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4, /3. J '?£<£/ COMMUNITY HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS ^Vncjo^ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN NO. 221 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR L. B. SCHWELLENBACH, Secretary WOMEN’S BUREAU FRIEDA S. MILLER, Director ★ COMMUNITY HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 5grcs q*. Bulletin of the Women’s Bureau No. 221 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1948 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 20 cents CONTENTS Page Letter of Transmittal--------------------------------------------------------------------- -National Interest in Standards for Household Employment---------------------General Conditions Tending to Decrease Labor Supply-----------------------------Status Hours and Other Working Conditions-----------------------------------------------Training Facilities and Placement Techniques-----------------------------------Economic Security-------------------------------------------------------------------------Women’s Bureau Survey of Programs in 19 Cities------------------------------------Local Organizations and their Objectives-----------------------------------------Standards------------------------------------------------------------------------------------General Community Committees’ Standards------------------------------Wages 12 Hours 13 Other Standards---- .---------------------------------------------------------Methods of Arriving at Standards--------------------------------------Obtaining Community Acceptance of Standards-------------------Chicago Household Employers’ League’s Standards--------------Unions’ Standards 15 Training Courses for Household Workers-----------------------------------------Household Employment Committees’ Training Programs------------Recruitment 16 Syracuse Program------------------------------------------------------------Cleveland Program 17 St. Louis Program------------------------------------------------------------Atlanta Program--------------------------------------------------------------Buffalo Household Employees’ Club--------------------------------------Philadelphia Program--------------------------------------------------------------Indianapolis Program------------------------------------------------Placement 22 General Community Committees’ Placement Work-----------------New York State Employment Service Placement Work-----------Harlem YWCA Placement Work-------------------------------------------Testing Program: St. Paul-Minneapolis---------------------------------------Suggestions for Household Employment Programs-------------------------------The Objectives 28 General Community Committees, and Employer Leagues--------------Standards 29 Status 31 Training and Placement-------------------------------------------------------Suggestions to Public School Systems-------------------------------------------Training 33 Status 34 Placement 34 Suggestions to Local Placement Bureaus---------------------------------------Suggestions to Household Employers--------------------------------------------Suggestions to Household Employees--------------------------------------------- in v 1 4 4 5 5 6 9 10 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 23 23 25 27 28 28 32 33 35 36 38 IV CONTENTS Appendixes Introduction Appendix A. New York State Employment Service________________ Job Description—Maid, General 42 Job Standards-—Maid, General 44 Agreement—Maid, General 45 Job Description—Laundress 48 Job Standards—Laundress 50 Appendix B. YWCA Placement Bureau, HarlemBranch____________ Application Blank 52 Reference Blank 54 Referral Card 55 Appendix C. Household Employment Committee of Philadelphia: Standards for Household Employment 56 Appendix D. Household Employment Committee of Cincinnati: Standards for Household Employment 58 Appendix E. Household Employment Committee of St. Paul-Minneapolis: Standards for Household Employment___________________ Appendix F. Household Employment Committee of Syracuse, N. Y.: Standards for Household Employment 62 Appendix G. Household Employment Committee of St. Louis: Standards for Household Employment 64 Appendix H. Household Employers’ League of Chicago: Standards for Household Employment 65 Appendix I. Industrial Committee of YWCA, Oakland, Calif.: Advisory Standards for Household Employment________________ Appendix J. United Domestic Workers Local No. 1348 (CIO), Washington, D. C.: Work Agreement 68 Employer Card 69 Member Card 70 Page 4q 40 41 52 59 67 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL United States Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Washington, December 22, 1947. I have the honor to transmit a study of local programs affect ing household employment. The report brings together information secured in 19 cities in the summer of 1946 and summarizes the objec tives to be sought by local programs in order to improve conditions for both household employers and household workers. Household employees have long been of special concern to the Women’s Bureau because of their customary long hours of work and general economic insecurity. During the war, employment in house holds dropped substantially, and many housewives turned to the Women’s Bureau for information on whether the Government was doing anything about this decrease, and what local communities were doing to meet the problems of an inadequate supply of household labor and unsatisfactory conditions for household employees. This interest in community programs relating to household employment has continued in the postwar period and was the stimulus for the present study. Field work for this study was done by Eloise Ewing and Ethel Payne, working under the general direction of Constance Williams, Chief of the Bureau’s Research Division.* The report was written by Ethel Payne and Jennie Mohr. Respectfully submitted. Frieda S. Miller, Director. Hon. L. B. SCHWELLENBACH, Secretary of Labor. Sir: COMMUNITY HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL INTEREST IN STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT Household employment is an important source of livelihood for women. Of the approximately 2% million employed domestic service workers in 1940, 93.8 percent or 2,100,000, were women.1 This number represents 17.6 percent of all employed women at that time. Despite the exodus during the war, there were still approximately 1,520,000 women household employees in April 1946.1 2 In the decade preceding the Second World War there was growing interest in the problem of establishing household employment as a desirable and respected occupation. A number of national agencies concerned themselves with questions such as the demand for and supply of workers, working-conditions standards, training, and place ment. The Women’s Bureau issued a number of bulletins on the subject and acted as adviser to a number of interested individuals and groups. Among the private national agencies which concerned themselves with conditions in the domestic service field was the National Council on Household Employment, established in 1928, at a conference called by the National Board of the YWCA and Government agencies. This organization, composed of employers, specialists in domestic science, and other individuals interested in household employment problems, acted mainly as a center for the exchange of information on household employment. It maintained a library on the subject, cooperated with other organizations in promoting better conditions, formulated standards, and carried on research activities. The YWCA had taken an active interest in household employment problems even earlier. In 1915 the National Board formed a com mission on household employment.3 Two studies were initiated at that time and reported to the YWCA’s Fifth National Convention. Since then, various National Industrial Assemblies of the YWCA 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, August 1947, vol. 65, No. 2, p. 139. 2 Bureau of the Census. Supplement to the Monthly Report on the Labor Force. May 12,1947. 2 Wells, Dorothy P. and Biba, Carol, editors. Fair and Clear in the Homes—A Symposium on House hold Employment, p. 4. New York, The Woman’s Press, 1936. 1 2 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS have passed numerous resolutions designed to improve working con ditions. They have also made recommendations for improved standards, employer-employee committees, unions, and legislative protection. The influence of YWCA National Board policy was reflected in the committees organized by 64 local YW associations between 1932 and 1935 4 5 the purpose of considering questions related to house for hold employment. Such committees frequently included represent atives of other civic and social agencies in the area. By the time of the outbreak of the war, a number of cities throughout the country had organized committees to formulate standards for improving household employment conditions in their communities. Other national groups which have considered specific domestic service problems and supported remedial measures are the National Women’s Trade Union League, the National Consumers League, and the National League of Women Shoppers.6 The war sharply curtailed the work of these groups. Money, time, and energies were diverted to more immediate concerns. Prac tically all local household committees were dissolved, and the National Council on Household Employment disbanded in 1942. The drawing off of household workers into war industries and service trades was a severe handicap to American households. As soon as the war was over, therefore, new or renewed activity to solve the problem of household employment occurred in localities in all parts of the country. The concern in a solution is reflected in the numerous inquiries, reports, and complaints that are sent the Women’s Bureau. Other countries, similarly faced with a shortage of household employees, are dealing with the problems in a variety of ways. The National Institute of Houseworkers, for example, created by the British Government, is developing a broad program including the training of competent domestic workers for employment under speci fied regulations concerning wages and working conditions.6 The Canadian Government, through its National Employment Service, is currently attempting to establish a Home Aid Project which will include provisions for wages comparable to rates in other service industries, definite hours of work, and a short introductory course of training under the Canadian Vocational Training Organizations.7 4 XJ. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau. Household Employment—An Outline for Study Groups. November 1940. p. 8. (Mimeo.) 5 Ibid., pp. 8, 9, 10, 11. 6 International Labour Office. “The War and Women’s Employment,” Part I: United Kingdom. Ch. IV. Women in Domestic Employment. Montreal, The Office, 1946. 287 pp. ? Canada Unemployment Insurance Commission, Ottawa, Oct. 26, 1946, Employment Circular No. 28. Home Aids. NATIONAL INTEREST IN STANDARDS 3 In the United States there is no government-sponsored household employment program. A number of significant developments, how ever, have been initiated by national social agencies and local commu nity groups. The Department of Social Education and Action, Board of Christian Education of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, recently published a report on Church. Women and Household Employment, entitled “Martha in the Modern Age.” Designed to help raise the standards of household employment, this report is directed primarily to women in the church study classes and to other similar groups. Local committees—representing many social and civic groups, placement bureaus, and vocational and trade schools, as well as employers and employees—that had existed before the war have recently been reorganized; others are newly formed. By the spring of 1946, the Women’s Bureau received information on such household employment committees in some 20 communities, about one-half of which had had similar committees before the war. 772323°—48----------- 2 GENERAL CONDITIONS TENDING TO DECREASE LABOR SUPPLY Many factors, varying in degree of importance and influence, con tribute to the scarcity of labor for household employment. Perhaps the primary reason for the present unpopularity of household employ ment is the higher status, shorter hours, better pay, and opportunity for advancement which industrial jobs offer today. The increased opportunities for vocational education and on-the-job training in industry are an influence. In addition, potential workers are more aware than they were formerly of alternative job opportunities. In the past, foreign-born women, who were a large proportion of the houseworkers, were frequently uninformed about other jobs; and the absence of substantial immigration since the First World War undoubtedly contributed to the current scarcity of such workers. (In contrast, the proportion of Negro women workers among house hold employees, always substantial, increased8 after World War I.) Not only did women increasingly fail to seek household work as their first jobs, but during the war women already in household employ ment also left it for industrial work. Probably a large proportion of the 400,000 domestic workers who withdrew from domestic service in the years 1940 to 1944 accepted industrial jobs. Many of them are reluctant to return to their former work. Of over 600 former house hold workers in wartime industrial jobs who were interviewed by the Women’s Bureau, 90 percent expressed a need for postwar jobs; threefourths of these, however, preferred industrial to household work.9 A comparison of household with other fields of employment may help to account for this attitude. Outstanding among the determin ing factors are the lack of status which has stigmatized household employment, long hours and poor working conditions, the lack of adequate training facilities and poor placement techniques, and no, or only very inferior, protection against insecurity. STATUS The effects of the traditional and prevalent disparagement of household employment must be recognized. Many workers consider 8 These facts appear from a series of figures constructed with the aim of providing fairly comparable data on domestic servants from 1910 to 1940. Included in the data were laundresses, untrained nurses, cooks, and other workers classified in domestic and personal service, but housekeepers were excluded. Of the group, approximately one-seventh were foreign born in 1930 compared with more than one-fifth in 1910; nearly one-half were Negro in 1930, compared with only about one-third in 1910. (Stigler, George J., Do mestic Servants in the U. S., 1900-1940. National Bureau of Economic Research, Occasional Paper, No. 24, 1946.) * TJ. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau. Wartime Shifts of Household Employees into Other Industries. Release, March 1946. (Mimeo.) 4 GENERAL CONDITIONS DECREASE LABOR SUPPLY 5 domestic service as a last resort when efforts to secure other types of employment fail. Many other persons, genuinely interested in house hold employment as an occupation, who might develop skill and find satisfaction in it, are discouraged from entering a field so limited in the benefits and dignity accorded it in comparison with other kinds of work and, further, beset with petty personal humiliations. HOURS AND OTHER WORKING CONDITIONS The regularly scheduled hours prevalent in industrial work offer a sharp contrast to the long and irregular hours characteristic of domestic service. Many industrial establishments operate on a 40hour week, with compensatory pay for overtime. Household em ployment, in contrast, usually entails indefinite hours of work, sub ject to the convenience of the employer; rest periods and time off are generally not free of “emergency” duties. In 1940, 25 out of 100 women household workers reported a workweek of 60 hours or more, whereas of women reporting such hours in hotels and eating places the proportions were 13 out of 100 and 11 out of 100, respectively.10 * Not only are hours long, but wage rates in domestic service usually compare unfavorably with those in other service industries. House hold workers before the war were the lowest paid of all employed women in the country. The median year’s wages in 1939, for over a million female domestic employees who worked 12 months, was $312 in cash wages excluding room and board, and about one-fourth of the women earned less than $174, three-fourths less than $503.11 A check in May 1946 on wages offered in classified newspaper adver tisements of 22 cities throughout the country revealed offers as low as $8, $10, and $12 weekly,12 even though during the war wages for household employees rose considerably, in many areas reaching $20 to $25 a week. Impermanency of wartime pay levels is a possibility with which the household worker is flatly faced. In regard also to opportunities for upgrading and promotion, paid vacations, extra pay for holiday work, and the assurance that money earned will be paid regularly household employment suffers in com parison with other employment. TRAINING FACILITIES AND PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES Opportunities for training to develop skills are frequently offered industrial workers through vocational courses, apprenticeships, and on-the-job training programs. At times such training is given at 10 Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940. Population, vol. Ill, The Labor Force, part I, U. S. Summary, table 86. n Ibid., table 72. 12 U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau. Household Employment—A Digest of Current In formation. September 1946. (Mimeo.) 6 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS the expense of the employer, and on paid time. In household em ployment, however, few such opportunities are offered; working time is usually not allowed for training, and since usually no distinction is made between wage rates to trained and those to untrained workers, there is little inducement to attend training courses. Placement techniques for household employees also generally lag behind the practice followed in placing other types of workers. Much progress has been made in recent years in defining the type of work to be done in manufacturing and commercial occupations; increas ingly such work is fairly clearly defined, and the duties involved and skills required for a job are known to both employer and em ployee. For the most part such standards do not exist for household employment. Increasing the work load of a household employee in reward for the swift completion of her tasks continues a frequent practice. Duties usually are not clearly stated or defined. ECONOMIC SECURITY Household employees do not as a rule have the protection generally afforded other workers by laws that provide compensation for injury, sickness, unemployment, old age, or that safeguard wage and hour standards; nor is it customary, in the absence of legal standards, for employers to furnish such protection voluntarily. Although industrial workers receive workmen’s compensation in all but one State, only three States, California, Ohio, and New York, provide compulsory coverage of domestic employees.13 In California coverage is compulsory only for household workers employed over 52 hours a week by one employer. In Ohio coverage is compulsory only for employers of three or more persons. In New York the law covers workers who are employed 48 hours or more weekly by a single em ployer in cities of 40,000 population or over. It should be noted that the New York law, although termed “compulsory,” does not pro vide any penalty against the employer for failing to take out insurance, as do the laws of California and Ohio. The New York law merely entitles the household worker upon sustaining an injury to make a claim for workmen’s compensation instead of suing in the courts, and the State agency will try to enforce such claims against the employer. Connecticut and New Jersey permit employers to “elect” whether or not they will bring household workers under the law.14 * One State, Mississippi, has no workmen’s compensation law. The remaining 13 U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Legislation Affecting Household Employees (as o October 1, 1947). (Mimeo.) 