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/' - 1 Collective Bargaining —\ ~ 1 - r \/ ' M ' r , 'v \ i 7 '\ - ' '7 / v V,- ^ - , i \ ' ^ /7 7 \ / X / s / \ ""7 1^ I \ \ \ \ - I/ \— ~ \ J\ " ■ — I v / .\ / \ '7tC> J /v 7 - 1 ^ \o -1 ' / -7 - / 1- ^ v /: 7 .m \ w ~ ~N^-V 7 7 7 7 i ;7 7 7 • ^ I " \ ^ ' *C I x ' 7 X / \ / / 1N ^ I \y ^ CL'i.\7.~ \7 n V c T7" V ' ' 7 VN7 / \/ - 7 7 7 ' 7 / ' 7V —/\ 7 7 ° X ' ■ Bulletin No: 1063 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Maurice J. Tobin - Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague - Commissioner Collective Bargaining in the Meat-Packing Industry Bulletin No. 1063 UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR M a u r ic e J . T o b in , S e c r e t a r y B U R E A U O F L A B O R STATISTICS E wan C la g u e , C o m m is s io n e r For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price 30 cents ii Letter of Transmittal UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOB, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D. C., February 27, 1952. The Secretary of Labor: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on labor-manage ment agreement provisions and practices in the meat-packing industry which is based primarily upon an analysis of fifty agreements nego tiated by unions and employers in the industry. This report was prepared in the Bureau's Division of Wages and Industrial Eelations, by and under the direction of Anna Bercowitz, and by William S. Gary, Dorothy B. Kittner, and Eleanor E. Lehrer. Ewan Clague, Commissioner. Hon. Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary of Labor. iii Contents S u m m a r y .... ................................. ........... ......... 1 Union and management organizations ....... ........................... Development of union organization............. .................. The bargaining unit since World War Extent of collective bargaining........... ............ Trade associations ................. .................. .......... 2 2 Development of the meat-packing industry .......... .................. Significant Industry characteristics ............................. Location of the industry and size of establishments..... . Nature of Job and composition of labor force .................. 7 8 8 9 I I ................................................. 5 6 7 Current status of collective bargaining.......... ................ Nature of the sample ........................................ . 10 Formal agreement characteristics .......... ....................... . Employer unit ................... .................... ............ Occupational coverage ....... ............ ........................ Duration, extension, and renewal of agreements ........... ........ 12 12 12 12 Significant (industry) contract provisions .... Guaranteed weekly wage plans ............... Weekly guarantees ............... ........ Guaranteed annual w a g e ..... ..... . Paid vacations ............. ........ . Holidays ...................... ............ Paid sick leave .......... ................. Service requirements and other regulations Dismissal p a y .... ................ . Fringe benefits .......................... . Clothes-changing t i m e ......... ....... . Preparation and repair of tools ......... Best periods ........... ...... ......... Meals and meal time ..................... Equipment and monetary allowance ........ Tools, equipment, and safety devices .. Outer work garments ............... ... Laundry .................. ........... Other benefits ....................... 13 13 l h 15 16 17 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 iv - Contents - Continued Page Union and management rights and functions.... ....................... Union rights ................................................... Union security and check-off.......................... ........ Other union rights and privileges .......... ............... Management prerogatives ..... ..................................... Discharge ........................ ............................. 2 k Job security ...... .................................................. Seniority and its applications .................................... L a y - o f f ....................................................... Rehire ........................ Promotion ........................ ............................. Preferential seniority rights ................................ Effect of transfers on seniority .......................... . Leave of absence and seniority rights ............................. Military service ...... ................ ....................... Restriction on production work by foremen ............ ............ 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 Hours, wages, and working conditions ................................ Hours of w o r k ....... ..... .......................... ......... Wage provisions ......... Method, of wage p a y m e n t .... ................................. Earnings and wage rates .......... ............................. Equal pay for equal work for w o m e n ............................ Minimum call-in (report) pay ........................... ...... Transfer rates ................................................ Rate of pay on temporary assignment ........... Rate of pay on permanent transfer .................... Rate for aged and handicapped workers ......................... Interim wage adjustments ................ ..................... Premium p a y ........ .............................................. Daily and weekly overtime .......... Week-end w o r k ...... Shift differentials ........................................... Minimum call-back pay ........................... Health, insurance, and pension plans ................ ............. Safety, health, and sanitation ........ .......................... 33 33 3^ 35 35 36 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 *9 + M ^l ^l ^2 Adjustment of disputes during life of agreement........... .......... Grievance procedure.... ............................ First step in initiating grievances ....... Final step in grievance procedure ............................. Written notice ................................. Arbitration ...................................................... Work stoppages ......................... ................... . 13 * 13 * 2+ 1 2 k 26 27 27 k k ^5 ^5 ^6 k j - V Contents - Continued Tables: 1. 2. Number of production and related workers ..................... Number of establishments and workers in the industry and in the sample, by region ................................... 3. Distribution of agreements and workers surveyed, by u n i o n .... Graduated paid vacation plans and service requirements ....... 5. Number of paid holidays ......... 6 . Total hourly rates of pay for work on paid holidays .......... 7. Types of union security and check-off provisions ............. 8 . Qualifications determining lay-off........................ 9. Seniority unit applicable in lay-off............. 10. Qualifications determining promotions ............ 11. Seniority unit applicable in promotions ...................... 12. Leave of absence provisions ............ 13. Average weekly hours and earnings for production workers .... li. Equal pay for equal work for women ............................. 15. Interim wage adjustments .......... 16. Premium pay provisions for work on Saturday, Sunday, sixth and seventh d a y ............................ ............... 17. Types of benefits provided in six agreements .................. 18. Number of steps in grievamce procedures ........... 19. Initial step in grievance procedures ......................... 20. Final step in settling grievauaces ........ ................... 21. Step at which written notice is submitted in grievance a p p e a l ........... ......... ................................ 22. Work stoppages, 1939-50 ..... ... 8 11 12 17 18 19 2k 28 29 29 30 32 33 37 39 1*0 k2 ^3 ^ 45 k6 ^8 QxMectiae, Oicvcgaming in the, M eat- 3 aching, JndudVuf SUMMARY Meat-packing establishments, centered largely in the Midwest, are classified into three general groups: The large national packers— primarily the so-called "Big Four”; l/ the independent medium-size packers whose pro ducts are marketed over a smaller region; and the small local packers. Approximately 90 percent of the production workers in the industry work under union contracts negotiated almost exclusively with the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America (AFL) and the United Pack inghouse Workers of America (CIO). For the past decade, these two unions together with the National Brotherhood of Packinghouse Workers (Confederated Unions of America, IND.) have negotiated master agreements with some or all of the "Big Four" packers, who set the collective bargaining pattern in the industry. Recently, the two major unions entered into a mutual aid pact not to conclude a contract with the "Big Four" without full discussion of common problems. A large proportion of the labor force in the industry is unskilled or semiskilled. In fact, about 20 - 25 percent of the workers are found in the common labor group alone. An analysis of 50 collective bargaining agreements (including those negotiated with the "Big Four”), representing almost two-thirds of the pro duction workers in the industry, shows that workers in this industry have attained many significant benefits. Ninety percent of the workers in the study are guaranteed a weekly wage, commonly for 36 hours, to offset the fluctuation in employment resulting from the irregularity of the flow of livestock. The 3 6 - h o u r pay in most cases includes premium pay for overtime, Sunday work, holiday pay, and pay for clothes-changing time. Workers in three plants of the Hormel Co. are guaranteed an annual wage, rare in any industry. Virtually, every worker in the study is eligible for 3 weeks* vacation, generally after 1.5 years* service, as well as 8 paid holidays, un common in most industries. About 85 percent are granted paid sick leave benefits based, in almost all cases, on length of service. In addition, three-fourths of the workers are eligible for dismissal pay if laid off per manently because of the closing down of a department. Most of the workers also receive a number of other benefits such as pay for clothes-changing time, time spent in preparing and repairing tools and for rest periods. Generally, they are also furnished such items as tools equipment, outer work clothes, or are given monetary allowances for the pur chase of these articles. l/ Armour, Swift, Cudahy, and Wilson 2 On the other hand, the agreements show that health, insurance, and pension plans are not commonly incorporated in meat-packing agreements. A number of large packers, however, do provide for some welfare benefits as part of their company-wide program. Few agreements contain specific measures safeguarding the employees' health and safety. The large packers have, however, introduced new safety programs in recent years which have cut down the frequency and severity rate of accidents. The majority of workers are covered by agreements which do not go beyond the minimum statutory union security provisions, namely, sole bargain ing, Under this type of security, the union is recognized as the sole bar gaining agent for all workers, members and nonmembers. These provisions are usually strengthened by irrevocable check-off clauses. Because of the complexity of meat-packing operations, the wage structure is intricate. It is further complicated by separate rates for the same job classifications for male and female workers, by geographical differ entials, and by the concentration of jobs and workers at the common labor rate. A Meat-Packing Commission established by the National War Labor Board during World War II (19^5), after a 2-year study of these problems, recommended a simplification of the job classifications and of the wage system. These recommendations were adopted by most of the larger packers and are currently effective. Geographic differentials have been narrowed, and efforts are being made to adjust rates for male and female workers in the same job classifica tions. In an effort to reduce the area of conflict as much as possible, the grievance machinery is clearly defined. The "Big Three" agreements pro vide for permanent arbitration. UNION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS Development of Union Organization Butchers have been organized into unions from practically the beginning of the combination of slaughtering and meat packing into one indus try in the late l860*s. They experienced a succession of gains and setbacks in negotiating collective-bargaining agreements for almost three-quarters of a century before they finally met with sustained success. Time after time, organized workers, particularly In Chicago, the most important meat-packing area, struck for and won wage Increases and a shorter workday, but usually lost these gains within a few months. At firfft, workers in the industry were organized into local craft groups, especially in Chicago. During the l870's, a number of these inde pendent local unions joined the Knights of Labor and formed four separate organizations of cattle and sheep butchers, hog butchers, sausage makers, and meat cutters. 3 With the decline of the Knights of Labor, the four separate butcher unions in 1896 decided to amalgamate into one national organization. In July of that year, 11 representatives from unions in 7 cities met in Nashville, Tenn. and formed the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America (AMCBW). On January 22, 1897, the union was granted an industrial charter by the American Federation of Labor to organize workers in the production of meat products; its jurisdiction ranged from slaughter ing and processing plants to butchers in retail stores. The union’s strength was sufficiently formidable by I90I to seek * formal recognition. In furtherance of its objective as well as to obtain increases in wage rates, the union called its first national strike. Sixty thousand workers responded, 25,000 in Chicago alone. Union recognition on a national scale was granted. Disputes over application of the terms of the strike settlement led to another walkout late in I90U. The packers recruited immigrants and Negroes to replace the strikers and the strike was lost. The union lost its standing in the big packing centers, but lingered on in some small independent packing plants. It turned more and more to the organiza tion of butchers in retail shops. Except for the negotiation of the first closed-shop agreement in the industry with John Cudahy Packing Co. at Louisville, Ky. in 1905, 2/ little headway was made for some years. As late as 1916 , union membership in the AMCBW was only 7,500. Participation by the United States in World War I (1917-18) brought plant expansion and the employment of many new workers. With the aid of the Stockyards Labor Council set up at the time by the AFL’s Chicago Federation of Labor, the Amalgamated recruited many of these new workers. To avoid interruptions in supplies essential to the successful prosecution of the war, the Government, in 1917, negotiated an agreement with the larger meat packers which provided that employees would be granted the right to join unions of their own choosing and that unsettled labor disputes would be adjusted by a government administrator. As a result, membership in the Amalgamated expanded rapidly. later that year, the President appointed Federal Judge Samuel Alschuler as administrator to settle a dispute with the "Big Five" packers 3 / arising from union demands for better working conditions and higher wages to meet rising prices. Judge Alschuler’s first general award, effective May 5 , 1918, sot a pattern which was followed in agreements with independent packers. The award granted (1) a basic 8-hour workday; (2) compensation at premium rates for weekly overtime work and for work on Sundays and holidays; (3) paid 20-minute lunch periods on three 8-hour shift operations; (k) wage increases; and (5 ) equality of wage rates for*male and female employees 2/ Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen (AFL), The Butcher Workman, July 191*9 (p. 5 ). 