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Collective Bargaining




B u lle t in N o .
U N IT E D

ST A TES

M a u r ic e

J.

D E P A R T M EN T
T o b in

O F

- Se cre ta ry

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague - Commissioner

1 0 8 9

LA B O R




C O L L E C T IV E

B A R G A IN IN G

RAD IO , TELEV ISIO N , A N D
ELEC TR O N IC S INDUSTRY

B u lle t in
U N IT E D

S T A T E S

N o .

D E P A R T M E N T

1 0 8 9
O F

M aurice J. T obin , S ecreta ry
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w an Clague , C om m ission er


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Washington 2o, D. C. - Price 20 cents
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

L A B O R

ii

L etter of Transm ittal

U N IT E D

Th e

S e c r e t a r y

o f

S T A T E S D EPARTM EN T O F LA B O R ,
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . ,
Ju n e
1 9 5 2 .

L a b o r:

I h a ve
th e h o n o r
m anagem ent a g re e m e n t p r o v
v is io n ,
an d e le c t r o n ic s
a n a ly s is
o f f o r t y
a g re e m
th e
in d u s t r y .

to
t r a n s m it h e r e w it h
a r e p o r t o n la b o
is io n s
an d p r a c t ic e s
in
th e
r a d io , t e
in d u s t r y w h ic h
is
b a se d p r im a r ily
u p o
e n t s n e g o t ia t e d b y u n io n s a n d e m p lo y e r

T h is
r e p o r t w as p re p a re d
in
th e
B u r e a u 's
D iv is io n
o f W
an d
In d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s , u n d e r th e d ir e c t io n
o f A n n a B e rc o w i
T h e o d o re W . R e e d y , b y W illia m
S . G a ry an d D o ro th y R . K it t n e r .
Ew an
H o n .

M a u r ic e
J .
S e c r e t a r y




T o b in ,
o f L a b o r.

C ia g u e ,

C o m m is s io n e r .

-

i i i

-

Contents

P age
Th e

in d u s t r y
...............................................................................................
D e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e
in d u s t r y
........................................................................................
S iz e
a n d lo c a t io n
o f th e
i n . .d. . .u . . s . .t. .r. .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
.
2
E m p lo y m e n t a n d t h e
l a b o r . .f. .o. . .r. .c. . .e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
......................................................................... . ......................
U n i o n i z a t i o n ..............................................................................................................................

N a tu re
o f th e
a g r e e m . .e. . n. .t. .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
'H ie s a m p le
...................................................................................................................
D u r a t io n ,
c a n c e lla t io n , r e n e w a l, a n d e x t e n s io n
o . f. . . . .a. . .g. .r. .e e m 5 n t s
e
R e o p e n i n g o f a g r e e m e n t f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n . . . .w . .a. .g . e . . . . .r. .a. t e s6
. . .
U n io
U
C
U
M
Jo b

n
n
h
n
a

an d m anagem ent s e c u r it y
..........................................................................................
io n m e m b e r s h ip r e q u ir e m e n t s
....................................................................................
e c k -o ff
.............................................................................................. . ....................................
io n a c t i v i t i e s
in
th e p la n t
.................................................................................
nagem ent r ig h t s
..................................................................................................................

s e c u r it y :
s e n io r it y
........................................................................................................
L a y - o f f
..........................................................................................................................................
P r o m o t io n
.....................................................................................................................................
M ilit a r y
s e r v ic e
le a v e
....................................................................................................

W ages
......................................................................................................................................................
R a te
s t r u c t u r e
.........................................................................................................................
D e t e r m in a t io n
o f in c e n t iv e
r a t e s
..............................................................
J o b e v a lu a t io n p la n s
..............................................................
11
L a b o r g ra d e
sy ste m s
......................................................................................................
B e g in n in g o r h i r i n g
r a t e
.........................................................................................
P r e m iu m p a y
................................................................................................................................
D a ily
a n d w e e k ly o v e r t im e
.......................................................................................
S a t u r d a y , S u n d a y , s i x t h , a n d s e v e n t h . . . d. .a. . .y. . . . .w. . .o. .r. .k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
.
.
S h if t d if f e r e n t ia ls
......................................................................................................
P r e m iu m p a y m e n t s f o r
l e a. . .d. . .m. . . .e. . .n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
19
C a ll-b a c k
o r e m e r g e n c y w o r k p r e m i u m p a y ...................................................
O th e r ty p e s
o f p a y m e n ts
...................................................................................................
C a ll- i n
o r r e p o r t p a y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
D is m is s a l p a y
..............................................................................................................
O th e r r e la t e d
p a y m e n ts
...............................................................................................
W age a d ju s t m e n t d u r in g
l i f e
o f a g . .r . e. .e. . m . . .e. .n . .t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 0
. . ..
.
F r in g e
P a id
E l
V a
C o

b e n e f i. .t . .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 1
v a c a t i o n. . .s. . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 1
.
i g i b i l i t y
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r v. . a. . c . .a. . .t. .i. o. . .n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2
. .
.
c a t io n p a y t o
s e p a r a t e d e m p lo y e e s
.............................................................
m p u t a t io n o f v a c a t io n p a y
..................................................................................




iv -

C o n te n ts

-

C o n t in u e d
P age

H o lid a y s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
P a id h o lid a y s
o b se rv e d
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
E l i g i b i l i t y
f o r h o lid a y p a y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
P a y f o r w o rk o n h o lid a y s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...
H o lid a y s f a l l i n g
o n o ff-w o r k d a y s
................................................................
P a id
s ic k
le a v e
....................................................................................................................
H e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s
...............................................................
A d ju
G
A
C
W

stm e n t o
r ie v a n c e
r b it r a t io
o n c ilia t i
o rk s t o p p

f d is p u t e s
..........................................................................................................
p ro c e d u re
...........................................................................................................
n
...............................
o n
a n d m e d ia t io n
.........................................................................................
a g e s
.......................................................................................................................

T a b le s :
1 .
2 .
3 .
k.

5
6
7
8
9

.
.
.
.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
2
3
^
5
6

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

1
1
1
2
2
2
2

7*
8 .
9 .
0 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

N um ber o f p r o d u c tio n w o rk e rs
..........................................................................
A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
o f p r o d u c t io n a n dr e la t e d w o rk e rs
.
D u r a t io n
o f a g re e m e n ts
.........................................................................................
U n i o n s e c u r i t y a n d c h e c k - o f f p r. . o. . .v. . .i .s. . .i .o . . n. . .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
.
. .
C h e c k -o ff p r o v is io n s
.............................................................................................
M an age m en t p r e r o g a t iv e s
in c lu d e d
in
c o lle c t iv e a g re e m e n ts
F a c t o r s d e t e r m in in g
l a . .y. . .- . .o. . . f. . f. . .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
F a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g p r o. . .m. . . .o. . . t. . i. .o. . . n. .
.
.
10
P r e m iu m r a t e s
f o r w o rk on S a tu r d a y ,
S u n d a y , s ix t h , an d
s e v e n t h d a y o f w o r k w. . e. .e. .k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
lk
S h if t d if f e r e n t ia ls
..................................................
. . . . .
16
S p e c i a l p r e m iu m r a t e s
f o r . . .l .m. . . d . .m. . . e. .n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C a ll-b a c k
o r e m e r g e n c y w o r k p r e m iu m p a y
............................................
G u a ra n te e d
c a l l- in
(r e p o r t ) p a y p r o v is io n s
..................................
S p e c ia l ty p e s o f p a y m e n ts
...............................................................................
W a g e a d j u s t m e n t p r o v .i . s . .i . o. . .n. . .s... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
2 0
P a id
v a c a t i o n p l a n s : m a x im u m v a c a t i o n p e r i o d
an d
s e r v ic e
r e q u i r e m e . .n. . .t. .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 2
P r e m iu m p a y m e n t f o r w o r k o n p a i d h o l i d a y s
..................................
H e a lt h ,
i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i .o. . .n. . . . . .p. . .l .a. . .n. . .s. . . . . . . .
2 7
N um ber o f s te p s
in
g r ie v a n c e
p. . .r. .o. . .c. .e. . .d. . .u. . r . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8
. .
P a r t ic ip a n t s
in . i n i t i a l s t e p
in
g r i e v a n .c. . .e. .p . .r. .o . .c. . e . .d u r2 e8
. . . .
P a r t ic ip a n t s
in
f in a l s te p
o f g r i e v a n c e. . . . . . . . .p . .r. .o. . .c. .e . .d u 2r 9
e
.
.
A r b it r a t io n
m a c h. . i. .n. . e. .r. .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
3 0
S t r ik e
an d
l o c k - o u t p r o . .v. . .i . s. . .i .o . . n. . .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . 1
. .
.




C a tte c tiu e

ffia tc y a in in y

S ta d ia ,

As
ra d io ,

p r in c ip a l
b ra c e s
use,

te n tio n

a

Its

U n i bed

A u to m o b ile ,
and

s ig n e d

c o n tra c ts .

u n io n

th e

The

fo r

o f

v ita l

is

th is

now

has

m o d e rn

warfare,

o f

to
one

N a tio n ’ s

v e r s a tile

p e a c e tim e

te le v is io n ,

u n io n s

have

th e

in d u s tr y

c o m m u n ic a tio n

in c r e a s in g ly

as

and

th e

n e g o tia te d

B ro th e rh o o d

o f

R a d io ^ a n d

M a c h in e

A ir c r a ft #and

T w o -th ir d s

p r o v is io n s .

M a c h in e

o f

o f

d ra w n

em ­

and

hom e

p u b lic

as

o f

w o rk e rs

W o rk e rs

W o rk e rs

A m e r ic a
o f

Im p le m e n t

(C IO ),

a t ­

( i n d .) .

W o rk e rs

In

o f

(c iO )a r e

know n

a n a ly ze d

in

c a r r ie d

h e a lth

In ­
th e
a d ­

(A F L ),
A m e r ic a

to

th is

and

th is

and

M a c h in is ts

A m e r ic a

m any

in

(A F L ),

c o n tra c ts

th e ir

About

th e

A s s o c ia tio n

A g r ic u ltu r a l

W o rk e rs

fo r

E le c tr ic a l

W o rk e rs

In te rn a tio n a l

C o m m u n ic a tio n s

shop

o u tp u t

p ro d u c ts

E le c tr ic a l,

R a d io ,

u n io n s

(C IO ),

e q u ip m e n t
in d u s tr y

in d u s tr y .

o f

U n ite d

had

o f

p r in c ip a l

E le c tr ic a l,
such

e le c tr o n ic

In te rn a tio n a l

U n io n

J n d u d b ty

e le c tr o n ic s

p ro d u c t,

th is

th e

te r n a tio n a l

ra n g e

new est

T h re e

o f

and

in d u s tr ie s .

w id e

to w a rd

in d u s tr y :

d itio n ,

p ro d u c e r

d e fe n s e

a ls o

1 /

th e

te le v is io n ,

th e

J e te a id io tt, a n d

£ ie c £ % a n ic 6

th e

iti

have
b u lle tin

in s u r a n c e

p ro g ra m s .

T H E

D e v e lo p m e n t

o f

th e

B e fo re

In d u s try

W o r ld

and

r e c e iv e r s

w e re

in g

th e

A m e r ic a n

f i r s t

P itts b u rg h ,
w e re

in

l/
s tu d y ,
d a r

and

sponds

The

r e la te d
w ith

e le c tr ic a l
d e te c tin g

d e te c tio n

m a g n e tic




and

and

o f

th a n
in

w ith

and

and

d e te c tio n

d e te c tio n
ra d io

a c c e s s o r ie s

N o .

and

e q u ip m e n t,
(e x c e p t

a p p a ra tu s •"

U

)

in d u s try
R a d io s ,

in c lu d in g

re c o rd s )

and

and
and

ra ­

c o rre ­

ra d io

and
a p ­

p r im a r ily

lig h t

th is

d e te c tio n

r e la te d

(ra d a r)

fo r

r e c e iv e r s ,

tr a n s m ittin g

a p p a ra tu s ,

a p p a ra tu s

d e fin e d

The

3 6 6 l:
and

" E s ta b lis h m e n ts

r e c e iv in g

as

te le v is io n

ra d a r,

in

h o m e -re c e iv e rs

g r e a tly .

p h o n o g ra p h s .

tu b e s ),

F b llo w -

r e c e p tio n

fa c to r y -m a d e

in d u s try ,

ra d io

tra n s m itte rs
u s e .

g e n e ra l

in c r e a s e d

e le c tr o n ic s
hom e

te le p h o n e

c o m m e r c ia l
fo r

5 *0 0 0

r a d io

in c lu d e s

te le v is io n
fie ld

fo r

C la s s ific a tio n

ra d io

I t

ra d io

b r o a d c a s tin g

a p p a ra tu s ,

o b je c t

a s s o c ia te d

m u s ic -d is tr ib u tio n

in te r e s t

(e x c e p t

and

p r in c ip a lly

le s s

In d u s tr ia l

and

a p p a ra tu s ,

p h o n o g ra p h s

w hen

m a n u fa c tu re

ra d io

and

te le g ra p h

te le v is io n ,

th e

p h o n o g ra p h s .

p ro d u c ts

p a rts ;

p u b lic

S ta n d a rd

and

I ,

c o m m e r c ia l

19 2 0 ,

e q u ip m e n t

m a n u fa c tu r in g

and

in

ra d io ,

e m b o d ie s

W ar

m a n u fa c tu re d

o p e r a tio n ,

te le v is io n
p a ra tu s

P a .,

I N D U S T R Y

engaged

in

e q u ip m e n t,
h e a t

o th e r

e m is s io n
a p p a ra tu s

m is c e lla n e o u s
p u b lic

a d d re s s

ra d io
and

2

B y 1 9 2 4 , a lm o s t 2 m i ll io n
hom es h a d r a d io
r e c e iv in g
s e t s .
n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e s , w h ic h
in c r e a s e d
th e u s e f u ln e s s a n d e a s e
o f o p
th e r e c e iv e r s , a id e d
in
th e
in d u s t r y 's
g ro w th .
In
1 9 2 5 , th e
lo u
w a s in t r o d u c e d , r e p la c in g
e a rp h o n e s .
In
1 9 2 6 , th e a l l- e le c t r ic
p la c e d
th e
cu m b e rso m e b a t t e r y - o p e r a t e d
e q u ip m e n t .
In
th e
1 9 3 0 's ,
t a b l e m o d e ls a n d t h e b u i l t - i n
a n te n n a b ecam e p o p u la r .
A t th e
sam
m a ss p r o d u c t io n r e s u lt e d
in
lo w e r e d p r i c e s
a n d b ro u g h t r a d io
s e t s
th e
f in a n c ia l re a c h
o f m o st f a m ilie s .

e le c t r o
p lo y m e n
t e r e s t
in d u s t r
S iz e

W o r
n ic
t in
in
p
y d u

a n d

ld W a r I I b r o u g h t a b o u t a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d d e m a n d
e q u ip m e n t , c a u s in g e v e n g r e a t e r e x p a n s io n
in
p r
th e
in d u s t r y .
Th e
in t r o d u c t io n
o f t e le v is io n
h o n o g ra p h r e c o r d in g s r e s u lt e d
in
a le s s
s e v e re
r in g th e p o s tw a r p e r io d
t h a n m ig h t h a v e o c c u r r e

L o c a t io n

o f

th e

f o r m i
o d u c t io
a n d re n
r e d u c ti
d .