14 Elective coverage means that the employer has the option of either accepting or rejecting the act, but if he rejects it and the worker brings a suit for damages, the employer cannot claim the defenses he had at com mon law, i. e., that the worker assumed the risk of the employment, that the injury was due to negligence of a fellow servant, or that the worker himself was guilty of contributory negligence. GENERAL CONDITIONS DECREASE LABOR SUPPLY 7 States for the most part permit voluntary coverage 15 of household workers, though several States appear to exclude the group through specific exemption without clear provision for voluntary coverage by the employer.16 Household employees, therefore, generally must depend on either their own resources or their employers’ voluntary financial assistance when on-the-job injuries require medical attendance or rob them of their earning capacity. Many employers are not inclined or cannot afford to assume such a responsibility. A study in Washington, D. C., known as the 1940 Household Employment Report, indicates that employers included in the study did not generally carry insurance for compensation to injured employees. Of 447 employers answering a question on this subject, only 8 percent stated that they had made any accident compensation provisions for their workers.17 No infor mation is at hand on the extent to which employers, without insurance or previous agreement with the employee, compensate for injuries after they have occurred. That household workers lack coverage by accident insurance is particularly serious when one considers available data on the frequency and severity of household accidents and the inability of workers to bear the financial cost. A study of accidents in the personal service occupations made by the Ohio Department of Industrial Relations in 1932-33 revealed that the greatest percentage occurred to women engaged in household employment. A larger proportion of the injuries to these women, as compared with injuries to employees in other occupations, caused over 7 days of disability. Over 70 percent of the women household employees incapacitated reported wages of less than $15 weekly.18 Household employment, on the whole, also lacks planned provisions for sick leave payments. Individual employers may continue wage payments during the illness of their own employees, but there is no standardized practice covering such situations. In the 1940 Washing ton, D. C., survey on household employment, 28 percent of the 489 employers reporting paid full wages to their workers when ill, and 6 employers paid part of the wages. . Household employees are excluded from sickness benefits in the two States, Rhode Island and California, which provide payment for tern18 Voluntary coverage means that the employer may come under the act voluntarily but failure to do so does not result in a loss of his common law defenses. 1° U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, Legislation Affecting Household Employees (as of October 1, 1947). (Mimeo.) 17 Women Domestic Workers in Washington, D. C., 1940. Monthly Labor Review, February 1942, p. 352. . 18 U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau. Old Age Insurance for Household Workers. 1947 (Bull. 220.) HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 8 porary disability to workers who are covered by unemployment compensation. The same situation exists in relation to medical and hospital ex penses incurred by household employees because of illness. Again, the employers may occasionally assume responsibility in such cases, but only 9 percent of the 491 employees reporting in the 1940 Wash ington, D. C., study had received medical care for which employers bore the total costs.19 In only one State, New York, are household workers covered by unemployment compensation, and there only where the employer employs four or more workers in his home for 15 days in a calendar year.20 Under the Old Age and Survivors insurance provisions of the Federal Security Act, household employment is entirely excluded from the benefits provided. Domestic employees, furthermore, are deprived of the safeguards of wages and hours which the majority of States afford their women industrial workers by law.21 Minimum-wage laws exist in 26 States and the District of Columbia. While such wage laws in eight States— California, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin—do not exclude domestic workers from coverage, Wis consin is the only State in which a minimum-wage rate for domestic employees is in effect. In Wisconsin minimum hourly rates of 45, 40, and 38 cents have been established for towns of specified population for a workweek of 45 hours or less. Weekly rates for 45 hours or more per week, which likewise vary with the size of the town, have also been established.22 Although 43 States and the District of Columbia have maximumhours legislation for women, only one State, Washington, limits hours for domestic workers. In that State a 60-hour maximum workweek, which may be extended in cases of emergency, is in effect for both male and female domestic workers. «Idem. U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau. Legislation Affecting Household Employees (as of October 1,1947). (Mimeo.) si Idem. u In cities and villages with a population of 3,500 or more the minimum wage is $12 per week if board only is furnished; $8 per week if board and lodging are furnished; in cities and villages with a population of 1,000 up to 3,500, $10.75 per week if board only is furnished and $7.25 per week if board and lodging are furnished; elsewhere in the State, $10.25 per week if board only is furnished and $7 per week if board and lodging are furnished. 20 WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY OF PROGRAMS IN 19 CITIES In order to obtain information on current programs relating to the establishment of standards for household employment, the Women’s Bureau in July and August of 1946 made a survey of such programs then in effect in the United States. Background information was ob tained from a Conference on Household Employment held by the Bureau in March 1946. At that time various aspects of the subject were presented by specialists on legislation, training, and placement. Representatives of a Household Employers’ League and of a Domestic Workers’ Union discussed their organizations. Later consultations were held with the USES and U. S. Office of Education to obtain in formation and suggestions and to avoid duplication of effort. On the basis of the foregoing and data obtained from earlier work in the field of household employment and from reports of Women’s Bureau Regional Representatives, intensive study was planned of 19 selected cities in which active programs on standards, training, and placement were reported.23 The cities selected for particular study varied in both size and geographical location. According to the 1940 census, 7 had a popu lation between 300,000 and 500,000, 5 between 500,000 and 1,000,000, 4 over 1,000,000, and 3 of less than 300,000. Although all sections of the country were represented except the Northwest and South west, one-half of the cities were situated in the Midwest. In the 19 cities, representatives of the Women’s Bureau interviewed members of the local committees on household employment and indi viduals active in various branches of the field, such as home economics teachers, vocational school supervisors, and placement directors of schools, USES, or other agencies. Information was sought on the history and character of the committees, purposes for which they were organized, types of problems they handle—whether standards, train ing, or placement—the effectiveness of the program, the kinds of job orders received by placement agencies, characteristics of applicants, and the extent to which the standards developed were met by other local placement and training agencies. Copies of standards for house hold work, with explanations of how they had been developed, were obtained whenever possible. » The cities visited were: Akron, Atlanta, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Indian apolis, Louisville, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New York City, Oakland, Philadelphia, St. Louis, St. Paul, Syracuse, Rochester, and Washington, D. C. 9 10 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS The results of these visits are summarized in this report. An effort has been made to evaluate the objectives and procedures of the local program and to suggest action for employers and employees. In the appendix are given copies of statements of standards and copies of forms used in various programs. The programs described, while representing considerable local activity, are far from having attained the scope and authority needed to handle successfully the total problems of household employment. They do not, moreover, deal with the problems of smaller cities and towns or of rural areas. But it is hoped that describing what happened in the 19 cities will help individuals and groups elsewhere to define their own problems and to develop minimum standards adapted to their situations. The present report deals only with programs relating to the private household employment of workers by individual employers. Other types of programs—such as the Homemaker Services established by social agencies, in which those agencies act as employers, sending workers into homes that need their services—are excluded from this report. LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR OBJECTIVES In practically all 19 cities visited the same basic difficulties were found. Employers were dissatisfied because of the continuing short age of household workers and the inadequacy of many of the workers who were available, while employees were aware of the disadvantages of household work compared with industrial occupations. The wider implications of the problem were shown in the failure to obtain needed help in homes particularly requiring it for children, old or ill people, or where there were employed women whose work was interrupted because of lack of help. Employed household workers lacked job satisfaction and security. Action on four fronts was considered necessary to improve this field of employment, so that competent women would be attracted to it and conditions satisfactory to the employer, employee, and community prevail. The objectives generally agreed on in the communities were: (1) Establishing standards of work and working conditions; (2) adequate training; (3) developing scientific placement techniques; and (4) improving the status of the employee. As the community programs developed, it became clear that these four objectives were closely related, and that permanent and effective programs for one of them required development of the others. It was also apparent that a long-range planning program was needed to deal with the problems raised. Various types of organizations were found in the cities surveyed to WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 11 be dealing with one or all of these problems. The most common type of organization was the general community household employment com mittee, found in 12 of the 19 cities. For the most part, guidance and leadership in the preliminary stages of organizing such committees came from the industrial departments of the local YWCA’s. It was realized, however, that the complications and technicalities of develop ing an effective program for improving existing conditions of house hold employment require the assistance of various groups—profes sional, employee, employer, and the general public. Consequently, the committees tended to expand and take in new areas of interest. In their more mature stages they endeavored to include individuals trained in placement, economics, domestic science, education, social work, and related fields, and members of church, social, and civic groups, as well as representative employers and employees. Such representation, found in 12 cities, insured a variety of viewpoints, awareness of special local conditions, and a likelihood of community support and acceptance. In Atlanta local organization began when staff members of the USES consulted with individuals in the State and city vocational training departments, the Urban League, and the YWCA. These meetings led to the formation of an Advisory Committee on Household Employment composed of 14 members representing various additional local groups such as the Junior League, the colored and white branches of the YWCA, and the Department of Education. The Greater Cleveland Committee on Household Employment was established in October 1945 on the decision of a meeting called by the Womanpower Committee of the War Manpower Commission.24 * Many of the members of the committee had been interested in an earlier Employment Committee organized in 1941. Representation on the committee was of practically all groups in the community that had a very direct or even a secondary interest in or contribution to make to the committee’s work—social service, public service, educational, women’s, and civic organizations, and housewives, employers, and employees. In Cincinnati the organization in which work on household employ ment was centered was the Household Training Center Board, which had been functioning for many years. Widespread interest and cooper 24 The Greater Cleveland Committee included representatives of the following groups: Business and Pro fessional Women’s Clubs, Cleveland Council of Churches, College Club, Consumers League, Family Service Association, Federation of Catholic Women’s Clubs, Federation of Jewish Women, Federation of Women’s Clubs, Flora Stone Mather Alumnae, Garden Clubs, Institute of Family Service, Jane Addams Vocational School, Junior League, League of Women Voters, Occupational Planning Committee, Personnel Women, Rocky River Women’s Club, Smith Club, Urban League, USES, Domestic Service Unit, Vocational Guid ance Bureau, Womanpower Committee of the War Manpower Commission, Women’s City Club, YWCA Industrial Division. Other housewives, employers, and employees, not representatives of organizations, were invited on the Committee. 772323°—48------------ 3 12 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS ation were maintained through the unofficial representation on the board 25 of public, social service, civic, and other agencies, and private individuals in Cincinnati. Other types of committees than the general community committees were those definitely representing a special interest or approach, for example, the Household Employers’ League of Chicago, composed entirely of employers. Others were unions or clubs of employees only, such as the active Domestic Workers’ Union in Washington, D. C. In addition to such groups, separate agencies and individuals specializing in some branch of household employment also were developing techniques and methods designed to improve practices in their own special fields, usually in training or placement. The work of the committees included consideration of standards, training, placement, and status, but attention concentrated mainly on the formulation of standards for working conditions. These stand ards, however, in turn often affect placement and training techniques and aid in the improvement of status. STANDARDS General Community Committees’ Standards The 12 general community committees which were found among the 19 cities all recognized the need for a common base for employers and employees on which to establish agreement with respect to conditions of employment and the value to the community in having such stand ards widely accepted. At the time of the survey six26 of these committees had formulated standards, four more 27 had developed tentative standards, and two 28 were currently working on this ques tion. Wages.—All the general community committees accepted the basic principle that standards of wages and other working conditions must be established for household employment in the same way that stand ards have been established in other types of employment. The com parability, in many respects, of household employment to occupations in the service industries was noted. United States Employment Service placement supervisors were consulted by most of these committees concerning wage rates being paid in the service industries as well as the rates currently offered 26 These agencies were the Adult Education Council, American Association of University Women, Board of Education Department of Guidance and the Vocational High School, Department of Welfare Division of Aid to Dependent Children, Junior League, League of Women Voters, USES, University of Cincinnati, School of Household Administration, Women’s City Club, Women’s Club, YWCA Board Industrial De partment, and YWCA West Side Branch (Negro) and housewives, employers, and employees not repre senting organizations. 28 Syracuse, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Oakland. 27 Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Atlanta. (A copy of the formulation of standards finally adopted for Philadelphia has since been received and is included in the appendix.) *8 New York, Rochester. WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 13 household employees. The Syracuse, N. Y., committee in addition conducted a wage study, using the New York State Cost of Living Study as a guide in arriving at suitable wage rate standards. As a result, wages proposed usually matched those offered locally for serv ice jobs demanding comparable skills. No two of the wage recom mendations made by the six committees which had formally adopted standards were the same. The Minneapolis and St. Paul committees suggested a $10 minimum for the semiskilled resident worker on a 54hour week, and Syracuse suggested $15 for a 50-hour weekly resident beginner. The highest weekly wage, $31.20 for skilled workers who live in and work 48 hours per week, was proposed by the Cincinnati committee. In recognition of the preference for day and part-time work on the part of many workers, hourly and part-time rates were also es tablished. Hourly rates showed less divergency than weekly rates. Both Syracuse and Chicago agreed that 75 cents an hour should be paid the experienced responsible worker, while rates in Cincinnati ranged from 45 cents hourly for the unskilled to 65 cents hourly for the skilled. Hours.—The committees were unanimous in recognizing the need to define the workweek strictly in terms of regular working hours, distribution of hours, daily reporting and dismissal times, and the measurement of “hours on call.” Usually 2 “hours on call,” when the worker was not performing household tasks but was available for answering the telephone and for emergencies, were considered as the equivalent of one actual working hour. Five of the six committees establishing hours suggested 50 to 54 hours as the normal workweek for the resident worker. Cincinnati alone advocated a 48-hour week for resident employees. Either com pensatory time off or extra pay was recommended for overtime. Only one city restricted the length of overtime. Syracuse limited overtime to 12 hours weekly, which would result in a maximum 62-hour week. Other Standards.