3/ Armour, Swift, Cudahy, Wilson, and Morrell. 992836 0 —52----2 u. doing the same class of work, k/ No changes were recommended, however, in the 1+0-hour weekly guarantee effective at the time, which the employers re quested he correspondingly reduced in line with the reduction of the workday from 10 to B hours. A 1+5-hour weekly guarantee in plants of Swift and Com pany was reduced to the prevailing 1+0-hour guarantee to conform with other plants. By 1921, the Amalgamated membership had grown to 100,000. Dissen sion and factional struggles split the union into several competing groups. Upon expiration of the arbitration agreements (negotiated during the war) on September 15, 1921, the "Big Five" refused to continue to negotiate with the union. In December 1921, the union called a Nation-wide strike, its first major stoppage since I90I . It sought to maintain the 8-hour day, time and + a half for overtime, seniority rights, a guaranteed workweek, and other gains in working conditions, many obtained for the first time during the wartime control of the industry. 5/ Despite inner union factionalism and unemploy ment, about 1+5,000 workers in plants in 13 cities responded. 6/ After 2 months, the strike ended in defeat. Although the union again failed to se cure recognition in plants of the "Big Five", most of the wartime gains in working conditions were maintained. Torn by increased internal strife, the union in 1923 shrank to its prewar stature of fewer than 10,000 members. 7 / Meanwhile, other unions which had been organized by the major com panies in 1921, acceded to wage reductions. 8/ These company unions, called "Employee Conference Boards" or "Employee Representation Plans", replaced the AMCBW in plants of the "Big Five" during the mid-1920’s, and covered probably half of the industry’s 200,000 workers. 9/ The AMCBW was able to negotiate agreements in only a few communities. Its membership remained at a low level until the early 1930's (approximately 13,000 members in 1930 ). As in many other industries, enactment of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 and the passage of the National Labor Relations Act in 1935 again stimulated the growth of trade-unionism in the industry. During it/ In the Matter of the Arbitration of Six Questions Concerning Wages, Hours and Conditions of Labor in Certain Packing House Industries, by Agreement Submitted for Decision to a United States Administrator. Chicago, 111., April 30, 1918, 1 5 PP. ( 5/ Patrick E. Gorman, President, "The Amalgamated teat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America", Labor Information Bulletin, U. S. Department of Labor, Vol. 7, No. 8, August 19*+0 (pp. 5 and 6). 6/ Selig Perlman and Philip Taft, History of Labor in the United States, 1895-1932, 1935 (p. 500). 77 Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1936 (pp. 181 85). +-I 8/ Levis Corey, Meat and Man, 1950 (p. 287). 9/ Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen (AFL), Report of Pro ceedings of the Twelfth General Convention, 1926 (p. 58). 5. this period, in addition to the AMCBW, 6 "so-called" workers’ unions also solicited members in Chicago. When, however, the National Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional in 1935 , the company unions began to disintegrate and disappear. 10/ Following the formation of the CIO, representatives of some local meat-packing unions affiliated with the AFL in various parts of the country met on October 2b, 1937, and formed the Packinghouse Workers Organizing Committee (IVOC), affiliated with the CIO. The committee’s main organizing activities were concentrated on the major packing plants. By 19b0, the AMCBW and the newly formed IWOC were both fairly well established and had succeeded in entering into collective bargaining agree ments with some of the plants of the "Big Four" (Armour, Swift, Cudahy, and Wilson) as well as with other large independent packers. On October lb, 19b3, the IWOC was dissolved and the United Pack inghouse Workers of America (UPWA) was organized as an international union of the CIO. At that time, the AM2BW claimed membership of about 100,000; the UEVA, about 80,000. Since World War II, the two major unions have re presented the bulk of the industry’s workers. In addition to these two international unions, a third union has negotiated agreements with one of the major meat-packing companies as well as with several independent packers. It was organized following the dis solution of company unions. Until 19b 5> it was known as the International Brotherhood of Swift Employees. It is now the National Brotherhood of Pack inghouse Workers of America (NBIW), affiliated with the Confederated Unions of America (CUA). In March 19b9, it claimed 19,000 members in meat packing and other food industries, ll/ The Bargaining Unit Since World War II Present day collective-bargaining relations in the industry date back to 19b1. Prior thereto, negotiations were conducted on a plant-by-plant basis. Each plant of each of the big packers bargained separately and signed an individual contract. In an attempt to stabilize wages and to eliminate wage competition, the unions began to press for bargaining on a conpany-wide basis. Since 19bl-b2, each of the "Big Four" packers has negotiated master 10/ Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen (AFL), Synopsis of Proceedings of the Fourteenth General Convention, 1936 (p. 67* ll/ Testimony of Don Mahon, President of the National Brotherhood of Packinghouse Workers (CUA), at the hearings before a special subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 8lst Cong., 1st Sees, on H. R. 2032, a Bill to Repeal the Labor Management Relations Act of 19b7, etc., March 7-21, 19b9 (p. 69b). 6. agreements covering those of its plants represented by the union which had established its bargaining rights through National Labor Relations Board re presentation elections. The agreements are fairly uniform except for certain provisions, such as seniority, which are sometimes modified by local agree ment. These local provisions are, however, subject to approval by the Inter national unions. Patterns established by the "Big Four" are usually reflected rapidly in the contracts negotiated with the independent packers. The first of the "Big Four" master agreements was signed in 19^1 by Armour and Cudahy with the IWOC. Master agreements, effective August 191*2, were subsequently negotiated by Swift with IWOC, AMCBW and the NBIV (IND.), and by Wilson with the IWOC. The AMCBW signed its first master agreement with Armour in 19^-3 • By 19^9-50> the UFWA had negotiated master agreements with Swift, Armour, Cudahy, and Morrell covering more than 50 plants; the AMCBW with Armour and Swift, covering about 22 plants; 12/ and the NBIW, with 9 Swift plants. Although master agreements cover somewhat less than 5 percent of the more than 2,000 meat-packing establishments reported by the Census of Manufactures for 19^7, they account for more than half of the production and related workers in the industry. Extent of Collective Bargaining In terns of workers employed, the meat-packing industry is about 90 percent covered by union contract. The two international unions, AMCBW and UIWA, estimate that each represents somewhat less than half the workers in the industry. Of its 175,000 members in 1950> the AMCBW reported about 90,000 in the meat-packing industry, primarily in packing houses, branch houses, and other operations outside the "Big Five". The majority of the remaining members are employed in retail butcher shops, but many work in canneries, poultry and egg houses, and tanneries. The AMCBW is dominant in the meat-packing plants on the West Coast, where most of the agreements are negotiated by employers* associations or other multi-employer groups. Most of the UIWA’s 80,000 members are employed in plants of the "Big Five". The union maintains that its agreements cover approximately 80 percent of the production and maintenance workers of these major packers. 13 / Membership of the NBIW is concentrated mainly among Swift employees, where it ranks next to UIWA in the number of workers represented. I k / 12/ The union also has contractual relations with individual plants of Cudahy, Wilson, and Morrell. 13/ Report to the President on the Labor Dispute In the Meat-Packing Indus try. by the Board of Inquiry, created by Executive Order No. 993^-A, dated March 15, 19^8, transmitted April 8, I9H8 (p. 7). I k / Edwin E. Witte, "Industrial Relations in Meat Packing", in Labor in Postwar America, ed. C. E. Warne, 19^9 (p. ^9*0» 7 Although negotiations are conducted separately, the AMCBW and UTWA have, since 1$&6-V7, exchanged information and generally kept each other informed on the progress of their negotiations. Eecently, they concluded a mutual aid "bargaining pact to work together in negotiations with leading packers. The two unions agreed to pool resources to reach agreements with the packers, and not to conclude a contract without full discussion of common problems. This represents the first agreement "between competing CIO and AFL unions in the same fields for joint contract action with common employers on an industry-wide or Nation-wide basis. 15 / Trade Associations None of the national trade associations in the industry partici pates in the collective bargaining negotiations. Their principal activities include technical and merchandising research, public relations, packing house management, trade promotion, education, and informational services. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEAT-PACKING INDUSTRY The meat-packing industry has been centered in the Midwest almost from the beginning of its large scale operations. Cincinnati, the first of the great packing centers, was supplanted by Chicago during the Civil War, when cattle instead of hogs came to be more widely marketed. Other factors responsible for making Chicago and the Midwest the key meat-packing area include: (a) the increasing population in the Eastern cities, which necessitated procuring livestock from distant localities; (b) the advent of railroads and their extension westward, making Chicago a more economic terminus than Eastern cities; and (c) the introduction of refrigerator cars in the 1870’s. Meat-packing establishments are usually classified into three dis tinct categories: (1) The large national packers who occupy a dominant positiojj in the industry, generally referred to as the "Big Four": Armour, Swift, Cudahy, and Wilson, (With Morrell they are referred to as the "Big Five".) They maintain large central plants, as well as a number of smaller plants, mainly in livestock production areas. They also operate numerous "branch houses" to market and distribute their products in or around most major consuming areas. (2) The independent, medium-size packers whose opera tions somewhat parallel those of the "Big Four" except that their products are usually marketed over a smaller region and their production is limited more to pork products. Included in the group are such companies as Hormel, Kingan- Oscar Mayer, Bath, and Tobin. (3 ) The small local packers who are , generally engaged in intrastate operations. These companies usually buy local livestock, and process and market their products in surrounding areas. This type of establishment is prevalent in the East, especially in Pennsyl vania and New York. 15/ The CIO News, October 10, I9L9 (p. 11), and July 3 1 , 1950 (P. 3) 8. Significant Industry Characteristics Immediately prior to World War II, the meat-packing Industry ranked third in value of product, and eighth in number of employees among the manu facturing industries. Employment in the industry generally attains its peak between September and February and begins to taper off in the early spring. In the past decade, employment showed a substantial increase, having risen from 119,^00 in 1939 tc 165,^00 in 1950, or about ho percent (table 1). Table 1.— Number of production and related workers in the meat packing industry, by year, 1939-50 1/ Year 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 ............................. ............................. ......... . ......... ..... .......... . .......... ............................. ............................. . ....................... . ........... ......... ......... .......... .............. ..... ..................... ........ . .................... .......... Numier of production and related workers 119,400 129,500 145,100 176,500 175,200 172,900 156,300 160,000 167,100 156,200 165,200 165,400 l / These production worker employment series are consistent w itl the series beginning January 1947, Sxunmary L S 50 4264, Location of the Industry and Size of Establishments According to the Census of Manufactures for I9V 7 > approximately a third of the industry's 2 ,1 5 3 establishments account for two-thirds of the 167,000 production and related workers, and are located in the North Central States. Illinois ranks as the most important meat-packing center, with Iowa second. Upward of 30 percent of the industry's total labor force is concen trated in the following four urban centers: Chicago, Kansas City, Omaha, and St. Paul. A gradual shift westward has been taking place. The increased use of motor trucks has enabled farmers to bring livestock directly to nearby slaughtering plants. As a result, Icwa, Missouri, Texas, and California have become relatively more important meat-packing areas. From 1939 to 19^7> the percentage of workers in Illinois declined from about 20 to 15 percent of the industry total. 9 Small-size plants predominate, tut a few large establishments account for a sizable proportion of the industry*s work force. Twelve establishments, each employing 2 ,50 0 or more employees in 19 ^7 , accounted for about a fourth of the total number of employees in the industry. Al most two-thirds of all the workers were in 86 plants, which employed over 500 workers each. Nature of Job and Composition of Labor Force The slaughtering process in the meat-packing industry is initially one of disassembly, followed by further processing into cured meats. It was reportedly the first industry to develop the continuous production lines system, with its resultant division of labor. Contrary to experience in many other industries, it was not, however, accompanied by a high degree of mechanization. 16/ Jobs in the industry are still largely of a manual and repetitive nature. The combination of minute divisions of labor, coupled with the absence of highly mechanized operations, has led to an unusually large pro portion of unskilled and semiskilled jobs. In 19^5> the percentage of all employees classified as common labor in the five largest packing firms — Armour, Swift, Cudahy, Wilson, and Moire11 -- ranged from 25 to 38 percent, with an average of about 30 percent. About 25 percent of the male and more than 50 percent of the female employees were classified as common labor. 