In d u s t r y

T h e 1 9 4 7 C e n su s o f M a n u fa ctu re s re p o rte d
w it h
1 7 8 ,6 0 0 e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d
in
th e p r o d u c t io n
p r o d u c ts .

a t o t a l o f 8 5 7 p
o f r a d io
a n d r e l

A fe w
la r g e
m a n u fa c tu re rs p ro d u c e
th e m a jo r it y o f r a d io
a
v is io n
s e t s
a n d c o m m e r c ia l a n d m i l i t a r y
e le c t r o n ic
e q u ip m e n t .
In
C e n su s o f M a n u fa ctu re s re p o rte d
t h a t 5 p e r c e n t o f th e e s t a b lis h m e
e m p lo y in g
1 , 0 0 0 o r m o r e w o r k e r s , a c c o u n t e d f o 50 m e r ec e tn h t a no f t h e
r p o
t o t a l e m p lo y e e s i n
th e
in d u s t r y .
E s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h m o re t h a n
2
e e s a c c o u n t e d 83 r p e r c e n t o f t h e
f o
t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t a l t h o u g h
th e y r e
s e n t e d o n ly
1 7 p e rc e n t o f th e
t o t a l num ber o f p la n t s .
M o re t h a n
o f th e p la n t s h a d le s s
th a n
1 0 0 w o rk e rs e a ch a n d a c c o u n te d f o r a
5 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t .
G e o g r a
a n d P o to m a c r i v
th e p la n t s
a n d
S o u th a n d W e st.
N ew Y o r k , P h i la

p h ic a lly
e r s , an
le s s
th
M u ch
d e lp h ia

E m p lo y m e n t

th e

a n d

, th e s e p la n t s w e re c o n c e n tra te d
n o rth o f t
d e a s t o f th e M is s is s ip p i r iv e r .
O n ly 13
a n 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e e m p lo y e e s w e r e lo c a t e d
o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d e m p lo y m e n t w a s c e n t e r e
, a n d C h ic a g o m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s .

L a b o r

F o rc e

P r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o n s t it u t e d
8 0 p e rc e n t o f
p o rte d b y th e
C e n s u s o f M a n u fa c t u r e s , a c c o u n t in g
f o r
o f 178,600 w o r k e r s .
Th e g r e a
u n s k ille d .
The
t io n s w e re b ro k e
S k ille d
w o rk e rs
s e t - u p m e n , m a in
p la n t s
p r o d u c in g
m ade o n a cu sto m
th a n o th e r ty p e s




t

m a jp r it y
o f th e s
e q u ip m e n t w a s p r o d
n dow n to
th e p o in
w e r e e m p lo y e d
in
s
te n a n ce w o rk e rs , m
c o m p le x m i l i t a r y
b a s is
e m p lo y e d a
o f p la n t s .

t h e e m p lo y e e
1 4 2 ,5 0 0 o f t

e w o rk e rs w e re e it h e r s e m i- s k il
u c e d o n a s s e m b ly l i n e s , a n d t h e
t w h e re fe w
c o m p le x t a s k s w e re
u c h o p e r a t io n s a s t o o l- a n d - d ie
a c h in e a d j u s t e r s , a n d
in s p e c t o r s
a n d c o m m e r c ia l e q u ip m e n t a n d p r
la r g e r p r o p o r t io n
o f s k ille d
w

3
E m p lo y m e n t
c lin e d

in c r e a s e
a

1 9 ^ 8

in

w as

g re a te r

p a n s io n

due

th e

p r o d u c tio n

la r g e ly

o u tp u t

in

o f

19*+9,

and
o f

and
to

ra d io

th e n

w o rk e rs
ro s e

expanded

and

a ve ra g e d

l k 2 , **0 0

1 6 3 , 1 0 0i n

to

1 9 5 1

m ilita r y

te le v is io n

in

19 ^ 7 > d e ­

( t a b le

1 T) h. e

e q u ip m e n t

p lu s

to

s e ts

p ro d u c tio n ,
an

e x ­

s u p p ly

e x p e c te d

m a rk e t.

Table 1.— Number of production workers in the radio,
television, and electronics industry, 1947-1951
Production workers

Year
1947
1946
1949
1950
1951

142,400
123,000
112,700
159,000
163,100

1 / .....................
T ...... ................
........................
....... ................
........................

l/ Data for previous years not comparable; televisTon and some other related products s u c h as radar
were not previously produced in volume.
W om en
In

S e p te m b e r

A ve ra g e

c o m p r is e

19 5 0 >

H o u r ly

to

ra d io ,
$ 1 .* * * *

a ve ra g e d

h o u rly

te le v is io n ,

in

19 5 1^

$ 1 .1 * 6
A

in

o r

in d u s tr y

in

g e n e ra l

te rm s

in c r e a s e s

s lo w ly

th a n

d id

o f

o f

th e

e a rn in g s

and

m o re

c o m p a r is o n
and

and

m a jo rity

th e

i n d u s t r y 's

p la n t

o f

th a n

w o rk e rs

p r o d u c tio n

w e re

w o rk e rs .

w om en.

show s

th e

p r o d u c tio n

2 7

in d u s tr y

p e rc e n t

and

r e la te d

ro s e

(ta b le

fr o m

2 )*

$

w o rk e rs

1 .1 3

H o u r ly

in

in

19 * * 7

e a rn in g s

19 5 1 •
a ve ra g e

e le c tr o n ic s

in

fo r

e le c tr o n ic s

Decem ber

te le v is io n ,

o f

a

p e rc e n t

E a r n in g s

A ve ra g e
th e

58

fie ld

h o u rly
w ith

e a rn in g s

th o s e

th e

fo rm e r

to

a ve ra g e

h o u rly

e a rn in g s ,

a ve ra g e

o f

have

o f

o f

th e

been

in

c o n s is te n tly

b o th

a ll-m a n u fa c tu r in g

w o rk e rs

e le c tr ic a l

g ro u p s

th e

lo w e r .

in c r e a s e d

in d u s tr ie s

ra d io ,

m a c h in e r y

b e tw e e n

In
m o re

19**7

1951.
Table 2.— Average hourly earnings of production
and related workers in the radio, television,
and electronics; electrical machinery; and
all-manufacturing industries, 1947-1951

Year*

a h —
Radio, tele­ S I e c I H = ~ —
cal ma­
manufac­
vision, and
chinery
turing
electronics

$1,133
1.238
1.283
1.323
1.442

1947 1 / .......
1948 7 .........
1949 ......
1950 ..........
1 9 5 1 ..........

l/

2 /
and

Because

ra d a r,

fo r




o f

th e

$1,272
1.388
1.442
1.480
1.615

$1,237
1.350
1.401
1.465
1.594

Data fer previous years not comparable.

change

e x a m p le ,

d a ta

in
fo r

c o ve ra g e
ye a rs

b y

p r io r

th e
to

d e v e lo p m e n t

19**7

a re

n o t

o f

te le v is io n

c o m p a ra b le .

2
+

U n io n iz a t io n

D e t a ile d
a n a ly s is
o f u n io n m e m b e r s h ip
is
v ir t u a lly
im p o s
c a u se
o f th e
c lo s e
in t e r r e la t io n
b e tw e e n th e
r a d io , t e le v is io n ,
t r o n ic s
in d u s t r y a n d th e
e l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y a n d e q u ip m e n t m a n u
in d u s t r y a s a w h o le .
O r g a n iz a t io n
o f w o rk e rs
in
t h is
in d u s t r y h
p la c e
a lm o s t e n t i r e l y
s in c e
1933*
A t t h a t t im e , e m p lo y e e s
in
s e
v id u a l p la n t s , e n c o u ra g e d b y S e c t io n
7 ( a ) o f th e N a t io n a l I n d u s
e r y
A c t , b a n d e d to g e th e r in
l o c a l u n io n s t o n e g o t ia t e
w it h t h e ir
S e v e r a l o f th e s e
lo c a ls
a f f ilia t e d
d i r e c t l y w it h t h e A m e r ic a n F e
la b o r a s f e d e r a l la b o r u n io n s .
T h e s e f e d e r a l la b o r u n io n s
jo in e
in d e p e n d e n t l o c a l s
to fo rm
a n o r g a n iz a t io n
t o p r e s e n t a u n it e d
f
c o lle c t iv e
b a r g a in in g p u r p o s e s .
U pon d ir e c t io n
o f th e
A F L , t h is
t io n w as d is s o lv e d
in
193^> a n d a re q u e s t o f th e
A F L lo c a ls
f o r
t io n
o f a n a t io n a l u n io n w a s d e n ie d .
J u r is d ic t io n
o v e r th e
in d
g iv e n b y th e
A F L to th e
In t e r n a t io n a l B ro th e rh o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l
(IB E W ), th e
In t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n
o f M a c h in is t s , a n d o th e r a
u n i o n s 3/
.
c
a
u
y

In
a l m a n u fa
n d fo rm e d
n io n
jo in e
e a r ,hj

t io n a l

M a rc h 1 9 3 6 , a g r o u p o f A F L a n d in d e p e
c t u r in g
(in c lu d in g
th e r a d io
in d u s t r y
t h e U n it e d E l e c t r i c a l a n d R a d io W o rk
d
th e
C o n g r e s s o f I n d u s t r ia l O r g a n iz

T h e U E w as e x p e lle d b y th e
C IO
U n io n o f E l e c t r i c a l ,
R a d io ,a n d

n d e n t lo c a ls
in
e
) m et in
B u f fa lo ,
e r s o f A m e r ic a
(U
a t io n s d u r in g th e

l a t > a n nd t h9 e^ 9 I n t e r n a ­
e
i
1
M a c h in e W o r k e r s
(lU E )

In
1 9 5 1 , th e
IB E W
(A F L ), th e
IU E
(C IO ) , an d th e
U E
th e b u lk
o f th e
c o n t r a c t s
in
th e
r a d io , t e le v is io n , a n d e l
t r y .
T h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h o t h e r u n io n s s u c h a s t h e
In t e r n a
t io n
o f M a c h in is t s
( A F L ) a n d t h e U n it e d A u t o m o b ile W o r k e r s
c a t i o n s W o r k e r s o f A m e r ic a
(b o th C IO ) r e p r e s e n t w o rk e rs
in
n o t k n o w n .

N A T U R E

The

OF

T H E

w as

( ih d .
e c t r o
t io n a
an d th
t h is

A G R E E M E N T S

S a m p le

T h is
s tu
a g re e m e n ts
in
th
in
m i d 1951Th e
o f th e a p p r o x im
t r y
a s
o f A p r il

d y
is
b a se d o n a n
e r a d io , t e le v is io
a g re e m e n ts
c o v79*500
e re d
a t e ly 1 7 1 ,0 0 0 p r o d u
1951•

3/
Ja m e s B .
C a re y ,
" U n it
U n io n ," U . S .
D e p a rtm e n t o f
(p .
1 ).
hj
In
1937*
it s
ju r is d ic
in
m a c h in e
sh o p s a n d th e m a
nam e w as c h a n g e d t o
" U n it e d
A m e r ic a ."



a n a ly s is
o f ^ 0 c o lle c t iv e -b a r g
n , an d e le c t r o n ic s
in d u s t r y
in
w o r k e r s , o r a b o 5 tp e Ur c e n t
u
c t io n a n d r e la t e d w o rk e rs
in
th

e d E l e c t r i c a l , R a d i o , a n d M a c h in e W o
L a b o r, L a b o r
In f o r m a t io n B u l l e t i n , M
t io n
w as e x te n d e d to
in c lu d e w o rk e rs
n u fa c tu re
o f m a c h in e t o o l s
an d d ie s ,
E l e c t r i c a l,
R a d i o , a n d M a c h in e W o r k e

5

T h
b a s is .
A
e re d b y th
One a g re e m
f ir m s .
A
w e re r e p r e

e se a
fe w ,
e
s tu
e n t w
ll p r
s e n te

g re e m e n ts w e re g e n e r a lly
n e g o t ia t e d
on a p
h o w e v e r, r e p r e s e n t in g a b o u t 1 0 p e r c e n t o f
d y , r e la t e d
to
tw o o r m o re p la n t s
a t d if f e
a s n e g o t ia t e d b y a n a s s o c ia t io n
o n b e h a lf
in c ip a l g e o g r a p h ic a r e a s
in w h ic h t h e
in d u
d b y th e a g re e m e n ts.

la n t -b y th e w o r
r e n t
lo
o f 2 0 -o d
s tr y w as

E a c h o f th e
a g re e m e n ts c o v e r e d 2 5 0 o r m o re w o r k e r s .
E s t a
m e n ts o f t h a t s iz e
a c c o u n t 83d p fe o r rc e n t o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f e m p l o
e
e e s , a lt h o u g h
o n ly
1 ^ 5 > po e r r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h ­
17
m e n ts , w e re
in
t h a t g ro u p .
5 /
E v e r y a g re e m e n t c o v e re d p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ; a
b e r a ls o
in c lu d e d m a in t e n a n c e e m p lo y e e s ; a n d
in
a fe w
p r o t e c t io n
o r c l e r i c a l w o rk e rs w e re c o v e re d .
D u r a t io n ,

C a n c e lla t io n ,

R e n e w a l,

an d

E x t e n s io n

A lt h o u g h t h e
a g re e m e n ts ra n g e d
d u r a t io n , th e y u s u a lly
w e re n e g o t ia t e d

fro m
fo r

le s s
m o re

o f

c o n s id e r a b le
a g re e m e n ts,

A g re e m e n ts

th a n
th a n

1
1

y e a r
y e a r

to
5
(t a b

Table 3.— Dvratien ef agreements in the radio,
television, a n d eleotronios industry, 1951
Number
of
agreements

Total agreements

...... ..