—Standards generally covered also the length and frequency of a vacation period, holidays, absences due to illness, and the provision of suitable quarters, food, and home privileges for resident workers. The written agreements, also suggested by prac tically all committees, included, in addition, accurate job descriptions and regulations concerning termination notices and health examina tions. Certain special recommendations should be mentioned. The St. Louis, Syracuse, and Cincinnati committees recommended periodic re-evaluation of the job and of the worker with a view to wage in creases. The Cincinnati standards recognized the principle of 14 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS higher pay for greater skills by setting different rates for skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled work. The Minneapolis-St. Paul commit tee furnished definitions of “skilled” and “unskilled” worker. The Syracuse standards suggested the use of the term “household assist ant” or “aid” in preference to “maid” or “servant.” Methods of Arriving at Standards.—Cincinnati and Cleveland offer good examples of two effective methods used in arriving at stand ards. Before finally adopting its standards, the Cincinnati committee discussed them with a number of outside groups. The opinion of em ployee members of the Industrial Girls Club of the YWCA was re quested on specific questions through questionnaires and discussion. The committee also obtained reaction to the proposed standards from the household training class which was organized under committee sponsorship in one of the public high schools. Samples of standards in operation in other cities were studied. Final recommendations were based on the suggestions of all these groups and were endorsed by the industrial committee of the local YWCA. All these ap proaches helped greatly in making the standards realistic and in promoting their general acceptance. The Cleveland committee was in the process of conducting a pre testing experiment that represented a significant attempt to develop sound and practical standards. Ten employer-employee units in this city were testing the tentative recommendations developed by the committee. On the basis of the experience and reactions of this select group, standards were to be revised and reviewed prior to their final adoption and general distribution. Obtaining Community Acceptance of Standards.—After standards have been agreed to, the problem of gaining community acceptance must be faced. Committees have used mainly two methods. Some formed employers’ leagues as subsidiaries of the committees, and others used effective publicity and promotion. The St. Louis com mittee established a league of employers, and at the time of the survey the Cleveland and Atlanta committees were contemplating the for mation of similar leagues. Membership in leagues of this type was voluntary. Yearly dues were charged to finance the work of the leagues. Members were pledged to abide by the standards program as outlined by the household employment committee from which the league stemmed. The emergence of employer groups formed primar ily to put standards into operation assured some public support and assistance for the standards developed by the committee. The second method, the effective use of publicity, included panel discussions and forums, teas, radio programs, and newspaper feature articles. The Syracuse committee, however, attempted more directly to obtain the cooperation and understanding of women’s organiza WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 15 tions. Speakers for any social agency, group, or club were made available by the committee to all community women’s organizations that indicated an interest in the subject of standards for household employment. Chicago Household Employers’ League’s Standards.—In Chicago the initiative for developing household employment programs was taken by an employers’ organization rather than by a general community organization. This organization was established late in 1944 to “attract competent women into household employment by establish ing standards which will compete with industry in the postwar labor market.” Dues were fixed at $5 yearly. The league established a set of minimum standards on wages, hours, and vacations for resident and nonresident workers, for general household, day, and part-time workers, and for specialists. Hours recommended were 50 per week for resident and 44 for nonresident workers. Overtime was limited to 10 hours weekly, and time-on-call was to be paid for with 2 hours on call counted as 1 hour of working time. (Standards are reported in full in the appendix, p. 65.) League standards applied to employer members who secured experi enced household assistance through the YWCA placement office. At the time of the survey nine members of the Chicago league were employing household workers in accordance with recommendations of the league. Unions’ Standards.—The growth of household workers’ unions has been slow and limited. The isolation of the average domestic em ployee and the difficulty of securing mutually convenient meeting dates make unionization difficult. Nevertheless, workers had or ganized themselves into unions in three of the cities visited: Louis ville, Ky., New York City, and Washington, D. C. Most successful of the unions was the Household Domestic Worker’s Union, a CIO affiliate, in Washington, D. C. As hours, wages, and working-conditions standards were higher in this city during the war than is usual for this occupation, 33 women household employees, the majority of whom were Negroes, formed a union in 1942 to maintain and protect the gains made during the war emergency. They be lieved also that discriminatory practices, such as paying Negro workers less and requiring long hours of them, could be abolished through union contracts covering both white and colored workers. Further, as organized workers they could act more effectively to obtain coverage of legislation favorable to workers, such as the old-age and survivors-insurance benefits of the Social Security Act and unemploy ment and workmen’s compensation. The union concentrated its attention and energy on the develop ment of wages’ and hours’ standards for beginners and for experienced 16 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS workers. Rates for day work, part-time work, and overtime were set. (See copy of work agreement, appendix, p. 68.) TRAINING COURSES FOR HOUSEHOLD WORKERS It was agreed by those dealing with the problem that any house hold employment program for establishing standards must take into account the need for training of both employers and workers. An understanding of the value of good standards and of what constitute reasonable requirements for performance of duties and the ability to organize and manage a household efficiently are essential goals for the training of employers. Equally essential for employees is training to equip them to perform their tasks in an efficient and skill ful manner. The success of any household employment program rests ultimately on good job performance. Despite this general conviction, few groups were able to afford the time and the energy necessary for training projects. At the time of the survey, no projects for training employers had been begun, and training activities for employees had been undertaken by only 5 of the 12 general community committees: Syracuse, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Atlanta' In 3 other cities—Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Indianapolis—training projects for workers were instituted by the YWCA Household Club, the Institute on House hold Occupation, and the secretary of a community center, respectively. Household Employment Committees' Training Programs In the five cities in which the general community committees under took training programs, these committees worked with local educa tional systems to introduce household training courses for workers and cooperated in the program. Several committees gave financial and material assistance for carrying out the training program. Recruitment.—The previous failure of such courses to attract registrants was mentioned by practically all vocational and educational directors who were consulted by the committees. Consequently, the committees in these five centers usually assumed some responsibility for recruitment. The most thorough effort at recruitment was made by the Cleveland committee. Letters were sent to a number of people whose names were obtained from the unemployment compensation files and to women who had previously expressed an interest in training for house hold employment. Committee members also interviewed job ap plicants reporting to the Service Section of the USES office. Sixtyseven persons indicated a desire to register for training. Only 23, however, actually enrolled, and 16 completed the course. Another method of recruiting was employed by the Cincinnati WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 17 committee. Since most household workers in this city were Negroes, efforts were directed primarily toward recruiting Negro women. Letters were written and recruiting dodgers were circulated in the schools in the Negro district. Invitations to attend the course, addressed to mothers and sisters and requesting a reply, were copied by the children in regular classes during the day. Eighteen students, of whom 14 were interested in having household employment, enrolled in the course offered in this district. In contrast, of the 31 registrants in the white residential section, none planned to use their training vocationally. Syracuse Program.—In this city a specialist in domestic science, several employers on the committee, and four employees invited by the committee consulted with the superintendent of schools on the content of a training course. Their aim was to obtain training on a level comparable to that of other business and vocational courses offered by the Syracuse adult education extension division. Cleveland Program.—The Cleveland subcommittee on training helped to plan a 60-hour course given in the summer of 1946 under the auspices of the Board of Education. The course covered basic information and skills. Cooking was included in each session and 1 week was devoted to each type of meal—breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. Table setting, general housework, cooking and serving for invalids, care of children, cleaning, and laundering were other subjects taught. Sessions were held in the school building, but com mittee members arranged for classes to meet in their homes to demon strate the over-all care of a home and the scheduling and timing of tasks. Course content was designed to give workers training in the performance of actual jobs in the average household in the community. Committee members in Cleveland lent household furnishings not available at the school, such as silver and linen. The committee paid for food and incidentals used in the course and for the employ ment of an extra teacher requested by them for the summer course. They also transported students to and from sessions meeting outside the school building, thus enabling the students to attend sessions in homes in various parts of the city without extra cost for carfare. St. Louis Program.—The St. Louis committee sponsored a training course for household workers which provided that employees of committee members or of others subscribing to the committee's standards should be released on employers’ time to attend classes. Thus they overcame the frequently encountered obstacles to training such as lack of time while on the job and financial inability to stop work in order to attend classes. The tendency of employers to dis regard any obligation to recognize increased skill by increasing wages was countered by a provision that workers were to receive a minimum 18 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS wage of $18 weekly during the training period and an increase to a $20 weekly minimum on completion of the course. The course consisted of 2-hour sessions twice weekly for a period of 8 weeks. Segregation of schools in St. Louis required that the course be given in two sections. Twenty-two Negro women, 16 of whom were cur rently employed, registered for one section. Because of insufficient registration the course for white women had not yet begun at the time of the survey. Atlanta Program.—The Atlanta training program—the first after the war which was an attempt to deal with household employment on a community basis—furnishes a valuable example to committees planning similar projects. Prewar Atlanta Program.—Interest in training workers for house hold employment had been continuous since the 1930’s, when the Training School for Domestic Service was organized as a department of the Colored Division of the Community Employment Service. An agency of the Community Chest, it was financed by a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation, matched by funds from the Community Employment Service Federal Aid for Vocational Training, the USES, and the State Vocational Board. It had an advisory committee of Negro and white businessmen, educators, and social workers. The executive secretary of the Community Employment Service was the director of the school. A nine-room duplex bungalow served as a practice house. Courses were of 6 weeks duration and the school day lasted from 8:30 a. m. to 5 p. m. daily. Students who were employed and could not attend full-time were permitted to attend part-time. Courses included plain, fancy, and invalid cooking, serving, house cleaning, laundering, sewing, and mending. A special course in child care was given with the cooperation of the city health depart ment which furnished a trained nurse as instructor twice weekly. In addition to this practical instruction, there were lectures and dis cussions covering professional ethics, personal hygiene, behavior on the job, proper dress, and the like. A physician was employed by the school to give free medical exami nations to the students. A health certificate was given each student, which, with the diploma granted on completion of the course of study, aided the worker in obtaining a position. The Community Employ ment Service sought to obtain suitable employment for those who had satisfactorily completed the course. In 1940 the program was taken over by the National Youth Adminis tration. The school continued to function under the auspices of this agency until 1942, when the NYA was disbanded. Postwar Atlanta Program.-—Public interest in the household em WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 19 ployment problem was not entirely lost during the war period. At the close of the war, the Urban League Committee on Household Employment, which in particular had maintained an interest, met with representatives of the USES, State and city departments of vocational training, and the YWCA to form a new advisory committee on household employment. This committee, at the time of the survey, was made up of 14 members representing varied community interests. The committee sponsored a training course which ran for 6 weeks. Nineteen students were enrolled, of whom 11 completed the work. Classes were held in a demonstration room of a utility company. The teachers were paid from school funds for vocational training and were supervised by the head of the homemaking division of the public schools. Stores contributed groceries for this short-term class. Other supplies and equipment were furnished by the schools and the members of the advisory committee. In evaluating the results, certain requirements of such a training course were recognized. One was the need for housing and facilities that approximated home conditions, which the course had lacked. Another was proper screening of applicants for enrollment: students should be adapted to the work and should take the course with the expectation of entering the occupation after the course’s completion. Certificates stating clearly what skills were satisfactorily mastered should be awarded at the end of the training period. These proce dures would help to build up the status of the course as well as of the student and would be some measure of guarantee of reliability and expertness. The need for improving educational opportunities, especially for Negroes, was recognized, and the desirability pointed out of a trade high school; this should provide training courses for adults, including one for household employment. A subcommittee of the advisory committee, meeting with house hold employee members of the Phyllis Wheatley YWCA clubs devel oped the Atlanta standards program. The standards, although not formally adopted, were used for guidance in the placement of trainees and in the personnel policies in homes of league members. Buffalo Household Employees’ Club In Buffalo, where no general committee was functioning, members of the Household Employees’ Club of the YWCA decided to organize a training course for other domestic workers, on the assumption that employers would accept and adopt standards for working conditions more readily if they could be assured of trained workers. The course was planned to be practical and realistic and to equip a worker 772323°—48----------- 4 20 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS for the varied duties she would be expected to perform on the job. Six women applied for the course. The YWCA offered free use of a small kitchenette, a small dining room, and a parlor. The club members giving the course furnished notebooks to the students; standard books on household arts, par ticularly on scheduling and work organization, were purchased for library reference. Classes, which were devoted to practical demonstrations rather than to theoretical discussion, met one afternoon a week for 10 weeks. Dinner preparation and serving, general household cleaning methods, and work simplification were topics covered. Manufac turers of mechanical and electrical household equipment were con sulted for information on newest products and methods for house hold work. One meeting, at which committee members acted as job applicants, was devoted to the technique of the interview. A tea was also held at the YWCA, to which committee members were invited. The students were charged no fees. Six or eight guests, invited to the meal prepared and served at each class session, paid a nominal sum. Expenses not met by this method were paid by the club mem bers themselves. Unfortunately no placement program was undertaken and the club could not insure that the standards set for these workers would be accepted by their employers. All six graduates of the course, however, intended to work in household employment. Philadelphia Program Prior to the war Philadelphia had an outstanding training program for household employees. The Philadelphia Institute on Household Occupations had been organized and was guided by local women. It was subsidized by grants from special funds, individual contributions, and the board of public education which provided the training staff. It was pointing the way to a solution of some of the problems in household employment when the defense program and the war diverted its potential trainees into war connected jobs and the Philadelphia institute had to be discontinued. Seven training cen ters sponsored by the WPA were likewise closed, while an eighth center was taken over and continued under the board of public education as a household-occupations training class to provide train ing for girls desirous of entering this field of employment. At the time of the survey, under a revitalized program, the home of the head teacher was used as a training center, the board of edu cation paid the teachers’ salaries, the Philadelphia public utilities companies provided kitchen and laundry equipment such as stove, WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 21 refrigerator, mangle, etc., and an advisory council carried over from WPA days raised money for telephone bills, incidental household expenditures, and students’ carfares. Here in a comfortable 3-story duplex house, which represented the work environment students would experience, 20 Negro students between the ages of 14 and 17 were being trained in a variety of house hold tasks: cleaning, laundering, marketing, menu planning, cooking, serving, and the like. All work was assigned individually and the curriculum adjusted so that each student received practice in every phase of household service. In addition, students reported