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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Frances Perkins, S e c r e t a r y
B U R E A U OF L A B O R STATISTIC S
Isador Lubin, C o m m i s s i o n e r (on leave)
A . F. Hinrichs, A c t i n g C o m m i s s i o n e r

+

Changes in Cost o f Living
in Large Cities in the
United States
1913-41
♦

P rep ared b y
C ost o f L iv in g D iv is io n
F A IT H M. WILLIAMS, C hief
and
R e t a il P r ic e D iv is io n
STELLA S T E W A R T , C hief

B u lletin 7\[o. 699

UN ITED STATE S
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
W ASH IN G TO N : 1941

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, Washington, D . C.




Price 15 cents

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,

Sc e r
e r tay

+
B U R E A U OF L A B O R ST A T IS T IC S
I s a d o r L tjb in , Commissioner (on leave)

A. F. H i n r i c h s , A cting Commissioner
Ary ness Joy, Chief, Prices and Cost of
Living Branch
N. Arnold Tolies, Chief, Working
Conditions and Industrial Relations
Branch
Sidney W. Wilcox, Chief Statistician

Donald H. Davenport, Chief, Em ploy­
ment and Occupational Outlook
Branch
Henry J. Fitzgerald, Chief, Business
Management Branch
Hugh S. Hanna, Chief, Editorial and
Research
CHIEFS

OF DIVISIONS

Herman B. Byer, Construction and
Public Employment
J. M. Cutts, Wholesale Prices.
W. Duane Evans, Productivity and
Technological Developments
Swen Kjaer, Industrial Accidents
John J. Mahaney, Machine Tabulation
Robert J. Myers, Wage and Hour
Statistics
Florence Peterson, Industrial Relations
ii




Charles F. Sharkey, Labor Law Infor­
mation
Boris Stern, Labor Information Ser­
vice
Stella Stewart, Retail Prices
Lewis E. Talbert, Em ploym ent Sta­
tistics
Em m ett H. Welch, Occupational Out­
look
Faith M. Williams, Cost of Living

CONTENTS
Page

Introduction_______________________________________________________________
Tim e-to-tim e changes in cost of living_______________________________
Various uses of the term “ cost of living” _____________________________
The cost of living as defined by certain standard budgets_________
Place-to-place comparisons of cost of living at a given tim e_____
Actual family expenditures_______________________________________
The construction of the cost-of-living index:
Goods and services included in the index_____________________________
The food-cost index______________________________________________
The clothing-cost index__________________________________________
The rent index___________________________________________________
The index of fuel, electricity, and ice costs______________________
The index of housefurnishings costs______________________________
The index of miscellaneous costs_________________________________
The relative importance of each group index___________________
Base period_______________________________________________________
Comparison of the new and original indexes_______________________________
Deriving weights for the index for each city _______________________________
Use of cost weights in computing group indexes___________________________
Combining the group indexes into all-items indexes for each city _________
Calculating the index for the large cities com bined________________________

1
3
8
9
11
13
15
15
17
19
20
21
22
24
25
27
31
35
36
39

T e x t T a b le s
T able

T able

T able
T able
T able

T able

T able

T able

I.— Percentage distribution of purchases of men's wool suits by
families of wage earners and lower-salaried workers, by
prices paid, 1934-36_____________________________________
II.— Number of goods and services included in index of cost of
goods purchased by wage earners and lower-salaried
workers in large cities___________________________________
I II.— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of
Labor Statistics index of food costs in large cities______
IV .— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of
Labor Statistics index of clothing costs in large cities. _
V.— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of
Labor Statistics index of fuel, electricity, and ice costs
in large cities____________________________________________
V I.— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of
Labor Statistics index of housefurnishings costs in large
cities_____________________________________________________
V II.— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of
Labor Statistics index of miscellaneous costs in large
cities. ________________________ .___________________________
V III.— M oney disbursements of wage-earner and lower-salaried
groups studied in 1917-19 and 1934-36_________________




m

7

15
17
19

21

22

23
24

CONTENTS

IV

Page
T able

T able
T able

T able

T able

IX .— Relative importance of each group of items in computing
changes in cost of all items purchased by wage earners
and lower-salaried workers______________________________
X . — Method of deriving imputed weights for housefurnishings-#
costs index, West North Central region (white families) _
X I .— Cities in which consumer purchases of families of Negro
wage earners and clerical workers are represented in the
weights for the cost-of-living index, and their relative
importance in each city---------------------------------------------------X I I.— Relative importance of groups of items in computing
changes in costs of all items purchased by wage earners
and lower-salaried workers, 1935-39 average___________
X III.— Population weights used for combining costs of goods pur­
chased by wage earners and lower-salaried workers in
given cities into composite indexes for the United States. _

25
33

34

36

39

Summary Tables
T able

T able

T able
T able
T able
T able
T able
T able
T able

T able
T able

T able

T able

T able

1.— Indexes of the cost of living of wage earners and lowersalaried workers in large cities, 1913 to June 1941 (1935-39
average = 1 0 0 )______________________________________________
2.— Estimated annual average indexes of the cost of living of
wage earners and lower-salaried workers in large cities,
1913-40 (1935-39 average = 100)___________________________
3.— Indexes of the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried
workers in each of 34 large cities (1935-39 average=100)__
4.— Foods included in the food-cost index for all periods since its
inception___________________________________________________
5.— Relative importance of the various foods included in the new
food-cost index in each of 51 large cities, 1935-39 average. .
6.— Method of grouping of family expenditure data to obtain
weights for food-cost index________________________________
7.— Number of outlets reporting retail food prices, June 1941
pricing period______________________________________________
8.— Articles included in the original index of clothing costs, 1919
and 1939, and in the new index, 1939______________________
9.— Relative importance of the various articles included in the
new index of clothing costs, in New York City and in large
cities in each of 5 regions,1935-39 average_________________
10.— Method of grouping of family expenditure data to obtain
weights for clothing-cost index_____________________________
11.— Relative importance in the rent-cost index of the rents for
dwellings occupied by white families in each of 34 large
cities, 1935-39 average_____________________________________
12.— Relative importance of rents for dwellings occupied by Negro
families in the rent-cost index in each city where such
dwellings are priced for inclusion in the cost-of-living index,
1935-39 average____________________________________________
13.— Items included in the original index of fuel and light costs,
1919 and 1939, and in the new index of fuel, electricity, and
ice costs, 1939______________________________________________
14.— Relative importance of items included in the new index of
fuel, electricity, and ice costs in 34 large cities, 1935-39
average______________________




43

44
45
79
82
86
88
89

91
92

97

98

98

99

CONTENTS

V
Page

T a b l e 15.— Method of grouping of family expenditure data to obtain

T

a

T able

T able
T able
T able

T able
T able

T able

weights for index of cost of fuel, electricity, and ice_______
16.—b Articles included in the original index of housefurnishings
l
e
costs, 1919 and 1939, and in the new index, 1939__________
17.— Relative importance of the various articles included in the
new index of housefurnishings costs in New York City and
in large cities in each of 5 regions, 1935-39 average_______
18.— Method of grouping of family expenditure data to obtain
weights for index of housefurnishings costs_________________
19.— Goods and services included in the original index of miscel­
laneous costs, 1919 and 1939, and in the new index, 1939__
20.— Relative importance of the goods and services included in the
new index of miscellaneous costs, in each of 34 large cities,
1935-39 average____________________________________________
21.— Method of grouping of family expenditure data to obtain
weights for index ofmiscellaneous costs___________________
22.— Estimated cost of living for a 4-person manual-worker’s
family at maintenance level in 33 large cities as of June 15,
1941________________________________________________________
23.— Estimated indexes of cost of living for a 4-person manualworker’s family at maintenance level in 33 large cities as of
June 15, 1941, on a base of the cost in Washington, D. C.,
as of that date as 100______________________________________




100
101

102
103
104

105
l08

111

112




Letter o f Transmittal

U

n it e d

S tates D
B

epartm en t of

u r e au of

L

abor,

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

W sh g n D C A g st IS 1 4 .
a in to , . ., u u , 9 1
The

S

ecretary of

L

abor:

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report presenting indexes
of changes in cost of living in large cities in the United States from
1913 to June 1941. The prices on which the indexes are based were
collected by the Retail Price Division, and the report was prepared
by the Cost of Living Division of this Bureau.

A. F.

H

in r ic h s ,

A tin C m is nr
c g o m sio e .
H on.

F

ran ces




P

e r k in s,

Sc e r o L b r
e r tay f a o .
VII




PRE FA C E

In any period of rapid readjustments in price relationships, it
becomes particularly important to have accurate measurements of
changes in the purchasing power of the consumer’s dollar. The
Bureau of Labor Statistics is especially charged with the responsibility
for statistics relating to the income of the wage earner and clerical
worker. A t the beginning of the last war, the Bureau’s index of
retail food prices was the only Nation-wide measure of changes in
living costs to this group of workers. In the present emergency, the
Bureau has available continuous records of price changes not only for
food, but for all the goods and services important in the living costs of
city workers over a period of more than 25 years. In addition,
figures on the customary expenditures of this group are available for
the years 1934-36.
The Bureau’s new index of changes in the cost of living of wage
earners and lower-salaried workers in large cities utilizes expenditure
weights representing current consumption habits. This new index
was completed early in 1940, and has appeared in the Monthly Labor
Review. The present bulletin is intended as a reference book for
persons using the indexes, and as a guide to agencies desiring to initiate
comparable indexes for communities not covered by the Bureau’s
index series.
The cost-of-living indexes presented in this bulletin have been
calculated on the basis of prices collected by the Retail Price Division,
of which Stella Stewart is chief and Ethel D. Hoover is assistant chief
and acting chief at the present time. The new indexes have been
prepared by the Cost of Living Division. The construction of the
new weights, and the calculation of the index series, have been the
responsibility of Frances R. Rice, Jerome Cornfield, and Elbert C.
Hobbs, Jr., under the supervision of Faith M . Williams, Chief of the
Cost of Living Division.




IX




Bulletin 1V[o. 699 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Changes in the Cost o f L ivin g in Large Cities in the
U n ited States, 1913-41
Introduction
This bulletin presents the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ new index of
the cost of living to wage earners and lower-salaried workers in large
cities. The index measures change from time to time in the cost of
the goods customarily purchased by families in this group.
The Bureau’s original cost-of-living index was initiated during the
last war when rapid changes in living costs, particularly in shipbuilding
centers, made such an index essential in wage negotiations. At the
beginning of the war, cost-of-living information was limited to the
cost-of-food index, which was begun in 1903 and carried back to 1890.
Figures were not available to show the importance of each item in the
spending of wage earners’ and clerical workers’ families at that time.
It was, therefore, necessary for the Bureau to undertake a series of
studies of family expenditures, before indexes reflecting changes in
the cost of all goods entering into the budgets of moderate-income
families could be computed. These studies, begun in the shipbuilding
centers in 1917, were gradually extended to cover a sample of large
cities throughout the country.
In 1919 the Bureau began the publication of cost-of-living indexes
for individual large cities, weighted according to the consumption of
wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19.1 Preliminary estimates
of changes in living costs throughout the United States were published
at intervals from October 1919 on,2 and in February 1921 regular
publication was established in the form maintained until 1935. In
the fall of that year, the Bureau introduced improved methods of
calculating the indexes.3

The Bureau’s index of changes in living costs has been widely used
by labor groups throughout the country, by corporations, by educa­
tional institutions, and by other Government agencies. It has
served not only as one factor in wage negotiations, and in the adjust1 See U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bull. No. 357: Cost of Living in the United States, for a description
of the study of family expenditures which supplied the ^weights for the Bureau’s original cost-of-living index.
2M o n th ly L a b or R ev ie w , October 1919 (pp. 1-8): Summary of Increased Cost of Living, July 1914 to June
1919, by Hugh S. Hanna.
3 M o n th ly L a b or R ev iew , September 1935 (pp. 819-837): Revision of Index of Cost of Goods Purchased by
Wage Earners and Lower-Salaried Workers, by Faith M. Williams, Margaret H. Hogg, and Ewan Clague.




1

2

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

ment of salaries, but also in studies of the effect of fiscal and other
governmental policies upon the cost of living of the average urban
family.
It had been generally recognized for some time that there was a
need for the introduction of new items into the index. Consumption
habits have changed greatly since 1919. In the period since the end
of the last war, the purchases of wage earners and clerical workers in
the United States have included a great variety of consumers’ goods
which were not available previously. Some of these goods were
actually new— rayon fabrics, for example, and certain types of elec­
trical equipment. Some of them had been in the market before, but
at prices higher than moderate-income families could pay. Some of
the differences were merely changes'in fashion and custom.
Certain of these changes in type of goods purchased were readily
introduced into family spending without any fundamental change in
the family budget. The substitution of low shoes for high shoes in­
volved little change in the amount actually spent for shoes. Rayon
slips replaced cotton corset covers and cotton petticoats without any
great change in the clothing budget when the substitution occurred.
Rayon dresses were gradually substituted for cotton or silk dresses.
Pajamas replaced nightshirts. Living-room furniture was bought in
matched suites instead of the previously purchased single pieces.
Such changes were readily incorporated into the index by simple re­
adjustments in the weights. As a matter of fact, these are changes
which it was necessary to reflect in the index, as many of the items
originally priced had become obsolete and could no longer be found in
retail stores.
There was, however, another type of change in family expeuditures
which it was impossible to take account of in computing the cost-ofliving index, without a new study of purchasing habits. Isolated
studies of expenditures had shown that many more wage earners and
lower-salaried workers were living in houses with electricity than had
been the case at the end of the war, that many of them were buying
automobiles and radios, some of them were buying electric refrigera­
tors. Fashions in dress had changed so much that it became apparent
that mere substitution of a new type of garment for the equivalent
of one previously worn did not adequately represent contemporary
clothing purchases.
Among the more important studies indicating the extent of the
change during this period were the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ survey
of the expenditures of Federal employees in five cities made in 192728 and of Ford employees in Detroit made in 1929, and the study of
the expenditures of Federal employees in the District of Columbia
made in 1933, by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of




INTRODUCTION

3

Home Economics.4 None of these studies, however, provided the
complete information on the family expenditures of the wage-earner
and clerical group in large cities throughout the country which was
required to provide a systematic basis for the revision of the cost-ofliving index.
In the summer of 1934, funds were made available to the Bureau
for initiating a new Nation-wide study of the disbursements of wage
earners and lower-salaried clerical workers.5 The study was planned
so as to provide the data required to effect a complete revision in the
weights of the cost-of-living index. The field survey was completed
in the spring of 1936. The information gathered formed the basis
for the revised weights which represent family expenditures for 1 year
in the period 1934-36.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics index measures changes in the cost
of commodities and services, as those changes affect the purchasing
power of the incomes of wage earners and clerical workers in large
cities. The incomes of the group covered by the index ranged from
$500 up, and averaged $1,524.
Table 1 presents the new indexes of the cost of all goods purchased
by wage earners and lower-salaried workers by groups of items in the
large cities combined, for all dates for which price data for each of
the groups of items covered by the index are available. Table 2
shows estimated annual averages of these indexes from 1913 through
1940, based on average costs in 1935-39 as 100. Table 3 presents
indexes for each of the large cities covered. Manchester has been
added to the list since March 1935 and Milwaukee since 1939 and
indexes for these cities are included in this table. Charts 1 and 2
show the movement of the “ all items” cost-of-living index and of the
group indexes for the large cities combined. A t the request of the
National Defense Advisory Commission, estimates of cost of living
have been prepared since October 1940 for 20 cities for those months
intervening between the regular quarterly indexes. These indexes for
October and November 1940 and for January, February, April, and
M ay 1941 are included in tables 1 and 3.

Tim e-to-Tim e Changes in Cost o f Living
These indexes reflect changes in prices of food, clothing, and other
items bought in retail stores, in rent, and in a variety of commonly
used services for which prices change infrequently. The comment
that the cost-of-living index does not show the full extent of the
advance in prices is almost always made in a time of rising prices
4
A complete bibliography of family expenditure studies made during this period is to be found in Studies
of Family Living in the United States and Other Countries, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Misc.
Pub. No. 223.
8 The results of this study, as well as a detailed description of methods used in collecting the data, may be
found in Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulls. Nos. 636-641.




CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,
1 9 1 3 -4 1




5

INTRODUCTION

CHART 2.

COST OF GOODS PURCHASED BY WAGE EARNERS
AND LOWER-SALARIED WORKERS
AVERAGE FOR 33 LARGE CITIES
1 9 3 5 -3 9 -1 0 0

INDEX

140

INDEX

140

FOiO
D

120

120

100
~ /\

80

1
i

80

FIJEL, ELE:ctr ICITY AND 1
C

i
U __ 1
J

120

1

100

80

120

100

80

120

120

MISC/ELLANEOUS

100

80

80
1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 193? 1938




1939 1940 1941 1942

6

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

The reason for this impression is usually the fact that food prices,
which our index shows to be rising in 1941, are uppermost in the
minds of everyone, and people are likely to forget that many other
important costs such as electricity, newspapers, and streetcar fares
may not have changed recently. Still other articles which are bought
less often than food have not gone up as much in 1941. These hold
the average down.
In combining the price changes to get an average change, the rela­
tive importance given to the various classes of goods and services is
determined by the purchases of families of wage earners and clerical
workers as shown by the study of the consumer expenditures of these
groups in the years 1934-36 described above. Since the list of articles
priced must necessarily be limited to representative items only, weights
representing purchases of a group of commodities are imputed to a
small group of selected items for which prices are actually obtained
each quarter or each month (e. g., purchases of all meats are repre­
sented by 13 selected cuts of meat). In using this procedure the
assumption is implicit that the average of the price movements of the
missing articles in the group are best represented by the selected
articles (e. g., top round, rib roast, and chuck roast for all beef).
In the matter of price collection, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
has been gradually developing and improving its techniques over
a period of years. The field agents, who now obtain prices in inter­
views with retail store buyers, are equipped with a set of price specifi­
cations which are of considerable assistance in getting prices of the
same q uality of goods from time to time. Moreover, the retail buyers
who furnish the Bureau with price quotations are now much more apt
to have exact information on the quality of the goods they are selling
than they were in the decade of the twenties when synthetic fabrics
and the plastics were just coming onto the market. Consequently,
more consistent price reporting is possible at the present time than in
the first years of the index computation.
The list of goods now priced for the indexes is given in tables 6, 10,
15, 18, and 21 together with a summary of the specifications used in
obtaining the prices.
The specifications are given in abbreviated form in these tables
since the details of the goods priced change from time to time with
changes in the merchandise available on the market. For most of
the goods included in the indexes, the quality and construction of the
articles to be priced are described in much more detail in the instruc­
tions with which the Bureau’s field representatives are provided when
they go to collect prices. For example, the specification currently
used in asking for prices on men’s medium-quality wool suits is as
follows:




7

INTRODUCTION

M an ’s suit— wool. (Fabric 14-15 ounces per square yard.)
Fabric— B ody— All-wool hard-finished worsted.
Lining— Coat, half-lined; sleeves, lined with rayon
twill.
Interlining— Linen canvas and hair cloth.
Construction and styling— Full-sized, well made, with
careful tailoring throughout; collar and bottoms of
sleeves hand-finished; buttonholes in coat hand-made;
coat, single-breasted style. Includes coat, vest, and
one pair of trousers.
The choice of quality of articles to be priced was made on the
basis of the articles most frequently purchased by families in the
wage-earner and clerical group. An example of the frequency dis­
tributions used in order to make this choice is given in table I.
T able I .— P ercentage

d istribu tion o f p urchases o f m en 's w ool su its by fa m ilie s
o f wage earners and low er-salaried w ork ers, b y prices p a id } 1 9 3 4 - 3 6

P
ercentage distribution
of purchases of—
C
lass interval

TTndAr $12At
r
_ _
$12A and nndAr $17.50
O
__
__ _ _
$17 50 and nndAr $22.50
_ ..........
_ ._
$22.50 and under $27.50____________________ ______________________
$27.50 and nndAr $32.50
.......
$32.50 and nndAr $37.50
...... _
$37.50 and nvar
. ....

Men’s heavy Men's light­
w
eight
w suits
ool
w suits
ool
2.2
10.1
20.9
30.5
18.6
11.4
6.3

6.4
17.5
24.2
28.5
13.1
7.5
2.8

There are constant changes in the nature and the quality of goods
available in the market, and these changes frequently necessitate the
substitution of one article for another in the list of goods which are
priced for the cost-of-living index. This is particularly important
in the case of clothing. The Bureau of Labor Statistics follows the
practice of carrying a particular article on its list as long as it is com ­
monly sold. When a change occurs in consumption habits and this
article is no longer representative of current consumer purchases,
another article is substituted, of approximately the same grade,
serving the same purpose. If there is a price differential between the
two articles (i. e., if a sweater formerly selling at $1.75 is no longer
obtainable and is replaced by another type selling at $1.65 or $1.95),
this differential is not reflected in the index. The new article is
introduced by a linking method. The Bureau’s field agents are
instructed, however, to treat certain cases of substitution as price
changes. When the stock of an article regularly priced for the index
is exhausted in one of the reporting stores, and the only substitute
available is at a higher price, the new price is treated as a price change.
4097,78°— 4,1----- -2




8

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

When new models of automobiles, radios, refrigerators, vacuum
cleaners, and washing machines are introduced, the practice is to use
the price of the largest selling lines of the current model (e. g., 6Kcubic-foot refrigerators; 2-door sedans, etc.) and to allow the full
effect of price changes of the most popular models to enter into the
index. Thus, when refrigerator prices went down more than 10
percent in the spring of 1940 this decline was reflected in the cost-ofliving index without adjustment, even though quality had improved so
that price, with regard to quality, might have shown a greater decline.
The technical difficulties in the way of measuring the percentage
change in quality are so great that no other procedure seems possible.
The prices collected for the Bureau’s cost-of-living index are ob­
tained without Federal, State, and city retail sales taxes. When the
index is computed, such taxes are added to the cost of the commod­
ities on which they are imposed. Similarly, automobile taxes and
other consumption taxes are specifically added. Property taxes are
implicitly included in rental costs.
Taxes paid by wage earners and lower-salaried workers on their
incomes have not been taken into account. Thus, social security
taxes have been treated as savings, and omitted from the index.
Income taxes paid have also been omitted.
The Bureau’s cost-of-living indexes have certain limitations which
should be remembered by those who use them. They represent
changes in the living costs of wage earners and lower-salaried workers,
not of all urban families. They cannot take account currently of the
way in which moderate-income families adjust their purchases to changes
in prices, and, for example, buy more pork and less beef when pork is
relatively cheap and beef is relatively dear, more rayon and less wool
when rayon prices remain stable and wool prices go up.
Various Uses of the Term “ Cost of Living”

Before considering in detail the construction of the Bureau’s new
cost-of-living index, it will be useful to consider some alternative uses
of the term “ cost of living” and thus to clarify the purposes served
by the particular series of figures which this bulletin presents.
The cost-of-living indexes of the Bureau of Labor Statistics show
changes in costs from time to time. A comparison of the level of the
indexes for given cities shows the extent to which living costs in these
cities differ from the average in each city in 1935-39. Thus, the index
of the cost of all items as of June 15, 1941, based on costs in 1935-39
as 100, was 107.3 in Buffalo and 101.8 in Kansas City, Mo. A com­
parison of these two indexes indicates that on June 15, 1941, living




INTRODUCTION

9

costs in Buffalo were 7.3 percent higher than the average for the
years 1935-39 in that city, and that in Kansas City the costs on this
date were 1.8 percent higher than 1935-39 costs in Kansas City. This
comparison does not indicate that costs on June 15, 1941, were 5.4
percent higher in Buffalo than in Kansas City.
Frequently the person who uses the term “ cost of living” has in
mind the cost in dollars of a family budget which defines a given
standard of living at a particular place and time. There have been a
number of studies of this sort.
The cost o f living as defined b y certain standard budgets .— During the
period of the World War and the economic readjustments which
followed it, figures on the cost of maintaining an adequate family
living were compiled by several different agencies of the Federal
Government. In connection with the wage adjustments of the war
period, W. F. Ogburn, then in charge of the cost-of-living section of
the National War Labor Board, prepared and priced two family
budgets as of June 1918— a “ minimum of subsistence” budget for a
family of five costing $1,386, and a “ minimum comfort” budget
costing $1,760.6
In 1919 and 1920 the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
prepared two quantity budgets. The first was intended to represent
the needs of Government employees in Washington, and in August 1919
its cost was calculated as $2,016.7 The second had a wider application.
It was the “ minimum quantity budget necessary to maintain a work­
er’s family of five in health and decency” and was prepared in co­
operation with a committee of the National Conference of Social
Work and the Office of Home Economics in the Department of
Agriculture. The budget was never priced by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, but its cost was calculated for 10 large cities in 1922, by the
Labor Bureau, Inc., a private research agency. According to the
figures of that agency, the average for those cities was $2,282. If its
cost were estimated in the dollar values of June 1941 it would amount
to $1,994, but it is not applicable to present-day conditions. The
kinds of goods and services customarily consumed have changed
greatly in the past two decades. The fact that no automobile, no
radio, no silk stockings, and no beauty-parlor services were included
•Bureau of Applied Economics, Inc. Bull. No. 7: Standards of Living; a compilation of budgetary
studies. Washington, 1920.
i U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Tentative Quantity and Cost Budget Necessary to Maintain a
Family of Five in Washington, D. C., at a Level of Health and Decency. M o n th ly L a b or R ev ie w ,December
1919, pp. 22-29. This budget was based on a study of the expenditures of Government employees in Wash­
ington, and the primary aim was to furnish information for the use of the Joint Commission of Congress on
Reclassification of Salaries.




10

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

in the budget suggests the changes in American consumption habits
which have taken place since it was prepared.8
Among the concrete formulations of standards of living at specified
levels which are most used at the present time are the “ maintenance
budget” of the Works Progress Administration, and the budgets for
families in different economic groups prepared by the Heller Com­
mittee for Research in Social Economics.
The Works Progress Administration, in March 1935, found that in
59 cities of the United States the average cost of a budget for a 4-person
manual-worker’s family at a “ maintenance” level was $1,261. The
Works Progress Administration characterized its budget as “ not so
liberal as that for a ‘health and decency’ level which the skilled worker
may hope to obtain, but it affords more than ‘minimum of subsistence’
living.” 9
Yet another attempt to obtain quantity and cost statements of
given standards of living is represented by the work of the Heller
Committee for Research in Social Economics at the University of Cali­
fornia. The cost of its budget for a five-person family of a skilled
wage earner, as priced by the Heller committee in San Francisco in
March 1941 was $2,226. That budget was designed to meet
“ accepted” consumption requirements and to “ accord with the
spending habits of the economic group.” 1
0
* U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Minimum Quantity Budget Necessary to Maintain a Worker’s
Family of Five at a Level of Health and Decency. M o n th ly L a b or R ev ieio, June 1920, pp. 1-18.
The budget constituted the Bureau’s “ best estimates at that time of what should be included in the
family budget of the workingman.” It was based in part on estimated standard requirements and in part
on the expenditures of wage-earning families in the United States, as shown in the investigation of 1917-19.
The food budget was obtained by averaging the actual amounts of foods used by 280 families selected from
the 1917-19 survey. These families were selected because they averaged 3.35 equivalent adult males and
purchased food amounting to 3,500 calories per man per day. Slight changes were made to make the budget
acceptable to trained dietitians as a standard budget intended to maintain the family in health.
The clothing budget was “ intended to provide a fair degree of that mental satisfaction which follows being
reasonably well dressed,” consistent with the minimum requirement for health and social decency. It
was based on the clothing budgets of 850 families having 3 children under 15 years of age, as reported in the
1917-19 survey, modified to take account of suggestions from clothing experts and of the results of a special
study of such factors as replacement.
The standard of housing included in the budget required one room per person and a complete bathroom
with toilet.
•Works Progress Administration. Research Monograph X II: Intercity Differences in Costs of Living in
March 1935, 59 Cities, p. xiv.
The “ maintenance budget” was designed to provide for a family consisting of a moderately active man, a
moderately active woman, a boy aged 13, and a girl aged 8 . Tho man is an unskilled manual worker who
wears overalls at work. The allowance for food included in the budget is based on the adequate diet at
minimum cost of the Bureau of Home Economics, using a restricted list of foods. The housing allowed is
a 4- or 5-room house or apartment in a fair state of repair, with an indoor bath and toilet for the family’s
exclusive use. The budget includes maintenance for an inexpensive radio, a daily newspaper, and attend­
ance at the movies once a week. It does not provide an automobile. No provision is made for saving other
than life-insurance premiums, which amount to $46 a year.
« Heller Committee for Research in Social Economics. Quantity and Cost Budgets. University of
California. Berkeley, 1937.
The 1936 Heller budget for the family of a wage earner provides for 5 persons—a man, his wife, a boy aged
1 1 , a girl aged 5, and a boy aged 2 . The food budget included in this standard was adapted from Adequate
Food at Low Cost, by Ruth Okey and Emily H. Huntington, with adjustments to take into account
customary food consumption as well as nutritional adequacy. The home is a 5-room house, apartment, or
flat in a “ working-class neighborhood.” The budget allows for the maintenance of a radio and a second­
hand automobile, and a small life-insurance policy.




INTRODUCTION

11

No official estimate at a higher level than the Works Progress
Administration “ maintenance” budget has been made recently.
Many economists use approximately $2,000 as the amount needed
at the present time to provide an urban family of four persons with the
goods and services included in what is widely accepted as the
“ American standard of living.” 1
1
For some purposes it would be desirable to calculate changes in
living costs from time to time in terms of the cost of a standard budget.
Such a procedure would not, however, be satisfactory from the point
of view for which cost-of-living indexes are most used; that is, to meas­
ure changes in the purchasing power of the wages and salaries of
moderate-income families. The commodities and services purchased
on the average by this group are in many ways quite different from
those included in standard budgets.
P la ce-to-p la ce com p a rison s o f cost o f living at a given tim e .—Figures
based on standard budgets have, however, been found to be the most
commonly used method of measuring differences in living costs as
between communities. The Bureau’s time-to-time indexes cannot be
used for this purpose. The only comparison between cities that can
be drawn from the Bureau’s indexes of changes in living costs from time
to time is a comparison of the extent of change in living costs in
different cities over given periods. Differences between the average
costs from which the indexes of time-to-time changes are computed in
different cities are due to differences in income and consumption habits
in those cities as well as to varying prices for goods of given quality.
The most widely used measure of differences in living costs from
place to place is the cost of the Works Progress Administration
“ maintenance” budget described above. This is not an official budget
of the Department of Labor, nor does it represent a recommended
standard of living. In March 1935, the Division of Social Research
of the Works Progress Administration conducted a study of compara­
tive living costs in 59 cities. The purpose of this study was to deter11
Perhaps the most widely known of the private estimates is that of Mordecai Ezekiel, who set an income
of $2,500 as necessary at 1929 price levels to furnish an average city family of 4 persons with the “ American
standard.” When this sum is converted to its equivalent dollar value in June 1941 by the application of the
Bureau’s cost-of-living indexes, the corresponding money income is found to be $2,135. When the savings
included in the Ezekiel budget are deducted, the cost of goods and the services it provides (adjusted to the
June 1941 dollar) would be valued at $2,041 for a family of 4.
The author defines the standard to which his dollar estimate applies as follows: * * * decent shelter,
decent clothing, and adequate food for growth and health. Under American conditions, a family can
hardly be said to be sharing in abundant living unless it also can enjoy the comforts of civilization which
many Americans have come to regard as necessities. Those include running water and modern plumbing;
adequate heat; the telephone and electric light; newspapers, magazines, and books; a minimum of health
care from doctors and dentists; an automobile; and some opportunity for travel, recreation, amusement,
and higher education. For the average city family of 4 persons, an annual income of $2,500 is probably the
minimum on which such comfortable living can be attained (using the 1929 level of prices). In fact, such
an income would probably not be high enough for most families to enjoy all the comforts listed. Rather
than set our standards too high, though, we may regard such an income as being the minimum needed to
enable a family to live a moderately full life under American conditions.
Ezekiel, Mordecai. $2,500 a Year; From Scarcity to Abundance. New York, 1936, pp. 3-5.




12

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

mine the cost of a uniform level of living in these cities at a given
time, and how its cost compared from one city to another. Quantity
budgets were constructed by the Works Progress Administration to
represent two levels of living— the “ basic maintenance” level described
above (p. 10) and the “ emergency” level. An identical budget for
each of these levels of living, with certain adjustments in the fuel, ice,
and transportation lists to take account of climatic and other local
conditions, was used in each city. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
of the United States Department of Labor cooperated with the
Division of Social Research of the Works Progress Administration in
obtaining the prices necessary to compute the costs of the two budgets.
Insofar as possible, prices for identical commodities were obtained in
each city. Details of this study and a description of the goods and
services included in each budget can be found in the report “ Intercity
differences in costs of living in March 1935, 59 cities,” Research
Monograph X II, a copy of which may be obtained from the Division
of Research, Work Projects Administration, Washington, D. C.
Between March 1935 and the spring of 1939, no attempt was made
to price these budgets. During this period, estimates of the cost of
the “ maintenance” budget were made for the cities covered by both
the Works 'Progress Administration study and the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ studies of changes in the cost of living investigation by
applying indexes which show changes in costs from time to time, to
data on intercity differences in costs in March 1935. Since the costof-living indexes of the Bureau of Labor Statistics are based on a
budget weighted differently from the budget used in the Works Prog­
ress Administration study, when the two sets of figures were combined,
the resulting estimates of intercity differences in costs were subject to
some error.
Early in 1939, the Works Progress Administration budgets were, in
part, priced again for many of the cities. At this time the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, in connection with its study of comparative living
costs in 10 small cities,1 computed the cost of parts of the “ mainte­
2
nance” budget, using prices obtained as of December 15, 1938, and
February 14, 1939.
The cost of clothing, housefurnishings, fuel and light, and miscel­
laneous groups were recomputed on the basis of prices of 55 articles
of clothing, 16 articles of furniture and furnishings, 5 items of fuel
and light, and 37 miscellaneous items in 31 cities on December 15,
1938, and weighted by the quantities provided in the “ maintenance”
budget. The food-cost budget was entirely recomputed in terms of
the “ adequate diet at minimum cost” of the United States Bureau of
Home Economics (a somewhat more varied diet than that originally
11

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Differences in Living Costs in Northern and Southern Cities.
July 1939, pp. 22-38.

M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w ,




INTRODUCTION

13

used in the “ maintenance” budget). Average rents in each of the 31
cities were estimated by applying the Bureau’s time-to-time indexes
of rental costs to the Works Progress Administration’s figures for
March 1935. In order to include Manchester and Milwaukee
(recently added to the cities for which the Bureau prepares indexes
of time changes) among the cities for which estimates of intercity
differences are regularly prepared, similar computations have since
been made for these cities, using prices as of September 15, 1940.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared estimates of the cost
of the “ maintenance” budget for June 15, 1941, by applying the
Bureau’s indexes of living costs, which show changes in costs from
time-to-time, to the costs as estimated in 1939 for all items other than
food. The “ adequate diet at minimum cost” was recalculated as of
June 15, 1941, for inclusion in the budget on the basis of 61 foods
now priced by the Bureau. These estimates are given on pages 111
and 112.
One of the limitations on the usefulness of the procedure just
described i^ the lack of realism in adhering to an identical list of
foods and of articles of clothing for all cities, regardless of climate
and custom. The case of overcoats in New Orleans and Boston
illustrates this point. What is really required is a standard which
provides the same level of economic well-being yet has elasticity
enough to adapt to variations in local customs.
The most satisfactory technique is probably the pricing of a budget
comprising a more or less fixed list of items, but with more allowance
for regional differences in consumption habits than appears in the
“ maintenance” budget.
There is a considerable body of literature dealing with the develop­
ment of techniques to meet this problem. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics used a different method of estimate in its study of the cost
of living in five small southern and five small northern cities (see
footnote 12, p. 12), but the results were not widely different when
different methods of weighing were employed. The International
Labour Office 1 has done work in the field, and individual research
3
workers have proposed techniques of different types but no single
solution has been found.
A c tu a l fa m ily exp en d itu res .— Figures on the “ cost of living” in
terms of what families actually spend have seldom been obtained over
a series of successive years. They are very expensive to secure from
enough families to provide for significant averages, and their value in
showing time-to-time changes in the cost of living is limited. Periods
i* International Labour Office. Studies and Reports, series N, No. 17, An International Enquiry Into
Costs of Living, Geneva, 1931; Studies and Reports, series N, No. 20, International Comparisons of Cost
of Living—a study of certain problems connected with the making of index numbers of food costs and of
rents, Geneva, 1934; In tern a tio n a l L a b o u r R ev ie w , February 1941, International Comparisons of Food Costs,
5 >p. 153-173.




14

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

of changing prices are almost always also periods of changing incomes,
and, very frequently, of population migration. Data on family
expenditures in such periods are therefore affected by such a variety
of readjustments, that this measure alone would provide very little
evidence on the change in the one factor— cost of living. Differences
in family expenditures from one community to another at a given
time reflect not only whatever differences there are in price levels,
but also variations in wage and salary rates, and in regularity of
employment and in consumption habits.




The Construction of the Cost-Of-Living Index
Goods and Services Included in the Index
The new cost-of-living index of the Bureau of Labor Statistics is
based on prices of 198 goods and services.1 In addition rents are
4
collected at each pricing period for the types of dwellings occupied
by wage earners and clerical workers. The number of dwellings for
which rents are secured varies according to size of city.
It is of some interest to follow the development of the cost-of-living
index since its inception. Table II shows the number of items
included in each group shortly after the index was initiated, for the
last period for which the original index was published, and for the new
index. The difference between the first two columns for items other
than food reflects changes in the composition of the index occasioned
by substitutions for items which had become obsolete or which for
some other reason could no longer be priced. Comparison of the last
two columns indicates the difference in the composition of the original
and the new index on September 15, 1939.
T a b l e I I .— Number of goods and services included in index of cost of goods pur­

chased by wage earners and lower-salaried workers in large cities 1
Original index

New index

Item
1919

1939

1939

All items......... ................................ ...... ...........................

165

Food...................................................................................
Clothing._____________ _____________________________
Fuel, electricity, and ice_________ _______ ____ _______
Housefurnishings__________________ ______________
Miscellaneous—_______ ______________ ______________

242

61
6
21

35

198

202

84
63

54
48

6

10

16
33

26
60

1 Not including rents.
2 In 1919,22 items were included in the food-cost index.
When that index was revised in 1935 back through
1919, quotations for 42 foods were used from 1919 through 1934.

The fo o d -c o s t in d e x .— The most striking development shown in
table II is that which occurred in the number of items included in
|the food-cost index. The change from 42 to 84 items was made in
11935. The number of items priced and included in the index was
increased on an experimental basis. The foods added were shown,
14
This figure does not represent the number of qualities priced. For a large proportion of the items
[included in the index more than 1 quality is priced; in the case of the more important items, as many as
| in a given city. Summaries of the specifications for each quality of each item priced are presented in
4
itables 6,10,15,18, and 21




15

16

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

by preliminary results from the Bureau’s studies of family expendi­
tures, to be most important in current family food purchases. Prices
collected over the interval have made it possible to study comparative
price movements of a large number of foods, and to provide the basis
for eliminating from the index certain foods whose price movements
could be predicted from those of others. The extent to which this
purpose has been realized is indicated to some degree by the reduction
from 84 to 54 foods in the present revised index.
Prior to 1935 the maximum number of foods priced at any time was
42. In the period 1907-13 it fell as low as 15. With the exception
of the experimental list of foods used in 1935-39, the new food-cost
index includes a greater number of items than any earlier food-cost
index computed by the Bureau. As compared with the 1921-34 index,
the most notable difference is the increase in the number of fresh
fruits and vegetables priced. The increase is caused both by the
greater importance of this group of foods in the consumption of mod­
erate-income families now as compared with 1917-19, and the special
efforts which the Bureau has made in recent years to secure reliable
prices for fruits and vegetables. Over the entire period, 1890 to the
present, shifts in the internal composition of the food-cost index have
resulted in a greatly increased emphasis on fruits and vegetables, both
fresh and canned (prior to 1920 only potatoes were included in this
group), with corresponding proportionate decreases in the emphasis
given other food groups.
Fresh and frozen fish have recently been added to the list of foods
priced. In addition, meals away from home are to be incorporated
in the index during the present fiscal year. The most important
differences between the weights of the food-cost index since 1935 and
the weights in the new index are, as shown in table III, a general
decrease in the weights assigned to cereals and bakery products,
apples and potatoes, and an increase in the weights on citrus fruits,
green vegetables, and poultry.




17

CONSTRUCTION OF THE COST-OF-LIVING INDEX
T

a b l e

I I I .— Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ index of food costs in large cities
Percentage distribu­
tion of—

Item

Cereals and bakery products___________________
Cereals—
Flour, wheat.........
Macaroni...............
Corn flakes...........
Corn meal......... __L
Bakery products—
Bread, white_____
Bread,whole-wheat
Bread, rye_______
C a k e , v a n il l a
cookies.. .......... .
Soda crackers_____

Sep­
Aver­ Costs in 1939
tember
age
costs in
1935-39:
New Origi­
New
nal
index 1 index 1 index 3

15.6

15.0

18.5

1.7
.9
1.3
.3

2.4

1.4
.3
6.7

6.5

.8
1 .2

.8
1 .1

8.9
.9

1 .8
.6

1 .8
.6

Meats, fish, and poultry...
B eefRound steak_____
Rib roast________
Chuck roast...........
Veal—Cutlets..............
Poik—
Chops___________
Bacon, sliced.........
Ham, whole______
Salt...................
Lam bLeg—
Rib c h o p s _______
P o u ltr y —R o a stin g
chickens___________
F ish Fresh______ . . . .
S alm on , p in k ,
canned_________

28.2

29.0

29.9

3.8
4.6
1.7
1.9

4.1
4.8
1 .8
2 .0

6.5
3.0
4.0
2.3

3.5
1.9

3.7

3.3

Dairy products__________
Butter.........................
Cheese_______ _______
Milk, fresh (delivered).
Milk, evaporated_____

19.1
5.4

1 .8
1 .0

1 .6
2 .2

1 .0

1.4
.8

1 .2

1.4
.5

1 .6

.3

2.7
.3

1.3

1.3
1.5

1.1
.7

3.3

3.2

1.9

1.7

1.9

2 .2

.3

1 .2

.8

1 .6

11.1
1.0

.6

2.5

19.1
5.1
1.5
11.5,
1.0

18.9
5.5
.8

11.6
1.0

Percentage distribu­
tion of—

Item

Aver­
age
costs in
1935-39:
New
index 1

Costs in Sep­
tember 1939
New Origi­
nal
index1 index3

Eggs.................................. .

5.5

5.9

5.7

Fruits and vegetables—
Fresh_____ ____ _____
Apples................ .
Bananas.................
Oranges__________
Beans, green....... .
Cabbage............. .
Carrots__________
Lettuce__________
Onions___________
Potatoes_________
Spinach.................
Sweetpotatoes____
Canned______ _____ _
Peaches................
Pineapple________
Corn____________
Peas.................... .
Tomatoes________
Dried_______ ________
Prunes__________
Navy beans______

16.5
2.1
1.4
3.4
.8
.7
.9
1.7
1.1
3.2
.8
.4
4.1
.6
.4
.7
.9
1.5
1.0

15.8
1.5
1.4
3.7
.6
.7
.9
1.7
.9
3.2
.9
.3
3.8
.5
.4
.6
.8
1.5
1.0

.6

14.2
3.0
.9
.9
.1
.8
1.0
.9
.7
5.3
.2
.4
1.3
.1
.1
.3
.4
.4
1.1

.6

.4

.6
.5

Beverages_______________
Coffee........... ...............
Tea.......................... .

3.4
2.6
.8

3.3
2.5
.8

3.6
2.1
1.5

Fats and oils......................
Lard________________
Other shortening.........
Mayonnaise.................
Oleomargarine_______
Peanut butter..............

3.2
1.1
.7
.9
.3
.2

3.0
.9
.7
.9
.3
.2

2.8
1.0

Sugar. _ ________________
All items, this index.

.4

.6

.3
.8
.1

3.4

4.1

4.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1934-36; 51 cities.
* Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19; 51 cities.

1

T h e clothing-cost in d e x .— Clothing makes up a somewhat smaller
proportion of total family expend ture at the present time than in
1917-19. The increase in the number of centrally heated dwellings,
protection from the weather provided by automobile travel, and
changes n fashion appear to have somewhat reduced the quantity of
clothing worn by city families in this country over the period since
the Bureau’s cost-of-living index was first constructed. In addition,
the production of synthetic fabrics of different kinds now makes it
possible to appear suitably dressed on a smaller expenditure than in
1919.
The number of clothing items priced for the new index is somewhat
smaller than for the original cost-of-living index. The decrease in the
number of items was caused by the virtual elimination of the prices




18

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

of children’s clothing from the index. Children’s clothing accounts
for less than one-fifth of the total clothing expenditure of the 14,469
families from which expenditure data were obtained for the purpose
of supplying weights for the new index. A study of the movement of
the prices of children’s clothing shows that they move very closely
with the prices of adults’ clothing of similar type. By adding ex­
penditures for children’s clothing to those of adults, proper propor­
tions have been preserved within the weights for the clothing index
(see p. 32), and a considerable saving in price collection has been
effected.
The items included in the index of clothing costs in 1919, and in
the original and the new indexes on September 15, 1939, illustrate
the process of gradual revision which has taken place in the internal
composition of this group index in the 20-year interval. The changes
which took place in the items included in the original index between
1919 and 1939 were quite as large as the changes which occurred in
1939 as a result of the revision. (See p. 89.)
The most important item added to the pricing is dry cleaning, with
a weight of almost 4 percent (see table IV). The weights on men’s
wool suits in the new index, constituting 11.3 percent of the clothing
index, women’s silk hose 6.8 percent of the clothing index, and women’s
shoes 7.4 percent, have more than doubled. Children’s clothing, which
formed more than a third of the total index, now forms less than 5
percent of it. Because of this weight reduction, most of the weights
of other items included in the pricing for the clothing index have
been increased.




19

CONSTRUCTION OF THE COST-OF-LIVING IN DEX

T a b l e IV . — Relative importance of various items included in Bureau of Labor

Statistics’ index of clothing costs in large cities
Percentage distribu­
tion of—

Item

Aver­ Costs in Sep­
age
tember 1939
costs
in
1935-39: New
Orig­
New
inal
index 1 index1 index2

2.8
1.3
11.3
1.3
1.1
1.9

2.8
1.3
n .3
1.3
1.1
1.9

1.6
.3
4.8

3.7
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.0

3.8
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.0

5.9

Aver­ Costs in Sep­
age
tember 1939
costs
in
1935-39: New Orig­
New
inal
index * index* index*

i.6

1.6

.5
1.0
5.1
1.1
1.9
.4

.5

.5

1
.9
1.1
1.3
3.3
1.1
.6
1.3
1.4
2.7

.1
1.0
1.2
3. 2
1.1
.6
1.3
1.3
2.7

2.0
2.1
1.0

2.0
2.0
1.0

.9

Men’s—Socks________
W omen’s—
Dresses____________
Panties__________ __
Bloomers__________
Slips __________
Hose________________
Yard goods_____________

1.0

1.0

1.0

6.6
1.7

6.7
1.7

1.4
6.7
.7

1.4
6.8
.6

8. 5
1.2
.4
1.5
2.5

4.4
1.1
1.0

4. 5
1.1
1.0

4.3

7.4

7.4

3. 6
.4
6.6

3.7

3.7

1.3
.3

1.3
.3

F ootw ea r

2.0
.5
.3
2.3

C otton

Men’s—
Suits_______________
Trousers____________
Overalls_____________
Shirts, w o r k .......... .
Shirts, business______
Pajamas......... .... .........
Shorts_______________
Undershirts__________
Union suits__________
Socks_______________
Women’s—
Dresses, street_______
Housedresses.... .........
Nightgowns_________
Boys’—
Shirts______ ______ _ .
Pajamas........................
Shorts.............. ............
Undershirts__________
Trousers
Girls’—
Dresses__________ .. .
Pajamas_____________
Bloomers____________
Socks and anklets........
Yard goods: Percale...........

Item

S ilk and ra yon

W ool

Men's—
Overcoats____________
Topcoats____________
Suits_______________
Trousers_____________
Jackets_____________
Sweaters ____ - ____
Women's—
Coats, heavy, fur trim.
Coats, heavy, plain___
Coats, light, plain____
Skirts.
_______
Dresses______________
Robes_____________ Hats __ __________
Boys’—
Suits______________
Trousers___________
Jackets
______
Sweaters___________ _
Girls’—
Coats. ______________
Dresses_____________
Sweaters___________
Yard goods: Flannel_____

Percentage distribu­
tion of—

.3
.6
.5
.6
2.0
1.3
.6
.4
1.0
1.9
2.2
1.3
.8

1.6
.9
.8
.5
1.1
1. 5

Men’s—
Shoes, low__________
Shoes, work__________
R ubbers________
Women’s—
Shoes, low__________
Rubbers.- ....... ......
Boys’—Shoes, low_____
Girls’—
Shoes, low_________
Rubbers._ _______
Children’s Shoes......... ..

.2

5.6
.3

O ther g arm en ts

Men’s—
Hats, fur-felt......... ......
Hats, straw, .......... .
Gloves, leather ... _
Neckties..... ........... .
Women’s—
Coats, fur__________
Gloves, leather_______
Girdles____ _ .. . . .
Girdle-brassieres___
Brassieres__________
Boys’—Neckties_______

.7
.7
.7
.6

1.2

1.2

1.3
1.0
1. 5

1.2
1.0
1. 5

2.1
1.6

2.2
1.6

1.4

1.5

.6

.6

2.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.5
1.4
1.7
1.2
.3

Services

Men’s—
Dry cleaning_________
Shoe repairs_________
Women’s—
Dry cleaning_________
Shoe repairs__________
Boys’— Shoe repairs_____
All items, this index.

1.3
.7

.8

1.0

1.0

1.7
1.2
.3

1Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1934-36; 33 cities.
2 Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19; 32 cities.

The rent in d e x .— The Bureau’s data on changes in rents are obtained
by its field representatives, for the most part from the files of real
estate agencies. The Bureau’s representatives copy the rents direct
from the real estate agents’ record cards. Rents for unoccupied




20

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

dwellings are not used for the index.1 In certain cities where a large
5
proportion of the dwellings rented to low- and moderate-income
families are rented by their owners direct, rents are also obtained
from individual owners.
The sample of dwellings on which the Bureau’s rent indexes are
based is necessarily revised continuously. At each pricing period
it is found that some house either has been torn down, or that it has
been remodeled or has deteriorated so that it does not provide hous­
ing facilities equivalent to those provided at the last pricing period.
In each case where this occurs, another dwelling in the same neigh­
borhood with approximately the same facilities is substituted and its
rent is obtained for the current quarter and the previous pricing period.
In this way the rent index for each period is based on rents for equiva­
lent dwellings at two successive dates.
. In 1935, a systematic revision of the rent sample covered was
undertaken by the Bureau’s Retail Price Division. Advantage was
taken of the Real Property Inventory and of local studies of housing
to secure a sample which would be representative of housing condi­
tions in the cities covered. The samples were selected so as to give
representation to each rental range and type of dwelling, propor­
tional to that obtaining in the entire city.1 Indexes of rental cost
6
for use with the cost-of-living index are computed separately for
each rental range, and the indexes are weighted together to obtain an
over-all index for wage earners and lower-salaried workers in the entire
city. The weights used for each rental range are derived, as are the
weights for the other groups, from the information provided by the
recent study of the family expenditures of this group.
In many of the cities covered by the Bureau’s cost-of-living indexes,
the housing situation has changed markedly since 1935. A recheck
of the sample of the dwellings on which rents are obtained will be
made as soon as data from the 1940 Census of Housing become
available.
Th e in d ex o f f u e l y electricity , an d ice costs .— The new group index
which covers fuel, electricity, and ice reflects the changes which have
taken place in the housing facilities secured by employed wage earners
and clerical workers in the United States since 1919. In 1934-36,
65 percent of the 14,469 families that furnished the data, by means of
which the new list of items was selected and the new list of weights
was computed, had ice refrigerators and 28 percent had electric or
other mechanical refrigerators.
Fuel oil has been added to this index, because in some sections of
the country, particularly New England, an appreciable number of
1
8
An index of rents asked would serve a different purpose from the index of rents actually being paid,
which is the meagre provided by the Bureau’s index of rent costs.
1
6
The Bureau’s Retail Price Division now computes indexes of rental costs for all types of dwellings
over all rental ranges in each community, and separate indexes are provided by rent ranges.




CONSTRUCTION OF THE COST-OF-LIVING IN DEX

21

families in this group are now living in houses with oil burners. Coke
has been added to the indexes for the North Atlantic and North
Central cities (except Pittsburgh and Scranton) and for Birmingham,
Portland (Oreg.), and Seattle. Although not important in the national
total, briquets are commonly used in two cities, Minneapolis and
Seattle, where they are now priced.
Differences between the weights for the new group index for fuel,
electricity, and ice and for the original group index, as shown in table
V, are very striking. A material increase in the use of electricity for
lighting and for power for household appliances, as well as a material
decrease in the use of coal for cooking, has resulted in giving a much
higher weight to electricity in the new index and lower weights to
both coal and gas. The use of gas for cooking has increased consid­
erably, but the use of gas for illumination has decreased greatly. The
result has been a decline in the relative importance of gas in the index.
T a b l e V .— R elative im p ortan ce o f various item s includ ed i n B u rea u o f L a bor
S ta tistics’ in dex o f fu e l, electricity, and ice costs in large cities

Percentage distribution of—
Costs in September 1939
Average
costs in
1935-39:
Original
New index 1 New index 1
index 2

Item

Coal, anthracite_____________________________ ______ _____
Coal, bituminous________________________________________
Coke_________________________ _________________________
Briquets._________ _______________ _ _ ____ ____________
Fueloil___________ ____ _______ ______________ _____ _____

13.8
13. 7
5.7
.1
4.5

13.6
13.9
5.5
.1
4.5

30.1
16.0

Wood___________________________________________________
Electricity________ _ _ _ _______ __________ ___
_ ___
Gas - ___________ _ ________ _____ _ ______
_ ______
Kerosene___________ ___________________ __ . _______
Ice-_________________ _____________ _______
___ _ _

1.1
25.0
23.8
.8
11.5

1.1
24.4
24.4
.8
11.7

5.1
3.8
41.9
3.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

All items, this index__ _______ ___ _________
1
2

_.

Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1934-36; 33 cities.
Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19; 32 cities.

T he in d ex o j h ou sefu rn ish in gs costs .— Differences between the list of
housefurnishings included in the original index in 1919 and in the
new index reflect changes both in goods purchased and in method of
purchase. Matting rugs, baby carriages, and sewing machines are
now purchased much less frequently than at the end of the last war.
Bedroom and dining-room furniture are purchased quite as frequently
but are now bought more often as suites rather than as separate pieces.
The number of articles listed as priced for the original housefurnishings
index in 1939 is only 16, as compared with 21 in 1919, because matting
rugs and baby carriages were no longer priced for the index and bed­
room and dining-room furniture was priced in suites which count as
2 items rather than 5. In recent years, baby carriages have become
increasingly difficult to price in stores patronized by wage earners and
lower-salaried workers. Demand for new baby carriages has fallen




22

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

off among families in this group. Those with automobiles are apt to
take the baby to ride in a basket in the car; general decreases in the
number of children in urban families have resulted in an increase in
the supply of second-hand baby carriages. In addition a variety of
very inexpensive steel-frame-canvas carts have appeared on the
market, which have been substituted by some famines for the more
substantial standard baby carriage of the past.
The much larger weight for electrical appliances in the housefumishings index corresponds to the higher weight on electricity in the fuel,
electricity, and ice index. (See table V I.) Radios, light bulbs, wash­
ing machines, vacuum cleaners, and electric refrigerators— all additions
to the household equipment priced— now account for almost 40
percent of the weight in this group.
T able

V I.—

R elative im p ortan ce o f various item s included in B u rea u
S ta tistics’ in dex o f h ou sefu rn ish in gs costs in large cities

Percentage distribu­
tion of—

Percentage distribu­
tion of—

item

Towels, cotton. ...................
Sheets.................................
Curtains________________
Blankets____________ ____
Rugs, wool.............. ...........
Carpet, wool_____________
Felt-base floor covering___
Linoleum________ _______
Living-room suites_______
Dining-room suites........... .
Bedroom suites...................
Studio couches...................
Tables
Chairs ..... _
Mattresses_______________
Bedsprings........................ .

Aver­ Costs in Sep­
tember 1939
age
costs
in
1935-39: New
Orig­
New
inal
index 1 index1 index 2
1.4
3.1
3.8
2.03.9
3.0
1.2
1.1
11.5
5.0
8.5
1.8

1.3
2.8
3.6
2.0
4.0
3.2
1.1
1.1
11.7
5.1
8.5
1.8

2.8
1.6

2.7
1.6

0.9
5.4
3.4
11.4
4.2
8.5
8.0
3.8
1.1
4.5
6.7
2.7

o f L abor

Item

Aver­ Costs in Sep­
age
tember 1939
costs
in
1935-39:
New Orig­
New
inal
index 1 index1 index2

Radios________ ______ ___
Sewing machines_________
Light bulbs______________
Washing machines_______
Vacuum cleaners_________
Refrigerators:
Electric.........................
Gas................................
Ice.................................
Stoves, cook_____________
Dinnerware_____________
Glassware...........................
Brooms_________________

10.2
1.6
1.1
6.3

9.7
1.6
1.1
6.4

10.9

15.8
1.5
.2
6.6
1.4
.5
1.1

15.9
1.5
.2
7.0
1.5
.5
1.1

______
_____
2.3
24.6
______
______
1.6

All items, this index.