Less than 1 year ».*•«••••«*
1 ye a r «•«••*•#•••♦•••••••••
More than 1 year, but less
than 2 »•••#••••••««••#•••
2 years, but less than 3
3 to 5 years ••••••••••«••*•
5 years •••«•••*•••••••«••*•

A b o u t o ne o f e v e ry
e x p ir a t io n d a te f o r s p e c if
t r a c t p r o v is io n s , n o n a g re e
c u rre n c e
o f a s t r ik e
o r lo
th e

Num b e r
of
workers

40

Duration

79<500

1
7

600
20,400

11
16
4
1

16,300
33,300
6,200
2,700

f o u r a g r e e m e n t s c o u ld b e
c a n c e le d
b e f
ie d
re a so n s
s u c h a s th e v io la t io n
o f c
a e n t
o n w a ge a d ju s t m e n t n e g o t ia t io n s ,
c k -o u t .

M o st o f th e
a g re e m e n ts w e re a u t o m a t ic a lly re n e w e d e a c h y e
a b se n ce
o f n o t ic e b y e i t h e r p a r t y t o t e r m in a t e
o r am end th e

In a fe w
c a s
t io n s w e re c o m p le t e d
re n e w a l n e g o t ia t io n s
th e
c o n t r a c t 's
e x p ir
a d e s ig n a t e d p e r io d
a g re e m e n ts w e re te rm
r e a c h e d b y t h a t t im e

5 /
t o t a l

e s , th
o r te
w e re
a t io n
b e y o n d
in a t e d
.

e a g r e e m e n t s r e m a in e d
in
r m in a t io n n o t ic e
w as g iv
u n d e r w a y a n d n o s e t t le m
d a te .
Som e a g re e m e n ts
th e e x p ir a t io n d a t e .
o n th e e x p ir a t io n
d a te

P r o d u c t io n a n d r e la t e d
n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s .

210775 0 — 52--- 2



w o rk e rs

a c c o u n te d

e f f e c
e n b y
e n t w a
c o n t in u
On th e
i f
no

f o r

t u n t il
e it h e r p
s re a c h e d
e d
in
e f
o th e r h a
a g re e m e n t

a b o u t

8 0

p e rc

6

R e o p e n in g

o f

A g re e m e n t

f o r

R e a so n s

O th e r

T h a n

W age

R a te s

E it h e r p a r ty
c o u ld
r e q u e s t th e r e o p e n in g o f th e a g re e m e n t
g o t ia t io n
o f s u c h
is s u e s
a s p a id
v a c a t io n s , p a id
h o lid a y s ,
l i f e
o r h o s p it a liz a t io n
u n d e r th e
t e r m s o fkO 6 a go r fe e t m ee n t s , a n d f o r t h e
h
d is c u s s io n
o f s e n io r it y
o r u n io n
s e c u r it y
in
2 a d d it io n a l a g re e m
r e o p e n in g s w e re g e n e r a lly p e r m is s ib le
a f t e r s p e c ifie d
p e r io d s .
6 a g re e m e n ts w e re e f f e c t iv e
f o r p e r io d s
o f m o re t h a n a y e a r .

U N I O N

U n io n

M e m b e r s h ip

A N D

M A N A G E M E N T

S E C U R I T Y

R e q u ir e m e n t s

T w o -t h ir d s
o f th e
a g re e m e n ts , r e p r e s e n t in g a s im ila r p r o p
o f w o r k e r s , c o n t a in e d
u n io n -s h o p p r o v is io n s
r e q u ir in g
a l l e m p lo y e
co m e u n io n m e m b e rs .
N ew e m p lo y e e s n e e d n o t b e m e m b e rs a t t im e
o f
b u t w e re r e q u ir e d
to
jo in
w it h in
a s p e c if ie d
p e 30 o dd a , 'y su , s ua a d l y
r i
n l
r e m a in
in
g o o d s t a n d in g
f o r th e d u r a t io n
o f th e a g re e m e n t
(t a b le
a fe w
o f t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s , w o r k e r s w ho w e re n o t m e m b e rs o n t h e
e f
d a te
o f t h e a g re e m e n t w e re n o t r e q u ir e d
to
jo in
t h e u n io n .
liable 4.— -Union security and check-off provisions in the
radio, television, and electronics industry, 1951

U n i o n security

Check-off

Number
of
agreements

N umber
of
workers

N u mber
of
agreements

Number
of
workers

Total agreements

40

79.500

34

70.300

Union shop •••••••••*
Maintenance of union
membership ••••••••
Sole bargaining •••••

27

53,200

23

46,900

3
10

3,600
22,700

2
9

2,100
21,300

Type of provision

A m a jo r it y
o f t h e r e m a in in g a g r e e m e n t s
th e
u n io n a s t h e
s o le b a r g a in in g a g e n t

s im p ly p r o v id e d
f o r r e c o g n
f o r a l l w o rk e rs , b o th m em

n o n m e m b e r s .

C h e c k -O ff
T h e u n io n s
c h e c k -o ff p r o v is io n
d u e s a n d o th e r p a y m
p lo y e r a n d t r a n s m it




e c u r it y
c la u s e s w e re , in m o st c a s e s , s tre n g th e
s
(t a b le
5 ) .
U pon w r it t e n a u t h o r iz a t io n b y th
e n ts to
t h e u n io n w e re a u t o m a t ic a lly
d e d u cte d
te d
t o
t h e u n io n .

7

Table 5.— Check-off provisions in t h e radio, television,
and electronics industry, 1951
N umber
of
workers

Num b e r
of
agreements

Item

40

79.500

34

70,300

10
13

30,100
21,200

7

13,500

«•••»••••

1
3

400
5,100

With no check-off provision • •••

6

9,200

Total agreements

«*••*#••*••••»•

With check-off provisions

»•••••

Dues and initiation fees •••••
Dues, initiation fees, and
assessments «»#••••••«•••»••
Dues, initiation fees, and
Dues and assessments

The

authorization

the

contract

tation)
ers.

In a

More
the

in a

or

for

for

third

check-off deductions

1 year,
of the

agreements

few agreements,

than kO percent

of

whichever

was

irrevocable

covering a

authorization

the

was

shorter

agreements

similar

could be

made

for

the

term of

(Taft-Hartley Act
proportion

revoked

at

limi­
of work­

a n y time.

no provision for

revocation

of

check-off.

Union

Activities

in the

Plant

plant

during working hours

Their

visits

International union representatives

discussion

of

were

usually

under

confined

the

operation

authorization

for

each

these

visits

plants,

"The

sentative

who

shall make

All

not

the
such

The
Usually,

use

such

as

however,




of bulletin boards
meetings
management

or

its

of

the

secure

to

In a

few

of

factory

shall be

Company

an authori­
entering

subject

to

the
the

admittance."

to post

notices

social activities

had

obtained.

and

Specific

a Union Repre­

Office before

governing

of grievances

duly accredited

that

an employee

visitors

the

security regulations.

to visit

and

to visit

provisions.

to be

to permit

for

permitted

adjustment

agreement

Government

Union

Union

security regulations

activities

to

were

the m a j o r i t y o f agreements.

the

provided

application

through

factory.

the

hours,
is

of

generally had

agrees

of

to

various

subject

Company

working

zation

of

visit

were

representatives
during

terms

to approve

the

was

pertaining
generally

contents

of

the

to

union

permitted.
notices.

8

Management

Rights
Certain

every
in

agreement

prerogatives

in the

of management

study.

The

most

were

specified

frequently

in vi r t u a l l y

listed rights

are

shown

t a b l e 6.

Table 6.— Management prerogatives included in collective
agreements in the radio, television, and
electronics industry l/, 1951
Number
of
agreements

Management rights

Number
of
workers

24
18
9
12
6
10
12
34
10

48,800
28,500
17,100
19,700
7,300
19,600
20,200
57,700
18,000

Manage and direct working
force •••#••••••••••#*•••••••♦« •
H i r e ................................. ............. ....................... ..
T r a n s f e r .................................................... .

Promote
•••
Demote •«••••••••••••••••••••••••
lay-off *••#•••••••••••••••••••••
Suspend •••••••««••••••••••••••••
Discharge for cause •••••••••••••
Determine method of production ••

1/ Based on a n analysis of 40 agreements representin g— 79, 500 workers.

It was usu a l l y
rights

must

not

be

stated

for discriminatory

purposes.

prerogatives

as

read
"The

of

its

or

of

the

demote,

conduct,

decrease

the

the

products
the

and

purposes

the

Union,

The
tion

hazards
absence,

the

the

regular

of

these
or

used

for

force,

to

the

cause,

as

scheduling

to

necessary,

of

manufactured,

that

hire,

establish r e a ­

of production,

provided

direction
to

hours

the

the

and

location

methods,

vested

solely

will

this

is

not be

used

against
terms

any member

and

of

conditions

of

in

were

frequently

specified

stoppages,

theft,

fire

discharge
or

safety

had

and

tardiness,

of agreements,

grievance




the

the

right

unauthorized work

habitual

employee

bypassed.

and

the

of manufacturing

subject

for

included

In a m a j o r i t y
study,

Company

of discrimination

and

causes

They

cessive

of

agreement

A g r e e m e n t ."

ments.
of

exercise
the

safeguarding management

discipline,

to be

schedule
means

Company,

for
this

of

or discharge

work assignments,

in the

the

clauses

working

shifts,

of plants,

the

that
terms

including

to make

processes

other

of

of

forces,

promote,

rules

increase

One

Management

transfer,

with

follows:

working

sonable

specifically

inconsistent

the

health,
or

violation

representing
specified

procedure

but

about

right

the

sabotage,

to

early

of

half

of

steps

company

the workers

his

were

agree­
crea­

intoxication,

certain

appeal

the

deliberate

discharge
frequently

ex­
rules.

in t h e
through

9

Discrimination because of
political beliefs was prohibited b y
third

of

the

tion not

agreements,

and

to d i s c r i m i n a t e

Because
make

job

dustry,

security

ing

job

tional

a matter
clauses

length

tenure,
criteria,

fications

of

s u c h as

sometimes

or

the

legal

obliga­

were

of

sufficient magnitude

interest

of primary

service

repeated

SENIORITY

fluctuations

were

promotion,

also

or
a

of union membership.

SECURITY:

employment

seniority

agreements,

two-thirds

because

JOB

race, creed, color, sex, r e l i g i o n
s p e c i f i c clauses in a p p r o x i m a t e l y

to

the

prevalent
was

the

in the

only

conditions

ability,

factor

of

skill,

workers

contracts.
considered

employment.

efficiency,

had varying

given

in d e t e r m i n ­

In o t h e r s ,

and

in­

several

physical

addi­
quali­

importance.

service

in this

Under

to

Lay-Off
Length
force

tention
study
with
to

do

of

in v i r t u a l l y

every

in a g r e e m e n t s

(table
the

7).

representing

More

provision

the

was

agreement

frequently,

that

the

consideration

analyzed.
more

than

however,

employee

must

in a

It w a s
a

the

fourth

length

qualify

of
for

of

reduction
sole
the

in

basis

for

re­

in

the

workers

service

was

coupled

or

the

ability

have

job.
Table 7.-— Factors determining lay-offs in the radio,
television, and electronics industry, 1951
jMumoer
of
agreements

Determining factor

Total agreements

Number
of
workers

••«••••••••••••••••••••

40

7 9 .5 0 0

Length of service only ••••••••••••••*••
Length of service governed if employee
qualified or had abil i t y •••««••••••••
Length of service secondary, applicable
only if other factors were considered
equal
Relative weight o f length o f service

12

22,100

18

2 8 ,6 0 0

and

oth er*

fa c to r s

u n c e r t a in

1 /

1/

4

2 ,9 0 0

................... ... . .

3

8 ,1 0 0

No provision •••«•«••••••••#••••••••••••

3

1 7 ,8 0 0

l/ Included 1 agreement w i t h 600 workers that allowed a worker
wit"E 10 years' seniority to be considered for retention on the ba­
sis of length of service, if he qualified for the job.

Promotion
In d e t e r m i n i n g p r o m o t i o n s ,
consideration
workers

were

ciency,

or

be

equal,

only

covered by

other
the




if a w o r k e r

one

agreements

qualifications
with

greater

length

qualified.
of

of

specifying
two

or

seniority

service

was

Approximately
more

that

where

workers

should be

a

ordinarily
third

of

ability,

were

promoted

effi­

considered
(table

given

the

8).

to

10

Table 8.— Factors determining promotion in the radio,
television, and eleotronios industry, 1951
Numb e r
of
agreements

Num b e r
of
workers

40

79.500

12

18,300

11

26,800

6
11

Determining factor

17,700
16,700

........ ..............

Total agreements

Length of service governed if employee
qualified or had a b i l i t y ............
Length of service secondary, applica­
ble if other factors were considered
equal ............................. ....
Relative weight of length of service
and other factors uncertain ••••••••
N o provision .....••••••••••••••••••»•

Military

Service

Leave

In g e n e r a l ,
Act

complied with

Act,

The
in

agreements

will be

amended,

the

as

Armed

in

allows

shall be

any branch

of

the

States

tional

emergency

is

accumulation of

of

the

Company

such military
for

the

vided,

however,

reinstatement
after

Monetary
or

rate

pay

6/
and
no

under
the

TJ. S.

older
Pub.

a period

The

the

of

seniority while

on duty

239,




80th

Agreement

forces

service
when

at

the

will be

reinstated

time

given

in s u c h m i l i t a r y
Company's

for

sen­

service;

pro­

application

service

such military
rights

na­
in the

of entering

credit

makes

in

the

any duly declared

will be

reemployment

were
one

of

given
of

to employees

every

four

the m i l i t a r y

Labor,

October

within

for

90

service."

to

employees

entering

entering

the

military

agreements--usually

pay

and

the

1 week's

employee's

rights

statutes

Veterans’ Reemployment

1950,

reemployment

Cong.

this

base

1 month.

reemployment

reemployment
Law

Service

6/

between

Department
for

granted

of

armed

time,

termination of

bonuses
terms

Handbook,

provision

Marine.

the

under

such employee

in the

Service.

difference

for

Answer

also

and

spent

that

days

pay

Selective

for military duty.

for military

or d uring

such employee

such

Marine

States

in peace

time

the

volunteer

United

service

iority

agreements

or

at war

position held by

service

the

leave

the

called

United

Merchant

that

to

for

"Any e m p l o y e e

Several

stated

application

Forces.

who

the

merely

its

were

p.

2.

Section 9

rights

of persons

conferred
terminated

of
who

on merchant
on

July

25,

Rights,

the

Question

19^-8 A c t

entered

the

seamen under
19^-7, b y

makes
Jferchant
the

11

WAGES

Rate S tru ctu re
Clauses govern in g h ou rly r a te s o f pay were found in every a g re e ­
ment. In a d d it io n , about t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the agreem ents, r e p re se n tin g a
s l i g h t l y la r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f w ork ers, p rovid ed f o r payment o f p ie c e ( i n ­
c e n tiv e ) ra te s t o some w ork ers. Two o f the l a t t e r type o f agreements in ­
cluded p r o v is io n s f o r a group o r p la n t in c e n tiv e bonus p la n .
D eterm ination o f In ce n tiv e Rates
When new jo b s were crea ted o r o ld ones changed, the new in c e n tiv e
r a te s were s e t by the company alone a f t e r con d u ctin g time s tu d ie s under
terms o f more than h a lf the agreem ents. The union g e n e r a lly had the r ig h t
t o ch a llen g e th ese r a te s and t o req u est a re s tu d y .
I f the r a te was s t i l l
u n a cce p ta b le , the union cou ld r e s o r t t o the g riev a n ce machinery in an a t ­
tempt t o r e s o lv e the issu e under about h a lf o f the agreem ents. In some
c a s e s , the p relim in a ry sta g es o f the griev a n ce procedure were b y p a s s e d * A
few s p e c i f i c a l l y s ta te d th a t the issu e cou ld be r e fe r r e d f i n a l l y t o
a r b it r a t io n .
In two agreem ents, the companies conducted t r a in in g c la s s e s f o r
union r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s r e la t in g t o the p r in c ip a l issu e s and d e t a ils o f t h e ir
in c e n tiv e wage p la n s .
Job E v alu ation Plans
E ighteen agreements con tain ed r e fe r e n c e s t o jo b e v a lu a tio n p la n s .
These agreements rep resen ted h a lf the w ork ers.
In fo u r agreem ents, the company and the union j o i n t l y n e g o tia te d
the p rop er c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r new jo b s .
In lA , management g e n e ra lly p la ce d
the jo b in i t s proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and in 7 o f th e s e , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
had t o be made a cco rd in g t o e s ta b lis h e d p r i n c i p l e s .
In one c a s e , the Na­
t io n a l M etal Trades A s s o c ia tio n jo b -r a t in g system was fo llo w e d . S k i l l , p h y s ­
ical
f i t n e s s , m ental e f f o r t , working c o n d it io n s , in g e n u ity , e x p e r ie n c e ,
ed u ca tion and i n i t i a t i v e were some o f the f a c t o r s c o n s id e r e d .
"The jo b r a t in g system o f the N ation al Metal
Trades A s s o c ia tio n s h a ll remain in e f f e c t during
the term o f t h is c o n t r a c t . This system is based
on a p o in t sch edu le c o n s is t in g o f such f a c t o r s as
E d u cation , E x p erien ce, I n i t i a t i v e , and In gen u ity ,
P h y s ica l Demand, Mental o r V isu a l Demand, Respon­
s i b i l i t y f o r Equipment o r P r o c e s s , R e s p o n s ib ilit y
f o r M a teria l o r P rod u ct, R e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r S a fety
o f O thers, R e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r Work o f O thers, Work­
ing C on ditions and Unavoidable Hazards................




12

"The

Company

agrees

preliminary vrite-up
Company
advise

plans
the

approves
shall
tled

to

the

create.

same.

institute

a

c e d u r e ...........
new

proval

jobs

at

has

assigned

a

rate

higher

there

grievance

Usually,
few

cases,

before

agreements,
a

job

of

however,

agreements,

specified

regular

Labor

the

Grade

under

a

there

was

ber

of

jobs

was

a

is

to
ap­

more
finally

employee

job

who

the
after

content,

write-up,

which

be

job

the

is

sub­

evaluation were

classification
wage

rate was

stated
the

that
of

right

days

If n o

to

put

into

change
union.

appeal
was

to be

submitted

assignment;

but

in a

effect.

Two

could be

made

Under

a

receipt

agreement
to

or

no

the

after

referred

workers

of

had

the

in

kO

in

a majority

classification w ith­

of

notice,

reached

through

through

the

these

arbitration.

system.

that

In a

few

ified

labor

after,

increases
Wide

or

were

up

on

each

covered

analyzed.
same
the

of pay

job

"value"

same
or

by

Under

labor
a

rate

labor
such

as

grade

a

system,

determined

grade

for

range.

which

The

num­

21.
of

the

agreements
labor

minimum to

length

agreements,
to

in

specified
of

specified

granted

grade
the

of

labor

on a

the

in a l l b ut

were

for

based

one

agree­

automatic

up

the

grades.
grade

also

among
rate

The

agreements

within

length

varied

within

grade;

of

labor

rate-

range
to

a

spec­

on merit.

existed

rate

providing
were

maximum

service,

increases

a

the maximum wage
the

to

f r o m the

based

variations

ferential between
of

is,

a

the

rate

a majority

within

of these

grade

minimum and




of

rates

study were

placed

single

from 8

Progression

automatic,

maximum rate

ranged

terms

wage

the

agreements

approximately

specified

grades

ment.

the

the
18

which

Under
range

in

either

the

final

extends

the

pro­

right

third Monday

consent

job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n w e r e
labor

grades,

awaiting

in the

the

30

usually

procedure.

half

included

plant

the

union had

could

the

Systems

About
systems

of

after

specifically

matter

reserves

the

set­

grievance

job.

appropriate

the

^hall be

job

it

p r o c e d u r e ......... "

days

period,

grievance

channels,

all

the

which

shall

whether

job w i l l r e c e i v e
to

a

Committee

standard

changed

results

30

Shop

then

Union

Committee

job w r i t e - u p

change
a

classification without

the

in a

submit

the

union within

the

the

is a

can

ject

the

the

rate,

to

to

Company
to

the

the

retroactive

assignment
"If

(l) w e e k

temporary

and

the

Shop

Company

If a

to

job w h i c h the

one

temporarily while

approved

to

with

The

thereof.

higher

new

The

If n o t ,

(2) w e e k s

his

submit

grievance,

than two
been

to
each

Company within

in accordance

fill

of

in the

each

grade

time

required

considerably.

there­

spread between

and

the
to

wage

attain

dif­
the

13

B e g in n in g

o r

H ir in g

R a te

A b o u t one o u t o f e v e ry f iv e
a g re e m e n ts s p e c if ie d
e it h e r a
r a t e
f o r b e g in n e r s
o r a d if f e r e n t ia l b e tw e e n th e
h ir in g
r a t e
an d
m um jo b
r a t e .
Th e f la t
r a t e s
v a r ie d b y a s m u ch a s
2 0 c e n ts a n h
d if f e r e n t ia ls
c o u ld b e a s m u ch a s
1 0 c e n t s a n h o u r lo w e r t h a n t h e
jo b
r a t e .
U s u a lly , a b e g in n e r 's
w ages
in c r e a s e d a t th e r a t e
o f
h o u r a t 3 0 -d a y
in t e r v a ls
u n t i l t h e m in im u m
jo b
r a t e
w as a t t a in e d .
n e rs
c o v e re d b y a fe w a d d it io n a l a g re e m e n ts r e c e iv e d
t h e m in im u m
s if ic a t io n
r a t e .
O n ly tw o a g r e e m e n t s s p e c i f i e d
d if f e r e n t ia ls
b e tw e e n th e
n e r 's
r a t e
f o r f e m a le a n d m a le w o r k e r s .
In
one c a s e , th e r a t e
a n h o u r lo w e r ;
in
th e
o15 h c er ,n t s .
t e
P r e m iu m
D a ily

an d

W e e k ly

b
w

F a y

O v e r t im e

Th e r e g u la r ly
s c h e d u le d h
a n a ly z e d w as 8 h o u rs d a ily
an d U 0
w a s c o m p e n s a t e d a t l e a s t b y t im e
so m e a g r e e m e n t s , t h e
o v e r t im e
p e n
s t ip u la t e d
num ber o f h o u rs .
O n e
e q u a l p r o p o r t io n
o f w o rk e rs , p ro v
a f t e r
2 to
5 h o u rs b u t m o re o f t e n
8 -h o u r s c h e d u le .

o u rs o f w o rk a s s t a t e d
in
e
h o u r s w e e k ly .
W o rk in
e x c
an d a h a lf th e
r e g u la r r a t e
a lt y
r a t e
w as
in c r e a s e d
f o r
-t h ir d
o f th e s e
a g re e m e n ts,
id e d
f o r d o u b le
th e r e g u la r
a f t e r k h o u rs o f w o rk b e y o

v e ry
e s s
o
o f p
w o rk
r e p r e
r a t e
n d th

A m a jo r it y
o f th e a g re e m e n ts s p e c if ic a lly
p r o v id e d f o r p a
o n e a n da h a l f t i m e s t h e r e g u l a r r a t e
f o r w o rk in
e x c e s s
o f lt - 0 h o u r
w e e k ly . 7 /
P aym en t f o r d a ily
a n d w e e k ly o v e r t im e w a s n o t p y r a m id
O v e r t im e w a s g e n e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d
a fe w
in s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r, w o rk e rs w it h t h e
p r e fe r e n c e .
S a tu rd a y ,

s
a
s
p
p
d

c h e
n d
io n
aym
re c
a y

d
a
s
e
e
r

7 /
an d a
g o o d s

S u n d a y ,

S ix t h ,

P e n a lt y r a t e s
u le d d a y s w e re a
h a lf th e r e g u la
(t a b le
9 ) .
In
n t o n ly f o r w o rk
d in g
S a tu rd a y .
e g a r d le s s
o f th e

an d

S e v e n th

D ay

e q u a lly
am ong th e w o rk
g r e a t e s t s e n io r it y w e

W o rk

f o r w o rk on w e ek e n d s o r o n o th e r th a n r e g u
ls o
co m m o n .
Th e r a t e
f o r w o rk on S a tu rd a y w
r r a t e
o f p a30 ai g r e te h me e n t s w i t h
y
n
s u c h p r o v i­
a fe w
c a s e s , a w o rk e r w as e lig ib le
fo r th e
in
e x c e s s
o f ^ 0 h o u r s d u r in g
t h e w e e k im m e
U s u a l l y , h e r e c e i v e d p r e m iu m p a y f o r w o r k o n
n u m b er o f d a y s w o rk e d d u r in g th e w e e k .

The
F a ir
L a b o r S ta n d a rd s A c t r e q u ir e s
th e
h a l f t im e s
th e r e g u la r r a t e
f o r a l l h o u rs
e n t e r in g
in t e r s t a t e
co m m e rce .




p aym en t o f a t
le
w o rk e d
in
e x c e s s

14

Table 9 .— Premium rates fo r work on Saturday, Sunday, sixth, and
seventh day o f workweek in the radio, te le v isio n ,
and electron ics industry l / , 1951

Lay o f
workweek

Number
of
agree­
ments

Number
of
workers

Saturday . . . . . .
Sunday ••••»»••
Sixth d a y ........
Seventh day •••

2 / 30
3 /3 6
“ 13
18

2 / 58,000
3 / 70,200
“ 35,700
49,800

Premium
Time and a half
Number
Number
of
of
agree­
workers
ments

rate
Double time
Number
Number
of
of
agree­
workers
ments

2 / 30
*
1
13

3 / 35

3 / 69,600

18

49,800

2 / 58,000
600
35,700

1 / Based on 40 agreements covering 79,500 workers.
2 / 3 agreements with 4,200 workers required 40 hours' work during the week
to q u alify fo r premium payment.
3 / 1 agreement with 400 workers required 40 hours' work during the week to
q u alify fo r premium payment. Another with 3,500 workers required employees to
work ■O 5 days of the regular sohedule in addition to work on Saturday to
le
q u a lify .

N e a r ly a l l th e a g re e m e n ts
r a t e
o f p a y f o r w o rk o n S u n d a y .
c a lle d
f o r t h e p a y m e n t o f t im e a n
a g r e e m e n t s , u n d e r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s
d u r in g
th e w eek to q u a lif y
f o r th
t h e p r e m iu m
r e g a r d le s s
o f th e
num
c e d in g w e e k .

th ro
th e
v id e
la r

W o rk e rs w h o se
u g h F r id a y w o rk w e
s ix t h
o r s e v e n th
d
f o r a p r e m iu m
o
r a t e
o f p a y .