for a 3 weeks’ training period to a nursery school housed in one of the regular vocational schools in the city, where they were taught care of children in the home. The course ran for 6 months, from 9 a. m. to 3 p. m., and upon com pletion each student received a graduation certificate. During their training period most of the students gained practical experience in part-time employment. All employer-employee con tacts were handled by the teachers. Suggestions about the work schedule and hours were offered at the first interview, but no attempt was made to standardize wages since the girls varied greatly in ability. A leaflet covering all conditions of work except wages, for the guidance of employers, was in process of preparation. Educational counselors in the city schools lunched at least once during the school year at the house, in order to become better acquainted with its aims and ac complishments. Better understanding and referrals have resulted Indianapolis Program Among other programs designed to meet local situations or to face new trends constructively was a training project planned by the industrial secretary of a community center, Flanner House, in Indi anapolis. Segregated schools in this area do not include a trade school for Negroes, who compose one-tenth of the total population. This community center, open to all, but primarily servicing Negroes in low-income groups, hoped to develop skills in the trainees, whom it referred to specific jobs. At the time of the survey the supply of unskilled workers in this city of almost 400,000 population far exceeded the demand, so that housewives could easily secure workers to perform heavy, dirty, or disagreeable tasks. The backlog of orders for household mechanical equipment, however, and the eventual availability of such machines would change the type of worker required, according to the com munity center’s director. . Before the war no facilities were available for training household 22 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS workers in the operation of new machines. Anticipating the need for such training, the Flanner House project planned, for the future, instead of general household training courses, to give specific training in the operation of household equipment. Various types of house hold appliances were to be installed in the school. Each trainee would be encouraged to learn one skill at a time, such as the operation of a particular type of washing machine, until she became expert at it. A student might leave the course at the end of one such unit of train ing, or if she wished to develop more skills, she might take similar concentrated course units dealing with other household machines. In making employment referrals, the attempt was made to refer a worker who had acquired certain skills to an employer who requested such skills. Difficulties on the job might arise because of poor health or un desirable behavior habits. Overcoming such difficulties was con sidered to be an important part of the training project, and the clinic already in operation at the community center was available for help in handling these problems. The secretary who directed this Indianapolis project was aware of the difficulties in the way of training encountered by low-income household workers. Many cannot afford to stop work in order to take training. For these people, night courses were to be scheduled. For those who could afford a brief period of time for training before seeking work, day courses were to be organized on an 8-hour schedule. As explained above, courses were to be set up in small units, so that a trainee could sign up for one or more, according to the time she had available. A nonprofit cafeteria, to be run by the community center, was planned, not only to provide training in food preparation and serving, but also to yield the students a small wage while in training. PLACEMENT There was little disagreement on the importance of placement policies in any household employment program. The gains attained through the formulation of working-conditions standards and the development of training programs can be largely negated by poor placement. Employment agencies play a vital role in the mainte nance and promotion of fair standards. A thorough analysis of job orders and careful selection of workers best suited to specific jobs benefit both employer and employee. Although much interest was shown, little had been done about placement in the cities surveyed. Community committees, as a guide to the study of standards, usually consulted the local employ ment offices on current practices and rates. Cleveland developed a WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 23 limited experimental program, and Cincinnati and other cities were planning future placement activities. Outstanding programs were found in the New York office of the USES (now the New York State Employment Service), and in the Harlem YWCA in New York. General Communify Committees’ Placement Work Although interested in good placement for all household workers, the Cleveland committee concerned itself primarily with securing suitable jobs for the 16 graduates of the household training course which it had sponsored. Employers were approached through the Cleveland Federation of Churches. Referrals were made only to employers registered at the federation and who agreed to abide by the committee’s working-conditions’ standards. Recognizing differ ences in qualifications among the graduates of the course, the com mittee consulted the course teachers and rated the workers according to abilities. Wages asked ranged from $16 weekly for the least skilled to $25 for the most skilled worker. Ten of the sixteen graduates were placed. Separate meetings for employers and for employees were planned which would evaluate the training and placement activities of the committee and furnish a basis for revisions that appeared desirable. The Cincinnati committee planned to establish a downtown employ ment office, under the supervision of a paid director, to place women and girls graduated from the household training courses. Description of job requirements would be requested of prospective employers, and employers and employees would be given an opportunity to talk over the jobs under consideration at the agency’s office. A signed, written agreement containing the standards and recommendations of the household employment committee would be required. Fees to meet operating expenses would be charged both employers and employees. The main purpose of this agency would be to maintain standards for trained workers. The regular service department of the YWCA handled placement for the Employers’ League of Chicago. Only experienced workers were placed. Employers expected to accept the league’s work stand ards. The YWCA staff consultant was available to both employers and employees when difficulties arose. New York State Employment Service Placement Work The New York State Employment Service (at the time of the survey, the United States Employment Service) had realized, perhaps more fully than any other agency, the need for more accurate place ment of applicants, realistic evaluation of wages by employers, and greater uniformity of approach among interviewers if household 24 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS employment was to yield satisfaction to both employer and employee. The main features of its referral program are outlined here in the belief that they ofTer possibilities for adaptation and use by other placement officers. The staff of this agency regarded the development of accepted terminology, job descriptions, and usuable occupational classifications essential to effective placement practices. Using job definitions in the United States Department of Labor “Dictionary of Occupa tional Titles” as a basis, a set of job descriptions was evolved covering the following types of jobs: day worker, homemaker (social agencies), nursemaid, general maid, cook, working housekeeper, chambermaid, laundress. More detailed, they were an improvement over the occupational dictionary definitions, since they provided a more complete picture of the job in general and as it existed locally. For each of the listed occupations, the agency has formulated job standards and sample employer-employee agreements.29 The standards sheet, developed in consultation with employers, applicants, and other agencies, presented minimum standards, cur rently accepted in the locality, which seemed practical and fair. Each Employment Service staff member, supplied with this basic material, was prepared to discuss job duties and working conditions intelligently with both job applicant and employer. The job de scription helped the interviewer question the worker skillfully and thoroughly regarding the worker’s experience and ability. It also enabled the interviewer to help the employer organize the various tasks included in the employer’s specific job order. The standards sheet and sample agreement served the Employment Service staff in guiding employers and employees toward a clear understanding of the duties and hours, wages, and other conditions of work involved in the job. Wage charts were used to give Employment Service staff members information on hourly and weekly rates for various skills and for various combinations of days and hours of work. These charts, prepared after conference with other agencies dealing in household employment, indicated minimum rates currently offered by employers and accepted by workers in the area. With the help of these charts the interviewer could plan with the employer how to obtain the type and amount of service that would best meet the employer’s need, stay within her budget, and still guarantee the worker a standard payment for the work performed. The New York State Employment Service possesses no power to enforce standards, but it can and does inform employers that there is little prospect that a substandard job will be acceptable to appli *■ Samples of some of these Job descriptions, standards, and agreements are shown in the appendix, p. 41. WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 25 cants, and makes no effort to interest applicants in such job openings. Within the framework of its legitimate activity, it has encouraged good standards and has developed new procedures which resulted in effective placements averaging 16,000 or more monthly. Ninety-five percent of the placements were for day workers.30 This high percentage of placements for casual workers was the result of a number of factors: the long hours and poor working conditions frequently found on steady jobs; unavailability of workers trained or sufficiently experienced to carry continuing responsibility; and the variation in periods and types of employment of the male rela tives of the women seeking employment. A qualified, trained Em ployment Service staff, exhibiting a consistent, objective attitude and supplied with identical basic information, using the educational approach, has succeeded in maintaining standards. Both employers and applicants have been encouraged to think in terms of definite hours of work for definite hourly wages, and to establish business like relations. This office has achieved an outstanding performance in intelligent and well-informed placement of workers and in obtain ing the cooperation of employers. One of the developments that have contributed toward the ac ceptance of standards and satisfactory work relationships between employers and workers has been the handling of grievances by the Employment Service. Trained interviewers have been able to deal with grievances over the telephone, and in this way to help in the solution of difficulties that would otherwise have resulted in turn over. Harlem YWCA Placement Work Placement which carefully relates the worker’s background and experience to the job should result, over a period of time, in a steady group of satisfied employers and employees who consistently use the agency’s services whenever needed. The record of the Harlem YWCA employment office in New York City testifies to the sound ness and reliability of such placement techniques. While some cur tailment of activity was experienced during the war period, it did not reach the extreme contraction due to loss of applicants suffered by other similar agencies. The agency’s report for 1945 reveals 2,950 placements, an increase of 16.2 percent over 1943. Seventy percent of these placements were for day workers. The prewar average of registrations amounted to approximately 4,000, as con trasted with 3,005 in 1945. This agency considers housework a vocation demanding specific 30 A day worker is one who seeks work for only a day at a time. One who works one or more days a week regularly, but less than a full week, for the same employer is a part-time worker. 26 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS skills. It therefore keeps a detailed record of applicants, with a cumulative work history for each person, whether a day or part-time worker. On application the worker makes out a record of personal data, work history, and names of former employers. A form letter requesting ratings on work skill, habits, and attitudes is mailed to all employer references.31 A health examination, which costs her $1, is required of each applicant. The physician sends the health report to the agency office, and if any physical disqualification is reported, the agency offers counseling to the applicant to help her obtain suitable remedial treatment. If she is unable to pay for medical care, she is referred to a clinic. On the basis of a worker’s skills, experience, and physical condition, the office impartially presents to her suitable openings from which she can make her own job selection. A small and flexible fee is charged the employee at placement. If she is unable to pay, the fee is waived. After a trial period of 2 weeks, if the placement has proved satisfactory, the employer pays an amount equal to 5 percent of the first month’s salary. While these payments help to meet the expenses of the department, they also tend to de crease turn-over. Workers are less apt to leave or employers to dismiss workers for petty or minor reasons. When constant complaints are received concerning a worker, and it becomes apparent that she is not suited for the work, she is dropped. Such a situation may indicate the need for individual casework, however, and the agency’s counseling services are used to help the worker to obtain employment for which she is better fitted. Since requests for workers are in excess of the supply, the office maintains a list of employers with whom good relations have been established over a period of time. These employers are accorded first consideration. Occasionally the orders of an employer about whom there have been constant and unvarying complaints from a number of workers are rejected. Ordinary grievances registered by workers, however, are handled by the placement staff. The placement office considers it important to advise employers, too, and to explain the necessity and reasons for standards. In many cases, education removes the causes of the complaints. Explanatory materials regard ing household employment have also been distributed to employers. This employment office is convinced of the importance of household employment to family well-being. The attention devoted to solving problems in this field and to maintaining a good service has produced a fairly steady supply of qualified workers and an intelligent, fair-minded group of employers. 31 See appendix, p. 64. WOMEN’S BUREAU SURVEY IN 19 CITIES 27 . TESTING PROGRAM: ST. PAUL-MINNEAPOLIS The field of household employment has lacked techniques for evaluating performance through valid measures of skills in different types of work. The household employment committee in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area, however, completed before the war an experi mental set of performance test questions under the direction of the University of Minnesota testing bureau. In August 1942 this test, together with a general aptitude test and a performance test in meal planning and preparation, was administered at a vacation household institute held at t£e Minneapolis YWCA camp. The tests were used also with other groups throughout the country, but the project was discontinued in 1943 because of the war. Renewing their testing program in the fall of 1945, the committee established a fellowship at the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota, to begin September 1946 and to be devoted to the construc tion of a test for household skills. With the university’s approval, $1,000 for a 1-year fellowship was granted for the work. Field work was to be done in cooperation with the YWCA and the USES. The fellow selected was to be under the supervision of a member of the committee and of the university’s department of home economics education. The household employment committee hoped to publish the tests resulting from this work and to distribute them, on a non-profit basis, to all agencies and employers concerned with selection, training, and placement of household workers. Administered by qualified persons, such tests should help to achieve accurate classifications of skills and objective and scientific placement of workers. 772323°—48- -5 SUGGESTIONS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS No community has fully solved the problems of household employ ment. But the programs which have been described do furnish prac tical experience and knowledge of trends on which recommendations can be based. Local communities will need to analyze and adapt them to local needs and circumstances and to modify them to meet specific problems that may arise. THE OBJECTIVES A comprehensive program designed to meet current needs relating to household employment would include simultaneous action toward four objectives: the establishment of working-conditions standards, better training for both employer and employee, efficient placement service, and improved status for household employees. The first three of these objectives form the foundation of the fourth. The change in status, which involves a change in human relationships, is probably the most difficult of the four objectives to accomplish, but its develop ment will follow more easily if efforts are made along the other three lines. These objectives can be promoted by: (1) community organizations (general committees, employer leagues, and employee committees and unions), (2) public education systems, (3) public and private place ment agencies, (4) individual employers, and (5) employees. The general community committees have been found to be particularly useful in formulating working-conditions standards and in forwarding general educational projects relating to the status of household em ployees. Public school systems and placement agencies, on their side, have contributed especially toward meeting the technical prob lems of training and referral procedures. GENERAL COMMUNITY COMMITTEES, AND EMPLOYER LEAGUES The general community committee is recommended as probably most conducive to an adequate household employment program. Such a committee would, in so far as possible, include specialists in the fields of economics, psychology, sociology, domestic science, vocational guidance, adult education, and placement, as well as representatives of social and civic organizations and individual employers and employees. Advantages which a general community committee offers are: (a) A general committee provides for discussions among people having varied viewpoints—especially valuable in the development of standards 28 SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 29 (ft) The representation of many community interests helps to create wide spread public understanding and acceptance of the program developed by the committee—again a particular advantage to the establishment of work ing-conditions standards. (c) Specialists are available to furnish technical knowledge on wages, hours, job descriptions, training needs and possibilities, contract content and forms, the problem of status, and similar subjects. (d) The general committee can coordinate the work of various agencies. Members who are specialists in training or in placement, for example, can direct activities in these fields toward fulfillment of an over-all program. (e) A continuing committee can develop a long-range program in addition to working on immediate problems. General trends and community needs over a period of time can be taken into account. (/) Desirable legislation on both national and local levels is most effectively promoted by a general committee. Such legislation includes the coverage of household employees by old age and survivors’ insurance, unemployment and workmen’s compensation, and State maximum hour and minimum wage laws. Committees or leagues of employers, particularly when their work supplements that of general community committees, can be especially effective in securing the acceptance of standards and in interpreting the work of the general committee. Where no general committee existed, employers’ groups have undertaken effective steps toward the development of a general program, as in Chicago, Cleveland, and Syracuse. 