17/ Most of the work in packing plants is still unskilled and semi skilled hand labor. At present, the percentage of common labor is reported to range from about 18 to 25 percent. The number of workers in the common labor grade is lcwer in plants of the independent and smaller packers. A few jobs in the butcher and maintenance classifications require a rather high degree of skill. With few exceptions, the skilled Jobs are held by men. Certain tasks in the industry are peculiarly adaptable to women workers. During World War II women represented about 15 to 20 percent of the total labor force in the industry, largely in the processing departments. The proportion is now estimated at more than 20 percent. It will undoubtedly increase in the near future. 18 / Nonwhite workers have been an important segment of the industry's labor force for almost half a century. Although they account for about 30 percent of the work force in the industry as a whole, they constitute more than half the labor force in and around the important Chicago area. 16/ The Termination Report of the National War Labor Board, Industrial Disputes and Wage Stabilization in War Time, Vol. 1, January 12, 1$&£ December 31» 19^5> Ch. 19, wThe Meat Packing Commission," by Clark Kerr (P. 1<*5). 17/ Report and Recommendations of the Fact-Finding Board in the MeatPacking Industry Case, February 7> 19^8 (p. 8 ). 18 / United. Packinghouse Workers of America, The Packinghouse Worker, http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ 2, 1951 (p. 2). March Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 10 CURRENT STATUS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING Nature of the Sample This study is based upon an analysis of 50 collective-bargaining agreements in the meat-packing and slaughtering industry current in mid-1950. 19 / The agreements cover 299 plants, with approximately 105,000 production and related workers, or almost two-thirds of the production workers in the indus try. 20/ Six master agreements negotiated with three of the "Big Four" packers are included: Armour - AMCBW and UIWA; Swift - AMCBW, UPWA, EBPW; and Cudahy - UFWA. 21/ These 6 agreements represent two-thirds of the total number of workers in the sample and about b o percent of the production workers in the industry. The sample is representative of the geographic distribution of the industry and of the number of production workers (table 2). Plants employing fewer than 20 workers were not included in the sample except to the extent that they may be included in some of the city area-wide and/or employer-asso ciation negotiated agreements. Single plant, multi-plant (including master agreements with the "Big Three” packers), employer association, and standard area-wide agreements have been included. The two dominant unions— the Amal gamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America and the United Packinghouse Workers of America, as well as the National Brotherhood of Packinghouse Workers are represented (table 3). The AMCBW represents a larger proportion of the agreements and plants in the sample, but a smaller number of workers than the UIWA whose strength lies largely in plants of the "Big Four." All of the major provisions in the agreements were analyzed for this study. Although some agreements were renegotiated after the analysis was com pleted, the substantive changes in these contracts (except for the wage adjust ments) were not significant. The changes are noted in the footnotes. 19/ The industry is defined to correspond with Standard Industrial Classi fications No. 2011 and 2012 (19^5 manual) -- the slaughtering of livestock to be sold fresh or to be used on the same premises in the production of canned and cured meats, in the making of sausage and lard, and other products, and the slaughtering of livestock on a contract basis for the trade. 20/ The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported an average of 165,000 pro duction workers in 1950. 2l/ Since the master agreement negotiated between Wilson and the UIWA had expired in 19^8 and was, therefore, not included in this study, the other three major packers are referred to in this report as the "Big Three." An analysis of the provisions of the new 1950-52 Wilson agreement as well as the 1950-52 Swift, Armour, and Cudahy agreements (all of which were negotiated subsequent to this study) reveal few major differences from the provisions of the "Big Three" agreements used in this study. -zu—0 988Z06 Table 2#— Number of establishments and workers in the meat-packing industry and in the sample, by region Region Total ........................ New E n g l a n d .......... ..... . • Middle Atlantic ..............# East North Central .......... West North Central •••••.... .. South Atlantic .............. East South Central West South Central .......... M o u n t a i n ...... ............... Pacifio ...................... fetal establishments anA production workers in industry 1/ Number of Number prodiction of aid establish related ments worcers Number of plants Plants and production workers in sample Number of Number of production and -Big 3" related plants workers Number of production and related workers 2,153 16%100 2/ 299 2/ 104,300 81 68,700 86 359 542 236 231 110 217 143 227 3,200 15,000 47,100 59,300 9,500 5,300 11,900 4,900 10,900 5 115 35 41 11 9 7 11 65 2,100 9.800 25,500 47,100 3,900 1,900 4,800 2,600 6,600 4 7 16 24 7 4 6 5 8 2,000 2,900 19,700 30,200 1,900 700 4,600 2,500 4,200 1/ U.S. Department of Commerce, Census of Manufacturers, 1947. *2/ Although the sample covers less than 15 percent of all establishments in the industry in 1947, the number of woriEers covered by the 50 agreements represents at least two-thirds of the production and related workers in the industry# The sample does not include establishments with fewer than 20 employees, except to the extent that they ■ay be included in some of the city area-wide and/or employers* association negotiated agreements# 12. Table 3.— Distribution of agreements and workers surveyed in the meat-packing industry, by union big Tkree^ Total Number of agree ments Number of plants Number of workers Total ...... 50 299 104,300 6 81 68,700 A M C B W ...... 26 219 29,700 2 22 8,700 ....... 21 71 66,700 3 50 52,100 N B P W ....... 1 9 7,900 1 9 7,900 Union vpm IfumWr of agree ments Number of plants Number of workers FORMAL AGREEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Employer Unit Of the 50 agreements in the study, 11, accounting for three-fourths of the workers, cover several plants of a particular company; the "Big Three" agreements fall into this category. Nine agreements, all AMCBW, with about 10 percent of the workers, are multi-employer, either negotiated with a for mal employer’s association or with a group of employers in a given area. The remaining 30 agreements, covering approximately 15 percent of the workers, were negotiated with single plants. Occupational Coverage Every agreement in the study covers all of the production workers in the plant and in many instances, maintenance workers. A few agreements, with a small number of workers, also include truck drivers, cafeteria workers, and other nonproduction employees in the bargaining unit. Duration, Extension, and Benewal of Agreements The majority of agreements in the study, covering about 90 percent of the workers, were negotiated for periods of 1 year or less. The six "Big Three" agreements come within this category. 22/ A few agreements covering 10 percent of the workers were negotiated for periods of more than 1 year but not exceeding 2 years. Only one agreement with a small number of workers was of 3 years’ duration, and one with about 2,000 workers for a 5-year period. Two agreements run indefinitely, until canceled by either party. 22/ These agreements subsequently negotiated in 1950 are of 2 years* duration. 13 The "Big Three" and most of the other contracts are automatically renewed from year to year in the absence of notice by either party to amend or terminate them. The notice period is generally 60 days, as required by the Labor Management Relations Act, although a few specify 30 days; one, 60 days by the union and 90 by the company; and one, 90 days. A few agreements provide for extension of the agreement after its stated expiration date if negotiations are still in progress. Some remain in effect for an indefinite period until termination notice is given or until negotiations for a new agreement are completed, and a few others con tinue for a specified period. Although agreements in this industry are negotiated at various times during the year, about half of the agreements in the study terminate in August. SIGNIFICANT (INDUSTRY) CONTRACT PROVISIONS The meat-packing industry is one of the few in which the majority of workers receive a guaranteed weekly, and in some instances, annual wage; 3 weeks* vacation (if they meet specified service requirements); 8 paid holi days with compensation at double time for hours worked on those days, plus 8 hours' pay for the holiday; paid sick leave; dismissal pay; and compensa tion for such activities as clothes-changing, tool-sharpening, etc. Guaranteed Weekly Wage Plans Minimum work or wage guarantees have long been provided by the industry to its hourly paid employees. They reflect the attests by both management and labor to stabilize and regularize workers' earnings in the face of seasonal, and even daily, fluctuations in production arising from irregularity in the receipt of livestock. As long ago as 1912, Swift and Co. had inaugurated weekly guarantees, which are new widespread in the industry. 2 3 / During World War I, the major packers guaranteed ho hours* work or pay weekly. In 1 9 3 the AMCBW was again able to incorporate weekly guarantees in some agreements, but they were, with few exceptions, limited to only 28 hours' work. 2 h / During NRA, the guarantee was raised to 32 hours. 25 / In 19^5> as a result of a National War labor Board directive applicable to the large packers, the guarantee was increased to 36 hours. 26/ 2 3 / Edwin E. Witte, "Industrial Relations in Meat Packing", Labor in Postwar America, ed. C. I. W a m e , 19^9 (p. 500). 2k f Lewis Corey, Meat and Man, 1950 (pp. 305-306). 25 / Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen, Synopsis of Proceedings of the Fourteenth General Convention, 1936 (p. 6 ). 26/ Directive Order of February 20, 19^5. The Termination Report of the National War Labor Board, Industrial Disputes and Wage Stabilization in War time, January 12, 191*2 - December 31, 19^5, Vol. Ill, Appendix FF (p. 409). Weekly Guarantees Forty of the 50 agreements analyzed, covering 90 percent of the workers in the study, contain weekly work guarantees. Under these guarantees workers called to and reporting for work at the beginning of the workweek must he given work (or pay) for the number of hours guaranteed for that week. No minimum number of weeks of work per year is, however, assured. Commonly the guarantee calls for 36 hours, though guarantees from 35 to Ho hours are also in effect. Employees laid off before the close of the first workday or, less frequently, by the close of the second day of the workweek do not qualify for the weekly guarantee in two out of every five agreements. Such employees are paid only for hours actually worked, unless, as most of the agreements provide, they are recalled for work in the same workweek in which they are laid off. In the latter event the full weekly guarantee is restored. The "Big Three" and a number of other agreements expressly provide for proportionate reduc tions of the guarantee far employees hired or called to work after the first day of the workweek. Certain attendance requirements must commonly be met to be eligible for the full weekly guarantee. Workers must generally be present every scheduled workday or work their full "gang time". Absence (excused or other wise) or tardiness generally reduces the guarantee. Overtime, Sunday and holiday work premium pay, and pay for time spent in changing clothes are included in confuting the weekly guarantee in some agreements and excluded in others. The three Swift agreements analyzed include such premium payments. Most of the plans provide that pay far an unworked holiday is to be credited against the guarantee, i.e., in a week in which a paid holiday occurs the employee is to be guaranteed only 28 hours* additional pay. "The parties understand and agree that the foregoing guarantee nrovisions are based on nay and not on hours of work and that the Company has fully complied with the pro visions of this guarantee when an eligible enployee has been paid a sum of money equal to his regular rate of pay for thirty-six (36 ) hours, including compensation paid to him in excess of his straight-time regular rate of pay for hours of productive work by operation of Paragraphs A (l), (2), and (A), and C of Section 1 (Holiday and Sunday pay) of Article IV, Sections I (Call out guarantee) and 5 (Recall t guarantee) of Article VIII of this agreement; and of para graph 1 (Clothes Changing Time) of Article VIII of this Agreement; and including compensation paid by operation of Section 2 (c) (l) (Pay for Holidays not worked) of this Article." (Swift and Co. - AMCBW (AFL) Master Agreement) Armour and Cudahy, on the other hand, specifically exclude premium payment for Sunday work. 15 A few provide that the application of the weekly guarantee is to "b the same in holiday weeks as in other weeks, hut stipulate that pay for e unworked holidays is not to he applied to the weekly guarantee. "The guarantee of thirty-six (36 ) hours pay per week shall he the same in holiday weeks as in other weeks. "The parties understand and agree that the foregoing guarantee provisions are based on pay and not hours of work and that the Company has fully complied with the provisions of this guarantee when an eligible employee has been paid a sum of money equal to his basic hourly rate of pay for thirty-six (36 ) hours including compen sation paid to him in excess of this straight-time basic hourly rate for hours of productive work by operation of Section 5 , Paragraph B, sub-paragraph 1, concerning overtime and premium pay as stated in sub-paragraphs (A) and (B) and Paragraph G, Sub-paragraph 1 (a), concern ing working through a meal period, Section 6 , Paragraphs B and C concerning call to work pay and emergency call to work pay, respectively, and Section 8 , Paragraph A concerning clothes changing time. However, pay for holidays not worked shall be excluded from the provi sions of this paragraph." (Kingan and Co., Indianapolis, Ind. - UTWA (CIO) The employer is not held to the guarantee under some agreements, if operations have to be curtailed for causes beyond his control, such as fire, flood, or State or Federal Government orders or actions, or stoppages for a full day resulting from a breakdown of equipment. Guaranteed Annual Wage Plans for guaranteeing income or employment on an annual basis are rare in any industry. For the past few years, the packinghouse unions in their negotiations with the big packers have sought to extend the weekly guarantee to an annual wage plan. At present, Hormel is the only meat pack ing company known to have an annual guarantee. The Tobin Co. adopted such a plan in 19^6. When its agreement was renewed in 19^9> the plan was dropped at the request of the workers and a weekly guarantee substituted. The Hormel guaranteed annual wage plan was first introduced into one department of its main Austin, Minn, plant as early as 1931. The plan was gradually extended, until by July 1933> it included the entire plant. In 1938, the plan was incorporated into an agreement with the CIO's Packing house Workers Organizing Committee and was made subject to collective bar gaining and grievance procedure. Each worker covered under the plan is guaranteed 52 pay checks a year, each at least equal to regular full-time pay, whether or not full-time work is available. In actual practice, full-time scheduled hours vary by department, from 3 ^ to IfO, but most workers have a 38 -hour scheduled workweek. 16 To compensate for veeks in which the number of hours worked fall "below the regular schedule, the employee works overtime when necessary, on a straight-time "basis, except that workers in operating departments receive additional half-pay for hours worked in excess of 53 in any workweek. Fur thermore , in any week in which a worker j c employed more than 10 hours in a f single day, he is paid extra half-time f#* all hours worked that week in excess of k8 . Workers receive a year-end payment for hours actually worked in excess of the number guaranteed for the whole year. If, however, by a sti pulated date, the worker is indebted to the company for hours not worked, the "debt" is wiped off the books. The annual wage guarantee is linked to a work-budget incentive system and to a joint earnings (profit-sharing) plan. Under the work-budget system, the company annually estimates, where possible, the total output expected for each gang and department. This is then translated into the number of man-hours required to meet the estimated production. If, in any week, actual production exceeds the work or output schedule— that is, when "production hours" exceed the "actual clock hours worked"— the gang or department receives a bonus or "gains”. For example, if an employee produces the equivalent of 30 production hours in 20 hours of actual work, he receives 10 extra hours’ pay in addition to his regular weekly pay. The profit-sharing plan, in existence since 1938, though referred to in the agreement, is explicitly not subject to collective bargaining. Profits, after wages and all other expenses are deducted, are divided between the employees and the company on a sliding percentage basis. 27/ The employees’ share is split among the individual workers in proportion to their basic hourly rate. All plant and office employees, except salesmen, regularly em ployed for 1 year are eligible to participate. Paid Vacations With relatively few exceptions, workers under the agreements included in this survey can look forward to 3 weeks’ vacation with pay, generally after 15 years’ service (table k). Prior to 19^9, 20 years’ service (15 for women) was commonly required for 3 weeks' vacation. Employees are generally (80 per cent of those in the study) not permitted to continue on their jobs during their vacation psMod. Vacations earned prior to a call for military service are granted to employees in 10 out of the 50 agreements. 2j/ Jack Chernick, Economic Effects of Steady Employment and Earnings, The University of Minnesota Press, 19^2 (p. 12). 17 Table 4.— Graduated paid vacation plans and service requirements in the meat-packing industry 1/ Vacation period and service requirement JNumter of agreements Number of workers All agreements studied ............ 50 104,300 2 weeksf vacation ............. 5 years1 service 5 years' service 10 2 8 2/ 6,900 200 6,700 39 1 33 5 3/ 96,700 1,700 4 / 93,600 1,400 1 / 3 weeks' vacation 10“years r service 15 years ’ service ..... . 20 years' service 2/ 3/ 4/ V 4 weeks' vacation 20 yearsf service ..... ......... 6/ 1 1 6/ 700 700 1/ All workers are entitled to 1 week's vacation after 1 year's service# 2/ One agreement, with 1,800 workers, provides for a vacation period, on a prorated basis, after 1 year's service until the maxi mum of 2 weeks is reached# 3/ Except for two agreements which provide for 2 weeks' vaca tion after 3 years' service and one after 4 years, all of these agreements provide for 2 weeks’ vacation after 5 years' service# 4/ One agreement covering a small number of workers prorates vacations on a monthly basis up to 1 year's service, and on a yearly basis up to 5 years' service (2 weeks' vacation)* 5/ Two agreements, covering 1,300 workers, stipulate that fe male employees are eligible for 3 weeks’ vacation after 15 years’ service. 6/ Two weeks' vacation is granted after 5 years' service; 3, after 10 years' service. The Selective Service Act provides that if the agreement or em ployer practice bases vacation credits solely on specified lengths of serv ice, ex-servicemen are entitled to full seniority credit for time spent in service# 28/ A few agreements in the study specifically provide for accumulation of such vacation credits during the worker1s absence while in military service# Holidays 19^6# Most packinghouse workers have received eight paid holidays since Workers in most other industries customarily receive six (table 5)« 29 / 28/ U. S. Department of Labor> Bureau of Veterans* Employment Eights, Veterans* Beemployment Eights Question and Answer Handbook, October 1950 ( " ^9 ) . p. 29 / U. S. Department of Labor, "Holiday Provisions in Union Agreements, 1 9 3 0 , n M o n t h l y labor Reviev, January 1951 (p. 2 5 ). 18 Table 5.— Number of paid holidays in the meat-packing industry Number of agreements Number of workers s tud l e d .... .......... 50 104,300 Total with paid holidays ............. 49 103,600 Number of paid holidays AT 1 ag’ reements Number of holidays: 8 ............................. 7 ............................. 6 ............................. ........ 2 ....................... ...... Total with no paid holidays .......... 1/ 3/ 40 4 4 1 4/ 1 1 / 1/101,400 500 1,700 (3/) V 4/ 700 1/ Two agreements, with 2,300 employees, also provide for 3 unpaid holidays. Under terms of 2 other agreements, representing 500 workers, employees are given time off with pay on 6 holidays. On Washington's Birthday and Armistice Day, the holiday is not observed bnt the workers receive 8 hours' pay in addition to their regular pay for work on these 2 days. 2/ One of these agreements, with fewer than 100 employees, also grants an unspecified number of unpaid legal, National or State holidays. 3/ This agreement with fewer than 100 workers also provides for” 6 unpaid holidays. 4/ This agreement, however, provides for 8 unpaid holidays. The eight holidays most comnonly recognized are: New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, July Fourth, Labor Day, Armistice Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. Paid holidays on which no work is performed are not counted in totaling hours worked for the purpose of computing weekly overtime for about 80 percent of the workers. To receive holiday pay, almost all the workers must meet some work requirement. Generally, they must have worked on the scheduled workday immediately preceding and following a holiday. Almost three out of four workers forfeit holiday pay if they fail to report for work on a holiday when requested to do so. The standard compensation for work done on a paid holiday is double time for hours worked plus the 8 hours’ holiday pay, i.e., three times the regular rate for a full day’s work (table 6). The clause generally provides that double the regular rate of pay, in addition to payment of straight time for the holiday is to be paid for holiday work. Most of the earlier contracts provided for double time pay, which included the premium payment for the holiday. Buies are frequently prescribed concerning holidays falling on nonworking days, during absences while ill, or on vacation. Holidays falling on Sunday are usually observed on Monday. Employees covered by half of the agreements, including the "Big Three", are paid for holidays occurring during 19. sick leave, but they usually receive only the difference between their re gular pay and the compensation due under their sick and accident benefit plans. Virtually all employees receive payment for holidays falling within their vacation period. Most of them get an extra day’s pay, and a few agreements, in addition grant employees an extra day off. Table 6.— Total hourly rates of pay for work on paid holidays in the meat-packing industry Number of agreements Rate of pay All agreements studied ......... Agreements providing for paid holidays . Double time .......... Double time and one half Triple time (double time for hours worked plus 8 hours* holiday pay),. Not indicated .................... 1/ Humber of workers 50 1/ 104,300 49 103*600 2 2 3,400 43 2 100 99,900 200 l/ One of these agreements, representing 700 workers, provides for”unpaid holidays. Paid Sick leave Most of the workers (85 percent) are covered by paid sick leave plans which were first incorporated in agreements in 19^6. Benefits are payable in case of illness or noncompensable accidents, except, commonly, when due to the employee's negligence or misconduct. The amount of leave with pay is, with one exception, based on length of service. It is usual practice in the industry for workers to receive 2 weeks* leave at half pay for each year of accumulated or continuous service with the company. The following provision is typical: "Amount of payment - One-half wages computed on the basis of a forty hour workweek or, in the case of employees who have a basic workweek either greater or less than forty (^0 ) hours, one-half wages computed on the basis of such basic workweek. For absences of less than a full workweek, daily payments will be based on one-sixth of said one-half wages computed as aforesaid, "Extent of payments - Two weeks at one-half wages for each year of accumulated service or of continuous service, whichever is the more favorable to the employee, for any one absence reduced by the payment made for other absences dur ing the twelve months immediately preceding the onset of the current absence." (Swift and Co. - NBIW (IND.) Master Agreement) 992836 0 —52----4 20. A small number of workers receive full pay for specified periods of sick leave, ranging from 7 days a year in one agreement to 7 weeks in the three Hormel plants. Only one agreement contains a uniform plan under which all eligible employees are granted 5 days’ sick leave with.full pay, annually, regardless of length of service. In about half the contracts, the company pays only the difference, if any, between the compensation payment and the sick leave pay when the disability is compensable under Federal or State Law. Service Requirements and Other Regulations In almost every case, an employee becomes eligible for sick leave pay after 1 year’s service. A worker with 5 years’ service (10 years in a few cases) generally receives sick pay from the first day of absence, and one with shorter service after 1 week’s waiting period. Some, or all, of earned paid vacation time may be used as sick leave if the employee so desires, under the terms of more than a third of these agreements. Medical evidence of illness is required in almost all the agreements in the form of a certificate from the employee’s or the company's doctor. Should the certificate of the worker's doctor be unacceptable to the company doctor, a few agreements call for a final determination by a third doctor. Dismissal Pay Dismissal pay for workers permanently laid off because of the closing of a department or a unit of the business was incorporated in agree ments in the meat-packing industry for the first time in 19 ^9 ♦ Workers of the "Big Three" and a few other companies — three-fourths of the workers in the study — are now eligible for such pay. In all cases, the worker Is entitled to 1 week's pay after 1 year's service; an additional half week’s pay for every year of service thereafter, up to and including 6 years; and 1 week extra for every additional year up to arid including 10 years of continuous service. Thereafter, 1? weeks’ pay is added for each year of continuous service. The employee, if qualified, also receives vacation pay for the current year in which he is separated. Payment is made in a lump sum when the worker is entitled to b weeks’ pay or less. Payments for longer periods are made in weekly install ments of full wages, unless the employee prefers to receive larger payments over a shorter period or requests a lump-sum payment. Fringe Benefits Conditions peculiar to the meat-packing industry require workers in many occupations to change into work clothes on the premises. Federal sanitary regulations provide, among other things, that these clothes be of readily clean 21. able material and be clean at all times. In addition, the nature of the work also requires the use and maintenance of special hand tools, such as knives and cleavers. Pay for time spent in changing clothes and maintaining work tools, and the furnishing of special clothing or of needed hand tools or payment therefor became a major subject of controversy between the unions and the packers during World War II. In I9M and 19^5> the National War Labor Board directed the "Big Four” packers to furnish and maintain necessary tools, furnish special outer working garments, and to pay for necessary time spent in changing clothes on the premises. The Board further directed the unions and the companies to bargain on the actual amount of time to be allowed for clothe8-changing. Agreement was reached under which workers ware granted 12 minutes daily. Clothes-Changing Time Time for changing into and out of work clothes on the premises is granted to 9 out of every 10 workers in the study. Virtually every worker is allowed 12 minutes daily. Hormel employees receive a lump sum weekly monetary allowance of $ 1.50 in lieu of payment for clothes-changing time and the furnishing of clothes. In two additional agreements, compensation for clothes-changing time is expressly included in the wage rates, but the amounts are not specified. 30 / Preparation and Repair of Tools Virtually all workers are paid for time spent in preparing, sharpening, and repairing tools. The majority of the agreements (including the "Big Three?) do not, however, Indicate the length of time devoted to such activity. In a few cases, where the time allowance is specified, it ranges from 30 minutes weekly to 20 minutes daily. In a few additional cases, workers receive a weekly lump stun ranging from 25 to 75 cents . The preparation and repair of tools is assigned to special people in a few instances to relieve the body of workers from such tasks. Best Periods To break the monotony and fatigue of repetitive, continuous opera tions, agreements covering nine-tenths of the workers grant rest or relief periods. In some scattered instances, the rest period applies only to special groups (cattle killers and boners), or is observed only after the plant has processed a certain quota, or only after a specified number of overtime hours. 30/ Compensation for time spent in preparation and repair of tools and for furnishing outer work clothes is also included in the wage rate. 22 The rest period specified in agreements applicable to If percent of O the workers is most commonly 10 minutes for each half shift. Some agreements, however, provide for only 5 minutes, others for 20 minutes for each half shift. Workers at Armour are allowed 2 periods of 10 minutes each. (The length of the rest period is not specified in the Swift and Cudahy agreements.) Meals and Meal Time Most employees (80 percent of those in the study) who work more than 5 consecutive hours without a break for meals receive a penalty premium of time and a half their regular rate of pay until relieved. In a few cases it is paid after hours’ work. The employer is also commonly required to furnish a meal and to allow time with pay for eating it to employees required to work beyond their normal supper hour. The practice is almost equally divided in terms of workers covered between two types of agreements, one requiring a minimum of 5 conse cutive hours’ work after the first meal period, and the other 10 to 10|r hours’ work in any one day before a worker is entitled to such benefits. The length of this special meal period is generally set at 20 minutes, though a few small companies allow 30 minutes. Instead of providing a meal period with pay, one agreement provides for double the regular rate for all hours worked in excess of 5 hours after the first meal period. (The regular overtime rate for work in excess of 8 hours daily is time and a half.) These meal and meal time provisions are generally not applicable to employees on continuous operations who eat lunch on company time, or when 5"! hours completes the day’s work, or in case of a mechanical breakdown. Equipment and Monetary Allowance Tools, Equipment, and Safety Devices Most of the workers who are paid a time allowance for clotheschanging are also furnished with necessary tools, equipment, and safety devices. The "Big Three" packers and most of the other companies supply such equipment without cost to the workers. "The Company will furnish those knives, steels, whetstones, and meat hooks which are necessary for the work. The Company will continue its present practice in reference to furnishing all other tools. "The Company will continue its present practice in re ference to the furnishing of safety equipment and, in addi tion, will furnish to employees where necessary and required for the particular job they are on, mesh gloves, wrist guards, knife guards, leather aprons, hook pouches, knife pouches, knife boxes, needle pouches, helmets and goggles. All of the equipment referred to in this-and the preceding paragraphs of this Article is and is to remain the property of the Company 23 and the Company is privileged to adopt such rules as are necessary to prevent loss or destruction of its property including hut not limited to the right to charge em ployees for any of the property herein mentioned which is lost or stolen." (John Morrell and Co., Iowa and Kansas - U W A (CIO) In a few scattered agreements, the company grants a combined mone tary allowance to cover the cost of tools and equipment as well as work clothes. Outer Work Garments Virtually all regular workers receive a monetary allowance for, or are furnished with, some outer work garments. "Each employee shall be given an allowance of 50 cents per week for furnishing work clothes. This shall be paid to each full time employee who qualifies for the 4-hour guarantee in any day of the workweek or who after reporting for work is excused because of illness or in jury. Newly hired employees will be paid 8 cents per day for each day worked as a clothes allowance during the first week of their employment. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to part-time employees or casual workers." (Armour and Co. - AMCEW (AFL) Master Agreement) laundry Provisions for the laundering of outer work clothes were found in about two out of every five agreements, including the AMCBW-Armour and the AMCBW and UPWA-3wift agreements, covering a similar proportion of the workers in the study. Most of the companies launder the garments at no cost to the worker. A few grant a monetary laundry allowance. Other Benefits Workers at Armour, Cudahy and two other companies are compensated for time spent in visits to the conpany doctor on order or permission of a company official. A few other agreements provide that an employee injured during the workday is to be paid for the entire day if he must leave before the end of the day. Workers employed by Armour and one other company receive pay for any downtime caused by delays due to mechanical breakdown, waiting for material, etc. Armour employees are also paid for delays involving an accumulated total of 15 minutes daily. UNION AND MANAGEMENT RIGHTS AND FUNCTIONS Union Rights Union Security and Check-Off A large majority of the workers In the study are covered "by agree ments which simply provide for the minimum statutory requirements of the Labor Management Relations Act, 19^7, with respect to union security (table 7 ). These agreements (the "Big Three” and a few independent packers) provide that the union is to be recognized as the sole collective bargaining agent for all workers in the bargaining unit, whether members of the union or not. The "Big Three" agreements are strengthened by irrevocable check-off clauses. Virtually all of the other sole bargaining agreements call for some type of check-off but do not indicate whether revocable or not. Table 7.— Types of union security and cheok-off provisions in the neat-packing industry Type of provision tkion security Number Number of of agree workers ments ---- CTieck-off Number Number of of agree workers ments All agreements studied ••«• 50 104.300 37 91*600 Union shop Maintenance of member* ship .................... Sole bargaining .......... 31 25,800 19 13,200 1,200 5 1/ 77,300 1/ 13 1/ 77,200 1/ 5 1/ 14 1,200 Includes the 6 "Big Three" agreements with 68,700 workers. During World War II, agreements with the "Big Three" companies carried maintenance of membership clauses. Under this type of union security, employees need not Join the union as a condition of employment, but those who are members when the agreement is signed and those who Join subsequently must maintain membership for the life of the agreement. When the 19^8 agreements were negotiated, following passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, the maintenance of membership clauses were dropped and sole bargaining and irrevocable check off clauses were substituted. Although union shop provisions are found in the majority of agree ments surveyed, only one out of four workers is covered. They are more conmon in agreements with medium- and small-size firms and in those nego tiated by the AMCBW (AFL). (All agreements negotiated with employers' associations and other multi-employer groups fall within this group.) Under a union shop clause, a worker need not be a union member when hired, but must Join within a specified period, generally 30 days, and remain in good standing during the life of the agreement. A few of the union 25. shop agreements give preference in hiring to -union members, and several others, to workers formerly employed by the company or in the industry. A number of agreements make the union shop conditional upon the winning of an authorization election under the Taft-Hartley Act. "All enployees in the bargaining unit, who have been in the enploy of the Company for at least 30 days, must remain members of the Union in good standing as a condition of continued employment for the duration of this Agreement. "Any new employees hired, who are not members of the Union, must become members not later than thirty (3 0 ) days from their date of employment and remain in good standing, as a condition of employment, for the duration of this Agreement. "The Company agrees in the hiring of employees in the classifications covered by this Agreement, to give preference to applicants who have previously been in the employ of this Company, and were not discharged for cause, and applicants previously employed in the meat industry who can qualify for the Job open.” (Albert F. Goetze, Inc., Baltimore, Md. - AMCBW (AFL) Only a few agreements, covering small companies, contain main tenance of membership clauses. One of these agreements, negotiated by the UIWA, also stipulates that all employees, whether members of the union or not, are required to pay union dues during the life of the agreement. Provisions for the check-off of union dues are incorporated in three out of every four agreements, covering almost 90 percent of the workers. The check-off applies to dues alone in 6 agreements; to dues and initiation fees in 22 (including all but 1 of the 6 "Big Three" master con tracts); to dues, initiation fees and assessments in 8 ; and to dues, assess ments and fines in 1 agreement. Written employee authorization is required in almost all of the check-off clauses, in accordance with the labor Management Relations Act. A total of 12 agreements, including the "Big Three" stipulate that the deduction is irrevocable and only 2 , covering very small companies, specif ically permit revocation of check-off authorization at any time. Those with irrevocable check-off generally follow the requirements of the Labor Management Relations Act by allowing revocation after 1 year if the duration of the agreement is for a longer period. Most of the master agreements (all of which are 1 -year agreements), and a few others, contain specific escape periods at the end of the year (or contract term) during which the employee may withdraw his authorization. 26 "I hereby authorize and direct my employer, ________ ______________ to deduct from the first pay payable to me each month, the regular monthly union dues for the pre ceding month of the United Packinghouse Workers of America, C.I.O., and the initiation fee of said Union, if due and owing, and to remit same to the Financial Secretary of the local union. ’This authorization shall take effect as of the date ’ hereof or as of August 11, 19^8, whichever is later, and shall continue in effect until August 11, 19^9> or until the termination of the Master Agreement between Swift and Company and the Union dated July 22, 19k8, whichever occurs first. "The above authorization shall continue in effect after the expiration of the shorter of the periods above specified, for further successive periods of one year from such date, provided there is then in effect a collec tive bargaining agreement between my employer and the union providing for the deduction of union dues and ini tiation fees as aforesaid. If permitted under federal law, this authorization may not be revoked by me prior to August 11, 19^9> or during any of such successive oneyear periods, except that I may cancel and revoke this authorization by giving written notice to my employer not more than thirty (3 0 ) days and not less than ten (10 ) days prior to August 11, 19^9, o r the termination of said Master Agreement, whichever occurs first, or prior to the expiration of any such yearly period or prior to the ex piration of any such collective bargaining agreement, whichever occurs first. In the event of revocation by me as aforesaid, I shall send a copy of my revocation notice to the local union. Date Signature (Swift and Co. - TJFWA (CIO) Master Agreement) Other Union Rights and Privileges The union is allowed to post notices on bulletin boards in the "Big Three" packing plants and in more than a third of the others. A few agreements limit material to specified subjects, and some explicitly ex clude material of a controversial or political character. Union officials are permitted to visit the plant during working hours, usually for the specific purpose of handling grievances in about a third of the agreements, chiefly AMCBW. Advance notice of visits, applica tion to the company office, or presentation of official credentials are sometimes stipulated. 27 "The business agent or other representatives of the Union shall have the right to enter any of the work rooms of the Employer during working hours for the purpose of investigation or for the purpose of discussion with the Employer, his employees or any other persons, any complaint or grievance. Reasonable notice to the Employer shall precede such visit or entry.” (Stahl - Meyer, Inc., N. Y., N. Y. - AMCBW (AFL) Management Prerogatives Certain rights of management are enumerated in about two out of every three agreements studied, including the AMCBW and UIWA master agree ments, and virtually all of the others negotiated by the UIWA, Typically, these agreements include a brief statement reserving to management the right to hire, transfer, suspend, or discharge for proper cause, to estab lish and enforce standards of production and job loads, and to determine methods of production. The stipulation that these rights must be exercised in accordance with other terms of the agreement, and that they shall not be used in a discriminatory manner, is sometimes added. Discharge The usual grounds for discharge of a worker are incompetence, failure to follow instructions, intoxication while on the job, dishonesty, persistent tardiness, or absence. A worker may, in a majority of cases where discharge is mentioned, appeal his case if he feels it is unjust. In every instance, such grievances are handled, through the regular griev ance procedure. Workers found to be unjustly discharged are guaranteed reinstate ment with back pay for time lost in almost half the agreements in the study JOB SECURITY Seniority and Its Application Packinghouse workers are almost invariably laid-off, rehired, or promoted primarily on the basis of their length of service (or seniority). Although other qualifications such as ability, training, experience, physi cal fitness and requirements of the job are also considered, length of service is generally the determining factor. Seniority lists which show the relative seniority standing of all employees are expressly called for in more than half of the agreements in the study. In several, male and female workers are to be listed separately. 28 P o stin g o f s e n io r ity l i s t s i s req u ired p r im a r ily in p la n ts o f the "B ig T h re e ." In most o f the o th e r s , th ey a re to he made a v a ila b le to union o f f i c i a l s , upon re q u e s t. L a y -o ff Workers in the common la b o r group are most fr e q u e n tly s u b je c t to l a y - o f f vhen th ere i s a d e c lin e in s la u g h te r in g or v o r k i s slow fo r o th er re a so n s. 31/ The more s k i l l e d employees in the p la n t are cu sto m arily r e ta in e d . The r o le o f s e n io r it y in determ ining l a y - o f f s i s c l e a r l y s p e c ifie d in most o f the agreem ents (ta b le 8 ). Table 8«— Qualifications determining lay-off in the meat-packing industry Total Qualifications "Big Three* Number Number of of agreements workers Number of agreements Number of workers Total ...................... 50 104,300 6 68,700 Length of service only 1/ ..• Length of service given"" primary emphasis but other factors considered ,,..... Length of service if other factors are relatively e q u a l .................... Weight of faotors uncertain.. No reference to lay-off ..... 21 59,800 4 40,300 13 32,500 2 28,400 7 4 5 4,400 800 6,800 — - — •* 1/ Includes some agreements providing for both departmental and plant seniority under whioh, while reduction in force within department is based solely on departmental length of service, workers in exercising plant seniority for other than unskilled jobs must be qualified to perform such jobs. Although length of service alone is a primary consideration in most cases, a worker*s retention is also determined by his seniority unit. The applicability of seniority for more than half of the workers in the study is restricted to the department in which they are employed (table 9) • A large number of workers, however, (including all of the Swift workers), are con sidered first within their respective departmental units. Those with least departmental service may then exercise their plant seniority and replace other workers with less plant service. 32/ However, "bumping", on a plantwide basis, of workers with 1 or more years* service is prohibited by two of these agreements. 31/ Beport and Recommendations of the Fact-Finding Board in the Meat* Packing 'industry Case, February 1 , 19^6 (p. 9)« 32 / Plant seniority is attained after 2 years* service in the Swift-UWA agreement; 1 year in the Swift-AMCBW and KBPW, and 2 other agreements; and 6 months http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ in still another agreement. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 29 Table 9.— Seniority unit applicable in lay-off in the neat-paoking industry Unit Total ............................... Plant o n l y ......... *........... . Department only ..................... Department and plant »»....... . Department and job classification *•. Unit not indicated..... . No reference to lay-off ............. Total Number Number of of agree workers ments 50 7 3 6 5 68«700 3 3 4,600 55,800 34,000 700 2,400 6,800 20 Number of workers 6 104,300 9 "Big Three* dumber of agree ments — 37,400 31,300 — — — — — Rehire To "be rehired, the majority of the workers in the study, in addition to seniority, must qualify for the available Job or must possess ability to learn the requirements within a reasonable time. A lesser number are rehired merely on the basis of their tenure. Half of the workers in the study are rehired according to departmental seniority only, a lesser number by department and plant. Promotion With few exceptions, a worker must meet certain qualifications in addition to length of service to be considered for promotion. Most frequently, an employee with higher seniority status is promoted only if he is able to perform the Job or learn it within a reasonable length of time. All of the "Big Three" follow this procedure (table 10). Table 10.— Qualifications determining pronotions in the neat-packing industry Total ■Big Three" Qualifications Number of agree ments Number of workers Total .............................. 50 104,300 6 7 5,000 - 22 83,000 6 8 6 7,900 2,400 - — — mm Length of servioe only ............. Length of service given primary em phasis but other factors considered Length of service if other factors are relatively e q u a l ....... . Weight of factors uncertain ........ No reference to promotion 7 6,000 Number of agree ments Number of workers 68*700 68,700 — 30 Promotional opportunities are most frequently confined to the immediate department in which the vacancy exists. Such provisions cover h out of every 5 workers in the study, including those of the "Big Three" (table 11). Tfcbl. 11.— Seniority unit applicable in promotions in the meat-packing industry Total “Big Three" Number of agree ments Number of workers T o t a l ................ ............... 50 104,300 Plant o n l y ................ *......... Department only ...................... Department, then p l a n t .......... .... Department and plant ♦......... ...... Department and classification ....... Unit not indicated «•......... No reference to promotion ........... 6 21 4,700 83,900 1.000 Unit 1/ 3 (1/) 2 10 7 11/ ) 300 8,400 6,000 Number of agree ments 6 Number of workers 68,700 _ 6 63,700 - - — — — — — Fewer than 100 employees. Preferential Seniority Eights To avoid disruption among a union’s chief representatives in a plant, especially during a reduction in force, unions try to obtain top seniority for shop o r plant stewards. Eight agreements (with one exception AMCBW), covering a small proportion of the workers in the study, carry such a provision. Effect of Transfers on Seniority Seniority rights of the majority of employees are protected when they transfer from one department to another. In most cases, a worker may retain seniority in his original department for a maximum of 90 days, while assigned to a new task. Employees covered by the Swift - AMCBW and NBIV agreements retain seniority rights in the original department until the transfer is made permanent. After a stipulated waiting period, the trans ferred worker usually attains seniority in the new department, retroactive as of the date of transfer. "If at any time before the expiration of the sixty (60 ) day period employees decide to return to their original department, they shall be permitted to do so. Otherwise, employees' seniority date commences from the day they began in the department to which they shall have been transferred." (E. Kahn's Sons Packing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio - AMCBW (AFL). 31 The two Armour and the Swift-UTWA agreements and four others pro tect the seniority rights of an employee transferring to a newly created department by permitting him, in case of lay-offs in, or abolition of, that department, to return to his former department with all of his accumulated seniority. "An employee transferred to a new department created by the Company, will upon the closing of the department, or in the event of lay-off in the new de partment because of lack of work, have the right to return to the department from which he was transferred (providing such employee relinquishes all seniority rights in the new department) and shall retain the seniority rights which he would have had, had he re mained in his original department." (Armour and Co. - AMCBW (AFL) Master Agreement) Leave of Absence and Seniority Eights Leave of absence, without pay but with seniority safe-guards, for union business, illness, maternity, civic duty, school attendance by veterans, or for other "good and sufficient" reason, is granted in 39 of the 50 agreements in the study (table 32). Seniority is cumulative in six agreements for employees who are on leave to fulfill a public office, on sick leave, or for veterans while attending school. The other agreements merely state that leave is to be granted "without loss" of seniority, or fail to note the effect of leave on seniority. Military Service Although reemployment rights of employees returning from military service are protected by the Selective Service Act, more than half of the agreements contain military service clauses. The majority merely state that the rights are to be in accordance with the Act. Under the Act, an employee called for military duty in the Armed Forces accumulates seniority during his period of service. Restriction on Production Work by Foremen Nonworking foremen are prohibited from performing work customarily done by production workers in lk agreements accounting for two-fifths of the workers, including the 2 Armour and the Swift-AMCBW. In two agreements, with relatively few workers, the restrictions are presumably absolute. In the others, work is permitted during an emergency or for purposes of instruc tion, and in some instances, where a gang is incomplete. The Swift agreement also permits such work if the gang does not justify a full-time supervisor. Table 12*— Leave of absence provisions in the neat-packing industry 1/ Type of leave Item Illness Dhion business VUIOJT ruoiiu Slot Short Urm Iftiion Maternity reasons office leave leave office leave Number number Humber Humber Number Humber Humber Number Humber Humber Humber Number of of of of of ef of of of of of of agree agree agreeagree agree agree workers workers ments workers ments workers ments workers ments workers ments ments Total with provision ...... Duration of leave: 1 month or less ........ 2 months ................ 3 months ##••••••....... 6 m o n t h s ............... 1 y e a r ................. Life of a g r e e m e n t ..... Duration not indicated# • Effect on seniority: Retained or without loss .................. Cumulative .............. Hot indicated .......... 28 80,200 29 91,900 2/11 ££2,000 — 200 — — — — — 4 16 9 — — 3,400 78,400 10,100 28 — 1 91,800 100 — — 1 — — — 16 12 16 — — 18,000 18,300 61,900 12 6 — — 34,100 — — 1 3 — 8 — 1,700 4,800 — 27,600 — 2 4 — — 11 1 — 34,000 100 — 4 — 2 - 30#400 2,000 28,400 mm — mm 26 15,500 — — — 200 30,200 — — 6 — — 6 — — — 15,500 1 4 1 200 6,300 9,000 3/ V 5/ 89,900 1 3 15 1 — — 6 800 3/ 3,200 3/74,500 * “ 700 7 1 18 4,300 5/ 1,000 ~ 84,600 mm — 10,700 l/ Based on a study of 50 agreements covering 104,300 workers* T?/ Two agreements with fewer than 1,300 workers grant less than 1 month# ]f/ These agreements grant a maximum of 2 months* leave after 15 years* service; a minimum of 2 weeks9 leave is granted to employees with less than 5 years9 service# 4/ All except 1 agreement grant the maximum 3 months9 leave after 15 years9 service; minimum of 2 weeks is granted employees with less than 5 years* service# One of the agreements also grants leave to veterans to attend school; the dura tion of such leave is not indicated# 5/ Applicable only for school attendance by veterans# The effect of leave for other reasons on seniority is not indicated# 33 "Employees excluded from the bargaining unit, whether they are exempt from or subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act, will not be used on work of a nature performed by employees in the bargain ing unit except as follows: "For the purpose of breaking in new men and instructing workmen; "For the purpose of taking an operator's place temporarily who did not show up for work or who had to be relieved due to injury or sick ness or who, for other reasons, is temporarily absent from the Job; "In gangs which are not to Justify the full-time use other management enployee in managerial capacity." (Swift and Co. - AMCBW (AFL) sufficiently large of a supervisor or his supervisory or Master Agreement) HOURS. WAGES. AND WORKING CONDITIONS Hours of Work The standard work schedule, where specified, is always 8 hours daily and hO hours weekly. Workers in the industry were employed more than 1 0 hours weekly, * on the average, from 1939 through 19^9 (table 13). In 19^1 they dropped slightly. From 19^2 to 19^, when production reached an all-time high, hours worked rose sharply to 1*9.5* From 1 9 ^ on, they decreased steadily until 19^9. Since then they have remained fairly stationary. (In August 1951 the average was 1*1.5 hours.) Ifcble 13.— -Average weekly hours ana average hourly earnings for production workers in the meat-packing industry, 1939-50 Average Tear weekly hours 1939 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1940 1941 ................... . 1942 . a ......... w e , * . . * * ...... . .................... ...................... .............. .................... . .............. 1943 ......... . . . . . . .................... 1944 ....... . . e a s e . .................... 1945 ..................................................... 1946 ............................. ........... ................. 1947 * .............. .................. 1948 1949 1950 ........... ............................................... 1/ .............. . .............. ........................................... ........................................... . Average earnings include overtime pay. 40*6 40.2 39.6 40*9 46.5 49.5 47*5 42.6 44.5 43.4 41.5 41.6 Average hourly earnings 1/ $0.69 .69 -74 .81 .87 .92 .94 1.07 1.25 1.36 1.40 1 X # 46 34. Wage Provisions The complexity of processing meat into thousands of separate pro ducts, combined with great specialization of labor, particularly in large integrated plants, has resulted in an enormous multiplication of separate tasks. A large plant may have 1,000 or more individual classifications. One of the major companies reported close to 100,000 separately established work standards. As a result, the wage structure in the industry is intri cate, matched by few, if any, other industries. To remedy the complicated wage situation, a Meat Packing Com mission was established by the National War Labor Board on March 31, 194-5, near the end of World War II. As one of its objectives it undertook to supervise and assist in the adjustment of interplant and intraplant wage relationships in plants covered by master agreements of the five major packers which establish the pattern for the industry. The NWLB found that the internal wage relationships had never been bargained out by the five companies and the three unions. 33/ Almost 100,000 job rates in nearly 100 plants were surveyed. The Commission recommended a simplification of the big packers' wage system into about 25 groupings of related job classifications. Instead of intervals as low as 1/4- cent, a "labor grade" system ("brackets") provid ing uniformly for "concentration points" at 2 l/2-cent intervals was adopted by the packers and the unions. The packers and the unions then attempted to assign individual jobs to appropriate grades. Wherever there was joint agreement, the Commission merely reviewed the decision. In the relatively small number of cases where there was disagreement, the Com mission adjudicated the disputes. 14/ After the job rates were concen trated into the labor grades, determination as to whether some of them should be raised to a higher grade was also made. About 35,000 jobs were thus raised one or more grades. The most common increases for those job rates which were raised were one or two grades, or 2 l/2 or 5 cents an hour. H / The Commission also tried to standardize and secure greater uni formity in rates for the same job in the same area. Not infrequently, the same job carried different rates in the same department of the same plant, in different plants of the same company in the same geographic area, and in plants of other companies in the same area. Complete standardization was not attempted. 36/ As a result of the review, the industry achieved the first fully bargained rate structure in its history. Prior thereto, with few exceptions, only the common labor rate had been negotiated through collective bargain ing. All other rates had been unilaterally established by the individual companies. 2 k / 11/ U. S. Department of Labor, The National Wage Stabilization BoardT January 1, 1946-Februarv 24.. 194.7. Ch. 18, "The Meat Packing Commission" Xp. 205) . (Although the NWLB was dissolved at the end of 194-5, the Meat Packing Commission did not complete its review until February 1947.) 14/ Ibid. (p. 205). 11/ Ibid. (p. 206). 16/ Ibid. (p. 208). 35. The wage structure is further complicated by separate rates for male and female workers for the same job classifications, by the concentra tion of jobs and workers at the common labor rate, and by geographical dif ferentials . The appropriateness of the geographic differentials has been a source of contention between the unions and the packers for at least a quarter century. ,22/ Under the NRA, the packers set up four wage levels based on the geographic location of plants — "West Coast", "Metropolitan", "Southern", and "River". The latter was originally applicable to plants along the Missouri River Valley. Later some of these rates overlapped rates in metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and St. Louis. Rates for the same jobs within the same areas, however, varied substantially. Although variations in the industry still exist, wage differentials between the North and the South have been narrowed, and differentials within the same area are not as extreme. Since World War II, "River" rates have been virtually eliminated through collective bargaining. Method of Wage Payment Every agreement in the study calls for payment of hourly rates. Fifteen agreements, covering almost half the workers, in addition, provide for payment of piece (or incentive) rates to some workers, usually those in the killing and boning departments. Four of the latter agreements (includ ing Armour and Cudahy) also provide for weekly rates for specified groups, such as butchers, splitters and floormen, shipping department employees, and foremen. Earnings and Wage Rates Average hourly earnings (including overtime) for meat-packing workers, as a whole, more than doubled between 1939 and 1950, having risen from 69 cents to $1.4-6 an hour (table 13). By December 1950 they had reached $1.57 an hour. The largest increases took place after the end of World War II. No general across-the-board increases in wage rates were granted between late 194-1 and the end of hostilities. In February 1943, the National War Labor Board, in a case involving the "Big Four" packers, denied an increase on the ground that the average increase in rates had already risen above the 15 percent "Little Steel" formula. 38/ Hourly earnings did, however, rise during this period as a result of longer working hours and fringe benefits, such as allowances for work clothes, clothes changing time, and time spent in preparing tools. 37/ The Termination Report of the National War Labor Board, Industrial Disputes and Wage Stabilization in Wartime. Vol. 1, Ch. 19, "The Meat Pack ing Commission," by Clark Kerr, January 12, 194-2 - December 3, 194-5 (p. 1055). 25/ Ibid (p. 104.8). 36 After the war, average hourly earnings increased sharply, despite a steady decline in weekly hours worked, principally because of general wage increases. Unable to obtain acceptable postwar wage adjustments from the big packers, the workers called a Nation-wide strike on January 16, 194.6. The following day, the President appointed a fact-finding board to make recommendations for the settlement of the dispute. On February 7, the Board recommended a wage increase of 16 cents an hour which was put into effect by the Secretary of Agriculture who, since January 25, had been operating the struck plants under Presidential order. Not until April did most of the companies settle on the basis of the recommended increase. An additional 7 1/2 cent hourly increase was granted later, effective Novem ber 1, 194-6. In 194-7, most of the workers gained a 6 cent hourly raise; and in 194.8, two increases of 9 and 4 cents, totaling 13 cents an hour. UPWA plants at first refused the 9 cent offer effective in January and struck, but subsequently accepted it in May. The additional 4 cent increase was negotiated with the unions in October. In the fall of 194-9, spreads between job rates were increased from 2.5 to 3 cents. The actual increases ranged from half a cent an hour in job classes one step above the base or unskilled labor grade to 15 cents in the highest classifications. A general wage increase of 11 cents an hour was obtained in August 1950. The latest general wage increase of 9 cents an hour, to gether with an increase widening the spread between the existing labor grades (brackets) from 3 to 3 1/2 cents was negotiated in February 1951, subject to approval by the Wage Stabilization Board. These bracket in creases were estimated to average about 2.4 cents an hour. Both the com panies and the unions agreed that the increase in the differentials was necessary in the interests of the more skilled workers because all except one wage increase since 1946 had been uniform increases. On May 18, 1951, the Board approved the 9-cent across-the-board increase, and on June 28, approved the widening of the differential between labor grades from 3 to 3 1/2 cents. Equal Pay for Equal Work for Women The equalization of rates of pay for male and female workers in the same job classifications has been stressed by the unions in the indus try. Currently, about half of the workers in the study are covered by 16 agreements (including Armour and Cudahy) which contain such provisions (table 14). 37 Table 14.— Equal pay for equal work for women in the meat packing industry Equal pay for equal work --------- K S I ---------Number of Number of workers agreements All agreements studied ............. 50 104,300 Total with provision ........ . For work normally performed by men ................ For substantially the same work as men ......... Same piece work rates for men and women .............. General principle stated; no details 16 55,900 10 1/ 16,600 1 1,000 3 2/ 37,400 2 900 34 48,400 Total without provision 1/ 2/ l/ One agreement with fewer than 100 workers provides that the~employer, in determining rates, may consider a man’s ability to do other types of work in addition to the parti cular job done by a woman. Another agreement, covering 200 workers, provides that a woman performing less than the full and comparable operation, shall receive a rate of not less than 90 percent. A third agreement, covering about 1,800 workers, specifies that the provision applies to certain types of jobs. 2/ Applicable to women employed on operations performed by menT They are also guaranteed the same basic hourly rate. The most commonly found clause follows: "The Company and the Union agree to the principle of equal pay for equal work. Should a woman be trans ferred to an operation formerly done by a man, the wo man shall be entitled to the rate received by the man; provided, the job is performed in a comparable manner and that production is comparable in quality and quan tity to that produced by the man." (George Kaiser Packing Co., Kansas City, Mo. - UFWA (CIO) The following is illustrative of a few agreements: ".... Female employees employed on piecework operations which are also performed (either regularly or at times) by male employees shall be paid the same piece rate as male employees and in such case shall be guaranteed the same basic hourly rate as male employees.” (Armour & Co. - AMCBW (AFL) Master agreement) With few exceptions, the agreements specifically prohibit dis crimination because of sex. Eleven, however, do not implement the clause by an equal pay provision. 38. A 194-7 study of the wage structure in meat-packing plants other than the "Big Four" shows a wage advantage for men in each occupation in which both men and women are employed in the same jobs. 39/ Minimum Call-In (Report) Pav Virtually every worker who reports for work at the usual hour or is ordered to report and finds no work available is guaranteed payment for a minimum number of hours. Almost invariably he receives pay for 4 hours at his regular rate. Transfer Rates Rate of Pav on Temporary Assignment.— The pay scale of most of the workers is protected in case of a temporary assignment to a lower-rated job. Four out of every five employees thus transferred continue to receive their regular rate of pay. Some variations or qualifications are found in a few agreements. For example, in three of the "Big Three" agreements a worker temporarily shifted to a lower-rated job at his own request or be cause of a reduction in force receives the lower rate immediately. In two of the 3 Hormel agreements with annual wage plans an employee on temporary assignment to a lower rated job carries his regular rate for a maximum of 52 weeks, after which he receives the rate of the job to which he is assigned. When employees are temporarily assigned to a higher rated job, most of them (in 27 of 32 agreements) receive the higher rate immediately upon transfer. In other instances, the higher rate is applicable after a day or two. Rate of Pay on Permanent Transfer.— The majority of employees permanently transferred to higher-rated jobs, including those of Armour, Cudahy, and Swift, receive the higher rate immediately. In a few cases, however, the waiting period ranges from 15 to 270 days. In the latter case, a worker receives 4 equal increases on the 30th, 90th, 180th, and 270th day after the transfer until his wages equal the prevailing wage of the classification to which he was transferred. Only one agreement ex pressly provides for a lower rate of pay upon permanent transfer to a lower-rated job. Rate for Aged and Handicapped Workers Transfer of an aged, handicapped, or disabled worker to work suitable to his physical condition is provided for in eight agreements (in cluding the Swift-AMCBW). In all but one case such a worker receives the rate of pay for the job to which assigned. In the one remaining agreement, he receives either his regular rate of pay or the rate of the new job, whichever is higher. 39/ U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wage Struc ture, Meat Products (except "Big Four"). Series 2, No. 59, 1947 (p. 3). . 39 Interim Wage Adjustments It is possible for almost all workers in the meat-packing industry (93 percent) to receive general wage increases before the termination of the agreements under which they work. Thirty-nine of the 50 agreements analyzed contain either wage reopening or automatic wage adjustment clauses (table 15). These reopenings may generally be requested once a year. 4.0/ Table 15.— Interim wage adjustments in the meat-packing industry Number of agreements Provision Number of wo A e r s All agreements studied ....... ........... 50 104,300 With provision for interim adjustment ••••••«« 39 96,500 With permissive wage reopening •••••.*••««• At any time or after specified date •••• Tied to specified changes in wage pattern of designated companies or special areas ............... . 32 27 91,100 89,400 1/ 5 1/ 1,700 With automatic wage adjustment ........... Following increases granted by designated companies ....... 4 3,200 4 3,200 Combination Permissive plus automatic adjustment following increases by designated companies .... . 3 2,200 3 2,200 11 7,800 With no provision for interim adjustment ••••• 1/ Agreement also permits reopening at any time. Premium Pay Daily and Weekly Overtime Commonly, time and a-half the regular rate of pay is paid to any worker who works in excess of 8 hours daily or 4-0 hours weekly. One agree ment covering a small number of employees in California provides double 4.0/ The "Big Three" agreements subsequently negotiated in 1950 provide for an additional permissive reopening once during the first year of the agreement. This reopening is limited to adjustment of wage rates and to subject matters not named in or covered by the agreements. The latter may be reopened only if they involve additional costs to the company under terms of the Swift and Cudahy agreements. The agreements of these two com panies also state that issues of pensions and insurance are specifically excluded from the pemissive reopening. 40 time. In two agreements, employees are paid double the regular rate after more than 4 hours' daily overtime. Another agreement calls for daily over time pay after 10 hours' work during the months of August, September, October, and November, but weekly overtime pay starts after 40 hours. Overtime provisions in the three agreements with annual wage plans (Hormel) differ markedly from others in the industry. Time and a half is paid for work in excess of 10 hours daily or 53 hours weekly in one plant. In the other two plants including the main plant, overtime starts after 12 hours' work in any one day or 56 hours in a week. Employees in regular operating departments are, nevertheless, paid time and a half for hours in excess of 53 hours in any one week, or after 48 hours in any one week in which they are required to work more than 10 hours in any one day. Week End Work Premium pay for Saturday work is not common in the meat-packing industry. Fifteen agreements (less than a third of the study), covering about 10 percent of the workers, require payment of premium rates for work on Saturday, and in two of these the premium is paid only for work on Satur day afternoon (table 16). Time and a half is the prevailing rate of pay in Table 16•— Premium pay provisions for work on Saturday, Sunday, sixth and seventh day in the meat packing industry 1/ •Togr Day of workweek Saturday **..... Sunday #••••«••«• 6th day •••••••## 7th day ........ agree ments 2/ 15 fy 45 2 1 Number of workers 2/ 8,800 1/101,800 1,200 (</) Number of Premium dumber of Premium agree rate of agree rate of pay ments ments pay 14 1 2 0 if If It 0 1 44 0 1 2 2 0 2 1/ Based on a study of 50 agreements covering 104,300 workers* T?/ Maintenance or custodial workers, workers on irregular shifts, and continuous operation workers who are excluded in three agreements, receive the premium rate for work on the 6th consecutive day of work* 3/ Custodial workers who regularly work on Sundays are generally ex cluded# These workers are paid the premium rate for work on their desig nated day off or on the 7th consecutive day of work# 4/ Fewer than 100 employees* all but one agreement and that one provides for double time# In four of the agreements the premium pay may be denied to employees unjustifiably absent during the week# On the other hand, almost all agreements studied call for premium pay for work on Sunday when not a regularly scheduled workday# With one ex ception the rate is double the regular rate of pay# Only two agreements mention penalty payment for work by production workers on the 6th day and one the 7th day of the workweek# To be eligible for the premium, the worker must meet minimum work requirements# Shift Differentials A general bonus for night-shift work was first introduced in the industry in 1942, when a 5-cent hourly premium was incorporated in agree ments with the "Big Four" packers. When the 194-6 agreements were negoti ated, the shift premium was increased to 7 cents an hour. Virtually e v e r y worker in the study receives this rate for work on other than the day shift. Only two agreements, with few workers, grant a higher bonus for third-shift work than for second. One specifies an hourly premium of 9 and 7 cents for the third and second shifts, respectively; the other, 7 and 4 cents. Minimum Call-Back Fay Nineteen agreements covering four out of every five workers in the study guarantee a minimum payment to employees called to work either before or after their regularly scheduled hours. Most of these workers are guaran teed 4 hours' pay, generally at time and a half the regular rate of pay, even though fewer hours may actually be worked. Two agreements, covering a small number of workers, guarantee the 4 hours' pay at straight time rates if no work is performed; time and a half if any work is performed. "With respect to emergency call-in work, actual hours worked shall be paid at the rate of time and onehalf . . . and, in addition, the difference between the number of hours worked and four ( - at the straight time 4) rate." (Packing Houses of Philadelphia, Pa. - AMCBW (AFL) Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans Health and welfare plans, exclusive of paid sick leave, are not commonly incorporated in meat-packing agreements. It is known, however, that a number of large packers provide some welfare benefits without in cluding them in their labor agreements. A total of 17 of the 50 agreements analyzed mention such benefits; 6 contain details and 11 refer to benefits only incidentally. 41/ Included among the latter group are the Armour-AMCBW and Swift-AMCBW and UPWA con tracts. Of the six plans for which details are available, five are fi nanced solely by the employer; the other fails to indicate the method of financing. The specific types of benefits are shown in table 17. 41/ Since this study was prepared, several companies have incorporated health and welfare plans in their renegotiated agreements. 42 Table 17.— Types of benefits provided in six agreements in the meat-packing industry Type of benefit Number of agreements Life insurance ..........•••«••••»•»••»«*• Accidental death insurance •••..... ••«••• Weekly accident and sickness benefits • Hospitalization for employee and family »• Surgical benefit for employee o n l y ..... . 2 5 4 4 4 3 Medical care benefit Employee only ..................••»•••• Employee and family ••••••••»*•••«•«••» 4 2 2 Other 1/ ................................ 3 l/ One agreement provides for other related benefits as determined by the trustees; one, for eye examinations and glasses; and the third, mentions a benefit welfare club main tained by employees to which the employer also contributes. Safety( Health f and Sanitation . Employees in meat-packing plants work under conditions not commonly found in most other industries. In handling livestock they come in to contact with germs and disease. Some of the work is dirty, as on the killing floor; some wet, as in curing cellars; some cold, as in freezers and in carcass chilling rooms. As a result, workers are subject to undulant fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, respiratory diseases, and other ailments. 42/ The presence of wet slippery floors and the use of sharp knives and other cutting tools constitute safety hazards. The accidents are of a comparatively minor nature, however, consisting mainly of cuts and bruises, which as a rule do not involve any considerable loss of individual man hours. 43/ Meat-packing plants, as processors of food, must conform to State and Federal health and sanitation regulations. They require medical exami nations of workers handling meat directly. This probably accounts for the small proportion (25 percent) of agreements in which specific references are made to the maintenance of healthful and safe working conditions for employ ees. The latter cover small plants primarily, accounting for less than a tenth of the workers in the study. 42/ The Termination Report of the National War Labor Board, Industrial Disputes and Wage Stabilization in Wartime. Vol. 1, Ch. 19, "The Meat Packing Commission," by Clark Kerr, January 12, 1942 - December 31, 1945 (p. 1046)* 43/ War Manpower Commission, U. S. Employment Service, Labor Market Information Industry SeriesT Industry Series 201, 1946 (p. 4). 43 As a result of new safety programs in plants of the "Big Four" and some of the independent packers, progress has been made in recent years in cutting down the frequency and severity of accidents. ADJUSTMENT OF DISPUTES DURING L IF E OF AGREEMENT All three unions play important roles in the handling of grievances. Especially designated international union representatives of AMCBW and the UPWA handle disputes arising between the internationals a r their local unions and the individual "Big Four" packers. The UPWA international office has, among other departments, a grievance department which has full responsi bility for coordinating the handling of grievances and related matters* Al though the AMCBW has no special grievance department, its Research Depart ment handles all grievances reaching the third or fourth steps in plants of the "Big Four" packers. Disputes in plants of the independent packers, in most cases, are handled directly by union district representatives. Both unions also constantly advise local unions on matters concerning interpre tations of the contracts and effective ways and means of presenting grievances. Grievance Procedure Grievances and disputes are adjusted through established contract grievance machinery, only a few agreements in the study failing to outline the detailed procedure to be followed. These few are found primarily among industry-area and association agreements usually covering small firms, negotiated by the AMCBW. On the other hand, the grievance procedure in the "Big Three" agreements is outlined in great detail. Workers may generally appeal their grievances through three or four successive steps (table 18). Table 18#— Number of steps in the grievance procedures in the meat-packing industry Number of steps Number of agreements All agreements studied .... 50 1 step .................. 2 steps ................ 3 steps .......... 4 steps ........... Not indicated •••••••••*. 1 8 20 13 8 Number of workers 1/ 104,300 500 1/ ~ 2 ,6 0 0 5 5 ,7 0 0 39,300 6,200 1/ The two Armour agreements provide for 4 steps for grievances and issues not subject to arbitration# First Step in Initiating Grievances The aggrieved worker, or his union representative, or both, gener ally file the complaint initially with the foremen (table 19). Table 19.— Initial step in grievance procedures in the meat-packing industry Initial step Number of agreements 50 Not indicated ......... 700 15 46,600 2 9,100 1 200 2 13 28,400 8,300 2 1/ 104,300 4 All agreements studied Employee and f o r e m a n ...... ...... Employee and foreman, with option of union representative ....... . Employee, union representative and foreman ....... . Employee and management representative ..................... Employee or union representative and department representative •♦. Union representative and foreman «. Union representative and plant manager Uhion representative and "manage ment representative" ........... Number of workers 200 3 8 1/ 4,600 6,200 1/ Includes 1 agreement providing for a one-step grievance procedure» Under the Armour and Cudahy agreements, disputes arising over new rates, new jobs, and job standards (which are not agreed to by the local or the international union) are handled initially at the third stage of the grievance procedure, that is, directly by representatives of the interna tional union and of the national office of the company. In the case of Cudahy the same procedure is followed in disputes arising over new of changed piece rates challenged by the union. M .... If no agreement is reached locally or if an agreement is not ratified by the national headquarters of the union, .the Union shall have the right to submit such rates for new jobs to the third step of the grievance procedure for further processing thereafter as a grievance in accordance with the grievance pro cedure set forth in this agreement including arbi tration. n (Cudahy Packing Co.—UPWA (CIO), Master agreement) 45 Final Step in Grievance Procedure The formalized grievance procedure commonly calls for participa tion by international union representatives at the final stage of the appeal prior to arbitration (table 20). Table 20.— Filial step in settling grievances in the meat-packing industry Final step Number of agreements A13 agreements studied ••........ .............. • 50 104,300 1/ 44 1/ 100,000 Representatives at International union level .» And top plant or management representatives•• And company officials •••••..... ••••••••••»• 25 2/ 5 1/ 20 2/ 3/ Representatives at local union l e v e l .... . And company officials ............ And management representatives •••••••••••.•• And committee representing union and company. 15 4/ 11 y 3 4/ Other 6/ ..................................... Union and management representatives •••••••• Union and company representatives ..... . 4 Total describing final step ......... Not indicated i Number of workers 5/ 80,600 6,500 74,100 12,700 11,200 1,400 100 1 6,700 5,600 1,100 6 4,300 3 1/ Includes 2 agreements describing only the final step. ?/ Includes 3 small agreements which specify that a representative of the” local grievance committee shall also participate. 3/ Includes all 6 of the "Big Three* agreements with 68,700 employees. 3/ Includes 2 small agreements in which a representative of toe inter national union may participate. 5/ Includes 1 agreement providing for a one-step grievance procedure. %/ Not clear whether representation at local or international union le v e l. Written Notice The complaint must be submitted in writing at some stage of the grievance procedure in agreements involving four out of every five workers. They are usually filed at the second or third step (table 21). A time limit for filing grievances is 6et in only a few agree ments, but they cover a third of the workers in the study (almost ex clusively employees of some of the "Big Three" companies). The limits range from 7 to 30 days, the majority specifying 30 days. A number of agree ments merely state that all grievances are to be presented at a convenient time and place during working hours, and are to be disposed of without unnecessary delay. Table 21#— Step at which written notice is submitted in grievance appeal in the meat packing industry Stage of submission Number of Number of agreements workers All agreements studied .... . 50 104,300 Requiring written notice #•••••• First step ............... Second step •••••••••••***•«« 26 8 12 6 84,601 6,400 51,500 26,700 No mention of written notice 24 19,700 The maximum number of union representatives designated to serve on grievance committees ranges from 3 to 12. The AMCBW agreements call for 3 to 6; the UPWA generally 5 to 12 representatives. Arbitration Arbitration as a final step in the settling of grievances is now a well-established requirement in the industry; 45 of the 50 agreements con tain such provisions. A single arbitrator is authorized to settle disputes in a third of the agreements representing four out of every five workers; a tripartite board, in the majority of the agreements, but covering only a sixth of the workers. The agreements of the "Big Three" companies and a few others call for the appointment of a mutually agreed upon permanent impartial arbitrator to serve during the life of the contract. In all other cases, the arbi trator or the board is selected on an ad hoc basis, that is, every time a dispute arises. Because of the tremendous backlog of grievances during World War II, the unions pressed for appointment of permanent arbitrators for the major packers. Swift was the first company to comply. Shortly thereafter, permanent arbitrators were appointed at Armour, Cudahy, and Wilson. L L f The impartial arbitrator is selected jointly in almost all the agreements providing for arbitration. In a third, an outside agency is named to appoint the arbitrator if the parties fail to agree upon a selec tion. A few small companies, however, leave the appointment of the arbi trator to an outside agency, when arbitration is requested, without first attempting to agree upon one. The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Ser vice is called upon most frequently. The following are also listed: county or Federal judge, State or city agency, and the American Arbitration Association. L k ! United Packinghouse Workers of America, Officers* Reports to the Third Annual ConventionP 1946 (p. 23). A7. As a method of expediting the final settlement of disputes, 15 agreements impose a time limit, ranging from 2 to 10 days, in the selection of the arbitrator. In 10 agreements limits are also placed upon the time, generally 1 week, within which the arbitrator’s decision must be rendered. Work Stoppages The constitutions of the three unions contain safeguards against the calling of strikes. Locals of the AMCBW must submit the issue to the International President, who personally or by deputy in conjunction with the local committee will endeavor to adjust the grievance. Failing adjust* ment, the issue is submitted to the General Executive Board. The local union must be governed by the decision of the Board. If the grievance is not sanctioned and the local decides to strike, such action will be con sidered sufficient provocation for suspension. The constitution of the UPWA, likewise, provides that no strike may be called without the approval of the International Executive Board. In case of violation of the Board's decision, the Board will take the necessary action to secure compliance. Appeals by locals may be taken at the convention of the UPWA, but in the interim the action of the Board is binding. Virtually all of the agreements either unqualifiedly prohibit or restrict the conditions under which a strike may be called. One-third, covering a small number of workers, explicitly prohibit work stoppages of any nature. "It is agreed that there shall be no strikes, lock outs, work stoppages, or slowing of operations in any department for any reason whatsoever at any time during the life of this contract." (E. Kahn's Sons Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, AMCBW (AFL) More than 50 percent of the agreements (including all of the "Big Three") covering about U out of every 5 workers, restrict the conditions, or specify the circumstances, under which a strike may be called. Most of them permit a strike after the established grievance or adjustment machinery under the terms of the agreement has been exhausted. In addition, half of them permit strike action over nonarbitrable issues, or over disputes aris ing during wage reopening negotiations, or after refusal of either party to abide by an arbitration award. 1. "Should differences arise between the company and the union, or between the company and the employees, or between employees at the company or should any local trouble of any kind arise in the plant, there shall be no strike, stoppage, slowdown, or suspension of work on the part of the union or its members or lockout on the part of the company on account of such disputes until after an earnest effort shall be made to settle all such matters immediately in the following manner • • AS, "It is understood that in connection with such re opening on the issue of a general wage adjustment the union shall have the right to strike and the company the right to lockout on such issue commencing with a date which is ninety (90) days after the date the notice in connection with such reopening shall have been served upon the other party by the party reopening the agree ment." (Cudahy Packing Co. - UPWA (CIO) Master agreement) 2. "On those cases which the arbitrator has no power to rule, the Union shall have the right to strike after a five (5) day notice. The parties agree that such strike will not be for the purpose of changing any working conditions." (John Morrell & Co., Iowa and Kansas, UPWA (CIO) In the few remaining agreements, work stoppages are permissible only if either party fails to comply with the arbitration award or in dis putes concerning wage rates or reopenings. Only three contracts, one of which bans stoppages and two others which permit stoppages under certain circumstances, specifically relieve the union of any liability in the event of an unauthorized strike, provid ing the union uses every reasonable effort to halt the interruption of operations. Prior to World War II, work stoppages in the industry resulted primarily from attempts to obtain union recognition. A 5 / During the war, idleness caused by work dispute stoppages declined appreciably (table 22). Table 22.— Work stoppages in -the meat-packing industry, 1939-50 Year 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 ........ M M . M M ......... ........ ....... . ........ ........ ........ ........ *....... .... . ........ Work stoppages 25 26 48 33 27 33 51 37 29 26 36 23 dumber of workers involved 7,450 2,400 12,000 5,910 4,900 6,400 31,500 91,400 20,900 90,400 5,440 9,800 Ma-n-days idle 93,200 30,300 213,000 47,100 14,400 15,100 169,000 903,000 134,000 3,780,000 51,200 53,200 45/ U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Strikes in 2243, Serial No. R-1282, 1 9 U ; Strikes in 19A l . Bulletin No. 711, 19A2. 49 After the war, strikes in the meat-packing industry, like those in many other industries, were based on requests for wage increases. The two largest controversies, in 194-6 and 194-8, resulted from the unions1 demands for wage increases. The major 1946 strikes were settled after a Federal fact-finding board recommended an increase. In March 194-8, the stoppages followed wage reopening discussions with the major packers. The AMCBW and the NBPW reached an agreement with the major packers, but the UPWA held out for a larger increase. After a 10-week strike, during which a Presidential Board of Inquiry was appointed to ascertain the facts "with respect to the causes and circumstances of the dispute" but with no authority to make recommendations, the stoppage was terminated in plants of Armour, Swift, Cudahy, and Morrell, and the union accepted the increase previously granted to the other unions. The stoppage continued at Wilson plants until June, when terms approximately similar to those of the other companies were negotiated. ☆ U S GOVERNMENT P I T N OF I E: 1952 .. R N I G F C O—