100.0

10
0 .0

100.0

1 Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1934-36; 33 cities.
2 Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19; 32 cities.

The index of miscellaneous costs.— It is more difficult to provide
representation in a cost-of-living index for the goods and services in­
cluded in the miscellaneous group than for any other group in the
family budget. The larger number of items in this group in the new
index reflects the greater variety in the expenditures of moderateincome families in the thirties as compared with their expenditures
at the end of the last war.
Automobiles now account for almost 8 percent of the weight of
the miscellaneous-items index, as indicated in table V II, with gas and
oil accounting for another 8 percent and other expenses associated
with automobile operation accounting for a weight of 4 percent. In
combination, automobile purchase and operation constitute almost




23

CONSTRUCTION OF THE COST-OF-LIVING IN DEX

one-fifth the weight in the new miscellaneous index. As a result,
the relative importance of most of the other items included in this
group is lower in the new than in the original index. The weight for
medical care is less by half. The relative weights for laundry service,
telephone service, and movies are also lower.1 The only other items
7
for which the weights are increased are cigarettes and toilet articles.
T a b l e V II .— R elative im p ortan ce o f various item s in clu d ed in B u rea u o f L a b or S ta ­
tistics1 in dex o f m iscellaneous costs in large cities

Percentage distribu­
tion of—

Item

Transportation__________
Automobile
Gasoline
Motor oil____________
Tires and tubes........
Automobile repairs___
License and taxes_____
Automobile insuranceStreetcar fare.............. .
Bus fare_____________
Railroad fare
Medical care_____________
Physician—
Office visit..... ........
House visit_______
Obstetrical case___
Surgeon—A p p e n d e c tomy___________ __
Specialist — Tonsillec­
tomy______________
Dentist—
F illin g

Crown___________
Inlay___ _________
E x tr a c tio n

Cleaning_________
Plates.. _______
Hospital—
Pav ward
Room___________
Nurse, private____
Optometrist—Glasses..
Medicine and drugs—
Prescriptions_____
Aspirin__________
Quinine__________
Cold remedy oint­
ment__________
Iodine....... ........... .
Castor oil________
Milk of magnesia..
Laxative_________
Vaseline_________
Accident and health
insurance__________

Aver­ Costs in Sep­
tember 1939
age
costs
in
Orig­
1935-39: New
New
inal
index i index i index 2
29. 5
7.9
6.9
.8
.8
.7
1.0
.9
9.3
.8
.4
14.1

29.1
7.9
6. 6
.8
.8
.7
1.0
.9
9.2
.8
.4
14.0

31.0

2.1
2.0
.5

2.1
2.0
.6

5.4
8 1
1.8

Percentage distribu­
tion of—
Aver­
age
costs
in
1935-39:
New
index i

Item

13.5
3.6
2.8
.4
.6
1.2

13.3
3.6
2.8
.4
.6
1.2

22.0
12.0
7.3

1.0
.7
.9
.3
.7
.4
.9
18.7
4.4

1.0
.7
.9
.3
.6
.4
.8
19.3
4.6

.7
1.1
.3

5.0
.8

5.0
.7

10.1

Tobacco—
Cigars................. —
*
Cigarettes________
Cigarette tobacco - _

.8
6.7

.8
7.2

Household operation
Laundry service______
Telephone service___
D o m e s tic service

17.0

.4

.4

.4

.4

1.0

1.0

.3
1.3

.4
1.3

.6
1.0
.3
.8

.6
1.0
.2
.8

2.0

1.0
.3
.1

1.0
.3
.1

3.9
.2
.1

.3
.1
.1
2
11

.9

1.0

New Orig­
inal
index * index2

A d u l t _______
C h ild

17.0

Postal service________
Water rent...... ........... .
Laundry soap—
Bar______________
Flakes and chips-..
Granulated______
Laundry starch______
Cleaning powder
M a tc h e s

.3
.2
.1
.3
.2

Costs in Sep­
tember 1939

3.7
1.0
1.1
.7

2.4

.4

.2

Toilet paper
Recreation______________
Newspapers.................
Motion pictures—

P ip e tobacco

Plug tobacco_____
Personal care____________
Barber service—
Shave____________
Haircut, men
Beauty shop—
Haircut, women__
Wave set_________
Permanent wave._
Toilet articles—
Toilet soap_______
S h a v in g c rea m

_

Toothpaste_______
Face powder_____
Cleansing cream__
Sanitary napkins - _
Razor blades_____
Gifts, contributions, and
other unallocated items 3_
All items, this index.

.6
23.9
5.8

1.0

1.0

8.6

8.8

2.1
3.6
.6
1.0
.7
6.1

2.8

2.9

2.4
2.0

.4
.7
.7

.5
.7
.7

1.3
.3
1.1
.3
.4
.3
.3

1.3
.3
1.1
.3
.4
.2
.4

15.6

15.5

100.0

100.0

.8
.2
.7

100.0

i Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1934-36; 33 cities.
*Based on average expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 1917-19; 32 cities.
8 Costs for these items in the original index were assumed to move as did costs for miscellaneous items.
In the new index, they are assumed to move as do costs for all items, but are computed as a part of the
miscellaneous index.
1
7
It is important to note that family expenditures for these services have not decreased in the period since
1919. On the contrary, they have increased. Part of the reason for the decrease in the relative weight is
that these services were somewhat overweighted in the original index. (See p. 31 for a discussion of the
difficulties involved in weighting by purchases of the specific items priced, the method used in the original
index.)
4 0 9 7 7 8 °— 41-




24

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

The relative importance of each group index.— The nature of the
differences between the group weights of the original index and the
group weights of the new index are the more readily understood when
the distribution of the total money disbursements of the wage earners
and clerical workers studied in 1917-19 and in 1934-36 are compared.
Table V III gives the percentage distribution of their actual disburse­
ments, including savings, as of the date when the figures were originally
collected, and in terms of average costs in 1935-39. This table shows
that, when money disbursements of the two periods are thus converted
to the same dollar values, the proportions for food, rent, and mis­
cellaneous items is greater in the later period, those for fuel, electricity,
and ice, and for housefurnishings about the same, while those for
clothing are somewhat lower, and for savings considerably lower.1
8
T

able

V III. —

M on ey

d isbu rsem en ts o f w age-earner and
studied in 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 and 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

low er-salaried

grou p s

Percentage distribution of—

Item

Actual disbursements

1917-19
Food..... ........................................................................ .
Clothing...........................................................................
Rent............... .......................................................... ........
Fuel, electricity, and ice__________ _____ ____________
Housefurnishings____ ____ _______________ _________
Miscellaneous. ................. ...............................................
Insurance_______ _______________ ______ ___ ____ ____
Other savings_____________________________________
Total disbursements-............................. ................

37.5
15.5
13.6
4.8
4.4
17.0
2.6 \
4.6 J
100.0

Estimated cost in 193539 of goods purchased
in—

1934-36
34.0
10.3
17.5
6.7
4.0
26.8

7 /
*7 \

100.0

1917-19
29.6
13.1
15.3
6.1
4.5
23.2
3.6 \
4.6 /
100.0

1935-39
33.6
10.4
18.0
6.4
4.2
26.7
7

*7
100.0

The relative importance of the six groups of items used in calcu­
lating changes in the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried
workers varies from time to time, because the prices in the different
groups change at different rates. Prices of items included in the
miscellaneous group are much more stable than those for items in the
other groups; food prices change more rapidly than rents; and so on.
Table I X presents the relative importance of each group index in
the computation of costs in the original index in 1923-25 and in
1935-39, and in the new index in 1935-39.
1
8
The difference in the savings item is probably accounted for in part by the difference in the national situ­
ation at the time the two studies of money disbursements were made. The period of the earlier study had
been preceded by 2 years of full employment, and U. S. Government “ liberty loans” were being floated in
small denominations appealing to moderate-income families. There was great incentive toward saving.
The period of the 1934-36 study had been preceded by 4 years of serious unemployment. Many of the em­
ployed families covered by the investigation made at this time were making up for arrears in purchasing,
which had accumulated in the years just previous. Installment-credit facilities had been increased, and
borrowing to purchase consumers’ goods was easier than it had been at the end of the last war. There is con­
siderable evidence which shows that the standard of living of the wage-earner and clerical group was higher
in 1934-36, in the sense that they were more conscious of the food and housing facilities necessary for good
health than they had been earlier




CONSTRUCTION OF THE COST-OF-LIVING INDEX
T

25

I X .— Relative im p ortan ce o f each group o f item s in com p u tin g changes in
costs o f all item s purchased hy wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers

able

Original index

New index:

Item

1935-39
1923-25

Food________________ _______________ ___________ ________
Clothing.______ _____ ______ ____________ _____ __________
Rent. - ______ _ . ____________________________________
Fuel, electricity, and ice__________________________________
Housefurnishings________________________________________
Miscellaneous___________________________________________
All iturns

31.6
14.1
19.8
6.0
4.8

1935-39 i

23.7

31.1
13.8
16.0
6.3
4.7
28.1

33.9
10.5
18.1
6.4
4.2
26.9

100.0

100.0

100.0

1The percentage distribution for all weights shown here is higher than in column 3 of table VIII, since
savings other than life insurance were not included in the base on which the percentages were calculated.

Differences between the percentage distribution of costs according to
the original index in 1935-39 and the new index in 1935-39 are due to
the changes in consumption patterns shown in table V III. Quantities
of foods purchased have increased; houses with better facilities are now
obtained and more is spent for housing. The emphasis on clothing
expenditure has declined. The weight on miscellaneous items in the
original index as shown in table I X is larger than would have been
expected from table V III because in the original index the cost of
insurance was assumed to move with the cost of miscellaneous goods
and services, and the weight for the miscellaneous-items group index
included amounts spent for insurance premiums. In the 1934-36
study, amounts spent for insurance premiums were treated as savings.
Savings are excluded from the computation of both indexes.
Base period.— On the recommendation of the Central Statistical
Board, the new index has been calculated by using average costs in the
period 1935-39 as a base. A release of the Central Statistical Board,
dated June 3, 1940, stated:
“ The Central Statistical Board has recommended that all Govern­
ment agencies adopt the years 1935-39 as a uniform base period for
general-purpose index numbers. Adoption of a uniform base period
will make it easier to compare the changes shown by various statistical
indexes. A t present a multiplicity of base periods prevails. The
Department of Agriculture publishes some index numbers on a
pre-war base and others on a 1924-29 base; the Board of Governors
of the Federal Reserve System uses a 1923-25 base; the Department
of Labor a 1923-25, a 1926, and a 1929 base; and the Department of
Commerce a 1923-25, a 1929, and a 1929-31 base.
“ A more recent base period has been urgently needed for index
numbers for two chief reasons: (1) Many statistical series are not
available before 1935. It is awkward to include such series in index
numbers having earlier base periods. (2) Important economic changes
have made it increasingly difficult to interpret the significance of
index numbers calculated on predepression base periods.




26

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

“ The 5-year period, 1935 through 1939, is regarded as the most
suitable recent period for adoption as a standard base. It is neither a
period of very high business activity nor of very low business activity.
It is long enough to meet the special needs of agricultural indexes.
It is recent. It includes 1939, for which decennial census data will
shortly be available. It also covers three censuses of manufactures;
one census of agriculture; two censuses of business; and one census of
electrical industries. Because of its recency, there are far more bench­
mark data available (in addition to those from the census) than for
any earlier period.
“ It is recognized by the Central Statistical Board that the need for
adopting a new and recent base will recur periodically, although too
frequent changes in base periods are not desirable. The Board rec­
ommends that the question of base periods be again reexamined before
the end of the decade of the 1940's, and that consideration then be
given to shifting the standard base period forward to a more recent
series of years.”
A change of base does not in itself involve any revision in the data
on which a cost-of-living index is constructed, or the manner in which
the weights and the price data are combined. Individuals desiring
to put the index on some other base than that currently used by the
Bureau may do so by dividing each index figure by the index for the
year which it is desired to use for a base and multiplying by 100.
If an average for a group of years is desired for the base, each index
will be divided by the average indexes for those years.1
9
1
8
If recomputations for a long series are desired, multiplication by the reciprocal of the index for the year
or years which are to be used as the base is more convenient than division.




Comparison of N ew and Original Indexes
Despite the large changes in the internal composition of the index
resulting from the revision, the differences between the movement
of the new and original indexes over the period for which both indexes
were computed, March 1935 to December 1939, are not large. Charts
3 and 4 present this comparison for each of the major groups of items
and for all items combined. The general pattern of change in the
cost of all items—little change during 1935, a sharp increase from
the spring of 1936 to the fall of 1937, with a subsequent decline to
levels in 1939 still somewhat above those prevailing in 1935— is shown
by both indexes. The maximum discrepancy between the two
indexes at any period is slightly more than 1 index point. In general
the new index seems to be somewhat more sensitive to price change
than is the original.
The different groups of items show different amounts of agreement.
For rent, the two indexes are virtually identical, the maximum
discrepancy being 0.3. For clothing, the agreement is close, although
the new index appears more sensitive. The maximum discrepancy
is again less than 1 index point. The magnitude of the changes
made by the revision of the housefurnishings index results in some­
what less agreement between the indexes for this group, the maximum
discrepancy being 1.6 index points. This difference is largely due
to a decline in the prices of certain articles of electrical equipment
over the period. Nevertheless, even for this index, the general
pattern of change during this period is the same in both indexes.
For food, the lowered weight for potatoes and apples and the
increased weight for oranges— all foods given to large month-tomonth fluctuations— account for the occasional disagreements in shortperiod fluctuations. The lowered weight on coal in the fuel, elec­
tricity, and ice index has diminished the amplitude of the seasonal
fluctuations of the original index, but the trend of the two indexes
over the period is the same. The inclusion of automobile purchase
and operation in the miscellaneous index has served to increase
materially the sensitivity of the index for this group.
The general closeness of the agreement between the two sets of
indexes over the period 1935-39 is a strong indication of the usefulness
of the original group indexes for periods prior to 1935.




27

28

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

CHART 3.

INDEX NUMBERS OF COSTS OF GOODS PURCHASED
BY W AGE-EARNERS AND SALARIED WORKERS
IN LARGE C IT IE S , 1 9 3 5 - 4 0
1 9 3 5

-

3 9 * 1 0 0

CLOTHING

NEW. _
I
^ ^ X )R IG I

UNITED STATES DEPT. OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




COMPARISON OF NEW AND ORIGINAL INDEXES

CHART 4.

INDEX NUMBERS OF COSTS OF GOODS PURCHASED
BY W AGE-EARNERS AND SALARIED WORKERS
IN LARGE C IT IE S , 1 9 3 5 - 4 0
1 9 3 5 -3 9 -1 0 0

MISCELLANEOUS

NEW..

___

|
1
' ORIGIN AL

193 5

1936

1937

~~ '

1938

UNITED STATES DEPT. OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TISTIC S




1939

1940

__________________________________

29

30

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

The earlier group indexes for each city have been linked to the
new group indexes in order to provide a complete series back to 1913.
From 1930 to date, the group indexes have been combined with the
weights derived from the study of family expenditures in 1934-36 to
secure indexes representing the cost of all items. From 1913 to 1925,
the group indexes are combined with weights derived from the study
of family expenditures in 1917-19. For the intervening years, 1925
through December 1929, the group indexes have been combined
with weights which represent an estimate of the distribution of family
expenditures in this period.2
0
The 19 city indexes available from 1913 through 1917 were originally
combined without population weights and this method has been re­
tained. From 1918 through 1924 the city indexes have been combined
with weights representing average population in 1920-30. (See p. 39).
From 1930, they have been combined with weights representing 1930
population.
2 These estimates were obtained by averaging the new and original group weights for the period 1925-29.
0




Deriving Weights for the Index for Each C ity
The weights used in combining price ratios for individual commodi­
ties and services into the cost-of-living indexes shown in tables 1,2, and
3 represent, as has been indicated, actual family expenditures of
employed wage earners and clerical workers, in the cities actually
covered by the cost-of-living indexes.2 Significant differences were
1
found between average expenditures for food; housing; fuel, electric­
ity, and ice; and miscellaneous items in the individual cities in given
regions; and weights for these group indexes have therefore been ba§ed
on average expenditures by the wage-earner and clerical group in
each city.
Expenditures for items of clothing and housefumishings have a
much higher variability from family to family in a given year, and
from year to year in a given family than most other items in the
budget. There are large random variations in average annual ex­
penditures for specific items in these two groups by families in cities
of the same size within the same region. On that account, the weights
for specific items of clothing and housefumishings have been derived
from average expenditures by region, rather than from averages for
the families covered in the individual cities in given regions.
If every item purchased by wage earners and lower-salaried workers
were priced for inclusion in the index, the question of what weight to
give to any specific item would be automatically solved. In such a
case the weight would simply be the average expenditure by families
of wage earners and lower-salaried workers for that item. In
ordinary practice, however, all index numbers are samples in the
sense that they do not include all the commodities which might be
priced. If the procedure of giving each item priced its specific weight
is followed in the case where the index is a sample, however, it may
result in giving a subgroup of commodities—fruits and vegetables,
for example— a weight different in the index from the weight it has
in family food expenditures. The cost of the specific fruits and vege­
tables priced for the index may form 12 percent of the cost of all foods
priced, but expenditure for all fruits and vegetables constitutes 20
percent of actual family food expenditures. Giving each item its
specific weight would, therefore, result in underweighting fruits and
vegetables and overweighting other groups within which relatively
more items might be priced.
The procedure followed in the construction of the Bureau’s cost-offood indexes since 1935 avoids such underweighting by giving fruits
2
1
Except in the case of Savannah, for which average expenditures in southeastern cities were combined as
weights.




31

32

CHANGES IN COST OP LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1913-41

and vegetables their actual weight, say 20 percent, regardless of the
percentage the priced items form of total costs in the index. The
effect of such a procedure is to impute the price movement of priced
fruits and vegetables to all fruits and vegetables whether priced or not.
The assumption on which the method of imputed weights is based is
that broad groups of items have distinctive price movements, so that
more accurate results are obtained by imputing the price movement of
certain priced foods to all similar foods than by making no assumptions
as to the movement of unpriced foods. Subgroups— beef, for ex­
ample— have distinctive price movements, so that accuracy is gained
by imputing the movement of priced beef items to the cost of all types
of, beef. This can easily be accomplished by weighting the price
movement of priced beef items by the actual expenditure on all beef
items. To decide on the actual imputations to be used, it is necessary
to have a detailed knowledge of price movements. Before beef
can be used as a subgroup for imputation, it is necessary to know
whether beef items do have a distinctive price movement. There­
fore, for the purpose of deriving weights for the revised index, the
relationship of price movements was studied. In addition to provid­
ing the basis for a detailed system of imputations, this study also
provided the basis for eliminating certain commodities from pricing,
since it is unnecessary to price two commodities with highly correlated
price movements.
There was, of course, no logical reason why this process of imputa­
tion need be confined to the food group, and in the new index the
weights for all the group indexes have been derived by this method.
The method used in making the imputations is shown in tables
6, 10, 15, 18, and 21. An example of the derivation of weights for
items of housefurnishings for white families in the West North Central
region will illustrate the procedure.
Total annual expenditures for housefurnishings in the West North
Central region averaged $68.97. When these expenditures were
analyzed in relation to the items which it seemed most important to
price for the housefurnishings index, it was found that they were
divided as follows:
Total expenditure for 24 items to be priced________________ $54. 85
Expenditures for unpriced items having the same
price movement as a given priced item___________ $6. 1^5
Expenditures for other unpriced items in subgroups
represented by priced items______________________ 5. 02
Expenditures for subgroups not represented by priced
items______________________________________________ 8. 65
Total expenditure for items not priced_____________________

15. 12

Grand total__________________________________________

69. 97




33

DERIVING W E IG H TS FOR INDEX FOR EACH CITY

Table X illustrates the method by which final weights for the priced
items were computed in such a manner that they represent total
expenditures for housefumishings in this region.
The items priced for the housefumishings index are shown in table
X by the subgroups into which they fall. Column 1 gives the actual
family expenditure on each of these items. For each of the priced
items, there is sometimes one or more than one commodity with a very
similar price movement. From a study of price movements, it is
known, for example, that desks have a price movement very close to
that of living-room suites, while bookcases and upholstered chairs
may also be expected to have price movements similar to that of livingroom suites. The average expenditure on these three items, $1.02,
has therefore been added to the expenditure for living-room suites,
(column 2). For some other items, however— for example, vacuum
cleaners— there are no other items with similar price movements and,
as a result, no direct allocations have been made of the expenditures
for such items.
T

a b l e

X .—

M eth o d o f deriving im p u ted weights f o r h o u sefu rn ish in gs-costs in d ex ,
W e s t N orth Central region {white fa m ilies)

Expenditure for—

Furniture:
Living-room suites-------------------------Studio couches __ _________________
Bedroom suites
________________
Dining-room suites -----------------------Bedsprings_________________________
Total-----------------------------------------Household appliances:
Vacuum cleaners___________________
Electric refrigerators________________
Washing machines_________________
Electric light bulbs ________________
Sewing machines, electric____________
Refrigerators, gas___________________
Radios____________________________
Total____________________________
Textile furnishings:
Carpets, ru g s____________________ .
Linoleum, inlaid ______________
Felt-base floor covering---------------- .
Mattresses_________________________
Blankets___________________________
Sheets______________________ ________
Towels, cotton______________________
Curtain material____________________
Total____________________________
Other housefumishings:
Stoves_________________ ___________
B room s___________________________
Dinnerware________________________
Glassware__________________________
Total____________________________
Grand to ta l_______________ ___.




Other
items
known to
have the
same price
movement

(1)

Subgroup and items priced

Specific
items
priced

(2)

Proportionate share of
expenditure—

(3)

Unallo­
cated
items in
the entire
housefurnishings
group

Final
weight in
dollars

(4)

Other
items in
the same
subgroup

(5)

$5. 42
.97
3. 25
2. 05
.52
12. 21

$1. 02
.35
.95
.78
.45
3.55

$0.41
.09
.27
.18
.06
1.01

$0. 38
.08
.24
.17
.06
.93

$7.23
1.49
4. 71
3.18
1.09
17.70

2.05
12. 99
3. 1
1
.71
.81
.45
4. 24
24. 36

0
0
0
0
.20
0
1.04
1.24

.25
1.61
.38
.09
. 13
.06
.65
3.17

. 13
.80
.19
.04
.06
.03
.32
1.57

2.43
15. 40
3.68
.84
1.20
.54
6.25
30. 34

5. 61
.64
.51
1.66
.83
1.15
.57
1.68
12. 65

0
0
0
.09
. 19
.70
. 24
.44
1.66

.13
.01
.01
.04
.02
.04
.02
.05
.32

.31
.04
.03
.10
.06
.10
.05
. 12
.81

4.03
.75
.65
.20
5. 63
54.85

0
0
0
0
0
6. 45

0
0
.40
.12
.52
5.02

.22
.04
.06
.02
.34
3. 65

.

6.05
.69
.55
1.89
1.10
1.99
.88
2.29
15.44
4.25
.79
1.11
.34
6.49
69.97

34

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 - 4 1

In addition to relationships between price movements of single items,
commodities falling in a subgroup tend to have generally related price
movements. Two items falling in the subgroup “ electrical equipment”
will generally have more closely related price movements than items
falling in two different subgroups. In column 3 the expenditures for
each such item are allocated proportionately to each priced item, by
subgroup.
Finally, there are those items of housefumishings— window shades,
for example— which are not known to resemble in price movement
either specific items or subgroups, but which probably are more closely
related to the general movement of housefumishing goods than they
are to other groups— for example, food. Expenditures for these
items have been allocated proportionately to all priced items in this
entire group in column 4. The final weight for each item, shown in
column 5, is the sum of the expenditures in columns 1 to 4.
The weights in the original index were derived from the expenditures
of white families only. In the new index, in each city in which the
Negro population is of importance among employed wage earners and
clerical workers, expenditure data were summarized for the white
and Negro groups separately and combined for the purposes of
weighting the index by means of weights representing the relative
importance of the white and Negro groups in these cities, as shown by
the United States census of 1930. (See table X I.) Moreover, for
all those commodities and services generally purchased in different
outlets by the two groups, e. g., haircuts, the Bureau is now securing
prices in the different outlets patronized by the two groups. In
Houston and Los Angeles, expenditures for Mexican workers’ families
were averaged with those of other white workers’ families; in Houston
in the ratio of 1 to 19 and in Los Angeles in the ratio of 1 to 13.
X I. — C ities in which con su m er purchases o f fa m ilie s o f N eg ro wage earners
and clerical w orkers are represented in the weights fo r the c ost-o f-livin g in d e x , and
their relative im p ortan ce in each city _________________________________________

T able

Region and city

Percentage
of weight

Region and city

Middle Atlantic:
South Atlantic—Continued.
Newark________________________
8.7
Charleston, S. C............................
4.1
Jacksonville____________________
New York_____________________
Philadelphia...................................
10.6
Norfolk...........................................
7.9
Richmond_____________________
Pittsburgh_________ _______ ____
Savannah........................................
East North Central:
6.2
Washington, D. C ______ _______
Chicago________________________
Cincinnati......................................
9.8 'East South Central:
7.5
Birmingham _
Cleveland__- ________________
10.0
Louisville__ ___________________
Columbus______________________
6.7
Memphis, ____________________
Detroit— _____________________
11.3
Indianapolis______ _____________
Mobile______ _________________
4.9 West South Central:
Springfield, 111..............................
West North Central:
Dallas......... ...................................
11.0
Houston.______________________
Kansas City 1
__________________
5.0
Little Rock____________________
Omaha - ______________________
St. Louis ________ ___ _________
10. 2
New Orleans___________ __
South Atlantic:
32.5
Atlanta.......................... ...............
15.8
Baltimore------- ------------------------1 Includes Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kans.




Percentage
of weight
53. 2
35.5
32.8
28.1
51.7
23.8
38. 5
15.1
39. 5
40.0
14.7
20.7
25.7
28.9

Use of Cost Weights in Computing Group Indexes
The figures on actual family expenditures used to compute the
weights for each city in constructing the Bureau's new indexes of the
cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried workers, apply to
some 12-month period between 1934 and the spring of 1936, but they
do not apply to any one pricing period in that interval. It was
necessary, therefore, to compute the cost in March 1935 of the goods
purchased in 1 year in the period 1934-36. This cost was obtained
by dividing the 1934-36 expenditure weight for each commodity and
service included in the index by its average price in the period covered
in the given city and multiplying by the average price in March 1935.
Having thus obtained March 1935 cost figures for each commodity,
cost figures for June 1935 were obtained by multiplying the March
cost figure by the March to June price relative, obtained in turn by
dividing the June price by the March price. By repeating this process
for each pricing period and totaling the costs at each period separately
for each group, a set of aggregate costs was obtained. Dividing
the aggregate for any period by the average value of the aggregate in
1935-39, gives an index for that period with 1935-39 as 100.




35

Combining the Group Indexes into All-Items Indexes
for Each City
After aggregate costs have been computed for each group index as
described above, costs for the six groups of items in a given city
for a given pricing period are added to secure costs for all items.
The all-items aggregate for a given pricing period is then divided by
the average for all items in 1935-39 to secure the indexes. The fact
that the weights for the individual goods and services priced for the
six group indexes have been computed in such a way as to represent
all goods and services classified in each group, automatically provides
the basis for combining the six indexes into an aggregate for all items
T

a b l e

X I I .—

Relative im p ortan ce o f g rou ps o f item s in com p u tin g changes in costs o f
all item s purchased b y wage earners and low er-sa laried w o rk er s 1

[1935-39 average]

City
New England:
Boston............................... .
Manchester..... ................ .
Portland, M aine......... ......
Middle Atlantic:
Buffalo ............... .......... .
New York_______________
Philadelphia......... ............
Pittsburgh.................... ......
Scranton _
. ________
East North Central:
Chicago_______ ____ _____
Cincinnati_______________
Cleveland................. .........
Detroit _ ______________
Indianapolis ___________
Milwaukee. . . __________
West North Central:
Kansas City_______ ____
Minneapolis___________ _
St. Louis..._____________
South Atlantic:
Atlanta............................. .
Baltimore_______________
Jacksonville_____________
Norfolk............................
Richmond___________ _ .
Savannah............ .............. .
Washington, D. C..............
East South Central:
Birmingham........................
Memphis.............................
Mobile............... ..................
West South Central:
Houston__________ ______
New Orleans____________
Mountain: Denver.................. .
Pacific:
Los Angeles....... ..................
Portland, Oreg__....... .........
San Francisco..................
Seattle............... ..................

All
items

Food

Clothing

Rent

Fuel,
electric­
ity, and
ice

Housefurnish­
ings

100.0
100.0
100.0

36.7
36.8
32.2

9.8
12.0
10.5

19.8
12.6
17.2

8.8
9.4
9.3

2.9
5.2
4.6

22.0
24.0
26.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

32.5
36.2
36.4
34.1
37.1

10.4
11.2
10.6
10.1
11.3

17.8
21.1
15.8
19.3
17.9

7.7
4.8
7.4
6.2
7.5

4.8
2.9
4.2
4.6
4.7

26.8
23.8
25.6
25.7
21.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

35.8
34.5
31.6
31.9
30.2
32.2

9.1
10.9
11.0
11.0
11.1
10.6

19.3
16.2
16.7
19.1
14.2
17.8

6.4
6.1
6.7
6.5
8.1
7.8

3.2
5.8
5.4
4.4
6.5
5.3

26.2
26.5
28.6
27.1
29.9
26.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

30.1
30.7
33.4

10.4
9.9
9.7

15.2
16.7
15.5

7.3
8.5
6.9

5.2
5.1
5.0

31.8
29.1
29.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

31.1
35.0
32.1
33.2
30.7
34.1
27.8

10.8
10.4
10.7
9.8
11.2
10.9
11.2

15.0
17.9
14.3
14.9
15.3
15.0
21.8

6.7
7.4
6.1
8.2
7.8
7.3
4.8

4.9
4.8
4.8
6.5
4.6
5.0
4.3

31.5
24.5
32.0
27.4
30.4
27.7
30.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

31.6
30.8
33.1

11.5
10.6
11.4

14.8
15.4
12.8

6.2
7.8
6.8

5.1
6.2
5.4

30.8
29.2
30.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

29.0
38.9
32.9

10.6
10.1
10.3

15.4
15.6
16.3

5.2
6.1
6.2

6.7
3.8
3.9

33.1
25.5
30.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

31.7
31.8
33.5
33.1

10.8
10.6
11.2
10.0

16.2
13.2
16.6
14.7

4.1
6.2
3.8
6.6

4.8
5.0
3.7
4.0

32.4
33.2
31.2
31.6

1See p. 30 for description of method of combining group indexes for periods prior to J une 1930.

36




Miscel­
laneous

COMBINING GROUP INDEXES INTO ALL-ITEMS INDEXES

37

without further weighting. This aggregate represents the cost, at a
given date, of goods and services equivalent to those purchased by
employed wage earners and clerical workers in a given city in 1934-36.
Table X I I presents for each of the 34 cities the relative importance of
each of the six groups of items in the index on the basis of average
costs in 1935-39. Because of differences from one city to another in
climate, in the economic level of the wage-earner and clerical group,
in prices and consumer preferences, the manner in which families
apportion their expenditures among different groups of items differs
from one city to another. While the same general pattern pre­
vails in all the cities, certain important differences exist.

The differences in the percentage assigned to food can be largely
explained on the basis of differences in income. New Orleans families,
for example, with a low average income, allocate almost 40 percent of
their total expenditure to food, whereas Washington families, with a
comparatively high level of income, spend less than 30 percent. In
New York, however, where the average money income is relatively
high, food prices are high enough to bring the proportion of the total
going to food to a percentage distinctly above the average.
For clothing the percentages all fall between 9 and 12.
In those cities in which rental costs are high relative to the cost
of other items, and where a large proportion of the rents include
heat as well as shelter, rent tends to claim a higher than average
portion of total expenditure. Thus in Washington rent is 21.8 percent
of total expenditure; in New York, 21.1; in Boston, 19.8; and in
Chicago, 19.3. For each of these cities rental costs are not only above
the national average but are high relative to the cost of other items.2
2
On the other hand, in cities like Manchester, Portland (Oreg.),
Mobile, and Indianapolis, where relative rental costs are low, the
percentage of total expenditure allotted to rent is less— 12.6, 12.8
13.2, and 14.2, respectively.
Another group of items for which large differences between cities
may be expected is that which includes fuel, electricity, and ice. In
warm climates the reduction in fuel requirements more than balances
the increased need for refrigeration and tends to reduce the percentage
of total expenditure allocated to the group. In addition, cities in
which apartments are important, and where, therefore, fuel is included
in rent, also tend to show low percentages for this group. Thus,
Manchester and Portland, Maine, both cities characterized by long,
cold winters and few apartments, show high percentages of total
expenditure for fuel, electricity, and ice— 9.4 and 9.3, respectively.
New Y ork City, located in a somewhat warmer zone and characterized
2
2
See Works Progress Administration Research Monograph X II: Intercity Differences in Costs of Living
in March 1935, 59 Cities, table 3, p. 162.




38

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

by a very large number of apartment-house dwellers, shows an ex­
tremely low percentage— 4.8. On the other hand, Los Angeles, situ­
ated in an area in which the climate eliminates any necessity for
central heating, and in which apartment houses are not frequent,
shows an even lower percentage— 4.1.
Another group of items for which intercity differences are affected
by the frequency of apartment houses is housefumishings. The
apartment, with its restricted living space, offers little opportunity for
the acquisition of items like washing machines, and frequently elimi­
nates the necessity of purchasing such items as refrigerators and stoves.
The low percentages in Boston and New York— 2.9— are in contrast
to the proportions in cities like Houston, Indianapolis, Memphis, and
Norfolk, where the percentage of apartment-house dwellers is small,
and where over 6 percent is spent on this group.
Expenditures for miscellaneous items, a large portion of which is
allocated to automobile purchase and operation, are influenced by the
general community situation as regards automobile ownership. In
Southern and Pacific cities, where automobile ownership is common,
the percentage of total expenditure for miscellaneous items is high.
In large Eastern cities, where automobile ownership is more expensive
and more easily dispensed with, the percentage is low. On the other
hand, expenditures for this group become more important as income
increases, so that in a Pacific city where wage earners and clerical
workers’ incomes are somewhat above the average for the United States
as a whole, and economies in fuel are possible (like Los Angeles),
miscellaneous expenditures form almost one-third of total expendi­
tures; whereas in a relatively cold Eastern city (like Scranton), where
the incomes of wage earners and clerical workers are below the average
for the country, the group expenditure is little more than one-fifth of
the total.




Calculating the Index for the Large Cities Combined
Since 1935, the Bureau's indexes for large cities combined have
been computed so that the cost figure for each city was given a weight
based upon the population of the given metropolitan area and that of
other cities in the same region and size class. These weights were
derived from the average 1920-30 population of all metropolitan
areas and all cities over 50,000 population not included in metropolitan
areas. Because the base of the new index represents costs in 1935-39,
the population weights used in combining the new city indexes were
based on population data for 1930 2 and are given in table X III.
3
This changes somewhat the relative importance of certain cities in
the all-cities average, although the changes are not large. The largest
weight change is that for Chicago, occasioned by the addition of M il­
waukee to the cities included in the index. In the original index the
weight for Milwaukee was assigned to Chicago.
T a b l e X I I I .— P o p u la tio n weights used f o r com b in in g costs o f goods purchased b y
wage earners and low er-salaried workers in given cities into com p osite indexes fo r
the U n ited States

Weights for combining—

Metropolitan district1

North Atlantic:
Boston, Lowell-Lawrence, Haverhill, and Worcester3____ _____ __________
Providence 3-.......... ......... .............. ............................................................ ........
Fall River 3_______________________________ __________________________ _
Bridgeport and Waterbury................................... ..............................................
New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield-Holyoke...........................................__
Portland 2............... ......... .................... ......... ....................................................
Manchester 2............................ ................ .............. .......................................... .
Buffalo and Erie______________________________________________________
Rochester, Syracuse, Utica, Binghamton, and Albany-Scheneetady-Troy___
New York City______________ _______________________________________
Newark-E lizabeth-Je rsey C it y -Pate rson_________________________________
Philadelphia, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, Wilmington, Trenton, Atlantic
City, Reading, Lancaster, York,2 and Harrisburg
____________________
Scranton-W ilkes-Barre__________________________________ _____________ _
Pittsburgh, Johnstown, Altoona, Charleston, and Wheeling........................__
Total........................................................................................... ......................
South Atlantic:
Baltimore-......................... ................ ................. ...... ..........................
Washington___________________________________ _______________
Richmond, Roanoke, Durham,2 Greensboro,2 and Winston-Salem 2.
Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News____________________________
Atlanta, Augusta,2 Macon,2 Asheville,2 and Charlotte 3....................
Savannah___________________________________ _________________
Charleston 2 and Columbia 3
______________________________ _____
Jacksonville, Tampa-St. Petersburg, and Miami_________ ________
T o ta l...-....... ..................... ................................................................

Costs of
Food costs other groups
for cities to for cities to
obtain food obtain other
group in­
index for
dexes for
United
United
States
States
P ercen t

P ercen t

10.1
.1
.1
4.4

.1
1.8
2.6
12.8
1.9

14.7

7.6
1.2
4.6

7.6
1.2
4.6

42.8

42.8

1.8

.9
.5
1. 1
•2 \

1.8
1.1
.9
.6
1. 1
.

6.6

6.6

1
.1

See footnotes at end o f table.
® It would have been desirable to use population weights representing an average of the 1930 and 1940
figures, but complete 1940 data were not available when the new index was calculated.

409778°— 41-




4

39

40

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1913-41

T a b l e X I I I . — P o p u la tio n weights u sed fo r com b in in g costs o f goods purchased b y
wage earners and low er-salaried w orkers in given cities in to com p o site in dexes fo r
the U n ited States — Continued

Weights for combining—

Metropolitan district

North Central:
Chicago, South Bend, and Rockford............. ...................................................
Milwaukee, Racine-Kenosha, and Madison 2................_..................................
Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, and Terre Haute2............................................... . .
Peoria, Davenport,4 and Cedar Rapids2.............................................. ............
Springfield, 111.,5 and Decatur2------------------------------ ------------------ -----------Cincinnati, Hamilton,2 and Huntington-Ashland........................................... .
Louisville and Evansville_______________________ ________________ ______
Columbus, Dayton, and Springfield, Ohio2______________________________
Detroit, Jackson,2 Kalamazoo,2 Toledo, Grand Rapids, Flint, Lansing,2and
Saginaw 2___________________________________________________________
Cleveland, Akron, Canton, and Youngstown____________________________
St. Louis and Springfield, Mo.2
_________________________________________
Kansas City, Kans.-Kansas City, Mo., Topeka,2 St. Joseph,2 and Wichita __
Omaha-Council Bluffs, Sioux City,2 Lincoln,2 and Des Moines____________
Minneapolis6................................................ .................... ................................
St. Paul and Duluth........................................................................................ . .
Total..................................................................................................................
South Central:
Birmingham, Montgomery,2 Chattanooga,2 Knoxville, and Nashville______
Memphis--.__________________________________________________________
Little Rock---------------- ------ -----------------------------------------------------------------M obile2 ___________________________________________________________
—
Houston, Austin,2 Beaumont,2 San Antonio, Port Arthur,2 and El Paso___
Dallas, Fort Worth, Waco,2 Oklahoma City, Tulsa—. ....... ........................ .
New Orleans and Shreveport2
__________________ _______ ________________
Total.......... ........... ......... ...... ................ ......................... ................................
Western:
Denver and Pueblo2........................................................................................ .
Salt Lake City....... .......................—.............................- ............................... .
Butte-Anaconda2........................................................................................... .
Seattle, Tacoma, and Spokane__________ _______ ______________ ___ ____
Portland, Oreg___________________________________________ ____________
San Francisco-Oakland, Sacramento, San Jose, and Fresno 2..... .....................
Los Angeles and San Diego________________________________ _______ _____
Total............................................................................... ........... ................. .
Grand total............... ................ ...................... ............... ..............................

Costs of
Food costs other groups
for cities to for cities to
obtain food obtain other
index for
group in­
United
dexes for
States
United
States
P ercent

P ercen t

8.5
1.7
1.1
.5
.4
1.8
1.0
1.2

8.5
1.7
2.0
4.0

5.8
3.9
2.5
1.6
1.1 }
1.1
.7 }
32.9

5.8
3.9
2.5
27
1.8
32.9

1.8
.5
.2 }
.1
1.7
1.7 }
1.1

-7
.1
3.4
1.1

7.1

7.1

.7 1
.3
.1 I
1.3
.7
2.9
4.6

\

1.8

1*1
1.3
.7
2.9
4.6

10.6

10.6

100.0

100.0

1 In each case the city first enumerated is that in which prices are obtained.
2 Not classified as a metropolitan district by the census.
3 For the purpose of computing the composite food-cost index, the Providence weight is computed on the
basis of % of the combined population of the Providence metropolitan district as given by the census;
Fall River weight on the basis of H of that population.
4 For the purpose of computing the composite food-cost index, the Peoria weight includes H of the com­
bined population of the Davenport-Moline-Rock Island metropolitan district; the Sprjugfield, 111., weight,
% of that population.
5 Not classified as a metropolitan district by the census. For the purpose of computing the composite
food-cost index, the Peoria weight includes H of the combined population of the Davenport-Moline-Rock
Island metropolitan district; the Springfield, 111., weight, % of that population.
8 Population of Duluth prorated over Minneapolis and St. Paul.







Sum m ary T ables

41




T

able

1 .—

Indexes of the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried workers in
large cities, 1918—
June 1941
[1935-39 average ==100]

Date

1913:
1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

Average.-______________
December______________
December.................... .
December_____________
December_____________
December_____________
June_________________
Decem ber................
1920: June_________ _____ _
December_____________
1921: M ay__________________
September ___________
December______________
1922: March________________
June___ _____________
September_____________
December______________
1923: March........... .............. .
June______ ___________
September_____________
December______________
1924: March____ ___________
June___________________
September... __________
December.. ___________
1925: June______________ ___
December__________ ___
1926: June___________________
December______________
1927: June___________________
December. _______ ______
1928: June. _______ ____ ___
December______________
1929: June_________ _______ _
December___ ____ ______
1930: June___________________
December______________
1931: June___________________
December._____________
1932: June. ____________ ___
December______________
1933: June___________________
December______________
1934: June..... .............. .
.......
November___ __________
1935: March 15______________
July 15....... ......................
October 15_____________
1936: January 15_____ ________
April 15________________
July 15____________ ____
September 15___________
December 15___________
1937: March 15_______________
June 15_______________
September 15__________
December 15___________
1938: March 15________ ____
June 1 5 .-.............. ...........
September 15___________
December 15_____ ____ _
1939: March 15........ .................
June 15_________ _____
September 15___________
December 15...................
1940: March 15......... ..............
June 15________ _____ _
September 15............... .
October 15______________
November 15..... ..............
December 15___________
1941: January 15.....................
February 15....................
March 15.................... ......
April 15...........................
May 15..... ........................
June 15________________




All items

70.7
72.6
74.0
82.4
97.8
118.0
121.0
135.3
149.4
138.3
126.6
125.3
123.6
119.3
119.5
118.7
120.4
120.2
121.6
123.1
123.5
122.0
121.8
122.2
123.2
124.9
128.2
126.4
126.1
125.7
123.8
122.1
122.4
122.1
122.8
120.3
115. 3
108.2
104.2
97.4
93.5
90.8
93.9
95.3
96.2
97.8
97.6
98.0
98.8
97.8
99.4
100.4
99.8
101.8
102.8
104.3
103.0
100.9
100.9
100.7
100.2
99.1
98.6
100.6
99.6
99.8
100.5
100.4
100.2
100.1
100.7
100.8
100.8
101.2
102.2
102.9
104.6

Food

79.9
83.9
83.9
100.6
125.4
149.6
148.5
160.0
185.0
146.4
121.2
129.2
126.1
118.3
121.0
118.1
122.4
119.7
123.7
126.6
126.0
121.3
121.5
123.1
125.9
131.9
140.6
137.8
136.8
137.5
132.5
129.7
130.6
131.3
133.8
128.1
116.5
102.1
96.5
85.7
82.0
82.2
88.1
93.0
95.4
99.7
99.4
100. 0
101.5
98.4
102.6
104.8
101.6
105.0
106.0
107.9
102.7
97.5
98.2
98.1
97.2
94.6
93.6
98.4
94.9
95.6
98.3
97.2
96.2
95.9
97.3
97.8
97.9
98.4
100.6
102.1
105.9

Clothing

69.3
70.0
72.5
83.2
103.3
147.9
160.1
198.4
209.7
187.8
161.5
139.5
133.4
127.3
124.9
123.5
123.6
125.4
125.7
126.7
126.7
126.3
125.1
123.8
123.0
122.6
121.8
120. 7
119.6
118.5
116.9
116.7
116.0
115.4
114.7
113.8
109.4
103.5
96.3
91.1
86.2
84.8
94.4
96.6
96.5
96.8
96.7
96.9
97.3
97.4
97.2
97.5
99.0
100.9
102.5
105.1
104.8
102.9
102.2
101.4
100.9
100.4
100.3
100.3
101.3
102.0
101.7
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100.7
100.4
102.1
102.4
102.8
103.3

Rent

92.2
92.2
93.6
94.3
92.3
97.1
101.0
109.6
119.1
131.4
139.2
140.0
142.3
142.0
142.5
142.8
143.8
144.5
146.0
147.4
149.6
150.4
152.0
152.2
152.6
152.2
152.0
150.6
150.0
148.4
146.9
144.8
143.3
141.4
139.9
138.0
135.1
130. 9
125.8
117.8
109.0
100.1
95.8
94.0
93.9
93.8
94.1
94.6
95.1
95.5
96.5
97.1
98.1
98.9
101.0
102.1
103.7
103.9
104.2
104.2
104.3
104.3
104.3
104.4
104.4
104.5
104.6
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.9
105.0
105.1
105.1
105.4
105.7
105.8

Fuel, elec­ House
furnish­
tricity,
ings
and ice
61.9
62.5
62.5
67.1
76.8
90.4
89.3
94.8
104.8
119.0
112.9
112.7
113.8
110.5
110.0
115.8
117.3
116.5
113.2
114.5
116.0
114. 7
112.0
113.5
114.2
112.4
121.3
114. 7
118.6
114.1
115.4
112.0
114.3
111.1
113.6
109.9
112.4
107.3
109.1
101.6
102.5
97.2
102.9
100.3
101.8
102.1
99.0
100.5
100.8
100.8
99.1
99.9
100.5
100.8
99.2
100.0
100.7
101.2
98.6
99.3
100.0
100.1
97.5
98.6
99.9
100.6
98.6
99.3
99.9
100.3
100. 7
100.8
100.6
100.7
101.0
101.1
101.4

Miscel­
laneous

59.1
61.5
65.4
75.5
89.0
121.2
128.8
152.3
169.7
164.4
141.6
127.8
124.4
117.7
115.5
115.7
119.3
124.7
127.4
127. 5
127.4
126.5
123.1
122.1
122.7
121.3
121.1
118.6
117.3
115.7
115.2
112.8
112.1
111.7
111.3
109.9
105.4
98.1
92.6
84.8
81.3
81.5
91.1
92.9
93.6
94.2
94.5
95.7
95.8
95.7
95.9
96.6
97.9
102.6
104.3
106.7
107.0
104.7
103.1
101.9
101.7
100.9
100.6
101.1
102.7
100.5
100.1
100.3
100.4
100.6
100.4
100.1
100.4
101.6
1Q2.4
103.2
105.3

43

50.9
52.4
54.6
57.6
71.5
83.1
85.5
94.3
100.7
104.7
104.7
104.0
103.5
101.8
100.9
100.7
100.4
100.5
100.5
101.1
101.5
101.2
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.3
102.6
102.5
102.8
103.1
103.6
103.6
104.3
104.5
104.9
105.2
104.9
104.3
103.3
101.8
100.2
97.8
98.1
97.9
97.8
98.1
98.2
97.9
98.2
98.4
98.7
99.0
99.1
100.2
100.9
101.7
102.0
101.6
101.8
101.6
101.0
100.5
100.4
101.1
100.9
100.8
100.6
101.4
101.6
101.7
101.8
101.9
101.9
101.9
102.2
102.5
103.3

44

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 2 . —Estimated

annual average indexes of the cost of living of w earners
age
and lower-salaried workers in large cities, 1913-40
[1935-39 average=100]

Year

All items

Food

Clothing

Rent

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings

Miscel­
laneous

1913............................... .............
1914.............................................
1915-........................................ .
1916............... ............................
1917........................................ —

70.7
71.8
72.5
77.9
91.6

79.9
81.8
80.9
90.8
116.9

69.3
69.8
71.4
78.3
94.1

92.2
92.2
92.9
94.0
93.2

61.9
62.3
62.5
65.0
72.4

59.1
60.7
63.6
70.9
82.8

50.9
51.9
53.6
56.3
65.1

1918..........................................1919.............................................
1920.......... .................................
1921.............................................
1922_..........................................

107.5
123.8
143.0
127.7
119.7

134. 4
149.8
168.8
128.3
119.9

127.5
168.7
201.0
154.8
125.6

94.9
102.7
120.7
138.6
142.7

84.2
91.1
106.9
114.0
113.1

106.4
134.1
164.6
138. 5
117.5

77.8
87.6
100.5
104.3
101.2

1923— ....... - ..............................
1924........................................... .
1925......... ...................................
1926.................... .......................
1927.............................................

121.9
122.2
125.4
126.4
124.0

123.9
122.8
132.9
137.4
132.3

125.9
124.9
112.4
120.6
118.3

146.4
151.6
152.2
150.7
148.3

115.2
113.7
115.4
117.2
115.4

126.1
124.0
121.5
118.8
115.9

100.8
101.4
102.2
102.6
103.2

1928.............................. ..............
1929......................... ........... ........
1930...................... .................... .
1931.............................................
1932_________________________

122.6
122.5
119.4
108.7
97.6

130.8
132.5
126.0
103.9
86.5

116.5
115.3
112.7
102.6
90,8

144.8
141.4
137.5
130.3
116.9

113.4
112.5
111.4
108.9
103.4

113.1
111.7
108.9
98.0
85.4

103.8
104.6
105.1
104.1
101.7

1933............................................
1934................................. ...........
1935............................................
1936-..........................................
1937-........................................ .

92.4
95.7
98.1
99.1
102.7

84.1
93.7
100.4
101.3
105.3

87.9
96.1
96.8
97.6
102.8

100.7
94.4
94.2
96.4
100.9

100.0
101.4
100.7
100.2
100.2

84.2
92.8
94.8
96.3
104.3

98.4
97.9
98.1
98.7
101.0

1938-..........................................
1939— ........................................
1940.................... - ......................

100.8
99.4
100.2

97.8
95.2
96.6

102.2
100.5
101.7

104.1
104.3
104.6

99.9
99.0
99.7

103.3
101.3
100.5

101.5
100.7
101.1




45

SUMMARY TABLES
T a b l e 3 . —Indexes

of the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried workers in
each of 34 large cities
NEW ENGLAND—BOSTON, MASS.
[1935-39 average = 100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December............ .............
December............... .........
December.................... ...
December..___________
December._____________
June. -------------- ---------December............ ............
1920: June.. ------------- ---------December............... .........
1921: May ------ --------- ---------September.............. .........
December___________ _
1922: March----- --------- ---------June.. -----------------------September_____________
December______________
1923: M arch ................... .........
June.................................
September...... .............. .
December.........................
1924: March------------- -----------June.. ........................
September........................
December............ ............
1925: June. ................. ..........
December................ .......
1926: June.. . .........................
December............... .........
1927: June.. ................. ..........
December.........................
1928: June. ............... - ......... .
December.................... .
1929: June. ______ __________
December.................... .
1930: J u n e ...............................
December........................
1931: June..................................
December............. ...........
1932: June................................ .
December______________
1933: June.. ....................... .
December______________
1934: June. ....... ......................
November 15................ .
1935: March 15.........................
July 15....... ......................
October 15........................
1936: January 15. ............... ......
April 15......................... .
July 15.......... ...................
September 15...................
December 15___________
1937: March 15.........................
June 15____________ ____
September 15....................
December 15. _____ _____
1938: March 15..........................
June 15..............................
September 15....................
December 15___________
1939: March 15...........................
June 15.............................
September 15...................
December 15....................
1940: March 15.— ....................
June 15.-.
___________
September 15.................. .
October 15.—
....................
November........................
December 15___________
1941: January 15. .....................
February 15......................
March 15..........................
April 15.............................
May 15..............................
June 15..............................




All items

73.1
74.1
83.8
99.0
120.4
121.1
135.2
148.9
140.1
125.2
125.0
123.5
117.7
116.6
117.2
119.9
119.1
119.2
122.5
123.4
120.2
119.7
121.4
122.2
121.7
129.0
125.4
126.6
124.6
125.0
121.7
123.4
121.7
124.0
120.6
117.3
108.9
106.4
98.1
95.8
93.1
96.3
98.1
98.9
100.3
99.0
99.2
100.1
99.6
100.8
100.3
99.3
101.5
102.6
104.8
102.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
98.8
98.1
97.4
99.3
97.9
99.2
100.0
99.4
98.8
98.5
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.5
100.6
101.2
102.5

Food

87.7
87.6
103.8
128.4
153.4
147.3
161.0
185.3
156.8
127.7
137.5
135.8
122.7
120.9
123.9
130.1
127.2
126.5
133.8
133.6
125. 5
124.9
130.1
132.5
131.2
147.4
139.9
142.4
138.9
140.6
132.5
135.4
133.5
139.4
132.1
124.4
105.9
102.4
86.8
86.4
83.8
89.5
95.7
97.3
101.6
99.9
100.1
101.5
100.3
104.2
102.6
99.4
102.8
105.1
109.9
102.6
96.9
98.2
98.9
96.4
95.3
94.4
98.1
92.8
95.9
98.9
96.8
94.9
93.5
94.7
95.2
96.2
96.1
98.3
99.5
102.6

Clothing

61.5
65.6
75.0
90.8
133.9
146.4
180.0
191.5
180.1
154.0
134.7
127.0
122.4
121.1
118.4
118.2
118. 5
118.8
119.0
118.5
118.2
117.7
116.1
116.4
116.3
115.6
114.4
114.0
112.6
110.9
110.9
111.0
110.2
110.2
109.7
106.2
102.6
97.2
92.0
86.5
86.0
96.3
97.9
98.5
97.7
97.3
97.9
98.9
98.7
98.6
98.6
99.0
100.6
101.8
104.5
104.0
102.5
101.9
100.9
99.9
99.3
99.4
99.1
100.6
101.1
100.9
100.8
101.0
101.0
100.7
99.2
99.2
101.7
101.9
102.2
102.7

Rent

88.2
88.1
88.3
88.1
90.7
92.7
99.0
102.5
110.9
114.5
116.1
118.0
118.1
118.5
119.0
120.6
121.0
123.6
127.3
129.6
131.5
132.9
133.4
134. 4
134. 8
135.8
135.1
135.4
135.1
134.4
134.2
133.7
132.9
131.6
129.7
127.6
125.1
122.1
119.1
113.0
107.3
103.4
101.4
100.6
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.0
100. 3
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.4
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
58.6
59.3
64.8
75.7
91.8
90.9
95.7
107.6
120.8
115.9
114.0
116.4
113.7
112.8
112.4
117.2
115.9
110.7
113.0
115. 5
112.0
111.8
114.0
113.5
111.6
121.5
114.0
116.5
112.8
115.2
111.6
115.3
110.0
113.9
110.6
114.7
108.6
109.0
100.1
101.5
96.5
100.6
97.5
100.9
100.8
95.8
96.1
97.8
99.1
97.4
97.9
98.7
102.1
101.6
102.2
103.7
103.9
100.7
100.1
101.0
100.2
96.9
100. 6
104.4
106.7
104.0
103.2
103.9
105.6
107.3
107.3
106.7
104.9
106.6
107.1
106.8

52.1
56.5
65.9
82.6
123.9
132.3
155.7
174.0
170.2
141.4
124.9
123. 5
118.9
116.9
116.8
121.8
126.4
130.6
129.7
129.4
128.8
123.5
122.8
124.2
123.5
123.4
121.5
119.7
117.6
117.0
116.3
113.9
113.9
113.7
111.4
108.2
102.9
99.0
90.0
83.1
84.8
95.7
96.2
96.6
95.9
96.0
97.5
96.8
95.6
95.6
96.2
98.2
102.7
104.1
106.5
106.6
104.1
103.7
101.0
101.2
99.9
99.9
99.1
100.9
97.9
97.7
97.7
98.0
99.0
98.3
97.7
98.0
98.7
99.1
99.7
102.7

Miscel­
laneous
53.7
54.6
62.1
74.2
87.0
88.5
97.3
103.0
105.6
105.4
104. 5
103.6
102.9
101.8
101.7
100.9
101.2
101.6
101.6
103.6
102.2
101.0
100.7
99.8
100.0
102.6
102.6
103.3
102.8
102.7
102.1
104.4
103.2
103.6
103.4
103.3
103.3
102.7
100.9
99.6
98.8
99.4
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.1
99.5
99.8
99.6
99.3
99.4
99.2
100.9
101.4
101.7
101.1
100.9
100.4
100.2
99.7
99.1
98.9
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.8
100.7
101.0
100.9
101.0
101.3
101.4
101.9
102.3

46

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . —Indexes

of the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried workers in
each of 84 large cities— Continued
NEW E N GLAN D—M AN CH ESTER, N. H.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1935: March 15....................... .
July 15_________________
October 15_____________
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________________
July 15.
................. ......
September 15___________
December 15.-_________
1937: March 15____________ __
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1938: March 15_______________
June 15. _______________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1939: March 15__________ ____
June 15 _ _____________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1940: March 15--.................... __
June 15 -_ _____________
September 15 _________
December 15___________
1941: January 15_____ ________
February 15
_ __
March 15_______________
April 15
M ay 15
June 15________________
* Monthly data not available.




All items

99.1
99.2
98.9
99.8
99.3
100.8
100,4
99.7
102.1
103.2
103.5
101.6
100.1
100.3
99.6
98.8
98.0
97.9
100.4
99.0
100.1
100.5
100.4
100.3

0)
0)
100.1
0)
0)
104.4

Food

99.5
100.4
100.0
101.7
100.4
104.5
103.3
101.0
104 8
105.8
105.8
100.5
97.4
98.9
97.8
96.4
94.6
95.1
99.8
95.0
97.8
99.8
98.7
97.2
96.6
96.8
97.2
99.5
101.3
104.6

Clothing

99.3
98.8
98.7
98.9
99.1
99.4
99.3
99.5
101.1
101.8
102.7
102.3
101.3
100.9
100.1
99.2
99.1
99.1
99.3
100.1
100.4
100.2
101.1
101.1

0)
0)
101.1
0)
0)

101.8

Rent

99.9
99.5
99.9
99.6
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.4
99.4
99.5
99.8
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.1
100.9
100.9
100.6
101.0
101.7
102.3
101.8
102.5
103.0

0)
0)
103.3
0)
0)
104.1

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
98.4
96.9
95.2
97.7
99.3
97.5
97.1
97.9
101.2
106.4
106.9
105.3
105.2
101.8
100.6
98.6
98.6
97.2
97.3
101.8
102.2
102.7
101.0
104.9
105.2
104.3
102.1
104.4
104.9
105.6

95.7
95.8
97.2
97.5
96.4
96.5
96.2
96.6
100.5
102.8
103.5
103.8
103.0
103.0
103.2
103.0
101.8
101.3
102.1
102.4
100.6
100.0
99. 7
99.2

0)
0)
99.6
0)
0)

101.9

Miscel­
laneous
98.9
98.9
98.6
98.5
98.4
98.8
99.3
99.2
100.8
100.9
101.2
101.8
101.0
100.9
100.6
100.2
100.2
99. 5
102.2
101.2
101.5
100.2
101. 3
101. 5

0)
0)
101.7
0)
to
105.5

47

SU M M A R Y TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried workers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

NEW ENGLAND—PORTLAND, MAINE
[1935-39 average =*100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______________
December______________
December.........................
December.........................
December............... .........
June ______________ ___
December.__ __________
1920: J u n e
_______________
December______________
1921: May
______________
September_____________
December______________
1922: March. ...........................
_
June
. ______, ______
September_____________
December______________
1923: March _______________
June.- .. _____________
September_____ ____
December__________ 1__
1924: March_________________
June ... _______________
September_____________
December______________
1925: June
....... ................ ....
December._____________
1926: June .................................
December_____________
1927: June____ _____ _________
December______________
1928: June................ ..................
December.........................
1929: June........................... ......
December
1930: June______ ____ ________
Deeemher
1931: June___ ______ _________
December______________
1932: June
_______________
December______________
1933: June. ____________ ____
December
_ ....
1934: June... ._ . ___________
November 15___________
1935: March 15...........................
July 15_________________
October 15__
1936: January 15.... ...................
April 15.............................
July 15________________
September 15___________
December 15
1937: March 15— ......................
June 15. . ______ _____ _
September 1 5 __________
December 15___________
1938: March 15......................... .
June 15______ ____ _____
September 15....................
December 15___________
1939: March 15...........................
June 15________________
September 15
December 15_______ ____
1940: March 15_______ _______
June 15. _______________
September 15
December 15___________
1941: January 15........... .............
Febrnarv 15
_
March 15______________
April 15......... ......... .........
May 15 .... __
June 15___________ _____

1Monthly data not available.




All items

71.5
71.3
80.5
96. 2
119.3
122.2
134.5
148.8
135. 9
122.6
122.5
120.1
115.8
114.8
115. 5
116. 9
117.7
117.3
118.6
119. 2
117.5
116.1
116.9
117.6
117.8
122.2
120.8
120.6
120.5
119.1
117.2
118.5
118.1
119.0
116.6
113.2
108.0
104.9
99.7
95.8
94.1
98.0
98.9
99.9
100.0
100.7
100.1
100.5
99.9
101.3
101.1
100.5
102.0
103.6
103. 5
101.8
99.3
99.2
99.4
97.8
96.6
96.4
99.0
97.6
97.8
98.9
98.5
98.3
0)
0)
98.8
0)
0)
102.8

Food

83.1
81.5
98.6
124.5
155.3
153.8
164.6
195.1
152.5
126.6
135.1
131.5
122.0
121.8
124.3
126.5
127.7
127.0
131.1
130.2
125.4
123.9
127.0
128.1
130.6
144.5
141.1
140.3
141.7
137.1
133.2
133.9
134.2
136.0
129.2
120. 7
107.4
100.5
90.6
84.9
85.9
91.9
96.8
98.9
100.6
103. 2
102.2
102.4
99.7
105. 2
104.5
102.4
104.2
108.4
107.9
102.2
95.5
96.7
97.7
94.9
91. 7
92.1
97. 7
92.0
92.9
96.9
96.1
94.6
93.8
94.7
95.9
98.6
100.7
104.2

Clothing

70.2
71.7
77.0
93.2
130.4
143.0
174.4
186.6
173.9
151. 8
138.0
132.0
127.0
124.0
122. 7
122.7
123.7
124.4
124.8
124.0
123.9
123.1
122.6
122.8
122.8
122.1
120.5
119.5
117.6
117.1
116.9
115.7
116.4
116.2
116.1
112.6
109.3
103.8
97.3
87.5
86.4
98.1
100.4
101.1
99.6
99.4
99.5
99.1
99.6
99.1
99.2
99.4
100.1
101.1
102.4
102.4
100.8
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.5
99. 5
99.4
100.1
100.3
100.0
100.4
99.4
0)
0)
100.4
0)
0)
100.7

Rent

100.9
101.1
101.5
103.3
103.5
106.7
111.7
115.6
121.1
124. 2
124.4
127.8
128.2
126.0
127.5
131.9
132.3
128.5
128.6
132.9
132.8
128.6
128.7
130.0
126.7
125.5
124.8
124.9
124.7
124.1
122.6
122.0
120.9
120.9
121.0
120.4
119.0
118.1
116.1
112.6
107.9
104.8
102.4
101.4
100.4
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.4
99.7
99.6
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.7
100.7
100.8
100.6
100.6
100.6
0)
0)
100.7
0)
0)
100.7

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
57.4
57. 7
64.0
74.1
96.3
91.0
97.5
105. 6
122. 7
113.1
109. 7
111.5
111.3
112. 7
113.0
111. 9
112.0
112.0
112 0
114.9
114.9
112. 7
113.6
114.7
112.5
115.1
115.2
116.6
114.1
116.2
114.0
116.3
111.5
116.0
113.1
114.8
112.2
113.4
105.8
106.8
95.7
100.1
97.0
100.6
100.2
99. 2
98.4
100.2
101.8
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.6
102. 5
103. 5
103.4
104.1
100.4
100.6
96.0
94.8
93.8
97.3
101.0
101.1
100.4
98.8
102.7
102.7
101.9
99.6
101.6
102. 7
102.6

50.3
53.4
60.8
72.2
106.0
113.8
132.6
146.0
146.4
126.8
120.2
112.4
105.9
104.6
103.8
107. 7
111.9
115. 5
115.9
115.8
114.3
114.0
113.7
113 6
113.6
114.1
111.5
111.0
110.0
109.8
106.9
106.8
106.8
106.7
106.6
103. 5
100.2
96.0
91.1
85.4
88.4
94.3
96.7
97.4
97.1
96.8
97.5
98.3
98.6
97.1
97.3
97.8
100.6
102.4
105.6
105.5
103.0
102.3
101.2
100.9
99.9
98.9
99.6
100.9
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.2
0)
0)
99.0
0)
0)
101.6

Miscel­
laneous
51.5
51.3
58.6
71.0
85.2
88.6
94.3
97.5
100.0
99.9
99.9
98.4
97.5
96.9
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.5
97.4
97.1
96.7
96.2
96.3
96.7
96.5
97.0
97.1
97.1
97.3
97.2
101.5
101.5
101.4
101.4
100.8
100.8
100.7
100.3
99.6
98.8
100.7
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.9
98.7
99.6
99.9
100.2
100.1
99.9
101.6
101.8
100.8
100.9
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.0
98.5
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.0
98.9
99.2
0)
(l)
100.1
0)
0)
103.7

48

CH A N G E S IN

COST OF LIVIN G IN

LARGE

C IT IE S,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 .-^ -In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners a nd low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3J+ large cities —

Continued

MIDDLE ATLANTIC—BUFFALO, N. Y.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917'
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December.........................
December______________
December.........................
December_____________
December_________ ____
June- ________________
December______________
June
- _ ___________
December______________
May
............ ..........
September_____________
December______________
March_________________
June - ________________
September_____________
December______________
_________________
_____________
June..
September_____________
December______________
March_________________
J u n e ._________________
September ............. .........
December___ __________
Ju ne__________________
December______________
June ____ ___________
December______________
June_________ __________
December............... .........
June___________________
December______________
June
____________ _
December______________
June
________________
D ecem ber_____________
June___ _______________
December _____________
June___ ________ ____ _
December__________ ___
June. . .........................
December______________
June __________________
November 15___________
March 15........ ................ .
July 15________ ________
Oet.ober 15
Januarv 15 ...........
April 15________________
July 15. _ ______________
September 15............ ......
December 15___________
March 15....... ...................
June 15. .
__________
September 15__________
December 15___________
March 15.......... ................
June 15 _
__________
September 15___________
December 15___________
March 15_______________
June 15 .
__________
September 15
. _ .
Deeemher 15
March 15..... .....................
June 15
. . T ,
September 15 _
Oet.ober 15
........
__
November 15
December 15_______ ____
January 15
February 15 .... _
Mareh 15
......
April 15.............................
May 15
__ _
June 15




All items

Food

66.1
79.1
68.3
80.5
79.8
99.9
95.7
127.1
115.6
148.5
119.2
148.4
130.0
157.6
144.8
183.6
145.9
131.1
119.9
116.4
119.2
126.4
117.6
124.5
114.5
119.4
114.1
119.5
117.2
114.7
116.0
121.6
115.8
1923: March 118.1
117.8
121.3
120.4
128.8
125.4
119.6
118.2
120.4
117.7
118.6
118.3
121.4
119.2
124.6
130. 0
121.8
125.4
141.6
125.4
141.2
124.3
138.0
123.9
139.1
121.7
131.0
130.2
121.5
129.2
120.8
132.2
121.3
121.8
133.7
120.0
128.5
113.9
113.9
99.4
106.9
101.4
88.4
97.5
86.8
92.9
81.6
90.8
82.6
93.2
86.6
95.0
92.6
94.6
91.8
96.9
98.9
97.7
100.7
97.2
100.3
98.0
101.8
99.1
98.1
100.0
104.6
102.9
100.0
99.9
101.0
101.7
104.0
103 9
106.5
105.9
104.5
103.6
102.5
101.3
97.9
100. 6
97.0
100.1
96.4
100.4
98.0
99.3
95.5
98.6
94.8
100.0
101.1
99. 7
94.3
100.5
96.6
101.2
100.1
101.2
98.7
97.2
100.9
97.4
100.9
101.7
98.9
100.2
102.1
102.2
100.3
100.8
102.8
104.1
103.2
105. 5
106. 0
107.3
110.1

Clothing

70.6
77.0
91.5
111.9
157.5
169.9
205.3
219.3
189.7
163.5
142.9
138.7
132.5
129.6
126.6
128.1
129.2
129.5
130.5
129.8
129.3
128.3
127.6
127.0
127.3
126.9
124.7
123.3
121.6
120.9
121.2
121.7
120.9
120.7
120.0
114.4
107.5
102.6
96.7
88.7
88.7
98.8
99.5
98.3
97.2
97.2
97.1
98.0
98.2
97.8
98.2
99.2
100.9
102.4
105.0
105.2
101.2
100.5
100.3
100.6
100.7
100.4
100.2
101.1
101.0
101.0
101.0
101.1
101.0
101.0
100.1
100.2
102.1
102.3
102.6
103.1

Rent

81.7
82.7
85.5
89.4
98.6
104.6
105.4
119.8
121.3
131.6
132.1
132.1
132.3
134.6
134.6
134.7
134.7
138.9
139.6
140.4
140.5
144.0
144.0
144.4
146.3
146.6
145.5
144.9
143.6
141.9
141.1
138.4
136.4
136.0
134.8
132.8
127.9
122.9
114.1
105.7
97.7
93.7
92.2
91.5
91.4
91.4
91.8
92.7
93.7
96.0
96.4
97.1
97.7
103.0
104.0
105.4
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.8
105.7
105.9
105.9
105.8
105.8
106.2
106.5
106.5
106.5
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.5
109.3
109.9
109.9

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
47.1
47.7
51.4
58.1
70.3
71. 5
73.3
79.9
82.3
81.9
84. 5
84.6
84.2
84.2
104.5
101.5
103.3
103.1
102.0
103. 7
104.6
102.0
102.6
102.6
101.4
102.6
107.0
106.9
106.8
107.5
106.7
107.5
105.1
106.8
104.9
106. 7
104.2
105. 8
100. 6
102.3
99.6
103.3
101.1
103.4
103.3
100. 7
103.6
103.6
102.2
101.1
102.0
102.8
102.8
98.3
99.3
100.2
99.2
96.3
97.0
97.8
98.3
95.8
95.8
98.4
99.2
97.7
99.3
99.5
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.8

53.8
57. 6
66.7
80.8
110.9
117.3
142.7
161.1
155. 5
135.1
124.2
120.8
115.9
111.8
111.7
114.4
119.0
122.5
122.0
122.3
121.3
118.8
118.7
118.8
118. 0
117.3
114.8
113.0
110.9
110.8
110.4
109.8
109.9
109.8
110.2
105. 6
98.9
92.7
84.4
81.7
81.9
90. 2
93.4
94.1
95.1
95.0
95.6
95.1
93.3
93.6
94.5
97.1
103.3
106. 8
109.0
109.3
104.5
103.0
102.0
102.3
101.3
100.1
99.4
101.7
100.2
99.4
99.4
99.8
100.1
99.9

99.6
99.6
102.8

103.5
104.1
107.5

Miscel­
laneous
48.0
49.7
59. 7
72.5
84.5
85.8
91.3
96.9
99.5
99. 7
98.7
97.4
95.8
95.0
95.0
94.8
95.4
96.2
97.3
97.2
97.2
96.9
96.5
96.4
99.7
99.8
101.1
102.0
101.5
103.8
104.5
104.5
105.1
105.2
105.8
104.8
103.9
102.8
101.2
99.1
96.0
96.3
96.6
96.1
96.4
98.2
95.6
95.8
99.4
98.7
99.9
100.4
101.2
102.9
103.7
103.2
102.5
102.6
101.5
100.1
99.1
98.1
101.5
101.8
101.9
100.6
101.7
101.9
102.0
102.4
103.0
103.1
103.3
103.8
105.1
105.7

49

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

M IDDLE ATLA N TIC —NEW YORK, N. Y.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date
1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December........................
December..,...................
December........................
December........................
December........................
June......... .......................
December........................
1920: June......... ..................... .
December_____________
1921: M a y ..............................
September____________
December........................
1922: March...........................
June...............................
September......................
December........................
1923: March._____ __________
June____ _____________
September.......................
December........................
1924: March________ _______
June___ ____________
September............ ........ .
December_____________
1925: June__________ _______
December........................
1926: June................................
December........................
1927: June.................................
December........................
1928: June_________________
December.......................
1929: June.................. ............ .
December_____________
1930: June__________________
December______ _____
1931: June......... ............... .......
December_____________
1932: June......... .....................
December._____ ______
1933: June__________ ______ _
December_____________
1934: June_________ _______ _
November 15__________
1935: March 15.........................
July 15............................
October 15_____ _______
1936: January 15.......................
April 15........................
July 15........................... .
September 15__________
December 15___________
1937: March 15.........................
June 15........ ....................
September 15..................
December 15............. ......
1938: March 15..... ............ .......
June 15............................
September 15. ........... ......
December 15....................
1939: March 15.........................
June 15................. ........ .
September 15...................
December 15....................
1940: March 15.........................
June 15_______________
September 15................ .
October 15_____________
November 15__________
December 15....................
1941: January 15............ ..........
February 15.....................
March 15_____ __________
April 15....................... ........
May 15_______________
June 15.............................




All items
68.1
69.3
77.6
94.5
115.3
117.5
132.6
143.1
134.1
122.7
122.2
122.7
117.1
117.7
117.1
119.6
118.6
119.2
120.8
121.9
119.3
119.3
119.7
121.7
121.5
126.9
124.1
124.5
123.4
124.3
121.4
122.5
122.0
123.0
119.6
116.5
109.8
106.0
101.1
97.3
93.7
96.4
98.1
98.5
98.9
98.3
98.7
99.9
98.6
99.5
100.4
99.5
101.3
101.4
103.9
102.8
99.6
99.7
100.3
100.2
99.2
98.2
101.3
100.1
101.2
101.6
101.0
100.2
100.4
100.9
101.1
101.3
101.5
102.3
102.6
104.5

Food
82.6
83.7
97.6
125.9
150.8
146.1
158.7
172.0
148.8
123.3
130.3
132.0
119.4
122.1
120.7
128.7
124.0
125.9
128.4
130.9
122.6
122.9
123.6
128.8
128.7
140.3
135.6
136.8
133.8
136.5
129.2
132.8
131.5
135.0
126.6
119.2
105.7
99.9
91.9
88.9
86.3
92. 4
97.9
99.2
99.4
98.4
99.3
102.9
99.4
101.9
103.9
99.9
103.3
102.7
108.0
104.4
97.0
97.1
98.9
98.6
96.3
93.7
100.6
97.1
99.8
101.1
99.1
97.0
97.4
98.6
99.5
100.4
99.8
101.6
102.3
106.7

Clothing
62.2
65.1
76.0
95.8
143.8
156.4
198.7
212.2
187.6
161.3
143.9
135.4
128.7
126.2
123.1
123.3
124.9
124.8
125.9
126.0
126.0
124.8
123.8
122.9
122.8
121.8
121.0
120.4
119.9
119.0
118.3
117.1
116.7
115.6
115.3
113.3
104.2
97.3
93.9
85.5
83.8
93.9
96.7
96.0
97.3
97.2
97.1
97.3
97.2
97.2
97.2
100.0
102.1
103.6
106.0
104.6
102.4
101.5
100.5
100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.7
101.9
101.1
101.0
100.6
100.7
101.2
100.5
99.5
101.6
102.1
102.8
103.1

Rent
78.9
78.8
78.8
81.0
84.0
89.5
97.4
104.5
109.0
112.2
113.6
121.3
121.9
122.8
123.2
123.6
125.0
125.8
126.9
128.1
129.0
129.8
130.8
131.8
132.4
133.7
133.7
134.3
134.3
134.3
133.6
133.0
132.2
131.1
130.3
128.7
127.4
125.0
120.7
113.7
106.7
101.8
99.7
98.5
97.8
97.8
97.9
98.1
98.2
98.3
98.4
98.9
99.3
99.7
100.2
101.2
101.4
101.5
101.7
102.0
102.1
102.3
102.4
102.5
102.6
102.6
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity, furnish­
and ice
ings
57.2
57.2
63.5
68.6
83.3
83.2
86.2
91.6
107.3
112.1
110.1
109.1
108.4
108.2
113.1
112.0
110.6
108.2
111.4
111.1
110.6
108.0
109.9
110.6
109.3
129.3
112.1
112.2
110.0
112.2
111.2
112.3
109.9
111.7
106.3
109.2
106.6
109.0
101.0
103.2
99.0
103.2
98.0
102.0
102.9
101.3
100.6
101.2
101.0
100.5
100.9
101.1
100.1
98.8
99.3
100.0
99.9
98.6
98.5
99.9
99.3
97.8
98.0
98.7
100.1
99.6
99.8
99.8
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.7
103.5
103.5
103.3
103.4

59.7
64.7
76.2
93.4
135.2
141.2
162.9
182.1
170.7
153.1
141.3
138.5
132.7
130.3
130.1
132.3
136.1
137.5
138.3
138.2
134.6
132.2
131.1
131.0
125.7
125.6
123.3
123.0
120.9
121.1
118.1
117.2
117.1
116.6
113.7
110.7
97.0
90.9
86.4
82.3
83.2
93.3
94.6
94.5
95.9
96.8
99.0
98.0
98.3
98.2
98.6
100.8
103.7
104.1
106.7
105.3
101.8
100. S
99.4
99.3
97.8
97.3
99.9
100.9
98.4
97.5
97.0
97.1
97.3
96.6
95.6
96.0
96.6
96.8
97.6
100.1

Miscel­
laneous
47.1
48.0
54.1
68.1
80.0
82.4
92.2
99.8
101.8
102.5
102.5
102.1
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.6
99.3
99.3
100.2
100.5
100.5
101.2
101.0
102.0
102.1
102.7
102.3
102.4
103.1
103.0
102.9
103.0
101.2
104.9
105.1
105.3
105.2
103.9
102.9
101.7
98.3
97.8
98.0
98.4
99.2
98.7
98.6
98.2
98.1
97.9
98.4
98.8
99.4
100.0
100.8
101.1
100.4
101.4
101.6
101.3
101.0
100.9
102.7
102.6
102.5
102.4
103.2
103.0
103.1
103.1
103.0
103.2
103.3
103.4
103.4
103.9

50

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — I n d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners a nd low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities —

Continued

M ID D L E A T L A N T IC —PHILAD ELPH IA, PA.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1923:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December....... ..................
December.........................
December............... .........
December...................... .
December___________
June_________ _______
December___________ _
June___________________
December.................... .
M ay___________________
September- ___________
December______ ____
March__________ ____ _
June___________________
September_____________
December___________
March...... ................. ......
June___________________
September...... ........... ......
December.................... .. .
March_______ _____ ____
June________________
September...... ................
December.........................
June_______ _______ ____
December....... ..............
June___________________
December. .............. ........
June........... ..................... .
December...................... .
June........... ..................... December__________ ___
June........... ...................
December.........................
June. -------------- -------- December______________
June___________________
December________ _____
June__________ ______ _
Decem ber............... ........
June..................................
December...................... .
June............. ...................
November 15...................
March 15...........................
July 15..............................
October 15............ ..........
January 15 ......................
April 1 5 ..........................
July 15......... .....................
September 15....................
December 15.....................
March 15...........................
June 15..............................
September 15....................
December 15................... .
March 15.......... ...............
June 15________________
September 15 ..................
December 15....................
March 15..........................
June 15..............................
September 15....................
December 15.....................
March 15........ .................
June 15..............................
September 15....................
October 15.........................
November 15..... ..............
December 15............... .
January 15........................
February 15......................
March 15...........................
April 15............................
May 15________ ________
June 15.................................




All items

70.1
71.0
79.7
97.5
117.4
120. 5
132.7
146.7
137.1
125.0
123. 2
122.0
119.1
119.5
116.7
119.1
119.4.
121.7
123.0
122.7
121.6
122.0
121.7
124.0
126.8
130.3
129.5
129.2
127.6
126.3
124.7
122.8
122.4
123.4
120.4
115.8
109.8
105.7
97.9
93.4
91.2
95.5
97.7
97.2
98.0
98.2
99.0
100.1
99.2
100.2
101.0
100.8
102.2
102.7
104.0
101.6
100.2
100.6
100.1
99.4
98.2
98.0
99.6
98.6
98.3
99.2
98.7
98.7
98.8
99.1
99.3
99.2
99.6
100.5
101.7
103.3

Food

83.3
84.2
100.1
126.8
150.6
149.5
156.5
176.4
140.3
117.9
323.9
122.5
117.6
122.0
113.3
119.2
117.3
123.6
125.4
121.5
117.6
120.4
118.7
122.6
132.5
140.6
138.1
137.3
135.5
133.1
132.0
128.3
128.9
133.3
125.8
114.9
105.4
99.0
87.1
81.2
81.6
89.0
97.0
95.6
98.2
99.3
100.2
102.5
100.1
103.6
104.8
103.6
105.7
106.6
108.6
102.2
97.1
98.2
97.3
95.3
93.9
93.7
97.4
94.2
93.2
95.9
93.8
93.5
93.6
94.8
95.0
94.9
95.2
97.0
m i
103.3

Clothing

70.3
72.8
81.5
106.3
148.4
165.7
204.0
224.5
199.2
171.9
149.1
143.7
137.8
133.1
131.7
131.8
132.1
131.8
132.4
132.2
131.7
130.3
129.7
129.6
129.1
129.0
128.2
126.7
125.9
124.6
124.0
122.2
121.3
120.3
119.2
115.9
110.7
99.8
93.7
88.7
86.8
96.1
97.4
97.7
96.3
96.1
96.2
96.9
97.9
97.2
97.4
98.2
100.0
102.1
103.8
103.6
105.0
104.4
103.5
103.1
99.8
99.2
99.7
101.2
101.5
101.3
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.0
100.6
100.1
101.6
101.9
102.3
103.3

Rent

88.0
87.8
87.4
90.3
95.1
98.0
102.7
113.2
121.5
127.0
129.5
130.4
130.9
131.7
133.0
134.6
136.2
139.2
143.0
146.9
149.6
151.8
153.5
154.3
154.9
155.9
155.9
156.1
154.3
151.5
147.1
144.2
140.8
137.8
135.6
133.1
128.4
123. 5
117.7
110.7
103.6
99.3
97.3
97.8
97.2
97.1
97.1
97.3
97.4
97.7
98.3
98.7
99.1
99.7
100.7
101.8
102.1
102.3
102.4
102.4
102.6
102.7
102.8
102.8
103.0
103.1
103.3
103.3
103.5
103.5
103.6
103.6
103.9
104.4
104.5
104.5

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
62.8
62.3
66.2
76.3
92.9
90.0
95.1
104.8
123.1
116.6
118.9
120.6
119.2
116.7
117.0
121.3
122.1
119.3
122.5
127.0
124.4
120.4
121.2
122.4
117.5
126.0
124.6
124.7
119.0
119.7
114.0
117.7
116.5
117.0
117.2
123.0
113.4
120.4
105.2
108.0
102.3
110.4
104.5
103.8
104.2
97.3
101.6
101.7
101.6
99.8
101.4
102.3
103.0
99.6
99.7
98.5
99.9
97.2
99.6
100.5
98.7
96.5
97.1
97.6
98.6
96.8
98.1
98.5
98.6
98.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.1
100.2
100.5

61.2
65.5
73.4
91.7
127.2
133.4
161.0
176.0
173.6
144.2
128.1
123.5
117.4
116.4
115.8
120.6
127.5
129.1
129.1
129.6
127.9
123.9
121.9
122.8
121.8
121.2
118.6
117.8
115.5
115.0
113.6
112.6
112.8
113.1
112.2
107.4
100.0
94.4
88.1
80.7
77.6
89.9
92.2
93.3
93.4
93.5
95.1
95.2
95.5
95.1
96.5
97.1
101.3
103.9
106.9
107.1
107.5
104.7
104.1
102.5
100.1
100.4
100.8
103.6
102.3
101.9
102.5
102.8
102.5
101.7
101.4
101.6
102.4
103.1
103.4
105.0

Miscel­
laneous
47.9
48.5
55.0
68.9
80.3
82.0
90.4
97.2
106.5
105.0
103.7
103.6
102.4
101.7
101.3
101.0
101.6
101.8
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.0
101.2
104.3
104.3
’ 104.3
105.7
106.1
105.8
106.0
106.1
105.6
106.0
106.0
106.1
105.7
104.7
104.3
102.2
100.0
98.0
98.8
98.1
97.7
97.7
99.4
99.6
100.0
99.4
99.2
99.4
99.3
100.0
99.9
100.3
99.7
100.4
101.8
100.9
100.9
100.7
100.8
101.2
100.8
100.8
100.8
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.7
101.7
102.0
102.3
103.1

51

SUMMARY TABLES
T able 3. —

In d e x es o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued

M ID D LE ATLA N TIC —PITTSBURGH, PA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December... ___________
1918: December...........................
1919: June....................................
December.. ........... ...........
______
1920: June_______
December. ..........................
1921: M ay_________
______ _
September______________
December___
___ . . .
... _
1922: March____
June___
September..... ................... .
December.. ____________
1923: March_____ _ _______
June____
_. . .
September______________
December........................ .
1924: March.............................. .
June_____
September......................... .
December____ __________
1925: June___
December.................... .......
1926: June___
December________ ____
1927: June____
December____ _____ ____
1928: June____
December...................... _
1929: June____
December........................ .
1930: June_______
December..........................
1931: June___
December...........
1932: June_______
December...............
1933: June_____
December........................ .
1934: June_____
November 15____________
1935: March 15.
July 15__________________
October 15..................... .
1936: January 15______________
April 1 5 --...........................
July 15___________ ____
September 15.....................
December 15........... .........
1937: March 15.............................
June 15___
____
September 15______ _____
December 15......................
1938: March 15..
June 15...............................
September 15...................
December 15
1939: March 15....... .....................
June 15................................
September 15 ....................
December 15................... .
1940: March 15.............................
June 15......... .....................
September 1 5 .................. .
October 15 ........................
November 15...................
December 15_________
1941: January 15..........................
February 15.....................
March 15............................
April 15_____ ___________
May 15.......................... .
June 15........................




All items

99.4
118.8
121.6
134.9
149.7
138.6
128.4
125.5
123.3
118.8
119.4
118.9
120.3
120.3
123.0
123.7
123.0
121.8
123.8
124.3
125.3
127.9
130.2
129.0
128.7
128.4
126. 2
124. 5
125.9
125.5
124.9
122.8
116.7
109.7
105.0
97.2
93.8
90.0
93.2
95. 3
95.3
96.9
97.4
98.3
98.7
97.5
100.0
101.2
100.0
101.8
103.6
105.2
102.5
100.8
101.2
101.1
100.3
97.8
98.4
100.1
98.8
99.1
100.6
100.7
100.5
100.6
101.1
101.2
100.8
101.4
102.3
103. 4
105.2

Food

128.5
152.6
152.3
162.0
183.1
149.1
121.6
129. 7
124.0
115.5
118.9
118.3
122.9
121.2
127.6
128.2
127.4
122.1
124.0
123.6
127.3
134.5
141.7
140.2
139.8
140.0
134.0
130.2
135.4
135.8
135.0
130.0
115.7
102.0
93.3
83.0
79.5
79.7
86.3
92.8
94.2
98.5
99.1
100.3
100.6
97.7
103.4
105.6
101.6
105.6
107.5
109.5
102.8
98.1
99.4
99.0
97.1
90.8
92.7
97.1
93.3
93.8
98.0
97.0
96.6
96.3
97.8
98.0
97.5
98.5
101.1
103.6
107.3

Clothing

111.4
151.4
161.9
203.6
213.1
195.4
167.9
141.7
137.7
132.9
130.7
127.0
126.0
126.9
127.9
129.1
128.0
127.0
126.7
125.8
123.9
123.8
123.1
120.1
117.5
117.2
115.6
116.1
115.3
114.6.
113.7
113.1
107.0
100.9
96.6
92.5
87.8
86.1
93.5
95.7
96.0
96.4
95.8
96.0
96.4
96.5
96.8
97.4
99.1
100.0
102.4
105.4
103.8
102.8
102.7
102.6
101.8
101.5
101.5
101.5
102.4
102.9
102.6
102.5
102.6
102.4
102.2
101.9
100. 4 j
102. 2

102. 4
102.4
102.6

Rent

91.1
98.0
103.4
105.2
122.9
123.0
141.7
141.7
141.5
141.5
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.9
146.1
146.4
146.4
146.7
156.5
156.3
156.8
159.6
159.6
159.8
159.4
159.1
158.9
157.4
156.3
153.3
152.2
150.2
149.1
142.8
138.7
123.8
117.9
101.0
97.6
94.3
93.2
92.7
93.8
93.9
94.3
94.5
97.4
97.5
97.5
97.8
102.8
102.9
102.9
103.2
104.7
104.8
104.7
104.8
105.1
105.0
105.1
105.1
105.7
105.8
105.8
105.8
105.7
105.7
105.7
105.8
105.8
106.3
106.7

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
55.7
60.8
60.9
61.1
73.3
91.6
89.0
86.6
92.6
92.4
92.4
96.3
96.2
96.4
93.8
94.2
98.5
98.1
97.3
107.5
107.0
106.5
105.8
104.7
106.9
105.1
104.7
103.4
103.6
103.4
103.6
103.1
102.7
102.0
102.4
101.1
98.8
98.5
101.7
101.2
100.3
100.4
96.5
99.0
98.8
98.9
97.8
100.9
100.7
100.7
100.5
101.4
101.2
102.3
98.4
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.3
101.0
101.2
101.5
99.8
102.8
102.7
102.8
102.8
103.8
103.8
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.5

97.8
123.5
131.2
159.6
173.6
174.2
154.8
133.2
128.7
121.0
117.5
119.3
122.4
124.2
126.6
126.6
126.2
128.0
126.2
125.2
127.0
124.9
125.2
122.6
121.6
119.9
119.3
113.4
113.9
112.6
112.1
111.0
104.3
98.2
91.6
83.6
81.2
80.1
90.1
92.6
93.5
94.6
95.2
96.3
96.1
94.8
94.1
96.0
96.9
102.0
103.7
106.1
106.3
104.3
103.8
102.2
102.6
102.0
101.2
101.9
102.9
101.8
101.7
102.1
102.2
102.3
102.3
102.2
102.1
102.7
104.3
104.8
106.2

Miscel­
laneous
69. S
81.!
81.1
89. (
98. (
102.5
103. J
103.;
103.i
100. J
100.
99.:
99.:
100. (
100. (
101J
99.1
101. J
101. J
102.;
102. *
102. ‘
102. i
102. (
102.5
102.5
102.:
102. <
102.1
103.103.1
103.;
103.1
102.1
101.'
99.,
98.:
96.!
97J
98.
97.!
97J
99.:
100.
101.1
100.
100.
100.1
100.
100.
100.
101. i
100.'
100.
100.;
100.
100.
98.'
98.
99.
98.'
99.
99.
100.
100.
100.:
100.'
100.'
100.'
100.
100.

101.i

102.

52

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able 3. —

In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

M IDDLE A T LA N TIC —SCRANTON, PA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December...........................
1918: December_______________
1919: June.....................................
December___ ■
___________
1920: June..... .............................
December ....
1921: M ay_____ __________ _
September_____ ____ _
December_______________
1922: March__________ _______
June________________ ___
September______________
December_______________
1923: March............ ................... .
June____ ______________
September___________ __
December___ ___________
1924: March__________________
June________________ ___
September. ......... ..........
December_______________
1925: June............ ....................... .
December. ________ _
1926: June____ ______________
December____________ ..
1927: June________________
December_______________
1928: June__________ _________
December_______________
1929: June_________________ _
December_______ ______
1930: June____________________
D ecem ber..________
1931: June_________________
December____________ __
1932: June___________________
December_______________
1933: June. _______ ____ _____
December_____________ _
1934: June____________________
November 1 5 ._________
1935: March 15________________
July 15 ________________
October 15_______________
1936: January 15______________
April 15_________________
July 15__________________
September 15__________
December 15____________
1937: March 15........... .................
June 1 5 ....... ....................
September 15____________
December 15 ___________
1938: March 15________________
June 15
______________
September 1 5 __ ____ _
December 15. __________
1939: March 15.............................
June 15 . _______________
September 15____________
December 15............ . . . .
1940: March 15............................
June 15__________________
September 15_______ ____
December 15____________
1941: January 15 _____________
February 15_____________
March 15......... ............. .
April 15
May 15 __ __
June 15__________________

1 Monthly data not available.




All items

97.1
119.2
123.3
134.3
151.7
136.5
126.9
125.8
125.0
120.2
121.1
118.7
121.0
121.3
122. 7
124.3
124.5
122.8
122.5
123.6
124.8
127.5
132.6.
130.1
129.7
129.3
127.9
127.0
127.2
126.6
126.9
123. 3
118.2
109. 6
106.0
98.5
96.1
93.0
97.8
98.6
98.4
99.8
99.9
100. 3
101. 4
99.4
101.4
102. 5
101.8
102.1
102.9
103.8
101.2
99.7
99.6
97.7
97.9
96.9
96.4
98.7
97.4
98.4
98.7
98.6
99.4

0)
(0
99.1

A)
0)

102.8

Food

126.7
157.4
156.6
166.7
195.7
155.1
128.9
139.5
138.3
127.0
128.2
122.2
128.9
128.5
130.2
134.0
132.7
127.1
124.7
127.3
130.8
138.8
149.0
144.7
143.6
144.2
139.8
138. 7
138.6
139.8
142.7
134.8
122.1
105. 3
99.6
88.4
84.1
84.7
92.0
94.8
94. 7
98.8
99. 7
99. 8
101.8
99.1
103.9
105. 8
103. 6
104.9
107.2
107.9
101.0
98.0
99.1
95.0
95.9
93.6
93.1
99.0
95.1
96.4
98.3
97.1
99.1
97.5
97. 7
97.6
100.4
102.9
105.2

Clothing

Rent

100.2
134.7
150.0
182.5
198.2
176.9
154. 7
131.6
129.4
125.5
124.5
121.4
121.0
121.8
122.0
123.6
123.5
123.4
122. 5
121.9
121.4
120.6
120.5
119.8
118.6
117. 5
116.6
116.5
115.6
115.5
114.0
113. 8
111.0
104.1
93.1
90. 7
86.1
85.1
95.9
98.5
97.8
96.8
96. 9
97.1
97.3
97.4
97.2
97.4
99.1
100.6
101.3
103. 5
103.3
102.2
101.9
101.9
101.5
101.5
101.4
101.4
101.8
101.9
101.7
101.8
101. 7

82.8
83.2
88.0
84.8
97.1
98.2
117.2
117.8
119.8
121.4
126.6
126.8
127.2
127.2
131.7
132.1
133.2
133.4
138. 8
139.2
139. 7
141.6
141. 2
142.0
142.8
143.4
143.6
142.2
142.2
139.2
135.8
132.9
131.8
126.9
125.7
119.1
116.5
107.8
104.8
102.5
101.7
101. 2
100.9
100.8
100.7
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.6
100.5
100.4
100.3
100.0
99.8
98.8
98.9
98.9
98. 5
98.2
97.9
98.2
98.1
98.1
98. 2

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

102.1

104.9

98.4

98.3

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
75.3
93.9
94.6
99.0
108.0
125.9
122.5
124.0
125.8
124.8
126.4
127.4
126.9
124.3
124.3
124. 5
131.9
130. 9
127.1
131.0
132.2
128 2
150.4
133.8
134. 3
129.0
131.9
127.2
129.6
124.2
126.1
120.6
125.0
121.4
127.6
109.4
115.4
100.5
110.9
104.5
108.4
107. 5
101.9
108. 5
108. 6
101. 5
103.3
105.6
106.7
97.4
93.6
96.5
98.2
98.2
95.2
96.4
96.7
96.7
93.9
94.4
94.6
96.3
94.7
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.1
96.7

87.1
110.6
118.1
129.7
141.8
141.1
129.4
117.2
113.8
109.5
108.2
109.2
111.9
114.8
117.3
117.0
117.5
117.9
114.6
115.8
117.2
116.6
116.6
117.0
116.4
115.3
115.1
113.3
112.6
110.2
109.7
109.7
107.0
102. 9
93.4
90.3
88.0
84.9
94.1
97.3
97.4
97.2
97.3
98.0
98. 2
97.0
97.5
98.3
98.7
104. 5
106.3
108.1
107.9
103. 7
100. 2
97. 4
98. 5
97.6
97. 3
97. 5
99.9
98.9
98.2
98.9
99. 6

Miscel­
laneous
66.2
80.4
82.7
89.2
98.0
99.6
102.4
101.9
101.0
99.4
99.3
98.9
98.9
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.5
101.2
101.8
101.9
101.8
102.5
102.9
103.3
103.3
103.1
103.3
103.5
104.5
104.3
104.2
104.2
103.9
102.8
102.8
100.7
100.0
98.1
99.3
99.9
99.0
99. 6
101.0
100.1
101. 5
99. 5
100.2
100.8
100.1
100.2
100.8
101.1
100.9
100. 5
100. 3
99. 9
98.8
98. 5
98.4
99.0
98.9
100.8
100.0
100. 6
100.7

0)
0)

(l)
0)

(*)
0)

0)
0)

100.8

106.9

101.2
102. 5

53

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f

8 4

large cities —

Continued

EAST N O R T H C E N T R A L —CHICAGO, ILL.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1923:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December.......................
December................ ........
December........................
December.........................
December........................
June. ................—.........
December. ____________
June. ............................
December ............... .........
M ay........... .............. ........
September.......................
December.........................
March. ........................... .
June. .............................
September. ......................
December______________
March. ......................... .
June. ............................
September........................
December....... ............... .
March...............................
June.. ............................
September........................
December............... .........
June.
December....................... .
June. ............................
December.........................
June. .................... ........
December....... ..............
June.. ............................
December.........................
June.. ............................
December........................
June.. ............................
December.........................
June. ............................
December.........................
June........... ......................
December.......... ..............
June. ..... ......................
December.........................
June. .............. ................
November 15....................
March 15— ......................
July 15. .............................
October 15........................
January 15......... ..............
April 15. _______ _______
July 15________________
September 15....................
December 15______ _____
March 15................ .........
June 15. __ ....... ............
September 15_____ ____ _
December 15 ...................
March 15..........................
June 15.............................
September 15....................
December 15. ...............
March 15......................
June 15..........................
September 15___________
December 15_____ ____
March 15..........................
June 15..... ........................
September 15...................
October 15.......................
November 15___________
December 15. ...................
January 15 _____ _______
February 15................. .
March 15......................... .
April 15. ...........................
May 15________ __ ____ _
June 15________ ______ _




All items

72.8
74.6
84.7
98.5
119.0
121.5
138.0
151.7
137.6
130.7
129.5
127.6
123.3
123.6
123.6
124.8
125.1
126.4
128.7
128.8
128.1
129.1
129.7
130.4
132.7
135.2
133.5
133. 4
133.2
129.9
128.3
128.7
128.2
129.3
126.7
120.9
113.4
108.8
99.0
93.8
90.3
92.1
92.6
93.5
97.1
97.3
97.2
97.7
96.9
98. 7
100.5
99. 5
101.3
103. 6
105. 1
103.3
101. 1
102. 2
102. 1
100.8
99.4
98.9
100.7
99.8
99.7
101.4
100.9
100.9
100.5
101.0
101.3
101.3
101.5
102.5
103.2
104.8

Food

77.8
79.6
96.1
116.3
139.1
136.5
150.8
179.7
135.3
114.8
122.8
119.6
113.0
115.9
114.0
115.5
114.9
117.8
123.3
121.6
120.0
119.8
122.1
124.0
130.9
137.2
137.0
136.8
139.0
131.1
130.3
131.2
132.3
136.2
130.3
118.5
103.9
99.2
86.3
79.9
81.4
85.2
88.8
91.1
100.2
100.2
99.7
100.9
97.9
102.0
106.0
101.8
104.9
107.3
109.6
102.9
97.3
99.2
99.0
96.3
93.5
93.1
97.4
94.6
94.2
99.5
97.6
97.1
95.9
97.2
98.2
97.9
98.4
100.5
101.9
105.8

Clothing

79.7
85.6
98.9
120.0
190.3
204.8
258.1
243.2
206.0
177.4
148.2
138.9
132.9
129.9
132.1
133.4
136.4
137.2
140.2
140.2
139.3
137.5
136.1
133.7
132.1
131.7
129.6
129.0
126.4
122.5
122.1
121.2
120.7
118.9
117.7
109.3
103.8
95.2
88.4
85.7
84.5
93.2
95.8
95.8
97.5
98.0
98.0
98.3
98.4
98.3
99.3
100.2
101.5
102.6
105.4
104.8
101.8
101.0
100.2
'99.6
99.0
99.0
98.9
99.5
99.9
99.8
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.5
98.5
98.9
100.0
100.5
100.8
101.4

Rent

91.6
91.5
92.2
92.9
94.0
98.9
104. 4
123.8
136.4
163.2
164.7
168.5
168.6
171.7
171.8
173.0
173.2
176.0
176.0
179.0
179.4
187.2
187.1
188.5
188.3
187.2
182.7
180.2
177.6
174.0
171.1
168.2
165.2
162.3
160.4
156.7
150.6
143.4
127.1
114.4
99.6
93.5
91.5
91.0
91.1
91.3
91.5
92.1
92.4
94.1
94.4
95.2
95.5
100.6
101.3
104.2
104.7
108.0
108.2
108.5
108.5
108.4
108.4
108.5
108. 5
108.6
108.7
108.8
108.8
108.9
108.' 9
109.1
109.1
109.3
110.3
110.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity, furnish­
and ice
ings
70.7
70.1
75.4
84.3
96.9
95.9
99.0
114.8
129.7
116.9
118.1
119.8
109.4
109.9
116. 2
117.1
114.8
109.5
111.1
112.6
111.5
108.2
108.8
110.4
108.8
117.2
109.9
116.2
111.1
112.5
106.9
110.6
106.5
110.8
107.1
109.4
105. 7
107.8
100.5
101.9
90.6
99.3
94.2
98.1
99.2
98.4
99.0
97.6
99.3
96.9
98.0
99. 1
100.1
98.4
99.9
100.6
103.4
100.8
102.0
103.2
103.3
98.7
100.3
102. 6
102.8
97.9
98.9
99.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.3
100.4

60.2
63.8
72.3
88.8
125.8
136.7
166.2
190.3
184.2
158.0
143.3
140.8
129.2
125.6
125.0
132.7
136.8
140.4
140.8
140.3
139.5
133.8
133.4
133.7
131.4
131.6
127.9
126.0
123.6
123.1
118.0
118.8
118.9
118.7
115.7
110.0
101.0
95.0
82.6
81.1
81.6
90.3
91.6
92.5
92.7
93.5
95.1
95.4
95.1
95.1
96.5
98.0
101.2
104.1
.107. 3
107.8
104.6
103.0
102.1
102.2
102.1
102.4
103.2
103.3
101.5
101.7
102.3
102.3
102.4
102.3
102.0
102.7
103.5
104.0
104.9
106.0

Miscel­
laneous
51.9
53.4
62.0
73.6
82.4
83.9
95.6
97.3
102.0
103.0
102. 5
100.9
100.0
97.5
97.2
96.9
97.2
97.4
97.6
97.6
97.6
99.0
99.0
99.0
100.6
100.6
10?). 8
101.6
102.1
103.6
103.0
104.7
104.7
105.3
106.2
106.1
105.5
103.1
100.8
100.2
98.5
98.4
97.0
96.8
97.3
97.8
97.6
97.6
98.1
98.6
98.9
99.4
100.7
102.4
102.7
102.7
102.5
102.6
102.6
100.9
99.7
99.6
100.1
99.7
99.7
100.2
100.6
100.8
100.8
101.0
101.0
100.9
100.8
101.1
101.2
101.6

54

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able 3.—

In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners a nd low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
EAST N O R TH CE N T R A L —CIN C IN N A T I, OHIO

f1935-39 average=100]

Date

All items

97.0
1917: Decem ber............... ........
113. 4
1918: December....... .............. .
118.6
1919: June----------------------*___
131. 2
December______________
147.0
1920: June______________ ____
131.4
December____________ _
119.9
1921: M ay________________ _
117.6
September______ _____ __
113.5
December__________ ___
111.1
1922: March......... ....................
112.9
June............................... .
111.2
September.......................
Decem ber.......................
111.5
1923: March____ ____________
112.7
115.3
June___________________
115.8
September...... ..................
115.3
December. ............ ..........
115.6
1924: March...... ......... ..............
115.6
June---------------- -----------115.5
September...... .............. .
December_____________
115.9
122.1
1925: June...... .........................
December.........................
123.0
123.4
1926: June..................................
122.4
December.........................
124.8
1927: June............. ................. .
119.6
December....... ..................
120.3
1928: June............. .....................
119.4
December.........................
121.1
1929: June..................................
122.2
December.......................
120.6
1930: June________ __________
115.3
December....................... .
108.0
1931: June____ _____________
December_______ ____ _
103.6
95.8
1932: June_________________
92.0
December................. ........
1933: June_________ __________
90.6
December................... .
93.2
1934: June__________________ _
94.8
November 15.__________
95.4
1935: March 15..........................
98.6
July 15_____ _____ ______
98.5
October 15........................
99.0
1936: January 15........................
99.6
April 15..........................
98.2
July 15_______________ _
100.6
September 15—...............
101.7
December 15.....................
99.9
1937: March 15.......... ................
102.7
June 15..............................
103.1
September 15------- -------- 104.4
December 15.....................
102.9
1938: March 15...........................
100.6
June 15............................
100.5
100.3
September 15....................
December 15................ .
99.1
1939: March 15 „...................... .
98.2
June 15._............ ..............
97.3
September 15................. .
99.4
98.2
December 15— ............ .
1940: March 1 5 -........................
98.4
June 15________ ______
98.8
September 15....... .......... .
99.9
October 15— .................
99.1
November 15. _ ________
99.1
December 15...................
99.6
1941: January 15...... .................
99.7
February 15.....................
99.7
March 15....... ...................
100.5
April 15............................. * 101.6
May 15..............................
102.0
June 15............................ .
103.9




Food

125.6
144.9
153.7
157.2
190.8
142.9
123.3
131.8
120.1
118.3
124.9
115.1
115.3
115.7
123.2
123.4
120.0
118.7
120.4
117.9
119.0
134.4
139.7
141.0
135.2
144.6
129.1
132.5
130.4
136.0
137.8
135.2
122.0
106.8
99.1
84.3
78.6
82.2
85.3
91.1
93.9
101.5
102.4
103.4
103.9
99.9
106.0
108.8
101.4
106.4
107.0
107.4
101.7
96.0
97.3
96.9
94.1
92.0
90.3
95.4
91.7
92.6
94.5
96.6
94.5
94.5
95.8
96.5
96.5
97.6
100.1
100.9
104.8

Clothing

116.7
156.1
173.0
214.9
229.5
202.4
173.8
143.0
132.9
124.5
122.4
123.1
123.1
126.8
126.9
127.4
127.4
125.8
124.1
120.9
118.4
118.1
115.4
115.3
114.7
114.0
112.1
112.1
110.2
109.9
109.2
108.4
106.5
96.2
90.5
88.3
85.3
83.2
89.2
91.3
91.7
94.4
94.3
94.0
94.8
95.2
95.1
95.2
98.5
101.3
102.7
107.3
107.2
104.9
103.7
103.1
102.8
102.2
102.1
102.2
102.8
103.9
104.0
103.7
103.7
103.7
103.6
102.0
102.1
104.4
104.6
104.4
104.6

Rent

90.2
90.4
90.9
101.8
102.5
112.8
115.1
115.7
115.9
117.6
118.2
120.5
122.0
124.8
126.9
128.3
131.4
134.2
134.7
135.6
135.4
136.4
137.0
139.7
140.7
141.5
142.5
141.7
141.7
141.6
141.4
139.4
137.9
134.7
129.8
121.0
113.0
102.7
100.4
98.3
96.7
96.5
96.5
96.6
96.8
96.9
97.1
97.5
99.0
99.7
100.3
101.5
102.2
102.9
103.1
103.2
103.0
102.5
102.4
102.3
102.1
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.5
102.7
102.8
102.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
63.8
70.1
67.3
70.8
80.9
85.5
73.8
73.7
90.8
86.5
86.2
100.9
102.7
101.1
96.9
96.7
97.6
95.2
88.8
88.5
92.1
102.7
108.7
103.4
117.1
106.3
106.4
102.7
103.1
102.5
109.0
104.3
108.2
101.5
105.0
98.7
102.0
96.4
105.7
103.2
102.9
105.3
96.5
99.3
102.3
100.1
99.9
99.2
100.7
103.3
99.4
98.7
101.4
101.4
98.1
99.6
99.3
99.3
96.3
98.4
99.7
99.7
96.6
98.6
99.0
99.0
99.2
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.4
99.8

90.4
113. 6
118.0
136.6
158.6
150.7
126.3
113.2
110.6
105.5
104.7
104.6
105.9
109.7
112.4
113.7
114.1
114.4
111.4
111.5
111.4
111.5
109. 7
106.4
105. 7
105. 0
105.4
104.3
103.7
102.7
102.2
100.9
98.3
90.0
85.8
80.2
76.1
79.3
86.9
89.4
90.5
92.6
92.2
93.2
92.6
93.3
95.5
96.1
98.1
104.1
105.4
107.8
108.1
107.4
103.8
102.3
103.0
102.3
101.3
102.3
104.0
100.7
99.8
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.8
101.8
103.2
104.6
107.3

Miscel­
laneous
68.1
82.0
83.0
95.6
100.5
104.5
103.7
101.0
100.3
98.4
98.1
97.8
97.2
97.5
97.3
97.7
97.6
99.6
100.1
103.5
103.7
105.6
102.1
102.5
102.5
102.2
102.2
102.0
101.9
102.0
103.0
103.2
101.8
103.2
102.4
101.2
100.5
98.2
99.2
98.3
97.4
97.4
98.1
98.1
98.6
98.7
99.2
99.3
99.1
100.0
100.3
101.6
102.3
101.7
101.6
101.6
100.9
100.7
100.6
101.1
100.8
100.4
100.5
101.4
101.1
101.1
101.2
101.3
101.2
101.4
101.7
102.0
103.3

55

SUMMARY TABLES
T able 3.—

In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
EAST N O R TH CE N T R A L —CLE V E L A N D , OHIO

________________ [1935-39 average=100]________________
All items

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______________
December______________
December______________
December_________ ____
December_______ ____
June___________________
December_____________
1920: June__________ ____ ____
December ____________
1921: M ay__________________
September_____________
December___ ____ _____
1922: March_________________
June___
____________
September________ ____ _
December______________
1923: M a rch ............... .............
June_____________ ____
September_____ ________
December_____________
1924: March............................. .
June___________________
September_____________
December______________
1925: June_____________ ____ _
December______________
1926: June___________________
December______________
1927: June---- ------ ----------------December... ............... .
1928: June___________ ______
December______________
1929: June_______________ .. .
December_____________
1930: June___________________
December______________
1931: June___________________
December______________
1932: June___________________
December.........................
1933: June___________________
December_____________
1934: June___________________
November 15__________
1935: March 15_______________
July 15_________________
October 15_______ ______
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________________
July 15... ____________
September 15___________
December 15__________
1937: March 15_________ _____
June 15____ ________ .
September 15__________
December 15___________
1938: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15___ ________
1939: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15.......... .........
December 15____ _______
1940: March 15.. _________ _
June 15__________ ____
September 15___________
October 15_______ ______
November 15___________
December 15___________
1941: January 15_____________
February 15____________
March 15..... ........... .........
April 15........................... .
May 15________ _____ _
June 15________________

409778°—41-




5

66.6
67.9
77.7
92.2
110.7
115.5
129.1
145.8
138.2
127.0
124.0
121. 5
115.2
115.6
114.3
117.0
117.8
120.6
122.3
121.5
120.4
119.8
120.5
120.3
123.1
124.0
124.3
123.2
123.5
120.2
119.9
118.4
119.3
118.1
118.1
112.0
104.3
100.4
95t 5
90.4
89.1
91.5
93.4
93.7
96.9
97.0
97.4
97.2
96.8
98.6
100.0
98.4
100.5
102.8
104.3
102.9
101.1
101.8
101.9
101.4
101.0
100.8
101.7
100.9
100.7
101.5
102.2
101.5
101.2
102.0
102.1
102.2
102.9
103.6
104.3
106.2

Food

82.5
85.1
103.2
124.9
148.0
149.7
160.4
191.5
147.2
120.2
129.7
122.8
115.5
120.4
115.0
120.6
119.7
125.5
129.2
123.3
120.3
120.1
124.3
124.2
136.0
137.8
142.3
138.2
141.0
131.1
132.8
128.3
132.5
128.7
127.6
112.fi
97.5
90.5
82.9
76.8
79.7
85.7
90.5
92.0
99.6
99.7
100.2
99.4
97.5
102.5
105.6
99.2
102.4
106.0
107.2
100.6
97.3
99.7
100.1
99.4
96.5
96.1
98.9
95.7
95.9
99.0
100.4
97.8
96.7
98.7
99.2
99.3
100.3
102.1
103.4
107.8

Clothing

69.3
70.7
81.8
99.6
140.4
156.1
188.0
197.6
177.5
155.3
132.3
128.8
123.0
119.5
117. 5
118.5
122.8
123.1
124.5
124. 5
124.2
123.7
121.5
119.9
119.2
119.2
118.3
116.7
116.1
115.1
114.9
*113.6
113.6
113.1
112.0
105.4
98.3
94.8
90.3
86.9
86.2
92.7
94.7
94.2
96.6
96.0
96.9
96.8
97.3
97.3
97.8
98.8
101.6
102.4
106.1
105.0
102.4
102.0
101.5
101.3
100.5
100.3
100.5
101.5
102.0
102.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
101.8
101.5
101.3
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.9

Rent

90.1
90.2
90.9
100.3
105.0
109.7
126.0
132.7
162.2
169.5
164.7
163.3
155.0
152.8
153.3
156.8
156.6
156.6
157.4
161.0
161.4
160.1
160.3
160. 9
159.3
158.2
154.6
154.8
150.9
149.8
145.8
144.6
143.7
143.2
140.9
139.9
133.9
127.0
117.0
106.5
95.6
91.1
89.1
90.8
90.6
90.8
91.2
91.3
91.6
92.3
94.4
95.3
96.3
101.9
104.6
107.4
107.4
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.4
107.7
107.6
107.6
107.9
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.1
108.1
108.4
109.0
109.3
110.0
110.2

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
40.0
40.1
44.0
50.7
60.8
59.2
65.2
76.1
77.8
75.8
76.8
81.5
80.9
80.9
85.4
86.5
87.2
100.6
100.3
98.8
98.1
97.0
97.2
97.6
97.6
107.5
104.9
108.3
105.6
105.7
104.5
105.5
104.2
105.2
104.1
105.0
103.2
103.8
102.6
102.2
100.1
102.4
102.6
96.9
97.6
96.0
97.1
97.6
98.7
97.4
97.6
98.7
98.6
97.1
98.5
98.5
99.6
98.0
99.3
99.6
109.1
107.4
108.6
109.6
109.5
107.6
107.5
108.5
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
109.1
109.2

58.8
61.5
70.3
86.8
118.9
127.5
156.0
168.3
162.6
137.3
123.4
118.0
110.7
110.3
113.0
120.3
128.5
134.9
135.4
134.7
130.8
128.1
125.0
125.4
124. 5
125.4
121.1
120.6
119.4
116. 3
111.7
111.2
111.3
110.9
110.3
103.1
96.6
93.0
83.2
80.0
82.0
89.7
94.1
93.4
96.0
95.5
95.9
96.4
95.1
96.9
96.8
97.9
102.9
105.6
107.7
107.8
102.3
102.0
101.2
100.8
100.0
100.3
99.8
102.0
100.9
100.3
100.1
99.7
100.3
100.9
101.2
102.3
104.2
104.4
106.5
108.6

Miscel­
laneous
45.0
45.7
53.6
64.4
75.3
78.7
83.7
98.1
105.4
103.4
100.6
100.5
95.1
94.9
94.3
94.3
94.3
93.7
94.9
96.0
95.8
95.8
95.7
95.5
95.6
95.3
95.4
95.8
97.2
97.2
98.2
98.6
98.1
98.3
101.5
101.0
98.5
98.6
99.6
96.8
95.4
95.7
96.4
96.2
97.8
98.3
98.5
98.4
98.6
99.0
99.2
99.2
100.5
100.7
101.0
102.0
101.4
101.7
101.7
101.0
100.9
100.9
100.6
100.3
99.2
99.3
100.1
100.5
100.4
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.9

101.1
102.3

56

CHANGE'S IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able 3. —

In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued
EAST N O R T H C E N T R A L —D E T R O IT, M ICH .

[1935-39 average =100]
Date
1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December....... ........... ......
December_________ ___
December________ ___
December______________
December............... .........
June___________ ___ ___
December______________
1920: June----------------------------December______________
1921: M ay____ ___________ __
September_____________
December_____ ____ —
1922: March____ ____________
June___________________
September.............. .........
December______________
1923: March_________________
June___ ____________ .
September_____________
December______________
1924: March_________________
June_____________ _____
September_______ — _ __
December______________
1925: June___________________
December_________ ____
1926: June___________ ____
December______________
1927: June___________________
December________ ___
1928: June________ _______ December_____ ___ ___
1929: June----- ------ ---------------December--------------------1930: June__________________
December--------------------1931: June--------------- ------------December______________
1932: June..._______________
December___________ __
1933: June________ . _______
December__________ _ _
1934: June__________________
November 15___________
1935: March 15_______________
July 15___________ _____
October 15_____________
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________ ______
July 15------------------------September 15----------------December 15 __________
1937: March 15— . ___________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1938: March 15_____ _________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15_____ ______
1939: March 15_______________
June 15.......................... .
September 15....... .............
December 15___________
1940: March 15________ ____ June 15—.......... ............ .
September 15___________
October 15_____________
November 15___________
December 15...................
1941: January 15_____ ____ ___
February 15________ ___
March 15..... ..................__
April 15___________ ____
May 15....................... ........
June 15_______ ___ ______




All items
69.1
71.4
83.4
101.2
120.9
126.2
141.7
163.2
150.9
135.0
131.3
127.5
123.1
123.7
123.3
124.6
125.7
128.0
130.4
129.4
128.6
128.7
127.4
127.3
130.0
132.1
130.7
129.2
129.7
125.5
123.8
123.9
125.1
124.7
121.8
113.3
105.3
98.7
91.3
86.2
83.5
87.6
90.8
91.2
94.2
94.9
95.5
96.5
96.4
99.2
100.1
99.5
102.7
105.3
106.1
106.4
104.2
103.0
101.5
100.7
99.8
99.1
100.2
99.8
99.9
100.9
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.9
101.1
101.3
102.1
103.4
103.5
106.4

Food
81.3
84.5
101.2
126.8
148.4
153.5
163.7
199.6
144.5
119.1
128.8
123.0
117.0
123.0
117.7
119.8
H9.4
124.8
130.5
122.6
120.7
123.6
123.3
122.9
136.9
141.9
142.7
137.7
143.7
132.1
129.8
129.6
134.9
133.0
127.9
112.5
98.7
90.7
79.5
73.8
78.2
85.4
93.6
91.0
98.6
99.6
99.4
101.0
98.2
104.0
105.5
101.1
106.1
109.3
109.2
103.8
99.7
99.8
96.7
96.0
94.0
92.4
96.2
94.1
94.5
98.3
96.0
95.5
94.8
95.8
97.0
97.2
98.4
101.3
100.7
107.0

Clothing
68.8
70.4
81.8
101.0
147.1
155.0
193.9
212.5
190.0
161.1
137.6
132.5
125.7
124.8
124.7
123.8
126.0
126.6
126.8
127.5
127.1
125.5
122.6
121.2
120.6
120.3
119.3
117.7
115.8
112.9
113.1
111.8
111.8
111.3
109.8
103.4
99.1
91.6
87.3
86.6
83.3
94.4
97.0
97.1
96.5
96.2
96.2
97.1
97.0
97.5
98.3
98.5
101.0
102.4
104.9
105.9
103.3
102.0
100.7
100.9
100.8
100.9
100.1
101.7
102.0
101.8
101.2
101.6
101.6
101.9
101.0
101.0
102.6
102.7
102.8
103.2

Rent
80.7
82.3
94.8
106.9
112.1
117.1
129.2
136.1
167.8
162.4
158.6
154.1
151.6
150.7
151.3
154.9
l r5.1
158.8
160.6
167.4
167.2
165.8
164.7
164.4
160.3
159.5
157.7
157. 7
152.9
148.5
144.5
143.7
143.0
143.4
139.7
129.0
117.3
105.7
95.0
81.5
71.5
67.6
69.4
75.3
77.8
80.5
85.0
86.9
89.3
93.3
94.9
99.8
101.3
107.4
109.3
114.8
113.6
111.2
109.6
109.1
108.4
108.0
107.8
107.8
107.9
107.7
107.9
107.9
107.9
108.5
108.5
108.7
109.1
109.7
110.0
111.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
67.7
68.8
74.4
88.1
99.9
99.9
106.9
118.4
138.4
124.3
123.1
120.2
117.8
118.6
128.8
132.3
130.8
126.8
125.9
125.2
122.8
123.1
123.4
123.7
121.1
136.1
119.4
126.4
117.4
119.7
117.2
119.8
117.0
120.2
113.2
115.8
109.3
107.8
99.0
99.6
93.1
100.3
100.4
102.5
102.5
101.0
104.7
104.1
103.7
101.6
101.7
100.2
99.7
97.9
98.0
99.8
100.6
95.7
97.3
98.7
98.7
96.6
97.5
98.9
98.8
97.0
98.9
99.1
99.2
99.4
97.9
98.3
98.3
98.3
99.8
101.9

62.1
67.5
77.3
93.4
128.7
142.3
169.2
190.4
176.3
145.3
126.0
122.2
113.4
109.3
111.7
112.4
124.5
127.7
127.2
127.4
128.3
126.3
123.0
123.0
120.5
120.2
119.1
117.1
116.0
114.7
112.6
112.5
112.5
111.4
109.7
103.4
98.6
92.7
82.4
82.1
81.3
91.0
94.5
94.4
93.8
94.3
94.7
95.4
96.0
96.8
97.2
97.3
103.0
104.4
105.4
107.4
106.2
102.2
101.6
101.2
101.3
101.5
101.3
102.8
100.3
99.5
99.2
99.6
99.6
99.4
99.6
99.6
102.7
103.2
103.6
106.4

Miscel­
laneous
48.0
49.7
58.7
72.0
82.9
86.6
96.1
115.9
117.2
115.3
111.4
110.8
108.7
106.3
106.7
106.4
107.3
107.7
109.6
109.7
109.4
109.1
107.5
108.3
107.9
106.9
106.9
106.4
108.1
109.6
109.9
111.0
110.7
110.7
111.0
108.1
107.4
104.7
103.8
101.2
96.4
97.8
97.1
96.8
97.5
97.7
95.9
96.0
97.3
98.4
98.2
98.1
101.1
102.4
102.9
105.2
103.7
103.2
102.7
100.7
100.2
100.2
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
100.7
101.6
101.6
101.8
101.9
102.0
102.2
103.2
103.2
104.6

57

SUMMARY TABLES
T able 3. —

In d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners a nd low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

EAST N ORTH CEN TRAL—INDIANAPOLIS, IND.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______________
1918: December_______ _____ _
1919: June. ________ ________
December______________
1920: June____ ______________
December______________
1921: M ay__.............................
September___________
December........................
1922: March...............................
June........................ .........
September_____________
December............. ..........
1923: March................ ..............
June. ___ _____ ________
September_______ ______
December_________ ____
1924: March...................... ........
June. ....... .............. ......
September____________
December______________
1925: June. ..... ................ ......
December______________
1926: June. ..............................
December______________
1927: June. _______________
December______________
1928: June___________________
December______________
1929: June. _______________
December....... .................
1930: June. ________________
December. .......... ............
1931: June_____ ______ _______
December...___________
1932: June_____ ______ ______ _
December_______ ____ _
1933: June. . . . . ............ ......
December______________
1934: June. __ _________ ____
November 15______ ____
1935: March 15..........................
July 15_________________
October 15.........................
1936: January 15 ...................
April 15......... ................ .
July 15________________
September 15___________
December 15................... .
1937: March 15..... ....................
June 15........ ................... .
September 15..... ..............
December 15___________
1938: March 15.........................
June 15______ . . . ______
September 15....................
December 15.....................
1939: March 15....... . ...............
June 15__________ ____
September 15___________
December 1 5 ___ _______
1940: March 15________ ._ _.
June 15________________
September 1 5 ._________
December 15___________
1941: January 15. ___________
February 15......................
March 15_ _
April 15........................
May 15____ __________
June 15............................
1Monthly data not available.




All items

101.2
120.1
123.1
138.5
158.3
139.4
126.4
126.7
122.1
118.9
121.2
120.6
121.2
122.4
123. 5
125.9
123.2
122.4
122.5
123.8
123.9
125.5
128.5
126.8
125.8
127.4
122.2
121.8
121.0
121.1
122.4
120.8
114.0
105.7
101.3
95.1
91.3
90.1
93.2
95.0
94.4
97.1
97.4
98.4
98.9
97.9
98.8
100. 2
100.0
101.9
103.4
104.4
103. 5
101.5
101.1
101.0
100.0
99.3
98.4
99.7
99. 6
99.6
100. 2
100.7
102.0
(0
0)
102.2
(0
0)
105.6

Food

130.4
153.6
155.2
170.3
218.4
146.7
121.4
136.2
123.7
119.9
128.0
119.5
118.7
120.9
127.7
131.7
124.8
122.6
122.8
126.6
126.3
135.1
144.4
144.5
140.4
148.7
133.1
134.8
132.9
135.3
139.4
137.6
118.0
102.0
96.1
85. 2
80.6
84.3
87.2
93.6
90.4
98.2
99.6
101.5
102.7
98.1
102.3
105.6
103.7
106.2
109.3
108.1
102. 5
97.3
98.4
97.9
95.9
94.0
92. 2
96.0
94.0
94.0
96.7
96.7
98.8
98.2
97.9
98.8
101.1
103.5
106.5

Clothing

116.4
154.1
163.1
202.3
218.7
200.5
169. 7
141.4
135.2
129.1
125.6
126.0
126.4
129.8
129.9
131.6
132.0
131.3
130. 2
129.0
128.5
127.8
125.1
125.0
122.7
123.2
121.4
121.4
120.1
119.9
119.2
117.8
114.5
104.3
93.8
89.7
86.7
86.2
95.9
97.3
96.6
95.9
95.9
95.9
96. 2
95.6
95.2
96.0
98.8
100.9
102.4
105.9
107.3
104. 4
103. 5
102.5
101.5
100.8
100.6
100.8
101.7
103.4
103.3
102.6
102.5
(0
0)
m o
0)
(0
103.8

Rent

110.5
112.3
113.4
123.3
131.4
146.9
151. 8
156.3
158.9
157.1
156.1
156.6
159.2
159.7
159.8
161.2
162.5
162.7
161.9
162.2
162.1
159.2
156.6
152.8
150.8
148. 7
147.4
145.1
144.1
141.9
141.3
139.1
136.9
129.1
123.0
114. 3
103.2
94. 3
91.4
89.3
89. 5
89.5
90.0
90.5
91.3
92.9
94.0
95.1
96.3
97.2
100.6
104.3
106.6
106.7
106* 6
106.9
107.2
107.2
107.5
108.4
109.2
109.4
109.8
110.3
111.3
0)
0)
111.8
0)
(9
114.2

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
79.4
95.2
92.7
101.1
115.7
127.3
118. 7
117.2
113.2
107.1
115.1
136.1
137.8
134. 3
123.1
122.6
112.4
113.3
109.8
108.6
112.4
106.4
115.1
106.4
117.4
106.9
106.6
102.6
105.1
100.2
104.1
99.1
103.4
98.4
98.3
89.1
93.2
90.6
100.3
100.3
104. 2
103.9
99.6
103.0
101.5
103. 5
99. 5
99.8
99.4
101.0
98.7
99.2
100.8
102.9
97.6
99.0
99.2
100.0
95.0
95.7
97.6
97.8
95.3
97.4
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0

96.9
115.2
121.0
143.8
162.3
158.0
131.1
121.1
118.7
110.4
110.2
110.7
113.1
117.8
119.4
119.8
120.2
120.6
117.7
117.7
117.8
116.9
118.0
116.9
116.2
114.4
113.9
110.2
109.1
109.2
108.3
105.6
102.3
93.4
84.9
80.4
78.4
80.9
90.5
92.2
93. 4
93.5
93.8
94.4
95.3
95.7
96.0
96.6
97.0
103.6
104.9
108.5
108.7
106.4
101.9
101.6
100.7
100.6
100.7
100.9
102.9
100.0
99.3
99.6
99.7
0)
(0
102.0
0)
C)
1
107.9

Miscel­
laneous
69.4
84.6
88.0
95.9
97.5
102.3
102.2
101.6
101.4
101.1
100.9
101.3
101.8
102.0
101.3
104.0
103.5
103.0
105.1
106.5
106.3
106.7
106.9
105.2
105.3
105.6
105.9
105.6
105.4
105.6
105.4
105.3
104.3
103.7
103.5
103.0
100.4
97.3
97.8
97.5
97.5
99.1
99.5
99.6
99. 7
99.7
99.5
99.5
99.3
100.1
100.1
100.8
101.2
100.9
101.0
101.0
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
99.5
100.7
101.5
0)
(0
^101.4
0)
(0
102.3

58

CHANGE'S IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able 3.—

In d e x es o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners and low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

EAST N ORTH CEN TRAL—M ILW AUKEE, WIS.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1935: March 15_______________
July 15_________________
October 15______________
1936: January 15____ _________
April 15________________
July 15_______ _______ _ _
September 15___________
December 15___________
1937: March 15____ ____ _____
June 15______ _________
September 15_________ __
December 15___________
1938: March 15______________
June 15______ ______ ..
September 15. __ ______
December 15____________
1939: March 15_______________
June 15. _____________
September 15....... ........ _
December 15_____ ____
1940: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
October 15_____________
November 15__________
December 15 __________
1941: January 15 ____________
February 1 5 ___________
March 15___ _________
April 15________________
May 15________________
June 15..............................

All items

i 97.4
i 97.4
i 98.1
i 98.5
i 98.1
i 99.6
i 101.2
i 100.4
i 102.4
i 104. 3
i 105.1
i 103. 5
i 101. 7
i 101. 6
i 100.3
i 99.6
98.3
97.5
99.1
98.1
98.0
99.5
98.8
(3
)
(3
)
99.1
(3
)
(3
)
99.5
(3
)
(3
)
103.6

Food

98.3
97.9
98.9
99.7
98.0
102.7
106.1
102.2
105.9
109.6
109.0
103.7
99.6
101.6
97.7
96.8
94.2
92.6
96.2
92.7
92.8
98.1
95.1
94.6
94.3
95.1
95.9
95.4
96.3
99.2
101.1
106.5

Clothing

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
C
O
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
99.0
99.0
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.4
99.2
(3
)
(3
)
99.1
(3
)
(3
)
99.3
(3
)
(3
)
99.9

Rent

96.0
96.2
97.0
97.2
97.5
97.8
98.1
98.3
99.3
100.4
101.8
102.1
102.5
102.6
102.6
102.7
102.7
102.6
102.7
102. 7
102.2
102.2
102.3
(3
)
(3
)
102.5
(3
)
(3
)
102.7
(3
)
(3
)
103.1

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
100.4
98.1
100.8
101.7
101.7
99.0
100.6
102.0
102.0
100.5
103.0
103.0
103.1
95.9
97.4
98.8
98.8
96.4
97.6
99.4
99.7
97.2
98.1
(3
)
(3
)
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.6

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
102.2
102.2
102.3
102.5
100.2
100.0
100.2
(3
)
(3
)
99.8
(3
)
(3
)
101.3
(3
)
(3
)
105.7

Miscel­
laneous

(?)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(?)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
99.0
98.9
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.7
(3
)
(3
)
101.1
(3
)
(3
)
101.0
(3
)
(3
)
102.4

1 Estimated on the basis of Milwaukee prices for food, rent, fuel, and electricity and on the assumption
that the cost of clothing, housefurnishings, and miscellaneous goods and services in Milwaukee changed as
did those costs in Chicago.
2 Milwaukee prices for these groups not available until 1939. Indexes for Milwaukee beginning in'March
1939 linked to Chicago indexes for earlier periods.
3 Monthly data not available.




59

S U M M A R Y TA B L ES
T

able

3 .— In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f
large cities — Continued

34

WEST N ORTH CEN TRAL—KANSAS C ITY, MO.
f 1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______ _______
1918: December______________
1919: June___________________
December______________
1920: June___________________
December______________
1921: M ay___________________
September_____________
December______________
1922: March_________________
June... _______________
September_____________
December______________
1923: March____ ____________
June___________________
September______ _____
December______ _____ _
1924: March_________________
June___________________
September_ _________
_
December______________
1925: June___________________
December______________
1926: June____________ ______
December______________
1927: June___________ ___ ___
December______________
1928: June___________________
December. ___________
1929: June___________________
December_______ ____
1930: June........ ...................... ...
December______________
1931: June___________________
December______________
1932: June______________ ____
December___________ _
1933: June___________________
December..
_________
1934: June______________ ____
November 15___________
1935: March 15_______________
____ ___
July 15_____
October 15____________
1936: January 15________ _____
April 15______________ .
July 15________________
September 1 5 . . . _______
December 15___________
1937: March 15______________
June 15. .. _________ .
September 1 5 __________
December 15__________
1938: March 15_______________
June 15..... ....................
September 15___________
December 15___________
1939: March 15_______________
June 15.______________ .
September 15___________
December 15____ ____ _
1940: March 15_______________
June 1 5 . _____________
September 15___________
October 15_____________
November 15_________ .
December 15....................
1941: January 15_____________
February 15____________
March 15_______________
April 15________________
May 15________________
June 15________________




All items

103.9
123.7
124.4
143.1
159.8
145.6
134.2
131.4
129.4

12
2 .6
11
2 .2
122.5

122.3
122.4

12
2 .1
123.0
123.4

12
2 .1
120.7
120.3
121.3
123.2
125.0
124.1

11
2 .8
121.7
117.6
117.6
117.0
116.8
117.9
116.2
113.4
108.9
104.3
97.2
94.6
92.6
93.9
95.2
96.7
98.0
97.3
98.0
98.7
97.6
99.3
100.7
99.9
101.7
102.9
103.8

12
0 .6
10
0 .8

100.9

100.3
99.7
99.1
99.0

10
0 .6
99.3
98.3
98.6
97.8
98.0
98.3
98.6
98.3
98.6
99.2

10
0 .2
100.4
11
0 .8

Food

129.6
152.0
148.4
163.0

20
0 .8
146.2
125.2
131.1
126.6
116.6
120.7
115.7
118.0
117.4
119.8

12
2 .1

120.4
118.3
118.0
119.0
123.4
131.1
139.0
138.8
132.9
136.4
124.5
128.3
125.0
126.7
132.2
127.4
113.1
102.4
95.1
83.3
81.9
83.9
85.2
91.1
96.0
100.4
98.5
100.5

10
0 .8

96.8
102.7
106.4

12
0 .2
106.2
107.5
106.9
101.5
96.7
98.2
97.6
96.1
94.0
92.8
97.6
93.4
91.2
92.9
90.0
90.6
91.6
92.9
92.4
93.6
94.8
97.4
97.9
101.3

Clothing

112.5
158.3
162.8
213.7
230.1
198.4
171.4
143.9
139.7
132.1
130.4
129.1
129.0
128.9
128.9
129.7
129.6
128.6
127.5
126.2
126.0
125.4
12
2 .9
122.3
119.6
118.6
116.7
115.6
115.8
115.2
114.6
114.2
113.7

10
1 .6
101.4
93.3

8 .2
8

86.9
95.4
97.0
96.7
96.7
96.1
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.4
96.7
98.2
99.4
101.5
105.1
105.3
104.0
102.9

12
0 .2
101.3
11
0 .2
100.9
11
0 .1
12
0 .0
103.3
102.9

12
0 .8
12
0 .8
102.7
12
0 .1
11
0 .2
100.9
102.3
103.1
103.1
103.5

Rent

11
1 .0
116.9
118.4
139.8
143.6
181.9
183.1
184.4
188.3
182.8
176.9
175.1
179.1
178.7
170.5
170.8
174.0
172.1
165.9
163.9
162.2
156.0
154.8
150.8
148.8
143.2
142.4
138.5
137.4
134.4
133.3
132.5
132.9
130.3
129.0

10
2 .0
114.1
12
0 .2
99.4
97.0
96.6
96.3
96.3
97.1
97.3
97.5
97.7
98.1
99.1
99.2
99.9

10
0 .6
12
0 .8
12
0 .6
12
0 .6

102.7
102.7
102.5

12
0 .6
12
0 .6
102.5
12
0 .8
102.7
12
0 .8
12
0 .8
12
0 .8
102.9
102.9
103.0
103.1
103.2
103.3
103.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
90.2
106.4
98.8
115.0
121.9
139.9
129.2
129.6
128.6
122.7
122.9
132.7
126.4
125.0
122.7
121.9
123.3

12
2 .6
121.3
11
2 .6
119.9
119.8
119.3
116.7
120.4
117.1
116.3
116.1
114.4
113.9
111.7

11
1 .8
10
1 .0

108.0
103.1

11
0 .0
98.7
97.4
98.9
100.3

10
0 .2
100.4
99.0

10
0 .2
100.5
100.7
99.4

11
0 .1
11
0 .1
99.9
100.7
102.5
104.2
104.3
98.2
97.5
98.1
98.1
97.4
98.1
98.1
97.9
97.3
98.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

10
0 .8
10
0 .8
10
0 .8
11
0 .0

109.1
143.1
150.5
176.6
188.8
184.1
163.7
144.9
137.7
125.7

11
2 .8

120.4
122.3
132.3
133.7
134.2
133.8
132.6
127.5
126.7
126.7
126.2
124.5
123.1
120.9
118.5
117.5
116.6
115.2
114.7

12
1 .8
111.4
107.9
102.4
96.6
89.5

8 .1
6

87.0
96.2
95.1
95.4
95.5
95.5
97.0
95.9
97.0
97.0
97.2
98.7
101.3
103.3
105.4
105.6
105.5
103.1

11
0 .1
10
0 .0
100.7
10
0 .1
10
0 .8
12
0 .2
97.1
97.5
98.3
98.4
98.5
99.1
98.8
99.0
99.9

10
0 .2

100.5
103.2

Miscel­
laneous
73.4
84.8

8 .6
8
96.5
10
0 .6

102.9
103.0
101.4

11
0 .0
97.7
97.1
97.1
97.8
97.9
98.2
98.8
99.9
99.3
99.3
98.8
98.5

10
0 .1
10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .2
10
0 .2
99.0
11
0 .1
100.5
100.4
100.4
105.9
105.7
104.4

11
0 .0
99.7
98.0
97.5
96.6
96.9
97.0
96.9
96.1
98.0
98.1
98.3
98.5
98.5

10
0 .0
11
0 .0
11
0 .8
101.9
11
0 .6
11
0 .8
101.7
11
0 .6
101.4
102.7
102.9
102.4

11
0 .6
11
0 .0
100.9
100.5

10
0 .6
10
0 .1
99.9
10
0 .0
10
0 .1
100.4
100.3

11
0 .1

60
T

able

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners a nd low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued
W EST N O R T H C EN T R AL —M IN N EAPO LIS, M IN N .
[1935-39 average=100] *

Date

1917: December...........................
1918: December...... .......... ..........
1919: June....... ....................... _—
December...... .....................
1920: June.......................... ..........
December_______________
1921: M ay____________________
September------ ---------------December_______________
1922: March__________________
June____________________
September______________
December_______________
1923: M arch...------ -----------------June------------- ------ -------September....... ........ ... ..
December........ ............ ......
1924: March__________________
June____________________
September______________
December____ __________
1925: June..... ................. .......... ...
December______ ________
1926: June................................ .
December----------------------1927: June....... ..............................
December............. ..............
1928: June....... ..............................
December_______________
1929: June......... ..................... .......
December____ __________
1930: June____________________
December...........................
1931: June.....................................
December______________
1932: June------------- ------- ---------December_______ _______
1933: June-------------------------------December_______________
1934: June____________________
November 15___________
1935: March 15.........................
July 15.................................
October 15..........................
1936: January 15........ .................
April 1 5 ...---------------------July 15__________________
September 15____________
December 15____________
1937: March 15________________
June 15.................... ............
September 15.....................
December 15.......................
1938: March 15_______ ______ _
June 15____ _____ _______
September 15____________
December 15............... .......
1939: March 15________________
June 15_________ ______
September 15_______ ____
December 15____________
1940: March 15— ......................
June 15.................... ...........
September 15....... .............
October 1 5 .............. ..........
November 15____________
December 15____________
1941: January 15.................... .
February 15.................... ...
March 15.-------- --------------April 15----------- --------------May 15____________ _____
June 15----------- ----------------




All items

98.1
113.2
116.2
130.3
144.7
135.5
123.7
122.7
121.8
118.1
118.5
115.8
118.1
118.2
118.1
118.4
119.4
118.?
117.0
116.0
117.4
117.8
121.7
121.3
119.3
119.7
116.2
116.6
115.5
115.9
117.2
116.0
111.3
106.1
102.6
96.1
92.8
88.7
92.8
93.9
94.3
96.4
96.1
96.8
98.0
96.9
98.1
100.1
99.9
101.6
102.7
104.2
103.4
101.5
101.8
101.4
100.9
100.2
100.1
101.2
101.1
100.7
100.8
100.9
101.0
101.1
102.2
101.5
101.9
102.1
102.7
103.9
105.6

Food

114.8
135.1
140.1
156.9
188.5
138.5
113.6
120.6
118.3
112.6
117.4
109.0
114.4
113.1
115.0
116.4
117.0
115.4
113.6
111.3
115.4
120.2
133.1
132.6
126.7
133.4
122.6
124.7
121.6
123.1
127.6
124.8
111.1
98.4
90.6
79.8
77.0
75.3
84.8
90.8
91.6
98.4
97.4
98.6
100.6
96.8
100.6
104.8
102.9
104.4
105.7
105.5
102.4
97.4
98.8
98.4
98.1
96.2
96.4
99.5
98.0
97.1
97.9
97.1
97.2
97.5
100.8
99.0
100.5
100.2
101.5
103.1
107.4

Clothing

119.7
159.8
167.7
199.9
211.6
195.9
168.8
141.8
136.8
131.3
129.2
126.9
127.5
130.1
130.7
131.0
130.9
131.0
128.6
128.1
126.4
125.6
125.0
123.8
122.7
121.0
118.0
118.4
117.9
117.6
116.4
115.5
114.5
109.2
100.3
91.8
88.1
86.0
95.7
97.6
98.5
98.5
98.2
98.5
99.0
98.4
97.5
98.2
99.5
101.4
102.2
104.4
104.1
102.2
101.5
100.2
99.2
99.1
99.2
98.8
100.1
100.9
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
101.1
100.2
100.0
102.0
102.1
102.3
103.5

Rent

101.5
101.4
99.5
109.7
112.4
138.9
141.1
146.2
148.9
148.9
146.8
147.1
149.0
149.0
144.7
145.6
149.7
149.7
146.9
145.5
147.1
142.9
143.2
138.9
138.2
132.2
131.9
129.1
129.5
127.5
127.1
125.5
125.4
123.3
121.6
113.8
108.3
98.8
95.2
92.8
91.6
91.6
91.6
92.3
92.4
92.7
94.2
96.5
97.9
98.2
100.1
103.3
104.4
104.4
105.4
106.0
106.5
106.7
107.1
107.6
107.8
107.9
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.0
108.1
108.3
108.3
108.3

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
76.5
87.8
86.8
93.7
104.8
122.7
116.9
115.2
115.0
110.0
110.0
110.8
112.5
113.3
110.9
109.4
111.4
110.5
108.8
109.1
109.6
107.8
109. 1
111.7
112.2
110.4
111.4
111.1
110.7
108.6
110.4
111.9
107.1
108.4
110.4
104.9
106.5
93.7
100.6
99.0
102.7
102.3
101.0
100.4
101.7
101.6
99.8
101.3
102.3
101.3
100.5
102.1
101.6
100.3
98.2
98.5
98.4
98.2
95.3
96,1
96.8
96.8
95.6
96.7
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.6
96.4
96.4
95.8
96.0

94.2
111.2
116.4
137.1
155.9
156.1
134.9
122.9
120.4
114.8
114.3
114.2
115.4
119.3
122.1
120.4
120.7
119.1
115.6
115.3
116.1
116.0
115.0
112.9
110.2
108.4
108.2
105.8
104.0
104.0
104.4
104.1
101.5
97.7
91.6
82.5
80.9
81.2
90.5
91.3
93.1
92.8
93.1
94.3
93.7
94.0
94.1
95.5
96.0
102.3
103.7
106.5
107.0
105.5
104.9
103.2
103.8
102.7
102.9
103.2
105.7
102.7
103.2
103.2
103.2
102.7
103.0
101.4
101.4
103.4
104.2
105.5
107.9

Miscel­
laneous
76.9
86.3
89.1
96.4
100.9
105.8
106.0
105.5
105.6
103.4
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
102.1
101.7
101.5
101.2
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.8
100.4
102.1
102.6
101.9
102.2
103.5
103.4
105.1
105.0
104.8
105.3
104.1
104.6
104.2
100.2
97.8
97.1
95.6
95.1
95.2
95.5
96.4
97.7
98.0
98.0
98.4
98.0
100.7
101.5
103.3
103.6
103.5
103.5
102.9
101.5
101.1
101.3
101.4
101.2
100.9
100.9
101.6
102.1
102.1
102.2
102.1
102.2
102.3
102.4
104.7
105.3

61

SUMMARY TABLES
T

able

3 . — In d e x es oj the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

WEST N ORTH CEN TRAL—ST. LOUIS, MO.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______________
1918: December______________
1919: June___________________
December______________
1920: June________ _______
D ecem ber_____________
1921: M ay_________________
September_____ _______
December______________
1922: March_________________
June____ _____________
September_____________
December_____________
1923: March_________________
June___________________
September ____________
December______________
1924: March_________________
June__________________ _
September_____________
December______________
1925: June_______________ ___
December______ _______
1926: June___________________
December______________
1927: Ju ne--....... - ____ _______
December....... .................
1928: June..... .........................
December______________
1929: June___________________
December______________
1930: June........................ .........
December.............. .........
1931: June.......... -_____ ______
December_________ ____
1932: June________ ______ ____
December______________
1933: June_________ ______ ___
December....... ......... ........
1934: June___ - - - - - November 1 5 ________
1935: March 15_______________
July 15________________
October 15____ _______
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________ _____
July 15________________
September 1 5 __________
December 15-_
1937: March 15______________
June 15.-- _________ .-September 15___________
December 15___________
1938: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15__________ .
1939: March 15_______________
June 15_______________
September 15__________
December 15___________
1940: March 15......................... .
June 15________________
September 15___________
October 15.—.......... .........
November 15___________
December 15................. .
1941: January 15,.................... .
February 15.....................
March 1 5 . ____________
April 15_________ ____
May 15_......................... .
June 15________________




All items

98.7
115.1
116.7
132.3
151.6
134.9
123.9
123.9
120.1
117.0
118.1
116.5
117.6
118.1
119.2
121.3
121.0
120.4
120.0
120.2
121.3
124.6
127.4
126.8
126.3
126.9
122.7
121.9
121.4
122.6
123.6
121.0
114.9
107.2
101.9
96.3
92.3
90.7
92.8
94.9
95.6
98.0
98.3
98.2
99.4
98.3
99.8
101.3
99.7
101.8
103.0
104.1
102.7
100.7
100.4
100.7
99.5
99.0
97.8
100.4
99.1
99.0
99.5
99.8
100.0
99.7
101.0
100.9
100.8
101.1
101.9
102.1
104.1

Food

120.6
142.3
141.2
153.4
193.6
136.0
115.2
124.7
114.5
113.7
118.0
111.4
113.0
110.4
114.4
117.3
115.4
113.2
113.5
114.3
117.2
127.3
134.3
135.0
131.0
135.7
124.0
125.2
123.6
129.2
128.3
123.6
109.2
97.0
88.8
79.1
75.3
79.8
82.2
87.7
92.4
98.5
100.0
98.2
101.2
97.6
102.6
106.5
101.3
105.2
106.5
106.8
102.2
98.3
98.9
99.5
97.1
96.1
93.1
98.8
95.1
95.2
97.5
96.9
97.0
96.3
99.3
99.2
99.3
99.5
101.4
102.4
107.2

Clothing

113.4
150.2
158.0
202.0
215.2
193.1
163.1
137.5
132.9
123.8
122.4
120.5
120.6
123.6
123.6
124.2
124.3
124.2
123.2
122.6
122.4
121.8
121.3
121.1
121.4
118.4
117.3
116.9
116.3
115.4
114.3
113.4
111.8
101.3
91.6
88.0
84.3
83.3
93.2
94.8
95.6
95.8
95.8
96.9
97.5
97.4
96.9
97.4
98.5
99.9
102.6
105.8
105.6
102.8
101.7
101.3
101.0
101.1
101.1
101.3
102.3
103.1
102.8
102.8
102.8
102.3
102.8
101.2
101.4
103.1
103.2
103.6
104.2

Rent

98.1
100.8
101.9
114.6
127.4
139.8
149.7
158.2
160.8
161.1
162.6
163.9
164.9
167.0
171.4
174.1
176.2
177.5
180.0
180.2
180.0
181.8
182.0
181.3
179.8
177.6
175.0
173.0
171.0
168.6
166.1
162.9
156.5
150.2
141.3
131.9
120.0
109.1
102.9
100.3
98.2
97.8
97.6
97.7
97.8
98.0
98.3
98.6
99.0
99.6
100.8
101.6
101.8
101.9
101.8
101.8
101.6
101.4
101.3
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.6
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.5
101.6
101.7

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
86.5
90.7
89.7
93.6
103.5
123.4
113.3
112.1
115.4
113. 3
114.5
124.9
128.8
127.6
113.2
114.0
114.3
113.6
105.2
105.2
107.8
103.4
109.8
102.4
120.2
116.0
116.2
102.9
106.5
106.0
115.4
105.4
111.7
97.3
104.4
101.6
98.7
86.8
98.2
105.9
97.7
101.4
95.7
99.2
99.6
102.2
98.2
99.6
99.5
99.6
99.5
100.7
102.1
101.2
98.8
100.6
101.2
101.8
98.2
100.5
101.4
103.0
99.3
101.4
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.1
103.1
102 8
102.8
102.7
102.5

92.0
112.0
121.9
140.6
159.2
156.6
132.0
115.1
109.6
105.1
103.8
103.3
105.7
117.3
119.4
120. 5
120.0
120.1
116.1
116.0
117.2
117.7
117.6
116.9
112.9
112.5
113.4
111.8
109.9
108.4
106.9
107.5
106.1
97.4
91.4
84.1
80.3
81.4
90.0
92.6
93.3
94.6
94.9
97.0
96.1
95.4
95.5
96.9
96.9
102.1
105.9
107.6
107.2
104.4
102.5
100.9
101.2
100.9
100.8
101.0
101.2
96.4
96.3
96.7
96.7
96.4
96.5
95.9
96.3
97.7
98.3
99.0
99.8

Miscel­
laneous
72.3
82.7
83.6
94.1
99.4
103.5
102.7
102.6
101. 6
97.3
96.2
96.2
96.4
96.5
96.4
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.0
98.0
98.1
98.7
99.0
98.7
98.7
98.6
98.9
99.1
100.2
100.0
104.2
104.5
102.7
102.2
100.6
100.5
100.2
98.3
98.6
98.0
97.9
98.2
98.7
98.7
99.2
99.1
99.5
99.4
99.2
100.3
100.6
101.8
102.1
101.4
101.1
101.1
100.0
99.4
99.6
101.3
100.4
100.3
100.1
101.3
101.6
101.6
102.2
102.6
102.2
102.3
102.7
101.9
102.9

62
T

able

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners a nd low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

SOUTH ATLAN TIC—ATLAN TA, GA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December_______ _____
1918: December_________ ____
1919: June___________________
December______________
1920: June___ _____ ______ .. .
December______________
1921: M ay___________________
September____________
December______________
1922: March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December . __ _______
1923: March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December. -----------------1924: March_________________
June___________________
September____________
December______________
1925: June............... ............ .
December__________ ___
1926: June..............
............
December............ ...........
1927: June.............. ............... .
December______ _____
1928: June................. ................
Decem ber..................
1929: June..................... .............
December............... .........
1930: June___________________
December______________
1931: June________ ____ _
...
December__________ . . .
1932: June___________________
December______________
1933: June____________ _____
December______________
1934: June___________________
November 15_______ . . .
1935: March 15______________
July 15______. . . . . . . ..
October 15_______ ______
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________________
July 15_______ ________
September 1 5 _________
December 15____ _____
1937: March 15_______________
June 15____ ________ .
September 15___________
December 15____ _______
1938: March 15______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15............... .
1939: March 15_______ _____ _
June 15________________
September 15.._________
December 15___________
1940: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15.__________
1941: January 15 ____________
February 15.. _________
March 15. _____________
April 15________________
May 15................ ..........
June 15______ ____ _____
1 Monthly data not available.




All items

110.6
132.3
137.8
151.2
167.6
151.6
138.0
134.6
130.8
127.1
127.6
126.6
126.3
126.7
127.8
129.5
127.5
125.8
126.0
126.0
126.2
130.1
133.2
131.5
129.2
132.0
125.5
126.7
126.3
124.8
124.6
120.1
114.9
107.9
102.2
97.3
91.8
90.9
94.2
95.4
97.2
97.5
97.6
99.8
100.3
98.3
99.9
101.1
100.9
102.2
102.8
104.3
102.6
100.1
99.2
100.0
100.0
98.8
98.0
100.1
98.7
99.5
98.5
99.4
100.0
0)
0)
100.5
0)
C)
1
103.3

Food

143.3
170.4
174.5
180.0
211.2
156.2
128.2
137.4
129.4
128.9
133.8
127.0
125.8
125.3
132.3
136.5
130.8
125.5
128.8
130.6
131.3
145.9
156.7
154.7
147.0
160.3
141.1
143.3
141.6
140.7
139.8
134.3
121.6
105.4
95.2
87.0
80.2
84.9
88.5
93.2
97.3
99.5
100.1
104.8
104.4
97.8
103.7
105.7
103.8
106.4
106.3
107.7
101.4
94.7
94.5
96.5
96.5
94.5
92.7
98.3
93.6
96.0
93.2
94.7
95.2
94.3
95.8
96.7
99.7
99.0
103.4

Clothing

112.9
145.8
158.9
188.5
203.8
176.7
152.7
128.3
122.3
115.1
113.4
116.4
116.1
119.0
119.6
120.5
120.7
120.7
119.4
118.6
118.5
118.0
117.8
117.3
116.2
115.3
113.2
113.2
113.4
113.3
112.3
109.8
105.7
103.3
94.1
88.8
84.8
83.9
95.0
96.7
96.7
95.8
96.3
96.3
96.8
97.1
97.5
97.8
99.9
101.9
102.7
105.5
105.9
103.6
103.0
101.6
100.4
99.7
99.5
100.0
100.5
102.0
102.3
102.7
103.2
0)
0)
103.5
0)
0)
104.7

Bent

105.3
120.1
120.6
139.7
147.9
182.3
188.3
186.4
184.7
181.4
177.1
171.9
171.4
170.5
170.0
171.1
170.8
169.5
168.6
166.1
165.3
163.8
157.3
152.1
149.7
149.0
146.9
146.3
145.6
144.8
143.1
139.9
137.8
135.1
126.0
120.7
105.5
99.2
93.5
92.7
93.0
93.4
93.6
94.6
95.5»
95.7
96.2
97.6
98.3
99.1
100.6
103.2
103.9
104.2
104.4
104.2
104.1
104.1
104.0
103.9
104.1
104.1
104.3
104.5
104.5
0)
0)
104.5
0)
0)
104.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
102.6
120.1
121.0
134.2
165.2
171.2
160.2
150.5
147.5
138.3
142.8
162.9
161.7
160.6
146.5
146.2
143.0
141.8
135.5
135.4
136.6
129.5
138.2
140.2
149.8
135.2
141.6
135.3
139.9
131.8
135.1
114.5
114.5
106.3
107.6
99.9
103.0
95.9
107.4
103.5
106.8
101.2
97.6
100.5
102.9
103.1
97.9
100.7
103.0
100.7
96.5
99.6
101.9
101.8
95.4
98.4
101.2
101.1
95.1
98.6
101.2
100.7
96.5
100.1
102.9
102.9
102.9
103.0
103.0
99.1
100.2

94.8
118.4
123.4
142.1
156.4
150.2
130.9
118.8
116.6
110.1
109.2
108.0
111.3
115.3
117.5
117.3
117.1
115.7
114.2
113.8
114.2
113.7
112.6
111.3
109.5
108.7
109.9
1,09. 2
108.9
108.7
108.2
105.4
302.4
96.4
89.4
83.2
79.3
79.6
92.0
96.2
97.7
97.5
97.8
99.5
99.2
99.9
99.1
99.2
99.1
103.0
104.3
106.5
104.5
101.9
98.3
97.7
98.3
98.1
98.1
99.5
100.0
97.1
97.7
98.1
99.8
0)
0)
99.4
0)
0)
104.0

Miscel­
laneous
78.7
90.4
95.6
103.7
105.9
110.0
110.6
109.7
110.0
107.1
105.9
105.6
105.6
105.6
104.5
105.2
104.9
105.3
105.3
105.2
105.2
106.2
106.7
105.5
105.4
105.4
103.5
106.7
106.5
104.7
105.6
103.7
102.7
100.9
101.3
100.9
98.7
95.9
97.3
96.6
97.0
97.3
97.5
98.4
99.4
99.1
99.3
99.7
99.5
99.9
101.7
101.8
102.0
101.5
100.9
101.6
101.3
99.9
100.5
100.5
99.8
100.1
100.0
100.4
100.8
(i)
0)
. 100.9
0)
0)
102.6

S U M M A R Y T A B L ES
T

able

63

3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

SOUTH ATLA N TIC —BALTIM ORE, MD.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______________
December_____________
December______________
December______________
December______________
June___________________
December__________ ___
1920: June_________ _____ ____
December________ _____
1921: M ay__________________
September_____________
December______________
1922: March________________
June__________________
September____________
December______ _____
1923: March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December_____________
1924: March_________________
June___________________
September________ _____
December______________
1925: June___________________
December___________
1926: June___________________
D e c e m b e r .___________
1927: June___________________
December______________
1928: June__________________
December. ______ _____
1929: June__________________
December______________
1930: June___________________
December______________
1931: June___________________
December______________
1932: June_______ __________
December______________
1933: June___________________
December______________
1934: June___________________
November 15___________
1935: March 15..........................
July 1 5 .......... ............ .
October 1 5 .......................
1936: January 15---------- ------ April 15________________
July 15________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1937: March 15..... .............. ......
June 15_________ _______
September 15_________ .
December 15_________ ..
1938: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15..... ......... .
December 15_____ ______
1939: March 15....................... .
June 15___ ___________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1940: March 15.................... ......
June 15_________ ____ _
September 15__________ _
October 1 5 _____________
November 15...................
December 15............. ......
1941: January 15...... ................ .
February 15............ .........
March 15...........................
April 15......... ...................
May 15..... ........................
June 15..........................




All items

66.3
66.3
77.0
95.5
116.3
118.0
127.7
142.0
129.3
119.1
118.9
116.6
114.0
114.0
112.8
114.5
114.8
117.3
118.4
117.6
116.6
116.9
116.3
117.2
119.9
122.9
121.8
120.6
120.1
117.8
117.6
116.5
117.2
118.2
116.9
112.4
106.2
102.9
96.5
93.3
90.6
95.0
95.7
96.8
98.1
98.4
98.9
99.8
99.1
99.7
100.6
99.7
101.4
101.7
102.9
101.9
100.3
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.6
99.2
100.5
98.9
99.7
100.5
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.9
101.1
101.5
102.6
103. 8
105.9

Food

76.1
75.5
91.7
122.6
149.4
146.1
148.9
174.6
138.8
115.5
119.8
117.6
112.6
114.4
110.6
114.2
113.6
120.7
123.3
119.4
116.1
117.4
117.4
119.7
127.2
135.2
133.9
131.0
130.8
125.3
123.9
119.4
123.2
126.4
121.8
111.3
97.7
91.7
82.2
79.9
78.7
87.1
89.6
93.3
98.6
100.7
99.8
100.8
98.8
101.9
103.6
100.3
104.2
104.9
105.8
102.1
98.2
98.6
98.5
97.8
96.5
96.1
99.4
94.6
96.6
98.7
96.4
95.4
95.3
96.8
97.9
98.3
99.1
101.5
103.7
108.7

Clothing

69.5
71.4
86.2
105.8
144.4
159.2
192.9
202.5
180.4
155.2
140.1
131.1
126.5
124.4
123.6
125.5
126.3
126.1
127.2
126.4
126.3
124.0
122.5
122.5
122.4
122.5
120.3
119.9
119.1
117.1
116.9
117.0
116.5
116.3
115.3
109.9
105.4
98.7
92.3
88.0
86.2
96.6
99.2
98.4
97.9
98.0
98.1
98.3
98.2
98.1
98.3
98.7
99.4
102.0
103.4
103.7
101.7
101.4
100.4
100.3
100. 5
100.5
100.7
101.7
101.7
101.5
101.3
101.4
101.4
101.3
101.2
101.5
101.7
101.9
103.3
103.5

Rent

79.3
79.1
80.0
81.7
90.2
92.6
99.7
112.3
118.5
129.2
130.0
130.6
131.0
131.1
131.3
132.3
132.9
134.5
135.1
136.3
136.1
136.7
136.7
136.5
136.4
136.5
135.8
135.3
134.7
133.2
132.2
131.4
131.0
129.6
128.8
127.9
126.7
123.9
120.1
109.3
102.9
98.7
96.8
95.9
95.2
95.2
96.8
97.2
96.9
97.1
97.8
99.3
99.5
100.4
101.3
102.3
102.7
102.8
102.9
102.9
103.1
103.2
103.2
103.6
103.6
104.1
104.4
104.6
104.6
105.3
105.7
105.7
105.9
107.1
107.6
108.4

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
63.0
63.3
68.8
79.1
92.0
86.4
93.3
99.3
112.8
107.7
116.5
116.9
116.9
116.5
120.3
122.8
123.2
120.7
118.6
121.9
121.9
116.5
119.0
118.9
116.8
120.3
119.6
118.0
114.8
116.9
114.7
118.0
113.9
117.3
114.0
117.0
112.6
115.9
105.8
110.3
102.6
110.7
106.9
110.2
104.2
97.7
103.8
103.9
104.0
98.8
101.1
101.3
100.6
96.1
98.2
98.4
98.8
98.1
99.5
100.0
100.0
96.5
97.8
96.8
98.2
97.3
99.8
100.5
100.6
100.9
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.7
100.4
99.9 1

55.8
58.9
70.5
89.7
124.0
130.9
148.9
162.8
157.2
138.1
127.6
124.8
119.9
119.0
119.5
120.8
125.5
126.9
128.0
128.4
129.8
128.0
125.4
125.9
124. 3
123.9
118.7
117.4
115.4
114.3
113.3
112.7
111.8
111.2
109.1
103.8
96.0
93.0
86.8
82.6
82.2
91.8
92.6
93.0
93.8
93.8
94.5
97.1
97.3
97.2
97.5
97.7
100.4
101.2
106.2
106.7
105.4
104.3
103.6
102.0
100.8
100.8
101.3
102.7
101.4
101.2
101.7
102.2
102.6
102.4
102.2
102.5
104.2
104.3
104. 6
106.1

Miscel­
laneous
46.0
45.3
54.5
69.5
82.1
84.0
91.6
97.2
97.9
97.3
97.5
95.9
95.1
93.9
93.7
93.1
93.4
93.7
93.8
94.3
94.5
96.5
94.7
95.2
97.0
97.3
97.1
97.6
97.9
97.6
100.5
101.5
101.0
101.2
104.3
104.1
103.7
103.2
100.7
99.8
98.6
98.9
99.5
98.5
98.6
98.7
98.9
100.0
100.4
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.9
99.9
100.6
100.8
100.5
100.4
99.8
100.3
100.8
100.7
100.9
100.4
100.6
100.6
101.3
101.4
101.4
101.3
101.4
101.4
101.4
101.6
102.1
102.8

64

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w ork ers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

SOUTH A T LA N TIC —JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______ _______
December______________
December--------------------December______________
December--------------------June----------------------------December________ _____
1920: June...----------- ------------December______________
1921: M ay___________________
September------------------December_______ ____
1922: March_________________
Ju n e........................... .
September...... ..................
December________ _____
1923: March_________________
June..................................
September.................. ......
December______________
1924: March— _____ _______ _
June------------- --------------September--------- ------ December--------------------1925: June___________________
December___ __________
1926: June----- ----------------------December............ .............
1927: June------ ---------------------December______________
1928: June.----------- ---------------December______________
1929: June........ ........................
December__________ ___
1930: Ju ne__________________
December______________
1931: June___________________
December______________
1932: June_______ ____ _______
December______________
1933: June...... ........._......... .
December--------------------1934: June______________ ____
November 15___________
1935: March 15_______________
July 15....... ........... ...........
October 15_____________
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________________
July 15------ ------------------September 1 5 __________
December 15___________
1937: March 15_______________
June 15---- ------ ------------September 15..... ..............
December 15. _________
1938: March 1 5 -........................
June 15________ ______
September 15___________
December 15___________
1939: March 15________ ____
June 15__________ _____ _
September 15....................
December 15___________
1940: March 15........................
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 1 5 __________
1941: January 15....... ..............
February 15. ...................
March 15—.................... .
April 15...........................
May 15..............................
June 15.................... .........
i Monthly data not available.




All items

76.4
77.0
85.3
103.4
126.8
130.6
146.6
160.1
150. 4
137.8
134.1
131.4
126.8
125.9
124.3
125.9
125.7
126.7
128.4
128.7
127.4
126.1
128.0
127.9
128.8
139.8
141.3
139.7
135.6
131.7
127.1
126.5
125.0
123.7
120.8
116.2
108.6
103.1
96.3
92.8
89.8
95.0
96.4
97.6
97.9
98.9
99.2
100.0
98.0
100.1
100.2
100.7
102.4
102.8
103.4
102.7
100.4
100.2
100.2
99.1
98.4
98.2
100.1
99.3
98.9
100.2
101.0
101.8
0)
0)
102.4
0)
0)
106.1

Food

92.9
92.6
108.1
137.0
163.6
167.6
174.2
192.8
157.1
128.3
138.6
134.8
125.7
128.9
123.5
127.4
124.6
128.8
132.9
132.7
127.9
126.3
131.8
132.6
136.4
155.1
152.9
147.2
142.8
134.3
130.9
130.8
130.8
133.9
130.3
122.0
104.1
94.8
84.1
80.7
78.3
87.4
90.1
95.9
96.7
99.6
102.0
102.6
97.6
103.6
103.5
103.0
103.6
104.3
104.7
102.5
97.3
98.4
100.1
97.9
95.1
94.6
100.4
97.4
95.9
100.4
101.4
99.0
98.8
99.2
99.0
101.7
103.1
107.6

Clothing

62.1
68.6
83.1
106.8
143. 2
149.0
197.1
207.5
192.1
166.2
143.6
135.4
127.2
124.2
123.7
123.8
125.1
124.9
127.3
127.0
126.5
125.9
123.3
120.9
120.5
120.3
120.1
118.6
116.8
115.2
114.9
114.7
114.2
113.3
112.1
106.8
102.8
93.0
87.8
84.0
83.0
93.7
97.2
96.9
96.8
96.9
96.7
96.8
96.8
96.6
97.1
99.6
103.7
104.7
106.7
106.0
102.3
100.3
100.3
99.0
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.8
101.7
101.4
101.7
101.8
0)
0)

101.9
0)
0)

102.9

Rent

127.3
118.5
104.1
103.5
134.8
139.7
155.3
164.1
170.7
173.8
175.3
176.1
175.2
172.2
170.8
172.0
172.1
171.0
169.3
169.8
169.8
169.7
169.3
169.9
169.9
197.7
212.1
216.3
200.1
192.5
168.4
162.2
152. 5
144.1
131.4
125.4
119.8
115.0
107.2
101.0
94.3
92.3
91.7
92.7
93.4
95.0
95.9
98.4
98.7
99.1
99.5
100.0
100.6
100.7
100.9
102.2
102.5
102.4
102.4
102.6
102.5
102.5
102.6
103.3
103.6
103.6
103.6
106.5
0)
0)
109.5
0)
0)
111.6

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
68.6
68.6
70.2
79.0
106.5
102.4
112.6
118.4
132.1
124.0
115.3
115.9
110.9
109.0
109.0
113.7
113.8
112.3
111.2
120.1
120.1
118.1
117.6
118.6
116.2
128.4
134.0
131.2
128.9
126.2
119.7
122.7
121.5
120.1
117.0
114.1
112.5
110.5
105.3
102.6
101.6
105.4
106.4
106.4
106.9
105.4
100.3
100.4
100.7
99.8
100.9
101.8
101.4
100.4
100.4
99.9
100.3
96.8
96.7
96.8
97.1
96.0
96.1
96.9
95.3
96.3
97.3
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.4
98.4
97.6
98.1

53.3
61.4
76.5
92.6
120.8
128.0
152.6
172.9
171.9
150.7
128.5
125.3
118.4
114.8
116.1
121.1
125.1
126.9
127.8
127.7
128.3
124.2
124.6
123.9
124.8
125.6
125.1
121.6
120.5
119.8
116.9
117.1
116.1
114.0
112.2
108.4
101.3
96.9
86.4
83.0
81.4
97.0
96.1
97.5
98.6
98.4
98.6
98.2
96.8
96.9
97.2
97.3
101.1
102.4
105.2
105.2
103.7
101.6
99.8
99.8
98.9
98.7
99.9
102.7
99.8
99.8
101.0
101.8
m
( l)

100.7
0)
0)
104.1

Miscel­
laneous
55.2
55.9
63.3
78.1
88.5
91.5
99.8
111.9
113.4
114.5
110.8
109.9
109.6
107.8
107.8
107.4
107.7
107.7
109.1
108.4
108.7
107.6
109.9
109.8
109.9
113.2
113.3
113.5
112.8
112.8
113.1
113.1
113.1
110.9
111.6
110.9
110.4
109.0
106.4
103.8
100.6
101.9
102.6
99.9
99.5
99.6
98.5
99.2
98.3
98.7
98.7
99.2
101.9
102.0
102.5
102.3
101.6
101.5
100.0
99.0
99.4
99.6
99.3
98.9
99.3
98.9
99.9
103.4
0)
0)
103.9
0)
0)
105.0

65

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities —

Continued

SOUTH AT L A N T IC —N O R FO L K , VA.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______________
December______________
December......... ...... ........
December___________ _
December______________
June... ............... ...........
December....... .................
1920: June —............................
December______________
1921: M ay................... ..............
September__________ ___
December____ _______ 1922: March. _____ _____ _
June_ ____ ___________
_
September_____________
December_________ ____
1923: March_________ ______
Inn ft __________ _______
September_____________
December____________
1924: M arch...______________
June.............. .................
September_____________
December____ _________
1925: June............................ .
December............... .........
1926: June..._____ ________ ..
December.... .............. ... _
1927: J u n e __________________
December______________
1928: June . ________________
December__________
1929: June _ ________________
December.... .............. ...
1930: June.. _______________
December....... ..............
1931: June________ __________
December__________
1932: June..................... ......... ...
December____ _________
1933: June
December__________ ___
1934: June.................... ...... ......
November 15...................
1935: March 15.......... .............. .
July 15 ________________
October 15_____________
1936: January 15___________ .
April 15..........................
July 15__________ ____ _
September 15 _____ _____
December 15___________
1937: March 15................ .........
June 15_________ ____
September 15___________
December 15__________
1938: March 15______ ________
June 1 5 ________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1939: March 15............... ...........
June 1 5 ________ _______
September 15___________
December 15___________
1940: March 15............. ..........
June 15________________
September 15___________
DftPftmhftr 15
1941: January 15_____ ________
February 15......................
March 15_______________
April 15________________
May 15________________
June 15________________
Monthly data not available.




All items

70.5
70.9
79.3
98.6
126.3
130.1
144.9
159.1
147.0
133.4
131.4
127.6
123.2
121.9
120.4
120.3
120.5
122.2
123.4
121.8
121.2
119.7
120.1
121.2
121.9
126.2
124.1
123.6
124.7
122.1
121.0
121. 3
121.1
122.4
120.0
115.1
107.3
103. 2
97.0
93. 6
90.1
95.6
97.3
97.9
99.5
98.9
100.1
101.1
99.0
100.0
100.9
101.2
102.1
102.2
102.9
101.8
100.1
99.0
99.0
99.0
98.4
97.3
99.5
98.5
97.7
98.5
99.0
100.7

0)
0)
102.6
0)
0)
106.4

Food

88.5
89.2
108.4
145.1
164.8
166. 7
170.4
199.8
155. 5
128.6
136.4
127.7
121.0
123.1
120.2
121.8
118.1
124.8
128.1
123.9
121.3
120.1
122.9
128.6
133.8
148. 9
145.6
143.0
145.8
138.9
135.5
135.0
135.9
141.2
135.8
121.6
103.4
96.0
87.2
81.1
78. 5
88.3
92.3
95.3
100.6
100.0
102.3
105. 2
99.1
102.4
104.9
104.5
105.9
105.9
105.9
101.6
97.6
95.4
95.5
95.6
94.2
92.1
97.3
94.0
93.0
94.7
95.2
97.1
95.8
99.5
100.6
102.1
102.1
107.0

Clothing

65.0
65.5
68.9
85.5
126.4
133.0
167.8
179.6
164.7
143.9
125.9
123.5
118.1
115.4
113.4
112.5
115.6
116.3
117.2
117.4
117.4
116.0
114.8
113.9
113.5
113.0
112.4
112.2
111. 1
111.0
111. 5
111. 6
111.3
110.7
109.6
108.0
102.4
95.0
90.2
87.2
85.1
94.4
97.5
97.3
96.9
96.7
97.2
96.9
97.4
97.6
97.6
99.1
100.6
102.1
104.8
104.2
103.2
102.8
101.6
100.6
100.3
100.2
100.3
101.4
102.7
103.5
102.8
102.9

Rent

96.0
96.1
94.3
94.3
133.4
140.6
156.7
163.9
183.1
186.8
186.8
185.6
184.0
180.5
175.2
170.1
167.7
166.0
163.3
160.3
159.5
157.6
156.6
153.0
152.0
146.8
146.0
143.2
140.0
137.8
136.0
134.0
133.2
131.6
130.5
127.9
127.3
124.1
121.9
113.4
111. 5
103.2
101.8
99.8
99.1
99.1
99.0
99.0
98.8
98.7
98.7
99.2
99.1
99.1
99.3
100.9
100.9
100.9
101.0
101.5
101.4
101.5
101.7
101.9
102.1
102.2
102.9
105.5

0)
0)

0)

(!)
0)

0)

104.5

105.3

C)
1

107. 5

(l)

109.6

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
61.0
61.0
71.4
81.4
106.6
103. 6
115.9
128.6
139.7
120.5
120.9
117.0
118.1
114.6
120.7
126.1
131.1
123.4
122.3
120.2
122. 7
118.7
120.3
121.5
120.1
126.9
123.4
128.0
120.1
121.0
119.4
122.3
118.6
117.6
114.3
120.3
112.1
111.7
102.2
102.8
93. 6
104.0
100.1
103.1
103.1
98.8
101.9
101.9
100.3
99.6
99.5
100.5
100.5
99.2
99.5
101.0
100.1
98.2
98.7
100.2
100.1
97.0
99.1
99.4
92.2
92.3
93.3
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
108.8
108.8
108.8

60.6
61.0
65.9
84.2
124.5
127.7
147.6
160.6
157.9
138.8
127.6
124.9
118.2
114.2
113. 2
114.6
119.0
121.8
123.9
123.5
124.2
121.3
120.0
122. 5
118.8
119.3
117.4
115.4
114.5
114.2
112.5
112.8
112.2
110.9
109.3
105.1
99.3
94.6
89.3
86.3
85.2
95.1
97.1
98.2
97.7
97.4
97.8
98.2
97.3
96.5
97.3
98.6
101.8
102.4
105.4
105.0
102.7
102.2
101.3
101.2
99.4
98.9
99.3
100.4
99.8
99.4
100.0
100.4

Miscel­
laneous
47.2
47.5
54.2
68.6
83.5
86.8
93.3
98.4
97.4
97.4
100.4
98.8
95.7
94.8
94.7
94.3
94.4
95.5
96.9
96.5
96.2
95.9
95.9
96.1
96.1
96.2
94.7
96.2
101.5
100.4
101.3
103.0
103.0
103.6
103.2
103.4
103.4
103.1
98.1
99.3
94. 5
98.3
99.9
98.7
98.8
98.7
99.0
99.5
99.5
99.6
99.8
99.8
100.2
100.3
101.0
101.1
100.8
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
100.6
100.3
100.3
100.9
101.7
102.2

0)
0)

C
1
)
(l)

C
1
)

0)
0)

101.8

0)

104.7

102.6

103.9

66

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

SOUTH A TLA N T IC —RICHM OND, VA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______________
1918: December______________
1919: June___________________
December______________
1920: June___________________
December____
______
1921: M ay----------------------September________ _____
December--------------------1922: March_ _____ _________
_
Ju n e__________________
September_____________
December______________
1923: March_________________
June_______ ____ _____ September___ ________
December______________
1924: March_____ _____ ______
June___________________
September_ ________
_
December________ ___
1925: June-------- ----------------December______________
1926: June___________________
December______________
1927: June_______ _________
December______________
1928: June____ _______ _____
December____ ______
1929: June________ _______ _
December__________ _ .
1930: June----- -------------------December___________ __
1931: June___ . _________ December______________
1932: June__________ _______
December_________ . .
1933: June_____________ _____
December______________
1934: June________ _______
November 15_ _______ _
1935: March 15_______________
July 15___________ _____
October 15;_____________
1936: January 15____________
April 15______________
July 15_____ ___________
September 15_
______
December 15__________
1937: March 15_______________
June 15 _ _ ________ .
September 15________ _
December 15_ __ ___ ___
1938: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15________ _
1939: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15 _____ _____
1940: March 15_______________
June 15.__ ________ ____
September 15_________ _
December 15__.................
1941: January 15 ___________
February 15____________
March 15_______________
April 15________________
May 15________________
June 15________ _
.
1 Monthly data not available.




All items

101.9
119.7
123.0
134.8
151.3
135.5
123.0
124.3
121.9
118.1
118. 7
116.6
117.4
117.6
119.7
121.6
120.6
119.1
117.8
119.1
119.7
121.8
126.6
125.8
123.5
123.7
119.7
120.0
118.2
117.2
118.3
117.7
112.2
105.9
103.1
96.9
92.9
91.1
95.2
96.4
97.2
98.2
98.3
99.7
99.9
98.3
99.8
101.5
102.0
102.0
101.6
103.6
102.0
100.6
99.2
100.0
99.8
98.6
97.4
99.9
98.8
98.4
98.5
99.3
99.7
0)
0)
100.0
0)
0)
103.0

Food

136.3
164.3
166.3
171.0
204.0
152.7
127.0
141.9
135.5
130.6
135.0
127.2
128.4
126.2
133.1
136.6
131.6
126.6
125.6
130.1
132.6
139.9
151.9
149.2
142.1
146.0
134.1
137.6
131.8
131.1
134.3
134.0
116.9
101.9
95.9
84.1
81.0
81.2
89.4
93.7
95.7
98.9
100.0
103.6
104.8
98.6
103.3
107.4
107.7
106.1
104.9
107.2
101.7
97.4
94.6
96.3
96.2
92.7
90.1
96.4
92.5
91.1
92.7
93.1
94.5
93.7
94.7
94.9
97.9
97.8
102.9

Clothing

103.5
138.6
147.3
184.9
200.5
175.0
148.9
128.6
125.5
120.0
116.9
114.5
114.5
115.8
116.5
117.4
116.9
116.7
115.9
114.8
112.8
112.5
112.2
111.9
110.8
109.6
109.0
108.7
109.1
107.9
107.9
107.0
105.6
101.1
94.6
89.2
84.8
83.8
95.5
97.2
96.3
95.6
95.3
95.6
93.5
96.8
96.9
97.3
98.9
99.6
101.4
104.8
105.9
104.6
103.5
102.9
102.2
101.6
101.5
102.0
102.8
104.0
103.5
103.5
103.4
0)
0)
103.9
0)
0)
104.7

Rent

101.1
102.1
104.7
111.0
113.7
127.2
130.8
134.4
135.5
135.6
135.9
136.8
136.7
137.1
137.1
140.6
140.9
141.0
141.0
142.5
142.8
142.9
141.9
141.1
137.4
135.4
132.5
132.0
130.3
129.7
128.3
127.8
126.8
125.7
123.1
121.3
111.6
108.1
99.7
98.5
97.4
96.8
96.7
97.0
97.0
97.1
97.2
99.1
99.3
99.4
99.7
101.6
101.8
101.9
102.1
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.6
102.7
102.7
102.8
102.8
103.1
103.1
0)
0)
103.2
0)
0)
103.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
80.8
90.4
90.0
95.9
110.0
131.1
118.9
118.6
118.6
110.5
107.8
116.8
124.6
129.2
123.4
125.0
130.3
129.9
120.5
120.6
119.5
116.6
124.1
122.0
130.4
122.8
124.6
116.3
119.2
114.8
117.0
111.9
114.8
107.6
111.2
101.5
100.6
95.1
103.1
98.7
100.4
100.4
98.7
101.4
101.4
100.3
98.3
98.5
99.9
101.1
97.2
100.7
100.9
101.1
97.7
101.3
101.3
101.4
97.3
100.3
100.6
100.7
97.0
100.4
100.4
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.8
99.7
99.8

79.7
100.7
102.5
124.3
139.8
135.5
118.6
108.4
106.0
102.1
101.7
101.6
103.1
107.4
111.6
111.9
112.0
112.2
109.8
110.5
110.4
110.2
110.9
110.1
109.0
108.1
107.8
106.6
105.8
105.5
104.7
103.6
100.9
94.5
92.1
81.9
78.4
78.0
90.0
91.1
93.8
95.7
95.1
95.9
95.5
95.3
95.2
96.5
97.4
101.3
102.1
105.2
106.0
104.2
103.7
102.0
101.8
102.1
101.3
102.9
104.3
102.9
102.9
104.6
104.6
0)
0)
105.3
0)
0)
109.1

Miscel­
laneous
73.4
80.0
83.3
91.0
97.1
99.8
101.8
101.5
101.5
99.4
98.8
98.8
98.0
98.2
98.2
98.8
99.3
99.6
99.6
98.9
99.6
99.8
102.1
103.3
103.3
103.4
103.4
103.5
103.4
102.9
103.5
103.7
103.5
103.2
102.9
101.5
98.6
96.0
97.6
97.9
98.6
98.9
99.0
98.7
98.9
99.3
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.4
100.4
101.1
100.7
101.1
100.7
100.8
100.5
100.2
100.0
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.8
101.1
0)
0)
101.2
0)
0)
102.2

67

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3J+ large cities —

Continued

SOUTH A TLAN TIC—SAVANNAH, GA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December.
_____ _
December___ ___
December_______ ____
D e c e m b e r..._____
..
December______ _____
June______________ ____
December___________ _
1920: June _ ______________
December______ . __
1921: May
_______________
September_____________
December_____
______
1922: March ____ __________
June.. _______________
September_________ ____
December_____________
1923: M a rch ..._____ _________
June _
_______ _____
September_____________
December___ _________
1924: March________________
June_________________
September______ ______
December_____________
1925: June _ __________ ____
D ecem ber____________
1926: June___________________
Decem ber_____________
1927: June___________________
December______________
1928: June..................................
December______________
1929: June...________________
December. ____________
1930: June___________________
December______________
1931: J u n e ..________________
December______________
1932: June. _______________
December_____________
1933: June _ _______________
December__________ ___
1934* June_____
__________
November 15___________
1935: March 1 5 ....... ............... .
July 15 .............................
October 15_____________
1936: January 15_____________
April 15_______________
July 15__________ ______
September 1 5 ._________
December 15. ________ _
1937: March 1 5 ______________
June 1 5 ________________
September 1 5 _________
December 15___________
1938: March 1 5 ______________
June 15 _ _____________
September 1 5 ________ .
December 15 __________
1939: March 15 _____________
June 1 5 ________________
September 1 5 ._________
December 15 __________
1940: March 1 5 ______________
June 15 _ ______ ________
S e p te m b e r 15 ..
October 15 ___________
November 15___________
December 15___________
1941: January 15 ____________
February 15____________
March 15_______________
April 15________________
May 15
__
__ .
June 15________________




All items

80. 6
80.4
90.3
109.7
135.9
138.4
152.2
162. 8
153. 7
139. 5
136.1
132.0
126.1
126.0
125.4
126. 2
126.0
126.1
126.3
125.6
124.6
123.4
123.9
123.9
125.7
131.0
129.2
128.2
127.5
125.9
124.8
125.5
124.6
124.4
121.7
116.3
110.4
103.9
97.0
94.1
91. 5
95.8
96.5
97.6
98.6
98.5
100.0
100.2
98.5
100.1
100.3
100.2
101. 7
102.1
103.0
101.9
100.3
99.8
99.4
99.5
98.7
98.7
100.6
99.7
100.0
100.8
101.0
101.1
100.8
101.5
101.4
100.9
101.6
102.5
103.3
105.0

Food

100.9
100.6
117.5
148.9
177.8
175.6
182.3
201.6
158.1
125:9
136.7
130.9
117.2
123.9
118.4
123.4
120.5
124.1
125.2
124.1
119.9
118.4
121.7
124.1
132.9
149.9
144.3
140.8
140.6
135.7
132.4
132.5
133.0
134.7
127.6
116.9
103.9
93.9
81.9
81.0
78.6
87.2
89.7
94.4
98.4
98.1
101.9
102.0
99.2
103.7
104.2
102.5
104.6
104.7
105.6
101.0
98.0
97.8
97.4
97.2
94.7
95.1
100.8
96.9
97.3
99.6
99.5
99.3
98.5
100.2
100.5
100.0
100.7
103.0
104.7
108.9

Clothing

67.0
67. 5
83.1
104.9
156.5
165.0
198.2
209.1
181.9
156.2
134.8
123.4
116.6
115.0
118.8
118.0
121.7
121.4
122.2
121.2
121.3
120.0
119.1
117.8
117.3
116.3
116.3
115.2
113.7
112.9
113.1
113.2
112.7
112.3
111.2
108.1
105. 8
96.9
90.6
86.4
85.0
96.5
99.1
97.8
97.3
97.1
97.2
97.7
96.9
96.5
96.9
99.9
101.3
103.2
106.0
105.4
103.2
101.4
100.7
100.4
100.5
99.6
99.4
100.4
102.2
101.8
101.8
102.0
101.9
101.8
100.7
98.7
102.2
102.3
102.7
103.1

Rent

115.0
113.4
111. 5
110.0
121.8
126.7
140.3
153.5
182.3
186.1
184.6
185.0
182.6
181. 4
179.9
175.6
174.2
171.9
170.4
169.6
168.4
167.1
165.9
162.1
160.6
159.4
158.7
158.8
158.3
157.6
156.2
153.9
152.6
147.5
146.0
137.5
133.1
125.9
119.6
110.0
103.8
100.4
99.5
97.8
97.4
97.5
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
98.2
98.5
98.6
98.9
101.1
101.4
101. 5
101.9
103.3
103.8
103.8
104.0
104.4
104.4
104.8
104.7
104.7
104.7
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.4
105.8
106.1
106.2

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
74.3
73.4
73.1
90.0
102.2
100.7
113.1
122.9
144. 5
129.5
123.7
123. 4
122.9
115.4
119.4
125.1
124.7
120.3
120.5
122.0
121.6
118.7
118.3
120.5
118.2
121.1
120.3
125.2
117.7
118.8
116.6
118.6
115.8
116.0
114.6
116.1
112.0
104.7
103.7
102.3
101. 5
106.5
100.2
100.8
99.7
97.5
99.5
99.7
69.9
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.4
100.4
101.1
102.3
101.7
100.7
100.6
100.5
100.7
100.6
97.6
98.2
97.7
97.6
96.7
97.5
97.5
97.2
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9

51.4
52.3
58.0
77.4
117.4
121. 5
144.9
157.8
157. 5
141.7
128.5
120.1
116.1
113.1
113.9
115.0
120.0
121.2
120.7
119.9
119.3
118. 5
117.8
117.5
117.2
117.6
116.4
115.0
113.9
114.0
113.4
112.4
111.9
111.6
109.8
107.9
102.0
97.1
92.0
86.2
86. 3
92.9
94.6
95.7
96.7
96.5
97.4
97.9
97.7
98.6
98.3
98.9
102.2
103.4
104.2
104.5
101.6
100.7
99.6
99.9
100.0
100.3
101.7
102.9
104.6
104.8
105.2
105.4
105.4
105.0
104.6
103.9
103.3
103.9
104.1
105.4

Miscel­
laneous
59.3
59.2
68.0
84.6
99.3
101.6
108.0
109.1
113.7
114.5
111.6
111.2
109.6
107.5
107.4
106.5
106.1
105.3
105.2
104.9
105.6
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
106.3
106.5
106.2
107.2
107.3
108.0
111.0
109.1
109.5
109.6
109.1
109.1
108.2
1019
104.0
101.4
101.4
101.8
100.6
100.0
100.5
100.5
100.9
98.6
98.9
99.0
99.0
100.2
100.6
101.0
101.5
100.9
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.7
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.8
101.1
101.2
101.5
101.4
101.1
101.2
101.6
101.9
102.4

68

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

SOUTH A T L A N T IC —W ASH IN G TO N , D . C.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December______________
December______________
December______________
December______________
December______________
April__________________
November___________ -1920: June___________________
December______________
1921: May___________________
September............. .........
December________ . . 1922: March_________________
June______ ___________
September____ _______
December.. ___________
1923: March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December. .......................
1924: March____ ____________
June_________________ _
September_____________
December______________
1925: June___________________
December.................... .
1926: June________ ____ ______
December......................
1927: June_ ____ ___________
_
December.................... .
1928: June.______ ___________
December_____________ _
1929: June.................................
December___ __________
1930: June........................ .........
December______________
1931: June----- ----------------------December______________
1932: June..................................
December______________
1933: June.................................
December______________
1934: June...------------- ---------November 15___________
1935: March 15________ ______
July 15_________________
October 15_______ ____ _
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________________
July 15_________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1937: March 15______ ____ _
June 15________________
September 15............ ......
December 15____________
1938: March 15....... ...............
June 15..... ................ ........
September 15................. .
December 15___________
1939: March 15______ ______ _
June 15________ ____ ___
September 15___________
December 15.............. ......
1940: March 15.._____________
June 15....... ................ ......
September 15.................
December 15.....................
1941: January 15...... ........... ......
February 15......................
March 15....................... .
April 15.............................
May 15__.........................
June 15________ ________
1Monthly data not available.




All items

72.6
73.2
81.5
102.9
119.5
117.8
127.5
141.9
130.0
118.2
119.0
116.2
112.8
113.7
112.3
113.5
112.9
116.0
116.8
115.8
114.4
114.3
114.4
115.9
117.4
120.0
119.3
118.6
116.3
115.2
114.8
114.1
114.6
114.5
112.9
110.2
105.0
102.4
97.3
94.1
92.7
96.4
97.6
98.3
98.6
98.7
99.4
99.9
98.6
99.8
100.5
100.4
101.9
102.4
103. 3
102.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.7
98.9
98.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
100.1
100.0
99.7
0)
0)

100.9

0)
0)

103.2

Food

82.2
82.7
95.1
132.5
157.0
151.9
157.8
185.8
149.2
126.0
137.6
128.1
121.4
125. 3
120.5
124.0
120.5
129.0
130.9
126.9
122.1
123.1
124.9
127.3
132.8
140.4
140.5
139.1
134.5
132.9
132.3
131.5
133.8
134.0
129.8
121.1
106.1
100.0
88.6
83.5
85.4
92.3
96.1
99.1
101.7
102.0
102.9
103.1
98.1
102.7
105.2
101.7
104.8
106.8
107.3
101.3
95.6
96.6
96.9
96.2
94.5
93.6
99.5
93.8
96.1
98.3
96.9
96.6
97.7
98.8
99.3
100.7
102.8
104.8

Clothing

Rent

68.7
71.2
84.6
110.0
146.0
143.9
182. 7
195.1
172.5
148.3
130.4
128.5
123.5
121.9
120.6
120.1
122.1
122.9
123.9
124.5
124.6
122.9
120.9
120.8
120.5
119.2
119.0
117.4
116.2
114.7
114.7
113.5
112.9
111.5
110.3
106.7
102.8
96.0
87.9
82.9
80.8
93.2
95.6
94.9
93.3
93.9
95.6
97.4
97.5
97.4
97.5
98.9
100.5
102.4
104.7
105.3
103.7
103.3
102.4
101.9
101.8
101.7
102.0
102.8
103.0
102.9
103.4
103.3

85.9
84.6
82.7
82.9
84.6
84.6
90.5
99.2
107.1
110.6
110.8
111.9
112.7
112.8
113.4
113.8
114.2
115.0
115.0
115.3
115.7
116.5
117.1
117.4
118.2
120.4
119.0
118.0
117.1
114.9
113.9
112.5
112.0
111.6
111.3
110.5
110.1
109.8
109.1
105.2
100.6
98.1
97.6
97.7
98.2
98.3
98.5
99.0
99.2
99.5
99.9
100.5
100.7
100.9
101.2
101.2
101.3
101.0
100.8
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.2

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

103.5

104.8

100.3

100.3

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
81.7
81.7
87.6
102.0
115.1
115.8
116.6
125.5
137.2
128.3
128.7
122.4
120.1
118.0
121.7
126.7
125.1
123.5
122.0
120.1
119.6
116.7
117.0
118.4
114.2
121.5
115.7
119.0
113.8
114.6
113.4
115.2
112.7
114.1
111.2
111.6
108.2
110.2
103.5
105.5
100.8
104.8
101.9
104.6
104.1
99.4
102.4
102.3
102.1
99.5
100.6
101.0
100.7
97.1
99.1
101.0
100.1
97.3
99.0
99.9
99.5
97.0
96.7
98.5
99.2
96.8
98.3
99.3
99.3
99.2
98.9
98.9
99.3
99.0

52.4
55.7
68.4
90.2
119.2
118.5
135.9
155.4
154.1
130.5
121.7
116.6
110.3
109.1
109.7
111.4
117.1
120.0
120.8
119.9
120.3
117.7
116.5
118.0
115.2
112.7
111.4
108.8
107.2
106.5
106.0
104.5
104.8
104.9
105.1
101.2
97.8
94.3
84.5
82.4
81.5
90.6
91.5
92.0
92.0
92.2
93.9
95.5
95.6
96.0
97.2
98.3
101.7
103.0
105.3
106.1
104.5
104.4
103.8
104.1
101.7
101.9
103.0
106.3
102.9
104.5
105.3
105.4

Miscel­
laneous

57.9
58.1
66.7
83.5
90.2
91.1
94.2
97.4
100.6
99.5
98.7
101.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.5
99.7
99.8
100.2
101.2
101.4
101.3
100.0
102.2
102.2
101.5
101.3
101.3
100.5
100.6
100.5
100.6
100.7
100.9
100.6
102.3
101.7
101.5
101.1
100.0
98.4
99.6
99.8
99.3
98.2
98.4
98.6
98.8
98.8
98.6
98.3
100.1
100.8
100.3
101.0
102.1
101.4
101.2
101.3
100.9
100.5
100.4
100.9
100.2
101.0
100.6
101.2
100.1

0)
0)

0)
(*)

0)
0)

0)
0)

107.5

111.5

100.9
102.6

69

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f SJ+ large cities —

Continued

EAST SOUTH CEN TRAL—BIRM IN GH AM , ALA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December.................... .
1918: December________ ____ _
1919: June___________________
December......... ...... .........
1920: June___________________
December______________
1921: M ay________________ . . .
September______ ______ _
December________ ____ 1922: March________ _________
June...... ..................... ......
September_____________
December. ___________
1923: March_________________
June_______________ ___
September_____________
December______________
1924: March____ ____________
June_________ ______ ___
September........................
December______________
1925: June___________________
December______________
1926: June___________ _______
December______________
1927: June___________________
December______________
1928: June___________________
December._____________
1929: June___________________
December............ .............
1930: June........ ................ .........
Decem ber...___________
1931: June........... .............. ........
December______________
1932: June...... ................ .
...
December______________
1933: June____ ____ _______ .
December.................... .
1934: June___________ ______
November 15 .......... ........
1935: March 15______________
July 15_______ . . . ___
October 15____ . . . .. .
1936: January 15_____________
April 15________ _____
July 15_________ _____
September 15___________
December 15____ _______
1937: March 15_______________
June 15_______________ _
September 15__________
December 15___________
1938: March 15______________
June 15_________ _____
September 15___________
December 15____ _______
1939: March 15______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15_____ ______
1940: March 15_______________
June 15_______ _________
September 15___________
October 15. ._ . . . ____
November 15___________
December 1 5 __________
1941: January 15_____________
February 15____________
March 15............... ...........
April 15______ _________
May 15_______ _________
June 15______ ____ _ . . .




All items

113.7
132.9
137.2
154.1
169.2
152.8
140.6
139.6
134.0
128.9
129.0
128.7
129. 7
130.1
132.2
132.8
133.3
131.9
130.3
132.2
133.6
136.0
139.0
137.5
136.4
134.4
133.4
131.0
130.0
129.1
128.1
125.5
118.6
106.7
101.6
93.4
90.1
88.3
91.7
92.7
96.0
96.0
97.0
98.3
98.0
96.1
99.0
100.2
100.9
103.2
104.0
104.9
104.1
101.5
100.7
101.2
100.4
99.1
98.2
100.3
99.5
99.3
99.1
100.3
100.6
100.5
101.9
101.3
101.3
101.6
102.4
103.0
105.5

Food

145.0
170.7
175.4
188.7
224.8
165.8
136.6
146.2
137.0
132.3
135.2
129.5
132.6
130.9
139.4
140.8
138.6
134.3
131.3
137.4
142.1
152.6
161.5
158.8
154.5
152.1
147.2
142.5
141.4
143.4
143.9
140.2
127.8
100.4
95.6
83.7
82.8
86.3
88.4
89.7
96.5
99.0
102.5
104.3
101.3
96.3
105.2
107.8
106.3
109.1
109.8
109.3
102.1
95.3
94.5
96.0
94.7
90.9
89.4
95.4
93.0
92.0
92.0
94.1
94.1
93.8
96.8
95.5
95.6
95.3
97.0
97.7
103.0

Clothing

113.4
140.5
147.2
178.7
188.7
164.5
141.5
121.0
112.9
107.5
106.5
112.0
111.5
115.1
115.4
117.6
117.7
117.9
117.0
116.4
115.2
115.1
113.0
112.4
111.2
109.9
108.7
108.5
108.6
108.5
107.7
106.7
103.1
98.5
90.6
84.5
81.4
81.0
93.3
94.7
95.6
95.3
95.4
95.3
96.4
96.7
96.3
96.8
97.2
101.3
103.9
106.6
105.7
104.1
103.6
102.7
101.3
100.8
100.7
100.5
101.7
102.7
102.5
102.3
102.5
102.5
102.5
101.3
100.7
102.9
103.5
103.9
105.5

Rent

111.7
120.7
125.9
150.6
156.6
188.1
198.1
197.1
190.7
187.0
186.5
185.3
181.2
181.5
182.1
183.8
187.5
188.0
188.2
188.2
188.2
187.9
187.6
185.9
185.1
183.7
180.5
178.0
172.8
168.4
157.2
151.7
137.9
128.5
113.3
103.2
86.3
79.9
77.3
77.2
81.1
82.0
82.2
85.8
87.0
88.0
89.2
90. 2
95.8
98.7
101.6
103.6
112. 7
113.3
112.8
112.2
111.9
111.6
111.4
111.3
111.5
112.3
113.8
114.8
114.8
114.8
117.3
117.3
117.7
117.9
118.6
118.9
119.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
89.1
109.5
117.6
124.6
138.4
155.3
137.5
136.5
128.5
115.7
111.4
124.8
133.6
133.5
125.4
130.1
133.9
132.0
125.2
127.5
129.9
119.3
126.0
125.7
134.9
124.4
130.1
122.2
127.8
120.8
123.7
118.7
123.5
111.7
111.3
97.2
97.3
91.2
103.3
103.9
106.1
103.9
100.8
102.8
102.9
99.8
100.8
101.1
101.5
102.6
99.9
100.8
102.1
101.4
96.7
99.8
100.1
100.1
92.8
93.1
91.9
94.1
89.8
91.0
93.5
93.5
93.8
94.0
94.0
93.9
93.9
94.1
95.5

111.6
133.2
134.1
161.9
173.6
165.2
147.2
128.3
124.9
114.9
115.2
117.6
121.5
128.2
131.4
132.3
133.5
131.3
127.5
127.5
128.2
128.8
128.8
126.6
125.4
124.0
127.3
127.1
125.3
123.4
123.3
121.9
114.6
105.5
99.3
85.5
84.3
82.1
93.8
95.7
97.2
95.9
95.5
95.8
97.0
96.9
96.5
97.4
98.2
103.9
104.7
105.7
104.2
102.6
101.7
100.9
100.6
100.4
100.4
101.8
101.7
98.5
97.9
98.4
98.7
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.8
100.5
101.2
101.8
103.4

Miscel­
laneous
84.4
96.0
98.2
107.0
108.6
110.1
112.9
114.7
114.4
111.2
110.1
109.4
109.4
109.1
108.5
106.1
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.9
107.1
107.1
106.7
108.5
108.2
107.4
106.4
107.4
106.7
105.6
104.8
104.7
102.6
102.1
97.6
98.7
99.8
100.6
98.4
98.6
98.9
99.5
98.7
98.4
98.9
99.4
100.1
99.9
101.1
101.8
101.0
100.9
101.2
100.4
100.6
100.7
101.1
100.8
100.6
100.1
101.1
101.4
101.2
101.4
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.2
103.8

70

CHANGE'S IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities —

Continued

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL—M EMPHIS, TENN.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______________
1918: December______________
1919: June___________________
December______
1920: June______ ___ ______
December______ _____
1921: M ay__________________
September______ _______
December______________
1922: March_________________
June_________ ____.. .
September_____ ________
December______ __ .. .
1923: M arch.. . . . __________
June_____ _
_________
September_____________
December____________ _
1924: March____ _______ _____
June___________________
September_____ . . . ____
December______ _ . . . .
1925: June___________________
December______________
1926: June____ _________
December______________
1927: June________ _________
December________
1928: Ju ne...................... ... . . .
December._ ___________
1929: June____ ______________
December____ . _____
1930: June__________________
December____ ________
1931: June___________________
December__________ . .
1932: June___________ . . . ._
December. _____ _____ .
1933: June___________________
December________ _____
1934: June___________________
November 15. ______
1935: March 15______________
July 15_______ _____ ___
October 15_____________
1936: Januaryl5______________
April 15________________
July 15____ ___________
September 15______ ._ .
December 15____ _____ _
1937: March 15______________
June 1 5 . . . _____________
September 15___________
December 15______ _____
1938: March 15_______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15______ . . .
1939: March 15_________ ____
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1940: March 15______ ______ _
June 15. . _____________
September 15_____ _____
December 15___________
1941: January 15_____________
February 15____________
March 15. _ ____________
April 15___________ _ _
May 15_______________
June 15 ____________ _ _
i Monthly data not available.




All items

101.8
120.2
125.4
140.2
155.3
144.5
131.7
131.9
129.0
124.6
124.8
124.1
123.7
124.7
125.7
126.5
126.4
124.8
123.6
124.4
124.9
126.3
129.1
126.9
125.8
125.8
122.0
121.3
121.9
122.0
121.5
120.5
114.0
105. 7
101.7
95.0
90.7
90.1
93.7
94.8
97.4
98.5
97.7
97.6
98.7
98.4
99.7
100.7
101.0
102.7
102.9
103.5
102.5
100.4
100.1
100.4
99. 5
98.5
98.1
100.4
98.9
98.5
98.4
98.8
99.9
0)
0)
100.2
0)
0)
103.5

Food

137.2
165.1
169.1
186.9
214.7
155.3
125.5
139.0
131.7
124.0
129.7
125.0
124.5
124.0
128.6
132.3
130.8
126.2
122.6
126.8
130.4
138.2
149.4
146.5
140.7
144.8
133.9
134.8
136. 7
138.4
139.2
135.1
117.8
99.8
95.9
85.2
81.6
84.8
90.4
93.0
98.9
103.3
100.8
100.2
101.0
98.9
103.9
106.7
104.4
107.3
106. 3
105.6
101.1
96.5
95.7
95.7
95.1
92.2
90.6
97.6
92.8
92.3
92.8
93.0
95.6
94.2
94.8
95.7
98.2
99.8
103.3

Clothing

106.9
136.5
147.9
177.7
189.8
170.0
145.5
128.5
123.3
116.9
114.7
114.4
114.1
117.1
117.4
118.6
118.7
117.6
117.1
115.5
113.8
113.2
111.9
111.2
111.1
109.0
108.6
108.5
107.1
106.8
106.8
106.3
104.4
101.8
95.8
91.4
86.6
86.0
95.2
96.3
96.4
96.6
96.2
96.2
96.9
97.5
97.3
97.2
99.1
100.7
102.3
104.9
104.7
102.4
102.3
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.1
101.2
101.9
102.2
102.1
101.4
102.4
0)
0)
102.7
0)
0)
103.5

Rent

102.7
102.7
111.1
126.4
139.5
170.6
184.5
182.4
182.0
180.2
179.4
178.5
177.1
176.9
176.9
176.6
177.1
176.8
177.0
175.0
173.1
170.8
164.7
161.2
158.0
154.2
151.2
150.2
147.5
146.4
144.3
143.3
139.4
133.2
121.5
114.3
101.9
95.0
90.1
89.6
92.2
92.5
92.6
94.6
95.3
95.9
96.5
97.3
99.2
99.8
101.0
102.3
104.3
104.1
104.0
104.1
104.3
104.3
104.3
104.5
104.7
104.9
105.3
106.2
107.0
0)
0)
107.9
0)
0)
109.7

Fuel, elec­ House
tricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
70.5
89.3
86.9
94.5
105.5
144.7
115.9
117.0
117.7
114.0
110.1
120.1
118. 7
120.1
114.7
114.2
116.3
117.1
117.1
117.1
117.1
109.7
120.8
115.1
126.9
126.4
124.0
112.7
118.9
115.3
109.4
112.0
111.2
104. 5
104.5
102.8
92.8
92. 7
101.0
98.8
100.3
100.5
100.7
96.7
102.1
102.3
99.2
99.3
101.9
102.5
102.4
102.3
102.4
102.5
102.0
102.4
95.7
95.7
95.8
95.8
95.6
94.0
94.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.7
94.7
94.7
94.7

91.8
115.1
120.0
140.6
153.4
141.3
119.2
109.4
105.3
100.0
98.0
98.9
103.0
110.4
113.1
112.1
113.3
112.3
108.9
108.7
110.2
110.2
110.2
108.5
107.5
106.5
106.5
106.5
105.4
104.4
104. 5
104.0
101.6
97.5
91.0
85.8
78.3
79.3
88.4
91.4
93.2
91.9
91.5
92.7
95.1
94.7
94.3
94.3
96.1
101.7
103.3
107.1
107.2
105.0
104.8
104.8
104.4
103.6
103.6
103.9
104.8
102.4
101.4
101.5
101.6
0)
0)
101.6
0)
0)
105.3

Miscel­
laneous
74.6
86.6
90.2
95.7
103.5
106.8
106.6
106.1
106.2
104.4
102.8
102.8
102.5
103.1
103.0
102.4
102.4
101.9
101.7
102.6
102.5
103.3
102.8
102.0
102.7
101.9
101.9
102.1
102.7
103.3
103.4
104.1
103.5
101. 1
100.9
96.2
98.0
96.2
97.7
98.6
98.9
98.0
98.3
98.1
98.6
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.7
100.5
100.7
100.9
101.2
100.4
100.4
101.4
101.0
100.8
101.0
101.4
100.9
100.6
100.0
100.6
101.2
0)
0)
101.2
(0
0)
102.6

71

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities —

Continued

EAST SOUTH CE N T R A L —M OBILE, ALA.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

Dftfiftmhfir
December______________
December______________
December______________
December______________
June__________________
December. _______ ____
1920: June___
______ _
December____________
1921: M ay____
_________ .
September_____ ______
December______ _______
1922: March___________ ____ _
J u n e . _____________
September____ _________
December_________ _ __
1923: March_________________
J u n e .__ _ _____ ___
September_____________
December______ _____
1924: March_______ _________
June_____________ _____
September_____________
December______________
1925: June______ ____________
December______________
1926: June___________________
December______________
1927: June. _________________
December_________ ____
1928: June________ ____ ____ _
December____________ _
1929: June___________________
December___________ __
1930: June__ _________ _______
December___________
1931: June_____________ _____
December________ _____
1932: June________ _______ ___
December____________ _
1933: June______ ____________
December____________
1934: June_____ ______ _
__
November 15... _______
1935: March 15_______________
July 15____________ ____
October 15___ ________
1936: January 15_____________
April 15___ ____________
July 15____________ ____
September 15___________
December 15_________ _
1937: March 15_______________
June 15_____ _________
September 15 . _ _______
December 15___________
1938: March 15_______________
June 15
_ ___________
September 15___________
December 15___________
1939: March 15_______ _______
June 15 ________ _____
September 15________
December 15___________
1940: March 15________ ______
June 15. _______________
September 15_______ ___
December 15__________
1941: January 15_____________
February 15____________
March 15_______________
April 15______________ _
May 15__ _______ _ _
June 15 __________ ...
i Monthly data not available.

409778°—41----- 6




All items

75.3
75.1
84.4
104.9
127.1
130.4
144.4
156. 3
145.0
130.1
128.5
124.8
119. 7
119.8
119.5
120. 6
120. 2
121.2
122.7
122.7
120. 9
119.6
122.0
123.4
124. 6
128. 7
127. 5
127.8
127. 3
125. 7
124. 4
124.9
123. 8
124.7
122. 4
116.8
108. 2
103.9
95.9
93. 0
90.1
95. 0
94.8
97. 3
98.6
98.4
98.9
98.7
97. 5
99. 6
99. 5
99.0
102.5
103.3
103. 3
102.0
100.8
100. 6
100.3
99. 6
99.4
98. 8
101.0
99. 7
99.1
99.2
98.8
100.2
0)
0)
101.7
0)
0)
105.1

Food

89.5
88.6
107.3
140.8
161.7
165.5
180.5
201.3
157.9
130.4
138.1
133.2
125.9
128.1
126.4
128.4
126. 6
129.9
133.5
131.8
127. 3
122.3
131. 0
135.8
140.8
150.9
146.6
147. 5
147. 4
140. 7
135.8
136.4
135.1
137.7
132. 3
123.0
103.9
98.1
83. 2
81. 3
79.9
87. 0
88.6
94.9
99.9
99.0
100.9
100. 5
96. 7
103.7
103.1
101.6
107.1
106. 9
106. 3
100. 2
98. 6
97.6
97.1
96.4
95. 7
95.6
100.2
95.8
96. 2
97.3
96.5
97.3
97.4
98.2
99.8
102.9
104.2
106.6

Clothing

75.2
76.7
81.9
104.3
139,8
145.8
168.2
178.4
167.0
143.3
126.4
118.5
113.0
112.5
113. 5
113.4
113. 7
114.1
116.8
116.8
116. 7
116. 0
115.3
115.3
114.3
112.3
112.4
111.8
110. 9
110.9
110.9
111. 3
110. 6
110.6
110. 3
105. 2
100.8
94.9
89.4
88.4
87. 8
98. 7
99.7
99. 8
99. 5
99. 4
99. 4
97.0
97. 2
97. 5
97. 7
97. 8
99. 6
102.9
103.7
103. 2
102.7
102.4
100.3
99.7
99. 7
99. 7
99.6
100. 5
100.7
100.6
100.6
100.6
0)
0)
100.7
0)
0)
102.4

Rent

107.9
105.8
103.2
104.0
120.0
120.7
139.8
145.2
165.7
165.4
165.2
161.7
160.1
159.3
158.9
155.1
154.4
153.7
153.7
153.8
153.5
152.5
152.1
152.0
151.1
151.5
150.7
151.6
151.5
153.1
152.1
152.8
152.1
151.7
149.8
147. 0
142.9
134.4
125.5
111.8
101.8
98. 6
96.8
97.0
96. 2
95.9
96.1
96.9
96.8
96.7
96.7
98.3
98.6
98.7
99.1
102.8
102.9
103.2
103.2
103.9
104.0
103.9
103.9
105.3
105.6
105.7
106.0
110.9
0)
0)
111.8
0)
0)
112.8

Fuel, elec­ House
tricity, furnish­
and ice
ings
74.8
74.8
81.4
95.0
117.5
124.6
131.3
139.3
166.2
151.1
147.5
148.2
139.2
137.9
142.7
146.9
146.3
144.5
142.8
148.1
148.1
143.1
142.8
142.2
138.8
141.4
145.5
147.8
142.4
143.7
142.1
143.7
137.6
138.9
135. 5
118.6
111.9
111.9
106.3
100.7
94.1
104. 2
98.4
103.6
103.1
101.8
101.5
102.8
100.3
97.7
98.8
99.6
101.1
99.9
100.3
100.7
100.5
98.8
99.6
99.5
99.1
96.4
97.5
97.4
96.4
94.5
94.7
96.4
96.4
96.4
97.0
97.0
97.0
96.3

54.0
56.2
62.2
77.1
112.4
115.4
136.7
150.0
148.6
129.9
121.1
117.1
107.0
106.7
104.2
106.8
112.6
115.5
115.6
115.9
115.7
112.9
111.8
111.8
110.3
109.9
108.4
106.0
106.4
106.4
104.3
103.8
101.4
101.1
100.2
93.6
85.0
81.3
77.4
77.6
77.8
89.0
89.4
91. 5
91.3
91.5
92.6
95.3
95.6
96.5
96.8
97.9
104.4
106.1
108.2
106.1
103.6
103.5
102.5
102.3
102.3
102.1
103.2
104.3
101.9
102.0
101.0
102.1
0)
0)
102.7
0)
0)
105.5

Miscel­
laneous
50.8
50.6
57.8
72.8
87.6
89.1
95.0
101.8
102.0
100.0
99.6
98.7
96. 395.3
95.2
97.0
96.7
96.4
96.4
97.2
95.9
98.4
98.7
98.7
99.3
102.6
102.7
102.7
102.8
103.6
105. 3
105.8
105. 7
105.8
105.7
105.4
104.4
102.8
100.6
100.4
98.4
99.9
99.0
98.6
98.3
99.0
98.3
97.9
98.5
98.1
98.2
96.9
100.2
101.6
101.4
102.8
101.0
101.9
102.2
100.9
101.1
99.7
101.6
101.0
99.0
98.6
98.0
99.3
0)
0)
100.9
0)
Q)

103.0

72
T

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

able

3 . — In d e x es

0 the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa la ried w orkers in
}
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued

WEST SOUTH C E N TRAL—HOUSTON, T E X .
[193&-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1923:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December-____ _________
December______________
December._____________
December. ........................
December______________
June_______ ____ _______
December. ____________
June___________________
December______________
M ay________________ __
September., r_____ _____
December______ _______
March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December______________
March_________________
June___________________
September_____________
December . ___________
March_________________
June________ _____ _____
September_____________
December______________
June___________________
December________ . ___
June........................ .........
December__________ ___
June..................................
December. ______ _______
June___________________
December______________
June_________ __________
December. ........................
June___________________
December__________ . . .
June___________________
December___________ _
June_________ ______ _
December_________ ____
June____ ______________
December______________
June..................................
November 15___________
March 15..........................
July 15......... ........... .........
October 15_____________
January 15____ _________
April 15_____ ____ ______
July 15.._ .......... .............
September 15 ...................
December 15 .................
March 15...........................
June 15............................
September 15..... ..............
December 1 5 ...................
March 15....... ...................
June 15________ ____ ___
September 15....................
December 15.....................
March 15_________ _____
June 15______ ________
September 15___________
December 15___________
March 15_______________
June 15___ ___________
September 15___________
October 15_____________
November 15.____ ______
December 15___________
January 15_____ ________
February 15....... ........... .
March 15...........................
April 15...................... ......
May 15..............................
June 15________________




All items

72.8
72.6
83.0

11
0 .0
11
2 .6

125.2
141.6
151.0
144.5
129.3
126.7
125.4
121.7
120.9
120.5

12
2 .0
120.5
121.4

12
2 .2
123.3
121.5
119.4

10
2 .8

122.3
123.4
125.4

12
2 .2
12
2 .8

120.3
120.7
118.4
119.4
119.2
120.7
117.6

12
1 .2
105.8
12
0 .8
94.2
89.3
88.5
92.4
93.1
96.1
97.6
96.5
97.0
97.8
96.7
98.5
99.5
99.6

11
0 .6

101.5
103.5
103.0
101.7
112
0.
101.5
101.4

10
0 .0
10
0 .1
11
0 .6
101.3
10
0 .8
100.7
11
0 .1
101.7
11
0 .8
12
0 .2

101.9
101.9
102.3
103.2
103.5
104.0

Food

83.0
82.2
99.5
130.6
154.5
155.0
171.1
186.4
157.9
127.1
131.0
130.0
123.3
122.7
122.4
126.4
120.9
124.0
125.6
126.8
122.9
119.0
125.4
131.3
136.0
143.3
134.5
137.1
131.2
129.9
125.1
128.4
128.7
133.4
125.2
113.8
95.8
93.6
78.0
75.8
77.4

86.0

88.3
96.5
100.9
97.4
98.9
99.6
95.6

11
0 .0

103.7
102.7
105.1
103.3
105. 4
101.4
98.9
97.7
98.6
99.0
95.3
95.7
100.9
98.8
97.7
97.9
99.7

11
0 .0
101.3
12
0 .1
12
0 .6
12
0 .1
12
0 .1

104.2
105.0
106.4

Clothing

67.2
69.0
84.0

11
0 .8

146.0
157.7
196.1
209.1
192.8
163.5
142.1
137.6
133.5
133.3
132.9
133.1
134.6
134.6
136.1
136.1
135.7
134.9
131.8
131.4
131.4
129.3
128.4
126.9
125.5
125.1
124.8
125.2
124.1
123.7

12
2 .8
11
1 .2
10
1 .0
102.4
95.4
87.6

86.6
96.3
97.9
97.9
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.3
97.5
96.4
96.4
98.3
99.9

11
0 .2

105.0
105.9
103.2
101.9

11
0 .0
10
0 .6

100.4
100.5
100.7

12
0 .1

102.9
103.2
103.1

12
0 .8

102.7
103.0
98.2

10
0 .0

103.4
103.5
103.6
103.9

Rent

105.2

12
0 .8

97.5
97.1
103.4
107.2
119.3
131.8
142.1
146.7
146.7
147.1
146.8
145.7
145.3
144.5
144.1
143.8
143.8
143.5
142.8
141.9
141.8
141.7
141.3
139.9
139.8
139.5
139.1
138.7
137. 2
136.9
134.1
133.7
132.2
130.2
126.2
118.1
105.0
93.5
87.3

86.2

85.8
89.1
90.5
90.7
92.4
94.0
94.7
95.6
96.8
98.3
99.5

10
0 .6
12
0 .6

103.9
105.0
105.4
105.7
105.7
106.2
106.8
106.7
106.6
106.7
106.7
106.8
106.7
106.7
106.9
107.6
107.6
107.1
107.1
107.1
106.9

Fuel, elec­ House
tricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
96.8
96.0
104.9
118.8
142.8
133.2
154.9
150.2
168.7
141.4
134.6
135.0
130.1
128.7
131.4
134.8
129.4
132.2
135.7
150.9
151.4
140.4
140.4
139.7
134.3
140.6
133.8
139.1
128.6
130.0
125.1
129.4
125.0
127.6
121.3

10
2 .1
115.1
113.1
108.3

12
0 .6
10
0 .6
103.1
100.9
102.4
103.0

12
0 .8
102.9
103.4
102.9
100.4
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.6
99.4
99.6
99.7
95.2
95.3
95.4
95.7
93.1
93.1
93.1
93.1
93.1
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.1
93.1
93.1

45.8
48.6
59.4
74.4

10
0 .8
12
1 .0

129.1
143.9
141.2
125.4
117.6
113.7
108.8
107.1
106.2

10
1 .2

113.1
114.7
114.2
113.7
113.7
111.7
110.9
111.4

11
1 .1

111.4
109.3
109.0
108.5
107.3
106.3
105.9
104.9
105.2
104.1
98.0
96.2
91.2
85.7
80.2
80.3

8 .1
8

89.5
90.1
90.2
90.0
90.3
91.3
92.3
93.6
94.6
94.7

12
0 .2

104.4
107.8
109.4
106.1
105.9
106.3
105.7
105.2
105.0
105.0
107.1
104.9
104.6
104.5
104.5
105.1
104.6
104.8
105.0
105.8
106.8
107.6
109.1

Miscel­
laneous
54.3
54.1
63.2
78.7
91.0
93.6

12
0 .2

103.4
110.7
109.0
108.6
108.1
106.4
105.3
104.8
104.8
104.7
104.0
104.2
104.9
103.2
102.9
102.7

12
0 .1
12
0 .0
12
0 .1
11
0 .8

101.4
101.3
104.2
m o

12
0 .8

104.3
104.5
104.5
104.4
104.3
104.8
102.4
99.5
99.1
98.9
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.4
97.9
98.6
98.3
99.0
99.1
99.0
100.3

10
0 .2
11
0 .6
11
0 .6
101.5
11
0 .6
11
0 .2
10
0 .0
10
0 .6
10
0 .6
100.4
10
0 .0

102.3

99.9
99.7

10
0 .2
100.3
10
0 .8
10
0 .6
100.4
10
0 .6

101.3
101.3
101.3

73

SUMMARY TABLES
T

able

3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f living o f wage earners a n d low er-sa la ried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
W EST SOUTH C E N T R A L —N E W ORLEANS, LA.
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December_______________
1918: December_______________
1919: June....... __.........___........
December_______________
1920: June____________________
December____ ____ _____
1921: M ay________ ___________
September_______________
December___ ___________
1922: March................ ............. .
June____________________
September______________
December_______________
1923: March__________________
June____________________
September______________
December_______________
1924: March................ .................
June____________________
September______________
December_____________ .
1925: June......................... ...........
, December_______________
1926: June____________________
December_______________
1927: June..................... ..............
December____________
1928: June___________ *._______
December_______________
1929: June_____________ _____
December____ ____ _____
1930: June_____________ _____ _
December_______________
1931: June_________ ____ _____
*
December_____________ _
1932: June______________ _____
December_______________
1933: June____________________
December_______________
1934: June_______ ___________
November 15- __________
1935: March 15...........................
July 15____ _____________
October 15_______________
1936: January 15........ ........... .
April 15_________________
July 15__________________
September 1 5 ____ ______
December 15____________
1937: March 15_______ ______ __
June 15__________________
September 15____________
December 15________ ___
1938: March 15......................... .
June 15....... .......... .......... .
September 15____________
December 15____________
1939: March 15________ _______
June 15-.- ______________
September 15____________
December 15___________
1940: March 15.............................
June 15_____________ ____
September 15______ ____ _
December 15____________
1941: January 15______________
February 15_____________
Mareh 15
_ . . .
April 15............................ .
May 15__________________
June 15__________________
i Monthly data not available.




All items

99.3
116.7
118.5
132.4
141.7
135.8
125.2
124.8
123.9
122.2
120.7
119.5
119.4
118.7
119.3
120.8
121.3
120.5
118.4
119.6
121.5
121.4
123.5
120.8
122.1
122.5
120.7
119.4
120.4
118.7
119.6
116.7
111.7
101.7
101.2
94.5
92.4
89.6
94.5
94.3
96.7
99.4
98.4
98.9
99.3
97.3
99.7
100.4
100.5
102.4
101.5
103.0
101.6
100.4
99.1
100.3
99.9
99.4
98. 7
102.0
100.4
100.9
101.1
102.2
101.4
0)

0)
102.4
0)
0)
105.6

Food

124.1
144.7
143.4
151.4
164.6
138.9
117.8
121.0
117.1
117.1
114.5
113.2
114.5
113.7
114.4
117.8
118.2
116.9
112.1
117.1
121.1
122.1
128.3
121.0
124.0
126.2
121.4
120.2
124.0
122.6
125.2
119.0
110.9
92.0
92.0
80.6
79.7
77.1
85.9
85.7
92.6
101.5
99.3
101.1
101.4
96.7
102.6
104.2
102.2
105.4
102.3
104.8
100.9
97.9
95.4
98.9
97.6
97.0
95.1
102.4
98.5
99.8
100.8
101.9
100.5
101.9
102.0
102.9
105.9
105.2
108.6

Clothing

108.1
147.9
160.9
198.1
210.7
183.2
156.8
139.7
135.0
128.6
125.0
124.8
125.6
125.9
127.4
128.7
129.2
128.8
128.2
126.6
126.7
126.5
125.3
125.1
125.0
122.6
122.6
122.3
122.3
121.7
121.7
121.1
108.2
105.2
97.6
93.1
90.6
88.1
95.8
97.4
96.9
96.1
96.4
95.8
96.3
96.4
96. 6
96.6
99.6
101.9
103. 5
105.4
105.5
103.9
103.0
102.1
101.1
100.3
100.1
100.0
101.1
101.6
101.5
101.8
102.4
(l)
0)
103.2
0)
0) *
104.3

Rent

88.8
88.8
88.9
98.4
100.3
124.1
130.3
132.8
140.2
140.5
140.8
141.0
137.4
137.4
138.1
138.4
139.8
140. 2
139.5
139.8
139.6
139.4
139.3
139.4
138.7
138.6
138.7
138.5
137.5
136.4
134.4
132.5
129.0
127.0
123.2
120.3
112.7
107.6
103.3
101.3
100.0
98.9
98.9
98.7
98.7
98.6
98.7
98.8
99.1
99.1
99.2
99.5
100.0
100.4
100.6
100.9
101.7
101.8
102. 2
102.5
102.8
102.9
103.2
103.6
103.9
0)
0)
104.1
0)
0)
104.3

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
98.5
117.9
119.0
122.8
134.3
139.4
127.3
134.2
138.3
129.8
131.4
128.7
136.4
133.2
130.9
132.4
135.0
132.5
130.9
130.2
134.2
131.7
132.2
137.5
141.6
136.4
136.4
132.5
126.5
113.2
116.3
110.7
112.7
92.1
102.5
94.2
92.2
88.0
103.3
100.5
102.6
104.2
101.1
100.6
100.9
100.3
99.7
99.7
101.0
101.1
100.4
100.5
101.0
101.1
100.0
96.5
96.1
96.4
95. 6
100.6
101.8
101.8
99.8
99.3
97.4
97.5
97.5
96.4
96. 5
97.3
98.8

85.7
106.1
111.4
135.1
150.7
140.4
126.6
112.0
110.1
103.5
101.0
100.8
108.1
111.3
115.5
114.5
114.5
113.0
110.7
111.0
111.4
108.8
109.2
108.5
107.1
104. 3
104.3
101.0
101.0
99.3
99.1
98.4
94.4
90.7
85.2
78.2
76.4
76.1
86.7
88.3
89.4
90.8
90.7
91.2
91.6
92.0
92.5
92.4
97.0
100.9
106.9
109.6
110.3
108. 2
106.6
104.6
104.7
103.9
103.6
103.7
104.4
102.7
102.3
103.7
105.0
0)
0)
105.7
0)
(l)
110.2

Miscel­
laneous
72.4
83.9
85.1
97.8
103.4
113.7
114.5
116.5
116.0
115.2
114.8
112.6
110.0
108.7
108.7
108.8
108.8
108.1
107.6
106.7
107.6
107.4
107.1
106.2
106.7
107.6
107.5
105.8
106.3
105.6
105.5
106.0
106.0
103.6
105.1
103.2
102.5
100.8
100.7
101. 2
100. 6
98. 2
97.9
97.7
98.5
97.8
98.2
98.7
99.5
100.5
100.5
101.1
100.9
101.3
100.9
101.4
101.8
101.3
101.5
102.2
100.6
100. 5
100.3
102.5
101.4
0)
0)
101.4
0)
0)
103.5

7 4
T

able

CHANGES IN COST OP LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1
3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
M O U N T A IN —D E N V E R , C OLO.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1917: December______________
1918: December______________
1919: June___________________
December______________
1920: June__________________
December______________
1921: M ay_______ ____ _______
September_____________
December______________
1922: March_________________
June________________
September_____________
December______________
1923: March_________________
June___________________
September_________ ____
December______________
1924: March____ ____________
June_____ _____________
September_____________
December______________
1925: June___________________
December______________
1926: June______ _----------------*
December______________
1927: June--------- -----------------December______________
1928: June___________________
December______________
1929: June___________________
December............... .........
1930: June........ .........................
December............ ............
1931: June_______________
December______________
1932: June..
______ ______
December________ _____
1933: June_______________
December______________
1934: June----------------------November 15___________
1935: March 15 ____________
July 15____ _____ _______
October 15_____________
1936: January 15______ _______
April 15________________
July 15________________
September 15_____ _____
December 15___________
1937: March 15______________
June 15. _______ ______
September 15___________
December 15.............. ......
1938: March 15______________
June 15________________
September 15----------------December 15...................
1939: March 15_______________
June 15________ ________
September 15— ......... ......
December 15_______ ____
1940: March 15.......... ..............
June 15.................... .........
September 15....................
October 15____ _____ ___
November 15_.____ _____
December 15____ _______
1941: January 15........... .............
February 15..... ................
March 15..... ......... ..........
April 15...........................
May 15________________
June 15..............................




All items

97.6
117.4
123.2
136.8
151.9
138.0
128.2
127.0
124.9
120.4
121.1
119.0
120.6
120.1
121.5
122.1
122.3
119.2
119.2
118.8
120.8
123.8
124.0
122.7
121.3
122.0
116.6
136.1
116. 5
116.8
117.0
115.6
110.1
104.4
100.3
94.7
91.3
89.9
91.5
93. 5
94.9
97.2
96.8
97.2
97.9
97.1
99.6
100.5
99.9
102.8
103.5
105.1
103.3
101.0
101.0
100.2
99.9
99.2
99.2
99.7
99.7
98.7
99.7
98.9
99.1
99.0
100.2
99.8
99.5
99.9
101.1
101.6
102.9

Food

118.1
141.7
146.9
157.2
185.9
136.9
116.3
120.7
117.4
111.4
116.5
108.0
112.0
110.1
117.0
116.3
116.3
111.8
114.3
112.3
118.3
128.3
129.1
130.7
126.0
134.1
118.6
119.9
119.6
122.0
121.3
119.8
104.2
94.6
89.0
81.5
78.5
80.1
82.7
89.0
93.4
99.6
98.8
99.6
100.3
98.0
103.2
104.5
102.4
107.6
106.7
107.2
102.6
97.6
98.0
95.5
95.9
94.1
94.5
95.7
95.0
93.9
96.2
92.9
93.2
92.9
95.9
94.8
94.4
95.1
98.6
99.5
103.0

Clothing

112.1
157.0
171.7
204.1
220.6
199.8
172.5
149.9
143.1
132.6
129.2
129.9
130.7
131.0
131.0
131.7
132.1
131.4
130.1
129. 2
129.0
128.3
126.8
126.0
125.3
123.4
122.1
121.5
121.3
121.0
120.9
119.9
118.2
114.7
104.8
94.9
90.0
89.8
96.4
97.7
98.1
99.2
99.1
98.3
98.8
98.4
97.7
98.3
98.7
100.5
102.3
105.3
104.5
102.8
101.8
100.0
98.7
98.7
98.7
98.8
99.6
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.3
99.3
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.6

Rent

87.9
99.2
107.1
117.4
133.5
149.3
155.5
158.3
160.5
162.1
162.4
162.6
164.3
164.5
163.0
164.1
166.1
164.9
162.1
161.9
161.7
160.4
156.9
151.1
145.5
141.7
139.2
137.0
135.5
133.9
132.8
131.3
129.9
125.8
120.5
112.7
105.9
97.8
92.9
90.6
90.4
89.8
90.4
91.5
92.3
92.9
94.8
96.6
98.2
99.6
102.6
104.1
105.5
105.7
105.7
106.0
106.0
106.1
106.4
106.6
106.8
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.5
106.4
106.9
106.7
106.8
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.6

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
98.2
106.2
106.5
117.5
120.1
144.5
135.1
137.5
137.2
130.8
130.5
138.9
138.2
135.6
128.1
135.2
134.8
114.3
117.6
121.7
123.2
124.8
135.0
123.1
135.7
118.7
130.6
124.7
136. &
116.9
126.9
120.4
125.2
106.0
105.2
99.4
93.5
95.1
103.1
103.1
100.9
99.4
99.3
98.5
99.0
100.0
99.2
99.6
100.1
100.6
101.6
101.8
101.9
102.2
101.9
101.6
101.6
97.8
97.7
97.6
97.8
97.8
97.9
98.1
98.5
98.4
98.4
98.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4

90.8
111.3
119.2
132.8
145.4
144.2
129.3
120.3
116.1
109.9
109.3
108.9
110.0
113.2
114.5
115.0
115.3
114.5
112.4
112.7
112.7
113.3
113.6
112.7
112.1
111.6
110.0
109.4
108.7
106.6
105.3
104.6
102.0
98.1
90.6
82.5
81.1
80.9
89.5
91.0
92.0
93.6
94.1
95.2
96.1
97.2
96.5
96.9
97.3
100.8
103.1
106.0
106.4
105.2
102.8
102.7
101.9
101.5
101.5
102.2
103.7
101.5
102.2
102.1
101.7
101.8
102.1
101.3
102.0
103.2
103.9
104.6
106.0

Miscel­
laneous
73.5
84.4
86.5
97.2
99.5
102.0
104.9
105.9
105.1
103.0
101.5
101.2
101.1
101.3
100.7
101.0
100.5
100.3
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
‘99.3
100.4
100.0
98.6
98.0
98.3
102.0
101.9
101.4
101.1
100.6
100.3
99.8
98.6
96.4
96.4
96.9
96.9
97.7
97.1
97.3
98.1
97.5
99.2
99.5
99.0
100.8
101.5
103.9
102.4
100.9
100.9
101.6
100.9
101.2
100.6
100.9
100.8
98.9
99.8
100.4
101.1
101.1
101.6
101.6
101.3
101.4
101.5
101.9
102.4

75

SUMMARY TABLES
T

able

3.—

In d e x e s o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners and low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
P A C IF IC —LOS A N G E L E S , C A L IF .
[1935-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December_______________
December_______________
December_______________
December_______________
D ecem ber_______________
June.....................................
December_______________
1920: June____________________
December___ ____ ______
1921: M a y _________________ —
September______________
December_______________
1922: M arch__________________
June..... —_............... ......
September______________
December_______________
1923: M arch__________________
June------------------------------September______________
December_______________
1924: M arch__________________
June---------------------------September______________
December_______________
1925: June____________________
December_______________
1926: June___________ ________
December............. ..............
1927: June____________________
December______ _____ _
1928: June_________________ _
December_______________
1929: June___________ ____ ___
December_______________
1930: June_______ _______ ____
D ecem ber.. _ __ __ __
1931: June____________________
December_____________ _
1932: June______________ ____ _
December_____ ______ _
1933: June------------- -----------------December______ ________
1934: June_________ ______ ___
November 15____________
1935: March 15________ _____ _
July 1 5 .............. ........... .
October 15______________
1936: January 15..........................
April 15_________________
July 15__________________
September 15____________
December 15____________
1937: March 15_________ _____ _
June 15______ ___________
September 15____________
December 1 5 ...... .......... .
1938: March 15......... ................
June 15......... .......................
September 15____________
December 15_____ ____ _
1939: March 1 5 ...........................
June 15___
____ _____
September 15____________
December 15.......... ............
1940: March 15—..........................
June 15........... .....................
September 15......................
October 15...........................
November 15____ _______
December 15............... .......
1941: January 15______________
February 15___________ _
March 15________________
April 15..............- ................
M ay 15_____ ____________
June 15.............................




All items

74.1
72.7
79.3
93.9
114.6
118.9
134.9
147.8
143.8
133.8
132.7
132.8
131.5
131.1
130.3
131.2
130.6
132.5
133.6
134.8
134.2
132.5
133.2
132.0
133.6
133.6
128.5
128.7
128.7
126.7
124.2
126.0
124.6
124.4
121.2
116.0
107.8
105.7
98.2
95.0
90.6
94.1
93.2
96.3
98.2
95.4
95.1
96.6
95.7
97.2
99.6
99.4
103.4
102.9
104.2
103.2
101.5
101. 8
101.8
102.6
101.2
100.3
101.9
100.4
100.7
100.8
101.2
101.4
101.9
102.2
102.8
101.8
102.5
103.2
104.4
105.6

Food

91.7
87.9
98.8
120.7
148.4
150.3
166.1
187.5
153.7
130.7
133.8
133.4
126.6
128.1
128.6
131.4
125.2
133.2
135.8
137.4
133.5
131.0
135.5
133.0
141.3
145.7
136.4
139.8
139.7
135. 2
130.2
136.8
135.0
134.9
127.9
115.4
97.4
99.1
84.0
84.8
82.4
91.2
88.8
98.8
103.8
98.1
98.2
100.3
95.7
98.5
104.3
101.6
109.8
105.0
107.2
101.2
96.7
97.2
97.6
100.7
96.4
94.1
99.2
94.6
95.6
97.4
97.8
97.5
98.8
99.9
101.8
99.0
100.8
102.7
105. 5
107.7

Clothing

65.7
67.5
75.1
95.3
137.4
146.7
175.8
186.9
175.2
149.4
130.3
127. 7
121. 2
119.1
117.1
117.0
120.4
119.9
120.6
120.3
120.4
119.2
118.9
118.5
117.6
116.8
115.5
115.1
114.3
112.8
112.6
112.0
111.2
111.2
110.5
105.3
99.0
92.0
86.7
83.0
82.0
92.5
95.9
96.0
96.2
97.0
96.9
96.9
96.7
96.0
96.7
97.5
99.7
101.4
103.3
104.3
103.3
102.5
102. 4
102.3
102.0
102.0
102.1
103.2
103.6
103.4
103.1
103.5
103.5
103.4
103.4
102.8
103.6
103.8
104.0
105.7

Rent

102.8
100.0
100.2
102.2
107.3
111.8
130.4
146.6
176.2
190.5
191.2
195.5
201.5
201.1
199.9
200.3
202.7
203.3
204.9
206.6
209.4
205.0
202.3
198.7
188.8
178.6
172.1
166.3
164.4
162.1
158.4
154.0
149.3
147.8
143.7
140.8
135.0
129.2
119.1
107.8
97.1
92.0
89.0
87.9
88.1
88.3
88.6
89.6
91.2
92.4
94.2
96.5
101.3
103.7
104.8
106.9
107.7
108.0
107.9
108.0
108.0
107.8
107.8
107.4
107.2
106.6
106.5
106.5
106.8
106.4
106.5
106.9
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.6

Fuel, elec­ Housefurnish­
tricity,
and ice
ings
84.1
84.4
86.0
92.8
99.5
99.7
113.7
129.1
134.7
133.9
141.8
141.8
141.3
132.5
129.3
129.0
127.9
118.4
118.6
118.8
118.7
118.3
119.0
119.1
118.7
119.1
118.8
119.3
121.4
117.7
117.3
114.3
113.5
114.2
110.4
110.7
110.2
109.8
108.6
110.2
107.8
104.7
104.2
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.4
99.5
99.5
99.5
99.5
99.5
99.2
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
94.3
94.3
94.3
94.3
94.2

52.4
55.7
64.5
81.9
114.5
122.7
144.3
158.3
158.3
134.5
130.1
127.4
122.4
119.9
119.5
124.7
130.2
132.9
132.2
132.0
129.4
123.7
122.8
124.5
122.5
122.4
118.8
117.3
115. 5
114.5
110.4
109.2
108.2
107.9
106.7
101.1
93.2
89.7
81.2
78.3
76.9
87.9
88.9
91.1
92.4
94.3
95.8
96.3
96.8
96.3
96.5
98.5
103.7
104.6
104.5
105.8
105.3
104.8
102.2
101.8
102.0
100.4
100.6
102.0
101.4
100.2
101.5
100.8
100.7
101.1
101.0
101.4
102.6
103.5
103.7
105.1

Miscel­
laneous
52.5
51.5
56.6
67.7
79.9
83.6
93.0
98.0
105.4
103.4
104.5
104.9
107.2
107.1
106. 2
105.7
105.8
105.5
105.6
107.3
107.7
107.9
107.6
107.3
109.8
110.7
107.6
108.1
109.4
109.3
108.9
110.8
110.9
111.2
110.4
110.4
109.1
106.9
106.5
103.1
98.3
97.9
97.8
97.9
98.5
94.9
93.4
95.5
96.9
98.7
99.1
99.5
99.8
101.2
101.7
103.1
102.4
102.8
102.8
102.4
102.5
102.3
102.5
102.1
102.0
101.2
102.1
102.8
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.8
102.9
103.0
103.9
104.5

76

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x es o f the cost o f livin g o f wage earners a nd low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 3 4 large cities — Continued
PACIFIC—PO R TL AN D , OREG.

[1936-39 average=100]

Date

1914:
1916:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1923:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December----------------------December.........................
Decem ber........................ .
Decem ber...........................
December...........................
June___ l..............................
December............................
June................ ................... .
Decem ber...........................
M a y ______ ______ ______
September____________ _
D ecem ber................... .......
M arch.................................
June-------------------------------September.........................
Decem ber________ _____ _
M arch............ .................. .
June....... ................... ..........
September______________
Decem ber...........................
M arch__________________
June____________ ______ _
September. ....................... .
December...........................
J u n e.............. ............... .
Decem ber.........................
June.....................................
December_______________
June____________ _______
December_______________
June.....................................
December_______________
June_________________ _
Decem ber_______________
June____________________
December_______________
June_________ __________
December....................... .
J u n e....................... ............
December............. ..............
June--------- ------- --------------December............. ..............
June____________________
November 15____________
March 15.................... ........
July 15__________________
October 15_______________
January 15_________ ____
April 15_______
_______
July 15__________________
September 15.. ..................
December 15.
...... ........
March 15___________ ____
June 15_________ ____ ___
September 15____________
December 15______ _____
March 15________________
June 15.____ ____________
September 15____________
December 15____________
March 15........... ................
June 15__________________
September 15____________
December 15......................
March 15.............................
June 15__________________
September 1 5 ...................
December 15..... ........ .........
January 15..........................
February 15...... .................
March 15.........................
April 15..........................
M ay 15................................
June 15.................................

1Monthly data not available.




All items

77.7
74.8
80.7
97.8
123.7
128.3
141.0
156.8
139.6
127.2
126.5
124.7
120.9
120.6
122.1
122.8
122.1
122.3
123.4
124.4
123.0
121.4
122.2
122.5
123.5
123.8
122.2
121.8
121.7
119.6
117.6
118.3
116.8
117.8
116.7
109.7
104.4
101.4
94.4
91.8
88.6
90.5
91.9
94.1
96.4
95.5
95.7
96.8
96.2
98.2
99.3
99.4
102.0
103.0
104.7
103.2
102.7
101.7
101.6
101.7
100.7
100.5
102.1
100.9
99.7
100.7
101.5
101.8

(0
0)

102.7

(0

0
)
106.2

Food

85.4
81.9
93.2
119.5
145.7
145.9
165.6
200.4
148.5
117.3
126.2
123.0
117.0
118.2
120.8
122.0
116.9
120.7
123.9
124.5
120.2
121.2
125.1
123.7
132.0
132.2
129.3
128.2
131.0
125.1
124.7
127.1
127.5
130.3
125.6
107.6
98.1
94.5
83.6
82.0
80.5
81.8
85.4
92.4
97.4
94.8
95.9
98.1
97.6
100.4
102.0
100.3
105.3
107.5
107.1
101.7
100.7
99.4
98.8
99.6
97.5
97.2
101.6
97.9
95.6
99.8
100.5
100.7
101.7
101.6
102.8
105.5
106.8
110.2

Clothing

Rent

78.6
81.0
91.1
113.5
154.6
169.4
190.4
203.3
174.6
150.3
134.0
130.0
122.3
120.5
120.6
121.8
126.0
126.8
127.2
127.2
127.5
126.7
124.8
125.2
123.9
123.4
123.0
121.1
120.5
118.8
118.6
117.5
116.7
116.2
113.9
108.8
104.5
96.9
91.1
86.5
87.0
95.8
97.8
97.3
97.2
97.3
97.4
97.7
98.1
97.7
97.6
99.0
101.0
101.9
103.5
103.2
102.0
101.6
101.3
101.1
100.7
100.7
100.9
101.6
103.1
103.2
102.9
102.8

120.5
107.4
96.9
93.8
135.4
144.9
153.9
160.6
165.0
172.2
172.7
172.7
172.6
172.7
173.2
173.1
173.0
171.8
171.9
172.0
172.8
172.7
172.2
172.2
169.8
168.9
166.2
160.9
157.1
153.0
145.7
140.3
133.8
130.4
127.0
123.4
119.0
113.1
104.6
97.6
91.7
87.7
87.1
87.0
87.6
87.9
90.3
91.1
91.9
94.1
96.7
98.4
100.1
102.3
106.2
107.3
107.4
107.1
107.3
107.0
106.7
106.5
106.8
106.3
106.2
106.5
106.7
107.0

0)
0)

(0
0)

0)
(0

0)

102.9

103.9

107.2

h

108.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity,
furnish­
and ice
ings
74.1
73.4
76.6
89.1
97.0
97.3
105.4
108.9
122.9
123.8
117.8
118.1
115.8
111.4
117.8
122.8
126.1
119.5
120.1
123.8
122.5
115.2
116.5
120.3
112.8
118.6
111.8
120.0
116.3
122.8
112.3
120.8
112.2
119.9
110.9
115.2
101.1
103.8
91.1
92.6
88.8
100.3
100.1
98.0
98.1
97.5
99.1
100.8
100.9
97.0
100.9
102.6
103.0
97.8
101.9
101.6
101.6
100.3
100.8
101.2
99.2
98.4
99.0
99.0
92.7
91.6
93.2
94.6
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.7
95.1
95.3

62.2
64.0
73.4
96.0
129.9
138.1
152.4
176.5
174.0
154.2
141.0
137.9
127.2
125.5
124.5
126.1
130.2
130.4
130.3
129.9
128.2
125.7
125.2
125.7
123.5
124.7
121.3
118.5
116.7
115.7
112.2
112.0
111.7
112.5
111.0
105.5
103.1
97.5
88.7
84.8
85.5
93.7
95.0
97.0
98.2
97.4
97.7
96.1
96.9
96.2
96.5
97.3
100.8
102.4
104.9
104.9
103.6
101.4
101.5
101.6
100.7
100.1
100.7
102.5
100.3
99.9
100.4
100.4

Miscel­
laneous

57.4
55.6
60.9
75.3
90.6
93.1
98.5
103.1
103.9
103.9
103.8
103.3
102.6
102.4
103.6
102.9
102.2
100.9
101.2
103.0
102.5
99.3
99.0
100.1
99.3
99.3
99.9
101.3
101.2
101.6
101.2
102.1
101.7
102.0
107.1
106.2
105.3
104.9
103.0
101.5
96.1
95.9
96.0
96.4
98.0
97.9
96.4
97.0
95.1
98.3
.98.6
98.7
100.0
100.3
102.6
103.1
103.1
102.2
102.1
102.0
101.5
101.6
101.8
101.3
101.2
100.3
101.5
102.1

0)
0)

c1
)
(0

0)
0)

0)
0)

101.5
105.8

102.4
104.3

77

SUMMARY TABLES
T

able

3 . — In d e x e s o f the cost o f living o f wage earners a nd low er-sa laried w orkers in
each o f 8 4 large cities — Continued
PACIFIC—SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

[1935-39 average=100]

Date
1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:

December........................
December............. ..........
December............. ..........
December........................
December____ ________
June...... ..........................
December___ _________
1920: June...... ..........................
December.......................
1921: May________ ____ _____
September____________
December_____________
1922: March...... .......................
June______________ ...
September............... .......
December........................
1923: March...................... ......
June...... ........................
September.................... ..
December____ ________
1924: March.................... .........
June......... .......................
September.......................
December_____________
1925: June_________________
December____ ________
1926: June_________________
December........ ........... .
1927: June................. ........... .
December............. ..........
1928: June................................
December_____________
1929: June—
................. ........ .
December........................
1930: June............................. .
December............. ..........
1931: June.................... ..........December............. ..........
1932: June— ...................... ......
December.____ _______
1933: June_________ ________
December.. ________ ..
1934: June____ _____________
November 15............ ......
1935: March 15___________ __
July 15_____ __________
October 15........... .........
1936: January 15____________
April 15______________
July 15_______________
September 15__________
December 15_______ —_
1937: March 15_____________
June 15_______________
September 15__________
December 15___________
1938: March 15-_- __________
June 15________ _____
September 15__________
December 15__________
1939: March 15______________
June 15________ _____
September 15__________
December 15..................
1940: March 15______________
June 15_______________
September 15............. .
October 15................ ......
November 15................ .
December 15............... .
1941: January 15......................
February 15................ .
March 15.........................
April 15........................ .
May 15............................
June 15........................... .




All items
73.4
72.7
78.9
92.2
112.2
116.5
129.1
139.0
131.1
120.4
119.3
119.2
116.3
115.8
115.0
116.0
114.5
115.7
117.5
118.7
115.9
115.8
116.4
117.3
119.9
121.4
118.8
119.0
119.3
118.3
117.1
118.7
117.7
118.1
115. 7
111.7
105.4
102.2
97.0
95.2
92.7
95.9
96.6
99.0
99.4
97.5
97.8
98.4
97.0
97.9
98.7
98.8
101.1
101.5
102.9
103. 0
101.2
101.4
101.7
101.4
100.3
99.2
101.0
100.2
99.8
100.1
100.8
101.4
101.6
101.6
102.1
102.2
102.4
103.5
104.2
105.4

Food
82.4
80.3
90.4
111.0
137.0
136.4
151.0
167.9
140.0
116.0
121.1
121.6
115.9
116.8
116.1
119.1
111.5
117.1
121.9
123.2
117.8
118.2
120.2
122.3
129.9
134.4
127.3
128.6
129.5
126.5
123.6
127.7
126.1
129.2
125.5
115.6
101.5
96.5
88.0
88.1
85.9
91.0
92.8
100.2
102.6
97.7
99.1
101.1
97.9
100.1
102.0
101.3
105.4
104.3
105.4
103.2
98.5
98.4
99.2
98.6
95.5
93.5
99.0
96.1
95.0
96.7
97.9
98.2
97.8
97.9
99.6
99.6
100.6
103. 5.
104.9
107.1

Clothing
58.7
60.1
67.2
84.2
122.6
137.6
158.6
170.7
161.8
141.3
123.2
121.0
116.0
111.8
109.1
108.7
111.4
112.7
113.7
114.0
114.0
112.3
112.0
111.7
111.7
111.3
110.5
108.9
107.7
107.0
107.3
107.6
107.2
106.5
104.3
100.9
97.5
92.4
87.2
81.9
80.6
93.4
96.0
96.2
95.9
96.0
96.4
96.5
96.4
96.0
96.1
96.9
99.9
102.0
104.9
105.2
103.3
103.0
102.5
102.6
102.0
101.7
102.1
102.7
103.0
103.2
103.0
102.9
102.9
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.1
103.3
103.7
105.2

Rent
101.0
100.3
98.5
97.0
97.1
97.5
105.7
110.5
116.1
122.9
124.8
127.1
129.0
130.7
131.6
131.3
133.0
134.7
135.4
137.4
138. 4
139.4
139.7
140.8
141. 5
141.4
141.0
140.9
140.1
138.7
137.1
134.8
133.2
131.7
129.4
127.4
125.4
121.4
115.9
110.4
104.9
101.5
99.8
98.1
96.9
96.7
96.6
96.6
96.9
96.8
97.2
97.8
98.9
100.0
101.2
101.8
102.2
102.8
102.9
103.0
103.2
103.3
103.4
103.8
103.6
103.7
103.7
103.8
103.9
103.7
103.9
104.1
103.9
104.0
104.0
104.0

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity, furnish­
and ice
ings
88.4
88.3
92.5
101.2
115.0
114.0
125.0
130.2
147.1
144.4
146.2
146.2
146.2
141.0
134.4
134.9
131.2
126.1
129.3
131.6
135.8
132. 6
135.3
135.7
136.4
133.3
131.3
133.5
130.1
131.4
129.0
130.4
127.1
124.1
113.8
116.7
113.9
115.5
110.6
110.2
110.1
110.7
109.1
109.1
109.5
109.5
109.5
106.4
106.3
100.5
100.8
101.1
97.6
97.4
97.4
97.7
97.6
95.2
95.2
95.2
95.3
95.3
91.7
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.7
91.6
91.5
91.5
91.6
91.6
91.6
91.6
91.6
91.6

56.0
59.4
68.2
83.0
113.9
121.3
136.6
156.9
154.4
136.6
124.2
119.8
115.2
114.5
114.2
115.1
121.3
121.4
121.6
121.5
120.9
119.5
118.4
120.3
120.5
120.8
115.2
114.6
114.2
113.9
113.2
111.5
110.8
110.6
112.4
107.3
100.4
93.3
85.6
83.5
83.9
92.0
92.4
92.5
94.0
94.7
95.1
95.6
95.5
94.7
95.5
96.6
102.1
102.0
105.1
106.3
104.9
104.1
104.0
103.9
103.1
101.6
101.8
103.1
102.9
101.2
101.7
100.9
101.1
101.3
101.0
101.3
102.3
102.7
103.4
105.5

Miscel­
laneous
56.6
55.7
61.4
72.9
85.3
91.2
99.0
101.7
104.7
104.5
106.2
105.8
104.5
104.1
104.0
104.3
104.7
101.6
101.5
102.6
97.8
98.1
97.8
97.8
97.9
98.9
99.3
99.3
100.7
101.5
101.7
103.8
103.9
103.4
102.5
103.1
101.5
101.2
99.8
99.0
96.9
97.7
98.0
98.7
97.9
97.1
96.5
96.6
95.4
96.9
97.1
97.2
98.4
99.5
100.8
102.8
102.9
103.8
103.8
103.6
103.5
102.3
102.6
102.4
102.3
101.6
102.7
104.2
105.2
105.2
104.9
105.0
104.8
104.9
105.5
105.9

78

C H A N G E S IN C O S T OF LIVING IN L A R G E CITIES, 1913-41

T a b l e 3.— Indexes of the cost of living of wage earners and lower-salaried workers in

each o f 84 large cities— Continued
PACIFIC—SEATTLE, WASH.

[1935-39 average=100]
Date

1914:
1915:
1916:
1917:
1918:
1919:
1920:
1921:
1922:

1923:

1924:

1925:
1926:
1927:
1928:
1929:
1930:
1931:
1932:
1933:
1934:
1935:
1936:

1937:

1938:

1939:

1940:

1941:

December. ................. ......
December.............. ...........
December______________
December.................. ......
December. ................. ......
June............. ................... .
December______________
June___________________
December_____________
M ay___________________
September_____________
December______________
March_________________
June............. ...................
September............. ...........
December________ _____
March___ _____ ________
June__________________ _
September____ _____ ___
December______________
March__________ ______ _
June_ ________________
_
September_____________
December____ ____ _____
June__________ _____ — .
December______________
June___________________
December_____________
June________ _______ ___
December______________
June________ - _______
December. ____________
June___________________
December____ _________
June______ _______ . . .
December--------------------June___________________
December______________
June________ _________
December______________
June___________________
December______________
June_ ____ __________ .
_
November 15___________
March 15_______________
July 15___ _____________
October 15_____________
January 15____ ________
April 15________________
July 15______
_______
September 15. .*— ______
December 15___________
March 15______________
June 15________________
September 15___________
December 15............. ...
March 15_______________
June 15____ _ _________
September 15.......... .........
December 15.......... .........
March 15..................... .
June 15__________ _____
September 15___________
December 15.............. .
March 15_______ ____ _
June 15....... ................. .
September 15..... ........... .
October............................
November 15___________
December 15____ ____ _
January 1 5 ...................
February 1 5 ............. ...
March 15....... ...................
April 15____ ____ _______
May 15............................
June 15_________ _______




All items

70.5
69.8
75.0
90.5
118.1
123.6
139.8
151.1
137.6
128.8
125.3
122.8
120.6
120.1
119.3
119.1
115.8
119.3
120.4
120.1
119.0
119.9
119.3
119.8
122.8
123.2
121.5
120.6
122.1
118.5
117.9
118.2
119.1
119.7
118.7
111.0
107.0
103.4
97.0
92.8
92.5
93.1
93.6
95.5
97.4
95.7
95.9
97.8
96.5
97.7
99.0
99.5
102.0
102.2
103.7
103.2
102.2
101.2
101.1
101.2
100.9
100.8
102.6
100.9
101.6
101.7
101.7
101.5
101.6
102.0
102.2
102.5
103.0
104.1
106.0
107.2

Food

86.7
84.6
94.0
119.1
149.7
148.4
166.1
195.1
142.5
119.6
124.6
121.4
120.6
122.9
122.8
122.9
118.9
122.5
126.1
124.6
123.2
126.0
124.0
124.9
136.1
137.3
133.6
130.3
135.8
125.5
125.5
126.3
130.0
131.6
129.9
109.3
102.3
96.7
88.2
83.0
86.9
87.0
89.4
95.6
100.9
95.4
97.0
101.5
97.8
100.0
102.2
102.7
107.1
105.1
105.4
101.9
99.7
96.9
96.8
97.4
96.7
95.9
102.0
96.6
98.7
99.7
100.1
99.0
99.2
100.2
101.0
101.0
102.4
104.7
108.0
109.7

Clothing

65.3
66.0
72.6
89.0
122.7
137.2
166.1
178.7
170.0
149.2
126.3
123.1
117.3
116.2
113.5
113.7
114.6
115.3
115.9
115.9
115.8
115.0
113.8
113.8
113.9
114.1
114.1
113.0
112.2
110.6
110.2
109.8
108.7
108.7
107.4
104.2
101.6
95.2
88.2
84.0
84.1
92.7
94.9
94.2
93.9
95.6
96. 6
96.6
96.4
96.0
96.4
97.7
100.5
103.3
105.5
105.3
103.3
102.3
102.2
102.2
101.9
102.2
102.2
103.2
103.7
103.9
103.6
103.7
103.5
103.7
103.1
103.2
103.8
103.9
106.3
106.6

Bent

91.8
89.6
86.8
91.2
132.4
139.0
157.4
160.4
162.1
160.4
157.2
155.3
153.2
151.1
149.9
149.7
149.4
148.9
149.2
149.5
149.7
150.5
150.0
150.2
151.1
150.2
149.2
147.1
145.9
144.0
142.7
141.4
139.8
139.6
137.7
135.6
132.5
126.2
115.0
105.9
99.1
94.6
91.7
91.3
91.1
91.1
91.6
91.8
92.2
93.5
95.1
96.1
97.9
99.3
105.5
106.2
106.6
107.0
106.9
106.8
107.0
106.9
106.8
106.8
106.6
106.8
106.6
106.6
106.6
107.0
107.0
108.4
108.1
109.0
110.4
110.8

Fuel, elec­ Housetricity, furnish­
and ice
ings
68.4
68.2
70.4
84.7
103.8
103.8
112.0
113.4
122.2
122.2
121.2
115.5
114.5
112.1
111.2
109.1
110.0
108.0
108.2
108.8
107.8
107.2
108.7
109.1
107.9
108.1
102.1
110.2
108.9
109.3
107.4
111.4
110.8
113.4
113.2
112.1
105.3
110.4
106.9
102.3
99.5
100.6
99.8
99.8
99.1
98.4
98.3
98.5
98.9
97.0
98.5
98.8
99.2
100.9
100.8
102.4
102.6
102.1
102.6
102.6
102.2
100.7
97.6
98.2
98.3
98.3
93.9
94.5
94.7
94.7
94.9
94.9
95.0
94.9
95.7
95.9

47.6
51.6
60.6
72.5
115.0
121.1
143.3
152.9
150.6
132.0
119.8
119.0
115.4
113.0
111.7
112.4
114.4
116.1
116.3
116.3
117.9
114.6
114.1
114.8
115.0
115.2
114.0
113.1
112.7
111.7
111.2
110.7
110.3
110.7
110.6
108.5
102.1
96.7
87.3
84.6
86.7
94.5
94.5
95.2
95.4
94.9
95.4
96.6
97.1
97.5
98.1
99.5
103.4
102.6
106.0
106.7
103.4
103.1
101.4
101.3
100.4
99.7
99.4
101.1
99.4
98.5
98.2
97.8
98.2
97.6
97.6
98.0
98.5
99.3
100.5
102.0

Miscel­
laneous
52.3
51.8
56.2
68.6
83.0
89.7
97.8
99.7
102.3
107.6
107.6
106.0
104.3
103.4
103. 3
102.8
95.5
102.9
102.9
102.9
100.8
101.9
102.1
102.8
102.8
103.1
103.1
103.4
103.8
103.7
103.3
103.3
104.1
104.1
104.0
103.4
102.9
101.9
99.7
98.8
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.6
97.8
96.1
96.9
96.7
98.0
98.6
98.4
99.4
100.4
101.0
102.4
102.3
102.1
102.1
102.0
101.8
102.7
103.0
102.5
102.6
101.7
102.7
103.0
103.0
103.1
103.1
103.2
103.2
103.8
104.7
106.1

79

SUMM ARY TABLES

T a b l e 4 .— F o o d s included in the fo o d -c o s t in dex f o r all period s sin ce its in cep tion
Original index
New index 1939
1890-1906

1907-13

1921-34

1914-20

1935-39

CEREALS
Flour, wheat.

Flour, wheat.

Flour, wheat.

Corn meal.
Rice.

Corn meal.

Corn meal.
Rice.

Flour, wheat.
Macaroni.
Wheat cereal.
Corn flakes.
Corn meal.
Rice.
Rolled oats.

Flour, wheat.
Macaroni.
Wheat cereal.
Corn flakes.
Corn meal.
Rice.
Rolled oats.
Hominy grits.

Flour, wheat.
Macaroni.

Bread, white.
Bread, whole­
wheat.
Bread, rye.
Cake.
Soda crackers.

Bread, white.
B read, w hole­
wheat.
Bread, rye.
Vanilla wafers.
Soda crackers.

Round steak.
Rib roast.
Chuck roast.
Liver.
Plate.
Sirloin steak.

Round steak.
Rib roast.
Chuck roast.

Cutlets.

Cutlets.

Chops.
Bacon, sliced.
Bacon, strip.
Ham, sliced.
Ham, whole.
Loin, roast.
Salt pork.

Chops.
Bacon, sliced.

Corn flakes.
Corn meal.

B A K E R Y PRODUCTS
Bread, white.

Bread, white.

Bread, white.

BEEF

Chuck roast.

Round steak.
Rib roast.

Round steak.
Rib roast.
Chuck roast.

Round steak.
Rib roast.
Chuck roast.

Sirloin steak.

Round steak.

Plate.
Sirloin steak

Plate.
Sirloin steak.
VEAL
Cutlets.

Cutlets.

PORK

Bacon, sliced.

Chops.
Bacon, sliced.

Chops.
Bacon, sliced.

Chops.
Bacon, sliced.

Ham, sliced.

Ham, sliced.

Ham, sliced.

Ham, sliced.

Loin, roast.
Salt pork.

Ham, sliced.
Ham, whole.
Salt pork.

LAM B

Leg.

Leg.

Breast.
Chuck.
Leg.
Rib chops.

Leg.
Rib chops.

Chickens.

Chickens.

PO U LTR Y
Chickens.

Chickens.

Chickens.

Chickens.
FISH

Fish, fresh.
Salmon, canned
pink.
Fish, salt.




Salmon, canned
pink.
Salmon, canned
red.

Fish, fresh.
Salmon, canned
pink.

80

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 4 . — F oo d s included in the fo o d -c o st in dex f o r all 'periods sin ce its in cep tion —

Continued
Original index
New index 1939
1907-13

1890-1906

1914-20

1921-34

1935-39

D A IR Y PRODUCTS
Butter.
Cheese.

Butter.

Butter.
Cheese.

Butter.
Cheese.

Milk, fresh.

Milk, fresh.

Milk, fresh.

Milk, fresh.

Butter.
Cheese.
Cream.
Milk, fresh.
M ilk , ev a p o ­
rated.

Butter.
Cheese.
Milk, fresh.
Milk, e v ap o­
rated.

Eggs.

Eggs.

EGGS
Eggs.

Eggs.

Eggs.

Eggs.

FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Oranges.
Cabbage.

Potatoes,
white.

Potatoes,
white.

Potatoes,
white.

Onions.
Potatoes, white.

Apples.
Bananas.
Lemons.
Oranges.
Beans, green.
Cabbage.
Carrots.
Celery.
Lettuce.
Onions.
Potatoes, white.

Apples.
Bananas.

Spinach.
Sweetpotatoes.

Bananas.

Spinach.
Sweetpotatoes.

Oranges.
Beans, green.
Cabbage.
Carrots.
Lettuce.
Onions.
Potatoes, white.

CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Canned beans
and pork.
Canned corn.
Canned peas.
Canned toma­
toes.

C a n n e d
peaches.
Canned pears.
Canned pine­
apple.
Canned aspar­
agus.
Canned beans
and pork.
Canned green
beans.
Canned corn.
Canned peas.
Canned toma­
toes.
Canned tomato
soup.

Canned peaches.
Ca n ne d p in e ­
apple.

Canned corn.
Canned peas.
Canned
toma­
toes.

D R IE D FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Dried apples.
Dried prunes.

D r ie d lima
beans.




Dried prunes.
Raisins.

Dried navy
beans.

Dried peaches.
Dried prunes.
Raisins.
Dried bl a c keyed peas.
D ried lima
beans.
Dried navy
beans.

Dried primes.

Dried navy
beans.

81

S U M M A R Y TABLES

T a b l e 4 . — F o o d s in clu ded in the fo o d -c o s t in d ex f o r all p eriod s sin ce its in cep tion —

Continued
Original index
New index 1939
1907-13

1890-1906

1914-20

1921-34

1935-39

BEVERAGES
Coffee.
Tea.

Coffee.
Tea.

Coffee.
Tea.

Coffee.
Tea.
Cocoa.

Coffee.
Tea.

Lard, pure.
Lard, c o m ­
pound.
Vegetable short­
ening.
Mayonnaise.

Lard, pure.

FATS AND OILS
Lard, pure.

Lard, pure.

Lard, pure.
Vegetable short­
ening.

Oleomargarine.

Salad oil.
Oleomargarine.

Vegetable short­
ening.
Salad dressing.
Oleomargarine.

SUGAR AND SWEETS
Sugar.

Sugar.

Sugar.

Sugar.

Sugar.
Corn sirup.
Molasses.
Strawberry pre­
serves.

Sugar.

MISCELLANEOUS FOODS

Salt.
Vinegar.




Chocolate.
Meals away from
home.

82

C H A N G E S IN COST OF LIVING IN L A R G E CITIES, 1 9 1 3 - 4 1

T a b l e 5 . — Relative im p ortan ce o f the various fo o d s included in the n ew fo o d -c o s t
in dex in each o f 51 large cities

1

[1935-39 average]

Scranton

Rochester

1_
_

Pittsburgh

Philadelphia

New York

Newark

Buffalo

Middle Atlantic region
Providence

Portland,
Maine

New Haven

Manchester

Fall River

Boston

Commodity

Bridgeport

New England region

Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
1.5 0.7 0.7 1.1 2.2 1.6 3.2
Flour, wheat________
1.9 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.5 2.1 0.9
Macaroni___________
.9 1.0
.9 1.0 1.0
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1
.7 1.3 1.4 1.1
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.3
1.5 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.4
Corn flakes_________
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.2 (2
.1
.2
.1
.1
Corn meal__________
)
Bakery products:
Bread, white________ 6.6 7.7 7.1 8.5 7.5 7.8 8.7
8.6 5.7 5.6 8.4 8.3 7.8 7.5
.7
.7
.7
.4
.6
.6
.3
.3
.7
.7
.5
Bread, whole-wheat. _ 1.0
.6
.3
.6
.5
.5 1.2
.5
.3
1.4 2.4 2.5 1.1 1.1 1.1
.3
Bread, rye__________
.9
1.5 1.9 2.4 1.9 1.4 2.7 1.7
1.5 1.6 1.8 3.8 1.9 1.7 1.8
Vanilla cookies...........
.5
.4
.8
.9 1.3
.8
.8 1.0
.9
.7 ..5
.7
.7
Soda crackers_______
.8
Meats:
Beef:
2.9 2.9 3.3 4.1 3.1 3.4 4.0
2.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 4.4
Round steak............
5.2 5.2 5.0 4.2 6.2 5.6 5.8 6.0 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.2 5.7 4.6
Rib roast___________
2.7 1.1 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.8
Chuck roast_________ 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.9 2.5
.7
.8
.7 1.5
.7
.7
.7
2.6 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.2 1.9 2.1
Veal: Cutlets_________
Pork:
5.2 2.3 2.1 3.5 3.6 3.0 3.9
Chops.______ _______ 2.2 2.6 2.7 4.4 2.6 2.9 3.1
.7
1.5 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.8
2.2
.7 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.3
Bacon, sliced..........
2.7 1.5 1.3 3.1 3.3 2.3 2.0
Ham, whole_________ 2.2 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.5 3.2
.1
.3
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.2
.3
.5
.6
.5
.1
.1
Salt pork___________
Lamb:
.3 1.5 1.5 1.4
.6
.9
Leg------------------------- 2.9 2.5 2.6 1.5 2.5 2.1 2.0
.6
1.2 2.4 2.2 1.2
.5
.8 1.1 1.1
1.8 1.4 1.5
.3 1.5
Rib chops__________
.8
P o ul t ry : Roast ing
4.0 3.4 3.4 2.3 3.4
2.1 6.8 6.4 3.7 3.5 3.7 2.3
.9 3.0
chickens____________
Fish:
1.9 2.3 2.3 1.8 2.3 2.5 2.4
1.8 2.4 2.7 2.0 1.5 1.3 1.8
Fresh, frozen________
.4 1.0 1.0
.4
.5
.5
.5
Salmon, pink, canned.
.9 1.0
.6 1.5
.3
.7
.5
Dairy products:
6.4 5.8 5.8 8.3 5.8 6.9 5.3
5.3 5.1 4.9 6.5 6.8 7.0 9.1
Butter_______________
1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.0
1.8 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 2.3 1.9
Cheese_______________
5.7 9.6 8.9 10.1 8.9 9.8 4.3
Milk, fresh (delivered).. 7.8 9.5 7.9 8.5 10.0 8.4 7.9
3.9 4.0 3.5
.8 1.5 1.8 4.3
Milk, fresh (store)------ 6.3 3.7 5.7 2.9 3.4 3.5 3.5
.8 1.1 1.1
.7
.7
1.5
Milk, evaporated______
.7 1.1 1.8 1.5
.8 1.3 1.1 1.4
5.0 5.9 5.9 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.4
Eggs----------------------------- 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.0 5.7 6.1 5.6
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh:
1.4 2.2 2.3 1.5 1.9 1.3 1.3
1.8 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.1 1.2
Apples_____________
1.0 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.1 1.2 1.5
1.9 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.6 1.6
Bananas____________
3.0 2. 5 2.6 2.0 2.5 2.3 2.3
3.3 3.6 3.9 2.6 3.* 3.0 3.4
Oranges____________
1.2
.2
.4
.4 1.4 1.6
.4
.2
.9
.9
.3
.6
.2
Beans, green________
.9
.4
.7
.8
.6
.6
.9
.6
.4
.6
.8
.8
.7
.9 1.3
Cabbage____________
.8 1.2 1.0 1.2
1.2 1.0 1.1
.8
.8 1.0
.6
Carrots_____________ 1.3 1.2 1.2
.5 1.2
.5 1.1
1.5 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.3 2.0 1.9
Lettuce-____________ 1.2 1.2 1.2
1.0 1.0 1.0
.9 1.0 1.0
.9
.9 1.4 1.4
.9
.7
.8
.8
Onions_____________
3.2 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.6 2.6 3.0 4.2 4.3 2.9 3.8
Potatoes____________
1.0 1.0 1.0
Spinach____________
.7
.9
.4 1.1 1.2
.7
.4
.4
.3
.2 1.0
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.3
.1
.2
.3
.3
.6
.4
.1
.1
Sweetpotatoes_______
Canned:
.3
.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.7
.4
.5
.3
.2
Peaches___ _________
.7
.6
.4
.4
.4
.3
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.5
.3
.3
.4
.4
Pineapple___ _______
.4
.6
.9
.5
.8
.6
.3
.8
Corn______ _________
.5
.3
.8
.6
.5
.7
.8 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.6 l.*8
.9
.5 1.1
.6
Peas_______ ____ ___
.8 1.1 1.0
1.5 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
1.2 1.6 1.6 1.5
Tomatoes.............. .
.9 1.0 1.2
Dried:
.6
.5
.4
.5
.5
.4
.5
.5
.6
.5
Prunes..-------- ------ .3
.5
.6
.6
.2
.3
.2
.2 1.0
.1
.1
Navy beans...............
.6
.3
.3
.3
.6
.6
.2
Beverages:
1.8 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0
2.7 2.2 2.2 2.5 3.3 2.3 2.8
Coffee............ ................
1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5
Tea__________________
1.2
.8
.8
.9
.7 1.3 1.5
Fats and oils:
.8
.8
Lard__________ _______
.8
.9
.8 1.0
.8
1.1
.7
.6 1.2 1.3
.8 1.4
Other shortening:
.1
.1
In cartons__________
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1 (2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
) (2
)
.2
.3
In other containers_
_
.3 (2
.3
.5
.4
.4
.7
.7
.3
.2
.2
.6
)
Mayonnaise__________
1.0
.9
.9
.6
.9 1.0
.8
.8
.7 1 . 0
.7
.5 1.5
.7
.2
.2
. 2 (2
Oleomargarine________
.1
.2
.6
.1
.1
.2
.2
.3
.3 (2
)
)
.2
.2
.3
.3
.2
Peanut butter________
.3
.3
. 2 (2
.1
.1
.1
.2
.2
)
Sugar---------------------------- 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 4.9 3.7 3.9 2.2 2.3 3.2 3.8 3.3 3.1
All commodities.. ____ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1See p. 17, for average for large cities combined.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




.

5

SUMMARY

TABLES

83

T a b l e 5 . — Relative im p ortan ce o f the various fo o d s included in the new foo d -co st

1 Continued
—
West North Central region
Minneapolis

Springfield,
11
1.

2.5
.5
1.8
.1

3.0
.5
1.9
.2

2.7
.5
2.2
.5

2.6
.5
2.3
.2

2.2
.6
2.1
.1

1.7
.7
1.5
.4

2.6
.5
2.4
.2

6.0
.8
2.4
1.4
.6

82
.5
.2
1.1
.9

6.9
1.1
.9
2.5
.8

8.3
.5
.3
2.0
1.0

6.6
.6
1.9
2.4
.6

7.0
.4
.2
.5
.5

7.7
.4
.2
.5
.5

8.0
.8
.5
1.9
.7

7.2
1.2
1.1
1.5
.7

6.4
1.1
.7
1.0
.5

8.2
.7
.9
1.7
.5

7.2
1.2
1.1
1.6
.6

3.7
4.7
2.6
2.6

4.3
5.0
1.5
2.3

4.7
3.2
2.2
1.6

3.9
4.1
1.2
2.2

4.6
3.2
2.6
1.1

2.3
5.0
1.3
2.9

5.2
6.5
4.7
1.1

5.3
6.2
4.5
1.0

4.8
4.4
2.5
.9

3.8
5.1
2.3
1.7

6.4
7.5
2.2
.7

4.2
5.2
2.7
1.8

3.6
4.8
2.3
1.6

5.7
2.0
1.9
.2

5.5
3.2
2.5
.4

4.8
2.1
3.2
.2

3.8
2.8
2.7
.2

4.4
1.9
2.3
.2

4.7 7.2
5.3 1.5
2.5 2.6
.2 (2
)

3.4
2.7
2.6
.2

3.4
2.8
2.6
.2

3.4
4.2
1.8
.7

4.4
2.2
1.7
.2

4.3
2.5
1.6
.4

6.0
3.5
2.2
.6

4.2
2.1
1.7
.2

1.6
2.0

1.1
1.0

.8
1.2

.1
.2

1.0
.9

.2
.5

.8
1.1

.5
.7

.5
.7

.1
.3

.3
.7

.3
.7

.3
.4

.3
.7

2.0

2.0

2.3

3.7

1.9

2.1

2.6

1.8

1.8

1.3

1.2

2.0

1.6

1.2

1.7
.5

1.4
.2

.9
.3

1.1
.7

.9
.6

.8
.2

1.0
.3

2.7
.5

2.6
.5

1.1
.4

.7
.5

.7
.9

1.3
.4

.7
.6

5.3
1.3
7.9
2.8
.8
4.2

4.0
1.2
8.1
1.2
1.0
4.6

4.7
1.4 '
6.3
4.6
1.2
5.1

4.4
1.7
8.9
1.8
1.0
6.2

5.8
1.4
8.3
2.7
1.0
5.1

4.4
1.2
7.5
2.9
.7
5.0

6.7
1.3
9.3
1.4
.7
4.7

3.5
1.2
6.4
2.8
.6
3.8

3.5
1.2
5.7
3.7
.6
3.7

3.8 8.2
1.3 1.3
9.6 10.5
2.1 3.9
.4
1.2
5.2 5.2

5.5
1.5
7.0
3.8
.7
4.4

4.0 8.4
1.0 1.3
6.9 11.1
2.4 3.4
1.4
.4
4.8 5.3

2.1
1.8
4.0
.3
.4
.8
1.5
.8
3.1
1.1
.1

2.5
1.1
3.3
1.2
.5
.7
1.3
1.3
2.9
.6
.6

2.5
2.0
4.2
.6
.5
.9
1.5
1.3
2.6
.9
.3

2.4
1.3
2.5
.4
1.0
.6
1.8
1.3
2.5
.2
.6

2.5
1.5
4.2
.7
1.0
1.2
1.8
1.0
3.3
.6
.4

2.8
1.6
3.3
.6
.4
.5
1.1
.9
1.8
.2
.6

2.7
1.8
4.0
.4
.6
1.2
1.4
1.2
3.2
.9
.1

2.9
1.6
2.5
.4
.4
.5
1.1
.9
2.8
.4
.1

2.6
1.6
2.6
.4
.4
.5
1.2
.8
2.6
.4
.2

1.9
1.5
2.8
.9
.6
.5
1.6
1.0
3.1
.5
.3

1.7
1.1
4.1
.2
.4
1.1
1.3
.7
1.7
.2
^c

1.3
2.4
3.3
.4
.5
.8
1.5
.9
2.9
.2
.3

2.9
1.2
3.5
1.1
.6
.8
1.5
1.3
2.8
1.1
.5

1.7
1.2
3.9
.2
.4
1.1
1.5
.8
1.6
.2
.3

1.3
.5
.9
1.1
2.2

.6
.3
1.2
1.2
1.5

.5
.6
.5
.7
1.4

.4
.4
.8
.9
1.0

.3
.4
.7
1.1
.9

.5
.4
1.1
1.0
1.0

.4
.3
.6
.9
.8

2.1
.6
1.4
.8
2.7

2.0
.6
1.5
.9
2.8

.6
.5
.8
.8
1.5

•o
Z
.4
1.0
1.3
.8

.6
.6
1.5
1.1
2.0

.7
.4
1.1
1.1
1.3

.2
.4
1.0
1.3
.8

.7
.2

.7
.3

.7
.2

.3
.6

.7
.3

.8
.7

.7
.2

2.0
.5

1.6
.5

.6
.4

1.2
.2

.9
.3

.6
.3

1.1
.2

2.9
.3

3.2
.2

2.6
.4

3.7
1.0

2.7
1.3

3.6
.3

3.1
.1

3.9
.2

3.4
.2

3.3
.3

3.6
.3

3.2
.3

3.2
.4

4.0
.3

1.0

1.4

1.1

2.4

1.4

2.0

1.2

2.0

1.9

1.7

.8

1.2

1.4

.9

.1
.2
.5
.1
.2
2.8

.1
1.0
.6
.5
.2
3.6

.1
.9
.7
.2
.2
3.6

.2
.1
.7
1.3
.3
4.5

.1
.3
.8
.5
.3
3.5

.2
.1
.5
.5
.7
.6
.8 . . . . .
.4
3.8 3.7

.2
.2
.1
.1
.4
.4
.9
.9
.4
.4
3.8i 3.9

.4
.6
.9
.8
.3
4.9

.2
.4
.8.
.1
.3i
4.0i

.3
.3
.8
.3;
.4
3.9'

.3
.5
.7
.4
.1
3.2!

.2
.4
.9
.1
.2
3.8

St. Paul

Omaha

St. Louis

Peoria

Indianapolis

2.2
.7
1.3
.2

Detroit

3.0
.5
2.2
.9

Cleveland

2.3
.7
1.6
.3

1.8
.6
1.8
.3

Cincinnati

Milwaukee

Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
Flour, wheat _____
Macaroni.. _ ______
Corn flakes_________
Corn meal__________
Bakery products:
Bread, white. ______
Bread, whole-wheat-.
Bread, rye______ . . .
Vanilla cookies______
Soda crackers..... ........
Meats:
Beef:
Round steak________
Rib roast___________
Chuck roast________
Veal: Cutlets_________
Pork:
Chops______________
Bacon, sliced _____
Ham, whole............ .
Salt pork____ _______
Lamb:
Leg------------------ -----Rib chops__________
P o u l t r y : Roasting
chickens____________
Fish:
Fresh, frozen________
Salmon, pink, canned.
Dairy products:
Butter....... .............. ......
Cheese_______________
Milk, fresh (delivered) __
Milk, fresh (store) ____
Milk, evaporated. _____
E ggs...------- ----------------Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh:
Apples_____________
Bananas____________
Oranges ___________
Beans, green______ _
Cabbage____________
Carrots_____________
Lettuce_____________
Onions_____________
Potatoes____________
Spinach ___________
Sweetpotatoes_______
Canned:
Peaches_____________
Pineapple__________
Corn............. .......... .
Peas_________ ______
Tomatoes................. .
Dried:
Prunes_____________
Navy beans_________
Beverages:
Coffee......... .............. .
Tea___________ ____ _
Fats and oils:
Lard_________________
Other shortening:
In cartons _________
In other containers _ _.
Mayonnaise__________
Oleomargarine. _..........
Peanut butter.............. .
Sugar__________________

Chicago

Commodity

C olum bus,
Ohio

1

East North Central region

Kansas City

index in each o f 51 large cities

#
1.7
.7
1.4
.1

2.6
.7
1.7
.4

2.2
.7
1.7
.3

5.8
.8
1.5
1.4
.6

7.0
.4
1.4
1.4
.8

5.1
5.5
2.9
1.6

All com m odities.._____ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0i 100.0i 100.0 100.01100.0\100.0i 100.01100.0
1 See p. 17, for average for large cities combined
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




C H A N G E S IN C O S T OF LIVING IN L A R G E CITIES, 1913-41

T a b l e 5. — Relative im p ortan ce o f
___________________ index in each o f

the various fo o d s included in the new fo o d -c o st
51 large cities 1 Continued
—
_______________

East South Central
region

South Atlantic region

©
o
a
'a
«

d
C
Q
a
O
t
n
©
a

xt
O

d

©
>
p
o
w

Norfolk

Atlanta

Commodity

■s
o
a

•
a
a
§
&
G
O

A
p
o
b
fi
P

2
a
£

a
0
3

XI

o

.2
3

9
a
m

'>

cl
1
s

’3
o
A

Mobile

84

H
-s
Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
5.1 1.7 4.4 3.0 4.4 3.6 4.4 2.1
Flour, wheat__________________
5.1 3.1 5.0 4.7
.4
.5
.6
.8
.6
.6
.7
.5
Macaroni___________ ______ ___
.7
.7
.9
.7
1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4
1.2 1.4 1.5 1.3
Corn flakes............. ................ ......
2.1
.3 1.3 1.8 1.4
.8 1.1
.9
Corn meal____________________
1.6
.7 2.1 3.2
Bakery products:
4.2 10.4 8.1 6.8 6.9 6.1 8.7 6.1
4.2 9.2 4.8 8.7
Bread, white_______ _______ ___
.1
.l
.5 (2
.9
.3
3
.3
.7
Bread, whole-wheat __________
.6
.3
.4
)
.1
.6
.2
.2 (2
.1
.2
.1
.3
.2
.3
Bread, rye____________________
.2
)
.8 1.1 1.2 1.5
.9 1.1
Vanilla cookies__________ _____ - 1.0 1.3
.5 1.4
.8
.8
.7
.3
.7
.4
.4
.5
.6
Soda crackers______ ___________
•3
.7
.7
.7
.4
Meats:
Beef:
3.8 3.0 2.3 4.6 2.3 3.1 2.3 3.3
Round steak__________________
2.8 2.9 1.7 2.9
Rib roast_______________ ______ 4.4 4.3 3.9 4.4 3.5 2.7 3.9 2.9 4.3 4.4 3.9 3.7
.9 1.8 3.6
Chuck roast_____ _____ ________ 1.2 2.0 1.9 1.4 1.6
1.0 2.7
.8 1.0
.9
.4 2.0 1.4 1.4
Veal: Cutlets______ ____ _________ 1.3 2.6 2.8 2.1 2.7 1.8 2.4
Pork:
3.6 4.6 4.0 2.9 4.0 2.9 4.0 2.7
C h o p s.________ _____________
3.3 5.2 3.0 3.1
3.1 2.0 3.3 3.4 2.6 2.3 3.5 2.9 4.2 4.8 3.9 3.6
Bacon, sliced_______ __________
4.3 3.5 2.1 1.6 3.1 7.4 2.1 3.4
2.4 2.4 2.6 1.7
Ham, whole___________________
2.2
.4 2.2 1.8 3.4 2.0 2.1
.6
3.2
.4 3.4 2.6
Salt p ork_____________________
Lamb:*
.1
.1
.1
.9
.2
.2
.3
.4
.4 1.4
.2
Leg __________________________
.1
.4
.9
.3
.3
.4
.3
.4 1.8
Rib chops_____________________
.1
.1
.1
.3
Poultry: Roasting chickens_______ 4.3 3.5 2.5 2.4 5.0 3.4 2.3 3.3
1.6 1.0 2.1 2.1
Fish:
1.6 2.9 2.3 2.0 2.5 3.0 2.4 2.2
Fresh, frozen____________ ______
1.7 1.3 1.7 5.3
.4
.5
.9
.5
Salmon, pink, canned_________
.4
.5
.5
.9
.6
.5
.3 2.1
Dairy products:
3.6 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.3 4.1 4.8
Butter__ _______________________
3.7 3.6 5.3 2.9
.9
.8 1.2
.8 1.6 1.0 1.8
1.4 1.2 1.6
Cheese__________________________ 1.4
.8
7.3 6.8 5.2 5.0 3.6 5.4 5.7 6.1
Milk, fresh (delivered)___________
3.7 5.8 5.5 5.4
2.5 2.0 4.0 3.4 1.9 2.4 3.8 4.9
Milk, fresh (store)_______________
6.0 5.1 4.0
.7
1.3 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.6 1.0 1.4
.9
Milk, evaporated________________
1.8 1.0 1.1 2.5
6.0 5.0 4.3 6.0 4.6 7.2 4.3 5.3
Eggs ______ _________________
7.3 4.9 6.0 3.9
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh:
Apples.------- ------ -------------------- 1.4 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.1 2.9
1.3 2.4 1.4 2.5
Bananas--------------------------------1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0
.8 1.3
.9 1.7 1.1
Oranges_______________________ 2.2 2.2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.3 3.0
1.6 1.6 1.6 1.3
2.1 1.0 1.0 1.5
.9
.6 1.1 1.4
Beans, green__________________
.8
.7
.8
.7
.7 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.1 1.1
Cabbage-------------- ------------------.8
.9
.9
.9
.7
.5
.8
.6
.4
.2
.5
Carrots_______________________
.5
.9
.4
.4
.3
.2
.9 1.2 1.3 1.5
Lettuce_______________________
.8 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2
.8
.8
.7
.7 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.2
.8 1.5
Onions________ ______ _________
.7
.8 1.5 1.0
.9
1.9 4.1 3.4 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.5 2.4 3.2 3.1
Potatoes_____ ____ ____________
.4
Spinach____________________ _
.5
.2
.2
.4 1.3
.3
.3
.4
.2
.2
.1
Sweet potatoes________________
.4 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.6
.8
.4 2.0 1.5
Canned:
.4
.6
.6
. 5 .5
Peaches__________________ ____
.6
.5 1.0
.6
.2 1.0
.2
.9
Pineapple_________ I---------------.3
.4
.4
.4
.5
.4
.6
.6
.5
.4
.4
Corn_________________ _ _
.6
.8
.9
.6
.7
.5
.8 1.0
.6 1.1
.9
.5
.7
Peas________________________ .
.4
.9
.9
.7
.6 1.2
.8 1.2
.7 1.0
.5
Tomatoes...................... ................
1.6 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.5
Dried:
P r u n e s ._______ _____________
.2
.5
.5
.9
.4
.4
.6
.7
.8
.4
.9
.4
Navy beans___________ ________
.6
.3 1.0
.8
.7 1.2 1.1
.6 1.5
.7 1.4 1.7
Beverages:
Coffee_____ _____ _______ ________ 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.9 1.7 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.3
Tea__________ __________________
.9
.6
.6
.5
.9 1.4
.5
.7
.4
.4
.3
.3
Fats and oils:
L a r d ___________________________ 2.2 1.1 2.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 2.1
.8 2.4 1.9 2.3 2.1
Other shortening:
In cartons___________ _______ _
1.4
.7 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.4
.4 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.6
.1
In other containers_____________
.2
.4
. 5 .4 1.3
.5
.5
.4
.9
.4
.5
Mayonnaise_____________________
.8
.8 1.0 1.4 1.6
.8 1.1
.9
.9 1.1
.8 1.3
Oleomargarine_______________ ___
.6
.3
.8
.5
.7
.2 1.1 1.0
.7
.6
.4 1.6
.3
Peanut butter______________ ____
.1
.2
.4
.2
.3
.4
.6
.3
.5
.3
.3
4.1 3.5 4.5 4.6 5.2 4.7 4.5 3.4 5.5 4.6 4.8 4.8
Sugar____________________________
All commodities___________________ 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1 See p. 17, for average for large cities combined.
1 Less than 0.05 percent.




85

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 5 . — Relative im p ortan ce o f the various fo o d s included in the n ew foo d -co st
in dex in each o f 51 large c itie s 1 Continued
—




Seattle

San F ran­
cisco
j

Portland,
Oreg.

Los Angeles

Salt Lake
City

Denver

Pacific region

1.8
.6
1.7
(2
)

2.0
.6
2.2
.4

4.3
.7
2.6
.3

1.6
.8
1.8
.2

1.8
.5
2.0
(2
)

1.1
1.2
1.3
.1

2.2
.8
1.9
.2

5.0
.6
.2
1.5
.7

5.4
1.1
.5
1.9
.7

4.7
1.5
.1
1.1
.8

4.4
2.7
.4
1.7
.8

6.0
1.6
.1
1.8
.5

6.4
1.7
.4
2.2
.5

5.4
2.4
.2
1.4
.7

4.0
8.0
.8
1.3

4.2
6.3
1.3
1.6

2.4
7.1
.7
1.2

5.1
2.0
1.6
1.4

4.9
5.3
2.0
2.1

3.7
5.2
.6
2.6

2.7
5.4
1.1
1.4

3.8
3.0
1.4
.2

2.1
2.7
1.3
.1

1.6
1.7
.8
.3

1.6
2.1
1.6
.2

2.7
2.4
1.4
.1

2.1
2.4
1.6
.1

1.6
2.4
1.3
.1

1.4
1.5
1.9

1.7
1.7
1.9

1.3
1.5
.9

1.3
1.4
2.3

.5
.4
1.4

2.7
2.4
3.0

1.1
.9
2.1

2.4
1.4

1.2
.5

.8
.8

1.9
1.1

2.8
1.3

2.7
.7

1.9
1.0

5.6
1.7
5.7
3.1
1.5
4.7

5.1
1.5
5.1
4.1
1.0
4.3

7.3
1.9
7.3
2.5
2.3
5.7

4.5
1.9
7.6
2.9
1.1
5.9

5.3
1.6
6.7
5.1
1.1
5.4

5.0
2.1
4.9
3.4
1.3
6.4

8.2
2.1
6.4
6.5
1.1
6.1

1.4
2.4
4.8
.2
.3
.8
2.0
.8
2.3
.9
(2
)

2.3
1.5
5.0
.4
.6
.8
2.4
.7
3.6
1.2
.4

.9
1.2
6.1
.1
.5
.9
1.9
.8
2.8
.7
.1

3.3
1.5
3.6
.5
.6
1.3
2.5
1.3
3.9
1.6
.3

1.4
1.5
3.7
.3
.5
1.2
1.5
.6
2.9
.6
(2
)

2.5
1.2
4.0
.5
.4
1.0
1.9
.9
2.9
.9
.1

1.5
1.2
3.6
.1
.5
1.3
1.8
.8
2.3
.5
.3

1.3
1.2
1.2
1.4
2.5

.8
.7
.9
1.2
1.1

.2
.8
1.2
1.7
2.0

.5
.6
.7
.6
1.6

1.7
.9
1.6
1.2
2.1

.6
.7
.5
.5
1.6

.3
.8
1.0
1.2
1.7

.8
.1

1.4
.3

1.4
.4

1.1
.6

.4
.3

.5
.3

.8
.2

2.5
.5

3.5
.4

2.3
.4

2.9
.6

2.8
.3

2.9
.6

2.7
.6

.7

1.0

1.0

.6

.6

.3

.4

.2
.1
.9

.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.6
.8
1.0
.9
1.1
1.1
1.5
1.4
1.1
1.1
1.8
1.7
.4
.5
.8
.5
.6
.3
.4
.4
.5
.3
.2
.2
.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
4.0
4.2
3.6
4.2
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
2 Less than 0.05 percent.

o
©
o

Cereals and bakery products:
Cereals:
3.2
2.8
3.0
1.4
Flour, wheat_____ _____
.5
.8
.6
2.5
Macaroni________________
1.9
1.5
1.7
1.3
Corn flakes_______ _____
1.2
1.0
Corn meal_______________
1.0
1.3
Bakery products:
7.7
9.1 11.0
7.1
Bread, white..
. . . _____
.6
.4
.2
.8
Bread, whole-wheat______
.2
.2
.3 (2
Bread, rye_______________
)
12
1.1
1.2
1.1
Vanilla cookies.. ______
.4
.4
.5
.6
Soda crackers____________
Meats:
Beef:
3.9
5.3
3.4
3.1
Round steak_____________
3.4
5.3
4.3
4.1
Rib roast________________
1.4
1.6
1.7
.7
Chuck roast_____________
2.2
3.6
2.2
Veal: Cutlets............ ............
3.3
Pork:
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.8
Chops___________________
3.8
3.5
3.3
1.5
Bacon, sliced_____________
1.5
1.6
2.5
1.8
Ham, whole_____________
1.4
1.2
1.6
1.6
Salt pork___________ _____
Lamb:
.1
.1
Leg------ ------ ------------------.3
.1
.2
.4
.3
.3
Rib chops____
.. .
1.2
1.9
2.1
Poultry: Roasting chickens...
2.8
Fish:
.9
1.3
2.4
Fresh, frozen_____________
2.6
.2
.2
Salmon, pink, canned ... .
.6
.7
Dairy products:
3.4
4.2
3.6
Butter____ ________________
4.7
.9
1.3
.9
1.3
Cheese.___________________
7.9
7.9
3.1
3.6
Milk, fresh (delivered)_____
3.6
5.2
Milk, fresh (store)______ . . .
3.6
2.3
1.4
Milk, evaporated________ .
1.0
1.6
3.0
4.1
4.1
Eggs-----------------------------------4.3
4.3
Fruits and vegetables:
Fresh:
2.8
Apples....... ......... ...... .........
3.0
2.8
1.0
Bananas____ _____ ______
1.2
1.2
1.8
1.6
2.1
Oranges_________________
2.8
1.8
1.6
1.4
Beans, green_____________
1.2
1.2
1.0
Cabbage......... .................
.7
.6
1.3
1.0
.5
.4
Carrots____ _____________
.5
.4
1.4
1.1
Lettuce_________________
1.0
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
Onions_____ _____ _______
1.7
3.4
3.0
3.5
4.4
Potatoes___ ___________
.2
.2
Spinach________________
.3
.6
1.1
.9
Sweetpotatoes___________
.6
1.0
Canned:
Peaches________________
.7
.9
.6
.2
Pineapple.................... ........
.7
.7
.5
.3
.4
C om ..__________________
1.0
.8
.8
Peas____________________
.8
.7
.8
1.0
1.6
2.1
1.8
Tomatoes_______________
2.0
Dried:
.5
.4
.5
Prunes______ ______ _____
.8
.9
Navy beans___ ____ _____
1.2
.9
1.3
Beverages:
2.9
Coffee___ ____ ____________
3.0
3.3
3.8
Tea________ ____ _________
.5
.4
1.4
.6
Fats and oils:
1.4
Lard_______ ______________
1.1
1.7
1.7
Other shortening.6
1.1
1.2
.9
In cartons_______________
.9
1.7
.6
.3
In other containers_______
1.4
Mayonnaise............. ..............
1.5
1.3
.7
.6
.8
.5
Oleomargarine........................
.8
.4
.3
.3
.1
Peanut butter_____________
Sugar_________ _____________
4.9
4.6
4.5
4.7
All commodities_____________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1 See p. 17, for average for large cities combined.

Mountain region

Butte

New Orleans

Little Rock |
.... 1

1
j Dallas

Commodity

Houston

West South Central
region

86

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

T able

6.—

1 9 1 3 -4 1

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i ly exp en d itu re data to obtain w eights f o r fo o d cost in dex

Family expenditure for—

Represented in index by—

Meats:
Meats:
Beef: Fresh, steak, por t er hous e,
Beef:
sirloin.
top round. ___
roast, rib____________
chuck_________
All other beef____ __________
Veal: Fresh, steak, chops _______ ]
roast_______________ >
stew....... ................... .
Lamb: Fresh, chops_____________
roast............ .............
stew.........................
Pork: Fresh, chops..................... .
loin roast______ ____
other___ ____ _______
Smoked, bacon________ ___
ham, slices_______
half or whole.
picnic______
cooked______
Salt, side_________________
Pork sausage______________
Other pork_________ ______
Poultry: Chicken, broiling............
roast__________
stew__________
Turkey___ ____________
Other. _ _______________
Miscellaneous meat products, in­
cluding: Bologna, frankfurters,
cooked tongue, liver, etc.
Fish: Fresh........................... .........
Canned___________________
Cured____________________
Oysters_____________ ___________
Other sea food._ ________________
Vttfk: Fresh, whole, bottled_ ____ .
_
loose____________
skimmed______ _____
Skimmed, dried_______________
Cream______________ ____ ____
Other, not canned......................
Canned____ _______ ____ ___ _
Butter____ ___________ _____ ________
Icecream____ _________
______ ___

j

Weighted average of prices of round steak and rib roast.
Round steak, No. 2 grade, best cut.
Rib roast, No. 2 grade, best cut.
Chuck roast, No. 2 grade, best cut.
Weighted average of prices of round steak, rib roast,
and chuck roast.

Veal: Cutlets, best cut.
Lamb: Rib chops.
Leg.
Weighted average of prices ofl amb rib chops and leg
of lamb.
Pork: Chops, No. 1 grade.
Bacon, sliced, No. 1 grade.

|

J
1
>

Ham, whole, No. 1 grade.
Salt pork, No. 1 grade.
Weighted average of all pork prices.
Poultry: Roasting chickens, dressed.

Weighted average of all meat prices.
Fish: Fresh, frozen.
Canned pink salmon.
1
Weighted average of prices of fresh fish and canned pink
j
salmon.
Eggs, fresh, U. S. extras.
[Milk: Weighted average of prices of milk, fresh, delivered and
|
in stores.
Evaporated, unsweetened brand.
Butter, creamery, 92-score or better brand.
Weighted average of prices of fresh milk, evaporated milk, and
butter.

1

Cheese: American. ................. .............
Cottage ............ ..................... [•Cheese: American, No. 1, mild brand.
Other______________________
Other table fats_____________________ Oleomargarine.
Lard.____ __________________________ Lard, pure, good quality brand.
Vegetable shortening________________ Shortening other than lard: In cartons.
In other containers.
Mayonnaise and other salad dressing... Salad dressing.
Table or cooking oils.......... ................... Weighted average of prices of oleomargarine, lard, shortening
other than lard, and salad dressing.
Peanut butter......................................... Peanut butter, good quality brand.
Bread: White, wheat________________
Graham or whole-wheat............
R y e ............... ...... ....................
Plain rolls____ ________ ______
Sweet rolls___________________
Crackers.............................. ...................
Cookies............................................. ......
Cakes....................................................
Pies________________ _______________
Other baked goods..................................
Flour: Wheat, white..............................
graham............... .........
Other....................................... .
Corn meal _ .............................................
Hominy__________________ __________
Cornstarch........ .....................................
Dried corn.............................................
Breakfast cereals..... ...............................
Macaroni, spaghetti................................




Bread: White, wheat.
Whole-wheat.
Rye.
1
Weighted average of prices of white bread, whole-wheat
j
bread, and rye bread.
Soda crackers.

|Vanilla cookies.
Weighted average of prices of bread, soda crackers, and vanilla
cookies.
j-Flour, wheat, white.
jc o r n meal.
Corn flakes.
Macaroni.

SUMMARY TABLES
T able

6.—

87

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i l y exp en d itu re data to obtain weights f o r f o o d cost in dex — Continued

Family expenditure for—

Represented in index by—

Other grain products________________

Weighted average of prices of corn meal, corn flakes, and
macaroni.

Sweets: Sugar, white________________
brown________________
Candy___ _______ __________
Jellies______________________
Molasses, sirups_____________
Other sweets________________

Sugar, white, granulated.

Vegetables:
Fresh: Potatoes_________________ Fresh: Potatoes, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Sweetpotatoes, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Sweetpotatoes, yams______
Cabbage, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Cabbage_________________
Beans, green, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Beans, snap (string)______
Lettuce, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Lettuce__________________
Spinach, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Spinach______ _________ .
Carrots................. ................
Carrots, U. S. No. 1 (or equal grade).
Onions: Mature................... j Onions, mature.
Spring............. ......
All other fresh vegetables_
_ Weighted average of prices of all priced fresh vegetables
Tomatoes: Canned____ ________ _
Juice_________________ |Canned tomatoes, standard brand.
Sauce, paste______
Peas, canned_________ __________ Canned peas, green, extra standard brand.
Corn, canned________________
_ Canned corn, cream style, standard brand.
Other canned vegetables and soups. Weighted average of prices of all canned vegetables.
All dried vegetables______________ Dried navy beans, No. 1 grade.
Fruits:
Fresh: Oranges__________________ Oranges (California, Florida, other).
Apples___________________ jApples, general purpose, U. S. No. 1 variety.
Cider________ ___________
Bananas_________________ Bananas, yellow.
All other fresh fruits_______ Weighted average of prices of all priced fresh fruits.
Peaches, canned........ ___.............. _ Canned peaches, yellow cling, halves, choice brand.
Pineapple, canned____________ _ Canned pineapple, sliced, Hawaiian, fancy brand.
All other canned fruits................. . Weighted average of prices of all priced canned fruits.
All dried fruits__________________ Dried prunes.
Tea.......... ........................ ....................... Tea, medium quality brand.
Coffee........ ........................ .......... ......... Coffee, average grade (popular seller) brand.
Miscellaneous foods, including nuts, Weighted average of prices of all priced foods.
condiments, soft drinks, and other
beverages, and food consumed away
from home.

4 0 9 7 7 8 ° — 41 -------- 7







IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

191

er o f outlets reporting retail fo o d p rices, J u n e 1 9 4 1 p

Number of Num­
inde- ber of
pend- chains
stores reportreport- ing
ing

Number of
price quota­
tions for milk
Region and city
Gro­
cery
stores

Dair­
ies

20
12
10
10
11
9
8

5
3
2
3
4
2
4

24
15
12
12
15
11
12

3
2
3
3
2
3
2

24
18
60
38
23
18
19

5
3
6
3
5
3
3

20
13
36
29
24
16
16

4
2
2
3
4
3
2

39
23
29
18
28
15
29
9
14

4
4
3
2
4
3
3
5
3

34
20
22
18
28
18
20
13
15

3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2

16
24
16
19
25

4
2
3
2
2

20
19
16
19
19

4
2
2
2
3

South Atlantic:
Atlanta.. _____
Baltimore____
Charleston, S. C_
Jacksonville____
Norfolk________
Richmond_____
Savannah______
W as h i ng t o n,
D. C ________
East South Central:
Birmingham___
Louisville______
Memphis____
Mobile______ West South Central:
Dallas_________
Houston___ _ .
Little Rock____
New Orleans___
Mountain:
Butte_________
Denver____ _ _
Salt Lake City..
Pacific:
Los Angeles____
Portland, Oreg_.
San Francisco. __
Seattle______ -

Num­
ber of Num­
inde- ber of
pend- chains
stores report­
report­ ing
ing

14
31
17
11
28
15
15

4
2
2
5
3
4
3

4
2
2
3
3
2
3

17

3

5

15
13
14
13

3
3
2
3

3
2
4
4

14
14
13
30

3
5
3
3

2
3
3
2

9
14
14

3
2
2

3
3
2

23
20
35
26

7
4
5
2

3
5
2
3

89

SUMMARY TABLES

T a b l e 8 . — A rticles included in the original in dex o f clothing costs , 1 9 1 9 and 1 9 3 9 ,
and i n the new in d ex , 1 9 3 9

Original index
1919

New index
1939

Wool: Men’s—Overcoats_______ Wool: Men's—Overcoats
Suits__ _____ ___
Suits............. .........
Women’s—Coats, heavy,
Women’s—Coats, heavy,
fur trim.
fur trim.
Dresses
_
Dresses_______
Girls’—Coats......................
Girls’—Coats____________
Cotton: Men’s—Suits_____ _____
Work trousers.
Work trousers___
Overalls
_____
Overalls
____
Shirts, business _.
Shirts, business..
Union suits __
Union suits_____
______
Socks__________
Socks
W omen’s—Dresses,
W omen’s—Dresses,
street.
street.
House
House
dresses.
dresses.
Nightgowns...
Nightgowns..
Yard goods—Percale____
Yard goods—Percale____
Footwear: Men’s—Rubbers . ..
Women’s—Shoes, low..
Women’s—Shoes, low.
Other garments: Men’s—Hats,
Other garments: Men’s—Hats,
furfurfelt.
felt.
Hats,
Hats,
straw.
straw.
Neck­
Neck­
ties.
ties.
Services: Men’s—Shoe repairs---- Services: Men’s—Shoe repairs___
Boys’—Shoe repairs____
Boys’—Shoe repairs___
Wool: Women’s—Robes________
Boys’—Suits____________
Trousers_________
Jackets. ________ _
Girls’—Dresses__________
Yard goods—Flannel_____
Cotton: Boys’—Shirts__________
Trousers_______
Girls’—Dresses________
Bloom ers______
Footwear: Women’s—Rubbers.. _
Girls’—Shoes, low____
Rubbers_____
Other garments: Women’s—
Brassieres.
Boys’—Neck­
ties.
Services: Women’s—Shoe repairs




1939
Wool: Men’s—Overcoats.
Suits.
Women’s—Coats, heavy,
fur trim.
Dresses.
Girls’—Coats.
Cotton: Men’s—Suits.
Work trousers.
Overalls.
Shirts, business.
Union suits.
Socks.
W omen’s—Dresses,
street.
House
dresses.
Nightgowns.
Yard goods—Percale.
Footwear: Men’s—Rubbers.
Women’s—Shoes, low.
Other garments: Men’s—Hats,
furfelt.
Hats,
straw.
Neck­
ties.
Services: Men’s—Shoe repairs.
Boys’—Shoe repairs.

Wool: Women’s—Robes.
Boys’—Suits.
Trousers.
Jackets.
Girls’—Dresses.
Yard goods—Flannel.
Cotton: Boys’—Shirts.
Trousers.
Girls’—Dresses.
Bloomers.
Footwear: Women’s—Rubbers.
Girls’—Shoes, low.
Rubbers.
Other garments: Women’s—
Brassieres.
Boys’—Neck­
ties.
Services: Women’s—Shoe repairs.
Wool: Men’s—Topcoats................
Sweaters.......... ......
Women’s—Hats..................
Cotton: Men’s—Shirts, work____
Pajamas________
Shorts_________
Undershirts_____
Silk and
rayon: Men’s—Socks_________
Women’s—Dresses____
Panties____
Slips_______
Hose______
Footwear: Men’s—Shoes, low____
Other garments:
Women's—Gloves, leather_____
Girdles____ ____ ___

Wool: Men’s—Topcoats.
Sweaters.
Women’s—Hats.
Cotton: Men’s—Shirts, work.
Pajamas.
Shorts.
Undershirts.
Silk and
rayon: Men’s—Socks.
W omen’s—Dresses.
Panties.
Slips.
Hose.
Footwear: Men’s—Shoes, low.
Other garments:
Women’s—Gloves, leather.
Girdles.

90

CH A N G E S IN

COST

OF L IV IN G IN

LARGE

CITIE S,

1913-41

T a b l e 8 .— A rticles in cluded in the original in d ex of clothing costs , 1 9 1 9 a nd 1 9 3 9 ,
and in the n ew in d ex , 1 9 3 9 — Continued

Original index
1919

New index
1939

1939

Wool: Men’s—Caps.
Women’s—Suits.
Boys'—Caps.
Cotton: Men’s—Nightshirts.
Women’s—Skirts.
Waists.
Petticoats.
Union suits.
Corset
covers.
Combina­
tions.
Stockings.
Boys’—Nightshirts.
Union suits.
Stockings.
Girls’—Petticoats.
Nightgowns.
Union suits.
Underwaists.
Stockings.
Yard goods—Voile, etc.
Silk and rayon: W om en’ s—
Waists.
Footwear: Men’s—Shoes, high.
Women’s—Shoes, high.
Boys’—Shoes, high.
Girls’—Shoes, high.
Other garments: Men’s—Collars.
Women’s—Cor­
sets.




Wool: Boys’—Sweaters.
Girls’—Sweaters.
Cotton: Boys’—Pajamas.
Shorts.
Undershirts.
Girls’—Pajamas.
Socks and anklets.
Silk and rayon: Women’s—
Bloomers.
Footwear: Boys’—Shoes, low.
Other garments: M en’s—Gloves,
leather.
W o m e n’s—
G ird le-b ra s­
sieres.

Wool: Men’s—Trousers.
Jackets.
Women’s—Coats, heavy,
no fur.
Coats, light, no
fur.
Skirts.
Silk and rayon: Yard goods.
Footwear: Men’s—Shoes, work.
Children’s—Shoes.
Ot her garments: W o m e n ’s—
Coats, fur.
Services: Men’s—Dry cleaning.
Women’s—Dry clean­
ing.

91

SUMMARY TABLES
T able

9. — R elative im p ortan ce o f the various articles includ ed in the n ew in d ex o f
clothing costs in N e w Y o r k C ity and in large cities in each o f 5 regions 1
f1935-39 average]
Large cities in the—
Article

Wool: Men’s—Overcoats____________________
Topcoats______________ _______
Suits____ ______ ______________
Trousers. ______ ______________
Jackets............... ................... .
Sweaters..________ __________
Women’s—Coats, heavy, fur trim ..........
Coats, heavy, plain___ _____
Coats, light, plain.................
Skirts......... ........... ..................
Dresses___ _______________ _
Hats____ _____________ ____
Girls’—Coats___ _____ ________________
Cotton: Men’s—Suits ______________________
Trousers________________ _ _
Overalls_______ ____________
Shirts, work________________
Shirts, business______________
Pajamas____________________
Shorts______________________
Undershirts____________ ____
Union suits_________________
Socks__________________ ____
Women's—Wash frocks, house_______
Wash frocks, street..............
Nightgowns....... ...............
Yard goods: Percale______________ _
Silk and rayon: Men’s—Socks___________ ____
Neckties_____________
Women’s—Dresses, rayon_____
Slips, silk and rayon
Panties, rayon_____
Hose, silk_________
Yard goods—Silk and rayon___
Footwear: Men’s—Shoes, street_______ _______
Shoes, work_______ _______
Rubbers _________________
Women’s—Shoes, street. ________
Children’s—Shoes....... ......... .............
Other garments: Men’s—Hats, felt................... .
Hats, straw......... ......
Women’s—Girdles ............... .
Gloves___________
Coats, fur...............
Services: Men’s—Dry cleaning _____________ _
Shoe repairs________________
Women’s—Dry cleaning____________
Boys’—Shoe repairs________________
All items, this index_________________________
1 See p. 19 for average for large cities combined.




New
York
City

4.0
1.1
11.9
.7
1.4
4.5
2.0
1.7
1.3
.8
2.1
.4
.7
1.3
3.4
1.0
.6
1.1
1.6
2.8
1.7
1.7
1.1
.5
.8
1.3
7.6
1.4
1.7
8.6
.6
4.6
.5
.9
7.5
3.2
1.5
.1
1.8
.9
1.0
2.1
2.1
1.4
1.0
100.0

East
North
North
Atlantic Central
region
region

West
North
Central
region

South­
ern
region
0.7
1.8
11.8
1.4
.9
1.7
3.0
1.8
1.5
1.9
.9
1.7
.5
.8
1.7
1.4
1.4
3.8
1.1
.8
2.4

3.5
1.3
10.6
1.5
1.1
2.2
4.1
1.9
2.0
1.8
1.1
1.6
.6

3.3
1.1
10.9
1.8
1.2
1.7
3.6
1.9
2.2
1.8
.8
1.5
.6

2.6
.9
11.4
1.5
1.3
1.5
3.5
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.2
1.5
.5

.7
.9
1.2
3.1
1.1
.5
1.1
1.8
3.3
2.0
2.4
1.1
.8
1.0
1.1
6.5
1.4
1.6
6.5
.5
4.4
1.1
1.6
7.2
4.0
1.2

1.0
1.1
1.3
3.2
1.0
.6
1.0
1. 7
2.7
2.3
2.2
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
6.4
1.4
1.5
6.2
.6
4.3
1.2
1. 2
7.2
3.7
1.3

1.7
1.0
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.0
.6
100.0

1.4
1.1
2.1
1.9
1.5
1.5
.5
100.0

1.1
1.7
1.4
3.1
1.0
.6
.9
1.7
2.2
2.4
1.9
.8
1.1
1.2
1.1
6.3 i
1.5
2.0
6.6
.8
4.4
1.3
.9
7.4
3.3
1.3
.4
1.3
1.0
2.1
2.3
1.5
1.8
.5
100.0

.3

.3

Pacific
region

2.0
11.8
1.8
1.2
2.6
2.8
1.8
2.0
2.9
1.3
1.5
.3
1.4
1.3
1.0
3.0
1.3
.7
2.3

2.4
2.1
2.2
1.0
1.9
1.2
1.1
6.5
1.6
1.9
5.8
.8
4.8
1.3

1.8
2.2
1.4
.9
1.3
1.0
1.1
6.3
1.6
2.1
6.4
1.4
4.4
1.3

7.9
3.7
1.3
.7
.9
.6

7.7
3.9
1.3
.2
1.8
.8
.5
2.8
1.9
2.1
.8
100.0

.3

3.8
1.3
1.5
.4
100.0

92
T

a b l e

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

10.—

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i ly expend iture data to obtain w eights f o r
clothing-cost in dex

Family expenditure for—

Represented in index by—

Women’s: Coats, sport, wool, black and colors, heavy
weight, no fur trim, very inexpensive
quality.
Coats, sport, wool, or wool and rayon, black
and colors, heavyweight, no fur trim, ex­
tremely inexpensive quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Coats, heavy, plain (ages (Girls’ : Coats, wool, no fm: trim, medium quality.
2-11).
I
Coats, wool, no fur trim, inexpensive quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Coats, heavy, plain (ages (Weighted average of prices of women's and girls’ heavy
12-17).
\ untrimmed coats.
Women’s: Coats, dress, wool, black, heavyweight, fur
trim, inexpensive quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Coats, heavy, fur-trimmed
(all age groups).
Women’s and girls’ : Coats, heavy, plain (ages
18 and over).

{

Women’s and girls’ : Coats, light, wool (all age
groups).
Infants’ : Coats....... .............. ............................... .

Coats, dress, cotton, wool and rayon, black,
heavyweight, fur trim, very inexpensive
quality.
Women’s: Coats, dress, wool, black, lightweight, no fur
trim, inexpensive quality.

(

Women’s and girls’ : Skirts, wool........................
Suits, wool—................. ......
Women’s and girls’ : Dresses, wool____ ______
Dresses, wool and rayon _

Men’s and boys’ : Overcoats_________________

Men’s and boys’ : Topcoats..................................

Men’s and boys’ : Suits, heavy_____ __________

Men’s and boys’ : Suits, lightweight...............

Men’s and boys’ : Trousers, wool......... ............ .
Men’s and boys’ : Sweaters, heavy.....................
Sweaters, light....................... .
Play suits, wool knit....... ......
Women’s and girls’ : Sweaters and jackets,
wool, knit.
Sweaters and jackets,
wool, fabric.
Play suits, wool, knit-----Infants’ : Sweaters, sweater suits, and sacks......
Other wool clothing for all sexes and ages:
Men’s and boys’ : Caps, wool_____________
Shirts and blouses, wool.
Hose, woolen___________
Women’s and girls’ : Caps and berets, wool___
Hose, woolen____________
Bath robes...........................
Yard goods: Wool.................................................. .

Coats, sport, wool, black and colors, light­
weight, no fur trim, very inexpensive
quality.
VWomen’s: Skirts, all wool, medium quality.
/
Skirts, all wool, inexpensive quality.
Women’s: Dresses, wool, medium quality.
Dresses, wool, inexpensive quality.
Dresses, wool and cotton, very inexpensive
quality.
Men’s: Overcoats, wool (30-32 ounces per yard), medium
quality, i
Overcoats, wool (30-32 ounces per yard), inex­
pensive quality.1
Men’s: Topcoats, wool (18-20 ounces per yard), medium
quality.
Topcoats, wool (18-20 ounces per yard), inex­
pensive quality.
Men’s: Suits, wool (14-15 ounces per yard), medium
quality, 3-piece.
Suits, wool (14-15 ounces per yard), inexpensive
quality, 3-piece
Or (d ep en d in g u p o n loca tion o f c ity )—
Suits, wool (13-13^ ounces per yard), medium
quality, 3-piece.
Suits, wool (13-13 ounces per yard), inexpensive
quality, 3-piece.
Men’s: Suits, wool (10-11 ounces per yard), medium
quality, 2-piece.2
Suits, wool (10-11 ounces per yard), inexpensive
quality, 2-piece.2
Men’s: Trousers, dress, wool (13}^-14^ ounces per yard),
medium quality.
Men's: Sweaters, dress, wool (13J4-14H ounces per yard),
Trousers, wool, pull-over style, medium quality.
Sweaters, coat quality.
inexpensive style, inexpensive quality.

>
Weigh ted averages of prices of priced woolen clothing.

CO TTO N

Women’s and girls’ : Dresses, cotton, house___
Aprons____ _______ _____ Women's: Wash frocks, cotton, printed percale, inex­
pensive quality.
Coveralls............................
Women’s and girls’ : Dresses, cotton, street___ Women’s: Wash frocks, cotton, printed voile, batiste, or
dimity, medium quality.
Infants’: Dresses, rompers, skirts, gertrades___

[
(

1In regions where men’s overcoats form a small proportionWash frocks, cotton, printed voile, batiste, or
of clothing expenditures, overcoats are repre­
dimity, inexpensive quality.
sented by topcoat prices.
2 In regions where the family expenditure for men’s lightweight suits was small, they are represented
m the index by men’s heavy suits.




SUMMARY TABLES
T

a b l e

10.—

93

M eth o d o f gro u p in g o f f a m i l y expen ditu re data to obtain weights f o r
clothing-cost index — Continued

Family expenditure for—
cotton

Represented in index by—

— c o n t in u e d

Women’s and girls’ : Nightgowns and pajamas, '
cotton, lightweight.
Nightgowns and pajamas,
cotton, flannel.
(Women’s: Nightgowns, cotton, printed batiste.
Bloomers and panties, cot­
ton.
Lounging and beach pa­
jamas, cotton.
Men’s: Trousers, work, cotton, khaki drill, 8 ounces per
yard before sanforized.
Trousers, work, cotton, khaki drill, 2.50 yards
per pound.
Trousers, work, cotton, covert, 2.15 yards per
pound before sanforized.
Trousers, work, cotton, covert, 2.85 yards per
pound, finished weight.
Men’s and boys’ : Trousers, cotton
Trousers, work, cotton, whipcord, 8 ounces per
yard before sanforized.
Trousers, work, cotton, whipcord, 2.40 yards per
pound before sanforized.
Trousers, semidress, cotton twill, 2.85 yards per
pound before sanforized.
Trousers, semidress, cotton twill, 3.25 yards per
pound before sanforized.
Men’s: Overalls, cotton denim, 8 ounces per yard before
sanforized (sanforized shrunk), 46-48 yards per
dozen.
Overalls, cotton denim, 8 ounces per yard before
Men’s and boys’ : Overalls, coveralls.
sanforized (sanforized shrunk), 42-44 yards per
dozen.
Overalls, cotton denim, 2.20 yards per pound
before sanforized, 30-41 yards per dozen.
Men’s: Shirts, cotton, work, chambray, 3.90 yards per
pound before sanforized (sanforized shrunk).
Shirts, cotton work, chambray, 3.90 yards per
Men’s and boys’ : Shirts, work, cotton-----------pound, regular finish.
Shirt, cotton, work, covert, 3.90 yards per pound
before sanforized (sanforized shrunk).
Men’s: Shirts, cotton, business, collar attached, broad­
cloth, combed yarns (128 x 68 or 136 x 60 con­
struction), manufacturer’s brand, widely adver­
tised.
Shirts, cotton, business, collar attached, broad­
Men’s and boys’ : Shirts, cotton, dress ..
cloth, combed yarns (128 x 68 or 136 x 60 con­
Collars____________
struction), distributor’s brand, not advertised
or advertised locally only.
Shirts, cotton, business, collar attached, broad­
cloth, carded yarns (100 x 60 construction),
distributor’s brand, not advertised or adver,
tised locally only.
Men’s: Suits, cotton and mohair, good quality, 2-piece.
Suits, cotton, wash, inexpensive quality, suiting
(2.20 yards per pound), regular finish.
Men’s and boys’ : Suits:1Cotton, linen
Suits, cotton, wash, inexpensive quality, gabar­
Palm beach..
dine (8-9 ounces per yard before sanforized).
Suits, cotton, wash, inexpensive quality, seer­
sucker, regular finish.
Men’s and boys’ : Union suits: Cotton knit____
Cotton and wool.
Drawers: Cotton and wool... Men’s :2 Union suits, carded yarns, cotton, 1 x 1,14 pounds
Undershirts: Cotton and (
per dozen, medium quality.
wool.
Union suits, carded yarns, cotton, 1 x 1,14 pounds
Women’s and girls’ : Union suits and combina­
per dozen, inexpensive quality.
tions, cotton.
Union suits and combina­
tions, wool.
Men’s: Undershirts, combed yarns, cotton, Swiss knit,
Men’s and boys’ : Undershirts, cotton.................
medium quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Underwaists and shirts.......
Undershirts, combed yarns, cotton, Swiss knit,
inexpensive quality.
Infants’ : Shirts, bands, and sleeping garments.... Weighted averages of prices of men’s cotton union suits
and undershirts.
1Priced in Southern region only. Family expenditures for cotton suits in other regions are represented
by the prices for lightweight wool suits.
2 Not priced in Southern and Pacific regions. Family expenditures for men’s union suits in those regions
are represented by a weighted average of the prices for men’s undershirts and shorts.




94
T able

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

10.—

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i l y expenditure data to obtain w eights f o r
clothing-cost in dex — Continued

Represented in index by—

Family expenditure for—
cotton

— c o n t in u e d

Men’s and boys’ : Pajamas and nightshirts____ \Men’s: Pajamas, cotton, broadcloth, carded yarns.
Union suits, woven, cotton.. J
Pajamas, cotton, printed percale.
Men’s: Shorts, cotton, printed broadcloth, 1 x 1, 100x60
construction.
Men’s and boys’ : Shorts, cotton.

(

Shorts, cotton, printed broadcloth, 1 x 1, 80 x 60
Men’s and boys’ : Hose, cotton, dress_________
construction.
Hose, heavy, cotton________
Women’s and girls’ : Hose, cotton. . .................... Men’s: Socks, cotton, combed yarns, mercerized, 220-240
needles, medium quality.
Infants’ : Stockings.................. ........................ . _
Yard goods: Cotton............... ...... ...................

I

Socks, cotton, combed yarns, 180-200 needles,
Other cotton:
inexpensive quality.
Men’s and boys’ : Caps other than wool___
Play suits, cotton suede -. Yard goods: Percale, cotton, printed, 80 x 80 construction,
yard.
Handkerchiefs_________
Women’s and girls’ : Caps, berets, other
than wool.
Coats, light cotton___
Play suits, cotton
suede.
Suits, other than
wool,
silk,
and •Weighted averages of prices of all priced cotton clothing.
rayon.
Waists and middies,
cotton.
Knickers, breeches,
shorts.
Gloves, cotton_______
Handkerchiefs_______
Slips, cotton_________
Infants’ : Caps, hoods, bonnets_______ ____
Diapers___ ______ ______________
Men’s and boys': Gloves, cotton, work___ Weighted averages of prices of men's cotton work trousers
and overalls and cotton work shirts.
Trousers, other________ Weighted averages of prices of men’s work and dress
cotton and wool trousers and overalls.
Suits, other____________ Weighted averages of prices of men’s heavy and light­
weight wool suits and cotton suits.
Other cotton and wool mixtures:
Men’s and boys’ : Playsuits other than
wool and cotton suede.
Bathing suits, sunsuits... ,Weighted averages of prices of all priced wool and cotton
Women’s and girls’ : Play suits, other than ' clothing.
wool and cotton
suede.
Bathing suits, sunsuits.
Rayon and silk:
Women’s: Dresses, rayon, printed crepe, medium
quality.
Dresses, rayon, printed crepe, inexpensive
quality.
Dresses, rayon, crepe, black, medium quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Dresses, silk and rayon.
Dresses, rayon, crepe, black, inexpensive
Suits, silk and rayon...
quality.
Waists and middies,
Dresses, rayon, prints, inexpensive quality.
silk and rayon.
Dresses, rayon, prints, very inexpensive
quality.
Dresses, rayon, prints, extremely inexpensive
,
quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Bloomers and panties,
silk.......... .......... ......
Bloomers and panties,
rayon______________
Nightgowns and sleep­
ing pajamas, silk and
rayon_____________
Union suits and combi­ Women’s: Panties, rayon, circular knit, medium quality.
Panties, rayon, circular knit, inexpensive
nations, silk and >
quality.
rayon.
Pajamas, lounging and
beach, silk and rayon.
Men’s and boys’ : Undershirts, silk and
rayon.
Shorts, silk and rayon...
Union suits, silk and
rayon.




SUMMARY TABLES
T able

10.—

95

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i ly expen ditu re data to obtain w eights f o r
clothing-cost in dex — Continued

Family expenditure for—
cotton

Represented in index by—

— c o n t in u e d

Kayon and silk—Continued.
Women’s and girls’ : Slips: Silk...
Rayon

Women’s: Slips, silk, crepe.
Slips, silk and rayon, satin.
Slips, rayon, crepe.
'Women’s: Hose, silk, 3-thread, 45-gage, manufacturer’s
brand, widely advertised.
Hose, silk, 3-thread, 45-gage, distributor’s or
Women’s and girls’ : Hose, silk_
_
manufacturer’s brand, not advertised or
Men’s and boys’ : Hose, silk........
advertised locally only.
Hose, rayon...
Hose, silk, 4-thread, 45-gage, manufacturer’s
Women’s and girls’ : Hose, rayon.
brand, widely advertised.
Hose, silk, 4-thread, 45-gage, distributor’s or
manufacturer’s brand, not advertised or
*
advertised locally only.
Yard goods: Silk, flat crepe, solid colors, 55x 84 con­
Yard goods: Silk_________ ______________
struction, yard.
R ayon ...____ _______ ____ _
Rayon, prints, plain weave, 98 x 62 con­
struction.
Women’s and girls’ : Dresses, other_______ Weighted averages of prices of women’s cotton, wool, and
rayon dresses.
Women’s and girls’ : Kimonos and negligees,
silk and rayon.
Hats, fabric__________ •Weighted averages of prices of all silk and rayon clothing.
Gloves, other than
leather or cotton.
Women’s and girls’ : Waists and middies,
material not specified. Weighted averages of prices of all cotton, silk, and rayon
Pajamas, lounging and
clothing.
beach, material not
specified.
Women’s and girls’ : Mufflers, scarfs_______
Skirts, other than wool.
Men’s and boys’ : Bathrobes_____________ Weighted average of prices of all priced textiles.
Yard goods: Linen______________________
Mixtures................................ .
Findings___________________
Footwear:
[Women’s shoes: Oxford, lower medium quality.
Strap, pump, or tie, lower medium qual­
Women’s and girls’ : Shoes, adult_________
ity.
Strap, pump, or tie, inexpensive quality.
House slippers, adult..
Strap, pump, or tie, very inexpensive
quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Shoes, ages 2 to 11
Children’s shoes: Oxford,
to 12 size range, medium
years.
quality.
House slippers, ages 2
Oxford, 8H to 12 size range, inexpensive
to 11.
quality.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoes, 2 to 11 years, other
Oxford, 8H to 12 size range, very inex­
than canvas.
pensive quality.
Boots, leather, ages 2 to 11
Ihfants’ : Bootees________ ____ __________
Men’s shoes: Street, lower medium quality.
Street, inexpensive quality.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoes, street, adult____
Street, very inexpensive quality.
/M en’s shoes: Work, medium quality.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoes, work, adult.
I
Work, inexpensive quality.
Women’s and girls’ : Shoes, ages 12 to 17_
_
House slippers, ages Weighted averages of prices of women’s and children’s
shoes.
12 to 17.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoes, other than canvas, Weighted averages of prices of men’s and children’s
ages 12 to 17.
shoes.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoes, not specified_____
Boots, leather, ages 12 to Weighted averages of prices of men’s street and work
shoes and children’s shoes.
Men’s and boys’ : Rubbers..............
Arctics................
Boots, rubber___
Men’s rubbers,3 inexpensive quality.
Shoes, canvas___
Women’s and girls: Rubbers_____
Arctics, gaiters.
Other:
Women’s: Hats, felt, wool, inexpensive quality, weight
Women’s and girls’ : Hats, felt
appropriate to season.
Women’s and girls’ : Coats, fur.
jw om en’s: Coats, fur, seal-dyed rabbit, full length.
Furs____
3 Not priced in Southern and Pacific regions. Family expenditures for rubbers in other regions are rep­
resented by the prices for all footwear.




(

[

96

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able

10.—

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i l y expen ditu re data to obtain w eights f o r
clothing-cost in dex — Continued

Family expenditure for—

Represented in index by—

cotton—continued

0 ther—C ontinued.
Women’s and girls’ : Corsets, girdles______
Brassieres___________

Women’s and girls’ : Gloves, leather______
Men’s and boys’ : Gloves, leather, street____
Gloves, work, other than
cotton.
Gloves, not specified_____
Men’s and boys’ : Hats, felt..........................

Women’s: Girdles, woven, elastic yarn (cotton and rayon
covered), 2-way stretch, medium quality
(corset department).
Girdles, woven, elastic yarn (cotton and rayon
covered). 2-way stretch, very inexpensive
quality (corset department).
Women’s: Gloves, leather, cape skin, domestic manufac­
ture, medium quality.
Gloves, leather, cape skin, domestic manufac,
ture, inexpensive quality, one-half pique
sewn.
Gloves, leather, cape skin, domestic manu­
facture, inexpensive quality, overseam
pique sewn.
(Men’s: Hats, fur-felt, medium quality.
1
Hats, fur-felt, inexpensive quality.
(Men’s: Hats, straw, medium quality.
1
Hats, straw, inexpensive quality.

Men’s and boys’ : Hats, straw....................
Men’s and boys’ : Jackets, heavy fabric___
Jackets, leather________
Jackets, other_______ .. •Men’s: Jackets, wool, 32 ounces per yard.
Women’s and girls’ : Jackets, leather, leath­
erette.
Jackets, not elsewhere
specified.
Men’s: Neckties, silk and rayon, four-in-hand, medium
Men’s and boys’ : Ties____ ______ ______
quality.
Men’s: Dry-cleaning services, cleaning and pressing,
Men’s and boys’ : Cleaning, repairing_____
men’s suits, wool, 3-piece, regular service, de­
livered.
Women’s: Dry-cleaning services, cleaning and pressing,
Women’s and girls’ : Cleaning, repairing___
women’s dresses, 1-piece, plain, regular serv­
ice, delivered.
Men’s: Shoe repairs, half soles and heels, pair.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoe repairs, adults____ jBoys’ : Shoe repairs, half soles and heels, size 4, pair.
Men’s and boys’ : Shoe repairs, ages 2-17.
Women’s and girls’ : Shoe repairs, ages 2'17- Women’s: Shoe repairs, half soles and heels, pair.
Women’s and girls’ : Shoe repairs, adults.__
Heel lifts, pair.
Men’s and boys’ : Raincoats_________ ____
Shoeshines_____________
Accessories____________
Miscellaneous, not listed.
Women’s and girls': Raincoats___________
Shoeshines...................
Handbags, purses....... •Weighted averages of prices of all priced clothing.
Umbrellas...................
Garters, belts, hair­
pins.
Hats, straw_________
M iscellaneous, not
listed.
Infants’: Miscellaneous, not listed________




97

SUMMARY TABLES
T able 11. —

R elative im p orta n ce in the rent-cost in d ex o f the rents f o r dw ellings
occu p ied b y white fa m ilie s in each o f 8 4 large cities

[1935-39 average]
Dwellings renting for—
Region and city

New England:
Boston.................................
Manchester______________
Portland, Maine_________
Middle Atlantic:
Buffalo............. ...................
New York...... ..................__
Philadelphia........................
Pittsburgh..........................
Scranton........................... .
East North Central:
Chicago................................
Cincinnati...........................
Cleveland......................... .
Detroit................ ...............
Iadianapolis........... ..........
Milwaukee______ _______ _
West North Central:
Kansas City................... .
Minneapolis_____________
St. Louis..... .............. .........
South Atlantic:
Atlanta......... .............. ........
Baltimore_______________
Jacksonville______________
N orfolk..............................
Richmond
____ _ _
Savannah_______ ____ ___
Washington, D. C ..............
East South Central:
Birmingham____ ____ ____
Memphis.............................
Mobile_____ ____________
West South Central:
Houston..............................
New Orleans. _____ _______
Mountain: Denver...................
Pacific:
Los Angeles.......................
Portland, Oreg....................
San Francisco____________
Seattle__________________




Total

Under
$15

$15 to
$19.99

$20 to
$29.99

$30 to
$39.99

$40 to
$49.99

$50 and
over

100.0
100.0
100.0

1.7
19.7
4.5

7.2
38.8
18.0

41.8
36.9
57.9

33.8
2.2
19.6

12.4
2.4

3.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
10Q.0
100.0

5.6
.9
3.2
5.2
3.6

19.4
4.3
14.4
12.9
12.1

51.8
24.6
44.7
42.2
50.2

20.4
39.8
30.5
28.2
26.1

2.8
21.1
5.8
9.3
8.0

9.3
1.4
2.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.3
14.3
5.3
7.2
18.0
3.4

5.8
21.0
15.5
11.7
27.6
13.2

18.9
46.9
50.5
44.0
43.7
46.5

37.1
13.3
21.9
27.4
10.7
27.6

19.8
3.3
5.2
7.8

16.1
1.2
1.6
1.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

11.1
4.8
10.0

20.2
13.7
19.9

50.2
46.1
49.7

15.8
30.5
13.2

2.7
4.9
6.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.6
12.7
21.1
9.3
10.8
35.5
0

12.9
13.2
22.1
13.9
17.0
22. 2
1.5

27.7
53.9
45.7
37.3
41.3
30.7
10.0

20.8
17.0
8.8
37.7
20.7
11.6
26.0

16.6
3.2
2.3
1.8
7.8

2.4

27.0

35.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

28.4
17.7
30.3

21.3
22.3
25.5

31.3
40.0
34.0

15.3
17.8
10.2

3. 7
2.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

10.6
20.4
7.5

25.3
31.5
14.7

44.3
36.0
49.2

17.4
11. 2
24.7

2.4
.9
3.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4.8
15.3
.9
8.0

17.3
21.7
6.1
14.1

52.2
37.7
41.8
45.6

21.9
17.7
39.5
26.4

3.8
6.0
10.2
4.7

9.3

1.0
9.4

1.6
1.5
1.2

98
T

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

12. — R elative im p orta n ce o f rents f o r dw ellings o ccu p ied b y N eg ro fa m ilie s
in the rent-cost in d ex in each city where such dw ellings are priced f o r in clu sio n in
the c ost-o f-livin g in dex

able

[1935-39 average]

Percentage
in each
city

Region and city

Middle Atlantic:
New York...... ..............................._
Philadelphia..............................
Pittsburgh......... .................... ......
East North Central:
Chicago_______ ________________
Cincinnati.......................................
Cleveland______ _______ ________
Detroit..... ......... ................. ...........
Indianapolis____________________
West North Central:
Kansas City____________________
St. Louis.......... ..............................

T

able

4.5
10.5
6.7
3.4
7.0
4.6
4.0
8.0
7.3
8.2

Percentage
in each
city

Region and city

South Atlantic:
Atlanta....... ............ .......... ..........
Baltimore____________________
Jacksonville___________ _________
Norfolk...........................................
Richmond___ ______ ___________
Savannah......... ................. .............
Washington, D. C ........................
East South Central:
Birmingham..................................
Memphis................... ....................
Mobile.______________: .............. .
West South Central:
Houston........................................ .
New Orleans___________ ________

13.—

21.6
16.2
26.3
21.5
14.9
40.0
19-6
23.1
26.6
24.9
15.8
23.2

Ite m s included in the original in d ex o f f u e l a nd light costs , 1 9 1 9 and
1 9 8 9 , and in the n ew in dex o f f u e l , electricity, and ice costs , 1 9 8 9
Original index

New index
1939

1939

1919

Coal: Anthracite............................ Coal: Anthracite...............................
Bituminous________ ______ _
Bituminous............................
__________________ Wood...................................................
Electricity_______________________
Electricity
_
_____
_
Gas_____ _______________________ Gas

Wood

Kerosene




_____

Kerosene

_

______

___

Coal: Anthracite.
Bituminous.
Wood.
Electricity.
Gas.
Kerosene.
Coke.
Briquets.
Fuel oil.
Ice.

99

SUMMARY TABLES
T able

14.—

R elative im p orta n ce o f item s included i n the n ew in d ex o f f u e l, electricity,
and ice costs in 3 4 large cities 1

[1935-39 average]
New England
Item

Middle Atlantic

Boston
Anthracite_______ ____ ____
Bituminous coal___________
Coke,......................................
Briquets_____________ _____
Fuel oil______________ _____

Man­
chester

Port­
land,
Maine

20.3
10.9

13.3
1.1
7.7

12.8
8.6
11.1

24.6

30.2

28.4
2.7
22.2
9.4
4.8
100.0

Wood.......................................
Electricity ____
Gas...........................................
Kerosene__________________
Ice_________________________

10.6

6.6
19.1
14.1
1.3
6.6

All items, this index..

100.0

100.0

18.3
15.3

New
York

Buffalo

Philadel­
phia

28.2

19.1
1.4

3.1

Chi­
cago

2.5
23.5
23.4
.2
5.6

31.9
28.4

100.0

31.0
32.2

16.7

22.7
20.9
1.1
13.4

13.0

20.4
17.3
.5
8.7

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Wood_____
Electricity.
Gas_______
K eroseneIce________
All items, this index..

West North Central

35.7
4.9

40.7
1.0

6.4
25.4
15.9

23.7
24.9
.4
10.4

22.4
26.1

22.9
20.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

6.8
25.5
6.6

Mil­
wau­
kee

Cincin­ Cleve­ Detroit Indian­
land
nati
apolis

26.9
24.2

Anthracite______
Bituminous coal..
Coke___________
Briquets..............
Fuel oil................

Kansas Minne­ St.
City
apolis Louis

12.5
23.2
17.0
1.3

22.5
12.9
2.2

21.0
19.9

8.7

23.2
14.0
2.2
9.9

23.3
24.6
2.7
11.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

47.0
3.7

3.7

South Atlantic
Item

Anthracite__ ____________
Bituminous coal............. ......
Coke____________________
Briquets_________________

Balti­
more

Jack­
son­
ville

Nor­
folk

31.6

33.6
3.7

1.3
8.9

1.3
35.0

3.3
34.1

12.8

31.0
6.4

1.4
20.8
23.6
3.2
12.1

7.0
31.2
14.8
13.7
23.1

3.6
24.8
19.0
4.9
11.4

5.3
20.5
17.3
5.9
13.6

23.1
20.9
14.7
8.1
20.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Fnel oil

Anthracite_____
Bituminous coal..
Coke___________
Briquets— ..........
Fuel oil................
Wood............................. —
Electricity..........................
Gas_______ _____ ________
Kerosene...........................
Ice---------------------------- All items, this index.

New
Orleans

6.3
23.1
27.4
9.0
25.7
100.0

1 See p. 21 for average for large cities combined.




Moun­
tain

7.2

24.9
21.8
.7
12.7

100.0

100.0

M o­
bile

32.1
2.9

34.3

13.3

2.1
18.6
20.9
1.2
14.2

2.4
23.0
19.3
2.0
18.3

7.8
16.5
18.9
2.6
19.9

100.0

100.0

100.0

18.2
23.5
18.8
7.2
19.0
100.0

Denver

Pacific
Los
Angeles

5.8
2.7

2.4
29.7
43.5
.8
23.6
100.0

1.8
34.1
4.0

5.6

West South
Central
Hous­
ton

1.5
19.5
19.4

Bir­
Rich­ Savan­ Wash­ ming­ Mem­
ing­
mond nah
phis
ham
ton

1.6

Item

7.4
18.5
18.8
2.9
4.8

East South Central

At­
lanta

W ood....................................
6.3
Electricity............................. 25.8
Gas .. ............... ............... 22.0
Kerosene_________________
3.1
11.2
Ice____ _______ _____ ______
All items, this index.
100.0

53.1
23.8

East North Central
Item

Scranton

38.8

19.1

Pitts­
burgh

Port­
land,
Oreg.
3.0
6.2

25.7
26.1
.8
7.8

10
0 .0

32.2
50.3
.2
17.3
100.0

2.7
32.9
34.8
18.9

San
Fran
cisco
6.1
7.4

6.5
33.9
40.5
1.3
4.3
100.0

Seattle

28.4
1.8
1.2
5.0
16.0
36.8
8.1
100.0

United
States

13.8
13.7
5.7
.1
4.5
1.1
25.0
23.8
.8
11.5
100.0

100

CHANGE'S IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1

T able 15.—

M eth o d o f g ro u p in g o f f a m i l y exp en d itu re data to obtain weights f o r
in dex o f cost o f f u e l , electricity , and ice

Family expenditure
for—

Represented in index b y Coal: Anthracite, in 1-ton lots:
Pennsylvania, white ash:
Stove.

Chestnut.

Pea.
Buckwheat No. 1.
Other than Pennsylvania:
Egg.

Coal: Anthracite..

Nut.

Coal: Bituminous..

Coal: Bituminous, in 1-ton lots:
Low and medium volatile (smokeless) :
Lump.
Egg.
Nut.
Stoker, domestic.
Run of mine, domestic.
High volatile:
Eastern (Ohio and Pennsylvania to Alabama):
Lump.
Egg.

Nut.

Stoker, domestic.
Other than eastern:
Lump.
Egg.

Nut.

Coke___
Briquets.
Wood—.
Sawdust.
Fuel oil.

Stoker, domestic.
Coke, egg, in 1-ton lots.
Briquets, in 1-ton lots.
Wood, seasoned, sawed 12 to 24 inches and split, in 1-cord lots:
Softwood.

{

Hardwood.
Sawdust (priced in Portland, Oreg., and Seattle only).
Fuel oil in 150-gallon lots:
Fuel oil No. 1.
Fuel oil No. 2.

Gas:

G a s _______

Electricity
KeroseneGasoline..

Ice..........




(

10.6 therms—Range.
19.6 therms—Range and manual type water heater.
30.6 therms—Range, automatic storage tank or instantaneous water heater.
40.6 therms—Range, automatic storage tank or instantaneous water heater,
and refrigerator.
Electricity:
40 k w -h r }Lighting and sma11 appliances.
100 kw.-hr.—Lighting, appliances, and refrigerators.
250 kw.-hr.—Lighting, appliances, refrigerators, and range.
Kerosene, water white.
Gasoline, regular.
Ice:
Delivered.
Cash and carry.

101

SU M M AR Y TABLES
T

able

16.—

A r tic les included in the original in d ex o f h o u sefu rn ish in gs costs, 1 9 1 9
and 1 9 8 9 , and in the n ew in d e x , 1 9 8 9

Original index
1919
Towels____ ______________
Sheets___________________
Blankets (cotton and wool)
Rug, wool............................
Linoleum..........................
Couch..... ................... .........
Mattresses..____ ________
Bedsprings______________
Sewing machines_________
Refrigerators, ice ............. ..
Stoves, cook------ -------------Brooms____ ______ ______ _
Tables........... .............. .......
Chairs...________________
Pillowcases........ ...........
Tablecloths___________
Comforts_____________
Rug, grass............... ......
Dressers and chiffoniers
Buffets...........................
Bedsteads____________
Baby carriages..............
Stoves, heating.............

Carpet, wool




New index
1939

Towels_________ ____ ____
Sheets___________________
Blankets (cotton and wool)
Rug, wool................ ..........
Linoleum. ...........................
Couch..................................
Mattresses...........................
Bedsprings______ ______
Sewing machines...........
Refrigerators, ice_________
Stoves, cook_____ _____ _
B room s..............................
Tables__________________
Chairs_____________ _____
Dining-room suite________
Bedroom suite___________

Carpet, wool

1939
Towels.
Sheets.
Blankets (cotton and wool).
Rug, wool.
Linoleum.
Couch.
Mattresses.
Bedsprings.
Sewing machines.
Refrigerators, ice.
Stoves, cook.
Brooms.
Dining-room suite.
Bedroom suite.

Curtains.
Felt-base floor covering.
Living-room suites.
Radios.
Light bulbs.
Washing machines.
Vacuum cleaners.
Refrigerators, electric.
Refrigerators, gas.
Dinnerware.
Glassware.

102

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

1 9 1 3 -4 1

T a b l e 1 7 . — Relative importance of the various articles included in the new index of
housefurnishings costs in N e w York C ity and in large cities in each o f 5 regions 1
[1935-39 average]
Average for large cities in—
Item

New
York
City

North
Atlantic
region

East
North
Central
region

West
North
Central
region

Southern
region

Pacific
region

Towels, cotton_________________ _____
Sheets------ -----------------------------------------Blankets........................ .............. ..............
Curtains.-............................ ......................
Hugs, wool............................ ....................

2.1
4.8
2.3
6.8
3.8

1.5
3.3
2.1
3.5
3.9

1.1
2.3
1.6
3.6
4.6

1.2
2.7
1.5
3.0
4.4

1.1
3.0
1.8
2.5
2.4

1.4
3.5
2.5
4.4
3.8

Carpet, wool------------------------- --------- ----Felt-base floor covering________ ____ ___
Linoleum-------------------------------------------Living-room suites_____________________
Dining-room suites____________________

3.0
3.0
.7
13.9
4.0

3.1
1.3
1.5
10.4
4.9

3.6
.8
.7
12.7
6.0

3.4
.7
1.0
11.2
4.7

1.9
1.0
1.2
11.0
4.9

2.9
.3
1.4
9.3
4.2

Bedroom suites________________________
Studio couches........................................ .
Bedsprings......................... ............ ...........
Mattresses-......................... ...... .............. .
Radios----- ------- ---------------------------------

13.7
2.1
1.8
2.5
10.0

8.0
1.7
1.6
3.5
9.6

6.4
1.6
1.4
2.3
10.4

7.6
2.3
1.5
2.7
8.7

10.4
1.8
1.7
3.0
11.7

7.3
2.0
1.7
2.5
10.1

Sewing machines_______ _______________
Light bulbs_____ _______ ______________
Washing machines............. ................ ........
V acuum cleaners______________ ______ _

2.1
1.8
1.5
1.8

1.4
1.1
7.6
3.7

1.2
.9
8.0
3.5

1.7
1.1
5.2
3.2

1.7
.9
4.1
1.3

2.6
1.6
7.9
3.8

Refrigerators: Electric........... ................. .
Gas_____________ _____ _
Ice______________________
Stoves___________ ____ ______________ _
Dinnerware_______________ ______ _____

10.9
1.9

15.3
1.4

16.8
1.1

21.9
.7

11.4
2.5

2.6
1.1

6.6
1.4

6.7
1.4

6.5
1.5

17.9
1.6
1.4
8.7
1.1

Glassware.............. ....................................
Brooms___ _____ _____________________

.7
1.1

.5
1.1

.4
.9

.5
1.1

.4
1.5

.8
1.0

All items, this index............... .........

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 See p. 22 for average for cities combined.




8.6
2.5

SUMMARY TABLES

103

T a b l e 18 .— Method of grouping of fa m ily expenditure data to obtain weights for
index of housefurnishings costs
Family expenditure for—
Furniture:
Living-room suites______
Desks____________ ____ _
Bookcases, bookshelves....
Chairs, upholstered_____
Dining-room suites......... .
Sideboards, buffets...........
Chairs, wood___________
Benches, stools, footstools.
Tea carts, wheel trays _. .
Stands, racks, costumers..
Bedroom suites_________
Beds, wood_____________
Dressers________________
Chiffoniers, chests______
Couches, day beds............
Davenports_______ ____ _
Bedsprings______ ______
Beds, metal____________
Cots, metal____________
Other furniture................
Textile furnishings:
Carpet, rugs___________
Linoleum, inlaid_______
Felt-base floor covering
Mattresses___________
Pillows______________
Blankets_________
Comfort and quilts.
Sheets______________________
Pillowcases________ _________
Tablecloths: Cotton........... —
Linen__________
Towels: Cotton....................... .
Linen..........................
Other................. .........
Dishcloths__________________
Curtains, and curtain material
Bedspreads, couch covers_____
Table runners, dresser scarfs. _.
Other textile furnishings_____
Household appliances:
Vacuum cleaners_______ ____ _
Refrigerators: Electiic.
Gas___
Ice____
Washing machines__________
Electric light bulbs_____ ____
Sewing machines: Electric___
Nonelectric.
Radios_____________________
Radio upkeep_______________
Other household appliances. ..
Other housefurnishings:
Stoves and ranges, not electric.

Represented in index by—

Living-room suites, 2-piece: Medium quality.
Inexpensive quality.

Dining-room suites: Medium quality.
Inexpensive quality.

IBedroom suites: Medium quality.
Inexpensive quality.
jStudio couches, medium quality.
j-Bedsprings, coil, medium quality.
Weighted average of prices for all priced furniture.
Carpet, wool, velvet, plain, inexpensive quality, per square yard.
Rug, wool, axminster, inexpensive quality, 9 x 12 feet.
Linoleum, inlaid, straight line, standard household gage, 8/4, per
square yard.
Felt-base floor covering, good quality, 8/4 per square yard.
Rug, felt base, good quality, 6 x 9 feet.
Mattress, innerspring construction, medium quality.
Blankets: Virgin wool, 98 percent or more wool content:
Medium grade, double.
Medium grade, single.
Inexpensive grade, double.
Inexpensive grade, single,
t wool, 5 to 10 percent wool, double.
^Sheets, colion muslin: 64 x 64 construction.
68 x 72 construction.
•Towel, cotton, terry, 3-pick, double-loop construction.
Curtains, marquisette, cotton: 54 x 34 construction.
52 x 30 construction.
44 x 18 construction.
Weighted average of prices of all priced textile furnishings.
Vacuum cleaners, electric with motor-driven revolving brush.
[Refrigerator: Electric, 6 to 6.8 cubic feet, standard model.
Gas, 6 to 6.8 cubic feet, standard model.
Ice, steel box, medium quality (priced in South
only. In other regions, represented by weighted
average of prices of all priced household appli­
ances.).
Washing machine, electric, 6 lb. capacity, automatic wringer,
without electric pump.
Electric light bulb, 40 watt, good quality,
jsewing machine, electric, cabinet.
\ Radio, receiving sets: Table model, regular size.
J
Table model, small size.
Weighted average of prices of all priced household appliances.

1Stoves, cook:

Gas range, medium quality.
Oil range, medium quality (priced in Jacksonville
only).

Coal or wood, good quality (priced in Portland,
Maine, and in Seattle only),
fBrooms: Medium quality
China, porcelain............................. \
Inexpensive quality.
IDinnerware: Plate, earthenware.
Glassware
Teacup and saucer, earthenware.
Tableware, silver and other______ \
Other silverware, china, and glass­ Glassware: Tumbler.
ware_________________________
All other household equipment______ |Weigh ted average of prices of dinnerware and glassware.
Brooms, brushes, and mops..........

40 9 7 7 8°— 41




-8

Weighted average of prices of all priced items in housefurnishingscost index.

104
T able

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1 9 1 3 -4 1
1 9 . — G oods and services included in the original in d ex o f m iscella neous
costs, 1 9 1 9 and 1 9 3 9 , and in the new in d e x , 1 9 3 9

Original index. 1919 and 1939
Streetcar fare_________________
Physician: Office visit_________
House visit_________
Obstetrical case____
Dentist: Filling_______________
Hospital: Pay ward___________
Optometrist: Glasses__________
Prescriptions............. ..................
Aspirin______________ ________
Quinine.................................... .
Castor oil_______ ____ ______
Laundry service................ ..........
Telephone service__________ —
Laundry soap: Bar____________
Flakes and chips.
Granulated_____
Cleansing powder_____________
Newspapers__________________
Motion pictures: Adult________
Tobacco: Cigars______________
Cigarettes______ ____
Pipe tobacco_________
Barber: Haircuts, men_________
Toilet soap___________ ________
Shaving cream.________ _______
Tooth paste______ ____ _______
Dentist: Crown_______________
Plates...........................
Inlay *..... ......................
Vaseline______________________
Tobacco: Cigarette tobacco....... .
Plug tobacco___ ____
Barber: Shave____________ ____
Tooth brush__________________
Talcum powder...........................
Calomel tablets a
.........................




i 1939 but not 1919.

New index, 1939
Streetcar fare.
Physician: Office visit.
House visit.
Obstetrical case.
Dentist: Filling.
Hospital: Pay ward.
Optometrist: Glasses.
Prescriptions.
Aspirin.
Quinine.
Castor oil.
Laundry service.
Telephone service.
Laundry soap: Bar.
Flakes and chips.
Granulated.
Cleansine powder.
Newspapers.
Motion pictures: Adult.
Tobacco: Cigars.
Cigarettes.
Pipe tobacco.
Barber: Haircuts, men.
Toilet soap.
Shaving cream.
Tooth paste

Automobiles.
Gasoline.
Motor oil.
Tires and tubes.
Automobile repairs.
License and taxes (automobile).
Automobile insurance
Bus fare.
Railroad fare.
Surgeon: Appendectomy.
Specialist: Tonsillectomy, child.
Dentist: Extraction.
Cleaning.
Hospital: Room.
Nurse, private
Cold remedy ointment.
Antiseptic, iodine.
Milk of magnesia.
Laxative.
Accident and health insurance.
Domestic service.
Postal service.
Water rent.
Laundry starch.
Matches.
Toilet paper.
Motion pictures: Child.
Beauty shop: Haircut, women.
Wave set.
Permanent wave.
Face powder.
Cleasising cream.
Sanitary napkins.
Razor blades.
* 1919 but not 1939.

105

SU M M AR Y TABLES

T a b l e 20 .— Relative importance o f the goods and services included in the new index
of miscellaneous costs , in each of 34 large cities1
f1935-39 average!

Transportation------- ------ ------------- 25.1 25.6 26.2
Automobiles__________________ 2.4 6.7 7.8
Gasoline______________________ 2.7 7.6 8.1
.3
.9 1.0
Motor oil—----------- ----------------.2 1.1
Tires------ ------ ------------- ---------.8
.1
)
Tubes............................. ......... ... (2
.1
License and taxes............ ...........
Insurance_____________ _____ -Streetcar fare_________ _______ _
Bus fare..... ................ - ......... ......
Railroad fare......... ............... ......
Recreation_______________ ____ ___
Newspapers---------------------------Motion pictures: Adult ---------Child........... .
Tobacco: Cigars..... ...................
Cigarettes....... .............
Pipe tobacco_________
Personal care_________ _____ ______
Barber service: Haircut, men.. _
Beauty shop: Haircut, women
Wave set________
Permanent wave..
Toilet articles: Toilet soap_____
Shaving cream...
Tooth paste____
Face powder___
Cleansing cream.
Sanitary napkins.
Razor blades____
Household operation...................... .
Laundry service..... ........... ........
Telephone service____ _________
Domestic service______________
Postal service................... ...........
Water rent___________________
Laundry soap: Bar____ _____ _
Flakes and chips.
Granulated_____
Laundry starch_______________
Cleaning powder................. ........
Matches........... ...........................
Toilet paper....... ................ .........
Medical care_____________________
Physicians: Office visit..............
House visit________
Obstetrical case____
Surgeon: Appendectomy_______
Specialist: Tonsillectomy______
Dentist: Filling________ ____
Extraction___________
Cleaning................... .
Hospital: Pay ward________ _
Room_______________
Nurse, private_______
Optometrist: Glasses__________
Medicine and drugs:
Prescriptions_____________
Aspirin___________________
Quinine___________________
Cold remedy ointment____
Iodine____________________
Castor oil_________________
Milk of magnesia________
Laxative__________________
Accident and health insurance...
Gifts, contributions, and other un­
allocated items__________________

Detroit

Cleveland

Cincinnati

Chicago

Scranton

Pittsburgh

Philadelphia

New York

34.4 20.8 27.1 28.5 19.7
10.5 3.0 5.8 6.8 3.4
11.5 2.4 3.8 6.1 5.4
.3
.5
.7
1.1
.6
.2
.5
.7
.7
.6
.1 (3
.1 (2
.1
)
)

.4 2.3 2.5
2.3 2.9 1.2
16.0 3.9 4.6
.4 ___
.4
.1 ~"\~1
19. 5 20.3 21.2
4.9 5.0 5.7
4.8 5.0 4.5
.8
.4 1.0
.6
.8
.8
7.0 7.5 8.1
1.4 1.6 1.1
8.1 7.8 9.5
2.7 2.8 2.7
.7
.7
.5
.4
.5
.5
.4
.8
.7
1.4
.9 1.6
.2
.2
.3
1.3 1.2 1.3
.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.5
.2
.1
.4
.2
.2
.7
16.0 13.2 13.6
4.7 3.6 2.1
3.6 2.8 4.1

.6
2.0
.8 1.2 1.4
.1
.7
.8
.7 1.0
7.3 12.7 13.7 12.0 6.1
.8
.3
.5
.7
.7
.1
.7
.2
.5
19.0 25.3 20.2 18.9 18.4
5.0 5.5 4.4 4.5 4.1
4.2 8.4 5.2 4.3 3.4
.9
.7
.8
.7
.9
1.2 1.0 1.0
.6
.6
6.8 8.9 8.0 7.5 7.8
.6
1.1
.8 1.3 1.6
8.2 8.9 8.8 8.0 8.4
2.4 2.8 3.0 2.3 2.9
.7
.6
.7
.5
.7
.7
.8
.6
.3
.5
.6
.5
.5
.5
.7
1.4 1.2 1.3 2.0 1.3
.3
.2
.3
.2
.2
1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.2
.3
.2
.3
.3
.3
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.1
.3
.1
.4
.5
.3
.1
•2,
12.2 14.5 14.2 13,1 12.2
2.5 6.5 3.9
.8
.7
2.4 2.0 2.3 3.5 3.0

.7
.7
.8
.7
.8 1.1
1.4 1.0
.9
.8
,7
.8
1.0
.9 1.0
.4
.4
.3
.9
.5
.7
.5
.8
.6
1.3 1.0 1.2
13.9 14.8 15.0
1. 5 1.8
.7
2. 5 1.0 2.7
.4
.3
.4
.2 1.7 1.0
.3 1.7 1.1
1. 2
.7
.6
.5
.3
.3
1.3
.9 1.0
1.4
.7 1.0
1.0 1.2 1.4
.7
.1
.1
.8 1.3
.6

.5
.5
.6
.5
.5
.4 1.3 1.8 1.8
1.2
1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.6
.7
.8 1.1
1.0
.7
.8 1.0 1.3 1.0
1. 1
.4
.3
.5
.5
.5
.6 1.0
.9
.8
.7
.3
.4
.6
.5
.6
.9 1.2 1.1 1.0
1.1
12.7 13.7 12.3 15.3 17.2
1.9 1.9 2.1 2.4 1.9
2.0 1.5 2.3 3.5 4.0
.7
.3
.7
.3
.8
.5
.3
.4
.2
.3
.5
.4
.4
.4
.3
.8 1.4
.7
.9 1.2
.4
.4
.5
.3
.3
.9 1.0 2.2
1.3 1.7
.2
.4
.3
.9
.8
.8 1.3 1.7
.9
.9
.1
.3 (2
.1
.1
)
.7
.8 1.1
.7
.7

.4
.6
.5
.7
.6
.8
.8
.7
.8 1.0 1.2 1.1
.9
.8
.7
.8
.9 1.2 1.0
.9
.4
.4
.3
.3
.6
.5
.7
.7
.2
.6
.5
.5
.4
.9 1.1 1.1
16.7 12.8 13.9 14.3
2.9 2.2 1.9 2.9
2.4 2.4 1.6 2.5
.5
.4
.7
.4
.4
.4
.3
.6
.4
.3
.5
.4
.8 1.0
1.3
.9
.4
.2
.5
.3
1.9 1.0 1.7 1.1
.3
.7
.5
.7
1.4 1.0 1.0
.8
.2
.1
.2
.1
.7
.8
.7
.9

35.1
13.4
9.6
1.2
.9
.1
1.6
1.4
.9
4.7
1.1
.2
17.7
4.8
4.6
.7
.7
5.8
1.1
9.3
3.0
.3
.8
.9
1.6
.3
1.2
.3
.4
.2
.3
10.2
1.6
1.8

.8
.2

1.1
.3

1.0
.3

1.0
.3

1. 2
.3

.9
.3

1.0
.3

1.2
.3

1.1
.3

1.1
.3

.9
.2

.9
.2

.3
.1
.1
.2
.2
.2

.4
.2
.1
.3
.1
.6

. 4
.2
.2
.2
.2
1.6

,4
.2
.1
.3
.2
.9

.4
.2
.1
.2
.2
.1

.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
.6

.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
.5

.4
.2
.1
.3
.2
.4

.4
.2
.1
.3
.1
1.0

.3
.2
.1
.3
.1
.7

.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
1.2

.2
.1
.1
.2
.1
.9

17.4 18.3 14.5

13. 5 16.8 17.4 16. 2 24.1
®
®
o

See p. 23 for average for cities combined.




East North Central

26.5 31.9 34.4
6.3 9.3 10.6
5.8 7.3 9.8
.9 1.1
.7
.6
.7
.8
.1
.1
.2
1.8
.1
1.7
.8
.8
1.1
.6
9.0 10.5 8.6
1.0 2.0
.2
.2
.1
19.7 19.0 16.3
4.5 4.4 4.4
4.9 4.5 3.5
.8
.8
.6
1.1
.9
.6
7.4 6.8 6.0
1.0 1.6 1.2
10.4 8.7 8.4
3.6 2.7 2.9
.3
.3
.4
.5
.8
.6
.9 1.0
1.1
1.6 1.6 1.4
.4
.3
.2
.9 1.2
.8
.4
.3
.3
.4
.5
.3
.2
.3
.2
.5
.3
.3
13.0 12.4 10.6
4.2 2.8 1.4
4.0 2.6 2.2

All items, this index_________ 100.0 100.0 100.0
1

Middle Atlantic

Buffalo

Manchester

Portland,
Maine

Goods and services

Boston

New England

13.7 15.2 16.4 13.4

100.0 100. u 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
- Less than 0.05 percent.

106 CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1913- 41
20 .— Relative importance of the goods and services included in the new index
of miscellaneous costsy in each of 34 large cities— Continued

Transportation_____________________ 38.3 33.2
Automobiles..... ............................ . 15. 7 12.9
Gasoline____________ __________ 10.0 6.6
1.2
.7
M otor oil._............................... ......
1.0 1.0
T ir e s ....................................... .......
.1
.1
Tubes...........................................
1.5
1.4 1.5
License and taxes..... ............ ........
1. 1
.9
Insurance______________________
5.5 9.0
Streetcar fare----------------------------7
.3
.i
.2
Railroad fare...... ............................
Recreation_________________________ 15.3 16.9
3.8 5.0
Newspapers____________________
3.4 4.2
M otion pictures: A dult- ______
.6
C hild.............. .
.7
.5
.7
Tobacco: Cigars________________
Cigarettes...................... 5.8 5.3
1.2 1.0
Pipe tobacco...............
7.4 10.0
Personal care__________ _______ ____
Barber service: Haircut, m en___ 2.3 4.2
.2
Beauty shop: Haircut, wom en...
.3;
.5
W ave set_________
.71
.7 1.11
Permanent wave—
1.4 1.4
Toilet articles: Toilet soap_____
.3
Shaving cream .. _
.3
.8
.9
Tooth paste_____
.3
Face pow der____
.3
.4
Cleansing cream.
.3
.2
Sanitary napkins.
.2
.3
Razor blades........
.3
Household operation_______________ 12.3 10.3
2.7 1.7
Laundry service________________
1.3 2.6
Telephone service________ ____ _
1.4
Domestic service................... ........
.5
Postal service_________________ _
.5
2.1
.7
Water rent______ ______________
.8 1.0
Laundry soap: B ar_____________
Flakes and chips.
.7
.7
G ran ulated ____
.9
.9
Laundry starch________________
.3
.3
.4
Cleaning powder_______________
.6
M atches_______________________
.5
.4
Toilet paper..................................
.7
.9
Medical care________________ _____ _ 11.0 15.3
Physicians: Office v i s i t ________
1.9 1.6
House visit________
2.0 1.5
Obstetrical case. . . .
.1
.8
Surgeon: Appendectom y_______
.2
.8
Specialist: Tonsillectom y............
.3
.7
Dentist: Filling...... .......................
.6 1.3
Extraction____ _______
.2
.4
Cleaning________ ____ _
.9 2.0
Hospital: Pav ward......................
.1
.4
R oom ________________
.4 1.0
.1
Nurse, private_______
.3
Optometrist: Glasses................ .
.8
.7
Medicines and drugs:
Prescriptions_______________
1.0 1.2
Aspirin_____________________
.3
.3
Q u in in e .___________________
Cold remedy ointm ent______
.3
.4
I o d in e ..; __________________
.1
.2
Castor oil___________________
.1
.2
M ilk of magnesia.................. .
.3
.3
.1
.2
Laxative____________________
Accident and health insurance ...
1.2 1.0
Gifts, contributions, and other un­
allocated items___________________ 15. 7 14.3
All items, this index . . . . _____ 1100.0|100.0
1 Less than G.05 percent.




West North
Central

36.5 34.8 36.3
13.7 10.8 10.6
10.2 10.2 8.4
1.0 1.2 1.0
.9
.7
.8
.2
.1
.1
1.4 2.0 1.4
1.9 1.2 2.0
.3
.9
.6
6.8 7.2 9.7
1. 4
.3
.3
.3
13.8 14.0 16.9
3.0 3.6 4.1
3.5 3.1 4.2
.6
.6
.5
.5
.4
.7
5.4 5.4 6.3
.8 1.1
.9
8.5 9.5 7.7
2.8 3.4 2.4
.1
.1
.1
.7 1.1
.7
.9 1.0
.7
1.4 1.4 1.4
.3
.3
.3
.9
.9
.9
.3
.3
.3
.4
.4
.4
.2
.3
.2
.4
.4
.3
13.4 11.8 10.4
3.4 2.0 1.9
3.4 3.5 2.2

.....

.6
.5
1.8 1.1
.9
1.1 1.0 1.0
.6
.6
.7
.7
.8
.9
.3
.4
.3
.4
.6
.6
.5
.3
.5
.6
.8
.9
13.2 15.1 13.5
2.1 2.3 2.7
1.9 1.8 1.3
.4
.6
.7
.3
.5
.4
.4
.3
.4
.5 1.1
.9
.3
.5
.3
1.0 1.9 1.1
.3
.5
.3
1.0 1.4
.8
.2
.3
.1
.7 1.0
.7
.9
.2
.5
.3
.1
.1
.3
.1
1.6

.8
.2
. 3
.1
.1
.2
.1
1.1

.9
.3
.5
.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
1.3

W ashington,
D. C.

Savannah

Richmond

[ Norfolk

Jacksonville

Baltimore

South Atlantic

Atlanta

St. Louis

3

Milwaukee

Goods and services

Indianapolis

East
North
Central—
Con­
tinued

Minneapolis

able

Kansas City

T

27.5 31.6 30.1 27.1 26.9 26.7 25.1
9.4 6.6 11.2 8.5 6.5 7.6 5.2
7.8 5.8 9.2 7.3 8.2 7.7 6.3
.8
.5 1.0
.9 1.1
.7 1.2
.5
1.0
.9
.6 1.1 1.0 1.0
.1
.1
.1 (0
.1
.1
.1
2.1
.4
.9 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.6
.5
.6
.7
.5
.4 1.1
.6
.6
5.2 16.4 ____
2.6 4.9 6.3 5.4
1.8
5. 2 4.4 2.5
.7
.8
.2
.3
.6
.4
.6
.2
1.5
16.0 19.5 14.9 16.0 15.4 16.3 11.3
3.8 4.0 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.0
3.3 4.7 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.4
.5 1.1
.4
.7
.6
.6
.5
.6
.7
.5
.5
.7
.6
.7
6.7 8.2 5.8 6.6 6.9 6.4 3.5
1.1
.5 1.6
.8 1.0 1.3
.3
8.8 8.3 8.2 7.8 7.1 8.5 7.5
2.5 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.6 2.1
.5
.5
.6
.3
.8
.6
.6
.4
.4
.5
.4 1.0
.4
.3
.5
.6
.5
.6
.7
.5
,7
1.3 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.4
.7
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.2
.9
.4
.4
.2
.3
.3
.3
.3
.6
.4
.5
.4
.4
.3
.4
.5
.3
.2
.3
.2
.3
.2
.7
.4
.4
.4
.3
.4
.3
17.8 15.3 19.7 17.6 15.0 16.6 17.1
5.0 4.7 6.5 3.4 4.2 3.7 6.4
2.8 1.7 1.9 3.0 2.8 2.2 3.0
5.0 2.0 4.8 3.5 2.2 2.8 3.0
.5
.6
.5
.5
.6
.3
.9
1.7 1.3 1.5 2.5 1.7 2.1
.6
.7 1.2 1.0 1.0
.8 1.3
.8
.3
.5
.4
.6
.5
.3
.7
.4
.6
.5
.8
.7
.7
.5
.3
.3
.4
.4
.3
.5
.2
.3
.4
.4
.5
.5
.6
.6
.3
.6
.6
.5
.7
.3
.5
.5 1.1
.9 1.0
.7 1.0
.5
15.9 12.9 12.5 14.3 17.8 15.9 13.4
2.5 1.4 2.0 1.5 2.6 1. 7 2.0
2.5 2.3 2.0 2.6 4.6 2.8 1.8
.4
.1
.3
.8
.5
.7
.7
.3
.1
.4
.4
.3
.3
.2
.3
.1
.5
.6
.6
.4
.2
.7
.6
.5
.5
.6 1.3
.7
.2
.3
.2
.3
.3
.5
.3
1.0
.9
.7 1.1
.9
.7 1.6
.2
.6
.3
.5
.3
.4
.3
.6
.5
.9
.8 1.0
.7
.5
.4
.2
.3
.5
.2
.3
.1
.6
.5
.8
.5
.5
.9
.8
.9
.3
.6
.4
.2
.1
.3
.1
3.2

1.1
.3
.4
.1
.1
.3
.2
1.4

.8
.3
.5
.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
2.0

1.1
.3
.8
.4
.1
.1
.2
.1
1.2

1.0
.3
.6
.4
.2
.1
.2
.1
2.2

1.2
.4
.7
.5
.2
.1
.3
.2
3.4

1.1
.3
.3
.1
.1
.3
.2
.9

14.6 14.8 15.2 14.0 12.4 14. 6 17.2 17.8 16.0 25.6
100.0 100.01100.0 100.0,100.0 100.0|100.0i100.0 100.0] 100. 0
|
2 Percentage distribution for March 1939.

SUMMARY TABLES
T

a b le

107

20.— Relative importance of the goods and services included in the new index
of miscellaneous costsf in each of 34 large cities— Continued

T ransportation___________________
Automobiles__________________
Gasoline........ ................................
M otor o il.................... .................
Tires_______ ______ _________
T u b es..-------- ---------------- ------- License and taxes_____ _______
Insurance,____________________
Streetcar fare_________________
Railroad fare...........................—.
Recreation........................................ .
Newspapers___ _____ _________
M otion pictures: A dult_____ _
C hild_______
Tobacco: Cigars, ________________
Cigarettes_______________
Pipe tobacco..................
Personal care_______ _____________
Barber service: Haircut, m e n ...
Beauty shop: Haircut, wom en.
W ave set_______
Permanent wave.
Toilet articles: Toilet soap____
Shaving cream. _
Tooth paste___
Face powder___
Cleansing cream.
Sanitary nap­
kins____ ____
Razor blades_
_
Household operation........................ .
Laundry service_______________
Telephone service_____________
Domestic service______________
Postal service_________________
Water rent................................ .
Laundry soap: B ar___________
Flakes and chips.
Granulated.......
Laundry starch________ ______
Cleaning p o w d e r.......................
M a t c h e s ................ ...................
Toilet paper___________ ______
Medical care._ _. ________ _____ __
Physicians: Office visit.......... .
House visit_______
Obstetrical case___
Surgeon: A ppendectom y______
Specialist: Tonsillectom y........ .
Dentist: Filling........... ................
Extraction____ ______
C leaning......................
Hospital: Pay ward........... ........
R oom _____________ _
Nurse, private.........
Optometrist: Glasses...............
Medicines and drugs:
Prescriptions...... .......... ........
Aspirin___________________
Quinine
Cold remedy ointment____
Iodine_____________________
Castor oil_________________
M ilk of magnesia________
Laxative__________________
Accident and health insurance. _
Gifts, contributions, and other un­
allocated items............. ............. ...........
All items, this index........ ..........




1.1
1.6
.2

1.2
.2

1 .8

2.3

6.1

.5
6.9

5.0

.8

.2

15.3
3.7
3.2

13.9
4.2
2.9

1.8

.4

.4

.5

.7
5.6
1.7
7.5
2.4
.5
.5

.7
4.2
1.4
7.3
2.3
.7
.4
.4

1.2

1.0

.3
.7
.3
.5

.3

.6

.2

.3
17.7
3.0
2 3
4.7
.6
2 .6
1.1

.5
.5
.3
.6
.6

.9
15.5
1.8

2. 5
.6

.4
.6

.6

.3
.8
.2

1.1

.3
.4

.2
.2

16.6
4.6
2.9
1.8

.5
2.9
1.0

.3
.3
.4
.3
.7
.9
17.4
1.7
2 .2
1.6
. 4

.5
.4
.3

.1

.5
14.8
3.8
2.6
.2

.5
5.9
1 .8
8.6

2.4
1.0
.2

.4
1.3
.4
1.3
.4
5

.3
.4
16.7
2.1
1.6

4.7
.6

2.9
1.2

.4
.5
.5
.6
7

'.9
14.8
1.9
2.4
.4
.4
.3

.5
.3
.9
.2
‘.3

1.9
1.5
.7
2.4
2.6
.2

13.7
3.3
3.5
.4
.4
4.8
1.3
8.5
2.4
.4
.5
.7
1.1

4

1.2

4

.6

.3
.5
14.1
3.2
2.7
2.3
.6
1.1
.8

.5
.7
.3
.5
.5
.9
14.2
2.2

2.4
.3
.8
.8

.5
.3

.9
.3

.8
.2
1.1
.2 !

.6

.3

.3

.5

1.0i

1.4
. 3;
.8 :

1.3
.4

1.0

.2!

. 2!

.1

.2 !

.2
.2

.3 :
.5i
.4

. 31

.1
3.0i
17.6»
100.0

. 5i

.31
. 2!
3.8I

.

1

.6
.4

.4

.2

3.1

.8
.2

.9
.2

.3
.7
.3

.1
.1
.2 i
.2 !

1.4

27.4
4.8
7.1
1.3
.9
.1

8

31.1
8.2
10.8

1.5
1.0
.

i

1.6
1.6
.2
10.8

1.5

1.0

4.9

.3
.3 ...........5
18.4
14.4
4.1
3.8
4.6
3.6
.9
.4
.9
.5
5.9
5.5
2.0

.6

9.8

8.3
2.7

2 .6

1.3
.2

.5
1 . 6:

.3
1.7
4
.5

.3
.4
14.9
2.6
1.2

2.5
.4
1.3
1.9
.7

.2
.8
.8
1 1

.7
.6

8.0

2.4
.2
.8
.8
.8

.5
17.4
4.0
6.1
.6

.8

.7

.8

1.8
.6

2.3

1.6
1.8

.9
.9

1.0
1.1

.4

1.2

.3
2.5
.3
.8

.9
.3

.7
.9
.3
.51
.4 1

8.9
3.2
.3

7.7

1.0

.7

2 .6
.2

.9
.7
.3

.8
.8

1.0

1.0

.2

.3
.3
.5
.2

.3
11.9
1.6

4.4
1.5

.8

.8

.2

.2

.3
.3

1 2 .0
2.0

.9

15.2
3.5
.9

. 5

.6

.4
1.4
.4

.6

.5
3.1

.6

1.1

.6

15.4
4.6
3.6
.5

.5
.3
.4

.8

.3
.4

.7

1.1

6.5
4

.8

.6
2 .1

2.8

1.3

.2
2.1

5.3

.4
15.3
3.5
4. 4

2.3

1.1

.6

.3
.5
10.9
1.4
4.2

11.8

.4
.9
.4

32.5
7.6
10.9

.7
5.4

.3
.4

.2

.3
13.9
3.1
3.6

16.0

1.3
.4

2 .1
.2

.6

1.7
7.3

.5

15.7
1.3

7

.5
4.9
.7
7.5

1.3

.6

.6
.8

.

.8

.9
1.4
4.6
.5
.5
15.7
4.4
3.9
.5
.5
5.5
.9

.8
.1

.6

.7

.3
.9
.3
.4
.4

.6

.4
16.1
3.9
5.3

1.1
.1
2.0

29.7
9.6
6.9
.9

.4
.5

.8

1.0
1.2

.1
.1
.6

.7
1.4
4.4

1 2 .8

11.3
1.3

.4

.4

.5
.7
.3
.4

.3

1.6
1.6
.2
2.6

36.5

.9
.4
.9
.4

.8
.6

2.0

39.3
12.3
13.5

Seattle

a
<

San Francisco

Portland, Oreg.

1.0
.2

35.7
13.3
10.4
1.3

Pacific

T
Denver

1.1
.1

29.1
7.6
10.7

M oun­
tain

New Oreleans

30.1
8.3
9.8
1.4

Houston

26.1
7.9
7.3
.9

West South
Central

Mobile

Memphis

Goods and services

Birmingham

East South Cen­
tral

.3
.3
1.3
.5
1.9
.6

.6
.1
.8

.9
.3
.9

.9

.7

.2:

.2

.5
.7

.4
.5
.7
14.8
2.3
1.1

.7
.7
.5
1.4
.5
1.9
.5

.8

.4
.4
.3
.4
.4
.9
15.9
1.9
.7
1.9
.7
.4
1.2

.3

1.8

.8

.9
1.4

.6

.2
.8

1.1
.2

.8
.2

.3

.6

.5
.3
.3
.3
.3
4.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.1
.1
.2
.2
1.1

.1
.1
.2!
.1
1.21

.1
.1
.2!

.2:
.1
.2!

.1

14.7

16.0

13.8

13.8

16.3

13.3;

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.1
1.5i
13.7

.1

.1
.1

.1
1.3

2.0

13.9'

16.6

100.0 1 100.0 1 100.0

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1913- 41

108
T

able

21 .— Method, of grouping of fa m ily expenditure data to obtain weights for
index of miscellaneous costs
Represented in index b y—

Family expenditures for—
Transportation:
Automobile, motorcycle, bicycle.

{ Automobiles

(delivered price): Chevrolet, each.
Ford, each.

Plym outh, each.
Gasoline: Regular_________________
E th yl................ ................
Oil........... .............................................. jGasoline, regular, gallon.
Tires......... .............................. ........... . M otor oil, regular, quart.
T ubes.................................................... Balloon tire, first quality, 4-ply 6.00 x 16, each.
Balloon, inner tube, first quality, 6.00 x 16, each.
( Automobile repairs and maintenance: 1
Adjust brakes: Labor and fluid (if extra charge).
Repairs and maintenance.
License.

Trolley. ..........

Reline brakes: Labor and parts (standard).
Overhaul and repair clutch: Labor and parts (standard).
Chassis lubrication (1,000 mile).
Automobile operator’ s license.
(Taxes, registration: Chevrolet.
Ford.
Plymouth.
Chevrolet.
ad valorem.
Ford.
(Automobile insurance: Liability, bodily injury, property damage.
Plymouth.
Collision, $50 deductible:
Fire, theft, and comprehensive:
Chevrolet.
Ford.
Plymouth.
Railroad fares.
{ Streetcar: Cash fare, per ride.
Token or ticket fare, per ride.

Bus, local______ ___________________

{ Bus:

Taxes.

Insurance.

Railroad fares.

W eekly pass, each.
Cash fare, per ride.
Token or ticket fare, per ride.

Other transportation expenditures. _
W eekly pass, each.
Medical care:
Weighted general practitioner: priced transportation.
General practitioner: Home visits. _ (Physician,average of prices of all Office visit, per visit.
Office v isits.. \
House visit, during day, per visit.
( Physician, general practitioner: Obstetrical case, per case.
Surgeon, appendectomy.
Specialists

Dental service....................... ..............
Hospital:
W ard..............................................
R oom ..................................... .......
Nurse_________________________
Nursing service in home: P riv ate..
Visiting..

Ear, nose, and throat: General practitioner or specialist:
Tonsillectomy, child, operating fee: Hospital, per case.
Office, per case.
{ Dentist, usual charge to adult:
Filling, amalgam, simple cavity, one surface, each.
Extraction, simple, local anaesthetic, no X-ray, per case.
Cleaning, prophylaxis, per case.
Hospital, charge for bed, meals, and general nursing:
f
M en ’s pay ward, per day.
\
W om en’s pay ward, per day.
/
Semiprivate room, per day.
I
Private room, without bath, per day.
Private nurse.

Optometrist: Glasses complete, per pair.
Lens, bifocal, first quality, each.
Prescriptions: Nonnarcotic, liquid, 4 ounces.
Nonnarcotic, capsules, dozen.
Narcotic, liquid, 3 ounces.
Aspirin tablets, U. S. P., 5 grains:
Manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, box of 1 2 .
Distributor’s or manufacturer’s brand, not advertised or
advertised locally only, box of 1 2 .
Medicine and drugs.
Quinine ,2 U. S. P., 5-grain, capsule or pill, dozen.
Cold remedy ointment: Manufacturer’s brand, widely adver­
tised, 1- to 4-ounce jar.
Antiseptics: Tincture of iodine, mild, bottled b y manufacturer,
1 ounce.
Castor oil, U. S. P., bottled by manufacturer, 3- to 4-ounce bottle.
M ilk of magnesia, U. S. P.:
Manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, 12 - to 16-ounoe
bottle.
Distributor’s or manufacturer’s brand, not advertised or
advertised locally only, 12 - to 16-ounce bottle.
Laxative, expenditures for automobile or gum, manufacturer’s
1 Priced only in the 10 cities reporting the largest with phenolphthalein, tabletrepairs and maintenance.
brand, widely advertised, box of 1 2 .
In the remaining cities, the family expenditures for these services is represented b y a weighted average of
prices for all priced transportation.
2 Priced in following cities only: Atlanta, Birmingham, Houston, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Memphis,
M obile, N ew Orleans, Norfolk, Richm ond, Savannah, and St. Louis.




SUMMARY TABLES
T

a b l e

2 1 .—

109

Method o f grouping of fa m ily expenditure data to obtain weights fo r
index of miscellaneous costs— Continued

Family expenditures for—

Represented in index by—

M edical care— Continued.
All other medical care expenditures. Weighted average of prices of all priced medical care.
Accident and health insurance......... Accident and health insurance.
Recreation:
[Newspapers: On street: D aily only, per copy.
Newspapers: Bought on street.
Sunday only, per copy.
Home delivery.. .
B y carrier, delivered to homes, daily and Sunday,
per week or month.
Magazines........ ...................................
Books: (Except school)............ ........ ( Weighted average of prices of newspapers, bought on street and
and home-delivered.
Loan library..........................
Movies: A dult....................................
Child.....................................
Plays, concerts...................................
Spectator sports.____ _____________
Cigars............ .......................................
Cigarettes............. ..............................
Pipe to b a cc o .....................................
Other tobacco.____ ______ _____ _
Other recreation expenditures, in­
cluding music and musical instru­
ments, athletic equipment, chil­
dren’s play equipment, cameras,
etc........................... ...................... .
Personal care:
H aircuts.............. .
Shaves___________
Permanent waves.

[Motion-picture admissions, first floor: Adult, each.

Child, under 12 years,
each.

reighted average of prices of motion-picture adminssions for
adults and children.
VTobacco: Cigar, regular size, inexpensive quality, each.
/
Cigarettes, medium quality, package of 20.

Pipe tobacco, 1- to 2-ounce tin.

Weighted average of prices of priced miscellaneous.

^Barber services, haircut, m en’s, each.
[Beauty-shop services, haircut, wom en’s, each.
M en’s haircuts.
Beauty-shop services, permanent wave, machine, short hair,
each.
Beauty-shop services, wave set, with lotion, short hair, each.
Other waves.......... ................
Shampoos...............................
} Weigh ted average of prices of permanent waves and wave sets.
Manicures___________ ____ _
Weighted average of prices of all priced personal care services.
Other services_____ _____ _
fToilet soap: M illed, regular size cake, each.
Toilet soap............................
\
Floating, medium size cake, each.
Tooth paste, mouth washes.
Tooth paste, manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, 2 - to 214o u n c e tube.
Shaving cream, soap base, manufacturer’s brand, widely ad­
vertised, 3- to 3^-ounce tube.
Face ppwder:
$1-$1.25 market level, manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, 2 \ i- to 3-ounce package.
Cosmetics and toilet preparations.. <
$0.50-$0.75 market level, manufacturer’s brand, widely ad­
vertised, 2\4- t o 3-ounce package.
Cleansing cream: 3H- to 4^-ounce jar, manufacturer’s brand,
widely advertized.
Sanitary napkins, regular size:
Manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, box of 1 2 .
Distributor’s or manufacturer’s brand not advertised or
advertised locally only, box of 1 2 .
Brushes (hair, tooth), toilet articles, ,
etc:
____ ____________ ________ Razor blades, double-edge:
Manufacturer’s brand, widely advertised, package of 5.
Distributor’s or manufacturer’s brand, not advertised or
„
advertised locally only, package of 5.
Other household operation:
Water rent.
Water rent......................
Telephone rates, per month.
Telephone.......... ............
Domestic services: 3
Day workers:
General housework:
Domestic service: Part-time.
Cash wage only;
W ithout laundry.
cash wage with
W ith laundry.
b o a r d o n ly ;
Laundry workers only.
cash wage with
’
W eekly workers :
room only; and
General housework:
cash wage with
W ithout laundry.
room
and
<
W ith laundry.
Full-time.
General housework and cooking:
board.
W ithout laundry.
,
W ith laundry.
Laundry service (bundle 20 pounds):
Dam p wash, ready for ironing, bundle.
Laundry:
W et wash.........
Thrifty, wearing apparel damp, flatwork ironed, bundle.
j
Fluffed dry, no starch, flatwork ironed, bundle.
M angled_____
Rough dry, starch where required, flatwork ironed, bundle.
Ironed.............
Econom y, starch, ironed, little handwork, mending, bundle.
Rough dry___
Finished, family (deluxe) starch, ironed, handwork, mending,
Combinations.
bundle.
3 Priced only in the 13 cities reporting the largest expenditures for domestic services. In the remaining
cities, the family expenditure for these services is represented b y a weighted average of prices for priced
miscellaneous items.




110

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES,

T able

21.—

1 9 1 3 -4 1

M ethod of grouping of fa m ily expenditure data to obtain weights for
index of miscellaneous costs— Continued

Family expenditures for—

Represented in index by—

Other household operation—Continued.
White,
Soap (except toilet): Bar................... /Laundry: Bar, large size cake: Yellow, wrapped, each.
wrapped, each.
Flake and chip: For fine fabrics, 12 - to 17-ounce packFlakes
and
powder......

For general purposes, 16- to 24-ounce
package.
Granulated and powdered, general purpose, 20- to
36-ounce package.
Starch, bluing_____________________ Starch, laundry, 12- to 16-ounce package.
Cleaning powders, polishes, steel
wool, etc............. .............................. Cleanser, 12 - to 14-ounce package.
Matches................................................ Matches, kitchen, box of 500 or 20 cubic inches.
Household paper................................. Toilet paper, roll.
Postage, telegrams____ ___________ Postage, telegrams.
Other household operations includ­
ing insurance on furniture, sta­ Weighted average of prices of all priced miscellaneous
tionery supplies, safe-deposit box,
moving, express, etc_______ ____ _
Formal education:
Tuition, fees, books.....................
Supplies..................................... .
Community welfare: Church and
Sunday school, com m unity chest,
and other contributions. Poll,
income, and personal property
taxes----------- ------------------------------A
Vocation: Professional association ► ll items.
and union dues and fees, techni­
cal literature, e t c . ____ ________
Gifts and contributions: Christmas,
birthday, etc.; contributions for
support of relatives or other per­
sons___________ ____ ____________
Other family expenditures: Funer­
als, legal, losses, gardens, etc------




111

SUMMARY TABLES
T

a b l e

2 2 .— Estimated 1 cost o f living for a 4-person manual-worker’s fa m ily at
maintenance level 2 in S3 large cities, as of June 15, 1941

City

Total

Atlanta________________
Baltimore. .................■
___
Birmingham....................
B oston._____ __________
Buffalo............................

$1, 377.13
1, 384. 30
1, 347. 75
1, 471.93
1, 377.94

Chicago_______________
Cincinnati............... ........
C levelan d........................
Denver___________ ____
D e tro it................ ............

Food

Fuel,
electricity, Houseand ice furnishings

Miscel­
laneous

Clothing

Housing

$509. 62
508.12
508.86
507.66
509.15

$164. 62
169.92
176. 75
173.01
172.43

$286. 65
258. 91
241.27
260.97
249.13

$87. 34
102. 40
71.30
139.14
109.46

$31.88
37.07
33.13
34.04
34.54

$297.02
307,88
316.44
357.11
303.23

1, 505. 86
1. 394.16
1.454.99
1, 338. 09
1, 506.45

514. 69
497. 25
497. 53
482. 21
508. 39

162. 29
178. 81
178. 58
164. 63
171.10

295.61
270. 52
290. 88
237. 69
314. 29

129.04
95. 56
112.90
112.26
117.26

32.65
37. 23
35. 53
34.09
33. 62

371.58
314. 79
339. 57
307.21
361.79

H ouston...........................
Indianapolis................... .
Jacksonville______ _____
Kansas C ity.....................
Los Angeles___ ________

1, 339. 03
1, 356.19
1, 369.45
1, 293. 49
1. 376. 29

481.03
490.16
517.35
483.90
480. 40

162.14
161. 72
151.18
174. 92
173. 69

245.12
251.52
236.22
209.90
242. 51

85.61
96. 39
101.69
106. 42
71.07

36.35
34.81
33.87
34. 30
36.47

328.78
321.59
329.14
284.05
372.15

Manchester................. .
M em phis........ ............. .
Milwaukee__________ _
Minneapolis................... .
M obile____ .................

1, 389.45
1, 352.97
1, 455.45
1, 469. 72
1, 227.23

519.91
475. 49
508. 66
512.93
487.83

155.40
174. 77
142.94
166.93
158.38

193.81
272. 70
289.96
306.48
189.96

157.68
81.63
123.97
136. 23
77.90

32.91
36.27
32.40
33. 74
34.88

329.74
312.11
357. 52
313. 41
278. 28

N ew Orleans...................
N ew Y ork ........................
Norfolk........ .....................
Philadelphia___________
Pittsburgh_____________

1,322.62
1, 553. 36
1, 407. 36
1, 383. 07
1, 436. 76

504.36
555.25
513. 78
506.66
523.04

165.83
169.20
174. 61
172.65
167.93

209.35
309.83
263.90
259. 75.
289. 93

72. 52
121. 58
106. 50
91. 40

39.18
34.88
35.40
34.27
35.32

331. 38
362. 62
313.17
306.86
329.14

Portland, M aine_______
Portland, Oreg_________
Richm ond_____ ____ _
St. Louis_______________
San Francisco .................

1,399.29
1. 387. 73
1, 379. 81
1, 440. 39
1, 513. 58

525.56
523.49
488.10
517.39
526.62

163. 74
162. 01
169.16
165.13
176.31

201. 53
195.28
253.34
284.20
286.63

150.81
132.12
103. 45
110.13
84. 77

33.57
35.72
36.18
36.94
38.56

324.08
339.11
329. 58
326. 60
400.69

Scranton_______________
Seattle._________
____
Washington, D. C ..........

1, 422.89
1. 443. 78
1, 535. 23

520.44
533.56
517. 71

165.74
177.00
175.52

266.02
203.36
352.04

95.47
1 2 2. 2 0

34.45
36.34
38. 26

340. 77
371.32
337.20

102.88

114.50

1 See explanation of method on pages 12 and 13.
2 As defined for all groups except food b y the Works Progress Administration in its publication Inter­
city Differences in Costs of Living in March 1935, 59 Cities, Research Monograph X II. The food budget
is computed in terms o f the “ Adequate diet at minimum cost” of the U. S. Bureau of H ome Economies;




CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN LARGE CITIES, 1913- 41

112
T

2 3 .— Estimated 1 indexes of cost of living fo r a, 4~Ve rs° n manual-worker's
fa m ily at maintenance level2 in S3 large cities, as of June 15, 1941

able

[Base of cost in Washington, D . C ., June 15, 1941, as 1001

C ity

Total

Food

Clothing

Housing

Fuel,
Houseelectricity, furnjishings
and ice

Miscel
laneous

Atlanta________________
Baltimore.. _________ _
Birmingham___________
Boston............. .................
Buffalo................... ..........

89.7
90.2
87.8
95.9
89.8

98.4
98.1
98.3
98.1
98.3

93.8
96.8
100.7
98.6
98.2

81.4
73.5
68.5
74.1
70.8

76.3
89.4
62.3
121.5
95.6

83.3
96.9
86.6
89.0
90.3

88. 1
91.3
93.8
105.9
89.9

Chicago. .........................
Cincinnati_____________
C lev ela n d .......................
D e n v e r _____________
D etroit____________ ___

98.1
90.8
94.8
87.2
98.1

99.4
96.0
96.1
93.1
98.2

92.5
101.9
101.7
93.8
97.5

84.0
76.8
82.6
67.5
89.3

112.7
83.5
98.6
98.0
102.4

85.3
97.3
92.9
89.1
89.9

110. 2
93.4
100.7
91.1
107.3

Houston_______________
Indianapolis_________ _
Jacksonville . _________
Kansas C it y ................. .
Los Angeles____________

87.2
88.3
89.2
84.3
89.6

92.9
94.7
99.9
93.5
92.8

92.4
92.1
86.1
99.7
99.0

69.6
71.4
67.1
59.6
68.9

74.8
84.2
88.8
92.9
62.1

95.0
91.0
88.5
89.6
95.3

97.5
95.4
97.6
84.2
110.4

Manchester................
M em phis______________
Milwaukee_____________
Minneapolis__________
M obile_________________

90.5
88.1
94.8
95.7
79.9

100.4
91.8
98.3
99.1
94.2

88.5
99.6
81.4
95.1
90.2

55.1
77.5
82.4
87.1
54.0

137.7
71.3
108.3
119.0
68.0

86.0
94.8
84.7
88.2
91.2

97.8
92.6
106.0
92.9
82.5

N ew Orleans.................. .
N ew Y ork_____________
N orfolk............................
Philadelphia....................
Pittsburgh_____________

86.2
101.2
91.7
90.1
93.6

97.4
107.3
99.2
97.9
101.0

94.5
96.4
99.5
98.4
95.7

59.5
88.0
75.0
73.8
82.4

63.3
106.2
93.0
89.9
79.8

102.4
91.2
92.5
89.6
92.3

98.3
107.5
92.9
91.0
97.6

Portland M aine_______
Portland, Oreg_________
R ich m on d .......................
St. Louis .......................
San Francisco..................

91.1
90.4
89.9
93.8
98.6

101.5
101.1
94.3
99.9
101.7

93.3
92.3
96.4
94.1
100.5

57.2
55.5
72.0
80.7
81.4

131.7
115.4
90.3
96.2
74.0

87.7
93.4
94.6
96.5
100.8

96.1
100.6
97.7
96.9
118.8

Scranton. __................... .
Seattle_______
______
Washington, D . C _____

92.7
94.0
100.0

100.5
103.1
100.0

94.4
100.8
100.0

75.6
57.8
100.0

83.4
106.7
100.0

90.0
95.0
100.0

101.1
no. i
100.0

1 See explanation of method on pages 12 and 13
* As defined for all groups except food, by the Works Progress Administration in its publication “ Inter­
city Differences in Costs of Living in March 1935, 59 Cities," Research Monograph X t l. The food budget
is computed in terms of the “ Adequate diet at minimum cost” of the U. S. Bureau of Home Economics.




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