1. Standards As indicated earlier, the establishment of working-conditions stand ards is recognized as of primary importance in a household employment program. Committees will find it helpful in developing standards to have in formation on current local household employment practices relating to hours of work, wages, job requirements, and living and working conditions. Some of the data may be available at local State em ployment offices and State departments of labor. The committee may consider the feasibility of questionnaires addressed to employers and employees. Local wage rates, hours, and working conditions in occupations that require the same skills as household employment will be useful in developing standards. Public and private employment agencies may be able to furnish these data. If household employment is to compete with other industries in the community, it must compare favorably with, at least, jobs in the community that demand the same skills. Some State departments of labor have made studies of the cost of living for working women, other agencies have made pertinent cost-of-living studies, and some YWCA’s have made expenditure studies. Where such studies, having definite local application, are 30 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS available they will be extremely useful to committees in determining the minimum wage needs of workers. Several Federal agencies have prepared reports which have both general and local application.32 The standards adopted by the Chicago Household Employers’ League (see appendix, p. 65) are used by the league in conjunction with a work agreement which clearly defines work duties under the divisions of food service, cleaning, laundry, and child care, and which allocates suitable times for these tasks. As the preference becomes more marked among household workers for day and part-time work that has clearly set times for reporting and leaving, and as employers come to expect higher standards of performance, accurate job descrip tions become more necessary. Consultation wTith specialists in domestic science and in placement when a committee is developing job descriptions will contribute assurance that such descriptions are accurate in content and realistic in terms of time allotted to each task. The standards developed by the Cincinnati and St. Louis committees (see appendix, pp. 58 and 64) are recommended for their adequacy. Although written agreements covering standards were proposed by most committees included in the survey, no agreement included a provision for settling grievances growing out of alleged or actual failure of the parties to the agreement to abide by it. There has, in fact, been little exploration of how this need could be met. It has been suggested that some community agency, to be agreed on by employer and employee and designated in the signed contract, might serve as mediator, after employer and employee had exhausted every effort to settle their differences. Protesting of standards by a number of employers and employees before the standards are finally adopted, would give them validity and practicability. (Such an initial test was undertaken by the Cleveland committee.) Once a committee has determined on the standards it will support, its problem will be: (1) to obtain public appreciation of the need for good working-conditions standards and of the value to the commu nity of such standards, and (2) to obtain employers’ recognition of the advantages to them of the proposed standards. The educational campaign which will need to be undertaken can be carried out in part by committee members through the organizations they represent. Panels, forums, lectures, skits, radio programs, and newspaper feature articles are constructive methods by which a wider public may be informed of the problems and contributions of household workers. The skills involved in household employment, the services rendered in maintaining homes under normal and emergency conditions, and 32 Information on available data may be obtained from the Women’s Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 31 the increased purchasing power resulting from good wages to house hold employees are other topics for such programs. The methods used by both the St. Louis and the Syracuse com mittees to publicize their programs and reach a wider audience, already discussed, illustrate means of creating general public accept ance of good employment standards. 2. Status As already indicated, the improvement of the status of household employment rests to a large degree on establishment of good workingconditions standards, including wage standards; on providing oppor tunities for training, to ensure competency of the worker; and on intelligent placement. Improved status will be an outgrowth of these measures. They do not, however, offer a complete answer. Other difficulties, and an indication of the remedy, are perhaps best stated in the Gen eral Conclusions to the “Report on Post-War Organisation of Private Domestic Employment” prepared by Miss Violet Markham and Miss Florence Hancock and presented by the Minister of Labor and National Service of Great Britain to Parliament, June 1945: We are conscious in presenting this report that we have not proposed any final or comprehensive solution of existing difficulties. The difficulties are of long standing and had their origin in a general social outlook different from that of the modern world. A substantial amount of slack consequently remains to be taken up. Some necessary adjustments are psychological and cannot be dealt with merely by the provision of better machinery. We hope and think that many of the problems involved will find their solution .in the changed and more equalitarian outlook of the present day intensified as that outlook has been by common sufferings and tribulations shared by all alike during the war. The ideal of the good life for every citizen, whatever his or her lot, is independent of the fleeting satisfactions of wealth or class and springs from a deepened sense of the worth and value of the individual man and woman—the real principle at stake in the struggle which has overwhelmed mankind. In a society which seeks however imprefectly to give expression to that ideal, domestic work will fall into its natural place as one of many functions necessary to the comfort and efficiency of a highly specialised community. “I serve” is a princely motto, and it is through service from each to all in varying forms and ways that the true enrichment of life is found and its abiding values made plain. The challenge to general community committees, employers’ leagues, and other interested organizations, as well as to all individ uals who have a stake in finding a solution to the problem of household employments, is also well expressed in’the foregoing report: The future of the home, that corner stone of the national life, is at stake. Is the home with its many and varied traditions, its individuality and the flame of ancient sanctities still alight beneath the surface of a mechanised age, to give place to the drab uniformity of the apartment house or residential hotel? It is for those who value family life to find the right answer to that question. 32 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 3. Training and Placement Since the acceptance of standards is directly related to adequate training and placement, general committees and employers’ and employees’ groups should work closely with local training and place ment agencies. Committees should be concerned with the training of employers as well as of workers. The employer should be aware of the value of good working conditions and able to organize household routine efficiently. It is recommended that committees press for the intro duction of household management courses in local schools. The com mittees themselves should also be equipped to advise employers on the selection of tasks to be done by employees who are responsible for only a part of the work. In the field of employee training, committees can urge the inclusion of household training courses in local vocational education programs and assist in recruitment, financial and material aid, and placement. In addition, however, there is need for supervision of the courses, especially in selection of students. Although a number of committees discussed in this report have done much for the establishment of train ing courses, applicants were not always chosen on the basis of their Suitability for household employment and intention of going into this work. Recent experiences of committees which had worked for the estabment of household training courses by local boards of education reveal the poor results obtained when insufficient and careless preliminary checks on the caliber and interests of the students are made. In Syracuse, of 11 recruits none were interested in earning a living as household employees, and in Atlanta only 2 of the 11 graduates de sired employment in domestic service. The cities with the best results were Cincinnati, where employment possibilities were stressed in selecting 18 enrollees; St. Louis, whose course was composed of 22 students, 16 of whom were already employed and allowed to take the course on working time and 6 of whom were seeking work; and Cleve land, where the group of 15 had been carefully screened and selected by the household employment committee. The accomplishments of students in a training course should be evaluated. Both the Cleveland and the Atlanta committees recog nized the difference in skills among students even after training. The Cleveland committee, as a result, modified its minimum standard of $20 for trained workers, since some of the graduates of the course could not be considered trained. The Atlanta committee considered the possibility of granting different types of certificates based on the school record of the trainees. Training offered should be on a level comparable with other trade SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 33 school courses offered by the local educational systems. The commit tee should also see that the course provides the specific skills that are most in demand in the community. It is recommended that committees work for the development of placement techniques and machinery by placement agencies, whether public or private agencies, YWCA, or subcommittee of the general committee. The development of good placement techniques has been less far advanced than training programs in the cities studied. A first essential is objective standards for classifying household assistants as “trained” or “experienced” and accurate definitions of unskilled, semiskilled, and skilled work are needed. They have not as yet been formulated. Until objective classifications are available by which workers can be grouped according to skills, background, and expe rience, general acceptance of standards for household employment will not be achieved. (But see also “Suggestions for Local Placement Bureaus,” p. 35.) Committees can encourage placement agencies to develop advanced placement techniques and to use committee standards when referrals are made. Standards for wage rates, job descriptions, and sample agreements developed by the committee should be in the hands of placement offices for guidance in household employment referrals. SUGGESTIONS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS 1. Training Although committees can make a valuable contribution to the estab lishment and operation of training programs, the responsibility for such programs rests primarily with the public school system. It is therefore suggested that vocational training divisions of the schools establish courses for workers and courses for employers. Local school boards can make use of the assistance provided by Federal funds made available to the States for vocational education through the U. S. Office of Education. Courses should be planned to prepare workers for the jobs currently offered in the community. To this end the household employment committees should be consulted on the needs of the average house hold, its equipment, size, and servicing requirements, and the types of workers most in demand—whether day, part-time, or full-time worker, resident or nonresident, or specialist. Standards for the courses in terms of attendance requirements, subject matter, and graduation requirements should be comparable to those in other types of vocational training. Equipment and facili ties should be provided that approximate real-life situations and that give the student experience with equipment used in the modern home. It is more desirable to have such facilities at the school in which the HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 34 course is held than to use private homes as was done in Cleveland where committee members lent their homes for demonstrations, or than to give the courses in regular classrooms with no equipment for demonstrations, as was done in Syracuse. Schedules for courses set to meet the needs of the students would include full-time day classes for unemployed or prospective workers and evening courses for those who work during the day. Regularly employed workers who are allowed working time for short periods of training should be given opportunity to develop specific skills through course work. It is suggested that vocational advisers help students to obtain part-time work during the period of school attendance, as a source of income for the student and as an opportunity for practical experience. Students could bring their working problems to class for discussion and analysis. Through this procedure the teachers could become familiar with the problems encountered by the students and plan their courses to meet these problems. Part-time jobs might also be considered as a part of the training, and students would be rated on them as they are on their performance in the course itself. Housewives, as well as employees, should have courses made avail able to them. Those who do all their own work might profit by courses covering household routines. Those who employ part- or full time workers can be taught the basic principles of efficient home man agement, and, in particular, can be aided in the analysis of household jobs, in order to acquire an understanding of what each job requires in time, skill, and energy, and how work assignments should be made in relation to the help that is available. Such a course in home management was introduced into Opportunity School in Atlanta, Ga., in 1946. It stressed work organization, mastery of basic skills, and an understanding of and respect for the quality of work required in the modern home. 2. Status As mentioned above, training contributes to the improvement of status. If students are adequately prepared, they will be in a better position to make household employment a satisfying and rewarding kind of work and to advance their economic and social standing. 3. Placement Vocational schools ought not limit themselves to training, but should also develop referral policies in agreement with local commit tees and placement agencies that are attempting to maintain standards of wages, hours, and other working conditions. They should par ticularly work closely with the employment offices that handle most of the placements of household employees in the community. If they 772323°—48---------- 6 SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 35 operate their own placement offices they should use placement tech niques discussed under “Suggestions to Local Placement Bureaus.” In addition, the promotion of standards by vocational schools can be aided through the use of printed recommendations to be circulated among employers and employees. The pamphlet, “Household Em ployment of High School Girls,” is an example of this technique. This pamphlet, published by the Occupational Adjustment Depart ment of the Oakland, Calif., public schools, concerns working condi tions for the high school student, but equally instructive pamphlets can be prepared dealing with work standards for adult household workers. SUGGESTIONS TO LOCAL PLACEMENT BUREAUS The effective operation of standards in household employment and improvement of the status of household employment depend in large measure on the cooperation of local placement agencies and the effectiveness of their referral techniques. It is therefore suggested that public agencies such as the USES and State employment services and interested local private offices develop procedures to provide the employer with the kind and amount of service for which she is willing and able to pay, and to secure for the employee wages and conditions of work which meet the best standards of the community. Although public agencies possess no authority to enforce or main tain standards in their transactions with employers and employees, they can refer to the standards proposed by local household com mittees for guidance. Private agencies can legitimately insist on the acceptance of committee standards among employers. Basic to the suitable placement of workers are accurate and full job descriptions which present a complete picture of the duties in volved in the employer’s order. With these descriptions at hand, the employment interviewer can select a suitable worker for the job offered. Because of the increasing preference of workers for day or part time work, placement interviewers might well devise wage charts which show rates, based on hourly rates, for various combinations of days and hours of work per week. Such charts would also assist placement interviewers in advising employers on how much service they could expect to obtain at standard rates for the amount of money at their disposal. The job descriptions and wage charts used by the New York State Employment Service in placement procedures are outstanding. An adequate placement program will include maintenance of records of all pertinent information about the applicant. Previous training and experience, the results of mental, vocational, and physical tests, references, and follow-up reports should all be on file. 36 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Personal and experience records should also be filed for employers as well as employees. Employers should be expected to guarantee standards developed by the community committees. Both public and private agencies should do everything possible to encourage both parties to assume responsibility for maintaining satisfactory standards. Particularly noteworthy are the application forms and forms for em ployer reports on employees, which were developed by the Harlem YWCA, and are shown in appendix B. Placement programs will benefit from research that is being under taken in this field. The test to measure the skills of the worker developed at the graduate school of the department of home economics education, University of Minnesota, for example, will help in intelli gent placement of workers. Other research projects, of which ad vantage should be taken where possible, deal with time measurements of household tasks, job analysis, development of vocational tests, psychological studies of emotional difficulties related to the occupa tion, causes of turn-over, wage rates in this and allied vocations, and training methods. Good placement work will not only promote efficient service, but will help to raise the status of the employee. The interdependence of standards, training, placement, and status cannot be too frequently stressed. SUGGESTIONS TO HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYERS Since local general committees are essential in developing an ade quate household employment program, it is recommended that em ployers, concerned in improving the conditions, work for the establish ment of such committees in their communities. If committees have been established, employers can participate in their work and practice the standards developed by them. The following suggestions are for the guidance of individual employers in localities where committees do not exist. The individual employer occupies an important place in the field of household employment; it is she who must meet the competition of industry with its superior organization, regulated and defined work schedules, and wage rates based on skill and experience. Efficient household planning and work simplification should be established. There is a definite relation between such management practice and the amount and quality of work done by the employee. In estimating the time and skill required for specific tasks in the home, the employer should consider the physical structure and size of the house or apartment, the composition of the family (presence of small children, older persons, invalids), and the use of modern labor saving devices. She should then decide how much of the required service she will expect of an employee, and select the jobs to be SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 37 assigned to the employee and those for which she herself will be responsible. It would help the employer to achieve an efficient work plan and fair distribution of tasks among family members and employees if she would make it her responsibility: to eliminate unnecessary labor by simplifying household routines wherever possible; to teach children to respect home equipment and take care of their own toys and clothes as much as they can; to use the best household machinery the family can afford; and to patronize professional or commercial services for such tasks as rug cleaning, laundering, window washing, and the like. The employer should examine the length of the workweek and the total and daily hours of duty. She should bear in mind the trend toward shorter hours. The specific times for beginning and ending each day’s work should be clearly stated, as well as the number of daily and weekly hours of work. Clear understanding should be reached on other factors in the home situation: the number of “working hours” represented by “hours on call,” when the worker is free except for such duties as answering the door bell or the telephone; at what point overtime pay or compensa tory time off should be allowed, and what the rate of pay for overtime should be. In deciding on wages, the employer should remember that she must compete with wages paid by local industry for comparable work. In the absence of a household employment committee, she may consult the State or Federal employment service for information on prevailing rates. She should also follow the practice in industry of paying higher rates for more difficult jobs: for example, heavy manual work— washing walls and waxing floors—or special services such as catering, chauffeuring, and fine laundering. Since negotiations on hours, wages, and working conditions tend to be detailed and complex, it is recommended that decisions be put in writing in the form of a contract. Samples of such contracts and help in drawing up one can be obtained from a domestic worker’s union, a household employment committee, or a local employment office. If these sources are not available, the employer and the employee can work out their own contract. The sample agreement of the New York State Employment Service (appendix, p. 44) can be used as a guide. The initial interview with the employee should be conducted in a business-like way; it can set the whole tone for the employer-employee relation in the household. Ample time should be allowed and points to be discussed should be written down in advance. The worker should be given a full account of tasks to be done, with major and minor responsibilities indicated, such as: general housecleaning, cook 38 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS ing, serving, meal planning, marketing, washing, ironing, care of children, aged persons or invalids, upstairs work, driving a car, and gardening. The time to be spent on each task and the daily or weekly schedule should be specified. Both may depend in part on the ex perience of the worker and the extent to which she is able to and the employer wishes her to assume responsibility for her own work schedule. The amount of wages should be specified, and also the time of pay ment and overtime provisions. Other items to be agreed on during the initial interview are vacation, sick leave, health examination, holidays, insurance provisions, upkeep of uniforms, housing arrange ments, meals and time involved, home privileges, trial work period, termination notices, and breakage or damage liability. The employer can help to improve the conditions of household employment by using agencies that uphold and maintain standards. Registration at the best available employment bureau supports and encourages those placement agencies that are anxious to attract qualified household workers by guaranteeing them good employment standards. In dealing with such agencies the employer should acknowledge the value of training and experience by agreeing to pay higher wages for a well-trained and thoroughly experienced worker. The employer might in some instances follow the example of industry in giving the employee working time for attendance at training classes which will increase the worker’s skills and teach her more efficient methods of work. Finally, the employer should be competent in home management techniques. If she lacks skill in this field she should attend home management courses offered in local adult education or vocational schools or encourage the establishment of such courses if none are available. Such classes not only benefit the individual housewife, but also, by presenting basic and uniform methods and practices to groups of household employers, aid in standardizing and regularizing house hold management procedures and policies generally. SUGGESTIONS TO HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYEES The success of a program for the improvement of standards and status of household employment depends on the worker as well as on the employer. It is therefore suggested that the household employee as well as the employer cooperate with general committees and other local agencies promoting such programs. Higher standards represent both greater opportunities and greater responsibilities. High standards of wages, hours, and working conditions require high standards of workmanship and dependability. The workers should obtain, if possible, training to improve her skills and develop SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAMS 39 her abilities. She should attend domestic science training courses in the community, and, if possible, receive the certificate or diploma that signifies successful completion of the course. If no such training opportunities exist, she should register a request for such a course at the local vocational or adult education school and encourage other household workers to do likewise. In order to obtain the job for which she is best suited and to enjoy good working conditions, the worker is advised to register at the com munity employment service with the highest standards. During the registration interview she should fully explain her personal pre ferences concerning working where there are animals, children, old people, invalids, or employed couples, and give other relevant infor mation. She should also explain what are her best skills and favorite types of work. Once on the job, the worker should follow high standards of per sonal conduct. Since the work is physically demanding, it is desirable to observe good rules of health and hygiene. An annual physical examination is advisable. The worker should also maintain rules of professional ethics in the confidential treatment of all family affairs of her employers. The household employee is urged to participate in group recreation and social and cultural activities in order to compensate for the isolation of her job. It is particularly recommended that she work with other household workers to promote their occupational interests through such organizations as a local household employment com mittee, a domestic workers’ union, or a club for household workers at the YWCA. Such organizations are valuable to the individual and also offer an opportunity to improve general standards through promoting better local working conditions and through work for the extension of legislative protection, both Federal and State, to house hold employees. APPENDIXES INTRODUCTION The following materials illustrate some of the efforts being made by various agencies to help solve the problem of domestic employment for both the employer and the employee. The New York State Employment Service plan shows the threefold function of a placement agency. Recognizing that satisfaction to both the employer and the employee will result from fitting the person to the job, the Employment Service has developed a program which provides job descriptions, job standards, and sample contract agree ments. It is hoped that the use of these three forms jointly, by establishing good standards of working conditions, placement proce dure, and work requirements, will help to lessen, if not remove the major disadvantages of domestic employment and put this work on an equal basis with other comparable occupations. This appendix shows only one example of a complete placement plan of the New York State Employment Service, that for general maid. The job description and job standards, but not the contract agreement, are also shown for the occupation of laundress. The Em ployment Service has prepared job descriptions, job standards, and contract agreements for six other occupations, as described above (p. 24). The standards are essentially the same except for descrip tions of duties, and the contract agreements are also practically identical with the one shown. The referral, application, and personal reference cards of the Harlem Placement Bureau incorporate minimum standards in the records, aid in efficient placement, and provide a means of checking the satisfaction of the employer and employee. Standards are also presented which have been developed by general household employment committees in Cincinnati; Oakland, Calif.; St. Paul-Minneapolis; and Syracuse. Standards of an employers’ group are represented by those of the Chicago Household Employers’ League. In addition, the employer and employee cards and work-agreement form of the United Domestic Workers Local 1348 (CIO), Washington, D. C., have been included as an example of a union’s efforts to improve employees’ hours, wages and working conditions. 40 APPENDIX A New York State Employment Service SPECIFICATIONS AND AGREEMENT The attached are dependent upon each other and should be used together. They include: 1. Job description.—This elaborates on the dictionary definition giving a more complete picture of the job in general as it exists locally. 2. Job standards.—On the basis of the job description, sample minimum stand ards are described for the full-time job as it exists locally at present time. These standards are a guide allowing for variations in worker qualifications and in job requirements. No attempt has been made to cover the trainee situation which would involve on the job training and courses at school. 3. Agreement.—(1) Form. (2) Sample. This is to be filled in for a specific job. It defines hours, wages, and conditions of employment for that job and is to be signed by employer and worker. Changes may be made when necessary. Prepared by: Staff of Household Offices, New York City. 41 1. JOB DESCRIPTION—MAID, GENERAL JOB SUMMARY Performs, under immediate supervision or in accordance with employer’s instructions, varied domestic duties in a household. TASKS PERFORMED 1. Prepares meals. and serves 2. Keeps house clean and orderly. 3. Performs various mis cellaneous tasks. Prepares food, cooks and serves meals in accordance with instructions from employer. May follow own recipes. Sets table, serves meals, washes dishes. Cleans entire house, including washing and waxing floors and woodwork, dusting and polishing fur niture, making beds and changing linen, vacuum ing rugs, beds, furniture, cleaning Venetian blinds. Polishes silver and other metalware. May clean windows. May answer telephone and doorbell, may care for children occasionally and watch them at play. May prepare meals for invalid or elderly person. MACHINES, TOOLS, SUPPLIES, AND EQUIPMENT 1. Cooking appliances and Stove, refrigerator, toaster, broiler, cookers, waffle equipment. irons, mixers, dishes, glassware and silverware, pots and pans, cooking utensils, dishwashing machines, towels, dishcloths. 2. Laundry equipment__ Washers, ironers, wringers, dryers, tubs, wash boards, ironing boards, baskets, hangers, pins, lines, stretchers, cleaning fluids, bluings, soaps, and starches. 3. Cleaning equipment__ Vacuum cleaners, brooms, mops, brushes, sweepers, cloths, chamois, gloves, sponges, pails, dustpans, abrasives, waxes, polishes, soaps, powders, cleaning fluids, and disinfectants. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS A. Education---------------- Literacy preferred, but not necessary. B. Experience and train Must have had experience in own home or homes ing. of others. May substitute training which included homemaking experience. C. Responsibility Responsible for carrying out instructions. Must cooperate with person responsible for manage ment of household, also with other members of family. D. Job knowledge _. .. Should know how to use and clean properly all equipment, such as vacuum bag and brushes, and how to use materials appropriate to specific job. Should know elementary rules of cooking, laundry, and cleaning. 42 NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 43 E. Mental application_ Should be sufficiently alert to be able to act in _ emergencies. Should be able to give attention to many items simultaneously. F. Dexterity and accu Must have sufficient manual dexterity to use tools and equipment without breakage. Must be racy. sufficiently accurate to follow recipes and take telephone messages, if answering telephone is one of specified duties. G. Working conditions__ (1) Surroundings.—Healthy, informal, comfortable environment, close personal contact with other persons in house, may sleep in. (2) Hazards.—Careless use and placement of equipment and tools. Workers not protected by industrial rules and regulations or covered by compensation, except for New York State Legislation effective January 1, 1947. H. Physical requirements. Ordinarily female, of legal work age. Must have physical endurance, emotional stability. Must be free of communicable disease or occupationally hazardous disease. Must have good muscular coordination and be able to stand, bend, stretch, stoop, and to lift light objects such as vacuum cleaner, or to move small pieces of furniture such as arm chairs. I. General comments____ Most jobs represent different combinations of the above duties and skills in varying degrees. Item 6 (duties) in the suggested agreement should be used flexibly to cover the actual duties of specific jobs. 2. SAMPLE JOB STANDARDS—MAID, GENERAL (For discussion purposes only) 1. HOURS a. Working time.—Working time should not exceed 48 hours per week. “On call” time for resident workers should not exceed 12 hours per week. (Time on call is that time when worker is not performing regular duties but is available for emergencies.) Time off should be at least 1 complete day from completion of duties on previous day to morning of following day, and one afternoon each week. Resident workers should be on duty 2 evenings per week. These are included in the hours on call. Meal periods should be % hour; and J4 hour rest, in periods to be arranged, should be permitted during the day. b. Vacations and holidays.—Vacation should be taken in 1- or 2-week periods after it has been accumulated at the rate of 1 week for each 6-month period. Four of the 8 national holidays are to be completely free. c. Sick leave.—Paid sick leave should be accumulated at the rate of 1 day per month. d. Overtime.—Any hours in excess of the 48-hour workweek (or, for resident workers, 60-hour), should be considered overtime and be compensated for as provided under wages. 2. WAGES Wages should be 62)4 cents per hour for jobs not requiring cooking and 72)4 cents per hour for jobs requiring cooking. At this rate, wages for a 48-hour week would be $30 and $35, respectively. For resident jobs the same wage is arrived at on the basis of 60 hours per week and a. deduction of $7.50 per week for maintenance. Overtime should be compensated at time and one-half of hourly rate of pay. Wage increases should be automatic and based on length of service. 3. CONDITIONS OF WORK a. Accommodations.—Resident worker should be provided with own well heated and ventilated room or may share suite of rooms with another worker. She should have own bath or free access to one. Worker should be responsible for cleanliness of quarters and may entertain friends provided the decorum of the household is maintained. Laundry service, except for personal clothing, and an adequate and nutritious diet, should be supplied by the employer. b. Uniforms.—Worker should supply own work clothes. Employer should supply uniforms if required. c. Safety.—No task hazardous to health or safety of worker or other members of household should be assigned or performed. Equipment should be kept in good condition by employer and worker and all measures to prevent accidents should be taken. Employer should cover worker by accident insurance. 4. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION * If health examination of worker is required, employer should cover cost. 5. RELATIONSHIP WITH EMPLOYER AND FELLOW WORKERS a. Businesslike, courteous attitude should be maintained. b. Instructions should be given by one designated person. c. Duties should be clearly defined. 44 NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 45 d. Arrangements should be made for use of telephone and church attendance. e. There should be provision for periodic re-evaluation of the job and the worker. 6. REQUIREMENTS a. Worker should have had similar experience in own home or homes of others; she may have had training course or be trained on job. b. Worker should be sufficiently alert to follow instructions and to adjust to required schedules. c. Worker should maintain a neat appearance. d. Worker should be free of communicable and occupationally hazardous dis ease and should be strong enough to perform required tasks. . Employer should inform worker of any communicable disease in household. c. Worker should be prepared to furnish references as to her skill, training, and integrity. 7. DUTIES See “Tasks Performed,” in Job Description. 8. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS See “Equipment and Materials” in Job Description. 