S h if t

e d
c a l
n e a g re
lf f o r
a v e w o
a y p re m
h o u rs

le d
f o r d o u b le
e m e n t c o v e r in g
S u n d a y w o rk .
rk e d e it h e r 4 0
iu m p a y m e n t , w
o r d a y s w o rk e d

th e
6 0 0
E x c e p
o r 4 8
o rk e r
d u r in

s c h e d u le s d id
n o t c o n fo rm
to
th e r e g u la r M o
ek u s u a lly
r e c e iv e d
th e e x t r a
c o m p e n s a t io n f o
d a y .
F o r w o rk on th e
s ix t h
d a y , th e a g re e m
f t im e a n d a h a l f ;
o n th e
s e v e n th d a y , d o u b l

D if f e r e n t ia ls

S p e c ia l p re m
th a n
th e r e g u la r o r
a g r e e m e n t s w h ic h p r o
a t 1 0 p e rc e n t a b o v e
o r t h ir d
s h i f t .

th e

a n a ly z
O n ly o
d a h a
m u st h
e
Su n d
ber o f

iu m s w e r e p a i d
to m o
d a y s h if t
(t a b le
1 0
v id e d f o r o n e g e n e r a
th e
r e g u la r h o u r ly r

T h e r e m a in in g
t h ir d
s h if t
th a n




w o rk e rs
f o r
th e

r e c e iv e d
s e c o n d .

st e m
).
T
l n ig
a t e ,

p lo
he
h t
f o

y e e s f o r w o rk o n o
m a jo r it y w e re c o v
s h if t d if f e r e n t ia
r w o rk on e it h e r

a h ig h e r d if f e r e n t i a l f o r
T h e s e p r e m iu m s v a r i e d
c o n s

15

Table 10.—S h ift d iffe r e n tia ls in the radio, te le v isio n ,
and electron ics industry, 1951

Amount o f d iffe r e n tia l

dumber of
agreements

Number of
workers

40

79,500

With s h ift d iffe r e n tia l •••••••••••#•••••••#•••••••
General night s h ift hourly d iffe r e n tia l .............. ..
5 cents ••••••#•••••••••••••••••••••••#••.•••••
10 cents •••#••••••##••••#••#•••••••••••.#.#•#•
5 percent ••••••#••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
10 percent ••••••••••••••••••••••••#•••••••••••

38
27
2
3
2
1 / 20

77,100
58,400
1,800
4,800
3,700
1 / 48,100

Third s h ift hourly premium higher than second •••
5 cents, 2nd s h ift ; 7 cents, 3rd s h ift •••#.•••
5 cents, 2nd s h ift ; 10 cents, 3rd s h ift ••#••••
7 cents, 2nd s h ift ; 10 cents, 3rd s h ift .•••##•
10 cents, 2nd s h ift ; 13 cents, 3rd s h ift ..••••
5 percent, 2nd s h ift; 8 percent, 3rd s h ift ••••
7 percent, 2nd s h ift ; 10 percent, 3rd s h ift •»

11
2
3
1
1
1
3

18,700
2,400
4,200
1,200
2,300
1,800
6,800

With s h ift operations hut no reference to amount
of premium ••••#••••••••••••••••••••••••••#••.•••
With no reference to s h ift operation #••••••••••#••

1
1

2,000
400

Total agreements ................................................. ..............

l / One agreement with 2,200 workers provided that H
Employees working night
turn w ill receive an extra compensation of 10 percent of that portion of th eir
earnings on night turn resulting from payment of th eir guaranteed rate minus
18 cents per hour when the regular quitting time is a fte r 9 o ’ clock in the
evening (9:30 p.m.) and up to and including 9 o ’ clock (9:00 a.m .) of the follow ­
ing day.”

P r e m iu m

P a y m e n ts

f o r

Lead m en

C e r t a in
w o rk e rs w ho p e rfo rm
t h
m in im u m o f s u p e r v i s i o n
a n d w ho g u id e
o
a re
know n a s g ro u p
le a d e r s
o r •’ l e a d m e n
a b o u t o n e -t h ir d
o f th e w o rk e rs
in
th e
to
t h e ir r a t e
o f p a y w h ic h w a s a lw a y s
th e
g ro u p .
In
th e m a jo r it y ,o f in s t a n
b a se d on th e
r a t e
o f th e h ig h e s t p a id
a l e s s e r n u m b e r o f c a s e s , t h e p r e m iu m
m a n ’ s ow n jo b .

210775 0 —52------3




e i r r e g u l a r 1?/ a s s i g n e d
jo b s
t h e r e m p lo y e e s
in
a p a r t ic u
# 11
O n ly 1 2 a g r e e m e n t s , c o
s tu d y ,
in c lu d e d p r o v is io n s
h ig h e r th a n
th a t o f o th e r w
c e s , t h e y r e c e iv e d
a f ix e d
w o rk e rs
in
th e
g ro u p
(t a b le
w as r e la t e d
t c
th e r a t e
o f

l6

Table 11.— Special premium rates f o r leadmen in the radio9
te le v isio n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Number o f
agreements

Premium rate

Number oi:
workers

40

79.500

With sp ecia l rates fo r lead men ••••••••••••••••••••

12

26,300

With premium based on highest rate in group ...• • #
With fixed premium

9
7
3
2
1
1

18,500
14,600
1,600
1 / 3,300
~
1,600
8,100

With graduated premium........ ..................... ....•••••
5 percent hourly minimum, 15 percent maximum .
Other

2
1
1

3,900
2,700
1,200

With premium related to lead man's j o b ........ ••••••
With fixed premium •••••••••••••.•••......... ..
10 cents an hour over top rate of regular
job c la s s ific a tio n
10 percent an hour above rate of job
c la s s ific a tio n

3
2

3,900
1,700

1

400

1

1,300

1

2,200

1

2,200

28

53,200

10 cents an hour
15 cents an h o u r .........••••••••••••••••••••••••
Two steps above highest job rate in group ••••

1/
~

With graduated premium •..••••••••••••••••••••••
5 to 10 percent of base hourly rate, depend­
ing on work performed and size o f group . . . . .
With no provision fo r special rates

1 / In 1 agreement covering 400 workers, this rate was applicable to group
leaders; senior leaders received 15 cents. The other agreement, oovering
2,900 workers, provided that a leader was to receive 10 cents above his base
time rate or 10 cents above the rate o f the highest paid individual in his
group, whichever was higher.

C a ll-B a c k

or

E m e r g e n c y W o rk

P rem iu m r a t e s
ard

n u m b er

of

w ork p e r fo r m e d
tiv e
la r

of

th e

h ou rs

P rem iu m P ay

w ere

p a id

not

in

th e

r e g u la r

o u ts id e

th e

e s ta b lis h e d

h ou rs

w orked b y

n u m b er o f

o n ly

s h ift

fo r

s ta r tin g
th e

w ork

(o v e r tim e

in

excess

of

p r e m iu m ) b u t

and e n d in g

in d iv id u a l

tim e ,

e m p lo y e e

th e
o fte n

sta n d ­
fo r

irr e sp e c ­

th a t

p a r tic u ­

day.

In
t h is
s tu d y ,
11 a g re e m e n ts g u a ra n te e d p aym en t fo r a
b e r o f h o u rs
( u s u a lly
U ) to w o rk e rs
c a lle d
b a c k a f t e r
le a v in g
f o r e m e rg e n c y w o rk o u t s id e
o f th e r e g u la r
s h if t
(t a b le
1 2 ).
m en t w as a t th e r e g u la r
r a t e ;
in
a fe w
c a s e s , a t t im e
an d a h
th e
r e g u la r r a t e .
In
a so m ew h at la r g e r n u m b er o f a g re e m e n ts ,
n o t g u a r a n t e e d a m in im u m p a y m e n t , b u t r e c e i v e d
p r e m iu m s
in
a lm
a t t im e
an d a h a lf th e r e g u la r r a t e
f o r w o rk b e fo r e
o r a f t e r
s h if t .
In
n o c a s e d id
a w o rk e r h a v e to w o rk a f u l l s h if t
to
p r e m iu m .




m in
th
G e
a lf
w o
o s t
t h e
q u

Table 12•-—
Call-back or emergency work premium pay in the radio
telev ision , and electron ics industry, 1951

Number
of
agree­
ments

Number
of
workers

40

79.500

24
11
8
2
6

64,600
27,200
24,200
4,400
19,800

3 hours' guaranteed.•••••*••••«
4 hours * guaranteed

3
1
2

3,000
1,200
1,800

With no guaranteed payment •••••••
Before or a ft e r regular hours 2/•

13
13

37,400
37,400

16

feouble the
regular rate
Number
Number
of
of
agree­
workers
ments

Rate o f pay applicable
1$- times
Regular rate
regular rate
dumber
Number
Number
Number
of
of
of
of
agree­
agree­
workers
workers
ments
ments

14,900

Type o f
provision

Total agreements
With guaranteed payment ••••••••••
With ca ll-b a ck provision ••••.•••
2 hours* guaranteed........ •••••••
4 hours * guaranteed.••••••••«••
Emergency work outside o f

1
1

1,200
400

i

900

i /i
4

1
2
1

8,100

3 / 12

1/

3,200
18,500

1,200
1,800

3 / 29,300

1 / Employees were a lso paid travel time.
*2/ A ll o f these agreements also provided fo r overtime payment fo r work in excess o f the regular s h ift .
1 / One agreement with 400 workers guaranteed a minimum o f 4 hours/ pay a t the regular rate to service and mainte­
nance workers.




18

O th e r
C a ll- I n

o r

R e p o rt

T y p e s

o f

P a y m e n ts

P a y

I f
a w o rk e r re p o rte d
f o r w o rk o r w as d ir e c t e d
t o
r e p o r t
w o rk a v a ila b le , w it h
f e w e x c e p t i o n s , h e w a s g u a r a n t e e d a m in im
b h o u r s 1 p a y
(t a b le
1 3 ).
n o

Table 13.— Guaranteed c a ll-in (rep ort) pay
provisions in the radio, te le v isio n ,
and electron ics industry, 1951

Guaranteed work or pay

Number
of
agreements

Number
of
workers

Total agreements •••••••••................

40

79.500

38
1
1 / 31
“
5
1

75,900
1,800
1 / 60,000
12,000
2,100

2

3,600

With work or pay guarantee . . . . . . . r
8 hoursf pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^
4 hours * pay ••••••••••••••••••«•
3 hours' pay •••••••••••••«•••••*
2 hours * pay
No work or pay guarantee . . . . . . . . . .

1 / In 5 agreements, covering 15,000 workers, employees
were paid fo r f u l l s h ift fo r more than 4 hours' work. An­
other agreement, with 700 workers, guaranteed the 4 hours'
pay i f some work was performed; 2 hours i f no work was
a v a ila b le.

In
8 h o u rs .
a n te e d a

one a g re e m e n t, th e w o rk e r w as g u a ra n te e d a f u
In
a c o n s id e r a b le
num ber o f th e s e
a g re e m e n ts,
f u l l d a y ' s p a y
i f
h e w o rk e d m o re t h a n 4 h o u r s .

l l d a y 's
h e w as a

" A n e m p lo y e e
( a ) r e p o r t in g
f o r w o rk in
th e
a b se n ce
o f n o t ic e
n o t to r e p o r t , o r
( b ) a n e m p lo y e e r e p o r t i n g
f o r w o rk w ho h a s b e e n c a lle d
in
f o r a n e m e rg e n cy , s h a ll
b e g u a r a n t e e d a m i n i m u m o f b )f o hu or u r s ' b a s e r a t e
(
p a y o r h o u r ly w age r a t e .
A n e m p lo y e e
( c ) w ho w o rk s m o re
t h a n f o u (b) h o u r s o f h i s
r
e s t a b lis h e d
s h if t
in
th e
a b ­
se n ce
o f n o t ic e
n o t to w o rk , s h a ll b e g u a ra n te e d
th e b a se
r a t e
p a y f o r th e r e g u la r ly
s c h e d u le d n u m b e r o f h o u r s
in
h is
e s t a b lis h e d
s h if t
o r e ig h t
( 8 ) h o u r s w h ic h e v e r
is
th
le s s e r . "
D is m is s a l

w o rk e rs

P ay

O n ly
w it h




th re e
le s s

a g re e m e n ts p r o v id e d
f o r d is m is s a l p a y .
th a n
5 y e a r s '
s e r v ic e
r e c e iv e d
3 d a y s '

In
p a y ;

on
th

19

5 y e a r s '
s e r v ic e ,
5 d a y s ' p a y ; a n d t h o s e w it h m o re t h a n
5 y e a r s ’
a n a d d it io n a l d a y 's p a y f o r e a c h a d d e d y e a r .
In
a n o th e r, w o rk e r
to
5 y e a r s '
s e r v ic e
r e c e iv e d
5 d a y s ' p a y (e x c lu s iv e
o f o v e r t im e )
m o re , 1 0 d a y s ' p a y .
In
th e
t h ir d
in s t a n c e , w o rk e rs r e c e iv e d
1 w
f o r e a c h y e a .r o f s e r v i c e
up to
1 0 y e a r s , w it h a d d it io n a l p a y m e n t
in c lu d in g
y e a r s , t o t a lin g
2 1 w e e k s.
A ft e r 15 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e
c e iv e d
3 w e e k s’ a d d it io n a l p a y f o r e a ch y e a r o f s e r v ic e .
O th e r

p r o
ju r
g ra
g ra

R e la t e d

P a y m e n ts

A c o n s id e r a b
d u c t iv e
t im e
s u c h
y d u ty , o r o th e r
n te d
p aym en t w as
n te d
1 0 -m in u t e r e

r a n g in g

A b o u t one
fro m
2 to

le

num ber o f w o
a s r e s t p e r io d
c a u s e s .
A s sho
f o r r e s t p e r io d
s t p e r io d s m o rn

rk e rs w e re a ls o
co m p e n sa te d f o r
s , c le a n -u p
t im e , t im e
lo s t b
w n in
t a b le
1 A , th e m o st co m m
s .
A m a jo r it y o f th e s e w o rk e
in g a n d a f t e r n o o n .

o u t o f fo u r o f th e
1 2 m in u t e s d a i l y .

w o rk e rs

w as

p a id

f o r

Table 1 4 .— S p ecia l types o f payments in the ra d io,
t e le v is io n , and e le c tr o n ic s industry l / , 1951
Ido st common p rov ision
Number
Number
of
of
P rovision
agree­
workers
ments

Type o f payment

Number
of
agree­
ments

Number
of
workers

Rest periods •••••••••••••

22

47,700

18

42,000

Clean-up time (personal
o r work s ta t io n ) •*•••••

10

20,500

5

7,700

Jury duty ........................... ..

7

19,000

7

19,000

D ifferen ce between
ju ry duty pay and
normal earnings

In jury on the jo b ••••••••

6

14,200

6

14,200

Payment fo r re­
mainder o f day a t
regu lar rate i f
sent home.

Death in immediate
fam ily ••••*••••••••••••

2

5,200

2

5,200

Dism issal pay ••••••••••«•

3

13,000

3

13,000

10 minutes each
morning and
afternoon
10 minutes d a ily

3 days
(2 /)

1 / Not a d d itiv e* Based on a study o f 40 agreements covering 79,500 workers.
2 / Termination allowance varied in each agreement. Payments ranged from
3 days f o r le s s than 5 yea rs' se rv ice to 21 weeks a ft e r 14 years, plus 3 weeks'
a d d itio n a l pay f o r each year o f s e r v ic e .




c le a n -u

20

W age

A d ju s t m e n t

D a r in g

L if e

o f

A g re e m e n t

T h r e e -fo u r th s
o f th e w o rk e rs
in
th e
s tu d y w e re c o v e re d b y
m e n ts p r o v id in g
f o r a u t o m a t ic w a g e
in c r e a s e s
o r th e
r e o p e n in g o f
m e n t f o r w a ge a d ju s t m e n ts
(t a b le
1 5 )•

Table 15.— Wage adjustment prov ision s in the ra d io ,
t e le v is io n , and e le c tr o n ic s industry, 1951
Number
of
agreements

Number
of
workers

T otal agreements ••••••••••••»•«•••*••••••.............

40

79.500

With p ro v isio n f o r wage a d ju stm e n ts.........•»•••••»

28

61,600

With perm issive wage reopening ••*•«•••«•••••»•
A t or a f t e r s p e c ifie d time ••••••••*•••••••••
In event o f change in c o s t - o f - l i v i n g ••••••••

16
14
2

28,600
26,700
1,900

With autom atic wage adjustment •••»••••»••••••»
C o s t - o f - liv in g e s c a la to r clause plus
deferred wage in crease ••••••••••*•••••••••
Deferred wage in crea se ••••»«••*••••••••••«••

8

16,200

4
4

5,600
10,600

With combination autom atic and perm issive •••••
C o s t - o f - liv in g e s c a la to r clau se and de­
fe rre d wage in crea se plus perm issive
wage reopening a f t e r s p e c ifie d period •••••
C o s t -o f-liv in g e s c a la to r clause plus
perm issive wage reopening a t s p e c ifie d
time ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
Deferred autom atic wage increase plus
perm issive wage reopening a t or a ft e r
s p e c ifie d time •••••••••••••••••••••#••••••

4

16,800

1

1,500

1

8,100

2

7,200

With no p ro v isio n f o r wage adjustments ••»•••••••

12

17,900

Wage adjustment p rovision s

U n d e r th e te rm s o f 6 a g re e m e n ts, w age s
a lly
o n th e b a s is
o f ch a n g e s
in
th e
B u re a u o f
P r ic e
In d e x .
T h r e e o f th e a g re e m e n ts f o llo w e d
t e r n
u n d e r w h ic h w a g e r a t e s
a re a d ju s t e d
1 c e n
ch a n g e
in
th e
C P I.
One a g re e m e n t a d ju s t e d w a g
o n ce d u r in g th e
l i f e
o f th e
a g re e m e n t.
Tw o a g
in g
to
th e
C P I limited the amount of the increase.
b u t

w e re a d ju s t e d
L a b o r S t a t is t
th e
1 9 5 0 G e n
t a n h o u r f o r
e s o n th e
sam e
re e m e n ts r e v is

a u to
ic s '
e ra l M
e a ch
b a s i
e d
w a

" .............
A ls o
a t th e
s t a r t o f th e
se co n d y e a r o f
t h is
a g re e m e n t, th e
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
U . S .
D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r , N a t io n a l C o s t o f L iv in g
In d e x f o r
th e
c o n t r a c t y e a r
( S e p t e m 1 9e5 r0 ~1 , A u g u s 3 1 > 1 9 5 1 )
b
t




21

s h a l l h e e x a m in e d a n d f o r e a c h t h r e e
(3 ) p o in t n e t
in c r e a s e
in
s a id
in d e x d u r in g t h a t y e a r , t h e r e g u la r
b a se
r a t e s
o f p a y
a s p r e v io u s ly
in c r e a s e d
s h a ll h e
in c r e a s e d
one
( l )
c e n t p e r h o u r f o r th e
se co n d y e a r o f t h is
a g re e m e n t; p r o v id e d , h o w e v e r,
su c h
c o s t o f liv in g
in c r e a s e
s h a ll n o t in
a n y e v e n t
e x c e e d a t o t a l o f tw o
( 2 ) c e n ts p e r h o u r f o r s a id
se co n d y e a r o f t h is
a g re e m e n t.
I t
is
u n d e rsto o d
th a t th e
f lo o r
on w ages fo r p u rp o se s
o f c o m p u t in g
th e
c o s t o f liv in g
in c r e a s e
a re
th e b a se r a t e s
a t
th e
s t a r t
o f th e
se co n d y e a r o f t h is
a g r e e m e n t w h ic h
in c lu d e
a l l o f th e
a f o r e m e n t io n e d h o u r ly w a g e
in c r e a s e s ."

E le v e n a g r e e m e n t s , c o v e r in g a lm o s t a t h ir d
o f th e w o rk e rs
s t u d y , p r o v id e d
f o r a u t o m a t ic d e f e r r e d w a g e o r
" a n n u a l im p r o v e m e n
c r e a s e s , w h ic h g e n e r a lly
a m o ukn t c e n t s a n n u a l l y , h u t w h i c h r a n g e d
ed
o
fro m
3 ^ to
6 c e n ts a n h o u r.
In
o n e a g re e m e n t, w o rk e rs w e re g iv e n
in c r e a s e
6 m o n th s a f t e r
th e
e f f e c t iv e
d a te
o f th e
a g re e m e n t an d a
in c r e a s e
a t th e e n d o f th e
f o llo w in g
6 m o n th s.
F iv e
a g re e m e n ts a
a u t o m a t ic
c o s t - o f - liv in g
a d ju s t m e n t c la u s e s .
In
a d d it io n
to
m e n ts c o v e r in g
one o u t
r e o p e n in g s .

th e
a u t o m a t ic
o f e v e ry f iv e

w a ge a d ju s t m e n t c la u s e s , a f
w o rk e rs a ls o
a llo w e d p e r m is s

A u t o m a t ic w a g e a d ju s t m e n t p r o v i s i o n s w e re g e n e r a l ly
e f f e c
a g re e m e n ts o f 2 o r m o re y e a r s 1 d u r a t io n , w h e re a s p e r m is s iv e
w age
c la u s e s
u s u a lly w e re fo u n d
in
a g re e m e n ts o f le s s
th a n 2 y e a r s 1 d u

FRINGE BENEFITS

P a id
V a c
v a c a t io n s ,
v a c a t io n p e
( t a b le
1 6 )•
w h ic h e v e r y
1 y e a r ’ s s e
A
v a c a t io n
2 0 y e a rs

a t io n s
w e re g
r io d w
T h is
w o rk e
r v ic e .

V a c a t io n s

w it h p a y , o
ra n te d
to
e v
a s , w it h
one
one a g re e m e
r r e c e iv e d
a

r ,
in
a fe w
in s t a n c e s , p a y m e n t in
li
e ry w o rk e r in
th e
s tu d y .
Th e d u r a ti
e x c e p t io n ,
c o n t in g e n t u p o n le n g t h
o
n t p r o v id e d
f o r a u n if o r m
v a c a t io n p
w e e k ’ s v a c a t io n w it h p a y a f t e r
c o m

m a jo r it y
o f th e w o rk e rs w e re
w it h p a y , a f t e r h a v in g w o rk e d
(u s u a lly
10 y e a r s ).




e n t it le d
to
f o r p e r io d s

a m a x im u m o f
r a n g in g
fro m

3

7

22

Table 1 6 .— Paid vacation plans: Idaximum vacation period and
se r v ice requirements in the ra d io , t e le v is io n , and
e le c t r o n ic s in du stry, 1951
Number
of
workers

Maximum vacation period and
s e rv ice requirements

Number
of
agreements

Total a g re e m e n ts......... ................................

40

79.500

37
1
1
6
6
1

75,700
400
300
12,800
11,100
400

y e a r s ........... •••••
years
years ••»••.•••••
y e a r s ........... •••••
years ..•••••••#•

1
7
1
6
5

400
21,700
700
11,600
13,600

4 weeks a f t e r 25 years ••••••••••»

2

2,700

Agreements with uniform plans ••••••
1 week a f t e r 1 year

1
1/ 1

1/

Other ........................................................ ..

2/ 2

2 / 3,100

Agreements with
2 weeks a f t e r
2 weeks a ft e r
2 weeks a f t e r
2 weeks a f t e r
2 weeks a f t e r
3
3
3
3
3

weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks

a fte r
a fte r
a fte r
a fte r
a fte r

graduated plans ••••
1 year •••••...........
2 years ................. .
3 years ...•••••••••
5 years .......................
10 years
7^
10
12
15
20

700
700

1 / In a d d itio n to the v a ca tion , each employee on the a c tiv e
p a y ro ll a t va ca tion time was e n t it le d annually to an a d d itio n a l
h a lf-d a y o f f , with pay, f o r each month o f p e r fe c t attendance
during the 12 months immediately preceding the v a ca tion period#
2 / One agreement with more than 2,700 workers granted vaca­
t io n pay in l ie u o f v a ca tio n . Maximum payment f o r 3 weeks was
a tta in ed a f t e r 15 o r more years* s e n io r it y . In another agree­
ment with 400 workers, no mention was made o f the length o f va­
c a t io n . Payment, however, was made on a graduated s c a le . A ll
employees with 1 to 5 years* s e rv ice receiv ed a designated cash
payment (presumably the equ ivalent o f an average week's earn­
in g s ); 5 to 10 years* s e r v ic e , one and a h a lf times the i n i t i a l
sum; and f o r more than 10 y e a rs' s e r v ic e , double the sum# Fe­
male employees re ce iv e d $10 le s s in a l l three categ ories#

E l i g i b i l i t y

p lo y e d
f
in g d a y s
C e r t a in
b e c a u se
r e q u ir e m

To
o r
d
a b
o f
e n

R e q u ir e m e n t s

f o r

V a c a t io n

b e e lig ib le
f o r f u l l v a c a t io n b e n e f it s , a w o rk e r h a d
a s p e c if ie d
le n g t h
o f t im e .
T h e se p e r io d s
ra n g e d
fro m
u r in g
th e
3 m o n th s im m e d ia t e ly p r e c e d in g
th e v a c a t io n
t
se n c e s
su c h a s
c o m p e n s a b le
in ju r ie s ,
s e r io u s
illn e s s ,
la c k
o f w o r k c o u n t e d a s t im e w o r k e d
i n m e e t in g t h e
n e c
ts
in
a g re e m e n ts
c o v e r in g a b o u t o n e o u t o f e v e r y f iv e
w

" N o e m p lo y e e s h a l l b e
d u r in g
th e
t w e lv e m o n th s p
( o r d u r in g
th e
f i r s t
y e a r
o f e m p lo y e e s w h o h a v e n o t




e lig ib le
f o r
r e c e d in g th e
o f h is
s e r v i
c o m p le t e d a y

v a c a t io n w ho
v a c a t io n p e r io d
c e
in
th e
c a se
e a r o f s e r v ic e

23

w hen th e v
th a n a re
e
re a s o n o th
la y - o f f f o
On th e
s im ila r num ber
m in im u m w o r k r e
m a x im u m n u m b e r

t
t
(
p
s
r
a
V a c a tio n

o th
o f
q u ir
a llo

a c a t io n p e
q u i v a l e n 13
t
e r th a n co
r la c k
o f
e r
w o
e m
w a

r io d b e g in s ) h a s
lo s t m o re d a y s
t wo e e k s f r o m w o r k f o r a n y
m p e n s a b le
in d u s t r ia l in ju r y
o r
w o r k ."

h a n d , in
o n e o f e v e r y f o u r a g re e m e n ts c o v e r in
r k e r s , th e v a c a t io n
a llo w a n c e w a s r e d u c e d
i f
e n ts h ad n o t b e e n m et o r th e
a b se n c e s e x ce e d e
b le .

" I f , h o w e v e r , s u c h e m p lo y e e s h a v e f a i l e d
to w o rk
h ir t y - n in e
(3 9 ) w eeks
in
th e a g g r e g a te , b u t h a ve a c ­
u a lly
b e e n a t w o rk f o r th e
co m pany a t
le a s t n in e t e e n
19 ) w e e k s , i n t h e a g g r e g a t e , d u r i n g s u c h p r e c e d i n g
e r io d , th e y s h a ll r e c e iv e
o n e w e e k 's p a y a t t h e i r
'
t r a i g h t t im e h o u r ly r a t e
a s o f J u ly
2 9 ,
1951*
f o r
th e
e g u la r w o rk w e e k h o u rs a s d e f in e d
i n3 o e c t ih o i n
S f
s
r t i c l e ."
P a y

to

S e p a ra te d

E m p lo y e e s

A c c r u e d v a c a t i o n p a y w a s c o m m o n ly g r a n t e d t o w o r k e r s
la id
th ro u g h no f a u lt o f t h e ir ow n, a n d in
a fe w
c a s e s t o
th o se
e n t e r i
m ilit a r y
s e r v ic e .

t io
w o
f o r
p lo
d a t
p ro

" A n y e m p lo y e e
n ' a n d w ho is
r .k. . . . . . . . . . . . .s. h a l l b e
t h a t p o r t io n
y e d , a t th e p e
e
o f s u c h
la y v i d e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .". .

