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1 3 .3

JU L IA C. LA TH R O P, Chief

Child Labor in Warring Countries
A Brief Review of Foreign Reports




IN D U S T R IA L S E R IE S N o. 4
Bureau Publication N o. 27



¿ 4 a. 7
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

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Letter of transmittal..................................................................................................................
Extent of the p ro b lem ............................................................................... . . . . ...................
Maintaining standards of school-attendance and child-labor laws...........................
New plans for industrial éducation.. . . . ...............
War exemptions............................... . .......................................... . . . .........................................
Austria-Hungary........................................................................ ‘ ......... ............ ..............
Germany..................... ................................................ 1 .......................................................
Great Britain.................................
ïta ly ...................................................................................................
Sources consulted..........................................
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


U. S. D epartment

of L abor ,
Children ’ s B ureau ,

Washington, July 3, 1917.
: Immediately after the declaration of war by the United States
the Children’s Bureau began a review of such foreign official docu­
ments concerning child welfare as were available in this country in
order that the experience of the belligerent nations might be placed
at the disposal of all who are concerned with the protection of chil­
dren in the United States. The present report, one of the units in
this study, indicates that the countries whose standards of school
attendance and protection from premature and exhausting employ­
ment are most nearly comparable with our own have maintained
their standards without change during three years of war. Notable
among them are New Zealand and certain Canadian Provinces and
Australian States. The lengthening of hours, which has elsewhere
been permitted as a war measure, has so seriously threatened the
health and efficiency of the workers that the Governments of England,
France, and Italy have restored in part their prewar standards.
Quite as significant is the emphasis which has been placed on a re­
organization of adolescent education in England and France as
essential to the economic welfare of these countries after the war.
It is hoped that this report will call attention to the growing concern
in the warring countries for the welfare of children and the earnest
efforts now being made in the midst of war to improve their condi­
tion, and that it will aid in showing not only the importance of
maintaining here all the present industrial protection afforded to
women and children but of carrying this protection forward not­
withstanding war conditions.
The text of the report has been prepared by Miss Anna Rochester
of the Children’s Bureau. The research work has been done by
several persons who have reviewed the material for the various
countries, as follows: France, Miss Rochester; Germany, Miss Alice
P. Gannett; Great Britain, Miss Louise Moore; Italy, Miss Mary D.
Hopkins; Netherlands, Mrs. Karl de Haas and Mr. J. H. Muurling;
Russia, Miss Marie D. Hourwich and Miss Anna Kalet. The Bulletin
of the International Labor Office, which was the starting point of
S ir

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the study, was reviewed by Miss Ella A. Merritt. Special acknowl­
edgment should be made o f' the cordial cooperation of the officials
of the Library of Congress in giving the bureau ready access to the
valuable material which the Library has received. The bureau is
indebted to the Federal Trade Commission for the use of certain
British and French reports.
Julia C. L athrop, Chief.
Hon. W illiam B. W ilson,
Secretary o f Labor.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


The first effect in every country of the European war was a period
of widespread unemployment accompanied by tremendous pressure
in the few industries which were immediately necessary for war
supplies. The activities of labor exchanges were extended to facili­
tate the distribution of labor, and in many places labor restrictions
were relaxed, since this was thought necessary to intensify produc­
tion. Experience proved, however, that the relaxing of standards
failed of its purpose. In England and France and more recently in
Italy, after the redistribution of labor had been effected and an
actual shortage of workers had replaced the earlier unemployment,
definite steps were taken by the Governments to restore the provisions
of the labor law, because they were found to be essential not only to
the conservation of the available workers but to the quantity and
the quality of their output.
On the other hand some countries resisted from the beginning of
the war any such breaking down of the labor law and maintained, or
even advanced, their labor restrictions. No special exemptions are
reported from Hungary; and, with the exception of a slight lengthen­
ing of legal overtime in the Australian State of Victoria, schoolattendance and child-labor lavrs have not been relaxed in any part
of Canada, Australia, or New Zealand. They have been strengthened
during the war in South Australia and in four Canadian Provinces.
In England and France also official proposals have been made to
reorganize and extend secondary education in ways which would
directly affect the employment of children and raise the standard of
their protection.
Switzerland toward the end of 1915 defined more exactly the ex­
emptions which might be granted under the special war decree of
1914 and made it plain that night work by girls under 18 and boys
under 16 would not be permitted and that the 14-year age limit for
employment must be observed.
In other countries, where standards have been relaxed and no official
action has been taken toward their restoration, protests and agitation
by labor organizations, physicians, or social workers are reported.
In Germany and in Austria-Hungary hours of labor have been short­
ened in certain specified industries for the sake of conserving mate65060— 17------2
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rials. Thus, Germany in 1915 forbade night work in bakeries;1 lim­
ited the work in spinning, weaving, and hosiery mills to 10 hours a
day and 5 days a week;2 prohibited the use of power machinery for
cutting textiles; and permitted the use of power machinery for sew­
ing, buttonholing, etc., only 30 hours a week.3 Hungary has for­
bidden night work in bakeries.4 Austria has withdrawn the power to
grant exemptions for overtime and night work in establishments
using cotton, except on urgent orders for the army.5
In general the relaxing of labor standards during the war has
fallen into three classes.6
First and most general is the lengthening of hours of work, including
night work and Sunday work and more or less unlimited overtime.
Some such exemptions have been reported from England, France,
Italy, Germany, Austria (but not Hungary), Switzerland, Holland,
and Russia. The Australian Province, Victoria, in 1914 lengthened
slightly the amount of overtime permitted to women and girls, but
Victoria’s present limit for special overtime is shorter than that fixed
in times of peace in the European countries.
Second is a lowering of the age requirement for children entering
industry. In this Italy has made the most general provision, per­
mitting boys of 12 whose fathers are soldiers to go to work without
regard to the educational standard formerly required of all boys
under 15 years of age. France in 1915 admitted children of 11 years
and 6 months, instead of 12 years, to the July examination for pri­
mary certificate which would exempt from school attendance. In
England local authorities in certain districts have been excusing
children from the requirements of the school-attendance law for agri­
culture and other “ suitable” employments. In Germany special
exemptions from the age hmit for child labor are provided for in the
emergency law of August 4, 1914, but how generally they have been
granted does not appear.
In the third place women and young persons have been employed
in dangerous, injurious, or heavy work formerly prohibited by law.
The war legislation in Germany and Russia, for example, specifically
provided for the granting of permission to women and young persons
to work underground in coal mines. The under secretary of arms
and munitions in France authorized the employment of girls under
18 in Government powder plants, from which they had formerly
been excluded. In addition women have been employed in some
occupations in which men only were formerly engaged and for which
1 Soziale Praxis, Sept. 9,1915, p . 1176.
2 Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, V ol. X , p. 232; SozialePraxis, N o v . 11,1915, p. 139.
2 Soziale Praxis, Jan. 27,1916, p . 401.
t Bulletin of the International Labor Office, V ol. X V (German edition), No. 10,1916, p . 291.
5S eep . 27.
« This material does not include any discussion of wages or of the methods of settlement for industrial
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little or no protection was provided b y law. Again, in some cases
new dangers have developed for which former laws made no specific
Quite as important as the temporary granting of exemptions is the
postponement of laws which had been passed before the war but had
not yet become effective. Conspicuous examples are the Federal
factory act in Switzerland which had been passed in June, 1914, and
awaited the word of the Federal Council to supersede the former law ;1
the conventions of Berne regarding night work of young persons and
hours of labor for women and the use of white phosphorus which had
not taken effect in Italy when the war began;2 and the decree limiting
the hours of labor in iron and steel industries in Germany.3
In considering the labor standards of belligerent nations during the
war, it should be remembered that these standards in European coun­
tries were in time of peace lower than those accepted by public opin­
ion and b y legislation in this country. It is significant, moreover,
that the British colonies which have maintained or advanced their
labor standards in war time have, alone among the belligerent nations,
enforced in time of peace restrictions of hours for women and children
which are fairly comparable with the standards of the Federal childlabor law and the laws affecting women in the more advanced States
of this country.
The point which does stand out unmistakably from the foreign
experience is the general realization that the labor standards achieved
in time of peace are none too high to promote the efficiency of work,
the intensity of output, and the general level of health which are
absolutely essential to the nation’s welfare in war time.

The disorganization of industry and the exceptional labor condi­
tions which have been permitted would have seriously affected the
Welfare of women and children even if there had been no increase in
the number at work, since even before the war they were employed
extensively in the European countries. But in addition new work­
ers have everywhere been drawn into industry during the war.
In England and Wales in 1911 more than 4,800,000 women and
girls were employed. This was about one-third (32.5 per cent) of
the total female population 10 years of age and over.4 The number
of children under 14 years of age reported at work was 146,417. Of
these, 10,424 were employed in agriculture.5 There were 34,152
1 Bulletin of the International Labor Office, V ol. I X , p . 269, and V ol. X I , p . 55. This law was not yet in
effect on D ec. 6,1915.
2 L a Confederazione del Lavoro, Milan, A pr. 16,1915, p . I'll.
3 Soziale Praxis, N ov. 11,1915, p . 139.
* Great Britain B oard o f Trade (Departm ent of Labor Statistics), Seventeenth Abstract of Labor Sta>
tistics o f the U nited K ingdom , p p . 292,306.
3 Ib id ., p . 318.
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half-timers, children under 14 who attended school part of the day
and worked part of the day.1 The whole number of boys and girls
in Great Britain 10 years of age and less than 15 was 3,499,688.2
In France in 1911 more than seven and a half million women and
girls were employed, 38.7 per cent of the total female population of
all ages. Nearly three and a quarter million of them were in agricul­
ture and over two and a half million in occupations classified as
industry. Of the 3,292,502 children 10 to 14 years of age 657,425 were
at work, and about half of these working children were in agriculture.3
For the same year it is reported that 336,040 boys and girls 286,578
under 18 years of age were employed in occupations subject to in­
spection by the ministry of labor; the total number of young people
12 to 18 years of age was just short of four million.4
The number of women and girls over 16 years of age at work in
Germany in 1907 was about seven and one-half million, 37.9 per cent
of the total number in the Empire. A little more than four millions
of those employed were engaged in agriculture. Of the 2,441,976
boys and girls 14 but under 16 years of age, 60.1 per cent, or 1,468,982,
were employed, including 666,673 agricultural workers. Of the
20,168,636 children under 14, 183,428 boys and 113,358 girls were
employed; and 68.7 per cent of these working boys and 81.2 per
cent of these working girls were in agriculture. In addition, 1,060,812
women 16 years of age and over and 188,571 girls below that age
were employed as household servants.5
Even in Italy, where it is generally supposed that women are
averse to industrial employment, the figures for 1911 show that out
of a total of 13,680,201® girls and women above 10 years of age,
1,402,362 were then employed in industry and nearly three millions
were working in agriculture.7 Of the 1,861,727 boys 10 to 15 years of
age, more than half were at work either in industry or in agriculture.7
In the United States there was a marked increase between 1900
and 1910 in the percentage of women employed, and the latter census
reports that 23.4 per cent of the thirty-four and a half million women
and girls over 10 years of age were at work. Of the five and onehalf million boys 10 to 15 years of age in 1910 in this country 1,353,139
were at work.8
1 Final R ep ort of the Great Britain Departm ental Comm ittee on Juvenile E ducation in R elation to
E m ploym ent after the war, p . 31.
2 Great Britain Board of Trade (Departm ent of Labor Statistics), Seventeenth A bstract of Labor Sta­
tistics of the U nited Kingdom , p . 292. T h e num ber of working children 14 years old is not shown, so the
numbers of working children (under 14) and of all children 10 to 14 inclusive can not be compared.
3 Ministère d u Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, Résultats statistiques d u recensement général de la
population effectué le 5 mars 1911, T om e I, Deuxièm e Partie, p . 89; Troisième Partie, p p . 11, 70,71.
4 Ministère d u Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, Annuaire statistique, 1912, p. 119.
6 Statistik des Deutschen R eichs, 1910, vol. 203, p . 2 £f.
« Census of June 10,1911.
i Annuario Statistico Italiano, 2d series, V ol. IV , 1914, p p . 49,54.
8 Thirteenth Census of the U nited States, 1910, V ol. IV , p. 70.
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While these figures can not be used, for a comparison of different
countries because of variations in the bases of the statistics, they do
unmistakably indicate a longer period of education for young people
and a less general employment of women in industry in the United
States than in Europe.
Few figures are available to show how many more women and
children have been drawn into gainful employment during the war
by the extraordinary demand for labor which is reported for certain
occupations in every country. From France,1 Germany,2 and Italy 8
come reports of a great increase in home work, with its customary
evils of long hours and low wages, in connection with army con­
tracts for clothing and other supplies; and home work almost invari­
ably includes the employment of children.
- In all European countries the demand for children and women in
agricultural work has been very great. Furloughs from school for a
limited period are permitted by the school-attendance laws in France
and Holland. In Russia the movement for compulsory school at­
tendance which was under way before the war has been seriously
hampered and the attendance of children who have been enrolled
is reported to be more irregular than usual because of work they
have to do at home and in the fields.4 In England certain exemp­
tions are permitted by law and others have been granted at the discre­
tion of the authorities. The actual number of children engaged in
agricultural work can not be estimated for any country.
An interesting side light on what agricultural employment of
children may mean comes from Russia, where some 600 refugee
children from 13 to 16 years of age were organized in colonies by an
agency of the city council of Moscow for the double purpose of help­
ing the peasants in their summer work in the fields and of saving the
children from the harmful influences of the capital. On the basis
of a medical examination the children were divided into two groups—
those able to give help on farms to a great extent and those who
needed rest and recuperation. The latter, making up 8 out of the
19 colonies, also worked; but it was arranged that they could only
help in the household and do “ fight” field work such as turning hay
and digging potatoes; they were not to work more than 7 hours a
From the British board of education we learn that while ordinarily
in Great Britain some 450,000 children pass out of the elementary
schools annually at or about the age of 14 the number was increased
1 See p p . 29, 30.
2 Soziale Praxis, N ov. 26,1914, p. 202.
s II L avoro (M ilan), July 31,1915, pp. 203 ff, 221,222.
< Russkaiia M ysl, October, 1914, Pt. II, pp . 92,93. Russkiia Viedom osti, Oct. 16 (29), 1915; O ct. 17 (30)
1915; F eb. 24 (Mar. 8), 1916; Feb. 26 (Mar. 10), 1916.
6 Russkiia Viedom osti, May 14 (28), 1916, and July 30 (A ug. 12), 1916.
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by approximately 10 per cent during the year 1915. These addi­
tional 45,000 children were practically all legally entitled to leave
school. Further, since September, 1914, a very large number of
children who were still of compulsory school-attendance ages have
been excused by the local education authorities for full-time agricul­
tural employment or (in a few cases) for suitable light employment
in cities.1 u Broadly speaking, it is probable that together these
figures do not fully represent the total loss.” 2 On the other hand,
Mr. Herbert Fisher, president of the board of education, stated in
the House of Commons in April, 1917, that with the greater pros­
perity of the working classes since the war the enrollment in second­
ary schools has increased.3
From various British sources come reports of high wages for boys
in unskilled occupations and special complaint of the large increase
of young boys in street trades. It is stated that the scarcity of boy
labor has caused girls to enter occupations in which they have not
formerly been employed, but the occupations are not specified. The
Board of Trade Labor Gazette4 speaks also of the shifting of juve­
nile labor from one district to another in a way apparently unknown
before the war. The number of women gainfully employed in Great
Britain had increased by almost one-third between July, 1914, and
January, .1917, according to reports from employers. And of the
1,072,000 women who were added to the number of wage earners
during that period, all but 1,000 were said to be directly replacing
men. About 147,000 of these new wage earners were in Government
establishments and 270,000 in privately owned metal works. Just
what proportion of these two groups are at work in munition plants
is not stated. The clothing trades, which were distinctly women’s
occupations before the war, and the paper and printing trades report
a small decrease in the number of women employed. It should be
noted, however, that these figures do not include the displacement
of women, estimated at about 300,000, from domestic service or from
very small workshops in the dressmaking trade.5
Between July, 1914, and October, 1916, women railway employees
had increased from 11,000 to 33,000 and women brewery workers
from 8,000 to 18,000.6
Reports of increased employment of women in Germany are based
on the returns of the sickness insurance funds, for in Germany prac­
tically all industrially employed women must be insured. On Sep­
tember 1, 1915, the number of women insured against sickness in the
1 See p . 49.
2 Great Britain Board o f Education, Annual report for 1915 of the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of
Education, p . 104.
8 Great Britain House o f Commons Parliamentary Debates, vol. 92, N o. 41, colum n 1887 (A pril 19,1917).
4 February, 1917, p . 49.
5 Great Britain B oard of Trade Labor Gazette, A pril, 1917, pp. 125, 126.
®Ib id ., October, 1916, p . 357.
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sick insurance funds reporting to the imperial bureau oi statistics
exceeded b y 600,000 the number insured on February 1, 1915. The
increase was 120,000 for the city of Greater Berlin alone. In quoting
these figures 1 Ernst Francke refers also to an investigation of the
metal industry in the Düsseldorf district before the war which found
913 women employed there; in December, 1914, the number was
6,928. He states further that in the spring of 1915 the mining estab­
lishments of Prussia engaged an additional group of 3,000 women and
8,000 children 14 to 16 years old. The women in the Prussian mines
were employed in 1915 only above ground, hut some of the children
11because of the removal of part of the protective restrictions can
also be employed underground. It is to be hoped that a growing
ca^e for health and safety in industry accompanies the increasing
number of women and young persons employed. ” 2 A news item
from London 3 states that on July 1, 1916, no fewer than 3,827,640
women were at work in the metal trades in Germany.
That women’s work in metal trades in Germany is not confined
to the munition factories appears from such a statement as the
following: 4
In wire factories, women are employed at wire spooling, at the wire-weaving ma­
chine, and at wire drawing. In so-called “ pottery” foundries women work at the
machine mold for cast-iron cooking pots. A smelter in Upper Silesia employs about
50 women in blast furnaces, 25 in coke ovens, and 60 in steel and rolling mills. These
women are obliged to do Sunday and overtime work. Another smelter employs
about 25 women at blast furnaces and about 20 at Martin furnaces and in the steel
works. In still another a particularly strong woman is employed as stoker of a furnace.
These are all occupations for which formerly only strong men were used. In other
smelters women are employed in lighter work.