9. TERMINATION There should be a 2-week trial period during which either party may decide to terminate arrangement. At the expiration of the 2 weeks, an agreement is signed and thereafter 2 weeks’ notice should be given by either party desiring to terminate it. Employer should pay 2 weeks’ wages if notice is not given by her. 10. AGREEMENT Employer and worker should sign duplicate agreements defining hours, wages, and conditions of work on the specific job. 3. SAMPLE FORM FOR AGREEMENT—MAID, GENERAL (For discussion purposes only) This agreement is made this___ day ofbetween,, the employer and------------------ , the worker, to aid in establishing harmonious relations and in maintaining fair employment practices. HOURS The hours of duty shall behours per week, from________a. m. to ------------p. m.,--------------days per week. Hours on call for resident workers shall not exceed-------- hours per week. Time off shall be one complete day each week, from completion of duties on previous day to morning of following day, which shall beplus Meal periods shall be Yi hour and shall be considered working time. Worker shall take a hour rest period daily. Vacation shall be taken in 1- or 2-week periods after it has been accumulated at the rate of 1 week for each 6-month period worked. Paid sick leave shall accumulate at the rate of 1 da.y per month. Hours in excess of the agreed-upon schedule (including working and on call time) shall be considered overtime and be compensated for as provided under “wages.” WAGES Wages shall be $---------per week to start, payable in cash each At the end of each year’s service for-------- years, the wage shall be increased $---------per week to a maximum of $per week. The hourly rate of pay for the first year shall beper hour. It shall be increased to conform to wage increases each year. CONDITIONS OF WORK The worker shall have living quarters consisting of She shall be responsible for cleanliness of these quarters and may entertain friends there provided the decorum of the household is maintained. Meals and laundry service, except personal laundry, shall be supplied to the worker. The worker shall supply own work clothing. Employer (shall not supply! uniforms. [shall ”J No task hazardous to health and safety of the worker or to other members of household shall be assigned or performed. The employer shall keep equipment in proper working condition and worker shall use equipment properly, taking all precautions to prevent accidents. Employer shall carry insurance covering injury to worker in the home. 46 NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 47 HEALTH EXAMINATION Worker shall have a health'examination to be paid for by employer. EMPLOYEE RELATIONS WITH EMPLOYER AND STAFF Businesslike and courteous attitude shall be maintained at all times. The worker shall receive instructions fromand be directly responsbile to her. DUTIES 1___________ _____________ _____ _____ _____ ___________________ 2_... 3 _ _ 4 5________________ ___________________________________________________ _ 6 ______ ___ TERMINATION Notice of 2 weeks shall be given by either party before terminating this agree ment. Employer terminating this agreement without notice shall pay 2 weeks’ wages. 1. JOB DESCRIPTION—LAUNDRESS JOB SUMMARY Washes and irons household linens and clothing; may do minor repairs on worn or torn articles. TASKS PERFORMED Methods employed vary with type and. amount of equipment available, as well as with textures, colors, and conditions of materials to be laundered, and properties of water to be used. 1. Washes articlesSorts and examines, removes stains, makes neces sary preliminary minor repairs. Washes clothes by hand or machine. Rinses. Applies bluing and/or starch where necessary. 2. Irons articlesUses hand iron or flat ironer (machine) to iron articles. 3. Mends articles Replaces buttons, repairs rips and tears. 4. Performs various mis- May clean laundry or kitchen. May perform other cellaneous tasks. duties in household during spare time. MACHINES, TOOLS, SUPPLIES, AND EQUIPMENT 1. Stain removersVarious chemicals, such as bleaches, alcohol, vine gar, salt, and sponges, brushes, cheesecloth, etc. 2. Laundry equipment__ Washer, tubs, washboard, wringer, dryers, ironing board, flat ironer (machine), baskets, hangers, pins, lines, stretcher, bluing, bleaches, soaps, and starch. 3. Mending equipment__ Thread, needles, thimble, sewing machine, scissors, tape measure, pins, buttons, patch materials, etc. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 1. EducationShould be able to read labels and instructions. 2. Experience and train- Must have had experience in own home, homes of ing. others, or in commercial or hand laundries. May substitute vocational training. 3. ResponsibilityResponsible for following directions, written and oral, and for carrying out instructions. Must cooperate with person managing household, other employees, and members of the family. Respon sible for appearance and care of clothing laundered and for care of equipment. 4. Job knowledgeShould know how to use and clean all equipment properly and how to use materials appropriate to the specific job. Should have knowledge of spot and stain removal, as well as methods and cleaning agents to be used on various materials. Should be able to do simple mending and darning. 48 NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 49 5. Mental application----- Must be able to detect reactions of fabrics to water, stain removers, heat, etc. Should be able to act quickly in emergencies. 6. Dexterity and aecu- Must have sufficient manual dexterity to use tools racy. and equipment safely and without breakage. 7. Working conditions----(1) Surroundings.—Usually works in private homes. Conditions vary greatly. Not always comfort ably heated, well-lighted, free from dampness. May work in basement of large apartment house where several types of equipment are available. (2) Hazards.—Careless placement and use of equip ment and tools; shock from electrical fixtures and equipment; burns from irons and hot water or chemicals; rashes or skin eruptions. (3) Social security and compensation.—Workers not covered for injury in homes except for New York State legislation effective Jan. 1, 1947. New York State Unemployment Insurance law covers workers in homes where there are four or more household employees. 8. Physical requirements _ Must have sufficient endurance to stand for long periods of time. Must have good muscular co ordination, and must be able to stand, bend, stretch, stoop, reach, and lift heavy baskets of clothes up to 25 pounds. Must be able to operate washers, wringers, dryers, and to wring by hand. Must be free of communicable or occupationally hazardous disease. 2. JOB STANDARDS—LAUNDRESS (For discussion purposes only) 1. HOURS a. Working time.-—Regular working time should not exceed 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day. Some of this time may be devoted to duties other than laun dering, depending on the length of the workweek and the needs of the household. On resident jobs 8 hours of “additional time” per week may be spent on such duties. Time off should be 2 complete days per week. Meal periods should be }4 hour, J4 hour of rest in periods to be arranged should be permitted each day. b. Vacation and holidays.—A minimum of 2 weeks’ vacation annually should be taken in 1- or 2-week periods after it has been accumulated by the worker at the rate of 1 week for each 6-month period worked. Four of the 8 national holidays are to be completely free. c. Sick leave.—Paid sick leave should be accumulated at the rate of 1 day per month. d. Overtime.-—Any hours in excess of the 40-hour week (or for resident workers, 48-hour) should be considered overtime and should be compensated for as pro vided under “Wages.” 2. WAGES Wages should range from 75 cents to $1 per hour, depending on the skill of the worker and the intricacy of the work involved. At this rate the weekly wage for a 40-hour week would range from 825 to $40. On resident jobs the rate is the same, with the 8 hours of “additional time” compensating for the cost of mainte nance. Overtime should be compensated for at time and one-half of the regular hourly rate of pay. Wage increases should be automatic and based on length of service. 3. CONDITIONS OF WORK o. Accommodations.—Nonresident wrorker should have suitable place to change clothing and keep belongings. Resident worker should bo provided with own well-heated and ventilated room, or may share suite of rooms with another worker. She should have own bath or have free access to one. Worker should be responsible for cleanliness of quarters and should be permitted to entertain friends there, provided the decorum of the household is maintained. Laundry service, except for personal clothing, and an adequate and nutritious diet should be supplied by employer. b. Uniforms.—Worker should supply own work clothes. Employer should supply uniform if required. c. Safety.—No task hazardous to the health and safety of the worker or other members of the household should be assigned or performed. Equipment should be kept in good condition by employer and worker, and all measures to prevent accidents should be taken. Employer should cover worker by accident insurance. 4. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION If health examination of worker is required, employer should cover the cost. 5. RELATIONSHIP WITH EMPLOYER AND FELLOW WORKERS a. Businesslike, courteous attitude should be maintained. b. Instructions should be given by one designated person. 50 NEW YORK STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 51 c. Duties should be clearly defined. d. Arrangements should be made for use of telephone. e. There should be provision for periodic re-evaluation of the job and the worker, 6. REQUIREMENTS a. Worker should have had similar experience in own home or homes of others; she may have had training course or be trained on job. b. Worker should be sufficiently alert to follow instructions and to adjust to required schedules. c. Worker should maintain a neat appearance. d. Worker should be free of communicable and occupationally hazardous disease and should be strong enough to perform required tasks. Employer should inform worker of any communicable disease in household and take any steps necessary for protection of worker. e. Worker should be prepared to furnish references as to her skill and integrity. 7. DUTIES See “Tasks Performed,” in Job Description. 8. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS See “Equipment and Materials,” in Job Description. 9. TERMINATION There should be a 2-week trial period during which either party may decide to terminate arrangement. At the expiration of the 2 weeks, an agreement is signed, and thereafter 2 weeks’ notice should be given by either party desiring to terminate it. Employer should pay 2 weeks’ wages if notice is not given by her. 10. AGREEMENT Employer and ■worker should sign duplicate agreements defining wages, hours, duties, and conditions of work on specific job. APPENDIX B YWCA Placement Bureau, Harlem Branch 1. APPLICATION BLANK PERSONAL RECORD Last name------------- First name--------------Age_____Registration date Apt-----------------Address------------- Zone No.. P. H_____ Referred byre-reg. dates__ Telephone------------Citizen_______ Place of birth Notify in emergency--------------- Address.Relation Years in New York-------- Single Height______________________ __ ____ Living home------------------ Married Weight Boarding----------------------- Widow General health Rooming----------------------- Separated On job-------------------------- Dependents Education Name and place of school Courses studied Year Grade or high school. College____________ Business or technical. Special training____ PREVIOUS WORK HISTORY Name of last employer Date started Address------------------------------------------------- Dateleft___ Kind of business engaged in Salary Reason for leaving____________________________________ Describe in detail your work and responsibilities. Name of other employer Date started. Address------------------------------------------------ Date left Kind of business engaged in Salary Reason for leaving____________________________________ Describe in detail your work and responsibilities Name of other employer Date started Address Date left___________________________________________ Kind of business engaged in Salary___________________________ Reason for leaving_____________________________________________ Describe in detail your work and responsibilities 52 Did you graduate? HAKLEM YWCA PLACEMENT BUREAU 53 Work desired Are you willing to work out of town? Work qualified for Are you willing to sleep in? Tests------------------------------------- Remarks and special problems Results Observations: Clean___ ____ __ Alert_____ Sullen _ .. Indifferent . AttractiveDirty___________ Neat__ _____________ _ Refined Untidv_ _ ___ ------ -_ Congenial . Interviewer Nervous______ Shy---------------Mature_______ Serious_______ Sense of humor. [Reverse side of application blank] PLACEMENT RECORD Date referred Employer Address Kind of work [A record of a health examination is also required] Salary 2. REFERENCE BLANK The Young Women’s Christian Association of the City of New York, Harlem Branch My Dear: who is seeking a position as---------------------------------------has given your name as reference. We should appreciate your helpfulness in rating the worker in order that we may properly adjust her in a job and serve our employers more efficiently. Any information you give will be regarded as confidential. An early reply will be greatly appreciated, since the applicant cannot secure employment until we hear from you. Very truly yours, [Please rate by cheek on appropriate space] Skills Superior Temperament: Cheerfulness, courtesy------------------------Cooperativeness______________________ Personal integrity: Honesty, truthfulness_________________ Reliability___________________________ Work habits and attitudes: Punctuality, orderliness----------------------Faithfulness to duty--------------------------The applicant is best in----------------------------Length of employment------------------------------Reason for leaving________________________ Remarks_________________________________ Date_____ _____ _____________ * 54 Signature Address - Good Average Fair Poor 3. REFERRAL CARD Placement Bureau—Employment Agency, Harlem Branch YWCA To Date-------------------------------------------------------------------------Address Apt--------------------------------------------------------------------This introduces_____________________________________________ Sent in reply to your request for--------------------------------------------Wage__________ Employer’s agency fee on reverse side Interview____________________ __________________ ___________ Referred by Please pay carfare. Engaged: (Check one) YES or NO. Employer’s signature Open for employer’s calls: Daily 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Saturdays 9 a.m. to 12 noon. [Reverse side of referral card] HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYER’S AGENCY FEE After 2 weeks’ trial period for persons placed in household employment, if the placement is satisfactory, the employer will be billed for the sum equivalent to 5 percent of the wages contracted for 1 month. No additional charge is made for any replacement made within a period of 1 month after the first placement is made. 55 APPENDIX C Household Employment Committee of Philadelphia STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT WORKING AGREEMENT A written job outline shall be agreed upon by employer and employee at the time of employment. A definitely agreed upon time of meeting between employer and employee to adjust any changes that take place in the job set-up, either in the area of job needs or of job performance, shall be decided upon. At such time of evaluation, if the working relationship is satisfactory to both parties, assurance of reasonable job security should be agreed upon mutually. HOURS 1. Actual working hours shall be defined as hours of duty during which employee is not free to follow her own pursuits, or to go where she wishes. 2. Time on call is that time when the worker is not free to leave the house but may rest or follow her own pursuits on the premises, being available for emer gencies. Two hours on call shall be equivalent to one hour of working time. 3. Total actual working hours shall not exceed 50 hours per week. A normal working day shall not exceed 10 hours. 4. Employee shall have 24 consecutive hours off each week and also all day off every other Sunday. 5. Overtime shall be compensated for by time off at the earliest reasonable time that is mutually convenient. Overtime not compensated for as above shall be paid for at the rate of time and a half. VACATION AND HOLIDAYS One week with pay shall be given after 1 year of service, 2 weeks with pay after 2 years of service. At least four legal or religious holidays each year shall be given. WAGES Wages shall be paid at a rate of not less than 65 cents per hour. There shall be no reimbursement for carfare spent in reaching the place of employment, unless the amount is more than normal transportation charges within the city limits. Inasmuch as usually the employee lives in only for the convenience of the employer, no charge for room rent shall be deductible from employee’s wages. Meals eaten by employee shall be charged for at cost, which amount shall be arrived at by consultation between employer and employee. In no case should such charge decrease cash wage received below a weekly minimum of $25 for full time employment. UNIFORM Employee shall dress in clothing suitable for the job. they shall be furnished by the employer. If uniforms are required, ACCIDENT OR WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION Employee shall be covered on the job by accident or workmen’s compensation insurance, paid for by the employer. 56 PHILADELPHIA COMMITTEE 57 HEALTH CERTIFICATE A health certificate from employee is recommended. Employer shall inform employee if any member of family has communicable disease. REFERENCES References shall be furnished by employee. SICK LEAVE Sick leave up to 1 working day per month, for illness sufficient to prevent employee from performing any duties of the job, shall be allowed without deduc tion in pay or vacation. This shall be cumulative for one year. LIVING CONDITIONS Where employee is required to live in, comfortable living conditions shall in clude: private room or one shared by another employee if necessary; access to bath; adequate heat and light; comfortable chair. TERMINATION OF SERVICE Notice of one week or one week’s pay shall be given on termination of service by either party, except in very unusual situations such as gross negligence en dangering life or property. APPENDIX D Household Employment Committee of Cincinnati STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT The Household Employees Standards Committee proposes to attract com petent women into household employment by establishing standards which will compete with industry in the postwar labor market and by placing such women in the homes where these standards are maintained. FOR WORKERS “LIVING IN” Hours.—48-hour week exclusive of meals. Cleaning of own room to be in cluded within the 48 hours. These 48 hours to be used as employer and employee decide. Time and a half for overtime, not to exceed 54 hours per week. Two hours on call is equivalent to 1 working hour. Time on call is that time during the day in which the worker is free to follow her own pursuits but is avail able to answ'er door bell and telephone, etc. Evening hours when worker may entertain, retire, or otherwise follow her owrn pursuits but be available for emer gencies shall count as 3 for 1 actual working hour. Workers may work 8 hours per day but not more than 10 hours in one day. Wages.—Wages are based on 65 cents per hour for skilled workers, 50 cents for semiskilled, and 45 cents for unskilled. $31.20—Skilled workers. $24.00—Semiskilled workers. $21.60—Unskilled workers. Employers to furnish uniform. .Health examination paid by employees. Vacation.—One week with pay after 1 year of service. Two weeks with pay after 2 years of service. Four of the national holidays or the equivalent to be completely free. One week sick leave with pay per year. Living conditions.—Private room adequately furnished; adequate access to and use of bath; adequate and nutritious diet. A written agreement, in duplicate, signed by employer and employee, shall in clude all the above items, plus: accurate job description, notice as to termination of service, time off, use of telephone, church time, sick leave, workmen's compen sation insurance, and provision for periodic re-evaluation of the job and the worker. FOR WORKERS “LIVING OUT” Same as for workers living in, except for the following provisions: No room or bath furnished, but adequate room required if the worker is em ployed for a split shift. Written agreement to include statement on distribution of 48-hour week. Wages.—Skilled, 65 cents per hour including meals; semiskilled, 50 cents per hour including meals; unskilled, 45 cents per hour including meals. FOR PART-TIME WORKERS Wages.—Light housework: dishwashing, dusting, etc., 45, 50, and 65 cents an hour; “sitter” or child watcher: 25 to 50 cents an hour; laundry: 45, 50, and 65 cents an hour; cleaning: 45, 50, and 65 cents an hour. 58 APPENDIX E ' Household Employment Committee of St. Paul-Minneapolis STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION These standards were developed by the St. Paul-Minneapolis Employer-Em ployee Committee of the YWCA. The shortage of household workers, the incompetence of some available workers, and the anticipation of a more acute shortage of the future, make it necessary to attract more workers who are skilled and intelligent. This cannot be done unless employers will offer household workers working conditions that compare favorably with working conditions in industry. Employers and employees have wanted a set of standards that would give housework the status and desirability that it deserves. The committees were fully conscious of the fact that the employers of domestic service vary greatly in their economic condition and resources and therefore in their ability to meet the standards proposed as to wages and working conditions. It is also recognized that positions in domestic service vary widely in the demand they make on the intelligence, the skill, and the time of the employee. It was, of course, necessary to set standards for trained and skilled workers. Because of the wide variation in the financial condition of household employers, however, the committees have proposed standards as flexible rather than absolute or fixed minimums. Some employers can and do exceed these standards; some are meeting them; some are able to meet them but do not. Standards are suggested as to what would constitue desirable working conditions for skilled and semiskilled workers. Un skilled mothers’ helpers naturally could not qualify for these standards, but stand ards as to definite and reasonable hours of work and fair wages should be considered for them. These standards constitute general aims which all of us should, each according to the circumstances, try to reach as far as possible. WORKING AGREEMENT A definite written agreement between employer and employee is suggested if made out at time of employment and if periodically reviewed to meet changing conditions. Both parties are to realize that emergencies require that such agree ment be flexible. (See attached form for working out same, together with a sug gested workable schedule.) DUTIES Regular duties shall be clearly defined on the basis of an analysis of the job to be done within the hours limit agreed upon. A high standard of work shall be expected in return for good wages and satisfactory working conditions. HOURS The total working hours shall not exceed 54 hours per week. It may be neces sary to work more than 54 hours in some weeks, but the average for the month should not exceed that amount. 1. Time on call is the time when an employee is not on active duty but must answer the telephone, door bell, etc. Two hours on call should be the equivalent of 1 hour of working time. 59 60 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 2. Hours entirely free for worker’s own personal life is the time when the worker is entirely free from any responsibilities to the employer or the job. 3. Time of should be determined according to the individual schedule and is computed on the basis of number of working hours per week. 4. Overtime.—Extra time off, preferably 1 week end a month, or additional pay should be given for overtime. HOLIDAYS The employee shall be allowed time off for four out of eight holidays, preferably two out of each group. First group: Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year’s Day, and Easter. Second group: Lincoln’s or Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, or Labor Day. VACATIONS The employee will receive at least 1 week’s vacation with pay after she has worked 1 year, 2 weeks’ vacation after 2 years’ service. WAGES During this period of transition any wage scale is necessarily tentative. These figures are based on comparable wages in industry at the present time, 1. Skilled worker—$18 to $25 per week plus room and board. 2. Semiskilled worker—$10 and up plus room and board. (A worker who lives out should receive additional compensation. Room and board is equivalent to $10 a week.) A skilled worker is one who has the ability to plan and organize her time and work, and who takes definite responsibility. A semiskilled worker is one who knows various skills but needs supervision and more training. An employer should not expect untrained girls to be skilled, nor should un trained employees expect the pay of the skilled worker. A worker should receive more pay as she becomes more skilled. LIVING CONDITIONS A. Adequate food. B. A private bedroom—possibly with another employee. In case of the latter there should be twin beds and adequate provision for privacy. C. Access to the bath. D. Spaces for personal possessions. E. Adequate heat and light. F. The employees’ entrance should be adequately lighted. G. Adequate provision for entertaining friends. TERMINATION OF SERVICES Notice of 1 week should be given by employee on termination of service. Notice of 1 week or 1 week’s pay should be given on termination of service by employer. ACCIDENT “ The employer should carry some form of accident insurance to cover the em ployee in ease of accident. It is suggested that the employee be encouraged to secure hospitalization. ST. PAUL-MINNEAPOLIS COMMITTEE 61 CONDITION OF HEALTH The household employee should have a yearly physical examination and present a health certificate to the employer when applying for a position; like wise, the employer should exercise reasonable care to safeguard the employee’s health. PAYMENT Payment should be made preferably weekly. If payments are made monthly 4H weeks should be calculated to the month. Wages should be paid on the day due. Please re-read the introduction for a better understanding of these standards. Your comments and suggestions will be most welcome. Please mail them to the Committee on Household Employment, YWCA, Minneapolis or St. Paul. APPENDIX F Household Employment Committee of Syracuse, N. Y. STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT The committee agreed that one principal objection in the minds of employees to household employment as compared with work in stores and factories is length of hours and uncertainty as to free time. They stated that the importance of intelligent limitation of hours and the assurance of more free evenings a week cannot be overemphasized if we wish the occupation of household employment to be made attractive to the girl who is seeking employment of some kind. Standards agreed upon by this group of women were as follows: WRITTEN AGREEMENT A definite agreement, covering the points which follow, should be arranged between employer and employee. It is recommended that this agreement be in writing and that a copy be kept by both employer and employee. DUTIES Duties should be clearly defined and provision made for the possibility of emergencies. HOURS AND WAGES (for a girl “living in”) The standard, based on the present cost of living, is a 50-hour week, exclusive of lunch hours, with minimum wage of $15 for beginner. Allowing $10 for room and board, this would be equal to a $25-a-week salary, which is in line with raising the standards of household workers to factory and office workers. Actual working hours shall be defined as hours of duty during which the worker is not free to follow her own pursuits. Time on call.-—Two hours “on call”—when employee must answer door bell, telephone, etc., or be responsible for a sleeping child or meet the necessity of not leaving the house entirely alone at night—shall be considered equivalent to 1 hour of working time. Overtime.—When an employee works overtime, the employer should compensate with equivalent time off within a week, or extra pay should be given on the basis of rates per hour. Overtime in 1 week should not exceed more than 12 hours, so that actual working hours shall not exceed more 'than 62 hours a week. PAYMENT Payment should be made, preferably weekly or every 2 weeks; if paid monthly, 4J4 weeks should be calculated to the month. Wages should always be paid on the day due. VACATIONS It is suggested that 2 weeks’ vacation with pay be given after 1 year’s service. HOLIDAYS It is suggested that four legal holidays be given out of the following seven: New Year’s, Easter, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas. 62 SYRACUSE, N. Y., COMMITTEE 63 LIVING CONDITIONS Comfortable living conditions should include adequate food and sufficient time to enjoy the meal; separate room, access to bathroom, and schedule in use of bathroom; adequate heat; clothes closet; comfortable chair; and place to entertain guests. EVENINGS In addition to 2 free evenings which go with the afternoons off, there should be 2 additional evenings off, making a total of 4 nights during the week when the employee is free to go out. These 2 additional evenings should be established by agreement on definite days of the week, subject to change on sufficient notice by employer or employee. HOURS AND WAGES (for a girl "living out”) A 48-hour week with a minimum of $25 a week and payment for overtime are recommended. PAYMENT, VACATION, AND HOLIDAYS (for a girl "living out”) These should follow the same standards as those set for those living in. UNIFORMS Uniforms should be furnished by the employers, because it is felt that a uniform will help raise the status of the job. NAME The name “servant” and “maid” should not be used, as these are the words that mark the job. Suggested titles are: “household aide” or “household assist ant.” If the employee prefers, she is to be called by her last name. DAY RATES A general worker by the hour shall be classified as general cleaning, dishwash ing, to be paid 50 cents an hour. A skilled worker shall be classified as laundry, cooking, child care, serving, to be paid 60 cents an hour. Seventy-five cents for household assistance, which would include responsibility for some operation of the home. One week’s notice shall be given by both employer or employee. Contract shall be renewed after 6 months’ service as an incentive for employee. Realizing that the suggested payment here is minimum, a raise is advocated with satisfactory service. APPENDIX G Household Employment Committee of St. Louis STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT* 1 In order that household employment may receive recognition as a dignified occupation and that competent workers may be attracted into this field—standards of hours, wages, and working conditions must be established which will compete favorably with those of other industries. This is primarily the responsibility of women, since they are both employers and workers in this occupation. SUGGESTED STANDARDS I. FOR WORKERS “LIVING IN” Wages.—A minimum of $18 per week with higher wages for those qualifying. Overtime to be paid at an hourly rate. Hours.—50 to 54 hours per week, with at least 24 consecutive hours off duty. Additional hours of work shall be by mutual agreement.2 Vacation.—One week with pay after 1 year of employment, 2 weeks after 2 years or more. Four of the eight national holidays to be completely free. Sick leave.-—Paid sick leave shall be accumulated at the rate of 1 day per month after 6 months’ employment. Living conditions.—A private room adequately furnished; adequate access to and use of a bathroom; nutritious meals; access to a well-lighted entrance; some provision for entertaining guests. II. FOR FULL-TIME WORKERS “LIVING OUT” Same as for workers living in, except that the normal workweek shall be 48 hours. III. FOR DAY WORKERS General housework: Minimum, 50 cents an hour plus carfare with a higher rate for special skills or heavier work. A voluntary agreement (written or oral) between employer and employee is recommended. This should include the above standards applicable to the particular job, plus accurate job description, schedule of hours, notice as to ter mination of service, time off, workmen’s compensation insurance, uniforms, etc. 1 Published by Household Employers’ League of St. Louis, auxiliary of the committee. 1 Actual working hours are those during which the worker is not free to follow her own pursuits. Time on call is time during which the worker is free to follow her own pursuits, but is available to answer the door bell, telephone, or care for a sleeping child. Two hours on call shall count as 1 actual working hour. 64 APPENDIX H Household Employers’ Leasue of Chicago STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT The Household Employers, League purposes to attract competent women into household employment by establishing standards which will compete with industry in the labor market and by placing such women in the homes of its members where these standards are maintained. 1. FOR WORKERS “LIVING IN” Wages.—A minimum of $20 per week with higher wages for those qualifying. Overtime to be paid at a minimum rate of 75 cents an hour. Hours.—50 hours per week for a 5- or 5J4- day week. Additional hours by agree ment or in emergencies, not to exceed 60 in any week. (Actual working hours are those during which the worker is not free to follow her own pursuits. Time on call in the daytime is time during which the worker is free to follow her own pursuits but is available to answer the door bell and tele phone. Two hours on call shall count as 1 actual working hour. Evening hours when the worker may retire and be available only for emergencies shall count as 3 for 1 actual working hour.) A record of hours should be kept by the employee and submitted weekly to the employer. Vacation.—One week with pay after 1 year of service; 2 weeks after 2 years or more. Four of the eight national holidays to be completely free. Living conditions.—Private room adequately furnished; adequate access to and use of bath; adequate and nutritious diet. A written agreement in duplicate, signed by employer and employee, shall include all the above items, plus: accurate job description, distribution of hours, notice as to termination of service, time off, use of telephone, church time, sick leave, workmen’s compensation insurance, uniforms, health examination, and provision for periodic re-evaluation of the job and the worker. 2. FOR WORKERS “LIVING OUT” Same as for workers living in, except that the normal workweek shall be 44 hours. 3. FOR PART TIME WORKERS General housework.—A minimum of 75 cents an hour, with a higher rate of pay for special skills or for heavier work. SERVICE IN EXCHANGE FOR BOARD AND ROOM Hours and wages.—18 hours of work per week in exchange for room and 2 meals per day (14 meals per week). 12 hours work per week for room and break fasts only. (Special arrangements may be worked out at similar rates.) Extra work, if any, to be paid for at the rate of 75 cents per hour. Hours when worker is “on call” count as half time. 65 66 HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS The work and the worker.—Light housework only should be expected, such as dishwashing, bedmaking, simple food preparation, care of school-age children, or “baby-sitting.” (No laundry, heavy cleaning, skilled cooking or serving, except by special arrangement.) Applicant should be a responsible person, of mature age, with some housekeeping experience, and should supply two character references. She should be able to fit her hours to the family schedule and require ments and should keep strictly to hours agreed upon. The home.—Single room, strictly private and comfortably furnished, with adequate use of bathroom, should be provided. Meals should be ample and regular, eaten with the family, or food same as family’s eaten in a comfortable, suitable place. Houfs of work should be accurately scheduled. Note.—The Household Employers’ League reserves the right to amend these standards as experience proves other standards to be more effective in accomplishing the purpose. APPENDIX I Industrial Committee of YWCA, Oakland, California ADVISORY STANDARDS FOR HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT Hours. Working time: 54 hours per week or less for live-in employees; 8 hours per day for day workers. Time off: 1% days per week or the equivalent (as 3 days in 2 weeks), or one 24-hour period per week for live-in employee. Vacation with pay: 2 weeks at the end of each year’s employment; for less than 1 year but more than 6 months, vacation to be at the rate of 1 day for each month worked. Wages.—To be determined by the skill, experience, and aptitude of the worker, according to the job description. Wages should be for specified hours, with adequate compensation provided for extra time, either as added pay or as time off. It is suggested that the rate of pay cover carfare. Rate of pav would be governed by prevailing wage scale. Living conditions.—A private room attractively furnished, more as a sitting room than mere sleeping quarters. It should have adequate heat, light, and ventilation, and bathroom facilities. There should be a comfortable, wellequipped bed, a comfortable chair, good reading lights, and other appurtenances which contribute to its being a pleasant place for the household worker to spend her leisure time. The food provided for the worker should be of the same quality as that used by the family. Provision should be made for the worker to entertain guests in a dignified manner. The worker should be prepared to dress in a. manner appropriate to the job. If unusual or expensive uniforms are agreed upon, they are usually supplied by the employer. 67 APPENDIX J United Domestic Workers Local No. 1 348 (CIO), Washington, D. C. 1. WORK AGREEMENT The undersigned agree to the following: TYPE OF JOB Day work Part time Full time DAYS HOURS WAGES Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday JOB DESCRIPTION Cooking , Cleaning Laundry Childcare MISCELLANEOUS Workers cannot wash windows, wax floors, or wash woodwork except to wipe off finger marks or spots. Signed: Employer Employee Office Secretary 48 hours per week. $25 minimum wage. cents an hour for day work or part time. 68 Time and a half for overtime. 65 2. EMPLOYER CARD EMPLOYER: ADDRESS: PHONE:____________ TRANSPORTATION: TIME:_____________________ NUMBER IN FAMILY: SIZE OF HOUSE:____ _____ JOB DESCRIPTION:______ APPLICATION RECEIVED: ACTION TAKEN:_________ CHECK UP: 69 3. MEMBER CARD MEMBER:_________________________________ ADDRESS:___________________________ _____ PHONE:___________________________________ DAYS OR HOURS NOT AVAILABLE:_____ WORK EXPERIENCE:____________________ SPECIAL SKILLS:_________________________ HEALTH CARD? __________________________ APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP: ______ COMMENTS OF STANDING COMMITTEE ACTION TAKEN:_________________________ CHECK UP:______________________________ 70 U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1948