C o m p u t a t io n

r a
th
nu
c e
(u
c e

o f

V a c a t io n

w ho h a s o n ce
t h e r e a ft e r
la
e n t it le d
to
o f th e y e a r d
rc e n ta g e r a t e
o f f o r le a v e

q u a lif ie d
f o r a
'v a c a ­
id
o f f d u e to
la c k
o f
a
'v a c a t io n p a y m e n t'
u r in g w h ic h h e w a s em ­
a p p lic a b le
a s o f th e
o f a b s e n c e , a s h e r e in

P a y

C o m p e n s a t i o n w a s g e n e r a l l y b akOe d o ou n r s '
s h
t e
o f p a y f o r e a c h v a c a t io n w e e k t o w h ic h a
e a v e r a g e p a y f o r a w o rk w e e k d u r in g a d e s ig n
m b e r r e c e iv e d
ap e rc e n ta g e
o f t h e ir a n n u a l
p t io n ,
in c lu d e d
o v e r t im e p a y m e n t s .
Th e p e r
s u a lly
th e
e q u iv a le n t o f
1 w e e k 's p a y ) f o r
n t f o r 2 w e e k s'
v a c a t io n a n d 6 p e r c e n t f o r

e a c h
s h a
p u te
th e
th e
( 5 )
s h a



p a y a t th e r e g u la r
w o rk e r w as e n t it le d
a A e cd o np s e i d ieo r da .b l e
t
r
e a r n in g s w h ic h , w it h
c e n ta g e s ra n g e d
fro m
1 w e e k 's v a c a t i o n , t
3 w e e k s' v a c a t io n .

" A l l e m p lo y e e s o n t h e p a y r o l l a s o f M a y 3 1 o f
y e a r w it h
le s s
t h a n 5 ) i vy e a r ( s ' s e n i o r i t y
f
ll r e c e iv e
o ne
( l ) w e e k 's v a c a t io n w it h p a y co m ­
d a t 2 p e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e 's t o t a l e a r n in g s
f o r
f i s c a l y e a r e n d in g M ay 3 1 *
A l l e m p lo y e e s o n
p a y r o ll a s o f M ay 3 1 o f e a c h y e a r w it h
o v e r f iv e
y e a r s ' an d le s s
th a n te n
(1 0 ) y e a r s '
s e n io r it y
ll r e c e iv e
tw o
( 2 ) w e e k s ' v a c a t io n w it h p a y

2b

co m p u te d
f o r th e
o n th e
p
(1 0 ) y e a
(3 ) w e e k
o f e m p lo
e n d in g M

a t k p e rc e n t
f i s c a l y e a r e
a y r o ll a s o f
r s '
s e n io r it y
s ' v a c a t io n w
y e e 's t o t a l e
a3y 1 * "

o f e m p lo y e
n d in g M ay 3
M ay 3 1 o f e
o r m o re s h
it h p a y co m
a r n in g s
f o r

e 's t o t a l e a
1*
A ll e m p
a c h y e a r w it
a ll r e c e iv e
p u te d a t 6 p
th e f i s c a l

r n in g s
lo y e e s
h
te n
th re e
e rc e n t
y e a r

H o lid a y s
P a id

H o lid a y s

m o re
h o lid
T h a n
W a sh

O b se rv e d

E v e ry w o rk e
th a n h a lf r e c e
a y s w e re Hew Y
k s g iv in g D a y , a
in g t o n 's
B ir t h d

E l i g i b i l i t y

f o r

r in
th e
s tu d y r e c e iv e d a t le a s t s ix
p a id h o
iv e d
s e v e n , a n d a fe w r e c e iv e d
e ig h t .
Th e m
e a r ’ s D a y , D e c o r a t io n D a y ,
In d e p e n d e n c e D a y ,
n d C h r is t m a s D a y .
Th e s e v e n th h o lid a y w a s u s
a y .

H o lid a y

P ay

To b e e lig ib le
f o r h o lid a y p a y , a b o u t h a lf th e w o rk e rs
m eet s e r v ic e
r e q u i r e m e n t s r a n g i 30g d a r yo s m ( f o r t h e m a j o r i t y ) t o
n
f
6 m o n th s.

U
a
A
w
b

s u a ll
f t e r
fe w
it h in
le
f o

M o st w o rk e rs a ls o
h a d t o m e e t m in im u m
y , th e
e m p lo y e e h a d t o
r e p o r t f o r w o rk
a h o lid a y , o r in
so m e in s t a n c e s , so m e
a g r e e m e n t s a llo w e d w id e r la t i t u d e ;
e m p
t h 15 d a y s p r e c e d i n g 15o rd a y s f o l l o w i n g
e
a
r th e h o lid a y p a y .

h

w o rk r e q u ir e m e n t s .
th e d a y b e fo re
an d
t im e d u r in g t h e
h o li
lo y e e s w h o p e r f o r m e d
h o lid a y w e re e l i g i ­

A b se n ce s
su c h a s th o se
o c c a s io n e d b y d e a t h
in
th e
im m e d i
f a m ily , s e r v ic e
a s a ju r o r ,
o r v i s it s
to
th e d r a f t b o a r d , w e re
c u s e d a n d d id
n o t d e p r iv e
th e w o rk e r o f h o lid a y p a y .
P a y

f o r

h o lid a y

W o rk

on

H o lid a y s

A ll w o rk e rs
w o rk
(t a b le




in
th e
1 7 ).

s tu d y

r e c e iv e d

s p e c ia l

p r e m iu m

p a y m e n

25
Table 17.—Premium payment fo r work on paid holidays in the radio,
te le v is io n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Number
of
agreements

Total agreements

dumber
of
workers

....

Premium payment

4Q

79.500

1

700

18
13

39,500
23,900

4
2

13,000
1,700

2

700

Time and a half l /
Double time (regular rate plus
holidav ±A*J l ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
uav)
Double time 1 /
.......... ...... .
Double time and a half (time and a h a lf
regular rate plus holiday pay) ••••••••••
Double time and a h a lf 1 / ••••••••••••••••«
Triple time (double they’regular rate
plus holiday pay )
+. +.

1 / There was no indication o f this rate being in addition to or
in Tieu o f, holiday pay.
W it h o n e e x c e p t i o
r a t e
o f p a y , t h a t i s ,
8
w o rk e d .
In m any c a s e s ,
t im e w a s i n
a d d it io n
to
" A ll w o rk
d a y s s h a ll b e
r a t e s
f o r
th e
H o lid a y s

F a llin g

on

n , th e
h o u rs '
i t
w as
o r
in
l

p re m
p a y
n o t
ie u

iu m w
p lu s
c le a r
o f h o

d o n e o n a n y o f th e
p a id
f o r a t d o u b le
s h i f t w o r k e d .”
O ff-W o rk

as a t
s t r a ig
w h e th
lid a y

l e a s t d o u b le
th e r
h t -t im e
p a y f o r th
e r th e p aym e n t o f
p a y .

f o llo w in g h o li­
( 2 ) th e r e g u la r

D ays

H o lid a y s f a l l i n g
o n S u n d a y w e re o b s e rv e d o n M onday
r e p r e s e n t in g
a fo u r t h
o f th e w o rk e rs
in
th e
s tu d y .
A fe w
th e
c e le b r a t io n
o f a S u n d a y h o lid a y
o n th e d a y o b se rv e d b y
S ta te
g o v e rn m e n ts.

w it h
p a y
p e r io d .

la id

o f f

Tw o o f e v e r y
o r a n e x t r a

f iv e
w o rk e rs r e c e iv e d
th e b e n e fit
d a y 's p a y f o r h o lid a y s
o c c u r r in g

S e v e r a l a g re e m e n ts a ls o
p r o v id e d
o r r e c a lle d
d u r in g
th e h o lid a y
" E lig
r e d u c t io n
s h a ll b e
th e
la s t
su c h w o rk
in
w h ic h
(t e r m in a t
w o rk su b s
d a y p a y f




f o r h o lid a y
w e e k .

in
a g r
o th e rs
th e
F

o f a n
w it h in

p a y

to

ib le
e m p lo y e e s w h o a r e
la id
o f f d u e t o
a
o f fo r c e
( t e r m in a t e d ) p r io r t o
a h o lid a y
p a id
f o r s u c h h o lid a y , p r o v id e d
th e y w o rk
s c h e d u le d w o rk d a y , a n d f u r t h e r , . p r o v id e d
d a y o c c u r s d u r in g th e
sam e c a le n d a r w e e k
th e h o lid a y
o c c u r s .
E m p lo y e e s o n l a y - o f f
e d ) w h o m a y b e r e c. . .a. . .l. .l . e . . d. . . . . . . a n d w h o
. .
e q u e n t to
th e
h o lid a y , s h a ll r e c e iv e
h o li­
o r s u c h h o lid a y p r o v id e d
t h e y c o m p le t e

a d d e
t h e

e m p lo

26

s u c h
sam e

f i r s t
r e g u la r
c a le n d a r w e e k

" E lig ib le
la id
o f f p r io
th e h o lid a y ,
u le d w o rk d a y
w h ic h m u s t f a
in
w h ic h t h e

s c h e d u le d d a y o f w o rk i n
th e
in w h ic h t h e
h o lid a y
o c c u r s .

e m p lo y e e s w h o a r e
t e m p o r a r ily
r to
a h o lid a y s h a l l b e p a id
f o r
p r o v id e d
th e y w o rk th e
la s t
s c h e d ­
p r io r to
th e h o lid a y , e it h e r o f
l l d u r in g th e
sam e c a le n d a r w e e k
h o lid a y
o c c u r s ."

P a id

S ic k

Le a v e

P aym en t f o r a b se n c e s
ca u se d b y illn e s s
w as r a r e
in
th e
in
O n ly 5 a g r e e m e n t s
c o v e r in g
1 o f e v e ry
1 0 e m p lo y e e s
in
th e
s tu d y
p a y m e n t f o r t im e
s o
lo s t .
W o r k e r s h a d t o b e e m p lo y e d f o r p e r i o d
fro m
3 0 d a y s t o 2 y e a r s b e f o r e p a id
s ic k
le a v e w a s g r a n t e d .
U n d
o f t w o a g r e e m e n t s , a m a x im u m o f 1 w e e k ’ s p a y w a s g r a n t e d
a n n u a lly
p lo y e e s o n s i c k
le a v e , a f t e r a w a it in g p e r io d
o f 2 d a y s .
Tw o o t
m e n ts p r o v id e d
f o r a m a x im u m o f 2 w e e k s ' p a y w i t h n o s t i p u l a t i o n
le n g t h
o f w a it in g p e r io d .
Th e f i f t h
p r o v id e d f o r p a y m e n t o f th e
e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a m o u n t r e c e i v e d u n d e r t h e W o r k m e n 's C o m p e n s a t io n
t h e a m o u n t t o w h ic h t h e e m p lo y e e w o u ld h a v e b e e n e n t i t l e d
d u r in g
p e r io d
o f h is d is a b il it y ,
co m p u te d o n th e b a s is
o f a 4 0 -h o u r w e e
r e g u la r r a t e
o f p a y .
I f ,
h o w e v e r, th e d is a b ilit y
w as f o r a p e r
th a n 8 d a y s , th e
e m p lo y e e w a s p a i d
f o r th e
f u l l p e r io d
o f d is a b

B s a lt h ,

a
g
e
p
p

n d
a in
r in
ro v
la n

N o ta b
e x p a n d in g
in g
in
th
g n e a r ly
id e d
f o r
s a ls o
( t

In s u ra n c e ,

a n d

P e n s io n

P la n s

le p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a d e i n
re c e n t y e a rs
in
e s t a b
h e a lt h ,
in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s
u n d e r c o lle c
e
in d u s t r y .
T w e n t y - f i hO a o rf e e t m ee n t s a n a l y z e d ,
v e
g
h
c o v ­
5 6 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s 70 a pb e ru c t e n t o f t h e w o r k e r s
(
o
in
th e
s tu
h e a lt h a n d
in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , w it h
9 in c lu d in g r e
a b le
1 8 ).

li
t i
d
ti

U n d e r th e h e a lt h
a n d in s u r a n c e
p la n s , a lm o s t a l l w o r k e r s
c o v e re d b y l i f e
in s u r a n c e , a c c id e n t a n d s ic k n e s s , h o s p it a liz a t io
g ic a l b e n e f it s .
A c c i d e n t a l d e a t h a n d d is m e m b e r m e n t i n s u r a n c e
a n d
b e n e fit s w e re le s s
f r e q u e n t ly p r o v id e d .
T h e p la n s w e re f in a n c e d
t h e e m p l o y e r s u n 15e ra g r e e m e n t s , c o v e r i n g 3 o f e v e r y
d
5 w o rk e rs w it h
h e a lt h a n d in s u r a n c e b e n e f it s .
B o t h e m p lo y e r a n d e m p lo y e e
c o n tr i
th e p ro g ra m
u n d e r s e v e n a g re e m e n ts a c c o u n t in g f o r a b o u t a t h ir d
o
w o rk e rs .
In f o r m a t io n o n th e m e th o d o f f in a n c in g
t h e p la n s w a s n
b le
in
th e r e m a in in g t h r e e
c o n t r a c t s .




27

2 8 p e r
f ie d
t
th e e m
s m a ll

Th e 9 a g
c e n t o f th
h a t p e n s io
p lo y e r a n d
num ber o f

r e e m e n ts w h ic h
e w o rk e rs
in
t
n s w e re to b e
th e
e m p lo y e e s
w o rk e rs d id
n o

in c lu d e d p e
h e
s tu d y .
p a id
f o r e n
w e re t o
s h a
t s p e c ify
f i

n s io n p la n s
c o v e re d a b o
F iv e
o f th e s e
a g re e m e n t
t i r e l y b y t h e e m p lo y e r ;
re
th e
c o s t ;
a n d tw o c o
n a n c ia l a rra n g e m e n ts .

Table 18.— Health, insurance, and pension plans in the
radio, te le v isio n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Number
of
agreements

Benefits

Number
of
workers

Total agreements ...................... ..

40

79.500

Agreements with benefit plans ••••••»

25

55,900

Health and insurance *»••••••••••••
L ife insurance •••••••••••••.........
Accidental death and
dismemberment ............ ..
Accident and sickness ....................
H ospitalization •••••••••••••••••
Surgical .................................. ..........
Medical .................................... ...........

1 / 25
~ 20

1 / 55,900
* 50,700

7
20
22
22
10

19,400
53,300
53,900
53,900
16,100

9

22,600

15

23,600

Pension ••••••»..........
Agreements with no b en efit plans ••••

l / Figures are not additive because a l l workers were
covered by more than one b e n e fit. Information was not available
on individual health and insurance benefits under three agree­
ments .

AD STM T O DISPUTES
JU EN F

t
c
o
a
t

Th e d e s ir e
o f th e
p a r t ie s
to
io n s w a s e m p h a s iz e d b y t h e
in c lu s io
i f i c
m a c h in e r y f o r t h e
h a n d lin g o f
r a p p lic a t io n
o f a g re e m e n t p r o v is io
ls o
a p p lic a b le
to
s u c h
is s u e s
a s w
io n
o f jo b s , o r
in t r a p la n t
in e q u it
G r ie v a n c e

T h e a g g r ie v e d w o rk e r
o f a p p e a ls .
M o st a g re e m e n ts
ce d u re ( t a b le
1 9 )•




m a in t a in p e a c e f u l i n d u s t r i a
n ,
in
e v e r y a g re e m e n t a n a ly z e
d is p u t e s
a r is in g
fro m
in t e r p
n s .
In
som e c a s e s , th e m a c h
o r k in g c o n d it io n s ,
im p r o p e r c
ie s .

P ro c e d u re

c o u ld
c a r r y h is
c o m p la in t t h r o u g h a
p r o v id e d
f o r m o re th a n a 2 - s t e p
a p p

28
Table 19.—Number of steps in grievance procedure in the
radio, te le v is io n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Number of
workers

Number of steps
Total agreements .......................................

th e

40

79.500

1
2
3
4
5

and.

Number of
agreements

1
5
17
11
6

700
3,800
39,700
16,800
18,500

step ........ ..
steps .................................. ........... ....
steps .................. .
steps .................................... ... ........... .
steps

I n i t i a l l y ,
th e
e m p lo y e e
fo re m a n p a r t ic ip a t e d
in

o r h is
u n io n r e p r e s e n t a t iv e , o r
th e d is c u s s io n s
o (table 20). b l e m
f th e p ro

b

Table 20#— Participants in in it ia l step in grievance procedure
in the radio, te le v is io n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Number o f
agreements

Number o f
workers

Total agreements ...................... ................. ..

40

79.500

Employee and foreman 1 /
Employee, union representative,
and foreman
Employee or union representative
and foreman .................................... .
Union representative and foreman 2 / .........

13

24,200

5

7,500

4
18

12,600
35,200

Participants

i / The presence o f a union representative was usually op tion a l.
2 / 10 agreements with 20,700 workers provided that the presence
o f the employee was option al.
U n d e r te rm s o f so m e o f t h e
a g re e m e n ts , h o w e v e r, d is p u t e s
su c h
is s u e s
a s d i s m i s s a l s , n ew w a g e r a t e s , o r u n io n s e c u r i t y
u s u
p a sse d
th e f i r s t
s te p
o r tw o o f t h e p r o c e d u r e .

A t th e
f in a l s te p p r io r to
a r b i t r a t i o n , a lm o s t h a l f o f t
m e n ts c o v e r in g
a b o u t a t h ir d
o f th e w o rk e rs
in
th e
s tu d y
c a lle d
t le m e n t o f g r ie v a n c e s b y l o c a l u n io n
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s
a n d com pany
in
som e c a s e s w it h
th e
o p t io n
o f p a r t ic ip a t io n b y
in t e r n a t io n a l
r e s e n t a t i v e (table 21). A p p r o x i m a t e l y a f o u r t h
s
o f th e
a g re e m e n ts
c o v
a so m ew h at s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n
o f w o rk e rs c a lle d
f o r a c t io n b y in t
u n io n r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s
a n d to p p la n t o r co m p an y o f f i c i a l s .
In
so m
c e s , d is p u t e s
a t th e
f in a l s ta g e
o f t h e p r o c e d u r e w e re h a n d le d b
la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t b o a r d s
c o n s is t in g
o f a n e q u a l num ber o f r e p r e s e n
m an agem en t an d la b o r .
T h re e a g re e m e n ts p r o v id e d
f o r p e rm a n e n t jo
a n d tw o , f o r te m p o ra ry jo in t b o a r d s .




29

Table 21.—Participants in fin a l step of grievance procedure in
the radio, te le v is io n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Humber of Number of
agreements workers

Participants
Total agreements .................................... ..

40

Agreements naming participants in procedure ••••••

39

78,700

Local union le v e l and company o f f ic i a l s ••••••••
International union representative (with
or without lo ca l union representative)
and top plant or company o f f ic i a l s •••••••••••
Joint labor-management board (permanent) »«»•••«
Joint labor^-management board (temporary) •••••••
Other 2 /

1 / 18

1 / 25,000

9
3
2
7

22,500
10,000
2,100
19,100

Agreement with only one step in procedure ••••••••

1

800

_

79.500

l / 3 agreements with about 8,600 workers provided fo r optional parti­
cipation by representatives o f the international union.
2 / Union representative and company o f f i c i a l s , but no indication
whether union representative was a t lo c a l or international le v e l.

A w r it t e n
so m e s t a g e
o f th e
o nd s te p .

p
o
s
p
w
A
g
g

n o t ic e
o f
g r ie v a n c e

th e
c o m p la in t g e n e r a lly
h ad to
p r o c e d u r e , b u t m o st f r e q u e n t ly

b e f ile
b e fo re

T h e g r ie v a n c e
a p p e a l u s u a lly
h ad to be f ile d
w it h in
a s p e
e r io d r a n g in g fro m
le s s
th a n
1 w eek to
6 0 d a y s a f t e r
it s
o c c u rre
f e v e r y fo u r a g re e m e n ts r e p r e s e n t in g
a t h ir d
o f th e w o rk e rs .
In
ta n c e s , th e
t im e
lim it a t io n
v a r ie d w it h th e
ty p e
o f c o m p la in t .
le , w o rk e rs a t o n e p la n t h a d t o p r e s e n t d is m is s a l g r ie v a n c e s w it
a g e g r i e v a n c e s w i 60 i d a y s , a n d o t h e r t y p e s o f g r i e v a n c e30 dw a iyt sh . i n
t h n
s
t a n o th e r p la n t , w a ge g r ie v a n c e s h a d t o b e f i l e d
w it h in
3 0 d a y s ,
r ie v a n c e s w it h in
5 d a y s .
A n u m b e r o f a g re e m e n ts m e r e ly s t a t e d
t
r ie v a n c e w a s t o b e d is p o s e d
o f w it h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y d e la y .

P la n t u n io n r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s w e re p e r m it t e d
t im
p a y , to
in v e s t ig a t e
a n d p r e s e n t g r ie v a n c e s
u n d e r te rm
a g re e m e n ts.
A t h ir d
o f th e
a g r e e m e n t s , c o v e r in g
33 p
p r o v id e d
f o r
c o m p e n s a t io n f o r a l l t im e s o s p e n t d u r in
o t h e r t h ir d , w it h 4 5 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k e r s , s p e c if ie
t h e r e m a in in g a g r e e m e n t s d id
n o t s t a t e
c le a r ly w h e th e
t im e
s p e n t in
h a n d lin g g r ie v a n c e s .
In
so m e c a s e s , a
o n t h e n u m b e r o f r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s w h o c o u ld b e a llo w e d




e
o f f , u s u a
s o f a m a jo
e rc e n t o f th
g w o r k in g h o
d
p a r t -t im e
r p a y w a s a ll
lim it a t io n w
to
ta k e
s u c h

30
A r b it r a t io n
F a ilu r e
b y th e u n
ow n e f f o r t s
u n d e r th e
e s t
e v e ry
in s t a n c e
b y r e s o r t
m e n t s , w h ic h p e r m it t e d
a r
v o k e d b y e it h e r p a r t y .

io n a n d m a n a g e m e n t t o
r e
a b lis h e d
g r ie v a n c e
m a c h
to
a r b (table i 22). I n
it r a t o n
a l l
b it r a t io n
o n ly b y m u tu a

s o lv e
d is p u t e s b y
in e r y w a s f o llo w e d
b u t tw o a g r e e ­
l c o n s e n t,
i t
c o u

Table 22.—A rbitration machinery in the radio, te le v isio n ,
and electron ics industry, 1S51
Number
of
agreements

Kumber
of
workers

Total agreements . . . . . . . .........••••

40

79.500

With a r b i t r a t i o n .................... ..•••
Temporary single a rb itra tor •••
Temporary board, temporary
impartial chairman
Temporary single a rb itra tor
or a rb itration board (a t
parties option) •••••••••••••
Permanent single a rb itra tor •••
Permanent impartial chairman,
temporary board ••«••••• *• •••
Not indicated ••••••••••.•«••••

37
15

76,500
42,000

15

22,000

2
3

2,600
6,100

1
1

2,900
900

3

3,000

No provision fo r a rb itra tion ••••

F r e q u e n t ly , th e
c lu d e d is a g r e e m e n t s o v e
t r a t io n
in c lu d e d w o r k lo
w age a d ju s t m e n t s .
B y c
s u e s w e re n o n a r b it r a b le

a r b it r a t o r 's
r in d iv id u a l w
a d s o r p ro d u c t
o n t r a s t , som e
.

ju
ag
io
a g

r is d ic t
e r a t e s
n s ta n d
re e m e n t

io n
w as b ro a d
.
In
so m e a g
a rd s a n d , in
s s t ip u la t e d

e n
re
a
t h

e
e
f
a

d t
m e n
e w ,
t s

A s in g le
a r b it r a t o r w a s d e s ig n a t e d
to
h a n d le d is p u t e s
in
h a lf th e
a g re e m e n ts c o v e r in g
th re e
o f e v e ry f iv e
w o rk e rs ; a t r ip a
b o a rd ,
in
a b o u t t w o -f if t h s
o f th e
a g r e e m e n t s r e p r e one n ofi nevery b o u t
s e
t
g a

three workers.

U s u a lly , b o th th e
a r b it r a t o r an d th e
a r b it r a t io n
b o a rd s w
p o in t e d
o n a te m p o ra ry
(a d h o c ) b a s is
to
s e t t le
d is p u t e s
a s th e
n
a r b it r a t io n
o c c u r r e d .
F o u r a g re e m e n ts c a lle d
f o r p e rm a n e n t im p a
t r a t o r s
to
a c t o n d is p u t e s
o c c u r r in g d u r in g th e
te rm
o f th e
c o n t
m a jo r it y
o f a g re e m e n ts ’ p r o v id e d
f o r p a r t ic ip a t io n
o f a n o u t s id e
a
th e
s e le c t io n
o f th e
im p a r t ia l c h a ir m a n .
U n d e r a g re e m e n ts r e p r e s
a b o u t a t h ir d
o f th e w o rk e rs , th e
o u t s id e
a g e n cy w as c a lle d
u p o n
an d u n d e r th o se
r e p r e s e n t in g a b o u t h a l f t h e w o r k e r s , o n ly
a f t e r t
h a ve f a ile d
to a g re e
u p o n a n a r b it r a t o r .
T h e a g e n c ie s m o st f r e q u
d e s ig n a t e d w e re th e
A m e r ic a n A r b i t r a t i o n
A s s o c ia t io n
(lH
a g re e m e
F e d e r a l M e d ia t io n a n d C o n c i l i a t i o n
S e r v ic e , a n d a S ta te
o r lo c a l
(8 a g re e m e n ts e a c h ).



31

Expenses incidental to arbitration were generally shared by both
parties.
Conciliation and Mediation
Resort to conciliation or mediation as a means of settling dis­
putes was infrequent. Only three agreements covering a small percentage
of the workers permitted conciliation or mediation, which may be resorted
to if the regular grievance procedure proved to be ineffective. One
agreement provided for this action to be taken only if the union and the
company mutually could not agree to refer the dispute to arbitration by an
impartial umpire or board. The other two agreements did not provide for
arbitration. In each case, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
could be requested to mediate.
Work Stoppages
The final authority to call a strike was rarely vested in a local
union. The constitutions of most of the international unions whose locals
had negotiated agreements in the industry prohibited the calling of a
strike until the international president or his representative had made an
effort to adjust the dispute. In the event of failure, the international
executive board or council could authorize the calling of a strike. Some
of the constitutions, however, empowered the president, in cases of extreme
emergency, to so act pending the approval of the executive board.
Practically all the agreements in the study banned strikes and
lock-outs for the duration of the contract. In about a third, the ban was
unqualified but in the others it could be waived (table 23)•

Table 23.-—
Strike and lock -ou t provisions in the radio,
te le v is io n , and electron ics industry, 1951
Type of provision
Agreements with provisions .............. .

Number o f
agreements

Number of
workers

1 / 38

1 / 76,100

12

17,200

9

22,800

Ban on strik es and lock -ou ts, without
q u a l i f i c a t i o n ........ *................. ..
No stoppage u n til grievance procedure
ha been exhausted •••••*•,•«•••••••••••«•••
No steppage unless either party refused
to submit dispute to arb itration *•••••••*••
No stoppage unless eith er party refused
to abide hy the a rb itration a w a rd ........ ..
No stoppage unless wage reopening deadlock occured ••••«••••»•••••••••••••••••*••••
No stoppage except over nonarbitrable
issues ••••*•«•••••••••••••••••••••••*••••••
No steppage unless eith er party violated
contract •*•••••••••••••••••»•••••••*•••••••

1

8,100

11

33,500

9

25,600

2

4,000

2

2,800

Agreements with no provisions •»••••••••••••••*•

2

3,400

3/

Not additive*




32

Most frequently a work stoppage could be resorted to if either
party failed to abide by the arbitrator's award or, in many cases, after
the grievance procedure had been exhausted. However, three of the latter
agreements did not provide for arbitration, and one provided for arbitra­
tion only by mutual consent. Some agreements permitted work stoppages
only in case of a wage-reopening deadlock.
In some instances, strikes could be resorted to for a number of
reasons. For example, strikes could be called under terms of agreements
with three companies after the grievance machinery had been exhausted, if
either party refused to abide by the arbitration award, or in the event
of a wage reopening-deadlock.
Under terms of agreements representing slightly more than a
fourth of the workers in the study, the union was absolved from liability
in case of an unauthorized strike provided, generally, that it took the
necessary action to end the work stoppage. A few agreements specifically
stated that neither the company nor the union would sue over any labor
matter.




S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE O - 1952
.