Various other references are found to women’s employment in
Germany in occupations which were formerly men’s and for which
it is said that new restrictions should be provided in order to protect
the health of the women. Unfortunately few German publications
have been received since the spring of 1916 and no other figures on
the employment of women and children are available.
An exodus of German children from the usual blind-alley occupa­
tions is indicated by the difficulty of getting boys for odd jobs, mes­
sengers, errands, and other unskilled “ nom ad” work. “ All young
boys with any ambition now become apprentices in skilled trades
because they are much needed and are paid very differently from
peace-time rates; or else they become lathe workers in munition
factories, or enter the postal service. Formerly the parents had to
make sacrifices and pay for the instruction of the boy, but now he
1 Preussische Jahrbücher, vol. 162, (1915), p. 388.
2 Soziale Praxis, N o v . 4,1915, p. 118.
8 W ashington Post, June 10,1917, p. 12.
* Soziale Praxis, A ug. 12,1915, p . 1069.
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makes while an apprentice as much as the unskilled youthful worker
used to make. ” 1
Even more incomplete are the figures available for France, Italy,
and Russia.2 We learn from the Bulletin du Ministère du T ravail3
for example, that in April, nearly 50,000 industrial establishments,
not including State-owned munition works or railways, tramways,
mines, and quarries, had replaced by other workers more than onefifth of the wage earners who had been mobilized. These establish­
ments had employed before the war one and three-quarter million
workers of both sexes and all ages and of these approximately
420,000 men (24 per cent) had been called to the colors. In April,
1916, the places of some 87,800 had been filled, but how these new
workers were distributed among men above military age, and women,
boys, and girls does not appear. A marked increase of women
workers on French railways is reported. For example, it is stated
by the Journal des Débats4 that the percentage of women railway
employees in France in November, 1916, was growing daily and had
already risen to proportions varying from 1 in 10 to 1 in 6 on different
From France come reports also of women’s work in furnace indus­
tries.5 As early as August, 1915, the bulletin of the minister of
labor stated that “ Certain of the new occupations in which women
are employed seem injurious to their health and under normal cir­
cumstances the question would arise whether the employment of
women in these occupations should not be regulated.” 6
In July, 1916, the French Government ordered that all soldiers
detailed to munition work must so far as possible be replaced by
women,7 and even earlier it had been ordered that women should be
employed instead of men in office work and house service at army
headquarters.8 In September, 1916, the minister of munitions
stated that 300,000 women had gone into the munition works, but
he does not say how many of them were under 21 years of age.9
Similar orders were issued in Italy in circulars o f August 23 and
September 28, 1916, which stated that by October 31, 50 per cent of
the men of military age in the munition works must be replaced
by women and boys and that by December 31 the percentage must
be brought up to 80. The second circular states that of the 355,349
Wage earners employed at that time in 822 munition works only
1 Soziale Praxis, Oct. 28,1915, p. 89.
a The Austrian sources have not been reviewed,
s June, 1916, p p . 188-190.
4 Quoted b y Christian Science Monitor, Boston, N ov. 17,1916.
5 Réform e Econom ique, D ec. 15,1916.
« Bulletin d u Ministère d u Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, A ug. 1915, p. 182.
i Ibid ., July-A ug., 1916, p . 132.
s Ib id ., June, 1916, p . 103.
s Le Matin, Paris, Sept. 24,1916.
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45,628, or 13 per cent, were women. By December 31, 1916, accord­
ing to the report of the national committee for munitions pub­
lished early in the current year, the number of women employed in
war industries had risen to 90,000, as against 430,000 men, or to 18
per cent of the total number of employees as compared with 4 per
cent in November, 1915. In some plants the percentage of women
has risen to 90 and even 95. While emphasizing the remarkable
rapidity of this increase, the report points out the necessity of a much
more general displacement of men by women, discusses the growth
of technical training schools for women munition workers, and ex­
presses the expectation of a continually increasing response of Italian
women to the needs of the war industries.1 How far this expecta­
tion has been realized, material available in this country does not
yet show.
As in France the employment of women in auxiliary army services
in Italy has been encouraged. Clerical work, kitchen work, laundry
work, general cleaning and other work in military hospitals, and
clerical work in territorial offices are especially referred to.2
The only Italian figures received concerning the employment of
boys during the war refer to munition works in Lombardy.3 They
are based on reports from 660 factories employing about 100,000
workers in June, 1914, and 145,000 workers in June, 1916. The
number and percentage of boys employed was small and showed
little change; 1,297 boys under 21, or 1.28 per cent, were employed
in 1914, and 2,076 boys under 21, or 1.42 per cent, in 1916. On the
other hand the number of women and girls in these plants had more
than tripled and the percentage of women and girls among all workers
had risen from 4.77 per cent in 1914 to 9.97 per cent in June, 1916.
This indication of the slight employment of boys in comparison with
that of women and girls is borne out by the report of the national
committee for munitions.4
It may be noted that the number of boys in comparison with women is very small
in large and medium sized establishments; and greater on the other hand in unim­
portant ones.
The reasons for this distribution of juvenile workers in contrast with that of female
employees are evidently to be sought in the fact-that quantitatively and qualita­
tively the output of boys is less than that of women, so that while the boys may be
usefully employed in establishments which carry on small secondary operations they
are on the other hand less adapted to take part in the large, complex, and very fatiguing
processes of plants of the first importance.
The economic factor doubtless also helps to determine the distribution; it is quite
natural that the factories of limited range and productivity should prefer to utilize
1 Comitato Nazionale per il Munizionamento, I l Lavoro Fem minile nella Industria di Guerra Italiana,
January, 1917, p p . 20, 21.
2 Corriere della Sera, Milan, Jan. 15, 1917, and F eb. 17,1917.
3 Città di Milano Bollettino Municipale Mensile, Jan. 31,1917, p p . 28. 29.
4 Comitato Nazionale per il Munizionamento, Il Lavoro Fem minile nella Industria d i Guerra,
January, 1917, p. 23.

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boys either on account of the low wages or because their employment exacts fewer
hygienic safeguards and precautions.

The Corriere della Sera (Milan, Feb. 2, 1917) tells us that for the
advantage of pupils working in munitions factories, the committee
of Tuscan teachers has submitted various practical proposals to the
Minister Ruffini. Among these is one to divide the school year into
two periods, one of which should be reserved— from June to Octo­
ber— for those who have given service in the factories.
An article which appeared in the Moscow Russkiia Yiedomosti on
July 3 (16), 1915, gives a picture of the effect of war upon women’s
work in Russia.
Since the war the use of women’s work in industries has largely increased, par­
ticularly the number of women working in metallurgical establishments which before
the war did not employ women and even avoided them. At first women were em­
ployed only in the most unskilled occupations of a general character. But gradually
their labor was tried in more skilled occupations at the bench and machines. The
women passed the test. Moreover, the experiment showed that substitution of women
for men had some economic advantages for the factories. As a result, women were em­
ployed not only from necessity but because of profits.
Women were taken on by various mechahical shops, including blacksmiths’ . There
were factories where no women were found a year ago and now they constitute 20 to 25
per cent of all the employees; and this percentage is growing rapidly. The more
highly paid man’s labor is being replaced by the cheaper woman’s labor. The changes
are striking. The women employing servants began to complain of scarcity of help and
of the increased demands made by domestics. In the regions observed by the author
the factories until now had been closed to women. The men were working and the
wives taking care of the children; many workers’ families had their children in high
schools. However, there were many manufacturing districts where nearly the whole
family would be at work. The same thing happened in villages where the amount
of land owned by peasants was insufficient and required outside earnings; men
were working the whole year around, women often gave birth to children while at
work, and children of tender age were also employed.
At present there is a necessity greater than ever before to use women’s work. Their
labor is now required by the State. The consequences are complex. If the women
at present plow the fields where they never did so before, it does not mean that we
have come nearer to the protection of women and motherhood, to the equality of the
sexes. If the women at present work in slaughterhouses, blacksmith shops, carpenter
shops, and other factories, it does not mean that we have solved the important questions
of social legislation. On the contrary, it can be stated that in view of the increased
demand for women’s work the questions of social legislation become more urgent.

Other occupations in which Russian women have been largely em­
ployed during the war include various kinds of railroad work and
work in inns and restaurants. The minister of ways of communica­
tion, Trepov, early in 1916, issued an order permitting an increase in
the number of women employees on railroads for the period of the war
up to 25 per cent of all employees. Their employment as conductors
is especially referred to, and in the cities of Kiev and Odessa it is re­
ported that classes were opened for training women as conductors.3.
1 Russkiia Viedom osti, F eb. 28 (Mar. 12) and June 11 (24), 1916.
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General references are found in Russian publications to the sub­
stitution of children for older workers but no data are available as to
the industrial occupations in which they are most largely employed.
Street trading by young children has increased and some as young as
five years of age are said to be engaged in this work. A member of
the city duma of Moscow, appealing to that body to help these
children, stated:
The retail sale of newspapers is mostly in the hands of growing children. W ith the
leaving of the adult workers for the front, their places were taken by growing boys and
girls working on the streets from early morning till late at night.1

In spite of her neutrality Netherlands has, of course, been deeply
affected by the war. As industrial life has gradually adjusted itself
to these war conditions and to the mobilization of the army, there
has been on the one hand continued unemployment and on the other
a slight increase in child and woman labor. This increase has been
especially marked in certain industries. The proportion of women
and girls among all wage earners in industrial establishments em­
ploying more than 25 persons rose from 20 per cent in May, 1914, to
22 per cent in May, 1916.2 The number of young children 12 and 13
years of age who were at work had decreased in 1913 and again in
1914. The number rose again in 1915 but did not reach the total
reported for 1912 or 1913.3 A census of all industries shows from
1914 to 1916 an increase of 3 per -cent in the employment of boys under
17 years of age, of 16 per cent in the employment of girls under 17,
and an increase of 12 per cent in the employment of women 17 years
of age and over. The increase in the employment of men 17 years
of age and over in the same period was only 2 per cent. In the
clothing trades and the metal industry, including shipbuilding, these
percentages of increase are much higher.4
The following sections give the details of legislation 'in foreign
countries— first, the slight changes in the British dominions where
standards have been maintained; second, the new plans for industrial
education which will mark a distinct advance in France and Great
Britain; and third, a record of the exemptions and the movements
for restoring standards in these two countries and others.

There has been no weakening of labor laws affecting women and
children in New Zealand or in. any Canadian Province, and Manitoba
has during the war reduced the overtime permitted to women and
girls. The only alteration in factory laws for women and children in
1 Russkiia Viedom osti, N ov. 6 (19), 1916.
2 Central Verslag der Arbeidsinspectie, 1915, p. 311.
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:Ibid., p. 40.

4Ibid., p . 310.



any Australian State 1 has been an increase in overtime permitted by
law in Victoria, but the present limit in Victoria is shorter than that
fixed by European laws before the war. The pressure of demand for
labor in these British colonies may be guessed from the large numbers
of men who have gone to the front. Canada has sent from civil to
military life one-nineteenth of her total population, or 440,000 men
from among 8,322,000 persons of both sexes and all ages;2 in New
Zealand, one-fourteenth of the population has enlisted, or 80,593 men
from a total population of 1,160,000.3
M a n it o b a .

Acts o f the Legislature o f the Province o f Manitoba, 1916, First session,
p. 125 (6 Geo. 5, ch. 41, sec. 5), amending Manitoba Revised Statutes, 1913, ch. 70,
sec. 1 5 ( b ) ; also secs. 13 and 15 (c) (summarized).

Overtime allowed in special cases for women and young girls in
factories is reduced so that working hours may never exceed 12 hours
a day or 60 hours a week, instead of 12^ hours a day and 72^ hours a
week, and overtime may now be permitted on only 36 days in the
year. The working hours may not ordinarily exceed 9 per day and
54 per week.
V ic t o r ia .

Public General Statutes o f Victoria, 1913 and 1914 (5 Geo. 5, N o. 2558, sec. 8),
amending Public General Statutes o f Victoria, 1911 and 1912, p. 143 (3 Geo. 5, N o.
2386, sec. 37) (summarized).

Overtime allowed in special cases to women and girls and to boys
14 and 15 years of age is increased so that working hours may amount
to 57 hours a week during 8 weeks in the year instead of 51 hours a
week, including overtime on 10 days in the year. The working hours
may not ordinarily exceed 8 per day and 48 per week.
Compulsory school-attendance laws have been maintained during
the war without a lowering of the required standards in Canada, Aus­
tralia, and New Zealand. This is especially significant in New Zea­
land, Alberta, and the Australian States— South Australia, Western
Australia, and Tasmania— where attendance is compulsory under
specified ages throughout the entire school term except for children
who have completed the elementary school course.
The standard of school-attendance laws has been raised since
August i, 1914, in Nova Scotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and South
Australia, and Manitoba passed its first compulsory school-attendance
law in March, 1916.
N o v a Sc o t ia .

Statutes o f Nova Scotia, 1915, p. 85 (5 Geo. 5, ch. 4, secs. 7; 11), and Re­
vised Statutes, 1900, Vol. I , p. 409, ch. 55, art. 6 (summarized).

Attendance is required for the entire term in all cities and towns,
instead of only 120 days a year.
1 The Queensland Statutes since 1914 have not been available.
2The Times, London, M ay 3, 1917, p. 5.
3 Ibid., A p r. 17,1917, p. 5.
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O n t a r io .

Statutes o f 1916, p . 312 (6 Geo. 5, ch. 62, secs. 3, 4), and Revised Statutes o j
Ontario, 1914, Vol. I I , p . 3414 f f (summarized).

The local education authority may require attendance of adoles­
cents under 17 years of age who are exempt from attendance under
the truancy act at day classes or night classes. Exceptions may be
made if the adolescent has been granted special exemption by the
board or committee of the school he would otherwise attend, or if he
is sick or has a senior public school diploma.
Sa s k a t c h e w a n .

Statutes o f the Province o f Saskatchewan, 1917, p . 23 (7 Geo. 5, ch. 19,
sec. 3), and Statutes o f Saskatchewan, 1915, p. 54 (5 Geo. 5, ch. 25, sec. 191) (summa­


Every child over 7 and under 14 is required to attend school for
the whole time during which the school is open each year. Formerly
children in rural districts were required to attend 100 teaching days
a year and children in towns 150 days a year.
M a n it o b a . Acts o f Legislature o f Manitoba, 1916 {first session), p. 329 {6 Geo. 5, ch. 97,
sec. 5) (summarized).

School attendance is required for the full term for all children 7 to
14 years of age with exemptions for sickness, or distance from school,
or completion of elementary school course. Also, the child may be
excused by a justice of the peace or by the principal of the school
for not more than 6 weeks a term if he is satisfied that the child is
needed for husbandry or work at home because of poverty.
S outh A u s t r a l ia .

Acts o f Parliament o f South Australia, 1915 {6 Geo. 5, N o. 1223,
secs. 41, 4^), and Acts o f Parliament o f South Australia, 1891 {54 and 55 Victoria,
N o. 507, sec. 4), as amended by acts o f Parliament o f South Australia, 1905 {5 Edw. 7,
N o. 892, sec. 2) (summarized).

The school-attendance law is made to apply to all children from 6
to 14 years of age instead of only to those from 7 to 13 years of age,
and attendance is now required for the entire school term.
One of the European belligerents, Hungary, has apparently made
no special war exemptions.1

In England and France proposals have been made not only to establish
new systems of continuation schools and additional opportunities for
industrial education but also to require part-time school attendance
of boys and girls who are now exempt from school-attendance laws.
In England it is recommended that the school-leaving age be raised
to 14 years without exemptions and that all young people under 18
who are not attending the regular schools should be enrolled in parttime classes. France does not propose to raise the school-leaving
age, but a bill is pending which would require part-time attendance
of girls under 18 and boys under 20. In presenting this bill M.
i Available material on legislation in the following belligerent countries has been reviewed: AustriaHungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia.
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Yiviani referred to the fact that it would not only enforce part-time
attendance of adolescents but would incidentally secure better en­
forcement of elementary school-attendance provisions.
The English plan is based on reports made b y a special depart­
mental committee on juvenile education in relation to employment
after the war. The reports emphasize the new conception of the
child’s relation to education and to industry and the importance of
real preparation for future work.
G r e a t B r it a in .

Final report o f the Departmental Committee on Juvenile
in Relation to Em ploym ent After the War.
Vol. 1 {M ar., 1917).


Page 5. Can the age of adolescence be brought out of the purview
of economic exploitation and into that of the social conscience ? Can
the conception of the juvenile as primarily a little wage earner be
replaced by the conception of the juvenile as primarily the workman
and the citizen in training? Can it be established that the educa­
tional purpose is to be the dominating one, without as within the
school doors,, during those formative years between 12 and 18 ?
Page 2. Taken together the three groups [children and young per­
sons who can not immediately find advantageous employment, those
who require special training for employment, those who have been
abnormally employed during the war] may be expected after the war
to constitute a very large section of that great class of employed
juveniles between the ages of 12 and 18 to which nearly all members
of the community belong in their turn. Our.problem, therefore, is
the standing problem o f the adolescent wage earner, aggravated by
the effect o f war time conditions upon the serious difficulties which
at all times it presents.
Page 12. Even though the educational obligation [of continuation
classes] may be a small one, it will still be sufficient to establish the
principle that a child is no longer to be regarded as at once attaining,
when he enters employment, to the fully independent status of wage­
earning manhood. He will still be one under authority and open to
the influences of encouragement and reproof, of the corporate life and
the offered ideal, which even more than mere instruction are the
essence o f the educational process.
Over and above the four years’ prolongation of formal education
which they imply, we believe that compulsory continuation classes
will carry on the moral and disciplinary influence of the elementary
school, will conduce to a far higher standard of physical well-being,
will increase the industrial efficiency of the mass of the population
and will give those able to profit by it full opportunity for the begin­
nings of a valuable technical training.
Page 7. There is no doubt that it will prove easier to raise the
standards of education in the towns than in the villages. Neverthe­
less we consider that it would be a fatal mistake to accept a lower
standard as the one proper to be aimed at, and, when practical diffi­
culties permit, attained, in these districts; not only for the large num­
ber of children who, although born and educated in villages, will cer­
tainly not spend their whole lives in those villages but also for the
sake of agriculture and of the agricultural population themselves.
After all, agriculture is essentially from top to bottom a skilled indus
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try, and if there is to be an agricultural revival in England, one of
the most potent means of bringing it about must be an improved edu­
cation, resulting both in a higher degree of farming ability and in a
higher conception of the possibilities of village life.
Page 37. But a difficulty will undoubtedly arise from the attitude
of the farmers, or at any rate of the majority of them. Their real
object, sometimes openly avowed, is to get boys on their farms at
the earliest possible age. The average farmer does not believe in
education, and considers that the longer a boy remains at school, the
less inclination he will have for work on the land. In the past the
farmer has had some justification for this attitude, for our rural
schools have been urban in outlook, and little practical work has
been provided in them.
Page 39. Much of the value of the rural continuation school will
depend upon the character of the curriculum adopted.
Page 38. From the farmer’s point of view there is no doubt that
the boy so trained, and taking up farm work at 14 will be far more
useful than the boy leaving school at 13 who has received no such
training. It is noteworthy that the intelligent opinion of the farm­
ing community as unanimously expressed b y the central chamber of
agriculture is in favor of raising the leaving age to 14 and of estab­
lishing day continuation classes for young persons up to 16.
Mr. Herbert Fisher, president of the board of education, has asked
the House of Commons to grant for the education budget for the year
1917-18 a sum greater by £3,829,048 than that for the year 1916-17.
This would involve the largest increase as compared with the esti­
mates of the preceding year which is known in the history of the
board. It is intended that the improvements in the schools for which
this increase is requested shall be followed by the organization of con­
tinuation schools, the raising of the compulsory attendance age, and
a better provision for industrial training. Mr. Fisher’s speech in the
House of.Commons on April 19, 1917, illustrates the new attitude in
England toward education.
H ouse


C om m o n s .

Parliamentary Debates, vol. 92, N o. 41 (A p ril 19, 1917).

Column 1910. Economy is in the air. We are told to economize
in our expenditure and foodstuffs. I suggest that we should econo­
mize in the human capital of the country, our most precious posses­
sion, which we have too long neglected. I should not recommend
any measure which would have the effect of disturbing the labor
market during the war. But I hope that Parliament may see its
way at the early date to assent to a measure which will give effect to
the general principles which I have endeavored to describe, so that
the foundations may be laid for a fabric of national education worthy
of the genius and heroism of our people and a fitting monument to
the great impulse which is animating the whole nation during the war.
Column 188If.. Another feature of the present situation which can
not fail to impress honorable members of this House is the remarkable
interest which is now exhibited in education and which is evinced in
two quarters from which a clear note has not always hitherto been
sounded. Trade-unions are demanding educational reform. Many
of the most enlightened employers and manufacturers are actively
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promoting it. There is now a prospect new in m y experience, and
so far as I know new in the experience of the country, of the coopera­
tion of the commercial and industrial interests of this country with
the thoughtful energetic portion of the population to secure not only
a higher standard of industrial and commercial fitness, but a higher
level of general education. Some minds attach importance to educa­
tion as to the foundation of industrial and military strength. Others
are principally affected by the prospect that in the spread of educa­
tion they may find the resolution of the discords in our industrial
life. * * *
* * * A good deal may be done and should be done to diversify
and improve the work of the upper standards of our elementary
schools and to promote the growth of central schools. It may be
assumed that a knowledge of the 3 R ’s is satisfactorily rooted and
established by the twelfth year, and that during the two final years
of school life the diet should be richer and more varied. There
should be more handwork for the boys, more housecraft for the
girls and more literary and inspiring education for both. Such
improvements, however, require no legislation and can be effected
with a minimum of cost by a better direction of educational effort.
It would however be necessary so to amend the law of school attend­
ance as to secure for every boy and girl in the country a full period
of school instruction until the fourteenth year. * * *
Column 1899. In the regulations we take powers before paying the
grant in any new year to review the provision made for elementary
education by the authorities and to consider its adequacy and effi­
ciency in relation not only to the local needs and circumstances but
also to the development of a satisfactory system of elementary educa­
tion, including the establishment of a teaching service on a sounder
basis throughout the country. In particular we give notice that we
intend to have regard among other things to the provision made in
the area as a whole of the following objects: First, for maintaining
an adequate and suitable staff of teachers ; secondly, for securing the
progress of the older scholars by means of special schools or ptherwise;
thirdly, we shall have regard to the provision made in the area as a
whole for the teaching of handicraft, cookery, gardening, and other
special subjects; and fourthly, the efficiency with which the law of
school attendance is administered. If the board is not satisfied on
any of these points, they may, after the first year, withhold or reduce
the grant. * * *
The French measure introduced in March, 1917, by the Govern­
ment in the Chamber of Deputies is designed, according to M. Viviani,
the sponsor for the bill, “ to coordinate the different proposals con­
cerning education for adolescents.” 1 Industrial education and gen­
eral training for adolescents have been under discussion by parlia­
mentary committees for several years and a bill for the establishment
of continuation schools in cities and the development of trade instruc­
tion had been favorably reported by the Senate committee before the
war, and was passed by the Senate in June, 1915,2 but no further
action has been taken upon it. Another bill on continuation schools
1 L e Tem ps, Paris, Mar. 14, 1917, p. 4.
2 Journal Officiel, Sén. Déb. 1916, p p . 606-608,653-660.
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inspection of industry and labor, instituted in January, 1915, has
been to give judgment on exemptions. On the other hand the budget
and staff for factory inspection have been greatly reduced each year,
although the police have to some extent supplemented the work of
the few trained inspectors remaining.
Physicians and working men and the official advisory body, the
comitato permanente del lavoro, have entered protests against the
war exemptions, and the Government has referred frequently to the
importance of safeguarding the health of women. In October, 1916,
the central committee on industrial mobilization authorized the
'regional committees on industrial mobilization to prescribe standards
of hours which would restore the safeguards of the labor law, but
apparently this effected no immediate change, for several weeks later
protests were again made by deputies and socialists. Definite
measures have now been taken to secure obedience to the labor law
in all auxiliary establishments.
Bolletino dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, Sept. 16, 1914, p . 190, and Bulletin
o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 73 (summarized).

The royal decree of August 30, 1914, gives authority for the sus­
pension of the existing prohibition of night work for women and
children in the following cases, until further notice:
(1) Ministry for agriculture, industry, and commerce may suspend
prohibition where necessary in regard to work carried on directly for
the state or where other indispensable requirements of public interest
make it necessary.
(2) Provincial prefects after hearing the competent district au­
thority for industrial and labor inspection may suspend prohibition
in event of force majeure, which causes an interruption of employ­
ment not to be foreseen and not recurring at regular intervals.
Bolletino dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, Mar. 16, 1915, p . 72 and Bulletin o f
the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 146 (summarized).

A royal decree of March 7, 1915, providing for the manufacture of
one kind of bread only, states (sec. 7) that the prefects shall see that
where the necessity is recognized, derogations from the regulations
in force, relating to night work for bakers and to Sunday and holiday
rest shall be allowed.
Bolletino dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, July 1, 1915, p . 16, and Bulletin o f
the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 244 (summarized).

Decree of the lieutenant general (No. 889, June 13, 1915) respect­
ing derogations from the act relating to the work of women and
children, in favor of the children of soldiers recalled to, or.retained
with, the colors.
This decree orders that the educational requirements for the em­
ployment of children be suspended in the case of children 12 to 15
years of age who are sons of soldiers, “ without prejudice to the pre­
scribed supplementary instruction.” The authority issuing the book
permitting the child to work must insert a note that it has been issued
according to this decree.
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In June, 1915, applications for suspension of night work prohibition
were encouraged by a ministerial circular exempting them from the
stamp tax.1
Hints are not wanting of a breakdown of the labor law in matters
not covered by the decrees cited or by previous laws, and it is stated
by La Confederazione del Lavoro that the ministry permits exemp­
tions “ without even consulting the permanent committee on labor.” 2
Infractions of the law were no doubt encouraged b y the reduction
of the budget for factory inspection and by the absence of inspectors
who had been called to the colors.
Italia, Camera dei Deputati, Previsione dell' Entrata e della Spesa, Budget B ills f o r
1914-15, 1915-16, 1916-17, p. 45 o f each.

The item for factory inspection and special investigations (Statistica e Lavoro) in the budget of the ministry of agriculture, indus­
try, and commerce, has been as follows:

Budget bill, 1914-15.............. ................................................................................................ 160, 000
Budget bill, 1915-16.............................................................................................................. 97,000
Budget bill, 1916-17............................................................................................................ .
58, 200
“ Social legislation on vacation" in La Confederazione del Lavoro, A ugust 1, 1916, p . 494-

We, and those who with us have really cared for the legislative
protection of the workers, have always deplored that the inspection
of industry and labor was made up of an exceedingly scanty number
of employees who were obliged to fulfill an infinite number of duties—
study, investigations, etc.— and so were uiiable to develop the active
work of enforcing the labor laws. Now, while the employees of the
inspection ought— according to the law and the regulations relating
to its application— to be 77, they have been reduced in consequence
of the calling to the colors of so many to 17 thus assigned: One chief
medical inspector; 3 district chiefs in place of 7; 4 inspectors instead
of 23; 7 assistant inspectors where there should be 25; 2 junior clerks
in place of 21. * * * Altogether the employees in the service
are 22 per cent of the required number.
As early as September, 1914, the comitato permanente del lavoro
urged that the standards of the labor law be so far as possible main­
tained by wise regulation of work and that exemptions be issued only
with the utmost caution.3
It seems to have been in recognition of the danger of abrogating
the safeguards of labor that the medical inspection of industry and
labor was instituted in January, 1915, by the minister of agriculture,
industry, and commerce, under the direction of Prof. Giovanni
Loriga, with the collaboration of Prof. Luigi Carozzi, to apply hygienic
1 Circular of June 30,1915, No. 5538, referred to in B oll, dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, July, 1,
1915, p . 159.
2 Là Confederazione del Lavoro, Milan, Apr. 1,1915, p. 93, and leaflets issued b y the Group for Medical
Propaganda in W ar Tim e, No. 9 in II Lavoro July 31,1915, p. 221.
3 Comitato Permanente del Lavoro, meeting of Sept. 10-11,1914, “ Order of the d a y ” in II Lavoro, Sept.
30,1914, pp. 286-7.
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in rural districts and agricultural training had been passed by the
Chamber of Deputies and was favorably reported by a Senate com­
mittee on January, 1917.1
The importance of making better provision for adolescent education
has been emphasized throughout the war period.
Revue-Philanthropique, June, 1916, p . 320.

A statement by the minister of public instruction will serve doubt­
less as the watchword for all popular educators: “ As compulsory
primary instruction was born of the war of 1870, there must come
from the present conflict obligatory continuation school instruction.”
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, M ay-June, 1915, p. 31.

Since the beginning of hostilities, my department has been con­
cerned with the condition of young people from 13 to 18 years of age
who because of the closing of stores and workshops are without
employment, left to themselves, and deprived of all technical instruc­
tion, although at the close of the war the nation’s industry will more
than ever need skilled workers. To avoid, so far as possible, the
serious results which might follow if this condition continued, I have
brought the matter before the permanent committee of the superior
labor council, so that it may find ways and means to employ these
young people for a part of the day at ]east and to aid them in securing
their trade training.
After making inquiry with the Parisian chambres syndicales and
comités de patronage d ’apprentis, the permanent committee, at its
sessions of September 30 and November 25, 1914, adopted a series of
resolutions, from which I quote the following:
“ That young people under 18 should continue their school work or
be employed in industrial or commercial establishments, or else
attend trade courses during the day. Parents should be informed
that the additional allowance of 50 centimes a day, provided in the
unemployment fund [for each child who is unemployed] can be
withdrawn if, through their fault, the unemployed child is attending
neither school nor trade course.
“ That the investigators of the labor office take steps with the
chambres syndicales of the various industries in order to secure the
organization of trade courses and of work suitable for young people
from 13 to 18 years of age.”
The permanent committee has also passed resolutions to direct
certain Government orders, especially in mechanical occupations, to
“ la petite industrie” so as to support the small and medium-sized
workshops and enable them thus to train apprentices; to organize
with the assistance of the apprenticeship committees prevocational
courses in the available shops, while insisting that manufacturers
having any equipment (outillage) not in use shall be obliged to employ
children several hours a day; to request employers working for the
State to employ young people in their shops and factories; to author­
ize the State-owned factories and shops, which ordinarily do not
receive apprentices, to take children from 13 to 18 years of age during
the war. * * *
1 Journal Officiel, Sen. D oc. 1917, N o. 7, p . 62.

6506°—17------ 4
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In the city of Paris satisfactory results have been secured for cer­
tain industries and in a certain number of districts. I should espe­
cially refer to the happy efforts made by several chambres syndicales
of employers and workers who have— especially in the building
trades, bronze work, jewelry, “ bijouterie-fantaisie,” furniture, etc.—
started practical and theoretical courses.
* * * Certain of the mixed committees, whose organization I
requested in my circular of February 5, have concerned themselves
with the question. * * * I would call your attention especially
to the important rôle which may be played in the instruction and the
placing of young people by tnese mixed committees and by the
apprenticeship committees, organized by articles 117, 118, and 119 of
Book II of the Labor Code, whose object is the protection of appren­
tices and children in industry and the development of trade instruc­
The reports of the apprenticeship committees referred to in this
circular have not been received. The recommendations of the pro­
vincial mixed committees on apprenticeship and trade instruction are
summarized in the bulletin of the minister of labor. They vary in
detail but they uniformly recognize the importance of the subject
even in time of war. Of special interest is the report of the committee
of the Seine, which includes the city of Paris.
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, July-August, 1916, p . 287.

The commission of the Seine demands the organization of prevocational manual training given, in the elementary school, to children
of 12 to 13 years (and if necessary until 14 years, if compulsory school
attendance is extended to 14 years); it desires that, beginning with
the elementary school, attention be given to vocational guidance of
This commission, while recognizing the services rendered by the
existing special schools, is of the opinion that trade instruction
properly so-called can be given only in the workshop and can be
required only in trades where it is necessary; it wishes that, during
the period of apprenticeship, the learner may follow the supplemen­
tary courses which it will have been possible to organize. * * *
For children engaged only in unskilled work, the attendance at
supplementary trade classes should be facilitated so as to enable
them to learn a trade in their industry. The time devoted to sup­
plementary trade classes should be included in the length of the
working day. * * *
As unemployment gave way to an intense demand for labor, the
interest in industrial education continued with new emphasis on the
importance to the future of France of developing to the utmost the
intelligence and skill of every child. Thus, in the Senate debate on
the bill which was passed b y the Senate in June, 1916, occur the
following statements:
Journal Officiel, Sénat, Débats, 1916, p p . 597, 600, 659 (summarized).

M. Clémentel, minister of commerce, says: “ We must begin at
once to prepare in these two Chambers the work of to-morrow. We
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must forge together the necessary arms for the economic struggle
which, let us be quite certain, will be more bitter, more violent than
it was in the past. * * * One may say that the supply of our
leaders of industry and of our engineers is assured; our great schools
provide for that. * * *
“ Let us recognize that it is quite otherwise, whatever be the reason,
for the rank and hie of our industrial army.” He deplores the de­
cline of skill and says: “ This danger, it seems to me, is an especial
menace for the future. * * * I am convinced that it would be
the worst improvidence to wait for the end of hostilities to train the
young recruits on whom depends the hope of our industrial renais­
M. Astier reads from the Journal des Chambres de Commerce of
May 25, 1916, on the bill under discussion: “ Any additional delay in
the discussion and adoption of this bill, well-considered and to-day
necessary, would be prejudicial to the vital interests of the country.”
M. Painleve, the minister of public instruction, says: “ If there is
one thing which this war has made plain, it is the immeasurable
value of the individual Frenchman, his inexhaustible resources of
valor, of tenacity, of invention. A government would be no longer
worthy of the name which did not use its every effort to develop fully
the mental wealth which is found in the children of France, these
future workers of the most generous of civilizations.”

The power to grant special war-time exemptions to labor laws
affecting women and children was secured by legislation or by
decree during the first month of the war in Germany and Austria
and in the two neutral countries, Italy and Switzerland. In France
inspectors were authorized by the minister of labor to grant the
exemptions for the national defense which were provided for in the
labor code. The Russian exemption measure was not enacted until
March, 1915. In England under the factory and workshop act the
secretary of state possessed the power to exempt from the factory
act establishments owned by the Crown or working for the Crown;
in June, 1915, his power was extended to include other establishments-.
The nature of the exemptions and the extent to which they were
used have varied in the different countries. In practically all, some
movement for restoring standards is reported; in England, France,
and Italy official action has been taken; in Austria the decree per­
mitting overtime exemptions was canceled for the cotton industry
because there was danger of unemployment through scarcity of raw
materials. From these countries and others come reports of dissat­
isfaction of the workers and testimony of physicians concerning the
effects of excessive hours. The greater efficiency of a reasonable
working day is mentioned frequently.
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The Austrian exemptions do not appear to affect the age limits
for employment. It should be noted that permits for night work
b y women and girls may be more freely granted than those for night
work b y boys 14 to 16, because the welfare of the boys is considered
important to the future defense of the State. Protests against
excessive hours during the war have been made by a convention of
workers. The only official action withdrawing special war exemp­
tions has been concerned with the cotton industry and it is expressly
stated that the reason for restricting hours in cotton establishments
is the postponement of the unemployment that would result from a
scarcity of raw materials. The only change in labor standards
reported from Hungary is a new prohibition of night work in bakeries
between 6 p. m. and 6 a. m. by a ministerial order of June 24, 1916.2
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X .

Page 54, footnote (summarized). Seven of the Austrian provinces
on dates from July 26, 1914, to_ August 5, 1914, annulled their shop­
closing orders until further notice.
Pages 55, 56 (summarized). On July 31, 1914, an imperial order
(R. G. Bl. No. 183) authorized the minister of commerce in agree­
ment with the minister for the interior and the minister for public
worship and education to annul temporarily as a whole or in part the
law providing for Sunday and holiday rest in industrial undertakings.
A ministerial order was issued on the same day (R. G. Bi. No. 184)
annulling the provisions until further orders.
Page 59 (summarized). On August 9, 1914, an imperial order
(R. G. Bl. No. 219) authorized the minister for public works to
grant exemptions during the war from the regulations in regard to
Sunday rest and the payment of wages in mining undertakings.
Page 60 (summarized). On August 31, 1914, the minister of com­
merce ordered that the granting of permits for overtime work in
industrial undertakings should be restricted to the utmost and that,
more especially in industries working on military contracts, which
were at the time exceptionally busy, an effort should be made— as far
,as this was possible without adversely affecting the punctual delivery
and the quality of the goods— to supply the additional labor required
by appointing fresh workers instead of by overtime work.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X I , p . 31 (summarized).

Royal order of October 10, 1914 (R. G. Bl. No. 274) empowered
the Government to adopt economic measures which might be neces­
sary on account of the extraordinary circumstances caused by the
On September 11, 1915, the minister of commerce issued a decree
empowering provincial authorities to grant exemptions to the
prohibition o f night work for women and girls in the case of indus1 Bulletin of the International Labor Office, 1915,1916, and January-February, 1917, is rhe chief source
of information for Austria and Hungary.
2 Ib id .. V ol. X V (German edition), p. 291.
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trial undertakings supplying urgent military necessities or impor­
tant articles of consumption needed for provisioning the people.
Each individual application for exemptions must be investigated by
tne competent industrial inspector and if the inspector and the
provincial authorities disagreed as to whether permit should be
granted the ministry of commerce would decide.
Petitions to employ boys between 14 and 16 years of age at night,
in so far as this night work was not already allowed (act of May 27,
1885, which permitted night work under 16 in the scythe industry,
silk-spinning, and in hotels and restaurants) should be subject to an
especially rigid inquiry and all such cases were to be referred to the
ministry of commerce for decision.
In view of the special necessity for protecting this class of workers
(boys under 16 years old) which was so important for the future
defense of the State, such requests for exemptions permitting their
employment could be considered only in quite exceptional cases,
even where the above-mentioned conditions for the employment of
women and girls at night were present.
Registers of permits granted were to be sent quarterly to the
ministry of commerce.
The decree stated that legal grounds for permitting niglit work by
women and young persons were found in the royal order of October
10, 1914 (see above) but that exemptions had not hitherto been
granted because of the special expediency of protecting women and
young persons. They would now be considered because of the
extension of compulsory military service to higher age groups and
the shortage of adult male workers.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, January-February, 1915, Vol. X , p . 59, and
January-February, 1916, Vol. X I , p . S3 (summarized).

The Sunday and holiday rest law was restored in the book-printing
trade b y ministerial order of August 20, 1914, and in commercial
establishments b y ministerial order of December 28, 1915.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, V o l .» X I , p. 32 (summarized).

A decree of the minister of commerce, October 21, 1915, instructed
the provincial authorities to make no use of the power given by the
department’s decree of September 11, 1915, to grant exceptional
permission to employ women and young persons overtime or at
night in establishments where cotton was prepared. In all cases
where requests for exceptional overtime or night work were made
by such establishments the requests should be submitted to the
ministry of commerce which would strictly investigate the case
and grant the exemption only when an unavoidably urgent require­
ment of the army was in question. The reason for this order was the
danger of unemployment Decause of scarcity of raw material.
At the convention of Austrian workers held in Vienna, November
5, 1916, resolutions were passed demanding restoration of industrial
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X V (German edition), p. 289 (summarized).

The convention demands for all workers under the war service law:
(1) -Government protection of right to wages and of wage agree­
ments and the adjustment of wages to the increased prices. Equal
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pay for women for equal work. Payments of maintenance of fami­
lies of those workers who were called to service away from their regu­
lar residence.
(2) Strict inspection of industries for the purpose of protecting
the workers’ health, complete prohibition of employment of children
under 14, an increase in the number of factory inspectors, and the
invitation to women with a professional education to become in­
(3) The protection of the workers’ right to organize and right
of assembly; also their civil rights.
The war has clearly shown the evils connected with the old way
of giving out contracts for supplies for clothing. Hitherto the
ministries have been concerned only with the price, not with the
producers. The feeble efforts lately made in this Province are
wholly insufficient. Hence it has come about that the contractors
and manufacturers to secure the largest possible profits have lowered
wages as far as possible. But in the factories also where working
and wage conditions were regulated before the war the employers
are now given full freedom by the employment of unskilled men and
women and by the suspension of protective labor laws and of the
right of organization.

In France the only apparent lowering of age limits has been the
admission in 1915 of children 11 years and 6 months old instead of
12 years old to the examination held annually in July for a primary
education certificate which exempts from school attendance. It
should be remembered, however, that children holding this certificate
are not admitted to factory employment unless they pass the test of
physical fitness. The exemptions granted in accordance with the
circulars of August, 1914, seem to have been concerned chiefly with
night work and overtime.
In June, 1916, the night work prohibition was restored for girls
under 18 and in January, 1917, for expectant mothers and for moth­
ers who are nursing young babies. Other night workers are now
subject to constant supervision and women who show irregular at­
tendance because of sickness are transferred to the day shift.
The three-shift system in continuous industries is recommended
but not required.
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, 1914, p p . 99*, 100*; 1902, p . 340; 1913, Actes et
Documents, p . 20* (summarized).

On the 2d of August, 1914, the minister of labor addressed a cir­
cular to the inspectors of labor, authorizing them to grant exemptions
from the restrictions of hours provided in the labor law in accordance
with permission contained in the decrees of March 28,1902, and June
30, 1913. The decree of March 28, 1902, is concerned with exemp­
tions to the hours of work for adult males. The decree of June 30,
1913, lists occupations in which exemptions may, under special cir­
cumstances, be granted and the periods over which exemptions may
be extended.
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The night-work exemptions include metal works, in which women
(femmes majeures) ana boys under 18 may be employed after 9
. m. and before 5 a. m., the working period not to be more than 10
ours in the 24. Exemptions to the 10-hour working day for women
and children under 18 may be temporarily permitted in 58 classes of
establishments; among them are “ industrial establishments in which
work is being done on Government order and in the interest of
national safety and defense, after notice from the ministers concerned,
stating expressly the necessity for exemption.”
On August 5, 1914, the minister of labor issued a circular instruct­
ing the labor inspectors to encourage the continuance of production
by the employment of adolescents, women, and old men to take the
place of men who had been mobilized. On August 14, 1914, he said: “ As supplementary to my circular
of August 5 and in reply to divers questions whicn have been ad­
dressed to me, I have the honor to inform you that in the application
of laws regulating labor the largest tolerance should everywhere be
granted to encourage national production. Official reports [of vioations] should be made only after warning and in exceptional cases
where the head of the establishment continues, in spite of warning,
practices likely to affect the health of the workers.”
On August 22, 1914, the minister of labor cautioned the inspectors
against permitting overtime in establishments in neighborhoods where
there was acute unemployment. “ You will require manufacturers
to employ additional labor in so far as possible, and, except in work
for the national defense, you will indicate that you can not allow
exemptions which are so little necessary.”
The compulsory school-attendance law permitted before the war
exemptions amounting to three months in the year in addition to
vacations. No change in these provisions during the war is reported.
The age at which a primary certificate might be obtained, permanently
exempting the child from school attendance, was reduced from 12
years to 11 years and 6 months for the examinations in July, 1915.1
Whether a similar reduction was permitted in 1916 does not appear.



Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, 1915, p . 45 (summarized).

In June, 1915, the minister of war, admitting that it is not possible
to enforce all the provisions of the decree of August 19, 1899, in
regard to conditions of labor on Government contracts, urges admin­
istrative bodies to apply them wherever possible, especially to re­
quire the insertion of the clause requiring contractors to pay the
normal wage current in the district. “ The war office states that a
clause specifying that a fortnightly day of rest must be allowed
should be inserted in all contracts, the manufacturers, in the course
of meetings held at the war office, having admitted that this ought
to be done.” -2
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 206 (summarized).

A law providing for the fixing of minimum wages for Imme work­
ers was passed on July 10, 1915. In summarizing its provisions and
1 Journal Officiel, Ch. D ép. B éb. 19 15, Question N o. 901, p . 276; Ministère de l’ Instruction Publique,
Circular Mar. 4,1915, Journal Officiel, Mar. 5,1915.
2 Ministère de la Guerre, Circular June 5,1915.
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providing for the details of its administration, the minister of labor
m a circular of July 24, 1915, says: “ Though the development of
home work on army requirements (clothing, bandages, etc.) hastened
the passage of the law, the matter of adequate wages for home
workers had been discussed for several years, and the law is intended
to be permanent, not merely to meet special requirements.,,
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, M ay-June, 1915, p . 31* (summarized).

The permanent committee of the superior labor council passed
resolutions in the autumn of 1914,1 when many young people under
18 years were unemployed, suggesting that manufacturers working
for the State should employ boys in their shops and factories and
that the State-owned factories and shops, which ordinarily do not
receive apprentices, should be authorized to take children from 13 to
18 years of age during the war.
[No published order to this effect has been received, but it appears
from the prohibition of night work by girls under 18 in munition
works of June 29, 1916,2 that the suggestion of the superior labor
council was, in part at least, followed.]
Sous-Secréiariat de l'Artillerie et des Munitions, Bulletin des Usines de Guerre, July
10, 1916, p . 84 (summarized).

The under secretary of state for arms and munitions, after con­
sultation with the advisory labor committee for establishments under
the office of arms and munitions, decides that “ where women over
18 years of age can not be secured, girls from 16 to 18, after a thorough
medical examination, may be employed in Government powder
plants in rooms where there are no dangerous gases. They may be
employed only for daywork and must, receive the same wages as
older women. This is an exceptional permission for the war time
only. The management must prove that no older women can be
secured even through the central employment office. The circular
refers also to encouraging older women to enter the works by pro­
viding for housing, food, and infant welfare. It specifies that a
physician must keep careful supervision of the workrooms in which
girls 16 to 18 are employed.
The following suggestion appears to encourage the employment in
munition works of young people under 18 years of age.
Sous-Secrétariat de l'Artillerie et des Munitions, Bulletin des Usines de Guerre, July
17, 1916, p . 87.

Among the most interesting innovations in the payment of wages,
it seems that the method adopted in a large metal factory in the
west deserves an important place. In order to facilitate the em­
ployment of women by uniting a whole family in the same shop or
the same factory, it was decided to offer a special premium for
family labor. When three persons from one family work in the
factory the head of the family received a special premium of 75
centimes a day; when the number of members of one family working
in the same establishment rises to four persons, the premium will be
1 franc a day. * * * This is a precedent which deserves to be
published and followed.
1 See p. 23.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

• « See p. 33.



The variety of opinions about these exemptions is reflected in the
reports of the provincial mixed commissions for the 3-ear 1915, which
are summarized in the bulletin of the minister of labor.
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, J u ly-A u gu st, 1916, p. 288.
( Travaux des commissions mixtes départementales pour le maintien du travail national'.
Réglementation du travail.)

In the presence of the difficulty of recruiting necessary male labor
and in order to facilitate the employment of women and young
workers, the commissions have considered, the adoption of certain
modifications in the application of laws regulating labor.
The Ain demands the continuance of the exemptions of the circular
of -the minister of labor, August 14, 1914, until the normal resump­
tion of work. Other commissions suggest more extended modifica­
tions, authorization for women to work before 5 in the morning and
after 9 in the evening, to the extent of 10 hours of work (Charente);
temporary abrogation of the restrictions of labor or power given to
labor inspectors to suspend their application, especially in that which
concerns the employment of women and children (Ariege, HauteSaone) ; exemptions in the regulation of labor of women and children,
provided that the interests of the workers shall not be affected, espe­
cially their wages (Isere); suspension, so far as possible, of the en­
forcement of restrictions on child labor (Yonne); to fmilitate the
resumption of maritime fishing, temporary authorization to use boys
of less than 13 years (Corsica) ; modification of labor legislation in
accordance with the seasonal character of the fish-canning industry
and in order to establish agreements by which conflicts between
employers and workers might be restricted (Vendee).
On the contrary, in the Rhone and the Gironde, they wish a com­
plete enforcement of laws regulating-labor, the strengthening of in­
spection, the appointment of inspectors selected by the workers and
by class.
In the Seine-Inférieure they wish to see reduced to 10 hours the
working period in stores, shops, offices; to prohibit night work and
Sunday work; and to limit the exemptions.
The Government emphasized from the beginning of the war the
importance of protecting the health of the workers. In February,
1916, the minister of war appointed a committee on women’ s work
and instructed them to study and report on the conditions necessary
for the protection of women, especially in munition plants.
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, January-February, 1916.
l ’Artillerie et des Munitions, Circular February 28, 1916.

Sous-Secrétaire d’Etat de

* * * Oil hygienic conditions of work, I can only renew my
recommendations to give them all necessary attention.
In regard to length of working-day, a weekly rest day, and night
work, if it has been necessary to use the exemptions permitted by
law, it is important to limit them strictly to that which is indispen­
sable and which does not endanger the efficiency nor the health of
the worker. * * * These general directions give no positive
answer to individual questions which may arise for managers and
manufacturers and w hich. may involve difficulties or hindrances
which should be avoided. To study these concrete cases and to sug6506° — 17— 5
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



gest solutions unaffected by local considerations and individual inter­
ests involved, I have therefore decided to appoint to assist me a com­
mittee on women’s work (comité du travail féminin), before which
these cases can be brought by one of the parties or by the controllers
of labor supply, and whose opinion will be submitted for my approval
before having the force of an order.
The consultations of this committee, which shall be concerned
with all kinds of useful information and with both the general welfare
and the special cases under discussion, will serve, I doubt not, to
provide for women’s work in its new adaptions the regulations which
it needs and deserves, and which the State, natural protector of the
weak, is under obligation to provide.
Sous-Secrétariat de VArtillerie et des Munitions, Bulletin des Usines de Guerre, May 15,
1916, p . 21 (summarized).

In telling employers of the appointment of the _committee on
women’s work, the under secretary of arms and munitions reiers to
the difficulties of securing additional women workers and adapting
the organization of the factory to their needs. “ To these difficul-'
ties is added concern for giving to the woman employed in industry
the material and moral safeguards for which, as I take pleasure in
acknowledging, vour industry and that of various private organiza­
tions have already led to some provisions.”
To the labor unions he writes: “ I have taken pains to assure to
these women workers the essential safeguards provided for them in
our labor laws and the terms of the decrees of August 1 0 , 1899, about
wages. * * * The work of this committee should not only per­
mit a rapid accomplishment of indispensable improvements out
even more should contribute to regulating the conditions pf women’s
employment in certain industries.”
The minister of war emphasized again in March the importance of
regulating hours.
jBulletin du Ministère du Travail, June, 1916, p . 94 *

Ministère de la Guerre, Circular,

March 24, 1916.

Finally, from various sides public opinion expresses some surprise
at seeing work interrupted on Sunday and stopping at night in certain
establishments. There should be no question of shortening the rest
period granted to workers and revoking the measures which experience
has led us to prescribe. The labor power must be safeguarded, as
much in view of the prolonging of the struggle as of the economic
needs of the country after the war. But at the moment when the
army is making its most formidable effort, the production of the
factories should not be slowed down or stopped for a single instant.
It is for you, by a better organization of labor, by a judicious arrange­
ment of shifts, and by the suitable use of auxiliaries, to establish a
rotation and alternation which will assure the continuity of work
day and night, without interruption on Sunday.
In June, 1916, special schedules of hours were suggested by the
office of arms and munitions for the women in munition factories
who were engaged on heavy work, in order that even in factories
where only two shifts were employed for most of the work these
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%women might be organized in three shifts, each working only 7 hours,
or 7 hours and 30 minutes.1 Later in the month the under secretary
for arms and munitions prohibited the employment of girls under
18 years of age at night in munition works and permitted the employ­
ment of those under 21 at night only as an exceptional and temporary
Bulletin du Ministère du Travail, J u ly-A u gu st, 1916, p . 131.* Sous-Secrétariat de
V Artillerie et des Munitions, circular on night work o f women, June 2.9, 1916.

The necessity of pushing the production of munitions indispensa­
ble to the national defense has demanded that, in a certain number
of establishments, women take part in night work, like men. It is
important, however, to watch with the greatest care lest this excep­
tional and temporary measure involve for the health and morals of
the working women disadvantages which our labor legislation has
been designed to prevent, and to limit to a minimum the exemptions
I beg you, therefore, to comply with the following instructions
which I have decided upon, with the advice of the committee on
women’s work.
The employment of young girls, less than 18 years of age, in night
work shall be forbidden.
You will permit only as an exceptional right and temporarily the
employment of working women from 18 to 21 years of age in night
work. You will not grant this authorization except after you have
ascertained that the scarcity of female labor does not enable the
manufacturers to arrange for additional workers enough to replace
these women in the night shif ts.
I shall ask you to examine the make-up of the night shifts, with
thè assistance of the manufacturers, in order to avoid the dangers
or the serious disadvantages which night work may present for
certain women, women whose frequent absences reveal precarious
condition of health, women who are pregnant, mothers of families
Who are obliged to care f ot young children, etc.

I have decided that the actual period of work for women employed
at night shall not be longer than 10 hours, and that it should, if pos­
sible, be less. The organization of work by shifts will be, furthermore,
the subject of a later -circular. You will, in every case, have to be
assured that work is broken by the rest periods necessary for good
health and arranged so as to further at the same time a reasonable
organization of work and the convenience of the working women, i t
will be for you to control the schedules of hours and to arrange modifi­
cations when necessary. If these rest periods have a certain length,
you will insist that the manufacturers place at the exclusive disposal
of the women a room specially furnished and including sufficient
equipment for the heating of food.
Y ou will assure yourselves, finally, that manufacturers have taken
all necessary measures to insure at nightgood order in theirworkshops.
You will give account of the measures taken in carrying out the
present instructions in a special paragraph of your monthly report.
1 Bulletin des Usines do Guerre, June 5, 19H>, p. '45.
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In transmitting to the inspectors of labor this circular of the under­
secretary of arms and munitions, the minister of labor on July 18,
1916, emphasized the importance of restoring labor standards for the
sake both of health and of output.
Bulletin du Minisûre du Travail, J u ly-A u gu st, 1916, p . 123 * (summarized).

The circulars of August 2 , 3, and 14, 1914, have authorized the
labor inspectors to grant the greatest indulgence in the application of
laws regulating labor, in order to maintain and to increase the output
of establishments doing work for the national defense. In carrying
out these instructions the labor inspectors, in agreement with my
department, have verbally authorized manufacturers to depart from
the legal restrictions, especially those which affect the work period
for night work for women. * * *
The prolongation of the war has made apparent the serious disad­
vantages involved in the continued use of certain of these exemptions.
As the under secretary of state indicated in the address which he
delivered on June 6 , 1916, “ The experience of war time has only
demonstrated the necessity— technical, economic, and even physio­
logical— of the labor laws enacted before the war. It is in our legisla­
tion of the time of peace that we shall find the conditions for a, better
and more intense production during the war. * * * The minister
of labor then refers to the circular of June 29, 1916,1 as sent out by the
under secretary of state for arms and munitions upon the advice of the
committee on women’s work and as indicating the limits which must
be observed in granting exemptions relating to night work b y women.
“ It is of course understood that in cases where it had appeared
possible to keep well within these limits, there is no reason to extend
the exemptions previously granted. These limits constitute the
maximum and not a normal rule substituted merely for the legal
restrictions, toward the reestablishment of which one should, on the
contrary, tend so far as possible. * * *
Night work by adult women in munition factories is still permitted
as a war measure, but on January 4, 1917, upon the recommendation
of the committee on women’s work certain limitations were added to
those set forth in the circular of June 29, 1916. They prohibit night
work and overtime by pregnant women and nursing mothers.2 In
reporting to the committee on conditions desirable for pregnant
women in factories, Dr. Bonnaire made a general statement about
Revue Philanthropique, January, 1917, p . 14-

From the viewpoint of resistance to fatigue,
16 hours’ rest in 24 is the most favorable. * *
ment for the pregnant women would certainly
time, that is to say, a working day of not more

the 8 -hour shift with
* The best arrange­
be day work on half
than 6 hours.

1 See p. 33.
2 Circular of minister of armaments and war manufactures, Jan. 4,1917, in R evue Philanthropique, Jan­
uary, 1917, p. 36; Resolutions of the com m ittee on wom en’ s work, Decem ber, 1916, in R evue Philanthro­
pique, January, 1917, p. 34,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis





The special act of August 4, 1914 (No. 4439), authorizing the im­
perial chancellor to grant exemptions from the provisions of the labor
law, opened the way for an almost complete suspension of the restric­
tions by which women and children in industry had been protected.
Available reports indicate that exemptions were granted very spar­
ingly during the first months of the war and more frequently as the
struggle progressed. The possibility of avoiding the need of exemp­
tions by more efficient organization is referred to, but the only
definite statements received from Germany about the harmful effects
of the exemptions which have been granted come from social workers
and workingmen. Very little information has been received since
the spring of 1916. Whether the age limit for factory work has been
lowered, and just what overtime has been permitted to women and
children in industry, the available material does not state.
Bulletin o f the International Labor 0 ffice, Vol. X .

Page 38 (summarized). On August 4, 1914, a law was passed by
the Reichstag authorizing the imperial chancellor to grant exemp­
tions “ either generally or for certain districts, or for certain kinds of
works, from the restrictions contained in sections 135 to 137a, para­
graph 2, and section 154a of the industrial code and from the regula­
tions issued by the federal council in pursuance of sections 120 e, 120 f
and 139a of the industrial code, and failing such exemptions allowed
by the imperial chancellor, the higher administrative authorities may
upon request grant similar exemptions for individual undertakings.”
[These sections of the industrial code are concerned with age limit
for children’s employment, hours of work for women and y o u n g per­
sons under 16 years of age, night work, rest periods, and Sunday work
for women and young persons, and the employment of children under
13 underground in mines and salt works. They prohibit the employ­
ment of women in coke ovens, in the transportation of materials,
for building works, and underground in mines and salt works. They
also forbid the employment of women for eight weeks in all, before
and after confinement.]
Page 49. The minister for commerce and industry with respect to
Sunday work during the war (Aug. 5, 1914). No objections are to be
raised to Sunday work undertaken for the purpose of supplying the
requirements of the army or of victualling the army and the public.
This order applies to Prussia only.
Soziale Praxis, A ugust IS, 1914, V- 1%56 (summarized).

The impression that the law of August 4,1914, has done away with
all restrictions is mistaken. * * * That the higher adminis­
trative authorities should permit women [to enter] occupations inju­
rious to their health or morals is out of the question. *. * * T h e
statement of a paper that in some cases a lack of male workers in our
coal mines is met by the employment of women underground is
* * * rejected officially as “ unfounded rumor” with the following
reasons: “ The law of August 4 grants exceptions to labor limitations
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only in cases of pressing need, when male workers can not be found to
take the places of men called to the colors. As long, however, as
there is in the Empire a superfluity of unemployed workmen * * *
neither the chancellor nor the higher administrative authorities will
grant permission for women to work underground.”
Various requests for exemptions during the first months of the war
were met by similar statements refusing exemptions so long as num­
bers of men were without work, except in cases of extreme need .1
The value of efficient organization in making exemptions unneces­
sary and undesirable is referred to in the following statement :
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 52.

A t the request of the German central department for war supplies <
from tobacco factories, the industrial inspectors are to be instructed
to grant immediately any exemptions from the provisions of the
industrial code applied for * * *. The minister makes the fol­
lowing statement :
* * It will, however, in most cases be pos­
sible by arranging the work skilfully, so to organize the undertakings
that they will attain their maximum output without deviating from
the labor laws, and even without causing the adult workmen to work
overtime, and, at the same time, be in a position to meet the require­
ments of the fighting forces, whilst respecting the aims of industrial
regulation and the desire for the maximum restriction of over­
time, * * * ”
On the other hand there are complaints regarding the administra­
tion of the law.
Soziale Praxis , Oct. 8 , 1914, p . 4 L

The employment of young workers in difficult industries on the
ground of the emergency law of August 4, 1914, has been criticised
frequently in labor papers. As everyone knows, the admission of
young people should occur only exceptionally in cases of need on the
ground of special authoritative permission. The granting of this
permission is sometimes, however, rather arbitrary. The Bergknappe
reports from Recklinghausen that the mine managers appointed
sittings with the workmen’s committee for the discussion o f the em­
ployment of young persons, at which a member of the Government
mining office was always present.. If the members of the committee
would not give their consent to the underground employment of young
persons, the representatives of the mine managers said they would then
be obliged to do away with all young workers above ground. The
members of the committee then agreed to grant permission for the
duration of the war and under the condition that the young persons
should be given work in accord with their skill and strength, and that
the hour’s rest in the day, even if it consisted of several short recesses,
should be respected.
Labor inspectors have been of great assistance in reducing the num­
ber of necessary exemptions.
1 Soziale Praxis, A ugust, 1M4, to February, 1315.
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i f

Soziale Praxis, Feb. 18, 1915, p . 490 (summarized!.

Labor inspection during the war -has had to adapt itself to the
changed conditions in many respects.. Among other duties has been
the inspection of the ways in which exception from labor limitations
admissible b y the law of August 4, 19.14, should be granted in single
cases, a matter intrusted to the labor inspectors familiar with local
conditions.. The latter have made a business o f fighting unemploy­
ment. They have been able to inform employment bureaus fre­
quently of industries in which there were openings. Also with their
help employment bureaus have often been able to offer workers open­
ings suited to their ability, to persuade employers to take men not
particularly trained or experienced in their work ; and, finally, labor
inspectors have in many cases been able to provide, through employ­
ment bureaus, so many hands for factories that exceptions to the
labor law already granted could be withdrawn. The attempt was
made especially to do away w ith night and shift work for women and
young persons.
Soziale Praxis., A p r. 8, 1915, p . 659 (summarized).

"An official proclamation o f the end of March stated that, in the in­
terest of national defense, everything that could hinder the supplies
for arm y needs, especially munitions, must be avoided. With this in
view, it. was urged that men working at home would not be behind
their brothers in the field in willing sacrifice, but should be ready to
labor to supply the pressing army needs during the coming holidays,
and in private as well as public factories intrusted with army orders,
take on only the first of the Easter holidays. Further, on March 11 ,
the Prussian minister of commerce announced to the Government
mining officials and to the mine directors that on account of the
present condition of the coal market he was of the opinion, in agree­
ment with the minister of the interior., that until further notice all
kinds of work connected with the furnishing of fuel should be included
under the decree of August 5 .1
The number of exemptions under the law of August 4 , 1914, in­
creased in the second year of the war.
Soziale Praxis, Pec. 1 6 ,1 9 1 5 , p p . 258—259 (summarized).

The memorial of the Bavarian ministers concerning the war
activity of the internal government devotes a paragraph to conditions
of labor and labor inspection. * * * Through the law of August
4, the chancellor and higher administrative authorities were em­
powered, where army needs required, to abrogate the restrictions on
the labor of women and youthful persons. According to a com­
pilation for Bavaria fo r the time since the war began, 3 5 5 industries
which employed 30,637 workers had been granted such exceptions.
B y the middle of September., 1.915, exceptions had been granted to
only 149 industries employing 6,497 workers.
The only protests against war exemptions to the labor laws which
have been reported come from social workers, working people, and
Social Democrats. They include medical testimony to the injurious
effects of overtime and night work b y women and young persons.
1 See p. 35.
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Zentralblatt f u r Gewerbehygiene, January, 1915, p . 12.


The Gesellschaft fur Soziale Reform and representatives of metal
workers addressed a petition 1 to the Reichstag asking for better pro­
tection of metal workers. The petition was referred to the imperial
chancellor. On December 17, 1914, a hearing was held in the Federal
department of the interior, with workingmen and women testifying,
at which speeches were made in favor of a longer minimum rest period,
a shorter working time, a revision of the rules allowing the shortening
of recess periods, and the introduction of longer rest periods before
and after each change of shift.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, 1916, Vol. X I , p . 239 (summarized).

On March 24, 1916, the social democratic women of Germany
addressed a petition to the Reichstag urging ( 1 ) the repeal of the
emergency law of August 4, 1914, according to which the imperial
chancellor can grant exemptions for the duration of the war from the
provisions of the industrial code concerning women, young workers,
and children; (2 ) the introduction of an 8 -hour day for women, at
least in the iron industry, in mining, excavations, the removal of
rubbish and other processes. The petition says that many thousands
of women and young persons of both sexes are to a very considerable
degree engaged in overtime, night, and Sunday work. The petition
calls attention to the injurious effect of this work on the workers’
health; medical testimony on this point is also appended.

The secretary of state in Great Britain had, without special war
legislation, power to exempt from the restrictions of the factory act
establishments belonging to the Crown or working for the Crown;
B y an order in council in June, 1915, this power was extended to in­
clude other establishments. Under such exemptions night work,
overtime, and Sunday work b y women and young persons were per­
mitted in munition works and elsewhere.
In 1915 a committee was appointed to report on the health of the
munition workers, and this committee recommended that the stand­
ards of the factory act should be restored and that at least night
work should not be permitted to boys under 16 or girls under 18
years of age, Sunday work should be abolished, and the three-shift
system should be introduced in all plants where operation was con­
tinuous. The reports of this committee and the report prepared for
the home office by Dr. A. F. Stanley Kent, as the result of scientific
experiments with industrial fatigue, emphasized the importance of
moderate hours for efficiency of work and intensity of production.
Another committee having administrative powers and representing
the home office, the munitions department, and the admiralty has
drafted general rulings and studied the applications for special
exemptions from the factory act, weighing the demands for produc1 This was either at the end o f the year 1914 or in the beginning o f 1915.
be learned.
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T he exact date can not



tion, the needs of the workers, and the relation of hours to efficiency.
As a result, night work and overtime by, girls under 16 have been
abolished and the one day of rest in seven for women and young
persons under 18 has been restored. A general order was also issued
by the secretary of state, on September 9 , 1916, fixing the limits of
hours which would be permitted after the 1st of October without a
special exemption and stating that “ applications for such special
orders will not in future be entertained save in exceptional circum­
stances and in respect of work of a specially urgent character.”
This order practically reduced the amount of overtime to that per­
mitted by the factory act before the war for certain exceptional
The local education authorities in certain districts have excused
children from school attendance for agriculture and other work con­
sidered suitable to their strength. Many of the local authorities
have refused to exempt children, however, and the extra-legal exemp­
tions which have been granted are greatly deplored by the general
board of education, although that board sanctioned them.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p . 374.

An order in council further amending the defense of the realm
(consolidation) regulations, June 10 , 1915, Sec. 6 A, says: “ The
power of the secretary of state under section 150 of the factory and
workshop act, 1901, by order, to the extent and during the period
named by him, to exempt from that act, in case of public emergency,
any factory or workshop belonging to the Crown, or any factory or
workshop in respect of work which is being done on behalf of the
Crown, shall extend to any factory or workshop in which the secre­
tary of state is satisfied that, by reason o f the loss of men through
enlistment or transference to Government service, or of other circum­
stances arising out of the present war, exemption is necessary to
secure the carrying on of work which is required in the national
These exemptions, although granted in special cases only, have
affected the hours of work of women and young persons under 18
years of age.
Great Britain Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memo­
randum N o . 1, Sunday Labor ( November, 1915), p . 4.

The committee understands that, in response to the request of
employers, the home secretary has issued orders permitting Sunday
labor by “ protected persons” (i. e., women and young persons under
18 years of age) in a limited number of cases. At the present moment,
for the whole United Kingdom there are about 50 orders covering
women, girls, and boys, and also about another 30 for boys only.
As a rule, employment on Sundays has only been sanctioned when the
hours of work on other days of the week are moderate; and even
when Sunday work has been allowed, it has been usual to impose
conditions restricting employment as regards individuals, e. g .:
That women and young persons shall not be employed on two
consecutive Sundays.
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(b) That they shall have time off on Saturday.
(c) That they shall only be employed on Sundays in cases of
(d) That they shall be employed for a portion of the day only.
Great Britain Ministry o f Munitions , Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memo­
randum N o. 13, Juvenile Em ploym ent {A u gu st, 1916).

Page 5. * * * The home, office, as a rule, only authorize Sun­
day work on condition that each boy or girl employed on Sunday
shall be given a holiday on another day in the same week, or as part
of a system of 8 -hour shifts in which provision is made for weekly or
fortnightly periods of rest. Apart from this, permission for boys
over 16 to be employed periodically on Sunday was on July 1 last
only allowed in seven cases, and in three cases for boys under 16.
In only one instance are boys employed every Sunday, but this is
limited to boys over 16 and the total weekly hours are only about 56.
In only one case a're girls employed periodically^on Sunday, and there
the concession is confined to girls over 16. It is greatly to be hoped
that all Sunday work will shortly be completely stopped.
Page J. Under the factory and workshop act, 1901, boys and girls
under 18 years of age who are legally exempt from further attendance
at school may be employed for 12 hours ( 10 J exclusive of meal times)
a day during the week and for 8 hours (7§ exclusive of meal times) on
Saturdays ; that is to say, for a weekly period of 60 hours.1 Subject
to some exceptions in the case of boys, all night work and Sunday
work is forbidden, as also is overtime. Under section 150 of the act
the secretary of state has power in case o f public emergency to relax
these restrictions, and since the commencement o f the war this power
has been widely exercised. The weekly hours have frequently been
extended to 67, and in some instances even longer hours have been
worked. The daily hours of employment have been extended to 14
and occasionally even to 15 hours; night work has been common;
Sunday work has also been allowed, though latterly it has been
largely discontinued.
Report to the U. S . Federal Trade Commission, A p ril 17, 1917, by John Bass, special
agent on industrial coordination fo r the Federal Trade Commission.

Toward the end of 1915 it became certain that some action would
have to be taken by the ministry to deal with the question of excessive
hours, more particularly those worked by women and boys. # The
department’s attention was drawn to the fact that the maximum
number of weekly hours allowed under the provisions of the general
order made under the factory acts was continually being exceeded
and that without the support of the ministry the home office found it
increasingly difficult to insure that no persons should work excessive
Exemptions to the school-attendance law have been permitted in
certain districts for occupations other than agriculture,
i Factory and workshop act, 3L901, section 26, fixing these hours, relates t o nontextile factories and w ork
shops. Shorter hours are fixed for young persons in textile factories b y section 24: Tw elve hours a day
(10 exclusive of mealtimes) during th e w eek, 6 hours (5 exclusive of m ealtimes) in a manufacturing
process, or €£ (5Jexclusive of m ealtimes) in any em ploym ent on Saturdays.
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Great Britain Board o f Education, Annual Report f o r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer
o f the Board o f Education, p . 106.

In a number o f urban areas efforts have been made to secure the
exemption of children by employers in various industrial and com­
mercial establishments. Resolutions by trade societies and other
bodies have been adopted urging local education authorities to allow
children of 12 and 13 to be exempted for employment. Generally
authorities have opposed such claims and have maintained that in
the interest of the child the school regulations must be followed.
Several local education authorities have approached the board con­
cerning the demand for boy labor which exists in connection with
the execution of Government contracts. The board has stated that
they have no authority to sanction the release of children from school
on conditions other than those mentioned in the by-laws, but they
consider that in the areas concerned the authority might, during the
period of the war, reasonably excuse boys of the age of 13 years
from school attendance, provided that certain prescribed conditions
were satisfied. One of the conditions is that the employment shall
be of a character suitable to the physical capacity o f the boy. This
of course is a matter to be dealt with by the certifying surgeon when
issuing his certificate of fitness.
Board o f Education.— School attendance and employment in agriculture.— Summary of
returns supplied by local education authorities fo r the period September Î , 1914, to
January 31, 1915, p . 4-

In the 23 urban areas from which replies to the questions [concern­
ing permissions to leave school granted by local education authori­
ties] have been received it does not appear that the exemptions have
in any case been confined to specified, industries. * * * In 10
areas it is stated that the children exempted were nearly 14 years
of age at the date of exemption and in only 2 cases have the exemp­
tions been confined to cases where the employer has lost workpeople
by enlistment. Generally in urban areas the information furnished
appears to show that there has been no great variation from the
usual practice in the matter. A t all times children have been
granted exemption in very special circumstances, and the only effect
of the war has been that such special circumstances have arisen a
little more frequently than they did in normal times.
In September, 1915, the minister of munitions with the concur­
rence of the home secretary appointed the health of munitions work­
ers committee “ To consider and advise on questions of industrial
fatigue, hours of labor, and other matters affecting the physical
health and physical efficiency of workers in munition factories and
workshops.” The reports of this committee recommend a return
to regular labor standards and emphasize the ill effects of night
work and overtime from the viewpoint of both health and efficiency.
Reports on industrial fatigue, based on war conditions, were also
prepared for the home office by Dr. A. F. Stanley Kent, of the Uni­
versity of Bristol. These are especially concerned with the relation
of fatigue and output and emphasize the importance of a workingday of reasonable length.
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Great Britain Ministry o f M unitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memo­
randum N o. 7, Industrial Fatigue and its Causes ( January, 1916), p . 10.

Taking the country as a whole the committee are bound, to record
their impression that the munition workers in general have been
allowed to reach a state of reduced efficiency and lowered health
which might have been avoided without reduction of output by atten­
tion to the details of daily and weekly rests.
Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 13,
Juvenile Em ploym ent (A u gu st, 1916).

Page 3. It is necessary to guard not only against immediate break­
down but also against the imposition of strains which may stunt
future growth and development. Long hours of work b y day or by
night, often coupled with unsatisfactory conditions of housing and
transit, late hours and lack of parental care, make the dangers great
and immediate. * * *
Very young girls show almost immediately * * * - symptoms
of lassitude, exhaustion, and impaired vitality under the influence of
employment at night. A very strong similar impression was made
* * * by the appearance of large numbers of young boys who
had been working at munitions for a long time on alternate night
and day shifts.
Page If.. A recent witness before this committee has expressed the
view that boys between 16 and 18 were quite different from boys
under 16; they were much stronger. Boys under 16, on the other
hand, were probably more delicate than girls of the same age, and
more likely to break themselves up. The essential safeguards were
the rduction of hours and welfare work. Apart from the strain on the
health involved, long hours had disastrous effects upon the charac­
ters of boys. They also might make an adequate amount of sleep
difficult, and, perhaps most important, they prevented adequate
facilities for recreation. * * * Eight hours of sleep at least were
essential, nine hours would be better. Unfortunately, many boys
got only six or seven hours.
Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 6,
Hours o f Work ( January, 1916), p . 8.

Boys like men are generally employed on 12 -hour shifts.
not seem practical to suggest any change of system, but the
tee hope that care will be taken to watch the effect of night
individual boys and to limit it as far as possible, to those

It does
work on
over 16.

Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 13,
Juvenile Em ploym ent (A u gu st, 1916), p. 5.

Similar difficulties [in limiting the working hours of boys, because
they are frequently used to assist men working in long shifts] do not
often arise in regard to the employment of girls, and as employment
has become more organized a noticeable reduction has taken place
in the hours of work. Employers have increasingly recognized
that there are definite limits beyond which women and girls can not
usefully be employed. At a number of factories the three-shift
system has been introduced.
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Ministry o f Munitions,: Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 5,
Hours of Work { J a n u a ry,1916),' p . 7 .

They [eight-hour shifts] involve little or no strain on the workers;
the periods during which machinery must stand idle for meals are very
much reduced, while significant statements have been put before
the committee claiming beneficial effects upon output.
Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f M unition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 4,
Em ploym ent o f Women (January, 1916), p . 6.

The disadvantages of an overtime system are being increasingly
recognized by employers. The recognition has been forced upon
some by the resultaiit fatigue, illness, and bad timekeeping of the
workers; to others it has come by some accidental shortening of the
day, which has shown that the loss of hours has carried with it no
diminution in output. * * * Again, several employers of differ­
ent kinds who, accustomed to work their women from 8 to 8 were
forced by lighting regulations and other causes to stop at 6 , found
the output undiminished.
Home Office, Second Interim Report on an Investigation o f Industrial Fatigue by Physio­
logical Methods ( A ugust, 1916).

Page 44 - A worker employed for 10 hours per day may produce a
greater output than when employed for 12 hours, the extra rest
being more than sufficient to compensate for the loss of time.
A worker employed for 8 hours per day may produce a greater
output than another of equal capacity working 12 hours per day.
A group of workers showed an absolute increase of over 5 per cent
of output as a result of diminution of 16^ per cent in the length of
the working-day.
Another group increased their average rate of output from 262 to
276 as a result of shortening the day from 12 hours to 10 and to 316
on a further shortening of 2 hours.
The time “ lost” by factory workers may approach an average of
10 per cent of the working-day. The amount lost varies with the
length of the working-day and appears to depend upon fatigue.
Total daily output may be diminished by the introduction of
Under the conditions studied neither rate of working nor total
output attains a maximum wheh a 12 -hour day is adopted.
Page 43. During the middle periods of the day output is normally
high, but is lowered by the working of overtime. This diminution
is often so great that the total daily output is less when overtime is
worked than when it is suspended. Thus overtime defeats its own
The unsatisfactory output of the overtime period is due to fatigue.
Page . It has nevertheless been proved that the output of workers
during the overtime period is far less than the output during the
hours of normal labor. And in my opinion the results of experiments
indicate that this lessening of output in the period of overtime is
due to fatigue.


Annual Report o f the Chief Inspector o f Factories and Workshops fo r the Year 1915, p . 13,

The tendency grew as the year passed to substitute a system of
shifts for the long day followed b y overtime, and this is particularly
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reported of munition factories in the Midlands and in Sheffield. * * *
The number of days on which overtime was actually worked tended
in paany factories to decrease as experience grew of accumulating
fatigue and lessened output. Probably for similar reasons Sunday
labor also has tended latterly to decrease.
Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f M unition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. 4,
Em ploym ent o f Women ( January, 1916), p . 6.

The committee recommend the adoption of the three-shifts system
without overtime, wherever a sufficient supply of labor is available.
Where the supply is governed by difficulties of housing and transit,
the committee are of opinion that every effort should he made to
overcome these difficulties before a less serviceable system be con­
tinued or adopted.
Ministry o f Munitions, Health o f Munition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o . I,
Sunday Labor (.November, 1915), p . 5 .

Should the early stoppage of all Sunday work be considered for any
reason difficult, if not impossible to bring about, the committee trust
that it will at least be practicable to lay down the principle that Sun­
day labor is a serious evil which should be steadily and systematically
discouraged and restricted.
Annu al Report o f the Chief Inspector q f Factories and Workshops fo r the year 1915, p . 6.

Sunday labor has been found to be more and more unsatisfactoryapart from the ill.effects-which must follow from a long-continued spell
of working seven days a week, it too often results in Joss of time on other
days of the week and in consequent disorganization, and employers
were perhaps the more ready therefore to accept the recommenda­
tions of the health of munition workers committee that it should be
abandoned. They have been encouraged, too., in this direction by
the action of the ministry, who issued a circular to all controlled fac­
tories, urging the importance in the interests both of the workers and
production that a weekly rest period-—preferably Sunday— should be
secured to all workers. The following is an extract:
“ The aim should be to work not more than 12 shifts per fortnight
or 24 where double shifts are worked. Where three 8 -hour shifts are
worked, not less than two should be omitted on Sunday. It is, in
the opinion of the minister, preferable to work a moderate amount
of overtime during the week, allowing a break on Sunday, rather than
work continuously from day to day. It is still more strongly his
view that where overtime is worked in the week, Sunday labor is not
Ministry o f M unitions, . Health o f M unition Workers Committee, Memorandum N o. IS,
Juvenile Em ploym ent .(August, 1916), p . 5.

The committee remain of the opinion that girls under 18 and hoys
under 16 should only be employed at night if other labor can n ot be
obtained. Wherever possible it should be stopped. In March last
in reply to an inquiry as to the employment of girls of 15 at night,
the parliamentary secretary to the ministry stated that, “ The gen­
eral practice of the home office, in consultation with the ministry of
munitions, has been and is, to refuse all proposals for the ¡employment
of -such young girls on night shifts. In one or two cases, however,
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through exceptional circumstances a departure has been made from
this practice. These cases are now under review with the object of
arranging for the discontinuance of such employment at the earliest
possible moment.”
As an administrative measure,- toward the end of 1915 an inter­
departmental committee on hours of labor was set up to insure that
the ministry was fully informed a s’to the points at issue, and also to
focus the attention of its officials on the importance of regulating the
number of hours which could be worked to maintain adequate effi­
ciency. The memoranda of the health of munition workers commit­
tee served as a basis for the committee's work. The committee in­
cludes a representative of the home office, who is responsible for the
conditions of employment of women, girls, and boys in munition fac­
tories, and officers representing the admiralty and the various supply
departments and welfare section of the ministry .1 As a result of the
committee’s work certain definite orders have been issued for con­
trolled factories, eliminating night work b y girls under 16 years of
age, providing one day of rest in seven for all females, and practically
eliminating Sunday production in certain kinds of plants.
Bass, John, Report to U. 8 . Federal Trade Commission, A p r. 1 7 ,1 9 1 7 .

A t a meeting of the committee held on the 4th o f July [1916] an
arrangement was finally agreed upon whereby the employment of
boys was subject to the approval of the home office factory inspector
and the ministry's superintending engineer. Any difficulties which
might arise between these two officers were to be referred to the
home office and the ministry for decision. In admiralty cases the
same procedure was to be followed, but the ministry's engineer, before
expressing an opinion, would consult the admiralty representative
for the area in question.
The question of the employment of girls under 16 years of age at
night occupied the attention of the committee for several months.
The employment of these girls is chiefly in the small arms factories.
* * * The employment of girls of this age at night has been
After the committee had met a considerable number of times it
became clear that there was a certain body of opinion amongst em­
ployers in favor of the discontinuance of Sunday labor altogether.
The question, however, proved very difficult and complicated owing
to the continual variation in the needs of output and to the variety
of the work. * * * It was found possible on the 8 th of October
[1916] to notify all the firms in this district [northeast coast area]
that on that date Sunday labor must be discontinued except on urgent
work and necessary repairs to plant. * * * A report was received
as to the effect which the action o f the committee had had in the
Tyne and Tees area which tended to show that beneficial effects both
on output no less than on the welfare of the workers had resulted
from the committee's action. * * * The question of Sunday labor
1 Bass, John, R eport to U. S. Federal Trade Comm ission, A p T . 17, 1917.
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in national projectile and shell factories came before the committee
* * * [and] it was agreed that Sunday labor for protected persons
should be discontinued altogether with the exception in the case of
the national projectile factories that a short shift on Sundays might
be worked for tlie purpose of rectification of shells and_ the straight­
ening up of shops. * * * Sunday labor in explosives factories
where work has necessarily to be .continued over the week-end was
considered b y the committee early in January with the result that
the department of explosives supply agreed to provide for every
female worker a satisfactory rest period, by arranging as far as pos­
sible that eight women should be employed to undertake the work
of seven thus providhig that no individual woman should work morethan six days a week.
On the 9 th of September, 1916, the home office issued a general
order applicable to “ all munition factories and workshops or parts
thereof belonging to or controlled b y the Crown— including all con­
trolled establishments under the munitions of war acts 1915 and 1916
(not being textile factories) which are not specifically regulated by
any other order * * * and such other classes of factories and
workshops engaged on munitions work as the secretary of state may f
from time to time direct * * *. Hours not allowed b y the fac­
tory act or the order in question are not to be worked after the 1 st of
October, 1916, unless expressly sanctioned by special order from the
home office. Applications for such special orders will not in future
be entertained save in exceptional circumstances and in respect of
work of a specially urgent character.” 1
Four schemes of employment are outlined, and employers may
adopt any one or any combination. No boys under 14 or girls
under 16 are to be employed overtime. If females are employed
on night shifts, they must be supervised by a welfare worker or
responsible forewoman.
Hom e Office General Order, Sept. 9, 1916, p . 1.



This scheme applies to women and female young persons of 16
years of age and over, and male young persons of 14 years of age and
over. Three shifts, none of which may be longer than 10 hours,
may be worked in each period of 24 hours, subject to the following
( 1 ) Each worker shall have one break of 24 hours or more m every
week, or of 32 hours or more in every alternate week, or of 40 hours
or more in every third week.
(2 ) Each worker shall have an interval of two unemployed shifts
- "between each two shifts of employment. ^
(3 ) An interval of not less than half an hour shall be allowed if
the shift is 8 hours or less, and an interval of not less than one hour
if the shift is more than 8 hours.
i H om e office general order, Sept. 9, 1910, p. 1.
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Provided, that the superintending inspector of factories may
authorize, subject to compliance with condition ( 1 ) and to such other
conditions as he may impose, different arrangements as regards hours
of work and breaks at the week end for the purpose of changing over
the shifts.

(two SHIFTS.)

This scheme applies to women and female young persons of 16
years of age and over and male young persons of 14 years of age and
over, provided that the employment m the night shift of girls under
18 or boys under 16 years of age shall be subject in each case to the
approval of the superintending inspector of factories. Two shifts
of 12 hours each may be worked, subject to the following conditions:
(1) No person shall be employed more than 6 turns by day or more
than 6 turns b y night in any week.
(2 ) Unless otherwise sanctioned by the superintending inspector
no person shall be employed on Sunday except in a night shift com­
mencing on Sunday evening or ending on Sunday morning.
(3) The total hours worked per week (exclusive of mealtimes)
shall not exceed 60, provided that in the case of male young persons
16 years of age and over the total hours worked per week (exclusive
of mealtimes) may be 63.
(4) Intervals for meals amounting to not less than 1 | hours shall
be allowed in the course of each shift, of which in the case of the
night shift one-fourth of an hour or more shall be allowed as a break
within 4 hours of the end of the shift.
(5) Each worker shall have an interval of one unemployed shift
between each two shifts of employment.
Providing that the superintending inspector may authorize,
subject to such conditions as he may impose, a system of one long
shift, not exceeding 13 hours with a corresponding reduction in the
other shift, so that the average weekly total of hours shall not exceed
the limits specified above in paragraph (3).
Circular letter 198802 to accompany Home Office Order o f Sept. 9, 1916.

No requirement is laid down in the order that workers on the
night shift shall change periodically to the day shift. The matter
is left to the individual employers to determine in consultation
with their work people. Care should be taken in selecting women
and young persons for night work. They should not be put on
night work indiscriminately * * *.
Home Office Order, Sept. 9, 1916, p p . 2, 3.



This scheme applies to women and female young persons of 16
years of age and over, and male young persons of 14 years of age and
In the case of such women and young persons, the hours of work
and intervals for meals allowed by the [factory and workshop] act
may be rearranged subject to the following conditions:
The total hours worked per week (exclusive of intervals for
meals) shall not exceed 60.
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(b) The daily period of employment (including overtime and
intervals for meals)—
( 1) Shall not commence earlier than 6 a. m. or end later than 10
p. m.
(2 ) Shall not exceed 14 hours.
(c) Intervals for meals amounting to not less than 1$ hours shall
be allowed during the period of employment, with an additional half
an hour if the period of employment is more than 13^ hours.
(d) No overtime shall be worked on Saturday.


This scneme applies to male young persons of 16 years of age
and over provided that the superintending inspector of factories
shall have power in cases where the work is of a specially urgent
character to extend the application of the scheme to male young
persons between 14 and 16 years of age.
Such young persons may be employed overtime on week days
other than Saturday subject to the following conditions:
( 1 ) The total hours worked per week (exclusive of intervals for
meals) shall not exceed 65.
(2 ) The daily period of employment (including overtime and
intervals for meals)—
(a) Shall not commence earlier than 6 a. m. or end later than
10 p. m.
(b) Shall not exceed 14 hours.
Provided that where overtime is worked on not more than 3
days in the week the period of employment may in the case of boys
of 16 years of age and) over be 15 hours.
(3 ) Intervals for meals amounting to not less than 1 ^ hours
shall be allowed during the period of employment with an additional
half hour if the period of employment is more than 13^ hours, or an
additional three-fourths of an hour if the period of employment is
15 hours. •
(4 ) On Saturday the period of employment shall end not later
than 2 p. m.

In cases of special emergency women, female young persons of 16
years of age and over, and male young persons of 14 years of age and
over, emjuoyed on repair work for His Majesty’s ships may be em­
ployed for special hours on any day of the week on the express in­
structions oi the senior naval officer in charge and subject to such
conditions as he may lay down as regards intervals for meals and
rest; provided that in any case—
( 1 ) No male young person over 16 years of age shall be employed
for more than 67J hours in the week (exclusive of intervals for meals
and rest).
(2 ) No other young person or woman shall be employed for more
than 65 hours in the week (exclusive of intervals for meals and rest).

No woman or young person shall be employed continuously at
any time for more than five hours, without an interval of at least
ban an hour, except that where not less than one hour is allowed
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for dinner, an afternoon spell of six hours may be worked, with an
interval of quarter of an hour only for tea, if the factory inspector
is satisfied that adequate provision is made for the worker to obtain
tea in the works and for tea to be actually ready for them as soon as
they stop work.
If work commences before 8 a. m. and no interval is allowed for
breakfast, an opportunity shall be given to take refreshment during
the morning.
A woman or young person shall not be allowed to lift, carry, or
move anything so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to the woman
or young person.
, Different schemes of employment may be adopted and different
intervals for meals fixed for different sets of workers.
Employment on night shifts shall be subject to the provision, to the
satisfaction of the factory inspector, of proper facilities for taking
and cooking meals, and in the case of female workers, for their super­
vision by a welfare worker or a responsible forewoman.
Annual Report o f Chief Inspector o f Factories and Workshops fo r the Year 1916, April,

Page 7. Much that was abnormal and bound to be injurious
to health if long continued has been brought within manageable
limits. Excessive overtime and Sunday labor have been checked
and as nearly as possible abolished, and night employment of girls
under 18 has greatly decreased. As the inspection of controlled
and other munition factories has progressed we find fewer factories
working irregularly overtime or at night without sanction or regula­
tion by an order. * * * The idea, once prevalent, that the
factory act was in abeyance until the end of the war has gradually
disappeared and very general compliance with the orders as regards
hours of employment is found. While the latitude permitted by
the orders has in some cases been exceeded, in other cases employers
have voluntarily increased the length of the legal intervals.
It is fairly well recognized now that continuous and
excessive overtime very soon produces lassitude and slackness
among the workers and injuriously affects efficiency and both the
quality and quantity of work. In one weaving factory special
records were kept when the normal hours of 55§ a week were increased
for 16 weeks to 58 and for 4 weeks to 65^. The output did not increase
in proportion and the difference was more marked when working
the 65| hour weeks.
The exemptions from school-attendance by-laws for agricultural
work have offered a distinct problem. They have been granted by
certain of the local education authorities without sanction in the
provisions of the education laws. The Board of Education during
the first year of the war approved thé granting of such extralegal
exemptions by the local authorities under specified conditions and in
exceptional circumstances. The board stated in the spring of 1916
that exemptions had been granted too freely and emphasized the
danger to the children involved in the situation. The board has,
however, no direct control over the action of the local authorities,
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except that in all cases where exemptions are granted, whether under
the law or without the law, the money grant from the Board of Educa­
tion to the local authorities is proportionately decreased. It is note­
worthy that the practice of local authorities has not been uniform,
and in some districts the pressure for the employment of children has
been successfully resisted and extralegal exemptions have not been
Board c f Education. Correspondence relating to school attendance between the Board o f
Education and certain local education authorities since the outbreak o f war, p p . 6 , 7 .
(.Letter o f A u g . 21, 1914.)

The board think that, in the general interest of the nation, it is of
the greatest importance that the public education of the country
should be continued without interruption and with undiminished

Annual Report f o r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f Education, p . 108.

To withdraw the child from school at an earlier age than that con­
templated by the attendance by-laws is to arrest his education on the
threshold o f the years when he is probably just commencing to assimi­
late and consolidate the instruction he has received and is receiving
at school. His introduction to labor at this time renders him liable
to conditions of strain detrimental to his physical well-being.
----- -A n n u a l Report fo r 1914 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f Education, pp.
224, 225.

* * * The conditions which, in view of the Government, should
be satisfied before a local education authority excused children from
attendance at school for the purposes of agricultural employment
(Circular 898 sent out in March, 1915):
( 1 ) The employment of children of school age should be regarded
as an exceptional measure permitted to meet a special emergency,
and should only be allowed when the authority are satisfied that no
other labor is available; and in no case should children be excused
attendance at school if older children who are under no legal obliga­
tion to attend school are available.
(2 ) In considering the available supply of labor, the authority
should satisfy themselves that all reasonable efforts have been made to
secure adult labor, e. g., by application at the labor exchanges and
especially by the offer of adequate remuneration.
(3) Every case should be considered on its merits, and there should
be no general relaxation of by-laws.
(4 ) The employment should be of a light character and suitable to
the capacity of the child.
(5) Permission, if given at all, should be given for a definitely
limited period only.
-------Circular 948, Feb. 29, 1916.

(a) Children under 12 years of age should never be excused unless
the circumstances are entirely exceptional, and then only for very
short periods.
(b) Persons desiring to employ in agriculture children liable to
attend school should be asked to furnish particulars of the character
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for which the labor is required. They should also be required to
satisfy the authority that they have made adequate efforts, supported
by the offer of reasonable wages, to secure the labor required m other
directions, and more particularly b y employing women.
(c) It is suggested that the urgency of the need for the labor of
school children may to a certain extent be tested by the amount of
the wages offered, and as a general ride it may be taken that if the
labor or a boy of school age is not worth at least 6 shillings1 a week to
the farmer the benefit derived from the boy’s employment is not suf­
ficient to compensate for the loss involved by the interruption of the
boy’s education.
(d) A register should be kept of children exempted, and all ex­
emptions should be reviewed at intervals not exceeding three months
in order to ascertain that the conditions on which the exemption was
granted still exist.
(e) It is important that the education committee should exercise
direct control over the matter, that no general resolutions on the
subject should be adopted by the county council until the views of
the education committee have been carefully considered, as required
by statute, and that the work of excusing individual children should
be closely supervised by the education committee ; it has been found
that a policy of giving district committees an unfettered control in
the matter, or of giving school-attendance officers or other persons a
discretion to excuse children when they think fit, involves great
divergency in practice and gives rise to considerable laxity of admin­
Although some local authorities resisted successfully the attempt to
obtain general or wide exemptions from school-attendance laws, the
result of allowing discretionary exemptions to these laws was an
extensive exodus of children from schools into farm work.
Board o f Education. Annual Report f o r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f
Education, p . 103.

The board have already expressed their concern to local education
authorities at the large number of exemptions which have been granted
for agricultural employment, and have stated that in their view in
some areas they have been granted too freely and without sufficiently
careful ascertainment that the conditions of exemption prescribed
by the Government, as indicated by the board’s circular letter of 12 th
March, 1915, to local education authorities, were fulfilled.
------- School Attendance and Em ploym ent in Agriculture. Returns September, 1914, to
January, 1915, p . 3.

In 18 counties the exemptions have been confined to agricultural
employment and in 12 the exemptions have covered other industries.
The figures themselves show that 89 per cent of the exemptions have
been for agricultural employment. The exemptions do not in most
cases appear to have been granted for any definite period, but the
replies indicate that the counties contemplate that the exemptions
may be withdrawn should the conditions subject to which they were
granted cease to exist. * * * In 19 counties it is stated that thë
exemptions have only been given where the employer has lost work1 S ix shillings equal $1.46.
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people b y enlistment, and in other counties the exemptions have been
confined to cases where the father or brother of the employed child
has enlisted.
Board o f Education. Annual Report fo r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f
Education, p . 106.

Several authorities have during the past months passed resolutions
in favor of exempting children under 12 years of age. On the other
hand, a number of authorities have successfully resisted proposals
for the release of such children.
Morning P ost {London), Feb. 2 3 ,1 9 1 7 .

In the annual report of the committee on wage-earning children
alarm is expressed at the increasing demand for child labor, particu­
larly in the agricultural districts; and the opinion is given out that
the relaxation of the by-laws under the employment of children
(1903) act is unjustifiable.
Board o f Education. Annual Report fo r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f
Education, p . 105.

Exemptions of school children from school attendance for agri­
cultural employment. Returns furnished by local education authori­
Number of children normally liable to attend school but excused from attandance for
the purpose of agricultural employment:
Sept. 1 ,1 9 1 4 to Jan. 31, 1 9 1 5 ....................................................... ......................... 1,413
Feb. 1, 1915 to Apr. 30, 1915......................................................................................
3, 811
On Jan. 31, 1916......................................... ......................................- ...........................
On May 31, 1916.................................................................................................... ..
On Oct. 16, 1916 1........................................................................................................... 14,915

These are the numbers of exemptions granted. In does not rep­
resent the number of children permitted exemption at any one time
since many children excused during the earlier period have since
attained the age of 14 or are on other grounds legally exempt from
liability to attend school; many children, excused for short periods
only have since returned to school.
The number of children legally exempted from school for employ­
ment in agriculture under “ Robson's A c t" from September 1, 1913,
to January 31, 1914, was 90. For the same period the next year the
number was 96. These were the only children legally entitled to leave
A number of children who would normally have remained in school
have left school for employment. Besides those specially exempted
for agricultural purposes these include children under 14 years of
age legally exempted because they have fulfilled all educational re­
quirements, and also children over 14.
------- Arm ual Report fo r 1914 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f Education, p . 227.

In normal times many children who might obtain exemption from
school under the by-laws so far as age, previous attendance, or qualii Board of Education, Sum m ary of returns supplied b y cou nty local education authorities of children
excused from school for em ploym ent in agriculture on Oct. 16,1916.
s Board of Education, School Attendance and Em ploym en t in Agriculture, Sum mary of returns supplied
b y local education authorities for the period Sept. 1,1914, to Jan. 31,1916, p. 10.
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fixations are concerned do not in fact avail themselves of their oppor­
tunities [to go to work] and remain at school longer than they really
need. I have no actual figures on the subject, but there is reason
to suppose that at the present time, in view of the largely increased
demand for juvenile labor, children are taking fuller advantage of
the possibilities of exemption offered by the by-laws.
The children exempted from school for agricultural employment
are not receiving high wages.
Board o f Education. School Attendance and Em ploym ent in Agriculture.
September, 1914 to 31st January, 1915, p . 3.

Returns 1st

The wages vary considerably below a maximum of 7s.1 a week,
and it is difficult to ascertain the value of the remuneration given,
owing to the fact that in many cases board and lodging are supplied.
The following reply given in one county may be regarded as fairly
2 at 6 s., 1 at 5s. 6 d., 9 at 5s., 5 at 4s. 6 d., 6 at 4s., 1 at 3s. and meals,
1 at 2s. and meals, 1 lodged and boarded (no pay), 3 at nil (working
for parents).
The employments entered have little value as preparation for
future working life of children.
Leeson, Cecil, The Child and the War, p . 36.

If the lads were learning anything useful the situation, though
still undesirable, would be not quite so bad; but they are not learn­
ing anything useful. Most of the factory work they do is “ blindalley” work, fitting them for nothing afterwards; and, to do it, lads
are sacrificing physique, efficiency, and in many cases character.
Efforts have been made to find substitutes for the labor of children
of school age in the labor of women and of young people and children
legally exempt from school attendance.
Board o f Education.
p . 106.

Report fo r 1915 o f the Chief Medical Officer o f the Board o f Education,

The board of agriculture have expressed the opinion that if the
women of the country districts and of England generally took the
part they might take in agriculture, it would be quite unnecessary
to sacrifice the children under 1 2 .
Board o f Trade Labor Gazette, Vol. 24, N o. 2 (Feb. 1916), p . 43.

The board of trade in consultation with the board of agriculture
are taking active steps to mobilize a sufficient supply of women for
work on the land in order to meet the shortage o f agricultural labor
due to the enlistment of men in His Majesty’s forces. The reserves
of women’s labor available for agriculture are to be found chiefly
among tb~ 1— 1 -----J ---------------j—
1 1
some exp
among the better educated women who are willing to be trained for
the purpose.
1 The shilling equals approxim ately 24 cents.
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In October, 1915, a law was passed authorizing a suspension of
the labor laws under definitely specified conditions in case o f mobili­
zation. What action has been taken under this act does not appear
from the Bulletin of the International Labor Office.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X I , p . 52 (summarized in part).

The act of October 18/31, 1915 (No. 677), provided that in case
of mobilization the laws 11coming within the purview of the minister
of national economy ’ 7 and all decrees issued in pursuance of the
same might be suspended b y a royal decree, upon the proposal of the
minister of national economy in accordance with a resolution of the
ministerial council. Suspension of an act relating to the benefit
associations and trade unions was also permitted. Before such
decrees are published, however, an opinion on the suspension was to
be obtained from the permanent committee to be elected by the
members of the superior labor council. This committee was to be
elected from among the members of the superior labor council and
must contain at least one representative oi the employers and one
of the workers. If these elections had not taken place, the members
of this committee might be appointed by the minister of national
economy, provided that two members were chosen from among the
employers’ representatives on the labor council, and two from among
the workers’ representatives.
Any such suspension by royal decree should not apply for more
than three months after demobilization, and might be revoked at
any time by royal decree.
Several months earlier (Dec. 24, 1914/Jan. 6 , 1915) the provisions
concerning night work in bakeries had been suspended for fancy
bakeries under specified conditions and for zwieback bakeries by
special permission. This does not appear, however, to have been a
war measure.1

On August 30, 1914, a royal decree allowed suspensions of the night
work prohibition for women and children under specified conditions,
and in June, 1915, after Italy had entered the war, a decree of the
lieutenant general suspended for the duration of the war educational
requirements for sons of soldiers who were 12 years old and wished to
go to work. The weekly rest law, without any war time amendment,
permitted exemptions in case of force majeure or for work in the
public interest; 2 these exemptions were frequent and seem to have
been applied for without due cause.3
It has been intended that exceptional hours should be permitted
only in carefully considered cases, and one of the duties of the medical
1 Bulletin of the International Labor Office, V ol. X V (German edition), Nos. 1 and 2, p. 15.
2 Law of July 7, 1907, No. 489, on W eekly Rest, A rt. 3, par. e (N uovo Codice del Lavoro, Prof. E . Nosedo,
Milan, 1913, p. 418).
3 La Confederazione del Lavoro, Mar. 16-June 1,1916, p. 435.
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and sanitary regulations, to give judgment on exemptions, etc., and
to investigate sanitary and hygienic conditions of labor .1
In July, 1915, the public-health experts of the group for medical
propaganda in war times appealed to all good Italians in the name
of patriotic duty to do all they could to mitigate the inevitably evil
effects of the infractions of the labor law.
Leaflets issued by the Group fo r Medical Propaganda in War Tim e, N o. 9, in I I Lavoro,
July 31, 1915, p . 221 (extract summarized).

Women are now admitted to night work in certain industries.
The evil effects of night work on the female organism are well known—
the consequent predisposition to blood troubles and to diseases of thé
digestive and nervous systems. These women are serving the State;
they should be safeguarded and supervised by committees.
Sons of soldiers called to the colors are admitted to work at 12
years of age, even if unprovided with the proper certificates of
instruction. Records must be kept for their health and for school
attendance after the war. Where here and there in small centers
night work in bakeries has been permitted, the civic committees in
cooperation with doctors must inf orm themselves how best to guard
the workers’ health.
The importance of safeguarding the health of women workers was
recognized by the under secretary of arms and munitions in his
second circular (Sept. 28, 1916) urging the substitution in munition
plants of women and boys for men of military age.
Comitato Nazionale per il Munizionamento, I I Lavoro Femminile nella Industria di
Guerra Italiana, January, 1917. (Quotations fro m circular o f September 28, 1916,
o f the under secretary o f arms and munitions.)

It is imperative to remove the obstacles to a larger employment of
women. * * * An important aid will be the provisions now being
worked out by the central committee on industrial mobilization for
regulating wages, régime of work, and social and hygienic stand­
ards. * * *
It must never be admitted that women should be employed merely
as an artifice to get work done at low wages for the sole benefit of
the employer.
The recruitment of women for industrial work will be facilitated
in proportion to the provision of means to safeguard their morals,
particularly in those transitory cases where it is necessary, owing to
the exigencies of the time, to employ women on night work. * * *
Compliance with the laws made to insure decency, health, and
safety from accidents—important as it is in normal times— is now
more than ever necessary. * * * As soon as manufacturers
show initiative and * * * adaptiveness for this new type of
labor and cease to cherish preconceived opinions as to the inferiority
of women’s work and as to the low wages that it merits, the labor of
women will respond splendidly to the utmost variety of demands.
i Circular of Feb. 1, 1915. of the Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce t o th e Prefects of the
Realm in 11 Lavoro, Feb. 26,1915.
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An urgent demand that former labor standards be restored was
made in the autumn of 1916 in a memorial to the Government drawn
up by the federation of labor. Like resolutions were passed by the
federation of metal workers, by the Socialist deputies, b y the council
general of the chamber of labor in Milan, by the general legislative
council of that body, by the national women’s union, and the Cassa
di Maternita.1
La Confederazione del Lavoro, October 1, 1916, p . 523.

In conclusion




we ask:

( 1 ) That, as regards hours of labor, the laws on women’s and
children’s labor and on Sunday rest should be restored to full vigor,
together with the proper standards of hygiene required b y the
exceptional conditions.
(2 ) That for women and boys up to 18 years the following maxi­
mum hours should be fixed:
(a) For day’s work, 10 hours, with 2 hours’ rest;
(b) For work in two shifts: For the night shift, 9 hours’ work with
2 hours’ rest, with urgent recommendation to arrange three 8 -hour
shifts, broken by at least one-half hour’s rest; to employ male work­
ers by preference for night work; and to try, in day work for women
alone, to arrange 5-hour shifts.
(3) That the labor inspection should be restored to full force. * * *
The standards demanded in (2 ) a. are higher than those in effect
before the war.
The under secretary of arms and munitions, Dallolio, stated in the
chamber of deputies on December 15, 1916, in reply to a protest by
the Socialist leader, Truati, that the central committee on industrial
mobilization had devoted special attention to the problems of the
female labor force in munition works and had drawn up standards
to be adhered to by the regional committees of mobilization .2 These
standards had been discussed and voted in the meeting of October
6-7, 1916, but had not been given to the public. They were, how­
ever, reported to the Confederazione del Lavoro b y a member of the
committee and published in that organ.
La Confederazione del Lavoro, November 1, 1916, p. 559 (summarized).

The question of the labor of women in the mobilized industries was
presented in a speech which referred to the concern of the under
secretary of arms and munitions both as to direct means of increasing
the number of women in the production of munitions and as to the
renewed consideration of the moral and physical health of the workers
now employed and to be employed. It brought forward resolutions
passed by the permanent committee on labor, by labor organizations,
b y the national women’s unions, and the Maternity Insurance Co., of
Milan. After long discussion the committee passed a series of reso­
lutions which include the following sections:
1 Bolletino dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, N ov. 16,1916, p. 171.
2 Bolletino dell’ Ufficio del Lavoro, Jan. 1,1917, p. 7.
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(1) In the matter o f hours: The regional committees are authorized
to prescribe (with power of appeal to the central committee) stand­
ards limiting the working day for women and children and regulating
rest periods in such manner as to restore the safeguards of the old law.
(2 ) In the matter o f wages: The regional committees shall see to it
that wages shall be fixed for the period of apprenticeship for women
and children and that this period shall be limited.
(3) In the matter o f hygiene and morals: That the regulations of
the regional committees aiming to enforce the standards indicated by
the under secretary of arms and munitions on the employment of
women in munition works * * * shall have an obligatory
(4) In the matter o f inspection: That independently of the exemp­
tions asked by the minister of industry, commerce, and labor,, and
the federation of labor, the employees of the labor inspection called
to the colors and not adapted, or less adapted than others, to the
strain of war shall pass into the direct control of the under secretariate
of arms and munitions which will organize the inspection of mobilized
factories and coordinate the work o f the said soldiers with that of the
other labor inspectors. * * *
The writer states that arrangements are in progress between the
under secretariate of arms and munitions and the ministry of industry,
commerce, and labor to limit exactly their respective fields of action
in the matter of inspection, and that the other requests formulated
in the resolutions will take effect at once after the meeting of the
central committee of industrial mobilization at which the minutes of
the meeting of October 6-7 are approved.
In February, the under secretariate of arms and munitions ordered
the restoration of the weekly rest day in establishments working for
the national defense except in special cases for which individual per­
mits might be secured. And in March the under secretary Dallolio,
in reply to a question from a Socialist deputy gave emphatic assur­
ance that the conditions of labor in munitions plants were matters of
deepest concern to the Government.
Bolletino delV Ufficio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, March 16, 1917, pp . 51, 52.

Circular of February 24, 1917, of the under secretariate of arms and
munitions on the restoration of the weekly rest day in establishments
working for national defense:
Referring to the considerations contained in the circular of Decem­
ber 16, 1916, No. 224783 of this under secretariate, and bearing in
mind the answers sent by the regional committees on industrial mob­
ilization and the opinion given at various times b y the competent
office of the ministry of industry, commerce, and labor, the timeliness
now seems beyond dispute of restoring * * * the weekly rest of
an entire day, since, now that industry has passed through the period
of feverish adjustment that characterized the second half of 1915 and
a large part of 1916, such a provision while not diminishing the inten­
sity of production will indubitably aid in maintaining the health of the
workers and so aid continuity of production.
Taking into account however, the propriety of leaving some liberty
of action to the regional committees because of the diversity of con
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



ditions in different factories and districts, the under secretariate
decides as follows :
1 . From March 15 next all authorizations of Sunday and holiday
work, granted beyond existing provisions of the labor law shall be
canceled with the exception of absolutely exceptional cases, which the
regional committees in agreement with the committee of standards
for artillery (Commissione di CeUaudo di Artiglieria) believe necessary
to continue.
2 . As it is impossible to exclude absolutely the possibility that in
some establishments the need may still be proved of a-very brief use
of Sunday and holiday work, it remains established that for the plants
now having authorization for Sunday and holiday work (annulled by
the present circular) such very brief use of it may be in future directly
authorized time b y time b y the same committee who will keep note of
such authorizations and communicate them every two months
* * * to the central committee.
The restoration of Sunday rest will of course be subordinate to the
prescriptions of circular of January 8 , 1917, No. 352739, in regard to
the substitution of shifts of rest for Sunday rest, and the displacement
and reduction of the hours of service of the industries, and it is not
the purpose of the present circular to establish for industries o f con­
tinuous processes any different regulation than that of the legislative
provisions now in force.
B olletm o delV Ufficio del Lavoro, March 16, 1917, p p . 49, 50.

Report of the Chamber of Deputies, session of March 14, 1917:
Gen. Dallolio in answer to the Honorable Turati set forth provisions
adopted and efforts made for the protection of women and children
in auxiliary establishments and for a more rational organization of
employment at present and after the war, and assured the Chamber
that these problems of social order were the deep concern o f the Gov­
ernment and formed the object of his most constant care. * * *
In this connection he was glad to express the most lively encomium
on the patriotic zeal shown by the women workers of the auxiliary
establishments and gave assurance that the Government had but one
object (in the matter)—so to act that the workers in the auxiliary
establishments should labor with zeal and satisfaction to provide the
country with the means necessary for its defense.
A decree of March 15,1917, extended the powers of the regional com­
mittees to establishments not auxiliary, if their work concerned the
production of arms and munitions. The committees could prescribe
limitations of hours of work; inspection service for hygiene and sani­
tation was to be organized.
In accordance with this decree regulations were issued in April by
the under secretariate of arms and munitions. These regulations
limited the working hours of women and young persons to 60 a
week “ since the excessive prolonging of the hours of labor * * *
is in the end of more disadvantage than advantage to produc­
tion.” They also forbade the employment on night shifts of children
under 18 and, except in absolutely exceptional cases, required the
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



granting of one day’s rest in seven. These regulations do more than
reestablish prewar labor standards ; in some respects the standards are
even higher than those demanded before Italy entered the struggle.
Decree o f the lieutenant-general, March 1 5 ,1 9 1 7 , N o. 570, establishing new rules in addition
to the regulations fo r industrial mobolization, in Bolletino delV Ufficio del Lavoro,
Fortnightly Series, June 1, 1917, pp. 9 6 ,9 7 .


A rt . 31. The regional committees have power to prescribe limi­
tations of hours, and rest periods in the establishments under their
A rt . 32. It is within the powers of the regional committees to
issue directions for the hygienic protection of the labor force, and
especially of women and chddren.
A rt . 35. The powers conferred on the regional committees b y the
present chapter are extended for the duration of the war to the estab­
lishments not auxiliary whose work concerns the production of arms
and munitions.


A rt . 36. Under the ministry of war, under secretariate of arms
and munitions, an inspection service is organized for hygiene and
sanitation in auxiliary establishments.
A rt . 37. The purpose of said service is to * * * aid the agen­
cies of industrial mobilization in the prescription and application of
rules for the protection of the health of the workers.
Circular N o . 409813 (A p r. SO, 1917) o f the under secretariate o f arms and munitions fo r
the protection o f the labor force o f women and young persons in Bollettino delV Uffi­
cio del Lavoro, Fortnightly Series, June 1 ,1 9 1 7 , p p . 97, 98.

It is the chief purpose of this under secretariate that the existing
laws for the protection of labor, and especially those on the labor of
women and children and on the national maternity insurance, should
always be observed in the establishments under the jurisdiction of
the committees.
With due regard, moreover, to the special nature of the heavy labor
involved in the making of munitions, and to the unusual fatigue to
which the women and young persons employed may be subjected in
this period of intensive production, it is considered necessary that,
for the execution of the new provisions made in the decree of March
15, 1917, No. 570, the following regulations should be observed:
Since the excessive prolonging of the hours of labor, if done in
normal times, is in the end of more disadvantage than advantage to
production, especially when it is a question of a labor force of women
and young persons, the working hours of women of whatever age and
of children must not as a rule exceed 60 hours per week.
Women under 18 and children must not be permitted to work on
night shifts, and on these shifts the hours of labor must not exceed
10 for women.
With the circular of February 24, 1917, No. 317764, this under
secretariate restored the requirement of weekly rest for an entire day.
We reaffirm on this occasion that exceptions to this provision shall
be permitted only in absolutely exceptional cases.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



The frequent tendency to reduce rest periods overmuch must he
resisted with energy, especially in the night shifts. * * *
It is recommended that even adults, before their admission into
the plants, be subjected to medical examination with the double
purpose of determining their physical fitness and of avoiding spread
of disease, such provision being made necessary for adult women who
are not obliged to present employment books, by reason of their
inferior physical resistance.
The employment of pregnant women is forbidden during the last
month of pregnancy and for the first month after the birth.

Much of the country was placed under martial la w 1 at the out­
break of the war and this empowered the military authority to order
the suspension among other laws of the general labor act (Arbeidswet),
the safety act (Veiligheidswet), and the laws regulating dangerous
and unhealthy trades (Hinderwet) as authorized by the martial law
act of May 23, 1899 (Staatsblad, 1899, No. 128). The military com­
manders granted temporary exemptions to limits of hours in some
plants running on war orders and permitted night work in three
textile mills. All these exemptions on war orders had expired or were
canceled b y November 1 , 1915, except one which ran until December
1, 1915.
Centraal Verslag der Arbeidsinspectie in het Koninkrijk der Nederiander over 1915, p p . 82
and 83 (summarized).

In a certain lace and trimming factory the owner after p r o m is in g
to arrange no longer shifts than from 7 a. m. till 9 p. m. continued
regularly until 10 p. m. or even 1 a. m. Thereupon the commander
ruled that “ female persons” may work only between 7 a. m. and 9
p. m. and the men between 6 a. m. and 9 p. m., and that a rest of at
least two hours during this period should be allowed.
[According to the labor law of 1911, art. 6 , young persons and
women may not work in an industrial plant more than 10 hours a day
nor 58 hours a week, nor between 7 p. m. and 6 a. m.]
A quite different character had the suspension of the labor law in
three textile mills at the end of 1915 and in the beginning of 1916.
There were in Twente hundreds of unemployed textile laborers who had
worked in Germany before the war. In order to give them employ­
ment arrangements in two shifts were made by the manufacturers in
two places without going beyond the limits of the labor law. In a
third town, however, the manufacturers objected, declaring that they
could not employ a second shift during the legal hours; so the labor
law regarding night shifts was suspended.

Not until March 9/22, 1915, did Russia provide for any emer­
gency exemptions from the labor laws protecting women and chil­
dren. On this date the Tsar, in accordance with a resolution of the

Decree of A ug. 10,1914 (Staatsblad No. 406), Law o f Oct. 16,1914 (Staatsblad No. 491), and other decrees.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



ministerial council, issued a decree, “ temporarily to amend and sup­
plement the legal provisions in question [concerning night and under­
ground work by women and by young persons under 15 years in coal
mines] until the conclusion of warlike operations.”
Bulletin International Labor Office, Voi. X , p. 3 81 .1

Persons of the female sex and such young persons of the male sex
as have not reached the age of 15 years shall be admitted to work at
night and underground in the coal mines of European Russia, subject
to the observance of the following rules:
( 1 ) Young male.persons shall not be employed in underground
work in the daytime for a period exceeding 8 hours, or at night ex­
ceeding 6 hours, in 24, subject to the condition that in the course of
the working day following after night work young persons shall not
be readmitted to work for a period of 12 hours from the cessation of
such night work.
(2 ) Persons of the female sex having been employed at night shall
not be employed again earlier than midday on the day following the
night work.
(3) Persons of the female sex and young male persons shall only
be admitted to night and underground work on condition that they
are first shown, by an examination undertaken for the purpose by
the mines medical officer, or where there is no such person, by the
rural or municipal medical officer, to be suited, from the point of
view of their strength and health, for the said work. And—
(4) It shall rest with the local mining authorities, in agreement
with the governors concerned, to issue special fists of processes in
which persons of the female sex and young persons may be employed.
On October 19/November 1 , 1915, an imperial decree provided for
the granting of special exemptions to the laws regulating the hours
of women and young persons in factories working for the national
defense. It does not permit the employment of children below the
legal age limit .2
Collection o f wording regulations issued in accordance with article 87 o f the fundamental
laws o f the Russian Em pire.
Third supplement to the collection issued in the year
1913, Petrograd, 1916, p p . 166, 167.

The imperial decree of October 19, 1915:
The minister of commerce and industry is given the authority to
permit to factories, mills, and establishments connected with mining
and subsequent processes producing articles necessary for State de-'
fense, exemptions from articles 64, 65, 6 8 , 74, 75, and 194-200 of the
statute on industrial work regulating the work of women and persons
under 17 years of age, the length of the working day, and distribution
of hours in the above establishments, b y issuing special rules.
[Articles 64—65, 6 8 , 74, 75, and 194—200 of the statute on industrial
work regulate the hours of women and young persons 12 to 15 and
1 The original law is given in the collection of working regulations issued in accordance w ith article 87 of
th e fundamental laws of the Russian Empire: Second supplement to the collection issued in the year
1913, Petrograd, 1915, p. 39.
2 T he London Times of June 16,1917, states that “ Female children's night work has been abolished in
Russia.” N o other information on this point has been received.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



15 to 17 years of age; forbid night work and Sunday work to the
above workers, with certain, exceptions; and provide schedules of
hours and holidays for all employees.]
No information is available about the administration of these ex­
emptions or the frequency with which they were granted. The only
note of protest against child-labor conditions is found in a conference
on the care of children where legislative measures were discussed and
it was considered desirable to raise the age limit for factory work
from 12 to 14 years, to reduce the maximum hours for children 1 to
6 per day, and to prohibit night work and factory work detrimental
to the health of children.2

Under the authority of the general emergency decree of August 3,
1914, the Federal Council on August 11 , 1914, stated that derogations
from the labor laws affecting women and children might be permitted
in special cases where this is the sole means of enabling work to
Recueil Officiel des Lois et Ordonnances de la Confédération Suisse, N . S . Vol. X X X t
1915, p . 347 (summarized).

The Federal order of August 3, 1914, is a general proclamation
on neutrality and measures of security. The Federal Assembly
gives unlimited power to the Federal Council for the taking of all
measures necessary for the maintenance of the security, integrity,
and neutrality of Switzerland, for the safeguarding of the credit
and economic interests of the country, and in particular of the
people’s food supply.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X .

Page 75. Circular letter from the Federal Council to all the Can­
tonal governments on August 11 , 1914, relating to the temporary
authorization of exemptions from the factory act, says in part:
In pursuance of section 3 of the Federal decree of August 3, 1914,
we therefore authorize you to allow factories to introduce, during the
continuance of the present conditions, a system of working which
derogates from the provisions of the factory act, more especially
as regards working hours, night and Sunday work, and the employ­
ment of women and young persons.
This authority shall apply to cases where this is the only possible
way of continuing the work.
The orders of the competent Federal authorities shall apply to the
factories of the Confederation.
Page 76. Circular letter from the Swiss industrial department to all the
Cantonal governments, on August 29, 1914, relating to the temporary
authorization of exemptions from the factory act, says in part:
The circular letter of August 11 , 1914, * * * does not seem
to have been everywhere correctly understood.
i Age not given; probably up to 15 years, as th e present law allows an 8-hour day for persons 12 to 15 years
a Russkiia Viedom osti, Mar. 21/Apr. 3,1916.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



We therefore find, ourselves compelled to emphasize the point
that, in virtue of the decree referred to, exemptions from the factory
act are only allowed if they are sanctioned by you, and that such
authorizations are only to be granted if this is the sole means of
enabling an undertaking to continue working. It refers more
especially to those cases when it is impossible to replace absent
skilled workers. * * * Exemptions from the factory act shall
be refused to factory owners who are able to keep their under­
takings in operation, and even to meet exceptional orders, by engag­
ing unemployed workers. * * *
In November and December, 1915, the Federal authorities specified
in detail the exemptions which might be allowed by the Cantonal
governments or by the district or local authorities. They do not
include permits for night work by girls under 18 years of age and
boys under 16, for Sunday work by women and young persons, or for
the employment of children under '14 years old. Whether such
exemptions had been granted under the earlier orders is not clear
from the terms of the November circular.
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X , p p . 384, 386 (summarized).

A Federal resolution and a circular of the Federal Council to all
Cantonal governments were both issued on November 16, 1915, on
“ permission to organize work in an exceptional manner in factories.”
The circular states in part:
“ As we have been able to ascertain from the reports of the factory
inspectors, the Cantonal governments have allowed exemptions from
the act * * *. Not only when, as we said, the undertaking could
be continued only by this means. * * * We rely on the perspicu­
ity and uprightness of the Cantonal governments and their officials
to see that permission to work in a manner contrary to the ordinary
conditions of work shall only be given when this is absolutely neces­
sary and unavoidable. It would be well also to examine the reasons
for the applications closely and to inquire into the possibility of
satisfying requirements by different means. In this connection care
should be taken in particular, not to allow overtime in cases where
the necessary production might be secured by taking on further
available workers.”
The exemptions which may be granted to factories collectively in
pursuance o f the factory act by the Cantonal governments or by the
district or local authorities are:
(a) The extension of the 11-hour working day on not more than 80
days annually by not more than 2 hours a day for persons of both
sexes over 16 years of age.1
(b) The extension of hours of work annually on not more than 12
days preceding Sundays and holidays (9 hours only permitted by
factory law).
(c) Work on not more than 30 nights annually for men 18 years of
age and over but in no case for women.2
1 Federal law on factory work of Mar. 23, 1877, in R ecueil Officiel des Lois et Ordonnances de la Conféd­
ération Suisse, N . S. V ol. III, 1879, p. 224, ff. Secs. 11,15,16.
2 Ibid., secs. 13. 16.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Work on not more than 12 Sundays annually for men 18 years
of age and over but in no case for women.1
In these cases the Cantonal governments may require payment of
25 per cent additional wages for this overtime work.
The exemptions which may be granted by the Cantonal govern­
ments to individual factories are:
(a) To employ women over 18 and male persons over 16 at night.
(b) To organize work in shifts and work without interruption by
day (this system with moderate hours is preferred to allowing over­
time to an excessive degree).2
(c) To reduce the midday break to less than one hour.
(d) To extend overtime, Sunday, and night work beyond the
limits specified in the exemptions allowed to factories collectively.
In these cases the payment of 25 per cent additional wages is
required for all overtime work and 50 per cent additional for all
night or Sunday work.
The Federal factory inspector is to be notified of all exemptions
allowed and the department may revoke or limit exemptions. Cur­
rent exemptions contrary to these provisions must be brought into
conformity with them by December 15, 1915, or withdrawn alto­
Bulletin o f the International Labor Office, Vol. X I , p . 54 (summarized).

A Federal resolution and a circular of the Swiss department of
national economy to all Cantonal governments, on December 6, 1915,
are concerned with the same subject. They replace the provisions
concerning payment for overtime b y the requirement that 25 per
cent increase shall be paid for all overtime, Sunday, or night work.
The circular states again that no permits should be issued where
they might restrict the possibility of other workers securing employ­
The only protest against the granting of exemptions referred to
in the official circulars is a petition from the Swiss Federation of
Trade Unions, mentioned in the circular of December 6, 1915, which
urges that “ even during the war, deviations from the provisions of
the existing factory act should not be allowed in any case.” The
Government asks the Cantonal governments to report in February,
1916, on the enforcement of the resolution o f ‘November, 1915, and
to state whether its retention is still needed. Organizations of
employers and workers will also* be requested to express their opin­
ions on this point.8
1 Federal law on iactory work of Mar. 23, 1877, in Recueil Officiel des Lois et Ordonnances de la Con­
fédération Suisse, N. S. V ol. III, 1879, p. 224, ff. Secs. 15,16.
2 Circular of th e Swiss Federal Council to all Cantonal governments respecting permission to organiz
work in an exceptional manner in factories, dated N ov. 16,1915. Bulletin of th e International Labor
Office, 1915, V ol. X , p. 387.
3 Bulletin of the International Labor Office, V ol. X I , p. 56.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Bulletin of the International Labor Office. English edition.
Woolwich. Labor Representation Printing Co.1
Bulletin of the International Labor Office.

German edition.

1914, 1915, 1916, 1-2.
1916, 1917, 1-2.


P U B L IC R E P O R T S .

France. Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale, Bulletin.
to December, 1916. Paris. Librairie Armand Colin.
Great Britain. Board of Trade Labor Gazette.
London. H . M. Stationery Office.

August, 1914,

September, 1914, to May, 1917.

United States Department of Labor. Monthly Review of the U . S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics.. July, 1915, to June, 1917. Washington. Government Printing

Christian Science Monitor, The.
Grande Revue, La. Paris.
New Statesman, The.



August, 1914, to April, 1917.

School Child and Juvenile Worker, The.
Soziale Praxis.
Times, The.



September, 1914, to July, 1917.

January-October, 1915.


September, 1914, to May, 1917.

August, 1914, to March, 1916.

August, 1914, to May, 1917.





Kaiserliche-kônigliche Hof- und Staats-


Journal Officiel de la République Française. August 1,1914, to April 1,1917. Docu­
mentary Supplements through January, 1917; Parliamentary Debates through
February, 1917. Paris. Imprimerie des Journaux Officiels.
Ministère de l ’Armement et des Fabrications de Guerre. Bulletin des Usines de
Guerre. May 1, 1916, to April 2, 1917. Published during 1916 by the Soussecrétariat de l ’Artillerie et des Munitions.
Ministère de l ’Instruction Publique, Bulletin Administratif.
1916. Paris. Imprimerie Nationale.

August 1 , 1914-April 22

Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale.
Bulletin. August, 1914-December, 1916. Paris. Librairie Armand Colin.
Résultats Statistiques du Recensement général de la Population Effectué le
5 mars, 1911, Tome I. Paris. Imprimerie Nationale.
Annuaire Statistique, 1912. Paris. Imprimerie Nationale.
Dalloz, Guerre de 1914.


Librairie Dalloz.

1 W hen not otherwise indicated, the English edition is referred to.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis




Réforme Economique, La. Paris, 1915, 1916-February 28, 1917.
Revue Internationale de l ’Enseignement, La.
March-May, 1916; January-February, 1917.
Revue Pédagogique,. La.


Revue Philanthropique, La.
Temps, Le.


September-October, 1915;

January, 1915, to December, 1916.


August, 1914-February, 1917.


Journal des Débats, Le.


O F F IC I A L R E P O R T S A N D L A W S .

Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt.
Statistiches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich.
Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.

1913, 1914, 1915.

Vierteljahrshefte zur Statistik des Deutschen Reichs.
Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.



Reichsarbeitsblatt. 1913, 1914, 1915, Janüary-March, May, October, Decem­
ber, 1916. Berlin. Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.
Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 203: Berufs- und Betriebszählung vom
1907, Berufsstatistik. Berlin. Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.

12 Juni,

Ministerium für Handel und Gewerbe. Jahresberichte der Königlich preussischen
Regierungs- und Gewerberäte und Bergbehörde. 1913. Berlin. Decker.
Reichsamt des Innern.




1914-February, 1916.


Annalen für Soziale Politik und Gesetzgebung.
Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik.


I-IV .



September, November,

Berliner Tageblatt. Berlin. February 18-22,1916.
Correspondenzblatt der General-Kommission der Gewerkschaften


August-December, 1914, 1915; January-March 11, 1916.

Deutsches Statistisches Zentralblatt.
January-December, 1916.


September-December, 1914, 1915;

Deutsche Wollen Gewerbe.


Neue Zeit, Die.

1915-March, 1916.



Schmoller’s Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung, und Volkswirtschaft im Deut­
schen Reich. Leipzig. 1-4, 1914; 1, 3, 4, 1915; 1, 1916.
Zentralblatt für Gewerbehygiene.
May, 1915; October, 1916.


September-December, 1914; January-


Chitty’s Statutes of Public U tility.
Chitty’s Statutes.

Völ. 4.

1913, 1914, 1915.

Pulling, Alexander. Manual of Emergency Legislation.
London. H . M. Stationery Office.
Public General Acts, 5 and 6 Geo. 5.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4.

London, H . M. Stationery Office.



P U B L IC R E P O R T S .

Board of Education.
School Attendance and Employment in Agriculture. Summary of returns
supplied by local education authorities for the period 1st September; 1914-31st
January, 1915. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 7881.]
School Attendance and Employment in Agriculture. Summary of returns
supplied by county local education authorities for the period 1st September,
1914-30th April, 1915. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 7932.]
School Attendance and Employment in Agriculture. Summary of returns
supplied by county local education authorities of children excused from school
for employment in agriculture on 31st January, 1916. London. H . M. Stationery
Office. 1916. [Cd. 8202.]
School Attendance and Employment in Agriculture. Summary of returns
supplied by county local education authorities of children excused from school
for employment in agriculture on 31st May, 1916. London. H . M. Stationery
Office. 1916. [Cd. 8302.]
School Attendance and Employment in Agriculture. Summary of returns
supplied by county local education authorities of children excused from school
for employment in agriculture on 16th October, 1916. London. H . M. Station­
ery Office. 1916. [Cd. 8171.]
Report of the Board of Education for the Year 1913-1914.
Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 7934.]


H . M.

Report of the Board of Education for the Year 1914—1915.
Stationery Office. 1916. [Cd. 8274.]


H . M.

Annual Report for 1914 of the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education.
London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 8055.]
Annual Report for 1915 of the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education.
London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1916. [Cd. 8338.]
Minute of the Board of Education, Dated Nov. 25,1914, Modifying the Regula­
tions for Public Elementary Schools 1912, in England and Wales, as Already
Modified by the Minutes Dated July 4,1913 and June 24,1914. London. H . M.
Stationery Office. 1914. [Cd. 7700.]
Correspondence Relating to School Attendance Between the Board of Educa­
tion and Certain Local Education Authorities Since the Outbreak of War. Lon­
don. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 7803.]
Board of Trade.
Labor Exchanges and Unemployment Insurance Department. Notes on
points of interest in the work of juvenile employment committees for the quarter
ended March 31, 1914; June 30, 1914; September 30, 1914; December 31, 1914;
March 31,1915.
Labor Gazette.

September, 1914, to May, 1917.


H . M. Stationery

Department of Labor Statistics. Seventeenth Abstract of Labor Statistics of
the United Kingdom. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 7733.]
Departmental Committee on Juvenile Education in Relation to Employment after
the War.
’ Interim Report of the Departmental Committee on Juvenile Education in Rela­
tion to Employment after the War. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1916.
[Cd. 8374.]
Final Report of the Departmental Committee on Juvenile Education in Rela­
tion to Employment after the War. Yols. I and I I . London. H . M. Stationery


[Cd. 8512 and 8577.]
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Factories and Workshops.
Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the Year
1915. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1916. [Cd. 8276.]
Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the Year
1916. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1917. [Cd. 8570.]
Home Office.
Interim Report on an Investigation of Industrial Fatigue hy Physiological
Methods, hy A . F . Stanley Kent. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915.
[Cd. 8056.]
Second Interim Report on an Investigation of Industrial Fatigue by Physio­
logical Methods, hy A . F. Stanley Kent. London. H . M. Stationery Office.
1916. [Cd. 8335.]
General Order. Munitions of War. Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, sec. 150.
Dated 9th September, 1916. Home Office. Whitehall.
Circular Letter of 9th September, 1916.
Home Office of same date.

No. 198802.

Accompanies order of

Ministry of Munitions.
Health of Munition Workers Committee Memoranda. London. H . M. Sta­
tionery Office.
No. 1. Report on Sunday Labor. 1915. [Cd. 8132.]
No. 2. Welfare Supervision. 1915. [Cd. 8151.]
No. 3. Report on Industrial Canteens. 1915. [Cd. 8133.]
No. 4. Employment of Women. 1916. [Cd. 8185.]
No. 5. Hours of Work. 1916. [Cd. 8186.]
No. 6. Canteen Construction and Equipment. 1916. [Cd. 8199.]
No. 7. Industrial Fatigue and its Causes. 1916. [Cd. 8213.]
No. 8. Special Industrial Diseases. 1916. [Cd. 8214.]
No. 9. Ventilation and Lighting of Munition Factories and Workshops.
1916. [Cd. 8215.]
No. 10. Sickness and injury. 1916. [Cd. 8216.]
No. 11. Investigation of Workers’ Food and Suggestions as to Dietary,
Report by Leonard E . H ill. 1916. [Cd. 8370.]
No. 12. Statistical Information Concerning Output in Relation to Hours
of Work. 1916. [Cd. 8344.]
No. 13. Juvenile Employment. 1916. [Cd. 8362.]
No. 14. Washing Facilities and Baths. 1916. [Cd. 8387.]
No. 15. The Effect of Industrial Conditions upon Eyesight. 1916. [Cd.
No. 16. Medical Certificates for Munition Workers. 1917. [Cd. 8522.]
No. 17. Health and Welfare of Munition Workers outside the Factory.
Health of Munition Workers Committee.
ciency and Fatigue. 1917. [Cd. 8511.]

Interim Report.

Industrial Effi­

Notes on tie Employment of women on munitions of war with an appendix on
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Duties of Lady Superintendents (sometimes called Lady Welfare Supervisors).
Memo. M. M. 13.
Circular letter M. W . 91962, sent out by the Ministry of Munitions of War, 6
Whitehall Gardens. London, S. W . 31st January, 1916.
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Government Belgian Refugees Committee. First Report of the Departmental
Committee Appointed by the President of the Local Government Board to Con-
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



solidate and Report on Questions Arising in Connection with the Reception and
Employment of the Belgian Refugees in this Country. London. H . M. Sta­
tionery Office. 1914. [Cd. 7750.]
Committee on Public Retrenchment. Final Reports of the Committee on
Retrenchment in the Public Expenditure. London. H . M. Stationery Office.
1916. [Cd. 8200.]
“ Shops Committee.” Report of the Committee Appointed by the Secretary
of State for the Home Department to Consider the Conditions of Retail Trade
Which Can Best Secure that the Further Enlistment of Men or the Employment
in other National Services may not Interfere with the Operations of That Trade.
London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1915. [Cd. 8113.]
Reconstruction Committee. Part I of the Report of the Agricultural Policy
Subcommittee Appointed in August, 1916, to Consider and Report upon the
Methods of Effecting an Increase in the Home-grown Food Supplies, Having Re­
gard to the Need of Such Increase in the Interest of National Security. London.
H . M. Stationery Office. 1917. [Cd. 8506.]
Post Office. Fourth Annual Report of the Standing Committee on Boy Labor
in the Post Office. London. H . M. Stationery Office. 1914. [Cd. 7556.]
Suggested Scheme for Boy Supervision. Welfare (B) 4.
Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons. Official Reports. Yols. 70,91. London.
H . M. Stationery Office.

Frank O. Bunting, Plaintiff in Error, v. The State of Oregon, Defendant in Error, upon
Reargument. Supreme Court of the United States, October term, 1916. No. 38.
Reprinted b y the National Consumers’ League. New York.
Bass, John. Report to the United States Federal Trade Commission, dated April 17,
1917. (Unpublished.)
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lished for the Howard Association by P. S. King & Co. Westminster. 1917.



Statutes of New South Wales (of Public Utility). 1912.
Statutes of New South Wales, 1913-1915.
Queensland Statutes, 1900-1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912,
1913, 1914.
Acts of the Parliament of South Australia, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911-12, 1912, 1913, 1914,
1915, 1916.
Acts of the Parliament of Tasmania, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914-15, 1915-16.
General Public Acts of Victoria, 1915.
Public General Statutes of Victoria, 1911 and 1912, 1913 and 1914, and 1915.
State of Victoria, Acts of Parliament, 1916.
Acts of the Parliament of Western Australia, 1903-04,1904,1905,1907,1909,1012,1913,
1914-15, 1915.

Dominion of Canada.

Statutes of the Province of Alberta, 1910, 1911-12, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916.
Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1911.
Statutes of the Province of British Columbia, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Revised Statutes of Manitoba, 1913'.


Acts of the Legislature of the Province of Manitoba, 1913-14, 1915, 1916,
Consolidated Statutes of New Brunswick, 1903.

■; > . k*

Acts of the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, 1904,1905,1906,11907,1908,1^)9,
1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916.
Revised Statutes of-Nova Scotia, 1900.

. ¡v- ¡n&vAsïtë

Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1900-1902, 1903, 1903-04, 1905,1906, 1907{ 1908> 1909, 1910,
1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916.
> '•:
Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1914.
Statutes of the Province of Ontario, 1914, 1915, 1916.
Acts of the General Assembly of Prince Edward Island, 19Ï3, 1914, 1915, 1916.
Revised Statutes of the Province of Quebec, 1909.
Statutes of the Province of Quebec, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1915, 1916.
Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan, 1909.
Statutes of thé Province of Saskatchewan, 1910-11, 1912, 1912-13, 1913, 1914, 1915,
1916, 1917.
: 'i
Consolidated Ordinances of Yukon Territory, 1914.
Ordinances of Yukon Territory, 1915, 1916.


P U B L IC R E P O R T S .

The Labor Gazette. September, 1914, to April, 1917. Issued by the Department
of Labor by order of Parliament. Ottawa. Printed by J. de L. Tache, Printer
to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty.


Acts of the General Assembly of Newfoundland, 1914, War Session, 1914, 1915, 1916.

New Zealand.

Consolidated Statutes of the Dominion of New Zealand, 1908.
Statutes of the Dominion of New Zealand, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913,1914,

Union of South Africa.

Statutes of the Union of South Africa, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916.


Gazzetta Ufficiale, 1914-1917.


Tipografia della Mantellate.

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della Previdenza. Annali del Credito e della Previdenza. Provvedimenti in
materia di econemia e di finanza emanati in Italia in seguito alia guerra Europea.
Series 2, Yol. 10, Pts. I, II, I I I , 1915, 1916. Rome. Cecchini, 1915, 1916.
Nuovo Codice del Lavoro. Edited by Prof. E . Noseda. Milan, Hoepli, 1913.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



O F F IC I A I . R E P O R T S .

Camera dei Deputati. Previsione dell’ Entrata e della Spesa, 1914,1915,1916. Rome.
Tipografia della Camera dei Deputati.
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di Guerra Italiana. Rome. Calzone. 1917.
Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria, e Commercio, Ufficio del Lavoro.
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Dati Statistici sui Rimpatriati per causa di guerra e sulla disoccupazione.
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Ministero per l ’ Industria, il Commercio, e il Lavoro. Direzione Generale della
Statistica e del Lavoro.
Annuario Statistico Italiano, 1914, 1915. Rome. Officina Poligrafica Italiana.
1915, 1916.
Relazione su l ’Applicazione della Legge sul Lavoro delle Donne e dei Fanci­
ulli, 25 July, 1907-31 December, 1914. Rome.
Tipografica della Camera dei
Deputati. 1916.
Ministero per l ’ Industria, il Commercio, e il Lavoro.
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1917 (except October 16, 1916). Rome. Officina Poligrafica Italiana.
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Lavoro. Monthly


1915-1916. * Rome.

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grafica Cooperativa Sociale.




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1914, 1915, 1916-May, 1917.

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Padova, July-December, 1914, December, 1916,


Giornale della Reale Società Italiana d ’ igiene, II.
1916 (except Fèbruary, 1916).
Lavoro, II.



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August-December, 1914; January-October, 1915.
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16, March 1, 1917.
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July-December, 1914; 1915; 1916; January, Fèbruary

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


October 16-November 16,



Rivista di Diritto Intemazionale, La.
Rivista Internazionale, La.
ber 31, 1916.
Rivista d ’ Italia, La.



Secolo, II.

August-December, 1914.

October-December, 1916; January, 1917.

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Rivista Pedagogica, La.


New York, October 31, November 30, Decern^



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trial Council. 1908.
Wells, H . G., Italy, France, and Britain at War.



Women’s Indus­



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Jaarcijfers voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Rijk in Europa, 1915. The
Hague, Gebr. Belifante. Maandschrift, The Hague. August, 1914-January,
Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel. Centraal-Verslag der Arbeidsinspectie in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden over 1915. Arnhem, Thieme.
Koninklijke Bibliotheek met Medewerking van hèt Nederlandsch Registratuur-Bureau. Documenten voor de Economische Crisis van Nederland in Oorlogsgevaar.
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June, 1915.

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Sbornik dieistvuiushchih postanovlenii izdannih v poriadke statii 87 osnovnih
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Art. 87 of the Fundamental Laws of the State), 1st, 2d, and 3d supplement to
collection issued in 1913. Imperial Chancery. Petrograd. 1915 and 1916.
Svod Zakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii (Codified Laws of the Russian Empire) : Edition of
A . A . Dobrovolski, St. Petersburg, 1913, and official edition, Continuation of
1914, Petrograd, State Printing Office.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



Novoie Vremiia.
ary, 1917.



Rueskaiia Mysl.

January-May 17, September-December, 1916; Febru­

August-December, 1914, 1916.


October-December, 1914, February and May, 1915.

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1917; February 1-8, 10-12, 14-17, 19, 21-25, 1917.
Sovremennyi Mir.
Russian Year Book.




Eyre and Spottiswoode.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis