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C h a r i s e s

W o

m e n

s

o

in

c c u p a t i o n s

1940-1950

Women's Bureau Bulletin 253

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR




James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Alice K. Leooold, Director

Washington : 1954

United States^Government^Printing Office,fWashington : 1954

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents




Letter of Transmittal
UNITED

STATES DEPARTMENT

OF

LABOR,

WOMEN'S
Washington,

BUREAU,

March

SI,

1954-

SIR: I have the honor to submit a report on the trends in the occupations of employed women over the decade 1940 to 1950, as
revealed by the decennial census.
Occupational change is an indicator of the trends in women's
economic status. It also illustrates women's current contribution
and suggests their potential service in building and maintaining the
strength of this country. The occupational progress of women is of
vital interest to all workers, men as well as women, to employers, to
educators, and to women's organizations. The new data, here
analyzed by the Women's Bureau, are available only at the 10-year
period, when the Bureau of the Census provides detailed occupational
information.
Among the items mirrored over the decade are the growing entrance of women into many occupations, the gradual shifting toward
occupations involving specialized skills and preparation, the broadening in variety of service occupations. New reporting of occupations
not formerly listed separately includes, for example, bank tellers,
dietitians, personnel and labor relations workers, counter and fountain workers, operatives making photographic supplies, saleswomen
in manufacturing, and others.
Changes in composition of the woman labor force in certain occupations also are featured, as for example the larger proportion of
older workers than in 1940 among the teachers, household workers,
beauticians, and many others, and the decreased proportion of single
and increased proportion of married women among nurses, waitresses,
operatives in food industries, and others.
The census material relating to women was interpreted and the
report written by Mary-Elizabeth Pidgeon, research consultant, and
basic statistical tables were prepared by the staff of the Statistical
Branch of which Jean S. Campbell is Chief. The entire project was
under the general direction of Mary N. Hilton, Chief of the Women's
Bureau Research Division.
Respectfully submitted.
A L I C E K . L E O P O L D , Director.
H o n . JAMES P .




MITCHELL,

Secretary of Labor.
iii




Contents
Page

In brief

vii
PART

I

MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS
The picture in 1950
Proportions of all workers who are women
Women and men workers
Ages—major occupation groups
Marital status—major occupation groups
Negro women—major occupation groups
PART

1
3
4
5
6
9
II

INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN
Long-term changes
Largest occupations of women
Where notable increases occurred
Where number of women decreased
Occupations with women in highest proportions
Younger and older women—individual occupations
Married and single women—individual occupations
Negro women—individual occupations
PART

13
14
16
16
18
21
25
31

III

OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN IN EACH MAJOR GROUP
Clerical workers
Operatives
Professional women
Service workers
Private household employees
Sales workers
Proprietors, managers, officials
Farm occupations
Craftswomen and forewomen
Laborers

37
41
50
57
61
62
64
69
70
74

A P P E N D I X — G E N E R A L TABLES
Table 1. Distribution of women and men employed in major occupation
groups: 1950 and 1940
Table 2. Ages of employed women in major occupation groups: 1950 and
1940
Table 3. Marital status of women in the experienced civilian labor force, by
major occupation group: 1950 and 1940
Table 4. Ages of women in individual occupations, 1950 with 1949 median.
Table 5. Marital status of women in occupations with 50,000 or more,
1950, with comparisons for 1940
Table 6. Detailed occupations of employed women: 1950 and 1940




82
83
85
86
88
90

y




In Brief
Decennial Census Data Show That in 1950—
i t Women are about 30 percent of all workers. About half the employed women
are clerical workers or operatives, a fifth are in various services, and over a
tenth in professions. The employment of women has increased in all occupation groups except among household workers and farmers. Women are
now in all the 446 occupations that the Census reports.
^-Largest individual occupations of women are—
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries, saleswomen in retail trade, teachers, operatives in apparel factories, bookkeepers, waitresses, nurses,
telephone operators, proprietors in retail trade, unpaid family farmworkers, cooks; operatives in laundries, textile mills, food factories, or
electrical supply plants; beauticians, cashiers.
TA:Women are an especially large proportion of all workers in the following occupations, among others—
Nine-tenths
or more of nurses, dietitians, librarians, telephone operators,
private household workers.
Over four-fifths of operatives in apparel factories, waiters and waitresses,
cashiers, demonstrators.
Three-fourths
or more of teachers, textile spinners, operatives in knitting
mills.
Half to two-thirds
of hospital attendants, operatives in laundries, and
plants making electrical supplies, shoes, textile fabrics; social, welfare
workers; saleswomen in retail stores, cooks, beauticians.
-fcOccupations in which the number is reported for the first time in 1950 include—
Bank tellers, dietitians, cashiers separately from bookkeepers, saleswomen
separately in retail trade, operatives making drugs and medicines, recreation and group workers.
^Occupations in which the number of women has more than doubled since 1940
include—
Office-machine operators, hospital attendants, operatives in factories producing electrical machinery and supplies, motor vehicles and equipment,
miscellaneous paper products, and several other commodities; medical,
dental technicians; buyers and department heads in stores; accountants
and auditors; managers and officials in manufacturing and in insurance
and real estate; charwomen and cleaners.
^ T h e median age of employed women is nearly 36% years. If the youthful
group of clerical workers be omitted, the median for all others is over 38%
years. In 1940 the median was only a little over 32 years.
T^Half the women workers are 25 and less than 45 years of age, almost a third
45 or older. At every age through 64 years the largest group of women
workers is in clerical work; among girls under 20 and women 45 and older
large groups are in household and other services.
^ A l m o s t half the single women, a fourth of those married, and a third of the
widowed or divorced are workers. Half the single women are clerical or
professional workers, almost half the married are clerical workers or operatives, and well over half the widowed or divorced are service workers, clerical
workers, or operatives.




vii

OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN WORKERS, 1950
0

1

Millions of women
2

3

Clerical
workers
Operatives
Professional,
technical
workers
Service workers
(except private
household)
Private
household
workers
Sales
workers
Managers,
officials,
proprietors
(except farm)
Farm
workers
Other
occupations

Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
1950 Census of Population.

viii




4

dhiim:

CHANGES

IN W O M E N ' S

OCCUPATIONS,

1940-1950

Part I — M a j o r Occupation Groups
Today the fabric of national life and progress depends heavily
on the work performance of women and on the high quality, the
regularity, and the integrity of their work both in the home and in
the labor force.
Picture the situation in an individual office, store, factory, restaurant, schoolroom, hospital, telephone exchange, bank, if every woman
employee remained away even for a single day. Then multiply this
by thousands of establishments and by the workdays of a week or
month. In such an exercise the imagination can to some extent
envision the basic importance of women's contribution in modern
industrial life. Add to this the fact that women also continue, in a
revised setting and with aids suited to the times, to carry on their
age-old work of homemaking and all that it entails.
Details as to the people's occupations, which can be obtained
only from the decennial census, are of vital interest to all workers,
to employers, to educators, and to the general public. Especially
is this true in regard to women in this particular period, since the
necessities of a great war called on more women than ever before to
enter the labor force. In fact, over 4% million more women are
employed in 1950 than in 1940.
The Picture in 1950
When the Census Bureau made its 10-year count in 1950, it reported
that 16K million of the 57 million women (14 years and over) in this
country are in the labor force. Of these, 95 percent or 15% million
are employed, as the summary following shows. The occupations
that engage these employed women form the primary subject of the
report that follows. Women are 28 percent of all persons employed
in this country.
At the same time, 40X million women, the great majority of the
feminine population, are not in the labor force. Two-thirds of these are
under 65 and are not reported as being unable to work. Some are girls




1

still in school and college or other training, others have young children.
Home responsibilities are especially heavy for women 25 to 34 years
old, judging from the fact that the proportion of women who are in
the labor force drops sharply in this age group. Others constitute a
potential labor force of many million that could be called upon at any
time of national need, many of them having had training or work
experience at some time in their lives.
E M P L O Y M E N T S T A T U S OF W O M E N ,

Employment status

All women (14 years and over)
In the labor force

1950

Number

57, 102, 295
1

16, 551,990

Employed
Unemployed
In Armed Forces

40, 550, 305

100
29

15,750,660
769,030
32,300

Not in the labor force

Percent distribution

Aged 65 or over
Aged 14 to 64:
Keeping house
Unable to work
In institutions
Other and not reported

100

(2)
71

95
5
100

6, 015, 255

15

28, 118, 535
568,675
355,535
5,492,305

69
1
1
14

* This total, based on a 20-percent sample, is from the population census made by the U. S. Department
of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, in every 10th year. Decennial census reports are the only source
of information on detailed occupations. Data from the decennial census cannot be compared with those
in the current sampling reports made by the Bureau of the Census, which show, in the same month and year
as the decennial census, 18 million women in the labor force and 17 million women employed.
3 Just over one-tenth of 1 percent.

The discussion that follows will first give an overall picture of
women's work in major occupation groups. Following this, the
individual occupations of women will be considered. Finally each
major group will be discussed separately with its detailed occupations.
Each of these sections will deal in general with the size of the occupations (or occupation groups), the proportion women constitute of all
workers, and the increases or decreases over the past decade. The
age and marital status of women in various occupations also will be
considered. The figures discussed here are taken from the reports
of the United States Bureau of the Census, chiefly from Bulletin
P - C l, 1 which gives results of the 1950 census of population.
Many women who may not be at work at the time a report is made
have had industrial experience at some time in their lives. There is a
continual shifting in and out of the labor force, affecting many individuals in a year or a month, or even in a single day. Because of this,
changes from 1940 to 1950 have affected far more women than the
4% million added to the ranks of the employed over the decade.
M A J O R OCCUPATION GROUPS OF EMPLOYED WOMEN

Clerical work employs a very much larger number of women than
any other type of occupation—over 4% million. About half of all
1 U. S. Census of Population: 1950. Volume II, Characteristics of the Population, Part I, U, S. Summary,
Chapter C, Detailed Characteristics. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D . C. 1953.

2




employed women are either clerical workers or operatives, the latter
chiefly in manufacturing industries. Professional or technical occupations, and service occupations (except in private homes), each
employs over a tenth of all women workers. Work in private homes
and in sales occupations each employs somewhat less than a tenth.
The number of women in each of the 11 major occupation groups
reported by the 1950 census is shown in the list below, and further
detail is given in table 1 in the appendix.
The numbers of employed women have increased since 1940 in all
occupation groups except two. The greatest increases are in the two
groups that were largest in both 1940 and 1950—clerical workers, to
which almost 2 million women have been added, and operatives, which
has grown by almost 1 million. The number also has grown by over
two-thirds of a million in service occupations, by about one-half a
million in sales occupations and in professional and technical work,
and by more than one-fourth of a million women among managers and
officials.
The most notable decrease since 1940 is in private household
employment, with a loss of almost two-thirds of a million women.
The only other decrease is in the small group of farmers and farm
managers, which has lost over 30,000 women, a decline of about a
fourth.
WOMEN IN MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS

Occupation group

All occupation groups
Clerical workers
Operatives
Professional, technical workers
Service workers (except private household)
Private household workers
Sales workers
,
Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
Craftsmen, foremen __
Laborers (except farm, mine) _ _
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported

Number in
1950 i

15, 715, 164

Employed women
Percent of all workers
1950
mo

Increase,
1HO-50

28

25

4, 576, 986

4, 291, 764
3, 018, 787
1, 938, 985

62
27
39

54
25
42

1, 927, 476
989, 113
452, 539

1, 914, 293
1, 334, 310
1, 329, 724

45
95
34

38
94
26

689, 654
2 637, 173
527, 843

13
19
3
4
3
38

11
10
2
3
3
41

277, 680
128, 506
122, 424
25, 144
2 35, 528
109, 308

676,
449,
235,
126,
116,
282,

778
336
544
979
371
293

* Numbers in total and in each group are from the 1950 decennial census. These differ from numbers
shown in census current sampling reports. See footnote 1 to the summary on p. 2.
2 In this case a decline.

Proportions of A l l Workers W h o A r e Women
Women are in largest proportions among household employees and
clerical workers. They are over nine-tenths of the household and
almost two-thirds of the clerical workers. Women are a third or
more of all workers in professional, sales, and service occupations
(except household). They are a fourth of the operatives, a fifth of




3

the farm laborers (women in this group being largely unpaid family
workers), and over a tenth of the managers, proprietors, and officials.
An important measure of occupational trends is in the change in
proportion w omen constitute of all persons in an occupation. In the
decade since 1940 the proportion of women in the total has increased
notably among clerical, sales, and service workers, and in the relatively small group of farm laborers. Some increase also w~as shown in
most other occupational groups. Among technical and professional
workers women are in slightly smaller proportion than a decade ago.
This could be attributed in part to a broadening of opportunity in
other fields of work, in part to a tendency to enter occupations requiring
less training time than in most professions.
Women and M e n Workers
The occupations most largely engaging women differ markedly
from those in which men find their chief employment, as is indicated
in the summary list given below. Furthermore the concentration in
certain chief occupation groups is considerably greater among women
than men workers.
Half the women are in clerical, professional, technical and sales
occupations, but these employ only a fifth of the men workers. These
(taken with management) often are referred to as white collar occupations, and of course include occupations in which women are
known to be a prominent part of the labor force, such as office work,
teaching, nursing and sales work in stores. Household employment
and other services engage a fifth of the women workers but only a
very small proportion of the men.
Among men, in contrast, nearly a third are in managerial, official,
crafts and foreman occupations which employ only a very small proportion of the women. Other occupations with appreciable proportions of men but only very small proportions of women are general
labor, farm labor and farming. The only major occupational group
that has much the same proportion of the men and the women
workers is that of operatives (largely in manufacturing) in which
are found about 20 in every 100 workers of each sex.
DIFFERING

OCCUPATIONS

OF

WOMEN

AND

MEN

Among every 10 women workers there Among every 10 men workers there
are—
are—
3 clerical workers.
2 operatives.
2 operatives.
2 professional, technical, clerical,
1 professional or technical worker.
or sales workers.
1 service worker.
2 craftsmen, foremen.
1 manager or official.
1 sales worker.
1 farmer or farm manager.
1 household worker.
1 general laborer.
1 in other occupation.
1 in other occupation.

4




A g e s — M a j o r Occupation Groups
It is a striking fact that the woman labor force in 1950 averages
several years older than in 1940. The median age (half the women
workers being older, half younger), is almost 36K years as compared
to just over 32 years a decade ago.
Almost half of all employed women (47 percent) are of the ages 25
but less than 45. On the other hand, 30 percent are 45 years old or
more, 10 percent being 55 but jaot yet ;65, as the summary following
shows.
Median age
All age groups
Under 25
Under 20
25, under 45
45 or older
45, under 55
55, under 65

i960

36. 4

mo

32. 3

Percent distribution

100
23
8
47
30
18
10

100
29
8
49
22
13
7

Much the same proportion of the women workers in 1950 as in
1940 are in the middle group—25 but under 45 years of age. However,
in 1950 notably larger proportions than in 1940 are 45 or older, and
notably smaller proportions than in 1940 are under 25. The relatively
small proportion under 20 remains the same in 1950 as in 1940.
MEDIAN AGE OF WOMEN IN EACH OCCUPATION GROUP

The median age of women in the following occupation groups is
much the same as for all women workers (about 36 or 37 years):
Operatives, laborers, farm laborers, workers in sales, and in professional or technical occupations. Somewhat older (median age about
39 to 41 years) are the women service, crafts, and household workers.
Women in the management group are still older (median almost 45
years), and farmers have a median just over 50 years. Clerical
workers alone are a much younger group—with median age just less
than 30 years. This is such a large occupation group (more than a
fourth of all women workers), that the general youth of the workers
has a considerable influence on the median for the total. If this
group is left aside, the median age for all other women workers is
over 38K years—-more than 2 years older than when clerical workers
are included.
The median age of women workers has increased since 1940 in
every occupation group but one (farming), and in most groups
considerably. The median is 9 years higher in 1950 than in 1940
among service workers (other than in households), sales workers, and
those in the relatively small group of farm laborers; 7 years higher
than in 1940 in the large group of household workers and the small
group of laborers; more than 5 years higher than in 1940 in the
large operative group; and more than 2 years higher among profes-




5

sional or technical and crafts workers and in the largest occupation
group of all—-clerical workers.
The most usual age of women is 25 to 44 in six of the occupation
groups, younger among clerical workers, and older among managers
and officials, farmers, and household workers. The summary that
follows shows the median and the most usual age group in the various
occupations.
More than a third of the clerical workers and a fourth of the women
in sales occupations and farm labor are under 25 years of age. The
large proportion of women farm laborers who are so young may be
due to a considerable extent to the fact that this group includes many
unpaid family workers. Women under 25 are almost a fifth of the
operatives, professional workers, household employees, other service
workers, and laborers.
The age group 45 years and over includes half or more of the women
managers or officials and farmers, and a third or more of those
in sales, professional or technical, crafts, service and household
occupations.
AGES OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS

1

Employed women
Median age (years)
Occupation group

All occupation groups
Clerical workers
Farm laborers, forewomen
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Professional, technical workers
Operatives
Sales workers
Service workers (except private household)
Craftswomen, forewomen
Private household workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except
farm)
Farmers, farm managers.
Occupation not reported

Most usual age group

1950

194.0

Age group
(years)

36. 4
29. 7
36. 1
36. 3
36. 4
36. 7
37. 3

32. 3
27. 2
26. 6
29. 2
33. 4
31. 1
28. 3

25 to
20 tc
25 to
25 to
25 to
25 to
j
^

38. 7
39. 7
41. 1
44.7
50. 6
37. 6

Percent
of women

44
34
44
44
44
44
54

47
51
44
50
48
53
43

29. 6
37. 2
33. 6

25 to 44
25 to 44
35 to 54

46
51
43

44.3
52. 1
32. 2

35 to 54
45 to 64

57
49

1 For more complete age distribution see table 2-A in the appendix. For numbers of women in each
occupation group, see summary on p. 3.

It also is of interest to note the occupational groups in which
women of various ages are chiefly employed. This is shown in table
2-B in the appendix.
Marital Status—Major Occupation Groups
The striking point in relation to the marital status of women
workers is in the considerable decline among those who are single
and the great increase in the married. This follows changes in the
composition of the population, but the increase for married women
is in much greater proportion in the labor force than in the population.
6




PARTICIPATION IN THE LABOR FORCE

Almost half the single women, a third of the widowed or divorced,
and not quite a fourth of those married are workers—either employed
or experienced in the labor force 2—as the following summary shows.
The proportion of women who are workers has increased in each
marital group. This increase is somewhat greater among married
women than in the other groups, although as would be expected
the proportion in the labor force is somewhat smaller among the
married than among the single or the widowed or divorced.
PARTICIPATION IN LABOR FORCE BY WOMEN IN VARIOUS MARITAL GROUPS

Marital status

All experienced women workeis 1

Number of
women
workers,
1950

16, 498, 530

Single
Married
Widowed or divorced

5, 239, 800
8, 618, 160
2, 640, 570

Women workers as
percent of woman
population in—
1950

194.0

29

24

46
23
33

42
15
28

* Includes employed women and experienced women seeking work, but not new workers.

DISTRIBUTION IN THE LABOR FORCE

A third of all women workers are single, almost half are married
with husbands present, less than a fifth are widowed or divorced, and
a very small proportion married with husbands absent, as the summary
following shows. The information on marital status is based on the
labor force (including the experienced women seeking work). Other
data in this report deal with employed women, who are 95 percent of
the total in the labor force.
As would bexxpected single women are a considerably larger proportion of the female labor force than of the entire woman population,
and married women with husbands present are a considerably smaller
proportion in the labor force than in the population.
MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE POPULATION AND LABOR FORCE
Women

Marital status

Tsfurnhpr in Jahnr Percent distribution,
1950> in~
force, 1950 i

16, 498, 530
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent

5, 239, 800
7, 683, 030
935, 130
2, 640, 570

Labor
force i

100
32
47
6
16

Population

100
20
62
4
14

Percent distribution,
194°> in~
Labor
force-

100
48
31
6
15

Population

100
28
56
3
13

i Based on the employed and the experienced women seeking work.
2 Note that the data on marital status include the experienced work seekers as well as the employed (the
entire labor force except new workers). Other sections of the report, dealing largely with detailed occupations, are based on the employed women alone.




7

MAJOR OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN IN EACH MARITAL GROUP

The occupational distribution differs considerably with women's
marital status, as the summary following shows. Of the single women
by far the largest group is in clerical work—well over a third of the
total—and professions are second in employment of single women.
Of the married women three occupation groups employ similar proportions—each somewhat over a fifth—the clerical, the operative, and the
service occupations.
Single women.—Just over half the single women workers are in
either clerical or operative occupations, though clerical work employs
by far the greatest proportion—37 percent. Very similar proportions
of the single women (14 to 17 percent) are in operative, professional
or technical, and the combined service occupations, the latter about
equally divided between household work and other services. Less
than a tenth are in sales work.
Married women.—Almost half of all married women wTorkers are in
either clerical or operative occupations, much the same proportion as
among single women. However, among the married women, as contrasted with the single, the same proportions are operatives or clerical
workers. Service occupations employ larger proportions of the
married than of the single women, but almost two-thirds of the married
service workers are in occupations other than household employment.
Similar proportions of the married women are in clerical, operative,
and service occupations—including household employment—in each
case over a fifth of the total. Professional or technical work engages
only 10 percent of the married compared to 17 percent of the single
women. About a tenth of the married women are in sales work—
much the same proportion as among those in other marital groups.
About a tenth of the married women do not have their husbands
present. Of this group, a much larger proportion is in services than
in any other type of occupation (41 percent). Moreover, a larger
proportion of this than of any other marital group is in service occupations, about equally divided between household work and other
services. A fifth of these women are in each of the groups of household
service, other services, and operative occupations. The proportion of
farmers in this group also should be noted.
Widowed and divorced women.—The largest group of the women
workers who are widowed or divorced is in service occupations—33
percent, almost as many as are in the clerical and operative occupations combined. Of the widowed or divorced service workers, somewhat fewer are in household employment than in other services. Less
than a tenth of the widowed or divorced are in professional occupations. The relatively high proportion of farmers in this group, as
among the married with husband absent, is shown in appendix table 3.

8




OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING WOMEN OF EACH MARITAL STATUS,

19501

Experienced, women workers, 1950

Occupation group

All occupations

Clerical workers
Operatives
Service workers (except private household)..
Professional, technical workers
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, proprietors, officials
All other workers

In all
marital
groups

Single

Married

27
19
12
12
9
8
4
9

37
14
8
17
7
7
2
7

23
23
13
10
8
9
5
10

100

100

100

Widowed
or divorced

100

19
19
18
8
15
8
6
8

i For more complete information on marital status of women in the major occupation groups, see table 3
in the appendix.

Negro W o m e n — M a j o r Occupation Groups
This country's labor force includes almost 2 million Negro women,
who are over a third of all Negro workers. Of all Negro women in
the population 37 percent are workers. They are over a tenth of all
employed women.
Operative occupations engage well over a tenth of the Negro women
workers, clerical and professional occupations together a tenth, and
farm occupations another tenth. Sixty percent are in private household or other service occupations. The major groups of occupations
that employ Negro women are shown in the summary following.
SIXTY PERCENT OF NEGRO PROFESSIONAL WORKERS ARE WOMEN

Almost all the Negro household employees are women, and women
are nearly 60 percent oi the Negro professional workers. Women are
over 40 percent of the Negro clerical, sales, and service workers (other
than in households), and nearly 30 percent of the Negro operatives,
management workers, and farm laborers, many of the latter being
unpaid family workers.
The importance of women in an occupation group is better measured
by their proportion among all workers than by a change in their
numbers alone. Women are now a much larger proportion than in
1940 of the Negro clerical and sales workers, the service workers (both
in households and other services, especially the latter), and the operatives. In the other occupation groups the proportions of women
among all Negro workers are much the same as in 1940. Details are
shown in the following summary.
Women are a much larger proportion of the professional and management groups among Negro workers than among all workers in these
occupations. This may be partly explained for the management
group by the numerous Negro women proprietors of eating places, and
for the professional group by the large proportion of Negro women
teachers and nurses.

295777—54




2

9

EMPLOYMENT OF NEGRO WOMEN IN MAJOR OCCUPATION

GROUPS

Negro women
Number,
1950

Occupation group

Percent of all Negro
workers
1950

1,869,956
1,125,446

workers,
1950

private

Manual groups
Operatives
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Craftswomen, forewomen
White-collar groups
Professional workers
Clerical workers
Sales workers, _
Managers, proprietors, officials _ __
Farm groupsFarm laborers, forewomen
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported

69

73

57

773, 590

96

93

95

351, 856

43

32

45

15

9

15

274, 000
28, 414
11, 629

27
3
4

21
2
2

27
4
3

44

39

40

104, 728
74, 255
25, 492
24, 557

58
41
40
27

53
29
24
22

39
62
34
13

170, 606

Private household workers
Service workers (except
household)

28

229, 032

Service groups

35

314, 043

All occupations

35

1940

All women
as percent

17

17

8

139, 657
30, 949

28
6

25
7

19
3

30, 829

38

46

38

The list that follows shows how the occupations of Negro women
workers compare with those of Negro men.
Percent distribution of—
Occupation group

All occupations
Private household workers
Service workers (except private household)
Operatives
'
Farm laborers (wage, unpaid family)
Professional workers
Clerical workers
Farmers, farm managers
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Managers, officials, proprietors
Sales workers
Craftswomen, forewomen
Occupation not reported

Negro
women

Negro
men

All
women

100

100

100

41
19
15
7
6
4
2
2
1
1
1
1

1
13
21
10
2
3
13
24

9
12
19
3
12
27
1
1
4
8
2
2

2

1
8
2

CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT OF NEGRO WOMEN

The number of employed Negro women increased from 1940 to 1950
by a fifth. In the same period marked changes occurred in the occupations of Negro women, as is shown in the summary following. These

10




include especially large increases in their numbers among service workers (other than in private households) and among operatives, in each
case an addition of over 175,000 Negro women. Other large increases
were among clerical workers (over 60,000) and professional workers
(nearly 40,000). Over 10,000 Negro women were added to each of
the groups of sales workers, laborers, and managers and proprietors,
and nearly 10,000 to that of craftswomen.
A decrease in the number of Negro women of not far from 150,000
occurred among workers in private households, and of nearly 75,000
among farmworkers.
Owing to these changes in employment, 10 percent of the Negro
women workers are in professional and clerical occupations (combined)
as compared to 5 percent in 1940, 15 percent are operatives as compared to 6 percent in 1940, and almost 20 percent are service workers
(other than in households) compared to 10 percent in 1940. As a
result of the declines that occurred over the decade, household occupations engage just over 40 percent of the Negro women compared to
60 percent in 1940, and 9 percent are at work on farms compared to
to 16 percent in 1940. Negro women are a larger proportion of the
women workers in 1950 than in 1940 in all groups except in farmwork.
CHANGES 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 5 0 IN NUMBER OF NEGRO WOMEN IN MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS
Negro women employed
Changes in numPercent of all
ber, 1940-50*
employed women

Occupation group

All occupations

327,683

Service groups

_____

51, 3 3 2

_ _ _

Operatives. _
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Craftswomen, forewomen. _
White-collar groups.

_

_ _ _ _

___

Professional workers
_ _ _ _ _
Clerical workers.
__
__
Sales workers
___
___
Managers, proprietors, officials. _
Farm groups
Farm laborers, forewomen
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported.

_ _
_______
_ __ _
___ _

34

- 1 4 5 , 411
196, 7 4 3

58
18

47
13

9

5

178, 6 0 5
15, 0 0 7
9, 110

.
_

35

202, 722

Private household workers
Service workers (except private household)
Manual groups._

1950 194.0
12
14

9
22
5

5
13
2

131, 2 1 7

3

2

091
180
674
272

5
2
2
4

4
1
1
3

- 7 4 , 640

30

52

- 5 9 , 373
- 1 5 , 267

31
27

62
30

17, 0 5 2

11

8

38,
61,
17,
14,

Increase, except where minus sign shown.




11

Part II—Individual Occupations of Women
Women are at work in all the occupations reported in the 1950
census, though of course some employ great numbers, others very few
women. The preceding section gave an overall discussion of the major
large occupational groups. The following pages will consider individual occupations, which the 1950 census lists in 446 items.
Some of these items (270 of them) are specific occupations, such as
textile spinner, librarian, waitress, bus driver, telephone operator.
Other items are in more general terms, as for example, operative in
apparel or in electrical factory, official or administrator in State public
administration, or forewoman in textile or apparel plant. The great
variety of detailed occupations, which has made combinations necessary in census reporting, can be discussed in many different ways.
Even though found in all occupations, half of all women workers are
concentrated in relatively few types of occupation: Manufacturing operatives, stenographers and typists, private household workers, saleswomen, teachers, bookkeepers, or waitresses.
At the other end of the scale, almost 150 occupations employ fewer
than 1,000 women each, about 90 of them fewer than 500 women.
Since many of these occupations are in lines of work that might be
expected to attract few women, it is of interest that in every case
some women do appear. The list includes, among others, railroad
conductors, aeronautical and mining engineers, baggagemen, railway
mail clerks, auto repairers, loom fixers, constables, crossing watchmen,
farm foremen, boilermakers, cement finishers, railroad foremen, glaziers, auctioneers, locomotive firemen, car-shop mechanics, piano and
organ tuners, railroad switchmen, surveyors' chainmen, motormen in
mines or logging camps, veterinarians, and so forth.
Among specific occupations, the five employing the largest numbers
of women are those of stenographer and typist, saleswoman in retail
trade, school teacher, bookkeeper, and operative in apparel factory.
More than 1 million women are found in each of the first two, more
than one-half million in each of the other three. Together these five
occupations engage more than a fourth of all women workers. These
also were the largest occupations of women in 1940, and employed at
that time about the same proportion of the women workers as at
present.
The number of women in each of these important occupations has
increased markedly over the past decade—in each of the first two by
12




about one-half million. These five occupations taken together account for roughly a third of the entire increase in the employment of
women from 1940 to 1950.
Lons-Term Changes
Shifts in the country's general economy tend to change notably the
occupational picture. However, three occupations long have been
and still remain in the upper ranks in the employment of women—
general household work, teaching, and selling, chiefly in stores. This
is shown in the following list of the 10 occupations that have employed
the largest numbers of women in every decade over the past 50 years
(since 1900).3
In recent decades clerical work has been outstanding for women,
and beginning in 1920 three clerical occupations have been among the
largest for women. In the earlier years, in contrast, certain service
occupations (laundress, housekeeper) and several groups of farmworkers were in this upper list. Later these declined in importance,
and in 1940 and 1950 waitress was the only service occupation among
the largest 10, except for household work.
T E N L A R G E S T O C C U P A T I O N S OF W O M E N , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0

1950

General household workers
Teachers
Saleswomen (including "clerks" in
stores)
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
General clerical workers
Bookkeepers
Operatives—apparel
Nurses (professional)
Waitresses
Telephone operators
Housekeepers (private households)
Laundresses
Farmworkers (unpaid family or home
farm)
Dressmakers, seamstresses
Farmers
Operatives—textile mills
Farmworkers (wage workers)

mo

1

1930

1920

1910

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

1900

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x

x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x

x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x

1 To obtain occupations not separately reported in earlier periods, the proportion they constituted of
group totals in later years was applied to earlier group totals. The various adjustments to present a complete trend comparable with 1950 data are now under way in the Bureau of the Census.

Hand-sewing trades were early employers of women and the occupation of dressmaker and seamstress was among the first 10 for women
through 1920. It began to decline after 1910 and in 1930, when it no
longer appeared among the first 10, operative in apparel factory had
* For details on individual occupations 1870-1940, see Women's Bureau Bull. 218, Women's Occupations
Through Seven Decades. A chart on p. 52 lists 10 largest occupations of women. The various adjustments
necessary to present a complete trend comparable with 1950 data are now under way in the Bureau of the
Census. While these may change the exact figures in a number of occupations, it is unlikely that they will
change radically the general picture presented here or the occupations among the first 10.




13

become one of the largest occupations of women. Operative in textile mill was among the first 10 occupations through 1910. Although
this continued to increase in number, other occupations had outstripped
it by 1920.
Aside from teaching, no professional occupation appeared among
the largest employers of women until 1940, when nursing took a place
in the upper ranks. The 1950 census showed one new occupation in
the largest 10, that of telephone operator.
Largest Occupations of Women
OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING 100,000 OR MORE WOMEN IN 1950

Each of 28 specific occupations employs more than 99,000 women
in 1950, as shown in the summary following. Sixty percent of all
women workers are in these occupations. Six of them employ over
500,000 women, though in 1940 only three specific occupations had
so many. Of these chief women's occupations, a third are operative
occupations, a third are either service or clerical occupations, and a
few each are on farms and in professional, sales, and management
work. In addition to the 28 occupations, each of 10 groups of closely
related occupations also employs 100,000 or more women—in all,
38 specific occupations or closely related groups.
O C C U P A T I O N S OR G R O U P S E M P L O Y I N G
INDIVIDUAL

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

100,000

OCCUPATIONS

Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Saleswomen—retail trade
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives—apparel, accessories
Bookkeepers
Waitresses
Nurses (professional)
Telephone operators
Managers, proprietors—retail trade
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Operatives—laundry and dry cleaning
Cooks (except private household)
Operatives—yarn, thread, fabric mills
Beauticians (includes manicurists, barbers)
Operatives—food products
Cashiers
Operatives—electrical machinery, supplies
Housekeepers (private household)
Dressmakers, seamstresses (except factory)
Farm laborers (wage workers)
Practical nurses
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions
Office-machine operators
Farmers (owners, tenants)
Operatives:
Footwear, except rubber
Wholesale, retail trade
Knitting mills
Textile spinners, weavers

14




OR M O R E

WOMEN,

1950

Women employed, 1960
Percent of
Number
all workers

1, 501, 090
1, 192, 323
834, 996
616, 864
556,229
545,565
388,921
341, 706
320, 139
317, 578
287, 533
242,422
220, 054
189, 870
186, 337
183,586
179, 946
134, 453
134,310
130,327
130, 304
121, 261
116,917
114,179

94
49
75
81
77
82
98
95
17
35
67
56
50
50
38
81
54
96
97
9
96
59
82
3

110,743
107, 834
104,926
99,182

53
38
72
55

OCCUPATIONS OR GROUPS EMPLOYING

100,000

OR M O R E W O M E N ,

RESIDUAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Clerical workers (all other)
Private household workers (except housekeepers)
Operatives—manufacturing industries (except in industries
specified)
Professional workers (except teachers, professional nurses)
Service workers (all other, except private household)
Managers, proprietors (except retail trade)
Craftswomen, forewomen
Salesworkers (except saleswomen in retail trade)
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Operatives (other specified, and apprentices)
1

1950—Con.

1

Women employed, 1950
Percent of
Number
all workers

1, 592, 236
1, 199, 857

41
95

796,119
715, 068
684, 871
330, 317
235,544
137, 401
126, 979
119,550

26
21
28
11
3
9
4
3

Excluding individual occupations employing as many as 99,000 women.

Of the 38 occupations (or closely related groups of occupations)
that are the chief employers of women, 29 employed about 100,000 or
more women in 1940 as well as in 1950. Of those occupations that for
the first time employ 100,000 or more women, the majority are either
operative or service occupations. The occupations in which the number of women has increased to 100,000 since 1940 include:
Operatives:
Electrical machinery, supplies.
Footwear (except rubber).
Wholesale, retail trade.

Practical nurses.
Attendants—hospital, other institution.
Office-machine operators.
Farm laborers (wage workers).

OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING 50,000 OR MORE WOMEN IN 1950

In all, 50 specific occupations employ about 50,000 or more women.
Taken together these occupations engage two-thirds of all employed
women. The following summary lists those that employ 49,000 but
fewer than 99,000 women.
OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING 4 9 , 0 0 0 B U T N O T 9 9 , 0 0 0 W O M E N , 1 9 5 0
Employed w omen,
1950
Percent
of all
Occupation1
Number
workers

Housekeepers, stewardesses (except private household)
Managers (salaried)—retail trade
Musicians, music teachers
Proprietors (self-employed)—eating, drinking places
Nurses (student)
Charwomen, cleaners
Proprietors (self-employed)—retail food stores
Operatives—paper products
Laundresses (private household)
Laborers—manufacturing industries
Operatives—machinery (except electrical)
Managers—personal services
Spinners (textile)
Operatives—fabricated steel products
Technicians—medical, dental, testing
Operatives—motor vehicles, equipment
Accountants, auditors
Janitors, sextons
Social, welfare workers (except group)
Laborers—nonmanufacturing industries
Forewomen—manufacturing industriesLibrarians
...
* Some of these occupations are included in the residual groups above.




82, 904
78, 478
77,844
75, 831
74, 574
72, 116
71, 078
70, 829
68, 978
67, 454
61,327
61, 030
60,589
60,217
60, 071
56, 350
55, 660
53, 195
52, 224
50, 481
50,342
49,027

78
15
51
26
98
60
18
32
97
6
18
29
75
26
40
17
15
12
69
3
10
89

15

Where N o t a b l e Increases Occurred
Among the 446 occupational items the census reports, the great
majority have increased in employment of women over the past
decade. The list following shows those with greatest numerical
increases. Each of 15 occupations (or closely related groups) has
added over 100,000 women since 1940, two of these more than 500,000
and two others more than 300,000. Of the occupations increasing
25,000 or more over half already had more than 100,000 women in
1940, and long have been known as important woman employers.
The largest increases are in four clerical or sales occupations, as
shown in the list below. Together they added over 75 percent more
women than they had in 1940, and now employ a third of all women
at work. Ten additional occupations added 50,000 to 100,000 women
and 15 others, 25,000 to 50,000.
OCCUPATIONS THAT ADDED MORE THAN 5 0 , 0 0 0 WOMEN, 1940 TO 1 9 5 0
Number of
Occupation
women added
since 19Ifi

Employing more than 100,000 women in both 1940 and 1950:
Clerical workers (except those specified here)
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Saleswomen, sales clerks
Bookkeepers, cashiers
Waitresses, counter girls
Professional workers (except those specified here)
Operatives—apparel, accessories
Service workers (except those specified here, and except private
household)
Telephone operators
Managers, proprietors (except retail trade, personal services)
Operatives—durable manufacturing (except industries specified
here)
Cooks (except private family)
Nurses (professional and student)
Managers, proprietors—retail trade
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Operatives—food products
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives:
Nondurable manufacturing (except industries specified here)_
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Employing more than 100,000 women in 1950 but not in 1940:
Operatives—electrical machinery, supplies
Craftswomen
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions
Office-machine operators
Operatives—wholesale, retail trade

887, 075
513, 009
494, 003
309, 425
229, 052
193, 119
191, 800
169, 611
152, 504
134, 029

1

130,555
126, 112
118, 518
113, 676
99, 244
94, 299
74, 627
67,227
55, 433
55, 304
117,
90,
82,
65,
65,

486
259
519
463
064

* Includes an increase of 33,400 women in eating and drinking places alone.

Where Number of Women Decreased
Over the past decade women have moved away from household
employment and the distinctly laboring jobs to those as operatives,
clerical workers, and into service, sales, professional, and management occupations.
The most extreme declines from 1940 to 1950 in women's employ16




ment were in the three occupations in household work, each of which
lost over 100,000 women. The very large group of general household
employees lost almost 300,000 women, a decline of a fifth. The number
of housekeepers and home laundresses decreased more than 60 percent.
Other decreases next in importance for women are among keepers
of boarding and lodging houses, farmers, beauticians, and operatives
in knitting mills. The following list shows occupations in which the
numbers of women declined from 1940 to 1950.
DECLINES IN EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN, 1 9 4 0 - 5 0

Occupation

Household workers (private family, n. e. c.)__
Housekeepers (private family)
Laundresses (private family)
Boarding-, lodging-house keepers
Farmers
Beauticians (including manicurists)
Managers, superintendents—buildings
Milliners
Officials—lodge, union, society
Manufacturing operatives and laborers:
Knitting mills:
Operatives
Laborers
Tobacco manufactures:
Operatives
Laborers
Industries not specified if durable:
Operatives
Laborers
Chemicals—synthetic fibers:
Operatives
Laborers
Not specified metals:
Operatives
Laborers
Pulp, paper, paperboard mills:
Operatives
Laborers
Telegraph operators
Osteopaths
Apprentices—mechanics, bricklayers, trades.
Inspectois—transport (except railroad), communication, public utilities
Furriers
Inspectors:
State public administration
Construction
Chiropractors
Millers (grain,
flour)

1

Employed women, 1950
Decline since 1940
Percent
Number
Number

21
63
63
66
24
8
21
12
29

291, 990
227,978
117,205
40, 303
36,908
16,722
6, 103
1,471
1,160

1, 130, 879
134,45368,978
21, 052
114,179
189,870
22, 385
11,034
2, 885

10
47

11,200
742

104,926
848

17
34

8,553
860

43,200
1,687

32
66

8,239
2,008

17,714
1,021

15
46

1,492
179

8,280
208

50
62

862
90

854
56

1
52
10
29
20

98
861
788
319
304

15, 715
789
7,440
783
1,202

30
11

208
188

488
1,585

21
26
2
17

95
30
29
14

358
84
1, 842
67

i This list excludes declines amone women laborers that are more than overbalanced by increases in
operatives in the same industry (see list, p. 18); a so excluded is a decline of 2,236 in religious workers, which
is more than offset by an increase of 3,629 in women in the clergy.

The loss of 40,000 in keepers of private boarding and lodging
houses is more than offset by an increase of over 33,000 in women
managers of eating and drinking places (about four-fifths of whom
were self-employed in 1950) and an increase of over 23,000 in housekeepers and stewardesses other than in private families. Against the
loss in farmers (which includes tenants as well as owners) may be




17

considered an increase of 33,000 in women farm wage workers and
of nearly 1,400 in farm managers, but these still fall somewhat short
of compensating for the decrease in women farmers. A loss also
should be noted in one professional occupation—religious workers,
whose numbers decreased by 2,236; but this loss is more than made
up by an increase of 3,629 in women in the clergy.
In all, the employment of women decreased in the past decade in
55 of the 446 occupations listed in the census. However, more than
half of these declines were among laborers in manufacturing, most of
them relatively small groups, and in nearly all cases the declines
were much more than compensated for by increases in the number of
women who had jobs as operatives in the same industry. Many
others were occupations that employed few women; in 6 of them
fewer than 300 women were affected.
The following list shows the most notable of the industries that
lost women laborers but had net gains in numbers of women by
reason of increase in employment of operatives. This was the situation in 24 of the 30 manufacturing industry groups that had fewer
women laborers in 1950 than in 1940.
LOSSES IN WOMEN LABORERS AND GAINS IN WOMEN OPERATIVES IN 6
FACTURING INDUSTRIES, 1 9 4 0 - 5 0 1

Industry

Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Footwear (except rubber)
Confectionery
Canning fruits, vegetables, seafoods,__
Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals
Meat products

Employed women, 1940-50
Loss in laborers
Gain in operatives
Number Percent Number Percent
2, 7 0 6
55, 3 0 4
34
29
21
19, 4 9 2
1, 3 0 0
45
2, 7 1 9
66
1, 159
10
20, 3 6 1
1, 1 1 8
27
89
814
779

27
20

14, 1 1 0
17, 2 9 5

86
95

MANU-

Net gain
52, 5 9 8
18, 1 9 2
1, 5 6 0
19, 2 4 3
13, 2 9 6
16, 5 1 6

1 In 13 other industries that had very small declines in number of women laborers, the net gains were
over 3,000 women each.

Occupations With Women in Highest Proportions
Almost all the workers are women in the large occupations of
professional nurse (and also among students in this profession), and
dressmaker and seamstress, and in the somewhat smaller occupation
of laundress in a private home.
Nine-tenths or more of the workers are women in the occupations
of practical nurse, telephone operator, housekeeper, stenographer and
typist, household worker, and in the considerably smaller occupations
of dietitian and nutritionist, attendant in physician's or dentist's
office, milliner, and librarian.
Women are four-fifths of the office-machine operators, waitresses,
cashiers, operatives in plants making apparel and accessories, mid-

18




wives, and demonstrators in sales work. They are three-fourths of
the bookkeepers, teachers, knitting-mill operatives, textile spinners,
library attendants and assistants, housekeepers and stewards (except
in private families), and keepers of boarding and lodging houses.
The list that follows shows all the occupations with 100,000 or
more women in which women are a third or more of the workers, and
all the smaller occupations in which women are as many as half of
the workers.
All told, women are half or more of the workers in 55 of the 446
occupations (or closely related occupational groups) reported by the
census, which is more than a tenth of all these occupations. In 22
of the 55, more than 100,000 women are employed.
OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH WOMEN ARE A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE WORKERS,

1950

A. OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING 100,000 OR MORE WOMEN IN WHICH WOMEN ARE A
THIRD OR MORE OF THE WORKERS
Women as percent
of all workers
Occupation

Women are nine-tenths or more of these workers:
Nurses (professional; in 1940 including student)
Dressmakers, seamstresses (except factory)
Practical nurses (in 1940 including midwives)
Housekeepers (private household)
Telephone operators
Private household workers (except housekeepers, laundresses) _
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Women are about four-fifths of these workers:
Office-machine operators
Waitresses and waiters
Cashiers
Operatives—apparel and accessories
Women are about three-fourths of these workers:
Bookkeepers
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives—knitting mills
Women are about half to two-thirds of these workers:
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
Attendants—hospitals, and other institutions
Cooks (except private household)
Operatives:
Electrical machinery, supplies
Footwear (except rubber)
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)
Salespersons (retail trade)
Women are a third to a half of these workers:
Clerical workers (all other)
Operatives:
Food products
Wholesale, retail trade
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)

1950

1940

98
97
96
96
95
95
94
82
82
81
81
77
75
72

98
98
96
99
95
93
93
(!)
0)
0)

86
78
76
67

67
59
56

67
42
42

54
53
50
50
49

(*)

47
46
45
50

41

(2)

38
38
35

37
34
19

1 Not separately reported (or not available) before 1950. Of the combined bookkeeper and cashier group,
women were 78 percent in 1950 and only 67 percent in 1940. Of the combined group of waiters, waitresses,
and counter workers, women were 79 percent in 1950 and only 68 percent in 1940. Of the combined group
of salespersons and sales clerks, women were 38 percent in 1950 and only 30 percent in 1940.
2 Comparable data not available for 1940.




19

O C C U P A T I O N S IN W H I C H

WOMEN

ABE A LARGE

1950—Continued

P R O P O R T I O N OF T H E

WORKERS,

B . O C C U P A T I O N S E M P L O Y I N G F E W E R T H A N 100,000 W O M E N , IN W H I C H W O M E N
A B O U T H A L F OR M O R E OF T H E W O R K E R S
Women as percent of all
workers
Occupation

Nurses (student)
Laundresses (private household)
Attendants—physician's, dentist's office
Dietitians, nutritionists
Librarians
Milliners
Midwives
Demonstrators (sales)
Housekeepers, stewards (except private household)
Spinners (textile)
Attendants, assistants—library
Boarding- and lodging-house keepers
Operatives—fabricated textiles (miscellaneous)
Dancers, dancing teachers
Operatives—tobacco manufactures
Religious workers
Social, welfare workers (except group)
Attendants—professional, personal service (n. e. c.)
Operatives:
Confectionery 3
Canning fruits, vegetables, seafoods 3
Charwomen and cleaners
Graders, packers—fruits, nuts, vegetables (except
factory)
Operatives:
Drugs, medicine
Watches, clocks, clockwork
Technicians—medical, dental
Bookbinders
Operatives:
Personal services
Leather products (except footwear)
Bakery products 3
Counter, fountain workers
Musicians, music teachers
Operatives—paper, pulp products (miscellaneous)
Therapists, healers
Farm, home management advisers

1950

ARE

Number of
women in
1950

1940

98
97
95
94
89
89
83
82
78
75
74
73
72
71
70
70
69
66

(2)
98
96
(2)
90
95
(*)
81
77
(2)
78
85
74
81
72
77
2
()
63

74, 574
68, 978
38, 783
21, 059
49, 027
11, 034
1, 391
10, 950
82, 904
60, 589
9, 085
21, 052
38, 487
11,438
43, 200
28, 838
52, 224
31, 587

65
63
60

67
64
54

29, 349
43, 120
72, 116

60

57

17, 294

60
59
57
56

2

(2)
(2)
( 2)
()

8, 615
11, 071
43, 271
17, 487

56
55
53
51
51
49
49
49

56
52
51
(2)
46
53
44
48

11, 168
24, 813
33, 402
44, 423
77, 844
28, 264
12, 077
6, 032

2 Comparable data not available for 1940.
3 Included in Operatives—food products, o n part A of this table.

An important "measure of occupational progress for women is in
the change in the proportion they constitute of all workers in an occupation. The proportion of women among all workers has increased
since 1940 in about half of the large occupations listed on page 19;
only four show any decrease, and in each case this is small. Especially
large increases in proportion of women are found among hospital
attendants, cooks, farm laborers (unpaid family workers), and operatives in electrical machinery and supplies and in leather footwear.
The decline in proportion of women as office-machine operators may
be mentioned, though small—from 86 percent in 1940 to 82 percent
in 1950.
20




Younger and Older Women—Individual Occupations
The ages of women workers are reported in 65 occupations (or
closely related groups), 38 of which employ over 99,000 women, and
12 others over 49,000, the remainder being smaller for women. The
median ages of women in these occupations will be considered, and
also their distribution in various age groups, with special attention to
occupations with large proportions of younger women or of older
women. The most usual broad age group of women workers is 25
to 44 years. In two-thirds of the occupations reported about half or
more of the women are of these ages.
The, median age of all employed women (half being older, half
younger) is nearly 36}i years. In well over half the occupations the
median is more than 30 years but not 40 years. In 6 occupations
the median age is under 30 years. In 24 occupations the women employed have a median age of 40 years or over, in 8 of these the median
being 45 or over. The median ages and age distributions in the 65
occupations may be seen in detail in table 4 in the appendix.
OCCUPATIONS OF THE YOUNGER WOMEN

The five occupations in which the median age of the women workers
is under 30 years (besides student nurses) include the large group of
stenographers, typists, secretaries, with a median age of 26 years.
Another large group, telephone operators, has a median of 29 years.
The other three occupations where the median age is under 30 have
much smaller numbers of women.
In four additional occupations (or groups) the women have a median
age of just over 30 years—"other" clerical workers, waitresses and
counter girls, cashiers, and bookkeepers.
In 15 occupations a tenth or more of the women workers are under
20 years of age. Some of these are among the occupations in which
the median age is young, but in others considerable groups of older
workers cause the median to be older. For example, a tenth of the
private household workers are under 20, but many are 45 years of
age or over so that the median for all such workers is over 40 years.
Similarly, in two groups of saleswomen, 14 percent are under 20 years
of age, but the median for all the women in these occupations is over
35 years.
In a few occupations, such as that of medical or dental technicians,
with a median age less than 30 years, only a small proportion are
under 20 years of age, but more than a third are under 25. The list
below shows the 10 occupations in which the median age of women is
under 33 years, and also the 15 occupations in which a tenth or more
of the women are under 20 years of age. This includes all occupations
in which a fourth or more of the women are less than 25 years old.




21

OCCUPATIONS

WITH

LARGE

PROPORTIONS

OP

YOUNGER WOMEN,
Employed

Median
age
(years)

Occupation

Percent who
were—
Under
20

1950

women, 1950

Under
25

Total number

O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H M E D I A N A G E U N D E R 33 Y E A R S

Nurses (student)
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Technicians—medical, dental
Chemists, natural scientists (n. e. c.)
Telephone operators
Actresses, dancers, entertainers
"Other" clerical workers
Waitresses, counter girls
Cashiers
Bookkeepers

20.4
25. 8
28. 3
29. 1
29.3
29. 3
30.7
30. 8
32. 3
32. 8

46
11
5
1
12
9
11
15
12
8

90
39
36
28
39
33
34
32
31
29

74,574
1, 501, 090
43,271
13,290
341,706
20,808
1,709,153
603,419
183, 586
556,229

A D D I T I O N A L O C C U P A T I O N S I N W H I C H A T E N T H OR M O R E OF T H E W O M E N A R E U N D E R
20 Y E A R S OF A G E

Farm laborers (except unpaid), foremen
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Saleswomen (n. e. c.)—retail
Other specified sales workers
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions. _
Saleswomen (n. e. c., except retail)
Private household workers
Operatives—knitting mills
OCCUPATIONS

OF

THE

OLDER

34.0
36.9
37. 0
35. 5
37.4
37. 6
41. 1
34. 1

17
16
14
14
11
11
10
9

30
25
26
25
25
23
18
25

131,758
317,578
1, 192, 323
24,008
121,261
67,203
1, 334, 310
104, 926

W O M E N

Of the eight occupations in which the median age of the women
is 45 years or older, three have a median age over 50 years—dressmakers and seamstresses not in factories, farmers and farm managers,
and housekeepers not in private homes. Of the five other occupations
in which women's median age is over 45 years three are in service
work—cooks, charwomen and janitors, and practical nurses and midwives. The other two are occupations of self-employed proprietors—
those in types of work other than trade, and those in trade exclusive
of eating and drinking places. In each of these eight occupations
about half the women are at least 45 years of age but not yet 65, and
in five of them at least a fourth of the women are 55 to 64 years of age.
In 20 additional occupations about a third or more of the women
are 45 years old but under 65. Over half of these occupations are
in either professional or managerial types of work, and a fourth are in
service occupations, the remainder being scattered. In most of these
the median age is at least 40 years, though in a few it is somewhat
younger. The following list shows all occupations in which about a
third or more of the women are aged 45 fco 64 years, and all those in
which the median age of women is 40 years or more.

22




OCCUPATIONS W I T H O L D E R W O M E N IN L A R G E PROPORTIONS,

1950

Employed women, 1950
Occupation

Percent
Median age
aged
(years)
15 to 64

Total

number

O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H M E D I A N A G E 45 Y E A R S OR O L D E R

Dressmakers, seamstresses (not in factory)
Housekeepers (except private household)
Farmers, farm managers
Practical nurses, midwives
Proprietors:
Self-employed, except trade
Self-employed—trade (except eating, drinking
places)
Charwomen, janitors
Cooks (except in private homes)
OTHER

O C C U P A T I O N S IN

W H I C H 30 P E R C E N T OR M O R E
64 Y E A R S O L D

Agents, brokers—insurance, real estate
Managers, officials, proprietors (specified)
Proprietors (self-employed)—eating, drinking places.
Managers (salaried, except trade)
Lawyers, judges
College presidents, professors, instructors
Musicians, music teachers
Managers (salaried)—trade (including eating, drinking places)
Teachers
Other service workers (n. e. c., except private household)
Therapists, healers
Librarians
Private household workers
Social, welfare, recreation workers
Dietitians, nutritionists
Physicians, surgeons
Forewomen (n. e. c.)
"Other" craftswomen
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions
Saleswomen (n. e. c., except retail trade)

52.
50.
50.
49.

1
8
6
1

52
56
49
49

134, 310
82, 904
116, 371
131, 695

47. 7

50

87, 420

46.8
45. 9
45. 1

48
52
46

173,184
128, 941
242, 422

OF T H E

WOMEN

A R E 45 T O

44. 8
44.7
43.4
43.1
42.7
41. 5
42. 3

43
43
42
40
38
37
36

46,190
126,594
75,831
126,276
6,256
28, 907
77, 844

41.7
41.2

36
36

87,473
834,996

41.1
41.2
41.2
41. 1
40. 0
39. 1
41.0
40. 9
39. 2
37. 4
37. 6

36
35
34
34
34
34
33
33
32
31
30

413,781
12,077
49,027
1, 334, 310
58, 917
21, 059
11,714
67, 955
167, 589
121, 261
67, 203

Women Aged 65 Years and Older.—The continued activity of women
workers as they reach ages beyond 65 is strikingly shown in the following list. In 7 occupations about a tenth of the women are 65 years
of age or older, and in 11 others 5 percent or more are of these ages.
Over half of the occupations with notable proportions of women 65
years old or older are in managerial work or in professions, such as
librarian, physician, author or editor, lawyer. Next in number are
service occupations, and several of these have larger proportions of
women 65 or older than are found in most other occupations. The
service occupations include, for example, housekeepers, practical
nurses, charwomen. Of the household workers who live in (about 15
percent of all private household workers) 14 percent are 65 years of
age or older.




23

OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH NOTABLE PROPORTIONS OP THE WOMEN WORKERS ARE
6 5 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, 1 9 5 0
Women
Occupation

Farmers, farm managers
Dressmakers, seamstresses
Private household workers (living in l )
Housekeepers, stewardesses (not in private household).
Practical nurses, midwives
Proprietors (self-employed, except trade)
Charwomen, janitors, porters
Proprietors (self-employed)—trade (except eating,
drinking places)
Musicians, music teachers
Agents, brokers—insurance, real estate
Physicians, surgeons
Librarians
Managers, proprietors, officials (specified)
Other service workers (except private household)
Therapists, healers
Lawyers, judges
Authors, editors, reporters
"Other" professional workers

Percent
aged 65 Median
or over age (years) Total number

16
15
14
12
11
9
8

50. 6
52. 1
47. 4
50.8
49. 1
47. 7
45. 9

116, 371
134, 310
203, 016
82,904
131, 695
87, 420
128, 941

7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
5
5
5

46.8
42. 3
44. 8
41.0
41.2
44. 7
41. 1
41. 2
42. 7
37. 2
37. 4

173,184
77, 844
46, 190
11,714
49,027
126, 594
413, 781
12, 077
6, 256
34, 654
147, 498

1 These are 15 percent of the private household workers reported. They usually are not discussed separately in this report, but the age data show a median about 7 years older than for household workers living
out, whose median age is 40.3 years.

CHANGES IN AGE DISTRIBUTION, 1940—1950

Occupations differ in their attractiveness to older workers entering
or reentering the labor force, the length of training required which
would influence workers' age of entry, the lack of attraction for
younger workers, or their likelihood of retaining workers who have
developed experience or have earned pension rights. Reference has
been made to the fact that women workers of 1950 average about 4
years older than those of 1940. Comparisons of women's ages in 1940
and 1950 can be made in 31 occupations. In 22 of these, as shown in
the summary following, women's median age in 1950 has increased by
2 or more years since 1940, and in several others also the median is
slightly higher than in 1940. Greatest change is among farm laborers,
whose median age was increased 12 years. An increase of more than 7
years in median age is found among teachers, private household
workers, operatives in food industries, and laborers (chiefly in
factories).

24




OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH WOMEN'S MEDIAN AGE INCREASED BY ONE OR M O R E
YEARS, 1940 TO 1950
Employed, women
Median age (years)
Occupation

Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)-Private household workers
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives—food preparations
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Operatives:
Leather, leather products
Apparel, fabricated textiles
Beauticians
Operatives—knitting mills
Lawyers, judges
Dressmakers, seamstresses
Farm laborers (wage workers)
Foremen (n. e. c.)
Waitresses, bartenders
Social, welfare, recreation workers
Musicians, music teachers
Librarians
Practical nurses, midwives
Cooks (except private household)
Artists, art teachers
Housekeepers, stewards (except private
household)
Bookkeepers, accountants, cashiers

Increase in
median age Total number t
(years)
1950

1950

36. 9
41. 1
41. 2
35.7
36. 3

2

1940

25. 1
33. 6
34. 0
28.5
29. 2

11. 8
7. 5
7. 2
7.2
7. 1

317, 578
1, 334, 310
834, 996
186,337
126, 979

29. 9
30. 8
29. 5
28. 6
37. 9
47. 5
29.6
36. 5
26. 4
36. 0
38. 8
38. 1
46. 3
42. 4
33. 2

6. 4
6. 3
5. 5
5. 5
4. 8
4. 6
4.4
4. 4
4. 4
4. 0
3. 5
3. 1
2. 8
2. 7
2. 5

140, 199
655, 351
189,870
104, 926
6,256
134, 310
131,758
67, 955
603, 419
58, 917
77, 844
49,027
131, 695
242, 422
29, 566

48. 5
30. 9

2. 3
2. 1

82,904
795, 475

36. 3
37. 1
35. 0
34. 1
42. 7
52. 1
34.0
40. 9
30. 8
40. 0
42. 3
41.2
49. 1
45. 1
35. 7
50. 8
33. 0

1

2

3

1 Includes county agents (a very small proportion of the total).
2 Includes counter workers (a very small proportion of the total).
Includes ticket agents (a very small proportion of the total).

3

The women in eight occupations have a lower median age in 1950
than in 1940. In some of these the difference is very slight, but in
the following occupations women's median is more than a year younger
than formerly.
Median age (years)

Occupation

Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Telephone operators
Agents, brokers—insurance, real estate. _
Farmers, farm managers

1950

25.
29.
44.
50.

8
3
8
6

1940

28.
31.
46.
52.

2
1
4
1

Decrease in
median age
(years) Number, 1950

2. 4
1. 8
1. 6
1. 5

1, 501, 090
341,706
46, 190
116, 371

Married and Single Women—Individual Occupations
In most of the large occupations the proportion of single women is
greater than their proportion in the woman population as a whole,
while married women are in smaller proportion than in the population.
Over the past decade the proportion of single women in the population
declined notably, while the proportion of married women increased.
A similar movement has occurred in most of the large occupations;
however, in most of them the proportion of single women declined
more than in the population, and the proportion of married women
increased more than in the population.
The information discussed here is taken from unpublished census
data on marital status by occupation, based on a 3K-percent sample,
and includes occupations that employ the largest numbers of women.
295777—54




3

25

The figures cover the experienced labor force, which includes experienced women seeking jobs as well as all women actually employed.
For many of the occupations listed, comparisons can be made with
1940. The figures on marital status of women in these large occupations are shown in detail in appendix table 5.
OCCUPATIONS OF SINGLE W O M E N

Single women are 20 percent of the woman population. They make
up as large or a larger proportion of the women workers in the great
majority of the chief occupations, as may be seen from table 5 of the
appendix.
The occupations having the largest proportions of single women
(except for student nurses) are those of librarian, stenographer, typist
and secretary, and medical technician. In each of these occupations
half or more of the women are single.
The following list of 15 occupations includes all those in which a
third or more of the women are single. These 15 occupations employ
over half of all single women. Nine of them are professional occupations, all the remainder in the clerical group.
In some of these occupations, though 40 percent or more of the
women are single, the proportion of married women with husbands
present is much the same as of single women. This is true among
teachers, accountants and auditors, social welfare workers, nurses,
telephone operators, office-machine operators, and "other" clerical
workers (those not reported as in a specified occupation).
At the other end of the scale, only a tenth of the women are single
among managers of retail trade establishments, laundresses, janitresses
and cooks, and still smaller proportions among the managers and proprietors in personal service occupations. Somewhat over a tenth are
single among the women farmers, textile spinners and charwomen.
LARGE OCCUPATIONS W I T H SINGLE WOMEN A THIRD OR M O R E OF THEIR WOMEN
WORKERS, 1 9 5 0
Experienced women workers, 1950
Occupation

Nurses (student)
Librarians
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Technicians—Medical, dental, testing
Other professional workers 1
Office-machine operators
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Other clerical workers 1
Accountants, auditors
Bookkeepers- _
Nurses (professional)
Telephone operators
Social, welfare workers
Musicians, music teachers
Cashiers
* Other than those separately listed in table 5 in the appendix.

26




Percent
single

92
54
50
49
45
45
44
43
42
40
40
40
39
34
33

Total number

75,660
50,670
1, 524, 900
63, 720
354,900
119,520
842, 670
1, 622, 550
57, 300
566, 280
399,360
349,230
54,210
82, 950
193,740

The proportion of women in the population who are single has declined from 28 percent in 1940 to 20 percent in 1950—a decrease of
8 points. In most of the large occupations in which comparisons of
1940 and 1950 could be made, the proportion of single women has
declined considerably more than 8 points. Of course this is accompanied by an increase in proportion either of married women or those
widowed or divorced, or both. Decreases of about 20 points or more
in the proportion of single women occurred among teachers, nurses,
beauticians, unpaid family farm workers, operatives in food industries,
"other" clerical workers, waitresses and bartenders, stenographers
and typists, operatives in transportation equipment factories, and
manufacturing laborers.
The decreases in proportion of single women were relatively small
among managers or proprietors in eating places and other trade
establishments and in personal services, and also among charwomen
and janitors, housekeepers and stewardesses, and farm wage workers.
OCCUPATIONS OF MARRIED WOMEN

Married women with husbands present are 62 percent of the woman
population. They are a smaller proportion than this in the great
majority of the chief occupations of women, as may be seen from
appendix table 5. However, married women are in larger proportion
than this in the following occupations—unpaid family farm workers
and proprietors and managers of retail food stores, in each of which
almost three-fourths of the women are married; and spinners in textile
plants, proprietors of eating places and of other retail-trade establishments, in each of which about two-thirds of the women are married.
In addition, over 60 percent of the women are married among operatives in textile thread and fabric mills, in canneries, and in motorvehicle equipment plants, and among those managing personal
services.
The occupational picture for married women differs considerably
from that for single women. Among the 15 occupations that have
the largest proportions of married women, 9 are in manufacturing
industries, and most of the remainder are managerial occupations.
Among all the occupations in which half or more of the women workers
are married about half are in manufacturing, and most of the remainder are either in service occupations or in management.
Greatly increased numbers of married women came into the labor
force in the early 1940's, owing to a large extent to wartime conditions—the intensive pressure for the provision of war materials,
occurring at the same time as the shortage of manpower for productive
work. Many of the married women newly entering the labor force
were past the ages when family cares are most insistent, and the
period of high prices that followed influenced them strongly to continue their work experience after the war. At the same time the




27

marriage rate was accelerated, and the number of married women in
the population increased markedly. Many of the young wives
remained in the labor force, at least while their husbands were in the
Armed Forces, or were obtaining post-service education. They also
often found their earnings necessary to help establish their families
in a period of high prices.
These are among the varied influences that caused a great increase
in the proportion of married women workers. In some two-thirds
of the chief occupations of women about half or more of the women
workers are married with husbands present. In three-fourths of
these chief occupations, married women with husbands present constitute the largest group of feminine employees. A decade ago,
married women (with husband present) were not as much as 55 percent of the women workers in any of the large occupations under
discussion here. They were then about half of the women workers
in six individual occupations—as managers or proprietors in eating
places and personal services, as charwomen and janitors, and as operatives making leather footwear, knit goods, and transportation equipment. (The proportion of women workers who are married has increased in these occupations, but they are not among those where
such increases have been greatest.) The list following; shows all occupations in which a third or more of the women workers are married.
LARGE OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH MARRIED WOMEN (HUSBAND PRESENT) A R E A
THIRD OR MORE OP THE WOMEN WORKERS,

1950
Experienced women workers,
1950
Percent
married
(,husband
present)

Occupation

Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Managers, proprietors—retail food stores
Spinners (textile)
Managers, proprietors—eating places
Operatives:
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Motor-vehicle equipment
Managers, proprietors—personal services
Operatives—canning fruits, vegetables
Managers, proprietors—other retail trade
Operatives:
Footwear (except rubber)
Knitting mills
Fabricated steel
Electrical machinery, equipment
Beauticians, including manicurists
Operatives:
Machinery (except electrical)
Other food products
Cooks
Laborers—manufacturing
Saleswomen—retail trade
Operatives:
Other i
Apparel, accessories
Forewomen—manufacturing

74
72
69
68

1

i Other than those listed separately in table 5 in the appendix.

28




Total
number

330,
83,
63,
93,

63
63
62
61
59

229, 020
60, 090
60, 660
56, 640
140, 400

59
59
58
57
56

114,300
108,930
62,370
185, 190
193, 170

56
55
55
55
54
54
54
54

66,
150,
257,
72,
1, 228,

660
280
660
870

930
090
130
390
920

760, 860
651,330
51, 150

LARGE OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH MARRIED WOMEN (HUSBAND PRESENT) ARE A
THIRD OR MORE OP THE WOMEN WORKERS, 1 9 5 0 — C o n t i n u e d
Experienced women workers,
1950

Occupation

Craftswomen
Janitors, porters
Operatives:
Wholesale, retail trade
Paper, allied products
Laundry, dry cleaning
Other sales workers 1
Waitresses
Musicians, music teachers
Laborers—nonmanufacturing
Other managers, proprietors 1
Cashiers
Farm laborers (wage workers)
Charwomen, cleaners
Bookkeepers
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Telephone operators
Nurses—professional
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions
Other clerical workers 1
Other service workers (except private household)1
Dressmakers, seamstresses
Office-machine operators
Laundresses (private household)
Accountants, auditors
Social, welfare workers
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Other professional workers 1
Technicians—medical, dental, testing
Private household workers (n. e. c.)
Farmers (owners, tenants)
Practical nurses
Housekeepers, stewardesses (except private household)

Percent
married
(,husband
present)

Total
number

53
52

177,960
60,270

52
50
50
50
49
49
49
48
48
47
47
46
44
44
43
43
42
42
42
42
42
41
41
38
38
38
34
34
33
32

114, 690
72, 630
302, 730
145, 800
579,810
82, 950
52, 500
287, 130
193,740
148, 860
75,300
566,280
842, 670
349,230
399, 360
122, 190
1, 622, 550
489, 360
140, 250
119,520
73, 290
57,300
54, 210
1, 524, 900
354, 900
63, 720
1, 219, 080
118,320
138,360
85, 800

i Other than those listed separately in table 5 in the appendix.

In the woman population, the proportion married (with husband
present) grew from 56 percent in 1940 to 62 percent in 1950—an
increase of 6 points. The increase in proportion of married women
was greater in all the large occupations under discussion than in the
population, as may be seen from appendix table 5, with only three
exceptions—charwomen and janitresses, housekeepers and stewardesses not in private homes, and "other" managers and proprietors
(with the last a decrease). Especially notable increases in proportions of married women occurred among unpaid family farmworkers,
teachers, professional nurses, farmers, waitresses, and beauticians.
In some of these, wartime needs and labor shortages undoubtedly
gave great impetus to the entrance of married women, and postwar
high costs have accelerated this movement in many occupations.
Married With Husbands Absent.—The married women with husbands absent are only a very small proportion of the woman population—4 percent. However, this group of women is 6 percent of the
woman labor force and more than 4 percent of the women workers




29

in over half of the large occupations. Many of this group are women
especially likely to need employment to support themselves and often
dependents as well. The largest proportions of them are found in a
number of the service occupations and in farnrwork.
LARGE OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH MARRIED WOMEN (HUSBAND ABSENT) ARE A
TENTH OR MORE OF THE WOMEN WORKERS, 1 9 5 0
Experienced women workers,
1950

Occupation

Private-household workers (n. e. c.)
Housekeepers (private household)
Laundresses (private household)
Other service workers (except private household)1
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
Waitresses
Farm laborers (wage workers)
Farmers (owners, tenants)
Charwomen, cleaners
Laborers—manufacturing
Cooks (except private household)
Practical nurses
Attendants—hospital, other institution
i Other than those separately listed in table 5 in the appendix.

Percent
married
(,husband
absentj

14
12
12
11
11
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
9

Total number

1, 219, 080
147,420
73, 290
489,360
302, 730
579,810
148, 860
118,320
75,300
52, 500
257, 130
138,360
122, 190

OCCUPATIONS OF W O M E N WIDOWED OR DIVORCED

The widowed and divorced are 14 percent of the woman population. They are in greater proportion than this in two-thirds of the
large occupations under discussion. The summary following shows
the occupations in which the widows or the divorced are a fifth or
more of the women workers. Eight of the eleven occupations having
the largest proportions of the widowed or divorced are in personal
services.
Women who are widowed or divorced do not constitute half of the
labor force in any of the large occupations under discussion. However, they are in larger proportion than either the single or the married women (husbands present) among farmers, housekeepers in
private families, housekeepers and stewardesses not in private families, and practical nurses. In each of these occupations and among
laundresses they are about two-fifths of the women. They are about
a third of the dressmakers and seamstresses, charwomen, and janitresses. They are in smallest proportions among unpaid family
workers and student nurses, and are just under a tenth of the
women office-machine operators, teachers, and stenographers, typists,
secretaries.
The widowed or divorced women are in much the same proportion
as all married women among practical nurses, farmers, and housekeepers and stewardesses not in private homes. The widowed or
divorced are in much the same proportion as single women in a
number of occupations in which married women prevail such as
textile spinners, operatives in laundries, canneries, and motor-vehicle
plants, and private-household workers.
30




LARGE OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH THE WIDOWED OR DIVORCED ARE A FIFTH OR
MORE OF THE WOMEN WORKERS,® 1950 ,
Experienced women workers,
1950
Occupation

widowed or
divorced
Total number

Farmers (owners, tenants)
Housekeepers (private household)
Housekeepers, stewardesses (except private household)
Practical nurses
Laundresses (private household)
Dressmakers, seamstresses (except factory)
Charwomen, cleaners
Janitors, porters
Cooks (except private household)
Managers, proprietors—personal services
Private-household workers (n. e. c.)
Other service workers (except private household)1
Other managers, proprietors 1
Proprietors:
Other retail trade 1
Eating places
Attendants—hospital, other institution
Other sales workers 1

42
40
40
38
37
34
30
30
27
25
25
24
23

118,320
147,420
85, 800
138, 360
73, 290
140, 250
75,300
60,270
257,130
60, 660
1, 219, 080
489, 360
287, 130

23
22
21
20

140, 400
93,870
122, 190
145, 800

i Other than those separately listed in table 5 in the appendix.

The proportion of widowed or divorced women has changed very
little since 1940 in the population, and has not changed greatly
in most occupations. Very notable, however, is a decline in the
proportion of widows or divorced women among farmers, from 65
percent of the women farmers in 1940 to 42 percent in 1950—still the
largest proportion of widowed or divorced in any occupation. The
proportion of the widowed or divorced among farm wage workers also
has dropped from 20 to 14 percent, among managers in personal services from 33 to 25 percent, among proprietors of eating places from
28 to 22 percent, and among laborers in nonmanufacturing industries
from 16 to 10 percent. Small declines also occurred among cooks,
charwomen and janitors, unpaid family farm workers, and the "other"
group of managers. In each occupation in which the proportion of
the widowed and divorced declined, the proportion of married women
increased.
All other occupations show increases in proportions of widowed or
divorced women. These increases are very small in a number of cases
though they are notable among the following: Operatives in transportation equipment, knitting mills, food products, and footwear,
laborers in manufacturing, private household workers, nurses, waitresses and bartenders, and dressmakers and seamstresses.
Negro Women—Individual Occupations
The largest individual occupations of Negro women, aside from
private household work, are farm labor, laundry operation, and teaching. Household work employs nearly 800,000 Negro women, each
of the next two nearly or over 100,000, and teaching nearly 70,000.




31

Of the farm laborers somewhat over half are unpaid family workers,
the remainder work for wages. More than 60,000 Negro women are
cooks in establishments other than private households. These five
occupations taken together employ over 60 percent of all Negro women
workers. The following list shows the individual occupations (or groups
of closely related occupations), each of which employs about 10,000
or more Negro women.
Three operative occupations—laundries, apparel, and food industries—employ about a tenth of all Negro women workers. Another
tenth is in six specified service occupations—cooks, waitresses, charwomen and cleaners, beauticians, hospital attendants, and practical
nurses. Still another tenth is in farm occupations or general labor.
Three professional or clerical occupations—teachers, professional
nurses, and stenographers and typists—together employ just over
5 percent. These 14 occupations, together with household employment, account for three-fourths of the Negro women workers. Half
of all employed Negro women are in household employment or in
unspecified service occupations.
OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING 1 0 , 0 0 0 OR M O R E NEGRO WOMEN IN 1 9 5 0

Occupation

Negro women
Percent of all
Negro workers in
the occupation
Number
1950
1940

All occupations
1, 869, 956
Private household workers
773, 590
Service workers (miscellaneous *)
151,827
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
98, 998
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
72, 751
Teachers (n. e. c.)
67, 857
Farm laborers (wage workers)
66, 906
Cooks (except private household)
60, 385
Operatives—apparel, fabricated textile products
52, 910
Clerical workers (miscellaneous
52, 662
Waitresses, counter workers, bartenders
42,139
Charwomen, janitresses, porters
35,456
Operatives—durable goods manufacturing
32, 453
Farmers, farm managers
30, 949
Operatives—nondurable goods manufacturing (miscellaneous i)
29,121
Laborers (except farm and mine)
28,414
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)
26, 584
Professional, technical workers (miscellaneous *)
24,321
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
21,593
Saleswomen—retail stores
19, 750
Operatives—nonmanufacturing
19,728
Attendants—hospital, other institution
19, 324
Operatives—food products
18, 710
Managers, proprietors (self-employed)
16,364
Practical nurses, midwives
16, 141
Nurses (professional)
12, 550
Operatives (manufacturing, miscellaneous x)
11,832
Dressmakers, seamstresses
10,248
Craftswomen
9,929
All other 1 occupations
15, 635
Occupation not reported
30,829
i All not appearing as detailed occupations elsewhere in this tabl.\
»Not available.
* All sales persons; not reported separately for retail stores in 1940.
4 Includes student professional nurses.

32




35
96
(2)
69
39
78
21
58
87
(2)
50
13
18
6

35
93
(2)
73
43
79
15
43
82
(2)
31
6
(2)
7

33
3
62
2)
(
(2)
48
22
(2)
33
28
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
4
23
38

(2)

2
52

(2)

90
32
15
(2)
30
(2)
96
4 98
(2)
98
2
(2)
46
3

PROPORTION OF WOMEN A M O N G A L L NEGRO WORKERS

In several occupations that employ 10,000 or more Negro women,
no Negro men are at work, or at least so few that the occupation is
not reported separately for men. It may therefore be considered that
almost 100 percent of the Negroes in these occupations are women.
This is true, for example, of stenographers and typists, nurses, practical
nurses, and others.
Women are about nine-tenths or more of all Negro workers in private
households and of the operatives in manufacturing apparel or fabricated textiles. Women are three-fourths of the Negro teachers, about
two-thirds of the Negro laundry operatives and beauticians, and half
or more of the Negro waiters and waitresses, cooks, and salespersons
in retail stores. The list on page 34 shows all important individual
occupations in which women are over a tenth of all Negro workers.
One way to measure the advance of Negro women in an occupation
is to see whether they constitute an increasing proportion of all the
Negro workers in the occupation. The proportion of women among
all Negro workers increased markedly from 1940 to 1950 in the following four occupations.

Women as percent of
all Negro workers
1950

Waiters and waitresses
Salespersons
Cooks (except private household)
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)

50
46
58
62

1940
31
32
43
52

Appreciable increases in the proportion of women among all Negro
workers also occurred in a number of other occupations, which may
be seen in the list on page 32. These include operatives in apparel
factories and in nonmanulacturing industries, charwomen and cleaners,
and farm wage workers.
On the other hand, the proportion of women among all Negro
laundry operatives declined somewhat by 1950. This is due to the
fact that although the number of women increase3 more in this occupation than in any other, the number of men increased very much
more.
In the majority of occupations, Negro women are in much the same
proportion among all Negroes as are women as a whole among all
workers. This is shown in the following summary. However, there
are some exceptions. For example, among waiters and waitresses
Negro men and women work in much the same numbers, while in the
occupation as a whole, women greatly outnumber men. Thus women
are two-thirds of all waiters and waitresses, but only half the Negroes
in this occupation.




33

Other examples give the opposite picture: Among beauticians
(including barbers), self-employed managers, and farm wage workers,
women are in considerably larger proportions among the Negroes
than among all workers in the occupation.
OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH WOMEN ARE OVER A TENTH OP ALL NEGRO WORKERS
Negro women as
All women
percent of as percent
all Negro
of all

_
..
Occupation

Occupations with Negro men not separately reported:
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Attendants—hospital, other institution
Practical nurses, midwives
Nurses (professional)
Dressmakers, seamstresses
Occupations with Negro men reported:
Private household workers
Operatives—apparel, fabricated textiles
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)
Cooks (except private household)
Waitresses, bartenders, counter workers
Saleswomen—retail stores
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Operatives—food products
Managers, proprietors (self employed)
Operatives—nonmanufacturing
Farm laborers (wage workers)
Operatives—durable-goods manufacturing
Charwomen, janitors, porters

workers

__

96
87
78
69
62
58
50
48
39
33
28
22
21
18
13

workers
94
59
96
98
97
95
81
75
67
50
56
64
49
35
38
13
23
9
26
18

INCREASES A N D DECLINES IN EMPLOYMENT OF NEGRO WOMEN, 1940-50

In half the large individual occupations, more than 10,000 additional
Negro women went to work from 1940 to 1950. This includes increases
of 55,000 Negro women laundry operatives, and also of over 40,000
as operatives in apparel factories. These, with large increases among
Negro women as cooks, waitresses, and charwomen, account for over
half of the total increase from 1940 to 1950 in the employment of
Negro women. Thfe additions from 1940 to 1950 in the two occupations of teachers and stenographers and typists account for more than
a tenth of the increase in employment of Negro women. The following
summary shows the changes in the employment of Negro women.
The number of Negro women decreased greatly through the decade
among private household employees, unpaid family farmworkers,
and farmers.

34




OCCUPATIONS WITH CHANGES OF OVER 1 0 , 0 0 0 IN EMPLOYMENT OF NEGRO
WOMEN, 1 9 4 0 - 5 0
Negro women employed
Increases, 1940-50

Percent of all employed women

Occupation

All occupations

1

Operatives:
Laundry, dry cleaning
Apparel, fabricated textile products
Cooks
Waitresses, counter girls, bartenders
Charwomen, janitresses, cleaners
Teachers
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Saleswomen
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Operatives:
Nonmanufacturing
Food products
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)

1950

1940

327, 683

12

14

54, 950
41, 434
33, 647
26,638
23,425
18, 305
17, 483
15,043
15, 007

34
8
25
7
27
8
1
2
22

23
3
23
4
16
7
(2)
1
13

14,466
13, 124
11,802

12
10
14

8
5
7

58
23
27

47
57
30

Decreases, 1940-50

Private household workers
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Farmers

145, 476
55, 587
15,267

i Total exceeds details as details not shown for occupations with changes of less than 10,000.
a Not available.

PROPORTION OF NEGRO W O M E N A M O N G A L L W O M E N WORKERS

Negro women are half of all women employed as household and
farm wage workers. Negro women also are a third of the women
laundry operatives, about a fourth or more of the charwomen and
janitresses, farmers, cooks, unpaid family farm laborers, and general
laborers. In five other occupations a tenth or more of the women
workers are Negro—hospital attendants, beauticians, practical nurses,
and operatives in food manufacturing and in all nonmanufacturing
industries.
The proportions of Negro women among all women workers have
increased considerably in several occupations. For example, among
laundry operatives, Negroes are over a third of the total woman
labor force, compared to less than a fourth in 1940. Among private
household workers, almost 60 percent of the women are Negroes,
compared to less than 50 percent in 1940.
Other occupations with considerable increases in the proportions
Negro women constitute of all women workers include general laborers,
beauticians, charwomen, and operatives in apparel and food industries.
In farm occupations, on the other hand, the proportion of Negroes
among all women has decreased. These various increases and declines
may be seen from the summary preceding.




35

Part III—Occupations of Women in Each
M a j o r Group
The section that follows will discuss the occupations within each
major group, including many that employ smaller numbers of women
than those considered in part II, which dealt only with the largest
occupations for women. Complete information for even smaller
occupations may be seen in the tables in the appendix.
In each group will be considered the chief occupations of women;
occupations showing notable changes over the past decade in the
numbers of women, including those newly reported in 1950; the proportions of women in the work force in various occupations, and
changes in these proportions.
This section also will show information on proportions women
constitute of the workers in selected occupations in earlier years, back
to 1900. Considerable adjustments must be made to secure accurate
comparisons for these earlier years. This was done on an extended
scale through 1940 in the Women's Bureau study, Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades (Bulletin 218), which may be consulted
if fuller detail on particular occupations is desired. The numerous
reasons why such adjustments are necessary to secure long-time comparisons are fully discussed in a volume issued by the Bureau of the
Census after the 1940 census, Comparative Occupation Statistics for
the United States, 1870-1940.
Each succeeding census reports on additional occupations that
have newly grown up, or have become important by more accurate
classification, though they formerly were included only in one of the
large groups of "other" workers (as "other clerical," "other professional"). For example, all waitresses, cooks, charwomen, housekeepers, and other service workers were combined in a single group
until 1930, with no distinction between those working in private homes
or outside the home. Actresses, athletes, dancers, and sports officials
were included in a single group until 1940. Though women in automobile factories and in electrical machinery plants were separately
reported as far back as 1910, until 1940 a single group included all

36




those in plants making tin cans, agricultural machinery, office and
store equipment, railroad and transportation equipment, steel works
and rolling mills, and other metals. Similarly, many other individual
occupations are lost in earlier years.
Occupations separately reported for the first time in 1950 include
bank tellers, dietitians and nutritionists, personnel and labor relations
workers, bookkeepers and cashiers each separately shown, midwives
no longer included with practical nurses, recreation and group workers
now shown separately from social and welfare workers, saleswomen
in retail trade now separated from the general group of saleswomen,
operatives in plants making drugs and medicines separated from those
in miscellaneous chemicals, self-employed proprietors in various
businesses shown separately from salaried managers in the same business, and household workers classified as to whether living in or living
outside the home served.
Clerical Workers
More women are in clerical work than in any other type of occupation. All told they number over 4)i million women, and are more than
a fourth of all women workers. This group has shown a remarkable
increase over the past decade. It now employs almost 2 million
women more than in 1940, a growth of 82 percent. In this 10-year
period, almost 1 million more women have gone into clerical work
than have entered any other type of occupation. Women are in the
great majority among clerical workers, and their proportion also has
increased markedly. They were 54 percent of all clerical workers in
1940 and 62 percent in 1950.
STENOGRAPHIC GROUP LARGEST CLERICAL OCCUPATION FOR WOMEN

Stenographers, typists, and secretaries constitute the largest of the
19 separate clerical occupations reported by the Census, and this
occupation employs a third of all women clerical workers. This
group, with bookkeepers and cashiers, accounts for over half of all
women clerical workers, and if telephone operators also are added 60
percent are accounted for. However, other occupations now claim
somewhat larger proportions of the clerical workers than in 1940.
For example, the number of office-machine operators has more than
doubled. Other considerable groups are attendants in physicians'
and dentists' offices, and bank tellers. The following list shows all
clerical occupations having over 9,000 women. The clerical occupations that employ the largest numbers of women in 1950, also employed
the largest numbers in 1940.




37

LARGEST CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN, 1 9 5 0
Employed women, 1950

Total

Occupation

Number

4, 291, 764

Percent
Percent of Number added
distribution all workers
since 1940

Stenographers, typists, secretaries
1, 501, 090
Bookkeepers
556,229
Telephone operators
341,706
Cashiers
183,586
Office-machine operators
116,917
Attendants—physician's, dentist's of38, 783
fice.
Bank tellers
28,648 ^
Shipping, receiving clerks
19,883
Agents (n. e. c.)
19,296 >
Messengers, office girls
10,098
Attendants, assistants—library
9,085 )
All others
1,466,443

100

62

1, 927, 476

35
13
8
4
3
1

94
77
95
81
82
95

513, 009
0)
152,504
0)
65,463
7, 861

45
7
16
18
74

p)
11,215
12,095
7,574
2,057

(
2<
34

{

1 Not separately reported in 1940. The combined group of bookkeepers and cashiers has added 309,425
women, 1940-50. Bookkeepers are three-fourths of this group in 1950.
NOTE.—For more complete details see table 6-A in the appendix.

The concentration of clerical workers in a few chief occupations is
much more marked for women than for men. The five largest clerical
occupations of women employ over 60 percent of the women, while
the five largest for men employ only 30 percent of the men clerical
workers. Moreover, the chief occupations differ markedly for women
and men, as the following list shows. The only two that are among
the first five for both sexes—the stenographer group and bookkeepers—
employ half the women but only a tenth of the men clerical workers.
F I V E LARGEST CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

For women
For men
Employing over 60 percent of all
Employing 30 percent of all men
women clerical workers.
clerical workers.
Stenographers, typists, secretaries.
Shipping and receiving clerks.
Bookkeepers.
Bookkeepers.
Telephone operators.
Mail carriers.
Cashiers.
Agents.
Office-machine operators.
Stenographers, typists, secretaries.
NOTABLE CHANGES IN NUMBERS OF WOMEN CLERICAL WORKERS

In almost all occupations in the clerical group, the numbers of
women increased from 1940 to 1950. Added since 1940 have been
over 500,000 stenographers, secretaries, and typists, over 300,000
bookkeepers and cashiers, and over 150,000 telephone operators.
The number of women office-machine operators has increased by
65,000, and more than 10,000 women have been added to the ranks
of the agents, and of the shipping and receiving clerks. A smaller
increase among messengers and office girls is accompanied by a corresponding decline among boys. This occupation, often a starter for
young people, is now tending to employ more girls than formerly.
Other increases notable in proportion, though numbers are small, are
among mail carriers and telegraph and express messengers.
38




Only a single clerical occupation has declined—telegraph operators.
This is a relatively small group for women, and has declined for men
as well.
BOOKKEEPERS, CASHIERS, A N D BANK TELLERS FIRST REPORTED
SEPARATELY IN J 950

Bookkeepers and cashiers, formerly combined in one group, are
separately reported in 1950. Of the combined group of women,
three-fourths are bookkeepers. Two occupations are separated from
the general group of "other clerical occupations" for the first time in
1950. One of these, bank tellers, is of considerable size, and employs
over 28,000 women who are 45 percent of all workers in the occupation. For the other, dispatchers and starters of vehicles, only 3,500
women are reported, and these are a tenth of all such workers. A
third occupation with fewer than 200 women in the country, is listed
for women for the first time in the clerical group—baggagemen in
transportation.
WOMEN ARE NINE-TENTHS OF THE WORKERS IN SOME
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS

Women are three-fourths or more of the workers in 7 of the 19
clerical occupations, as shown in the list that follows. They are well
over nine-tenths of the stenographers, typists, and secretaries, the
attendants in physicians' and dentists' offices, and the telephone
operators. In these three occupations women have remained in much
the same proportions as in 1940. Women also are four-fifths of the
office-machine operators and the cashiers, and three-fourths of the
bookkeepers and the library attendants and assistants. In all but
four of the remaining clerical occupations, women are a tenth or more
of the workers.
CLERICAL^ OCCUPATIONS

IN

WHICH WOMEN ARE
WORKERS, 1950

Occupations with over nine-tenths women:
Telephone operators
Attendants—physician's, dentist's office
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Occupations with four-fifths women:
Office-machine operators
Cashiers
Occupations with about three-fourths women:
Bookkeepers
Attendants, assistants—library
Occupations with a fifth to half women:
Bank tellers
mpT Telegraph operators
Occupations with a tenth to a fifth women:
Messengers, office girls
Agents (n. e. c.)
Collectors—bill, account
Agents—ticket, station, express
Dispatchers, starters (vehicle)
Telegraph messengers




A"|TENTH

OR^MORE

OP

THE

Percent
95
95
94
82
81
77
74
45
22
18
16
15
13
12
10

39

CHANGES IN PROPORTIONS OF CLERICAL WORKERS W H O ARE WOMEN

The proportion of women among all clerical workers has increased
from 54 percent in 1940 to 62 percent in 1950, an increase of 8 points.
This was accompanied by some increase in the proportion of women
in most of the clerical occupations. Among individual clerical occupations, the most spectacular growth in proportion of women is in
the messenger group. Girls are 18 percent of these workers in 1950,
compared to only 5 percent in 1940. Other occupations in which
the proportion of women has grown in the decade more than 8 points
are bookkeepers and cashiers, and the very small group of telegraph
messengers.
Declines in the proportions of women, in each case small, occurred
in only three clerical occupations. Greatest of these declines are in
the large group of office-machine operators, and among library attendants and assistants.
Trends from 1900 to 1950 in the proportion of women among all
workers are listed below for several individual occupations in the
clerical group. The greatest increases in proportions of women came
at quite different periods in different occupations. The proportion of
women among all workers in the large group of bookkeepers and
cashiers, only 29 percent in 1900, grew by leaps and bounds from 1900
to 1920, and again pushed up strongly from 1940 to 1950, reaching 60
percent in 1950. Among telephone operators, always predominantly
a woman's occupation, the greatest increase in proportion of women
came in the earlier decade 1900 to 1910, after which the growth was
small. Attendants in physicians' and dentists' offices were first
separately reported in 1910, and the marked period of growth in
proportion was 1920 to 1930. When office-machine operators were
first separately reported in 1930, women were almost 90 percent of
the workers; their proportion has since declined.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0
Women as percent of all workers in—
Occupation

Bookkeepers, accountants,1 cashiers—
Telephone operators
Office-machine operators
Attendants—physician's and dentist's
office
Messengers and office girls.

1950
60
95
82

m0
51
95
86

1930
52
95
89

1920
49
94
2)
(

1910
38
90
2)
(

95
18

95
5

96
6

83
8

81
7

1900
29
80
2)
(
(2)
3

6

» Accountants are included here to enable comparison with earlier years. First reported with professional
group in 1950.
J Not reported separately.
3 Includes telegraph messengers, reported separately from 1910. About 7 percent of the group in 1940
and 1950.

40




Operatives
Occupations the Census Bureau long has classified as "operatives,"
largely in manufacturing industries, employ more women than any
other major occupation except the clerical. Over 3 million women are
operatives, about a fifth of all women workers, and almost 1 million
more than in 1940.
The proportion of women among all workers in operative occupations also has increased somewhat, from 25 percent in 1940 to 27 percent in 1950. The broad occupational distribution of operatives is
shown below:
Operatives a^d ki •dred workers, 1950
Women

Total

Occupation group

Manufacturing (n. e. c.)
Nonmanufacturing (n. e. c.)
Specifically named occupations

Number
3,018, 787

2, 214, 989
163, 223
640, 575

Men—pelPerce t of
Perce t ce t distriall workers distribution butio/i
1

27

100

100

41
23
13

73
5
21

39
7
54

i Total for men—8,127,433.

THREE-FOURTHS OF WOMEN OPERATIVES ARE IN MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing industries employ the chief group of women operatives, about 2% million women. This is a numerical increase of over
50 percent since 1940, though women are still the same proportion of
all manufacturing operatives as in 1940—about 40 percent.
In 1950, as in previous decades, the largest numbers of women
manufacturing operatives, 1% million of them, work in factories making
nondurable goods (sometimes called "consumer industries"), twothirds of these being in clothing and textiles. Nondurable-goods
manufacture employs 70 percent of the women manufacturing operatives, but only 44 percent of the men.
However, women have entered to an increasing extent the durablegoods industries (sometimes known as "heavy industry"). The largest
numbers are in electrical machinery, metal industries, and transportation equipment (mainly automobile manufacture). Durablegoods industries now employ nearly two-thirds million women, almost
30 percent of all women manufacturing operatives, as compared to not
quite 20 percent in 1940.
Women are over half of all operatives in factories making nondurable
goods but only about a fourth of those in plants making durable goods,
as shown in the summary following. Their proportion in nondurable
goods is much the same as in 1940, but in durable goods it has increased to 26 percent, from 22 percent in 1940.

295777—54




4

41

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY GROUPS EMPLOYING WOMEN OPERATIVES, 1 9 5 0
Women operatives (n. e. c.), 1950
Industry group

All manufacturing
Nondurable goods

Apparel, other fabricated textile
products
Textile-mill products
Food, kindred products
Leather, leather products
Paper, allied products
Tobacco manufactures
Chemicals, allied products
Rubber products
Printing, publishing, allied industries
Petroleum, coal products
Durable goods
Electrical machinery
Metal industries
Transportation equipment
Machinery (except electrical)
Stone, clay, glass products
Furniture,
fixtures
Sawmills,
miscellaneous
wood
products
All other
Not specified

Number

2, 214, 989

Percent
Percent of Number added
distribution all workers since 1940

41

741, 465

1, 562, 915

100

53

402, 657

655, 351
354,786
186,337
140, 199
70, 829
43,200
41,402
36, 259

42
23
12
9
5
3
3
2

81
53
38
49
32
70
23
30

202,310
48, 091
74, 627
25,493
22, 969
1 8,553
13, 658
14, 088

2

44
3

9,235
739

634, 360

100

26

347, 047

179,946
91, 867
66,097
61,327
46, 815
26,255

28
14
10
10
7
4

54
18
15
18
26
21

117,486
41, 997
38,432
38,879
21, 392
15, 234

15, 623
146,430

2
23

8
51

7, 810
65,817

17, 714

100

47

33,136
1,416

(2)

1

8, 239

2 Percent not shown where less than 1.
In this case a decline.
NOTE—For more complete details on occupations of women operatives, see table 6-B in the appendix.

1

WOMEN OPERATIVES IN OTHER T H A N MANUFACTURING

Nonmanufacturing industries employ only a relatively small
number of women—165,000-—which represents an increase of 100,000
since 1940. Of these, three-fourths are in wholesale and retail trade
and personal services. Trade employs two-thirds of the women and
one-third of the men nonmanufacturing operatives.
Almost two-thirds million women (about a fifth of all women
operatives) are in specifically named operative occupations. Of
these women, four-fifths are laundry operatives, dressmakers or
seamstresses, or textile weavers or spinners—the first two employing
two-thirds of the women in specific operative occupations, and all of
them occupations long known as employers of many women. The
two largest specific occupations of men in this group employ only a
little over a third of all men in specific operative occupations. They
are drivers of buses, taxicabs, trucks or tractors, and mine operatives
and laborers. Many specific operative occupations employ few
women as compared to the number of men, but it is of note that some
women are railroad brakemen, chainmen or rodmen in surveying,
boatmen or canal lock tenders, metal heaters, motormen on street
railways, meat cutters (not in packinghouses), sailors or deckhands,
power-station operators, railroad switchmen, and others.
42




WOMEN OPERATIVES WORK IN A HUNDRED OCCUPATIONS

The entire group of women operatives includes almost 100 classifications—32 individual occupations and 57 industries (including 8 in
nonmanufacturing), besides 10 groups of apprentices (fewer than
3 percent of whom are women). Largest of these occupational items
are those of operatives in apparel factories, laundries, textile mills,
and electrical machinery and supply industries. Most of these are
among the great traditional occupations of women, and each has
increased notably since 1940. In 1950, these four industries together
employ over two-fifths of all women operatives, and the addition of
three other manufacturing industries accounts for over half of all
women operatives-—leather footwear, knitting mills, and fabricated
steel mills. The only decline in women operatives in these industries
has been in knitting mills. The list below includes all operative
occupations that employ more than 20,000 women. There are 17
additional occupations in this group that employ 9,000 but fewer than
20,000 women each. These may be seen in appendix table 6-B.
OPERATIVE OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING OVER 2 0 , 0 0 0 WOMEN,

1950

Employed women, 1950
Occupation

Operatives:
Apparel, accessories
Laundry, dry cleaning
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Electrical machinery, equipment, supplies. _
Dressmakers, seamstresses (not in factory)
Operatives:
Leather footwear
Wholesale, retail trade
Knitting mills
Iron, steel (other2, primary), fabricated
steel
Spinners, textiles
Operatives:
Motor vehicle, equipment plants
Machinery (miscellaneous)
Tobacco manufactures
Canning fruits, vegetables, seafoods
Weavers, textile
Operatives:
Textile products, fabricated (miscellaneous)
Rubber products
Meat products
Bakery products
Printing, publishing
Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals.
Confectionery
Paper, pulp products (miscellaneous)
Paperboarcl containers and boxes
Furniture, fixtures
Leather products (except footwear)
Professional, photographic equipment, supplies
Glass, glass products
Nonferrous metal (primary, fabricated)

Number

Percent of Number added
all workers since 19Jfi

616, 864
287, 533
220, 054
179, 946
134,310

81
67
50
54
97

191,800
99, 244
55, 304
117, 486
3, 183

110, 743
107, 834
104, 926

53
38
72

19, 492
65, 064
i l l , 200

64, 359
60, 589

21
75

29, 528
(3)

56, 350
45,559
43, 200
43, 120
38, 593

17
18
70
63
39

30, 599
30,428
1 8, 553
20, 361
(3)

38,487
36, 259
35, 549
33,402
33, 136
30,484
29, 349
28, 264
26, 850
26, 255
24,813

72
30
29
53
44
22
65
49
45
21
55

10, 510
14, 088
17, 295
12,988
9, 235
14, 110
2,719
14, 802
8, 265
15, 234
4,974

24,090
21, 736
20, 826

43
30
23

12, 208
9, 577
12, 288

1 In this case a decline.
2 Except in blast furnaces, steelworks, arid rolling mills, which together employ 5,828 women operatives.
3 Not separately reported in 1940.




43

Among operatives, as in other groups, the concentration in certain
occupations is much greater for women than men. The 10 largest
occupations of women listed below employ nearly two-thirds of all
women operatives, while the 10 largest for men employ less than half
of the men operatives. Furthermore, as in other groups, the chief
operative occupations differ markedly for the two sexes. Of the first
10 for women, 7 (including textile spinners) are in manufacturing, but
of the first 10 men's only 4 (including welders) are in manufacturing.
Only a single type of occupation is among the 10 largest for both
sexes—operatives in yarn, thread, and fabric mills.
TEN

LARGEST

OCCUPATIONS

For women
Employing 63 percent of
all women operatives.
Operatives:
Apparel, accessories.
Electrical machinery, supplies.
Laundry, dry cleaning.
Yarn, thread, fabric mills.
Dressmakers, seamstresses.
Operatives:
Leather footwear.
Wholesale, retail trade.
Knitting mills.
Textile spinners.
Operatives—Fabricated steel products.

OF

OPERATIVES

For men
Employing 45 percent of all men
operatives.
Truck, tractor drivers.
Mine operatives, laborers.
Operatives—motor vehicles, equipment.
Welders, flame cutters.
Deliverymen, routemen.
Auto, parking attendants.
Operatives—yarn, thread, fabric mills.
Chauffeurs, taxicab drivers.
Wholesale, retail trade.
Operatives—fabricated steel products.

APPAREL, ELECTRICAL SUPPLY, LAUNDRY PLANTS ADD
MOST WOMEN OPERATIVES

In the great majority of occupations in the operative group, the
numbers of women have increased during the decade, in some of them
markedly, as shown in the list below. Greatest increases are in apparel
factories, electrical supply plants, and laundries. Perhaps the most
notable change (though not the largest) was that in electrical machinery and supply plants, which increased by more than 117,000
women, and now employs more women operatives than any other
industry except apparel, laundries, and textile mills.

44




OPERATIVE

OCCUPATIONS T H A T

ADDED

OVER

10,000

WOMEN,

1940-50
Number of
women
added since

Operatives:
Occupation
Apparel, accessories
Electrical machinery, equipment, supplies
Laundry, dry cleaning
Wholesale, retail trade
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Motor vehicles, equipment
Miscellaneous machinery
Other 1 primary iron and steel, fabricated steel
Canning—fruits, vegetables, seafoods
Leather footwear
Meat products
Furniture, fixtures
Miscellaneous paper, pulp products
Drugs, medicine, miscellaneous chemicals
Rubber products
Bakery products
Primary, fabricated nonferrous metal products
Professional, photographic equipment
Miscellaneous food preparations
Miscellaneous fabricated textiles
Drivers—Bus, truck, taxicab, tractor

1940
191, 800
117, 486
99, 244
65, 064
55, 304
30, 599
30, 428
29, 528
20, 361
19, 492
17, 295
15, 234
14, 802
14, 110
14, 088
12,988
12, 288
12, 208
12, 026
10, 510
10, 460

i Except in blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling mills.

In 1950 more than twice the 1940 number of women are employed
in 41 of some 100 operative occupations. Two of these employ well
over 100,000 women (electrical machinery and supplies and wholesale
and retail trade) and each would appear to promise further increased
opportunities for women job seekers. Many of the occupations where
the number of women has doubled are still small employers of women,
as may be seen from the summary following. A number are in lines
of work unusual for women, such as blasters and powdermen, heaters
of metal, stationary firemen, and operatives in the construction
industry.
Seven of the 10 operative occupations that increased most greatly
from 1940 to 1950 were among the 10 largest employers of women operatives in both periods. These are: Apparel and accessories; electrical machinery and supplies; laundry, dry cleaning; wholesale and
retail trade; yarn, thread, and fabric (textile); fabricated steel products
and primary iron and steel other than blast furnaces, steelworks, and
rolling mills; and leather footwear.
OPERATIVE

OCCUPATIONS

WHERE

N U M B E R OF W O M E N
1940-1950

MORE

THAN

Employed
Occupation
I N C R E A S E OF 600 P E R C E N T O R M O R E

Chainmen, rodmen (surveying)
Operatives—aircraft
Blasters, powdermen




Total

163
7, 775
91

DOUBLED,
women, 1950
"
—
Number added
since 1940

144
6, 683
78

45

OPERATIVE

OCCUPATIONS

WHERE

NUMBER

OF W O M E N

1940-1950—Continued

MORE

THAN

Employed ivomen, 1950

Occupation
I N C R E A S E OF 400 TO 599 P E R C E N T

.
Operatives—public administration
Sailors, deckhands
Motormen—mine, factory
Asbestos, insulation workers
Operatives—telecommunications, utilities, sanitary services _
Furnacemen, smeltermen, pourers

DOUBLED,

Total

Number added
since 1940

6,207
754
214
405
3,284
1,239

5, 127
617
175
330
2, 639
992

1, 387
934
9, 415
3, 292
1, 887

1, 105
739
7, 362
2, 536
1, 416

4, 971
890
3, 471
4, 590
416
45, 559

3, 664
645
2, 487
3, 136
280
30, 428

1, 105
179, 946
203

722
117, 486
132

11, 168
1, 154
16, 411

7, 242
741
10, 460

6, 631
3, 884
4, 713
1, 435
107, 834
12, 463
1, 166

4, 220
2, 495
2, 926
889
65, 064
7, 492
700

6, 019
20, 826
26, 255
21, 773
56, 350
28, 264
4,742
24, 090

3, 567
12, 288
15, 234
12, 026
30, 599
14, 802
2,450
12, 208

I N C R E A S E OF 200 TO 399 P E R C E N T

Operatives—construction
Oilers, greasers (except auto)
Welders, flame cutters
Operatives-—agricultural machinery
Sawyers
Operatives:
Saw, planing mills
Cement, concrete, plaster
Meat cutters (except packinghouse)
Operatives—transportation (except railroad)
Heaters—metal
Operatives—miscellaneous machinery
I N C R E A S E OF 150 TO 199 P E R C E N T

Stationary
firemen
Operatives—electrical machinery, supply
Boatmen, canalmen, lock keepers
Operatives:
Personal services
Railroads, railway express
Drivers—bus, taxicab, truck, tractor
•
Operatives:
Business, repair services
Structural clay
Miners (includes laborers), (n. e. c.)
Railroad, miscellaneous transportation equipment
Wholesale, retail trade
Photographic process workers
Operatives—petroleum refining
I N C R E A S E OF 100 TO 149 P E R C E N T

Operatives:
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral, stone
Nonferrous metal—primary, fabricated
Furniture,
fixtures
Miscellaneous food products
Motor vehicles, equipment
Miscellaneous paper, pulp
Grain mill products.
Professional, photographic equipment, supplies

TOBACCO A N D KNITTING PLANTS SHOW DECLINE IN WOMEN OPERATIVES

The number of women operatives had decreased from 1940 to 1950
in only six occupations, most of them not major employers of women.
However, two employed over 50,000 women in 1940 and were then
among the first 10 employers of women operatives—tobacco manufactures and knitting mills. The latter declined by over 11,000
women (about a tenth), though it is still large in 1950. The decline
in the knitting industry was still greater for men, and hence the proportion of women among all its workers is greater in 1950 than in 1940.
Tobacco manufactures lost over 8,500 women and the proportion of
46




women among all tobacco operatives also declined, though women
still are 70 percent of the total.
WOMEN PREDOMINATE IN 19 OPERATIVE OCCUPATIONS

Women are half or more of all workers in a fifth of the operative
occupations. Almost all dressmakers and seamstresses (not in
factories) are women, as are over four-fifths of the milliners and the
operatives making apparel and accessories. Women are about threefourths or more of the operatives in knitting mills, miscellaneous fabricated textiles, tobacco manufactures, and of the spinners in textile
mills (first separately reported in 1950). The list following shows all
operative occupations with women a fifth or more of their workers.
O P E R A T I V E O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H W O M E N A F I F T H OR M O R E OF T H E I R

1950
Occupations with nine-tenths or more women:
Dressmakers, seamstresses (not in factory)
Milliners
Occupation with four-fifths women:
:
Operatives—apparel, accessories
Occupations with three-fourths women:
Spinners—textile
Operatives:
Knitting mills
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products..
Occupations with half to two-thirds women:
Operatives:
Tobacco manufactures
Laundry, dry cleaning
Confectionery
Canning fruits, vegetables, seafoods
Graders, packers—fruits, nuts, vegetables
Operatives:
Drugs, medicines
Watches, clocks, clockwork devices
Not specified food industries
Personal services
Leather products (except footwear)
Electric machinery, equipment, supplies
Leather footwear..
Bakery products
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Miscellaneous paper, pulp products
Occupations with a third to nearly half women:
Operatives:
Miscellaneous textile-mill products
Paperboard containers and boxes
Professional equipment, supplies
Printing, publishing, allied industries
Photographic process workers
Operatives:
Miscellaneous food products
Pottery, related products
Carpets, rugs, floor coverings
Fabricated nonferrous metal products
Weavers-—textile
Operatives:
Wholesale, retail trade
Photographic equipment, supplies
Office, store machinery, devices
Synthetic fibers (chemical)
Rubber products
Glass, glass products




WORKERS,

Percent
97
89
81
75
72
72
70
67
65
63
60
60
59
58
56
55
54
53
53
50
49
47
45
45
44
44
43
43
43
41
39
38
38
34
32
30
30

47

O P E R A T I V E O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H W O M E N A F I F T H O R M O R E OF T H E I R

1950—Continued

Occupations with a fifth to a fourth women:
Operatives:
Meat products
Fabricated steel products
Miscellaneous wood products
Not specified metal industries
Mineral, stone products (miscellaneous nonmetallic)
Dyeing, finishing textiles
Furniture,
fixtures
Structural clay products
Miscellaneous machinery
PROPORTION

OF W O M E N

WORKERS,

Percent
29
26
25
24
22
22
21
19
18

I N C R E A S E S IN M O S T O P E R A T I V E

OCCUPATIONS

In the great majority of the operative occupations, the proportion
of women among all workers increased somewhat from 1940 to 1950.
In most cases these increases are small, but in the 16 listed below they
are notable in extent (as much as 5 points or more). Five of these
occupations are among the largest employers of women operatives,
and in each over haJf the operatives now are women—electrical
machinery, leather footwear, two textile industries, and a miscellaneous
manufacturing group. Notable increases in the proportion of women
among operatives also occurred in three other industries that employ
over 20,000 women—miscellaneous food preparations, meat products,
and furniture plants.
In about a fifth of the operative occupations there are declines in
the proportion of workers who are women. In most cases declines are
very slight, being notable (as much as 5 points) in only two—operatives
in making paperboard and paper containers, and milliners.
OPERATIVE

OCCUPATIONS

W I T H CONSIDERABLE INCREASES
W O M E N , 1 9 4 0 TO 1 9 5 0

Occupation

Operatives in manufacturing:
Nondurable goods:
Textile mill products (miscellaneous)
Foods (miscellaneous, nonspecified)
Leather footwear
Meat products
Textiles:
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Knitting mills
Durable goods:
Aircraft and parts
Structural clay products
Electrical machinery, supplies
Mineral, stone, miscellaneous nonmetallic
Metal industries—nonspecified
Miscellaneous (including clocks, watches)
Furniture, fixtures
Photographic process workers
Operatives, nonmanufacturing:
Business, repair services
Transportation (except railroad)

48




IN

PROPORTION

Percent of all
workers

mo
47
47

OF

Women

mo

Number employed, 1950

53
29

38
39
46
23

13,
21,
110,
35,

806
773
743
549

50
72

45
67

220, 054
104, 926

12
19
54
22
24
53
21
44

4
11
47
15
18
47
16
35

7, 7 7 5
3, 8 8 4
179, 9 4 6
6,019
854
122, 3 4 0
26, 2 5 5
12, 4 6 3

13
13

7
7

6, 631
4, 5 9 0

LONG-TERM

GAINS

The general group of operatives not in specific occupations was
first reported in 1910 according to the industries engaging them. In
some 20 industries the classifications have remained nearly enough
the same through these four decades to give an interesting picture
of the changes in proportions of women among all operatives in the
industry. Details of these changes in each decade are shown in the
table on page 50.
In over half of these industries the proportion of women operatives increased from 1910 to 1950, in some cases very considerably.
For example, the proportion of women is 20 or more points higher
in 1950 than in 1910 in the production of leather products (except
shoes), glassware, meat products, and apparel.
This discussion deals solely with the proportion of women, which
shows their place in relation to all workers in an occupation, but does
not indicate change in the number of women employed. In an enlarging industry the increase in the number of women over a decade
may be great, but their proportion may be smaller because the
increase in number of men workers is even greater. This was the
case from 1940 to 1950 in the making of paper boxes and the production of miscellaneous chemicals (including drugs and medicines).
Again, the number of women may decline in an industry, but their
proportion may increase because the number of men declined even
more. Such was the situation in knitting mills from 1940 to 1950.
In eight occupations, the proportion of women operatives showed
a rise continuously in every decade from 1910 to 1950, and is much
greater in 1950 than in 1910:
Motor vehicles and equipment.
Meat products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Glass, glass products.

Leather products (except footwear).
Apparel and accessories.
Footwear (except rubber).
Furniture, fixtures.

The proportion of women is considerably greater in 1950 than in
1910 (though in some decades the proportion declined or remained
the same as in the preceding decade) in three additional occupations:
Electrical machinery and supplies; canning fruits, vegetables, seafoods; and fruit, vegetable graders and packers (not in factory).
In four occupations, on the other hand, the proportion of women
declined in earlier decades, rose somewhat in later decades, but is
less in 1950 than in 1910: Rubber products; printing, publishing; and
carpet, rug manufacturing. In a few occupations the proportion of
women has declined almost continuously and in 1950 is far below
the 1910 figure: Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals; paperboard containers and boxes; and miscellaneous paper and pulp
products.




49

The following table lists these occupations, together with a few
others in which there has been little change, or no consistent trend
since 1910, in the proportion of women among all operatives.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED OPERATIVE OCCUPATIONS,

1910-1950

Women as percent of all workers
1950

Operative group

Apparel and accessories __
—
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Electrical machinery, equipment, supplies
Dressmakers, seamstresses, except factory
Footwear, except rubber
Knitting mills
Motor vehicles, equipment
Canning and preserving fruits, vegetables,
seafood
Tobacco manufactures
Rubber products
Meat products
Bakery products
Printing, publishing, allied industries
Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals,
allied products
Confectionery, related products
Miscellaneous paper, pulp products
Paperboard containers and boxes
Furniture, fixtures
Leather products, except footwear
Glass, glass products
Fruit and vegetable graders, packers, except
factory
Carpets, rugs, other floor coverings

19S0

1920

81
50
54
97
52
72
17

79
48
46
98
44
66
13

69
*5i
41
100
39
67
10

63
1 53
44
100
36
75
9

64
70
31
29
53
44

64
69
28
22
50
42

64
65
27
18
39
42

53
57
23
16
40
48

50
47
34
9
47
49

22
65
49
46
21
55
30

27
65
56
51
14
49
23

32
63
62
59
13
35
17

35
62
62
65
13
27
14

42
58
65
72
9
23
7

61
43

58
43

61
39

38
41

43
48

mo

1910

61
53
47
100
33
74
3

1

i Includes miscellaneous fabricated textile-mill products not shown separately until 1940.

Professional Women
Professional or technical occupations engage almost 2 million
women, somewhat more than a tenth of all those employed. This
group is now third largest in employment of women, being exceeded
only by clerical workers and operatives. It shows a notable numerical increase in the past decade and now has nearly one-half million
more women than in 1940, an addition of about 30 percent. Women
constitute a slightly smaller proportion of the 1950 professional
workers (39 percent) than of those in 1940 (42 percent).
TEACHERS

AND

PROFESSIONAL

NURSES

ARE

TWO-THIRDS

OF

ALL

WOMEN

There is marked concentration of professional women in certain
types of work, teachers and nurses being two-thirds of the total.
However, other occupations claim a larger proportion of the professional women in 1950 than was true in 1940.
Just over four-fifths of the women professional workers are in seven
occupations, listed below, each of which engages about 50,000 women
or more. Accountants and auditors are among the first seven professional occupations in 1950, but not in 1940, because then classified
in a clerical group. In this group in 1940 (but not in 1950) were re50




ligious workers. (See explanation later.) The following list shows
the professional and technical occupations that employ over 9,000
women.
LARGEST PROFESSIONAL OR TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN, 1 9 5 0
Employed women, 1950
Number
added since
mo
452, 539

Teachers—school
Nurses (professional, student)
Professional
388,921
Student
74, 574
Musicians, music teachers
Technicians (medical, dental, testing).
Medical, dental
43, 271
Testing
16, 800
Recreation, group, social, welfare
workers
Social, welfare
52, 224
Recreation, group
6, 693
Accountants, auditors
Librarians
Artists, art teachers
College presidents, professors, instructors (n. e. c.)
Religious workers
Editors, reporters
Dietitians, nutritionists
Personnel, labor relations workers
Therapists, healers (n. e. c.)
Physicians, surgeons
Dancers, dancing teachers
Social scientists (n. e. c.)
Sports instructors, officials
Designers
Photographers
All other

Percent
distribution

Percent
of all
workers

1, 9 3 8 , 9 8 5

Occupation

100

39

834, 996
463, 495

43
24

75
98

67, 2 2 7
118,518
M
«

" 7 7 , " 844
60, 0 7 1

4
3

51
40

18, 3 8 8
36, 2 8 0

Number

0)
O
64

14, 5 2 8

55, 660
49, 027
29, 566

15
89
38

37, 395
16, 661
11, 559

28, 907
28, 838
28, 595
21, 059
15, 016
12, 077
11,714
11, 438
11, 373
11, 133
10, 203
9, 088
109, 968

23
70
32
94
29
49
6
71
32
25
26
17

58, 9 1 7

3

9, 023
2, 236
13, 845

2

«
«

4, 567
4, 106
2, 405
7, 271
2,512
4, 465

1 Not reported separately in 1940.
2 In this case a decline.
NOTE.—For more complete details see table 6 - 0 in the appendix.

The concentration of workers in specific occupations is much more
marked for women than for men. The seven largest professional
occupations for women employ four-fifths of the total, while the
seven largest for men employ only three-fifths of the professional men.
Furthermore, the chief occupations differ greatly for the two sexes,
as the following lists show. The only two that are in the top seven
occupations for both sexes are teaching and accountancy.
SEVEN LARGEST PROFESSIONAL OR TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS

For women
For men
Employing over 80 percent of all
Employing 60 percent
professional women.
professional men.
School teachers.
Engineers (professional).
Nurses (professional).
Accountants, auditors.
Musicians, music teachers.
School teachers.
Social workers (all types).
Physicians, surgeons.
Accountants, auditors.
Lawyers, judges.
Librarians.
Clergymen.
Draftsmen.
Medical and dental technicians.




of

all

51

NOTABLE

CHANGES

IN

NUMBERS

OF

W O M E N

IN

PROFESSIONS

Since 1940, each of the nine professional or technical occupations
listed below has increased in number of women by more than 10,000;
together, these account for the greater part of the entire increase in
the number of professional women. One group, accountants and
auditors, grew so greatly as to bring it in 1950 well into the upper
ranks in employment of professional women. Two other much smaller
occupations showed marked increases—artists and art teaphers, and
editors and reporters.
The single professional occupation that lost a notable number of
women over the decade is that of religious worker, which declined by
more than 2,000. However, this loss is more than made up by the
increase of more than 3,500 women classified as clergymen; the two
groups combined show an increase from 1940 of about 1,400 women.
It may be that a more accurate reporting allocates to the group of the
clergy some women who formerly were listed merely as religious
workers, or that some formerly so listed have since been ordained
as clergymen.
PROFESSIONAL

OCCUPATIONS

THAT

ADDED

OVER

10,000

WOMEN,

Occupation

RADIO

OPERATORS

MORE

TO

1950

Number of
women
added since
1940

Nurses (professional and student)
Teachers (school)
Accountants, auditors
Technicians (medical, dental, testing)
Musicians, music teachers
Librarians
Recreation, group, social, welfare workers
Editors, reporters
Artists, art teachers
W O M E N

1940

THAN

118, 518
67, 227
37, 395
36, 280
18, 388
16, 661
14, 528
13, 845
11,559
DOUBLED

The number of women more than doubled from 1940 to 1950 in 15
professional or technical occupations that can be compared in the
two periods, as listed below. This indicates growth in opportunities
for women, even though most of these are relatively small occupations
for women, and some also are relatively small for men (such as athletes,
actors, veterinarians, entertainers).
Some of these are new occupations, such as radio operator, and
although not large even for men, may be expected to grow. Others are
occupations not considered usual for women, such as chemist, pharmacist, clergyman, or engineer (each of which now employs some 6,500
or more women), and surveyor, veterinarian, or athlete (each with
fewer than 1,000 women). The attention paid in these times to scientific lines of work is reflected in the increased numbers of women
chemists and engineers, in each case almost 6,000 more than in 1940,
and of women technicians in medical fields, who number over 36,000
more than a decade ago.
52




P R O F E S S I O N A L O R T E C H N I C A L O C C U P A T I O N S I N W H T C H T H E N U M B E R OF
M O R E THAN DOUBLED, 1 9 4 0 - 5 0
[In order of largest percent increase]

Employed

Occupation

RECREATION, G R O U P

WORKERS, A N D

women, 1950
Number
added since
1940

Total

Radio operators
Veterinarians
Surveyors
Engineers (technical)
Draftsmen
Technicians (n. e. c.)
Chemists
Athletes
Airplane pilots, navigators
Accountants, auditors
Sports instructors, officials
Technicians (medical, dental, testing)
Entertainers
Pharmacists
Clergymen

WOMEN

1, 482
832
946
6, 475
8, 370
4, 243
7, 451
705
185
55, 660
11, 133
60, 071
4, 293
7, 261
6, 777
MEDICAL

TECHNICIANS

1, 385
753
845
5, 745
6, 956
3, 342
5, 797
513
134
37, 395
7, 271
36, 280
2, 453
4, 045
3, 629
FIRST

REPORTED SEPARATELY IN 1950

The 1950 census shows separate reports for nine professional
occupations for the first time, and in addition lists eight specialized
types of technical engineers. Several of these new items consist of
a separation of a more detailed occupation from a group total formerly
reported. This gives a further picture of the branch of the occupation
that employs most of the women, and the branch in which women are
the largest proportion of workers. For example:
Social and welfare workers are nine-tenths of the women "recreation,
group, social, and welfare workers," reported only as a total in 1940. The
1950 data show women as nearly 70 percent of these, while they are only a
little over 40 percent of the recreation and group workers.
Medical and dental technicians are nearly three-fourths of the women
"medical, dental, and testing technicians," reported only as a total in 1940.
The 1950 data show women to be nearly 60 percent of these, while they are
only a little over 20 percent of the testing technicians.

Among the important occupations now separately reported from the
group formerly combined as "all other professional" are the following,
each employing over 10,000 w^omen: Dietitians and nutritionists,
personnel and labor relations workers, and social scientists.
PROFESSIONAL

OCCUPATIONS

FIRST SEPARATELY
OVER 5,000 WOMEN

Occupation

Social, welfare workers
Technicians—medical, dental
Dietitians, nutritionists
Technicians—testing
Personnel, labor-relations workers
Social scientists
Recreation, group workers
Natural scientists (n. e. c.)




REPORTED

IN

1950,

WITH

Women
Number

52, 224
43, 275
21, 059
16, 800
15, 016
11,373

6, 693
5, 839

Percent of
all workers

69
57
94
22
29
32

42
15

53

Technical engineering is an unusual field for women, who constitute only 2 percent or less of the workers in almost all branches of
this profession. Of the small group of about 6,500 women technical
engineers reported by the census, half are in civil or electrical engineering. In metallurgical, chemical, and civil engineering, and in the
relatively new field of aeronautics, women are a slightly larger proportion of the workers than in other branches of engineering. It is
probable that two fifths or more of the women classified as engineers
are engineering aides, draftsmen, and engineering technicians. (See
Women's Bureau Bulletin 254, Employment Opportunities for Women
in Professional Engineering, 1954.)
Women
Number

Civil
Electrical
Chemical
Mechanical
Industrial
Aeronautical
Metallurgical, metallurgists
Mining
Other.
WOMEN
AND

A R E NINE-TENTHS O F A L L

1

1, 932
1,237
629
576
450
331
241
109
970

All technical engineers

Percent of
all workers

6, 475

Engineering occupation

2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1

NURSES, DIETITIANS,

LIBRARIANS

Women have a virtual monopoly of the occupations of professional
nurse (98 percent), dietitian and nutritionist (94 percent), and are
89 percent of the librarians and 75 percent of the teachers. These
proportions are much the same as in 1940 (except the dietitian group,
for which 1940 information was not reported separately). Women
are about 70 percent of the dancers and dancing teachers and also
of the religious workers (although the proportion of women in these
groups has declined notably since 1940), and of the social welfare
workers (not separately reported in 1940). The following list shows
all the professional or technical occupations in which women constitute
a tenth or more of the workers.

54




PROFESSIONAL OR TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH WOMEN ARE A TENTH OR
MORE OF THE WORKERS, 1 9 5 0

Occupations with nine-tenths or more women:
Nurses (professional and student)
Dietitians and nutritionists
Librarians
Occupations with two-thirds to three-fourths women:
Teachers (school)
Dancers, dancing teachers
Religious workers
Social, welfare workers
Occupations with about one-half women:
Technicians—medical, dental
Musicians, music teachers
Therapists, healers
Farm, home-management advisers
Occupations with a third to one-half women:
Recreation and group workers
Authors
Artists, art teachers
Actors, actresses
Social scientists
Editors, reporters
Occupations with about a fourth women:
Personnel, labor-relations workers
Entertainers
Designers
Sports instructors, officials
College presidents, professors, instructors
Technicians—testing
Occupations with a tenth to a fifth women:
Photographers
Technicians (n. e. c.)
Accountants, auditors
Osteopaths
Natural scientists (n. e. c.)
Chiropractors
Chemists
Radio operators

Percent
98
94
89
75
71
70
69
57
51
49
49
42
39
38
34
32
32
29
29
26
25
23
22
17
16
15
15
15
14
10
9

Women still constitute only very small proportions of the workers
in three professions of traditionally high importance for men—
medicine, law, and engineering. Together, these professions engage
less than 2 percent of all professional women, but in each the number
of women has increased markedly over the decade:
Women

Occupatim

Physicians, surgeons
Engineers—technical
Lawyers, judges




Number,
1950

Number
added since
1940

11, 714
6,475
6,256

4,106
5,745
2,069

Women as percent of
all workers
1950

6. 1
1.2
3.5

1940

4. 6
0.3
2.4

55

CHANGES
W H O

IN

ARE

PROPORTIONS

OF

PROFESSIONAL

WORKERS

WOMEN

The proportion of women among all professional workers has
declined slightly since 1940, from 42 percent in 1940 to 40 percent in
1950. However, the proportion of women has increased considerably
in 13 of the professional and technical occupations. Four of these are
listed below as employing over 28,000 women, and in three of these,
women are now from a third to a half of the workers—musicians and
music teachers, medical ^technicians, and ^editors and reporters.
Others are still very small though they have grown greatly, as for
example radio operators and veterinarians. The list is as follows:
P R O F E S S I O N A L OR T E C H N I C A L O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H C O N S I D E R A B L E I N C R E A S E S IN
P R O P O R T I O N S OF W O M E N , 1940-50
Women as percent
of all workers
Occupation

Entertainers
Accountants, auditors
Editors, reporters
Sports instructors, officials
Technicians (n. e. c.)
Chemists
Radio operators
Authors
Musicians, music teachers
Therapists, healers (n. e. c.)
Technicians—medical, dental, testing
Draftsmen
Veterinarians

1950

1940

29
15
32
25
16
10
9
39
51
49
40
7
6

20
8
25
18
9
3
2
33
46
44
35
2
1

Number of
women,

mo

4,293
55, 660
28, 595
11, 133
4,243
7,451
1,482
6,059
77,844
12, 077
60, 071
8, 370
832

On the other hand, the proportion of women has declined in 10 of
the professional occupations reported in the group in both 1940 and
1950. In most cases these declines are very slight, but they are over
5 points in the following:
Women as percent
of all workers
Occupation

Dancers, dancing teachers
Religious workers
Actors, actresses

1950

1940

71
70
34

81
77
40

Number of
womenf
1950

11,438
28, 838
5,077

Small but definite declines in the proportion of women among all
workers also may be mentioned among college presidents, professors,
and instructors, and both osteopaths and chiropractors.
Most of the occupations in which the proportions of women have
declined are nevertheless growing occupations; the actual number of
women has increased but the increase for men is greater. However,
the number of women as well as their proportion of the total has
declined among religious workers (already explained) and in the very
small occupations of osteopath and chiropractor (together including
only about 2,600 women in the entire country).

56




TRENDS SINCE 1 9 0 0 IN P R O P O R T I O N S O F P R O F E S S I O N A L
WHO

ARE

WORKERS

WOMEN

In a number of outstanding professions the proportion of all workers
who are women can be traced back at least to 1910 or 1900, as shown
in the table following. In most of these professions the proportion
of women is higher, often considerably higher, in 1950 than it was in
1910.
Greatest increases in proportion of women occurred among editors
&nd reporters and social welfare and recreation workers. Among
editors and reporters, draftsmen, and photographers, women are in
higher proportion in 1950 than in any other decade. The proportion
of women rose to its highest in 1920 for teachers and in 1930 for
librarians, designers, social welfare and recreation workers, and college
presidents and professors, declining after 1930, or in the case of designers remaining level in later decades. The proportion of women
has been much the same through the years among physicians and
surgeons (4 to 6 percent women) and nurses (93 to 98 percent women).
Among artists and art teachers, musicians and music teachers, and
authors declines in proportion of women have been continuous since
1910, except for a partial recovery in 1950.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED PROFESSIONAL AND
TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0
Women as percent of all workers inoccupation

Teachers—school
Nurses—professional, student
Musicians, music teachers
Recreation, group, social, welfare
workers
Librarians
Artists, art teachers
College presidents, professors, instructors (n. e. c.)
.
Editors, reporters
Physicians, surgeons
Designers
Draftsmen
Photographers
Authors

1950
74
98
49

mo
75
98
41

19S0
82
98
48

1920
84
96
55

1910
80
93
60

66
89
38

67
89
34

68
91
38

62
88
42

52
79
46

23
32
6
27
7
17
39

27
25
5
38
2
14
33

32
24
4
38
2
15
44

30
17
5
37
4
15
45

4

1900
L

(2)
(3)

19
P)
13
6
(4)
22 I
1 J
11
47
(6)

4

1 Teachers (n. e. c.) includes college presidents, professors, instructors in 1900.
2 Includes clergy, separately reported in later decades.
8 Includes attendants, assistants, separately reported from 1910, and in 1960 reported with clerical but not
with professional workers.
< Includes osteopaths until 1920, and in 1900 other types of healers.
8 Group reported in 1900 includes "scientists."

Service Workers
Service occupations (except those in households, reported elsewhere)
employ not far from 2 million women, almost as many as are in professional or technical work. This is the occupation group fourth in
size for women; it has more than a tenth of all employed women (12
percent). This group has grown markedly and now employs twothirds million more women than in 1940, an increase of 56 percent.
295777—54




5

57

Women are 45 percent of all service workers, a larger proportion than
in 1940 when they were 38 percent of the total.
CHIEF SERVICE O C C U P A T I O N S

OF

WOMEN

Here, as in other groups, women are concentrated to a large extent
in a few occupations. Almost two-thirds of them are in five occupations, each with more than 120,000 women. This is much the same
situation as in 1940. Largest of these service occupations is that of
waitress, with over 545,000 women, who constitute more than a fourth
of all women employed in this group. Waitresses, cooks, and beauty
operators are half of all women service workers. The list below shows
the 13 occupations in this group that employ more than 10,000 women.
LARGEST SERVICE OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN, 1 9 5 0
Employed women, 1950

Occupation

Total

Number

Percent
distribution

Percent
of all
workers

Number
added since
I91fi

1, 914, 293

Waitresses, waiters
Cooks (except private household)
Beauticians, barbers, manicurists
Practical nurses
Attendants—hospital, other institution.
Housekeepers, stewards (except private
household)
Charwomen, cleaners
Janitors, sextons
Counter, fountain workers
Attendants—professional, personal
service (n. e. c.)
Elevator operators
Boarding-, lodging-house keepers
Bartenders
All other (except private household) _ _

100

45

689, 654

545,565
242,422
189, 870
130,304
121,261

28
13
10
7
6

82
56
50
96
59

(*)
126, 112
2 16, 722
(*)
82,519

82,904
72,116
53, 195
44,423
31,587

4
4
3
2
2

78
60
12
51
66

23,328
37,863
15,874
0)
13,249

26, 929
21,052
13,431
339, 234

1
1
1
18

30
73
7

2

14, 243
40, 303
10,331

1 Not separately reported in 1940.
Counter workers were included with waitresses in 1940, and the com
bined group added 229,052 by 1950; likewise, midwives were included with practical nurses in 1940, and the
combined group added 44,497 women by 1950.
2 In this case a decline.
NOTE.—For more complete details see table 6-D in the appendix.

The concentration of service workers in a few chief occupations is
much more marked for women than for men. The five largest service
occupations of men employ only half of all the men, but women's five
largest employ about two-thirds of the women. Furthermore, these
occupations differ in order for the two sexes; only two are among the
first five for both—those of cook and barber or beautician. They are
as follows:
F I V E LARGEST SERVICE OCCUPATIONS

For women
Employing 64 percent of women
service workers.
Waitresses.
Cooks (except private household).
Beauticians, manicurists.
Practical nurses.
Attendants—hospital, other institution.

58




For men
Employing 51 percent of men
service workers.
Janitors, sextons.
Guards, watchmen.
Barbers, beauticians.
Cooks (except private household).
Policemen, detectives.

NOTABLE

CHANGES

IN

NUMBERS

OF

W O M E N

SERVICE

WORKERS

Most service occupations employ more women than in 1940, in some
cases a very large additional number. In 10 of these occupations
10,000 women or more have been added (see list). The largest increases
are among waitresses and fountain girls and cooks. These occupations
account for half of the entire increase in the group as a whole, and the
inclusion of hospital attendants accounts for almost two-thirds of the
increase.
In two occupations the number of women has decreased. The
largest decline is 40,000 among keepers of boarding and lodging houses,
a decrease of two-thirds from the number in 1940. The proportion of
women among all engaged in this occupation also has declined markedly, from 85 percent in 1940 to 73 percent in 1950. The other
occupation with a decline in the number of women is that of beautician
S E R V I C E OCCUPATIONS T H A T A D D E D O V E R 1 0 , 0 0 0 W O M E N , 1 9 4 0 TO

mo

Occupation

Waitresses; counter, fountain girls
Cooks (except private household)
Attendants—hospitals, institutions
Mid wives, practical nurses
Charwomen, cleaners
Housekeepers (except private household), stewardesses
Janitors, sextons
Elevator operators
Attendants—professional, personal service (n. e. c.)
Bartenders
NUMBER
HAS

OF

COOKS, HOSPITAL

1950
Number o
women
added since

ATTENDANTS,

229, 052

126, 112
82,
44,
37,
23,
15,
14,
13,
10,

519
497
863
328
874
243
249
331

CHARWOMEN,

DOUBLED

In seven service occupations the number of women doubled from
1940 to 1950. Three of these, cooks, hospital attendants, and charwomen, were large occupations for women in 1940. Some of the
others, though not among the largest occupations, may continue their
growth and provide job opportunities for many more women. The
seven include elevator operators, bartenders, policemen and detectives,
and crossing watchmen.
Two occupations are separately reported in 1950 for the first time.
One of these, counter and fountain workers, employing nearly 45,000
women, formerly was included with waitresses and constitutes 8 percent of the combined group. The other occupation now separately
shown is the small one of midwife, employing about 1,400 women—
about 1 percent of the group of practical nurses with which it formerly
was included.
W O M E N

ARE

NINE-TENTHS

OF

ALL

PRACTICAL

NURSES

Women are half or more of the workers in 11 of the service occupations. These and other service occupations in which women are a
tenth or more of the workers are shown in the following list. It is




59

scarcely surprising that almost all the practical nurses are women.
Women also are four-fifths of the waiters and waitresses and the midwives, and three-fourths of the housekeepers and stewards and the
keepers of boarding and lodging houses. In eight of the occupations
in this group, fewer than 5 percent of the workers are women. These
include porters, bootblacks, and several occupations in protective
services, such as guards and watchmen, police and detectives, and
marshals and constables.
SERVICE

OCCUPATIONS

IN

WHICH WOMEN ARE
WORKERS, 1950

A

TENTH

OR

MORE

Occupations with over nine-tenths women:
Practical nurses
Occupations with over four-fifths women:
Midwives
Waiters, waitresses
Occupations with three-fourths women:
Housekeepers, stewards (except private household)
Boarding-, lodging-house keepers
Occupations with one-half to two-thirds women:
Attendants—professional, personal services
Charwomen, cleaners
Attendants—hospitals, institutions
Cooks (except private household)
Counter, fountain workers
Beauticians (includes barbers, manicurists)
Occupations with a tenth to a third women:
Ushers—recreation, amusement
Elevator operators
Janitors, sextons
CHANGES

IN P R O P O R T I O N S

OF

SERVICE

WORKERS

OF

THE

Percent
96
83
82
78
73
66
60
59
56
51
50
34
30
12
W H O

ARE

W O M E N

In the service group as a whole the proportion of women among all
workers increased from 38 percent in 1940 to 45 percent in 1950, an
increase of 7 points. The list following shows the service occupations
in which the proportions of women increased as much as 7 points.
The greatest increases in proportions of women are among hospital
attendants, and in the large occupation of cook. Several occupations
with increased proportions of women may prove promising as future
employment openings for more women, as for example attendants in
hospitals, ushers in amusement places, or elevator operators (though
automatic elevators and escalators are used increasingly, there are
likely to continue to be large buildings where they may not be satisfactory or may prove too difficult to install).
The only decline in proportion of women in the service occupations
is that in keepers of boarding and lodging houses.
SERVICE

OCCUPATIONS

W T ITH

Occupation

C O N S I D E R A B L E I N C R E A S E S I N P R O P O R T I O N S OF
WOMEN,
1940-50
Women as percent of all Number of
workers
women,
1950
19^0
1950

Attendants—hospitals, institutions
Cooks (except private household)
Ushers—recreation, amusement
Elevator operators
—_
Waiters, waitresses; counter, fountain workers

60




59
56
34
30
79

42
42
21
17
68

121, 261
242, 422
7, 836
26, 929
589, 983

In several of the service occupations, the proportion of women
among all workers can be traced back to 1910 or 1900, as shown in
the following table, though in three of the largest, data are available
only from 1930. The proportion of women has increased enormously
among beauticians and considerably among elevator operators. Since
1930 it has increased greatly in the large groups of waitresses and
cooks (then first reported), and moderately among housekeepers and
stewards. The proportion of women has remained very similar
through the years in the very large group of practical nurses and midwives (about 95 percent), and in the much smaller group of ushers and
attendants in theaters and amusement places (11 to 15 percent).
On the other hand, the proportion of women has declined notably
among keepers of boarding and lodging houses, charwomen and cleaners (though women still are 60 percent of these workers), and among
janitors and sextons.
WOMEN AS PERCENT

OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED SERVICE

1900-1950

OCCUPATIONS,

Women as percent of all workers in—
Occupation

Waitresses (except private household).
Cooks (except private household)
Beauticians, barbers
Practical nurses, midwives
Housekeepers, stewardesses
Charwomen, cleaners
Janitors, sextons
Elevator operators
Boarding-, lodging-house keepers
Bartenders
Ushers, attendants—theaters, recreation
Guards, watchmen, doorkeepers

1950

1940

1980

1920

79
56
50
96
78
60
12
30
73
7

68
42
50
95
77
54
10
16
85
3

57
40
30
97
71
60
11
18
88
(3)

0)
0)
15
93
0)
61
16
18
86
(*)

15
2

14
1

11
1

15
1

1910

1900

0)
0)
11
94
0)
71
19
3)
(
86
0)

(*)
(2)

2

(2)
(2)

(3)

(1)
0)

(3)
0)

5
95
14
83

1 No comparable data available.
2 First shown separately in 1910.
3 Percent not shown where less than 1.

Private Household Employees
Private household work employs 1% million women, less than a
tenth of all women workers. The number of women in this occupation
has decreased by about a third since 1940—by not far from two-thirds
of a million women. Only in one other occupation group—farmers—has
women's employment declined. Of all household workers 95 percent
are women, and the proportion was much the same in 1940.
Private household workers not elsewhere classified are 85 percent
of this occupation group and include more than 1 million women.
The remainder are in two other occupations, both of considerable
size—housekeepers, with 134,500 women and laundresses with 69,000.
The numbers of women in all these groups have decreased markedly
since 1940, household workers by nearly 300,000 (or 21 percent),
housekeepers by over 200,000, laundresses by over 100,000 (in each
of the latter a decline of 63 percent). For details as to the private
household workers, see table 6-E in the appendix.




61

Only 15 percent of the household workers live in the employer's
family. Practically all laundresses live out, and this is true of nearly
90 percent of the general private household workers. Even of the
housekeepers in private homes, 60 percent live elsewhere than with
the employing families. No comparison can be made with earlier
years, as this information is reported for the first time in 1950.
It is difficult to trace separate household occupations back through
the census periods, since not until 1930 were characteristic household
occupations separately designated as to whether employment was
in the home or elsewhere. Until 1940, housekeepers were included
with all other general service workers in private families. Laundresses
in private families were combined with operatives in laundries until
1930.
Sales Workers
Sales occupations give work to 1 % million women, somewhat less
than a tenth of all employed women (8.5 percent). These occupations
have added over one-half million women in the past decade, an increase
of two-thirds. Women are now a considerably larger proportion of
the workers in these occupations than in 1940.
Most of the women in this group are saleswomen in retail trade,
who number more than 1 million. The list below shows these and
the few other occupations in the group. In 1950, salespersons in
retail trade are first shown separately from the very small proportion
in manufacturing and wholesale trade.
SALES OCCUPATIONS EMPLOYING OVER 5 , 0 0 0 WOMEN, 1 9 5 0
Employed women, 1950

Total

Occupation

Saleswomen—retail trade
Insurance agents, brokers
Saleswomen—manufacturing
Real estate agents, brokers
Saleswomen—wholesale trade
Demonstrators
Allother

Number

1,329,724
1, 192, 323
25,913
22,452
20,277
15,062
10,950
42,747

Percent
Percent of Number added
distribution all workers
since 1940

100

34

527,843

90
2
2
2
1
1
3

49
9
7
14
4
82

(*)
12, 8.32
(*)
10,023
0)
4,447
-----

» Not reported separately in 1940. The total saleswoman group increased by 494,000.
NOTE.—For more complete details see table 6-F in the appendix.

Over nine-tenths of all saleswomen are concentrated in retail trade.
No such concentration is found among salesmen. Among all salespersons, wholesale trade and manufacturing employ only 3 percent of
the women, but 34 percent of the men.
When sales occupations other than retail trade are considered, two
of the most important for women are insurance and real estate, even
though men far outnumber women in such work. In the relatively
small occupation of demonstrator, nearly all the workers are women.
Many of the male workers in the sales group are newsboys, though
few girls are so employed.
62




GROWTH

IN N U M B E R S O F W O M E N

SALES WORKERS

Every occupation in the sales group increased from 1940 to 1950 in
employment of women. The number of saleswomen increased by
almost one-half million. Other notable advances among women sales
workers are over 10,000 additions each to insurance agents and real
estate agents, and 4,400 added demonstrators.
The numbers of women doubled or more than doubled in five of the
sales occupations. Largest of these are the insurance and the real
estate agents and brokers. The others are small groups—stock and
bond sales clerks, auctioneers, and news girls. To the last named,
nearly 3,000 girls have been added, though it still employs less than
4,000. Girls are 4 percent of the workers in this occupation in 1950.
H A L F THE S A L E S W O R K E R S IN RETAIL T R A D E A R E

WOMEN

In the large retail sales group about half the workers are women,
and in the much smaller group of demonstrators women are four-fifths
of the total. The following list shows sales occupations with women
a tenth or more of their workers. The proportion of women increased
from 1940 to 1950 in all sales occupations.
SALES OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH WOMEN ARE A TENTH OR MORE OP THE
WORKERS, 1 9 5 0
Percent

Demonstrators
Sales persons—retail trade
Real estate agents, brokers
Advertising agents, salespersons
Hucksters, peddlers
Stock and bond salespersons
Auctioneers
Insurance agents, brokers

82
49
14
14
14
10
9
9

The proportion of women in several of the sales occupations can be
shown back to 1900, as given in the following table. Sales occupations are of a type likely to have a particular sensitivity to economic
changes, and this is especially true for women. Consequently it is
not surprising that a consistent rise in proportion of women is broken
in some decades by declines-—for example, in 1930 for the large general
group of saleswomen; and in 1920 sharply for demonstrators. However, in 1950 the proportion of women is much larger than in 1900 or
1910 in each occupation shown in the sales group.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED SALES OCCUPATIONS,
1900-1950
Occupation

Salespersons» and sales clerks (n. e. c.)_
Insurance agents, brokers
Demonstrators
Hucksters, peddlers

1950

38
9
82
14

Women as percent of all workers—
19^0
1930
1920
1910
1900

31
5
83
4

2

27
5
77
3

2

30
4
67
4

2

25
3
72
4

2 21
(3)
67
4

* First reported by industry in 1950; nine-tenths of women are in retail trade, and women are half the
salespersons in retail trade.
2 Includes store buyers and department heads, and attendants in filling stations.
3 No comparable data available.




63

Proprietors, Managers, Officials
Women proprietors, managers, and officials now number two-thirds
of a million. This always has been a relatively small occupational group
for women. It has included, both in 1940 and 1950, only about 4
percent of all employed women. For men it is the occupation group
third in size, though employing only about a tenth of the total.
The number of women added to the group in the decade has been
very marked, almost 300,000, an increase of 70 percent from 1940.
Women now constitute a slightly larger proportion of the workers in
this occupational group (13 percent) than in 1940 (11 percent).
Of the women in this group, half are proprietors in their own or a
family business (classified as self-employed). Officials in public administration (inspectors, administrators) and postmasters account for
about 7 percent of the total. The remainder are salaried managers
or officials.
Not far from half the women in the entire management group are
at work in retail trade, either as salaried or self-employed workers,,
the majority of these being in eating and drinking places or in the
sale of food and dairy products. Retail trade, personal services, and
manufacturing together account for almost two-thirds of the women
managers or proprietors. Occupations next in size are buyers and
department heads in stores, officials in public administration (more
than two-thirds of whom are in local governments), and managers or
superintendents of buildings. The list following shows all the occupations in the group that employ as many as 9,000 women.
LARGEST MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS FOR WOMEN,

1950

Employed women, 1950
Occupation

Niimhpr
Percent
Percent of Number added
jxumuer distribution all workers since 1940

Total
676,778
Managers, proprietors:
Retail trade
320, 139
Eating, drinking places
95,234
Food, dairy, milk
83,399
Apparel, accessories
39,397
General merchandise, 5- and
10-cent stores
27,277
Other retail trade
74,832
Personal services
61,030
Manufacturing
40,806
Buyers, department heads—store
36,133
Officials, administrators (n. e. c.)—
public administration
26,322
Managers, superintendents—building
22, 385
Managers, proprietors—insurance, real
estate
17,513
Postmasters
16,668
Managers, proprietors:
Wholesale trade
16,349
Banking,
finance
13, 390
Business services
9,834
Allother
96,209
In this case a decline.
NOTE.—For more complete details, see table 6-G in the appendix.

1

64




100

13

277,680

47
14
12
6

17
27
17
31

113, 676
33,405
22, 117
17,010

4
11
9
6
5

22
9
29
6
25

11,837
29,307
29,975
22,944
18, 552

4
3

17
34

3
2

15 '
43

2
2
1
14

5
10
16

10,505
6, 103

1

11,685,
287
9,357
7, 068;
5,678:
_

In the management group, the concentration in particular occupations is somewhat greater for women than for men, but this variation
is not so wide as in most other occupation groups. As listed below
the five largest occupations for women employ 47 percent of all
women in the entire managerial-official group, and the five largest
for men employ 43 percent of the men.
There is a wide difference in the chief management occupations
that employ men and women. Nearly half the women but only
about a third of the men in the entire group are in retail trade. Among
the workers in the five largest management occupations, eating and
drinking places are first for women, manufacturing is first for men.
FIVE

LARGEST

MANAGEMENT

For women
Employing 47 percent of all women
managers and proprietors.
Retail trade—eating, drinking places.
Retail trade—food, dairy, milk stores.
Personal services.
Manufacturing.
Retail trade—apparel, accessories.

OCCUPATIONS

For men
Employing 43 percent of all men
managers and proprietors.
Manufacturing.
Retail trade—food, dairy, milk stores.
Wholesale trade.
Construction.
Retail trade—eating, drinking places.

M A N Y MORE WOMEN MANAGERS IN RETAIL
TRADE T H A N IN 1940

The increase from 1940 to 1950 in women managers and officials
was 277,680, an increase of 70 percent in the decade. The greater
part of this growth occurred in the three groups that were largest
both in 1940 and in 1950—managers or proprietors in retail trade,
personal services, and manufacturing establishments. Three other
occupations also added over 10,000 women, as shown in the list below.
Occupation

Managers, proprietors—retail trade
Eating, drinking places
Food, dairy, milk stores
Apparel, accessories
General merchandise 5- and 10-cent stores
Other retail trade
Managers, proprietors:
Personal services
Manufacturing
Buyers, department heads—store
Managers, proprietors—insurance, real estate
Officials, administrators (n. e. c.)—
Public administration
Local public administration
Managers, proprietors:
Wholesale trade
Banking,
finance
Business services

Number of
women added
since 1940

33, 405
22, 117
17, 010
11, 837
29, 307

113, 676

29, 975
22, 944
18, 552
11, 685
7, 232

10, 505
9, 357
7, 068
5, 678

The number of women more than doubled in 16 of the occupations
in this group, listed below. Largest of these are managers or proprietors in manufacturing or in insurance and real estate. Some of the




65

smaller groups that may continue to grow for women are proprietors
or managers of repair services, buyers or purchasing agents, creditmen,
and floor managers in stores, nearly half of whom are women. In
only one small occupation in this group were women reported for the
first time in 1950—railroad conductor.
MANAGEMENT OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH NUMBER OF WOMEN MORE THAN
DOUBLED, 1940 TO 1 9 5 0
[In order of largest percent increase]
Employed women, 1950
Occupation

Total

Officers, pursers, etc.—ships
Managers, officials:
Repair services (miscellaneous)
Construction
Insurance, real estate
Transportation
Retail—motor vehicles, accessories
Business services
Wholesale trade
Manufacturing
Floormen, floor managers—store
Purchasing agents, buyers (n. e. c.)
Managers, officials—banking,
finance
Inspectors—public administration
Managers, officials—retail furniture, home-furnishings storesBuyers, department heads—stores
Creditmen
1

Number added
since 1940

1, 129

1, 032

1,537
4, 625
17, 513
5, 828
3, 443
9, 834
16, 349
40, 806
4, 995
5, 718
13, 390
2, 266
8, 216
26, 133
7, 151

1,280
3, 527
11, 685
3, 754
2, 199
5, 678
9, 357
22, 944
2, 794
3, 125
7, 068
1 1, 183
4, 248
18, 552
3, 658

Two-thirds of the added number are in local governments.

Decreases in number of women occurred in three of the management
occupations. Only one of these is of considerable size—managers and
superintendents of buildings. This declined about a fifth in the
employment of women, and the proportion women constitute of all
such workers dropped from 41 percent in 1940 to 34 percent in 1950.
The losses since 1940 are as follows:
Women

Occupation

Managers, superintendents—building
Officials—lodge, society, union
Inspectors—State public administration.
NEARLY

H A L F THE F L O O R M A N A G E R S

Number,
1950

22, 385
2, 885
358

Loss in
number
since
1940

6, 103
1, 160
95

IN STORES A R E

Percent of
all workers
1950 1940

34
11
4

41
16
4

WOMEN

In none of the managerial, official, or proprietary occupations are
women as much as half the workers, the largest proportion being
among floor managers in stores. Women are about a third or more of
the postmasters, the workers in the management of apparel and
accessories stores, and the managers or superintendents of buildings.
In half these occupations less than 5 percent of the workers are women.

66




M A N A G E M E N T OCCUPATIONS IN W H I C H W O M E N A R E A T E N T H OR M O R E OF THE
WORKERS, 1 9 5 0

Occupations with over two-fifths women:
Percent
Floormen, floor managers—store
46
Postmasters
43
Occupations with one-third women:
Managers, superintendents—building
34
Managers, proprietors—apparel, accessories—retail
31
Occupations with one-fifth to one-fourth women:
Managers, proprietors—
Personal services
29
Eating, drinking places—retail
27
Buyers, department heads—store
25
Creditmen
22
Managers, proprietors—general merchandise, 5- and 10-cent—retail__
22
Officials, administrators (n. e. c.)—public administration—local
22
Occupations with one-tenth to one-fifth women:
Managers, proprietors:
Food stores—retail
17
Business services
16
Insurance, real estate
15
Officials, administrators (n. e. c.) in public administration:
State
12
Federal
11
Officials—lodge, society, union
11
Managers, proprietors:
Banking,
finance
10
Telecommunications, public utilities
9
Purchasing agents, buyers
9
PROPORTIONS OF W O M E N A M O N G M A N A G E R I A L WORKERS
INCREASE SINCE 1940

Some advance for women may be seen in the fact that they are a
somewhat larger proportion of the workers in 1950 than in 1940 in
the management group and in most occupations within the group.
The occupations in which the increase is most notable (as much as
5 points) are as follows:
Women as percent of
all workers
Occupation

Floormen, floor managers—store
Creditmen
Managers, proprietors:
Apparel, accessories—retail stores
General merchandise, 5- and 10-cent stores...
Insurance, real estate
Banking, other
finance

1950

1940

Number of
women, 1950

46
22

32
12

4, 995
7, 151

31
22
15
10

23
14
9
5

39, 397
27, 277
17,513
13,390

The proportion women are of all workers has decreased markedly
in two occupations, in each of which there also was a notable decline
in numbers (of more than a fifth). Women were 41 percent of the
managers and superintendents of buildings in 1940, but only 34 percent
in 1950. They were 16 percent of the officials of lodges, societies, or
unions in 1940 and only 11 percent in 1950.




67

SIXTY

PERCENT

OF

W O M E N

IN

M A N A G E M E N T

ARE

SELF-EMPLOYED

The managers and proprietors employed in various types of busine&s
may be salaried or may run their own establishments. The selfemployed are about 60 percent of the total. Much the same proportion of men in management also are self-employed.
Types of industry that have seemed especially promising to women
who run their own business include retail trade and the various
personal services, in each of which about two-thirds or more of the
women proprietors or managers are self-employed. Other occupations
with considerably smaller numbers of women in management, but
with half or more of these self-employed, are business services, construction, miscellaneous repair services, and auto repair services or
garages. At the other end of the scale, only very small proportions
of the women in management in banking and finance or utilities are
self-employed. The following shows the proportions of the women
managers in various types of industry who are self-employed.
S E L F - E M P L O Y E D A N D S A L A R I E D W O M E N IN M A N A G E M E N T ,
Women in

1950

management

Percent who are—
Selfemployed

Industry

Miscellaneous repair services
Retail trade
_ - _
- __
Auto repair services, garages _
_ _
Personal services
_ _
Construction
_
Business services
_ _ Wholesale trade
__
_
Transportation
_
__
Manufacturing
_ _ _ _
__
Insurance, real estate
_
Banking, other finance _ _
Telecommunications, utilities _
__ _ _
All other
LONG-TERM

CHANGES

M A N A G E R I A L

Salaried

Number

61

All industries

IN

PROPORTIONS

39

550, 184

85
75
73
64
57
48
45
41
36
34
8
4
28

15
25
27
36
43
52
55
59
64
66
92
96
72

1, 537
320, 139
1, 469
61, 030
4, 625
9, 834
16, 349
5, 828
40, 806
17, 513
13, 390
6, 234
51, 430

OF W O M E N

A M O N G

WORKERS

The proportion of women among all management workers can be
traced back to 1900 in several types of work, as shown from the table
following. The most notable rise in proportion of women managers in
eating and drinking places came from 1910 to 1930, and in banking and
finance, from 1940 to 1950. Among postmasters and officials and
inspectors in public administration, small rises in proportion of women
occurred in each decade, so that the 1950 proportion is notably above
that in the earliest decade shown here. In general mercantile establishments the proportion of women managers declined in every decade
to 1930 and rose slightly in 1940 and 1950.

68




W O M E N A S P E R C E N T OF A L L W O R K E R S I N S E L E C T E D M A N A G E M E N T

1900-1950

Occupation

Managers, proprietors:
Eating, drinking places
Food, dairy—retail 1
General merchandise, apparel 2___
Manufacturing
Banking, other
finance
Inspectors, officials, public administrators (n. e. c.)
Postmasters

I960

OCCUPATIONS,

Women as percent of all workers in—
Wfl
1930
1920
WW
19G0

26
13
30
6
10

24
10
25
4
5

24
7
22
3
4 5

15
7
29
32
4 4

9
7
39
31
4 3

6
3
46
* 1
4)
(

14
43

9
43

8
40

6
35

4
31

(5)
28

1 Includes meat cutters (except in slaughter and packing houses), which for comparability with earlier
years are brought from the operative group in 1940 and 1950.
2 Includes milliners, and except in 1900 includes 5- and 10-cent stores.
3 First separately reported from 1930 (13,634); for 1900, 1910, and 1920 includes mining; construction; auto
storage, rental and repair services; railroads and repair shops; miscellaneous transportation; also street
railways and bus lines; and in 1900, still other items.
4 No comparable data available for 1900. Small number of saleswomen in finance, brokerage and commission firms included, 1910-30.
« No comparable data available.

Farm Occupations
The women in the
groups of farm occupations reported by the
Census Bureau are less than 4 percent of all employed women. These
comprise nearly one-half million farm laborers and foremen and
116,400 farmers and farm managers (chiefly farmers).
The farmer and farm manager group is the smallest employer of
women in any major occupation group, though for men it is fourth
in size. Both men and women farmers have declined in number
since 1940.
Women farmers number 114,000, which represents a decline of onefourth since 1940. However, the small group of women farm managers increased from about 800 in 1940 to 2,000 in 1950. Women also
increased proportionally in this small occupation, being 6 percent of
those so employed in 1950 as compared to 2 percent a decade earlier.
For details on women in farm occupations, see table 6-H in the
appendix.
In the farm labor group the number of women has increased about
40 percent since 1940, and at the same time the number of men has
declined about 30 percent. About 70 percent of the women in the
farm labor group are unpaid family workers, who number 317,600.
The remaining 130,300 women are wage workers. Of the men on the
other hand, the opposite is true—nearly 70 percent are wage workers.
Women in both these groups have increased since 1940, the unpaid
workers by 94,000 (over 40 percent); the farm wage workers by 33,000
(34 percent).
Women are a third of the unpaid family farmworkers, as compared
to a fifth in 1940. Of the farm wage workers, women are nearly a
tenth; in this group also the proportion of women workers has increased
somewhat since 1940.
Over a long-term period, 1900-1950, the proportion of women among
farmers has remained much the same—3 to 5 percent—with the smallest proportion being in the later decades.
69




twro

Among farm laborers, the proportion of women is higher in 1950
than in any previous decade of the century. The proportion of women among farm laborers rose from 1900 to 1920, declined to 1940,
and rose again in 1950. In this group, wage workers were first reported separately from unpaid family workers in 1930. In both these
occupations the proportion of women has increased markedly, though
it always has been considerably greater among unpaid family than
among farm wage workers. Details are shown in the following
summary.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED FARM OCCUPATIONS, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0
Women as percent of all workers—
Occupation

Farmers (owners and tenants)
Farm laborers
Wage workers
Unpaid family workers. _.

1950
3
19
9
35

1940
3
10
5
20

1930
4
15
6
29

1920
4
18
(2)
(2)

1910
4
17
(2)
P)

1900
5
14
(2)
(2)
1

1 Includes farm managers and foremen, first shown separately in 1910.
2 Comparable data not available.

Craftswomen and Forewomen
The craftswomen and forewomen constitute a very small group,
less than 2 percent of all employed women. Only two other major
occupation groups have fewer women—laborers and farmers. However, the number of craftswomen and forewomen has more than
doubled over the past decade and the group now contains 235,500
women.
Only 3 percent of the workers in the craftsmen-foremen group are
women, and the proportion has increased very slightly since 1940.
However, certain of the occupations in the group, which will be discussed below, have considerable proportions of women, as for example
bookbinders, decorators and window dressers, forewomen in textile
plants, and tailoresses.
FOREWOMEN

The nearly 68,000 forewomen reported in 1950 are more than a
fourth of this major occupation group. Three-fourths of them are in
manufacturing, and no other type of industry employs as many as
1,000. Of the forewomen in manufacturing, three-fourths are employed in the making of nondurable goods, over 40 percent being in
textile or apparel plants. The textile and apparel industries added
more than 8,500 forewomen in the decade 1940-1950, an increase of
almost 70 percent.
The total number of forewomen increased by 32,000 or 90 percent
from 1940-50. The largest proportional increase is in the combined
metal and machinery industries (including electrical machinery and
transportation equipment), where the number nearly tripled and is
now over 7,000 women.
70




In the foreman group as a whole, women are 8 percent of all workers.
This proportion appears to remain very similar from decade to decade,
being much the same in 1910 and 1920. In the textile and apparel
industries women are a much larger proportion of the foreman group
than in other industries—over 30 percent. There has been some increase in the proportion of women among textile and apparel foremen.
When this group was first separately reported in 1930 women were 26
percent of its employees.
EMPLOYMENT OP FOREWOMEN,

1 9 5 0 AND

1940
Women

Percent of all workers
Industry employing forewomen

All industries
Manufacturing
Textiles, apparel
Other nondurable
Durable

Number, 1950

67, 955
' 50,342
21,036
16,398
12,908

1950

8
10
31
11
4

Number added
since 1940

19Jfi

p)
p)

7
9
27

1
f

32, 165
23,196
8,561
14' b d 5

i First separately reported in 1950. In 1940 women were 9 percent of the workers in the residual durable
and nondurable group (except metal industries).
CRAFTSWOMEN

Crafts employing the largest numbers of women are mechanical
and repair w^ork, bookbinding, tailoring, baking, decorating and
window dressing, and printing crafts. In many crafts the number of
women is small, but the 10 listed below employ more than 5,000
women each. These include 70 percent of all craftswomen (excluding
forewomen). The list also shows that in 4 of the 10 largest crafts,
more than 4,000 women were added from 1940 to 1950.
In the decade, the number of women had at least doubled in 4 of
the 10 chief crafts and in more than a dozen others that employed
over 1,000 but less than 5,000 women in 1950. Largest of these were
telephone line and service workers, carpenters, auto mechanics, and
opticians.
Very few crafts occupations show losses in number of women since
1940, and these are very small losses and are in occupations employing
few women in 1940. Losses occurred only among millers, furriers,
and in two groups of inspectors.
LARGEST CRAFTS OCCUPATIONS FOR W O M E N ,

1950

Employed women, 1950
Occupation

Total
Mechanics, repairmen
Bookbinders
Tailoresses, tailors
Bakers.
Decorators, window dressers
Compositors, typesetters
Machinists
Painters (construction, maintenance)
Inspectors
Upholsterers
Allother

Number

Percent distribution

Number added
since 1940

167,589

100

2

90,259

20,961
17,487
16,048
14,007
13, 003
11,077
8, 130
8,091
6, 728
5, 219
46,838

13
10
10
8
8
7
5
5
4
3
28

1
56
20
12
30
6
2
2
7
9

16,816
p)
1,051
4,540
6, 851
3,652
p)
5,880
2, 459
3, 365

> First separately reported in 1960.
NOTE.—For more complete details, see table 6-1 in the appendix.




Percent of
all workers

71

Of the 10 largest crafts for women in 1950, 9 also were first for
women in 1940, though the order differed, and though all increased
in employment of women over the decade. The tenth is that of
bookbinders, which was not separately reported in 1940, though in
1950 it employs a tenth of all craftswomen. This long has been a
large employer of women and if reported in 1940 no doubt would
have been among the first 10. Among the 10 largest occupations in
1940 was that of furrier, which has since declined and is exceeded in
1950 by a number of other occupations, such as line and service
workers on telephones, carpenters, opticians, paperhangers, and
several others.
Perhaps the most striking change in order is in the mechanicrepairman group, first for craftswomen in 1950 but seventh in 1940.
One reason for this is the large increase in women airplane mechanics,
though women repair workers on automobiles and in other industries
also have increased markedly.
TEN^LARGEST CRAFTS OCCUPATIONS
For women
1950
(Employing 72 percent of
all craftswomen)

Mechanics, repairmen.
Bookbinders.
Tailoresses.
Bakers.
Decorators, window
dressers.
Compositors, typesetters.
Machinists.
Painters.
Inspectors.
Upholsterers.

For men, i960

1940
(Employing 74 percent of
all craftswomen)

Tailoresses.
Bakers.
Compositors, typesetters.
Decorators, window
dressers.
Machinists.
Inspectors.
Mechanics, repairmen.
Painters.
Upholsterers.
Furriers.

CRAFTS E M P L O Y I N G W O M E N

(Employing 71 percent of
all craftsmen)

Mechanics, repairmen.
Carpenters.
Machinists.
Painters.
Electricians.
Plumbers, pipefitters.
Stationary engineers.
Linemen, servicemen—
telegraph and telephone
power.
Brick masons, stone
masons.
Compositors, typesetters.

C O M P A R E D T O THOSE O F

MEN

For men as well as women the largest crafts occupation is that of
mechanic or repairman. Chief among these for both sexes, are workers
on automobiles, employing over a third of the men, but only a fifth
of the women mechanics. Other than this, the largest crafts occupations are quite different for men and women. Among women,
bookbinders, tailoresses, and bakers rank next; among men, carpenters, machinists, and painters. Only four crafts are among the
first 10 for both men and women—the mechanics and repairmen
already mentioned, machinists, painters, and compositors and
typesetters.
Unlike the situation in most of the major occupation groups, the
first 10 crafts occupations employ much the same proportion of
men as of women—in each case about 70 percent of the entire group
(exclusive of foremen).
72




MARKED

INCREASE

IN

W O M E N

DECORATORS

In most of some 70 crafts (exclusive of forewomen) women constitute only a very small proportion of the workers. Only among
bookbinders are women over half the workers, among decorators
they are nearly a third, and in tailoring they are a fifth. In seven
other occupations, listed below, women are a tenth or more of the
workers.
In nearly all the crafts occupations the proportion of women
among all workers increased from 1940 to 1950, but most of the
increases are very small. Especially notable increases in proportion
of women occurred among decorators and window dressers, tailors,
and paperhangers. The occupations in the following list include all
those in which there is as much as a 4-point increase in proportion
of women.
C R A F T S O C C U P A T I O N S IN W H I C H W O M E N A R E A T E N T H OR M O R E OF T H E W O R K E R S ,

1950

Women as percent of
all workers
Occupation

Bookbinders
Decorators, window dressers
Tailoresses, tailors
Inspectors (except transportation)
Furriers
Paperhangers
Engravers (except photoengravers)
Opticians, lens grinders, polishers
Bakers
Upholsterers

1950

1940

56
30
20
16
14
14
13
13
12
9

(*)
23
14
12
14
6
8
9
8
5

Number of
women, 1950

17,487
13, 003
16,048
5,997
1, 585
2, 941
1,233
2, 518
14,007
5,219

i Comparable data not available.

The proportion of women among all workers can be traced back to
1910 or earlier in several crafts, as shown in the summary following.
The 1950 proportion of women is considerably above that of 1910
among bakers, upholsterers, and decorators and window dressers, and
in the first two of these the largest increase was in the 1940-50 decade.
The upward movement in proportion of women has been continuous
among bakers and decorators and window dressers, and for the latter
the largest increase was from 1920 to 1930, with a considerable one
also from 1940 to 1950.
The proportion of women is smaller in 1950 than it was in 1910 in
the tailoring trade and among compositors and typesetters, though
in each case some rise in 1950 followed a gradual continuing decline
in every decade 1910 to 1940.
Two other crafts occupations for which early data are available—
carpenters and painters—employ as many as 5,000 women; the proportion of women in these appears to have increased slightly but still
is so small as to be negligible.

295777—54




0

73

WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED CRAFTS, 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0
Women as percent of all workers in—
Occupation

1950

Tailoresses, tailors
Bakers
Decorators, window dressers
Compositors, typesetters
Painters (construction, maintenance) _
Upholsterers

1930

1920

1910

1900

19
12
30
6

19AO
13
7
23
5

13
6
26
6

16
5
11
8

20
5
7
11

0)
0)

9

5

4

2

2

1

1

7

1

8
0)

6

1
7

i Comparable data not available.

Laborers
Laborers (except farm and mine) are next to the smallest occupation group in the employment of women. The only smaller group is
one of the two in farm occupations—farmers and farm managers.
About 127,000 women are employed as laborers, representing an increase since 1940 of more than 25,000. Women are only 4 percent of
the total and of most industries and occupations. This proportion
is only slightly greater than in 1940.
MAJOR

GROUPS OF W O M E N

LABORERS

The classification of laborers is similar to that of operatives—they
are reported as in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries
(with a small additional group of specified occupations), and those in
manufacturing are reported as in nondurable- and durable-goods
industries.
Over half of the women laborers are in manufacturing industries,
a marked decline since 1940, when three-fourths of the women were
so engaged. This decline has been in nondurable-goods industries,
which lost nearly 11,000 women laborers in the decade. At the same
time, durable-goods industries took on over 4,000 additional women
laborers. Women are 9 percent of the laborers in nondurable-goods
industries and 4 percent of those in durable-goods industries.
Of all women laborers 40 percent are in nonmanufacturing industries,
an increase from just over 20 percent in 1940. This group has added
nearly 28,000 women since 1940, though women are only 3 percent of
its laborers.
The summary following indicates the comparisons among these
classifications in the employment of women:
Employed, women laborers
Industry or occupation group

All industries
Manufacturing industries.
Nondurable goods. _.
Durable goods
Not specified
Nonmanufacturing industries.
Specified occupations.
1 Total for men in 1950—3,290,253.
2 Percent not shown where less than 1.

74




Men
laborerspercent
distribution,
1950

Number,
1950

Percent
of all
workers,
1950

126, 979

4

100

100

100

67, 4 5 4
36, 8 1 2
29, 621

9
4

6

53
29
23

75
47
25

31
11
20

40
7

22
3

1, 021

50, 4 8 1
9, 0 4 4

11
3

2

Percent distribution
1950

mo

1

3

(2)

53
16

WOMEN

L A B O R E R S IN

MANUFACTURING

Of the nearly 37,000 women laborers in nondurable-goods industries,
over half are in the food products and textile mills. An additional
tenth are in apparel factories. In food industries the largest groups
are in canneries and meat-products plants. Figures may be seen in
table 6-J in the appendix. In nearly all the nondurable-goods industries the number of women laborers has decreased since 1940.
The largest declines have been in textiles (chiefly in yarn and fabric
mills) and in food industries (mostly in candy factories and canning,
with some in meat-products plants).
Of over 29,600 women laborers in factories making durable goods,
over half are in metal, electrical machinery and supply, and woodproducts industries. The majority of the women laborers in the
wood-products industries are in sawing and planing mills, and of those
in metal industries in fabricated steel products. Most durable-goods
industries show some increase since 1940 in the number of women
laborers, though in a few cases there are declines.
INDUSTRY GROUPS EMPLOYING WOMEN AS LABORERS
Employed women laborers

Industry group, or occupation

Total
Manufacturing—Nondurable goods _ _ _
Food products
Textile-mill products
Apparel, fabricated textiles
Paper, allied products
Leather, leather products
Chemicals, allied products
Rubber products
Tobacco manufactures
Printing, publishing
Petroleum, coal products
Manufacturing—Durable goods-

Number,
1950

Percent
distri•
bution,
1960

Change
since 19401

100

1950

1940

4

126,979
36, 812

Percent of all
workers

3

25, 144

10

- 1 0 , 952

9

10,836
8,363
3,867
3,107
2,700
2,657
2,110
1, 687
1, 178
307

29
23
11
8
7
7
6
5
3
1

8
14
37
7
20
4
13
24
11
1

9
15
40
8
18
5
14
23
11
(2)

-2,811
-3,880
-571
-840
-1,212
—915
-230
-860
214
153

29,621

100

4

3

4,328

Metal industries
Electrical machinery, supplies
Saw, planing mills; miscellaneous
wood products
Stone, clay, glass products
Transportation equipment
Machinery (except electrical)
Furniture,
fixtures
All other durable

8,017
4,901

27
17

3
17

2
15

2,581
861

3,905
3,047
2,659
1,979
1,405
3,708

13
10
9
7
5
13

3
4
4
4
7
19

1
3
3
3
4
17

1,151
101
—63
409
262
-974

Manufacturing—not specified whether
durable

1,021

11

12

-2,008

1
2

Increase, unless minus sign shown.
Percent not shown where less than 1.




75

INDUSTRY GROUPS EMPLOYING WOMEN AS LABORERS—Continued
Employed, women laborers

Industry group, or occupation

Nonmanufacturing industries
Wholesale, retail trade
Railroads, railway express
Personal services
Construction
Public administration
Transportation (except railroads) _
Telecommunications, utilities, sanitary services
Business, repair services
All other in nonmanufacturing
Specified occupations as laborers
Gardeners (except farm, grounds).
Garage laborers, car wash, grease._
Lumbermen, wood choppers
Fishermen, oystermen
Longshoremen, stevedores
Teamsters

Number,
1960

Percent
distribution,
I960

50, 4 8 1

Percent of all
workers
1960

1940

Change
since 1940 1

100

3

2

27, 759

954
484
183
045
502
124

34
13
12
10
5
4

5
2
9
1
3
2

4
1
10

1, 528
587
9, 074

3
1
18

9, 044
3, 2 9 2
2, 223
1, 5 8 0
969
666
314

16,
6,
6,
5,
2,
2,

1
1

9,
5,
1,
3,
2,
1,

1
4
6

1
3
2

1, 0 5 9
389
4, 5 6 3

100

2

1

6, 0 1 7

36
25
17
11
7
3

2
3
1
1
1
1

1
1

1, 8 8 0
1, 815
1, 193
571
364
194

(2)

(2)
(2)

1
1

261
047
015
019
076
330

i Increase, unless minus sign shown.
* Percent not shown where less than 1.
NOTE.—For more complete details, see table 6-J in the appendix.
WOMEN

LABORERS OTHER T H A N

MANUFACTURING

Of over 50,000 women laborers in nonmanufacturing industries,
almost half are in wholesale or retail trade or in railroad or railway
express occupations. More than another tenth are in personal services
and a tenth are in the construction industry. In almost every industry
in this group more than 1,000 women laborers have been added since
1940. Kailroads and railway express companies have added more
than 5,000, and wholesale and retail trade over 9,000. In most
nonmanufacturing industries women are only a very small proportion
of the laborers, but they are 9 percent of those in personal services and
5 percent of those in wholesale and retail trade. The proportions of
women among laborers in nonmanufacturing industries are much the
same as in 1940.
Over 9,000 women laborers are in occupations other than the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries just discussed. Over 3,000
are gardeners (not on farms or as grounds keepers); over 2,000 are
garage laborers, or car washers or greasers; and over 1,500 are classified
as "lumbermen, woodchoppers, or raftsmen." Each of these occupations has added over 1,000 women since 1940, the first two over 1,800.
The proportions of women among all laborers are very small in all the
occupations in this group, and they are much the same as in 1940.

76




OCCUPATIONS

OF

W O M E N

A N D

MEN

AS

LABORERS

Unlike women in other occupation groups, women laborers are not
concentrated in a few occupations or industries, but are scattered
through many industries in very small numbers. In fact they are
more scattered than are men laborers. The 10 industries that employ
the largest numbers of women laborers, listed below, have 59 percent
of all women laborers, but the 10 largest for men have 69 percent of
the men laborers. Six industries are among 10 largest in employment
of both women and men laborers, though these differ in order for the
two sexes. Industries among the first 10 in the employment of women
but not of men laborers are textile-mill products, personal services,
electrical machinery, and apparel.
Three industries rank among the first 10 in employment of women
laborers in 1950 for the first time—construction, railroads and railway
express, and the wood-products industries. Three formerly in the
upper rank in employment of women laborers, but not so in 1950 are
the paper, leather, and chemical industries.
T E N I N D U S T R I E S O R O C C U P A T I O N S E M P L O Y I N G L A R G E S T N U M B E R S OF
For
Employing

1950
59 percent of all women
laborers

Wholesale, retail trade.
Food products.
Textile-mill products.
Metal industries.
Railroads, express service.
Personal services.
Construction.
Electrical machinery,
supplies.
Saw, planing mills; wood
products.
Apparel, fabricated textiles.
W O M E N

LABORERS

women
Employing]68

LABORERS

For men, 1950
1940
percent of allwomen\
laborers

Employing

69 percent of all men
laborers

Food products.
Construction.
Textile-mill products.
Wholesale, retail trade.
Wholesale, retail trade.
Railroads, express service.
Metal industries.
Metal industries.
Personal services.
Lumbermen.
Apparel, fabricated tex- Saw, planing mills; wood
tiles.
products.
Electrical m a c h i n e r y , Gardeners.
supplies.
Food products.
Paper, paper products.
T el e communications,
Leather products.
utilities, sanitary services.
Chemical products.
Transportation (except
railroad).

A N D

OPERATIVES

COMPARED

It is of interest to compare the occupation groups of women
employed as laborers and as operatives, shown in the following list.
In all cases women are a much larger proportion of operatives than of
laborers. Especially great differences appear in the tobacco, apparel,
textile, and electrical industries, all among the largest employers of
women, as the following summary shows.
About three-fourths of the women operatives but only a little over
half the women laborers are in manufacturing industries. Nondurable-goods industries employ 70 percent of the women operatives




77

and 55 percent of the women laborers in manufacturing. Among both
operatives and laborers, the largest groups of women in nondurable
goods are in food, textile and apparel industries; in durable goods, in
the metal and the electrical industries.
In nonmanufacturing industries the largest groups of women, both
as operatives and as laborers, are employed in wholesale and retail
trade. However, this industry has two-thirds of the women operatives
but only one-third of the women laborers in nonmanufacturing.
Among other specified occupations, largest numbers of women
operatives are in laundries and dressmaking; largest numbers of
women laborers, on the other hand, are gardeners and garage workers.
WOMEN LABORERS AS COMPARED TO WOMEN OPERATIVES, 1 9 5 0
Women as percent of
all workers
Industry or occupation group

Laborers

All industries
Manufacturing industries
Nondurable goods 1
Apparel, fabricated textiles
Textile-mill products
Food products
Leather, leather products
Paper, allied products
Tobacco manufactures
Durable goods 1
Electrical machinery, supplies
Metal industries
Transportation equipment
Machinery (except electrical)
Stone, clay, glass products
Nonmanufacturing industries
Specified occupations
i Details listed are largest groups only and not all-inclusive.

78




Percent distribution of
women

Operatives Laborers Operatives

4

27

100

100

6
9
37
14
8
20
7
24
4
17
3
4
4
4
3
2

41
53
81
53
38
49
32
70
26
54
18
15
18
26
23
13

53
29
3
7
9
2
2
1
23
4
6
2
2
2
40
7

73
52
22
12
6
5
2
1
21
6
3
2
2
2
5
21

EMPLOYMENT
IN

28

OF

W O M E N

LABORERS

DECLINED

INDUSTRIES

The occupation group of laborers has 25,000 more women in 1950
than it had in 1940, the smallest increase in any occupation group.
The following summary shows the individual industries and occupations that gained or lost as many as 700 women laborers. The largest,
as well as the most numerous, increases among women laborers are
in nonmanufacturing industries. The only three increases of note in
manufacturing are in the durable-goods industries—electrical machinery, metals, and wood products. The number of w^omen laborers
more than doubled from 1940 to 1950 in 16 industries or occupations.
Many of these are very small employers of women laborers, the only
ones with over 5,000 being trade, railway express, and construction.
Declines from 1940 to 1950 are notable among women laborers;
though often small, they occurred in 28 industries. By comparison,
in all other major occupation groups taken together (except household employment) number of women declined in only 18 occupations.
INDUSTRIES

OR

O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H I N C R E A S E S OR D E C L I N E S OF
N U M B E R OF W O M E N L A B O R E R S , 1 9 4 0 TO 1 9 5 0

OVER

INCREASES

Laborers:
Wholesale, retail trade
Railroad, railway express
Construction
Public administration
Metals—other 1 primary iron, steel; fabricated steel
Gardeners (except farm, grounds)
Garage laborers, car washers, greasers
Laborers:
Transportation (except railroad)
Lumbermen, raftsmen, wood choppers
Laborers:
Telecommunications, utilities, sanitary services
Personal services
Saw, planing mills; millwork
Electrical machinery, supplies
DECLINES

Laborers:
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Leather footwear
Confectionery
Canning fruits, vegetables, seafood
Watches, clocks, clockwork devices
Pulp, paper, paperboard mills
Tobacco manufactures
Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals
Meat products
Knitting mills
1

700

IN

Number of
women
added since
19J>°

_

9, 261
5, 047
3, 019
2, 076
1, 979
1, 880
1, 815
1, 330
1, 193
1, 059
1, 015
926
861

Number of
women less

mo
2, 706
1, 300
1, 159
1, 118
884
861
860
814
779
742

than in

Other than in blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling mills.




79

W O M E N

A

THIRD O F

LABORERS

IN A P P A R E L

A N D

LEATHER

FOOTWEAR

In no industry or occupation are half the laborers women. The
largest proportion of women laborers is 42 percent in plants making
apparel and accessories. Women are a fourth of the laborers in shoe
and other leather factories and in watch and clock and miscellaneous
metal factories. The following list shows the industries in which
women are about a tenth, or more, of the laborers.
I N D U S T R I E S IN W H I C H

W O M E N A R E A T E N T H OR M O R E OF T H E L A B O R E R S ,

Industries with laborers over two-fifths women:
Apparel, accessories
Industries with laborers a fifth to a third women:
Leather footwear
Knitting mills
Leather products (except footwear)
Tobacco manufactures
Watches, clocks
Industries with laborers a tenth to a fifth women:
Miscellaneous fabricated textiles
Electrical machinery, supplies
Drugs, medicines, miscellaneous chemicals
Professional, photographic equipment, supplies
Confectionery
Canning...
Paperboard containers
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Miscellaneous mills
Bakery products
Rubber products
Paper products—miscellaneous
Pottery
Printing, publishing
Metal—fabricated nonferrous
Wood products—miscellaneous
Personal services
Meat products
Glass, glass products
Metal—fabricated steel products
Leather—tanned,
finished

1950

Percent
42
31
30
26
24
23
22
17
17
16
16
16
15
14
14
13
13
12
11
11
10
10
9
9
9
9
9

Most of the changes from 1940 to 1950 in the proportions women
constitute of all laborers have been very small, the majority of them
slight increases. Most notable change is a decline in the proportion
of women among laborers in the confectionery industry, from 28 percent in 1940 to 16 percent in 1950, accompanied by a decline of more
than 65 percent in the number of women laborers.
LONG-TERM

C H A N G E S IN P R O P O R T I O N

OF

LABORERS W H O ARE

W O M E N

Laborers in manufacturing and a few nonmanufacturing industries
were first reported separately by industry in 1910. The list following shows the proportion of women among the laborers in each decade
in 20 industries or occupations in which the employment of laborers

80




can be traced back to 1910. In over half these the proportion of
women laborers was higher in 1950 than in 1910, though in most
cases the difference was not great, and in some decades the proportion had declined or remained the same as before. An overall increase
of 5 points or more in proportion of women laborers occurred from
1910 to 1950 in the following:
Women as percent
of all laborers
Industry

Footwear (except rubber)
Meat products
Furniture,
Glass, glass products
Electrical machinery, supplies

1950

1910

30
9
7
9
17

fixtures

23
4
2
4
12

In seven industries, the highest proportion of women laborers in
any decade was in 1950, though in some of these the proportion of
women laborers was small—trade, electrical machinery, saw and
planing mills, motor vehicles, rubber products, and leather footwear
and lumbering. In eight industries, on the other hand, the highest
proportion of women laborers was in 1910 or 1920, as the following
shows. In the paper industries and printing, in particular, a continuous decline occurred in every decade.
WOMEN AS PERCENT OF ALL WORKERS IN SELECTED LABORING

1910-1950

Laborer group

Laborers:
Wholesale and retail trade
Yarn, thread, fabric mills
Electrical machinery, supplies
Saw and planing mills, miscellaneous
wood products
Canning and preserving—fruits, vegetables, seafood
Apparel and accessories
Meat products
Tobacco manufactures
Drugs, medicine, miscellaneous chemicals, allied products
Motor vehicles, equipment
Rubber products
Footwear, except rubber
Lumbermen, raftsmen, woodchoppers
Laborers:
Furniture,
fixtures
Paperboard containers and boxes
Glass, glass products
Printing, publishing, allied industries
Bakery products
Miscellaneous paper, pulp products
Fishermen, oystermen
1
3

OCCUPATIONS,

Women as percent of all workers
1950

m o

1930

1920

1910

5
14
17

4
11
15

3
* 16
10

3

2

2

2

1

16
41
9
30

19
44
9
26

24
39
9
34

23
44
7
43

13
46
4
33

4
5
13
30
1

3
4
12
27
(2)

4
3
12
26
(2)

4
3
9
26
(2)

5
1
11
23

7
15
9
11
13
12
l

3
18
7
12
12
22
i p

4
23
6
13
13
25

8
29
9
23
18
27
1

)

1

4
22
12

1

2
18
12

(2)

2
43
4
26
17
34
1

Includes miscellaneous fabricated textile products.
Percent not shown where less than 1.




81

A p p e n d i x — G e n e r a l Tables
Table

1.—DISTRIBUTION

OF W O M E N

AND

MEN

EMPLOYED

IN

MAJOR

OCCUPATION

GROUPS:

1950

Women
Major occupation group

1950

1950
Total (14 years and over)
Clerical and kindred workers
Operatives and kindred workers.
Professional, technical, and kindred workers
Service workers (except private household)
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, and proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers and foremen
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers and farm managers
Occupation not reported




Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

1940

15,715,164

11,138,178

28.0

4,291,764
3,018,787
1,938,985
1,914,293
1,334,310
1,329,724
676,778
449,336
235,544
126,979
116,371
282,293

2,364,288
2,029,674
1,486,446
1,224,639
1,971,483
801,881
399,098
320,830
113,120
101,835
151,899
172,985

62.3
27.1
39.5
44.6
94.8
33.9
13.5
18.7
3.0
3.7
2.7
38.1

1950 Census of Population.

1940

Change, 1940 to 1950

Percent of all
workers

Number

AND

1940

Percent distribution

Men—percent
distribution

Women

1950

1940

1950

1940

24.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0 +4,576,986

53.9
25.3
41.6
38.4
94.4
26.1
11.0
10.3
2.2
3.3
3.0
41.4

27.3
19.2
12.3
12.2
8.5
8.5
4.3
2.9
1.5
.8
.7
1.8

21.2
18.2
13.3
11.0
17.7
7.2
3.6
2.9
1.0
.9
1.4
1.6

6.4
20.1
7.3
5.9
.2
6.4
10.7
4.8
18.6
8.1
10.3
1.1

Number

6.0 +1,927,476
+989,113
17.8
+452,539
6.2
+689,654
5.8
-637,173
.3
+527,843
6.7
+277,680
9.6
+ 128, 506
8.3
+122,424
14.9
+25,144
8.9
-35,528
14.8
+109,308
.7

Menpercent

Percent
+41.1

+20.0

+81.5
+48.7
+30.4
+56.3
-32.3
+65.8
+69.6
+40.1
+108. 2
+24.7
-23.4
+63.2

+28.8
+35.4
+42.3
+20.9
-37.2
+14.2
+34.6
-30.0
+49.6
+9.6
-16.1
+87.4

Table 2.—A

M P L O Y E D W O M E N IN M A J O R O C C U P A T I O N G R O U P S : 1 9 5 0 A N D

1940

A . OCCUPATIONS, BY AGE GROUP

Diistributioii by age
Number of
women

Total (14 years and over)

1950

Clerical, kindred workers
0 peratives, kindred workers
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Service workers (except household)
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported
Total (14 years and over)

_

mo

Clerical, kindred workers
_
Operatives, kindred workers
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Service workers (except household)
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen...
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




Median
age

15,715,164

Occupation group and year

36.4

100.0

4,291,764
3,018,787
1, 938,985
1,914,293
1,334,310
1,329,724
676, 778
449,336
235, 544
126,979
116,371
282,293

29.7
36.7
36.4
38.7
41.1
37.3
44.7
36.1
39.7
36.3
50.6
37.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100, 0

11,138,178

32. 3

100.0

8.4

2,364,288
2,029, 674
1,486,446
1,224,639
1,971,483
801,881
!
399,098
320,830
113,120
101,835
151,899
172,985

27.2
31.1
33.4
29.6
33.6
28.3
44.3
26.6
37.2
29.2
52.1
32.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.5
8.1
3.3
7.4
12.7
9.0
.6
27.6
3.4
10.5
.5
15.1

Census of Population, 1950 and 1940.

All ages

20-24
years

25-34
years

35-44
years

45-54
years

55-64
years

65 years
and
over

8.1

15.2

23.4

23.3

17.5

9.5

3.0

10.4
5.7
3.3
8.0
9.8
13.0
.9
15.9
3.4
7.9
2.0
11.9

24.7
13.0
15.4
11.1
8.1
12.0
4.3
10.4
10.0
13.6
3.0
11.4

26.5
26.7
22.9
22.3
18.3
19.5
16.4
21.2
23.3
25.3
10.4
21.2

19.5
26.3
25.1
23.4
22.4
24.0
29.3
22.5
27.9
24.6
20.3
21.0

13.0
17.3
19.9
18.5
20.1
19.0
27.7
17.1
21.1
16.8
25.5
16.8

5.0
8.8
10.3
12.6
14.3
9.9
15.8
9.7
11.1
9.1
23.1
10.9

1.0
2.2
3.0
4.1
6.9
2.7
5.7
3.2
3.1
2.7
15.6
6.8

20.3

29.1

20.0

13.3

6.7

2.3

26.7
22.6
17.9
18.9
17.1
22.5
4.3
19.0
13.4
26.5
2.1
18.7

35. 3
31.8
34.1
25.5
23.5
27.8
18.9
21.0
27.6
31.1
7.9
22.6

19.0
20.0
21.8
19.8
19.1
20.0
28.1
15.1
25.1
16.9
19.2
16.9

8.2
11.7
14.1
16.2
14.8
13.6
27.2
10.6
19.1
9.7
28.7
13.2

2.7
4.6
6.8
9.2
9.1
5.9
15.5
4.9
8.8
4.0
25.1
8.4

.6
1.3
2.0
3.0
3.6
1.3
5.4
1.7
2.6
1.2
16.5
5.2

14-19
years

Table

2 . — A G E S O F E M P L O Y E D W O M E N IN M A J O R O C C U P A T I O N G R O U P S : 1 9 5 0 A N D
B.

AGES, BY OCCUPATION

1940—Continued

GROUP

Distribution by occupation group
Occupation group and year

All age groups (14 years and over):
Number of women
Percent distribution

20-24
years

25-34
years

35-44
years

45-54
years

55-64
years

15,715,164
100.0

1, 272,088
100.0

2,382,464
100.0

3,682,450
100.0

3, 659,820
100.0

2,752,650
100.0

1,490,272
100.0

27.3
19.2
12.3
12.2
8.5
8.5
4.3
2.9
1.5
.8
.7

35.1
13.5
5.1

44.4
16.5
12.5
9.0
4.6
6.7

30.8
21.9
12.1
11.6

22.8
21.7
13.3
12.2

14.4
17.8
13.4

7.0
3.0

8.7
5.4

20.3
19.0
14.0
12.8
9.8
9.2

1.8

.2

2.6

.7
.1
1.3

11,138,178
100.0

932,059
100.0

2,258,900
100.0

3,243,020
100.0

21.3
18.4
13.2
11.3
17.7
7.0
3.8
2.9

19.1
17.8
5.2
10.0
26.8
7.6
.3
9.5
.4

28.1
20.4
11.7
10.6
14.9
7.8
.8
2.7
.6

25.9
20.1
15.4
9.9
14.3
6.7
2.5
2.1
.9
.9
.4

12.1

10.3
13.6
.5
5.6

1.2
2.0
1.0

6.6
2.6
1.5
.9
.3

8.2
2.8
1.8

6.8
2.8
1.8
.8
1.1

16.2

12.8

8.8

7.2
2. S

1.7

1.8
.8
1.8
2.1

2,224, 251
100.0

1,481,907
100.0

744,813
100.0

20.3
18.4
14.4
11.2
16.9
7.0
5.3

13.1

8.7
12.7
13.4
15.6
24.2

1.6

mo

Clerical, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Service workers (except private household). _
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
—
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported




14-19
years

1950

Clerical, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Service workers (except private household). _
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported
All age groups (14 years and over):
Number of women
Percent distribution

Total

1.0
.9
1.4

1.2

1.1
.1
2.2

Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Census of Population, 1950 and 1940.

1.2
.1
1.1

2.2
1.2
.7
1.3

1.0

16.1

13.9
13.8
19.7
7.2
7.8
2.3
1.4
.6
2.9

1.2

6.1
8.8
2.1
1.3
.5
5.1
1.5

T A B L E 3 . — M A R I T A L S T A T U S OF W O M E N IN T H E E X P E R I E N C E D C I V I L I A N L A B O R F O R C E , B Y M A J O R O C C U P A T I O N G R O U P : 1 9 5 0 A N D 1 9 4 0

Percent distribution
Married

M a j o r occupation group and year

Total

Single

Husband
present

Total

Husband
absent

1950
16,498,530
100.0

Total (14 years and over)
Percent distribution
Clerical, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers
Service workers (except private household)..
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Private household workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
...
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
..
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported

5,239,800
100.0

8,618,160
100.0

26.5
19.3

37.1
14.1

22.6
22.7
13.0
10.2
7.8
9.0
4.8
3.9
1.7

8.0

12.2
12.1

17.0
7.2
7.4

8.7
8.3
4.1
2.9
1.5
.8
.7
2.7

2.2
2.2
1.2
.6
.3
2.7

2.8

12, 082,766
100.0

5,860,483
100.0

20.9

27.5
15.5
8.3
17.3
16.0
6.9

7,683,030
100.0
22.8
12.2
10.5

6.2
9.5
5.1
4.1
1.7
.9
.5

935,130
100.0
13.9
21.4
20.0
6.9
21.0
5.3
2.4

2.2
1.4
1.1

2.8

1.3
3.1

4,424,243
100.0

3, 720,625
100.0

703,618
100.0

15.9
24.2
13.3
8.5
16.7
7.9
5.0
3.6

17.1
25.7
12.6

9.7
16.8
16.9

13.3
8.5
5.4
3.9
1.3

34.9
4.7

.6
1.7

1.7
1.9

19401
Total (14 years and over)
Percent distribution
Clerical, kindred workers
Operatives, kindred workers.
Service workers (except private household)..
Professional, technical, kindred workers
Private household workers
Sales workers...
Managers, officials, proprietors (except farm)
Farm laborers, foremen
Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers
Laborers (except farm and mine)
Farmers, farm managers
Occupation not reported

00

Ui

18.6

11.3
12.6

17.9
7.1
3.6

2.8
.9
1.0
1.3
2.1

1.6

2.5
.7
.9
.3
2.4

1.2
1.2
.8
1.7

8.8

1.2

6.6
2.8
2.3
.8

1.0

i Includes employed women (except public emergency workers) and experienced women seeking work.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population (unpublished data from




percent sample) and 1940 Census of Population.

Table

4 . — A G E S OF W O M E N IN I N D I V I D U A L O C C U P A T I O N S ,

1950,

W I T H M E D I A N A G E IN

1940

WHERE

AVAILABLE

Percent of women a g e d Occupation

Other clerical, kindred workers
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Private household workers
Living in
Living out
Saleswomen (n. e. c.)—retrail trade
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Operatives—apparel, fabricated textiles
Waitresses, bartenders, counter workers
Bookkeepers
Other service workers (except private household)
Nurses (professional)
Telephone operators
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Operatives (n. e. c.)—other durable goods
Operatives:
Laundry, dry cleaning
Textile mill products (except knitting)
Cooks (except private household)
Operatives—machinery (including electrical)
Operatives (n. e. c.)—other nondurable goods
Beauticians (including barbers, manicurists)
Operatives—food, kindred products
Cashiers
Proprietors (self-employed)—trade (except eating, drinking
places)
Other craftsmen, kindred workers
Operatives (n. e. c.)—nonmanufacturing industries
Other professional, technical, kindred workers
Operatives—leather products
Dressmakers, seamstresses (except factory)
Farm laborers (wage workers), foremen
Practical nurses, midwives
Charwomen, janitors, porters
Laborers (except farm, mine)
Specified managers, officials
Managers, proprietors (n. e. c., salaried, except trade)
Attendants—hospitals, other institutions
Other specified operatives
Farmers, farm managers
Operatives—knitting mills
Spinners, weavers (textile)
Operatives—metal industries




Number of
women

Median
age
(years)
1950

1, 709,153
1, 501,090
1,334, 310
203, 016
1,131,294
1,192,323
834, 996
655,351
603,419
556,229
413, 781
388, 921
341,706
317, 578
301, 220

30.7
25.8
41.1
47.4
40.3
37.0
41.2
37.1
30.8
32.8
41.1
35.6
29.3
36.9
34.9

287, 533
249,860
242,422
241, 273
226,242
189,870
186,337
183, 586

38.2
37.0
45.1
33.1
35.5
35.0
35.7
32.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.1

173,184
167, 589
163,223
147,498
140,199
134,310
131,758
131,695
128,941
126, 979
126, 594
126,276
121,261
119, 550
116,371
104,926
99,182
91,867

46.8
39.2
37.4
37.4
36.3
52.1
34.0
49.1
45.9
36.3
44.7
43.1
37.4
36.2
50.6
34.1
38.1
34.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.3
4.2
7.3
3.2
7.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.9

All ages

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
10 Q
0.

14-19

10.6
10.7
9.8
6.9
10.3
13.5
.9
6.4
14.8
7.8

8.0

.6
11.5
15.5
5.3
5.8
4.5
1.7
5.2
5.6
3.1

6.6

1.0
2.6
2.5
7.9
1.4

1.6

11.4
6.3

2.0

8.5
2.9
4.1

20-24

23.1
28.0

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

6.0

27.1
9.1
14.1

25.5
29.0
18.3
13.1
19.2
19.5
19.4
25.2
30.2
26.4
18.6
29.8
21.2
21.0
30.9

23.5
24.0
29.4
25.8
22.9
22.9
22.3
24.0
19.7
23.2
26.8

14.0
10.5
20.1
20.4
20.1
18.7
24.5
18.5
10.2
15.1
20.5
16.1
14.9
17.9
15.2

11.6
12.2
4.3
15.8
14.8
12.4
14.3
19.0

24.0
27.5
15.7
35.5
28.3
34.5
27.3
25.0

26.7
28.7
27.9
25.9
26.5
29.8
26.3
22.9

19.0
17.7
27.7
12.8
16.2
14.4
16.6
14.2

10.3

13.5
23.6
24.0
25.9
24.5
9.7
21.8
12.3
12.0
25.3

29.1
25.1
25.5
22.3
25.5
18.7
20.8
18.7
22.1
24.6

18.9
19.5
27.0
10.4
27.7
26.9
33.3

28.1
21.5
25.8
20.3
26.6
31.8
27.7

29.5
20.2
18.3
17.4
17.3
25.0
15.3
24.4
27.3
16. £
25.8
26.4
19.0
16.7
25.5
13.9
19.4
14.8

18.4
11.7
9.8
10.3
8.7
27.4
8.4
24.3
25.0
9.1
16.7
14.1
11.7

8.1
8.5
8.1

12.2
11.5
12.9
17.5
20.9
9.8
18.1

1.8

11.7
12.6
15.5
14.3
3.0
13.5
6.5
3.3
13.6
6.7

6.8

13.8
13.6
3.0
16.3
10.3
13.7

16.8

19.6
17.5
22.4
16.6

26.0

3.6
14.3
20.9
13.1
9.6
11.7
9.3
3.7
5.6
15.1

8.8

5.0
10.3
6.4

8.0

18.3
4.3
7.2
4.8
7.6
5.7

8.2

23.1
5.8
7.6
5.6

65 years
and over

Managers, proprietors (n. e. c., salaried)—trade (including
eating, drinking places)
Managers, proprietors (n. e. c., self-employed, except trade)
Housekeepers, stewardesses (except private household).
Musicians, music teachers
Proprietors (self-employed)—eating, drinking places..
Nurses (student)
Foremen (n. e. c.)
Saleswomen (n. e. c., except retail trade)
Social, welfare, recreation workers
Accountants, auditors
Librarians
Agents, brokers—insurance, real estate
Technicians—medical, dental
Authors, editors, reporters
Artists, art teachers
College presidents, professors, instructors (n. e. c.)
Other specified sales workers
Dietitians, nutritionists
Actresses, dancers, entertainers (n. e. c.)
Designers, draftsmen
Operatives—not specified manufacturing industries
Chemists, natural scientists (n. e. c.)
Therapists, healers
Physicians, surgeons
Social scientists
Lawyers, judges
Occupation not reported

87,473
87,420
82,904
77,844
75,831
74, 574
67,955
67, 203
58, 917
55, 660
49,027
46,190
43, 271
34,654
29, 566
28, 907
24,008
21,059
20,808
18, 573
17, 714
13, 290
12, 077
11, 714
11,373
6, 256
282, 293

41.7
47.7
50.8
42.3
43.4
20.4
40.9
37.6
40.0
37.3
41.2
44.8
28.3
37.2

35.7
41.5
35.5

39.1
29.3
33.7
34.6
29.1
41.2
41.0
35.8
42.7
37.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0

1.4
.3
1.1
3.6
.4
46.2
1.4
10.8
.9
3.4
5.6
2.2
5.2
2.2
2.7
.5
14.4
1.8
8.6
3.1
5.8
1.1
1.0
.5
1.8
.3
11.9

6.2
1.7
4.6
10.6
2.3
43.7
5.7
11.8
13.0
14.9
12.0
7.8
31.1
14.9
18.6
9.6
10.7
14.0
24.2
19.3
15.5
26.5
10.9
5.9
16.1
4.3
11.4

20.8
12.5
9.9
19.3
17.6
5.1
22.7
21.3
22.9
25.9
17.9
15.4
32.8
27.9
27.0
23.7
23.7
25.6
33.5
30.6
29.7
40.0
23.8
28.1
30.0
22.9
21.2

32.4
27.3
16.4
22.7
35.6
2.4
35.0
23.3
26.2
25.8
23.4
23.9
17.9
23.2
22.0
25.0
22.3
21.2
18.6
22.3
25.8
16.9
23.2
25.7
25.5
29.3
21.0

25.1
29.9
26.8
21.4
29.1
1.5
23.6
19.1
21.5
20.1
20.5
26.6
9.0
17.3
16.5
23.6
17.2
21.0
9.3
16.0
15.4
10.3
21.0
20.8
17.6
25.4
16.8

11.1
19.7
29.3
15.1
12.4
.8
9.6
10.5
12.3
8.1
13.9
16.8
3.3
9.6
9.2
13.7
9.1
13.1
4.3
6.8
6.6
4.0
14.1
12.2
7.4
12.6
10.9

2.9
8.5
12.0
7.3
2.6
.3
2.0
3.3
3.2
1.8
6.7
7.3
.7
4.9
3.9
3.8
2.6
3.4
1.6
1.8
1.2
1.1
6.0
6.8
1.7
5.1
6.8

* -1 Not available for 1940. The median m 1940 for the combined group bookkeepers, cashiers, accountants, ticket agents was 30.9 years; for all managers, proprietors in wholesaleretail trade, 44.5 years. The student nurses included in 1940 with professional nurses makes the median noncomparable. Laundry operatives in 1950 includes same home laundresses.
2 Includes county agents.




NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Census of Population, 1950 and 1940.

Table

5 . — M A R I T A L S T A T U S OF W O M E N IN O C C U P A T I O N S W I T H 5 0 , 0 0 0 O R M O R E , 1 9 5 0 , W I T H C O M P A R I S O N S F O R 1 9 4 0

(Includes employed women and experienced women seeking work)

Percent distribution, 1940

Percent distribution, 1950
Occupation

Number
of women

Married, husband
Total

Single
^Present

All women:
Population.
Experienced labor force.
Other clerical workers 1
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Private household workers
.
Private household workers (n. e. c.)
Housekeepers (private household)
Laundresses (private household)..
Sales workers (n. e. c.)—retail trade
Teachers (n. e. c.)
Other operatives 1
Operatives—apparel, and other fabricated textiles
Apparel, accessories
Waitresses, bartenders
Waitresses
Bookkeepers
Other service workers 1
Nurses (professional and student)
Nurses (professional)
Nurses (student)
Other professional workers
Telephone operators
Managers, proprietors—wholesale, retail trade..
Retail trade.
Eating places
Food stores
Farm laborers (unpaid family workers)
Operatives—laundry, dry cleaning
Other managers, proprietors1
Cooks (except private household).
Operatives:
Textiles, yarn, thread, fabric mills..
Food, kindred products
Canning, preserving—fruits, vegetables, seafoods..
Other food
C 8slii6rs
B eauticians"("includi"ng barbers, manicurists)
Operatives—electrical machinery, supplies..




Absent

Wid, divorced

28
44
25
25
26
24
24
40
24
49
40
92
45
40
11
10
5
7
22
19
25
10

62
47
42
38
33
34
20
42
54
44
54
54
54
49
49
46
42
37
43
4
38
44
65
65
68
72
74
50
48
55

14
16
12
9
27
25
40
37
15
9
15
14
14

20
22
16
24
33
22
26

63
56
61
55
48
56
57

12
15
16
15
16
16
12

042,417
498,530
622, 550
524, 900
439, 790
219,080
147,420
73,290
, 228, 920
842, 670
760,860
691, 530
651, 330
592,950
579,810
566, 280
489, 360
475,020
399,360
75, 660
354, 900
349, 230
332,970
317, 550
93,870
83,280
330,660
302, 730
287,130
257,130

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

20
32
43
50
26
27
28

229,020
206,730
56, 640
150,090
193,740
193,170
185,190

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10

18
18

11
24
12
13
3
13
12
22
22
22
19
3
19
23
27

Married, husband
Total

Single
Present

100
100
100
100
100

n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
100
n. a.

43

100

n. a.
100
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
100
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.

16

100

100
n. a.
100
n. a.
100

n. a.
100
100
n. a.

100

45

n. a.
100 I
n. a. 1

44

n. a.

40

Absent

Craftswomen (not including forewomen)
Farm laborers (wage workers) forewomen
Farm laborers (wage workers)
.
Other saleswomen 1
Dressmakers, seamstresses (except factory)
Practical nurses, mid wives
Practical nurses
Charwomen, janitors, porters
Charwomen, cleaners
Janitors, porters
Attendants—hospital, other institutions
Farmers, farm managers
Farmers (owners, tenants)
Office machine operators
Operatives:
Wholesale, retail trade
Footwear (except rubber)
Knitting mills
Housekeepers, stewards (except private household).
Musicians, music teachers
Operatives—paper and allied products
Laborers—manufacturing
Operatives:
Transportation equipment
Motor vehicles, equipment
Machinery (except electrical)
Technicians—medical, dental, testing
Spinners (textile)
Operatives—fabricated steel
Social, welfare, recreation workers.
Social, welfare workers
Managers, proprietors (n. e. c.)—personal services...
Accountants, auditors
Laborers—nonmanuf acturing
Fore women—manufacturing
Librarians




1

177,960
149,490
148,860
145,800
140, 250
139,830
138,360
135, 570
75,300
60,270
122,190
120, 690
118,320
119, 520

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

25
29
29
27
19
20
20
11
13
10
27
14
14
45

53
47
47
50
42
33
33
50
47
52
43
34
34
42

6
10
10
3
5
9
9
9
10
7
9
10
10
3

114, 690
114,300
108,930
85,800
82,950
72, 630
72,390

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

25
24
25
21
34
28
24

52
59
59
32
49
50
55

70, 950
60, 090
66, 930
63, 720
63, 660
62, 370
61, 860
54, 210
60, 660
57,300
52, 500
51,150
50, 670

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

17
16
23
49
13
23
41
39
8
42
26
26
54

62
63
56
38
69
58
40
41
62
41
49
54
30

38
30
30
30
21
42
42
9

100
100
n. a.
n. a.
100
100
n. a.
100
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
100
n. a.
100

7
4
5
8
3
6
6

16
12
12
40
15
16
15

n. a.
100
100
100
100
n. a.
100

5
4
4
3
6
5
3
3
5
4
10
5
2

17
17
17
10
13
14
16
17
25
14
16
15
13

100
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
n. a.
100
n. a.
100
n. a.
100
100
100

17
14
14
20

34
. 38

36
36

44
36

5
9

16
20

30
34

34
20

6
9

30
37

13

48

8

31

13

14

8

65

63

27

3

8

39
41
26
48

48
48
28
35

4
4
9
4

9
7
37
13

46

39

5

10

36

49

4

11

52

30

4

15

12

48

7

33

39
39
66

37
41
19

8
5
2

16
15
12

All except those listed separately in this table.

NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
N. a. means not available.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population (unpublished data for 1950, from

percent sample) and 1940 Census of Population.

o

o

Table

6.—DETAILED
A.

OCCUPATIONS
CLERICAL

OP E M P L O Y E D

AND

KINDRED

WOMEN:

1950

AND

1940

WORKERS

Women as percent of
all workers

Number of women
Detailed occupation

Change, 1940 to 1950

1950
4,291,764

Agents (n. e. c.)
Attendants and assistants, library
Attendants, physician's and dentist's office.
Baggagemen, transportation
Bookkeepers and cashiers
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Collectors, bill and account.
Express messengers and railway mail clerks
Mail carriers
Messengers and office boys
Office-machine operators
Shipping and receiving clerks
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
Telegraph messengers
Telegraph operators
Telephone operators
Ticket, station, and express agents
Clerical and kindred workers (n. e. c.)
Bank tellers
Dispatchers and starters, vehicle
Other clerical workers




2, 364, 288

62.3

53.9

+1,927,476

19, 296
9,085
38, 783
153
739, 815
556, 229
183, 586
3, 450
279
3,460
10,098
116,917
19, 883
1,501,090
751
7, 440
341, 706
7, 656
1,471,902
28, 648
3,544
1, 439,710

Total (14 years and over)

1940

7, 201
7,028
30, 922
N. R.
430,390

15.5
74.4
95.0
1.9
78.1
77.1
81.1
14.8
1.5
2.1
18.2
82.3
7.0
94.4
10.5
21.7
95.5
12.9
48.7
44.8
11.5
49.1

10.4
78.2
95.7

+12,095
+2,057
+7,861

67.1

+309, 425

8.0
.5
1.3
4.5
86.1
4.2
93.4
1.5
21.3
94.6
4.7
35.9

+134
+162
+1,936
+7,574
+65, 463
+11,215
+513,009
+543
-788
+152, 504
+5,502
+838, 631

0)
1
C)

3,316
117
1,524
2, 524
51,454
8, 688
988,081
208
8, 228

189, 202
2,154
633,271

0)
0)
C
>

1950

1940

Number

i Not available.
B.

OPERATIVES

AND

KINDRED

WORKERS

Total (14 years and over)

3,018,787

i 2,029, 674

27.1

25.3

+989,113

+48.7

Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists and toolmakers
Plumbers and pipefitters
Printing trades.
-

3,168
82
78
159
533
393

2, 273
43
24
73
113
220

2.7
.8
.9
1.0
4.5
2.6

2.8
.8
.8
.4
2.4
2.4

+895
+39
+54
+86
+420
+173

+39.4
+90.7
+225. 0
+ 117.8
+371. 7
+78.6

-

-

-

-

Mechanics, bricklayers and trades
Auto mechanics
Bricklayers and masons
Mechanics, except auto
Building trades (n. e. c.)
Metal working trades (n. e. c.)-Other specified trades
Trade not specified
Asbestos and insulation workers
Attendants, auto service and parking
Blasters and powdermen
Boatmen, canalmen, and lock keepers
Brakemen, railroad
Chainmen, rodmen, and axmen, surveying
Conductors, bus and street railway
Deliverymen and routemen
Dressmakers and seamstresses, except factory.
Dyers
Filers, grinders and polishers, metal
Fruit, nut and vegetable graders and packers, except factory
Furnacemen, smeltermen and pourers
Heaters, metal
Laundry and dry-cleaning operatives
Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house
Milliners
Mine operatives and laborers (n. e. c.)
Coal mining
Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction
Mining and quarrying, except fuel
Motormen, mine, factory, logging camp, etc___
Motormen, street, subway, and elevated railway
Oilers and greasers, except auto
Painters, except construction and maintenance
Photographic process workers
Power station operators
Sailors and deckhands
Sawyers
--Spinners, textile
Stationary
firemen
Switchmen, railroad
Bus and taxicab drivers and chauffeurs; and truck and tractor drivers.
Bus drivers
-Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs..
Truck and tractor drivers
Weavers, textile
Welders and flame cutters---

1,202
147
22
460
30
71
472
721
405
6,633
91
203
304
163
208
4,270
134,310
1,043
6,703
17, 294
1,239
416
287,533
3,471
11,034
4,713
1,313
452
2,948
214
350
934
13,354
12, 463
829
754
1,887
60, 589
1,105
476
16,411
4,951
3,409
8,051
38, 593
9,415

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

1, 506

294
75
3,866
' 13
71
N. R.
19
154
2,498
131,127
644
3,637
11,967
247
136
188,289
984
12, 505
1, 787
2)
(

(?)
(2)

0)

39
188
195
7,358
4,971
620
137
471
383
N . R.
5, 951

(2)
(2)
(2)
(*)

3.1
4.0
.4
7.3
.8
1.1
3.7
4.9
2.7
2.8
.8
2.5
.4
2.3
1.8
1.8
97.2
4.3
4.5
60.2
2.2
4.5
67.1
2.0
89.4
.8
.4
.4
2.7
.9
1.3
1.6
11.4
44.5
3.9
1.9
2.0
75.0
.9
.8
1.0
3.2
1.7
.6
39.4
3.6

5.1 1

-304

-20.2

2.7
1.4
1.8
.3
1.3

+427
+330
+2,767
+78
+132

+145.2
+440,0
+71.6
+600.0
+185. Q
>

.3
.9
1.0
98.3
2.7
3.5
57.2
.9
1.7
66.8
.7
95.1
.3

+144
+54
+1,772
+3,183
+399
+3,066
+5,327
+992
+280
+99, 244
+2,487
- 1 , 471
+2,926

+757.9
+35.1
+70. 9
+2.4
+62. <r
+84.3+44. &
+#L6*
+205. W
+52. 7'
+252.7
-11.8
+163.7

.2"
.5
.5
8.2
35.0
2.9
.4
1.1

+175
+162
+739
+5, 996
+7,492
+209
+617
+1,416

+448.7
+86.2
+379.0
+81.5
+150.7
+33.7
+450.4
+300. 6

.3

+722

+188. 5

.5

+10,460

+175.8

0)
+358.6
+7,362
1.7
•2,053
* Data are not available for adequate 1940 estimate for spinners, textiles and weavers, textile; for major group comparability, however, a rough allowance for these occupations
have been included in the major group total.
2 Not available.
N. R.—Reports of women employed in this occupation, unusual for women, were not accepted by the Bureau of the Censas prior to 1950,
NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population.




Table 6 . — D E T A I L E D

OCCUPATIONS

OF E M P L O Y E D

B . OPERATIVES AND KINDRED

WOMEN:

1950

AND

1940—Continued

WORKERS—continued
Number of women

Detailed occupation

Women as percent of
all workers
1950

Operatives and kindred workers (n. e. c.)
Manufacturing
Durable goods
—
Sawmills, planing mills and miscellaneous wood products.
Sawmills, planing mills and mill work
Miscellaneous wood products
Furniture and fixtures..
Stone, clay, and glass productsGlass and glass products
Cement and concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Structural clay products
—
Pottery and related products
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products
Metal industries
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills
Other primary iron and steel industries and fabricated steel products
Other primary iron and steel industries
Fabricated steel products
Primary nonferrous industries and fabricated nonferrous metal products. __
Primary nonferrous industries
Fabricated nonferrous metal products
Not specified metal industries
Machinery, except electrical
Agricultural machinery and tractors.
Office and store machinery and devices
Miscellaneous machinery
Electrical machinery, equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment
Motor vehicles and motor-vehicle equipment
Aircraft and parts
Ship and boat building and repairing
Railroad and miscellaneous transportation equipment
All other durable goods
Professional and photographic equipment and supplies
Professional equipment and supplies
Photographic equipment and supplies
Watches, clocks and clockwork-operated devices and miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Watches, clocks and clockwork-operated devices
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products
Meat products
Dairy products
Canning and preserving fruits and vegetables and seafoods




2. 378, 212
2, 214, 989
634, 360
15, 623
4, 971
10, 652
26, 255
46,815
21,736
890
3, 884
14,186
6,019
91,867
5,828
64,359
4,142
60, 217
20,826
8,592
12, 234
854
61,327
3,292
12, 476
45, 559
179,946
66, 097
56,350
7, 775
537
1,435
146,430
24,090
18,137
5, 953
122,340
11,071
111, 269
1, 562, 915
186,337
35, 549
9,384
43,120

1, 536, 866
1,473, 524
287,313
7,813
1,307
6, 506
11,021
25, 423
12,159
245
1,489
9, 078
2, 452
49,870
4, 785
34, 831
2
( 2)
()
} ,,538
(2)
2)
(
1, 716
22,448
756
6, 561
15,131
62,460
27, 665
25, 751
1, 092
276
546
80, 613
11,882
2
(2 )
()
2 68,731
(2 )
()
1,160,258
111,710
18, 254
5,339
22,759

41.0
26.3
8.5
3.5
25.2

21.2

25.7
30.1
3.1
18.8
42.5
22.3
17.6
4.6
21.4
5.9
26.0
22.6

13.9
40.6
24.3
17.9
6.6
33.6
17.8
53.8
15.5
16.7
12.5
4.2
9.1
50.8
43.1
45.2
37.8
52.7
59.2
52.1
52.8
38.0
28.7
16.0
62.6

1940

Change, 1940 to 1950
Number

38.8
40.9
22.1
8.9
2.3
20.6
15.5
22.6
25.6
2.1
10.8
38.6
15.4
15.1
5.2
18.7

+841,346
+741,465
+347,047
+7,810
+3,664
+4,146
+15, 234
+21, 392
+9,577
+645
+2, 495
+5,108
+3,567
+41, 997
+1,043
+29, 528

+54.7
+50.3
+120. 8
+100.0
+280. 3
+63.7
+138. 2
+84.1
+78.8
+263.3
+167. 6
+56.3
+145. 5
+84.2
+21.8
+84.8

19.7

+12,288

+143. 9

17.6
14.7
a. 9
30.0
13.5
47.3
11.7
13.9
4.4
1.6
5.8
46.2
42.8

-862
+38,879
+2, 536
+5,915
+30,428
+117,486
+38,432
+30, 599
+6,683
+261
+889
+65,817
+12, 208

+53,6
51.6
37.0
22.8

16.2
63.7

+402, 657
+74, 627
+17, 295
+4, 045
+20,361

Grain-mill products
Bakery products
Confectionery and related products
Beverage industries
Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products and not specified
food industries
Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products
Not specified food industries
Tobacco manufactures
Textile-mill products
Knitting mills
Dyeing and finishing textiles, except knit goods.
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
Miscellaneous textile-mill products
Apparel and other fabricated textile products
Apparel and accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
Paper and allied products
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
Paper board containers and boxes
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Chemicals and allied products
Synthetic fibers
Paints, varnishes, and related products
Drugs, medicines, and miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
Drugs and medicines
Miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
Petroleum and coal products
Petroleum refining
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
Rubber products
Leather and leather products
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished
Footwear, except rubber
Leather products, except footwear
Not specified manufacturing industries (whether durable)
Nonmanufacturing industries (including not reported)
Construction
Railroads and railway express service
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications and utilities, and sanitary services
Wholesale and retail trade
Business and repair service
Personal service
Public administration
All other industries (including not reported)

JO

4,742
33,402
29,349
9,018
21,773
15,219
6, 554
43,200
354,786
104,926
5,397
10,603
220,054
13,806
655,351
616,864
38,487
70,829
15,715
26,850
28,264
33,136
41,402
8,280
2, 638
30,484
8,615
21,869
I,416
1,166
250
36,259
140,199
4,643
110, 743
24,813
17,714
163,223
1,387
1,154
4,590
3,284
107,834
6, 631
II,168
6,207
20,968

2,292
20,414
26,630
6,005
2 9,747
( 2)
()
51, 753
306,695
116,126
5,210
8,787
164,750

11,822

453,041
425,064
27,977
47,860
15,813
18,585
13,462
23,901
27,744
9,772
1,598
16,374
00
2

()

677
466
211

22,171
114,706
3,616
91,251
19,839
25,953
63,342
282
413
1,454
645
42,770
2,411
3,926
1,080
10,361

15.1
52.9
65.4
17.1

15.1
51.2
67.1
18.6

+2,450
+12,988
+2, 719
+3,013

+106.9
+63.6
+10.2
+50. 2

47.0
43. 5
57. 9
70.1
53.3
72.1
22.3
43.3
49.9
46.8
80.7
81.4
71.8
32.4
15.5
45.4
49.1
44.2
22.6
32.4
15.1
21.7
60.1
17^4
2.7
2.5
3.9
30.4
49.4
15.8
52.8
55.3
47.3
22.9
2.2
1.3
13.4
6.6
37.9
13.4
56.2
12.3
29.6

39.4

+12,026

+123.4

71.7
49.9
67.1
24.4
45.3
44.5
37.8
77.6
77.8
74.0
33.5
19.5
51.3
52.7
46.9
26.2
33.8
14.4
24.8

- 8 , 553
+48,091
-11,200
+187
+1,816
+55,304
+1,984
+202,310
+191,800
+10,510
+22,969
-98
+8,265
+14,802
+9,235
+13,658
-1,492
+1,040
+14,110

-16.5
+15.7
-9.6
+3.6
+20.7
+33.6
+16.8
+44.7
+45.1
+37.6
+48.0
-.6
+44.5
+110.0
+38.6
+49.2
-15.3
+65.1
+86.2

2.0
1.6
4.6
29.2
43.1
12.1
46.1
52.0
46.0
17.8
1.0
.6
6.9
2.9
34.1
7.4
55.6
11.0
22.7

+739
+700
+39
+14,088
+25,493
+1,027
+19,492
+4,974
-8,239
+99,881
+1,105
+741
+3,136
+2,639
+65,064
+4,220
+7,242
+5,127
+10,607

+109.2
+150.2
+18.5
+63.5
+22.2
+28.4
+21.4
+25.1
-31.7
+157.7
+391.8
+179.4
+215.7
+409.1
+152.1
+175.0
+184. 5
+474.7
+102.4

1 Data are not available for adequate 1940 estimate for spinners, textiles and weavers, textile; for major group comparability, however, a rough allowance for these occupations
have been included in the major group total.
2 Not available.
NOTE—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
SOURCE: TJ. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population,




Table

6.—DETAILED
C.

OCCUPATIONS

PROFESSIONAL,

OF

EMPLOYED

TECHNICAL,

WOMEN:

AND

1950

KINDRED

AND

1940—Continued

WORKERS

Women as percent of
all workers

Number of women
Detailed occupation

Change, 1940 to 1950
Number

1950
Total (14 years and over)
Accountants and auditors
Actors and actresses
Airplane pilots and navigators.
Architects
Artists and art teachers
Athletes
Authors
Chemists
Chiropractors
Clergymen
College presidents, professors and instructors (n. e. c.)
Dancers and dancing teachers
Dentists
Designers
Draftsmen
Editors and reporters
Engineers, technical
Chemical
Civil
Electrical
Industrial
Metallurgical and mining
Metallurgical and metallurgists
Mining
Not elsewhere classified
Aeronautical
Mechanical
Other
Entertainers
Farm and home management advisers
Funeral directors and embalmers
Lawyers and judges
Librarians
Musicians and music teachers




1940

1,938,985

1,486, 446

39.5

41.6

+452,539

55,660
5,077
185
933
29,566
705
6,059
7, 451
1,842
6, 777
28,907
11, 438
2,045
10, 203
8,370
28, 595
6,475
629
1,932
1,237
450
350
241
109
1,877
331
576
970
4,293
6,032
2, 643
6, 256
49,027
77,844

18, 265
4,761
51
477
18,007
192
3, 786
1,654
1,871
3,148
19,884
9,033
1,047
7, 691
1,414
14, 750
730
39
191
164
74
74

14.8
34.1
1.3
3.8
38.2
6.1
38.7

8.3
40.2
1.2
2.4
34.3
2.7
32.6
3.1
17.6
2.3
26.5
80.6
1.5
27.0
2.0
25.0
.3
.3
.2
.3
.6
.7

+37,395
+316
+134
+456
+11, 559
+513
+2, 273
+5, 797
-29
+3, 629
+9,023
+2,405
+998
+2, 512
+6,956
+ 13,845
+5, 745
+590
+1, 741
+1,073
+376
+276

.2

+1, 689

19.7
47.5
5.6
2.4
89.9
46.3

+2,453
+736
+529
+2, 069
+16, 661
+18,388

0)
0)
188
0)
0)
0) 1,840

5, 296
2,114
4,187
32,366
59,456

1940

10.0

14.3
4.0
23.2
71.1
2.7
26.4
6.9
32.0
1.2
1.9

1.6

1.2
1.1
1.6

2.1

1.0
.9
1.9
.5
1.3
28.7
49.3
6.7
3.5

88.6

50.7

0)
G
)
0)
0)
0)

Nurses, professional and student professional
Nurses:
Professional
Student professional
—
Optometrists
Osteopaths
Pharmacists
Photographers
Physicians and surgeons
Radio operators
Religious workers
Recreation, group, social, welfare workers..
Recreation and group workers
'
Social and welfare workers, except group
Sports instructors and officials
Surveyors
Teachers (u. e. c.)
Technicians, medical, dental, and testing
Technicians, medical and dental
...
Technicians, testing
Technicians (n. e. c.)
Therapists and healers (n. e. c.)
Veterinarians
Professional, technical, and kindred workers (n. e. c.)
Dietitians and nutritionists
Foresters and conservationists
Natural scientists (n. e. c.)
...
Personnel and labor relations workers
Social scientists
Other
* Not available.
NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population.

Ul



344,977
<l)

0)

475

1,102

3,216
4, 623
7,608
97
31,074
44,389

0)
0)

3,862
101
767, 769
23, 791

0)
0)

901
7,510
79
32,852

1
C)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

97.6
97.6
97.9
5.7
15.2

+118,518

9.3
69.6
64.4
41.7
69.2
24.7
3.7
74.5
39.6
56.7
22.2
15.8
49.4

6.2

26.1
94.0
3.2
14.6
28.!
32.3
19.1

0)
0)

18.1

75.1
35.,

0)
0)

9.
44.
24!

0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
0)

1

+188.3
+836. 6
+8.8
+152. 5

+3,342
+4, 567
+753
+43,036

8.2
6.1

17.3

+76.4
-28.9
+125.8
+96.6
+54.0
+1.427.8
' -7.2
+32.7

+7, 271
+845
+67,227
+36, 280

G
)
0)

+34.4

+363
-319
+4,045
+4,465
+4,106
+1,385
- 2 , 236
+14, 528

97.9

+370. 9
+60.8
+953.2
+131.0

*o

Table

ON

6.~DETAILED

OCCUPATIONS

OP E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN:

1950

AND

1940—Continued

D . SERVICE WORKERS, E X C E P T PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD

Women as percent of
all workers

Number of women
Detailed occupation

Number

1950
Total (14 years and over)

-

Attendants, hospital and other institution
Attendants, professional and personal service (n. e. c.)
Attendants, recreation and amusement
Barbers, beauticians and manicurists
Bartenders
Boarding- and lodging-house keepers
Bootblacks
Charwomen and cleaners
Cooks, except private household
Elevator operators
Firemen, fire protection
Guards, watchmen and doorkeepers
Housekeepers and stewards, except private household.
Janitors and sextons
Marshals and constables
Policemen and detectives
Government
Private
Porters
Midwives and practical nurses
Mid wives
Practical nurses
Sheriffs and bailiffs
Ushers, recreation and amusement
Counter and fountain workers, waiters and waitresses
Counter and fountain workers
Waiters and waitresses
Watchmen (crossing) and bridge tenders.
Service workers, except private household (n. e. c . ) - - -




1940

1,914,293

1, 224, 639

44.6

18.4

i, 654

121,261
31,587
4, 756
189, 870
13,431
21,052
465
72,116
242,422
26, 929
444
5, 216
82,904
53,195

38,742
18,338
2,464
206, 592
3,100
61,355
292
34, 253
116, 310

59.3
66.4
8.1
49.6
6.9
73.0
3.4
60.4
55.8
30.2
.4
2.2
78.3
11.7
2.8

41.6
63.3
5.5
49.7
2.7
85.4

+82, 519
+13,249
+2, 292
- 1 6 . 722
+10,331
-40,303
+173
+37,863
+126,112
+14, 243

182

3, 501
2,368
1,133
3, 630
131, 695
1,391
130,304
755
7, 836
589,988
44,423
545,565
457
310, 601

1950

Change, 1940 to 1950

12,686

N. R.
3,199
59, 576
37, 321
110
1,573
881

692
1, 931
87,198

0)
(0

383
4,025
360,936
0)

(0

131
174,124

1940

1.8

1.4
5.7
2.2
95.7
82.9
95.9
4.1
33.7
78.5
51.3
82.1
4.0
61.5

i Not available.
N . R.—Reports of women employed in this occupation, unusual for women, were not accepted by the Bureau of the Census prior to 1950.

2.1

54.3
42.1
16.5

1.7
76.7
1.3
1.1
.7
3.6
1.2
95.7

+2,017
+23, 328
+15, 874
+72
+1, 928
+1,487
+441
+1,699
+44, 497

2.4
21.4
67.6

+372
+3, 811
+229,052

1.4
55.7

+326
+136, 477

10.8

E . PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD

WORKERS

1,334,310

Housekeepers, private household
Living in
Living out
Laundresses, private household
Living in
Living out
Private household workers (n. e. c.).
Living in
Living out

1,971,483

94. £

94.4

-637,173

134,453
52,188
82, 265
68,978
638
68,340
, 130,879
150,190

Total (14 years and over).

362,431
0)

96.2
98.9
94.6
96.9
99.2
96.9
94.5
92.6
94.8

i9.2

-227,978

'8.2

—Il7, 205

0)

186,183
0)

0)
1,422,869
0)
0)

"-291,"990"

1 Not available.
F.SALES

WORKERS

Total (14 years and over)
Advertising agents and salesmen
Auctioneers
Demonstrators
Hucksters and peddlers
...
Insurance agents and brokers
Newsboys
Real estate agents and brokers
Stock and bond sales clerks (n. e. c.)
Salesmen and sales clerks (n. e. c.)
Manufacturing
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Other industries (including not reported)
1 Not available.
NOTE—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population.

N



1,329, 724

801, 881

33.9

26.1

+527,843

+65.8

4,572
454
10,950
3,079
25,913
3,867
20,277
1,086
1,259, 526
22,452
15,062
1.192.323
29, 689

2,602
143
6, 503
2, 338
13,081
1,057
10,254
380
765, 523
0)
(l)
0)
0)

14.1
8.6
81.9
14.0
8.5
4.0
14.4
9.9
38.1
7.0
3.7
48.8
23.1

6.9
4.4
80.7
4.8
5.5
1.9
9.2
2.3
30.0

+1, 970
+311
+4,447
+741
+12,832
+2,810
+10,023
+706
+494,003

+75.7
+217.5
+68.4
+31.7
+98.1
+265.8
+97.7
+185.8
+64.5

Table

00

6.—DETAILED

OCCUPATIONS

OP E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN:

1950

AND

1940—Continued

G . MANAGERS, OFFICALS, AND PROPRIETORS, E X C E P T FARM

Women as percent of
all workers

Number of women
Detailed occupation

Number

1950
Total (14 years and over)
Buyers and department heads, store
—
Buyers and shippers, farm products
—.
Conductors, railroad
Credit men
Floormen and floor managers, store
Inspectors, public administration
Federal public administration and postal service
State public administration..
Local public administration
Managers and supf3rintendents, building
Officers, pilots, pursers and engineers, ship
Officials and administrators (n. e. c.), public administration
Federal public administration and postal service
State public administration
Local public administration
Officials, lodge, society, union, etc
Postmasters
Purchasing agents and buyers (n. e. c.)
Managers, officials, and proprietors (n. e. c.), salaried and self-employed
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation
Telecommunications, and utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Food and dairy products, stores and milk retailing—
General merchandise and 5-and-10-cent stores
Apparel and accessories stores
Furniture, home furnishing and equipment stores
Motor vehicles and accessories retailing
Gasoline service stations.
Eating and drinking places
Hardware, farm implement, and building material retail
Other retail trade




Change, 1940 to 1950

676,778

399,098

13.5

11.0

36,133
590
352
7,151
4, 995
2,266
832
358
1,076
22,385
1,129
26,322
5,315
2, 798
18,209
2,885

17, 581
509
N. R.
3,493

25.4

25.1
1.3

+18, 552
+81

12.3
32.0

+3,658
+2, 794
+1,183
+482
-95
+796
-6,103
+1,032
+10, 505
+2,191
+1,082
+7,232

16, 668

5,718
550,184
4,625
40,806
5,828
6,234
16,349
320,139
83,399
27,277
39,397
8, 216
3,443
6,039
95,234
5, 753
51,381

2,201

1,083
350
453
280
28, 488
97
15, 817
3,124
1,716
10,977
4.045
16, 381
2, 593
306, 810
1,098
17, 862
2,074
3, 828
6, 992
206,463
61, 282

15,440
22,387
3,968
1,244
4,818
61, 829
3.046
32,449

2.1

.6
21.7
46.2
4.1
3.1
3.8
5.5
34.1
3.0
17.1
10.7
12.1

22.4
10.8

43.1
9.1
12.8

1.6

6.3
4.0
9.3
4.9

16.6

16.7
21.9
31.1

8.6

3.0
3.3
26.7
4.5
17.3

2.6
1.8

4.2
2.5
41.4
.3
13.6
8.5
8.5
18.7
16.3
42.4

8.2

10.0

.7
4.3
2.4
7.3
3.2
13.2
13.5
14.3
23.3
7.2
1.9
2.7
23.8
3.3
12.4

+277, 6

-1,160

+287
+3,125
+243,374
+3, 527
+22, 944
+3,754
+2,406
+9, 357
+113,676
+22,117
+11,837
+17,010
+4, 248
+2,199
+1,221
+33,405
+2, 707
+18,932

Banking and other finance
Insurance and real estate
Business services
Automobile repair services and garages
Miscellaneous repair services
Personal services
All other industries (including not reported)

13,390
17, 513
9,834
1,469
1,537
61,030
51,430

6,322
5,828
4,156
890
257
31,055
19,985

9.5
15.2

16.0

1.8

4.5
29.2
20.7

5.2
9.1
13.0
1.4

+7,068
+11,685
+5,678
+579

+111.8
+200.5

25.0
12.5

+1, 280

+ 2 9 , 975
+31,445

+136.6
+65.1
+498.1
+96.5
+157.3

1.8

1 Salaried and self-employed shown separately in 1950 Census.
N. R.—Reports of women employed in this occupation, unusual for women, were not accepted by the Bureau of the Census prior to 1950.

NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.

H . FARM

OCCUPATIONS

Farmers and farm managers (14 years and over)_
Farmers (owners and tenants).
Farm managers
• Farm laborers and foremen (14 years and over) _
Farm foremen
Farm laborers, wage workers
Farm laborers, unpaid family workers _
Farm service laborers, self-employed
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population.

O
O




116, 371

151, 899

2.7

3.0

- 3 5 , 528

-23.4

114,179
2,192

151, 087
812

2.7
6.3

3.0
2.2

- 3 6 , 908
+ 1, 380

-24.4
+170. 0

449, 336

320, 830

18.7

10.3

+128, 506

+40.1

446
130, 327
317, 578
985

235
97, 316
223, 279

2.7
8.9
34.9
10.8

1.4
5.1
19.2

+211
+ 3 3 , 011
+94,299
+985

+89.8
+33. 9
+42.2

Table

6.—DETAILED

OCCUPATIONS

OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN:

I . CRAFTSMEN, FOREMEN, AND KINDRED

1950

AND

WORKERS

Women as percent of
all workers

Number of women
Detailed occupation
1950

1940—Continued

Number

1940

1950

1940

—

235, 544

i 113,120

14, 007
318
17, 487
924
1, 064
4, 809
185
11, 077
13, 003
2,217
435
1, 233
1, 273
777
496
67, 955
267
50, 342
7, 297
1, 726
4, 720
851
21, 036
22, 009
5, 611
16, 398
247
235
985
15, 879
460

9, 467
73

11.7
.9
56.1

+122, 424

3.0

Bakers
Boilermakers
Bookbinders
Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters
Cabinetmakers
Carpenters
Cement and concrete finishers
Compositors and typesetters
Decorators and window dressers
Electricians
Electrotypers and stereotypers
Engravers, except photoengravers
Cranemen, derrickmen, hoistmen, excavating, grading and road machinery operators-..
Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen
,
Excavating, grading and road machinery operators
Foremen (n. e. c.)
Construction
Manufacturing
Metal industries, machinery, including electrical and transportation equipment
Metal industries
Machinery, including electrical
Transportation equipment
Textiles, textile products and apparel
Other durable and nondurable goods
Other durable goods (including not specified manufacturing)
Other nondurable goods (including not specified manufacturing)
Railroads and railway express service
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications and utilities and sanitary services
Other industries (including not reported)
Blacksmiths, forgemen and hammermen
Blacksmiths
Forgemen and hammermen
Furriers
Glaziers
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers
Inspectors, scalers, and graders, log and lumber
Inspectors (n. e. c.)
-

Total (14 years and over)




200
260

1, 585
324
255
738
6,728

0)

2

306
361
1, 395
48
7, 425
6, 152
696
78
629
257

(2 )
()
35, 790
129
27,146
2 2, 465
(2 )
( 2)
()
12, 475
2

12, 206

(2 )
()

101

100

512
7, 802
2

(2 )
()

212

1, 773
101
75
362
4,269

.6

1.5
.5
.6

6.3
30.0
.7
3.7
12.7
.6
.8

.5

8.1

.5
9.9
3.4

2.1

5.9
1.7
30.5
9.6
7.4
10.7
.5

Change, 1940 to 1950

7.8

+4, 540
+245

.3
.7
.3
.3
4.6
7.9
.3

+618
+703
+3, 414
+137
+3, 652
+6, 851
+1, 521
+357
+604
+ 1,016

6.9
.3
9.3
2.3

+32, 165
+ 138
+23,196
+4, 832

27.1

+8, 561
+9, 803

.2

22.6

.4

1.0

2.4
9.9
.7
.5

2.0

8.4

+146
+135
+473
+8, 077
+248

14.4
3.2
1.4
4.3
7.0

13.9
1.5
.7
2.5
5.6

+223
+180
+376
+2,459

1.2

2.0

.7

Construction
Railroads and railway express
Transportation, except railroad, communication and other public utilities
Other industries (including not reported).
..
Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths
Linemen and servicemen—telegraph, telephone, and power
Locomotive engineers
_.
Locomotive
firemen
.
Loom
fixers
Job setters, metal and machinists
Job setters, metal.
...
--Machinists
...
Mechanics and repairmen
._
Airplane
.
Automobile
Railroad and car shop
Not elsewhere classified
__
Office machine
Radio and television
.
Other
Millers, grain, flour, feed, etc
Millwrights
Molders, metal
M otion-picture proj ectionists
Opticians, and lens grinders and polishers
Painters, construction and maintenance
Paperhangers
Pattern and model makers, except paper. __
Photoengravers and lithographers
Piano and organ tuners and repairmen
_.
._
Plasterers
Plumbers and pipefitters
Pressmen and plate printers, printing
.
Rollers and roll hands, metal
Roofers and slaters
Shoemakers and repairers, except factory.._
Stationary engineers
Stonecutters and stone carvers
Structural metalworkers
Tailors and tailoresses
Tinsmiths, coppersmiths and sheet-metal workers
Toolmakers and diemakers and setters
Upholsterers
Craftsmen and kindred workers (n. e. c.)
-

84
159
488
i, 997
!, 461
t, 935
430
196
340
5 430
,
300
130
), 961
., 147

10 2
,8
221

> 511
,
238
5,027
!, 246
67
241
667
482
518
$ 091
,
J 941
,
204
., 062
266
492
.,972
126
659
237
!, 149
.,434
226
267
i, 048
, 163
., 059
i, 219
, 124

114
75
696
3,384
1, 295
995
N. R.
N. R.
95
2 4,604
( 2)
()
4,145
117
1,189
N. R.
2 2,839
(2 )
(2)
()
81

89
345
256
991

2, 211

1,537
246
433
45
166

530
508
108

88
586
517.
41
182

14, 997
332
374
1,854

0)

1.0
.4
3.9
15.6
5.4
2.3
.6
.4
1.1
1.6
1. 2
1. 6
1.2
1.6
.6
.5
1.7
1. 5
2.7
1. 6
.7
.4
1.1
1.8
13.1
2.1
14.0
3.4
3.7
3.4
.8
.7
4.3
2.2
.5
3.8
.7
2.6
.5
19.5
.9
.7
8.5
1.6

1.6
.3
5.3
12.0
4.0
.9

-30
+84
-208
+2, 613
+1,166
+3,940

-26.3
+112.0
-29.9
+77.2
+90.0
+396.0

.4
1.0

+245
+3,826

+257. 9
+83.1

.5
.5
.3

+16, 816
+1,030
+2,893

+405. 7
+880. 3
+243.3

.7

+12,672

+446.4

.5
.2
.5
1.1
8.9
.7
6.0
.9
2.1
.9
.4
.3
1.5
.4
.4
1.0
.3
.5
.6
14.0
.4
.4
4.9

-14
+152
+322
+226
+1, 527
+5, 880
+1,404
+958
+629
+221
+326
+1, 442

-17.3
+170.8
+93.3
+88.3
+154.1
+265. 9
+91.3
+389.4
+145.3
+491.1
+196.4
+272.1
+318. 5
f510.2
+169.3
+266. 7
+177.4
+451.2
+46.7
+7.0
+250.3
+183. 2
+181. 5

+1/ 6J8
+551
+149
+1, 563
+917
+185
+85
+1,051
+831
+685
+3,365

1 Data are not available for adequate 1940 estimate for Bookbinders and Craftsmen (n. e. c.); for major-group comparability, however, a rough allowance for these occupations
has been included in the major group total.
2 Not available.
N. R—Reports of women employed in this occupation, unusual for women, were not reported by the Bureau of the Census prior to 1950.
NOTE—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
Source: V. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population.




Table

o

6.—DETAILED

OCCUPATIONS

OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN:

1950

AND

1940—Continued

J . LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM AND MINE

Number of women
Detailed occupation
1950

.

-

- ---

Laborers (n. e. c.)
M anufacturin g
Durable goods
Sawmills, planing mills, and miscellaneous wood products
Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork
.. _
_
...
Miscellaneous wood products
Furniture and fixtures
-.Stone, clay, and glass products
Glass and glass products
_
Cement, and concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Structural clay products
Pottery and related products
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products—
Metal industries
Blast furnaces, steelworks and rolling mills
Other primary iron and steel industries and fabricated steel products
Other primary iron and steel industries
__
Fabricated steel products
Primary nonferrous industries and fabricated nonferrous metal industries.
Primary nonferrous industries
Fabricated nonferrous metal industries
_
Not specified metal industries.Machinery, except electrical
Agricultural machinery and tractors.
Office and store machines and devices
Miscellaneous machinery
Electrical machinery, equipment and supplies—.
Transportation equipment
Motor vehicles and motor-vehicle equipment
Aircraft and parts.
Ship and boat building and repairing
Kailroad and miscellaneous transportation equipment




1950

Change, 1940 to 1950
Number

1940

+25,144

Percent

126,979

Total (14 years and over)
Fishermen and oystermen
Garage laborers, and car washers and greasers
Gardeners, except farm and groundskeepers
Longshoremen and stevedores
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and woodchoppers

1940

Women as percent of
all workers

101,835

3.7

3

969
2,223
3, 292
666
1, 580
314
117, 935
67,454
29, 621
3, 905
2, 316
1,589
1,405
3,047
1,252
183
656
706
250
8,017
1, 481
5, 410
762
4,648
1,070
591
479
56
1,979
387
136
1, 456
4,901
2, 659
2,188
192
141
138

398
408
1,412
302
387
120
98, 808
76,086
25, 293
2, 754
1,390
1,364
1,143
2, 946
1, 254
120
487
724
361
5, 436
861
3, 431
0)
0)
998
0)
0)
146
1, 570
106
277
1,187
4,040
2,722
2,449
78
103
92

1.4
3.4
2.3
1.1
.9
1.5
4.1
6.2
4.3
2.5
1.7
9.8
7.1
3.9
8.8
.8
2.5
11.2
2.9
3.0
1.1
5.4
1.6
9.1
3.5
2.3
10.4
6.5
3.7
3.0
8.4
3.7
16.6
4.0
4.8
5.4
1.2
2.9

.7
.8
1.1
.5
.3
.5
3.7
5.8
3.0
1.2
.7
6.0
3.8
3.3
7.0
.5
1.5
11.6
3.0
1.8
.5
3.3

+571
+1,815
+1,880
+364
+1,193
+194
+19,127
- 8 , 632
+4,328
+1,151
+926
+225
+262
+101
-2
+63
+169
-18
-111
+2, 581
+620
+1,979

+143. 5
+444. 9
+133.1
+120. 5
+308.3
+161. 7
+19.4
-11.3
+17.1
+41.8
+66. 6
+16. 5
+22.9
+3.4
-0.2
+52.5
+34.7
-2.5
-30.7
+47.5
+72.0
+57.7

2.6

+72

+7.2

2.9
3.1
1.1
15.2
3.0
15.4
3.2
4.4
2.1
.5
1.4

-90
+409
+281
-141
+269
+861
-63
-261
+114
+38
+46

-61.6
+26.1
+265.1
-50.9
+22.7
+21.3
-2.3
-10.7
+146. 2
+36.9
+50. 0,

'

+24.7




All other durable goods
----Professional equipment and photographic equipment and supplies
Professional equipment and supplies
Photographic equipment and supplies
Watches, clocks, and miscellaneous manufacturing
Watches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products
Meat products
Dairy products
Canning and preserving fruits, vegetables and seafoods
Grain-mill products
Bakery products
Confectionery and related products
Beverage industries
Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products, and not specified
food industries
Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products
Not specified industries
Tobacco manufactures
Textile-mill products
Knitting mills
Dyeing and finishing textiles, except knit goods
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
Miscellaneous textile-mill products
Apparel and other fabricated textile products
Apparel and accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
Paper and allied products
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills..
Paperboard containers and boxes
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products.
Printing, publishing and allied products
Chemical and allied products
Synthetic fibers
Paints, varnishes, and related products
Drugs and medicines and miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
Drugs and medicines
Miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
Petroleum and coal products
Petroleum refining
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
Rubber products
i Not available.
NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1950 Census of Population,

3,708
568
443
125
3,140
187
2,953
36,812
10, 836
3,125
682

3,077
268
1,150
592
1,262
811
451
1,687
8,363
848
117
455
6,469
474
3, 867
3,307
560
3,107
789
1,334
984
1,178
2,657
208

246
2,203
313
1,8
307
224
83
2,110

4,682
658

0)
0)

(0'

4,024

0)

47, 764
13, 647
3, 904
742
4,195
394
875
1, 751
842

(0
(0

944

2,547
12, 243
1, 590
213
677
9,175
588
4,438
3, 789
649
3,947
1,650
1,515
782
964
3,572
387
168

0)
0)

3,017
154
119
35
2,340

18.6 I
16.0
17. 7
11 9
19.1
22. 6
18.9
9.3
7.7
9.1
4.8
16.0
1.5
13.2
16.2
3.0

17.4 |
15.6

-974
-90

-20.8
-13.7

17.8

-884

-22.0

10.4
9.2
9.9
4.9
19.1
2.2
13.2
27.9
4.4

-10,952
-2,811
-779
-60
-1,118
-126
+275
-1,159
-162

-22.9
-20.6
-20.0
-8.1
-26.7
-32.0
+31.4
-66.2
-19.2

6.1
4. 6
15. 8
23.7
13.9
30.2
3.9
7.9
14.3
13.6
37.3
42.0
22.3
7.1
2.9
14.9
12.4
10.6
4.2
6.8
5.5
4.0
16. 6
3' 5
LI
1.0
1.5
13.2

4.3

+318

+33.7

22.6
15.3
32.7
5.0
10.5
15.6
10.1
40.4
46.1
23.6
7.5
4.2
18.0
16.4
11.3
7.7
3.3
4.5

-860
-3,880
-742
-96
-222
-2,706
-114
-571
-482
-89
-840
-861
-181
+202
+214
-915
-179
+78
-814

-33.8
-31.7
-46.7
-45.1
-32.8
-29.5
-19.4
-12.9
-12. 7
-13.7
-21.3
-52.2
-11.9
+25.8
+22.2
- 25. 6
-46.3
+46.4
-27.0

.5
.5
.5
14.1

+153
+105
+48
-230

+99.4
+88.2
+137.1
-9.8

4.7

Table

6.—DETAILED

O C C U P A T I O N S OF E M P L O Y E D

WOMEN:

J . LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM AND

1950

AND

Number of women
Detailed occupation
1950
Laborers (n. e. c.)—Continued
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Leather and leather products, _. _
Leather: Tanned, curried, and finished
Footwear, except rubber...
Leather products, except footwear
Not specified manufacturing industries
Nonmanufacturing industries (including not reported)
Construction
Railroads and railway express service
...
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications, and utilities and sanitary services
Wholesale and retail trade..
Business and repair services... _ _
Personal services
.
Public administration. . . .
All other industries (including not reported)




NOTE.—N. e. c. means not elsewhere classified.
SOURCE.: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

_

... ... ..
__ . . . .
__
.
...

1950 Census of Population.

1940—Continued

MINE—continued

2,700
613
1, 609
478
1,021
50, 481
5, 045
6,484
2,124
1,528
16, 954
587
6,183
2, 502
9,074

1940

3, 912
352
2,909
651
3,029
22, 722
2,026
1,437
794
469
7, 693
198
5,168
426
4, 511

Women as percent of
all workers
1950

19.7
9.3
30.6
26.0
11.3
2.8
.8
2.5
2.0
1.2
5.4
4.4
8.6
2.5
6.1

1940

17.6
3.7
29.3
23.3
11.9
1.7
.5
.6
1.0
.5
3.6
3.2
9.6
1.0
2.5

Change, 1940 to 1950
Number

-1,212
+261
-1,300
-173
-2,008
+27, 759
+3,019
+5,047
+1,330
+1,059
+9, 261
+389
+1,015
+2,076
+4, 563

Percent

-31.0
+74.1
-44.7
-26.6
-66.3
+122. 2
+149. 0
+351. 2
+167. 5
+225. 8
+120. 4
+196. 5
+19.6
+487.3
+101. 2


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102