. Do young people leave school who would remain
if financial needs were less pressing?
7. Do the schools help families to take full advantage
of the resources for family assistance?
8. Should it be a public responsibility to provide
student aid?
9. W hat should be the requirements for receiving
student aid? Determination of financial need?
Scholastic attainment? Should children be re­
quired to work in order to receive student aid?
10. W hat are the advantages and disadvantages of
these plans? At the high-school level? At the
college level?

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

V I. Are there counseling services to help young people,
both those in school and those out o f school, to
make w ise choices leading to good occupational
and social adjustm ent?

In a growing number of places the schools are ex­
tending and improving their counseling services for
students in high school. The boys and girls who have
broken their school connections are less widely reached
and served, but they also need skillful counsel to help
them make and carry forward wise occupational plans
and attain good social adjustment.
Help in discovering their vocational interests and
abilities, in solving personal problems which affect
their economic usefulness, in selecting suitable tra in ing, and in going forward in a sound occupational
program, is a service to the individual that has great
value for the community. Such counseling service
may start with young people in various stages of edu­
cational and vocational experience and may stem from
various agencies and services in the community, such
as the school or public employment office. Whether
counseling is provided through one, two, or more
agencies in a community, the work of each will be
strengthened by avoidance of duplication and by
uniting in the common objective of reaching all
young people.
1. Are counseling services for youth available in
your community? In schools? In public em­
ployment offices? (See V II.) In social agen­
cies? W hat groups do each of these serve?
2. How do these agencies work together? How are
they interrelated? Does their cooperation result
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis








in service that reaches all young people in need of
Do these agencies pool information and experience to increase their ability to help individual
young persons? To what extent is duplication of
effort avoided by clearance and referral between
agencies? Does each cooperating agency spe­
cialize in the jobs it does best?
How well do the counseling services make use of
the training, educational, placement, health,
recreational, and other resources in the com­
To what extent do young people in and out of
school know and use the counseling services
available? W hat do the young people say about
the counseling services? If the services are not
fully used, what are the reasons? Poor location?
In c o n v e n ien t hours? Unsuitable personnel?
Other reasons?
How is the information obtained in the counseling
program used to revise courses in general and
vocational education in the schools?
Do young people have the advantage of ade­
quately trained counselors? Is good preparation
a prerequisite to employment of counselors?
Are their skills kept current by in-service training?
Are the surroundings suitable for counseling?
Are there enough counselors?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



V I L Are placement services that include jo b counseling
available fo r young people ?

During the war the demand for young workers was
so great that very large numbers of boys and girls got
their jobs without the help of placement services.
Under most circumstances, however, and especially in
periods of difficulty in finding jobs, placement services
are needed by many young people seeking work. Job
counseling in the placement office can help the young
person in appraising the opportunities open to him in
the light of his vocational interests and in deciding
on the kind of job that is best for him. The worker
giving this counsel in the placement office needs to
take into consideration the young person’s individual
characteristics and ability, and advise him so that he
will see the relation of the job he takes to his vocational
It is widely accepted that public placement services,
including needed job counseling, should be available
to all young people seeking work. The actual provi­
sion of high-quality services in the places where youth
need them requires continued planning and effort.
1. What agencies, public or private, are giving
placement services to boys and girls in your
community: public employment office? schools?
social agencies?
2. What working relations have been developed
between placement workers, school officials, and
other agencies giving vocational counsel, for the
interchange of information about individuals and
employment opportunities? (See VI.)
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3. How does the placement office make use of the
counseling, training, health, and other resources
in the community?
4. How much do young people use the placement
services in your community? What do they say
about the help they receive?
5. Do existing placement services available to young
people have the staff and facilities needed for
a high quality of service to all young people now
in need of them? For those who may need them
in the future?
6. Do they offer skillful counseling and follow-up
service after placement as well as take applica­
tions and refer young people to suitable jobs?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

V I I I . Can sufficient suitable jo b opportunities be pro­
vided fo r youth who are ready fo r them ?

In many communities, business and other groups
have been making surveys of industrial conditions and
plans for postwar industrial development and postwar
jobs. Many observers believe that substantially in­
creased public expenditures for health, education,
housing, and conservation of natural resources, are
important in planning for full employment. The expe­
rience of the depression years of the thirties showed
the harm to the normal development of young people
caused by lack of jobs and the serious frustrations
brought about by long-continued unemployment.
Conditions of employment in jobs that young people
undertake are as important as the existence of jobs for
those who are ready for work. For this reason careful
consideration should be given to the legal standards
in effect in the community regulating employment of
young persons, particularly those relating to the mini­
mum age at which children are permitted to enter
employment, their hours of work, their wages, and the
accident and health risks of the job.
1. To what extent have community plans for post­
war employment taken into consideration oppor­
tunities for employment of young people?
2. How can your community, with the cooperation
of employers and labor organizations, see that
there are suitable work opportunities for all
youth who are ready for them?
3. What apprentice-training programs have been
set up? How can they be developed further
through cooperation of employers and labor
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

groups, with the assistance of interested public
4. W hat opportunities for part-time employment of
high-school students are there?
5. If private industry cannot provide job opportu­
nities for all youth ready for and desiring employ­
ment, do you think public sponsorship and funds
should be provided to create job opportunities
for young people in socially useful projects?
6. What legislation is needed in your State to provide
a 16-year minimum age for employment during
school hours and for work in factories? To limit
daily and weekly hours for young workers under 18?
To protect them from night work and hazardous
employment? To require work permits for all
young workers under 18?

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IX . W hat action is needed to deal w ith these problems ?
In finding the living answers to the questions pro­
post by this leaflet the community will be doing far
more than making an inventory. It will have a
vivid picture of the needs of its children and youth for
educational and employment opportunities. It will
know what resources now can be drawn upon to meet
those needs. It will have ideas for going ahead on an
action program. The soundness of these ideas may be
judged by looking at them from the point of view of
different groups of young people—for instance, the
typical high-school student, the newcomer in the
community, the boy or girl from a low-income family,
the Negro youth leaving school in hopes of a job
congenial to his interests and training, the unemployed
boy or girl.
For the boys and girls in your community—
1. W hat can be done to encourage school attendance
by unemployed young people who would profit
by more education? Are existing facilities fully
used? Are special classes or special arrangements
in schools needed? Is student aid needed?
2. W hat must be done to make counseling services
meet the needs of all young people? To encour­
age full use of these services by the young people
3. W hat can be done to prevent undesirable, lowpaid employment of children and young persons?
W hat new legislation is needed? What improve­
ments are needed in the methods of issuing work
4. How might placement services be made more
effective for young persons?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5. What should be done to insure that young persons
in minority groups and newcomers to the
community have the opportunity to benefit by
all the community’s resources for education and
employment, including not only schooling and
counseling and placement services, but also
housing, health, and leisure-time services?
6. Can better job opportunities be encouraged
through cooperation with employers and labor
organizations? W hat other action should be
taken to provide job opportunities for young
people ready for them?

The questions proposed by this leaflet are suggestive
only. They are intended to help people to think, to
observe, and to develop common bases of opinion.
But each community must work out its own methods of
finding facts, must reach its own agreements, and
must inspire its citizens to act.


See Suggestionsfor Use of This Leaflet appearing on hack
cover page.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

For Information
Young people at work:
Work-permit office; employment-service offices.
Young people unemployed:
Unemployment-compensation office; employmentservice offices; counseling services; work-permit
Pupils at school and school conditions:
School officials; teachers; counselors; attendance
officers; visiting teachers.
General conditions:


Any local committee especially interested in young
Council of social agencies; youth-serving agencies;
labor organizations; youth organizations; cham­
bers of commerce; economic-development commit­
tees; businessmen; church groups; parent-teacher
associations; [women’s clubs; educational asso­
Organized minority groups; adult-education leaders;
juvenile-court workers.
State agencies such as education and labor depart­
ments; employment service for State; State em­
ployment-security agency; State youth councils
, and similar State committees.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


United States Office of Education, Federal Security Agency,
Washington 25, D. C.
Planning Schools for Tomorrow.
The Issues Involved, Leaflet No. 64, Washington,
Some Considerations in Educational Planning
for Urban Communities, Leaflet No. 66, Wash­
ington, 1943.
Community Adult Counseling Centers: Some Illus­
trative Experiences in Organization. Harry A.
Jager and Franklin R. Zeran. Occupations, The
Vocational Guidance Journal, February 1945.
Reprints obtainable from that periodical.
Children's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington
25, D. C.
A 16-Year Minimum Age for Employment—A
Postwar Goal for the Protection of the Nation’s
Children. Washington, 1946.
National Education Association, 1201 Sixteenth St., Wash­
ington 6, D. C.
School Expenditures in War and Peace. Research
Bulletin, Volume X X III, No. 3, October 1945.
Education for All American Youth. Educational
Policies Commission, 1944.
National Vocational Guidance Association, Inc., 82 Beaver,
St., New York, N. Y.
Postwar Counseling for “ ’Tween Age Youth,”
Howard Y. McClusky. Occupations, The Vo­
cational Guidance Journal, October 1945.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

U. iS. Employment Service, U. S. Department of Labor,
Washington 25, D. C.
Employment Counseling. Employment Service Re­
view, October 1945. p. 8.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor,
Washington 25, D. C.
Progress in Occupational Outlook Research, A. J.
Hinrichs. Occupations, The Vocational Guidance
Journal, March 1946.
(See also various articles in Monthly Labor Review.)
Other Publications
General Education in a Free Society, Report of the
Harvard Committee on the Objectives of a General
Education in a Free Society. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1945.
National Back-to-School Drive, 1945-46. Spon­
sored by the Children’s Bureau, U. S. Depart­
ment of Labor, and the U. S. Office of Education,
Federal Security Agency, in cooperation with the
Office of War Information.
Kit of Information, for use with this leaflet. Avail­
able on request from the Children’s Bureau, U. S.
Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
Ask your public library to prepare a reference shelf on
these subjects.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

U. S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1 94 «

1; Talk about the questions proposed in this leaflet in
discussion groups.
2. Find out what groups are working on these prob­
lems and work out ways of getting together, com­
bining resources, and finding leadership.
3. Invite representatives of agencies offering some of
the services to young people mentioned here to tell
about their programs and discuss difficulties
encountered in improving services offered.
4. Discuss these questions with groups of young people
coming from different backgrounds and fipd out
what they think and want.
5. Get the help of members of your group, of repre­
sentatives of agencies concerned, and of student and
faculty groups, in collecting information needed as
background for discussion of the issues presented.
6. Study the information and viewpoints gathered.
7. Compare your observations and ideas with those of
other groups in your community and in other places.
8. Participate in building strong community organiza­
tion to work for better services for youth and give
full support to new programs proposed and under­
9. Publicize and build upon recommendations through
conferences, forums, institutes.
10 . Write Katharine F. Lenroot, Chairman of the In­
teragency Committee on Youth Employment and
Education (address Children’s Bureau, U. S.
Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.), or the
agencies represented on the committee, about the
ideas your group has developed and the plans you
are making, so that they can be passed on to the
committee and to others interested in planning for
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis