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U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

B U L L E T IN O F T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
INDUSTRIAL

ACCIDENTS

AND

} •■ • • {No. 2 9 8
HYGIENE

SERIES

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF
ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND
STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1919




By LUCIAN W . CHANEY

JUNE, 1922

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1922




CONTENTS.

Page.
C hapter I . — In tro d u c tio n a n d s u m m a r y .......................................................................................
1 -1 6
P reparation an d u se of r a te s ........................................................................................................
1, 2
P h y sic a l causes of a c c id e n t— T h e d ep artm e n ts c o m p a re d .......................................
3, 4
P h y sic a l causes of a c c id e n t— T h e d ep artm e n ts a n a ly z e d ........................................
4 -6
B la st fu rn a ce s.............................................................................................................................
4, 5
Steelw orks a n d fo u n d rie s.....................................................................................................
5
B o llin g m ills ................................................................................................................................
5
M e ch a n ica l, fab rica tin g, a n d yard d e p a r tm e n ts ...................................................
6
R e la tio n o f a c c id e n t causes to loca tio n , n ature, an d results of in ju r y .............
6 -8
Causes a n d loca tio n of in j u r y ............................................................ ...............................
6, 7
C auses a n d n atu re of in ju r y ............................................................. . ...............................
7
Causes a n d results of in ju r y ...............................................................................................
7, 8
V ariou s relation s of loca tio n , n atu re, an d results of in j u r y ........................... ........
8
H u m a n factors in ca u sin g a n d p re v e n tin g a c c id e n ts ..................................................
8 -1 0
T h e m a n a g e m e n t......................................................................................................................
8
T h e fo re m a n .................................................................................................................................
8
T h e w ork e rs..................................................................................................................................
9 -1 0
“ E n g in e e rin g re v isio n ” ................................................................................................................. 1 0 -1 1
T h e a c c id e n t record to 1 9 1 9 ........................................................................................................ 1 1 -1 4
T h e w ar a n d a c c id e n t r a te s...................................................................................... .................. 1 4 ,1 5
S tatistical m e th o d s for th e sa fe ty m a n ................................................................................. 1 5 ,1 6
C h apter I I . — P reparation a n d use of rates in th e sta tistical s tu d y of i n d u s t r y .. . 1 7 -2 7
T h e d eterm in a tion of a proper b a s e ....................................................................................... 1 7 -1 9
O b ta in in g “ m a n -h o u r s ” ................................................................................................................ 1 9 ,2 0
20
D e fin itio n of “ a c c id e n t” .....................................................................................
A c c id e n t fre q u e n c y ra te s.............................................................................................................. 2 0 , 21
2 1 -2 5
A c c id e n t se v e r ity r a te s ..............................................................
Illu stra tion s of se v e rity ra tin g .............................................................................................2 3 -2 5
U se of rates in th e s tu d y of a c c id e n t c a u se s..................................................................... 25, 26
U se of rates in th e s tu d y of oth er factors............................................................................
26
R a te s in collateral fie ld s ................................................................................................................ 26, 27
C h a p ter I I I . — T h e p h y sic a l causes of a c c id e n t— T h e d ep artm e n ts c o m p a r e d ... 2 8 - 5 0
M a ch in e ry as a cause o f a c c id e n t................................................................................................2 8 -3 4
P arts of m a c h in e ....................................................................................................................... 33, 34
P ow er v e h ic le s as a cause of a c c id e n t................................................................................... 3 5 -3 7
H o t substances as a cause of a c c id e n t................................................................................... 3 7 - 4 0
F a lls of w orker as a cause of a c c id e n t...................................................................................... 4 0 - 4 2
F a llin g ob jects as a cause of a c c id e n t................................................................................... 43, 44
H a n d lin g ob je cts a n d tools as a cause of a c c id e n t........................................................... 4 5 - 4 7
M iscella n eo u s causes of a c c id e n t................................................................................................. 4 8 - 5 0
C h apter I V . — T h e p h y sic a l causes of a c c id e n t— T h e d e p artm e n ts a n a ly z e d ____ 5 1 -8 7
B la st fu rn a ce s....................................................................................................................................... 5 1 - 6 6
W o rk in g m a c h in e s ...................................................................................................................
52
Cranes an d h o ists...................................................................................................................... 52, 53
E x p lo siv e s, e le c tr ic ity , a n d h o t a n d corrosive su b s ta n c e s........................... 5 3 -6 1
B re a k o u ts......................................................................................................... .................. 53, 54
Sparks a n d sp la sh e s.................................................................................."................... 54, 55
E x p lo s io n s .........................................................................................................................*.
55
F u rn a ce s lip s ..................................................................................................................... 5 5 - 5 9
G as fla m e s...............................................................................................................
5 9 -6 1
F a llin g o b je c ts ........................................................................................................................... 6 1 - 6 2
F a lls of w o rk e r...........................................................................................................................
62
H a n d lin g ob je cts a n d to o ls .................................................................................................
62
P ow er v e h ic le s ........................................................................................................................... 62, 63
A s p h y x ia tin g g a s ..........................................................................................................................6 3 - 6 5
U n cla ssified ca u ses...................................................................................................................
65
C om parison of th e years 1906 an d 1 9 1 3 .......................................................................
65
O c c u p a tio n an d a c c id e n t c a u se s.........................................................................*
...........65, 66




hi

IV

CONTENTS.

C h apter I V . — T h e p h y s ic a l cau ses of a c c id e n t— C o n c lu d e d .
Page.
S te e l w orks a n d fo u n d rie s................................................................................................................ 6 7 - 7 6
A c c id e n t causes in o p e n h e a r th s ........................................................................................ 6 7 - 7 4
W o rk in g m a c h in e s ..........................................................................................................
68
Cranes an d h o ists. ........................................................................................................... 68, 69
H o t su b sta n c e s.................................................................................................................. 6 9 -7 2
H a n d lin g ob je cts a n d to o ls........................................................................................
72
P ow er v e h ic le s .................................................................................................................. 7 2 ,7 3
U n c la ssified ca u se s.........................................................................................................
73
O c cu p a tio n s a n d a c c id e n t c a u se s ......................................................................... 73, 74
A c c id e n t causes in th e B essem er d e p a r tm e n t.......................................................... 74, 75
A c c id e n t causes in fo u n d rie s............................................................................................. 7 5 -7 6
R o llin g m ills .......................................................................................................................................... 7 6 -8 3
H e a v y ro llin g m i lls .................................................................................................................. 7 6 -7 8
T u b e m ills ..................................................................................................................................... 7 8 -8 0
Causes a n d o c c u p a tio n s............................................................................................... 7 9 - 8 0
P la te a n d s k e lp m i l l s ..............................................................................................................8 0 ,8 1
S h ee t m i lls .................................................................................................................................... 8 1 -8 3
M e c h a n ic a l, fab rica tin g, a n d y a rd d e p a r tm e n ts................................................................8 3 - 8 7
M ech a n ica l d e p a r tm e n t........................................................................................................ 83, 84
F a b rica tin g sh o p s......................................................................................................................
84
A c c id e n t re d u ctio n m e th o d s in m e c h a n ic a l d e p a r tm e n t a n d fab rica t­
in g s h o p s .................................................................................................................................... 84, 85
Y a r d d e p a r tm e n t...................................................................................................................... 86, 87
S a fe ty m e th o d s in y a r d s ............................................................................................. 86, 87
C h a pter Y . — P h y sic a l causes of a c c id e n t— R e la tio n of causes to loca tio n , n ature,
a n d results of in ju r y ............................... ............................................................................................ 8 8 -1 2 0
Causes a n d loca tio n of i n j u r y ................................................................................................... 8 8 -1 0 3
Causes a n d n ature of i n j u r y .................................................................................................... 1 0 3 -1 1 1
Causes a n d re su lt of in ju r y ...................................................................................................... 1 1 1 -1 2 0
C h apter V I . — V ariou s relation s of loca tio n , n atu re, an d resu lt of in ju r y ............ 1 2 1 -1 5 7
D e p a rtm e n ts a n d loca tio n of in ju r y ................................................................................... 1 2 1 -1 2 3
L o c a tio n a n d n atu re of in ju r y ............................................................................................... 1 2 3 -1 2 8
L o c a tio n a n d re su lt of i n ju r y ................................................................................................. 1 2 8 -1 3 4
D e p a r tm e n ts a n d n atu re of i n j u r y ...................................................................................... 1 3 4 ,1 3 5
N a tu re a n d re su lt of i n j u r y ..................................................................................................... 1 3 5 -1 4 1
R e su lts of in ju r y b y yearn a n d d e p a r tm e n ts................................................................ 1 4 1 -1 5 7
T h e d ep a rtm e n ts c o m p a r e d ........................................................................................... 144^146
T h e d ep a rtm e n ts in d e ta il . ........................................................................................... 1 4 6 -1 5 7
C h a p ter V I I . — T h e h u m a n factors in causing an d p re v e n tin g a c c id e n ts ........... 1 5 8 -1 9 1
T h e fo r e m e n ...................................................................................................................................... 1 5 8 -1 6 7
T h e a c c id e n t re d u c tio n b o n u s ........................................................................................ 1 5 8 -1 6 7
F o r e m e n ’s a c tiv itie s ................................................................................................. 1 6 1 -1 6 3
T h e rising se v e r ity r a t e ..........................................................................................
163
' ‘ E n g in e e rin g r e v is io n ” in b o n u s a n d n on b on u s p la n ts ................... 1 6 4 ,1 6 5
C o n c lu sio n ....................................................................................................................... 1 6 5 -1 6 7
T h e w o rk e rs....................................................................................................................................... 1 6 7 -1 9 1
In flu e n c e o f in e x p e rie n c e u p o n a c c id e n ts .............................................................. 1 6 7 -1 7 3
E x tr e m e in e x p e r ie n c e ............................................................................................ 1 7 1 ,1 7 2
S e le c tiv e d isc h a rg e ....................................................................................................
172
G eograph ic loca tio n as a p ossib le fa c to r...................................................... 1 7 2 ,1 7 3
In flu e n c e of age u p o n a c c id e n ts ................................................................................. 1 7 3 -1 7 6
A c c id e n ts a m o n g n o n -E n g lish -sp e a k in g w ork ers............................................. 1 7 6 -1 7 8
D a y an d n ig h t a c c id e n t ra te s....................................................................................... 1 7 8 -1 8 2
E x a m p le s of n ig h t a n d d a y ra te s..................................................................... 1 7 8 -1 8 2
E x p e r ie n c e in th e D u sseldo rf district, G e r m a n y ...................................
182
C on ju gal c o n d itio n as in flu e n c in g a c c id e n t s ..................................................... 1 8 2 ,1 8 3
P ossib le in flu e n c e of use of alco h ol u p o n a c c id e n ts ...................................... 1 8 3 ,1 8 4
D istrib u tio n of a c cid e n ts through th e hours of th e d a y .................................1 8 4 -1 9 1
R e c e n t stu d ie s in d istr ib u tio n ........................................................................... 1 8 7 -1 9 1
C h apter V I I I . — ‘ ‘ E n g in e e rin g rev ision ” ................................................................................. 1 9 2 -2 1 4
A c c id e n t causes, b y d e p a rtm e n ts, o v er a p eriod of y e a r s ................................... 1 9 4 -1 9 9
B la st fu rn a ce s.........................................................................................................................
194
O p e n h e a r th s.......................................................................................................................... 1 9 4 ,1 9 5
R o llin g m i lls ............................................................................................................................
195
M iscella n eo u s d e p a r tm e n ts............................................................................................ 1 9 5 ,1 9 6
Y a r d s ............................................................................................................................................
196




CONTENTS.

V

C h a pter V I I I . — “ E n g in e e rin g r e v isio n ” — C o n c lu d e d .
Page.
F a ta l in ju r ie s.................................................................................................................................... 1 9 6 -1 9 9
A n a ly s is of th e n atu re of in ju r y in fata l ca ses............................................................ 1 9 9 -2 0 1
E n gin eerin g revision s proposed b y safety c o m m itte e s .......................................... 2 0 1 -2 0 3
D e a th a n d m ajor m u t ila tio n ............................................................................. ............ 202, 203
O rg a n iz a tio n ......................................................................................................................................
203
E x t e n t of re d u ctio n of a c c id e n ts.........................................................................................
203
Illu stra tiv e Cases............................................................................................................................ 2 0 3 -2 1 4
C h a pter I X . — T h e a c c id e n t record to 1 9 1 9 ................................................................................2 1 5 -2 7 4
T h e in d u s tr y ..................................................................... * ............................................................ 2 1 5 -2 1 8
B la s t fu r n a c e s ......................................................................................................................................2 1 9 -2 2 2
B essem er d e p a r tm e n t.................................................................................................................. 2 2 3 -2 2 6
O p e n h e a r th s.................................................................................................................................... 2 2 7 -2 3 0
F o u n d r ie s............................................................................................................................................ 2 3 1 -2 3 5
B a r m i lls ..........................................................................................
2 36
H e a v y ro llin g m i lls ...................................................................................................................... 2 3 6 -2 3 9
P la te m i l l s .......................................................................................................................................... 2 4 0 -2 4 3
P u d d lin g m ills ................................................................................................................................. 243, 244
R o d m ills ............................................................................................................................................
2 44
S h e e t m i l l s ......................................................................................................................................... 2 4 5 -2 4 8
T u b e m i lls .......................................................................................................................................... 2 4 9 -2 5 1
U n c la ssified ro llin g m ills .......................................................................................................... 2 5 2 -2 5 4
F a b ric a tin g sh o p s.......................................................................................................................... 2 5 5 -2 5 7
F orge sh o p s........................................................................................................................................
258
W ir e d ra w in g ..................................................................................................................... * .......... 2 5 8 -2 6 0
E le c tr ic a l d e p a r tm e n t................................................................................................................. 2 6 1 -2 6 3
M e c h a n ic a l d e p a r tm e n t............................................................................................................. 2 6 4 -2 6 6
P ow er h o u se s.................................................................................................................................... 266, 267
Y a r d s ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 6 7 -2 6 9
E re c tio n of stru ctu ral s te e l...................................................................................................... 2 7 0 -2 7 2
M isce lla n eo u s d e p a r tm e n ts..................................................................................................... 272, 273
A n e w standard of co m p a riso n ..............................................................................................
274
C h a pter X . — A c c id e n t rates an d th e w a r................................................................................. 2 7 5 -2 8 7
B a sic d e p a rtm e n ts of th e in d u s tr y ..................................................................................... 2 7 5 -2 8 2
D e p a rtm e n ts of th e in d u str y m a n u fa ctu rin g various p r o d u c ts ........................ 2 8 2 -2 8 6
F lu c tu a tio n in rates for c a u ses.............................................................................................. 286, 287
C h apter X I . — S ta tistic a l m e th o d s for th e sa fe ty m a n ..................................................... 2 8 8 -3 1 4
T h e use of records a n d ch a rts................................................................................................ 297, 2 98
“ S m oo th e d c u r v e s ” ........................................................................................................... 2 9 8 -3 0 0
P reparation o f “ sm o oth e d cu rv e s ” ..................................................................... 3 0 0 -3 0 1
C harting a c c id e n t ca u ses................................................................................................. 3 0 1 -3 0 3
T h e ratio c h a rt.......................................................................................................................
304
A com parison o f sc a le s...................................................................................................... 304, 305
E rroneous use of a r ith m e tic c h a rts........................................................................... 3 0 5 -3 0 8
C haracteristics an d use of ra tio ch a rts.................................................................... 3 0 8 -3 1 1
S p e cia l a p p lic a tio n s...............................................................................................................3 1 1 -3 1 4
A p p e n d ix — D a ta u p o n w h ic h report is b a s e d ..........................................................................3 1 5 -3 8 7
H o u rs of exp osu re in p la n ts i n th e iron a n d s te e l in d u s tr y fu rn ish in g
records of in d iv id u a l cases, 1 915 to 1 9 1 9 , b y d e p a r tm e n ts (T a b le 1 ) . . .
315
N u m b e r of cases o f a c c id e n t in sp ec ifie d d ep a rtm e n ts in th e iron and
ste e l in d u str y , 1 9 i5 to 1 919, classified as follow s:
B y a c c id e n t causes (T a b le 2 ) .................................................................................... > 3 1 6 -3 2 1
.
B y cause a n d loca tio n o f in ju r y (T a b le 3 ) ........................................................... 3 2 2 -3 3 0
B y cause an d nature of in ju r y (T a b le 4 ) .............................................................. 3 3 1 -3 3 5
B y cause an d resu lt of in ju r y (T a b le 5 ) ................................................................ 3 3 6 -3 4 1
B y loca tio n of in ju r y (T a b le 6 ) ................................................................................... 342, 343
B y loca tio n an d nature of in ju r y (T a b le 7 ) ........................................................ 3 4 4 -3 4 8
B y loca tio n an d resu lt of in ju r y (T a b le 8 ) .......................................................... 3 4 9 -3 5 4
B y nature an d resu lt of in ju r y (T a b le 9 ) ............................................................. 3 5 5 -3 6 0
N u m b e r o f cases o f a c c id e n t in th e iron a n d ste e l in d u s tr y , 1 9 1 0 -1 9 1 4 an d
1 9 1 5 -1 9 1 9 , an d b y years 1915 to 1919, b y d ep a rtm e n ts a n d re su lt of
in ju r y (T a b le 1 0 ) ....................................................................................................................... 3 6 1 -3 7 3
F re q u e n c y rates (pe r 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 h o u rs’ e x p o su re) for sp ecified d ep a rtm e n ts
in th e iron an d ste e l in d u str y , 1 9 1 0 -1 9 1 4 an d 1 9 1 5 -1 9 1 9 a n d b y years
1915
to 1919, b y result of in ju r y (T a b le 1 1 ) ........................................................ 3 7 4 -3 8 4
N u m b e r o f cases o f a c c id e n t, an d average tim e loss p e r case, in sp ecified
d e p artm e n ts in th e iron an d ste e l in d u str y , 1915 to 1 91 9 , b y o c cu p a­
tion s (T a b le 1 2 ).......................................................................................................................... 3 8 5 -3 8 7




VI

CONTEXTS.
CHARTS.

Ch a r t

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2 1.
22.
2 3.
2 4.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
3 3.
34.
35.
3 6.
3 7.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
4 3.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

M a c h in e ry as a cause of a c c id e n t .......................................... . .................. . . . . .
Pow er v e h ic le s as a ca u se of a c c i d e n t .
.......... ....................................
H o t su b stan ces as a cause of a c c i d e n t .. . ...........................................................
F a lls of w orker as a cause of a c c id e n t.....................................................................
F a llin g o b je cts as a cause o f a c c id e n t....................................................................
H a n d lin g o b je cts a n d tools as a cause of a c c id e n t................'. ......................
M isce lla n eo u s causes of a c c id e n t...............................................................................
A c c id e n t rates for a se le c te d group of m ills in th e iron an d ste e l
in d u str y , 1912 to 1 9 1 7 ..................................................................................................
A c c id e n t rates for b o n u s a n d n o n b on u s p la n ts in se le c te d groups of
m ills in th e iron a n d ste e l in d u str y , 1912 to 1 9 1 7 .....................................
R e la tio n of e m p lo y m e n t, accession of n e w m e n , a n d p ro d u c tio n to
a c c id e n t occurrence in a large ste e l p la n t, 1908 to 1 9 1 4 ......................
N ig h t a n d d a y rates in a large ste e l p la n t, b y y e a r s.....................................
N ig h t a n d d a y rates in a large ste e l p la n t, b y d e p a r tm e n ts ....................
H o u r ly a c c id e n t rates a n d h o u rly p ro d u c tio n ..................................................
H o u r ly varia tio n in a c cid e n ts, a c c id e n t-p ro d u c t ratio, an d p ro d u ctip n in a m u n itio n p la n t — . ................................
A c c id e n t se v e rity rates in th e iron an d steel in d u stry for sp ec ifie d
p erio d s...................................................................................................................................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— Iron a n d steel
in d u s tr y ................................................................................................................................
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— Iron an d steel in d u s ­
t r y ..........................................
A c c id e n t se v e rity rat as in b last furnaces for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s .............
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— B la s t fu rn a c e s____
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates^ (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— B la s t fu rn a c e s.............
A c c id e n t se v e rity rates i n B essem er d ep a rtm e n t for sp ec ifie d p eriod s.
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— B essem er d ep art­
m e n t ...................................................
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— B essem er d ep art­
m e n t ....................., ........................... . . ........... ...................................................................
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates in o p e n hearths for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s...............
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— O p e n h e a r th s____
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— O p e n h e arth s.................
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates i n fou n d ries for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s ......................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— Found ries...................
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— F o u n d r ie s ......................
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates i n h e a v y ro llin g m ills for s p ec ifie d p e r io d s. .
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— H e a v y ro llin g m ills..
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— H e a v y ro llin g m i l l s . .
A c c id e n t s e v e rity rates in p la te m ills for s p ec ifie d p e r io d s .......................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— P la te m i l l s ..................
T re n d o f a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— P la te m ills ....................
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates i n sh e e t m ills for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s ....................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— S h e e t m i l l s ...............
T re n d of a c c id e n t rates (m o v in g 5 -y e a r to ta l)— S h e e t m i l l s ....................
A c c id e n t s e v e rity rates i n tu b e m ills for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s .......................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— T u b e m i l l s . . . . ____
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates in u n classified ro llin g m ills for sp ec ifie d
p e r io d s.....................................................................................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— U n c la ssified rollin g
m i lls ............................
A c c id e n t se v e r ity rates i n fa b ric a tin g sh op s for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s . . .
F lu c tu a tio n o f a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— F a b rica tin g s h o p s . .
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates i n w ire draw in g for sp e c ifie d p e r io d s ...............
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— W ir e d ra w in g ..........
A c c id e n t s e v e r ity rates in e le c tric a l d ep a r tm e n t for sp e c ifie d
p eriod s_______ . . . . . . ......... .................................................................................. ..
F lu c tu a tio n o f a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— E le c tric a l d ep art­
m e n t ........................................................................................................................
A c c id e n t s e v e rity rates i n m e c h a n ic a l sh o p s for sp e c ifie d p e r io d s -----F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t rates from 1910 to 1919— M e c h a n ic a l sh op s.
A c c id e n t s e v e r it y rates i n yards for sp ec ifie d p e r io d s.....................
F lu c tu a tio n of a c c id e n t r a t o from 1910 to 1919— Y a r d s ...........................




Tage.
33
37
40
42
44
46
49
160
161
170
180
181
188
190
216
217
218
220
221
222
224
225
226
228
229
230
233
234
2 35
237
238
239
2 41
2 42
243
246
247
248
250
251
253
2 54
256
257
259
260
2 62
263
265
266
268
269

CONTENTS.

C h a r t 5 3. A c c id e n t se v e rity “
rates in structural e re ction for sp ec ifie d p e r i o d s ..
54. F lu c tu a tio n from m o n th to m o n th of s e v e rity rates, of fr e q u e n c y rates
for d isa b lin g a n d n o n d isa b lin g a c c id e n ts, a n d of e m p lo y m e n t,
1914 to 1919 ......................................................................................................................
5 5 . T re n d of s e v e r ity rates, of fr e q u e n c y rates for d isa b lin g a n d n o n ­
d isa b lin g a c c id e n ts, an d of e m p lo y m e n t, 1914 to 1 9 1 9 ...........................
5 6. T re n d of fr e q u e n c y rates an d of e m p lo y m e n t in th e iron an d steel
in d u str y , 1913 to 1 9 1 9 .................................................................................................
5 7. T re n d of fr e q u e n c y rates in th e m a n u fa ctu re of sp ec ifie d p roducts,
1913 to 1 9 1 9 ........................................................................................................................
58. A c c id e n t rates p lo tte d b y m o n th s ..........................................................................
5 9 . A c c id e n t rates p lo tte d b y ov e rla p p in g 1 2 -m o n th p e r io d s ......................
60. T re n d of a c c id e n t rates in p rin c ip a l cause g r o u p s..........................................
61. C o m b in a tio n of bar an d lin e chart to show in correct use of arith m etic
p lo ttin g .................................................................................................................................
62. A rith m e tic p lo ttin g of a c c id e n t fre q u e n c y ra te s ..........................................
63. A “ r a tio ” c h a rt of th e d ata show n in Chart 6 2 ...............................................
64. Chart illu stra tin g in c o m p a r a b ility of percentages of increase an d
d ec re ase ................................................................................................................................
65. E m p lo y m e n t a n d fa ta lity rates in th e iron an d ste e l in d u s tr y ad ­
ju ste d for c o m p arison ...................................................................................................
66. C om parison of th e tren d of several re lated ite m s b y ‘ ‘ sm o oth in g, ’ ’
re d u cin g to in d e x n u m b ers, an d p lo ttin g on a p ercen tage s c a l e .. .
ILLUSTRATIONS.
P l a t e 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

M u d g u n in p osition for closin g ta p h o le ................................................................
C in der n o tc h , w ith g u a r d .................................................................................................
O ld , unsafe m e th o d of d rillin g a ta p p in g h o le ....................................................
Im p r o v e d m e th o d of d rillin g a ta p p in g h o le ........................................................
H o t m e ta l la d le an d car, sh ow in g d o u b le tru n n ion s an d safe ty c h a in s .
A u to m a tic co u p le r o n cin d e r la d le c a r .....................................................................
M od ern b la st fu rn ace p la n t, sh ow in g d u st c a tc h e r ..........................................
B lo w in g e n gin es in b la st fu rn ace p la n t ..................' ..............................................
B la st fu rn a ce , sh ow in g b u stle p i p e ............................................................................
O p e n -h e a rth charging floor, charging car in foreg rou n d ..............................
S toc k in g sid e of op e n h e a r th ..........................................................................................
P it side of o p e n h e a r th .......................................................................................................
M ix e r, w here p ig iron from b last furnaces is k e p t in m o lte n s ta te .............
B essem er ste e l c o n v e rte rs................................................................................................
T ransfer ta b les of h e a v y rollin g m ills, show ing guard co ve rin g g e ars. . .
B u tt-w e ld tu b e m i l l ............................................................................................................
S ectio n of sk e lp m i l l ............................................................................................................
S h ee t m i l l ...................................................................................................................................
M eta l p lan er, w ith sa fe ty p la te s closin g op e n in g in b e d ............................
Y a r d trestle, w ith va rio u s sa fe ty d e v ic e s ................................................................
S a fe ty gate for crossing of tr a c k s .........................
S kidd er w ith target a tta c h m e n t.................................................................................
T arget sign al, u sab le d a y or n ig h t ...............................................................................




VII
•Page.
271

2 76
278
283
284
2 99
3 00
302
3 06
307
309
310
3 12
313

Facing
Page.
52
52
54
54
54
54
55
56
56
57
68
69
70
75
78
78
80
81
86
86
86
87
87




BULLETIN OF THE
U. S. BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.
no.

WASHINGTON.

298.

ju n e .

1922

C U A D PR EN N O A C EN S IN TH IR N A D STEEL
A SES N EV TIO F C ID T
E O N
IN U Y 1910-1919.
D STR ,
CHAPTER I.—INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
This report endeavors to bring together the results of a study of
accidents in the iron and steel industry which has been going on
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the last 10 years.
Preliminary to the investigation undertaken in 1910 a survey was
made of conditions in England, France, and Germany. Following
this, accident data were gathered covering, with a fair degree of
completeness, a 12-month period ending in 1910. An effort was
made to include the preceding year, but the material did not prove
to be such that it could be satisfactorily used. Fortunately some
of the larger companies had preserved records going back to 1907
and in a few cases to still earlier years. B y means of these it was
possible to get a fair idea of conditions that prevailed at this earlier
period. The results of that investigation were published in 1913.1
While the report was still in preparation the bureau began syste­
matically to accumulate data from year to year. As soon as such data
were assembled for a five-year period a critical study of the facts was
was undertaken. The difficulties attending an adventure into un­
tried fields delayed its completion until 1918, when a second report
was published.2 This included a review of a portion of the industry
(about 50 per cent) extending from 1910 to 1917. The detailed study
was confined to the five years 1910 to 1914. In these years the
number of workers varied from 202,157 to 319,919, the total for
the 5 years being 1,310,919. The total number of accidents con­
sidered was 232,909. For the earlier years *(1907 to 1909) the
records of six plants were available. The number of their workers
varied from 19,481 to 29,766. This group carries the study back
to a point antedating the beginning of the organized safety movement.
P R E P A R A T IO N A N D U SE O F R A T E S .3

A proper base.— While through usage the “ full-year or 300-day
worker7 had become the recognized standard in the preparation of
7
1 Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry, Vol. IV, Accidents and Accident Prevention,
S. Doc. No. 110, 62d Cong., 1st sess., 1913.
2 The Safety Movement in the Iron and Steel Industry, 1907 to 1917, Bulletin No. 234 of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
3 See Chap. II.




1

2

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

accident rates/ after careful consideration of the whole subject, the
committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Com­
missions reached the conclusion that the most satisfactory base
would be the number of hours of exposure, sometimes designated
“ man hours.” For example, a factory having an average employ­
ment o f 1,000 and being in operation 2,750 hours during a year
would have 2,750,000 hours of exposure or “ man hours.”
The recommendation of the committee, which is followed in the
present report, is that rates be expressed in relation to hours of ex­
posure in units of 1,000 hours and decimal multiples thereof. For
example, frequency of accident rates will be the number of cases per
1,000,000 hours of exposure.
Industrial rates.— It is possible and desirable to use this standard
of measurement not only in the consideration of accidents but also
in the study of many other phases of industrial life, such as, for
example, the various phases of “ labor turnover.”
Accident rates.— In all of its recent studies the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has used two forms of rates— accident frequency rates and
accident severity rates. Accident frequency rates, which show the
number of cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure, are fairly satisfactory
when applied to the same establishment from year to year or when
applied to w^orks in which closely similar conditions prevail. They
fail entirely when it is desired to get an idea regarding the com­
parative hazard of dissimilar departments and industries. To
meet this difficulty the bureau worked out early in 1914 a system of
time equivalents for the different sorts of injury, expressed in terms
of days lost. This system, in modified forms, has since been in use
in the various publications of the bureau. The system now followed
is that which the committee on statistics of the International A sso-;
ciation of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions finally!
evolved. In that system the fundamental equivalent is one of 6,0001
days for death. Other equivalents adjusted to this are applied to
permanent disabilities, such as loss of arm (4,000 days). The sum
of such equivalents is then divided by the customary base, th e ,
hours of exposure, the resulting ratio per 1,000 hours’ exposure1
being the accident severity rate.
The need for such a rate may be strikingly illustrated by comparing
the iron and steel industry with machine building. In one annual
Eeriod machine building had a frequency of 39.3 cases per 1,000,000
ours’ exposure. In a year showing similar conditions an iron and
steel plant had a frequency of 38.1. Even a casual acquaintance
with the two would be convincing that this apparently greater
hazard in machine building could not be in accordance with the >
facts. The conditions of the iron and steel industry are certainly;
more dangerous than those of the machine shop. A comparison of t
severity rates is enlightening on this point. Machine building shows
1.8 days lost per 1,000 hours’ exposure, while the steel plant has
7.0 days. It is evident that the severity rate is greatly superior to .
the frequency rate in measuring relative hazard.
The severity rate is applicable with equal or greater appropriate­
ness to the study of causes, location, and nature of injury and similar
subjects, and is so used in this report.
4 For the methods of determining this base, see p. 18.




INTRODUCTION AND SUMM ARY.

3

PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT—THE DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

Each of the chief groups of accident causes, such as machinery,
falls, etc., is presented in Chapter III in such a way as to show as
clearly as possible the relative conditions in the various departments.
This is accomplished by presenting first a detailed showing of the
smaller groups into which each general cause group is divided and
then a summary table and chart. The method pursued may be
illustrated by the following specific eases :
Machinery.5
—Considering machinery as a cause of accidents it is
found that the electrical department stands at the head of the
departments in which there were injuries from this cause, with a
rate of 31.38 days per 10,000 hours' exposure, following which are
open hearths (19.25 days); fabricating (18.55 days); Bessemer
(16.74 days), and blast furnaces (14.52 days). It should be noted
that the inclusion of cranes and hoists under the heading “ machinery"
materially increases the rates, showing that under a correct classi­
fication power-driven machinery is the most serious of hazards.
Part o f machine. 6— Of the parts of machines classified as causing
accidents the “ point of operation" is responsible on the whole for
the greatest severity of injury; for example, it causes higher ^rates
than any other part of the machinery in the following departments:
Fabrication (5.04 days), sheet rolling mills (2.81 days), and the
mechanical department (2.23 days).
Operation or condition? — In accord with the above it appears
that the operation of machines contributes most largely to severity
in a majority of the departments. Some of the departments showing
the higher rates for operation of machines are: Fabricating (3.71
days); blast furnaces (3.00 days); tube mills (3.04 days); and
mechanical departments (2.43 days).
Vehicles.8 In connection with vehicles as a cause of accidents,
—
yard employees suffer most seriously, their accident severity rate
from this cause being 54.35 days per 10,000 hours' exposure; in fact,
no other single cause of injury shows so high a rate. Other char­
acteristic departments of the iron and steel industry showing high
severity rates from this cause are as follows: Blast furnaces (18.96
days); Bessemer (13.50 days); open hearths (11.77 days); heavy
rolling mills (5.92 days).
Hot substances, 9 — Regarding injuries due to heat the highest
severity rate (24,98 days) occurred in the electrical department.
While this was the case in this five-year period (1915 to 1919) it is
possible that this is exceptional. Other characteristic departments
are in the following order as regards severity of injurv caused by
hot substances: Bessemer (24.03 days); blast furnaces (18.54 days);
open hearths (16.65 days).
Falls o f worker.1 — In this cause group the electrical workers
0
again head the list (11.21 days). This is due largely to the hazards
of the linemen, who must often work at an elevation and exposed
to electric shocks which may cause falls. The blast furnace (7.41
days) evidently has a considerable number of falling hazards likely
to result in severe injury.




5 See Table 4.
« See Table 5.
7 See Table 6.

s See Table 8.
9 See Table 10.
w See Table 12.

4

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Falling objects1 — The greatest severity (8.61 days) in-this cause
1
group is found in the Bessemer department, followed by open hearths
(8.06 days), foundries (5.80 days), and blast furnaces (5.50 days).
Handling objects and tools.1 — This cause group is notable for
2
high frequency and relatively low severity. Sheet rolling mills,
which in all other cause groups is well down the list in severity, is
here at the top (5.49 days). This is due to a large number of more
or less severe cuts and lacerations of the hands arising in connection
with opening and handling the packs of sheets. The mechanical
department, next in order (5.25 days), is the typical tool-using
department and a considerable portion of its rate arises in connec­
tion with such use. That even here, where carefulness on the part
of the workers is a most important factor, there are possibilities
of improvement in an engineering way is illustrated by the experi­
ence of one company, which had numerous accidents due to nails
flying from hammers in their shipping department. After introducing
hammers with corrugated faces such accidents were materially
reduced.
Miscellaneous causes.— In this group blast furnaces (14.03 days)
have the serious hazard. This is due to the exposure to asphyxiat­
ing gas, which continues to claim a number of victims each year.
PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT—THE DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.1
3

As it is impossible to make a summary of the chapter on this
subject, only some of the conspicuous points are here touched upon.
In order to determine the importance of the influences which act
upon accident causes it is necessary to follow the course of the rates
from year to year and also to know somewhat intimately the history
of the changes in equipment and method which have occurred during
the same period.
BLAST FURNACES .1
4

In blast furnaces the characteristic accident cause groups are subdi­
visions of the general group of “ hot substances.” They are “ break­
outs,” “ explosions” connected with slips, and “ gas flames.” Each
of these has its appropriate remedy in some form of structural im­
provement. Asphyxiating gas is also a serious menace in the blast
furnace and must be controlled, if at all, by better construction.
The course of accidents from year to year will be shown to better
advantage at a later point where the experience of the departments
is detailed more fully. In this connection it is sufficient to call
attention to the fact that the fairly steady decline which appears
in the rates is not confined to any particular group of causes. Some
causes are naturally much more sensitive to fluctuating industrial
conditions than others, but all of them have been influenced by the
efforts at prevention which have been in progress during the period.
Much light is shed upon the propep point for applying effort at
accident control by considering the relation of special occupations to
the causes. For example, it appears that injury from hot substances
is much more common among the members of the cast-house crew
than among other blast-furnace workers, while asphyxia is distributed




1 See Table 14.
1
12

See Table 15.

is See Chap. IV.
h See pp. 51 to 66.

INTRODUCTION AND SU M M ARY.

5

almost uniformly. Such facts indicate quite definitely the limita­
tions and particular direction of special effort.
STEEL WORKS AND FOUNDRIES, a

Steel works and foundries present in a modified form the hazard of
“ hot substances.” The effective control is along lines similar to
those suggested for blast furnaces.
Open hearths.— Among the occupations of open hearths common
labor has much the highest frequency rate. In injuries due to “ hot
substances,” for example, the rate is 30.1 cases against 14.0 cases for
pouring-platform workers, who stand next. In fact, common labor
has the highest rate in each cause group except “ handling tools and
objects” in which, naturally, the class of workers which includes the
specially tool-handling mechanics is highest, with 8.3 cases, while
common labor has 4.9 cases.
Bessemer steel works.— The Bessemer department has two items
of procedure peculiar to itself which require some special efforts at
control. When the blast is turned into the converter many molten
particles are thrown out. Ordinarily these are not of a size to be
particularly dangerous, but at times they may cause serious burns.
Screens protecting the workers are now frequently used with good
effect, but more important probably is the adoption of a plan of
work which does not require the men to expose themselves as much
as formerly. The second item is the throwing of heavy masses of
scrap into the converters. When this was done directly the men
were exposed to great heat and often the masses of scrap would fall
to the pit floor, seriously endangering anyone working there. In the
best plants this is now done behind water-cooled screens and through
chutes which make a fall to the floor below nearly impossible.
ROLLING MILLS .1
5

In heavy rolling mills the element of hazard which appears to be
most difficult to control is “ hot substances.” In all other particu­
lars there is marked improvement. This control has been due
largely to the introduction of improved machinery, both in the appa­
ratus used directly in the rolling process and in such accessory appa­
ratus as cranes.
In tube mills there is a combination of mill processes with machineshop conditions, making the problem of control quite different.
These mills have scored a remarkable success in the reduction of
accident frequency, while the severity rate, fairly low at the begin­
ning, has undergone relatively much less change.
The sheet mills present the unusual condition of a rising frequency
rate while the severity rate is falling. This was found, on analysis,
to be due to the group of employees particularly characteristic of this
department. When all sheet-mill workers are taken as a unit they
show declining rates. The “ hot-mill crews,” however, when isolated,
have rising rates in both frequency and severity. It is probable that
the rate being generally lower than in other departments and the rise
not being very conspicuous, less attention has been given to conditions
than they have deserved.




aSee pp.

67 to 76.

^ See pp. 76 to 83.

6

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

MECHANICAL, FABRICATING, AND YARD DEPARTMENTS.1
6

The control of accident causes in mechanical and fabricating
operations must in the nature of the case be considerably a matter
of personal care. So many of the operations are of a personal and
manual character that the individual worker’s attitude must be a
material factor. Indeed, it has been found that whenever an effort
which succeeds in interesting the men of such departments is under­
taken the frequency of accident at once begins to decline in a remark­
able manner.
Mechanics and fabricators are the typical machine users. It is
therefore in these departments that the relative importance of work­
ing machines and other similar forms of hazard can be most readily
determined. In no year covered by this study did the contribution
of machines to the severity rate exceed 30 per cent. The average is
about 10 per cent and it sometimes drops to 4 per cent. The working
machine is therefore not a negligible source of injury, but is of rela­
tively minor importance.
The yard department has its chief danger in the operation of power
vehicles. In the plants studied the greater number of cases arise
from coupling and uncoupling cars. The obvious remedy is the
introduction of automatic couplers. The severity rate receives its
greatest contribution from the men being run down by moving loco­
motives and cars. A study of these cases shows beyond question
that improvement in such matters as grade crossings, clearances,
permanent signal apparatus, and safety appliances on cars and loco­
motives is the main factor in an improved general condition.
RELATION OF ACCIDENT CAUSES TO LOCATION, NATURE, AND RESULTS
OF INJURY.1
7

There has been attempted in this report a sort of study which has
not hitherto been tried on any considerable scale. The number of
cases arising from a given cause and affecting different portions of
the body has been commonly presented, but no one has hitherto
applied the method of severity rating to indicate the varying hazards
which a workman encounters of being injured from the operation of
certain causes which have their incidence upon definite parts of the
body.
CAUSES AND LOCATION OF INJURY.1
8

In blast furnaces the cases which can not be classified cither by spe­
cific cause or bodily locality have the highest severity rate (10.28 days).
In the Bessemer department hot substances which affect the body
in general have the highest rate (14.68 days). The same situation
prevails in open hearths (10.81 days). Foundries have the greatest
severity in cases due to machinery and affecting the thorax and
pelvis (5.94 days). Machinery leads in heavy rolling mills, but no
particular locality is notably affected. Tube mills show a high rate
(3.58 days) for injuries to parts of the head and for those to the
thorax (3.64 days), due to machinery. Sheet rolling mills have
marked severity for injuries from handling objects, which are natur­
ally located on hands and fingers. The fabricating department
is See pp. 83 to 87.




17

See Chap. V.

is See pp. 88 to 103.

INTRODUCTION AND SU M M ARY.

7

suffers most from injuries due to machinery, injuries to the thorax
being most important (3.66 days). In the electrical department
injuries from machinery are the most severe, those to the skull (9.62
days) being the most serious. Mechanics are most seriously injured
by machinery, particularly in accidents to the thorax (4.06 days).
Yard employees are sufferers particularly from injuries to the thorax
(16.51 days), caused by vehicles.
CAUSES AND NATURE OF INJURY.1
9

Blastfurnaces.— The machinery of this department causes frac­
tures (7.26 days) and crushing injury (3.57 days) of most noteworthy
severity. Asphyxiating gas (9.14 days), included under “ unclas­
sified causes,” appears here, as elsewhere, as a serious hazard.
Bessemer.— The effect of hot substances, including electricity, is
shown by the rate for burns (23.99 days). Next in order come
vehicle accidents causing crushing injury (12.36 days) and machinery
causing crushing injury (11.38 days).
Open hearths.— Burns arising from hot substances and electricity
have the highest rate (16.61 days) in this department.
Foundries.— Hot substances producing burns (7.00 days), mach­
inery causing crushing injury (6.59 days), and machinery causing
fracture (3.83 days) are the noteworthy items for foundries.
Rolling mills.— The highest rates in the several types of rolling
mills are, for heavy rolling mills, hot substances producing burns
(5.45 days); for plate mills, machinery producing fractures (7.52
days); for tube mills, machinery producing crushing injury (6.50
days); and for sheet rolling mills, handling objects or tools producing
laceration (1.81 days).
Fabricating.— Crushing injury due to machinery (7.93 days),
fracture due to machinery (5.43 days), and crushing injury due to
falling objects (2.19 days) are serious rates in fabricating.
Electrical.— Machinery causing crushing injury (15.43 days),
machinery causing fracture (14.76 days), and shocks by the electric
current (14.32 days) contribute largely to severity in this department.
The hazard of electric shock is very characteristic, though not con­
fined to this department. One group of employees, the linemen, are
particularly liable to falls resulting in fractures (10.44 days).
Mechanical.—The mechanics have suffered during this period con­
spicuously from crushing injury due to machinery (5.10 days) and
falls of worker resulting in fracture (3.64 days).
Yards.— Crushing injury caused by vehicles (35.71 days) stands
out above all others in this department.
CAUSES AND RESULTS OF INJURY.2
0

Results of injury are classified under three headings— “ Death,”
“ Permanent disability,” and “ Temporary disability.” When pre­
sented by means of frequency rates the figures increase in the order
named. This inevitably conveys an impression of importance re­
lated to the size of the figure. For example, if the death rate is 0.8
cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure, permanent disability 2.5 cases,
and temporary disability 35.0 cases, It is difficult not to think of tem19 See pp. 103 to 111.




2< See pp. I l l to 120.
>

8

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

porary disability as being not only more numerous but also of larger
significance.
On the other hand, when in blast furnaces the death rate is stated
to be 10.22 days per 10,000 hours’ exposure, permanent disability
3.72 days, and temporary disability 0.58 day, the impression given
by the relative size of the figures is the proper impression and no men­
tal correction is necessary to give them a true perspective.
The severity rates for the various departments of the iron and steel
industry for the period 1915 to 1919 classified by causes and results
of injury are shown in Table 38.
VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, NATURE, AND RESULTS OF
INJURY.2
1

The causes of injury and how they are related to the departments
and to the worker have been considered. Besides these relations,
which are of rather fundamental importance in seeking a solution of
the accident problem, there are a number of interrelations which shed
light on various portions of the field.
These can not be summarized to any advantage but will be found
in detail in Tables 39 to 46.
HUMAN FACTORS IN CAUSING AND PREVENTING ACCIDENTS.2
2

Three human factors influence more or less directly the occurrence of
accidents, namely, the management, the foreman, and the worker
himself. An effort has been made to investigate the nature of this
influence and to suggest ways in which satisfactory results may be
attained.
THE MANAGEMENT.

Since the influence of this factor can not be readily presented in a
statistical manner it is not treated with great fullness. It is beyond
question more important than this summary dismissal of it would in­
dicate. A management in full sympathy with the safety movement
and devoting to it the same sort of attention as that given to produc­
tion is sure to get results. These may be expected to correspond to
the efficiency of the organization as a going concern. If the produc­
tion end is handled wen, the safety feature will be apt to share in the
general prosperity.
THE FOREMAN.

The importance of the foreman has been emphasized from the be­
ginning. Judged by results obtained no experiment deserves more
critical attention than that of offering an accident reduction bonus to
foremen.
An attempt has been made to develop the facts regarding a test of
the foreman’s accident reduction bonus on a fairly large scale and cov­
ering a considerable period of time. The conclusions which seem
justified are the following: 1. A foreman’s bonus for accident reduc­
tion will very greatly reduce minor injury; 2. Such a bonus will not
necessarily produce satisfactory results as to severe injury. In fact,
unless coupled with active use of other measures, the tendency will
be to a stationary or rising severity rate.




si See Chap. VI.

22

See Chap. VII.

INTRODUCTION AND SU M M ARY.

9

THE WORKERS.

The very qualities which make a worker adaptable in industry will
at times lead to his doing things which materially increase his hazard.
Conditions of mind and body entirely out of the control of the worker
may influence his accident rate. The results of these various condi­
tions are set forth with some particularity on pages 167 to 191.
Inexperience.— Wherever it has been possible to isolate groups of
relatively inexperienced men2 it constantly appears that accident
3
rates are in some degree proportional to the lack of experience on the
part of the worker. Whenever the “ new-man accession rate ” is high,
accident rates will rise, and a decline nearly always sets in whenever
the “ accession rate” begins to decline.2 Extreme inexperience2 is
4
5
particularly likely to show high accident rates.
Selective discharge.— Whenever business depression comes on the
less desirable men will be the first to go. The result will be a force of
relatively greater experience and of more reliable character. This
influence must be quite important in the lowered accident rate of
periods of depression.
Geographic location.— Some plants in which safety work of high
grade has been done appear constantly to have a higher accident rate
than others in which safety work of no better quality is being done.
It has often appeared that such plants were so located that they were
in the nature of “ ports of entry” to the steel business and on this
account had a larger contingent of inexperienced men.
Influence o f age.2 — The diversity of occupation which is very likely
Q
to be characteristic of different age groups makes it extremely diffi­
cult to determine whether age is an important factor in determining
accident rates. The available information seems to indicate that in
age groups whose duties are tolerably similar the group of less experi­
ence will have the higher rate.
Ability to speak English and accident rates.2 — Whenever it has been
7
possible to isolate and contrast groups which could and could not speak
English, the group which had not acquired the language had the higher
accident rates. It may be seriously questioned whether this defective
knowledge was the main factor in the higher rate. It must have some
influence, but these non-English speakers are also without experience,
and that lack may be more important than their deficiency in the
matter of language.
Day and night accident rates.— Evidence is abundant that in heavy
employments the night turn is more dangerous than the day turn.
Two influences immediately suggest themselves as responsible for this
condition: (1) Imperfect lighting and (2) a condition of the worker
rendering him more liable to accident. It is evident that develop­
ments in the direction of more adequate lighting and tending to im­
prove the physical condition of the worker have had a salutary
influence.
Conjugal condition.— If the attitude of the worker in the matter of
personal care is* the main factor in the determination of accident rates,
then those married and having dependents might be expected to show
lower rates. The only case where it has been possible to examine any
considerable body of data yields negative results. No constant and
significant differences can be discovered.
:

23
24

See Table 50.
See Chart 10.

7 1 0 8 7 ° — 2 2 --------2




26 See
25 See

Tables 51 and 52.
Table 53.

2 See
7

Table 56.

’

10

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Use o f alcohol and accident rates™— There is very great difficulty
in determining a point like the influence of the use of alcohol upon
accident rates. It is comparatively simple to isolate the cases due to
some physical cause such as machinery. If a man is caught and
crushed the fact becomes a matter of record. What his physical con­
dition was at the same time, due either to alcohol, loss of sleep, or
domestic worry, it is almost impossible to determine, and it is still
more difficult to reach a conclusion regarding the degree to which this
condition contributed to his injury.
In one plant some records were found which appeared to bear
directly on the question of the influence of alcohol. ^The extent to
which discipline had been administered for alcoholic indulgence had
been recorded. When these records were put in the form of rates, it
was evident that such disciplinary action had been much more fre­
quent on the night turn. The night accident rates were higher.
When the two sets of rates were compared over a series of years, it
appeared that both disciplinary action and accident rates in the
night turn had been declining in close parallelism. The conclusion
would seem well founded that the lessened alcoholic indulgence
evidenced by the declining disciplinary rates was a factor in the cor­
responding decline of accident rates.
It is probable, but not statistically demonstrable, that the fact
that rates did not rise so high in the war period as in the preceding
interval of industrial stress in 1913 was due in part to the restrictions
applied to the dispensing of alcoholic drinks.
distribution o f accidents^ through the wording hours.™— Tabulation
of the hour-to-hour distribution was originally undertaken in the
hope that it would shed some light upon the question of the influence
of fatigue in industry. To the compilations hitherto made figures
for the five-year period 1915 to 1919 have been added, but this new
material serves simply to emphasize the conclusion that in such mills
as those of the iron and steel industry other factors are so much more
influential that the fatigue factor is completely masked.
The United States Public Health Service issued a bulletin (No. 106)
in February, 1920, discussing accident distribution and the influence
of fatigue. It may be said that this study goes far toward estab­
lishing, in certain types of activity, a constant relation between
fatigue, output, and accident occurrence.
“ ENGINEERING REVISION” 3
0

It has commonly been assumed that there is such a thing as an
“ irreducible minimum” of accidents which safety effort would
finally reach and below which it could not be expected to go. The
first thing to suggest that such an expectation was not as favorable
as it might properly be was the study of severity rates. It then
appeared that in getting rid of cases of high severity application of
engineering skill had been not only an important factor but probably
the most important factor.
For example, consider the experience in blast furnaces. In the
earlier days a very large contribution to severity arose in connection
with hot-metal “ breakouts.” In one furnace such an event caused
the death of 14 men. As the rates from breakouts are followed from
2 See Table 60.
8




29 See

Table 61.

so See Cbap. V III.

INTRODUCTION AND SU M M ARY.

11

year to year it is possible to trace a steady decline in severity related
to a progressive increase in strength of construction of the furnaces.
Finally, in the group of furnaces whose results were considered,
“ breakouts” came practically to an end. As a result of this, the
severity rate was diminished by 19.6 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure
when 1906 and 1913 are compared. On the other hand, causes de­
pending largely on personal care, such as “ handling tools,” made a
very meager contribution to the declining severity rate. Contrast
a diminution of 19.6 days in severity rates which was due to the
“ engineering revision” which stopped “ breakouts” with 2.4 days in
“ handling objects and tools.” A part of this reduction in “ handling
objects and tools” must be attributed to improved form and care of
tools.
If it be accepted that “ engineering revision” is the main reliance
in the effort to get rid of severe injury, no limit can be set. Human
carefulness can not be immediately perfected, but physical conditions
can be to the point of making serious injury of rare occurrence. This
conclusion is reinforced by a study of fatal cases and the nature of
the injury which caused them. Most important is the result arrived
at by studying the records of safety committees. In one group of
accidents it was found that 57 per cent of severe cases were amenable
to prevention by engineering methods and in another group 65 per
cent. The increasing use of men having an engineering training in
the handling of safety problems should have an important bearing
on the reduction of severe injury.
THE ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1920.

The accident record of the several departments up to 1919 is pre­
sented in Chapter I X in various forms. In each case there is a tabu­
lar record which includes the number of full-year workers covered in
each of the years, the number of accident cases, classified by deaths,
permanent disabilities, and temporary disabilities, and the accident
rates, both frequency and severity. On the basis of this table and
other available information three charts are presented for each de­
partment whenever possible. The first of the charts shows the
severity rates for the years 1910 to 1919, including also the year 1907
whenever possible; the second shows the percentage of change in
both frequency and severity rates from year to year for the decade
1910 to 1919; the third presents the result of “ smoothing” the
curves by using a five-year interval terminating with each year from
1911 to 1919.
The industry.5 — Two points noticeable in the industry are found
1
in many of the departments thereof: (1) The rates for the year 1907,
which antedates any well-organized effort toward safety, exceed
those of any later year in every particular; (2) the years of high in­
dustrial activity show rising accident rates. The high points m the
rates per 1,000 hours’ exposure are 1907 (7.2 days), 1910 (5.2 daj^s),
1913 (4.3 days), and 1917 (4.0 days).
The fluctuation chart shows that between these high points, form­
ing an irregular declining series, are periods of low rates corresponding
si See Table 65 and Charts 15 to 17.




12

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

to industrial depression. The trend chart indicates a very steady
downward movement in frequency and a similar but less regular
decline in severity.
Blast furnacesP — This department presents the most marked con­
trast between the year 1907 and later years. It is a little disquieting
to observe that while the general trend has been downward to the
five years ending 1918 the yearly rate during the five-year interval
1915 to 1919 goes steadily up and reaches in 1919 the same level as in
1912 and 1913. This can not continue without seriously impairing
what has been an excellent record.
Interesting contrasts between the different blast-furnace occupa­
tions are presented. The second five-year period (1915 to 1919)
shows a marked change for the better in eacn occupation. This is
especially the case with cast-house men and appears to be related to
changes in structure and method which lessen the hazard of burns.
Bessemer P — In this department the record is very erratic and the
second five-year period has a slightly higher severity rate (6.9 days)
than the first (6.4 days). The low severity of 1907 (5.4 days) is
doubtless due to the fact that the exposure was small and in plants
which even then had conditions better than the average.
Open hearthsP— The five-year period 1915 to 1919 has a slightly
lower severity (6.5 days) than the five-year period 1910 to 1914
(6.6 days). The war period shows a rather violent rise both in fre­
quency and in severity. This was sufficient to produce an upward
trend of severity for the years 1918 and 1919. Severity ranges from
the high rate of 1907 (14.4 days) to the low rate of the years 1915 and
1916 (4.2 days).
FoundriesP— Severity having been constantly lower in foundries,
it may be that the need of effort has not generally impressed those
responsible for this industrial group. The severity rates rim an er­
ratic course and when subjected to the smoothing process do not
indicate any fundamental improvement. That this failure to im­
prove is not necessary is shown by the experience of a group of plants
m which it was possible to determine for the two 5-year periods the
occupational rates. For each occupation except melters and their
helpers, the rate is less in the second .period than in the first. For
the melters the rate is the same in both periods (2.4 days).
Heavy rolling millsP— The second five-year period shows a higher
severity rate (3.9 days) than the first (3.6 days). It is evident, how­
ever, on observing the fluctuation chart and the trend chart, that
some material improvement has occurred. The war period had a
marked influence m forcing the severity rates up, but this was not
sufficient to offset declines which had previously occurred.
Plate mills P — These mills show a remarkably regular decline over
the period prior to the war. The severity rate drops from 6.6 days
in 1910 to 1.9 days in 1915. Following the year 1915 is the usual
rise which is so constantly associated with the beginning and prog­
ress of the war. The peak is reached in 1918 (3.0 days).
Sheet millsP— These mills present the most consistently declining
rates of any department. Over the 10 years, 1910 to 1919, the
8 See Table
2
8 See Table
3
8 See Table
4
3 See Table
5




66 and
68 and
69 and
70 and

Charts 18 to 20.
Charts 21 to 23.
Charts 24 to 26.
Charts 27 to 29.

8 See Table 73 and Charts 30 to 32.
8
3 See Table 74 and Charts 33 to 35.
7
3 See Table 77 and Charts 36 to 38.
8

IN T R O D U C T IO N

AND

SUM M ARY.

13

severity rate drops from 4.3 days to 1.1 days. The two 5-vear
periods have rates of 2.6 days and 1.5 days.
Tube mills,39— These mills present a mixture of processes which
renders the rates somewhat uncertain. The rolling of the tubes
presents hazards much like those of the ordinary rolling mill, while
the finishing, which involves cutting the tubes into lengths and
threading the ends, is essentially a machine-shop operation. It is in
part this element of machine-shop hazard which accounts for the
relatively low rates of the department. The severity rates have
been highly irregular, but when the two 5-year periods are compared
they show rates of 2.2 days and 1.8 days respectively.
Unclassified rolling mills.4— These mills vary considerably but are
0
largely of hand-operated types. The severity rate of the first 5-year
period (3.7 days) is noticeably higher than that for the second (2.1
days).
Fabricating shops.4 — These shops make great use of overhead
1
cranes and have a high severity rate from that cause. The rate for
the five years 1910 to 1914 is 3.4 days, and for 1915 to 1919 is 2.6
days.
Wire drawing.4— Due to accidents resulting from entanglement in
2
the wire as it is drawn toward the block, this department shows
unusual severity in permanent injuries. Severity in the two 5-year
periods is 3.2 days in the first period and 2.6 days in the second.
Electrical department,4—The record for this department is a serious
3
disappointment. It shows a rather high severity and the department
does not seem to have made any progress. For 1910 to 1914 the
rate is 6.3 days and for 1915 to 1919 it is 7.2 days. The fluctuation
chart shows a great decline during the depression prior to the war, with
an immediate rebound to a point as high as in the prewar days. It has
been demonstrated that the department can be conducted more
safely than this record suggests. One considerable group of plants
which has been studied regarding causes of accident has a severity
rate of 5.2 days per 1,000 hours' exposure instead of 7.2 days. With
this group removed from the total the rate of the remainder would
be still higher.
Mechanical department4—The earliest year for which a rate could
4
be determined was 1908 (6.6 days). The rate for the second fiveyear period (3.5 days) is distinctly lower than the rate for the first
period (4.0 days). The fluctuation chart shows frequency and
severity running a much more nearly parallel course than is the case
with some of the departments. There is reason to believe that
fatal injury is more frequent among the mechanics than would be
the case if physical conditions were made as good as they should be.
Yards 4— This is another department which it must be admitted
5
does not record any material improvement. The rates for the
5-year periods are almost identical (6.0 days in 1910 to 1914 and 6.1
days in 1915 to 1919). It has been elsewhere pointed out that the
department presents peculiar difficulties in the fact that many plants
have outgrown the space to which they are confined. This situation
produces a congestion of transportation operations particularly
troublesome to the safety man.
8 See Table 78 and Charts 39 and 40.
9
4 See Table 79 and Charts 41 and 42.
8
4 See Table 80 and Charts 43 and 44.
*
4 See Table 82 and Charts 45 and 46.
2




. 4 See Table 83 and Charts 47 and 48.
8
4 See Table 84 and Charts 49 and 50.
4
4 See Table 86 and Charts 51 and 52.
8

14

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

Erection of structural steels — The rates here recorded for this
department demonstrate conclusively that the structural-steel
workers are exposed-to a more serious hazard than any other indus­
trial group. The severity rate due to fatality is 18.1 days per 1,000
hours; exposure. This may be contrasted with brakemen in railway
yards (16.6 days), road freight brakemen (14.1 days), electrical
workers (5.7 days), and blast-furnace employees (4.7 days). The
five years 1915 to 1919 show a marked improvement over the 3year period 1912 to 1914. The general severity rate declined from
31.4 days to 22.3 days. The work is difficult to deal with from the
safety standpoint, but this record and the experience of construction
companies prove that much can be done.
Other departments.*1
—A. tabular record of the following departments
is shown on pages 272 and 273 without comment: Coke, armor plate,
axle works, car wheels, docks and ore yards, fence weaving, nails,
and unclassified.
A new accident standard.*8 It seemed, when the records were
—
finally brought together for the five years 1910 to 1914, that they were
sufficiently extensive to be regarded as a fair standard by which the
industry and its departments could be measured. The rates reflected
the average experience for the period covered. While some of the
departments show higher rates in the later period, it seems on the
whole appropriate to displace the rates of the earlier period by this
later showing. To equal the average of the industry ought not to
be regarded as a particularly honorable achievement; to better it
will help in establishing that still higher standard which ought to be
worked out; to fall below it may be misfortune or it may be indiffer­
ence and inefficiency.
T H E W A R A N D A C C ID E N T R A T E S .49

Constant reference appears throughout this report to the influence
- of the war period. It has been possible to present a series of condi­
tions which bring out with especial vividness the characteristic
fluctuations which obtained during the war.
Basic departments.—A picture of the course of events in a large
group of establishments is provided by Charts 54 and 55. These
were chosen because both frequency and severity could be determined.
Frequency both for nondisabling and disabling accidents was very
irregular from month to month as shown in Chart 54, but the extreme
of fluctuation is found in the severity rates. In order to make the
trend more evident, in Chart 55 the curves have been u smoothed.”
This brings out the fact that from the year ending December, 1914,
there was a decline for some time, followed by a marked rise extending
throughout the period in which industry was adjusting itself to the
war burden. A second period of rising severity rates, extending to
the year ending November, 1918, may represent unusual industrial
activity. Unfortunately it was not possible to show on the chart
years back far enough to show that this war-time peak was not as
high as that of 1913. This becomes evident in Chart 56 which
presents simply the employment and the accident frequency curve.
« Se$ Table 87 and Chart 53.
« See Table 88.




* See Table 89.
« See Chap. X .

IN T R O D U C T IO N ' A N D

SUM M ARY.

15

Plants producing various products.— It having been shown that a
certain general course of accident rates characterized the industry
during the disturbance due to the war, it becomes important to
inquire whether all forms of production share in this tendency or
whether some may be of sufficient weight to control the curves against
a different course for others. In Chart 57 it is shown that all the
chief forms o f production were influenced in practically the same way.
Effect on the various causes.— A third test may be applied by follow­
ing the various causes from year to year. This may be done in Table
94. In this table it is shown that each of the principal cause groups
and most of the subordinate causes run a similar course. It may be
concluded that while war conditions disturbed industry exceedingly
they introduced no new factors into the situation. The sort of effort
which had proved effective under ordinary conditions was likewise
adapted to produce results under war conditions if applied with an
energy proportioned to the situation.
S T A T IS T IC A L M E T H O D S F O R T H E S A F E T Y M A N .50

In Bulletin No. 234 a chapter was devoted largely to the presenta­
tion of safety organization. It has been suggested that in this report
the subject be still further elaborated. The available literature for
the guidance of the safety man is now so extensive and readily avail­
able that it does not seem necessary to attempt a summary of it here,
and accordingly only those statistical methods which have been
found useful in the course of the bureau’s accident studies are
considered.
Forms and methods in use i y the Bureau of Labor Statistics.— The
b
facts regarding accidents are best presented by means of rates of
various sorts. These are essentially ratios between the exposure to
hazard expressed in terms of hours, regarded as a base, and the num­
ber of accidents, the equivalent time losses, and such other items as it
may be desired to study. The necessary information regarding ex­
posure is gathered annually upon a blank on which “ man-hours 7 are
9
entered, or, if they are not a matter of record, information regard­
ing number of men, days of operation, and length of day or turn,
from which “ man-hours ” may be computed.
For accidents two methods of reporting are in use: (1) Tables classi­
fying the occurrences by departments and by the character of the
result, such as death, loss of hand, or temporary disability of varying
duration, and (2) records of individual cases entered upon a card
on which are spaces for such items as age, sex, cause of accident,
nature of injury, etc. A portion of each card is arranged for the
entry of code numbers, into which the information mentioned above
is translated. When the translation into code is completed the
numbers are transferred to punched cards, which can be sorted and
tabulated with great rapidity by means of sorting and tabulating
machines.
Records and charts.— The safety man must often present the facts
to the management in such form as to arouse interest and afford
information regarding the results of his efforts. For this purpose he
uses tabulations and more frequently some form of chart. When
m

See Chap. X I.




16

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

it is desired to compare absolute amounts some form of bar chart
is used, preferably with the bars horizontal (e. g., Chart 15).
In order to follow the trend of events without the disturbance due
to local and temporary conditions it is often desirable to employ some
u smoothing” process. This is usually accomplished by introducing
between the figures for the successive calendar years a series of figures
for the years terminating with each month. In this way each point
determined on the chart represents not an individual month but a
full year.5 The “ smoothing” process is adapted to the study of
1
accident causes as well as to the departmental data.5 For the study
2
o f the changes occurring in accident rates the comparison of absolute
amounts such as is possible by means of arithmetic tables and charts
is not adequate. It is usual to express rate changes in terms of
percentage; for example, a 50 per cent rise or a 30 per cent\fall.
Some form of graph which projects these percentage changes is
needed. This is afforded by the “ ratio ch a rts5
3
See Charts 64 and 65.




& See Chart 60.
s

6 See Charts 58 and 59.
3

CHAPTER II.— PREPARATION AND USE OF RATES IN THE
STATISTICAL STUDY OF INDUSTRY.
T H E D E T E R M IN A T IO N O F A P R O P E R B A SE .

The rates which form the subject matter of vital statistics—
namely, birth and death rates—have long been familiar. The base
used in computing them is the population of the area under considera­
tion. For example, a city having 100,000 population in which 1,500
deaths occurred in a certain year would be said to have a death rate
of 15 per 1,000 population. When industrial matters, such as acci­
dents, came to be considered from a statistical standpoint it was
natural, even inevitable, that a similar basis would be chosen.
In the early attempts at accident statistics, attention was limited
to the number of accidents occurring in a given plant or group. But
mere numbers, of course, meant nothing unless related to the number
of persons exposed to accident. This led to the custom of expressing
accidents in terms of so many per thousand workers, and constituted
an approach to a correct method. To say that a given industry
had an accident rate of 100 per thousand workers does convey a
definite idea, and can be compared with a rate of, say, 300 per thou­
sand workers in another industry. But the method was extremely
crude, because the basic figure “ 1,000 workers” was indefinite and
variable. Usually it was derived by rough estimate as to the number
of persons employed, such as averaging the number employed at
different times of the year or averaging the pay rolls of the year.
It very soon became evident that not only must the number of
persons in the working force be considered, but also the amount
of time which they spend in the industry. It is perfectly clear that
a plant which has 1,000 employees and works 200 days in the year
stands on a different level in the matter of exposure to industrial
hazard from one in the same line of business and having the same
number of employees which works 250 days in the year.
In order to meet this necessity of taking into account the time
element and at the same time preserving the idea of comparison
with the number of people working, the “ full-year worker” or “ 300day worker” was devised.
This theoretical person, for use as a standard of measurement, is
formed on the idea of equivalence. Five men working 10 days are
equivalent to 10 men working 5 days or 2 men working 25 days or 1
man working 50 days. In the plant cited above the 1,000 workers
for 200 days are equivalent to 1 worker for 200,000 days. If 300
days be assumed to be a full working year, dividing the 200,000 by
300 gives 667 as an equivalent in terms of “ full-year” or “ 300-day”
workers. Treating the other plant, which had 1,000 workers but
was in operation 250 days, in the same manner the equivalent number
of “ full-year workers” will be found to be 250,000 divided by 300 or
833. On comparison of the numbers 667 and 833 it becomes evident




17

18

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STE E L IN D U S T R Y .

at once that the second plant had a larger exposure to the hazards
of the industry than the first and could have a proportionately
larger number of accidents without showing greater hazard.
If we suppose that Plant 1 had 100 accidents while Plant 2 had
112, on the basis of number of employees the rates would be 100 and
112 pier 1,000 employees, respectively. When, however, “ full-yeap
workers 7 are used the rates become for Plant 1
7
per 1,000 “ full-year workers” and for Plant 29

667
112

1,000 = 150
7
1,000= 134.

When the factor of time is brought in it becomes evident that Plant 1
rather than Plant 2 had the greater hazard in the proportion of 150 to
134.
The method of determining a base outlined above and used for a
time fails to take into account the fact that an industrial day is not
a constant. A department which operates 12 hours per day has a
different exposure from, one which operates 8 hours per day. To
meet this difficulty the number of “ man hours7 instead of “ man
7
days7 was taken as the basal figure and this was converted into an
7
equivalent in terms of “ full-year workers7 by dividing by 3,000.
’
The “ full-year worker,7 as described and illustrated above, had
’
been long in use as a standard of measurement in Germany and
Austria and had received an international sanction from a joint
committee of the International Congress on Social Insurance and the
International Institute of Statistics when the United States Bureau of
Labor Statistics began its accident studies. This base has been used
in all the publications on the subject to the end of 1919 and was
formally indorsed by the committee on statistics and compensation
insurance cost of the International Association of Industrial Accident
Boards and Commissions in 1917.
There has .always been a certain amount of difficulty in the prac­
tical use of this base in making perfectly clear what was meant by
it and what its relations were to the ordinary expressions of employ­
ment. Lately there has arisen a further objection on the ground
that its use implies some judgment regarding the proper length of a
working day.
After prolonged and careful study the committee on statistics
and compensation insurance cost of the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions has reached the conclu­
sion that it is desirable to break away entirely from the idea of rep­
resenting the number of employees in the base used. The action
taken is given in the following resolution and the accompanying
explanation:
R esolved , T h a t a c c id e n t ra te s, b o th fr e q u e n c y rates a n d s e v e r ity rates, b e c o m p u te d
o n th e b a sis o f 1 ,0 0 0 hours ’ e x p o s u r e in ste a d o f 3 ,0 0 0 h ou rs’ e x p o s u r e , a s h eretofore.
T h e u n it of m easure fo r b o th fre q u e n c y an d se v e rity a c c id e n t rates w h ic h has co m e
t c b e ge n e ra lly used is th e “ 3 0 0 -d a y w o r k e r ,” so m etim e s c a lle d “ fu ll-y e a r w o rk e r.”
T h is h y p o th e tic a l w orker is su p p o se d to w ork 10 hou rs a d a y for 300 d a y s in th e year,
or 3 ,0 0 0 h ou rs p er year.
T h e c o m m itte e o n sta tistics a n d c o m p e n sa tio n in su ra n ce c o s t a t its first m e e tin g
considered v e ry c a re fu lly th e q u e stio n o f a proper u n it for m easu rin g a c c id e n t rates
a n d d ec id e d to a d o p t t h e o n ly u n it th e n i n a c tu a l u se , n a m e ly , th e ‘ ‘ 3 0 0 -d a y w orker. ”
T h e “ 3 0 0 -d a y w ork er” was ch o sen as th e stan d ard m easu re for a c c id e n t rates b e ­
ca u se •(!) i t i s a b s o lu te ly n e ce ssa ry to h a v e som e c o m m o n u n it for m easu rin g a c c id e n ts
in a ll oc cu p ation s, a ll in d u stries, a ll S tates, an d a ll countries.
(2) T h e “ 3 0 0 -d a y
w orker ” h ad b e e n re co m m e n d e d as th e standard u n it for co m p u tin g a c c id e n t rates b y
th e P e rm a n e n t In te rn a tio n a l C o m m itte e on S ocial In su ra n ce a n d th e In te rn a tio n a l




PREPARATION AND USE OF RATES.

19

In stitu te of S ta tistic s an d was in use in G e rm a n y a n d A u stria and b y th e U n ite d S tates
B u rea u of L ab or S ta tistic s a t th e tim e th e c o m m itte e on sta tistics took u p th e m a tter
of sta n d a rd iza tio n of a c c id e n t sta tistics.
(3 ) I t w as a lle g e d th a t m o st w orkers d id
w ork ab o u t 10 hours a d a y an d a b o u t 300 d a y s in th e year.
I t was furth er argued
th a t w h ile th e ‘ ‘ 3 0 0 -d a y w o rk e r” d id conform* clo se ly to th e n orm a l w orker, s till he
w as m e r e ly an ab straction , a u n it of m easu re, an d w ou ld m easure exp osu re to a c ci­
d e n t ju st as a c cu rate ly for a n 8-h o u r d a y as a 10-h ou r d a y , for a 2 0 0 -d a y ye ar as a 3 00 d a y year.
T h e use of th is u n it, i t w as m a in ta in e d , d id n o t suggest a 10-hour d a y or a
3 0 0 -d a y ye a r as th e id e a l a n d proper w ork in g d a y a n d in d u stria l year.
I n fa c t b o th e m p lo y e rs a n d e m p lo y e e s d o regard th e “ 3 0 0 -d a y w orker ” as suggesting
w h a t th e id e a l w orkin g d a y a n d w orkin g ye a r sh ou ld b e .
T h e secretary of th e N a ­
tio n a l S a fe ty C o u n cil has p o in te d o u t th a t th e 8 -h ou r d a y is b e c o m in g th e stand ard
w orking d a y a n d suggested th a t th e u n it m easure b e m a d e 2 ,4 0 0 hours p er year in stea d
of 3 ,0 0 0 hours so as m ore n e a rly to reflect th e y e a r ly w ork in g tim e .
A 2 ,0 0 0 -h o u r ye ar
was also considered b y th e co m m itte e on statistics a n d co m p en sa tio n in su ran ce cost,
b u t i t w as recogn ized b y ail m e m b e rs of th e c o m m itte e th a t a n y stand ard u n it of
m easure w h ich suggested th e len g th of tim e m e n do or sh o u ld w ork is u n d esirab le .
I n v ie w of th e fa c t th a t th e w orking tim e , b o th th e hours p er d a y an d th e d a y s p er
year, varies w id e ly from p la n t to p la n t, from in d u str y to in d u s tr y , from c it y to c it y ,
from co u n try to c o u n try , an d from ye ar to year, i t w as th o u g h t b e st b y th e co m m itte e to
c u t loose e n tir e ly from a u n it of m easure th a t co u ld b e m isu n d erstood as in a n y w a y
im p ly in g w h a t th e proper w orkin g tim e sh ou ld b e .
T h e a d o p tion of 1 ,0 0 0 h o u rs’
exposure rids us forever of a n y su c h im p lic a tio n a n d g iv e s a u n it w h ich is c o n v e n ie n t
in size a n d w ill re m a in u n a ffec te d b y ch an ges in th e w ork in g d a y or variations in th e
w orkin g year.
T h e 1 ,00 0 -h o u r e xp osu re is a sta b le , scie n tific , m a th e m a tic a l u n it of
m easure, w h ich is w h a t is n e e d e d for th e m e a su rem en t of a c c id e n t rates.
I t has th e
furth er a d v an ta ge th a t a c c id e n t rates m easu red b y a n y other u n it of exp osu re m a y b e
re a d ily exp ressed in term s of th e 1 ,00 0 -h o u r u n it an d v ic e versa.
F or in sta n c e , all
a c c id e n t rates c o m p u te d in u n its of th e “ 3 0 0 -d a y iv ork e r” m a y b e co n ve rted in to
rates per 1 ,0 0 0 hou rs’ exposure b y d iv id in g b y 3 .
F re q u e n c y rates are to b e exp ressed
in rates per th ou san d th o u san d (1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ) h ou rs’ exp osu re of th e w orking force i n ­
stead of per th ou san d “ 3 0 0 -d a y w o rk e rs.”
S e v e r ity rates are to b e exp ressed as d a y s
lost per th ousand h ou rs’ exp osu re o f th e w orkin g force in stead of d a y s lost p er “ 3 0 0 -d a y
w orker. ”
I n b o th in stan ces th e new rates can b e d e riv e d from th e old rates b y d iv id ­
in g b y 3.

This base for computation of accident rates has important advan­
tages beside those mentioned in the preceding statement by the
committee on statistics. Not the least of these is that since the
number of hours of exposure mentioned and others which could be
chosen are decimally related to each other, it is possible to diminish
or increase the base without altering the figures in the rate, the only
change being a shift in the decimal point. For example, a severity
rate of 1.11 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure becomes 11.1 per 10,000
hours’ exposure or 111.0 per 100,000 hours’ exposure. When an
extended analysis (for example, such as may be necessary in the study
of accident causes) is undertaken, it may be very desirable to increase
the base in order to avoid lengthy decimals. To be able to do this, as
indicated above, without disturbing the significant figures of the rate
is a very great advantage.
O B T A IN IN G “ M A N -H O U R S .”

In those establishments which keep accurate records of the hours
worked by each employee each day, the man-hours worked by the
establishment can easily be obtained from the records. Few small
establishments, however, keep any such accurate records of time
worked. For the majority of small plants it is necessary to compute
the number of man-hours worked. The method suggested by the
conference called by Commissioner Meeker, which met in Chicago
October 12 and 13, 1914, was as follows: “ If this exact information is
not available in this form in the records, then an approximation
should be computed by taking the number of men at work (or enrolled)




20

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

on a certain day of each month in the year and the average of these
numbers multiplied by the number of hours worked by the estab­
lishment for the year would be the number of man-hours measuring
the exposure to risk for the year.”
D E F IN IT IO N O F “ A C C ID E N T .”

Having determined upon a reasonable base of reference, it becomes
necessary before rates can be computed to have some clear-cut idea
of what shall be included under the term “ accident.”
What, then, is to be regarded as an industrial accident for the
purposes of statistical study? No definition has as yet been univer­
sally accepted. Some establishments and States attempt to take
account of all injuries, however trivial. Others exclude those of a
minor character and take account only of such as cause a loss of a
specified amount of time. It is evident that the accident showing
of a plant may be completely altered by a change in definition of
accident, and that in the absence of a uniform definition all compari­
sons between the accident data of different plants, industries, or other
groups become almost worthless. The precise definition is not so
important. The important thing is that the same definition should
be everywhere observed.
The most significant step so far taken toward such uniformity in
this country is the action of the International Association of Indus­
trial Accident Boards and Commissions in adopting a definition of
“ tabulatable accidents” — i. e., a definition not necessarily to be
followed in the original reporting of accidents, but to be used in all
statistical tabulations. The definition is substantially the same as
the one long used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its accident
investigations and employed in the present report, and is as follows:
Tabulatable accidents, diseases, and injuries.— A ll a c cid e n ts, d iseases, a n d in ju ries
arising ou t of th e e m p lo y m e n t an d resu ltin g in d e a th , p e rm a n e n t d is a b ility , or in th e
loss of tim e oth er th a n th e rem a in d er of th e d a y , sh ift, or tu rn o n w h ic h th e in ju r y
was in cu rre d , sh ou ld b e classified as “ ta b u la ta b le a c cid en ts, diseases, an d in ju rie s/ 1
and a report of a ll su ch a c cid en ts, diseases, an d in ju ries to som e S tate or n ation al
a u th o rity sh ou ld b e re q u ire d .

The States which are members of the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions are thus committed
to a uniform standard definition of the accidents which are to be tabu­
lated. Some States may at first find it impossible to tabulate all
accidents as required by the definition, but the desirability of doing
so is apparent, and many have already made a beginning.
A C C ID E N T F R E Q U E N C Y R A T E S .

Two elements, namely, hours of exposure and cases of accident,
defined as above, may mow be brought together and a ratio estab­
lished between them. This will give an accident frequency rate. For
example, in a large steel plant in the year 1913 the hours of exposure
numbered 22,686,000 and the accident cases 866. Dividing and
adjusting the quotient per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure gives a frequency
rate of 38.2. In 1912 the machine building concerns studied in that
year had an exposure of 347,109,000 hours and 13,653 accidents.
This is at the rate of 39.3 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure.




P R E P A R A T IO N

AND

USE

OF R A T E S .

21

Comparing these rates it is correct to conclude that accidents were
less frequent in the iron and steel industry than in machine building
in the proportion of 38.2 to 39.3. All differences in hours of labor,
number of days worked, etc., in the two industries have been duly
taken into account. Again, if a given plant shows an accident
frequency rate of 33.3 one year and 30 the next, it is a correct con­
clusion that accidents have decreased 10 per cent in frequency.
Frequency rates of this character were computed and used in the
report on accidents in the iron and steel industry, issued by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1913 and in Bulletins Nos. 216, 234,
and 256.
The method was found practicable and, within limits, highly useful.
But it had one serious weakness, namely, that frequency rates, as the
name indicates, measure the frequency of accidents, but take no
account of the severity of the resulting injuries, and experience has
shown that the two things do not necessarily move in the same direc­
tion. The frequency rates may be the same in two plants in the same
industry, and the hazards may be entirely different because one plant
has very few severe accidents, while the other has a large proportion
of serious accidents. To put all industries and all plants on a com­
mon basis, a system of computing accident rates must be devised
which will take into account the difference in economic significance
between the accident which bruises the workman’s thumb and the
accident which breaks his back.
A C C ID E N T S E V E R IT Y R A T E S .

What is needed is some method of weighting injuries according to
their severity. Several methods suggest themselves as possible—
compensation paid, wage loss, or time loss. A compensation
system necessarily weights the importance of accidents in fixing a
scale of benefits which aims to apportion the payment to the hurt.
But compensation payments do not offer the universal measure
desired because the oenefits differ from State to State and are also
subject to change within the same State. Wage loss due to injury
offers perhaps a Letter measure of severity, but this, too, suffers from
the handicap that wages differ from place to place and from time to
time. Time loss as a measure does not suffer from these objections.
An accident that causes 6 days’ disability is precisely twice as serious
as one causing only 3 days’ disability, and this relation is always and
everywhere the same.
The days lost because of injury may thus be taken as the most
satisfactory measure of the true hazards of industry— of the burden
imposed upon the worker and the community because of industrial
accidents. The only difficulty in its practical application is that in
case of death and permanent injuries the time lost must be estimated.
For temporary disabilities, from which recovery is complete, the time
losses are matters of record— 2 days, 10 days, 6 weeks, as the case
may be. But if the accident results in death, the time loss is not so
clearly measurable. It exists, however, and may be estimated as the
number of working days by which the worker’s life was curtailed.
Similar estimates are possible in case of permanent injuries, such as
loss of hand or foot.




22

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

The schedule of weightings finally adopted by the committee on
statistics is as follows: 5
4
SCALE ADO PTED B Y TH E IN T E R N A T IO N A L ASSOCIATION OF IN D U ST R IA L ACCIDENT
BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS.

Result of injury.

Death...... ....................................................................................
Permanent total disability..........................................................
Arm above elbow, dismemberment............................................
Arm at or below elbow, dismemberment.....................................
Hand, dismemberment...............................................................
Thumb, any permanent disability of..........................................
Any one finger, any permanent disability of..............................
Two fingers, any permanent disability of................................... .
Three fingers, any permanent disability of.................................
Four fingers, any permanent disability of.................................. .
Thumb and one finger, any permanent disability of...................
Thumb and two fingers, any permanent disability of................ .
Thumb and three lingers, any permanent disability of............. .
Thumb and four fingers, any permanent disability of.................
Leg above knee, dismemberment............................................... .
Leg at or below knee, dismemberment........................................
Foot, dismemberment.................................................................
Great toe, or any two or more toes, any permanent'disability of.
One toe, other than great toe, any permanent disability of........
One eye, loss of sight................................................................... .
Both eyes, loss of sight.................................................................
One ear, loss of hearing.................................................................
Both ears, loss of hearing..............................................................

Degree of
disability
in per
cent of
permanent
total
disability.
100
100
75
60
60
10
5
12*
20
30
20
26
33J
40
75
50
40
5
0
30
100
10
50

Days lost.

6,000
6,000
4,500
3,600
3,000
600
300
X,

1,800
1,200
1.500
2,000
2.400
4.500
3,000
2.400
300
1,800
6,000
600
3,000

This schedule supplies a series of constants by which death and
permanent injuries may be weighted in terms of a common unit—
time lost in days—whicn is also the same unit as that used for measur­
ing temporary disabilities. By multiplying the number of deaths and
permanent disabilities b y the time lost determined for each and
adding the products to the days lost through temporary disabilities,
a figure is obtained which represents the total days lost irom injuries.
Dividing this number, representing total days lost, by the number of
hours of exposure and multiplying the quotient by 1,000, will give
the number of days lost per 1,000 hours’ exposure. This result may
be called an accident severity rate.
The entire process of working out a general severity rate for a plant
may be illustrated as follows: A certain plant shows a total of 4,200,000 u man-hours ” in the course of a year. The kind of injuries
occurring and the time allowances according to the committee’s scale
are presented in the following table:
5 For complete discussion of the subject see Bulletin No. 276 of the United States Bureau of Labor
4
Statistics, pp. 71-77.




P R E P A R A T IO N

AND

USE

OF

23

RATES.

ACCIDENTS AND TIME LOSSES IN ONE PLANT.
Time losses.
Cases.
Per case.

1 death...............................................
2 arms lost..... ...................................
1 foot lost............................................
5 thumbs lost.....................................
25 fingers lost......................................
290 temporary disabilities..................

Total.

D ays.

D ays.

6,000
14,000
2,400
600
300

Total (324 cases)...........................

6,000
8,000
2,400
3,000
7,500
2,790

29,690

1Instead of using two classifications, with allowances of 3,600 and 4,500 days, for the loss of an arm as in
the committee’s scale, a single classification, with an allowance of 4,000 days, is used throughout this report.

The total number of days lost (29,690) divided by the hours of
exposure (4,200,000) gives a rate of 7.1 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure.
The accident frequency rate for the same group per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure is 77.
ILLUSTRATIONS OP SEVERITY RATING.

The preceding paragraphs have explained the meaning of accident
severity rates and the method by which they are obtained. The
significance of such rates in their practical application is indicated in
the two following illustrations.
In Table 1 comparison is made of the accident experience for a
year of the iron and steel industry, as represented by a large plant,
and of the machine-building industry, as represented by a group of
plants. Frequency rates and severity rates are shown in parallel
columns.
T able 1. —ACCIDENT RATES IN STEEL MANUFACTURE AND MACHINE BUILDING.

Accident frequency rates (per
1,000,(W hours’ exposure).
0
Industry.

Number
of
workers.

Iron and steel (1913)..........
Machine building (1912)...

7,502
115,703

Accident severity rates (per
1,000 hours’ exposure).

Perma­ Tempo­
Perma­ Tempo­
rary
rary
nent
nent
Death. disabil­ disabil­ Total. Death. disabil­ disabil­ Total.
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity.
0.6
.1

1.5
1.2

36.0
38.0

38.1
39.3

5.5
1.0

0.7
.5

0.8
.3

7.0
1.8

Examination of the columns giving total frequency rates and total
severity rates shows that, on the basis of frequency, the machinebuilding plants were more hazardous than the steel plant— the respec­
tive rates being 39.3 and 38.1 per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure. On the
basis of ^severity, however, the steel plant was almost four times as
hazardous as machine building— the rates being 7.0 days lost per
1,000 hours’ exposure in contrast with 1.8 days.
It is clear that as between these diametrically opposite showings of
the relative hazards of the two industries, the severity rates offer a
decidedly more accurate measure of true hazard. In machine build­
ing there is opportunity for many minor injuries, but the danger of




24

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEE L IN D U S T R Y .

serious injury is much less than in the steel industry. The severity
rate brings out this fact.
The second illustration shows how, over a period of years, within
the same establishment accident severity rates may run counter to
accident frequency rates. Table 2 gives data of this character. It
shows the accident experience of a large steel plant over a period of
four years. The plant is one in which most serious attention has
been devoted to the prevention of accidents.
T able 2 __ACCIDENT RATES IN A STEEL PLANT, 1910 TO 1913.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Year.

1910....................................
1911....................................
1912....................................
1913....................................

Number
of
workers.

7,642
5,774
7,396
7,562

Death.

0.6
.5
.2
.6

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Perma­ Tempo­
Perma­ Tempo­
rary
nent
nent
rary
disa­
disa­ Total. Death. disa­
disa­ Total.
bility. bility.
bility. bility.
1.4
1.2
2.2
1.5

42.5
35.5
48.8
36.0

44.5
37.2
51.2
38.1

5.1
4.7
2.0
5.5

0.8
.7
1.8
.7

0.7
.8
.9
.8

6.6
6.2
4.7
7.0

Limiting attention to the columns showing total rates, it will be
noted that in 1910 the frequency rate was 44.5 per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure and the severity rate was 6.6 days per 1,000 hours' exposure.
The next year shows a decrease in both frequency and severity. In
1912, however, there was a marked increase in frequency— from 37.2
to 51.2— but the severity rate dropped from 6.2 days to 4.7 days.
In other words, accidents had increased considerably in frequency
but were decidedly less serious in their average result. In 1913 the
experience was reversed. A marked reduction occurred in accident
frequency— from 51.2 to 38.1— but the severity rate jumped from
4.7 days to 7.0 days. The year 1913, instead of being a “ good year,"
as it might be assumed to be under the system of frequency rates,
was the worst year of the four covered by the table.
These illustrations bring up certain points which it seems desirable
to emphasize. The first concerns the use of terms. Severity rates
derived in the manner described are expressed for convenience in
terms of work days lost. For example, the steel plant referred to
above is stated to have had a severity rate in 1913 of 7.0 days per
1,000 hours' exposure. The term “ days lo st" as thus used is to
some extent a statistical abstraction, but it is close enough to con­
crete fact to permit its use in its ordinary sense without serious error,
rovided that the weighting scale used is a fairly reasonable one.
t is not, however, as absolute amounts of loss that these rates have
their most important significance. The relations disclosed between
different industrial groups and different periods of time are of greatest
moment. The important thing shown by the figures of the steel
plant is that hazard increased between 1912 and 1913 in the propor­
tion of 4.7 to 7.0.
This leads to a second point which can not be emphasized too much:
The fact that, inasmuch as the real significance of severity rates is in
the measurement of relative hazards, the character of the weighting
scale used becomes comparatively unimportant. Thus, by changing

P




P R E P A R A T IO N

AND

USE

OF R A T E S .

25

the weights in the scale given above, the resulting severity rates may
be considerably altered in their positive amounts, but unless the
changes are of a very radical character the relations between the rates
for different groups will remain substantially the same.
In other
words, it is desirable to have the scale used as accurate as possible,
but the fact that a completely accurate scale can not be devised does
not impair the value of accident severity rating.
Another fact deserving emphasis is that severity rates have a very
important advantage over frequency rates, in that the effect of errors
in reporting is minimized.
Accident reports are probably never
absolutely complete, and, as a rule, the completeness of reporting is in
direct proportion to the seriousness of injury. The more serious the
injury the greater the likelihood of its being reported. Frequently
the reporting of minor injuries is extremely incomplete. Inasmuch
as the accuracy of frequency rates depends upon the completeness of
accident reports, and as all accidents have the same weight, a failure
to report any considerable number of minor accidents renders the
rates obtained of very little value. Such is not the case with severity
rates. Here the disabilities are weighted according to their impor­
tance, and a large group of minor disabilities has comparatively little
effect upon the derived severity rate. Thus, from the material
available concerning the iron and steel industry, it is estimated that
the total exclusion of all disabilities of less than two weeks will
rarely diminish the total severity rate for that industry as much as
1 per cent, whereas such an exclusion would diminish frequency rates
as much as 60 per cent. In the machine-building industry, according
to data for that industry collected by the bureau, the corresponding
percentages are 7 and 70.
USE OF RATES IN THE STUDY OF ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Frequency and severity rates, as above described, may be applied
to the measurement of accident causes.
This procedure is logical
and, as carried out in detail in a later chapter, produces interesting
and very valuable results. Inasmuch, however, as the computation
of accident rates according to causes is still somewhat unfamiliar,
a brief preliminary description of the method used is desirable.
For any plant, department, occupation, or other industrial group
for which the amount of employment and the number of accidents
are known, an accident rate may be computed. This total rate may
then be apportioned among the various causes responsible for the
accidents. For example, in a group of blast furnaces, with a total
frequency rate of 67 per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure, 19 cases of each
67 were due to molten metal and 9 to handling tools and objects,
leaving 39 assignable to miscellaneous causes. The frequency rate
for molten metal in these furnaces was, therefore, 19 per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure and that for handling tools and objects was 9.
The value of such rates to the safety man is clearly evident. They
indicate, in the example given, that molten metal was the most im­
portant single cause of accident in blast furnaces, and the one to
which especial attention must be directed.
In the case just cited, the department was taken as the unit, the
rates being based on the total employment for the department. If a
smaller unit, such as the occupation, be used as a basis, the rates
71087°— 22------ 3




26

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

would be based on the amount of exposure in the individual occu­
pation. In the case of the above group of blast furnaces it was pos­
sible to isolate certain important occupations, to compute accident
rates for each, and to apportion such rates among the different
causes. Thus it was found that while the frequency rate for the
blast-furnace department as a whole was 67 per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure, the rate for “ cast-house m en” was 127. When this rate
was analyzed according to causes it was found that molten metal
contributed 67, falling objects 14, and miscellaneous causes 46.
These cause rates, whether based on the department, the occupa­
tion, or any other group, are true accident rates, analogous to the
death rates by disease as used in mortality studies. In Such studies
it is customary to divide the general death rate for a community into
specific rates for the various diseases causing death. Thus a general
death rate of 20 per 1,000 for a given city may be made up of the
following specific rates— tuberculosis 5, typhoid fever 2, other causes
13. These rates., it may be noted, measure the real prevalence of
the several diseases in a way that percentages nan not do. Thus, in
the year noted, deaths from tuberculosis constituted 25 per cent of
all deaths (5 out of 20). Suppose that in the following year a typhoid
epidemic increased the typhoid rate from 2 to 7 and thus caused the
general rate to jump from 20 to 25., the tuberculosis death rate of
5 per 1,000 would remain as before, but expressed in percentages
T
tuberculosis would have decreased from 25 per cent (5 out o f 20) to
20 per cent (5 out of 25) as a cause of death. The percentage change
would suggest a great decrease in the tuberculosis hazard, which,
however, as the rate accurately indicates (5 per 1,000), remained
absolutely stationary. The attempt to study causes of death by
means of percentage figures is thus liable to be entirely misleading.
Rates, on the other hand, offer an absolutely reliable measure. This
is equally true, and for the same reasons, in the study of accident
causes.
The above illustrations of the use of cause rates were limited, for
the sake o f simplicity, to frequency rates. Severity rates can, of
course, be applied in precisely the same way and with even more
valuable results, inasmuch as severity rates, as pointed out above,
are a truer measure of accident hazard than are frequency rates.
USE OF RATES IN THE STUDY OF OTHER FACTORS.

The usefulness of rates, both frequency and severity, extends to
the nature of injury, results of injury, and other similar items. To
illustrate: In a group of blast furnaces with a frequency rate of 63 per
1,000,000 hours’ exposure it was found on analysis that 30 cases out
of each 63 were bruises and lacerations, 15 were burns, 3 were frac­
tures, and 15 were miscellaneous injuries. It is entirely proper to
say that in these blast furnaces bruises and lacerations had a fre­
quency rate of 30, burns 15, fractures 3, and other injuries 15.
These are true rates and express the facts regarding the different
sorts of injury with a precision and clearness which can not be ob­
tained without resort to the rate method.
RATES IN COLLATERAL FIELDS.

There is one field o f study which has recently attracted much at­
tention which is related to the accident field in a particularly intimate




P R E P A R A T IO N

AND

USE

OF R A T E S .

27

way. This is the field of “ labor mobility. ” As will appear in a later
chapter of this report, the introduction of new men has a close rela­
tion to the curve of accident occurrence. This “ labor accession” is
one phase of the larger problem of “ labor mobility.”
The same reasons which make it necessary to adopt some standard
basal unit in accident study have equal force as applied to the various
rates, such as “ accession,” “ separation,” etc., which serve to express
the facts of mobility. Since a slightly different viewpoint is taken
by the student of mobility it will be natural to designate the basic
figures as “ labor hours” rather than “ hours of exposure.” This is
an advantage rather than otherwise if it be clearly understood that
the expressions designate the same thing in different aspects.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has recognized the desirability of
a uniform base in the statistical study of industrial phenomena by
adopting “ labor hours” in the computation of the rates used in a
survey of “ labor m obility.” 5
5
The value of placing all these discussions on a common basis is
that whenever a considerable body of information is obtained it
becomes at once possible, with no change in the figures, except per­
haps an adjustment of the decimal point, to place the rates in com­
parison and ascertain any possible correlations. To illustrate, on
page 170 will be found a chart which presents in graphic form the
fluctuations of employment, of labor accession, of accident occurrence,
and of product over a series of years. The fact that all these are
related to the number of hours of exposure makes possible direct
comparison of any two items, such as labor accession and accident
occurrence. It will be found that there is a remarkably constant
correspondence between the curves representing these two items.
If accident study were undertaken in connection with plants in which
labor mobility had been studied, it would be of the greatest con­
venience to be able to make similar comparisons without the
necessity of making changes and adjustments.
This convenience extends to a great many subjects of industrial
concern which will be subjected to statistical scrutiny in the near
future. For example, there is some reason to suspect that during
the epidemic of influenza in 1918 the condition of the workers was
influenced in such a way that there was a marked rise in the accident
rate. This possible relation of illness to accident occurrence is of
sufficient importance to deserve careful study. Without the use of
some common standard in preparing the statistics of illness and of
accident satisfactory comparison can not be made.
It is of course true that a radical departure from an accustomed
form of presentation,, such as this proposed by the committee on sta­
tistics of the International Association of Industrial Boards and
Commissions, will for some time cause more or less confusion. As,
however, the various advantages of the plan of the committee become
evident and the strangeness wears off, it will become clear that the
general adoption of the methods suggested will constitute a most
important advance in statistical procedure in the field of accident
study.
5 “ Mobility of labor in American industry/’ by Paul F. Brissenden and Emil Frankel, in Monthly
5
Labor Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for June, 1920, pp. 36-56.




CHAPTER IIL— THE PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT— THE
DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

Repeated emphasis may properly be given to the idea that the
important purpose of the statistical study of accidents is the deter­
mination oi means and methods of accident prevention. The mere
fact that a given department or industry has a high accident rate
may stimulate the safety engineer to harder work but can do nothing
to aid him in the determination of the point and method of attack.
For purposes of accident prevention the high rate must be traced
back to its causes and so a clear idea obtained regarding why and how
accidents occur.
To this end this and the two following chapters are devoted to an
examination of the physical causes of accidents and an endeavor to
suggest such remedies as the facts discovered may indicate. A later
chapter is devoted to the consideration of the human factors in the
situation.
In all these studies the facts are presented by means of rates. The
method of preparing such rates has been discussed in the preceding
chapter. While frequency rates are constantly introduced, the main
discussion is based on the severity rates. This is done for two reasons:
(1) It has been found that the effort to present the facts from both
frequency and severity standpoints at the same time leads to some
confusion; (2) It is clear that the severity rate is a much more accu­
rate measure of hazard than is the frequency rate and it directs safety
effort much more precisely to the point where it is most neededThe cause rates used in the following chapter are true rates similar
to those constantly employed in mortality studies where the rate
for a given locality is divided into specific rates for tuberculosis,
influenza, and so on. For example, in Table 3 a rate of 1.19 days in
blast furnaces for swinging crane loads means that in that depart­
ment the injuries suffered on account of the workers being struck by
swinging loads were equivalent to the loss of 1.19 days per 10,000
hours' exposure.
MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

Table 3 gives in detail the severity of accidents due to machinery
which occurred in each of the departments during the five-year period
1915 to 1919. Table 2 in the appendix gives the number of cases
on which these rates are based.
28




TABLE 3 .—MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT:

Prime movers and power transmission:

Open
Blast Bessemer.
hearths.
furnaces.

0.25
.14

Dynamos and motors..............................

0.07

.01

Found­
ries.

0)

Heavy
rolling
mills.

0.24

0)

.01

Plate
mills.

Tube
nulls.

Sheet
rolling
mills.

.49

Mechan­
ical.

Yards.

Miscel­
laneous.

0.05

0.04

Boring mill................................................

0.21
.01
0)

3.02
.08

0)

.01
.01

.01
0)
.02

.01

.01
0)

.03

.01

0.01 .............. !...............
I
.02
.04
Forging
.33
.36
0)
.07
.10
.02
0)
0)
0)
1

0).

.06

0.09
0)
1.78

0)
0)

.97

.01

.01

.oi

.57

.78
.07

C
1)

C)
1

.03
.54

1.55
2.72
0)

.05
.02
0)

1.78

0)

4.77
.07
0)
0)

.21

.11
.01

0.01
C)
1
.01
.26
C)
1
.27
0)

.07

5.03
.02

.39

.60

.10
C)

(*)
0)

0)

0)
0)

.01
.#1

0)

0)
.01
.02
(
V)

.14
.08
.37
.13

C)
1

.03
.33
.06
0)

.02
.01
.01
.04
.32
.02

.01
.01
.03

.10
C)

.29
.19
.02
C)
C)
C)

C)
.01
0)

()
V
.43
.98

.10
.03
1.57

.18

.01

0)

.10
.29
.12

.20
.06
(1)

1.89

<)
V
.09

.01
.61

This is done in order to avoid extended decimals.

0)

.25
.04
.01
.22
.39
.02
.36
.01

29

i Less than 0.005.
a In this chapter 10,000,000 hours’ exposure is used as a base for frequency and 10,000 hours’ exposure for severity.




Elec­
trical.

0.02
0)
3.22

0.04

0.01

Set screws, keys, and bolts............. ..
Belts and pulleys......................................
Working macliinesf

Charging cars.............................................
Charging cranes........................................
Doublers....................................................
Drill presses...............................................
Drills, portable, electric..........................
Drills, portable, pneumatic....................
hammers.....................................
Grinding wheels
.............
.............
Hot and cooling beds___
Lathes, general.........................................
Lathes, turret...........................................
Lathes, wood.............................................
Millers...................................
Mud gun....................................................
................................
Planers, metal..
Planers, wood............................................
. .. .
Presses, punch......................
Presses, stamping.....................................
Pushers......................................................
Reamers.....................................................
Riveters......................................................
Rolls......................................
. . . .
Roll tables.................................................
Saws, band................................................
Saws, crosscut.
. . .
. .. .
Saws, metal...............................................
Saws, rip___
..
.............
Shapers.......................................................

Fabri­
cating.

PH YSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT-----DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

Accident cause.

SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) o FOR SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS, 1915 TO
1919, BY ACCIDENT CAUSE.

T able 3.—MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT:

Accident cause.

0.01

0.27

0.02

Sheet
rolling
nulls.

2.62

Fabri­
cating.

0.38

Elec­
trical.

0.02

Mechan­
ical.

#14
.01

Yards.

Miscel­
laneous.

0.15

0.46

.09

0.03

1.02

Tube
nulls.

.01
.34

.01
.56

.05

0

.04
.48

0

0

. 05
.02

1.14
.17
0 ,.
1.19
1.20
1.14
1.14
0

1.28
14.52

.05
7.51

.02
l.Ol
. 15
2.96
1.13
3.25
0)
.01
.05
1.99
2.57

1.23
.03
1.29
1.33
2.43
.03
.02
.01
6.13
.03
.01

0
0
.98

.01

0)
3.68
16.74

1.00
19.25

. 06
13.05

0) „
.54
.08
.21
.53
.15
.01
.02
.04
.62
1.43
0

.46
0)
3.22
.21
6.60
0
.01
.22

0
1.27

.05
.04

Crane* load swinging
.04
.37
.07
.04
1.37
.03
2. 58
.17
3.67

.02

.18

.25

.05
.04
1.83
4.94

0

.03
2.49

0

0)

.06

.03
9.62
5.84
1.59

.03
.01

.32
10.71

0
.03
12.68

1.61
.12
2.11
.02
.02
0
.15

.81

1.22
12.29

.18
3.54

.23
.02
.41
18. 54

31.38

.51
11.16

.59
.48
1.43

0
0

.01
.04
1.24
.02
.36

0)
1.08
.02

.02
.34

0

0)

.81
0

0

.13
.08
1.82
.02
.02
.05
.81
2.43
.02

.16
.01

C)
1

.64
0

8.27

2. 52

13.57

11.59

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y ,

3.50
1.14
1.15
0
.03
.04
.06

.02
1.04
.18
3.92
.20
.02

AND




0.11

Plate
mills.

IR O N

1 Less than 0.005,

Heavy
rolling
mills.

THE

.........................................

Found­
ries.

IN

Total___ .

Open
Blast
furnaces. Bessemer. hearths.

£o
O

A C C ID E N T S

Working machines—Concluded.
Shears.........................................................
Slotters .....................................................
Strfcighteners.............................................
Tappets......................................................
Threaders..................................................
Transfer tables..........................................
Tube drawing benches............................
Eorglng presses.........................................
Other machinery*.
Elevator accidents...................................
crane, caught bv chain or hook.............
Cf&ne, cable catching person..................
...............................
Crane* load lowering................................
Crane, load falling....................................
crane, load falling, broken machinery .
Crane, load falling, hitch slipped...........
Crane, objects falling from crane...........
Crane, falls from crane or trdck.............
Crane, other accidents.............................
Derricks and hoists..................................
Blocks and tackles, Windlasses, etc___
Conveyors..................................................
Gantry cranes...........................................
Locomotive cranes...................................
Pumps......................................................
Fans and blowers__a..,..................
Unclassified...............................................

SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS, 1915 TO
1919, BY ACCIDENT CAUSE—Concluded.

P H Y S IC A L

CAUSES

OF A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S

COM PARED.

31

The most cursory inspection of Table 3 shows emphatically that
the crane in its various forms and conditions of action is the most
hazardous of machines. So much so is this true that cranes have
commonly been considered in a class by themselves. The present
arrangement, suggested by the committee on statistics of the Inter­
national Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions,
has the advantage both of being essentially logical and of bringing
out clearly the fact that while what are termed “ working machines ”
do not have a very high hazard, “ machinery ” considered as a whole
does contribute materially to the danger of this industry.
The importance of cranes as accident causes may be illustrated
by the following statement. In the following departments, out of
the total severity rate for machinery the stated portion is due to
cranes and hoisting apparatus: In blast furnaces, 10.70 out of 14.52
days per 10,000 hours’ exposure; in open hearths, 14.10 out of 19.25
days; in foundries, 12.55 out of 13.05 days; in fabrication, 12.45 out
of 18.55 days.
On further study of the table it develops that miscellaneous acci­
dents which can not be more precisely located than that they were
due to crane operation are responsible for a larger part of the loss
due to crane accidents than either of the other classifications of such
accidents. Next to these miscellaneous accidents come those which
can be assigned to the falling of the loads. The main cause of
such occurrence is some unsuspected weakness of the chains used.
This serves to bring to notice again the continuing need of the great­
est care in selecting and caring for hoisting chains. Since in 9 out of
13 groups this preponderance of the crane as a cause of injury is
evident, it becomes quite clear that the safety engineer still has a
serious problem to contend with in controlling crane accidents.
A few of the points worthy of notice as to the rates for the individual
departments are the following: In open hearths a considerable part
of the severity rate is due to the charging car (3.02 out of 19.25 days) ;
in heavy rolling mills it is quite natural that the rolls and the roll
tables contribute rather notably to the severity rate (4.27 out of
10.71 days); in tube mills the metal saw is outstanding (1.78 out of
12.29 days); in sheet rolling the shears are sufficiently prominent to
attract attention (2.62 out of 3.54 days).
Table 4 and Chart 1 summarize conditions as to accidents due to
machinery.




32

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T able 4.—MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: NUM BER OF CASES AND ACCIDENT

FREQ U EN CY AND SEV E R IT Y RATES, 1915 TO 1919, BY D EPA RTM EN TS.

Number of cases.

Department.

Electrical................
Open hearths.........
Fabricating............
Bessemer................
Blast furnaces.......
Y ards.....................
Foundries..............
Plate mills.............
Tube mills.............
Mechanical............
Heavy rolling mills.
Sheet rolling mills..
Miscellaneous.........

Equiv­
alent
fullPer­
year
ma­
work­
ers. Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.
4,191
20,525
11,110
5,450
17, 621
9,819
10, 222
14,711
11,621
24, 752
27,123
5,920
55,534

5
16
5
4
9
5
4
6
4
8
7
18

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000,000 hours'
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
exposure).
posure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total. Death. nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

6
65
76
22 365 403
40 484 529
4
46
54
19 125 153
87
101
9
12 308 324
19 347 372
17
98 119
33 597 638
42 403 452
8
65
73
68 1,125 1,211

4.0 4.8 51.7 60.5
2.6 3.6 59.3 65.5
1.5 12.0 145.2 158.7
2.4 2.4 28.1 33.0
1.7 3.6 23.6 28.9
1.7 3.1 29.5 34.3
1.3 3.9 100.4 105.6
1.4 4.3 78.6 84.3
1.2 5.0 29.0 35.2
1.1 4.4 80.4 85.9
.9 5.1 49.5 55.5
4.5 36.6 41.1
1.1 4.1 67.5 72.7

23.86
15.59
9.00
14.68
10.22
10.18
7.83
8.16
7.10
6.46
5.16

6.44
2.12
6.74
1.28
3.72
2.78
3.18
2.65
3.99
3.17
4.32
2.70
6.48 3.64

1.08
1.54
2.81
.78
.58
.60
2.04
1.87
1.20
1.53
1.23
.84
1.47

31.38
19.25
18.55
16.74
14.52
13.57
13.05
12.68
12.29
11.16
10.71
3.54
11.59

This table presents the number of cases, the frequency rates, and
the severity rates for 13 departmental groups. The first point to be
considered is that frequency and severity vary independently of each
other. It was this fact, that industries which had a large number of
cases would often have but a small proportion of serious injury,
which led to the development of the severity rate, into which all
forms of accident enter with a weight somewhat commensurable with
their importance.
The departments are arranged in the order of severity. It is thought
that this will make the charts more readily understood than to adopt
a fixed order for all the charts as was done in Bulletin No. 234.
It is a distinct surprise to find the electrical department at the top
of this list. It was well known that the electrical workers were
subject to a high hazard, but that this should appear in connection
with machinery was not expected. An examination of the detail
tableshows that of the total rate of 31.38 days, 3.22 is from dynamos and
motors, 4.77 from open-hearth charging cars, 17.20 from cranes, and
6.19 from other causes. Evidently their duties in the adjustment and
repair of these machines subject these workers to serious hazard.
It is probable that during the past few years such work has been done
under stress in the matter of time and working conditions, which has
accentuated the natural dangers of their occupation. Since 9.62
days of this severity rate are due to falls from the crane it may be
suggested that not all cranes have yet been reconstructed along
modern lines in the matter of walks and railings for the security of the
man who must go upon them to do his work. These hazards are
evidently such as may be expected in the regular routine of an
electrical worker’s duties unless adequate protection is provided




P H Y S IC A L

CAUSES

O F A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S

COM PARED.

33

against them. The rate of 5.03 days for accidents due to grinding
wheels is probably exceptional, since these workers are certainly not
exposed to this hazard to a degree greater than other workers.
Ch a r t

1.—MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

M A C H IN E R Y ,

D P R MNS:
EAT E T

S E V E R IT Y

R ATES

10

E E T IC L
LCR A
OE H A T ■
PN E RH

■

h

F B IC T G
A R A IN

m

m

m

m

w zm

m

m

m

m

b

l

M

:

z z z z z j

B SSE ER
E M
B A T F R A E tm
L S UNC S
YR
AD
F U D IE
ONR S

m
■ H

O

z.

T

:

PLATE
TUBE

H

M C A IC L ■
EHN A

U
H

H A Y R L IN —
E V OL G
S E T R L IN . m
H E OL G

J
J
.'

1~

i
F T L IE
A A IT S

PR AET
E MN N

n

T MO A Y
E P RR

PARTS OF MACHINE.

Some additional light is shed upon machine hazard when the
severity of accidents due to different parts of the machine is con­
sidered. It appears that on the whole it is the point of operation
which continues to be the danger point. Flywheels, set screws, and
counterweights have almost ceased to be important.




34

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

5.—MACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: S E V E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10,000
HOURS* EX PO SU R E) FO R S P E C IF IE D D EPA RTM EN TS, 1915 TO 1919, BY PA R T OF
MACHINE CAUSING ACCIDENT.

T abus

P art of machine.
Working machines:
Point of operation................
B elts.......................................
Cranks and eccentrics...........
Fly wheels.............................
Gears......................................
Set screws..............................
Counterweights.....................
Other parts............................
Unclassified...........................

P art of machine.
W or king machines:
Point of operation..................
Belts........................................
Cranks and eccentrics...........
Fly wheels..............................
Gears.......................................
Set screws...............................
Counterweights......................
Other p arts.............................
Unclassified............................

Blast
furnaces.

0.73
.02
0)
0)
.40

Heavy
rolling
mills.

Open
hearths.

Found­
ries.

0.12
.98

0.36
.03

0.83
.01
.03

0,86

.02

Bes­
semer.

.02

2.17

.48

.18

.25

.14

1.41
.01

.22
.14

3.68

0.03
0

2. 57
1.14

.30

Sheet
rolling
mills.

Fabri­
cating.

2.81

Yards.

2.23
.02
.01

5.04
.02

.02

Mechan­
ical.

.09

Plate
mills.

.01

Miscel­
laneous.

1.35
.31
.02

0.24

1.51

.14
0)
0

.05

.35

.12

0

.85
.02

Tube
mills.

1.01
.09

Total.

15.61
1.48
, .07
0
5.03
0
0
10.40
1.31

1 Less than 0.005.

Table 6 supplements Table 5 as regards the point of operation
being the danger point. This shows that the accidents occur largely
in adjusting the machine or work and in the actual operation. Clean­
ing and oiling comes next in order. In the heavy rolling mills this
process is responsible for the highest rate (2.27 days). This is undoubt­
edly related in part to the necessary attention to gears which the
preceding table shows to have a serious severity rate (2.17 days) in
heavy rolling mills.
T able 6.—M ACHINERY AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: S E V E R IT Y RA T E S (P E R 10,000

HOURS* E X PO SU R E ) FOR S P E C IF IE D DEPA RTM EN TS, 1915 TO 1919, BY O PER A TIO N
OR CON DITIO N.
Operation or condition.

Working machines:
A djusting...............................
Operating..............................
Cleaning and. oiling..............
Repairing..............................
Breakage................................
Objects flying........................
Other conditions...................
Unclassified...........................
Operation or condition.
Working machines:
Adjusting................................
Operating................................
Cleaning and oiling................
Repairing...............................
Breakage.................................
Objects flying.........................
Other conditions...................
Unclassified............................
1 Less th an 0.005.




Blast
furnaces.

Sheet
rolling
mills.

F oundries.

3.68
.23
.07

0.99
.26

0.06
.43
.01

.04

0.20
3.00
.27
.02
.01
.34
1.14

Open
hearths.

.01
.01
.13

.02
.08

Bes­
semer.

0

0
Fabri­
cating.

1.79
.98
.02

0.59
3.71
.09

.03
.06

( l ) 02
1.24
.02

Mechan­
ical.

0.25
2.43
.03
.02
.01
.48
.03

Heavy
rolling
mills.
0.99
1.10
2.27
.45
.16
.79
.41
.01
Yards.

Plate
mills.

0.08
1.50
.01
0

.05
.12

Tube
. mills.

0.23
3.04
.09
.02
.03
1.81

0
Miscel­
laneous.

0.02
.24

0.64
2.45
.54

.68
.05

(1).73
.29
.03
.02

Total.

0.63
1.85
.47
.06
.21
.43
. 12
.10

P H Y S IC A L

C A U S E S O F A C C ID E N T — D E P A R T M E N T S

35

CO M P ABED.

P O W E R V E H IC L E S A S A C A U SE O F A C C ID E N T .

Table 7 presents the details for the departments regarding power
vehicles. The available material, though covering the 5-year period
1915 to 1919, is somewhat scanty for as extended an analysis as that
here attempted. The results should therefore be taken as suggestive
rather than typical.
Table 7.—POW ER VEHICLES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT:

SEV ERITY RATES (P E R
10,000 HOURS’ EX PO SU RE) FO R SPEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS, 1915 TO 1919, BY ACCI­
D EN T CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Steam and electric railways:
Train wrecks, collision................................
Falls, getting on or off, in motion..............
Falls) getting on or off, at rest
....................
Falls) riding on, sudden start or stop........
Falls) riding on) slipping or lost balance..
Falls, riding on, overhead structure..........
Falls) riding on) side structure...................
Falls) not otherwise classified.....................
Struck by when coupling or uncoupling..
Struck when switching................................
Struck when repairing^track.......................
Struck when crossing track ........................
Struck when standing or walking on track.
Setting or releasing hand brakes^..............
Objects falling from......................................
Other accidents.............................................
Auto vehicles:
Collisions w ith other vehicles...................
Cranking.......................................................
Struck b y .......................................................
Objects falling from......................................
All other.................... ...................................
Unclassified.................. ......... ............................
Not reported........................................................
T otal......................................................... ...

Accident cause.

Besse­ Open Found­ Heavy
mer. hearths. ries. rolling
mills.

Blast
fur­
naces.

1.14
.01
.04
2.27
.48
C
1)
C
1)
0)
7.70
2.29
.02

0.01
.01
08
04
97
01
.02
.02
5.75
1.55
01

0.01

11.50
1.58
.01

0.01

C
1)
.01

02
01 :
(l?17
4. 74

.06
.26

.01
.04

1.06
2.05

0)

C
1)
.01

C
1)

i Less than 0.005.




Tube
mills.

(9
0.03
.74

0)

C
1)

2. 89
.59
C
1)

0.01
P)

.55

.01
.02

.18

0. 05

(0
.07
.77
0)

!
.74

C
1)

.01
.01
.80

.01
.08

.07
.02

.17

.03

.04

.02
0)

18.96

13. 50

11. 77

.12

5.92

.07

Sheet
rolling
mills.

Fabri­
cating.

Elec­
trical.

Steam and electric railways:
Train wrecks, collision.... .............................
Train wrecks, derailm ent.............................
0.03
Falls, getting on or off, in m otion...............
.02
Falls, getting on or off, a t rest______ ____
0)
Falls, riding an, sudden start or stop.........
.02
Falls, riding on, slipping or lost balance__
Falls, riding on, overhead structure.........
Falls, riding on, side structure....................
Falls, not otherwise classified........... .........
0. 02
Struck by or caught between c a rs..............
.01
.05
Struck by when coupling or uncoupling
.01
.02
Struck when switching.................................
Struck when repairing track........................
Struck when crossing track..........................
Struck when standing or walking on track
Setting or releasing hand brakes.................
0.01
Objects failing from.......................................
C
1)
.02
Other accidents..............................................
Auto vehicles:
Collisions with other vehicles......................
Cranking........................................................
Struck b y ........................................................
Objects falling from ......................................
All other..........................................................
.04
Unclassified...........................................................
Not reported.........................................................
T otal...............................................................

Plate
mills.

.01

. !0

.16

Mechan­ Yards. Miscel­
ical.
laneous.

(0
0.02
.01
.01
.40
.01
C
1)

.01
.87

2. 08
.04
1. 84
. 19
. 85
2.08
.01
.01
25.06
13.00
1.00
1.53
2.15
.01
.08
.12
4.01

.54
.02
.04
.83

.27

2.76

54.35

(0
0)
0. 37
.03
0) *
.15
.01
3.39
.26

.ox
.24
.40
.43

O
)
.02
C
1
)
<
l>
1.U

6.44

36

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

As would be expected, the yards greatly exceed any other depart­
ment in the severity of the accidents due to power vehicles. The
rate (54.35 days per 10,000 hours’ exposure) is nearly double that
of the electrical department in relation to machinery (31.38 days).
Of this total rate a very striking portion (25.06 days) is assignable to
being struck by or caught between cars. It is not possible to deter­
mine how much of this is due to the fault of the men, but it may be
urged that fault in the arrangement of the transportation facilities
is distressingly common and that it is too often necessary for the
worker to subject himself to danger which could be avoided by a better
arrangement. The rate of 13.00 days for coupling accidents is an
interesting commentary upon the fact that in intraplant trans­
portation the automatic coupler has not yet come into its own.
When it has been introduced more thoroughly such a rate will no
longer be possible.
It should be noted that while these yard accidents overtop all
other kinds of accidents in their severity they are nowhere near the
rates of those who are occupied solely in transportation. The severity
rate for death of yard employees is 40.74 days per 10,000 hours
exposed. In 1918, the latest year for which information is at this
time obtainable the switchmen in railway yards in the United States
numbered 53,790. Among them there were 397 fatalities. This
means when translated into terms of the severity rate as used in
this report a rate of 147.61 days per 10,000 hours exposed. This is
exceeded by no department of the iron and steel industry except
erection of structural steel, which for the five years ending in 1919
had a rate of 181.00 days.
The blast furnaces (18.96 days), Bessemer (13.50 days), and open
hearths (11.77 days) are the other departments having notable rates.
This is due, of course, to the fact that in them large quantities of
raw material are constantly being moved.
Table 8 and Chart 2 summarize the facts regarding power vehicles.
T able 8.—P O W E R

V E H IC LE S AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: NUM BER OF CASES AND
ACCIDENT FREQUEN CY AND SE V E R IT Y RATES, BY D EPA RTM EN TS, 1915 TO 1919.
Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000,000 hours’
(per 10,000 hours’ ex­
exposure).
posure).

Number of cases.

Department.

Yards......................
B lastfurnaces........
Bessemer................
Open hearths.........
Heavy rolling mills
Mechanical...........
Tube m ills.............
Electrical................
Foundries..............
Fabricating............
Plate m ills.............
Sheet rolling m ills..
Miscellaneous.........

Equiv­
alent
fullyear
work­
ers. Death.

9,819
17.621
5,450
20,525
27,123
24,752
11.621
4; 191
10, 222
11, n o
14,711
5, 920
55,534




Per­
ma­
nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total.
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
Death. dis­ dis­
dis­
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity .
ity . ity.
ity. ity.

20
15
3
8
6
2

24
3
5
16
7
2
2

443
131
41
178
48
48
7
7
21
13
20

487
149
49
202
61
52
9
7
21
13
20

6.8
2.8
1.8
1.3
.7
.3

14

7

192

213

.8

8.1 150.4 165.3 40.74 9.86 3.75
.6 24.8 28.2 17.03 1.45
.48
3.1 25.1 30.0 11.00 1.28 1.22
2.6 28.9 32.8 7.80 3. 21 .76
5.9
.9
7.5
4. 42 1.22 .28
6.5 7.1
.3
1.62 .86
.28
2.1
.6
2.7
.62
.18
5.6
5.6
.16
6.8 6.8
.12
3.9
3.9
.10
4.5
4.5
.07
.4

11.5

12.7

5. 04 1.17

.23

54.35
18.96
13. 50
11.77
5.92
2.76
.80
.16
.12
.10
.07
6.44

p

cr*
co
a
o

p>
t •
—

0

C
D
P"

C
D
P-

C
D
<N
r
P*
i
—
oT
O
P"

O*

C
D
d
p

hS

C
D
P

P

C
D

C
D

IQ

P

hi
Q02

37

P-

o

COM PARED.

It covers the characteristic

C
D

C A U S E S OP A C C ID E N T — D E P A R T M E N T S

P

C+-

P H Y S IC A L

substances as causes of accidents.
hazards of the industry.



Chart 2.—PO W ER VEHICLES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

38

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T able 9 .—HOT SUBSTANCES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: SEV E R IT Y R A T E S .(P E R 10,000
H OURS’ E X PO SU R E ) FOR S P E C IF IE D D EPA RTM EN TS, 1915 TO 1919, BY ACCIDENT
CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Explosives:
Transportation and handling.......................
Blasting.............................................................
Dust...................................................................
Gas......................................................................
O ther..................................................................
Electricity:
Short circuits at switches..............................
Contact exposed conductors.........................
Other....... ...........................................................
Conflagrations.........................................................
Hot substances and flames, asphalt, etc.:
Liquids, water.................................................
Ot.lier liquids....................................................
Metal, falls on sheets.......................................
Handling sheets.......................................
Hot bars in rolls.......................................
Hot scale....................................................
Hot stock ejected.....................................
Molten metal, breakouts................................
. Explosions.................................................
Ingot explosions.......................................
Sparks and splashes................................
Spills...........................................................
Slag and other...........................................
Steam .............................................................
Flames...............................................................
AH other............................................................
Corrosive substances..............................................
Unclassified..............................................................

Blast
fur­
naces.

Besse­ Open Found­ Heavy
rolling
mer. hearths. ries.
mills.

Explosives:
Transportation and handling.......................
Blasting..............................................................
Dust....................................................................
Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other...................................................................
Electricity:
Short circuits at switches...............................
Contact exposed conductors..........................
Other...................................................................
Conflagrations...........................................................
Hot substances and flames, asphalt, etc.:
Liquids, water............... ..................................
Other liquids.............................................
Metal, falls on sheets...............................
Handling sheets.........................................
Hot bars in rolls........................................
Hot scale......................................................
Hot stock ejected......................................
Molten metal, breakouts................................
Explosions..................................................
Ingot explosions........................................
Sparks and splashes..................................
Spills............................................................
Slag and other...........................................
Steam..................................................................
Flames................................................................
All other.............................................................
Corrosive substances...............................................
Unclassified...............................................................
Total...................................................................

1Less than 0.005.




02
01
01
C
1)

0.01
C
1)
C
1)

0.02
.01
.01

10

1.15
.02
.02
C
1)

0.01
C
1)

.01

.76
C
1)

1.38

.01

0)
0)

2.13
C
1)
1.66
.10
1.30
3.65
.02
1.17

Sheet
rolling
mills.

.07
.03

4.05
.03
.47

.03

0)

.74

1.41

.05

0)
2. 23
.78
.95
C
1)
.04

.01
.03
.02
. 15
C
1)
.02

.01
C
1)
.02
1. 82
.01
.03

5.70

3.14

2.18

C
1)

0.02
0)
3.41
2.50

Total................................................................... ‘ 18.54

Accident cause.

C)

0.03
.01
.01
0)

0 02
01

C
1)

1.19

Tube
mills.

C
1)

0.23
C
1)

Plate
mills.

.07
3.70
3.86

l..06
3.09
.38
5.03
1.96
1.12
.05
3.15
.60
.02

.15
.02
.07
2.16
0)
.0 4

24.03

16. 65

7.02

.13
7.83
8.40

Fabri­
cating.

Elec­
trical.

.01
.02

.04
.01
.18

Mechan­
Yards. Miscel­
ical.
laneous.

0.36
.36

C
1)
0.81
0.01

0.56
.70
9.66
.01

.02
.83
.02

C
1)
0.02
C
1)

.03
C)
•01
C
1)

.04

.07

.02

.01

.03
C
1)

.41
.02
.01
C
1)
. 11
.07

.01

C
1)

.01

C
1)

4.81
(l)

.85

.01
0.14
.03
ID
.03

C
1)

.01
0)

.02

.02

C)
'1
1.81
.07
c)
)
(l

.28

1.95

.c)1
.06

.11

.01
.03

.08

.02
.06
.06
.02
.02

.01

.06
C
1)
.37
.39
.42
.87
.24
.16

24.98

2.79

.27

3.94

.05
.07

.02
.02
.01
.05

P H Y S IC A L C A U SE S

O F A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S

COM PARED.

39

In Bulletin No. 234 cranes and hoists slightly exceeded this group
in severity. In the present tabulation such is not the case. The
changed relation is not marked and has no particular significance.
The fact that the electrical department in this group, as in ma­
chinery, is at the head of the list, is probably not a typical situation.
When details are considered it appears that the electricians suffered
injuries having a rate of 10.93 days per 10,000 hours’ exposure out of a
total rate of 24.98 days through electrical injury, mostly burns.
This represents a condition which very likely is somewhat unusual,
but serves to emphasize the importance of greater care in the adjust­
ment of electrical apparatus. A fruitful source of injury is the sup­
posed necessity of adjustment when the current is on. The larger
share of the severity rate shown above relates to conditions arising
from such procedure.
Each of the four departments in which molten metal is a factor
naturally shows rates in that connection of some size; for example,
blast furnaces, 9.70 out of 18.54 days; Bessemer, 16.36 out of 24.03
days; open hearths, 12.64 out of 16.65 days.
A rate of 7.83 days for ingot explosions in the Bessemer seems
rather inexcusable in view of the possibilities of both screens and
safeguards and of modifying the metal itself.
The rate of 4.81 days for electricians in connection with splashes of
metal is evidence that the duties of these men often demand that they
work in conditions where they are menaced both by the hazard
which always lurks in the electric current and by dangers belonging
to the department in which they are obliged to work.
Summary Table 10 and Chart 3 follow.
T able 1 0 .—HOT SUBSTANCES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: N U M B ER OF CASES A N D
ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R AT ES, 1915 TO 1919, B Y D EPAR T M EN T S.

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000 hours/ ex­
(per 10,000,000 hours’
exposure).
posure).
1

Number of cases.

Department.

Electrical.................
Bessemer.................
Blast furnaces........
Open hearths..........
Foundries...............
Heavy rolling mills.
Plate mills..............
Mechanical.............
Tube m ills..,..........
Fabricating.............
Sheet rolling mills„
Yards.......................
Miscellaneous.........

Equiv­
alent
fullPer­
year
ma­
work­
ers. Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.
4,191
5,450
17,621
20,525
10,222
27,123
14, 711
24, 752
11,621
11,110
5,920
9,819
55,534




1

4
6
13
14
3
6
2
3
1
1

3

8

4

5
3

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary
Total. Death. nent rary Total. Death. nent rary Total.
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
119
114
418
764
167
236
160
181
53
40
39
51
632

124
120
436
781
170
245
162
184
54
41
39
51
644

3.2 0.8
3. 7
2.5 ” .'9'
.5
2.3
1.0
.7
.4
.5
.4
.3
.3
.5

94.7 98.7 19.09 4.77
69. 7 73. 4 22.02
79.1 82.5 14. 76 2.21
124. 1 126.9 18.64 .66
54. 5 55.5
5. 87
29.0 3 a 1
4.42 .66
36.3 36. 8
2.72
24. 4 24. 8
2. 42
15. 7 16.0
1. 78
12. 0 12. 3
1. 80
22. 0 22. 0
17.3 17.3
2.88 .40
.2 37.9 38.6

1.12
2.01
1.57
2. 35
1.15
.62
.42
.37
.40
. 15
.28
.27
.66

24.98
24. 03
18.54
16.65
7.02
5.70
3.14
2.79
2.18
1.95
. 28
.27
3.94

40

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Ch a b t

3.—H OT SUBSTANCES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

FALLS OF W O R K E R AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

Table 11 presents in detail the facts regarding the cause group,
“ falls of worker.”
The electrical department and the blast furnaces are the out­
standing features o f this table. When the details in the electrical
experience are considered it becomes evident that falls from poles
and roofs are the serious matter (9.77 out of 11.21 days). This is
easily understood as being the result of the necessity which the
linemen are under of climbing to and working at these elevations.
It is extremely probable that some of these cases are to be attributed
to the electric current. A shock which would not in itself be seriously
harmful might cause a man to loose his hold and fall. Certain
forms of protection, such as insulating blankets, by which the live
wires near which it may be necessary to work are covered, deserve
a much wider use than is now given them.




P H Y S IC A L

CAUSES

O F A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S

COM PARED.

41

T able 1 1 __ FALLS OF W O R K E R AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: S E V E R IT Y R AT ES (PER
10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECIFIED D E P A R T M E N T S , 1915 TO 1919, B Y ACCI­
DENT CAUSES.
Accident cause.
Falls of worker:
From benches, boxes, chairs, and tables. .
From buildings, in construction or demo­
lition...............................................................
From cranes, derricks, or hoists in erect­
ing or rigging................................................
From piles........................................................
Frrvrn p nl es p d trees...................................
.ri
From roofs............................
. . .
From run ways, balconies, and platforms .
From scaff olds or staging..............................
From stairs...............T . ~ .............................
From other elevations...................................
Into floor openings..........................................
Into manholes
Into excavations.............................................
Due to slipping on level................................
Due to stumbling on level............................
Other falls.........................................................
Total...........................................................

Accident cause.

Blast
fur­
naces.

Besse­ Open Found­ Heavy
rolling
mer. hearths. ries.
mills.
0.02

C
1)

0.02

C
1)

0.01
.41
C
1)
C
1)
.03
1.25
.05
.36
3. 83
1.18
.02
.02
.02
.12'
.07
.04
7.41
Sheet
rolling
mills.

0.01

Plate
mills.

Tube
mills.

C
1)

C
1)
.01
.02

0.06
01

.03
C
1)

.03
.02

0. 02
.01

0.01
.01

.17
.41
.28

17
06
01

.01
(1)
.02

C
1)
.01
.01
.03

C
1)
.02
C
1)

1.78

.05

1.99
C
1)

.01

.04
.03
C
1)
.21
.05
.03

.04

.01
.27
.06
.04

.07
C
1)
.03
.09
.01
.16
.08
.08

.01

.02
.23
.04
.07

16
05
07
02
03
25
06
08

1.36

1. 04

2. 46

.62

.41

.04

Fabri­
cating.

Falls of worker:
From benches, boxes, chairs, and tables.. .
From buildings, in construction or demo­
lition................................................................
From cranes, derricks, or hoists in erect­
ing or rigging.................................................
From ladders....................................................
From piles.........................................................
From poles and trees.......................................
From roofs.........................................................
From runways, balconies, and platforms..
From scaffolds or staging...............................
From stairs.......................................................
From tram wavs and trestles.........................
From other elevations.....................................
Into bins and vats___
_ . ........................
Into floor openings..........................................
Into manholes...................................................
Into excavations _
...................................
Due to slipping on level.................................
Due to stumbling on level.............................
Other falls..........................................................

.23
.11
O)

. 15
.07
.03

Total............................................................

.41

2. 30

0. 01

Elec­
trical.

0.01

Mechan­
Yards.
ical.

0.01

.14
. 12
.03
2.13
Mis­
cella­
neous.
0.01

.09
0.03
m

.71

.01

.04
0)

$

.36
.43
.01

.84
1.67
.15
.01

( ?02
0
.02
.01

.38
.39
.01
.03

1.93
.01

4. 86
4.91
.14
.06
.02

.07

.23

1.69

(?05

.07
C
1)
.10
.06
.04

.02
C
1)
.01
.17
.09
.14

.01
.01
.04
.08
.11
.03

.03
C
1)
.39
C
1)
.03
.58
.44
. 05

11.21

4. 93

.38

3.16

.01

.02
m
.01
.02

1 Less than 0.005.

The blast furnaces show high rates for the following: Falls from
scaffolds and staging (1.25 days); from other elevations (3.83 days);
and into bins (1.18 days). A glance at the furnace in Plate 7 will
suggest why this is the case. It is not possible to say whether the
furnaces covered by this study are all equipped to a reasonable
standard with walkways and railings. It is true, however, that
there are still many furnaces not standard in this particular and
where the risk of falls which may result in death is very serious.
While falls due to slipping and stumbling on the level do not give
rise to very conspicuous rates they are very constant throughout all
the departments and suggest pointedly that the use of antislip
material and the maintenance of clear and tidy passageways should
not be neglected.
Table 12 and Chart 4, which follow, give a condensed picture of
this group of causes.
7 10 8 7°— 22------- 1




42

ACCIDENTS m

TH E IRON AND STEEL, INDUSTRY,

T able 12.—FALLS OF WORKER AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: NUMBER OF CASES AND

ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919, BY DEPARTMENTS.

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000 hours’ ex­
(per 10,000,000 hours’
exposure).
posure).

Number of cases.
Equiv­

alent
Per­
fullyear
ma­
work­ Death. nent
disers.

Temporary Total. Death.
disabil- ability. ity.

Department.

Electrical...............
Blast furnaces.......
Mechanical............
Foundries.............
Fabricating...........
Tube mills.............
Bessemer..............
Open hearths........
Heavy rollingmills.
Plate mills............
Sheet rolling mills.

4,191
17.621
24,752
10,222
11,110

11.621
5, 450
2 * 525
0,
27,123
14, 711
5,920
Yards....................... 9, 819
Miscellaneous........ 55,534
Ch ar t

2 ..........
71 73
199
4
4 191
5 ....... 289 294
77
1
1 75
1 ..........
93 94
38
...............
47 47
............ 282 282
1 203 204
..............

120

Per- TemTempoma- porary Total. Death. nent rary Total.
dis- disdisabilabil- ability.
ity. ity.

Per­
ma­
nent
disability.

56.5
0.8 36.1
38.9
.3 24. 5
27. 9
10. 9
28. 7
45. 8
.1 21. 9
27. 2
22. 5
24. 8
. 4 .2 32.2

1. o
1.6

.8
.7
.3
.3
.3

120

...............
40 40
...............
73 73
7
3 537 547

58.1
37.7
39.6
25.1
28. 2
11.2

28. 7
45. 8
25. 0
27. 2
22. 5
24. 8
32.8

9.54
4.54
4.04
1.96

....... 1.67 11.21
2.19 .68
7. 41
. . . . . .89 4.93
.20 .30 2.46
.50 2.30
l! 78
.35 2.13
1.36 1.36
1.04 1.04
.62
.09 .53
.41
.41
.41
.41
2.52 .07

.57

4.—FALLS OF WORKER AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.
FALLS

DEPARTMENTS

OF

SE V E R IT Y

WORKER
RATES
-r

T
20.

30

ELECTRICAL

B U S T FURNACI

MECHANICAL

FOUNDRIES

FABRICATING

TUBE

BESSEM ER

Q

OPEN HEARTH

H im

ROLLING

PLATE

SHEET ROLLING

I

YARDS

1




FATALITIES

PERMANENT

f

I TEMPORARY

3.16

PH YSICAL CAUSES OP ACCIDENT?— DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

43

FALLING OBJECTS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

Table 13 presents the details regarding the group, “ falling objects.”
T able 13.—PALLING OBJECTS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: SEVERITY RATES (PER

10,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS, 1915 TO 1919, BY ACCI­
DENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Blast
fur­
naces.

Collapse of scaffolds or staging.........................
Falling objects:

0)

0.02

0. 06
. 01
C
1)
. 14
. 01
0)
.02

m
01
m
1.05
(l)
m
01

From chutes, oonvevors, or slides.............
From machines or workbenches...............
Fromracks and shelves............................
Fromrunways, balconies, etc...................

Besse­ Open Found­ Heavy Plate
mer. hearths. ries. rolling mills.
mills.

Frnrn temporary floors ...................
From tramways and trestles.....................
o)
From other elevations.............................. .. 5.02
O
ave-ir> of ditdhfis
..
..........................
. 12
Objects tipping over (not vehicles).................
. 12
Otherfalling objects........................................
Total......................................................

Accident cause.

Collapse of scaffolds or staging........ ................
Falling objects:
From buildings....... ....... ..... ......... .......
From chutes conveyors, or slides.............
From machines or workbenches................
From piles.................................................
Fromracks and shelves.............................
Fromrunways balconies, etc....................
From scaffolds and staging......................
From temporary floors
..................
From tramways and trostlos__
__ - From other elevations................................
vo-io of difoil o
'?
- _ . ___ _
Objects tipping over (not vehicles)..................
Other falling objects.........................................
Total.......................................................

5.50
Sheet
rolling
mills.

0. 30

nm
.
.03
.07
.01

.50

3. 64

4.13
3.67

3.27
04

. 55
1. 96
3.11
.03

8. 61

8.06

5. 80

Fabri­
cating.

Elec­
trical.

C
1)
0)
0.04
. 17
.01
0)

C
1)
0.06
.13

1.25

.54
.32

.41
0)

1.67

1.86

0)#i
1
3

0. O
n

0.01
.82
.01
. 87
.05
.01
0)
.02

(l)
0.02
2.06
.25

.07
.01

.47

.24

0)

.04

.01
.26

2. 29

.24

.IS

.66
.01

.19

A 39

3. 10

.53

0)

(I).27
0)
.34
.76

Mechan­ Yards. M
iscel­
ical.
laneous.

.02

m

0.03
.07
.05

0)

.01
.57

0.04
o. m

Tube
mills.

C *
1)

0)

.25
.01

.37
0)

2. 54

2.94

0.01
(l)
.79
. 84
.01
0)
.01
.01
1. 46
.01
.97

.01
4.09

i Less than 0.005.

The high rates in this table are found under blast furnaces, for
objects falling from miscellaneous elevations (5.02 days per 10,000
hours exposed); under Bessemer, for objects tipping over (4.13 days);
under open hearths, for objects falling from miscellaneous elevations
(3.64 days) and objects tipping over (3.27 days); and under foundries,
for objects tipping over (3.11 days).
In the steel-making departments the handling and storage of ingot
molds give rise to accidents from time to time due to their tipping
over. It is believed that improvement in regard to this matter is
possible.
The fact that objects falling from piles are a very constant, though
not extremely serious, source of danger suggests that there is still
room for improvement in the matter of piling material.
Table 14 and Chart 5 summarize this group of causes.




44

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

1 4 .—FA LL IN G OBJECTS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: NUM BER OF CASES AND
ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AN D SE V E R IT Y R A T E S, 1915 TO 1919, B Y DEPAR TM EN TS.

T able

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000,000 hours'
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
exposure).
posure).

Number of cases.

Equiv­
alent
fullPer­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
year
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
work­
nent rary
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
Death.
ers. Death,
dis­ dis­ Total.
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

Bessemer............
Open hearths...
Foundries..........
Blast furnaces. .
Fabricating____
Yards.................
Mechanical........
Plate mills........
Heavy rolling mills
Sheet rolling mills.
Tube mills..............
Electrical.................
Miscellaneous.........

5,450
20,525
10,222
17.621
11,110
9, 819
24, 752
14,711
27,123
5, 920
11.621
4,191
55,534

Ch a r t

65
351
235
185
192
102
380
299
307
39
63
32
860

69
361
239
190
197
104
384
302
316
40
64
32
875

1.2
1.1
.7
.8
.3
.3
.3

.3
.4

39.8
57.0
76. 6
35. 0
57.6
34.6
51. 8
67.7
37.7
22.0
18.6
25.5
51.6

42.2
58.6
78. 0
36. 0
59. 1
35.2
52.4
68.4
38. 8
22. 6
18. 9
25. 5
52.5

7.34 0.37
6.82 .24
3. 92 .20
4. 54 .14
1. 80 .36
2. 04 .10
1.62 .08
.75
.92
.17
.19
2.52

.61

0.
1. 00
1.68
.82
.94
.80
.84
1.11
.75
.72
.54
.53
.96

5.—F ALL IN G OBJECTS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

FA IN
LL G OBJECTS,
SEVERITY RATES

DEPARTMENTS

— ,—
10

—i
—

20

30

B E SSE M E R

OPEN HEARTH

FOUNDRIES

BLAST FURNACES

FABRICATING

YARDS

MECHANICAL

PLATE

/

HEAVY ROLLING J J

SHEET ROLLING

TUBE

ELECTRICAL

Q
a
[]




FATALITIES

PERMANENT

n

TEMPORARY

8.61 90
8.
5.
5.
3.
2.
2.
1.
1.67
.89
.73
.53
4.09
iS S S S S S S

Department.

PHYSICAL CAUSES OE ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

45

HANDLING OBJECTS AND TOOLS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT.

Since the important matter in the group “ Handling objects and
tools” is the relation between frequency and severity, the summary
table and chart are introduced first.
T able 1 5 . — H A N D L I N G

O B J E C T S A N D T O O L S A S A C A U S E O F A C C ID E N T : N U M B E R
O F C A S E S , A N D A C C I D E N T F R E Q U E N C Y A N D S E V E R I T Y R A T E S , 1915 T O 1919, B Y
D EPARTM EN TS.

N u m b e r o f ca ses.

D e p a rtm e n t.

E q u iv a le n t
fu llP er­
year
m a­
w ork ­
nent
D ea th .
ers.
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

S h e e t r o llin g m i l l s .
5 ,9 2 0
M e c h a n i c a l ................ 2 4 ,7 5 2
F o u n d r ie s ................... 1 0 , 2 2 2
T u b e m i l l s ................. 11, 265
B l a s t f u r n a c e s .......... 1 7 ,6 2 1
O p e n h e a r t h s ............ 20, 525
Y a r d s ............................
9, 819
H e a v y r o ll i n g m ills . 2 7 ,1 2 3
P l a t e m il l s
1 4 ,7 1 1
5 ,4 5 0
B e s s e m e r .....................
E l e c t r ic a l ....................
4 ,1 9 1
1 1 ,1 1 0
F a b r ic a t i n g ...........
M is c e lla n e o u s ........... 55, 534

1
1
1
1

A c c i d e n t f r e q u e n c y ra te s
( p e r 1 0 , 000,000 h o u r s ’
e x p o s u r e ).

T em ­
po­
ra ry
T o t a l. D e a t h .
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

392
6
386
24 1 ,064 1,089
552
6
546
221
214
6
584
7
576
881
13
867
6
294
300
761
780
19
8
621
613
4
132
128
4
84
88
4
405
409
40 2 ,6 1 2 2,6 5 2

0 .1
.3
.2
.2

P er­
m a­
nent
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

3. 4
3. 3
2. 0
1. 8
1. 3
2. 1
2. 0
2. 3
1. 8
2. 4
3. 2
1. 2
2 .4

A c c i d e n t s e v e r it y ra te s
( p e r 10 ,0 0 0 h o u r s ’ e x ­
p o s u re ).

T em ­
po­
ra ry
T o t a l. D e a t h .
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

2 1 7 .3
143. 3
178. 0
63. 3
109. 0
140. 8
99. 8
93. 5
138. 9
78. 3
66. 8
121. 5
1 5 6 .8

220. 7
146. 7
180. 0
6 5 .4
110. 5
143. 1
10 1. 8
95. 8
140. 7
80. 7
70. 0
122. 7
1 5 9 .2

P er­
m a­
nent
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

1 . 86
2. 53
2 . 18
1. 78 1. 15
1 .1 4 1. 48
.9 7
.9 0
1. 78
1. 47
.7 5
.7 3
1 .3 1
.3 6
1 .3 9

0 .8 1

Tem ­
po­
rary
T o t a l.
d is ­
a b il­
ity .

3 .6 3
1. 91
2. 21
1 .1 3
1. 41
1. 76
1. 58
1. 36
1. 74
1. 52
.9 3
1 .6 4
2. 24

5 .4 9
5 .2 5
4 .3 9
4 .0 6
4 .0 3
3 .6 3
3 .3 6
2 .8 3
2 .4 9
2 .2 6
2 .2 4
2 .0 0
3 .6 3

As might be expected the notable feature of this table is the high
frequency in contrast with a relatively low severity. In the pre­
ceding study of this subject (Bulletin No. 234) objects dropped in
handling were grouped with falling bodies. This was perfectly
logical but did not direct attention to proper corrective measures as
positively as the present arrangement. The result of that grouping
was to make “ falling bodies” head the list in frequency. The
transfer of objects dropped in handling to the group where they are
now located puts this group much in the lead in the matter of
frequency.
The highest frequency is found in the sheet-rolling department
(220.7 cases per 10,000,000 hours' exposure). The highest frequency
found elsewhere is in the “ power vehicle” cause group, yard depart­
ment (165.3 cases). In general the majority of the departments
have a higher frequency rate in the “ handling of objects and tools”
cause group than in any other.
The condition as to severity is the precise opposite. It is this
cause group more than any other which has to a degree misled the
safety movement into the idea that the chief results of its efforts are
to be secured by bringing about greater care on the part of the men.
The reduction of minor injury such as occurs in connection with the
handling of tools and objects has been the result of the response of
the men to efforts to interest and instruct them. It is a very notable
and worth-while accomplishment, but it does not go to the heart of
the matter. No one can observe the black portion of the bars of
the charts illustrating this chapter without realizing that death




46

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

is the shadow which lies over the industry. It is that shadow that
efforts should be made to lessen. To do so involves a kind of effort
and an expenditure of money which we have not yet undertaken.
Table 16 contains the details regarding this cause group.

This detail table does not seem to call for much comment. It is
noticeable that on the whole the glancing or slipping of tools in the
hands of the workman himself is the most serious in this group of
causes. Reference to Chart 6 will show that deaths occurred in
four departments. On following up the individual cases it was
found that in one case the slipping o f a bar used as a pry resulted in
the man receiving a blow in the abdomen which ultimately caused
death. In another case a similar slipping allowed the man to fall
and receive fatal injuries. In nearly every case it was evideqt or
reasonably inferred that there was some fault with the tool or appli­
ance. Many plants have entirely failed to develop an adequate sys­
tem of care and upkeep for their tools.




PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

47

Table 16.—HANDLING OBJECTS AND TOOLS AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: SEVERITY
RATES (PER 10,00$ HOURS' EXPOSURE) FOR SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS, 1915 TO
1919, BY ACCIDENT CAUSES.
H eavy
O pen
Found­
r o llin g
h ea rth s.
r ie s .
m ills .

B la s t

fur­

A c c id e n t cau se.

naces.
O b je c t s d r o p p e d i n h a n d l i n g ....................................
C a u g h t b e t w e e n o b j e c t h a n d le d a n d o t h e r o b j e c t ........................................................................................
L i f t i n g , c a u s i n g s t r a i n ..................................................
H a n d l in g g l a s s ..................................................................
H a n d l in g s h e e t m e t a l ......................................... ..........

snails.........
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , c o l l i d e w it h
p e r s o n ...................................................................................
H a n d l i n g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , c o l l i d e w it h
o b j e c t s ..................................................................................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , o v e r t u r n ................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , o b j e c t s f a l l f r o m . .
H a n d lin g t r u e k s o r b a r r o w s, oth er a c c id e n t s ..
T o o l s \n h a n d s o f w o r k e r :
G la n c e o r s l i p ..............................................................
B r e a k o r c o m e a p a r t ...............................................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , n o t o t h e r w is e s p e c i f i e d ..
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , n a i l s a n d s p i k e s ................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , m e t a l c h i p s ..........................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , s t o n e o r c e m e n t ...............
T o o l s i n h a n d s o f fe llo w w o r k e r :
G la n c e o r s l i p .............................................................
B r e a k ot c o m e a p a r t ..............................................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , n o t o t h e r w is e s p e c i f i e d ..
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , m e t a l c h i p s ......................... .
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , s t o n e o r c e m e n t .................
U n c la s s i f ie d ........................................................................ .

0i4S

0.67

.39

.94
.18

.17

.01
.01

0 )

A c c id e n t cau se.

O b je c t s d r o p p e d i n h a n d l i n g ....................... ...............
C a u g h t b e tw e e n o b je c t h a n d le d a n d o th e r
o b j e c t ................................................................... ................
l i f t i n g , c a u s in g s t r a i n ...................................................
H a n d l in g g l a s s ................................................................... .
H a n d l in g s h e e t m e t a l .................................................... .
H a n d l in g o b j e c t s w i t h p r o t r u d i n g n a i l s ..............
H a n d l in g o t h e r s h a r p o b j e c t s - .................................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r - b a r r o w s , c o l l i d e w it h
p e r s o n ..................................................................................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , c o l l i d e w it h
o b j e c t s .................................................................................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , o v e r t u r n ................
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , o b j e c t s f a ll f r o m .
H a n d l in g t r u c k s o r b a r r o w s , o t h e r a c c id e n t s . .
T o o ls in h a n d s o f w o rk e r :
G la n c e o r s l i p .............................................................
B r e a k o r c o m e a p a r t .............................................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , n o t o t h e r w is e s p e c i f i e d . .
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , n a i l s a n d s p i k e s ................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , m e t a l c h i p s .........................
O b je e t s f l y f r o m , s -to n e o r c e m e n t ................
T o o l s i n h a n d s o f fe llo w w o r k e r :
G la n c e - o r s l i p .............................................................
B rea k or c o m e a p a rt
O b e c t s f l y f r o m , n o t o t h e r w is e s p e c i f i e d . ..
O b e c t s ;f l y f r o n r , n a ils a n d ' s p i k e s ..................
O b] e c t s f l y f r o m , m e t a l c h i p s ...........................
O b je c t s f l y f r o m , s t o n e o r c e m e n t ..................
U n c la s s if ie d ................................................. ..........................
T o ta l.

.0 2

.38

.19

.71

0 )
(0

0 )

.04

0.87

.84
.18

0 )
.0 2

.02

.01
.01

.0 1

.0 6
.0 4

1. 33

1.19
.03
.04

.85

.01

.73

0 )

0 )
.0 2
.0 2

C
1)
.0 1
.0 1
.0 2

.44

.23

.04

.24

.03

.0 1

0 )

.22
.2 2

U)

.05

0 )

0)

.04
0 )
(0

.03

" .'0 2

2. 83

Elec­
t r ic a l.

2.49

M ech an ­
i c a l.

Y a rd s.

.74

1.76
” '.'6 3

09

.0 1
0 )

0. 39

.50
.28

.14

.05

3.63

0.55

.2 2
C
1)

.0 2
C
1)
0 )
0 )

F a b r i­
c a t in g .

.03

0)
.1 2

.07

10

C
1)

.0 3

0 )

.01

Sheet
r o llin g
m ills .

.0 2

.16

.01
.01
0 )

.2 0

0 )
0 )
0 )

1 .6 0

.04

.07

Tube
m ills .

0 )

4. 03

T o ta l.

0. 39'
1.16
.35
.0 1

C
1)

P la te
m ills .

M
iscel­
la n e o u s .

0.68

.36
.27

.1 2
C
1)
.0 1
0 )

0 )
.0 1
.0 1

.14

.8 2
.2 7

0 )

.0 1

(l)
66

.0 1

.05
.3 4

C)
1

U)

.03

0 )

.0 4

0 )
U)
.3 4
.0 7

.0 1

.05-

.02
.08
.20

.28
0 )

.5 3

.0 2
.0 5

.7 7

.0 1

(0

.0 9

U)
.5 7

.0 2

.10

0 )
.0 1

.0 3

.39

.14

0 )
04

.0 5

.0 9

.1 3

65

.01

(0

.02

0 )

0 )

1 .0 6

\ ’ 02
2 .2 4

5. 25

.11
.01

0 )
(0

0 )
.0 2

.0 8

3 .3 6

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.

Next to slipping and glancing of tools comes being caught between
the object handled and some other object f and next, objects dropped
in handling. The remedy for these conditions lies in two directions,
the further substitution of mechanical methods of handling objects
needing to be moved and the development of greater skill and care on
the part of the men.




48

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
M IS C E L L A N E O U S C A U S E S O F A C C ID E N T .

Table 17 deals with the miscellaneous causes which can not be
brought under any of the classifications hitherto presented.
T able 17__ MISCELLANEOUS

CAUSES OF ACCIDENT: SE V E RITY RATES (P E R 10,000
HOURS' E XP O SU R E ) FOR SPECIFIED DEPARTM ENTS, 1915 TO 1919, B Y ACCIDENT
CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Blast
fur­
naces.

Asphyxiation.....................................................
.............................................................
Cold
Doors, windows, e tc..........................................
Flying objects, not otherwise classified............
Heat....................................................................
Nails and sharp objects stepped on.................
Violence .......... ..................................................
Striking against objects.....................................
Uneven footing...................................................
Moving objects, not otherwise classified..........
All other...................................................................

9.14
(D
0)
2.01
C
1)
.02
0)
.11
.08
.36
2. 31

Total..........................................................

Besse­ Open Found­ Heavyrolling
mer. hearths. ries.
mills.

14. 03

Accident cause.

Asphyxiation......................................................
Cold......................................................................
Doors, windows, etc............. - ............................
Drowning.............................................................
Flying objects not otherwise classified............
Heat,.
.............................................................
Nails and sharp objects stepped o n .................
Violence........................................................
Striking against objects......................................
Uneven footing....................................................
Moving objects, not otherwise classified............
All other...............................................................
Total..........................................................

Sheet­
rolling
mills.

0.03

(D

.19
.08
.07
.04

C
1)
.75
.01
.03
.01
.16
.11
1.00
.05

0. 01
.93
0)
.09
.02
. 15
.06
. 10
.20

1.74

2.13

1. 57

0)
1.37
0)

Fabri­
cating.

.01
.88
. 13
.05
.20
1.37

4. 77

Tube
mills.

.02
.15
.06
1.58
.07

C
1)
0.17
2. 73
.03
.02
.20
.05
.19
.04

.25
.01
2.15
.01

2. 96

3.43

4. 35

0.
1. 78
.01

Mechan­ Yards. Miscel­
ical.
laneous.
0. 82
. 01
.01

. 07
.02
.05

1.60
0)
.05

7. 59
(D
.02

.20
.04
.17

.13
. 14
.03
.02

.96
.06
.06
.61

. 15
. 11
2. 08
2.14

1.45
0)
.01
(i)
1.26
.01
.04
. 38
.52
.09
. 58
.97

2. 59

5.25

4.17

12.09

5. 31

C
1)
0. 01
0.09

Elec­
trical.

0)
0)
(D
1.07
.01

Plate
mills.

1. 80
.30
.07

0)

0)

C
1)
(D

i Less than 0.005.

The notable feature of this table is the evidence which it affords
that asphyxiating gas is in blast furnaces a very serious menace. In
the blast furnaces 9.14 out of the 14.03 days lost per 10,000 hours’
exposure were due to this cause. It is probably not wholly typical
that electrical workers had 4.77 out of 5.25 days.
No attempt has been made to trace the effects of asphyxiating gas
from year to year during this five-year period, but the indications are
that the situation has not greatly changed for the better.
The influence of uneven footing is worth a moment’s attention.
Cases of slipping and stumbling are placed under the head of “ Falls
of persons.” Those here recorded are cases in which a piece of
material lying on the ground caused a turning of the ankle or a strain­
ing of the knee. The constancy with which this appears in all the
departments emphasizes again the importance of keeping the plants
in good order. An untidy plant is an unsafe plant.
Table 18 and Chart 7 summarize the facts regarding miscellaneous
causes.




14

PHYSICAL CAUSES OE ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

49

T able 18r-M iSC E L L A N E O U S CAUSES OF ACCIDENT: N U M BER OF CASES AN D ACCI­
D EN T F R E Q U E N C Y A N D S E V E R IT Y R A T E S, 1915 TO 1919, B Y D EPAR T M EN T S.

Department.

Blastfurnaces........
Yards.......................
Electrical.................
Tube mills...............
Mechanical..............
Plate mills..............
Heavy rolling mills
Fabricating.............
Open hearths..........
Bessemer.................
Foundries...............
Sheet rolling mills .
Miscellaneous.........

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
Number of cases.
(per 10,000,000 hours’
(per 10,000 hours’ ex­
exposure).
posure).
Equiv­
alent
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
fullma­ po­
ma­ po­
year
ma­ po­
nent rary
work­ Death. nent rary
nent rary
Total. Death.
dis­ dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ Total.
ers.
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
17,621
9,819
4,191
11,265
24, 752
14, 711
27,123
11,110
20,525
5, 450
10, 222
5, 920
55, 534




11
4
1
2
2
2
3
1
1

10

3
4
2
7
1
2
2
1
3
1
11

414
400
177
185
88
89
113
117
540
549
286
288
331
327
298
301
452
449
90
91
263
266
130
129
997 1,018

0.6 •75.7 78.4
1. 4 60. 1 62.9
70. 0 70. 8
.6 33. 4 34. 6
.9 72. 7 73.9
64. 8 65. 3
. 1 40. 2 40. 7
. 6 89. 4 90. 3
. 4 72. 9 73. 5
. 6 55. 0 55. 6
1. 0 85. 8 86. 8
. 6 72. 6 73. 2
.6 .7 59.8 61.1

2.1
1.4
.8
.6
.3
.5
.4
.3
.2

12.49 1.02
8.15 3.19
4. 77
3. 55 .27
1.62 1.94
2. 72
2.21 .22
1.80 .18
.97 .58
1.10
. 78
.17
3.60 .97

Chart 7.—MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF ACC ID EN T.

0. 52
.75
.48
.53
.61
.71
.53
.61
.58
.64
.79
1. 20
.74

14.03
12.09
5.25
4.35
4.17
3. 43
2. 96
2.59
2.13
1.74
1.57
1.37
5.31

50

ACCIDENTS IK THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

Table 10 summarizes the situation from a slightly different angle.
It brings out clearly some points of interest. It makes very plain
the fact that frequency and severity are not indications of the same
thing. For example, following the rates for “ handling” it will be
seen that with scarcely an exception the frequency rate for this
cause group is in excess of any other, while with almost equal con­
stancy its severity rate is at or near the foot of the list. It may
also be noted that while the number of cases due to “ machinery” is
not constantly above the middle of the list the severity rates are at
the top in 10 departments out of the 13.

Miscellaneous.

Mechanical.

Fabricating.

1

Sheet rolling
mills.

d
a
>
ft
O

Tube mills.

&

Plate mills.

C
O
£

Heavy rolling
mills.

Accident cause
group.

Bessemer.

ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR SPECIFIED D E P A R T ­
M ENTS, 1915 TO 1919, B Y ACCIDENT CAUSE GROUPS.
Blast furnaces.

T able

g

85.9
7.1
24.8
39.6
52.4

34.3
165.3
17.3
24.8
35.2

72.7
12.7
38.6
32.8
52.5

70.0 146.7
70.8 73.9

101.8
62.9

159.2
61.1

13. 57
54. 35
.27
.38
2.94

11.59
6. 44
3.94
3.16
4.09

3.36
12.09

3. 63
5. 31

i
s
0
.2?

W
3

Frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Machinery.........
Power vehicles .
S o t substances.
Palls of worker..
Palling' objects..
Handling ob­
jects and tools.
Miscellaneous...

28.9 33.0
28.2 30.0
82. 5 73. 4
37. 7 28. 7
36.0 42.2
110.5
78.4

80.7
55.6

65.5
32.8
126.9
45.8
58.6

105.6
6.8
55. 5
25.1
78.0

55.5
7.5
30.1
25.0
38.8

143.1
73.5

180.0
86.8

95.8 140.7
40.7 65.3

84.3
4.5
36.8
27.2
68.4

35.2
2. 7
16.0
11. 2
18.9

41.1 158.7
3.9
12.3
28.2
59.1

22. 0
22:5
22.6

65.4 220.7 122.7
34.6 73.2 90.3

60.5
5.6
98. 7
58.1
25.5

Severity rates (per 10,000 hours’ exposure).
Machinery.........
Power verdcles .
Hot substances.
Fallsof worker..
Falling objects..
Handling ob­
jects and tools
Miscellaneous...

14.52 16. 74
18. 96 13.50
18. 54 24.03
7. 41 1.36
5.50 8. 61

19.25
11. 77
16. 65
1.04
8.06

2.26
1. 74

3.63
'2 .1 3

4.03
14.03




13.05 10. 71 12.68 12.29
.12 5. 92
.07
.80
7.02 5. 70 3.14 2.18
.62
2. 46
.41 2.13
.73
5.80 1. 67 1.86
4.39
1.57

2. 83
2.96

2. 49
3.43

4.06
4. 35

3.54 18.55 31.38 11.16
.16 2. 76
.10
.28 1.95 24.98 2. 79
.41 2.30 11.21 4.93
.53 2.54
.89 3.10
5.49
1.37

2.00
2.5©

2. 24
5. 25

5.25
4.17

CHAPTER IV.— THE PHYSICAL CAUSES O f ACCIBENT— THE
DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

In the preceding chapter the important departments have been
contrasted with regard to the principal cause groups and the detailed
causes under those groups.
In this chapter the purpose is to analyze these departments,
bringing out whenever possible what has happened from year to
year over a period extending from 1905 to 1914. It is not thought
necessary to extend this minute analysis to the 5-year period, 1915
to 1919, since the effect of the various preventive measures is clearly
shown in the earlier period and their continued effect is evident on
comparing the two periods.
BLAST FURNACES.

In Table 20 the cause rates for blast furnaces are shown for each
year from 1905 to 1914.
T able 2 0 .—ACCIDENT FR E QU EN C Y AND SE V E R IT Y R A T E S FOR BLAST FURNACES,
1905 TO 1914, B Y Y E A R S, AND B Y ACCIDENT CAUSES.
Accident cause.

1905

1906 1 1907
|

1908

1909 | 1910

1911

1912 | 1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours' exposure).
W orking machines....................
Cranes ahd hoists....................... 2.07
Hot substances:
Breakouts...........................
3.80
Sparks and splashes........... 15.97
Spills.....................................
Explosions.
........... . 1. 03
Furnace slips.......................
4. 50
Gas flames............................ 3.10
Hot water, etc..................... 21.17

2.10
5.30

1.90
2. 77

2.10
3.13

1.33
5.37

8. 47'
6. 07
.27
2.10
4. 50
4. 77
9. 77

2. 97
10.43
.20
1. 27
1. 90
2.33
14. 70

. 80
3.40

2.03
4.93

1. 30
5.50
2.10
9.93

49.57

35. 95

33. 80

Falling objects............................ 38. 50
Falls of worker. .......................... 7. 63
Handling objects and tools___ 14. 90
Power vehicles............................ 1. 40
A sphyxiating gas.......................
2. 07
Unclassified..
. .
2 1 90
Not reported. . . . . . . . . .
2. 43

21.40
7. 93
8. 70
1. 60
7. 40
15. 07
5. 03

Total, hot substances_
_

T otal........................

0.43
1.73

1. 43
2. 40

0. 77
1.53

0. 80
2.00

0.87

4.20
.23
.73
.50
1. 73
3. 93

4.10

3.43

4.23

1.70

.90
.67
1. 57
4. 70

.37

1.00

.57

i. 20
2. 67
5.30

5.13

.20
3.23

.30
3.17

23. 03

14.80

11.32

13. 27

8. 93

8.66

5. 74

18. 53
7. 47
10. 87
1. 90
2. 97
18. 93
2 13

13. 63
8. 63
8. 63
1.07
1.07
12. 57
.27

12.10
4. 70
10. 10
1.13
2. 30
15. 70
1. 80

14. 30
7. 87
10. 83
1. 97
4. 67
8. 63
.50

5. 53
3. 37
9.43
.23
.97
5.30
.23

6. 67
5. 30
7. 43
.60
1.13
8. 20
.97

6. 23
2. 60
5.63
. 40
.403.63

3.17
4. 30
4.30

141. 47 110. 48 101. 27

74.13

69.33

62.25

42.16

41. 53

30. 35

24. 95

1.40
5.17

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines.
Cranes and hoists.......................
Hot substances:
Breakouts.............................
Sparks, etc............................
Spills............................
Explosions............................
Furnace slips............ ..........
Gas flames............................
Hot water, etc.....................

(i)
(i)

0.03
.03

0. 07
.13

1.40

.03

.03

.03

1. 80
3.63

0. 03
.40

0. 47
.07

0. 03
1.60

4.70
. 13

10.77
.30

.07
.53

.03
.07

3. 07
.07

.03
.63
2. 37
.20

.03
.07
2. 00
1. 97

.17
1. 60
.03
.30

.03
.20

.03

.20

.03
.07

.03
.07

.07
1. 63
.30

.03

.40

.03

8.06

15.14

2.70

.53

3. 27

.20

2.03

.00

. 43

.46

Falling objects............................ 2. 80
3. 73
.23
Falls of worker............................
2. 97
1. 87
Handling objects and tools___
2. 03
. 10
.53
2. 93
Power vehicles............................
3. 57
....................... Asphyxiating gas 73
2. 33
3. 83
5.
Unclassified...............................
. 80
.03
Not reported
.................

.33
1.93
.10
. 13
3. 50
1. 00

1. 73
3.07
.07
1. 50
3. 07
.27
.03

. 17
3. 43
.33
.53
1. 70
.33

.07
.10
.13
1.60
1. 60
.07

.07
.07
.13

.03
1.40
.23
0)
1. 33
.07

.07
.10
.23

8. 06

14. 64

6. 82

5. 66

1,96

4. 89

4.79

1 ,2 7 4

1 ,4 8 6

1 ,3 5 3

1 ,3 8 0

1 ,7 4 9

1 ,6 5 8

1 ,1 6 0

Total, hot substances.. .

Total..................................

13. 72

35,60

15. 92

N u m b e r o f w o rk e rs ......................

991

1 ,2 6 2

1 ,5 6 6

i

Less than 0.005.




0.13
.07
.03

0.03
.23
.20

1. 30
.10
.03

51

3. 87
.03

52

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Considering the reduction in accident rates, both frequency and
severity, occurring in the blast furnaces during this period, it will
be observed that there is a very considerable regularity in the dis­
tribution of this decrease for each of the causes enumerated. In
some instances, however, the reductions are striking, even spectac­
ular. For example, in the case of “ hot substances/’ the severity
rate for 1905 is 8.06 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure and for 1906
15.14 days. This declines to 0.46 day for 1914. In the blast fur­
nace plants included in this tabulation, the severity rate of one form
of injury due to hot substances, namely, “ breakouts,” which were
of very great importance during the early years, entirely disappears
from 1910 onward. A study of the table will reveal the changes in
the situation regarding the different cause groups.
W ORKING MACHINES.

In the blast furnaces there are comparatively few pieces of appa­
ratus which can be included under this heading. In two years, how­
ever, 1906 and 1908, the table shows high severity rates for machines.
For 1906 it is 1.80 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure. This compara­
tively high rate was due mainly to a fatality at the pig machine.
In this machine an endless belt carries a series of cast-iron pans into
which molten metal is poured. The belt moves forward carrying the
filled pans and the metal is cooled by the application of water sprays,
or the pans may be entirely immersed in a water bath. A t the ex­
treme limit of the excursion of the belt, the pigs fall from the pans
as they pass the last rollway, forming a stock pile, or in some cases
fall directly into cars for transportation. In some cases a pig, instead
of dropping from the pan, adheres and is carried back by the belt
along the underside of the apparatus. Such a “ sticker” is liable to
fall from the pan at any point of the return movement. In the case
under consideration this happened just when the pan had reached a
passageway, the pig striking a man who was passing through and
killing him. As a result this particular passage was closed and
in other similar cases where the passage was particularly desirable a
guard was placed overhead which would catch a falling pig.
Again, for 1908 there is a high rate (0.47 day), due largely to a
man’s foot being crushed in the mud gun. Plate 1 illustrates this
machine and shows at the point marked “ A ” a funnel through which
clay for closing the tap hole is fed. In the older type of mud gun
there was simply an opening into the barrel of the gun and quite
often a man would press the clay into place with his foot. In the
case under consideration, and in several others, the foot was caught
b y the moving piston of the machine and severely injured, in this
case necessitating amputation.
Since the number of accident cases in connection with machines
is decidedly small, comparisons between the different years must be
made with considerable caution. It is evident, however, that some
definite improvement is evidenced by the figures.
CRANES AND HOISTS.

In blast-furnace operations the usual type of crane is utilized to
some extent. There are two forms of hoisting apparatus peculiar
to the blast furnace. In any furnace of considerable size the ban-




P L A T E 1.— M U D G U N IN P O S I T I O N FOR C L O S I N G T A P H O L E .




P L A T E 2.— C I N D E R N O T C H , W I T H G U A R D .

PH YSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

53

dling of the ore will be accomplished by the ore bridge. This is
essentially a very much magnified gantry crane. The other form of
hoisting apparatus is that by which the materials are elevated to the
top of the furnace and dumped into the stack. Since in both these
forms the operation is almost exclusively mechanical, the operator
simply determining the movements by pulling levers and manipu­
lating electric circuits, the accidents from them are not very numer­
ous, although when accidents do occur they are apt to be quite
severe.
Turning now to the figures shown in Table 20, it appears that in
the initial year, 1905, the frequency rate was low and the severity
rate almost nothing. In 1906, however, in connection with the in­
creased industrial activity, the rates rose very rapidly. Considering
years of a similar degree of activity 1906 may be compared with
1913. The frequency rate in 1906 was 5.30 cases and in 1913 was
2.00 cases, a decline of 62 per cent, the severity rate at the same
time declining 62 per cent, from 3.63 days to 1.40 days. It is known
that these reductions were associated with important structural
changes. For example, when repairs are to be made at the top of
a furnace it is frequently necessary to attach the tackle to some part
of the furnace top. In the older types of furnaces no special pro­
vision was made for this purpose and stairways and platforms by
which the top of the furnace might be reached were very inadequate
or entirely wanting. This resulted in a condition of hazard, which
is strongly reflected in the accident rates for hoisting and also in
those for falls of the workers.
No change has contributed more definitely to lessen hazard about
the blast furnace than the complete revision of stairways, railings, plat­
forms, and other means of access which is to be found in all modern
installations.
EXPLOSIVES, ELECTRICITY, A N D HOT AND CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES.

This group of causes is naturally of peculiar importance and inter­
est in the blast furnace. The essential process of this department
is the application of a high degree of heat to refractory materials and
throughout the process the hazards due to such heat are encountered.
Considering again the years 1906 and 1913, which are closely simi­
lar in industrial and labor conditions, the following decline in acci­
dent rates due to hot substances may be noted: Frequency, from 35.95
to 8.66 cases per 1,000,000 hours* exposure, a reduction of 76 per
cent, and severity, from 15.14 days to 0.43 day per 1,000 hours* exposure,
a reduction of 97 per cent. It can not be assumed that these very
remarkable reductions are to be found throughout the blast-furnace
plants of the country, but it may be argued that the same attention
to improved construction which has affected these particular mills
will, if extended, similarly affect the rates in all such furnaces.
It is desirable to examine some of the divisions of this cause group
in order to secure a more detailed view of the changes which have
occurred.
BREAKOUTS.

In the older type of furnaces it was not an infrequent occurrence
that the walls of the furnace would be completely worn through by
the hot metal and that the outrush of molten iron which would




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ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

follow would cause serious loss of life. A case is on record where
such a “ breakout” resulted in the death of 14 men. When the
record as shown in the table is followed, it is found that these occur­
rences were by all odds the most serious hazard in the earlier years.
The year 1905 shows a severity rate of 4.70 days; 1906, 10.77 days.
Up to 1909 there continued to be difficulty from this cause, but from
that year breakouts entirely disappeared in the plants under con­
sideration. This disappearance was due entirely to improved construc­
tion, which has now reached a point where events of this character
should be regarded as unnecessary.
SPARKS AND SPLASHES.

Injuries from this source are quite numerous and their severity is
great enough to warrant particular attention. Danger of this kind
arises particularly in drawing the cinder which floats upon the surface
of the molten iron and in connection with tapping off the molten
iron itself. Plate 2 shows a method of guarding the cinder notch
which has proved reasonably effective. It consists of a shield which
can be lowered into a position in front of the notch when it is necessary
to draw off the cinder. Plate 3 illustrates a method of opening the
tapping hole of the furnace which, unfortunately, still continues in a
good many plants. The line of men who operate the bar by which
the clay plug closing the tapping hole is broken through are in such
position that when the molten metal comes pouring through there
are many chances that the small explosions which are very apt to
occur may throw the metal upon the men and cause severe bums.
Plate 4 illustrates the substitution of an air drill for the hand oper­
ated tapping bar. The number of men necessary for the operation
is greatly reduced. The tapping hole and the adjacent runner are
securely screened and the dress of the men includes such precautions
as the use of leggins. There is probably one other precaution in this
operation which might be urged. Bums of the eye are not of very
frequent occurrence but they happen from time to time, producing
injury all the way from a brief disability to actual loss of the eye.
The use of protective goggles has become quite general in foundries,
and there would seem to be no reason why the same protection should
not be afforded in the cast house.
As the metal flows from the tapping hole it is necessary to direct
its course from the main runner in various directions. This is accom­
plished by the use of heavy cast-iron gates. These are of semicircular
shape, with a handle projecting from the side. Under the earlier
conditions it was necessary for the helper to pick up these gates and
drop them in position, getting away if possible quickly enough to
avoid the scorching heat and the splashing metal. In a modern cast
house the gates are suspended above the runner and lowered into
position by a cable or some other mechanism, which can be operated
from a distance. Keeping the gates suspended above the runner
tends to safety in another particular. When the gates were stored
in other parts of the cast house the iron frequently became moist.
When necessary to use the gate it would be held for a time over the
flowing metal in order to dry off any adherent moisture. This was
so hot and disagreeable a task that it was often not thoroughly done.
The result would be that when the moist gate came in contact with







PL A T E 3 — OLD , UNS AF E M E T H O D OF D R I L L I N G A T A P P I N G H O L E .




P L A T E 4.— IM P R O V E D M E T H O D OF D R I L L I N G A T A P P I N G H O L E.

P L A T E 5.— H O T M E T A L L A D L E A N D CAR, S H O W I N G D O U B L E T R U N N I O N S A N D
SAFETY CHAINS.

P L A T E 6.— A U T O M A T I C C O U P L E R ON C I N D E R L A D L E CAR.







P L A T E 7.— M O D E R N BLA ST FU RNA CE P L A N T , S H O W I N G

D US T C A T C H E R .

PHYSICAL, CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

55

the molten metal an explosion would be caused of sufficient violence
to scatter the metal pretty well over the area of the east house. The
method described above entirely prevents this accumulation of
moisture.
Splashing of the molten metal is apt to occur in connection with its
transportation. Two conditions, which have been to a consider­
able degree remedied, were likely to produce dangerous splash­
ing: (1) The ladle cars sometimes had to be coupled together after
hot metal or cinder had been placed in them. If the coupling
had to be done by hand there was great danger that when the cars
came together a splash would occur which the man would have great
difficulty in escaping. It has been argued, with some reason, that
the automatic coupler is not adapted to use on cars of this kind. The
molten metal flying out of the ladle was apt to fall upon the coupler
and obstruct its action. It has been possible, however, to devise
couplers which are successful in use. (See Plates 5 and 6.) (2) The
ladles used in transporting molten metal are provided with trunnions,
to which the large hooks carried by the cranes are attached when it
is desired to pour the metal from the ladle. For convenience in
pouring, these trunnions are placed at a point a little above the center
of gravity. When the same trunnions were used for pouring and for
supporting the ladle during transportation, great difficulty was expe­
rienced in so blocking the ladle that it would not sway or overturn
during transportation. Plate 5 illustrates the use of double trunnions
for supporting the ladle on the car entirely independent of the larger
one used for purposes of pouring. This construction has materially
lessened the danger of the metal spilling when the car is moving.
EXPLOSIONS.

As has been stated above, contact with moisture may cause quite a
serious explosion in the molten metal. It is also evident from some
cases which have occurred that there may be gases generated or con­
tained within the metal which give rise to dangerous explosions.
This appears, however, to be of rather minor importance in the blast
furnaces.
FTTEtNACE SLIPS.

In the older type of furnace hot stock falling upon the workmen,
causing more or less severe burns, was not infrequent. With the
advance in construction which has occurred in recent years this form
of injury has largely disappeared. In order to show with reasonable
clearness how progress has eliminated this source of injury, it is nec­
essary to present, with some degree of detail, the structural features
of a modem furnace. The furnace itself consists of three elements:
(1) The stack or furnace proper; (2) the blowing engine; (3) the
stoves. Plates 7 and 8 illustrate the present development of such
furnace. The three elements mentioned represent the successive
steps by which the furnace has been evolved. The first form was
simply a tower of masonry with a brick lining into the top of which
the fuel, ore, and flux were dumped. The gases generated in the
smelting process escaped freely from the top of the tower and there
took fire, showing a waving torch of flame. Those who can remember
such primitive furnaces will recall them as a very striking feature of
a night-time landscape. The next step in development was to add




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ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

to this tower some form of blowing apparatus by which air was forced
into the mass of material and combustion and melting hastened (see
Plate 8). It was then discovered that still greater efficiency could
be attained by warming the air before it was introduced into the
tower. This has finally developed into the exceedingly effective
stoves of present practice. The furnace proper will show, if consid­
ered in vertical section, three portions: (1) At the bottom is a cylin­
drical portion called the hearth; (2) above the hearth is a funnelshape portion called the “ bosh” ; (3) above the “ bosh” the furnace
has the form of a truncated cone, called the stack. This shape of the
upper part of the furnace allows the material which is thrown in at
the top to pass downward freely. When the “ bosh” is reached the
temperature is sufficient to cause melting and the material decreases
in bulk. The funnel shape of the “ bosh” accommodates this soften­
ing and shrinking mass.
Surrounding the furnace near the point where the stack and “ bosh”
come together is a circular pipe, the “ bustle” pipe (see Plate 9).
The air forced by the blowing engines passes through one of the
stoves and is then forced into this bustle pipe. From the lower side
of this pipe a series of smaller pipes extend downward and pass
through the wall of the furnace, delivering the heated air among the
materials which have come down from the top of the stack.
Thus the small tower in which the early smelting was accom­
plished has gradually become a very large and very complicated
piece of industrial apparatus.
In Plate 7 may be seen the various elements of a blast furnace
installation, namely, the stack, the stoves, the engine house, and the
accessory pipes by which these parts are brought into relation and the
inclined hoistway, by which the various materials, coke, ore, and
limestone, which constitute “ the burden,” are elevated to the top of
the furnace.
What is called “ a slip” by the furnace man formerly produced one
of the most serious hazards connected with the operation of the
furnace and even with the best modern construction there is still a
degree of danger connected with it. When from any cause the down­
ward movement of the material in the furnace is checked there may
occur below this point a burning away of the combustible portion
of “ the burden” and when this occurs “ the burden” above that
point may suddenly slip down in the stack. Since this mass may be
as much as 20 feet in diameter and 60 feet in height, it is evident
that the mechanical effect of a sudden drop, even of a few inches,
would be very great.
In order to understand the conditions which may bring about a
slip it is necessary to state, in some detail, the processes which go
on within the furnace. When the furnace is “ blown in ” a quantity
of fuel in the hearth is ignited. When the entire mass is on fire the
feeding in of material at the top of the furnace begins. A portion of
this material is coke which on coming down to the burning mass in
the hearth takes fire. In accordance with the operative practices of
the furnace the bustle pipe is at a certain stage of the process con­
nected up with the furnace by means of short pipes, called “ goose
necks,” which terminate in water-cooled nozzles— the “ tuyeres.”
These, passing through the walls of the furnace, deliver the heated
air to the “ burden.” The burning of the coke produces a high




P L A T E 8.— B L O W I N G

P L A T E 9.— B L A S T




EN GINES

IN B L A S T

FURNACE,

SHO W ING

FURNACE

BUSTLE

PLANT.

PIPE.




PLATE

10.— O P E N

HEARTH

CHARGING

FLOOR, CHARGING

CAR

IN

FOREGROUND.

P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S OF A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

57

temperature and a large amount of carbon monoxide. From the
limestone of the “ burden7 is expelled carbon dioxide, leaving quick­
’
lime. This dioxide unites with a portion of the carbon and becomes
monoxide. These hot gases and the carbon react upon the iron ore,
taking from it its oxygen and reducing it to a metallic state. When
the “ zone of fusion” is reached both iron and lime are melted. The
heavier molten iron sinks to the bottom of the hearth, the melted
lime, or slag, floating on top. As the molten iron thus subsides it
is brought into intracontact with the melted lime and chemical
reactions occur by which various impurities which would impair the
quality of the iron are taken from it and drawn off with the slag.
Whenever the quantity of slag becomes sufficient it is drawn through
the cinder notch, and at intervals, usually about four times every 24
hours, the jron is tapped off through the tapping hole.
With such ore as was originally used, this process went on with
comparatively little trouble. The ore was of a granular character,
or consisted of masses which w
rould be crushed to a size which allowed
a free passage of air through “ the burden” in the furnace.
Two conditions arose at the same time, adding very greatly to the
difficulties of the furnace men: (1) The great deposits of iron ore in
Northern Minnesota were discovered. This ore has a greater iron
content than almost any other and is also a powdery mass which can
be handled with steam-shovels and grab buckets. (2) Coincident
with* this discovery of ore there arose a very great demand for iron
and steel products.
With the granular ore mentioned above the heated gases had no
difficulty in passing through “ the burden” and bringing about the
desired chemical reactions, but when the fine powder of the Mesaba
ore was introduced into the furnace it produced a “ burden” which
was penetrated by the blast with more or less difficulty. It will be
more readily understood how this condition brings about furnace
slips and incidental difficulties of other kinds if a particular case be
followed. Let it be supposed that a portion of the “ burden” on one
side of the furnace is especially impervious to the passage of heated
gases. The result would be to deflect the gas stream toward the
other side of the furnace. That portion of the “ burden” from which
the gas is thus diverted will begin to fall in temperature. Some of
it being in a pasty condition and just ready to fuse will solidify and
adhere to the furnace wall. Such an adhering portion of the “ burden”
is called by furnace men “ a hang.” Once started it is very likely
gradually to extend, and may reach entirely across the furnace, con­
stituting a “ scaffold.” It is obvious that this condition checks the
downward movement of the material and disturbs all the internal
processes of the furnace. Below such a “ scaffold” the continued
combustion of the coke removes the support. In order to restore the
action of the furnace an extra load of material may be dumped into
the top or the pressure of the air blast may be rapidly changed. As
a result of such efforts the scaffold finally gives way.
It is a matter of some debate whether the mechanical effect of
such a “ slip” is sufficient to account for the results which have
occurred. It seems probable, however, that under certain cir­
cumstances an explosive compound may be formed. It has been
suggested that this condition comes about as follows: If an almost
71087°— 22-- 5




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complete “ scaffold” is formed the carbon below it may be entirely
consumed. When the break comes a quantity of free oxygen may
be suddenly mixed with the gases above the “ scaffold” and with
incandescent coke dust. This union may be so sudden as to consti­
tute a veritable explosion. At all events, it was not an infrequent
occurrence with the older types of furnace, after Mesaba ore came into
use, that the top mechanism of the furnace would be blown com­
pletely off and the entire contents of the stack ejected. When this
occurred in a furnace where men were employed as “ top fillers,” it
might produce a serious casualty. Among the records of such cases
accumulated in the course of this study are two, in one of which 14
men were killed and in the other 12. It is evident that methods
reducing a hazard of this character must be of the greatest interest.
The solution of the problem, both from a production and a safety
standpoint, comes down to the fundamentals of blast-furnace practice.
The Mesaba ore is so rich in iron, so readily mined, and so easily
transported that the furnace man must necessarily use it and develop
his productive methods accordingly.
With some of the raw materials it is possible to modify their quality
in various ways to the great advantage of production and, fortunately,
at the same time of safety. For example, in modern by-product coke
ovens, it is possible to produce a coke of a high degree of uniformity.
The importance of this uniformity may be illustrated by the follow­
ing case. For a considerable period the performance of a group of
furnaces had been unsatisfactory. A normal quantity of flue dust
from these furnaces was about two carloads per day. For a week or
more they had ejected 10 carloads daily. For some time the superin­
tendent was entirely baffled in the search for an explanation. He
finally discovered that the coal used in the coke ovens was not
crushed to a uniform degree of fineness. In handling any granular
material the coarser particles tend to become aggregated, leaving the
other portions formed of finer particles. In the case under consid­
eration the result of this sorting was that a part of the coke was
composed of finer material, which easily pulverized into a powder
and would then pack between the other elements of the “ burden,”
rendering it somewhat impervious to the blast. On the other hand,
the coke composed of coarser particles was more readily inflam­
mable and so gave rise to unequal heat. When the crushing process
was properly modified the furnaces gradually returned to normal
action. A t another plant the screening apparatus at the coke ovens
got out of order. As a result it was necessary to take coke for the
furnaces direct from the cooling racks without removing the “ breeze.”
A few hours7 use of this unscreened coke produced serious hanging
and slipping in the furnaces.
It is evident that the substitution of the “ by-product7 ovens for the
7
“ beehive7 process should contribute to safety as well as production.
7
The limestone, used as a flux, may also be treated so as to lessen the
likelihood of troublesome slipping. If the limestone is crushed too
finely, it will tend, by the filling in uf the ore and the “ breeze7 be­
7
tween the particles, to obstruct the blast. If, on the other hand, par­
ticles of too large a size are left they tend to descend into the lower
levels of the furnace without becoming completely converted into
lime. The result is that their conversion consumes heat at a point
where it is needed for other purposes. Very often limestone dust is




P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S O F A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

59

even more troublesome. It may, under some circumstances, produce
what is called “ a lime scaffold,7 which is very difficult to dislodge.
7
The best practice, therefore, requires careful crushing of a selected
limestone and that the product be screened so that the size of the par­
ticles is uniform.
The precautions specified above having been taken with regard to
the physical condition of the coke and the limestone, the next step in
safe practice concerns the conveying and placing of material in the
furnace. As noted already, any material consisting of particles of
different sizes tends, under manipulation, to undergo a sorting process.
I d the older types of furnace where from stock pile to furnace, the ma­
terial was handled manually by loading into barrows with shovel or
fork, it was possible through instruction to the men doing the work to
prevent this troublesome sorting. Hand-filled furnaces still continue
m use and some new ones are still being erected because it is thus pos­
sible to avoid this troublesome sorting of the material
To produce by mechanical means a degree of uniformity in the
“ burden ” equal to that secured in the old type hand-filled furnace
has severely taxed the ingenuity of the blast-furnace constructors.
In the transit from stock pile to furnace there are five or six points
at which this sorting o f material is liable to occur: When material
drops (I) from the bin into the car; (2) from the car to the skip;
(3) from the skip to the hopper; (4) from the hopper to the little bell;
(5) from the little bell to the large bell; (6) from the large bell to
the stack. It should be explained that the top of the furnace is
closed by W o bell-shaped valves placed one above the other. This
double valve renders it possible to keep the top of the furnace always
closed and so to avoid the escaping of the gases.
The commonest method of combating the sorting tendency is by
devices at the furnace top. For example, a considerable number of
furnaces have been constructed with rotary tops. After a skip load is
dumped such a top automatically revolves a certain distance. The
loads are thus discharged from different positions into the stack, tend­
ing to provide a more uniform “ burden.” Other constructors have
sought by varying the position of the skip when delivering its load
and by varying the form of the hopper to secure a satisfactory
mixture.
These illustrations serve to indicate the lines along which inventive
genius has been at work in solving the problem of handling huge quan­
tities of material and at the same time of securing reasonable uni­
formity in product.
It is evident that both structural revision and changed methods are
involved in the results which have been attained.
GAS FLAMES.

Carbon monoxide, which is one of the gaseous products of the
furnace process, is highly inflammable and when mixed with cer­
tain proportions of air becomes explosive.
When Table 20 is examined, it becomes evident that the severity
rate for injuries due to the bursting forth of flames from different
parts of the furnace was high in the early years (2.37 days per 1,000
hours7 exposure in 1905 and 2.00 days in 1906). For several years




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thereafter the rates were low, but in 1911 there was a rate of 1.63
days.
These high rates in the early years are known to be related to the use
of hand-filled furnaces. In them the material is carried up in an
elevator to the level of the top of the furnace and the barrows are then
wheeled by men, known as “ top fillers,” to the top of the stack and by
them dumped into the hopper. The very large degree of replacement
of this hand-filled process by mechanical devices is the main factor in
the lessened severity rate from gas flames.
There have also been important improvements in the structure of
the valves used in controlling the flow of the gas.
The development of gas washers has rendered the employment of
the stove men and stove cleaners much less hazardous. In Plate 7
may be seen the large pipes called u downcomers7 (“ A ” ) in which the
7
gas from the top of the furnace is drawn off. This gas is heavily
charged with flue dust, of which the coarser particles are removed in
the “ dust catcher” (see Plate 7, “ B ” ). These dust catchers are noth­
ing more than very much enlarged portions of the “ downcomer” pipe.
At the lower end they are funnel shape, and a valve at the bottom of
the funnel permits the accumulated dust to be drawn off into cars.
The finer particles of dust are carried on in the stream of gas, some of
them settling in the gas mams and others being carried into the
stoves. When this dust-laden gas is fed to the stoves, openings be­
tween the bricks with which the stove is filled become choked up and
as a result the burning gas may be forced out at unexpected places,
causing serious injury.
In modern practice the gas, instead of being sent directly to the
stoves, is passed through a gas washer, in which, by means of water
sprays and by causing the gas to bubble through layers of water, the
dust is removed and clean gas sent on to the stove. By thus freeing the
gas from obstructing material the operation o f’the stoves is made verymuch more efficient and the safety of the mill is materially conserved.
As noted above the gas when mixed with air in certain proportions
becomes highly explosive. It did not happen that the group of fur­
naces upon whose experience the table is based had any serious ex­
plosions except in connection with furnace slips. Since these gas ex­
plosions constitute a serious hazard it is appropriate to illustrate
them at this point.
In one plant a very peculiar explosion of this sort occurred. For
some purpose the pressure of the blast was reduced, the engines slow­
ing down but not stopping. It is difficult to understand how, under
such circumstances, any gas could find its way into the air cylinders.
However, it did penetrate, an explosive mixture was formed, it ig­
nited, and the engine was badly wrecked, causing the death of two
persons and injury to several others.
For a clear understanding of the engineering revision by which the
danger of such an accident was lessened, if not entirely removed, it
is necessary to give some further description of the engines and stoves.
Blowing engines are of two types, steam engines and gas engines.
They consist essentially of a huge air compressor whose plunger is
driven by steam or gas. The air compressed by the action of the
engines is delivered into a main from which there are two branches,
one going directly to the furnace (the cold blast) and the other to
the stoves (the hot blast). Under ordinary conditions the branch




P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S OF A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

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direct to the furnace is closed by a valve and the current of air goes
entirely by way of the stove, from which it is conducted to the
“ bustle ” pipe surrounding the furnace.
eA t the time of the explosion noted above the valve in the cold-blast
pipe was closed by hand and in all probability the closure was imper­
fect. When the engine suddenly slowed down, the pressure in the
main became somewhat less than that in the furnace and gas was
drawn back into the air cylinders. To overcome the possibility of
such an occurrence, valves have been designed for both the hot and
cold blasts. They are so adjusted that they close immediately upon
the lowering of pressure and would seem to constitute an effective
barrier against the recurrence of such an explosion as that described.
A furnace was in the process of being dismantled for the purpose
of relining. In the lower part of the furnace there still remained a
small amount of burning material. The imperfect combustion inci­
dent to this condition gave rise to a sufficient amount of carbon mon­
oxide so that when it mingled with the air above it formed an explo­
sive mixture. Six men were carrying some part which had been
removed from the furnace. In this process they had reached a posi­
tion where the six were in direct line with the opening where the
tuyere had been. Just at this stage an explosion occurred, driving a
stream of flame directly along the line of men. Several were instantly
killed, others so seriously burned that they died later, and only one of
the gang finally recovered. Such a combination of circumstances as
that related could hardly be expected to occur, but that it did occur
gives very forcible emphasis to the danger attending the formation of
such explosive mixtures. It is evident that under any circumstances
a smoldering fire in a confined space may produce such a result. It
has occurred rather frequently in the process of “ blowing in ” a fur­
nace that the gases generated mingled with the air in the upper part
of the stack and gave rise to explosions. It has become quite the
standard practice to fill the space with some inert gas. The most
readily available is live steam.
When from any cause the movement of gases through the mains is
suspended, there will be a tendency to cooling and contraction.
This might proceed so far as to give rise to a negative pressure. Since
the mains are scarcely, if ever, absolutely gas tight, there would be a
tendency at such times for air to filter into the mains, and it might
do so in sufficient quantity to give an explosive mixture. One case
has been observed in which an explosion due to this cause twisted a
dust catcher into an unrecognizable mass.
Since nearly all furnace installations have at least two stacks, it is
possible to provide junctions between the mains in such a way that
there will be a constant gas supply and a regular pressure in the
parts where cooling and the intake of air might otherwise occur.
With this precaution and with arrangements for the use of live
steam at times, it should be possible practically to eliminate explo­
sions of this character.
FALLING OBJECTS.

When we compare years of similar industrial character, as shown
by Table 20, it will be found that in 1906 the frequency rate for falling
objects was 21.40 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure and that 1913
shows 6.23 cases. This is a decline of 71 per cent. Between the




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same years the severity rates changed from 3.73 days to 0.03 day per
1,000 hours’ exposure, a decline of 99 per cent.
The high rates shown by the earlier years were due to hazards in
the matter of falling objects which the blast furnaces share with other
departments. The characteristic features of the blast furnace, inci­
dent to the storage of iron ore, coke, and limestone were responsible
for a very small portion of the accident rates quoted above, the
storage of stock having been deprived of its most dangerous element
through the substitution of mechanical for hand labor. For example,
when ore was transferred from the stock pile to the furnace in handbarrows it would happen very often that removal of the ore from the
bottom of the pile would cause the pile to cave in upon the men. At
the present time in all the important plants this transferring is accom­
plished entirely by mechanical means. The men who control the
apparatus are but little exposed.
FALLS OF WORKER.

Falls of the sort distinctive of blast-furnace operations, such as
those into ore bins, are a very considerable number. Next to them
come falls from the transfer and larry cars. Most falls, however, are
of a character which might occur equally well in other departments,
blast-furnace workers being especially liable to falls from structures.
An inspection of Plate 7 will show that a furnace has many points
where the worker is obliged to go and from which a fall would be
serious. In the illustration the modern installation of stairways,
railed walks, and permanent spars for attaching hoisting apparatus
are very evident. The provision of such means of safe access and
movement from point to point has contributed greatly to the reduc­
tion of accidents, since falls from the elevated parts of the furnace
would necessarily mean either death or serious injury. It is there­
fore not unexpected to find that the severity rate for injuries of this
kind has declined even more rapidly than the frequency rate.
HANDLING OBJECTS AND TOOLS.

Before Table 20 was made it was anticipated that the handling of
pig iron might prove to be a somewhat serious source of injury. It
became evident, however, that the injuries resulting in connection
with this work were commonly of minor severity. It is true that in
many plants the handling of pig iron has become almost entirely a
mechanical process. The frequency rates in connection with the
handling of material are among the highest and show a very definite
decline over the period under consideration. In severity, however,
the rates are among the lowest. That is, the handling of objects
naturally produces a very considerable number of injuries, only a
few of which are of a very serious character.
POWER VEHICLES.

There is in blast furnaces a varied sort of hazard from the necessary
use of various forms of power vehicles. Very large quantities of
raw ^material, ore, coke, and limestone must be brought into and
moved about the plant. This calls for railway operations on a large
scale. From the storage places the material must be moved to the




P H Y S IC A L C A U SE S OF A C C ID E N T — D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

63

furnaces, necessitating transfer cars and a number of small cars,
called larry cars, which convey the stock to the furnace hoists.
The earlier years show, as might be expected, particularly high
severity rates, such as, for example, 3.57 days per 1,000,000 hours7
exposure in the year 1906. In the plants on whose experience this
table is based there was an almost complete control of the power
vehicle hazard before the end of the period. Those accidents occur­
ring in the last three years shown were of such minor character that
the severity rates are too small to be considered. This control of the
vehicle hazard has involved an almost complete reorganization of the
transportation facilities. Whereas formerly many tracks were at
grade they are now carried upon trestles, clearances have been pro-,
vided, and the entire system simplified and improved to a degree
which will not be appreciated except by one familiar with both
conditions.
The decline in frequency was from 1.60 in 1906 to 0.40 in 1913— 75
per cent. Severity declined from 3.57 days to 0.004 day, a reduction
of 99 per cent.
ASPHYXIATING GAS.5
6

This danger, while not exclusively one found about blast furnaces,
is much more common and serious there than in any other industrial
process. It is rather curious that the comparatively few cases of
asphyxia from the gases given off by motor cars have attracted more
attention than the frequently recurring deaths which were formerly
characteristic of blast-furnace operations.
The frequency rates as shown by Table 20 are low as compared with
other accident causes and the severity rates are high and do not
decline in the marked degree exhibited by some of the others. Thus,
the rate for the year 1914 (3.87 days per 1,000 hours7 exposure) was
as high as that for 1906 (3.83 days). Besides this serious direct action
of asphyxiating gas, it contributes constantly to accidents commonly
charged to other causes. For example, the severity of falls noted
above is in part due to the fact that under the influence of the gas
the men lose control of themselves and falls result.
The most important element in controlling the hazard of asphyxiat­
ing gas has been certain modifications in structure. Formerly the
gas was carried in brick conduits underground. It was difficult, if
not impossible, to render these conduits gas tight and often when
damaged the fact would not be known unless the escaping of gas
became very pronounced.
It is very commonly the Case around furnaces that the ground has
been built up by the use of porous waste material from the furnace
itself.
When there was constant leakage into this porous ground of gas
from the mains, the entire area became saturated so that gas was
constantly being given off into the air in the vicinity. This continu­
ous poisoning of the air could not fail to have its effect on the health
of those working under such conditions; from time to time an
accumulation of the gas would occur in some confined space and
on entering it someone would be overcome and perhaps die as a result.
In the present practice the mains, instead of being buried in the
5 T e c h n ic a l P a p e r 106, U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f M in e s , g iv e s d e t a i le d in s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d in g t h e r e d u c ­
6
t io n o f th e h a z a rd o f a s p h y x ia t in g g a s.




64

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

ground, are carried at a considerable elevation overhead. They
consist of well-riveted boiler plates, which may be made very nearly
gas tight. These are lined with refractory brick to prevent the loss
of heat. It is evident that such mains, located above the heads of
the majority of the workers, would not, even if they gave off gas,
pollute the air in the same way that the underground conduits did.
The lessened use of the hand-filled furnace has significance in con­
nection with the reduction of cases of asphyxia. This may be illus­
trated by the following example: The bell of a hand-filled furnace
had become overheated and warped, allowing the gas to escape. The
direction of the wind was such as to drive the gas toward the hoist.
As a result the men there employed were constantly being overcome.
The foreman had nearly doubled his crew of men. Half of the men
were placed in a position to avoid the gas and directed that whenever
one of their comrades was overcome they should pull him into the
fresh air and one take his place. Those who were so seriously affected
as not promptly to regain consciousness were sent down on the hoist
and others were brought up. Finally one of the men was overcome
just as he was emptying his barrow load of ore onto the bell. He fell in
the hopper and against the bell and was severely burned. The com­
bined effect of the gas and the burn caused his death. In endeavor­
ing to rescue him the foreman and five or six other men were overcome.
At this stage the effort to keep the furnace operating was abandoned.
Some illustrations of the insidiousness of this poisoning may be
offered. Horizontal mains will gradually become filled with dust.
In a particular plant it was the custom to shut off the main from the
furnace and to leave a series of manholes along the top open. In this
way after a few hours the main would become, supposedly, so free
from gas that a gang of shovelers might be sent in to remove the dust.
The foreman of such a gang of shovelers went down into the main
at one manhole and walked along to another without experiencing
any discomfort. Believing that the gas was sufficiently removed
from the main he sent in the shovelers and they began work.
Apparently the gas was caught in the pores of the dust, and when that
was disturbed by the shovels several men were overcome. In efforts
to rescue the half dozen shovelers some 30 men went into the pipe.
A majority of them, including the assistant superintendent, were
affected in various degrees, many of them becoming completely
unconscious. Perhaps due to the realization on the part of the super­
intendent of the hazard involved, as indicated by his own experience,
it was arranged that the removal of flue dust from that particular
main should thereafter be accomplished by a stream of water, making
it unnecessary for men to enter the pipe for the purpose of cleaning it.
The extreme care which is necessary wherever carbon monoxide gas
is liable to accumulate is illustrated by the following case: There was
in a blast-furnace yard a small motor house. There was one door
and a single window, and no other opening except a space where the
shaft of the motor went through the wall. As a precaution, the super­
intendent had detailed two watchmen to that part of the plant.
Two were detailed because of the fact that they were obliged to in­
spect some places where gas might have accumulated, and one of
them was instructed to remain outside so as to be able to assist the
other if in the course of their inspection he became affected. These
two men sought shelter on a stormy night in the small motor house.
They were found in the morning dead from gas. No one had sus-




PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

65

pected that this building was at all dangerous, but apparently at
this time the direction of the wind was favorable to forcing the gas in
around the motor shaft and a sufficient amount entered in that way to
produce the fatal results.
It is now quite frequently the custom to provide oxygen breathing
apparatus for a worker who must go into a locality where accumula­
tion of gas is liable to occur. This apparatus is now made in small
forms and should help materially in reducing the death rate about
the furnaces. Gas masks have, since the war, been developed to a
point where they form a reasonable protection against carbon mon­
oxide.
UNCLASSIFIED CAUSES.

This group embraces the causes which did not seem to be suffi­
ciently characteristic of the particular department to demand
individual attention. The frequency rates are rather high, but the
severity rates are so low that the importance of this group of causes is
not considerable.
COMPARISON OF THE YEARS 1906 AND 1913.

Throughout the foregoing discussion the two years 1906 and 1913
have been selected for purposes of comparison because of their
similarity in industrial conditions. It is now clearly established
that the rise and fall of industrial activity are reflected in the corre­
sponding rise and fall of industrial accident rates. In the absence
of other factors this fluctuation will be in very exact relation to the
fluctuation in the proportion of inexperienced men in the working
force. The contrast between the two years is due to the presence
of another factor, namely, organized enort at accident prevention.
For convenience the figures regarding the two years are here brought
together in a single table. Both frequency and severity are shown
and the percentage of reduction from 1906 to 1913 is introduced.
T able 2 1 __COMPARISON OF ACCIDENT RATES IN BLAST FURNACES FOR YEARS

OF SIMILAR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY, 1906 AND 1913, BY ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Working machines.....................................
Cranes and hoists........................................
Hot substances...........................................
Falling objects............................................
Falls of worker...........................................
Handling objects and tools........................
Power vehicles...........................................
Asphyxiating gas........................................

Accident frequen­
cy rates (per Per cent
1,000,000 hours’
of re­
exposure).
duction
1906 to
1913.
1906
1913
2.1
5.3
35.9
21.4
7.9
8.7
1.6
7.4

Total__ '...............................................

90.3

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ... ...................................

1 ,2 6 2

0.8
2.0
8.6
6.2
2.6
5.6
.4
.4

62
62
76
71
67
35
75
95

26. 6

72

1 ,6 5 8

Accident severity
rates (per 1,000 Percent
hours’ expo­
of re­
sure).
duction
1906 to
1913.
1913
1906
1.8
3.6
15.1
3.7
1.9
2.0
3.6
3.8
35.6
1 ,2 6 2

0)
1.4
.4
.03
1.4
.2
(D
1.3

99
61
98
99
25
89
99
65

4.8

87

1 ,6 5 8

1 Less than 0.005.
OCCUPATIONS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Thus far blast furnaces have been treated as a unit. It is ob­
vious, however, that the degree of hazard is not the same for different
occupations. For the purposes of the safety man it is desirable to
be informed with regard to any occupational differences which




66

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

may exist. The following table is introduced to show such differ­
ences and to afford some measure of their importance. It is exceed­
ingly difficult satisfactorily to separate the working force into
occupational groups. It must therefore be understood that the
figures in this table and others of a similar character are simply as
close an approximation to a precise classification as it is possible
to make.
It was not possible to compute severity rates for the different
cause groups by occupation.
T able 2 2 , . — ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR

BLAST FURNACES, 1905 TO 1919, BY OCCUPATIONS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident Cause.

W orking machines.....................................
Cranes and hoists........................................
Hot and corrosive substances.....................
Falling objects............................................
Falls of worker............................................
Handling objects and tools........................
Power vehicles...........................................
Asphyxiating gas........................................
Unclassified................................................
Not reported..............................................

Casthouse
mend
1.2
3.7
67.1
14.5
8.6
16.9
.2
2.0
12.5

Com­
mon
labor.
0.8
3.2
21.0
19.9
6.5
12.6
2.0
2.4
12.4
2.7

Mechan­
ics.2
1.0
3.6
6.7
8.6
4.7
6.1
.2
2.1
8.9
.7

Stock­
ers.3

2.3
6.4
14.3
3.4
4.1
1.5
1.9
17.7
.8

Un­
classi­
fied.4
2.1
.6
14.2
6.3
5.7
4.1
.7
2.9
9.5
.3

All
occu­
pations.
1.1
2.7
19.3
13.1
5.8
8.9
1.0
2.4
11.2
1.3

Total....................................................

126.7

83.5

42.7

5 2 .3

46.4

66.9

N u m b e r o f w o rk er s ................................... ..

1 ,3 5 7

4 ,9 3 0

3 ,6 7 0

S86

3 ,0 0 6

13,849

1Includes bar and clay men, cinder snappers, keepers and helpers, ladle men.
3 Includes blacksmiths, boiler makers, bricklayers, carpenters, handy men, machinists, millwrights,
painters, repair men, riggers, pipe fitters.
3Includes bottom fillers,eagers, dust men, larry men, skip hoist
stoekers, top fillers, weighers.
4Includes blowers, crane hookers, cranemen, engineers, foremen, lever men, loaders, oilers, pig-machine
men, scrap men, stove cleaners, stove tenders, switchmen, washers, firemen, and others.

When the total rates for each occupation are considered it becomes
evident that cast-house employees had very markedly the highest
frequency (126.7 cases per 1,000,000 hours* exposure). Elsewhere
it is shown (p. 38) that this group also had high severity. It is
presumably true that both the high frequency and the high severity
are due to the accidents involving hot substances. The frequency
among cast-house men of accidents from that cause is 67.1 cases,
nearly four times as high as the frequency from handling tools and
objects (16.9 cases).
Common labor shows high rates whenever it is possible to isolate
it from other occupations. This is true in the blast furnace as in
other departments. The rate of 83.5 cases, while not so high as that
to be found in some other departments, is of serious importance.
As with cast-house men, their most serious hazard is connected with
hot substances, their rate in that connection being 21.0 cases. .The
rate for falling objects (19.9 cases) is higher than that of any other
occupation.
Blast-furnace mechanics did not show as high a rate (42.7 cases)
as that found in the general mechanical department (62.5 cases),
but their severity rate is considerably higher.
The importance of asphyxiating gas as a cause of injury in blast
furnaces is emphasized by the fact that all the occupations suffered
almost equally from this cause. The highest rate (2.9 cases) is found
among unclassified workers. This will be understood when it is
noted that the stove cleaners, stove tenders, and gas washers are
included in the unclassified group.




PHYSICAL, CAUSES OP ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

67

STEEL WORKS AND FOUNDRIES.
ACCIDENT CAUSES IN OPEN H EARTH S.

The open-hearth department is at present the most important of
the steel-making departments. The first great impetus to steel con­
struction was afforded by the invention and introduction of the Besse­
mer process. In order to produce satisfactory steel by the Bessemer
process ore of a certain quality is necessary. The quantity of such
ore becoming steadily less caused serious deterioration in the quality
of the steel. This was particularly noticeable in the case of rails,
where the increasing size and weight of the trains demanded the ut­
most in durability and strength. As a result of this the open hearth
has steadily gained, since its introduction, upon the earlier method.
A t the present time there is a tendency to combine the two methods,
partial purification being made in the Bessemer converter, and the
metal being then transferred to an open hearth for final purification.
Table 23 illustrates the course of events in the open-hearth depart­
ment from 1907 to 1914. The cases listed are those which are
especially characteristic of the open hearth. Those cases which are
common to this department and others are grouped under the heading
of “ unclassified. ”
T able 2 3 .— ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR OPEN HEARTHS, 1907
TO 1914, BY YEARS AND BY ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines............................................
Cranes and hoists............................................
Hot substances:
Breakouts__ .
................................
Sparks and splashes..................................
Spills.
Explosions other than ingot.. . .
Ingot explosions.......................................
Gas flames................................................
Unclassified..............................................

1.6
12.7

0.5
8.5

1.0
7.2

1.1
7.5

0.7
6.3

0.5
4.6

0.3
4.1

0.4
4.3

3.8
5. 8
.4
2. 8
1.8
1.6
4.8

.8
5.5

2.2
4.9

.1
4.9

1.4
5.3

1.3
3.0

4.7

.3

1.3
2.2
2.2

1. 4
1. 7
1. 6
4. 4

1.1
2.8
.1
1.3
.6
1.5
4.8

2. 1
1.1
5.1

.4
.9
1.1
3.6

1. 5
1.0
.7
3.5

.7
.9
2.0

Total, hot substances..........................

21.0

12. 3

16.2

12. 2

13.3

12.7

11.0

8.3

Handling objects and tools.............................
Power vehicles................................................
Unclassified.....................................................

15. 1
5. 6
48.5

7. 8
2. 5
36.0

11. 8
3. 6
37.0

11. 1
2. 8
29.2

8.2
2. 7
19.8

8. 4
4. 2
21.9

7.7
4.9
22.5

7.5
.8
16.9

Total...................................................... 104.5

67.6

76.8

63.9

51.0

52.3

50.5

38.2

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines.
C anes and hoists............................................
Hot substances:
Breakouts.................................................
Sparks and splashes..................................
Spills .
.
. $ ................
Explosions other than ingot....................
Ingot explosions.......................................
Gas flames................................................
Unclassified..............................................

0.9
4.6

o.i

0,03
1.0

0.03
1.9

.1

.03
.1

.03
.03

.1
.1
.9
.9

.1
.03

1.0

1.2
.03
.03
.03

.1

Total, hot substances...........................

5.4

1.4

1.2

Handling objects and tools.............................
Power vehicles................................................
Unclassified.....................................................

.1
3. 0
.4

.1
.1
.6

.1
.3
1.4

.1
.1
4. 2
.03

Total...................................................... 14.4
N u m b e r o f w o rk er s ...........................................




2, 987

1.0

0.2

.1

.7
.1

.03
.1

.1

.03

.1

.1

1.4
.1
.03
.1

.3

.3

.9

1.8

2.3

.3
.1
1. 4

.1
1.0
.3

.1
1.2
1.0

.1
1.7
4.4

.2
.4
.3

2. 3

4.0

4.0

2 ,1 2 0

2 ,8 7 2

2 ,1 8 8

0.1

2. 7

3. 4

8.1

2, 725

3 ,5 2 5

8 ,6 0 3

0.1
.2
2.0
.1

3.3
2 ,4 8 3

68

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Over the period covered by the table there is a marked decrease
in the rates. Frequency declined from 104.5 cases per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure in 1907 to 50.5 cases in 1913; severity from 14.4
days per 1,000 hours’ exposure in 1907 to 8.1 days in 1913, the inter­
mediate years being uniformly lower.
This decline was distributed over the individual cause groups but
b y no means regularly. This can be best brought out by considera­
tion of the different causes.
WORKING MACHINES.

The characteristic machine of the open-hearth department is the
charging car (Plate 10), by means of which the boxes containing the
scrap are lifted from the cars and thrown into the furnace. Some
of the older types of these cars had a considerable amount of uncov­
ered gearing in which the operator could be caught. The machines
are now made with the gears completely covered and also are pro­
vided with fenders covering the wheels, so that the hazard to the
operator and those working about the machine has been materially
reduced.
CRANES AND HOISTS.

The cranes used in open hearths are essentially like other overhead
cranes but with certain modifications incident to the transportation
of molten metal. The earlier type of open-hearth building had only
room upon the large floor for the accommodation of the charging
car. For this reason when hot metal was used in the furnace it was
necessary to transport it overhead by means of a crane (Plate 11).
This long distance transporting of ladles filled with hot metal intro­
duced a very serious hazard for the men over whose heads the move­
ment had to be made. In later construction the stocking floor has
been made wider so that a ladle car can be moved lengthwise of the
building behind the track on which the charging cars run.
When these ladles of metal reach a position opposite the furnace
to be charged, the crane lifts them and carries them a comparatively
short distance across the stocking floor.
On the other side of the furnace there is an area at a lower level
called “ the p it” (Plate 12). The present arrangement is not the pit
in the original sense, but this name continues to be applied to it.
The older types of open hearths had an excavation in which the la­
dles were lowered when the metal was to be drawn off from the fur­
naces. On this pit side the ladles receive the metals from the furnace
and are carried across the pit to the far side where the molds, placed
upon small cars, stand in readiness to receive the molten metal.
Two characteristic hazards may be noted in this region. While
the ladle of metal is being moved a serious “ spill” of the metal may
be brought about by a break of the mechanism or from some other
cause. If the movement is accomplished safely the metal is drawn
from a valve in the bottom of the ladle directly into the molds.
During this process explosions may occur which will scatter the metal
for considerable distances, endangering those within range. These
hazards have been met in two ways: (1) Greater strength and im­
proved design of the crane and of the ladle and (2) better means of
escape or protection, particularly for the crane operator who is very
seriously endangered in case of a serious spill.







PLATE

11. — S T O C K I N G

SIDE

OF

OPEN

HEARTH.




PLATE

12.— P I T

SIDE

OF

OPEN

HEARTH.

PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

69

The structural changes involved in modifying the design of the
ladle are too numerous to treat in detail but may be illustrated by
one or two cases. The hooks by which the ladle was lifted were
formerly cast in one piece. If these should break, they were apt
to do so without warning, with disastrous results. It is common
practice at the present time to build up laminated hooks by bolting
together a number of steel plates. These are stronger than the older
type of hook and also less liable to a complete break without warning.
It has already been noted that for convenience in emptying ladles
the points of suspension are not very much above the center of
gravity. As a result, the overfilling of the ladle might raise the
center of gravity nearly to or slightly above the point of suspension.
In one open hearth the ladles which were in use were not quite large
enough to take the entire heat from the furnace. Accordingly the
superintendent had the upper edge of the ladle extended a few inches
so as to accommodate the extra quantity. With the ordinary
heat this operated without apparent danger. On one occasion,
however, the amount of metal in the heat was in excess and filled the
ladle almost to the rim. The ladle was raised and transported a
few yards and then turned completely over. Several men were
badly burned, one or more fatally. Two changes were made; the
ladles were reconstructed so as to throw the center of gravity to a
lower point and a latch was devised which would automatically fall
into a groove and prevent the tipping of the ladle until it had been
released.
Since the craneman performing his duties is in a position necessa­
rily exposing him to grave danger in case of a spill, much ingenuity
and money have been applied to affording him some means of escape.
These are usually of two types: The closed chamber within the
crane cage, lined with heat-resisting material, into which the crane­
man can readily pass in case of danger, and a railed gallery on the
outside of the building, to which there is easy access through openings
in the wall. Such a gallery had been constructed on one open hearth
and for several years nothing occurred making its use necessary.
The company had even considered removing it as a useless adjunct.
Finally, one of the ladle hooks gave way and the contents of the ladle
began to pour out along the floor. The craneman, without shutting
off the power, escaped to the gallery; then, realizing that his crane
was still in motion and that the spilling of the metal all the length
of the building might have serious consequences, he rushed down
the gallery, managed to climb again into his crane cage, shut off the
power, and again escape. Fortunately, in this case there were no
casualties but the opportunity for them was seriously present.
HOT SUBSTANCES.

Breakouts are of much less importance in the open hearth than in
blast furnaces, but the accidents which from time to time occur from
this cause may be exceedingly serious. It is often necessary to-have
a depression in front of the furnace to accommodate the very large
ladles.
A large amount of material had accumulated in one such pit and
two men were sent down into it to make a cleanup. The tapping
hole of the furnace gave way just at this time and the men were cov-




7Q

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

ered with the white hot metal. As a result of this accident several
plants have devised mechanical means by which the rubbish can be
removed without the necessity of the men descending into the pit.
Minor injuries occur from time to time when the tapping hole is
being opened, and it has not appeared feasible to adopt the same
sort of screens which have been effectively used in the blast furnace.
It is possible, however, for the men to safeguard their eyes by the use
of appropriate goggles.
Table 23 shows that sparks and splashes cause a very considerable
number of injuries in the open hearth. These are, however, of rather
slight importance. The frequency rates for this cause declined
slightly during the years covered by the table, from 5.8 cases per
1,000,000 hours’ exposure in 1907 to 3.0 cases in 1913. The severity
rates do not show a similar decline.
It has already been noted in connection with the operation of
cranes that spills are an accompaniment of the transporting of
molten metal. There is one other place where serious accidents of
this kind may occur. This is at the mixer (Plate 13). This appa­
ratus is of a bowl shape and capable of holding from 250 to 1,000
tons of molten metal. It is called a mixer because in this container
the product of a number of different furnaces may be mixed, with the
result that a more uniform quality of iron is delivered to the steel
furnaces. The mixer is so constructed that it can be tilted to pour
out the metal into the ladles which carry it to the furnaces. It is
obvious that if the controlling mechanism fails a very serious spill
on a large scale may take place.
Three methods have been applied to obviate this hazard: (1)
Counterweights on the mixer, by which if control is lost the mixer is
automatically restored to a horizontal position. A serious disadvan­
tage of this method is that it adds very greatly to the dead weight of
the mixer. (2) An electrically operated lock which fastens the mixer
wherever it may be when the tilting apparatus acts improperly. (3)
A safety valve in the hydraulic tilting apparatus.
It happened in one plant that the handle by which the operating
valves were controlled broke. This, of course, left the operator en­
tirely helpless and the mixer continued to tip until its entire contents
were thrown upon the floor. As a result o f this occurrence a safety
valve was devised which has points of excellence making it worth a
description.
The usual method of tilting the mixer is by means of two opposing
cylinders which are operated by water pressure. These are desig­
nated as the pouring cylinder and the righting cylinder. The oper­
ator, by moving a lever, directs the water into one cylinder or the
other according to the necessities of the case. The breaking of the
handle in the case noted above necessarily rendered control by the
operator impossible. The safety valve meets the difficulty in the
following manner: A branch from the pipe supplying the pouring
cylinder leads off to the sewer. In this branch is placed a valve
counterweighted so that it will stand open. As long as it stands open
no pressure can be directed into the pouring cjdinder. Alongside
the operator there is a small footplate on top of a rod projecting
through the floor. When the operator wishes to pour he depresses
this footplate by stepping upon it, the rod actuating the valve before
mentioned. In case of emergency all that is necessary to stop the







PLATE

13 . — P O U R I N G

MOLTEN

IRON

INTO

MIXER,

PH YSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

71

tilting of the mixer is for the operator to remove his foot from the
footplate. This allows the pressure to force the water into the sewer
and the pouring cylinder ceases to act.
This device is an excellent one in several particulars: (1) Since it
must be used in the regular operation of pouring it will necessarily be
kept* in good order; (2) while the operator controls its action, it is
essentially automatic; (3) very slight action on the part of the opera­
tor brings it into play.
Among other forms of explosion, those occurring during the pouring
of ingots have received considerable attention. Table 23 seems to
indicate that, although of considerable frequency, such explosions
are not very important from the standpoint of severity. The most
frequent circumstance under which ingot explosions occur is when the
cover is removed from the top of the mold. There are three ways to
deal with this hazard: (1) The use of open-top molds; this causes
a larger amount of waste from the ingot but not enough to offset the
reduction in accidents; (2) handling of the molds in such a way as to
prevent the removal of the cover until sufficient cooling has occurred
to render explosion unlikely; (3) the installation of screens, from
behind which the uncapper can work. Explosions other than ingot
explosions are shown by the table to have constituted an extremely
important cause of injury in the open-hearth department during the
early years. In 1907 the frequency rate was 2.8 cases per 1,000,000
hours7 exposure; in 1913 it was 1.5 cases. The drop in severity is
from 4.2 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure to 1.4 days. This is a de­
crease of 46 per cent in frequency and 66 per cent in severity. The
notable lessening of severity is attributable almost entirely to im­
provement in structural method. In the nature of the case, the
man employed has no control over the occurrence of an explosion.
Improvement in method is illustrated by the following case: In
the production of special ingots of unusual size from which armor
plate and other large forgings may be produced it is customary to
fill the molds by what is called “ bottom pouring.” A tube leads
down beside the mold to the bottom of a pit in which the mold
stands. Metal pouring into this tube gradually rises in the mold
from the bottom. Placed on top of the large mold is a smaller one
held in place by guy rods which may be tightened by means of turn
buckles. The crack between the two molds is carefully closed by a
luting of clay. When the large mold is nearly full a small ladle of
molten metal is brought by the crane and poured into the small mold
from above, 15 or 20 minutes being taken to complete this process.
On one occasion the small ladle had what is known as a “ running
stopper77; that is, a stopper that did not perfectly close the opening
and allowed constant escaping of metal from the bottom of the ladle.
Under these circumstances perfect control of the pouring process
was impossible and the filling was hurried so that it was completed in
about 5 minutes instead of the usual 20. When the small mold was
nearly full a violent explosion occurred. The molten metal was forced
out at the junction between the two molds in a sheet which entirely
covered one of the men standing by. The exploding gases filled the
space with flame to such an extent that the woodwork of the crane
cage was set on fire. Several other men beside the one upon whom the
molten metal fell inhaled the blazing gases, bringing on fatal attacks
of pneumonia.




72

A C C ID E N T S

IN

T H E "I R O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

As the result of this severe accident, the engineering department
gave serious attention to possible modifications of the method of
procedure. The operation was moved to a deeper pit and such
arrangements made that in case of a similar explosion the men would
not be in range of the metal and burning gases.
Minor explosions in the slag and in the metal occur from time to
time, against which the only precaution is that of proper clothing and
the use of eye protectors. In the matter of operative procedure,
waste material must be avoided, since in masses of this kind the
conditions permitting explosions are apt to arise. Table 23 shows
that the bursting out of flames from the furnace is a somewhat
frequent cause o f injury.
The man who suffers from these injuries is the one whose duties
call him to the vicinity of the furnace, but he has practically no
control over the conditions which involve him in hazard.
Among unclassified hot substances causing accidents, hot water
and steam are the most important in the open hearth. The abate­
ment of such accidents is a matter of improved structural and better
operative methods.
HANDLING OBJECTS AND TOOLS.

High frequency and low severity are characteristic of this cause
group in the open hearth as elsewhere. In 1907 the frequency rate
was 15.1 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure; in 1913, 7.7 cases.
The severity rates are identical in the two years (0.1 day per
1,000 hours’ exposure). Accidents represented by such severity
rates are evidently not of very great significance. The marked
reduction in frequency, which is evidently due to decrease in minor
injuries, is probably to be attributed to the use of magnets on the
cranes for the handling of scrap. Had it been attempted to move
the enormously increased quantity of material characteristic of recent
operations by the old hand method such reduction in frequency
would have been quite out of the question.
POWER VEHICLES.

In 1907 the frequency rate for power vehicles was 5.6 cases and
in 1913, 4.9 cases. This is a reduction of only 12 per cent. Severity
declined from 3 days to 1.7 days, a 43 per cent decrease. It is
interesting to compare these rates with the corresponding rates for
blast furnaces. Open hearths had much greater frequency in
both years. In severity the rates were about the same in 1907, but
very much higher for open hearths in 1913.
It is evident that the power vehicle hazard is distinctly greater in
open hearths than in blast furnaces. For this there should be some
discoverable reason. It would seem to lie in the fact that in the open
hearth the transportation of materials goes into and through areas
where other operations are being conducted. Such a condition is
always conducive to accidents. In most of the departments the cars
go to and from the mill without entering upon space so occupied. A
few illustrations will emphasize the peculiar conditions of the open
hearth. On the stocking floor hot-metal cars move from time to time
along the track behind the charging cars. Into the storage space
outside the hot-metal track railway cars bring the raw material. On
the pit side of the furnaces cars are being constantly pushed in and out




P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S OF A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

73

for the removal of slag and other refuse, and ingot trains are moving
very frequently. In view of these intrusions of the transportation
system into areas used also for other purposes it becomes of the
highest importance that the equipment be in every way possible
rendered safe and that the men to supervise it be most carefully
selected.
UNCLASSIFIED CAUSES.

Very high frequency and relatively high severity are disclosed in this
miscellaneous group. “ Falls of worker” show considerable severity,
but it can not be compared with that for blast furnaces. A considera­
ble portion of the severity rate for this cause group in early years was
due to the fact that adequate railed walkways for the conducting of
overhead operations were not provided.
Heat exhaustion appears rather frequently in open hearths, as
it does in plate and sheet mills. Two circumstances, however,
modified this condition in the open hearths: (1) The introduction of
water-cooled doors and door jambs on furnaces. Water circulates
constantly through the hollow doors and jambs and very materially
reduces the temperature in the vicinity. (2) The provision of an
adequate supply of cool water for drinking. Formerly in these mills
the operatives themselves secured ice and cooled the water. This
drinking of ice water was injurious not only because of the introduc­
tion of an unduly chilling fluid into the stomach but chiefly because
the use of very cold water leads to the taking of an insufficient
amount. The man thinks that he has drunk sufficiently when all
that has happened is that his stomach has been chilled into insen­
sibility.
OCCUPATIONS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Table 24 shows the cases in which it was possible to isolate occupa­
tional groups and determine the rates for various causes in the
groups.
T able 2 4 .—ACCIDENT FR E Q U EN C Y R ATES (PER 1,000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR
OPEN H E A R T H S, 1905 TO 1914, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

Pouring
Common Pit side platform Stocking Unclassi­
fied
floor
labor.
workers. workers. workers. workers.

W orking machines..........................................
Cranes and hoists............................................
Hot substances.................................................
Falling objects..................................................
Falls of workers................................................
Handling tools and objects...........................
Unclassified.......................................................

1.4
2.3
30.1
34.7
.5
4.9
82.0

0.2
.8
12.5
6.7
.2
.1
11.0

Total........................................................

155.9

31.5

Total.

9.4

0.5
.2
12.1
10.0
.4
.7
14.5

1.2
.6
13.8
11.2
.9
8.3
23.0

0.7
.8
16.2
14.1
.4
3.1
28.8

25.1

38.4

59.0

64.1

14.0
1.7

Common labor shows here, as almost everywhere else, the highest
frequency. This might not be a matter of serious concern, since it is
undoubtedly the case that the sort of work which a common laborer
does exposes him to the chance of very numerous minor injuries.
Where it has been found possible to isolate the common laborer
and determine the severity of his injuries, a uniformly high rate is
found to prevail. The total rate for common labor in open hearths
is 155.9 cases per 1,000,000 hours7 exposure, more than twice that of
7 1 0 8 7 ° — 2 2 ------- 6




74

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

the unclassified group, which stands next (59.0 cases). When the
different causes are observed, it will be found that in the majority
the common laborer shows the highest frequency rate. For handling
tools and objects the unclassified group has a rate of 8.3* cases, while
common labor has 4.9 cases. When it is noted that the unclassified
group includes the mechanics, who are characteristically users of
tools, the high frequency is in a measure explained. It is manifest
from the showing in this department and in others that the closest
study should be given to the conditions under which the common
laborer works. Where the foreman has been induced by reward or
other method to give attention to the selection and training of com­
mon laborers, the number of minor injuries has been greatly de­
creased. It is also true that constant and careful scrutiny of the
working conditions has made possible modifications in that particular
which have had a very favorable influence on severity.
A C C ID E N T C A U S E S IN T H E B E S S E M E R D E P A R T M E N T .
The

sta te m e n ts

a lre a d y

m ade

w ith

regard

to

open

h e a rth s

are

a p p lic a b le in a r a th e r la r g e n u m b e r o f c a se s to th e B e s s e m e r d e p a r t­
m en t.

T h is

s e c tio n

w ill

th e re fo r e

e m p h a s iz e

p a r tic u la r ly

th o se

fe a tu r e s o f h a z a r d w h ic h a re p e c u lia r t o th e B e s s e m e r p r o c e s s .

Table 25 presents the frequency and severity rates in this depart­
ment over a series of years. The amount of exposure is smaller than
it should be to insure reasonably typical results. The severity rates
are notably fluctuating and it is more than possible that this is due
to the inadequate exposure. As a rule, rates have not been calcu­
lated where the number of workers falls below 1,000. An exception
is made in the case of the Bessemer because it is still an impor­
tant and characteristic steel-making method.
T able 2 5 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR THE BESSEMER
DEPAR TM EN T, 1907 TO 1914, B Y Y E A R S AND B Y ACCIDENT CAUSES.
1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident cause.
Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines.......................... •
___
Cranes and hoists...................................
Hot substances........................................
Handling tools and objects...................
Power vehicles.......................................
Unclassified..............................................

1.4
8.3
38.3
4.6
4. 8
76.9

1.3
6.5
11.7
11.1
4.5
53.5

3.6
12.0
8.4
2.7
38.2

0.4
7.7
10.6
13.6
5.1
46.3

1.0
3.5
7.0
6.5
2.5
25.9

2.5
14.0
2.1
3.0
33.4

0.8
3.4
9.1
6.5
1.5
20.6

0.6
2.9
6.9
1.7

T otal..............................................

134.3

88.6

64.9

83.7

46.4

55.0

41.9

21.9

9.8

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

W
bbkim machines........... _...............
fr
Cranes and hoists...................................
Hot substances........................................
Handling tools and objects...................
Power vehicles.........................................
Unclassified............. ................................
Total...............................................
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..................................

i Less than 0.005.




0.03
.2
1.1
.1
.1
3.4
4.9
967

0.03
9.2
.2
.1
.2
5.3
15.0
61 1

0.03
.2
.1
.1
0.8

(i)
0.2
6.1
.2
.1
3.7

0.1
.2
1.4
.1
.3

O)
0.1
.2
.03
.1
.9

0.01
.1
.2
.1
2.7
.3

7.2

10.3

2.1

1.3

3.4

784

669

750

788

875

0.1
.5
.2
.5
4.6
5.9
576




PLATE 14.— BESSEMER STEEL CONVERTERS.

P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S O F A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

75

There are, however, other reasons for irregularity than small ex­
posure. Explosions and other unexpected events are of more likely
occurrence in this department.
Working machines as a cause of accident are negligible in this
department. The converting vessels might themselves be regarded
as machines but the accidents connected with them are nearly all
properly classified under other heads, such as hot substances, falling
objects, etc. Cranes and hoists are here as elsewhere of high im­
portance as accident causes, both in frequency and severity. In
1907 cranes show a frequency rate of 8.3 cases per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure, declining in 1913 to 3.4 cases. Severity in the same years
declined from 0.2 day per 1,000 hours’ exposure to 0.1 day.
While hot substances constantly show high frequency rates during
the period covered by Table 25, severity rates are high in only a few
years. The high frequency rates are related to the fact that the air
blown through the molten metal drives out from the converters a
shower of sparks. Some of these are of sufficient size to burn a hole
through ordinary clothing and injure the flesh beneath. The very
high severity rate of 6.1 days shown in 1910 was due to a bad spill
which caused two deaths.
A case has already been cited which indicates the considerable
danger which may result from a “ running stopper,” that is a stopper
that will not close the opening at the bottom of the ladle perfectly.
In one Bessemer an arrangement was noted which proved quite effec­
tive in minimizing danger from this cause. Air hoists were installed
above the pouring platform. Upon the completion of the pouring
from a given ladle the stopper was hoisted out. It was then inspected
and if it appeared in good condition it was allowed to remain sus­
pended until the completion of another pouring and then restored
to use. If the inspection indicated anything unsatisfactory in its
condition, it was lowered to the platform and replaced by another
stopper, kept constantly in reserve. This procedure has two ad­
vantages: (1) Inspection is made after each heat, and (2) the stopper,
having an opportunity to cool between heats, will last longer than
one in continuous service.
Formerly, just prior to tilting the converter to discharge the heat,
scrap and pig iron were thrown into the converter from a platform
placed near its mouth. The men whose duty it was to perform this
operation were exposed to very severe heat. Also, the masses of
metal which they threw were apt to glance off and fall to the floor
below instead of into the vessel. The number of injuries arising from
this source was considerable and the severity high. In the best recent
construction “ the scrappers” work behind a water-cooled screen,
the material being delivered into a chute, which practically prevents
it falling to the floor below.
A C C ID E N T C A U S E S IN F O U N D R IE S .

In Table 26 it has been possible to include only those foundries
associated with large steel plants. The exposure in the plants
covered by this table is, as was noted in the case of the Bessemer
department, very small. The rates as shown are, however, of con­
siderable interest to foundry men.




76

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

T able 2 6 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R AT ES FOR FO U N D RIES, 1907 TO
1914, B Y Y E A R S , AND B Y ACCIDENT CAUSES.
1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident cause.

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
W orking machines.................................
Cranes and hoists....................................
Hot substances........................................
Handling tools and objects...................
Power vehicles .......................................
Unclassified..............................................

2.5
11.4
14.2
17.4

0.9
8.3
12.1
18.5

18.1

Total...................................................

63.6

2.2
10.9
11.8
16.5
.3
32.0

0.8
7.6
9.1
20.6

16.2

2.0
20.0
13.2
18.3
.7
23.7

56.0

77.9

73.7

1.0
6.4

23.6

2.5
15.8
7.9
20.5
.3
27.5

8.1
14.5
.7
19.2

16.0

61.7

74.5

49.8

42.8

1.7
9.1
3.4
12.0

.6

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines.................................
Cranes and hoists....................................
Hot substances........................................
Handling tools and objects...................
Power vehicles.........................................
Unclassified..............................................

0.1
.2
.2
.2
3.1

.2

0.03
.5
.3
.1
(D
.6

Total...................................................

3.8

.7

1.5

939~

719

Number of workers...............................

C
1)
0.2
.2
.1

985

C
1)
0.3
.2
.1

0.1
3.1
.1
.6

(,).«

3.3

0.2
5.5
.4
.2
0)
.3

0)
0.1
2.7
.4
0)
.3

0)
0.1
.1
.7
.03
.1

1.0

1.2

7.2

6.6

3.5

1,189

875

1,056

990

585

i Less than 0.005.

ROLLING MILLS.
HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.

Table 27 shows accident frequency and severity in heavy rolling
mills for the period 1907 to 1914. On inspection of this table an
interesting fact appears with regard to the unclassified group. This
group includes those general cases which rolling mills share in com­
mon with other departments. It contributes more than one-half
of the total frequency rate in each of the years. But in the case of
severity this situation is reversed. The unclassified group contributes
the minor part of the total rate in most of the years and in the later
years very much smaller portions.
The tendency to decline in rates shown in the departments already
considered is repeated in these rolling mills. Each of the cause groups
shows a frequency rate noticeably lower in 1913 than in 1907. This
is also true of the severity rates, with the exception of the “ hot sub­
stances” group, for which the rate was only 0.6 day per 1,000 hours’
exposure in 1907, 1.4 days in 1913, and 0.8 day in 1914. This would
appear to indicate that hot substances were becoming a more serious
hazard in mills of this type. It would be unsafe, however, to draw
this conclusion from a single group of mills, even with an exposure
as extensive as that here shown.
Apparently the rolls themselves gave rise to the most numerous
accidents during this period and the number occurring has not changed
materially in recent years. Objects flying from machines have
declined in the frequency with which they caused injury. Accessory
machines used about the mills give rise to a greater number of acci­
dents than do the characteristic machines, but the severity is mate­
rially greater in the case of machines found only in the rolling mills.




P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S OF A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

77

T able 2 7 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR H E A V Y ROLLING
MILLS, 1907 TO 1914, B Y Y E A R S AN D ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

1908

1907

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines.................................
Charging cranes...............................
Roll tables.........................................
Rolls...................................................
Transfer tables.................................
Hot beds............................................
Shears................................................
Straighteners....................................
Objects flying...................................
Other machines...............................
Cranes and hoists....................................
Hot substances........................................
Metal in rolls....................................
Leak...................................................
Other hot substances......................
Power vehicles.........................................
Unclassified..............................................
Total..................................................

5.6
.1
.1
7.0
.1
.3
.4
.3
3.0
2.7
6.3
5.3
.3
.5
4.5

4.0

3.3
.1
.1

3.8

.1
1.0
.2
.2
.1

4.4

.6

.3

1.0

.2
.2

.1
.1
.3

.5

.6

46.4

1.3
.7
4.8
4.0
.3
.5
3.1
.7
43.5

1.1
1.7
7.2
4.8
.1
.7
4.0
2.0
43.2

65.3

57.0

61.6

1.7

.1
3.8
1.3
34.3
47.1

46.5

1.8
4.2
4.0

.8

3.1

2.4
.1

.1
.8

.3

.1
.2
.2
.6
1.7
4.4
3.4
.2
.3
2.9
1.0
33.9

.5

2.7
.1

.3
.1
.1
1.2
2.9
3.7

8
,1
.1
.1

.4
3.4
1.1
33.9

.1
.3
1.7
2.0
3.0
.1
.5
2.4
1.1
24.0

1.8
.3
11.8

44.3

33.2

19.1

.3
.7
2.1
2.5

.2
.5

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure.)
Working machines.................................
Cranes and hoists....................................
Hot substances........................................
Power vehicles........................................
Unclassified..............................................
Total..................................................
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..................................

0.7
1.7
.6
.03
2.2

0.9
.1
.1
.03
1.7

5.2

2.8

4 ,5 5 6

8 ,1 8 5

0.7
1.3
1.2
.1
1.8

1.2
.2
.5

.1
2.2

5.1

4.3

4,210

4,886

0.4
.8
.6
.03
2.1
3.9
4 ,1 9 5

0.1
.1
.6
.1
.7
1.6
5 ,2 2 6

0.1
.03
1.4
.03
.4

2.0
6 ,2 8 7

0.1
.1
.8
.1
.4
1.5
3 ,5 0 4

Injuries due to hot substances happen almost exclusively either
in the transporting of the material to the rolls or in its removal from
them. This is naturally the case since the operations during the
rolling are almost exclusively mechanical, while in the transporting
of material it is frequently necessary for the men to supplement the
machines by the use of hooks and bars.
The injuries occurring in this department are distributed with such
a degree of uniformity that there is indicated no special line of effort
which may be expected to yield conspicuous results. The continu­
ous application of engineering improvement and modification in
methods of procedure would appear to be the most promising form
of effort.
The transfer tables of heavy rolling mills have on the shaft of each
roll a large gear. As formerly constructed these gears were entirely
uncovered, and from time to time a workman would lose a foot by
stepping into them. In practically all cases guards have been
attached to the various forms of transfer tables, completely covering
these gears (Plate 15). Since attention has been drawn to their
hazard the redesigning of such equipment has included the provision
of inclosures for these gears. A very common form now used is a
trough-shaped reservoir placed below the gear and partly filled with
oil, so that the revolving gears are partially immersed in the oil. The
cast-iron cover, which is readily removed in case of needed repairs,
forms with the trough mentioned above a complete inclosure. The
arrangement by which the gears revolve while partially immersed in




78

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

oil renders attention to them, in the matter of lubrication, necessary
only at considerable intervals. It is probable that the arrangement
described very materially prolongs the life of the gears, and this,
together with the lessened hazard, much more than offsets the extra
time involved in the removal of the covers for inspection of which
some mill men have complained.
In the older mills no provision was made for getting from one side
of the transfer tables to the other, except b y climbing and walking
upon them. The open gears before mentioned and the moving mate­
rial constituted a grave hazard for the experienced man, and the
inexperienced man who attempted such a transit took his life in his
hands. In all recent construction and in a majority of the older
mills railed bridges over the transfer tables have been installed at
reasonable intervals so that the men may pass from side to side with­
out danger. Such opportunities might still be increased in some
mills with advantage.
TUBE MILLS.

The rates from 1907 to 1914 for tube mills are shown in Table 28,
and furnish a very striking illustration of the fundamental weakness of
the frequency rate as a measure of hazard. A tube mill is organized
for the carrying on of two processes: (1) The rolling of the tubes,
which involves, of course, the various hazards of hot and moving
material; (2) the finishing of the tubes, in which the apparatus used
is essentially that of the machine shop. B y means of it the tubes
are cut into appropriate lengths, the ends are threaded, and other
operations of a similar character are performed. Consequently
minor accidents, such as cuts on the hands due to roughness on the
threaded edges of the pipes, are of rather frequent occurrence.
T a b l e 3 8 . — ACCIDENT

Accident cause.

F R E Q U E N C Y A N D S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR T U B E MILLS, 1907 TO
1914, B Y Y E A R S AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

J 1912

1913

1914

19071910

19111914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines..
Cranes and hoists.. .
Hot substances.........
Power vehicles.........
Unclassified...............
Total.................

16.3
7.6
14.1
.2
58.1

46.4

14.5
5.3
7.7
.4
56.8

96.3

72.3

84.7

14.9
4.1
6.9

10.6
4.5
6.0

6.6
2.3
5. 0

55.1

1

11.8
3. 1
8.2
52.2

76.2

75.3

1

3.5
1.7
1.6

0.9
1. 1
1.7
11. 4

14.1
5.5
8.9
.1
54.6

42.2

19.4

56.1

26.2

31.7

15. 1

83.2

43.7

1.2
.1
.1

0.5
.4
.1

5.8
2.1
4.1

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
Working machines..
Cranes and hoists.. .
Hot substances.........
Power vehicles..........
Unclassified...............

2.1

Total...................

2.9

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s . ..

2 ,0 0 7

1 ,4 5 1




0.5
.1
.2

0.3
.1
.1

0.2
.03
.1

1.7
.1
.1

.8

2.3
.1
.1
.03
1.1

.9

1.3

3.6

2.8

1, 717

1 ,8 1 3

1 ,7 9 2

1.6
1.2
.03

0.1
.03
.1

.8

.5

2.9

.7

1.3

1.3

1.1

3.3

3. 1

i.o

2. 7

2.3

2 ,1 3 1

2 ,1 0 1

1 ,5 2 7

0.1
.2

7 ,0 6 3

7 ,4 7 6

PLATE 15.—TRANSFER TABLES OF HEAVY ROLLING MILLS, SH O W IN G GUARD
COVERING GEARS.




PLATE 16.— BUTT-WELD TUBE MILL.

P H Y S IC A L * C A U S E S OE A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

7 9

On examining Table 28 it appears that the earlier years show
notably high frequency rates but rather low severity rates. From
time to time over the period covered the frequency rates decline and
toward the last of the period with extraordinary rapidity. At the same
time severity rates fluctuate with scarcely detectable decline. The
only way in which the decline can be demonstrated is by dividing
the interval into two 4-year periods. The result of this arrangement
is shown in the last two columns of the table. In accidents from
the operations of working machines there was a decline of 59 per cent
(from 14.1 to 5.8 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure) from the
earlier to the later period. At the same time severity rates declined
58 per cent (from 1.2 days to 0.5 day per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
In the case of working machines the trend of frequency and severity
rates was very similar. Contrasted with this was the experience
with regard to cranes and hoists. Frequency rates declined 62 per
cent (from 5.5 cases to 2.1 cases) but severity rates rose from 0.1
to 0.4 day. This rise in severity rates is clearly due to some excep­
tional circumstances and might not be regarded as significant were
it not for the fact that repeatedly in other connections a rise in
severity rates and a falling in frequency rates have been found to
be the case in tube mills.
Accidents from hot substances declined in frequency 54 per cent
(from 8.9 cases to 4.1 cases), while in severity there was no apparent
change. The accident frequency rates for the unclassified group of
causes declined 42 per cent (from 54.6 to 31.7 cases), but the severity
rates remained unchanged (1.3 days).
On examining the table a decline of 47 per cent in frequency rates
appears (from 83.2 to 43.7 cases). The total severity rates show a
decline of 15 per cent (from 2.7 to 2.3 days).
This group, divided into two 4-year periods, shows very clearly
that influences were at work which brought about a definite decline
in the second period as compared with the first. It is quite clear
that judgments founded upon the frequency rate alone would give
a distinctly wrong impression regarding the nature and extent of the
improvements.
A detailed analysis of the accidents from working machines shows
that in tube mills the pipe threading and pipe cutting machines
contribute the largest number of injuries. These are, however, less
severe than those arising from other causes, such, for example, as the
“ pushers” by which the material is forced into the furnaces.
CAUSES AND OCCUPATIONS.

In the case of a few important occupational groups in these mills
it has been possible to compute rates for the different cause groups.
These are shown in the following table. Severity rates could not be
conveniently computed. Common labor occupies in these mills the
same position in respect to frequency of accident that has been
noted before. The frequency rate is 220.5 cases per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure as against 57.6 cases for miscellaneous occupations. This
unfortunate preeminence of the common laborer is found in each of
the cause groups in which it was possible to isolate such workers.




80

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 29.—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR

TUBE MILLS, 1907 TO 1914, BY ACCIDENT CAUSES AND OCCUPATIONS.
Common
labor.

Accident cause.

iscellane­
Finishing M occu­
ous
crews.
pations.

Furnace
crews.

Working machines.....................................
Cranes and hoists........................................
Hot substances...........................................
Power vehicles............................................
Unclassified.................................................

20.6
18.7
23.2
.2
157.8

10.8

Total.....................................................

220.5

5.8
.1
.2

20.1

Total.

14.1

11.9
2.6
5.6
.1
37.4

9.8
3.8
6.4
.1
42 9

20.2

4.2
.5
4.6

57.6

. 63.0

As already noted, the crews which operate the finishing machines
show a rather high frequency rate.
PLATE AND SKELP MILLS.

Table 30 gives the distribution of accidents in plate mills, by years
and accident cause groups. Comparing the years 1907 and 1913,
“ working machines show a decline in frequency of 53 per cent
(from 7.0 to 3.3 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure) and in severity
of 45 per cent (from 2.2 to 1.2 days per 1,000hours’ exposure). Be­
tween the same years “ cranes and hoists” declined 56 per cent in
frequency (from 13.6 to 6.0 cases) but the severity rose (from 0.3
day to 1.5 days). Should, however, the rates for cranes and hoists
for the two 4-year periods be compared, the later four years will
show a lessened severity. “ Hot substances” have a lower rate in
1913 than in 1907— in frequency 21 per cent (from 7.0 to 5.5 cases);
in severity 98 per cent (from 4.2 days to 0.1 day). “ Power vehicles”
do not change materially in frequency but the severity in 1913 is
higher than m 1907. The rates by four-year periods are about the
same.
T able 30__ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR PLATE MILLS, 1907

TO 1914, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

1908

1907

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).

Working machines.............................
Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Power vehicles...................................
Unclassified........................................

7.0
13.6
7.0
1.7
84.4

5.7
6.5
5.7
.6
58.2

4.3
10.8
6.7
2.2
60.2

4.8
11.6
5.3
1.8
49.1

4.9
7.1
4.7
1.2
45.0

3.8
9.7
5.5
1.8
55.2

3.3
6.0
5.5
1.7
43.4

1.5
3.4
2.4
.2
22.0

Total............................................

113.7

76.7

84.2

72.6

62.9

76.0

59.9

29.5

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Working machines.............................
Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances..................................
Power vehicles...................................
Unclassified........................................

2.2
.3
4.2
.1
2.3

Total............................................

9. 1

N u m b e r o f w o rk ers ..............................




1 ,9 1 5

0.1
.2
.1
2.9

0.1
1.8
.1
.03
.7

0.3
3.1
.1
1.5
1.1

0.1
.1
.1
.03
1.1

0.5
.3
.1
.03
2.2

0.2
1.5
.1
1.4
.6

3.3

2.7

6.1

1.4

3.1

3.8

1 ,6 4 6

1 ,9 9 2

1 ,1 7 3

1 ,6 3 4

1 ,8 7 2

2 ,0 1 3

0.03
.1
.03
.5
.7
1 ,3 7 9




PLATE

17.— S E C T I O N

OF

SKELP

M IL L .




PLATE

18.— S H E E T

M IL L .

PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

81

There are two fields in which the study of plate-mill conditions
ought to bring about a still further improved condition. The first
is the operation of shears. The present method of handling plates
through the shears gives rise to a considerable number of accidents.
The method consists essentially in rolling the plate over a group of
reversed casters. These adjust themselves to movement of the plate
in any direction and quite frequently the plate overbalances and
falls from the casters, i t would seem to be possible for mechanical
ingenuity to devise some method of handling the plates which would
more or less obviate this danger.
The second field in which improvement has taken place and ought
undoubtedly to go still further is that of protection of the operatives
against heat exhaustion. Because of the extended area over which
radiation may take place in the case of plates the temperature con­
ditions for some of the men are exceedingly trying. Two safeguards
should be applied to a greater extent than has yet been done. The
more important of these is the supplying of water of good quality
and of a temperature low enough to be palatable, though not so low
as to discourage adequate consumption. The second safeguard is
such an arrangement of the rolls and the roll tables that men will be
exposed as little as possible to direct radiation and that in some cases
a draft of air be provided by which the heat given off by the plates
will be carried away from the operatives. In one mill in the course
of repairs a complete rearrangement was accomplished, so that the
operative was shifted to a position much less exposed than his orig­
inal position and an electric blower was so placed that the resulting
movement of the air passed the man, thence over the plate, and finally
out through an opening in the side of the mill. Under the original
conditions a number of men had suffered collapse from the effects
of the heat. Since the rearrangement no cases of this kind have
occurred.
SHEET MILLS.

Table 31 presents, by causes, for sheet mills the accident rates for
frequency and severity. The frequency and severity rates shown in
this table are both relatively low. As a whole they present a dis­
tinctly unusual condition. Frequency rates on the whole tend to
rise while the severity rates are declining. In Table 32 the working
force is divided into the hot mill crews and the other employees.
The frequency rate of the hot mill crews is almost the same as that of
the other employees. The hot mill men suffer their injuries very
largely in connection with the characteristic machines of the mills.
The miscellaneous employees are the sufferers from the group of
causes called the unclassified. If, therefore, the experience for
working machines and unclassified causes be compared, a fair idea
will be given of the trend of events in the two occupational groups.
The rates given in Table 31 show that the accident rates for work­
ing machines (operated by the hot mill crew) exhibit during the
entire period a definite tendency to rise, both in frequency and in
severity. A t the same time the rates for the unclassified group of
causes, contributed for the most part by the miscellaneous employees,
go down just as definitely.




82

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 3 1 .—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR SHEET MILLS, 1907
TO 1914, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

Accident cause.

1908

1907

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours' exposure).
W orking machines.............................
Hot substances................... „..............
Handling tools and objects................
Heat...................................................
Unclassified........................................

4.4
7.2
13.1
20.1

Total............................................

44.8

5.3
3.8
12.6
18.5

3.7
2.8
10.6
.6
16.5

4.3
1.6
4.7
.9
12.6

6.4
1.5
10.3
1.2
16.9

5.9
2.5
18.6
.3
21.8

6.6
1.0
12.5
.2
17.8

6.1
2.1
6.1
.5
16.1

40.2

34.2

24.1

36.3

49.1

38.1

30.9

Accident severityrates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
W orking machines.............................
Hot substances...................................
Handling tools and objects..............
Heat...................................................
Unclassified........................................

3.4

.6

Total............................................

3.7

.8

N u m b e r o f w o rk er s ..............................

0.1
.1
.1

2,211

0.1
.03
.1

1,951

1.2
.03
.2
C)
1
3.8

0.4
.03
.2
.9
3.2

1.1
.03
.1
1.0
2.6

0.5
.03
.2
(9
1.3

0.8
.03
.2
(*)
1.4

0.2
.03
.1
0)
1.6

5.2

4.7

4.8

2.0

2.4

1.9

2 ,3 6 6

2 ,637

2 ,4 3 3

2 ,9 2 5

2,691

1,9 0 5

1Less than 0.005.

Here is an important group of workers having somewhat definitely
rising rates during a period of general accident reduction. How has
this come about? It is probably a case, like many others, where the
responsible persons were entirely ignorant of the facts and so took no
active steps to prevent this rise in rates. Two things might contrib­
ute to this ignorance: 1. The rates in sheet mills are below those in
other lines of manufacture and so a rise might not seem seriously
significant; 2. The rates for hot-mill crews may never have been con­
sidered separately. They were very likely combined with those of
other workers whose rate was declining sufficiently to pull down the
rate for the combined group.
Another possible element in this somewhat increasing rate during
this period must not be overlooked. In these mills there has been a
very great increase in tonnage since 1909. Since accident rates,
both frequency and severity, are rising equally with this growing
tonnage, the conclusion is almost unavoidable that this increasing
product has been secured at some cost of greater hazard. It has
not been thought necessary to examine the cause rates in the fiveyear period 1915 to 1919 with the same detail which was applied to the
Eeriod ending in 1914. The situation in this second five-year period
as been considered sufficiently to determine that in the course of it
this tendency to accident among the hot-mill men has been checked,
if not reversed. Table 32 shows frequency rates by accident causes
for the hot-mill crew and other occupations of the sheet mills.




83

PH YSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.
T able

32*—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR
SHE&T MILLS, 1907 TO 1914, BY OCCUPATIONS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.
Hot-mill Other occu­
crews.
pations.

Accident cause.
W orking machines.............................................................................
Hot substances...................................................................................
Handling tools and objects................................................................
Unclassified........................................................................................

7. 7
1.1
13.0
1.1
12.4

Total............................................................................................

5 ,2 0 0

4.5
2.2
9.4
.1
20.2

35.3

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..............................................................................

Total.
5.9
1.7
10.9
.5
17.0
36. 0

36.4
7,391

12,501

M ECHANICAL, FABRICATING, AND YARD DEPARTM EN TS.
MECHANICAL D EPAR T M EN T.

The accident rates for the mechanical department, by principal
causes and by years, are as follows:
T able

33.—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR THE MECHANICAL
DEPARTMENT, 1907 TO 1914, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.
Accident cause.

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).

Working machines.............................
Cranes and hoists..............................
Hot substances..................................
Unclassified........................................

14.8
5.6
4.5
59.1

13.6
4.5
2.5
70.8

14.7
3.4
2.7
56.1

10.0
4.0
3.3
44.2

10.3
2.2
5.0
31.1

8.5
1.6
3.0
27.9

3.4
1.7
3.5
28.2

4.4
2.0
1.8
27.3

Total............................................

84.0

91.4

76.9

61.5

48.6

41.0

36.8

35.5

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Working machines.............................
Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Unclassified........................................

0.3
.1
.1
2.9

0.4
1.6
1.6
3.8

0.3

1.2
3.7

0.2
.1
.03
4.0

0.2
.1
.03
2.7

0.3
.1

Total............................................

3.4

7.4

5.2

4.3

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..............................

2 ,5 4 2

1 ,619

1,977

2,2 2 3

.03

0.3
.4

1.6

0.1
.1
1.0
2.5

3.0

2.0

3.7

1.3

2 ,1 U

2 ,3 6 2

.03

2 ,5 6 9

.03

.6

1,662

The working machine is particularly characteristic of the mechan­
ical department, and it is therefore desirable to determine as care­
fully as possible what the relations of this group of causes may be to
other groups. Inspection of the figures for the various years covered
by the table indicates that both frequency and severity rates for
working machines are much below the rates of the unclassified group
of causes which the mechanical department has in common with
other departments. The working machine, therefore, is not the
most important hazard, even in the department where it is particu­
larly characteristic. The first task of the safety movement was to
safeguard machines. When it became evident that this was less
important than had been supposed to be the case, it led to some general
lessening of activity in the direction of mechanical improvement.
The protection of the worker against working-machine dangers is on
the whole a rather simple matter, but the application of engineering
skill to the broader problems of accident prevention is now and will
be for a long time of the highest importance.




84

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

The general tendency indicated by the table is one of quite marked
decline. For example, from 14.8 cases per 1,000,000 "hours’ ex­
posure in 1907 there is a drop to 3.4 cases in 1913 for working ma­
chines. In severity the change is from 0.3 day per 1,000 hours’
exposure to 0.1 day. The total frequency rate changes from 84.0
cases in 1907 to 36.8 cases in 1913. Here again, however, we have
an illustration of the fact that frequency may decline without a cor­
responding decline in severity. Severity rates for the two years are
3.4 days in 1907 and 3.7 days in 1913.
FABRICATING SHOPS.

Table 34 presents the principal accident cause groups in fabri­
cating shops over the period 1907 to 1914.
T able

34.—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR THE FABRICATING
SHOPS, 1907 TO 1914, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.
Accident cause.

1908

1907

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).

W orking machines.............................
Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Unclassified........................................
Total............................................

14.1
9.7
12. 0
10.0
1.1
1. 9
66. 3 . 40.6

.8

56.5

16.1
13.2
2.1
63.3

19.4
9.8
2. 6
67.3

24.9
12.4
3.5
64. 0

21.2
14.5
2.9
58. 0

43.0

61.4

89.9

94.7

99.1

104.8

96.6

66.1

94.3

16.0
16.6

12.3
9.7
1.1

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Working machines.............................
Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Unclassified........................................
Total............................................
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..............................

1. 6
2.1

0.2
4.4

0.4
3.9

5.6

1.1

3.3

3. 1

9. 8

4.8

7.9

7.4

1 ,758

1 ,7 7 0

2 ,0 7 4

2 ,2 0 3

0.4
3.8

2 ,0 8 1

0.2
1.6

0.3
.2
.03
1.8

0.1
1.7

.7

0.3
3.0
.1
2.4

2.5

5. 8

2. 3

2.6

2, 045

1/769

2 ,0 7 4

.8

As in the mechanical department, the working machine in fabri­
cating is a characteristic hazard but of slightly more importance, as a
comparison of the severity rates with those of the mechanical
department will show.
An inspection of the operations in the fabricating shop will indi­
cate that the danger of the reamers, riveters, and punchers is greater
than that of lathe hands and planers. Much more serious than these
dangers are those arising in connection with the use of cranes in fab­
rication. So frequent is the use of the crane and so closely related
to the processes of the shop that it might almost be regarded as one of
the working machines.
No important decline is indicated in the rates for working machines
but cranes and hoists and the unclassified group show a material
reduction.
ACCIDENT REDUCTION M ETHODS IN MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT AND
FABRICATING SHO PS.

Among working machines, as has already been noted, punchers,
reamers, and riveters contribute a considerable portion of hazard.




PH YSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT---- DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED.

85

Heretofore the reamer has usually .been actuated by compressed air.
Since the pressure within the machine and in the hose conveying the
air to the machine tends not only to produce the desired rotation
but also to throw the entire machine about, it is quite frequently
found that in the records the cause of accident is reported as “ lost
control of the machine.” In the case of a reamer actuated electrically
there is no such tendency, and the operation of the machine is much
steadier and better subject to control. Substitution of electrically
actuated reamers has been a material factor in reducing accidents in
connection with the operation of such machines.
Considerable ingenuity and effort have been expended in an effort
to devise a drill chuck which will hold the drill firmly when pressed
against the work and allow it to turn backward freely when not
actually operating. Since accidents with drills are of considerable
frequency, and with drills of any considerable size may be serious, the
production of a chuck which will be safer in operation is much to be
desired. Up to the present time none of those devised have proved
entirely satisfactory. The avoidance of drill accidents, therefore,
remains for the most part a matter of personal care. The lathes that
are now being put out by machine tool builders have their moving
parts so completely inclosed and the necessary changes of speed
accomplished in such a way that they present few danger points ex­
cept those which the care of the operator must avoid.
Great progress has recently been made in the safeguarding of
grinding wheels. The manufacturers of grinding machines now fur­
nish them with hoods completely inclosing the wheel except at the
grinding point, and these effectually retain fragments in case the
wheel bursts. Small flying particles from the wheel may be guarded
against by means of eye protectors worn by the men or by plate glass
screens fastened to the machines. This latter device has one point of
objection which is not always seriously enough considered. In the
operation of the wheel there is always some degree of vibration.
The effort to see an object through a glass thus vibrating is apt to
strain the eyes seriously.
The metal planer is the only working machine which has a record of
any considerable number of fatal injuries. All of those recorded in
connection with the cases investigated arose from failure to close the
openings in the bed of the machine on which the working platform
moves back and forth. An illustrative case will show the nature of
the hazard. A workman used a space within the planer bed to store
some of his tools. Reaching over to secure one of them he slipped
and fell into the opening. He was caught and crushed by the moving
platform. It is so simple a matter (see Plate 19, “ A ” ) to close these
openings that the continued existence of this hazard should be
regarded as criminal.
Pattern shops and carpenter shops associated with the mechanical
or fabricating departments are apt to retain saws and wood planers
not provided with the safeguards which the best modern practice
requires.
The high rates in connection with cranes and hoists which are
shown particularly in the fabricating shop indicate that some cranes
of primitive pattern are still in use and that the use of chains of inade­
quate strength, or which have been overstrained, still continues.




86

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

YARD DEPARTMENT.

Table 35 contains the frequency and severity rates for the prin­
cipal cause groups in the yard department.
T a b l e 3 5 .— ACCIDENT

FREQUEN CY AND SEV E R IT Y RATES FOR THE YARD D E PA R T ­
MENT, 1907 TO 1914, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES.

'

Accident cause.

1908

1907

1909 ; 1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).

6.5
2.8
10.6
13.8 :
33.1

Total............................................

6.6
4.8
15.5
5.2
31.8

5.8
4.1
9.2
7.8
35.3

2.3
1.9
10.9
12.3
20.9

1.8
1.7
8.3
7.9
16.6

4.0
1.4
6.7
11.2
17.2

2.2
1.1
3.6
6.7
10.4

1.7
.5
2.7
7.4
11.8

66.8

Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Falling objects...................................
Power vehicles...................................
Unclassified........................................

63.9

62.2

48.3

36.3

40.5

24.0

24.1

#

Cranes and hoists...............................
Hot substances...................................
Falling objects...................................
Power vehicles...................................
Unclassified........................................

Accident severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

0.4
.9
1.0
2.3
2.2

0.1
.2
1 .7

.4
.6

1.4
.1
.1
6.4
.5

0.1
.1
.1
2.6
.6

Total............................................

6.8

3.0

8.5

3.5

N u m b e r o f w o rk er s ........... ..................

2 ,6 1 8

1 ,5 2 2

1,891

2 ,1 3 4

0.1
* .03
.2
2.7
.4

1.4
.03
.3
1.1
.2

3.4

3.0

1,810

2 ,0 7 8

0.03
(9
.1
.4
.2
.7
2 ,751

0.2

C)
1

.1

.3

1.0

2.5
1,356

1Less than 0.005.

None of the accident cause groups appear to be of sufficient impor­
tance to call for special comment except the upower vehicles” group.
Comparing 1907 with 1913 the frequency rates for power vehicles
declined 51 per cent (from 13.8 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure
to 6.7 cases) and severity declined 83 per cent (from 2.3 days per
1,000 hours’ exposure to 0.4 day). Probably a fairer comparison
is that of two four-year periods, 1907 to 1910 and 1911 to 1914.
This shows frequency declining 15 per cent and severity 61 per cent.
This indication of improving condition is especially important in
view of the fact that greater difficulties undoubtedly surround the
control of hazard in connection with transportation than of dangers
found in other departments. In the report published by the bureau
in 1913 no appreciable improvement in the hazard of yard depart­
ments could be established.
The coupling and uncoupling of cars were during the period covered
by the table the cause of the largest number of injuries. The fatali­
ties in connection with yard operation were very largely due to being
run over by moving cars and engines. In this particular group were
five such cases and but one fatality in connection with coupling.
Four of the five fatalities due to being run over occurred in the
earlier of the two four-year periods. The smaller number in the
second period unquestionably reflects a general improvement in yard
conditions.
SAFETY METHODS IN YARDS.

In all transportation, whether industrial or public, the grade
crossing presents the most serious problem. It is worthy of notice
that the elimination of this hazard is almost entirely a matter of cost.
There is no engineering reason why railway tracks in plant yards
should not uniformly be elevated or depressed. The reason that






O PfC o
N
PLATE

19.— M E T A L

PLANER, W ITH

SAFETY

PLATES

C LO SIN G

O P E N IN G

IN

BED.




PLATE

20.— Y A R D

TRESTLE,

WITH

VARIOUS

SAFETY

DEVICES.




PLATE

21.— S A F E T Y

GATE

FOR

CROSSING

OF

TRACKS,

PLATE

PLATE




22.— S K I D D E R

23.— T A R G E T

W ITH

SIGNAL,

TARGET

USABLE

ATTACHMENT.

DAY OR

NIGHT.

P H Y S I C A L C A U S E S OE A C C I D E N T ----- D E P A R T M E N T S A N A L Y Z E D .

87

this is not done is that to do so is a costly procedure. There ought
to be a very great extension of arrangements which abolish the grade
crossing in industrial plants (see Plate 20).
Wherever it is impossible to avoid relation between tracks on
which vehicles move and crossings there should be a very careful
installation of convenient and permanent signal apparatus. A
permanently located signal which needs only to be adjusted is
greatly preferable to one which must be sought out and put in place
by the members of the train crew (see Plate 21). For signaling,
which is necessarily temporary, some standard form should be
adopted and arrangements made to fasten the signal in position
so that it can not be displaced except by intention (see Plates 22
and 23).
A safety man who has succeeded in eliminating as completely as
possible the grade crossings from his plant, has established proper
clearances, and adopted some permanent signaling scheme is ready
to turn his attention to automatic couplers and the proper equip­
ment of gantry and locomotive cranes which are used in the yards.
The locomotive crane has received considerable attention from
the safety men, and the makers now produce this apparatus with
many safety ideas incorporated.
Since this machine travels under its own power, some of the
dangers incident to ordinary engines are connected with it. For
example, if it is not provided with an automatic coupler it may serve
to increase the roll of accidents due to coupling and uncoupling.
If it is not provided with appropriate grab irons the craneman may
suffer a serious fall in attempting to get into his cab. It is chiefly,
however, in connection with its use as a hoisting apparatus that
danger arises. Probably more accidents have arisen in this connec­
tion from attempting to lift weights beyond the capacity of the
machine, causing it to tip over, than from any other. At some point
there should be an inscription stating the capacity of the crane.
An indicator should be provided from which the craneman may
determine safe loads in varying positions of the boom. In some
plants a device has been applied which rings an alarm as soon as
tipping begins. Safeguards equivalent to these are now embodied
in the cranes produced by the best makers.
Among minor improvements in yard conditions is the replacing of
a type of switch in which the lever operated at right angles to the
track by one in which the lever moves parallel to the track. It
will be seen that in the old type a man exerting himself in moving
the lever might fall forward directly upon the track. Several fatali­
ties from this cause are on record. Under the old conditions the
V-shaped openings in the track frogs had no protection and the
foot of the switchman could be so caught therein that he would be
unable to get out of the way of an approaching train. These open­
ings have now been very generally blocked up with-metal or wooden
guards.
It may be noted that in the interior transportation of a plant
there is precisely the same hazard which arises on the public highway.
Whenever the danger is related to a moving object, which may
approach at varying degrees of speed, the danger becomes serious
and can be met only as suggested above, by removing the path of the
moving object from that of the moving man or by the utmost care
and skill on the part of the operator and of the man endangered.




CHAPTER V.— PHYSICAL CAUSES OF ACCIDENT— RELATION
OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, NATURE, AND RESULTS OF IN­
JURY.

In the preceding chapters the effort has been to establish the rela­
tion of the causes to the departments and of the departments to each
other, and to point put some of the possible methods of combating
hazard in the departments.
Attention will now be directed to the worker himself and what
effect the various causes may have upon him. There are three sub­
jects which may be treated in this review of the man’s relation to the
causes, namely, the location of the injury, the nature of the injury,
and the final results of the injury.
These subjects do not have as direct a bearing on accident preven­
tion as do those already presented, but it is not possible to consider
the relations of the causes from any viewpoint without at times
getting very definite hints regarding preventive measures. For ex­
ample, when in blast furnaces a high rate for injury to the skull
appears as due to falling bodies the usefulness of the so-called “ hardboiled 7 caps is forcibly suggested.
*
C A U S E S A N D L O C A T IO N O F IN J U R Y .

Table 36 presents the facts regarding the severity of the injuries
resulting from certain causes and affecting certain portions of the
body.
88




R E LA T IO N OF CAUSES TO L O C A T IO N , E T C ., OF I N J U R Y ,

89

Table 36.—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ EXPO SU R E) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPARTM ENTS OF TH E IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN J U R Y .

Blast furnaces.
Location of injury.
Ma­
chinery.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

0.96
1.14
1.16
.23

0.34
2. 64
1.17
.03

0)
3.42
1.18
0)

0.73
1.14
.02
.05

.10

.09

H ea d .

Eye....................................................
Skull.................................................
Other parts of head.......................
Face and neck................................

(0
3. 42
1.15
1.14

0)
3.41
.04
.02

O
1.14
3.42
.01
.02
.04

.01

.10

.03

5.75
3. 42
.01
2.27

3.44
1.14

.07

T ru n k .

B a ck ................................................
Vertibrae..........................................
Thorax.............................................
Abdomen........................................
Groin................................................
Pelvis................................................
Generative organs..........................

0)

1.19
1.14
.03
.02
0)

.02
0)

.01
.01

.01
1.14

.07

6)

U p p e r extrem ities.

Clavicle............................................
Shoulder..........................................
Upper arm.......................................
Elbow..............................................
Ulna.................................................
Radius..............................................
Ulna and radius.............................
Forearm...........................................
Wrist................................................
Both hands.....................................
1 finger..............................................
2 fingers............................................
3 fingers............................................
4 fingers............................................
Thumb.............................................
Thumb and 1 finger......................

.01

.01
C
1)

.02

Great toe and other toes.............

.02
.01
.01
.01
.05
.01
.02
.01
(1).02
.02
.03
.04
.10
.82
.03
Hand................................................
.08
.05
.02
.01
.86
.14
.07
0)
0)
.34
.27

.03

0)

.23

(1).06
.77
.78

1.14
.87
.02
.01

.05
.01

.03
.03
.04
.03

.03
.02
.01
.48

.08

71087°— 22- 7
-




0)
0)

0)
C
1)
.01

0)

.02
.01
.02
.14

.02
.07
1.15
.05

.11

.02
.45
.03

.02

1.14

.01

.06

.35
.09
.01

9.13

14.52

18.54

7.42

.01
.02
.01
.69

.10

0)

.01

.01
.12
.07
.04
.03
.14

0)

0)
.02
.01

0)

.22

.14

.01
.01

.02
.04
.21

0)
0)
0)

0)

.03
.03

0)
0)

1.14

18.95

.06
0)

0)

.47
.02
.02

.01

0)

.01

U n c la ssifie d .................._............

1 Less than 0.005.

C
1)

C)
1

Other toes.......................................

Total......................................

.02
.02

.03

0)

L o w e r extrem ities.

Hip
...............................
Femur
.................................
Upper leg.........................................
Knee.................................. .........
Tibia.................................................
Fibula. .
.................................
Tibia and fibula.............................
Lower leg.........................................
Ankle................................................
Foot..................................................
Both feet..........................................
Great toe..........................................

0)
0)

8

.06
.05

10.28
5.50

4.02

14.03

90

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y ,

T able 3 6 . — A C C I D E N T S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 10,000 H O U R S ' E X P O S U R E ) F O R S P E C I ­
F I E D D E P A R T M E N T S O F T H E ‘ I R O N - A N D • S T E E R - I N D U S T R Y ) 1 9 1 5 T O 1919, ; B Y C A U S E A N D L O C A T I O N O F d’ N I U R Y ^ - C o n t i n n e * L

Bessemer.
L o c a t io n o f in ju r y .
P ow er
v e h ic le s *

M a­
c h in e r y .

Head.
E y e ..............................................................
S k u ll...........................................................
O th e r p a r t s o f -h e a d ...........................
F a c e a n d n p o k u ..................................
Tru nk.
B a c k ...........................................................
T h o r a x ......................................................
A b d o m e n . . .............................................
( k 'o i n ..........................................................

F a llin g ,
o b je c ts .*

H o t s u b ­ . F a lls o f
w o rk er.
s ta n c e s .

0 .0 9

0)
3 .6 9

.0 9
.0 5

.0 1
11.04
(1). .

3 .6 9

.0 1
.2 1

.2 2
7 .6 3
.2 2

H a n d lin g
o b j e c t s . . U n c la s s i­
and
fie d .
t o o ls .

O4O8

0 .0 1
0 .0 3
0 )

.0 5 .

1 .2 9
. 0*
•OR

C
1)
.0 7

.0 4
.2 6

. 0$
.07.
.0 8
.1 0

.0 9 ,
3 .6 7 .

0)

.0 7
(.1 )

Upper e xtrem ities..
C l a v i c le .....................................................
S h o u ld e r ...................................................
U p p e r a r m * ............................................
E l b o w ........................................................
R a d i u s .* ...................................................
U l n a a n d r a d i u s .................................
F o r e a r m ..................................................
W r i s t s ......................................................
H a n d .? ........................................................
B o t h h a n d s * ...........................................
1 f in g e r .......................................................
2 fin g e r s .....................................................
3 fin g e r s ....................................................
T h u m b ......................................................
Lom er extremities.
H i p . ............................................................
F e m u r . ......................................................
U p p e r l e g . ...............................................
K n e e . .........................................................
T i b i a ..........................................................
F i b u l a .......................................................
T i b i a a n d f i b u l a ..................................
L o w e r i n g .................................................
A n k l e ; *.....................................................
F o o t ............................................................
G r e a t t o e ..................................................
G r e a t t o e a n d -o t h e r - t o e s * ..............
O th er toes^ j.
.................................

‘
. 0 2'
.0 1

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005,




.0 1

j

0)

'

. 66 .
.0 2 :
. 73 j

<s>. 0 2.;

‘

.0 3 •

.2 1
.0 2
.0 3 ]

. 04,
0)
o)

. 02 j
.1 0

C)
. 04,

.0 8 . 10 ,

.7 1

.0 6
.33*. . .

0)

(D ‘

.03.
.0 3 .,

. 69».
. 02*:

(L
)~

.0 3 .,

.0 2 !

oo.

. 76

.0 6 .

0 )

.0 4 i
. 12
. 02
.0 7
3 .7 4
.0 3
.0 2
.0 2

3 .7 2
.0 2
.0 4
. 2.5
.0 7
.2 5
.0 1
. 0 1.

.0 1
.0 2

Unclassified.............................................
T o t a l .................................................

.1 1

0)

.o a
.1 2
.4 3

.2 7
.0 4
.2 0
.0 2
.1 6
.0 2
.0 3
.1 1

1 4 .6 8

1
1 6 .74

.03.

13.51

2 4 .03

1
(
.2 2
.02.
.20.
.5 3 „
.0 1 .
.0 3 ,

(i)

.1 2 .
.0 2
. 05.1 1
.08U
.3 4 .
.05 *
.0 2
■................ •
*
. 0L

3.J5Z.
1 .3 6

03
i05-;

.0 3 .

8.J51

0)
2 .2 6 .

1 .7 4

91

R E L A T I O N O F C A U S E S T O L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

T able -3Rv—-ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS7 E X P O S U R E ), FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPARTM ENTS OF T H E IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919; B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN JU R Y—Continued.

Open hearths.

Location of injury.

Hd
ea .

Ma­
Power Hot sub­ Falls of
chinery. vehicles. stances. worker.

0.20'
3.93
1.06 1.Q1-

0.Q2
.02.99-

*
T n ..
ru k
Back...............................................
.03
Vertibrffi4....................................
Thorax.........................................
4.9
7
1.-95'
Abdomen......................................
Groan....................................
0
1.06
Pelvis................1.......................
......................
Generative organs .01

.02
.974.91
.01-

E ye.............................................
Skull...............
Other parts of head;....................
Face and neck..............................

0.45

0.01

Falling
objects.

0.15
2.92
.04
0

.04.45

.05.04

.28

.02
.07
.01

1.01

.03
.03

0

0

.02
.01

.10

.99
G
)->
.03

.01

0

.01

0

.01
.01-

0

0

.04
.93.04

0

0
.97

0

0.71

0.20

.05

2.09
0

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

0
0-

U p extrem .p er
ities
Claviele........................................
Shoulder ........................................
Humerus)..............................
Upper arm ,.................................
E lbow .......................
U lna...............................
Radius...............................
Forearm .....................................
W rist............................................
H a n d .............................................
Roth h a n d s ...............
1 finger.................................. ,.
2 fingers..___
3 fingers........................................
T h u m b ..............................
Thumb and 1 finger.....................
Thumb and 2 fingers............. ...

.010)

(V
)

0

.01
(1)
0
.31

.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
.68-

.03
.03
.04

.04

.01

.01

.01
.01

0

.02
0
.02
.03
.04 .........‘oi
.05
.01 .04
.04

0

.57
.13

.01
.01

.21

.01

.01

.01
.01
1.02’
.02

G)
1.05
.01

.01
.01
.04
.Q6«
1.01
.98
. 0r
2

0

.07
.02
.14
. 37.01
C
1)

.15
.14
.39
.03
.01

.02.11
.02.08
.02
.02
.04
.06
.12.05
0

10.81

.78.09
.01
.43

.01
.97
.03

.oi

.01
.02
.03.16

0

.24

0
0

.01

0

.01
.01
.03

.02

.86
.17
.01
.29*

.01
.97
.01
.01

(l>
.02
.02

.13
.03
. 05
.21

.04
.05
.25

.04
.11
.06

.21
.01
.01

.01

3.63

2.14

.09

.01
.01
.01

0

L er extrem
ow
ists.
H ip .................................................
Fem ur..........................................
Upper leg......................................
Knee...............................................
T ibia..............................................
Fibula.........................
Tibia and h bu la...........................
Lower leg......................................
Ankle...........................................
F oot...............................................
Both feet..................................T..
Great toe^......................................
Great toe and other toes............
Other toes.....................................

.01.081. Q
4
• 01
.02
0
1.03
.10
.69.06
.05
.05

U cla
n ssified
...................................
T otal.......................................
1 Less than 0.005.




19.25

11.76

16. 45

.27
.01
.01

0

0
GV
.02

.02
1.04

8.07

92

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y ,

T able 3 6 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S7 E X P O S U R E ) EO R SPECIn
FIED DEPAR TM EN TS OF T H E IR ON AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF INJUR Y—Continued.
Foundries.
Location of injury.
Mar
chinery.

H ea d .

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

1.98
.09

0.01
1.96

0.04
G)

.02
2.06
.01

.01
.06
.01

.03
.02
G)

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

0.11

0.05
1.96
.02
.02

0.01
.01

Back.................................................
Thorax............................................
Abdomen........................................

.05
2.03
.02

.01
.01

Pelvis...............................................

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

0.11
G)
.01
.03

3.91

............................
Eye..............
Skull................................................
Other parts of head......................
Face and neck...............................

0.80
G)
; .01
.01

T ru n k .

.11
.04
.01
.22

G)

.01

G)
G)

U p p e r e x tre m itie s .

Scapula............................................
Shoulder..........................................
Humerus.........................................
Upper arm......................................
Elbow..............................................
Radius.............................................
Forearm.............
: ....................
Wrist....... .......................................
Hand...............................................
Both hands.....................................
1 finger.............................................
2 fingers...........................................
3 fingers...........................................
Thumb
...........................
Thumb and 2 fingers....................

(!)
.02
.01
(!)
0)
.03
.06
1.85
(!)
1.06
.32
.01
.78

G)
(!)
G)

.01
.02
.01

.03
.03
.07
.06
G)
G)
G)

G)
.01
I1
)
.02
.01

G)
G)
G)
.01
G)
.06

.05
G)

.09
G)

.20

.01

G)
.01
.01
.04
.01
.04
.18
.01
1.23
.02
.33
G)

G)
G)
; .01
. 03
.06
.11
.16
.01
G)

L o w e r e x tre m itie s .

Hip...................................................
Femur..............................................
Upper leg........................................
Knee................................................
Tibia................................................
Fibula..............................................
Tibia and fibula............................
Lower leg........................................
Ankle...............................................
Foot.................................................
Both fee t........................................
Great toe........................................
Great toe and other toes.............
Other toes.......................................

.01
.19
.01
. 05
.03
. 05
.08
.09
.17
. 14
.02

G)
G)
G)

G)
.02
.02

1 Less than 0.005.




.01
. 13
.38
.07

G)

G)
.02

.01
2.01
.06
.04

.01
.05
.01

1.98
.39
.08
.45

.08
.03
.25

.45
.04

.22
.03

G)

1. 32
.02

.02
G)

.01

.08
. 12
.10
.02
G)

1.96

U n c la s s ifie d ............................... .

Total........................................

G)

13.04

.12

7.02

G)
2.45

5.78

4 . 39

1. 58

R E L A T IO N

93

O F C A U S E S TO L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

3 8 . — ACCIDENT SEV ERITY RATES (PE R 1 0,0 0 0 HOURS' E X PO SU RE) FOR SPECI­
FIE D DEPARTM ENTS OF THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y , 1 915 TO 1919, BY CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN JU R Y —Continued.

T able

Heavy rolling mills.
Location of injury.
Ma­
chinery.

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

0.03
.02
.03

(X)
0.01
.02
G)

H ea d .

Eye...................................................
Skull.................................................
Other parts of head........................
Face and neck................................

0.01
. 76
. 80
. 05

1 47
(1)

0. 74
.oi
1. 51

T ru n k .

Back.................................................
Thorax.............................................
Abdomen........................................
Groin................................................
Pelvis................................................
Generative organs..........................

.02
.1
1
01
(!)
|
' or

.03
.07
.0i

.01
1.49
1 47
(i)

G)

.03
.08
(i)
.01
.02
G)

G)
C
1)

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

0.83
(i)
.02
.06
1
.09
.02 i
. 03 I
.04

0.30
. 74
.07
.01
G)

.02
.01

G)

U p p e r e x trem ities.

Scapula............................................
Clavicle............................................
Shoulder........................................
Humerus..........................................
Upper arm.......................................
Elbow..............................................
Ulna..................................................
Radius..............................................
Ulna and radius.............................
Forearm..........................................
Wrist................................................
Hand............... ? ..............................
Both hands.....................................
1 finger.............................................
2 fingers............................................
3 fingers............................................
4 fingers............................................
Thumb.............................................
Thumb and 2 fingers....................
L o w e r extrem ities.

Hip...................................................
Femur..............................................
Upper leg.........................................
Knee.................................................
Tibia.................................................
Fibula..............................................
Tibia and fibula.............................
Lower leg........................................
Ankle................................................
Foot..................................................
Both feet..........................................
Great toe..........................................
Great toe and other toes...............
Other toes........................................
U n c la s s ifie d ...................................

Total..........................................

1 Less th an 0.005.




.01 j

.01
.10

. 49
G)
.02
(l)
. 01
1.16
. 72
. 48
. 36
.01
.25
. 18

0)

. 01
G)
.37

.01

.49
.01

. 03
. 02
.83
.06
.43

. 01
.03
G)
.19

.05
.07

G)

.01

.01
.05
.12
.02

.01 !

G)

(X
)
(X
)
i
.01
.02

.01
.03
.02
G)
0)

0)
(X
)
.01

.01 i
.01 1
.19 |
I
. 62
. 13
G)

(x
)

. 16

.16

G)

(1)
.02
G)
.03

G)
(X
)
.02
.01
.02

.01
.01

.01
.01
.01
.06
.13

.34
.04
.04
.53

G)

G)

2.95
5.92

.02
G)

G)

. 05

. 74
10. 72

.02

.04
. 15

(X
)
. 54
1. 57
.03

. 24
.07
.02

m
v)

.01
.01
.01
.01

0)
(!)
.01
.01

0)

5. 71

G)
.61

. 06
.01

.23
.01
. 10

.02
(1)

.02
.05
.05
.03
.22
(!)
. 13
.01
G)

.01
.02
.01

.03

(i)

.01
. 74
.76
.02
. 01
. 01
.02
.07
.03

(X)
(X
)

. 01

.01

G)
1.67

G)

2. 83

2.96

94

ACCIDENTS' IN' T H E IRON AND STEED INDUSTRY,

T able<
36»r-ACGIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,009 HOURS* E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM ENTS OF THE. IR ON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN JUR Y—Continued.

Plate mills.

Location of injury.

Hd
ea .
Skull.............
Other parts of head, l____
Face and neck...........................

T n.
ru k

Backi.......................................
Vertebrae.........
Thorax.............................
Abdomen..,........... .......
Generative organs.....................

Power Hot sub­ Falls of
Ma­
chinery. vehicles* stances. worker.

G)
4,03
.04
.05
.04
1.36
.03
1.38
0)
^1. 38

0.05
0.01
.02

0)

.01
1.41

Falling
objects.

0.01
C
1)

.02

.03 .
.03
.06
0)

C)
1
0.02
G)

Handling
objects Unclassi­
fied.
and
tools.

0.01
.06

0.11
.01
.01
.01

.01
1-3%

.08

G)

.04
.03
.05

G)

.01

(l)

G)

G)

.01

G)
(!)

G)

.01.

0)
.03
G)

G)

.03

U p extrem
p er
ities.
Clavicle.........
Shoulder..............
Humerus......
Upper arm...........
Elbow.............
Ulna...............
Radius.............
Ulna and radius
Forearm....................................
Wrist.........
Hand.........................................
Both hands.........
1 finger......................................
2 fingers...............
3 fingers............ ................
4 fingers.....................................
Thumb...........
.......

L er extrem
ow
ities.

Hip.........................................
Femur....................................
Upper leg.i.................................
Knee..........................................
Tibia.........................................
Fibula........................................
Tibia and fibula.........................
Lower leg...................................
Ankle......................................
Foot...........................................
Both feet...................................
Great toe...................................
Great toe and other toes-...........
Other toes..................................

.01
.03,
(!)
(!)
.01,
.01
.04
.01
.26
.61
.09
•0$
.41
.46.
.02;
.08
.19
.03
.03
.05
.19
.08
1.22
.20:
.20
0)

.01

(i)
(i)
.02

0)

.01
G)
.01

.02
.01
.03
.01
.02
.01

i Less-than0.D05v




12..68-

.04
.01
(i)
.03

.03
.06
'.27

.01

.08
G)

.66
.04
G)

. 15

0)

G)
G)
0)
.01
G)

.02'
0)
.01
.04
.07'
. 021
.01

.07

3.14,

.03ii
.02

C)
1
:
.05
.01

(1)
.4k,

.02.

.01

.07
.01
.03

0)

U cla
n ssified
................................
Total..... ..............................

.02
,0L

.06
.01

.54
.12.
.03
.32.
.03
.34
G)
.01

.03:
.02.
.21.
G)
.26.
.02
.01.

1.85

2. 49

.01
G)

. 49..

.06
.01
.01.

.03.01
G)

.01'

.01.

.01
G)
.14
.02
.02
.02
.04
.01
.06
.08
.03
2. 73
3. 43

R E L A T IO N
T

OF C A U S E S TO L O C A T I O N y E T C ., OE I N J U R Y .

95

. a e . ^ A C C I D E N T S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ! •{ P E R i ,10,009 H -O H R ^ ’ E ^ i > 0 W B E ) F O R S P E G D
F I E D . D E P A R T M E N T S .O F T H E I R O N A N D . S T E E D I N D U S T R Y , 1916 T O 191% B Y C A U S E
A N D L O C A T I O N O F I N J U R Y — C o n tin u e d .

abbe

Tube mills.
Location of Injury.
Mat:
Chinepy.

Power. flpt.subvehiclesv st^iftCS;

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

H ea d .

Eye...................................................
Skn'll.................................................
Other parts of*head....................
Face and neck*................................

0.58
1.-79
3.58-

0.05

.0 2

1.80

G)
1
0.04

T ru n k .

Back.................................................
Thorax.............................................
Abdomen........................................
Groin................................................
Pelvis...............................................
Generative organs..........................
•
Clavicle...........................................
Shoulder..........................................
Elbow.............................................
Ulna................................... ..............
Radius.............................................
Forearm..........................................
W rist.'........... ..........
. ..
Hand.......................................... ..
Both.hands*....................................
1 finger.......... ..................................
2 fingers............................................
3 fingers...........................................
Thum b.......................................... ,
Thumb and 1 finger.„___ *
...........

.0 1

3.64
.0 1

0 .0 2

1.79.
. 02.

.0 1

G)

.03

0.61
. 02.0 1
.0 2

G)
G)
G)
G) *

.04
.08
.05
.08
G)
.0 1

C
1)

0 .10
.0 1

G)
.05
.0 1

1.78
G)

U pper >
extrem ities^

G)

,

.03
(i)
.60

.05
. 0 1;

.0 1 .

.89
.31
.24

02 "

(i)
.07

.03G)
....... .. 01 . 02.
. 02G)

( i) .
0. 0 1 - •
.0 4 .

G>

C
1)
.18
•44.

G).
G>-

G)

G)
.0 1*
(i)..
. 03^
. 02 *
. 02 . 0 11.87.45
.03
G)
.38

.04

. 05
. 11
G)
.2 1

L o w e r extrem ities.

H ip............. ' . . . ..............................
Femur..............................................
Knee................................ ...............
Tibia................................. "........... ..
Fibula.............................................
Tibia and fibula.............................
Lower leg.........................................
Ankle................................................
Foot..................................................
Both feet..........................................
Great toe........................................
Great toe and other toes.............
Other toes.......................................
U n c la s s ifie d ...................................

Total.........................................
1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.




.0 1

.09
. 0^

.0 1

G)
.05
(!)
.08.

.01,
■. oX
.oX

.0 4 ,

......... .’ 6 3 ’
.03.
. 02 .23

.17.
•IQ

.03

.6 3
.0 1

.05
.05

.0 1

•01.

.0 1
. 0 1 ,.

.16
. 01 .
.0 2

.0 1
.0 2

•16.

.15,

.04

.04

. 0 1.

.10

. 10

03

G)

.0 2

.23

.0 1

12.29

. 02 *,

G)
.80

2.18

2.13

.76

4.06

1. 78
4.35

96

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 3 6 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR T M EN T S OF T H E IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN JU R Y —Continued.

Sheet rolling mills.
Location of injury.
Ma­
chinery.

Power
vehicles.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

0.03

Hot sub­
stances.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

0.01

H ea d .

Eye...................................................
Other parts of head......................
Face and neck...............................

0 03
(i)
.01

0.01

1.03

.03

.05

0.06
. 01
.04

T ru n k .

Back.................................................
Thorax............................................
Groin................................................

0)

.02

0)

.02

C)
vD
.01

. 07
. 08
.16

U p p e r e x trem ities.

Shoulder..........................................
Upper arm......................................
Elbow..............................................
Forearm..........................................
Wrist...............................................
Hand...............................................
Both hands.....................................
..........................
1 finger................. •
2 fingers...........................................
3 fingers...........................................
4 fingers...........................................
Thumb............................................

. 02
. 01
ill

. 08

m)
V

. 01

06
.01

.

1. 01
. 93
.02
1. 01
.02

. 03
. 01
*02

.02

.17

.04

.02
. 03
. 06
. 41
. 21
. 41
! 01
1. 32
. 07
! oi

.01

.01
ft
•A
U
O
•ni
ui
.08
.25

. 12

0)

.01
. 18

C
1)

L o w e r e x tre m itie s .

TTip....................
Upper leg...............................
Knee..........................
Tibia.................................
Fibula...............................
Tibia and fibula............................
Lower leg...........
Ankle...............................................
Foot.................................................
Both feet.....................................
Great toe.......................................

(!)

.01
.02
.01

.03
C
1)

.08
.02

.06
.06
0)

.17
.01
.02

.04
.30

0)
0.01

.02

1 Less than 0.005.




.05
.61
.48

.13
.24

0)

. 08

U n c l a s s i f i e d ...................................

Total........................................

.04

.06

. 09

. 16
.24
.36
C
1)

0)
3.54

.01

.28

.41

.89

5. 49

1.37

RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OE IN JU RY.

97

T able 3 6 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ EX PO SU R E) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPARTM ENTS OF THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF INJUR Y—Continued.

'
Location of injury.

Mai Power
chinery. , vehicles.

F abricating.

Hot sub­
stances.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

0.22
1.80
.02
.06

0.28

0.02
0)

.02
.06

.01
.02

.07

1.80

.07
.04

H ea d.

Eye...................................................
Skull.................................................
Other parts of head.....................
Face and neck................................

1.13
3.61
.05
.06
•

0.03
0.01

.04

T ru n k .

Back.................................................
Thorax............................................
Abdomen........................................
Groin................................................

.05
3.66
.03

C
1)
0)

.01

(!)
(i)

.04

U p p e r extrem ities.

Clavicle............................................
Shoulder..........................................
Humerus.........................................
Upper arm......................................
Elbow..............................................
Ulna.................................................
Radius..............................................
Ulna and radius.............................
Forearm...........................................
Wrist................................................
Hand................................................
1 finger.............................................
2 fingers............................................
3 fingers............................................
4 fingers............................................
Thumb............................................

.02
.01
.08
.03
.01
.02
.01
.04
.06
.03
.12
3.22
.59
.37
0)
1.03

.02
.01
(,). M
C
1)

C)
.01
.01

.02
.02

C
1)
.01
.01

.01
.01
0)

.02

.02
.01

(
V)
.01
.02
.01

C)

0)

.04
.02
.24
.02

<
v)
.02
.08
.77
.11
0)
.10

0)

.01
.04
.22
0)
.02

L o w e r extrem ities.

Hip
..
.
............................
Femur..............................................
Upper leg........................................
Knee.................................................
Tibia
..........................
Fibula..............................................
Lower leg........................................
Ankle................................................
Foot..................................................
Great, toe ..
............................
Oreat trie anrl other toes
TTnclnusifi.ed__




.15
.05
.04
.03
. 17
1. 36
. 10
2.12
.28
.02

.03

(l)

.01
.03

0)

.............

Total.........................................
1 Less than 0.005.

0)

1.80
18.54

.10

1.95

.03
.07
.02
.06
.02
.02
.03
.02
C)

0)
.03
.01
.01
.03

C)
1
.01
.03

.02
.02
.28
.37
. 11

.08
.01
.13
. 18
.01

.02
.03
.05
.02

3.10

2.00

2 . 59

l.fO

0)
2.30

(1).0T

98

ACCIDENTS IN :rTHE ,IRQN. -AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T abl Ei 36rrr-ACCIDENT S E V E R N Y R A T E S £PER <10,OQO^HQ.URS/EXPOSURE! FOR SPECI­
F IE D D E P A R T M E N T S OF. T H E IR ON A N jr STEER' IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919,' B Y CAUSE
A N D LOCATION OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
Electrical.
Location. ,of injury.
, Ma­
chinery.

Power Hotsubvehicles. stanoes.

0.09
9.62
.06
4. 85

Falls of
worker.

9.?0
.17

Falling
objects.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

H ea d .

Eye*.................................................
Skull.....................
Other part^of head......................
Face and nleok...............................

0.04; f .
0)

4. 81.
.06:
4.84.

0.07

0)
0. 01*

.01,;

0.07
(l) ■
■
0)

T ru n k .

. 16 r

.05

0.02 i
9. 59
.02

.04
.01
.01
.09

0)
icVo o

Back..,..............................................
Thorax............................................
Abdomen.)......................................
Groin....... .......................................
Pelvis*..............................................

.11

C
1)
.02;

U p p e r e x tre m itie s .

Clavicle,............ .............................
Shoulder........................................
TTppp.r ftrT ,r.................................
p
Elbow ~ ...........................................
uina.*.-^........................................
R a d iu s ........................................
Forearm*..... ............. ^
__
_
W rist...............................................
Hand....... .......................................
Both bands.:................... .............
1 huger.............................................
2 fingers.........................................
3 fingers...........................................
T hum b,......................... ................
Thumb and l.finger-*;............. .

.01.

.06
1.72

0)

.03
.01

. 18
.05
.02
.01
. 16
.03

.01
.03
.30
.06
.01

.05*

.33
1.19

.06

.0 1 :

3.18 >
C
1)

%

.02.
.01
.04
.03
.61
.02

(V)
(
V)
.02
.01,
.06

•oi.

.98
.62

.01.

C
1)

0)
o -

.01

.07

.04

.01

0)

L o w e r e x t re m itie s .

Hip...................................................
Femur,............................................
Upper leg. ..... ...............................
Knee* >.............................................
Fibula.............................................
Tibia andrfibula,.........................
Lower leg.......................................
Ankle...............................................
Foot.................................................
Great to e .; .....................................
Groat toe and other toes..,...........

.02
.02
C)
.03
.05 :
C')
1
.01:

.33.

.01.
.02:
*
.04
.03 ,

1 Less than 0.005.




_

.06:
.02:
.14

.6 1
.04;.

.0 1 .

.35
.02
.21
.08

.04
.01
.02
.27
.03

.03
.01
. 10
.11

11,22

53

2.24

.03
14.33

U n c l a s s i f i e d ...................................

Total .. .

05:

31.39

. 16

24.99

0)

.o i:
.05
. 14
. 06
. 0>
3
4. 79
5.25

k e u a t io h

of

causes

to

l o c a t io n

, e t c ., o f i h j u b y .

99

T able 3 6 .—A CC ID EN T S E V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS' E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPARTM ENTS OF T H E IROJN AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION O F IN JU R Y—Continued.

Mechanical.
Location of injury.
chinery.

1 Powers Hot sub­
vehicles. stances,

Falls of
worker,

Falling
objects.

Handling
objects Unclassi­
fied.
and
tools.

H ea d .

Eye............................................ .
Skull.................................................
Other parts of head......................
Face and neck................................

0.59
.82
.02
.04

0.03

0..8i
.01

-

.82
.88

(i)
0.01
.08
G)

1.01
.01
.01
.04

.03
.83
G)
G)

3.24
.02
.02,

.07
.01
.82
. 17
.01
G)

1.57
.83
.01

T ru n k .

B a c k ,..,.........................................
Thorax.............................................
Abdomen..................................... ..
Groin...............................................
Pelvis...............................................
Generative organa....... .................

.04
4.06
.01
(i)
.81

.01
.01
.81

‘

.02.
.05
.01
.01
.03
G)

G)
G)

.01

G)

G)

.01
.01

U p p e r ex trem ities.

Scapula...........................................
Clavicle............................................
Shoulder........................ .................
Humerus..... ...................................
Upper arm......................................
Elbow................... ..........................
Ulna..................................................
Radius.............................................
Ulna and radius............................
F o re a r m ,-....................................
W rist................................................
H and................................................
Both hands....................................
1 finger..............................................
2 fingers............................................
3 fingers............................................
4 fingers....... ...............................
Thum b.............................................
Thumb and 1 finger......................
Thumb and 2 fingers....................

(i)
.01
.01
.02.
.oi
.01
.01
(1)
.05
.02
.32
0)
1.90
.38
.17
(i)
.61
.33
.20

(!)
G)
G)

(l)
•

(1)

G)
.01
G)
0)

.03
.01
.06
.01
(i)
G)

.05
.02
G)
.07
.01
.01
.03
.01
.09
.02

G)

.01

.01

.01
.01
.02

.01
(!)

0)

.03

. 12
.01
-

G)
.02

G)
.01
.02-

.03
.01
.01

G)
.02
.01
.01
.01
.02
.02
.63
.85
. 11
G)

.01
.01
.02
. 01
. 01
G)

. 75
G)

.01

G)

L o w e r extrem ities.

Hip....................................................
Femur..............................................
Upper leg........................................
Knee..............................................
Tibia............................... .................
Fibula.............................................
Tibia and fibula.............................
Lower leg.......................................
Ankle............................................ ..
Foot..................................................
Both feet..........................................
Great toe........................................
Great toe and-other, toes.............
Other- toes.......................................

(!)
.02
.03
.01
.02
.02
.07
.05
.06
.57
.13
.02 .
.01

G)
.61
.01
.03
.37
.02.01
.02
(i)
i
.01
0)
G)

U n c la s s ifie d ................................. ..

Total..........................................
1 Less than 0.005,




.01
0)

.03
.04
.04
(i)
G)

.03.
.04
.05.
.05
.02
.04
.01
.01
.13
.01

.81
11. 42

2.76

4.93

.04.
.01
G)
.03.
.04.
.02.
L0&
G)
. 12
.01
G)

G)
.04.
.04

G)
G)

.56
.06

.01
.03
.01
.24

.01
.02
.07
.08

.25
.01
G)

.01

5.24

4.17

.81

2.79

G)

.82
2.54 :

100

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 3 6 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ EXPO SU R E) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM EN TS OF T H E IR ON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AND LOCATION OF IN JU R Y —Continued.

Yards.
Handling
objects Unclassi­
and
fied.
tools.

Location of injury.
Ma­
chinery.

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

H ea d .

Eye.............................
Skull..........................
Other parts of head..
Face and neck.........

0 .6 2
2 .0 4
2 .0 5

.01

0.01

0 .0 4

4 .0 8
6 .1 7
.0 4

.0 5

0
i
0.02

.02

.0 3

0)

1.99
2.04
.01
.05

1 .2 8

0.02
0)

.01
.02

T ru n k .

Back............................
Thorax........................
Abdomen....................
Groin.................... .
Pelvis...........................
Generative organs_
_

.02
4 .1 7

.1 3
16. 51
2 .0 4

.01
.01

j

.0 6 ;

.10

.02

2.04
4. 08

.0 4

0)

0

2 .0 8

.01

0)

U p p e r e x tre m itie s .

Clavicle.......................
Shoulder......................
Humerus....................
Upper arm..................
Elbow..........................
Ulna.............................
Radius.........................
Ulna and radius.......
Forearm......................
Wrist............................
Hand............................
Both hands................
1 finger.........................
2 fingers.......................
3 fingers.......................
Thumb........................
Thumb and 1 finger..

.03

0
.0 5

0

.01

.0 3

.03

0
0)
0

I■.

.01
.Q
J

.0 4

.01
1 .3 7

0)
0
0)

0)
0

.01
. 35

0
1 .3 6
.3 7

.01 |
.02 :

.0 5

.02
.02
.01

.01

58
31 !

; 02J
.02 '

. 73 L

0
i
.01

.01

.0 6
1 .3 8

.0 8
2 .1 8
.0 7
.0 6

0)
0

.0 4
.0 7
.0 7

.01
.10
.01

0
.01
. 0*

.1 8
2 . 38
. 15
7. 73
.2 3

.11
.10

.0 4

.01 !

0
0

.01

.03

.23

2.04

4.09
54. 35

.31

0
0

.22

0)

.01

.01

.02

13. 57

.09
.01*

.06
.01
.13
.10

.0 3 j

0

0

1.36
.01
.08

.06
.03 !
.29 i

2.06

.0 5 :
.0 3

Total___




0

0

U n c la s s ifie d ..

i Less than 0.005.

.04
.01

0)

0)

0

.01

L o w e r e x tre m itie s .

Hip......................................
Femur.................................
Upper leg...........................
Knee....................................
Tibia...................................
Fibula.................................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg...........................
Ankle..................................
Foot.....................................
Both feet............................
Great toe............................
Great toe and other toes.
Other toes..........................

.01

.0 4
.0 5
1 .5 4

.01
.38 i

2.94

3.36

12.09

RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .
T

101

3 6 . — ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM EN TS OF T H E IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE
AN D LOCATION OF IN JU R Y —Concluded.

able

Unclassified.
Location.

Handling
Unclassi­
objects
fied.
and tools.

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.

Falling
objects.

(9
0.36
.03
(l)

0.15

(9
1.81
.38
.02

(9
0. 38
.03
(9

0.59
(i)
^ .03
.04

1.01
.37
.39
.01

.02

.01

.02

.11

.01

2.18
.72

.40

.40
(!)
.05
.01
C
1)
(9
<9

.01

2.60
1.46
.01
.37
0)

.73
.72

.04
.02
. 14
(!)
(9

.73
.37
.01
(9

(i)
(9

(i)
(9

Machin­
ery.

H ea d .

Eye..................................................
Skull................................................
Other parts of head......................
Face and neck...............................

0.25
1.10
.38
.04

.73
.10

T ru n k .

Back................................................
Vertebrae.......................................
Thorax........................... ...............
Abdomen........................................
Groin...............................................
Pelvis..............................................
Generative organs........................

0)
(9

.36

(9
0)

U p p e r extrem ities.

Scapula...........................................
Clavicle............................................
Shoulder.........................................
Humerus........................................
Upper arm.....................................
Elbow..............................................
Ulna................................................
Radius..........................................
Ulna and radius........................
Forearm..........................................
Wrist...............................................
Hand...............................................
Both hands....................................
1 finger............................................
2 fingers.....................................
3 fingers..........................................
4 fingers..........................................
Thumb............................................
Thumb and 1 finger.................
Thumb and 2 fingers...................
Thumb and 3 fingers...................

(!)

0)

.03
.01
.52
.03
.01
(i)
.01
.04
.04
.71
.72
.22
. 11
.22
.59

.01
.24

.02

(9

0)

(9
(9

(9

(i)
(l)
.01
(9

(!)
(1)
.01

.06
.01
.04
.02
.01
.01

.01
.01
.03
.05

.01
.02
.01
.02
.03
.02

(9

.04
.07
.01

.03

(9

(9
(9
(!)
(!)
(!)

(9

0)
(9

.01
.04
.02
.04
.02

.04

.04

0)

.01

.92
.11
.01
.09
.30

XTn c l a s s i f ie d ..................................

Total........................................

1 L e ss

.04
(9
; .07
.01

(9

L o w e r extrem ities.

H ip..................................................
Femur.............................................
Upper leg........................................
Knee................................................
Tibia................................................
Fibula..............................................
Tibia and fibula..........................
Lower leg........................................
Ankle..............................................
Foot.................................................
Both feet........................................
Great toe........................................
Great, toe and other toes...........
Other toes.....................................

(9
(9
' .02
.02
.04

.04
.06
.22

.01

.01

(9

(9
(9

0)

(9

.02

i
.01
.04
.63
.01
(i)
(!)
.08
.69
.03
.50
(9
.07
.01
.01

C)

.25
.37
.01
.01

.02
.01

(!)
.97
.01
.42
C)
.01

.06
.02
.29
.01
.15

.02
.03
.07
.04
C)
0)

(9

.02

.3 6

1.82

11.59

6 .4 4

3.95

(9

.01
.25

.37
.02
.01
.28
.09
.03
.67
(l)
.26
(!)
.03

(9

(9

(9

.23
.01
.01

(9

(9

.02
.02
.03
.01
.03
.03
.08
.09
.01
.02
1.85

(9
3.17

(9

.02
.03
.01
.01
.08
.05
.03
.39

4.08

3.63

5.31

t h a n 0.005.

Blast furnaces.— In blast furnaces the highest severity rate (10.28
days per 10,000 hours’ exposure) is found in the group unclassified
both as to cause and locality. It will appear later that this rate is
due to asphyxiating gas, which is still among the most serious menaces
of the blast furnace. Injuries to the thorax and the abdomen caused
by power vehicles have each a high rate and taken together contrib­
ute nearly half the loss due to that cause (9.17 out of 18.95 days).
Injuries to the skull have a high rate in all cause groups, but par-




102

ACCIDENTS IN ’ T H E IRON: AND STEER, INDUSTRY.

ticularly machinery (3.42 days), falling: objects (3.42 days), power
vehicles (3:41 days), and falls of Woriker (2.64 days)^.
Hot substances .have their most serious, effect o u the thorax. (3.44
days), abdomen (1.14 days)?, and in general burns not confined to a
specific locality (9.13 days).
Bessemer department.—hi this department the highest severity rate
(14..68ldays per lOjQOQ homjsl exposure) arises from hot substances not
classified in regard to location. Among, these would be included, of
course* such ,extensive buj*ns as happen from- time to ,tipae in the
departments handling molten, mejbal, , Next in severity (114)4. day^)
are injuries to the thorax arising from the operation of machinery,,
It should be noted that the machinery cause group includes cranes
and hoists as -well as* working machinery.* Power vehicles* give rise to
serious injuries in a .number of cases; for example, to the head {3*6#
days), to the thorax (3.69 days), and to the leg (3.72 days).
Open.hearths.—h., this department,. as in the. preceding, hn.t.sub­
stances causing general injuries have the highest severity rate (10. 81
days). Injuries to the thorax caused by machinery have a rate of
4.97 days; those caused by vehicles, 4.91 days;* and those caused by
hot.substances, ,2.09 days.
Foundries.— In the’foundries, machinery is the *cause of greatest
severity of accident {13.04 day§). The location.of ;the.most severe of
these injuries is in-thh pelvis (3.91 days) and the thorax (2.03 days);.
Falling objects are in this department a source of. considerable severe
injury^ as, for example, 2.0t days;for injuries to the leg,
Heavy *rolling* milts — Machinery is in this department -the cause of
greatest .severity (10.72 days). Thcre is no particular location which
stands out above the others in its contribution to this severity rate*
Other cause groups similarly present a fairly uniform-distribution of
severity ^among the different locations.
Plate mill's.-—Machinery, and) hot substanpes (12.68 and 3.14.;days)
are distinctly the largest contributors- to severity-in this department.
Among machinery injuries those to the skull are markedly more se­
rious (4.08 days) than those of .any other location.
Tube-mills.— Machinery (12.29 days) makes the largest contribu­
tion to severity r in juries to miscellaneous parts ohthie.head (3,58 days)
and to the thorax (3.64 days) being in the dead. Handling objects
and tools is nqi usually a large-contributor to-severity, but in this
department injuries to.the hands and fingers constitute, an important
element. This'seems to arise very largely in the handling of pipe in
the process of threading and iu moving it from place, to. place.
Sheet ■
rolling- mills^
—This*. .department.iis . particularly, conspicuous
for the.severity.of the iujuriesr occurring jin connection with handling
objects,apd tools, being in }that rpsppct much more so than the tube
mills just mentioned. This high degree o f severity is largely related
to the process of opening the packs of sheets. Injuries-to the eye,
in connection with handling, are also rather serious (1.03 days).
Fabrimting^M&chmezf' is: thumost* Important causer of. severity
in this department* Injuries do dhe thorax (3.66 days) are the. mpst
important. A .rather notable feature of these *
machinery >accidents
is the severity of cthose. which ln volve. one..finger (3,22,d^ys) , which
undoubtedly arise from the necessity of moving rather clumsy, and
unmanageable, objects with the *crane. I n . gmdingj and adjusting
these objects the workers rather frequently get arfinger caught,'. Ibis
also noticeable that;injuries* to the foot have ;a conspicuous severity




R E L A T I O N QE C A U S E S TQ L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

103

rate (2.12-days.)
The heavy girders a n d ‘ other fabricated parts
from time to time tip over and in doing so are apt to catch the worker.
This is reflected in the rate of 1*8.0 days for injuries to the thorax
caused by failing-obj ects.
Electrical^ It is .somewhat surprising, as has already been noted,
—
that machinery cause® the larger number of severe injuries in this
department (31.39 days). This is, of course, connected with the
work which the memhaye to do in repairing and adjusting electrical
machines.of various isorts. Most serious oEthese injuries are thosn
of the skull (9*62 days)- Hot substances, which include electricity ?
are next,in order oft severity (24.99 days), general injuries which
can n ot be definitely-located being the most serious (14.33 days).
Followingithese are injuries to parts of the head (9.70 days). Tha
effect of/electrical shjock, nqt accompanied by burns, is shown ip the
rate of 4-79 days ior. unclassified causes producing injuries npt classi­
fied by locality.
Mechanical.'—The mechanics suffer most severely from machinery,
injuries to the thorax-standing at the head of the list (4.06 days).
They also suffer notigaabh severity from injuries involving,the hands,those to one finger-showing a rate of, 1.90 days. These mechanicsinclude those who are obliged to work on elevations, such as riggers,
and who are thus more or less exposed to the danger of faffing.’
This is reflectedrin-injuries to the skull, due to falls of the worker
(3.24 days). As might be expected the mechanics show a rather
high rate (5.-24 days) in the handling of objects and tools. The loca­
tion of the most serious injuries is the eye, with a rate of 1.01 days.
All the departments show considerable severity from these eye
injuries, and since they are injuries which are almost completely
preventable by the provision of proper eye protectors and the securing.,
of the cooperation of itfie men in using them, they deserve very seriousattention.
Yards* N o, cause of injury in any department,shows as,high,a,
—
severity rate as power'Vehicles in the yard department (54.35 days).
Injuries, to the thorax (16.51 days) are the most serious. But
throughout the list of'locations high rates are found; such as, for*
exampleyfoot*, 7,73 days, parts of heady6.17 days, and skull, 4.08 days..
These injurie»-arer opcourse, almost entirely due to the movements
of cars througjh the yards and buildings. The fact that similar high
rates prevail m connection with jthe operation of railways suggests
that there is-stiff-room for careful study with a view to the further
reduction of themccjdent hazard in these occupations. Along with
the erection offstrucfwal steel transportation remains a department
which, while affected* by the-safety movement, has been lass-modified*
than. coul4;be, dcskediUnclassified.— The> only comment that it is desired to make,op this*
department is to calif attention to the fact that it also emphasizes theimportance of,machinery as a cause of severe injury.
GAJIBE& AJ&D. NATURE OR INJURY.

In ibeprecectag section the various cause groups have been related»
to the.pari n f thaim dy, which sustained injury. It is now proposed
to consider the -naturaof those-injuries and the cause gr-oupsby which
they were produced;* Table 37 contains the severity rates, classified
by cause groups and by the nature of injury.




104

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL, INDUSTRY,

3 7 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR
SPECIFIED DEPAR TM EN TS IN T H E IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y
CAUSE AN D N A T U R E OF IN J U R Y .

T able

BLAST FURNACES.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................
Cut...................................................
Laceration......................................
Puncture.........................................
Burn or scald.................................
Concussion.....................................
Dislocation.....................................
Fracture..........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)___
Accidental dismemberment.......
Nervous shock...............................
Abrasion with infection..............
Cut with infection........................
Laceration with infection...........
Puncture with infection.............
Burn or scald with infection___
Fracture with infection...............
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia..
Electric flash..................................
Crushing injury.............................
Electric shock................................
Loss of teeth...................................
Unclassified...................................
Total.........................................

Machin­
ery.

0)
0.85
1.45
.06
.02
.01
7.26
.01
1.20
.01

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

0)
0.15
.10
0)

7.85
.03
.14

<
V)

Falls of
worker.

0.02
.17

0)

8
16.01
1.14

.44
.02
1.14
1.14
.02
3.27
.06

.23

0)
0.27

0.03
.38

.07
.01

.66
.41
.01

.01
2.71

.01
1.44
.12
.11

0)

1.14

C)
1

6)

Falling Handling Unclassi­
objects
objects.
fied.
and tools.

.oi

0)

.01

.06
3.57

.01
.05
.01

.01
21.14
.01

0)
10.67

.41
.02
.35

0)
1.19
.07
0)

.02

.57
.04
.03

.02

.02

0.48
1.19
0)

0)
9.14

.12

1.28
1.14

.01

<
l)

1.14

0)

14.52

18.95

18.54

7.42

5.50

4.02

14.03

0.01
.32
.02

0.24
.27

0.01
.35
.28
. 11
.03

0.12
.16
.18
1.10
.01

BESSEMER.

Abrasion.......................................
Bruise...........................................
Laceration....................................
Puncture.....................................
Burn or scald.............................
Dislocation...................................
Fracture........................................
_
Sprain or strain (not hernia)_
Accidental dismemberment.......
Abrasion with infection..............
Laceration with infection...........
Burn or scald with infection_
_
H ernia........................................
Crushing in ju ry ...........................
H eat exhaustion..........................
Unclassified.................................
Total. ^ .................................

0)
0. 21
. 13

0.04
.18
.15

0)

0)
23.99

4.28
.73

.40
.01
.37

.03

.74
.25

.03

.09
.25
0)

.01
.01

0)

11.38

12.36

4.07

.54
.19
.37
.03
.10

13.51

.06
.05
.oi

0)

.08
.18

.03
0)

3.67
16.74

C)
1

1.36

8.61

2.26

1.74

0.01
.10
.05

24.03

0.04
.74
.28

0.08
.68
1.05
.05

0.78
. 13
.12
. 15
0)

FOUNDRIES.
Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................
Laceration......................................
Puncture.........................................
Burn or scald.................................
Dislocation.....................................
Fracture..........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)___
Accidental dismemberment.......
Abrasion with infection.............
Laceration with infection
Puncture with infection
Burn or scald with infection
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia
Electric flash
Crushing injury
Heat exhaustion
Total.........................................
i Less than 0.005.




0.07
.62
1.59
.01
.01
0)

3.83
.01
.30

0)

0.04
.01

0)

7.00
.06
.01

0)

2.22
.07

2.69
.01
.01

0)

6)

.oi

(V
)
1.65
.22
.21
.01
.01
.22

2.00

6.59

.16
.10

4.39

C
1)
0)

.21

5.78

.11
.01

0)

13.04

.12

7.02

2.45

2 This worker was gassed and fell from an elevation.

1.58

RELATION OE CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN JU R Y .

105

3 7 __ ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR
SPECIFIED D E P A R T M E N T S IN TH E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y
CAUSE AND N A T U R E OF IN J U R Y —Continued.

T able

OPEN HEARTHS.

Machin­
ery.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................

0.02
.58

0)

.42
Laceration
......................................
Puncture.........................................
0
Burn or scald.................................
0)
Concussion.....................................
.01
Dislocation.....................................
0)
8.16
Fracture..........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)___
.01
Accidental dismemberment.......
.68
Nervous shock___
Abrasion with infection..............
0)
Laceration with infection ........
.01
Puncture with infection.............
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia........................................
Electric flash.................................

Crushing injury........

...

Heat exhaustion...........................

9.37

0
0.27
. 17
.01

0.01
.34

.16

0
0

0.03
1.42
0

.01
.52
.13

.39
.04
.32

0)
4.27
.01
.05

(1>.61
.16
.24

.97

(!)

0.08
.09

.57
.18
.02

.02

0)
(!)
(!)
(1)

.39
.01

Handling
objects Unclassi­
fied.
and tools.

.09
.03
.01

C
1)

,o i

.02
.12
0

.03
.01

.05

.03
.01

2.01

.2!

.97
.01

1.04

8.07

3.63

2.14

0
0.15
.06

0.01
.19
.13

0.02
.32
.76
.35
.01
.01

0.05
.12
.16
.01
.01

.01

0

8.21

Electric shock..

(!)

(i)

Unclassified...................................
Total.....................................

Falling
objects.

0

16.61
(1).01
,
2.67
.02
.41

Falls of
worker.

0.02
.18

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

19.25

11.76

16.65

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.
A b r a s i o n ....................................
B r u i s e .........................................................
L a c e r a t i o n ...............................................

Puncture.

. .

.......

B u r n o r s c a l d ......................................
C o n c u s s i o n ..............................................

Dislocation..... ..........................

F r a c t u r e ...................................................
S p r a in o r s t r a in ( n o t h e r n i a ) .........
A c c i d e n t a l d i s m e m b e r m e n t .........
N e r v o u s s h o c k ......................................
A b r a s i o n w it h i n f e c t i o n ..................

Laceration with infection .. ..
P u n c t u r e w i t h i n f e c t i o n ............
B u r n o r s c a l d w it h i n f e c t i o n _
_
Fracture with infection.............
.
.......
Hernia ____
A s p h y x i a ...................................
E l e c t r ic f l a s h .............................
C r u s h in g i n j u r y .........................
H e a t e x h a u s t i o n _____ __________
Loss of teeth..............................
Unclassified..............................
T o t a l ................................

1 Less than 0.005.

7 1 0 8 7°— 22------- 8




0.02
.27
.48
.01
.01
.74
.03
2.41
.51
.70
.04

0.03
.03

0.01
.23
5.45

.02
0

0

1.41
.01

.32
.05

0)
4.44

5.92

.02
.22
0

.04
.03

0

0

.01

5.71

i. 56
.07

8
.01
.45

.41

1.67

0
2.83

.01

10.72

.53
.18
.15
.02

0

.01

(V)

0

0

.74

4. 77

.76
.02
.11

.61

0

.74

0
2.96

106

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y ,

TABLE 3 7 __ACCIDENT SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS' EXPOSURE) FOR
SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, BY
CAUSE AND NATURE OF INJURY—Continued.
PLATE MILLS.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion.......................................
. . . .
Bruise.........
Cut................................................
Laceration....................................
Puncture......................................
Burn or scald...............................
Concussion...................................
Dislocation..............................
Fracture.......................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)_
_
Accidental dismemberment.......
Nervous shock...............
Abrasion with infection..............
Cut with infection.......................
Laceration with infection. .
Puncture with infection.............
Burn or scald with infection_
_
H ernia..........................................
Asphyxia............
.........
Electric flash................................
Crushing injury...........................
H eat exhaustion..........................
Loss of teeth.................................
Total................................

Machin­ Power Hot sub­ Falls of
ery.
vehicles. stances. worker.

Falling Handling Unclassi­
objects
objects. andtools.
fied.

0.06

0
0.10

0.01
.33

.01

0.01
1.84

.12

.28
.02

i. 04
0)
.08

3.13

.01
0

0
7. 52
.01
.75
.07
0
0

0

.01
.10
.07

0
0

0.02
.33
0
.68
.08
.01

.20

.01
0

.03

0
0
1. 34
.01

.07 j

.04

I

12.68

.06 |
.01

0)

.20
.06

.02
.40
.14
.42

.96
0

0.11
.14

. 30

.12
.06
0

0
(i)

2. 73

0)
.41

3.14

2.49

3. 43

0.03
.26
.02
.80
.06

1.85

0.12
1.89

TUBE MILLS.
A b r a s i o n ............................................; . .
B r u i s e ........................................................
C u t ...............................................................
L a c e r a t i o n ...............................................
P u n c t u r e ..................................................
B u r n o r s c a l d ........................................
C o n c u s s i o n ..............................................
D is l o c a t io n ...........................................
F r a c t u r e ...................................................
S p r a in o r s t r a in ( n o t h e r n i a ) ____
A c c i d e n t a l d i s m e m b e r m e n t .........
A b r a s io n w it h i n f e c t i o n ..................
L a c e r a t i o n w it h i n f e c t i o n ..............
P u n c t u r e w it h i n f e c t i o n .................
B u r n o r s c a l d w it h i n f e c t i o n ____
H e r n i a .......................................................
E l e c t r ic f l a s h .........................................
Crushing injury.................................
H e a t e x h a u s t i o n ..................................

Unclassified

0.01
.13

0

0.01

2.22
.05
.01
1.78

.11

.58
.03
.98

.05

1.85

0

0.09

.04

.07

.20
.03

.01
.34
.01

2.17

0)

.52
.08
.27
1.78

.01

(!)

0
0

6.50
12.29

.80

.01
.04

.24

.19

.27
1.78
.01

2.13

.76

4.06

4.35

0.10
.05

0.17
.10

0.56
1.81
.04

0.06
.04
.84
.02

........................

T o t a l ..................................................

.05
.01

.05

0

.62

. 15
.03

2.18

SHEET ROLLING MILLS.

Abrasion....................................
Bruise........................................
Laceration.................................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald.............................
Concussion................................
Dislocation..............................
Fracture....................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)---Accidental dismemberment......
A rflcsjn with infection
h
n
Lftcerfvtion with infection
T ernia
T
...........
flrn T r ininrx?
o iirto
Total..................................
Less than 0.005.




0

0.24
.28

0.01
0.28

.28
.01
2.70

.01
.02
.04
.02
.15

0
.45
.17

|

j

1
i.................
*01 I................. I..................
.28
3.54
.01

.41

.89

.31
.56
1.37
.09
.24
.14
.38

.12
.12
.17

5.49

1.37

R E L A T IO N

O F C A U S E S T O L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

107

3 7 .— ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR
SPEC IFIED D E P A R T M E N T S IN T H E IRON AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y
CAUSE AND N A T U R E OF IN JU R Y —Continued.

T able

FABRICATING.
Nature of injury.
Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................
Cut...................................................
Laceration......................................
Puncture.......................................
Burn or scald.................................
Dislocation.....................................
Fracture..........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)----Accidental dismemberment.......
Abrasion with infection..............
Cut with infection........................
Laceration with infection...........
Burn or scald with infection. ..
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia.......... _...........................
Electric flash.................................
Crushing injury.............................
Loss of teeth...................................
Unclassified...................................
T o ta l.......................................

Machin­
ery.
0.02
1.71

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.
0)
0.10

0.04
.03

1.69
.57
.01
.10
5.43
.05
.95
0)

Falling Handling Unclassi­
objects
objects. and tools.
fied.
0.30

.11

.19

1.94
.01
1.98
.08

.02
.01
.01

.44

0.03
.26
0

.54
.07

0
0

.62
.09
.09
.02

O
0

.10

0.26
.05
.09
.08
.01
.01
.13
.06
0

.01

.01

.01
.04

.01

0)
0

7.93

2.19

.22

.09

0
18.54

.10

1.95

1.81

2.30

3.10

2.00

2,59

0.01
.28
.11
.01

0.10
.12

0.02
.11
.28
.01

0.08
.04
.06
.05

.16
.09
1.07
.03
.05
.26
.06

.04
.15

ELECTRICAL.
Abrasion
0.04
Rrnise..............................................
.16
Laceration........................
.............
.98
Puncture ................................... .
.01
Burn or scald.................................
Dislocation ...................................
0
Fracture
...................................
14.76
Sprain or strain (not hernia'). ..
Accidental dismemberment.......
Abrasion with infection..............
C
1)
Laceration with infection...........
Puncture with infection.............
Hernia. . .......................................
Asphyxia ...................................
Electric flash.................................
15.43
Crushing injury.............................
Heat exhaustion............................
F]e.etric shoclc _
_____________
Loss of teeth... ............................
T o ta l.......................................

31.39

0.12
0
10.53

10.44
.26

.05
0

.02
.28
0

0
.04

.05

4 .77

.14
.09
.02

14.32
.05
11.22

.53

2.24

5.25

0.06

0)
0.17

0.01
.35

0.11
.47

0.12
.37

.02

.08

.53
1.62

.99
.06
.01

(l)
1.15
.12
.49
C
1)
.16
.02
.01

.01
.06
.07

.16

24.99

MECHANICAL.
0.06
Abrasion.......... ...............................
Bruise............ .................................
.31
Cut...................................................
.51
......................................
Laceration
.49
Puncture.......................................
.03
Burn or scald.......... ......................
Concussion.....................................
.01
Dislocation........ .
Fracture ......................................
2.43
.04
Sprain or strain (not hernia)----1.62
Accidental dismemberment.......
Nervous shock...............................
. 01
Abrasion with infection...............
.81
Laceration with infection__ . . . .
Puncture with infection..............
Bum or scald with infection....
Hernia............................................
Asphyxia........................................
Electric flash................................
Crushing injury...... ............ .........
5.10
Heat exhaustion............................
Fleet,rie sheet . trr. .................
Loss of teeth..................................
0
Frosted.......... _................ .............
Unclassified....................................
Total.........................................
} Less than 0.005.




11.42

.16

1.16

.01
.07
3.64
.11

1.27
.01

.81
.04
0

0

0

1.08
.01
.04
0

.01

0

0

.16

.29
.81
.01
.82

.01
1.40

.88

.38

. 54
0

.81

.01
.s i
2. 76

2. 79

(V)
4. 93

(l)
2.54

5.24

4.17

108

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

3 7 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S' E X P O S U R E ) FOR
SPECIFIED D EPAR TM EN TS IN T H E IR ON AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y
CAUSE AND N A T U R E OF IN J U R Y —Concluded.

T a ble

YARDS.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................
Laceration......................................
Puncture.........................................
Burn or scald.................................
Dislocation.....................................
Fracture.........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)___
Accidental dismemberment.......
Nervous shock...............................
Abrasion with infection...............
Laceration with infection...........
Puncture with infection.............
Fracture with infection...............
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia........................................
Electric flash..................................
Crushing injury...........................:
Heat exhaustion............................
Electric shock................................
Unclassified....................................
Total.........................................

Machin­
ery.

0.01
.18
.17
2.08
2.40
0)
.41
.61

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

0.05
.94
.73
0
.02
.05
9.41
.17
5.21
0)

Falls of
worker.

Falling Handling Unclassi­
objects
objects.
fied.
and tools.
0)
0.21
.15
.01

.01
.14
.07

0.
.38
1. 48
.05

03
2.12
.12
1.96
4.13

.51
.16
.36

3.54
.15

.03

0
0.12
.04

.03
.02

.04
.39

0.28

0
0)

2.04
.02
7.70

35.71

.02
.12
0

0

2.14

.22
(l)

.02

0
13. 57

54. 35

.31

.38

2.94

0.01
.15

0
0.74

3. 36

12.09

U NCLASSIFIED.
Abrasion.........................................
Bruise..............................................
__
- - - - - - Cut .
Laceration......................................
Puncture.........................................
Burn or scald.................................
Concussion.....................................
Dislocation.....................................
Fracture..........................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)----Accidental dismemberment.......
Nervous shock...............................
Abrasion with infection...............
Cut with infection........................
Laceration with infection...........
Puncture with infection..............
Bum or scald with infection —
Hernia.............................................
Asphyxia........................................
Electric flash.................................

Crushing injury.........................

0.02
.36
.53
.12
.39

Total.........................................

.41
0

0

.03
3.39
.03
2.50

0

.09
3.14

.01
.91
.01
.16
0

0

0

.01
.36
.01
2. 41
.07
.02

0

0
.07

0
0
4.50

0
11.59

.36

0

.72

6. 44

3.95

.18
.01
0
0
1.29
.01
.07
.01
0

0
0

.01

4.22

Heat exhaustion............................
Frosted...........................................

TTnelassified...............................

0
0.08

.04

4.08

0

.78
.48
.01
.55
.20
.39

0.31
.14
0

0

.04
0
0

1.75

3.17

0. 03
.64
0

.02
.01
.12
.36

0
3.63

.37
1.13
.01
.48
.08
.12
.37

0
0
0
0
0

1.81
.45
.01
.03
5.31

1 Less than 0.005.

Blast furnaces.— The notable points under machinery are fracture
(7.26 days per 10,000 hours' exposure) and crushing injury (3.57
days). The group of fractures, of course, includes those of the skull,
which, since they often result in death, contribute largely to the
severity rate for fractures. Power vehicles also give rise to severe
fractures (7.85 days) and to crushing injuries (10.67 days). The most
serious single cause is hot substances, giving rise to burns and scalds
(16.01 days). These include those burns which rise from electric
current. Under the head of electrical shock (1.14 days) is a case of
death in which the electric current did not produce burns. In the




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

109

blast furnace there is a considerable amount of work done at ele­
vations from which there is a chance that the worker may fall. This
possibility is illustrated by the rate (3.27 days) for falls of worker
resulting in fracture. The fact that asphyxiating gas is a serious
menace to the workers about the blast furnace appears in various
ways at different points in the consideration of the department. In
this table it is emphasized by the rate (9.14 days) under unclassified
causes giving rise to asphyxia. In fact, of the unclassified causes
this produces about two-thirds of the severity rate.
Bessemer.— In this department hot substances producing burns
have the high severity rate (23.99 days). Next to this are power
vehicles producing crushing injury (12.36 days), and next machinery
producing crushing injury (11.38 days). In the Bessemer depart­
ment a part of the process involves the throwing of heavy masses
of scrap into the converters. In the best plants this is carried on
in such a way that there is little danger of the material falling outside
the converting vessel. In the older plants, however, it happens
more or less Frequently that these heavy masses fall to the floor
below and inflict serious injury. This contributes materially to the
rate of 4.07 days due to falling objects which produce crushing
injury.
Open hearths.— In this department hot substances producing burns
have a higher rate (16.61 days) than any other single cause. Follow­
ing it are machinery causing crushmg injury (9.37 days) and
machinery causing fracture (8.16 days). The rate for falling objects
producing fracture (4.27 days) is high enough to be noticeame.
Foundries.— H ot substances producing burns (7.00 days) leads in
this department. Next to it comes machinery producing crushing
injury (6.59 days) and machinery producing fracture (3.83 days). A
considerable amount of severity is due to falling objects; for example,
those producing fracture (2.69 days), and those producing crushing
injuries (2.00 days).
Heavy rolling mills.— The highest rate in this department is for hot
substances producing burns (5.45 days). Under machinery the rates
for fracture (2.41 days) and for crushing injury (4.77 days) are note­
worthy.
Plate mills.— The highest rate (7.52 days) is found under machinery
producing fracture, rfext to it comes hot substances producing
burns (3.13 days). A hazard of considerable seriousness is present
in the plate mills on account of the broad expanse of heated metal
from wliich radiation may take place very rapidly. The result of
this is shown in the severity rate (2.73 days) for unclassified causes
producing heat exhaustion. Whenever workers are exposed to
conditions such as this they are liable to heat cramps and other
results of exposure to high temperature. Two methods of relief are
available: (1) Streams of air so directed as to carry the heat away
from the positions which the men occupy; and (2) an ample supply
of good drinking water at the right temperature. If the water is
too cold the men are apt to mistake the effect of the cold for the taking
of a sufficient amount and an insufficient quantity is apt to be taken
if the water has an unpleasant odor. The failure to supply the blood
with sufficient liquid to replace that drawn off by profuse perspiration
may have serious results. Some mills have found that the provision




110

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

of an adequate and satisfactory supply of water has reduced the cases
of heat exhaustion very materially.
Tube mills.—Machinery producing crushing injury (6.50 days)
stands at the head of the list. There is a notable amount of laceration
(2.22 days) connected with the operation of machinery in this depart­
ment. This is related to facts already noted in considering location
of injury. In the operation of threading pipes roughnesses are pro­
duced which cause more or less severe laceration of the hands.
From the rate (1.78 days) for handling objects or tools giving rise to
abrasion with infection it might be supposed that these mills gave
inadequate attention to the minor injuries in connection with which
infection is liable to occur. In all probability, however, this rate
represents a comparatively few cases in which infection may have
resulted in death. It does serve, however, to suggest forcibly the
extreme precautions which it is desirable to take in order to avoid
infection.
Sheet rolling mills.— The rates in this department are all of them
rather low except for the handling of objects and tools. It has
already been indicated that much of this injury is connected with the
opening of the packs of sheets. To this may be attributed a large
part of the rate (1.81 days) for handling giving rise to laceration.
This is one of the departments in which the cause group “ handling
objects and tools7 gives a higher severity than machinery. In the
7
case of the latter, machinery producing accidental dismemberment
shows the highest rate (2.70 days).
Fabricating.— Two items for this department are conspicuously
more prominent than any of the others, namely, machinery causing
crushing injury, with a rate of 7.93 days, and machinery causing
fracture, with a rate of 5.43 days. Falling objects causing crushing
injury have a rate of 2.19 days. As has already been suggested this
is largely due to the falling over, from time to time, o f the heavy
girders and other structural forms which are produced in these shops.
Electrical.— The conspicuous rates in this department are found in
machinery causing crushing injury (15.43 days), machinery causing
fracture (14.76 days), and electricity giving rise to electric shock
(14.32 days). It is very likely that falls of worker producing fracture
(10.44 days) may be, in part, a result of the effect of the electrical cur­
rent. These falls occur, for the most part, in the case of men employed
as linemen. Table 12, page 386, shows that the injuries to linemen
have a very high average severity. It is easy to infer that a consider­
able part of these disastrous falls are due to the receiving of an electric
shock not in itself sufficient to do serious damage, but sufficient to
cause the worker to loose his hold apd fall from the elevation where he
is working. A good deal of progress has recently been made in
devising improved forms of protection for these men, and this high
severity rate strongly emphasizes the need for utilizing all these pro­
tective devices. Under unclassified causes a rate of 4.77 days for
those giving rise to asphyxia shows that in the course of the necessary
electrical work about blast furnaces and some other departments of
the iron and steel industry, the electrical worker is exposed to a con­
siderable danger from asphyxiating gas. The development of test
apparatus to show the presence of carbon monoxide and the develop­
ment of gas masks and oxygen breathing apparatus ought to cut
down this rate.




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

1H

Mechanical.— Machinery causing crushing injury (5.10 days) shows
the highest rate in this department. Falls of worker resulting in
fracture stand next in order (3.64 days).
Yards.— As already noted under location of injury, power vehicles
are the prime source of severe injury to yard employees. Crushing
injury (35.71 days) is much the most serious. This, of course, is
readily understood, since the duties of many of the employees require
that they go between the cars, and it is evident that they are often
caught and crushed. This group also includes those crushing injuries
which occur in coupling and uncoupling. Another indication of the
seriousness of injuries to the hand and fingers by being caught
between the cars is the rate for accidental dismemberment (5.21 days).
Fractures (9.41 days) includes, of course, fractures of the skull, which
are of serious importance. Yard employees also suffer to a marked
degree from crushing injuries due to machinery. A large part of
these doubtless arise in connection with the operation of outdoor
cranes. Under unclassified causes puncture wounds show a high
rate (4.13 days). This rate reflects a considerable number of losses
of the eye due to punctures and also somewhat frequent cases of
injury due to sharp objects lying on the ground. It suggests, there­
fore, further attention to proper eye protection and also the need for
strict requirements with regard to keeping the yards cleaned up.
Unclassified.— The highest rate (4.50 days) in this group is for
power vehicles causing crushing injury. It is rather closely followed
by crushing injury due to machinery (4.22 days). This miscellaneous
group of workers does not present any other point of particular
interest
CAUSES AND RESULT OF INJURY.

It is usual to present the results of injury under three headings—
death, permanent disability, and temporary disability. The last two
are subdivided into a number of groups. In the ordinary presenta­
tion of accident rates on a frequency basis the rate for death is
comparatively small, that for permanent disability usually somewhat
higher, and that for temporary disability much the largest of the
three. This arrangement of rates inevitably gives an appearance of
relative unimportance to the death rate. Death is known to be the
most serious form of industrial casualty. In spite of this fact, when
it is represented by a small figure such as 0.8 case per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure, while temporary disability is represented by 35.00
cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure, the resulting impression is likely
to be that temporary disability has an importance somewhat in pro­
portion to the size of the figure which represents it. A great advan­
tage of severity rates is that they throw these elements into more
nearly their proper relation to each other; for example, in blast
furnaces the rate for fatalities from machinery is 10.22 days per
10,000 hours’ exposure; the rate for permanent disability is 3.72 days;
and the rate for temporary disability is 0.58 day. It will be observed
that this is to all appearances exactly opposite to the relation which
would be shown by the frequency rate, and there can be no doubt that
these severity rates more correctly represent the relative importance
of the items than the frequency rates can possibly do. Because of
this relationship it has been thought worth while to show in con­
siderable detail, in this and other places, tables of severity rates
classified in accordance with the results of the injury.




112

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

3 8 . — ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y RATES (PER 1 0,0 0 0 HO U R S’ EX P O SU R E ) FOR TH E
IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 1 915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSES AN D R ESU LT OF IN JU R Y.

T able

BLAST FURNACES.

R e s u lt o f i n j u r y .

D e a t h .............................................................
P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i l i t y : L o s s o f—
B o t h e y e s ...........................................
1 h a n d l .................................................
1 l e g ........................................................
1 f o o t ......................................................
1 e y e .......................................................
1 t h u m b ...............................................
1 f in g e r .................................................
2 f in g e r s ...............................................
3 f in g e r s ...............................................
4 f in g e r s ...............................................
T h u m b a n d fin g e r ......................
T h u m b a n d 3 f in g e r s ................
G r e a t t o e ............................................
A n y 2 t o e s ..........................................

M a c h in ­
ery.

Pow er
v e h ic le s .

1 0 .2 2

1 7 .0 3

H o t su b­
s ta n c e s .

1 4 .7 6

F a l ls o f
w orker.

F a l li n g
o b je c t s .

4 .5 4

4 .5 4

H a n d lin g
U n c la s s i­
o b je c ts
a n d to o ls .
fie d .

1 .1 4

12. 49

1 .1 4
.5 7
1 .5 1

.5 7
.8 5
.4 5
.8 5

.2 3
.4 5
. 14
.3 7
.3 4

.6 8

.6 8

1 .0 2

.1 5
.1 2

.1 2

.2 3
.3 8
.0 6
.0 6

.0 6

T o t a l .......................................

3. 72

1. 45

2 .2 1

2 .1 9

T e m p o r a r y d is a b ility , te r m i­
n a tin g in —
1 st w e e k .............................................
2 d w e e k ...............................................
3 d w e e k ...............................................
4 t h w e e k .............................................
5 th w e e k ..
..............................
6 t h - 1 3 t h w e e k ................................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r ....................

.0 3
.0 4
.0 6
.0 3
.0 5
.1 2
.2 4

.0 4
.0 5
.0 2
.0 6
.0 3
.1 8
.1 0

.0 9
. 19
.2 3
.1 6
.2 0
.3 4
.3 6

.0 6
.0 7
.0 6
.0 7
.0 8
.2 5
.0 9

T o t a l .................................................

.5 8

G r a n d t o t a l ..................................

1 4 .5 2

. 48'
1 8 .9 5

1

1 .4 8

1 .0 2

.0 5
.0 9
.0 7
.0 5
.0 8
.1 5
.3 3

.2 1
.2 3
.2 5
. 14
.1 2
.2 5
.2 0

.1 7
.1 1
.0 6
.0 5
.0 5
.0 7
.0 2

* 12

1 .5 7

.6 8

.8 2

1 .4 1

.5 2

1 8 .5 4

7 .4 2

5. 50

4. 02

1 4 .0 3

BESSEMER.
D e a th

...........................................................

P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i l i t y : L o s s o f—
1 e y e .......................................................
1 t h u m b ..............................................
1 fin g e r .................................................
3 f in g e r s ...............................................
G r e a t t o e ............................................
A l l o t h e r .............................................

1 4 .6 8

1 1 .0 0

2 2 .0 2

7 .3 4

1 .1 0
.5 5
.7 3

.7 3
.5 5

0 .3 7
.3 7

T o t a l .................................................

1 .2 8

.0 3
.0 5
.0 2
.1 0
.0 6
.2 5
.2 6

.0 3
.0 4
.0 6

. 37

1 .2 8

T e m p o r a r y d is a b ility , te r m i­
n a tin g i n —
1 s t w e e k ...............................................
2 d w e e k ...............................................
3 d w e e k ...............................................
4 th w e e k .............................................
5 t h w e e k .............................................
6 t h - 1 3 t h w e e k ................................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r ....................

.0 6
.3 1
.7 3

.0 8
.0 9
.1 5
.2 0
.1 2
.7 9
.5 8

0 .0 3
.0 3
.0 4
.0 8
.0 8
.3 9
.7 2

. 18
. 18
. 73

1 .1 0

.0 7
.0 5
.1 2
. 11
.0 8
.1 2
.3 6

.1 1
.1 6
.1 8
.2 0
.1 0
.4 0
.3 6

.1 1
.0 7
.0 7
. 01
.0 6
.1 9
.1 3

T o t a l .................................................

.7 8

1 .2 2

2 .0 1

1 .3 6

.9 0

1. 5 2

.6 4

G r a n d t o t a l .................................

1 6 .7 4

1 3 .5 1

2 4 .0 3

1 .3 6

8. 61

2 .2 6

1 .7 4




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

113

T a b l e 3 8 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’

E X PO SU R E) FOR THE
IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 1915 *TO 1919, B Y CAUSES AN D R ESU LT OF IN JU R Y —
Continued.

OPEN HEARTHS.

Result of injury.

D e a th .............................................
Permanent dibility: Loss of—
Both legs.................................
1 arm........................................
1 hand......................................
lfo o t.........................................
1 eye........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
4 fingers...................................
Thumb and 2 fingers............
Thumb and 4 fingers............
Great toe.............................
Any 2 toes...............................

Machin­
ery.

15. 59

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

7.80

Falls of
worker.

13.64

6.82

0.97

.15

. 15
.24
.39
.11

.58

.24
.47
. 19
.39
.49

.78
.29
. 19
. 44
.12

.11

.19
.05
.24

1
.................I..................
.05
* io

.10

I

2.12

3. 21

.66

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week.................................
2d week................................
3d week...................................
4th week..................................
5th week..................................
6th-13th week........................
14th week and later...............

.09
. 12
. 13
. 10
.13
.41
.56

.04
.05
.05
.09
. 11
.23
.21

. 19
.23
.38
.21
.24
.64
.46

Grand total.........................

0.97

.97
.65

Total.....................................

Total.................................

Handling
objects Unclassi­
fied.
and tools.

Falling
objects.

.24

.90

.58

0.08
.09
.09
.07
.06
.34
.33

. 10
.12
. 11
.13
. 12
.24
.18

. 28
.26
.28
.21
. 19
.53

. 18
. 11
.07
.04
.04
.07
.07

1.54

.76

2. 35

1.04

1.00

1. 76

.58

19.25

11.76

16. 65

1.04

8.07

3.63

2.14

1.96

3. 92

FOUNDRIES.
D e a th .............................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 hand......................................
1 leg..........................................
1 eye.........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
Thumb and 4 fingers............
Great toe.................................
Any 2 toes...............................

7. 83

5.87

.98
1.30
0.59
.59
.59
.24

.20

.20

.39
.78
. 10
.10

Total.....................................

3.18

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week...................................
2d week....................................
3d week...................................
4th week..................................
5th week..................................
6th-13th week........................
14th week and later...............

.16
.20
.20
.31
.21
.68
.26

0.01
.01
.02
.01
.02
.04

Total.....................................

2.04

.12

1.15

Grand total.........................

13.04

.12

7.02




.20
.29

.20

.07
.12
. 11
.12
.10
.43
.20

.20

2.18

.78

.04
.05
.04
.03
.02
.11

.10
. 18
.17
.17
.11
.52
.42

.37
.47
.30
.21
. 18
.49
.18

.21
.18
.05
.03
.04
.17
.11

.30

1.68

2. 21

.79

2.45

5.78

4.39

1.58

114

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

3 8 . — A C C I D E N T S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 1 0 ,0 0 0 H O U R S 7 E X P O S U R E ) F O R T H E
I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 1 915 T O 1919, B Y C A U S E S A N D R E S U L T O F I N J U R Y —
C o n tin u e d .

T able

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.

Result of injury.

Machin­ Power Hot subery.
vehicles. stahces.

Death ..........................................
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
1 arm ......................................
1 h a n d ....................................
1 leg........................................
1 foot......................................
1 eye.......................................
1 th u m b .................................
1 finger...................................
2 fingers.................................
3 fingers.................................
Thum b and 2 fingers...........
Great to e...............................
Any 2 toes.............................

5.16

4.42

.49
1.01
.54
.29

Falls of
worker.

. 10
.37
.49

. 18
.59
.47
.29
. 18
.25

Falling
objects.

Handling Unclassi­
objects
fied.
and tools.

4.42

.66

2.22

0.09

0.59
.15
.04

.04
.15
.04
.04

0.77
.07
.42
.16

.07
.07

.22

.0 4

4.32

1.22

.66

.09

.92

1.47

.22

.07
.09
.11

.04
.06
.05
.05
.04

.07
.07
.06
.07
.08

.18
. 18

.0 8

.25

.05
.04
.04
.02
.01
.23
.13

.1 5

.16
.41
.29

.01
.01
.01
.02
.02
.06
.16

.19

.12
.12
.35
.26

Total...................................

1.23

.28

.62

.53

.75

1.36

.53

to tal........................

10. 72

5.92

5. 71

.61

1.67

2.83

2.96

Total...................................
Temporary disability, term inat­ #
i n g in—
1st week.................................
2d week..................................
3d week..................................
4th week................................
5th week................................
6th~13th week.......................
14th week and later..............

G ra n d

.11

.12

.21

.05
.04
.04
.03
.17
. 12

PLATE MILLS.

D.eath .......................................

8.16

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 foot...................................
1 thumb..............................
1 finger................................
Thumb and 3 fingers..........
Great toe.............................
Any 2 toes...........................

2. 72

2. 72

.95
.41
.61
.41
. 14
.14

0.54
.14

Total................................

2. 65

.75

".75

Temporary disability, terminat­
ing in—
1st week..............................
2d week.............................
3d week...............................
4th week..............................
5th week..................... .......
6th-13th week....................
14th week and later.............

. 10
.16
.17
.20
.14
.64
.45

.12
. 14
.13
.09
.09
.26
.27

.29
.27
. 18
.14
.14
.53
.19

.07

0.01
0)

.02

.01
.01
.02

.06
.08
.05
.05
.05
.09
.04

0.05
.05
.03
.06
.04
.13
.07

0.41
.27
.07

. 14
. 10
. 10
.05
.07
. 11
.16

Total................................

1. 87

.07

.42

.41

1 .1 1

1.74

.71

Grand total......................

12.68

.07

3.14

.41

1. 85

2. 49

3. 43

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y.

115

TABLE- 3 8 . — A C C I D E N T

IR O N A N D
C o n tin u e d .

S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 1 0 ,0 0 0 H O U R S ' E X P O S U R E ) F O R T H E
S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 191 5 T O 1 91 9 , B Y C A U S E S A N D R E S U L T O F I N J U R Y —

TTOE m i l l s .

R e s u lt o f i n ju r y .

D e a t h .....................................................
P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i li t y : L o s s o f—
B o t h e y e s .......................................
1 e y e ..................................................
1 t h u m b ...........................................
1 f in g e r .............................................
2 fin g e r s ...........................................
T h u m b a n d 2 f in g e r s ...............
A n y 2 t o e s ......................................
T o t a l .........................................
T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m in a t ­
i n g in —
1st w e e k ...........................................
2 d w e e k .......................................
3 d w e e k ...........................................
4 t h w e e k .......................................
5 t h w e e k ....................................... r
6 t h -1 3 t h w e e k .......................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r ..................
T o t a l ...........................................
G r a n d t o t a l ...............................

M a c h in ­
ery.

P ow er
v e h ic le s .

7 .1 0

1. 78
.5 3
. 18
.8 9
.6 7

H ot su b­
sta n ces.

F a lls o f
w ork er.

F a ll in g
o b je c ts .

1 .7 8

1 .7 8

H a n d l in g
U n c la s s i­
o b je c ts
fie d .
a n d t o o ls .

1 .7 8

3 .5 5

.5 3
.3 6
.2 7

. 18
.0 9

.2 2

1 .1 5

.2 7

.0 6
.0 8
.0 5
.0 5
.0 3
.0 9
.1 7

0 .1 8
0 .2 2
.4 4

.1 8
4. 22

.6 2

.0 1
.0 4
.0 3
.0 1
.0 3
.0 8
.1 6

.0 2
.0 6
.0 6
.0 4
.0 5
.0 7
.2 5

.0 9
. 17
.1 4
. 17
.0 9
.3 8
.0 8

.1 5

.0 2
.0 4
.0 4
.0 2
.0 2
.0 7
.2 0

.9 7

.1 8

.4 1

.3 5

.5 4

1 .1 3

.5 3

1 2 .29

.8 0

2 .1 8

2 .1 3

.7 6

4 .0 6

4 .3 5

.0 3
.0 6
.0 5
.0 8
.0 7
.2 7
.4 2

.0 1
.0 2
.0 1

*

SHEET ROLLING MILLS.
D e a t h ......................................................
P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i li t y : L o s s of—
1 e v e ............................................
1 t h u m b ...........................................
1 f i n g e r .............................................
2 fin g e r s ...........................................
4 fin g e r s ...........................................
T o t a l ...........................................
T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m in a t ­
in g in —
1st w e e k ...........................................
2 d w e e k ............................................
3 d w e e k ...........................................
4 t h w e e k .........................................
5t,h w e e k ..........
6th -1 ,3 th w e e k . . . .
1 4th w e e k and l a t e r ..................

______ _______

......... ............

_____ = = = = = _____________ ________ .

_____________

0 .8 4
.8 4
1 .0 1

0 .1 7

1.01
. 17
.6 8

2 .7 0

.1 7

1 .8 6

.1 7

.0 2
.0 7
.0 8
.0 4
.0 2
.0 9
.4 1

.3 7
.7 2
.5 6
.4 4
.3 7
.9 3
.2 4

.1 6
.1 7
.1 8
.1 1
.0 7
.5 1

.0 5
.1 0
.0 5
.0 6
.0 9
.2 7
.2 2

0 .0 1

0 .0 4
.0 7
.0 9
.0 4
.0 4

0 .0 4
.0 7
.0 3
.0 7
.2 0

0 .1 7

T o t a l .............................................

.8 3

.0 1

.2 8

.4 1

.7 2

3 .6 3

1 .2 0

G r a n d t o t a l ...............................

3. 54

.0 1

.2 8

.4 1

. 89

5 .4 9

1 .3 7




116

ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T a ble 3 8 .— A C C ID E N T
IR O N A N D
C o n tin u e d .

S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 10,000 H O U R S ’ E X P O S U R E ) F O R T H E
S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 1915 T O 1919, B Y C A U S E S A N D R E S U L T O F I N J U R Y —

FABRICATING.

Result of injury.

Machin­
ery.

Death...............................................

9.00

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 leg..........................................
1 eye.........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
Great toe.................................
Any 2 toes...............................

Falls of
worker.

1.80

1.80

1.20
1.08
.90
2.34
.68
.36
.18

Total.....................................

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

6. 74

Temporary disability, terminat­
ing in—
1st week..........•........................
»
2d week....................................
3d week...................................
4th week..................................
5th week..................................
6th-13th week........................
14th week and later..............
All other..................................

__________

Falling Handling Unclassi­
objects
objects. and tools.
fied.
1.80

.18

____x = = = =

1.80

0.36

.18

.36

.36

.18

.12
.19
.15
.09
.06
.22
.10

.25
.35
.26
.23
.20
.29
.06

.30
.17
.05
.04
.04
.01

.i s

.22
.47
.45
.19
.22
.67
.58

0.01
.01
0)
.05
.03

.06
.06
.03
.05
.04
.14
.11

.03
.04
.04
.02
.02
.01
0

Total.....................................

2.81

.10

.15

.50

.94

1.64

.61

Grand total.........................

18. 54

.10

1.95

2.30

3.10

2.00

2.59

ELECTRICAL.
D e a t h ........................................................

2 3 .8 6

P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i li t y : L o s s o f—
B o t h e y e s .......................................
1 a r m .................................................
1 f in g e r .............................................
2 fin g e r s ...........................................
T h u m b a n d 3 fin g e r s ...............
G r e a t t o e .........................................

3 .1 8
.2 4
1 .1 9
1 .6 0
.2 4

T o t a l .............................................

6 .4 4

T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m i ­
n a tin g —
1st w e e k ...........................................
2 d w e e k ...........................................
3 d w e e k ............................................
4 t h w e e k ..........................................
5 t h w e e k ..........................................
6 t h -1 3 t h w e e k ..............................
1 4th w e e k a n d l a t e r ..................

.0 8
.0 8
.0 6
.1 8
.1 2
.3 6
.1 9

1 9 .0 9

9 .5 4

4 .7 7

4 .7 7
0. 72
.6 0

4 .7 7

0 .0 1
.0 2
.0 2
.0 2
.0 9

.1 7
.1 6
.2 6
.1 4
.0 8
.2 4
.0 7

1 .3 1

.0 9
.1 0
.0 4
.0 2
.1 2
.7 4
.5 6

0 .0 3
.0 6
.0 6
.0 2
.0 7
.2 8

.1 1
.1 7
.1 5
.0 4
.1 0
.2 9
.0 7

.1 7
.0 7
.0 6
.0 2
.1 6

T o t a l .............................................

1 .0 8

.1 6

1 .1 2

1 .6 7

.5 3

.9 3

.4 8

G r a n d t o t a l ...............................

3 1 .3 9

.1 6

2 4 .9 9

1 1 .2 2

.5 3

2 .2 4

5 .2 5

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

117

T able 3 8 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R AT ES (PER 10,000 HO U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR THE
IRON AND ST EEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSES AN D R ESU L T OF IN JU R Y —
Continued.

MECHANICAL.

Result of injury.

Death..............................................

Machin­
ery.

6.46

Power Hot sub­
vehicles. stances.

1.62

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 hand......................................
1 leg..........................................
1 foot.........................................
1 eve.........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
Thumb and 1 finger.............
Thumb and 2 fingers............
Great toe.................................

.48
.48
.89
.40
.16
.32
.20
.08

Total.....................................

3.43

.86

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week...................................
2d week...................................
3d week....................................
4th week..................................
5th week..................................
6th-13th week........................
14th week and later...............

.14
.14
.14
.16
.18
.42
.36

2.42

.01
.01
.01
.01

Falls of
worker.

4.04

Handling
Falling
objects Unc>assiobjects. and tools.
fied.
1.62

0.81

1.62

.40

.40
.54
.32

.54

.08

.08

.07
.17

2.53

1.94

.10
.09
.10
.13
.07
.25
.11

.26
.31
.26
.24
.19
.58
.07

.17
.10
.08
.04
.03
.12
.06

1.40

.04

|
.........1

.04
.06
.06
.04
.05
.09
.03

.32
.91
.32
.53

.07
.07
.06
.05
.03
.29
.30

Total.....................................

1.53

.28

.37

.89

.84

1.91

.61

Grand total.........................

11.42

2.76

2.79

4.93

2.54

5.24

4.17

YARDS.
D e a t h ........................................................
P e r m a n e n t d is a b ilit y : L o s s o f—
1 a r m .................................................
1 l e g ....................................................
1 f o o t ..................................................
1 e y e ...................................................
1 t n u m b ...........................................
1 f in g e r .............................................
2 f in g e r s ...........................................
G re a t t o e .........................................
A n y 2 t o e s ......................................

1 0 .1 8

4 0 .7 4

2 .0 4

8 .1 5

2 .8 9
1 .3 6

1 .3 6
4 .8 9
.6 i
.2 0
.5 1

1 .2 2
.6 1
1 .1 2
.2 5

1 .8 3

.3 1
.2 5
.1 0

.1 0

.1 0

T o t a l .............................................

2 .7 8

9 .8 6

T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m i­
n a tin g in —
1st w e e k ...........................................
2 d w e e k ...........................................
3 d w e e k ...........................................
4 t h w e e k ..........................................
5 t h w e e k ..........................................
6 t h -1 3 t h w e e k ..............................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r ..................

.0 5
.0 6
.0 8
.0 5
.0 6
.1 3
.1 7

.2 3
.2 7
.2 7
.2 6
.2 4
1 .2 9
1 .1 9

0 .0 4
.0 2
.0 3
.0 4
.0 3
.1 5

.1 0

0 .0 5
.0 4
.0 7
.0 5
.0 3
.1 1
.0 3

1 .7 8

3 .1 9

.0 6
.0 5
.0 3
.0 6
.1 1
.2 9
.1 9

.1 8
.1 8
.1 8
.1 6
.1 8
.5 3
.1 7

.1 2
.0 9
.0 5
.0 5
.0 4
.2 1
.1 8

T o t a l .............................................

.6 0

3 .7 5

.3 1

.3 8

.8 0

1.5 8

.7 5

G r a n d t o t a l ...............................

13. 57

5 4 .3 5

.3 1

.3 8

2 .9 4

3 .3 6

1 2 .0 9




118

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 3 8 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR T H E
IR ON AND ST EEL IN D U ST R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSES A N D R ESU L T OF IN JU R Y —
Concluded.

UNCLASSIFIED.

Result of injury.

Power Hot sub­
Machin­
ery.
vehicles. stances.

Falls of
worker.

2.88

2.52

6.48
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm........................................
1 hand......................................
1 leg..........................................
1 foot.........................................
1 eye.........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
4 fingers...................................
Great toe.................................
Any 2 toes...............................
Other........................................

.75
.36
.24
.29
I
.22 i
.54 !
.54
.27 ;
.07
.32

5.04

Handling
Falling
objects Unclassi­
objects. and tools.
fied.
2.52

3.60

.24
.48

.72
*14

0.09
.06

.04
.02

.54
.16
.46
.05

.29
.11
.04
.02

.02
.05

.88
.02
.07

.02
.05

.04 .................

.02
.02

.02

Total.....................................

3. 64

1.17

.40

.07

.61

1.39

.97

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week...................................
2d week....................................
3d week..................................
4th week..................................
5th week..................................
6th-13th week........................
14th week and later...............

.10
. 15
. 14
. 13
.15
.45
.36

.02
.03
.04
.03
.02
.06
.04

.06
.09
.12
.06
.04
.15
.15

.05
.07
.06
.06
.05
.16
.11

.09
.10
. 13
.10
.09
.31
.13

.34
.34
.33
.21
.27
.57
.18

. 13
.11
.09
.07
.05
. 14
.15

Total.....................................

1.47

.23

.66

.58

.45

2.24

.74

Grand total.........................

11. 59

6.44

3.95

3.17

4.08

3. 63

5.31

Blastfurnaces.— It happens that in this particular group of blast
furnaces death is most frequently caused by power vehicles (17.03
days per 10,000 hours* exposure). In other compilations hot mate­
rials stand at the head, while here they are in second place (14.76
days). Among the permanent disabilities those due to machinery,
causing loss of the leg, have the highest severity (1.51 days). In
this department, and practically all others, it is the rule that
the severity rates increase as far as cases terminating in the third
week and then begin to decline. That is, the large number of cases
which terminate in the first week is not sufficient to offset the longer
disability of the smaller number of cases running into the second and
third weeks. If the frequency rates be consulted it would appear
as though the disabilities of one week and under were the more im­
portant. The consideration of them from the standpoint of severity
corrects that erroneous impression.
Bessemer.— Death due to hot materials is the most serious matter
in this department (22.02 days). The time losses for temporary
disabilities caused by hot substances are rather notable, the rate being
2.01 days.
Open hearths.— Death due to machinery (15.59 days) is a most
important matter in this department, hot substances (13.64 days)
and power vehicles (7.80 days) coming next.




RELATION OF CAUSES TO LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

119

Foundries.— Considerable disability, both of a permanent and
temporary character, due to handling objects and tools is the striking
feature in this department. The rate for permanent disability is
2.18 days and for temporary disability 2.21 days. The highest rate
is that for death caused by machinery (7.83 days).
Heavy rolling mills.—Machinery causing death has a rate of 5.16
days, causing permanent disability 4.32 days, and causing temporary
disability 1.23 days. Each of these rates is rather markedly in excess
of those arising from other causes. Among the permanent disabilities
those from machinery causing loss of hand are rather conspicuous
(1.01 days).
Plate mills.—Machinery is even a more conspicuous factor in the
seriousness of accidents of this department than in heavy rolling
mills. The highest rate is found under machinery causing death
(8.16 days).
Tube mills.— These mills also show high rates for machinery caus­
ing death (7.10 days) and permanent disability (4.22 days). Deaths
due to unclassified causes show a rate of 3.55 days.
Sheet rolling mills.— This department is distinctive in that in
the mills covered by this study there were no deaths in the 5-year
eriod. It can hardly be supposed that in as large a group as that
ere covered this was accidental. In fact a knowledge of the opera­
tion of the department suggests that accidents causing death ought
to be rather infrequent and perhaps ought, if the mills are properly
managed, to be entirely absent, as they were in this case. Handling
of tools and objects causing loss of the eye shows a high rate (1.01
days). A more extended use of eye protection in these mills would
seem to be indicated. Temporary disability due to handling objects
or tools is of considerable importance (3.63 days). As above noted,
this is unquestionably due to the operation of opening the packs of
sheets. Whether it is possible to devise some better protection for
the hands of these workers is a question worth considering.
Fabrication.—Machinery is the great cause of serious injury in this
department. Deaths due to machinery have a rate of 9.00 days;
permanent disabilities, 6.74 days; and temporary disabilities, 2.81
days. It has elsewhere been shown that a considerable part of these
severity rates are attributable to crane and hoisting apparatus;
but the punches, reamers, and riveters are also a source of consider­
able severe injury.
Electrical.— Deaths due to machinery head the list in this depart­
ment (23.86 days). Deaths due to electricity, either bums or electric
shock (19.09 days), come next. The hazards of linemen are again
emphasized by the deaths due to falls of worker (9.54 days).
Mechanical.—Most important among the mechanical workers are
deaths due to machinery (6.46 days). Their permanent injuries due
to machinery (3.43 days) and those due to handling objects or tools
(2.53 days) are noticeable. Loss of eye and loss of hand or fingers due
to machinery have a considerable degree of severity. In temporary
disabilities the highest rate (1.91 days) is due to handling objects or
tools.

E




120

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Yards.— In this department additional evidence appears as to
the importance of power vehicles as a cause of injury to the yard
employees. Of the rate of 54.35 days for power vehicles, 40.74 days
are attributable to death, 9.86 days to permanent disability, and 3.75
days to temporary disability. In connection with this high rate,
which is not found elsewhere for a single cause group, with the possible
exception of the erectors of structural steel, it is worth while again
to call attention to the relation which the severity rate brings out
between death, permanent disability, and temporary disability. In
real importance these three results of injury stand in the order shown,
whereas the frequency rates necessarily present them in the reverse
order.
Unclassified.— There are no points in this group to which special
attention need be directed.




CHAPTER VI.— VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, NATURE,
AND RESULT OF INJURY.

In the three preceding chapters the relation of the various accident
causes to the departments, location, nature and results of the injuryhave been considered. There are various interrelations of these items
which shed more or less light upon the accident problem. It is
proposed in the present chapter to give consideration to these various
relations.
DEPARTMENTS AND LOCATION OF INJURY.

Table 39 embodies the results of considering the departments as
units and classifying the injuries occurring in them according to the
part of the body injured.
T able 3 9 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS7 EXPO SU R E) IN SPECI­
FIED DEPARTM ENTS OF TH E IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y LOCA­
TION OF INJURY.

Location of
injury.

Heavy
Sheet Fab­ Elec­ Me­
Blast Bes­
Un­
Open
fur­
se­ hearth. Foun­ roll­ Plate Tube roll­ ricat­ tri­ chan­ Yards. classi­
ing mills. mills. ing ing.
dries.
naces. mer.
cal. ical.
fied.
mills.
mills.

H ea d.

E ye...................
Skull.................
Other parts___
Face and neck.

1.66 0.28
5.41 14.44
. 12 9.82
.25 9.87

3.19
4.88
1. 78
.99

3.93
8.15
8.26
.19

2.01
4.37
1.97
.22

7.44 34. 41 10.84

20.53

8.57

.17

.31

4.97
1.65
.19
.84

22.83
6.12
.14
2.08

.59
G)
6.73
3.30
.16
.73

3.23
17.43
4.75
1.49

1.49
.03
3.86
.34

1.70
6.88
1.25
2.53

1.07
1.97
2.08
2.11

1.88
3.02
.95
1.67

0.17
4. 09
.11
1.54

1.33
1.81
3.61
1. 88

L 14

Total......... 26.90

5. 72

12. 36

7.23

7.52

5.91

8.63

1.33

Back.................
.33
.39
Vertebrae......... 1.14
Thorax............. 12.72 22.78
Abdomen........ 5.72 3. 97
Groin................ .11
.10
Pelvis............... 2.31
Generative or­
gans............... .01

.51
.97
14.05
2.95
.05
2.04

.23

.19

.18
1.39
.17
2. 81
.06
1.38

1.94

.10

.12

.27

4.22 . 2.44
.06
1.54
.22
.06
3.91
.03

3.76
1.85
.06
G)

.09
.i 6

5.57
.03
.05

9.60
.04
.15
.19

.01

.01

.01

Total......... 22. 34 27.24

20.59

5.77 10.25

7.83

31.49

11.52

.01
.03
.14
.04
.02
.11
.02
.04

.03
.16
.11
1.55
.04
.05
.06

G)
^ .01
.10
.25
.53
.06
.02
.03

.06
.13

T ru n k .

G)

.01

.05

8.64

4.26

6.00

7.66

.35

0)

.03
.02
.14
.01
.50
.03
.02
.03

.04
.07
G)
.01
.05
.03
.01

G)
.05

.04

’ ‘.’oi’

.05
.06

.03
.05
.07
1.83
.07
1.47
.63
.50
.01
.59

.04
.20
.11
.64
.01
1.40
.13
.06
.41
1.12

.02

U pper
ex­
trem itie s .

Scapula........
Clavicle............
.03
Shoulder..........
.09
Hum erus........
Upper arm___
0)
Elbow............... .04
Ulna.................
.02
Radius.............
.01
Ulna and
radius........
.01
Forearm...........
.12
Wrist................ .08
Hand................ 1.71
_
.09
Both hands_
1 finger............. 1.45
2 fingers............ .37
3 fingers............ .02
4 finders__
.34
.41
Thumb.............
Thumb and 1
fincer........... .23
Thumb and 2

.04
.15

.02

.06
1.06
.08
.02
.06
.02
.06

.24
.10
.12
.47
.10
2.10
.08
.73

.16
.12
1.41
.36
2. 34
.41
.02

.11
.21
2. 28
.08
2.60
.38
.01

.96

1.33

G)
.02

.87

5.02

.06’

.24
5.04

.03
.07

.14
.04
2.60
.01
1.49
.35
G)
1.01

.04
.03
* .11
.06
.03
.04
.02

G)
7.16

6.21

3.18
.20
.08
.06

.04
.12
.06
.30
4.49
.72
.37
G)
1.16

.02
1.41
.09
.47
.02
2.58
.69
.03

.12

.03
.12
.17
1.07
.02
2.90
.50
.17
.01
1.39
.33

G)

.04
.27
2.20
.07
1. 38
1.82
.01

1.04

.21

.18

7.38

.02
.07

.01

.62
.24
.67
.03
2.76
.99
.02
1.01
.19

.44

0)

fingprs

Total.........

.03
.01
.03
.03

4.33

6.24

6.68

7.59

9.53

7.33 | 8.35

121




.01
G)

i Less than 0.005.

71087°— 22------9

.02
.18
.16
1.08
.02
1.81
.40
.20
.31
.99

6.18

122

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 3 9 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) IN SPECI­
F IE D D E P A R T M E N T S OF TH E IR ON AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915, TO 1919, B Y LOCA­
TION O F IN J U R Y —Concluded.

Location o i
injury.

Sheet
Heavy
Blast Bes­ . Open Foun­ roll­ Plate Tube roll­ Fab­ Elec­ Me­
Un­
ricat­ tri­ chan­ Yards. classi­
fur­
se­ hearth. dries.
ing mills. mills. ing
cal. ical.
naces. mer.
fied.
mills. ingmills.

L o w er extr em it ie s .

H ip...................
Femur..............
Upper leg.........
Kn^e.................
Tibia.................
Fibula...............
Tibia and fib­
ula .................
Lower leg........
Ankle...............
Foot................ .
Both feet..........
Great toe..........
Great toe and
other toes___
Other toes........

0.02 0.04
1.32
.39
2.89 3187
.91
.34
.13 3.74
*01 ’ .05

0.06
1.17
3.16
.13
.04
.03

0.01
.03
3.53
.13
.10
.03

0.04
1.30
2. 87
.11
.02
.07

0.03
.14
.,44
.09
.02
.06

0.05
.14
.11
. 15
.04
.02

0.01

. 13
.21
.74
L30
.10
.33

.22
.73
.29
LI-8
.96

.19
1.42
.62
2.66
1.01
.59

2.02
.65
.50
L38
.07
.85

.44
.99
.31
1.70
.02
.67

.63
.36
.28
1.92
.05
.84

.16
.24
.08
.72
.01
.19

.36
.28
.99
1.28
.01
.19

.07
.01

.05
.04

.07
.07

.09
0)

J06
.31
.06
.06

0.04 0.03 0.03
.26
.07
.02
.09
.09 1.35
.23
.20
.08
.06
.07
.18 ' *.05* .07

0.02
1.49
5.68
.21
.09
.05

0.03
.60
1.09
.49
.07
.03

1.51
.19
2.64

.40
.18
.44
1.00

.50
.20
.33
2.05
.01
.51

.24
2.55
.46
8.55
0)
:69

.48
1.92
.28
2.39
.02
.72

.04
.01

.31
.13

.02
.07

.85

.17

.10 .........
.23

.14

.03

6.19

2.49

5v44

20; 47

8. 21

3.60 19.12

2.44

6.15

5.14

30.43 24.08 26. 57 11.98 30.58 75.77 33.85

86.99

39.62

.09
.22
.12 : .02

T o ta l.,___

8k17 11.90

11. 221

0 39

8.75 ; 5.10

2.24

3.61

U n cla ssified ___

22.83 18.35

10. M

1.96

3.70 ; 2. 73

1.79

0)

Grand total 85.25 68.25

62,55

34.38

1 Less than 0,005.

On consideration of this table it becomes* immediately evident
that injuries of various sorts to the thorax are of very serious impor­
tance. It has been shown elsewhere that many of these are crush­
ing injuries sustained in connection with vehicles and falling bodies.
The following departments have notably high rates for injuries to
the thorax: Yards (22.83 days per 10,000 hours’ exposure); Besse­
mer department (22.78 days); open hearths (14.05 days); blast
furnaces (12.72 days); electrical (0.60 days).
In a number of departments injuries to the skull are also very
serious. They are: Blast furnaces (17.43 days); electrical (14.44
days); yards (8.15 days). When the totals for such regions as the
head, trunk, and the extremities are considered, it becomes evident
that on the whole injuries to the head are the most serious* In 4
out of 13 departments these injuries stand at the head of the list.
The departments in which injuries to the head are thus most serious
are the foBowing: Electrical (34.41 days); blast furnaces (26.90
days); mechanical (10.84 days); and tube mills (8.63 days).
Injuries to the trunk are most serious in 5 out of the 13 depart­
ments, as follows: Yards (31.49 days); Bessemer department (27.24
days); open hearths (20.59 days); unclassified (11.52 days); plate
mills (6.00 days) *
When upper and lower extremities are considered, injuries to the
lower extremities show the greatest severity in 8 out of the 13 depart­
ments. When the number of injuries is considered, those to the
upper extremities are very much more numerous; but the proportion
oi those which give prolonged disability or even result in death is
greater for the lower extremities*
In some departments injuries which can not be classified by
specific part of the body injured are of very considerable importance;




123

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN JU R Y .

for example, in blast furnaces (22.83 days), electrical (19.12 days),
Bessemer (18.35 days), and open hearths (10.91 days). These are
•quite largely cases in which extensive general burns have occurred.
In blast furnaces they also include the effects of asphyxiating gas.
LOCATION AN D NATURE OF INJURY.

Table 40 shows for the usual list of departments the relation
between the location and the nature of the injury. It has been
thought desirable in presenting this subject to simplify considerably
the classification by location.
T a b l e 4 0 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 HOURS- E X P O SU R E ) FOR SPECI­

FIED DEPAR TM ENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y
TION AND N A T U R E OF INJUR Y.

LOCA­

B L A S T FURNACES.

Head
and
neck.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...................................................................
Bruise........................................................................
Cut..............................................................................
Laceration................................................................
P uncture...............................................................
Burn or scald...........................................................
Concussion...............................................................
Dislocation.............................................*................
Fracture ..................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)...............................
Accidental dismemberment................................
Nervous shock........................................................
Abrasion with infection.................. ....................
On t wi th i n fection............_....................................
Laceration with infection ...................................
Puncture with infection.......................................
Burn or scald with infection................................
Fracture with infection.........................................
Hernia .....................................................................

Asphyxia

........................................- .........

T o f t.p.oth . . .

_______. . . . ___. . . . . . ______

Unclassified..........................................................
Total .................................................................

Arm.

0)

(9

1.43

(1
)

2.40
.35
2.70
1.14

17.42

(9

4.69
4.64
.10

0.07
.02
.01
.08
.07
.02
.11
.01

1.14
.02

.01

(9
(9

................................................

Electric flash...........................................................

Crushing in ju ry ...................................................
Electric shock

0.50
.07

Trunk.

.01
1.14

.01
.09
.01

(9

Hand
and
fingers.

Leg.

0.01
.12

0.04
.90

.58
.12
.21

.07
.01
1.30

.01
.50
.02
1.68

.01
2.47
.03

.01
.57
.03
.03

Foot
and
toes.

Un­
classi­
fied.

(9

(9
(9

.01

0.41
.04
.03
.56
.87
.12

<9

.02

(9

(9

10.28

.06
.74

(9

11.35

.76

4.71

5.63

2.55

0.02
.23

0.02
.33

0.01
.68

.15
.01
1.21

.31
.04
.57

.51

.01
(9

26.90

(9

22.32

.32

9.13

(9

1.14
1.14
1.14
22.83

OPEN H E A R T H S.
Abrasion ................................................................
Bruise____________________________ ______ . . . . . . . .
Cut...........................................................................
.......................................... .....................
Laceration
Puncture............. ....................................................
Burn or scald..........................................................
Concussion.......... ....................................................
Dislocation...............................................................
Fracture....................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)................................
Accidental dismemberment..................................
Nervous shock.........................................................
Abrasion with infection........................................
Laceration with infection.....................................
Puncture with infection.......................................
Burn or scald with infection................................
Hernia.......................................................................
Asphyxia.................... ............................................
Electric flash...........................................................

0.10
.31
.73
.15
1.23
.01
7.85
(9

0.01
1.27
(9

.02

2.38
4.09
.14

(9

.01
(9

0.01
.05
.04
(9

.15

.01
.26
.02

(9

.85
.04
.54

(9

1.00
.02
1.29

(9

1.47
.04

.09
.03
.01
.01

.02
.01

1.73

.97

2.92

10.89

1.59
.21
.10
<9
<9
(9

.01

.08

Crushing i n ju ry _ _ .....................................................

.01
1.95

Heat exhaustion............... .....................................
Electric shock..........................................................
Unclassified..............................................................

.01

(9

Total..................................................................
* Less than 0.005.




12.67

1.50
.01
<9

12.36

20.66

1.52

5.87

6.21

5.01

10.91

124

ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 0 .—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10,000 H O U R S’ E X PO SU R E ) FO R SPECI­

F IE D DEPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IRO N AND S TE EL IN D U STR Y , 1915 TO 1919, BY LOCA­
TION AND NATU RE OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
FOUNDRIES.

Head
and
neck.

Nature of injury.

Bruise....................................................................
Laceration............................................................
Puncture ...........................................................

Burn or scald........................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture ..............................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Laceration with infection...................................
Puncture w ith infection.....................................
Burn or scald with infection...............................
H ernia...................................................................
Asphyxia..............................................................
Electric flash
...................................................
Crushing in ju ry...................................................
Heat exhaustion...................................................
T otal...............................................................

0.83
.03
.24
0)
2.18
3.93

Trunk.

Arm.

0)
0.19

C
1)
0.09
.02
.01
.03
P)
.01
.03

H and
and
fingers.

Leg.

.01
.18

0.05
.59
2.29
.06
.17

0.05
.45
.22
.04
.01

0.05
.94
.34
.09
.58

2.07
.10
.20
.31
.02
.01

3.75
.01

.92

1.96

.06

6.90

6.49

2.89

0.01
.14
.48
.01
.14.

0. 02
.25
.13
.01
.03

.02
2.24
.02
.81

.01
2.62
.06
.01
.74

Un­
classi­
fied.

(? n
.10

.02

P)
2.09

.oi

0.01
1.96

.02
.01

.22
.01

Foot
and
toes.

C)
1
5.87

0)
7.23

8.64

.27

1.97

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.

Abrasion...............................................................
Bruise....................................................................
Laceration............................................................
P uncture..............................................................
B urn or scald.......................................................
Concussion............................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Nervous shock......................................................
Abrasion w ith infection......................................
Laceration w ith infection...................................
Puncture w ith infection.....................................
B urn or scald w ith infection..............................
Fracture with infection......................................
H ernia..................................................................
Asphyxia..............................................................
Electric flash........................................................
Crushing injury ..........*
........................................
H eat exhaustion..................................................
Loss of teeth.........................................................
Unclassified..........................................................

0.07
.08
.71
.57
2.03
.75

T otal..............................................................

7.52

.85
0)

P)

0.19
.02
.12
.07
.14

P)

0.04
.01
0)
.02
C
1)

.26
.51

.01
.22

0)

0?38

.27

< ?«

C
1)

2.95

C
1)

.95
.11
.15
.04

C
1)
C
1)

C
1)

P)
P)

8

.01
2.21

.04

.o i

1.41

.03

1.97

C
1)
P)

3.69

.79

.74
P)

P)

.01

C
1)

5. 35

5.84

2.91

P)
3.70

0.08

0.01
.14

0.01
.61

P)

P)

1.39

.15
.01
.03

1.28
.07
.09

0.03
.34
.01
.25
.04
.10

2.82
.11

.02
.14
.02

.01
.40
.03
1.16
.07
.01

.99
.02

.64
.10
.20

P)

P)

P)

4.26

.84

PLATE MILLS.

Abrasion...............................................................
Bruise....................................................................
Cut.........................................................................
Laceration............................................................
P uncture..............................................................
B urn or scald........................................................
Concussion............................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Nervous shock......................................................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Cut with infection...............................................
Laceration with infection...................................
Puncture w ith infection.....................................
Burn or scald with infection..............................
H ernia...................................................................
Asphyxia..............................................................
Electric flash........................................................
Crushing in ju ry ...................................................
T eat exnanstion..................................................
T
Loss of teeth.........................................................
T otal........................................................... .
i Less than 0.005.




0.11
.04
P)

.15

P)

1.46

1.59
.02

P)

4.12
P)

.01

P)

.48
.05
.15

P)

.03

P)

.06
P)

.01
.01

5.92

______ I_______
|
.59
______ I........ .
I
I
6.00
.44 | 3.88 |

1.09
1.78

3.34

2.73
2.73

125

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

T able 4 0 .—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10.000 H O URS’ E X PO SU R E) FO R SPECI­

FIED DEPA RTM EN TS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL IND U STR Y , 1915 TO 1919. BY LOCA­
TION AND N A TU RE OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
TUBE MILLS.

Head
and
neck.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...............................................................
Bruise....................................................................
Cut.........................................................................
Laceration............................................................
P uncture..............................................................
Burn or scald.......................................................
Concussion............................................................
Dislocation..................................................
Fracture................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Laceration with infection...................................
Puncture with infection.....................................
Burn or scald with infection..............................
H ernia...................................................................
Electric flash........................................................
Crushing in ju ry ..........................................
Heat exhaustion..................................................
Unclassified..........................................................
T otal..............................................................

Trunk.

Arm.

0.09
.07

0. 01
3. 74

0.01
.02

2. 41
.09
1. 84
1. 78

.05

.07

.01

.02

.04

. 11
.11

. 14
.02

.53
.01

.01
1. 78

.03

H and
and
fingers.
0.05
.05
.02
.55
.02
.08
C
1)
.69
.01
.71
1. 78
. 01
(i)
(i)

.01

Leg.

Foot
and
toes.

C
1)
0.15

0.01
.21

.09
.02
.20

.22
.01
.04

.43
.02

.01
.32
.01

0.01

C
1)

C
1)

. 05
3.55

.51

1.98
C
1)

8. 62

Un­
classi­
fied.

7.66

5. 95

.92

1.33

0. 30
1.12
.02
.07

.30

0.21
.33
.03

ft.
.90
.04
.02

.47
.06

1.78
(l)
1.79

.39
.58

SHEET ROLLING MILLS.

oo

Abrasion.............................................................
0.06
Bruise...................................................................
.02
0.02
0.02
............................................................
.02
Laceration
.14
.58
Puncture. •............................................................
(?n
Bnrn or scald.......................................................
.02
Concussion...........................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture................................................................
.02
.03
.14
Sprain or strain (not hernia).............................. .05
Accidental dismemberment...............................
1.01
Abrasion with infection......................................
.02
Laceration with infection...................................
H ernia..................................................................
.14
Crushing injury...................................................
Total..............................................................

1.32

.36

.04
.26
.02
3.39
.08
.22

.01

.38

.02

5.92

1.13

2. 47

0.01
.19
1.25
.02
.02
.11
1.36
.05
1.04
.02
0)
.10
.01

.77

0)

0.01
1.53
.10
.04
.02
.01
.59
.05

0.40
.30
.04
.03
(*)
.86
.09

0)

FABRICATION.

Abrasion..............................................................
Bruise...................................................................
Laceration............................................................
Puncture..............................................................
Burn or scald.......................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture...............................1..............................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment......................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Cut. with infection..............................................
Laceration with in fectio n .................................
Burn or scald with infection ......................
Hernia
.........................................................
Asphyxia............................................................
Electric flash .....................................................
Crushing in jury...................................................
Loss of teeth................................ .......................
Unclassified
__
.....................................

0.29
.08
.93
.61
.08

0.14
(0
.01

6.09
.07
C
1)
.01

5. 45

.10
.07

.27
.03

Total ............................................................

7. 44

1 Less than 0.005.




.01
.05
0)

.02
<
l)

2.93

C
1)

2.10
1.80

.01
5. 77 J

. 48

(l>

.01

1
5.40

1.80

7.11

2. 37

3.83

3.60

126

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 4 0 . — A C C I D E N T S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 10,000 H O U R S ' E X P O S U R E ) F O R
F I E D D E P A R T M E N T S I N T H E I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 1915 T O 1919, B Y
T I O N A N D N A T U R E O F I N J U R Y — C o n tin u e d .

S P E C I­
LOCA­

ELECTRICAL.

Head
and
neck.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...............................................................
Bruise....................................................................
Laceration............................................................
P uncture..............................................................
Burn or scald.......................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Laceration with infection...................................
Puncture with infection.....................................
H ernia...................................................................
Asphyxia..............................................................
Electric flash........................................................
Crushing in ju ry ....................................... .........
H eat exhaustion..................................................
Electric shock......................................................
Loss of teeth.........................................................
T otal..............................................................

0.12
.02
.26

Trunk. Arm.

0.27

5.02

.05

24.04

.19
.10

0.05
.01
.02
.02
.31
.04

.42

C>

.01

3.18

Leg.

Foot
and
toes.

0.03
.13
.08
.01
.11

0.18
. 19
.05
.15

.47
.01

4. 77

4.78
9.54

.24

4.77
.05
34.40

Un­
classi­
fied.

.49
.35

2.56

0)
.13

0)

0.17
1.02

.23
.02
1.07
.07
.05
.25

0)
.10

Hand
and
fingers.

10.24

3.65

5.86

.84

1.64

0 .1 5

0 .0 1
.1 4

0 .0 1
.2 6

0 .0 1
.6 0

.0 2
.8 1
.0 1

.0 5
.0 1
.0 4

0 .0 1
.2 7
(i)
V81
.0 4
.1 0

. 10
.0 2
.0 4

.1 3
.0 6
.0 9

.8 8
.1 2

.0 6
.2 1
.0 3

.0 1
1 .5 3
.0 2
2 .1 1

.0 1
.7 7
.0 8

.0 1
1 .3 9
.1 2
.0 4

.0 1

.0 3
.8 3
.0 1
0)

.0 5
0)

.02
9.55
19.12

MECHANICAL.
A b r a s io n ______________________________________ ______
'B r u is e .......................................................................................
C u t . .............................................................................................
L a c e r a t i o n ...................................... ........................................
P u n c t u r e ................ ............. - ...... ..........................................
B u r n o r s c a l d .......................................................................
C o n c u s s i o n .............................................................................
D i s l o c a t i o n ...................................................... ......................
F r a c t u r e .............................................................
S p r a in o r s t r a in ( n o t h e r n i a ) ......................................
A c c i d e n t a l d i s m e m b e r m e n t . ......................................
N e r v o u s s h o c k .....................................................................
A b r a s io n w it h i n f e c t i o n . . .............................................
L a c e r a t io n w it h i n f e c t i o n . ..........................................
P u n c t u r e w it h i n f e c t i o n ................................................
B u r n o r s c a ld w it h i n f e c t i o n ......................................
H e r n i a ................. ....................................................... .............
A s p h v x i a ........................... .............................. _ ...................
E l e c t r ic f la s h ........................................................................
C r u s h in g i n j u r y ...................................................................
H e a t e x h a u s t i o n . . . . .........................................................
E le e t r ie s h o c k ......................................................................
L o s s o f t e e t h ..........................................................................
F r o s t e d .....................................................................................
U n c la s s i f ie d ............................................... ..........................
T o t a l .................................................................................
* L e s s t h a n 0.005.




0 .1 2
.3 0
1 .1 8
1 .2 5
.9 3
.0 1
(!)
4 .8 8
C
1)
.4 0
.8 1

0 .8 1

6)

.1 8

0)
0)

C1)
.8 2

.0 1
.8 1

5 .6 6

.0 1

.9 8

1 .1 6

.5 0
0)
.8 1

C
1)
.0 1
<l )
10.83

7 .8 2

.5 6

6 .7 7

2 .4 8

2 .9 6

2 .4 4

127

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN J U R Y .

TA B L E 4 0 . — A C C I D E N T S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 10,000 H O U R S ’ E X P O S U R E ) F O R S P E C I ­
F I E D D E P A R T M E N T S I N T H E I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 1915 T O 1919, B Y L O C A T I O N A N D N A T U R E O F I N J U R Y — C o n clu d e d .

YARDS.

Head
Hand
and Trunk. Arms. and
neck.
fingers.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...............................................................
Bruise...................................................................
Laceration............................................................
Puncture..............................................................
Burn or scald.......................................................
Concussion...........................................................
Dislocation...........................................................
Fracture................................................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)..............................
Accidental dismemberment...............................
Nervous shock.....................................................
Abrasion with infection......................................
Laceration with infection...................................
Puncture w ith infection.....................................
Fracture with infection......................................
H ernia..................................................................
Asphyxia..............................................................
Electric flash........................................................
Crushing injury...................................................
Heat exhaustion..................................................
Eleetric shock......................................................
Unclassified..........................................................
T otal..............................................................

0.12
.06
3.25
.02
.08

2.04
.31
4.07
.07

( x)

8.15
2.04
.6 3

2.24
.15

C
1)
0.08
.02
.01
.07
1.84
.03

(V)
0)

.02

0.01
.26
.70
.03
.04
.01
.95
.06
1.08

Leg.

Foot
and
toes.

0.03
.44
.10
.01
.04

0.02
.78
.45
.05
.09

2.03
.15
2.04

.03
1.13
.17
.81

.03
.02

0.01
2.04

C
1)
0)

2.04

.14
C
1)
6.09

Un­
classi­
fied.

C
1)
22.36

1.35

1.73

5.48

4.56

4.06
0)
.02

(l>

20.46

SI. 38

3.41

4.92

10.32

10.11

6.13

UNCLASSIFIED.
0 .3 3
0 .0 3
0 .0 2
A b r a s i o n .................................................................................
U)
.1 0
.0 .6 2
0 .1 1
.2 8
.2 8
B r u i s e .................................................... ...................................
C u t ..............................................................................................
0)
L a c e r a t i o n ..............................................................................
.6 3
.0 7
.9 0
.0 2
.4 8
.0 2
P u n c t u r e .................................................................................
.9 0
.7 3
.0 5
(U
B u r n o r s c a l d ........................................................................
.0 9
.2 3
.8 0
.0 7
.0 9
C o n c u s s i o n .............................................................................
.3 6
.0 4
.0 2
D i s l o c a t i o n .............................................................................
C
1)
1 .0 2
F r a c t u r e ...................................................................................
.6 3
.4 7
4 .4 0
2 .2 3
.0 4
.0 4
S p r a in o r s t r a in ( n o t h e r n i a ) .......................................
.0 7
.1 5
C
1)
A c c i d e n t a l d i s m e m b e r m e n t ........................................
.3 6
1 .7 0
.4 8
.6 0
N e r v o u s s h o c k ...................................... ................. .............
.0 1
.0 4
A b r a s io n w it h i n fe c t i o n .................................................
.1 2
C
1)
<l )
C u t w i t h i n f e c t i o n .............................................................
C
1)
L.............................................c t i o n .3 6
a c e r a t io n w it h i n f e
.0 2
0)
0)
P u n c t u r e w i t h i n f e c t i o n ................................................
.0 1
B u r n o r s c a l d .......................................................................
.0 6
.0 1
( x)
<l )
H e r n i a . ....................................................................................
.1 3
A s p h y x i a .................................................................................
E l e c t r ic f la s h ........................................................................
.0 1
C r u s h in g i n j u r y ...................................................................
.7 2
1 .9 2
1 .2 9
6 .4 8
H e a t e x h a u s t i o n .................................................................
F r o s t e d .....................................................................................
(n
.3 6
U n c la s s i f ie d ...........................................................................
(l )
0)
0)
T o t a l .................................................................................

8 .5 7

1 1 .5 2

1 .4 5

4 .9 7

4 .5 4

< ?»
.0 4
.4 6

D)
2 .9 0

.oi
.6 3
.1 2
.3 4

C
1)
.0 2
( x)

(l)

C
1)
(l)
.0 1
1 .8 1
.8 9

.3 6
.0 1

0)
.0 3
3 .5 0

5 .1 4

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.

The conspicuous feature of this table in each of the departments is
the importance of fractures and crushing injuries, and it becomes
evident that fractures of the skull are the important element in giving
rise to the high severity of injuries to the head. Crushing injuries
affecting the trunk are usually next in order to fractures affecting the
skull.
The serious importance of asphyxiating gas in the blast furnace
department is again emphasized by this table. In the blast furnace




128

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

department fractures of the skull have a severity of 17.42 days per
10,000 hours’ exposure, while asphyxia has a severity of 10.28 days.
It is, therefore, among the most serious injuries from which workers in
the blast furnaces suffer and, as indicated elsewhere, it undoubtedly
contributes to injuries which are classified under other heads.
LOCATION AND RESULT OF INJURY.

Table 41 presents the facts for the several departments regarding
the results arising from injuries to different parts of the body.
T able 41.—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10,000 HOURS’ E X PO SU R E ) FO R SPECI­

FIE D DEPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IRON AND STE EL IN DUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, BY LOCA­
TION AND R E SU LT OF IN JU R Y .
BLAST FURNACES.

R e s u lt o f i n ju r y .

D e a t h ................................................................................
P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i li t y : L o s s of—
B o t h e y e s ...............................................................
1 h a n d ......................................................................
1 l e g ...........................................................................
1 f o o t .........................................................................
1 e y e ..........................................................................
1 t h u m b ..................................................................
1 f in g e r .....................................................................
2 fin g e r s ...................................................................
3 fin g e r s ...................................................................
4 fin g e r s ...................................................................
T h u m b a n d 1 f in g e r .........................................
T h u m b a n d 3 fin g e r s .......................................
G r e a t t o e .................................................................
A n y 2 t o e s ..............................................................
A l l o t h e r .................................................................

H ead and
neck.

2 0 .4 3

T run k.

2 1 .5 7

T o ta l.

6 6 .9 7

1 .1 4
1 .1 4
2 .3 6
.4 5
3 .2 3
. 23
.6 2
.4 3
.3 7
.3 4
.2 3
.3 8
. 11
.0 6
1 .1 4

3 .2 3
.2 3
.6 2
.4 3
.3 7
.3 4
.2 3
.3 8
. 11
.0 6
1 .1 4

.2 0
.1 7
. 14
.0 8
.1 0
.1 7
.1 0




2 2 .7 0

2 .3 6
.4 5

5 .5 0

1 Less th an 0.005.

2 .2 7

U n c la s s i­
fie d .

1 .1 4

T o t a l ....................................................................

G r a n d t o t a l ......................................................

L ow er
e x tr e m i­
t ie s .

1 .1 4

T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m i n a t i n g i n —
1st w e e k ..................................................................
2 d w e e k ...................................................................
3d w e e k ....................................................................
4 t h w e e k .................................................................
5th w e e k .................................................................
6 t h -1 3 t h w e e k ......................................................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r .....................................
T o t a l ................................................................

U pper
e x tre m i­
t ie s .

3. 72

2 .9 9

.0 7
.1 0
.0 9
.0 8
.0 6
.1 7
.1 9

.1 7
.2 1
.2 3
.1 4
.1 8
.4 8

.22

.2 0
.2 7
.2 9
.2 6
.2 9
.5 1
.7 8

.9 7

.7 5

1 .6 3

2 .5 9

.1 2

6 .0 6

2 6 .9 0

2 2 .3 2

5. 35

7 .8 5

2 2 .8 3

8 5 .2 5

1 2 .2 2
.0 3
.0 2
.0 1

C
1)
.0 1
.0 5

.6 6
.7 7
.7 6
.5 6
.6 2
1 .3 4
1 .3 4

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

129

T able 41.—A C C I D E N T

S E V E R I T Y R A T E S ( P E R 10,000 H O U R S ’ E X P O S U R E ) F O R S P E C I ­
F I E D D E P A R T M E N T S I N T H E I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y , 1915 T O 1919, B Y L O C A ­
T I O N A N D R E S U L T O F I N J U R Y — C o n t in u e d .

OPEN HEARTHS.

R e s u lt o f i n ju r y .

D e a t h .................................................................................
P e r m a n e n t d i s a b i l i t y : L o s s o f—
B o t h l e g s ................................................................
1 a r m .........................................................................
1 h a n d ......................................................................
1 f o o t .........................................................................
1 e y e ..........................................................................
1 t h u m b ..................................................................
1 f in g e r .....................................................................
2 fin g e r s ...................................................................
3 fin g e r s ...................................................................
4 fin g e r s ...................................................................
T h u m b a n d 2 fin g e r s .......................................
T h u m b a n d 4 fin g e r s .......................................
G r e a t t o e .................................................................
A n y 2 t o e s .............................................................

H ead and
n eck .

9. 74

T ru n k .

U pper
e x tre m i­
tie s.

L ow er
e x tr e m i­
tie s .

19 .4 9

0.Q7

4. 87

U n c la s s i­
fie d .

10.72

T o ta l.

4 5 .8 0

. 10
.1 0

.9 7
.6 5
.2 4
1 .2 5
1 .3 6
.8 3
1 .3 2
.3 7
.1 9
.0 5
.2 4
.0 5
.1 0
.1 0

3 .9 4

2. 42

7 .7 2

.9 7
.6 5
.2 4
1 .2 5
1 .3 6
.8 3
1. 32
.3 6
. 19
.0 5
.2 4
.0 5

T o t a l ....................................................................

1 .3 6

T e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li t y , t e r m i n a t i n g i n —
1st w e e k ..................................................................
2 d w e e k ....................................................................
3 d w e e k ....................................................................
4 t h w e e k .................................................................
5 t h w e e k .................................................................
6 t h -1 3 t h w e e k ......................................................
1 4 th w e e k a n d l a t e r .........................................

.2 6
. 17
.2 0
. 11
.0 8
.3 2
. 12

. 10
.1 3
. 12
.1 1
. 10
.3 2
.2 9

.2 6
.3 2
.3 6
.2 8
.3 2
.6 7
.3 8

.3 3
.3 5
.4 2
.3 4
.3 7
1 .1 5
.9 7

T o t a l ....................................................................

1. 25

1 .1 7

2 .6 0

3. 93

G r a n d t o t a l ......................................................

12.36

2 0 .6 6

7 .5 1

1 1 .22

.0 2
.0 1
0)
C)
.0 4

.9 6
.9 8
1.11
.8 5
.8 8
2 .4 6
1. 81

.0 7

9 .0 3

10. 79 |

6 2 .5 5

1.96

19.57

FOUNDRIES.

Death..............................................................
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
1 h a n d ......................................................
1 leg..........................................................
1 eye.........................................................
1 tn u m b ...................................................
1 finger.....................................................
2 fingers....................................................
3 fingers....................................................
Thumb and 4 fingers..............................
Great toe..................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................

5.87

7.83

'3. 91

.10
.10

.98
1.30
.59
.98
1.08
.24
.39
.78
.10
.10

4.45

1.50

6.54

.07
.10
.06
.08
.10
.24
.17

.33
.47
.34
.34
.23
.83
.19

.28
.48
.40
.42
.33
1. 28
.78

0.98
.59

Total.....................................................

.59

Temporary disability, term inating in —
1st week...................................................
2d week....................................................
3d week....................................................
4th week..................................................
5th week..................................................
6th-13th week.........................................
14th week and la te r................................

.28
.17
.10
.04
.04
.10
.04

.98
1.08
.24
.39
.78

1. 30

C)
1
.oi

.96
1.21
.91
.89
.69
2.45
1.18

T otal.....................................................

.77

.81

2. 72

3. 97

.01

8.28

Grand to tal..........................................

7.23

8. 64

7.17

9.38

1. 97

34.38

1 L e s s t h a n 0.005.




130

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 41-—ACCIDENT SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPARTMENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y LOCA­
TION AND RESULT OF INJURY—Continued.
H E A V Y ROLLING MILLS.

Result of injury.

Death.........................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 af t p . . .
,
.....................................................
1 hand..................................................
1 leg
..................................
1 foot ................................................
1 eye.....................................................
1 thumb...............................................
1 finger.................................................
2 fingers................................................
3 fingers................................................
Thumb and 2 fingers..........................
Great toe..............................................
Any 2 toes ........................................
Total.................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week...............................................
2d week................................................
3d week................................................
4th week...............................................
5th week...............................................
6th-13th week......................................
14th week and later.............................

Head and Trunk.
neck.
5.16

Lower
Upper
extremi­ extremi­ Unclassi­
fied.
ties.
ties.

3.69

3.69
0.59
1.38

.24
.14

.40
.11

.59
1. 38
1.03
.97
1.66
.41
1.09
.64
.44
. 18
.40
.11

2.52

8. 91

.12
.17
.16
.14
.13
.45
.29

.21
.20
.18
.21
.25
.70
.81

.41
1.09
.64
.44
.18

1.66

.04

16.22

4.73

1.66

.10
.07
.07
.04

3.69

Total.

.05
.05
.04
.04
.04
.17
.18

1.03
.97

.49
.49
.45

(!)
0)
(i)

(!)

.44

.46
1.56
1.41

Total.................................................

.70

.57

1.46

2.55

.01

5.30

Grand total.......................................

7.52

4. 26

6.19

8.75

3.70

30.43

2. 72

13.60

PL ATE M ILLS.

Death.............................................................

5. 44

5.44

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 foot...................................... ................
1 thumb..................................................
1 finger....................................................
Thumb and 3 fingers.............................
Great toe.................................................
Any 2 toes..............................................

0.95
.88
.41

Total....................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week..................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................

1.50

2.24
.11
.08
.07
.05
.01
.07
.09

.07
.07
.06
.05
.03
.17
.10

.20
.20

1.50
.95
.88
.41
.20
.20

1.90

4.15

.21
.29
.23
.19
.15
.71
.30

.37
.34
.32
.31
.33
.84
.71

.01
0)
(1)

.78
.79
.68
.60
.52
1.78
1.20

Total....................................................

.48

.56

2.08

3.21

.01

6.34

Grand total.........................................

5.92

6.00

4.32

5.11

2.73

24.08

i Less than 0.005.




VABIOTJS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN J U R Y .

131

Table 41.—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RA TES (P E R 1 ,0 0 H O U R S’ E X PO SU R E ) FO R SPECI­
00
FIE D D EPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U STR Y , 1 1 TO 1 1 , BY LOCA­
95
99
TION AND R E SU LT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
TUBE M U XS.

Result of injury.

Death............................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both eyes..........................................
1 eye............... ......................................
1 thumb................... ........... .................
1 finger........ ..........................................
2 fingers..................... ...........................
Thumb and 2 fingers............ ...............
Any 2 toes..............................................
Total...................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week................................ ................_
4th week.................................................
5th week................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................

Head and Trunk.
neck.
5.33

7.10

1.78
1.07

.04
.11
.07

1.78

1. 78

Total.

15.98

a is

1.78
1.07
.89
1.24
. 89
.44
.18

3. 46

.18

6.48

.08
. 16
.13
.13

.07
. 14
. 15
.12

.89
1.24
. 89
.44

2.84
.06
.09
.05
.04

Lower
Upper
extremi­ extremi­ Unclassi­
fied.
ties.
ties.

.03

.06
.04
.09

.01
.20
.13

.12
.39
.23

.01
.01
.01

.12
.26
1.00

.24
.45
.37
.38

.29
.96

1.42

Total............................ ......................

.46

.55

1.23

1.85

.02

4.11

Grand total.... ..................... ..............

8.63

7.66

6.47

2.03

1.79

26.57

SH EET MILLS.
-------- T

Death................................... .. ............................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
t ftV ft

___

___ __________ T _______

1 thumb.................................................................................
1 finger................. ................................... .
2 fingers. ................. .................................................
4 fingers............. ................ ................................................. .
Total____________ ___________________________ ____
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week........... ..................... ........... .................. .
2 d w p f i k ......................................... .......................
3d week............................................. ....................................
4th week........................................................................... ...
5th week........................ .................. .
6t,h-13th week .
............... .. .......... .
14th week and later......................... .

_______________

1.01

0.17
1.86
.84
1.01
3.89

1.01
.06
.08
.06
.02
.10

0.04
.05
.02
.05
.09
.11

1.01
.17
1.86
84
1.01
4.90

.27
.63
.47
.43
.29
. 55
.16

0.30
.42
.46
.27
.20
1.25
.70

C)
1

.67
1.19
1.01
.77
.58
2.00
.87

Total............................... ................

.31

.36

2.80

3.60

(*)

7.08

Grand total......................................

1.32

.36

6.69

3.60

(l)

11.98

1 Less than 00 5
. 0.




132

ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 1 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A TES (P E R 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FO R SPECI­

F IE D D EPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IRON AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1915 TO 1919, BY LOCA­
TION AND R E S U L T OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
F A B R IC A TIN G .

Result of injury.

Death............................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 ieg........................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 thumb..................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers..................................................
3 fingers..................................................
Great toe................................................
Anv 2 toes
.......................................
Total.........

Head and Trunk.
neck.
5.40

Upper
Lower
extremi­ extremi­ Unclassi­
fied.
ties.
ties.

5.40

1.80

3.60

Total.

16.20

.18
.18

1.20
1.08
.90
3.06
.68
.36
.18
.18

5.00

1.56

7.64

1.20

1.08

0.90
3.06
.68
.36

................................

1.08

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week..................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

.39
.21
.08
.04
.05
.12
.07

.05
.06
.04
.02
.06
.12
.03

.29
.53
.52
.30
.22
.51
.23

.25
.49
.36
.27
.25
.64
.57
.01

Total...................................................

.96

.37

2.59

2.83

Grand total.........................................

7.44

7.58 |

6.19

5.77 |

(1)

.98
1.29
1.00
.62
.57
1.39
.89
.01

0)

6.75

3.60

30.58

19.09

57.27

E L EC T R IC AL .

Death.........................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both eyes.............................................
1 arm...................................................
1 finger.................................................
2fingers................................................
Thumb and 3 fingers...........................
Great toe..............................................

28.63

9.54

4.77

Total.................................................

.24
.06
.10
.10
.05
.37
.08

7.52

.24

12.53

.04
.03
.04
.06
.05
.28
.19

.18
.34
.34
.18
.20
.59
.17

.18
.19
.16
.11
.22
.93
.45

4.77

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.............................................
2d week................................................
3d week................................................
4th week..............................................
5th week..............................................
6th-13th week......................................
14th week and later.............................

0.24

4. 77
3.18
.95
1.79
1.59
.24

3.18
.95
1.79
1.59

'

.01
.01

.66
.64
.64
.43
.52
2.17
.90

Total.................................................

1.00

.70

2.00

2.24

.03

5.97

Grand total.......................................

34.41

10.24

9.52

2.48

19.12

75. 77

1 Less th an 0.005,




VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN JU R Y .

133

T able 41.—ACCIDENT SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS' EXPOSURE) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPARTMENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, BY LOCA­
TION AND RESULT OF INJURY—Continued.
MECHANICAL.

Result of injury.

Death............................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 hand....................................................
1 leg........................................................
1 foot.......................................................
1 eye.......................................................
1 thumb.................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers..................................................
3 fingers..................................................
Thumb and 1 finger..............................
Thumb and 2 fingers.............................
Great toe................................................

Upper
Lower
extremi­ extremi­ Unclassi­
fied.
ties.
ties.

Head and Trunk.
neck.
7. 27

7.27

0.81
.80

0.81

2.42

Total.

18.58

.12

4.20

2.80

.81
1.08
.64
2.80
.81
1.49
.40
.16
.32
.20
.12

1.85

8.85

.23
.34
.32
.28
.24
.71

.25
.26
.27
.28
.20
.78
.66

.81
1.49
.40
.16
.32
.20
i

1.08
.64

Total...................................................

2. 80

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week..................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................

.23
.12
.08
.06
.07
.16
.03

.07
.06
.04
.06
.06
. 15
.11

.2 9

Total...................................................

.76

. 55

2.40

2.70

.01

6.42

Grand total.........................................

10.83

7.82

7. 41

5.35

2.44

33.85

8.15

6.11

61.10

.01
C
1)
C
1)

.78
.78
.71
.68
.56
1.80
1.10

YARDS.
Death............................................................

16.29

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm......................................................
1 leg........................................................
1 foot.......................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 thumb.................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers..................................................
Great toe................................................
Any 2 toes..............................................

3.67

Total...................................................

3.67

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.................................................
2d week..................................................
3d week..................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................

.16
.09
.06
.03
.02
.20

30.55
2.89

.10
.20

2.89
2.72
4.89
3.67
.81
1.93
.51
.10
.20

6 14

7. 91

17.72

.21
.20
.23
.24
.21
.82
.42

.29
.35
.31
.32
.40
1.35
1.31

.81
1.93
.51

.07
.08
.11
.09
.06
.32
.20

2. 72
4.89

.01
(0
.01
.02

.73
.72
.71
.67
.70
2.71
1.92

Total...................................................

.56

.92

2.31

4.33

.04

8.17

Grand total.........................................

20. 52

31.48

8.46

20.39

6.15

86.99

1 Less than 0.005.




134

ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 4 1 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (P E R 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FO R SPECI­
F IE D D E P A R T M E N T S IN T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y LOCA­
TION AND R ESU L T OF IN JU R Y —Concluded.
,

UNCLASSIFIED.

Result of injury.

Head and Trunk.
neck.

Death..................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye
....................................................
1 thumb ....................................................
1 finger ..
. .
_ _
_
2 fingers.......................................................
3 fingers.......................................................
4 fingers................................. .....................
Great toe.....................................................
Any 2 toes............ - ....................................
Other...........................................................

6.12

Upper
Lower
extremi­ extremi­ Unclassi­
fied.
ties.
ties.

10.80

2.52

Total.

5.04

21.49

.02

.99
.45
1.50
.72
1.75
.77
1.07
.36
.14
.32
.04
.11
.02

4.12

2.36

.02

8.25

.26
.35
.35
.27
.27
.63
.18

.30
.33
.38
.26
.27
.83
.68

.01
.01
.01
.01
0)
.03
.01

.79
.89
.91
.66
.67
1.85
1.12

0.99
.45
1.50
.72
1.75

.77
1.07
.36
.14
.32
.04
.11

Total........................................................

1.75

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week.......................................................
3d week.......................................................
4th week............. ........................................
....................................
5th week............... .•
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later........ ........................

.14
.10
.10
.05
.04
.13
.14

.08
.10
.07
.07
.09
.22
.10

Total................................ ......................

.70

.72

2. 32

3.06

.08

6. 88

Grand total.............................................

8.57

11.52

6.44

7.95

5.14

39.62

1 Less than 0.005.

An inspection of this table will show from a different standpoint
the fact already indicated with regard to the relative seriousness of
head injuries as compared with injuries to other parts of the body.
Among head injuries which appear constantly with a considerable
degree of severity are those involving loss or injury to the eyes. In
several of the departments, as for example blast furnaces, mechanical,
and yards, this sort of injury stands near the head among permanent
disabilities. This is a matter which deserves repeated emphasis in
view of the fact that injuries to the eye may be almost entirely elimi­
nated by the use of adequate head and eye protection.
DEPARTMENTS AND NATURE OF INJURY.

Table 42 shows for the several departments the distribution of the
severity of injury among the different varieties of bodily damage..




135

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

T able 4 2 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H OURS' EX P O SU R E ) FOR SPECIFIED
DEPARTMENTS 1 IN T H E IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 1915 TO 1919, B Y N ATU RE OF
INJURY.

Nature of injury.

Abrasion.....................
Bruise.........................
Cut..............................
Laceration.................
Puncture...................
Burn or scald............
Concussion.................
Dis ocation...............
Fracture....................
Sprain or strain (not
fiernia)....................
Accidenta 1dismem­
berment .................
Nervous shock..........
Abrasion with infec­
tion..........................
Cut with infection...
Laceration with in­
fection .....................
Puncture with infec­
tion..........................
Burn or scald with
infection.................
Fracture with infec­
tion..........................
Hernia........................
Asphyxia...................
Electric flash.............
Crushing injury........
Heat exhaustion----Electric shock...........
Loss of teeth.............
Frosted......................
Unclassified...............

Sheet Fab­
Heavy
Blast
Un­
Me­
Open Found­ roll­ Plate Tube roll­ ricat­ Elec­ chan­
fur­
Yards. classi­
hearths. ries.
ing mills. mills. ing ing. trical.
naces.
fied.
ical.
mills.
mills,

.28

.45

2.82
(2)

1.39
(2)

.05
.57

1.10

.33

.01
10.62

.02

.01

.01

.01

Total................

.28

.16

.84

1.37
.07

1.24

4.41

.04

.02
(*)

1.80

.97

.01

.05

.03

(2)

(2)

(2)

.01

(2)

.01
7.82
1.78

.05
.10
4.78
(2)
.13
(2)
.40 10.43 15.53
.02
14.32
.05
(2)

.18
.82
.01
9.12
<2)
.81
(2)
.01
(2)

3.10
.21
7. 01

.05

.01

.01

.08
.01
.01
20.77
.01
(2)

.22

1.15

3.0 9
.06
.30
.02
.04
1.17

0.11
1.07

.06

1.14
.01

1.62
.59
5.51
.75
.03
6.99

0.99
2.31

.03

.01
.09
10.29
.07
15.63

(s)
.01

%

8.80
(2)

.05
.03
(2)
.01
10.80
.01

.06
(2)
.01
1.67
2.73

(2)
(2)

0.06
1.11

0.17
4.24
.02
3.39
.14
2.19
1.78
.01
1.74

.04

0.17
2.88
<2)
2.10
.23
16.97
.01
.02
16.26

0.15
2.80
.01
2.33
.17
3. 22
(2)
.03
9.10

.84

0.55
3.00
(2>
3.13
.51
18. 67
1.14
.05
26.01

0.38

.01

.12
.03
8.63 25.72

.0 9
9 .6 3

4.53
4.19
2.38
(2)
.10
16.39

.30

.51

.3 6

.56

.41

1.04

1.07

2 .1 5

5.97
(2)

3.50

.81

’ \*6i

0 .3 0
1 .7 3

.03
(2)

.08

.49

.67

.16
(2)

.12

.05

1.65

.02

.39

.26

.24

0.31 0.15
.81
2.43
(2)
2.65 1.54
.72
.07
1.95 10.54

.01

.02

‘i.'si

30.43 24.08 26.57

7 5. 77

( 2)
2. 30
2 .1 8

1.20
.01

33.85

2.23
1.94

2.10
(2)

2.37
1.74
4.64
.36
.07

9.38

.01

.01

.07
2.04
.14
(2)
(2)
45.77
<2)
.02

.13
1.81
.01
11.67
.01

(2)

(2),«
.40

86.99

39.62

1 The Bessemer department is omitted because the exposure is not sufficient to give satisfactory rates.
2 Less than 0.005.

The blast furnaces show the greatest severity (26.01 days per
10,000 hours* exposure) for fractures, followed closely by the elec­
trical department (25.72 days). Crushing injury is most conspicu­
ous in the yards (45.77 days). The reason for this is readily under­
stood when it is remembered that the duties of the yard employees
require them to work about and among moving cars on the railways.
As would naturally be expected in those departments which have to
do with heated metal, burns and scalds are o f marked importance, as,
for example, in blast furnaces (18.67 days), open hearths (16.97 days),
and the electrical department (10.54 days).
NATURE AND RESULT OF INJURY.

Table 43 shows what is the final result, whether death, permanent
disability, or temporary disability, arising from the various sorts of
injuries.




136

ACCIDENTS IN T H E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 3 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 HO U R S' E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPAR TM ENTS IN THE IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N AT U R E
AN D R ESULT OF INJUR Y.

BLAST FURNACES.
Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr'nd
dis­ total.
All
abil­
Hand Foot other. Total. ities.
Leg. Eye. or fin­ or
gers. toes.

Loss of—
Nature of injury.

Death.
Both Both Arm.
eyes. legs.

Abrasion...................................
Bruise.......................................*
Cut............................................
Laceration................................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald..........................
Concussion...............................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture...................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia)
Accidental dismemberment.
N ervous shock.......................
Abrasion with infection__
Cut with infection..................
Laceration with infection. . .
Puncture with in fe c tio n ...
Burn or scald with infection.
Fracture with infection_
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia.................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury......................
Electric shock..........................
Loss of teeth............................
........................................
Total..................................

0.34
.76

0.34

.01
.01

1.02
.34
1.19

1.14
14.76

1.14

1.14 12.16

6.12

85.25

0.19

0.
1. 71

0.17 17
2.88
(l)
2.10
.23
16.97
.01
.02
16.26
.45
1.39
0)
1.10
.05
.01
.01
.08
.01
.01
20.77
.01

0.20
.06
1.14

22.70

.85

.34

1.22
.40
2. 33
1.14

.49 0.06

1.74

.06

1.67

1.62

1.14

.57

.57

10. 22
13. 62
1.14

.74

.76

.51

. .06
2.01

Other
1.14
66.97

0.21
1.11
C
1)
.77
.13
1.59
C
1)
.05
1.57
.28
.01
C
1)
.05

0.55
3.00
(x
)
3.13
.51
18.67
1.14
.05
26.01
.28
2.82
C
1)
.05
.57
.06
.03
.01
.01
.09
10.29
.07
15.63
1.14
.01
1.15

0.76

1.14

1.14

2.36 3.23

3.66

.62

.06
.03
.01
.01
.09
.07
.07
.01

OPEN HEARTHS.
1
Abrasion...................................
1
Bruise.......................................
0.97
......... 1
..........
Cut............................................
1
Laceration...............................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald.......................... 13.64
Concussion...............................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture................................... 12.67
Sprain or strain (not hernia) Accidental dismemberment..
Nervous shock........................
Abrasion with infection........
.97
Laceration with infection. . .
Puncture with infection........
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia.................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury...................... 17.54
0.97
Heat exhaustion.....................
Electric shock..........................
Other.......................................
Total.................................. 45.80
i Less than 0.005.




.97

0.19
.44
. 15
.58

.44
.15
.95

0.37
.56 0.86

,1.42

.10

1.39

1.29
.05

1.02

0.65

.65

1.36

&
.09
2.37
.01
.02
2.18
.45

.05

.49

3.13

3.29 1.44

7.72

C
1)
.08
.05
.01
.01
.08
.01
.01
.10
.01
C
1)
0)
9.03

8
62.55

V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S

137

OF L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

4 3 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H OU R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPARTM ENTS IN THE IRON A N D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N AT U R E
AN D RESULT OF INJUR Y—Continued.

TABLE

FOUNDRIES.

Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr’nd
dis­ total.
abil­
All
Hand Foot other. Total. ities.
Leg. Eye. or fin­ or
gers. toes.

Loss of—
Nature of injury.

Death.
Both Both Arm.
eyes. legs.

Abrasion...................................
Bruise.......................................
Laceration................................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald..........................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture...................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Abrasion with infection........
Laceration with infection.. .
Puncture with infection........
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia.................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury......................
Heat exhaustion.....................
Total..................................

0.59

0.59
1.47 0.10

1.57

i. 52

2.92

5.87
5.87

1. 30

.10

.29
.29

.88

7.83
19.57

1.30

.59

.29
.29

.88

4. 45

.20

6. 54

0.04 0.04

0. 57
.55
.44

1.87

.49

.81

.15

2.95
.49
.96
.04

0.40
2.31
1.54
.21
1.14
.01
1.83
.42
.01
.04
.02
.01
.01
.22
0
.01
.10
(l)

0.99
2.31
3.10
.21
7.01
.01
10.62
.42
.30
.33
.02
.01
.01
.22
0
.01
8.80
0)

8. 28

34.38

0.11
1. 07
1. 05
.03
.64
.01
.03
1.83
.35

0.11
1.07
1.62
.59
5.51
.75
.03
6.99
.84
.96
.04
.04
.97
0
.01
.05
•Q
3

H E A V Y ROLLING MILLS.
Abrasion. .
....................
Bruise.......................................
Laceration...............................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald..........................
Concussion...............................
Dislocation.........................
Fracture...................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
N ervous shock........................
Abrasion withinfection.........
Laceration with infection___
Puncture withinfection........
Burn or scald with infection.
Fracture with infection.........
Hernia......................................
Asphyxia.................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury.......................
Heat exhaustion.....................
Loss of teeth.............................
Other............. •
..........................
Total..................................

4.42
.74
2. 21

0.10
.49

.49

.22

.74

.22
.04

8.11

.49

16.22

.59 1.03 1.66

1. 38

.04

.77

2.65

4.14 1.49

8. 87

.04
.01
0
.01
.01
.03
0
.01
.04
.01

%
10.80
.01

%

i Less than 0.005.

7 10 8 7°— 22------- 10




0.05 0.44
.55
.44

%

5. 34

30.43

138

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 4 3 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H OURS' E X P O S U R E ) EOR SPECI' TIED DEPARTM ENTS IN TH E IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N A T U R E
AND R ESULT OF IN JU R Y—Continued.

PLATE MILLS.
Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr’nd
Death.
dis­ totaL
All Total. abil­
Hand Foot other.
ities.
Both Both
or
eyes. legs. Arm. Leg. Eye. or fin­
gers. toes.
Loss of-

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...................................

Bruise................................

C u t............................................
Laceration-..............................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald—. . ...............
Concussion......... .......... ..........
Dislocation........ — ..................
Fracture............. .....................
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Nervous shock.. . . . . . .
Abrasion with infection........
Cut with infection..................
Laceration withinfection___
Puncture withinfection........
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia........ .........................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury......................
Heat exhaustion................
Loss of teeth............................
Total..................................

1.36
0.41 a 07

0.48

.07

.61

.68

1.16

.20

1.36

2.72
6. S
O

0.15
1.44
.01
L 86
.17
.50
0)
.03
1.62
.28
.01
.07
.02

a
.03
(l)
.06

C)
1

0.15
2.80
.01
2.33
.17
3.22

< ?«
9.10
.28
1.37
.07
.02

0

.01
.63

%

.01
.11
.01
.01

1.67
2. 73
.01

.54 1.02

1.56

2.17 1.90

4.08

6.41

24.08

0.18

a i7
.69
.02
2.49 : .91
.14
.41

a 17
4.24
.02
3.39
.14
2.19
1.78
.01
1.74
.1 6
1.24
1.80
.05

2.72
13.60

TUBE MILLS.
Abrasion.......................
Bruise.......................................
Cut.............................................
Laceration...............................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald.......................
Concussion...............................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture......................
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Abrasion with infection........
Laceration withinfection___
Puncture withinfection........
Burn or scald withinfection.
Hernia.......................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury____ ________
Heat exhaustion.....................
Other.........................................

3.55
1.78

0.53

1.78
1.78
.40
.53

.40

.71

1.24

1.78

.01
L33
.16
.02
.0 5

8
.05
2 . 17 0.18

Total................................... 15.98

1.78

1.07

2.35

.01
.1 4
<2,

5.32
1.78

.01
7.82
1.78
.01

3.46

6.48

4.11

26. 57

0.06
1.11
3.09
.06
.30
02
.04
1.17
.84
4.41
.09
.24
.14
.40
11.98

.18

SHEET ROLLING MILLS.
Abrasion...................................
Bruise.......................................
Laceration...............................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald..........................
Concussion................................
Dislocation...
Fracture. .
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment
Abrasion with infection__
Laceration with intention
Hernia.......................................
Crushing injury......................
Total
1 Less than 0.005.




.34

.34

0.06
1.11
3.09
.06
.30
.02
.04
1.17
.84
.02
.09
.07
.14
.06

1.01

3.89

4.90

7.08

3.38

4.39

.17

1. 01

.17

139

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC ., OF IN J U R Y .

T>BLE 4 3 — ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) EOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM ENTS IN T H E IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N A T U R E
A N D R ESU L T OF IN JUR Y—Continued.

FABRICATING.
Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr’nd
Death.
dis­ total.
All Total. abil­
Hand
ities.
Both Both Arm. Leg. Eye. or fin­ Foot other.
or
eyes. legs.
gers. toes.
Loss of—

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...................................
Bruise.......................................
Cut........ ....................................
Laceration..............................
Puncture..................................
Burns o r scalds.......................
a
1.80
Dislocation...............................
5.40
...................................
Fracture
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Abrasion with infection........
Cut with infection................ .
Laceration with infection
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia.................................
Electrie flash............................
Crushing injury......................
7.20
Loss of teeth............................
1.80
Other........................................

1.20

1.20
0.54
.54

0.27

.81
.54

.09
.63 0.09

.09
.72

1.04

1.04

.09

.09

0.31
1.23
(l )
1.84
.18
.15
.03
2.50
.30

2.88

.27

3.15

.03
C
1)
.03
.01
.05

8
.08

0.31
2.43
C)
2.65
.72
1.95
.12
8.63
.30
1.04
.03
C
1)
.12
.01
.05
C
1)
0)
10.43

C
1)
.01

Total.................................. 16.20

1.20

1.08 5.00

.36

7.64

(
/.}81

6.75

30.58

0.15
.81
.95
.07
1.00
.03
1.86
.51

%

0.15
.81
1.54
.07
10.54
.03
25.72
.51
1.07
.08
.05
.26
.10
4.78
.13
15.53
.02
14.32
.05

5.98

75.77

ELECTRICAL.
Abrasion...................................
Bruise.......................................
Laceration...............................
Puncture.................................
Burn or scald..........................
4. 77
Dislocation...............................
Fracture................................. 23.86
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Abrasion with infection........
Laceration with infection.. .
Puncture with infection.......
•Hernia.............. ....................
4.77
Asphyxia.................................
Electric flash............................
9.54
Crushing injury......................
Heat exhaustion.....................
Electric shock.......................... 14.32
Loss of teeth............................
Total.................................. 57.27
1 Less than 0.005,




0.60

0.60

4. 77

4. 77

1.07

1.07

.24

.24

..

3. i8

4.77

3.18

2.43 0.24

5.85

.24

i
|
1
i12.53

4.33

.08
.05
.02
.10
.01
.13
.14
.02

140

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

T able 4 3 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (P E R 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM EN TS IN T H E IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N A T U R E
AN D R ESU L T OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
M ECH ANICAL.

Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr’nd
Death.
dis­ total.
A ll' Total. abil­
Hand Foot other.
ities.
Both Both Arm.
Leg. Eye. or fin­ or
eyes. legs.
gers. toes.
Loss of—

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...................................
Bruise........................................
Cut.............................................
Laceration................................
Puncture...................................
Burn or scald...........................
Concussion................................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture....................................
Sprain ors train (not hernia).
Accidentaldismemberment.
Nervous shock.. .
........
Abrasion with infection........
Laceration with infection.. .
Punct ure with infection........
Burn orscald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia..................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury.......................
Heat exhaustion.....................
Electric shock..........................
Loss of teeth............................
Frosted.....................................
Other.........................................
Total..................................

0.06
.24

0.24
1.48
C
1)
1.30
.16
.39
.01
.09
1.81
.36
.01
C
1)
.13
.03
.01
0)
.18
.01
.01
.18
0)
0)
.01
0)

0.06
.24
.92
1.21

0.81
.81

1.00
1.21

0.08

.71 0.65

6.46

1.35
2.14

2.14
.81

.36

.36
1.62

.81
6.46

1.08

1.27

.12

2.47

.81

18.58

1.08 2.80

4.20

.77

8.85

0.30
1.73
(D
2.30
2.18
1.20
.01
.09
9.63
.36
2.15
.81
.49
1.65
.01
0)
.18
.82
.01
9.12
0)
.81
C
1)
.01
C
1)

6. 42

33.85

0.19
1.94
1.48
.12
.35
0)
.10
2. 81
.56
.01
C
1)
.06
.02
.02

2.23
1.94
4.53
4.19
2.38
0)
.10
16.39
.56
5.97

YARDS.
2.04
Abrasion...................................
Bruise........................................
Laceration................................
4.08
Puncture..................................
Burn orscald........................... 2.04
Concussion................................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture.................................... 10.18
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidentaldismemberment. 4.08
Nervous shock.........................
Abrasion withinfection........
Laceration withinfection. . .
Puncture withinfection........
Fracture withinfection......... 2.04
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia..................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury....................... 36.66
Heat exhaustion.....................
Electricshock......................
Other.........................................
Total..................................
i Less than 0.005,




61.10

3.06

3.06

0.41 0.10

3. 39

1.07

1.53 1.36

1.88

.81

.61

.61

1.36 1. 36

1.78 4.28

8. 78

.14
U)
(1)
.33
0)
.02
0)

2.89 2.72 3. 67

3.26 5.19

17. 72

8.17

<?«
.02
.02
2.04
. 14
0)
0)
45.77
C
1)
.02
(D
86.99

V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S

141

OE L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

T able 4 3 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R AT ES (PER 10,000 H O U R S 7 E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR T M EN T S IN TH E IR O N AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y N A T U R E
AND R ESU L T OF IN J U R Y —Concluded.
UNCLASSIFIED.
Permanent disabilities.
Tem­
po­
rary Gr'nd
Death.
dis­ total.
All Total. abil­
Hand Foot other.
ities.
Both Both Arm.
Leg. Eye. or fin­ or
eyes. legs.
gers. toes.
Loss of-

Nature of injury.

Abrasion...................................
Bruise........................................
Cut.............................................
Laceration................................
Puncture..................................
Burn or scald...........................
Concussion................................
Dislocation...............................
Fracture...................................
Sprain or strain (not hernia).
Accidental dismemberment.
Nervous shock.........................
Abrasion with infection........
Cut with infection..................
Laceration with infection___
Puncture with infection........
Burn or scald with infection.
Hernia.......................................
Asphyxia..................................
Electric flash............................
Crushing injury......................
Heat exhaustion.....................
Frosted.....................................
Other.........................................
Total..................................

0.22

0.22

0.36
3.60
.72
.36
.36
6. 48
.72

.43
.88
.06

6.02

0.05
.02
0.29

0.51 0.54

1. 70

.34

2. 76

.13

.24

. 50
.90
.35

.48

i. is

.11

i
1

.11

.05

.36

.05

1.80
9. 36

.72

1.22

.23

1.00 1.50 1.75

3.12

.86

2.18

.36
24.49

.02

8.25

0.16
1.74
0)
1.50
.12
.67
0)
.07
1.73
.41
.02
.01
.05
0)
.03
.01
.02
.13
.01
.01
.13
.01
0)
.04

0.38
2.10
0)
2.37
1.74
4.64
.36
.07
9.38
.41
3.50
.01
. 16
0)
.39
.01
.07
.13
1.81
.01
11.67
.01
C
1)
.40

6.88

39. 62

1 Less than 0.005.

The highest death severity is due to fractures in a majority of the
departments, and most of them show a closely approximating
severity for crushing injury.
A study of this table reenforces what has already been said with
regard to injuries of the eye as a quite serious matter.
In this and other tables pertaining to nature of injury it appears
that injuries complicated by infection are of comparatively small
importance. I t should be stated that infection was not considered
unless it was evidently sufficient to prolong the disability or to give
rise to certain permanent disabilities which would not have occurred
without infection. This showing of the relative absence of infection
is highly creditable to the medical service of the concerns covered by
this study, and represents a very great advance over the conditions
which prevailed earlier.
RESULTS OF INJURY BY YEARS AND DEPARTMENTS.

Table 44 presents, for such plants as reported in a form which could
be readily used for the purpose, the frequency and severity of acci­
dents in accordance with their results.




142

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 4 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y RATES IN T H E IRON AN D STEEL
IN D U ST R Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919, AND B Y Y E A R S , 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESU LT OF
IN JU R Y.

FREQUENCY RATES (PER JO,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE).
Result of injury.

1910-1914 1915-1919
3.87

Permanent total disability:
Loss of—
Both arms...............................
Both legs.................................
Both hands.............................

.01
.01
(l)
.01
.02

3.54

1915
2.50

1916
3.18

.02
.04

(1).03

1917

1918

1919

4.24

3.59

3.05

.02
.01
.01
.02
.02

.01
.01
.03

.01
.01
.04

.01

(1).o i
.01
.02

.04

.05

.07

.10

.08

.05

.07

.17
.25
.27
.33
1.22
1.06
6.37

.03
.17
.11
.17
.95
.80
3.93

.20
.22
.16
.10
1.20
.86
6.08

.44
.62
2.15

.13
.24
.20
.30
1.07
.80
3.98
.38
.13
.05
.03
.01
.01
.02
.29
.35
1.97

.23
.52
3.84

.34
.56
4.74

.15
.24
.24
.39
1.10
.88
4.32
.44
.09
.07
.03
.02
.01
.02
.37
.43
1.40

.12
.30
.24
.37
1.27
.84
3.99
.55
.22
.06
.05
.01
.02
.02
.31
.24
1.64

.11
.23
.17
.25
.68
.56
1.99
.47
.19
.07
.03
.03
.03
.03
.09
.16
.68

Total.....................................

12.88

9.96

10.75

14.46

10.20

10.25

5. 77

Total, permanent disa­
bility.................................

12.93

10.03

10.75

14.56

10.28

10.30

5.84

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week..................................
2d week....................................
3d week........ ..........................
4th week..................................
5t,h week........ _.......................
6th-13th week......................
14th week or later.................
All other..................................

300.59
125.92
55.57
30.22
18.52
32. 22
6.91
5.50

210.26
80.97
38.62
23.65
15.39
27.62
5.49
4.06

205.06
78.58
38.29
21. 77
12.99
25. 84
5.13
.20

188.22
91.85
44.71
28.36
18.74
33.24
7.66
.36

235.75
95.74
43.71
27.58
17.87
31.33
6.64
4.60

210.18
73.31
35. 77
21.99
13. 77
24.75
4.72
7.16

185.53
62. 53
30. 83
17.49
12. 71
23.08
3.54
2.54

All other..................................
Total.....................................
Permanent partial disability:
Loss or disability of—
1 a r m .....................................................
1 hand......................................
1 foot.........................................
1 eye.........................................
1 t.nnmb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
4 fingers...................................
Thumb and 1 finger..............
Thumb and 2 fingers............
Thumb and 3 fingers............
Thumb and 4 fingers............
Great toe.................................
Any 2 toes.. *..........................
Other........................................

'

Total.....................................

575.45

406.08

387.87

413.14

463. 22

391.65

338. 25

Grand total.........................

592.25

419.63

401.12

430.88

477. 74

405.54

347.14

224

1 9 6 ,6 4 6

4 1 0 ,8 5 3

3 9 2 ,2 6 0

2 4 9 ,3 2 3

N um ber

of w o r k e r s ....................... 1 ,3 1 0 ,9 1 1

1Less than 0.005.




1 ,3 3 5 , 30 5

m ,

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

143

T able 4 4 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y A N D S E V E R IT Y R A T E S IN TH E IR O N AN D STEEL
IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919, AN D B Y Y E A R S , 1915 TO 1919, B Y R E SU L T OF
IN JU R Y —Concluded.

SEVERITY RATES (PER 10,000 HOURS' EXPOSURE).
Result of injury.
Death..............................................
Permanent total disability:
Loss of—
Both arms...............................
Both legs.................................
Both hands.............................
Both feet.................................
Both eyes...... .........................
All other..’. ............................
Total.....................................
Permanent partial disability:
Loss or disability of—
I arm........................................
1 hand......................................
1 leg..........................................
1 foot.........................................
1 eye.........................................
1 thumb...................................
1 finger.....................................
2 fingers...................................
3 fingers...................................
4 fingers...................................
Thumb and 1 finger..............
Thumb and 2 fingers............
Thumb and 3 fingers............
Thumb and 4 fingers............
Great toe.................................
Any 2 toes...............................
All other..................................

1910-1914 1915-1919

1915
14. 97

1916

23.25

21. 27

.05
.03
.02
.05
.15

.01
.09
.01
.04
.09
.13

. 12
.24

.30

.39

.67
.76
1. 08
.79
2.19
.63
1.91

.13
.19
1.07.

. 52
.73
.82
.72
1.93
.48
1.19
.29
.15
.08
.04
.02
.02
.04
.09
.10
.98

1917

1918

1919

25.46

21. 57

. 15
.05
.05
. 10
.15

.05
.05
.15

.08
.08
.24

.60

.50

.25

.48

. 11
.52
. 46
.41
1. 70
.48
1.18

. 80
.66
.64
.24
2.16
.52
1.82

.07
.15
1. 92

. 10
.17
2.37

.62
.71
.94
.93
1.97
. 53
1.30
.33
.11
.11
.04
.04
.02
.06
.11
. 13
.70

48
.89
.95
.88
2.29
. 50
1.20
.41
.27
.09
.06
.01
.03
.04
.09
.07
.82

.43
.68
.70
.61
1.23
.34
.60
.35
.22
.10
.03
.04
.05
.06
.03
.05
.34

19.08

.24

18.29

.08

Total.....................................

9.42

8. 20

7.00

9. 48

8. 65

9.08

5.86

Total, permanent dis­
ability............................

9. 72

8.57

7.00

10.08

9.15

9.33

6.34

Temporary disability, termi­
nating in—
1st week...................................
2d week..................................
3d week....................................
4t,h week . ................... *
5tn week..................................
6th - 13th week.. . . . . ____
14th week or later..................
All other..................................

1.05
1.20
. 86
.65
.51
1. 77
.99
.09

.74
.77
.60
. 51
.42
1.52
.79
.07

.72
.75
.59
.47
.36
1.42
.74
G)

.66
.87
.69
.61
.52
1. 83
1.10
.01

.83
.91
.68
.59
.49
1.72
.96
.08

.74
.70
.55
.47
.38
1.36
.68
.12

.65
.59
. 48
. 38
.35
1.27
.51
.04

Total.....................................

7.11

5.42

5. 05

6. 29

6.26

5.00

4.27

Grand total.........................

40.08

35.26

27.02

35.45

40.87

35.90

28.90

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ........................ 1 ,3 1 0 ,9 1 1

1 ,3 3 5 ,3 0 5

116,224

166,646

4 1 0 ,8 5 2

3 9 2 ,2 6 0

2 4 9 ,3 2 3

1 Less than 0.005.

This table presents the combined experience of two 5-year periods
and the course of events during the five years of the later period.
A notable feature of this table, perhaps the notable feature, is
the almost perfect uniformity with which the second 5-year period
shows a lower rate than the first. Whatever influences have been at
work have been of a kind which has a general effect on the accidents
giving rise to the various results.
The influence of the war period, discussed at length in another
chapter, is observable here in the rise in rates for each result, cul­
minating in 1916 or 1917, the rates thereafter declining.
There has been considerable discussion regarding the relative
importance of losses of parts of the upper extremities as compared
with the lower. In the first 5-year period the upper extremities




144

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

showed a rate of 4.04 days and the lower of 2.27 days per 10,000
hours’ exposure. In the second 5-year period the figures are, for the
upper extremities 3.58 days and for the lower extremities 1.86 days.
This result is manifestly conditioned in part by the adequacy of
the time allowances which have been fixed for the various losses.
If those assigned to lower extremity injuries are materially too low
the disparity is greater than it should be. When, however, all
possible allowance is made for this factor, the greater number of
upper extremity losses would still make the severity rates for them
greater. That is, for a group of men losses of parts of the upper
extremities are more serious, while the individual man may be
more seriously handicapped by loss of a leg than by loss of an arm.
THE DEPARTMENTS COMPARED.

Table 45 assembles for purposes of comparison the accident fre­
quency and severity rates for the several departments for the second
5-year period.
T able 4 5 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR SPECIFIED D E P A R T ­
MENTS IN TH E IRON AND ST EEL IN D U ST R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y RESU LT OF IN JU RY.
FREQUENCY R A T E S (PER 10,000,000 HOU RS’ E X PO SU R E).

Result of injury.

Erec­
tion
Blast Open Found­ Heavy Plate Sheet­ Tube Fab­ Wire Me­
fur­ hearths. ries. rolling
rolling
ricat­ draw­ chani­ Yards. . of
mills. mills. mills. ing. ing.
struc­
naces.
mills.
cal.
tural
steel.

Death........................
Permanent total
disability: Loss
of—
Both arms........
Both legs..........
Both hands___
Both feet...........
Both eyes..........
All other...........
Permanent partial
disability: Loss
of—
1 arm.................
1 hand...............
1 leg....................
1 foot..................
1 eye...................
1 thumb............
1 finger...............
2 fingers.............
3 fingers.............
4 fingers.............
Thumb and 1
finger..............
Thumb and 2
fingers............
Thumb and 3
fingers............
Thumb and 4
fingers............
Great toe...........
Any 2 toes.........
All other...........
Total, permanent
disability..
1 Less than 0.05.




7.1

6.7

3.1

3.9

2.2

1.5

1.6

2.5

0.8

C)
.1

3.0

5.5

20.1

C
1)

.1
0)

(!)
(i)
.1

.2
.1
.2
.3
1.1
.5
2.2
.3
.1
.1

.1
.2
.4
.9
.8
1.1
4.4
.4
.1
.1

'

0)

.1

.1

U)

0)

C)

.1
.2
.5
.2
1.5
.8
4.5
.9
.2

.3
.1
.2
.6
1.0
3.6
.3
.1

.1

C
1)

.6
.4
.4
.8
1.4
5.2
.5
.1

.1

C
1)

.1
.3
.1
.3
.4
.5
2.9
.2
(i)
.1
C)

(!)
.2
0)
.5
1.0
4.0
.4
.1

.1
.2
(!)
.1
.7
.8
3.7
C
1)
(l)

.1
.1
.1
.1
3.4
1.0
7.6
.1
.2

.2
.2
.2
.3
1.2
.8
4.2
.3
.2
0)

.3
.6
.5
.7
1.0
.9
5.5
.3
.3
.1

.1

0)

.4

0)
C
1)

C)

0)

"*i*3
1.3
2.2
1.8
4.9

.1

(!)
.2
.2
1.8

.5
.9
2.1

.3
.6
1.2

.8
.4
2.0

.1
.4
.4
1.0

.1
.2
.5

(i)
V2
.4
.4

.3
.2
.4

.3
.3
7.2

(1)
.1
.3
2.4

.1
.5
.8
4.5

3.1

7.5

12.1

10.8

12.8

8.4

5.7

7.2

6.5

20.5

10.5

16.3

15.6

.4

V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S

145

O F L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

T able 4 5 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R A T E S FO R SPECIFIED D E P A R T ­
MENTS IN THE IR ON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y R E S U L T OF IN J U R Y —
Continued.
F R E Q U E N C Y R A T E S (PER 10,000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E )—Continued.

Result of injury.

Erec­
tion
Blast Open Found­ Heavy Plate Sheet­
Fab­ Wire
Me­
fin­ hearths.
rolling mills. rolling Tube ricat­ draw­ chani­ Yards. of
ries. mills.
mills. ing. ing.
struc­
ances.
mills.
cal.
tural
steel.

Temporary disabil­
ity, terminating
in—
1st week............ 177.9
2d week.............
76.1
3d week.............
37.1
4th week...........
21.1
5th week...........
16.2
6th-13th week.. 25.0
14th week and
later................
5.7
All other..........
2.5

218.4
89.5
50.4
31.5
24.1
39.6

360.4
99.6
52.8
32.3
20.5
31.2

9.4
1.8

4.3
7.0

Total.............. 361.6

464.7

608.1

Grand total.. 376.2

483.5

622.0

7 2 ,2 7 1

8 0 ,0 2 9

N u m b e r o f w o r k e rs . . 1 2 3 ,6 6 9

144.1 157.5
61.4 64.0
31.1 32.7
20.0 24.7
15.1 16.3
25.8 26.5

151.2 106.8 333.7 221.8
92.8 43.8 104.3 99.6
43.5 21.3 40.8 44.4
21.7 17.0 24.7 25.5
12.6 10.3 14.9 14.6
21.1 17.7 27.7 24.7

192.7
67.4
29.7
20.1
13.4
24.8

170.6
67.7
27.8
18.9
12.2
28.7

371.8
101.2
56.6
35.7
24.5
62.9

4.9
.6

4.6
1.1

6.3
3.1

18.7
1.8

305.7 328.4

348.0 220.6 551.1 436.1

353.8

335.3

673.2

322.4 339.0

355.2 229.4 564.1 457.4

367.3

357.1

708.8

3 0 ,5 0 5 1 2 1 ,3 5 5 7 1 ,2 1 6 7 7 ,0 7 8 5 1 ,9 6 7 1 3 7 ,2 5 7 4 7 ,6 8 5

7 ,P 7

7.1
1.1

6 2 ,9 5 7

4.4
2.3

4.0
1.1

3.0
.7

4.8
.2

SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 HOURS’ E XPO SU R E).
Death..
total
Permanent
disability: Loss
of—
Both arms........
Both legs..........
Both hands___
Both feet..........
Both eyes.........
All other...........
Permanent partial
disability: Loss
of—
1 arm.................
1 hand...............
1 leg....................
1 foot..................
1 eye...................
1 thumb............
1 finger..............
2 fingers.............
3 fingers.............
4 fingers.............
Thumb and 1
finger............ .
Thumb and 2
fingers............
Thumb and 3
fingers.......... .
Thumb and 4
fingers.......... .
Great toe......... .
Any 2 toes____
All other.........

42.7

40.4

18.5

23.8

12.9

8.9

9.8

14.8

4.6

.2
.5

18.1

32.7

120.4

.1
.2

.3
.2

.3
.3
.6

.9
.4
1.0
.6
2.0
.3
.6
.2
.2
.1

.4
.7
1.5
1.0
1.5
.7
1.3
.3
.2
.1

.3
.2

.3

.3
.6 ” "i.*9* " i .'o '
2.0
1.5
.4
.6
.5
1.0
2.6
1.4
1.2
.5
.9
.6
1.2
1.6
1.1
.7
.4
.2
.1
.1
.2
.1

(!)

.1

.4
.8
.4
.7
.6
.3
.9
.2
(l)
.1
(!)

.2
.7
.1
.9
.6
1.2
.3
.1

.3
.6
.2
.2
1.2
.5
1.1
C)
.1

.1

.3
.2
.3
.2
6.1
.6
2.3
C)
.2

.1

.8
.7
.7
.7
2.1
.5
1.3
.2
.3
(!)

.4

1.4
1.7
2.0
1.7
1.9
.5
1.6
.2
.3
.2

.1

(!)

0)
.1

5.3
3.2
4.0
1.1
1.5

.7

.1

(!)

.1

.1
m
.1
.9

.2
.3
1.0

.1
.2
.6

.3
.1
1.0

.3
.1
.1
.5

0)
.1
.2

.1
.1
.1
.2

.1
.1
.2

.1
.1
3.6

.1
0)
.1
1.2

.2
.1
.2
2.3

1.6

8.6

10.4

9.9

10.6

6.2

5.0

4.7

4.9

14.0

9.0

14.9

17.5

Total, perm an e n t

1 Less than 0.05.




.1

146

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

T able 4 5 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R A T E S FO R SPECIFIED D E P A R T ­
M ENTS IN T H E IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y R E SU L T OF IN JU R Y —
Concluded.
S E V E R IT Y R A T E S (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E )—Concluded.

Result of injury.

Erec­
tion
Blast Open Found­ Heavy Plate Sheet Tube Fab­ Wire Me­
rolling mills. rolling mills. ricat­ draw­ chani­ Yards. of
fur­ hearths. ries.
struc­
mills.
cal.
ing. ing.
naces.
mills.
tural
steel.

Temporary disabil­
ity, terminating
in—
1st week............
2d week.............
3d week.............
4th week...........
5th week...........
6th-13th week..
14th week and
later................
All other...........

0.6
.7
.6
.5
.4
1.4

0.8
.9
.8
.7
.7
2.2

1.5
.9
.8
.7
.6
1.7

.8
C
1)

1.3
0)

.7
.1

0.5
.6
.6
.4
.4
1.4

0.6
.6
.5
.5
.4
1.5

0.5
.9
.7
.5
.3
.7

0.4
.4
.3
.4
.3
1.0

1.2
1.0
.6
.5
.4
1.5

0.8
.9
.7
.5
.4
1.4

0.7
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.4

0.6
.6
.4
.4
.3
1.4

1.3
1.0
.9
.8
.7
3.5

1.0

.6
0)

.6
0)

.4
0)

.7
0)

.7
0)

.7
0)

.9
0)

2.7
0)

0)

Total..............

5.0

7.4

7.0

4.9

4.7

4.2

3.2

5.9

5.4

4.7

4.6

10.9

Grand total. .

56.3

57.8

35. 4

39.3

23.8

18.1

17.7

25.6

24.0

31.3

52.2

148.8

4 7 ,6 8 5

7 ,4 7 7

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .. 1 2 3 ,6 6 9

7 2 ,2 7 1

8 0 ,0 2 9 6 2 ,9 5 7 3 0 ,6 0 5 1 2 1 ,3 5 6 7 1 ,2 1 6 7 7 ,0 7 8 5 1 ,9 6 7 1 3 7 ,2 5 7

1 Less than 0.05.

The most cursory examination of this table would undoubtedly
impress the observer with the extraordinary rates shown for the
erection of structural steel. This is discussed at length elsewhere.
It is pertinent here to note that this is due not only to the many
deaths but to the fact that in all the results scheduled these workers
suffer to an unusual degree.
The main impression arising from close study of the table will be
that the different types of industrial activity are not so different in
the distribution of their cases among the several forms of result as
might be expected. In some departments certain results are clearly
characteristic, such as, for example, the loss of an eye and of a finger
in wire drawing. The eye losses are due to the tendency of the ends
of wire to fly around in a whiplike manner, while fingers are from
time to time tangled in the moving strands. Aside from a few such
conspicuous instances it would appear that the distribution among the
different sorts of result is surprisingly constant at whatever level is
characteristic of the department.
A comparison of the frequency and severity rates will show that
with great constancy the cases terminating in the first week, while
much more numerous than those extending into the second week,
are not sufficiently so to equal the longer disability involved in cases
running into the second week.
THE DEPARTMENTS IN DETAIL.

Table 46 gives the severity rates for all the important depart­
ments by results of injuries. The number of cases involved and
frequency rates will be found in Table 8, pages 349 to 354, and Table
11, pages 374 to 384.




V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S

147

O F L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

TABLE 4 6 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10.000 HO U R S' E X P O S U R E ) FUR SPECI­
F IED D EPAR TM ENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1014 A N D 1915-1919,
AN D B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF IN JU R Y.
B L A S T FU R N A C E S.
1910-1914 1915-1919

Result of injury.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both arms.................... ............................
Both legs...................................................
Both feet....................................................
Both eyes..................................................
1 arm..’ .......................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg...........................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eve...........................................................
1 thumb....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers
.
.....................
3 fingers........................
...................
4 fingers.....................................................
Thumb and 1 finger...............................
Thumb and 2 fingers..............................
Thumb and 4 fingers..............................
Great toe...................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other....................................................

52.0

42.7

1915
35.4

.2
.5
.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.5
.4
2.2
.2
1.2

30.9

1.2
.7
.6
.4
.7

.7
.9
2.0
.4
L0

(i)
.1
.1
1.1

43.6

1918
56.4

1919
35.4

.7

1.1

.4

0)

1917

1.3

.3
.9
1.0
.6
2.0
.3
.6
.2
.2
.1

1916

.7
.3
.7
1.3
2.2
.3
.8
.l
.2
.3

.7
.9
.3
.4
.3
1.8

.6
1.7
.6
1.7
.5
2.6
.6
.5
.2
.4

.4
.6
.1
.2

.1

.3
.1

.1
1.1

0)

.2
1.2

.2
3.2

.l
0)
1.0

.3

( 1 > .9

5.0

9.7

9.1

10.1

7.3

.7
.8
.7

.6
.8
.6
.5

Total.......................................................

10.1

8.6

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week....................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later................................
AU other....................................................

1.0
1.2
1.0
.7
.6
2.1
1.5
.2

.6
.7

Total.......................................................

.6

.6

.8
.7

.5
.4
1.4
.8

.6
.5
.3
.3
1.1
1.0

1.5
1.6

8.3

5.0

4.4

Grand total...........................................

70.4

56.3

N u m b e r o f w o r k e rs ............. „...........................

1 2 4 ,6 3 6

1 2 3 ,6 6 9

.6

.6
.6

.6

.5
1.5

0)

.5
.6

.4
.3
.3
1.0
.4

.4

.6
.1

1.6
1.0
.1

6 .4

5.5

5.6

3.6

4 4.8

47.0

5 8. 2

7 2.1

46.2

1 0 ,7 2 1

1 4 ,9 0 5

3 6 ,2 0 2

3 1 ,9 0 4

2 9 ,9 3 7

12.7

63.9

66.9

38.9

25.3

3.3
2.0
5.9
.5
1.7

2.2
1.3
'5.0
.3
1.3
.4

3.7

1.9
1.9
2.2
.3
.3
4.2

.5
1.0
5.7

.2
.8

1.7
.7
1.1
.6
.3
.9

0)

0)

BESSEM ER D E P A R T M E N T .
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 leg............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye...........................................................
1 thumb..................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 1 finger............................... <
Great toe...................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other....................................................

39.9

44.5

1.4
1.1
4.5
.9
2.3
.1
.3
1.6

1.9
.7
3.1
.6
1.3
.2
.2
.2
.3
2.1

1.7
.8

Total.......................................................

12.2

10.6

1Q.8

20.6

11.5

10.7

.8

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later................................
All other. . . .
.................................

1.4
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
4.0
1.5
.1

.8
1.0
1.1
1.0
.9
3.0
1.6

.9
.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.7
.8

1.0
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.1
3.9
1.8
C
1)

.9
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.1
4.2
2.2
.1

.6
1.0
.8
.9
.7
2.4
1.9
0)

.5
.5
.6
.4
.4
1.6
1.1

Total........................................................

12.7

9.4

8.1

11.8

12.4

8.3

5.1

Grand total...........................................

64.8

64.5

31. 6

96. 2

90.8

57.9

31.2

5 ,9 7 9

3 ,5 9 6

4 ,7 5 1

N u m b e r o f w o r k e rs ...........................................

1 Less than 0.05.




2 8 ,1 0 1

0)

2 1 ,5 5 7

3 ,1 6 0

4 ,0 7 1

0)

148

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 4 6 .'—
ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPARTM ENTS IN THE IRON AN D ST EEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 A N D 1915-1919,
AN D B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF IN JU R Y—Continued.
OPEN H E A R T H S .

Result of injury.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both feet...................................................
Both eyes..................................................
1 arm .'.......................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg............................................................
1 foot..........................................................
1 eye.....................
1 thumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers.....................................................
3 fingers......................................................
4 fingers.....................................................
Great toe...................................................
Any 2 toes.....................................
All other...................................................

1910-1914 1915-1919
39.6

40.4

.3

1915

.3
.3
.4

.9
1.0
2.4
2.0
1.2
.8
2.4

.7

1.5
1.0
1.5
.7

1.3
.3

26.8

1916
40.2

1917
43.8

1918
51.2

1919
35.8

.9
3.4
.6

2.0
.7
.8

3.0
1.0
2.7

2.2
.7
1.6

.5

.1
.3
1.2

.6
.5
1.9
2.7
.6
.8
1.5
1.0
.6
.2
.3
.2
2.1

1.7
.6

.2

2.1
3.7
1.1
1.2
.6
.6

.2
.3
.9

.1
.2
.3
1.6

2.0

.3
.7
2.2

Total.......................................................

12.4

10.4

7.7

13.3

8.2

13.0

11.1

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later................................
All other....................................................

1.3
1.5
1.1
1.0
.7
2.5
1.4
.1

.8
.9
.8
.7
.7
2.2
1.3

.9
.8
.8

1.2
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.3
4.2
2.8

.8
.9
.8
.8
.7
2.5
1.7

.8

.7
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.6
.7

Total.......................................................

9.6

7.4

6.5

13.7

8.2

7.6

4.9

Grand total...........................................

61.6

57.8

41.0

67.2

60.2

71.8

51.8

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ...........................................

7 1 ,2 9 3

7 2 ,2 7 1

6 ,9 6 9

9 ,6 5 4

2 1 ,4 5 7

2 0 ,6 8 1

1 4 ,5 1 0

16.2

28.3

13.7

8.9

0)

.5

.7
1.7
1.1
0)

0)

0)

.3
.1
1.5

.9

.8
.8
.7
2.2
1.3
.1

0)

FOUNDRIES.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
B oth eyes...................................................
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 thumb......................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 3 fingers..............................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes..................................................
All other....................................................

17.5

18.5

0.8

1.6
1.6

2.1
1.0
1.9
.6
.9
.8
.4

.2
.2
1.5

.2
.3
.6
2.0
.6
2.6
.5
1.2
.7
.2
.1
.1
.2
.6

.8

1.6
1.4

.2
.1
.9

.l
.1
.4

.6
.4
.7
1.0
2.7
.9
2.2

.6
.4

.4
.9
2.0
.5
3.2
.4
' 1.6
.6

i 5
2^0
3.6
*3
1.2
.6
.3
.5
.2
.4

Total.......................................................

10.4

9.9

1.6

6.2

9.9

10.2

10.4

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

1.3
1.0
.8
.6
.5
.2
1.3
.1

1.5
.9
.8
.7
.6
1.7
.7
.1

.5
.5
.6
.7
.2
1.4

.5
.8
.7
.8
.6
3.1
.8

1.5
1.1
.9
.7
.6
1.8
.8
.2.

1.2
.9
.8
.7
.6
1.8
.4
.1

1.2
.8
.6
.6
.5
1.4
.6

Total.......................................................

5.8

7.0

3.9

7.3

7.6

6.5

5.7

Grand total............................................

33.7

35.4

5.5

20.7

45.8

30.4

25.0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ...........................................

9 5 ,9 1 7

8 0 ,0 2 9

1 ,8 0 9

1 ,2 8 1

8 1 ,8 0 5

8 2 ,1 8 6

1 8 ,4 9 8

Less than 0.05.




0)

149

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN JU R Y .

TABLE 46 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H OURS' E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPARTM ENTS IN THE IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 A N D 1915-1919,
AN D B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESU L T OF IN JU R Y—Continued.
B A R M ILLS.2 *
1910-1914 1915-1919

Result of injury.
Death.................................................................

1915

19.1

6.2

1.9
.5
.4
2.0
.3
2.1
.1

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 thumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes..................................................
All other....................................................

1916

4.1

24.8

1917
21.4

1918
34.8

5.3
3.5

1.8
1.3
3.2
.3
2.9
.3
.1
.4

1919

2.3
5.2
.6
3.2

.5
.3

1.5

1.9

0 ) .2
.6

.5

2.6

Total.......................................................

8.1

6.1

4.5

10.3

11.3

5.0

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

1.4
1.3
1.1
.8
.6
2.4
.8

1.2
.8
.8
.9
.5
1.9
.6
0)

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.2
.7
3.2
1.2

1.8
1.5
1.3
.7
.7
2.5
1.2
0)

1.3
1.2
.9
.8
.5
2.3
1.0
.1

.8
.9
.7
.4
.5
1.9

0)

.3
.4

Total.......................................................

8.4

6.7

10.5

9.7

8.1

5.1

Grand total............................................

35.6

19.2

39.8

41.4

54.2

15.4

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ...........................................

2 0 ,9 9 2

8 ,2 3 2

7 ,4 7 2

3 ,4 3 9

3 ,8 0 7

14.0

3M 2

H E A V Y ROLLING MILLS.
Death.................................................................

21.0

Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both feet....................................................
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 thumb......................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 1 finger................................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes..................................................
All other....................................................

23.8

28.0

13.9

29.2

29.0

3.7
1.1
.8
.6
1.1

3. 0
2.6
.8
1.8
1.0
1.9

3.6

2.3

1.2

1. 5
.6
.8
1.8
.9
1.6
.2
.4
.2
.5
.3
.8

.3

1.5

.6

.7

.2
.3
.6

1.9
1.5
1.0
1.4
.9
1.6
.4
.1
.1
.3
.1
1.0

8.9

10.6

9.7

12.6

.5

.5
.4
.4
.4
.3
1.0
.7
0)

.5
.6
.6
.5
.5
1.8
1.0

1.0
1.4
1.5
.5

2.1

Total.......................................................

.4

1.2
1.7
1.3
2.4
.7

.9
2.8
1.9

.7

.5

.6
.9

.1
1.0

.6

9.6

13.4

9.4

.4
.7
.5
.5
.4
1.6
1.3
0)

.6
.6
1.0
.5
.5
1.3
1.1
0)

.8
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.4
.9
.1

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-l3th week..........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

1.8
1.2
.1

Total.......................................................

6.5

4.9

3.8

5.4

5.5

5.5

5.2

Grand total............................................

36.4

39.3

41.5

32.0

44.3

48.0

33.4

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..........................................

6 7 ,6 6 8

7 ,1 4 8

1 0 ,0 7 6

2 0 ,5 3 0

1 3 ,7 8 8

1 1 ,4 1 5

.8
.8

.6
.5

1 Less than 0.05.
2 Data for 1910-1914 for bar mills not available.




.6
.6
.4
.4
1.4
1.0

.7

0)

6 2 , 957~

150

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 6 .—ACCIDENT S E V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM ENTS IN THE IR O ^ A N D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 AN D 1915-1919,
A N u B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
•

PLATE MILLS.

1910-1914 1915-1919

Result of injury.
Death................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both feet....................................................
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eve............................................................
1 tfiumb......................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers..................................................
Thumb and 1 finger................................
Thumb and 4 fingers..............................
Great toe................. .................................
Any 2 toes..............................................
All other............................................... .
Total.......................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week.....................................................
4th week..................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other..................................................
Total.......................................................
Grand total............................................
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ...........................................

12.9

17.5
.9
1.2
1.4

1.0
.4
.5
1.2
.6
1.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
.1
.1
.5

1.5
1.7
.4
2.9

.1
.3
.8
11.2

6.2 j

.8
1.0
.8
.7 '
.5
3.8
1.1
C
1)

.6
.6
.5
.5
.4

1.5
.6

1915

1917

1918

12.8

11.8

1.5
2.0
11.8

1919

10.8

2.1

9.6

18.2

1.1
.9
1.9
.4
1.1

1.9
2.4

1.3
1.3
1.1

.1
.1
1.2

.1

.5
.8

.2
.2
1.1

1.0
.1
.1

5.6

7.3

8.7

5.9

4.4

.4

.7
.7
.5
.6
.5
1.5
.9

.6
.6
.6
.6
.5
1.6
.8
.1

.5
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.3
.7

.3
1.3
.4
.6

1.6
.3
.7
.7

.4

.3
.4

.7

.3
.5
.3
.8

.4 J

C
1)
4.7

1916

.6
.6
1.8
.3
(*)
4.9

5.3

5.4

4.4

25.0

25.9

22.0

27.1

4 ,6 8 1

6 ,7 6 4

9 ,3 0 2

7 ,6 7 2

10.5

4.8

22.1

2. 4
.8
.4
1.0
.1
.1

2.9

.5

2.2
1.4
,4

9.1

______
4.8 ______ 1

6.2

4.1

.8
.9
.6
.4
.5 ^
1.4
.8
.2

.8
.8 1
.7
.5
.5
1.7
.6
.2

.8
.9
.8
.4

1.8
.8
.1

.8
.8
.7
.7
.4
L8
.4
.4

0.5
.6
.2
.5
.6
1.0
.6

8.2

5.8

6.1

5.9

4.6

8.2
36.9 |

23.8

|
1

SO, 505

2 1 ,7 1 1

2.6
17.8 |
2 ,0 8 6

PUDDLING M ILLS.
Death................................ ............................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm...........................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 eye.........................................................
1 tnumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers....................................................
Great toe................................•
...................
Any 2 toes..................................................
All other....................................................
Total........................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.__ *
..............................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week..................................................
5t,h week.......................
. .
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other..........................................
Total.......................................................
Grand total..........................................
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ........... ..............................

i Less than 0.05.




14.1
1.0
1.6
2.3
.5
3.4
.1
.1
.1

31.3
1 2 ,7 8 8

..............
21.1 ............. 1
7 ,6 0 0

.5
1.8
.2
.2

.5

17.1
4 ,1 2 9

.5

32.1 |

4.6

|

759

2 ,7 1 2

V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S

151

OF L O C A T I O N , E T C ., O F I N J U R Y .

T able 4 0 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y RATES (PER 10.000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPAR TM EN TS IN THE IRON A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 AN D 1915-1919,
AND B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF IN JU R Y—Continued.
ROD M ILLS.2

Result of injury.

1910-1914 1915-1919

1915

1916

17.5
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm...........................................................
1 foot...........................................................

1918

1917

1919

30.8

28.3

9.4

4.1

1 ttrumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Great toe...................................................
Any 2 toes................................................
All other....................................................

.9
1.6
3.6
.4
1.1
.3
.2
.2
3.4

6.5

.4
6.7

.2
.2
2.0

.3
.3
2.6

Total.......................................................

11.6

7.4

13.5

12.5

9.7

14.4

Temporary disability, terminating—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week..................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other................................................

.6
.9
.5
.6
.3
1.6
.6
C
1)

.6
.8
.6
.3
.5
2.0
.7

.5
.9
.6
.6
.3
1.5
.6

.8
1.1
.6
.8
.4
1.1
.6

.5
.9
.7
.5
.5
1.7
.7
.2

.3
.5
.3
.5
-.1
2.4
.7
<>)

5.4

5.6

4.8

46' 2 :

46.1

28.6

4 ,9 6 1

8, 2 4 9

2 ,1 3 9

12.2

3.5

3.5

1.7
.8
.9
.7

.5
.7

0.5

3.2
4.8
.4
1.6

4.8
.8
.8

.5

Total.......................................................

5.3

5.4

4.9 j

Grand total............................................

34.4

12.9

18.4 |

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..........................................

1 4 ,8 9 4

8 ,0 6 2

2 ,4 9 3

8.6

10.5

1.8

3.7
5. 6

.6

1.4

.9

1.9

.8

SH E ET MILLS.
1

Death................................................................

13.5

8.9

.2
.6
1.1
.6
.4
.7
.5
1.6

.2
.4
.8
.4
.7
.6
.3
.9
.2

Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both hands...............................................
1 arm..........................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 tnumb..................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers..................................................
4 fingers.....................................................
Thumb and 1 finger..............................
Thumb and 2 fingers..............................
Thumb and 3 fingers..............................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes............................................
All other..................................................

0)

.1
.1
.3

.4
.9

.1

0)
C)
(!)
(1)

C)

.6

.3
.4

.1

.1
.3
!
1
1

.1

5.0

3.0

5.4

6.4 1

1.0
1.2
.6
.5

.5
.9
.7
.5
.3
.7
.6

.6
1.0
.7
.5

.5
1.0
.8
.5

.6
1.0
.7
.5

1.1
.8

1.4
.5

4.2

5.1

5.2

4.2

2.1

4.1

16.7

21.2

22.7

10.5

11.5

| 1 6 ,2 6 6 | 2 4 ,7 2 2

4 6 ,0 4 0

1 7 ,2 7 8

1 7 ,0 4 9

.4

1.1
.9
C)
5. 7

Grand total...........................................

25.4

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..........................................

1 2 8 ,4 2 3

* Less than 0.05.
* Data for 1910-1914 for rod mills not available.

.4

.1

.4
.9
.7
.6
.5
1.3
.3
.8
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
0)
C
1)
C)

.1
.2

Total......... : ...........................................




1.0

.5
.8
.5
.6
.5
.5
1.8

6.3

Total.......................................................
Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week. . . ............................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other..................................................

.6

j

.1
.7

18.1 |
1 2 1 ,3 5 5

.5
.8
.7
.5
.3
1.0
.4

C
1)

0)

0)

3.9

.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.6
.2

.4

.4

1.6

4.9 1

j

152

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y ,

TABLE 4 6 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S' E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED DEPAR TM ENTS IN THE IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 A N D 1915-1919,
AN D B Y YEAR S. 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF INJUR Y— Continued.
TU BE M ILLS.

1910-1914 1915-1919

Result of injury.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm..........................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................

10.1

9.8

.5
.3
.2
.2
.7

1915

1916

.2
.7

1 thumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 1 finger................................
Thumb and 4 fingers..............................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes................................................
All other...................................................

.2
.1
1.1

.1
.9
.6
1.2
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.2

Total.......................................................

6.0

4.7

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

.7
' .7
.5
.4
1.2
.6
(l)

Total.......................................................

1917

3.5

5.6

1918

17.2
1

1919

8.6

8.3

.5

1.4

.6
.5
1.3
.5
.2
.2

1.7
.4
.6
.3
.3

'
1.0

.9

1.1
.5
1.5

.4
.6
.8
1.4
.3

.2
.2

.4
.1
.2
.3

.1
.1
.1

.3

3.2

3.4

5.3

4.2

5.9

.4
.4
.3
.4
.3
1.0
.4

.4
.4
.3
.2
.3
1.1

.1
.3
.3
.4
.3
1.0
.4

.7
.6
.4
.4
.3
1.2
.4
<
*>

.3
.4
.3
.4
.2
.9
.3
C
1)

.2
.3
.3
.4
.3
.8
.4

5.0

3.2

2.7

2.7

4.0

2.9

2.7

Grand total............................................

21.0

17.7

11.5

9.7

15.7

14.7

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ...........................................

73, 338

7 1 ,2 1 6

7 , 109

1 1 ,3 5 5

1 9 ,8 1 9

1 8 ,5 0 0

1 4 ,4 3 3

12.4

8.1

11.0

12.9

1.6
1.2

1.1
1.2
.5

.2
2.2

1. 7
.3
1.0
.4

.5
.3
.5
.8
1.2
.7
.9
.3

.1
(i)
.9

.9
1.8

.9

.8
.6
1.1

.4
.2

0)

26.5 |

(>)

MISCELLANEOUS ROLLING MILLS.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both legs....................................................
1 arm..........................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 thumb......................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
4 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 2 fingers..............................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes.................................................
All other....................................................

17.0
.2
1.2
.9
1.3
1.0
2.2
.9
1.7

10.5

9.2

.1
.2
.7

.7
.6
.3
.4
1.3
.5
1.1
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
,l
.l

.2
.2
1.5

.i
.6

.2
.2
(i)
.2
.3

Total.......................................................

10.4

6.2

5.3

6.1

7.2

6.5

4.3

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week....................................................
5th week....................................................
6th-l3th week..........................................
14th week and later................................
All other....................................................

1.1
1.7
1.3
1.0
.8
2.4
1.0
.1

.8
.8
.6
.5
.5
1.7
.7
.2

.7
.7
.6
.4
.2
1.1
.4

.6
.7
.6
.6
.5
2.2
1.5
(x)

.8
1.0
.8
.7
.6
2.2
.7
.4

.8
.7
.6
.4
.4
1.5
.6
.1

.7
.6
.5
.3
.5
1.4
.6
.i

1. 4
.9
1.1

.6
1.3
.7
.9
.2
.6

.2

Total.......................................................

9.4

5.8

4.1

6.2

7.2

5.1

4.8

Grand total...........................................

36.8

22.5

18.6

24.7

22.5

22.5

22.0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ..........................................

9 8 ,8 0 9

8 0 ,3 8 0

4 ,3 6 7

8 ,0 8 2

2 4 ,8 1 1

2 9 ,1 8 8

1 3 ,9 3 2

1 Less than 0.t)5.




V A R IO U S R E L A T I O N S
T

153

OF L O C A T I O N , E T C ., OF I N J U R Y .

4 6 .—ACCIDENT SE V E R IT Y R ATES (PER 10,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR SPECI­
FIED D EPAR TM ENTS IN THE IRON AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1910-1914 AN D 1915-1919,
AND B Y Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, B Y R ESULT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.

able

FABR ICA TIN G .

Result of injury.
Death.................................................................
Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both arms.................................................
Both eyes...................................................
1 a r m /.......................................................
1 hand........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye...........................................................
1 thumb.....................................................
1 finger........................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes.................................................
All other....................................................

1910-1914 1915-1919
17.3

14.8

1915

1916

15.7

28.1

1917
18.0

1918
14.4

1919
6.4

.4
.3
.3
.6
.2
.2
1.2
.5
1.1

1.6
1.0
2.1

1. 2
1.2
3.4

.2
.1
.4

(,).i
.1
.1
.2

.8
.4

1.0

.1
.4

Total.......................................................

6.0

4.9

5.9

7.0

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week......................................................
2d week......................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week.....................................................
5th week.....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

1. 6
1.5
1.0
.7
.6
1. 9
.7

1.2
1.0
.6
.5
.4
1.5
.7

.7
.7
.5
.5
.5
2.1
1.5

.6
1.1
.9
.9
.7
2.1
2.2

.4
.6
.9
.4
2.6

.9
.9

.2

0)

0)

.9
.7
.5
.3
1.4
.4
.3

.6

.1

.5
.8
.6
.3
.2
.3
.2

5.7

4.5

3.6

1.2
1.1
.8
.6
.6
1.7
.6
0)

1.3
1.0
.5
.5
.2
1.4
.5

1.1
.8
.5
.4
.4
1.1
.5
C
1)

1.3
.3
2.0
0)

.1

Total.......................................................

8.0

5.9

6.6

8.5

6.6

5.5

4.9

Grand total............................................

31.3

25.6

28.2

43. 7

30.3

24.4

14.9

1 0 8 ,5 3 8

7 7 ,0 7 8

8 ,8 1 8

2 3 ,3 8 2

2 9 ,1 6 7

1 5 ,7 3 2

14.7

6.2

32.5

N mer o f w ers........................................
ub
ork

4 ,9 8 0

FORGES.
Death.................................................................

1

25.6

11.3

Permanent disability: Loss of—
Both legs....................................................
1 hand.........................................................
1 leg.............................................................
1 foot...........................................................
1 eye............................................................
1 thumb.....................................................
1 finger.......................................................
2 fingers......................................................
3 fingers......................................................
Thumb and 2 fingers...............................
Great toe....................................................
Any 2 toes.................................................
All other....................................................

1.9
1.0
1.1

.2
.3
1.1

1.9
.9
1. 3
1.5
1.7
.2
1.1
.7
.4
.5
.1
2.4

Total.......................................................

5.6

12.7

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week.....................................................
2d week....................................................
3d week......................................................
4th week.....................................................
5th week.....................................................
6th-13th week...........................................
14th week and later.................................
All other....................................................

.9
1. 6
1.2
.7
.4
1.2
.6
.2

1.0
.9
.6
.7
.5
1.6
.6

Total.......................................................

6.8

6.1

2. 2

10.7

4.7

3.6

Grand total...........................................

38.0

30.1

2.2

48.5

21. 8

36.9

N u m b e r o f w o r k e rs ...........................................

6 ,2 4 9

1 0 ,5 7 7

209

2 , 728

i Less than 0.05.

71087°-—
22------11




7.3
1.6
4.9
4.4
2. 6
1.8

2.5
.9
.3
.6
.4
.6

.8

1.8
.4
3.9
23.2
0.2
.3
1.8

10.8

.8

1.5
1. 6
1.0
1.3
.9
3.1
1.2

.9
.7
.5
.6
.4
1.1
.4
.1

.7
.5
.5
.1
.3
1.0
.4

0)

6 ,4 0 8

1 ,2 3 2

154

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

TABLE 4 6 .—ACCIDENT SEVERITY" RATES (P E R 10,000 H O URS’ E X PO SU R E ) FO R SPEC I­
F IE D DEPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IRO N AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919,
AND BY YEARS 1915 TO 1919, BY R ESU LT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
WIRE DRAWING.2

Result of injury.

1910-1914 1915-1919

D eath.............................................................

4.6

1915
2.5

1916
8.4

1917
4.4

1918

1919

6.3

Permanent disability: Loss of—
1 arm .......................................................
1 hand.....................................................
1 leg.........................................................
lfo o t........................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 thum b..................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers...................................................
3 fingers...................................................
Great to e.................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other..................................................

.3
.2
.3
.2
6.1
.6
2.3

7.6
.5
1.8

&4
6.9
1.0
3.8

3.9
.6
2.0

7.1
.6
2.3

(1) . 2
.1
.1
3.6

.3
.1
6.8

.1
8.6

.1
.1
2.2

.3
.1
.1
1.2

Total....................................................

14.0

18.4

22.6

9.8

11.6

9.9

.8
.9
.7

1.6
1.5
1.0
.7

1.1
1.5
.9
.8

.7
.9
.7
.6

.4
.5

.3
.3
.4
.4
.2
1. 6
.2

Temporary disability, term inating in —
1st week.............. J..................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week..................................................
5th week..................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

.5

.4
1.4
.7

1.3

1.4

.5

.5

1.3
.3

1.3
1.1
0)

.5

1.4
.9

0)

1.0

0)

5.9
.2
1.6
.3
1.0
.1
.8

.5

.3
.3
1.2
.8
0)

0)

Total....................................................

5.4

7.6

6.4

5.8

4.2

3.4

Grand to tal.........................................

24.0

28.5

37.4

20.0

22.1

13.3

Number o f workers........................................

61,967

7,859

9,551

IS, 727

12,757

8,073

32.7

73.4

73.0

26.3

54.8

3.7

3.0
1.8
2.7
.5
.9
1.1
1.1
.9

E L EC T R IC AL .

D eath .............................................................
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
1 arm .......................................................
1 hand.....................................................
1 leg.........................................................
1 foot........................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 th u m b ..................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers...................................................
4 fingers...................................................
Thum b and 1 finger..............................
Thum b and 3 fingers.............................
Great to e.................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other.................................................
Total.................................................... '
Temporary disability, term inating in—
1st week...................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week.......................................
14th week and later...............................
All o t h e r .............................................

45.8

53.9

3.7
1.4
.9
1.1
1. 7
.3
1.4

1.0
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
.2

3.9

2.1
1.6

1.6

.1
.4
.6

1.3
.4
.4
.3
.5
.1
.1
.1

11.6

8.8

1.6

.9
.9
.6
.4

.4
.1
.1

1.3

7.9

6.8

2.0

3.8

35.6

84.9

92.8

36.9

65.5

1,635

4,385

3,801

2,555

Total....................................................

5.4

.7
.6
.4
.3
.4
1.2
1.0
0)
4.6

Grand total.........................................

62.8

67.3

N um ber of workers .......................................

U 421
,

12,988

.3

1.4
.9
C)

1 Less th an 0.05.
2 Data for 1910-1914 for wire drawing not available.




3.5

.4

1.3
i

2.6

.2
.2
.4

.8

612~

!

3.7

13.0

8.5 i

6.9

1.2
.8
.7
.7
.7
1.9
1.8
C>

.8
.9
.5
.5
.5
1.7
2.0
0)

.6

.6
.5
.4
.2
.5
1.2
.4

.3
.2

.2
.1
.6
.1

155

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, E T C ., OF IN J U R Y .

T able 4 6 .—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RA TES (P E R 10,000 H OURS’ E X PO SU R E ) F O R SPECI­
F IE D DEPA RTM EN TS IN T H E IRON AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919,
AND BY Y EA RS 1915 TO 1919, BY R E SU LT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.

1910-1914 1915-1919

Result of injury.

21.0
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
Both legs...............................................
1 arm .......................................................
1 hand.................................... ................
1 leg .
..........................................
1 foot........................................................
1 eve........................................................
1 th n m h ..................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers..................................................
3 fingers..................................................
4 fingers...... ............................................
Thumb an d 1 finger..............................
Thum b an d 3 fingers.............................
Thum b an d 4 fingers.............................
Great to e.................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other.................................................

.4
.9
.8
.5
2.9
.6
1.8

.1
.2
1.4

18.1
.1
.8
.7
.7
.7
2.1
.5
1.3
.2
.3
0)
.1
0)
C
1)

1915

1916

10.0

10.6
1.2
2.4
1.2
.8
3.5
.2
1.7

.7
1.7

1917
25.8
1.2
1.2
.4
1.2
2.0
.9
2.0
.3
.1

1918

1919
23.5

14.5

1.2
.4
.6
.3
.8
.4
.7
.2
.5

.3
.9
.8
2.6
.3
.9
.3
.5
.1
.1
.1
.1

.1
1.3

4.2

.1
.1
3.4

.9

.1
.8

G)
G)
1.0

G)

G)

Total...................................................

9.6

9.0

6.5

14.6

10.4

6.9

6.1

Temporary disability, term inating in—
1st week...................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

1.1
1.3
.9
.7
.5
2.0
1.2

.7
.6
.5
.4
.4
1.4
.7

.6
.6
.4
.3
.2
1.2
.6

.8
.8
.6
.6
.6
1.7
1.1

.9
1.0
.7
.7
.6
2.3
1.3

.5
.4
.3
.3
.2
.6
.3

.7
.6
.4
.4
.3
1.6
.4

G)

G)

G)

G)

G)

0)

G)

Total......... ................... ......... ...........

7.7

4.7

4.0

6.3

7.6

2.6

4.4

Grand total_______________ _____

38.4

31.3

20.5 |

31.6

43.8

24.0

34.0

16, 920

33,328

58,003

23,019

I f umber o f workers .......................................

97 ,

m

137,257

5,987

POWER DEPARTMENT.

D e a th .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
Both eyes................................................
1 hand.....................................................
1 leg.........................................................
1 foot.......................................................
1 eve...................................................... 1 thum b..................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers..................................................
4 fingers................... ..............................
Any 2 toes...............................................
A I other.................................................
T

14.8

26.1 :

19.8

2.5

.9
1.2
.7
.5
.5
.5

3.3
.5

1.7

2.6
3.5
2.1
8.8
1.5

10.3

.8

.5

.1
.2

.6

Total....................................................

8.3

6.2

Temporary disability, term inating in—
1st. week...................
.....................
2d week...................................................
3d week....... _............. ..........................
4th week.................................................
5th week........ .........................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.8
.5

.2
.3
.2
.2
.2
.7
.4

0.2

G)

.3
1.3
1.3
11.0

.4
.5
.5
.8
.7
1.6
1.4

.2
.3
.1
.1
.2
.7
.6

35.7

1.8
1.2
.7
2.0

i

5.7
.2
.2

0. 2
.2
.3
.1
.2
.9

.2

.2
.1
.5
.3
G)

e)

Total....................................................

2.9

2.2

.2

5.8

2.2

1.7

Grand to tal............. ..........................

26.1

28.2

.2

16.1

39.3

43.1

ofworkers............ ..........................

8,083

11,099

195

68 0

3 ,8 3 7

3 ,3 6 6

Num ber

1 Less than 0.05.




1.9
1.9
j

3,021

156

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

T able 4 6 .—ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10,000 HOURS’ E X PO SU R E) FO R SPEC I­
F IE D D EPA RTM EN TS IN TH E IRON AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919,

AND BY Y E A R S 1915 TO 1919, BY RESU LT OF IN JU R Y —Continued.
YARDS.

Result of injury.
D eath.............................................................

1910-1914 1915-1919

1 tfium b..................................................
1 finger....................................................
_
. .
2 fingers..
.......................
4 fingers...................................................
Thumb and 3 fingers............................
Thumb and 4 fingers.............................
Great to e............................................. :.
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other..................................................
2 fingers..................

32.7

30.6

.7
.2
4.1
1.6
1.5
.7
1.9

.4
1.4
1.7
2.0
1.7
1.9
.5
1.6

2.5
3.4

.2

28.1

35.9

1.7
2.5
3.4
1.5
1.9
.8
1.7
.2

.8
2.4
.8
1.0
1.1
.2
1.2

6.8
8.2
3.1
2.3
.6
1.0

.7
.3
.4

3.9

.1
.1
5.1

.5
.1
.2
2.0

.2
.2
1.3

.8

14.9

8.8

17.7

16.8

11.1

23.6

.6
.6
.4
.4
.3
1.4
.9

.8
.6
.4
.4
.3
1.4
.4

.7
.8
.6
.4
.4
1.8
1.1

.7
.8
.5
.4
.4
1.7
1.1

.4
.5
.3
.4
.3
1.2
.7

.7
.6
.5
.5
.4
.2

Total....................................................

12.6
.9
1.0
.7
.5
.5
1.8
.9

.1
.2

C)

0)

.3

1.1
.1

4.6

4.2

5.7

5.5

3.8

4.2

52.2

13.0

53.9

68.0

43.0

63.7

' 47,685

8,843

7,853

15,732

16,355

3,902

45.6

57.8

24.4

18.4

2.4
1.8

1.4

.9
.9

.8

6.3
58.9 |
65,982

.5

.3

.3

.2

1919

45.8

.1

Temporary disability, term inating in—
1st week..................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other...............................................

N m er of w
ub
orkers......................................

.5

.8

3.1
.8
2.5

1918

1917

.2

2.3

Grand total.........................................

2.1
1.6

.3
.1
.3
1.5

Total....................................................

1916

40.0

Perm anent disability: Loss of—
1 a r m . ....................................................
1 h an d .....................................................
1 leg..........................................................
1 foot........................................................

1915

COKE.

D eath.............................................................
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
1 arm .......................................................
1 hand......................................................
1 leg.........................................................
1 foot........................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 tnum b...................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers...................................................
4 fingers...................................................
Great to e.................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
All other.................................................
Total....................................................
Temporary disability, term inating in—
1st week..................................................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week.........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

40.7
4.0
.8
3.0
1.8
1.8
.2
.7

31.0
1.1
.9
.6
.5
.2
.7

.2

'
3.6

.9

.2
.1

.1
.2
1.3

(1).3

1.0

13.9

4.8

5.9

.8
.7
.5
.4

.4
.5
.3
.2
.2
.7
.6

.6
.3
.2
.4
.3
.6
.3
.1

.5
1.5

1.1
.1

2.0

2.7

1.2

2.0

.9
.5

.6

.3

.7
1

.3

.2

.3

5.0

6.3

3.1

5.3

.5
.2
.3
.3
.2
.9
1.3
.1

.5
.6
.4
.3
.2
.8
.7

.3
.6
.2
.2
.2
.6
.6

.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.8

.3

0)

T otal....................................................

5.6

0)
2.9

2.7

3.8

3.5

2. 7

2.3

Grand to tal.........................................

60.2

38.7

8.6

54.4

67.6

30.2

26.0

N um ber of workers .......................................

13,282

23,263

1,648

2,195

5,588

7,368

6,514

1 Less th an 0.05.




157

VARIOUS RELATIONS OF LOCATION, ETC., OF IN J U R Y .
T

4 6 __ACCIDENT SEV E R IT Y RATES (P E R 10,000 H O U R S’ E X PO SU R E) FO R SPECI­
F IE D D E PA R TM EN TS IN T H E IRON AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1910-1914 AND 1915-1919,
AND BY Y EARS 1915 TO 1919, BY RE SU LT OF IN JU R Y —Concluded.

able

ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL.2

Result of injury.

1910-1914 1915-1919

1915

1916

1917

1918

181.0

199.3

197.8

207.6

162.1

5.3
3.2
4.0
1.1
1.5
.7
.1
1.6

16.6
10.0
7.5
2.5
2.5

13.2

1 eye........................................................
1 th u m b ..................................................
1 finger....................................................
Thum b and 2 fingers............................
Great to e.................................................
All other.................................................

1.6

2.9

T otal....................................................

17.5

40.3

16.8

40.9

19.8

12.5

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week..................................................
2d w eek..................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week.................................................
6th-13th week.........................................
14th week and later...............................
All other.................................................

1.3
1.0
.9
.8
.7
3.5
2.7
0)

2.1
1.5
1.6
1.9
.7
4.1
.6

1.3
1.4
1.1
1.3
1.5
4.4
6.2

2.4
1.9
1.9

2.1
1.2

1.8
1.1

D eath.............................................................
Perm anent disability: Loss of—

1.2

2.0

13.8
15.6
3.5
5.2

1919
129.0

10.8
4.9
3.9
41

1.0
1.0

7.0
7.1

8.6

1.0

.8
.7
6.1
2.5

.9
.9

1.1
3.3
3.1
.3

T otal....................................................

10.9

12.4

17.2

22.3

14.2

12.5

Grand total.........................................

209.4

252.0

231.9

270.9

196.1

154.0

Number of w o rk ers .....................................

7,477

803

1,011

1,156

1,284

775

14.9

14.0

18.2

11.5

13.4

.6
.4
1.2
.7
1.7
.4
1.0
.3
.1
.1

.3
.7
.8
.7
1.9
.4
1.1
.5
.3
.1
0)

UNCLASSIFIED.3

D eath............................................................. ________
Perm anent disability: Loss of—
Both legs.................................................
Both feet.................................................
1 arm .......................................................
1 hand.....................................................
1 leg.........................................................
1 foot........................................................
1 eye........................................................
1 th u m b .................................................
1 finger....................................................
2 fingers.......................; .........................
3 fingers...................................................
4 fingers...................................................
Thumb and 1 finger..............................
Thumb and 2 fingers.............................
Thumb and 4 fingers___: ....................
Great to e.................................................
Any 2 toes...............................................
. All other.................................................

14.1
.1
.1
.4
.6
.7
.6
1.6
.3
1.0
.2
.2
.1
0)
0)

.9

1.4
.6
2.2
.2
.9

.1
.1

.6
.6
.7
.2
1.4

.4
.3
.8
.9

1.3
.3
.7
.1

.2

.3
.1
.1

.1
1.9

.1
.1
.1
1.2

.i
0)
1.4

(I) .2

.2

1.1

.1
.5

Total....................................................

7.2

5.9

6.3

8.0

8.3

5.5

Temporary disability, terminating in—
1st week............................... ...................
2d week...................................................
3d week...................................................
4th week.................................................
5th week ...............................................
6th-13th week.........................................
14th week and later.............................
All other.................................................

.6
.6
.5
.4
.3
1.3
.7
.2

.8
.8
.7
.5
.4
1.9
.9

.6
.8
.6
.5
.3
1.8
1.1
C
1)

.7
.8
.5
.5
.3
1.5
.9
.1

.5
.5
.4
.4
.3
1.0
.6
.3

.6
.6
.5
.4
.3
1.3
.5
-1
4.3

0)

Total....................................................

4.6

5.9

5.7

5.3

4.0

Grand to tal.........................................

25.9

26.6

26.0

31.5

23.8

23.2

Number of workers.......................................

268, 791

21,547

24,216

68,180

97,518

52,885

1 Less than 0.05.
2 Data for 1910-1914 for erection of structural steel not available.
3 Data for 1910-1914 for unclassified departm ents not available.




CHAPTER m — THE HUMAN FACTORS IN CAUSING AND PRE­
VENTING ACCIDENTS.

In the chapters on the physical causes of accidents the machine,
the structure, the impersonal thing directly related to the injury
of the worker, have been under review. If tnese were all the factors
in the situation, #
the problem would be a comparatively simple one.
It is a fact, however, that these physical causes are bound up with
very complex human factors whose influence must now be considered.
There are three divisions of a working organization which have a
very definite relation to this accident problem, namely, the manage­
ment, the foremen, and the workers. It may seem a far cry from
the man of wealth and power who sits in an office in the great metrop­
olis and the ignorant and obscure laborer who, in the process of satisfy­
ing the wants of the public, dies. This is far from being the case.
The development of business organization is such that the view of
the central authority regarding any question quickly penetrates to
all parts of the business and influences to a surprising degree the
behavior of even the least important element. In nothing is this
more true than in the matter of due attention to the safety of work­
people. Rather close observation has failed to note a case where the
chief authorities were indifferent and the accident rate was not high,
and, on the other hand, it is a rule with no exceptions that an inter­
ested and determined management always has its way in the matter
of accident prevention.
This factor of the management does not lend itself readily to any
statistical treatment and will therefore be dismissed with this passing
reference and attention directed to the more immediate factors, the
foremen and the workers.
THE FO R EM EN .

It has long been agreed that, in the effort to excite personal interest
in the maintenance of safe conditions and the exercise on the part of
the worker of reasonable personal caution, the foreman is the xey to
the situation. His contact with the situation is immediate, ana he
is recognized by the workmen as representing the management, and
the fact that he is a foreman usually means that he has personal
qualities which command respect.
It is therefore of prime importance that in the matter of accident
prevention the foreman have a sympathetic attitude and a clear
understanding o f what is being attempted.
THE ACCIDENT REDUCTION BONUS.

Various means have been utilized for bringing the foremen into
this sympathetic relationship. Originally safety committees were
composed almost entirely oi foremen, and frequently there were
minor distinctions, such as safety buttons, watch fobs, etc., which
were bestowed upon the foremen who engaged actively in safety
work.
158




H U M A N FACTOES IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

159

The production bonus is so well established a feature in the iron
and steel industry that it is practically everywhere taken for granted.
It may be applied in special cases, such as in an effort to break a rec­
ord, or it may be a constant feature of the operation of the mill. In
the latter case some standard production quota is determined upon,
and production in excess of this quota is paid for at an advanced
price. It is entirely natural, therefore, that safety men should consider
the application of a monetary reward as a solution of their problem.
It is noticeable that nearly all of the pioneer safety men entered
upon their activities with rather pronounced ideas regarding the type
of appeal which ought to be made in the effort to stimulate interest
among the men in the safety problem. They, for the most part,
stressed the humane motive ana regarded the offerihg of a reward
for activity in the safety field as being an unbecoming appeal to the
mercenary interests of the men involved.
On the other hand, there were a considerable number of men who
began to agitate for the use of an accident-reduction bonus, on the
ground that the elimination of accidents was a business proposition and
that any device which had proved effective in the ordinary conduct of
the business was perfectly appropriate in their particular field. They
were also convinced that the humane motive was entirely uninfluenced
by the offering of a substantial money consideration for successful
safety effort. It was inevitable that somewhere those who held the
opinion that the use of a bonus for the purpose of stimulating atten­
tion to accident reduction was a worthy device would be in a position
to make a test of their ideas, and such tests were made here and
there in different establishments.
The question of the effect of these methods can not be judged by
these minor and scattered experiments. An effort was therefore
made to assemble on a large scale information with regard to the
application of the safety bonus and from the statistical showing thus
made to determine its precise value. The basic departments of the
iron and steel industry, namely, blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
mills, were finally chosen as affording the largest body of data per­
taining to operations of a sufficiently similar character for a proper
comparison, as it is quite evident that departments in which the
character of the work done is very different might bp affected very
differently by the introduction of a safety bonus.
A careful study was made of the assembled data to make sure that
there were no unusual conditions which might render the data of any
department incomparable with that of the others and thus influence
the result of the experiment. It is believed that the present presen­
tation is as fair ana authoritative as it is possible to make.
The general significance of this study lies in the possibility which
the material afforded of considering the experience from the stand­
point both of frequency and of severity of accidents. The relations
shown between the frequency rates would have failed'to bring out
the effect of the use of the bonus.
In the plants whose records are here brought together the details
of the bonus plan varied considerably, but the following points are
essentially common to them all: (1) From a study of the past expe­
rience of the department basing rates were determined which had to
be equaled or improved if the foreman was to receive a bonus. (2)
Failure to hold accidents down to the basing rate would deprive the




160

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

foreman of the bonus. If he equaled the basing rate he would receive
a certain sum per man under his supervision. The sum awarded the
foreman would increase in proportion to the decrease below the basing
rate. (3) The designated sum per man under the jurisdiction of the
foreman was sufficiently large to make the securing of it worth while.
For example, a foreman with 100 men in his crew might, under favor­
able circumstances, receive $200 or more as his annual bonus.
The statistical results of the study of the application of the safety
bonus can best be presented in the form of charts.
Chart 8 shows the accident frequency and severity rates for the
entire group of mills, including both bonus and nonbonus plants,
over a period of six years. It happens that the frequency and severity
rates are so related that they can be plotted on a single percentage
C h a r t 8 .—ACCIDENT

RATES FO R A SELEC TED GROUP OF MILLS IN T H E IR O N AND
S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1912 TO 1917.

scale. The general result is in conformity with all studies thus far
made of the experience of the iron and steel industry. From a high
point in 1912, both frequency and severity rates decline to 1914 or
1915. There is then a rise to 1916 with a recurrent decline in 1917.
The high point of 1916 is not so high as that of 1912.
In Chart 9 accident rates are shown for the bonus and the nonbonus
plants of the group represented in the preceding chart. Inspection
of this chart shows that the bonus plants, starting at practically the
same frequency rates as nonbonus plants, had for two years a very
rapid decline in frequency rates— much more rapid than that in the
nonbonus plants. Following this decline they maintained a mate­
rially lower rate in frequency than did the nonbonus plants. On the
other hand, the general trend of severity rates of the bonus plants is
upward, while those of the nonbonus plants decline. The general de-




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

161

cline in severity rates noted in Chart 8 is entirely due to the influence
of the nonbonus group. The bonus group tended to cause the rates
to rise. There are undoubtedly many factors involved in this situa­
tion and a too broad or too emphatic a statement of the significance
of them should be avoided. Personal study of all the plants involved
discloses only two points in which the bonus group differs materially
from the nonbonus: (1) On the whole the bonus group has a slightly
superior physical condition and might be expected, therefore, to
have somewhat lower severity rates. (2) In the bonus plants there
has existed since 1913 a bonus to the foremen for accident reduction.
Most careful and painstaking scrutiny and inquiry have failed to
develop any other material differences. Under these circumstances
. it would seem to be entirely fair to insist that these two factors are
mainly responsible in bringing about such differences as appear in
Chart 9__ACCIDENT RA TES FO R BONUS AND NONBONUS PLANTS IN A SELECTED
GROUP OF MILLS IN T H E IRON AND S T E E L IN D U STR Y , 1912 TO 1917.

the trend of the accident rates. It is proper to say, in this connection
that remarkable decline in frequency rates on the adoption of the
foreman bonus is the universal experience. Wherever this method
has been tried this result has appeared. It may, therefore, without
limitation, be said that such a bonus does tend strongly to the reduc­
tion of minor injury.
FOREMEN’S ACTIVITIES.

In a search for the reasons for the changes indicated in the charts
the natural appeal is to the foremen themselves. Inquiry has there­
fore been constantly and systematically made regarding the methods
adopted by foremen in their efforts to secure the offered bonus.
The following points appear with entire constancy in the testi­
mony of the foremen: (1) The foremen were convinced by this offer



162

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

that the company was really and deeply interested in the success of
safety effort. “ when the company comes across with real money we
know that they mean business.” That is to say, up to the time of
the inauguration of the accident reduction bonus the foremen had
been somewhat skeptical regarding the reality of the company’s
interest in accident prevention. They had felt that the company
was interested above all else in production and that the phrase
“ Safety first” was little more than idle words. (2) Under the old
conditions, the foremen had not been in the habit of considering at
all carefully the fitness of the man to the particular task which would
be required of him. If a slow and heavy man presented himself, the
foreman might set him to work in spite of the fact that in such work
a certain degree of quickness and agility was the only safeguard
against sudden death. The inauguration of the bonus focused the*
attention of the foremen upon this subject and they proceeded to
select men with much greater care and to refuse to hire those ob­
viously unsuited to the work of which they had charge. (3) Besides
exercising care in selecting the men the foreman himself took
greater pains in instructing new men regarding safe methods of work
and would see to it that such a new man was associated with a more
experienced worker who would look after the newcomer during the
period of his training. It is quite possible that this conversion of
the mills into schools of safety may be much the most important
factor in the reductions which have come about. (4) The classifica­
tion of injuries was in accordance with the duration of the disability.
Since the longer disability imposed a heavier penalty it became a
matter of importance to tne foreman to secure the prompt return of
the injured man to duty. As prompt a return as reasonably possible
is obviously of advantage both to the man himself and to the company.
There were, however, two abuses which tended to develop on account
of this interest of the foremen in prompt return: (a) A man might be
brought back and put on duty at a nominal job not having any real
and important relation to the operations of the mill. This practice
became so marked in one large plant that the superintendent was
obliged to issue an order that when a man was returned to duty when
not able to resume his original occupation, the foreman must show
clearly that the job proposed for him was a real job and one of actual
necessity. The presence of men who were there simply to save a
foreman’s bonus was regarded as tending seriously to lower the morale
of the working force. (6) Sometimes in his anxiety to save his bonus
the foreman would urge men to return to work who were not yet in
physical condition for the work. This, of course, is a matter for the
cohtrol of the medical staff and in most cases their professional pride
is a sufficient safeguard against permitting premature return of the
injured men. (5) It was not always the case that the foreman had
any helpful relations outside the mill with the men under his direction.
Wnen it was made a matter of importance to him that an injured man
return promptly to work, he was apt to form a friendly acquaintance
on the outside with his men and this may have had much to do with
securing active cooperation in safety work within the mill.
The response of foremen to the offer of a bonus by the company
was for the most part along the lines indicated above. These offers
were particularly successful in reducing short-term disabilities due
to minor accidents. The degree to which minor accidents may be
reduced under a bonus system is very striking.




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

163

In earlier studies of the iron and steel industry it has been shown
that the percentages of injured who returned to work in successive
weeks are about as follows: First week, 50 per cent; second week, 25
per cent; third week, 10 per cent. With the inauguration of the
safety movement these percentages for the early weeks steadily de­
clined, falling as low in some cases as 40 and 35 per cent in the first
week. In some of the plants having bonus systems this downward
tendency of accidents involving less than one week’s disability has
reached the point where the percentage for the first week is actually
less than that for the second week. As one manager stated it: “ We
have almost abolished short-term disabilities.” There is no intrinsic
reason why the tendency to eliminate minor injury should not go to
this extent but certainly it could not have been anticipated in advance
of an experimental test.
This showing is so remarkable that some have been inclined to
suggest that it was due to erroneous reporting. It is proper, there­
fore, to say that every facility has been afforded for checking up the
records and there is no indication of imperfection in the matter of
reporting cases.
THE RISING SEVERITY RATE.

The trend of severity rates as disclosed in Chart 9 suggests two
questions:
(1)
W hy did the bonus plants have a lower severity rate than the
nonbonus? and (2) W hy should the severity rate for bonus plants
constantly rise when the frequency rate was so conspicuously falling ?
In reply to the first question, it is probably the case that the slight
superiority of the bonus plants in the matter of engineering revision
is sufficient to account for this generally lower severity rate. The
fact that severity in the bonus plants, though lower than in the non­
bonus, was rising is less easy to explain. It should be emphasized
that this phenomena is almost completely constant. It is shown in
the three departments chosen for consideration because of their com­
parability with similar departments in which the bonus was not in
use.
When other departments of the plants are considered, it is found
that in them also the tendency to rising severity is observable. The
only common influence in the several departments which can be
detected is the presence of the bonus system. It is therefore possible
that the bonus system is actually a contributing factor in the rising
severity rate. There are two items about the bonus system which it
may be suggested have contributed to this rise in severity rate:
(1) Those in charge of the safety departments in these plants, noting
the remarkable decline in frequency incident to the introduction of
the bonus and knowing that severe cases were not in excess of such
cases in similar plants, were not aware that severity was on the
increase. No special measures, therefore, were taken to counteract
such tendency. (2) Under the bonus system serious injury was not
made to count against the foreman in a sufficient degree to induce
on his part special attention to the causes of serious injury and the
means of prevention.
It may be noted again that without the consideration of severity
rates it would be quite impossible to get an accurate picture of the
influence of such a device as the foremen’s bonus.




164

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
“ ENGINEERING REVISION” IN BONUS AND NONBONUS PLANTS.

In a later chapter the general question of “ engineering revision”
as a method of controlling the more severe injuries in industry will
be discussed. In the present connection it is interesting to note the
experience of bonus and nonbonus plants in those cases in which, in
the opinion of the safety committees who pass upon them, preven­
tion was possible by engineering revision. The following table
resents the results secured in a bonus and a nonbonus plant, the cases
eing divided into three groups, namely, “ Disability of six weeks
and under,” “ Disability o f over six weeks,” and “ Death and major
mutilation.”

E

T able 4 7 .—ACCIDENT FR E Q U E N C Y RATES (PER 1,000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR
CASES T H A T COULD H A V E BE E N P R EVEN T ED B Y EN G IN EER IN G R EVISIO N IN A
BONUS AND A NONBONUS P LAN T.

Kind of plant.

Bonus plant....................................................................................................
Nonbonus plant.............................................................................................

Disabil­
ity of 6
weeks or
under.
2.6
.9

Disabil­
Death
ity of and major Total.
over 6
mutila­
weeks.
tion.
0.9
.3

0.5
.6

4.1
1.8

Inspection of the table will show that the bonus plant found engi­
neering remedies possible at the rate of 2.6 cases per million hours’
exposure for injuries involving disability of six weeks or under. In
the nonbonus plant, on the the other hand, the cases for which similar
remedies were discovered were at the rate of 0.9 per million hours’
exposure. A comparison of these two rates shows that the foremen
of the bonus plant called attention to cases involving disability of six
weeks or under and capable of engineering remedy three times as
frequently as did those in the nonbonus plants. That is, under a
bonus system the foremen show constantly an alert attention to the
causes which give rise to minor injury.
In the matter of death and major mutilation, the rate in the bonus
plant was 0.5 per million hours’ exposure and in the nonbonus plant
0.6. It has already been shown (p. 161) that the bonus plants had
on the whole a rising severity rate, while the rate in nonbonus plants
was falling. The difference indicated above in the detection of possi­
ble engineering revision against severe accidents would be entirely
sufficient to account for this opposite movement in severity rates.
It would be too sweeping a conclusion to say that these differences
in the application of ‘ ‘ engineering revision ’ ’ are entirely due to the
entrance of the bonus system. They may be in some measure the
result of inherent differences in the work done in the two plants.
However, the fact that attention to small injuries will have consider­
able influence in protecting the foremen’s bonus must not be over­
looked as a factor in this situation. Whenever the penalty for serious
injury is proportionately too small, it is inevitable that attention will
be given to those minor cases whose elimination will easily exceed in
importance, from the standpoint of the bonus, the elimination of more
serious danger. Suppose, for example, that 10 points are scored
against a foreman for a fatal injury. When disability for a single day
counts 1 against him, it probably would be easier for the foreman to
get rid of the causes of 10 minor injuries than to provide against the
recurrence of a fatality. How inadequate such an allowance as 10




165

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

for a fatal case is will become evident when attention is called to the
fact that in standard procedure in the calculation of severity rates a
death is rated as the equivalent of the loss of 6,000 days. It is prob­
ably true that such an allowance, while necessary for the determina­
tion of satisfactory severity rates, would be excessive in the operation
of a foremen’s bonus plan. It is clear, however, that heavier penal­
ties for death and major mutilation should be applied if adequate
attention to the causes of the more serious injuries is to be secured.
CONCLUSION.

The experience outlined above is much more extensive and has cov­
ered a longer period of time than any other which has been subjected
to statistical analysis. It is, of course, possible that there are factors
in this situation which the painstaking scrutiny given it has failed
to disclose. With all possible allowance for such concealed factors
the following conclusions seem to be justified: (1) A foremen’s bonus
for accident reduction will tend very greatly to reduce minor injury
and will tend when established to keep down this sort of injury. Such
a reduction is of very great importance and would amply justify the
application of a bonus system, provided there are no injurious results
which offset this value. Both mill efficiency and good feeling among
the men are favorably influenced by this diminution of minor injury.
(2) A foremen’s bonus will not of necessity bring about a satisfactory
reduction of the more severe accidents. It did not so operate in this
largest and longest continued experiment. It would appear that the
influence of the bonus system must be reinforced by the vigorous
application of other measures, particularly the engineering study of
the situation.
Tables 48 and 49 present, in detail, the data upon which this dis­
cussion is based.
T able 4 8 .—HOURS OF E X P O SU R E AND NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS IN BONUS AN D NON­
BONUS P LAN T GROUPS, B Y Y E A R S , 1912 TO 1917.

HOURS (THOUSANDS) OF EXPOSURE.
Plant group.

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

Bonus group:
A—Blast furnaces.......................................
A—Steel works............................................
A—Rolling mills..........................................

2,769
3,261
6,325

2,895
3,303
6,582

1,827
2,313
4,431

1,824
2,340
4,497

2,589
3,453
6,468

2,592
3,702
6,918

14,496
18,372
34,221

Total...........................................................

11,355

12,780

8,571

8,661

12,510

13,212

34,221

Nonbonus groups:
B—Blast furnaces.......................................
B—Steel works...........................................
B—Rolling mills..........................................

7,158
8, 772
11,535

7,143
8,289
14,079

6,291
5,295
11,145

5,865
7,740
8,085

8,271
11,085
11,505

9,546
12,399
11,526

44,274
53,580
67,875

Total........................................................... 27,465

29,511

22, 731

21,690

30,861

33,471

165,729

2,388
3,006
2,601

2,361
3,030
2,619

2,640
2,202
2,043

2,832
2,670
2,487

3,510
3,237
2,931

3,594
3, 582
3,183

17,325
17,727
15,864

C—Blast furnaces........................................
C—Steel works.............................................
C—Rolling mills...........................................

Total.

Total...........................................................

7,995

8,010

6,885

7,989

9,678

10,359

50,916

D—Blast furnaces.......................................
D—Steel works...........................................
D—Rolling mills.........................................

13,923
5,193
10, 839

11,925
5,268
12, 225

12,654
3,429
9,990

10, 410
3,918
12, 384

10,104
4,284
9, 522

10, 707
4,374
12, 261

69,723
26,466
67,221

Total........................................................... 29, 955

29, 418

26,073

26, 712

23,910

27,342

163,410

Total, nonbonus (B, C, and D )............

65,415

66, 939

55,689

56, 391

64,449

71,172

380,055

Grand total..............................................

76,770

79,719

64,260

65,052

76,959

84,384

447,144




166

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able 4 8 .—HOURS OF E X P O SU R E AND N U M B ER OF ACCIDENTS IN BONUS AN D N O N ­
BONUS P L A N T GROUPS, B Y Y E A R S , 1912 TO 1917—Concluded.

NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS.
Plant group.

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

Total.

Bonus group:
A—Blast furnaces.......................................
A—Steel works............................................
A— Rolling mills..........................................

196
246
238

116
131
190

19
35
51

29
37
62

41
55
87

28
54
77

429
558
705

Total...........................................................

680

437

105

128

183

159

1,692

Nonbonus groups:
B— Blast furnaces.......................................
B—Steel works............................................
B—Rolling mills..........................................

335
633
630

269
622
600

170
255
268

135
248
193

226
378
292

208
309
197

1,343
2,445
2,180

Total............•
..............................................

1,598

1,491

693

576

896

714

5,968

C—Blast furnaces........................................
C— Steel works.............................................
C— Rolling mills...........................................

269
254
166

189
220
140

187
114
84

167
175
138

218
247
156

162
150
126

1,192
1,160
810

Total...........................................................

689

549

385

480'

621

438

3,162

D—Blast furnaces.......................................
D— Steel works............................................
D—Rolling mills.........................................

781
421
568

952
369
501

506
151
265

234
231
323

417
476
382

346
401
245

3 236
2 049
2, 284

Total...........................................................

1,770

1,822

922

788

1,275

992

7,569

Total, nonbonus (B, C, and D ) ............

4,057

3,862

2,000

1,844

2,792

2,144

16,699

Grand total...............................................

4,737

4,299

2,105

1,972

2,975

2,303

18,391

i
T able 4 9 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR BONUS A N D N O N ­
BONUS PLANT GROUPS IN SPECIFIED DEPAR TM EN TS IN TH E IRON AN D STEEL
IN D U ST R Y, B Y Y E A R S , 1912 TO 1917.

BLAST FURNACES.
Frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)-

Plant group.
1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 Total 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 Total

A (bonus).............................

70.8 40.1
B (nonbonus)....................... 46.8 37.7
C (nonbonus)....................... 112. 6 80. 1
D (nonbonus)...................... 56. 1 78. 2

10.4
27.0
70. 8
40.0

15.9
23.0
59.0
22.5

Total............................... 60.3 62.7 37.7 27.0

15.8
27.3
62.1
41.3

10.8
21.8
45.1
32.3

4. 6 4.1
3.8 6.2
31.9 10. 8
2.7 6.0

36.9 28.1

1.9 5.3
4.8 12.9
6.5 4.7
4. 9 1.0

4.3
2. 7
9. 4
3.2

7.5
7.8
8. 8
2. 9

5.2

4.1

5.9

5.9

6.7

4.8

14.6
24.9
41.9
91. 7

3.7
7.3
8. 6
4. 2

1.0
8.4
2. 8
5. 8

3.1 1.3 3.4
8. 4 3.4 5.0
7.2 10.4 7.3
1.3 2.4 13.3

4.1
2.7
8.4
5.9 ........

52.4 38.0

6.1

5.6

5.4

4.0

6.7

4.4

11.1
17.1
39.4
20.0

1.2
3.9
6. 1
4.2

0.9
3.5
2. 8
1. 2

2.2
3.3
1.0
1. 7

1.9
5.9
7.6
.8

2.4 0.6 ........
2.7 2.4
5.5 10.8
.8
3.7

30.1 19.0
•

3.7

2.2

2.4 13.1

STEEL WORKS.
A (bonus)..............................
B (nonbonus)......................
C (nonbonus).......................
D (nonbonus)......................
TotaL.............................

75.4
72.2
84.5
81.1

39.7
75.0
72. 6
70.0

15.1
48.2
51.8
44.0

15.8 15.9
32.0 34.1
65.5 76.3
59.0 111.1

76.8 67.5 ;41.9 41.5

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.
A (bonus)..............................
B (nonbonus)......................
C (nonbonus).......................
D (nonbonus)......................

44.7
54.6
63.8
52.4

28.9
42.6
53.5
41.0

11.5
24.0
41.1
26.5

13.8
23.9
55.5
26.1

Total............................... 52.9 40.3 24.2 26.1




13.5
25.4
53.2
40.1

3.2

2.2

167

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

TABE-E 4 9 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y A N D S E V E R IT Y R A T E S F O R BO N U S AN D N O N ­
BONUS P L A N T GROUPS IN SPECIFIED D E P A R T M E N T S IN T H E IR O N AN D ST EEL
IN D U S T R Y , B Y Y E A R S , 1912 T O 1917—Concluded.
A L L PL AN TS,

Frequency rates (per 1,060,000 hours’
exposure).

Severity rates (per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Plant group.
; 1912
A (bonus)................. ...........
B (nonbcmus)......................
€ (nonbonus).......................
B (nonbonns)......................

59.9
58.2
8& 2
59.1

1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 Total 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 Total
34.2
50.5
68.5
61.9

12.3
30.5
55.9
35.4

15.0 12.0
26.6 29.0
60.1 . 64.2
29.5 53.3

12.0
21.0
423
36.3

25.2 2.7
36.0* 15.0
© .1 14.7
46.3 3.3

1.6
5.5
5.2
4.3

24
4.9
5.1
3.2

2 5
6.9
7.5
1.1

3.1 , 2.9
3.5 4.0
7.5 9.3
5.2 2.4

25
4.9
8.3
3.3

Total, nonbonus (B,
C, and D )................... 62.0 57.7 35.9 32.7

43.3 30.1 43.9

5.5

5.0

4.1

4.2

4.8

4.2

4.6

Total (A, B, C, and D) 61.7 53.9 32.8 30.3

35.3 27.3 41.1

5.1

4.4

3.9 | 4.0

4.5

4.0

4.3

THE WORKERS.

The worker, just because he is an ordinary human being, is subject
to certain influences which may seriously increase the Hkehood o f his
being injured. The most conspicuous of these influences is that of
inexperience. The youthful worker or the one who recently entered
upon a given pursuit lacks the practice which gives control and skill
and so has a higher accident rate than the more experienced.
Unfavorable bodily conditions, such as attend exposure to extremes
of heat and cold, or night work, or illness, or fatigue may be reflected
in higher accident rates.
It will appear later that these unfavorable personal conditions
effect more promptly and more often the occurrence of minor injury
than cases of severer injury, in which there is likely to be some de­
fect of structure or arrangement without which the injury would
not have occurred and the man is therefore no more than a contrib­
uting cause of the result.
INFLUENCE OF INEXPERIENCE UPON ACCIDENTS.

The fact that the inexperienced man is especially subject to acci­
dent may be demonstrated from a number of sources. Table 50,
showing accident rates according to length of service, is of particular
interest upon this point.
T able 5 0 .—ACCIDENT FR E Q U E N C Y R A T E S ACCORDING TO PER IO D OF W O R K E R S ’
EM PLOYM ENT IN A L A R G E STEEL P LAN T.
[Based on data for January-May, 1916.]

Length of service.

months and under.......................................................................................
Over 6 months and not over 1 year...........................................................
Over 1 year and not over 3 years................................................................
Over 3 years and not over 5 years...............................................................
Over 5 years and not over 10 years.............................................................
Over 10 years and not over 15 yeaFs...........................................................
Over 15 vears_________________ _____
__________ _. ____________

9

Total........_.............. .............. ..... ........ ........




Equivalent
full-year
workers.

Cases of
accident.

Accident
frequency
rates (per
1,000,000
hours* ex­
posure).

512
278
357
637
814
470
459

57
29
31
27
16
4

37.1
34.8
28.9
14 1
6.6
2 8

3,527

164

1&5

168

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

The table indicates clearly an extremely rapid decline in accident
frequency with increased experience on the part of the worker. For
those who had been employed 6 months or less the frequency rate was
37.1 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure. This dropped to 34.8 cases
for those with 6 months’ to 1 year’s experience. Thereafter.the rate
declined very rapidly, and among those who had been employed more
than 15 years no accidents occurred during the period covered.
These figures are so striking that, notwithstanding the compara­
tively small number of workers concerned, they would seem to be con­
clusive as to the close relationship between inexperience and high
accident rates. This conclusion, moreover, is supported by other
tabulations presented later, based on the age of the worker and the
degree of his ability to speak English.
That the “ green” man is particularly subject to accident has been
recognized to some extent and in a number of plants special efforts
have been made to train and to caution him. But the full effect of
this factor has not been perceived. Careful analysis indicates that
inexperience plays a very important part in accident occurrence and
suggests that it may be an extremely influential factor in the increase
in accident rates which, almost invariably, accompanies an increase in
business activity.
That accident rates do increase in periods of business activity is
evidenced by numerous tabulations in tnis report. Thus the recovery
from the industrial depression of 1908 was accompanied in practically
all plants covered by this study by a marked rise in accident rates.
This experience occurred so regularly that there is clearly some close
connection between increased activity and increasing accident rates.
What is this connection? W hy should increasing plant activity
mean higher accident rates? Two possible reasons suggest them­
selves. The first is that the rising accident rates may be due to
“ speeding u p ” — i. e., to the greater intensity and stress of the work
placed upon the individual workman. The evidence of laboratory
test and mill experience is to the effect that sudden increments of
speed are accompanied by greater accident frequency. That such
speeding up may have occurred during periods of business activity
in the steel plants covered is suggested by the fact that at such
periods the output per worker employed shows an increase. But
increased per capita output does not absolutely prove increased indi­
vidual exertion, as the output increase might be due to modifications
of equipment and methods which would tend to lessen rather than
to increase the individual’s effort. But even granting that speeding
up does occur in a period of plant activity, and it is probable that it
does occur in some degree, it is still questionable whether it is suffi­
cient to account for the sharply rising accident rates.
The second reason which suggests itself as possibly a cause of the
rising accident rates in times of increasing business activity is the
influence of the new men added to the working force. At such a
time the working force is necessarily increased. Among those re­
cruited there is necessarily a more or less considerable element of in*
experienced men. Because of their inexperience these men are, as
has been noted above, especially subject to accident, and their pres­
ence in the plant would tend in itself to swell the accident frequency
rate. This factor could easily be one of very great importance. In­
deed, careful analysis of several plants leads to the belief that it is




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

im

this factor of inexperience, introduced into a plant at a time of heavy
labor recruiting, which is primarily responsible for the rising accident
rates following a period of depression.
The effect of introducing inexperienced men into the working force
is forcibly indicated by Chart 10. It represents the trend in a large
steel plant of four correlated elements over a period of 11 years, which
include three periods of high industrial stress— 1910, 1913, and the
war period.
The chart includes (1) a curve of employment showing the in­
creases and decreases over the period; (2) a curve showing the rates
at which new men were entering the force; (3) accident rates; (4) the
product per man.
To bring these items into such relations with each other that they
can be conveniently entered upon one chart they were reduced to index
numbers based on the year 1908 as 100. They were then plotted on a
percentage scale. For the sake of economizing space only the years
ending with alternate months are used. It was found by experiment
that no essential point in the relation of the curves was obscured by
this process.
It may be noted first that all the items rise and fall with changing
industrial conditions. The “ new man accession rate” is the most
widely variable. This rate represents, of course, the proportion of in­
experience which is to be found in the working force at various times.
The production rate, being the product per man, is a measure of in­
dividual activity in some degree, but may also reflect modifications in
equipment and method.
If the course of the “ new man accession rate” be compared with
that of accidents a close and interesting parallelism will be observed.
In the earliest active period the two rates reach a climax at about
the same time, in 1910 at precisely the same month. In the war
period the “ new man accession rate ” was continuously high for a num­
ber of years and accidents maintained a closely corresponding high
position.
The production rate in the earlier active periods reached its peak
at a later time than either accessions or accidents. That is, whatever
effect “ speeding u p ” may have had on the accident rate it was not
sufficient to hold up that rate when the accession rate began to fall.
This situation during the war period was necessarily much compli­
cated by conditions which it is impossible to determine exactly. It is
evident, however, that here, as in the earlier periods, the controlling
factor in the rise of the accident rate is the accession of new men.
It might be inferred, from the fact that in two cases product per
man was rising with a falling accident rate, that speed or production
in such mills as these has no relation to the frequency of accident.
This conclusion is not justified, because it is possible that without the
influence of increasing speed the accident rate would have fallen more
rapidly than it did.
These illustrations, drawn from the iron and steel industry, empha­
size two points: (1) The inexperienced man has a high accident rate,
and (2) when he is introduced into a working force in considerable
71087°— 22- 12
-




ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,
Chart 10,-R E L A T IO N OF EM PLOYM ENT, ACCESSION OF N E W M EN, AND PRODUCTION TO ACCIDENT OCCURRENCE IN A LAR GE
STEEL P L A N T, 1908 TO 1914.




171

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

numbers it may be expected that, unless extraordinary efforts are
made to train him and to introduce him to his work, the accident
rate will rise.
The accident rates of the chart bring out another point very
clearly. In each of the latter periods, although accessions reached a
rate of increase equal to that in the first period, accidents did not reach
so high a point. This is clearly due to the progressive influence of
safety effort as applied in these mills.
Some further illustrations from other fields will be pertinent.
EXTREME INEXPERIENCE.

In an earlier study 5 of press hands in the metal trades the fol­
7
lowing table was compiled which shows in a very striking manner
the hazard of the extremely inexperienced.
T able 5 1 .—A V E R A G E NUM BER OF PRESS HANDS AND OF E M PLO YEES IN O T H ER OCCU­
PATIONS IN TH E M E TA L TR A DE S INJURED PER D A Y A F T E R BEG IN N IN G W O R K
ON M ACHINE, B Y S E X .

Average number injured per day.
Occupation.

2d week to 2d month 7th month
to end of
to end of
end of 1st
month.
6th month. 1st year.

1st day.

2d day to
end of 1st
week.

Press hands:
Males................................................................
Females...........................................................

77
252

13
33

3
4

0.78
.71

0.21
.26

Total.............................................................

329

46

7

1.49

.47

Other occupations:
Males................................................................
Females...........................................................

89
42

25
12

8
2

3.00
.69

1.00
.32

Total.............................................................

131

37

10

3.69

1.32

All occupations:
Males................................................................
Females...........................................................

166
294

38
45

11
6

3.00
1.00

1.00
.57

Total.............................................................

460

83

17

4.00

1.57

This table shows a very great excess of accident occurrence on the
first day on the machine. If this could be placed on a rate basis, it
would be still more striking.
In connection with the study from which Table 51 is taken 435
cases of accident to press hands during the first day of employ­
ment on the press and 537 cases of metal workers injured after a year
5 Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners, Vol. X I , Employment of Women in the
7
Metal 'Trades, S. Doc. No. 645, 61st Cong., 2d sess.




172

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

or more of experience were recorded for which the hour of injury was
known. A tabulation of these cases follows:
T able 5 2 .—ACCIDENTS TO IN E X P E R IE N C E D PRESS HANDS AND TO E X PER IEN C ED
M E TA L W O R K E R S , B Y HOUR OF THE D A Y .
Accidents in each hour.
Number.
Hour ending at—

Press
hands—
1st day of
employ­
ment.

Per cent.

Metal
workers—
after 1
year or
more of
employ­
ment.

Metal
workers—
after 1
year or
more of
employ­
ment.

8 a. m ........................................................................................
9 a. m ........................................................................................
10 a. m ........................................................................................
11 a. m ........................................................................................
12 m ............................................................................................

42
65
67

8. 74
11.49

66

58
41

78

13. 33
9. 42

1 4 .5 2

40

Total, forenoon..............................................................

253

292

58.15

54.36

m ..........................................................................................
m ..........................................................................................
m ..........................................................................................
m ................................................... .....................................
m ..........................................................................................

10. 57

8. 57
12.10

44
30
10

66

Total, afternoon.............................................................

182

245

41.85

45.64

Grand total.....................................................................

435 |

537

100.00

100.00

2p.
3 p.
4 p.
5 p.
Bp.

38
50

Press
hands—
1st day of
employ­
ment.
.

46
52

46
65
50
18

1 5 .1 7

1 1 .9 5

10.11
6. 90
2. 30

7.82
12.10
12. 48
7.44

12. 29

9.31
3.35

The table showing the distribution of accidents through the hours
of the day indicates that not only does the beginner have a high
accident rate, as shown by Table 51, but also that he is much in­
fluenced by that lack of coordination which more or less besets
any worker in resuming a task in the morning. When the begin­
ner’s accident rate is compared with that of the more experienced
worker, it is found that his rate is higher and his efforts for speed
produce a more rapidly rising rate during the morning hours.
It may be said in conclusion that the fluctuations in accident rates
which accompany industrial revival and depression are really one
phase of the larger problem of “ labor turnover.” Any methods
which may be devised to lessen the one will favorably affect the other.
SELECTIVE DISCHARGE.

The lessened accident rates of periods of depression have been
attributed above to the decrease in the introduction of new men,
together, perhaps, with lessened industrial tension,. There is another
factor operative to which it is desirable to call attention. It may be
called “ selective discharge.” Whenever depression sets in all the
men are naturally desirous of retaining their jobs. The employer
therefore exercises selection in deciding whom he will let go. The
skillful and mature man will naturally be retained, while the younger,
less skillful, and less experienced man will be laid off. The effect
of this process is to raise the average quality of the working force
and thus to influence favorably the accident rate.
GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AS A POSSIBLE FACTOR.5
8

Comparison of the accident rates of different plants reveals the
fact that some in which safety work of the highest quality is being
58 For racial distribution of steel workers see Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and
Steel Industry in the United States (S. Doc. No. 110, 62d Cong., 1st sess.), Vol. I l l, p. 83 et seq.




173

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

done have constantly higher rates than others in which the safety
work is apparently of a lower quality. A probable explanation of
this is that the high rates of the former plants may be influenced by
the fact that they are so located geographically as to constitute ports
of entry, as it were, for new immigrant labor. Their records indi­
cated a higher proportion of men entirely without experience in the
industry, although in some cases their labor turnover was less than
in other plants which had attained to lower accident rates.
If this indication should prove upon closer scrutiny to be constant,
it would afford an explanation of the striking contradiction noted
above. At present such an explanation can not be established con­
clusively, but it may be suggested as possible, in justice to some
very efficient safety men who may be doing their work under an
extra handicap.
INFLUENCE OF AGE UPON ACCIDENTS.

It is very difficult to determine the influence of the worker’s age
upon accident occurrence because of the fact that the work done by
persons of different age groups may not be uniform. If the work
done is not uniform, a higher accident rate for those of one age
roup may be due not at all to the factor of age but simply to the
igher hazards of their particular tasks. The information available
upon this subject is not conclusive, but an analysis of such as could
be obtained brings out some points of interest.
An important body of data regarding age as related to accident
frequency was presented in the earlier report of the bureau upon
accidents in the iron and steel industry.5 The table is reproduced,
9
in substance, below. It shows the accident frequency rates over a
period of five years for a total of 33,511 full-year workers employed
m a large steel plant. In this case it was not possible to compute
severity rates.

g

T able 5 3 .— FR E QU EN C Y OF ACCIDENTS IN A L AR GE STEEL P L A N T ACCORDING TO
AGE GROUPS, 1906 TO 1910, B Y Y E A R S .

Age group.

1906

1907

1908

1909

1910

Total
(5 years)..

Number of workers:
Under 20 years..........................................
20 to 29 years.............................................
30 to 39 years..............................................
40 years and over......................................

475
3,875
2,047
1,097

384
3,810
2,256
1,135

198
2,214
1,242
921

261
3,343
1,697
914

390
3,264
2,271
1,717

1,708
16,506
9,513
5,784

Total........................................................

7,494

7,585

4,575

6,215

7,642

33,511

Number of accident cases of workejs—
Under 20 years...........................................
20 to 29 years..............................................
30 to 39 years..............................................
40 years and over......................................

52
760
382
156

56
' 694
374
170

8
364
183
89

30
577
304
143

27
527
298
115

173
2,922
1,541
673

Total........................................................

1,350

1,294

644

1,054

967

5,309

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure) for workers—
Under 20 years .........................................
20 to 29 years..............................................
30 to 39 years..............................................
40 vears and over......................................

36.5
65.4
62.0
47.4

48.6
60. 7
55.3
49.9

13.5
54.8
49.1
32.2

38.3
57.5
59.7
52.2

23.1
53.8
43.7
23.3

33.8
59.0
54.0
38.8

Total........................................................

60.4

56.9

46.9

56.5

42.2

52.8

5 Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry in the U nited States (S. Doc.
9
No. 110, 62d Cong., 1st sess.), Vol. IV , p. 159.




174

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

The first point to be noted in the table is that the decline in acci­
dent frequency rates which took place between the beginning and
end of the period covered occurred in each of the age groups as well
as in the total.
The second point to be noted is that for the combined five-year
period, and also for each of the individual years, except 1909, the
age group 20 to 29 showed the highest accident frequency. Next
highest to the 20 to 29 age group in accident frequency is the 30 to
39 group, with the 40 ana over group next in order and the under 20
group lowest of the four. In order to understand the significance
of this order it is necessary to consider the occupational status of
each of the age groups. The group under 20 is that engaged in the
least hazardous work. Most of those who belong to it are door boys
and lever operators. Those of 40 and over have to a certain degree
^d out of the danger zone. Many of those who have passed but
over the boundary line are still to bo found in the dangerous
occupations, and probably on this account the accident rate is higher
than that for those under 20. But the differences which exist in the
work of these two groups are so considerable that it is impossible
to judge whether the factor of age is at all a significant one. If the
groups could be placed under nearly identical occupational con­
ditions, the rates might be changed, or even reversed.
The two age groups, 20 to 29 and 30 to 39, include b y far the
larger proportion of the steel workers. From statistics showing the
age distribution in the various departments6 and from careful
0
observation the dangers to men in the older age group appear to be
as great as those encountered by the younger. In fact inquiry shows
that those who are particularly exposed to the special hazards, such
as arise in the moving of molten metal, have very commonly reached
their present position by a prolonged apprenticeship and are very
apt to be men above 30. It is a reasonable conclusion, therefore,
that danger in the younger age group is not greater than in the older.
It appears that the 20 to 29 age group has the higher rate in each
year except one, and that for the whole period the rate is decidedly
higher for this group.
It becomes, then, appropriate to inquire the reason for this higher
rate, since apparently it can not be attributed to more dangerous
occupations. The probable causes may be summed up as inexperi­
ence and immaturity. This age group, 20 to 29, furnishes the greatest
number of recruits for the steel industry. Those of the group 30 to 39
are relatively experienced men who entered the works earlier or, in
rare instances where they are recently arrived immigrants, they have
a degree of maturity which is not true of those between 20 and 29.
The great factor is undoubtedly that of inexperience. Many of these
young men come directly from an agricultural life and are exposed
upon their entrance into the activities of the steel mill to all the
dangers which inevitably beset beginners.
The experience of a second large steel plant, as regards the rela­
tion of age and accident, is given in Table 54. In mis, as in the
plant just discussed, the accident reduction which had taken place
over a period of years had affected all age groups. But as it does
not seem necessary further to establish this point, the data for the

E

» Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States (S. Doc.
No. 110,62d Cong., 1st sess.), Vol. H I, p. 9ft*




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

175,

several years are combined in order to get as large an exposure as
possible.
Accident severity rates, as well as frequency rates, are
given in detail.
T able 5 4 __ ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR A LAR GE STEEL
P LAN T, 1907 TO 1914, B Y AGE GROUPS.
Accident frequency rates (per
1,000,000 hours’ exposure).

Age group.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Under 20 years.........................
949
20 to 29 years............................ 16,443
30 to 39 years............................ 14,417
40 years ail'd over.................... 11,124
Total...................................

42,933

Death.

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Accident severity rates (per
1,000 hours’ exposure).

Total.

Death.

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

0.31
.23
.23
.17

2.47
1.13
.80
.93

184.8
76.7
58.5
42.8

187.58
78.06
59.53
43.90

2.10
1.33
1.37
1.10

1.47
.77
.40
.50

2.57 i
.1.17
.97
.87

6.14
3. 27
2.74
2. 47

.23

1.00

64.2

65.43

1.30

.60

1.03

2.93

The accident rates #f this table conform very closely to those of the
preceding table with the exception of the rates for the age group
under 20. For this group the accident rates are here extremely high,
in sharp contrast with the experience shown in Table 53. This
is due, m part, to the practice of this plant of employing young men
along with older men in occupations likely to produce many cases of
short-term disability. But at best the group is too small (949 fullyear workers) to permit of conclusive deductions. Its smallness of
size would be reflected especially in the severity rate, since, in small
groups, a single fatality influences the severity rate materially.
More significant is the fact that this group has the highest severity
rate for both permanent and temporary disability, Clearly, when
such youths do engage in the same work as more experienced work­
ers, their hazards are very serious.
It is very possible that the workers under 20, being a small group
among a much larger group of older workers, and furnishing only a
limited number of accidents, have never had their high accident
rates observed. The condition disclosed by this tabulation, there­
fore, suggests the desirability of every plant's making, from time to
time, a critical examination of the working force by age groups.
Table 55 presents the accident experience of a tube mill by age
groups. The age group under 20 is omitted, as the number of per­
sons therein was too small to justify the computation of rates.
T able 5 5 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR A TU BE M ILL, 1907
TO 1914, B Y A G E GROUPS.
Accident frequency rates (per
1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Age group.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Death.

Accident severity rates (per
1,000 hours’ exposure).

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

Death.

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

20 to 29 years............................
30 to 39 years............................
40 years and over.....................

6,351
4,977
2,965

0.10
.07
.33

1.03
.73
.57

69.1
50.2
34.0

70.23
51.00
34.90

0.63
.40
2.03

0.70
.40
.37

1.03
.80
.63

2.36
1.60
3.03

Total...................................

14,293

.13

.83

55.2

56.16

.83

.53

.87

2.23




176

ACCIDENTS

TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

m

The relations of these age groups in regard to accident frequency,
it will be noted, are the same as in the two preceding tables. In the
matter of severity, however, age group 40 and over has the leading
place, due entirely to the high death rate.
ACCIDENTS AMONG NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORKERS.

Of all inexperienced workers the man most handicapped would
seem to be the one who not only is without knowledge of his task, but
also is unable to communicate freely with those who direct him.
When one large company began to study carefully their working con­
ditions they found it not infrequently the case that a foreman was in
charge of a gang with no member of which could he communicate
either directly or by an interpreter. Still more common was it to find
individual men who were thus barred from communication with
their immediate superior. This was at once recognized as a dangerous
condition and the rule was issued that gangs should be formed in
such a manner that each man should be able to communicate with
his foreman directly or by interpreter.
The following table contrasts accident rates of (1) American-born
workers, (2) English-speaking foreign-born workers, and (3) nonEnglish-speaking foreign-born workers, over a period of 8 years,
1906 to 1913, in the only plant for which full data could be obtained:
T able 5 6 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR AM ER ICAN -B OR N
AN D ENGLISH AND NON-ENGLISH SPEAK ING FOREIG N -BO R N GROUPS IN A LAR GE
STEEL M ILL, 1906 TO 1913, B Y Y E A R S.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure).
Group.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Death.

Perma­
nent
disa­
bility.

Tem­
porary
• disa­
bility.

Total.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ exposure).

Death.

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

1906.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born.........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................

1,370

1.9

1.9

47.7

51.5

11.7

2.2

0.7

1,906

2.3

1.9

36.6

40.8

14.0

1.0

.6

15.6

4,218

1.4

1.9

81.0

84.3

8.2

1.3

1.2

10.7

Total...................................

7,494

1.7

1.9

61. 7

65.3

10.4

1.8

1.0

13.2

1,719

1.2

.8

33.3

35.3

7.0

1.1

.7

8.8

2,267

1.0

1.3

51.9

54.2

6.2

3.0

.9

10.1

3,599

1.1

2.5

64.8

68.4

6.7

2.3

1.4

10.4

7,858 1
!

1.1

1.7

54.3

57.1

6.4

2.6

1.1

10.1

1,188

3.2

1907.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................
Total...................................

14.6

1908.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................

.3

1.7

25.8

27.8

1.7

1.0

.5

1,689

1.0

1.6

31.4

30.4

5.9

1.1

.6

7.6

1,698

1.2

2.4

60.9

64.5

7.1

2.7

1.2

11.0

Total...................................

4,575

.9

1.9

40.9

43.7

5.2

1.7

.8

7.7

1909.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................

1,453

.5

.2

31.9

32.6

2.8

.4

.5

3.7

2,027

1.2

1.3

41.1

43.6

6.9

.8

1.0

8.7

2,735

.5

.9

66.7

68.1

2.9

1.4

1.1

5.4

Total...................................

6,215

.7

.9

50. 2

51.8

4.2

.9

6.0




.9 |

177

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS,

T able 5 6 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y FRATES FO R AM ERICAN-BORN
AND ENGLISH AN D N O N -EN G LISH SPEAK IN G F O R E lG N -B O R N GROUPS IN A LAR G E
STEEL M ILL, 1906 TO 1913, B Y Y E A R S —Concluded.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' exposure).
Group.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Death.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' exposure).

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

Death.

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility. bility.

Total.

1910.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking foreign born...............................

1,843

0.4

0.2

22.4

23.0

3.3

0.2

0.3

3,283

.2

.6

16.3

17.1

1.8

.5

.2

2.5

2,516

1.1

3.0

74.9

79.0

9.5

1.4

1.4

12.3

Total...................................

7,642

.5

1.3

37.0

38.8

4.7

1.1

.6

6.4

1911.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................
Total...................................
1912.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................

3.8

1,369

1.0

1.0

25.8

27.8

8.8

.4

.4

9.6

2,446

.5

1.1

28.3

29.9

4.9

1.2

.8

6.9

1,959

.2

1.5

54.3

56.0

1.5

1.4

1.1

4.0

5, 774

.5

1.2

36.5

38.2

4.7

.8

.7

6.2

1.1

28.8

29.9

.6

.5

1.1

.1

2.4

29.7

32.2

1.1

2.0

.6

3.7

1,863
2,656
2,887

.5

2.7

82.2

85.4

4.2

2.4

1.5

8.1

Total...................................

7,406

.2

2.2

49.9

52.3

2.0

1.8

.9

4.7

1913.
American born........................
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born........................................
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born...............................

1,782

.6

.9

18.9

20.4

5.1

.2

.3

5.6

2,472

.7

.7

27.0

28.4

6.1

.6

.5

7.2

2,877

.5

2.7

83.2

86.4

4.2

2.4

1.5

8.1

Total...................................

7,562

.6

1.5

37.9

40.0

5.6

.7

.8

7.1

1906-1913.
American born......................... 12,587
English-speaking f o r e i g n
born......................................... 18, 746
Non-English-speaking for­
eign born................................ 22,910

.7

.9

28.6

30.2

4.1

.7

.5

5.3

.8

1.3

30.8

32.9

4.7

1.4

.7

6.8

.9

2.2

67.8

70.9

5.1

1.5

.9

7.5

.8

1.6

45.9

48.3

4.7

1.4

.8

6.9

Total...................................

54,243

It is very noteworthy that, in all the years covered by this table,
the non-English speakers not only had the highest frequency rates
but show little if any improvement from year to year. In severity
the non-English speakers show the highest rates in five out of the
eight years covered and show much less improvement than do the
English speakers.
An examination of the combined data for the eight years will dis­
close that the non-English speakers have a frequency rate 2.3 times
that of the American born (70.9 against 30.2 cases per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure) and a severity rate 1.4 times as great (7.5 against
5.3 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure).
Table 57 shows the composition of the working force from 1915 to
1919.




178

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

5 7 .— N UM BER OF AM ER ICAN BO R N A N D EN G LISH AN D N O N -E N G L IS H SP E A K IN G FO R EIG N -BO R N W O R K E R S IN A L A R G E S T E E L M ILL, 1915 TO 1919, B Y
YEARS.

tab le

Group.

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1,401
1,877
2,012

2,223
2,710
3,326

3,679
4,275
2,774

3,702
3,986
2,777

4,185
3,730
1,162

5,290

American born.....................................................................
English-speaking foreign born.........................................
Non-English-speaking foreign born................................

8,259

10,728

10,465

9,077

It proved to be impossible to determine with reasonable accuracy
the ability to speak English of those injured during the 5-year
interval. The table shows an interesting modification in the protion of American born and English speakers in recent years.
s is due l a r g e l y to the shutting on of immigration during the war
and the introduction of colored laborers. The effect of this change
on accident rates can not be determined at this time.

K

DAY AND NIGHT ACCIDENT RATES.

The impression that the night turn is less dangerous than the day
turn has been quite prevalent among safety men. This impression
has been the result apparently of limiting attention to the compara­
tive number of accidents rather than to comparative accident rates.
The number of accidents on the night turn is almost invariably much
the smaller, because very much fewer men are employed by night
than by day.
In the iron and steel industry there is a definite tendency toward
higher accident rates at night. The following statement summarizes
all the material upon this subject obtained in the course of the present
investigation, together with such data as are available from other
sources:
Higher rates at night have been f o u n d to exist in the fo llo w in g cases:
U n it e d S ta te s.
S te e l p la n t w ith av erag e e m p lo y m e n t o f.................
8 ,0 0 0
U n it e d S ta te s. S te e l p la n t w ith av erag e e m p lo y m e n t o f .................
5 ,0 0 0
U n it e d S ta te s. M a c h in e b u ild in g p la n t w ith average e m p lo y ­
m e n t o f ............................................................................................................................1 5 ,0 0 0
U n it e d S ta te s.
P la n t p ro d u c in g e le c tric a l ap p aratu s, w ith a v e r­
age e m p lo y m e n t o f.......... ......................... ............................................................. 1 7 ,0 0 0
G e rm a n y .
Iro n a n d ste e l in d u str ie s i n D u sse ld o rf d istr ict, w ith
average e m p lo y m e n t o f......................................................................................... 61, 719
G e rm a n y . M a c h in e b u ild in g i n D u sse ld o rf d istr ict, w ith a v er­
age e m p lo y m e n t o f...................................................................................................
3, 546
Higher rates by day have been f o u n d to exist in the fo llo w in g cases:
U n it e d S ta te s. S te e l p la n t w ith av erag e e m p lo y m e n t o f.................
6 ,0 0 0
G e r m a n y . M isc e lla n e o u s in d u str ie s i n D u sse ld o rf d is tr ic t, w ith
average e m p lo y m e n t o f......................................................................................... 2 4 ,0 2 2

There are several factors bearing on the subject of night accident
hazards, some operating in one direction, some in the other. They
may be stated as follows:
(a) Tending to lower the rates at night—
(1) Smaller proportion of relatively inexperienced and
unskilled men.
(2) Less congestion.
(3) Less transportation of material.
(4) Tendency not to undertake difficult repairs.




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS,

179

(b) Tending to raise the rates at night—
(1) Imperfect lighting.
(2) Unsatisfactory physical and mental condition of the
worker.
(3) Less rigorous supervision.
Apparently up to the present time the forces tending to higher
rates nave had the greater influence. As illustrations are offered it
will become evident that in the progress of time the disparity be­
tween night and day rates has become less and that in some cases a
condition of lower rates at night has been reached.
Of the factors tending to high night rates imperfect lighting has
naturally received the larger share oi attention. This is a matter of
efficient operation, and illuminating engineers are showing very con­
clusively that adequate provision in this respect will immediately
return more than its cost m greater output.
Undoubtedly the most difficult problem is that of the worker’s con­
dition at night. This is related in no small measure to the difficulty
of securing adequate recuperation by proper sleep. The experience
of British munition factories shows that continuous night work seri­
ously impairs the efficiency of the workers.0 The light and noise of
1
daytime and the heat of summer conspire to render sleep in day hours
unrefreshing. This discomfort may easily lead to efforts for relief in
themselves injurious.
EXAM P LES OF NIGH T AN D D A T B A T E S .

The experience of a large steel plant is shown in the following
charts. These give separately, for the day turn and the night turn,
the frequency and severity rates over a period of years and by depart­
ments.
In the years studied in this plant the frequency rates for night
were in excess in each year ana the rates for severity in excess in
each year but one. The night rates decrease more rapidly than
those for the day. This gradual approximation is more regular in
the severity rates than in those for frequency. Improved lighting
has been suggested as a cause. This must have had great influence
but can hardly be the complete explanation. The improvements in
lighting were made at particular periods with intervals of uniformity
between. If lighting were the controlling factor it would naturally
be expected that some rather pronounced change would appear at
the time of lighting improvement. Since the decline in rates is fairly
constant some constant cause may be suspected. The use of alcohol
as a possible influence is discussed later in this chapter.
When the experience of this plant is considered from a depart­
mental standpoint some interesting deductions are possible. The
mechanical and yard departments call for particular notice in this
respect. The high frequency rates at night among mechanics is
doubtless the result of two factors: (1) The night force is almost
entirely engaged in what is called field work. Shop work on lathe
and planer is not undertaken as a rule at night, except in cases of
extreme urgency. The force is kept on duty mainly for imperative
repairs needed to keep the mills running, and consequently demandHealth of Munition Workers Committee (Ministry of Munitions).
ciency and Fatigue (1917), p. 26 et seq.




Interim report on Industrial Effi­

V //A OAY (6 A. M. TO. 6 P. M.)

NIGHT (6 P M TO 6 A,»»)
.

.5 0

..... , 1 0 0 .............. ISO...........

20,0

250

300

350

. 10

20

_3 J L

4Q

50

60

7 0 ..

8°

quency

_ 90

to o

Tates.

N um ber

Severity
3 0 0 -d a y

rates.

385
219

nnr

38.6
17.5

1.647
4.568

2 8.2
16.8

1.998
5.644

2 5.8
15.6

1,559
4,215

2 1.3
11.5

2.094
5.302

19
3
11
0
so

1.129
3.446

1 ,4
8
13
9

to

2 6.0
32.1

116
104

ye

19
,8 ,7
5.688

165
16
1

sn so
r

53.9
2 9.4

229
146

ib

1,8 1
0
5.693

147
14
2

Si

9 7.4
4 0.0

265
19
4

20

1.544
4,862

299
163

t
o

58.1
2 4.5

3 2.8
15.4

2.003
5,559

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Fr<*

ACCIDENT SEVERITY RATES.

ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATES

180




M l

ing all possible speed. (2) The lighting factor. Often the repairs
must be made in places which do not call for careful lighting on

operative grounds. Some hurriedly improvised lighting must be
supplied. The probability that it will be unsatisfactory is very great.

Chart 11.—NIGHT AND D AY ACCIDENT RATES IN A LARGE STEEL PLAN T, B Y YEAR S.
[Frequency rate here means number of accidents per 1,000 300-day workers; severity rate here means number of days lost per 300-day worker.]

Chart 12.—NIGHT AND D A Y ACCIDENT R ATES IN A LAR GE STEEL PLAN T, B Y DEPARTM EN TS.
[ Frequency rate here means number of accidents per 1,000 300-day workers; severity rate here means number of days lost per 300-day worker.]

HI

N H (6 PMT 6A M
IG T . . O . .)

E23 D Y ( 6 A . T 6 PM
A
.M O . .)

P R1000 300*D Y W R E S
E
A O KR

229

7 4 .6

2.879

204

4 2 .*

6.413

H4

4 6 .2

3.638

218

30. 5

5.045

160

21. t

6.516

150

18.1

10.769

389

YARD
S

_ _ _ _ _
PEPARTMENTSp ^ ^ i

other

E T E
N IR
PLA T
N

556

19.1

7.767

399

9 5. 4

874

139

M 7

5.083

227

4 0 .4
14.8

9.880

4 3 .2
2 2 .2

15.672
44.977

214
142

1 209

181




44. 3

122

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

D Y 0S N ME
A 8L 1 U B R
P R 300:DAY
E
3 0 0 -D A Y W R E S
OKR
WR E
OKR

A C E TF E U N YR T S
C ID N
R Q E C
A E

182

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

This need for emergency lighting is a point to which lighting en­
gineers should give further attention.
The extremely high night accident rates in yard operations must
be very largely due to the difference in lighting. The moving of
cars, the loading and unloading, and the shifting of materials which
rp on at night must be greatly dependent for their safety upon
ighting which enables the worker to avoid the obstacle over which
he may stumble and to place properly the objects which he handles.

{

EXPERIENCE IN THE DITSSELDORF DISTRICT, GERMANY.

In the Archiv fur Soziale Hygiene (Leipsic, 1910. Band VI,
Heft 1, p. 87) Dr. Walter Abelsdorff presents the following table in
regard to accident rates for the Dusseldorf district of Germany:
.

T able 5 8 .—D A Y AN D NIGH T ACCIDENT RATES FOR SPECIFIED IN D U S T R Y U R O U P S IN
THE DUSSELDORF DISTRICT, G ER M AN Y.

Industry group.

Plants
oper­
ating
day
and
night
shifts.

Number of
workpeople.

Number of
accidents.

Day.

Night.

Day.

Night.

Frequency
rates (per
1,000,000 hours*
exposure).
Day.

Night.

Mining, blast furnaces, steel works....................
Quarrying and exeavating..................................
Metal working.........................................................
Machine building, tools, etc.................................
Chemical industries................................................
By-products from timber.....................................
Paper making.........................................................
Food products.........................................................

92
54
15
14
31
50
9
18

45,062
2,951
3,692
2,849
8,865
1,810
776
536

16,657
1,317
1,658
697
1,410
460
338
209

8,609
244
661
542
465
167
72
27

3,522
57
181
143
119
33
11
7

64
28
60
33
17
30
31
17

70
14
36
70
28
24
11
11

Total............................................ .................

283

66,541

22, 746

10,787

4,073

54

60

A comparison of rates in this table with those in the preceding
table is not possible since the definition of accident used in the
German experience is not the same as that used in this report.
The iron and steel industry and mining taken together show a
higher rate at night. In the text of the article from which the table
is taken it is stated that in large iron and steel works the night rates
exceed the day rates in the proportion of 218 to 188. A comment is
quoted from a Dusseldorf official to the following effect: “ Large
iron and steel works lead in respect to special risks to night workers.’ ’
His explanation is insufficient illumination and less rigorous super­
vision.
A comparatively small group of machine builders shows the same
tendency to higher night rates, as do also the chemical workers.
For the main industrial groups presented this German experience
is like that of the majority of the American plants examined.
CONJUGAL CONDITION AS INFLUENCING ACCIDENTS.

The question sometimes arises as to whether marriage and the
having of dependents have any influence upon the worker in making
• him more careful in the avoidance of accidents.
No special study of this subject was made in the course of the
present investigation. ‘ But, as still pertinent, the results of a study
presented in the earlier report on accidents in the iron and steel




183

H UM AN FACTOBS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

industry is reproduced below in tabular form.6 The table contrasts,
2
over a series of years, the accident frequency rates of married and
single men. The information was obtained from a large steel plant
having records on this point, and was limited to persons in the age
group 30 to 39 years in order that assurance might be had that the
hazards were substantially the same for all of those included.
T able 5 9 .—F R E QU EN C Y OF ACCIDENT OCCURRENCE IN A LARGE ST E E L PLAN T, B Y
CONJUGAL CONDITION, 1906 TO 1910, B Y YE A R S .

Number of workers.

Number of acci­
dent cases.

Year.
Married.

Single.

Accident frequency
rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure).

Married
Single
Married
Single
workers. workers. workers. workers.

1906......................................................................
1907......................................................................
1908......................................................................
1909......................................................................
1910......................................................................

1,590
1,827
882
1,350
1,895

457
429
360
347
376

299
288
149
224
235

76
80
31
60
41

62.7
52.5
56.3
55.3
41.3

55.4
62.2
28.7
57.6
39.7

Total........................................................

7,544

1,969

1,195

288

52.8

48.8

The number of single men in each of the years is rather small,
but the constancy of the accident rates indicates that such rates
may be accepted as fairly typical. The rates for the married men,
it will be noted, are higher in three of the five years and also slightly
higher for the combined period— 52.8 as against 48.8 cases per
1 ,000,000 hours’ exposure.
These differences are not sufficient to
afford ground for concluding that either group is possessed of con­
stant characteristics tending to give it a different rate from the other.
POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF USE OF ALCOHOL U P O N ACCIDENTS.

Safety men are thoroughly convinced of the importance of alcohol
as a contributing cause of accidents. To this conviction the reso­
lutions which they have adopted and the propaganda they have
started bear emphatic witness.6 In the present study an earnest
3
effort was made to get at the ground of this conviction and to learn
whether there was a substantial basis for its existence. But infor­
mation of any value on this subject was obtainable in only one
plant. In this plant the night accident rates were found to be higher
than those of the day. The superintendents, without exception,
were of the opinion that alcoholic excess was partly responsible.
The points of their argument were these: (1) The smuggling of liquor
into the plant is more possible by night than by day; (2) a workman
quitting the day turn will, if he uses liquor, be apt to do so in the
evening before going to bed; (3) on the other hand, a man who uses
liquor, quitting in the morning, will be likely to get to sleep quite
promptly, and then, waking some hours before his turn begins, will
drink at that time, and so come to the mill under whatever imme­
diate effect it may have. The superintendents regarded the frequent
6 Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States (S. Doc.
2
No. 110, 62d Cong., 1st sess.), Vol. IV , p. 168.
6 See Proceedings of National Safety Council, 1914, pp. 158, 159, 221.
3




184

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

appearance of high rates in the early night hours as confirmatory of
their views.
It will be recognized that the determination of the influence of
alcohol upon accidents is exceedingly difficult. In a given injury
the mechanical elements, such as tools or falling objects, can be
determined, but the relation of personal condition to the occurrence
is very complex and practically impossible of exact determination.
In the case of the plant now under consideration the supervisor
of labor suggested that the records of disciplinary action, kept in
detail in this plant, might shed some light upon the question whether
alcoholic use was or was not more prevalent on the night turn.
Thereupon these records were tabulated, with the following result:
T a b l e 6 0 .—DISCIPLINE IN A LARGE ST E E L PLAN T FOR USE OF ALCOHOLIC

INTOXICANTS.

Number of workers.

Number of cases
of discipline.

Year.
Night.

Day.

Night.

Day.

Discipline rates (per
1,000,000 hours'
exposure).
Night.

Day.

1907......................................................................
1908......................................................................
1909......................................................................
1910......................................................................
1911.......................................... ...........................
1912......................................................................
1913......................................................................

1,897
1,129
1,647
1,998
1,559
2,094
2,003

5,688
3,446
4,568
5,644
4,215
5,302
5,559

41
44
40
47
43
28
33

26
11
6
12
18
28
19

7.1
12.7
8.1
7.8
9.2
4.5
5.5

1.5
1.1
.4
.7
1.4
1.8
1.1

Total........................................................

12,326

34,422

276

120

7.5

1.2

The above table shows very clearly that in cases of rules violations
sufficiently pronounced to be detected and disciplined the night rate
was very much in excess of that for the day. Since the same dilif enee oi enforcement was observed bv the management by day as
y night, there can hardly be any otlier deduction than that rules
violations were of greater prevalence at night. This is not, it may
be noted, an inference regarding relative quantities of alcohol con­
sumed by day and by night, but simply one regarding the time of con­
sumption and its possible effect on the accident rate.
There is another feature worth noting. For the day turn the dis­
cipline rates remain about the same throughout the period, but for
the night rates there had occurred a marked reduction— from 7.1
cases in 1907 to 5.5 cases in 1913. If this decline in rates of disci­
pline represent a reduction in the use of alcohol, it must in part
account for the fact of the more rapid reduction of night accident
rates which took place in this plant.
DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTS THROUGH THE HOURS OF THE DAY.

Table 61 presents the information as to distribution of accidents
through the hours of the .day which has been accumulated during
this investigation. It includes several groups from the iron and steel
industry and a large machine building plant.




185

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

T able 6 1 .—DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y AND
IN MACHINE BUILDING THROUGH THE HOURS OF THE W O R K IN G D A Y .

Iron and steel plants.
Hour beginning at—

D ay

Machine
Large
Miscel­ building
161 small 122 large company, Large
laneous
plant.
plants
plants
plants
(2 years). (2 years). 4 plants (6 years). plants
(2 years).
(5 years).

Total.

tu .
rn

6 ........................................................
7 ........................................................
8 ........................................................
9 ........................................................
10......................................................
11......................................................
Total, forenoon...................

1,194

12......................................................
1 ........................................................
2 ........................................................
3 ........................................................
4 ........................................................
5 ........................................................

123
221
223

153
82

1,000
780
432

75
190
252

369
846
1,111

79
145
201

300

1 ,2 0 9

223
154

1,109
650

U4

240

189
406
430
489

656
1,305
1,619
1,840

39
449
601

1,407
3,341
4,214

787

4 ,8 6 9

193
170

456
294

1 ,9 4 9

1,879

693
494

5, 294

1,032

2, 264

9,248

3,063

22,095

524
959

117
187

239
508

709
1, 433

304
547

2,016
3,855

1 ,0 7 6

220

188
144
105

523

1 ,6 8 4

472
385
219

1,682
1,594
1,160

617

4,623
3,641

4 ,3 4 3

522
362
109

4,104
3,418
2,107

Total, afternoon.................

1,042

4,771

961

2,346

8,262

2, 461

Total, day turn...................

2,236

10,065

1,993

4,610

17,510

5,524

97
103

228
245
232

839

62

1,647

851
851

73

1 ,7 5 7

19,843
*

41,938

N h tu .
ig t rn
6 ........................................................
7 ........................................................
8 ........................................................
9 ........................................................
10......................................................
11......................................................

66

355

79

416

70
63
48
48

408
361
375
240

107

102
99
64

256

217
188

752
753
710

63
68
52
33

Total, first half night........

374

2,155

570

1,366

4, 756

351

12......................................................
1 ........................................................
2 ........................................................
3 ........................................................
4 ........................................................
5 ........................................................

48

209
294

139
212

433
493
574

15

43
36
46
37
33

104

276
251
254
262

99
81
90
85
62

50

194
179
167

546
609

584

42
35
27
30

269

1, 741
1,602
1,54*
1,281
9,572
948
1,191
1 ,2 7 8

1,200
1,128
1,163

Total, second half night. .

243

1,546

521

1,160

3,239

199

6,908

Total, night turn...............

617

3,701

1,091

2,526

7,995

550

16,480

Grand total..........................

2,853

13, 766

3,084

7,136

25,505

6,074

58, 418

Table 61 presents in most of its elements and in its total an arrange­
ment which, so Jar as the iron and steel industry is concerned, may
be regarded as typical. These characteristics are: (1) A larger num­
ber of accidents m the first portion of the working interval than in
the second; (2) in each portion the accident cases rise to a peak and
then decline.
The tendency which brings about this form of distribution is mani­
festly slight, since it appears in more and more marked form as the
groups tabulated become larger. This is exactly what should be
expected if in determining the distribution there is operative some
slight but constant influence.
In the effort to interpret these curves of distribution one encoun­
ters at once two serious difficulties: (1) It may be that the employees
arrive and leave in such a way that the rising curve simply follows an
increasing number of employees on duty and a falling curve represents
withdrawal; (2) There is a possibility that there are constant errors
in the reporting of the hours of accident occurrence which tend to
give form to the curve and to obscure the real distribution.
71087°— 22------ 13




186

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Regarding these difficulties the following statements may be made.
In a continuous industry like iron and steel, where the workers are
often paired off, the one on duty not leaving until his u buddy ” has
arrived to take his place, the tendency would be toward a uniform
working force. The ..records of consumption of electric power in
such mills seem to indicate substantial uniformity. The records of
arrival and leaving for one large plant were secured with the inten­
tion of tabulating them. It proved to be so time consuming a task
that the work was not completed, but as far as it was possible to
carry it, it did not appear that the variations of the employment
curve were sufficient to account for the accident curve. The accident
shift in the course of the working period is doubtless in some part a
response to a changing number o f workers, but this influence is by
no means sufficient to account for the entire movement of accident
curves.
It is evident that there is a definite tendency to record the time of
accident occurrence as of the nearest hour. For example, in arrang­
ing 1,600 cases to the nearest five minutes as reported, it was found
that 52 per cent were set down as having happened exactly on the
hour and 26 per cent at 30 minutes past the hour. This tendency to
set down the nearest hour would tend to produce congestion at
points having a full half hour both before and after them. Such
points are 8, 9, 10, and 11 in the forenoon and 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the
afternoon. When the cases recorded as of these hours are separately
tabulated they show curves in all respects similar to those obtained
*by tabulating all the reported hours.
It seems probable that in establishments which give some attention
to accuracy in reporting the hour of occurrence and particularly
where there is a double record, such as a foreman’s report and an
emergency room notation, which can be checked against each other,
the tabulation of the recorded hours gives a substantially correct
indication of distribution although the individual records may not
be correct to the minute. Any attempt to use smaller divisions of
time than one hour would certainly give unreliable indications.
The reporting of the hour to public agencies must be regarded as
so liable to error that dependence can not be placed on their records.
It is evident from observation of reporting methods that from time
to time the hour figure is filled in from memory considerably after
the time the fact occurs. Under such circumstances the occurrence
will very likely be correctly located in the part of the day, but the
tendency will be to assign it to an hour somewhere near the middle
and so artificially to increase the peak in that vicinity.
It was thought to be desirable, with the material represented in
the last column of Table 61, to test the question whether the severity
of accidents would show a distribution similar to that shown by the
frequency. It was found that while the peak in number of cases is
reached in the hour beginning at 9 o ’clock in the forenoon the highest
severity is found in the hour beginning at 11, closely followed by the
hour beginning at 7. The other hours are entirely irregular. In the
afternoon the frequency peak is in the hour beginning at 2 o ’clock,
while severity reaches its climax in the hour beginning at 3.
It is evident either that the forces which determine the curve of
accident cases are not sufficiently strong to influence the distribution
of severity or that the volume of data is insufficient to disclose any




187

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

law of distribution. It seems likely that, since the cause of severe
injury is very often some obscure defect in the apparatus which is
likely to become evident at any time, the eff ect of a very iaige volume
of data would be to show a practically uniform distribution of severity.
RECENT ST U D IES IN D IST R IB U T IO N .

The United States Public Health Service has recently issued a
bulletin (No. 106)6 devoted to a detailed study of what is undoubtedly
4
the largest and most carefully gathered body of data ever assembled
on this subject. Since the new matter included in this publication
suggests a review of the material contained in Bulletin No. 234 of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics the consideration of them will be
combined.
It has long been clear that for any sort o f understanding of the
significance of accident curves through the hours of the working day
it is necessary to know not only the accident distribution but the
facts regarding production from hour to hour in the same processes.
Accordingly, opportunity was sought to secure such information.
It hardly need be said that this is very difficult, since it is not usual to
maintain such records by hours. Finally it was found that a group
of mills for which the accident distribution was known over a period
of years were making from day to day a record of hourly output.
This was not usually preserved for any considerable period but on
request the records were kept. The following table shows the result
in detail and the chart shows how a curve for all the mills combined
compares with the accident curve of the same mills.
T able 6 2 .—PER CENT OF TO TA L PRODUCTION OF D A Y TU RN S ACCOMPLISHED D U R ­
ING EACH SPECIFIED H O U R OF EM PLOYM ENT IN NINE MILLS OF A STEEL P L A N T ,
SEPTEM BER, 1912, TO A P R IL , 1913.

Hour ending at—

8 a. m ......................................- .
9 a. m .........................................
10 a. m .......................................
1 1 a. m .......................................
12 a. m .......................................
1 p. m. (lunch hour)...............
2 p. m ...... ..................................
3 p. m ................................... .....
4 p. m ........................................
5 p. m .....................................

Besse­ Bloom­ Bloom­ Slab- •
mer
Rail
bing
ing
ing
mill.
con­
mill B. mill.
verter. mill A .

Struc­ Struc­
tural- tural- Plate
iron mill A
iron
mill A . mill B.

Plate
mill B .

8.14
8.22
8.18
8.15
8.34

6.37
8.02
8. SI
8.58
8.65

6.43
8.20
8. 62
8. 85
a 69

6.97
8.10
8.07
8.36
8.23

8.21 7.82
8.36
8.54
8.11

6.74
6.96
8. 24
8.02
8.39

5.78
7. 25
7.99
a 65
9.05

8.18
8.24
8.11
8.20
8.23

8.23
8.50
8.39
7.97
8.08

8. 44
8. 50
8. 41
8. 78

8.92
8.96
9. 36
9. 35

8. 53
8.47
9.14
9.56

8.61
8. 62.
8. 68
9.18-

8. 85
8.02
8. 77
9.18

8. 70
8.67
9. 41
9. 41

a so
9. 00 :
9.37
9.19

8.64
8. 72
8.69
9. 08

8.41
8.44
8.76
9.02

Theoretically fatigue should affect these curves in one or both of
two ways: (1) With the onset of fatigue to any notable degree the
product should decline, because of the lessened capacity of the body
for precise and exact reactions, or (2) the accident occurrence should
increase if, by an effort o f the worker, production is maintained in
spite of fatigue.
In the table and chart presented the precise opposite of these
naturally expected results is shown to have occurred. Toward the
end of the shift when fatigue is necessarily most-pronounced the
production curve is rising and the accident curve falling.
6 Comparison of an 8-hour with a 10-hour plant.
4




By Josephine Goldmark and Mary D . Hopkins.

188
ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.




Chart 13.—HOURLY ACCIDENT RATES AND H O U R L Y PRODUCTION.

H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

189

It is perfectly clear that in such mills as those under consideration
there is great opportunity for the intrusion of other factors than the
personal condition of the worker which may determine the course of
production and mask entirely the effect which fatigue must neces­
sarily have.
The only other information which the authors of Bulletin No. 234
were able to secure was the record of output for stamping presses
which were equipped with automatic counting devices. It was not
possible to extend this count over a long period nor to include a
great number of machines. When, however, these presses showed
the same increasing product from hour to hour as that shown by the
steel mills, it was impossible to reach any other conclusion than that
embodied in the following quotation (p. 154):
It is not possible to show that fatigue is anywhere distinctly registered in the curves
which have been plotted. The chief practical outcome of the study has been to
call attention to the prevalence of high rates at night and to emphasize the necessity
of adequate lighting and other measures tending to greater safety in night work.

It was by no means the intent of the authors of Bulletin No. 234
to “ abandon” fatigue as a factor in the situation but simply to point
out that it was masked in the curves that developed from the material
at hand. With this in view they offered a “ provisional explanation ”
applicable to the case as it stood but subject to modification should
later study show that their material was exceptional. Further
comment will be made after presenting the more recent results.
The United States Public Health Service Study.— The study presented
in Bulletin No. 106 is based upon material gathered in two large
establishments in which the investigators were given every possible
opportunity to assure themselves of the accuracy of the basic records.
The results which are of present interest are embodied in four
charts. Three of these are based on observations made of three
types of work, namely, machine work, dexterous hand work, and
muscular hand work. The fourth is a composite chart covering the
experience of one entire plant. This last, as including much the
larger body of workers and the greater number of accidents, is chosen
for reproduction in a changed form here.
It is projected on a
logarithmic scale as being both easier to read and as expressing
more exactly the important fact, which is the rate of change from
hour to hour.
Inspection of the chart will show that the accident curves are sub­
stantially the same as those of the data assembled and published by
this bureau heretofore. It is a fair guaranty of the essential accur­
acy of these earlier compilations, gathered under conditions preclud­
ing the application of certain precautions regarding accuracy, that
they so closely resemble these in which greater care was possible.
Chart 13, based on steel-mill data, shows a rising production
through the entire day turn and nearly as constant a rise during the
night turn. A similar condition appeared with the small group of
press hands. These two compilations were all that was available
when Bulletin No. 234 was completed. Chart 14 shows an accident
rate curve in essential agreement with the curve shown in Chart 13.
The production curve is quite different. It rises during four hours
of the morning spell and then declines. There is a slight recovery
in the first hour of the afternoon, followed by a decline which be-




190

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

comes notably rapid in the last hour. Toward the close of the day
the accident rate is falling and the product is falling still more rap­
idly. As a result the accident-product ratio increases.
The constancy of these results in the various conditions under which
test was made raise a probability amounting almost to certainty that
such a decline in product would be found to occur in all similar opera­
tions and that this decline is due to the influence of fatigue.
The relations between the accident and production curves disclosed
for the departments of the steel plant must be regarded as typical
for such plants until it can be shown that in similar mills a different
distribution has prevailed for a period sufficient to be fairly com­
parable with the mills here presented. Evidently in this case other
Chart 14.—H O U R L Y V A R IA T IO N IN ACCIDENTS, ACCIDENT-PRODUCT R ATIO , AND
PRODUCTION IN A M UNITION PL AN T.

factors influence the situation to such a degree that the effect of fatigue
is completely masked.
In the case of the press hands discussed in Bulletin No. 234 the
extent of the data both in time and in quantity is so small as compared
with that shown in Bulletin No. 106 that the fact that the two com­
pilations are not accordant can not be regarded seriously. The more
recent data are so extensive and so carefully gathered that the con­
clusions based upon them must be regarded as having a substantial
basis.
Bulletin No. 106 seems to establish very firmly the fact that fatigue
is an influential factor in determining the distribution of accidents
through the day. Some statements regarding it, however, require
qualifications which the authors have not made.
For example, in the general conclusions are these: u (a) In the
absence of fatigue, accidents vary in direct proportion to speed of




H U M A N FACTORS IN CAUSING ACCIDENTS.

191

production. * * * (d) The level of accident rates varies in­
versely with the experience of the worker.” Statement (a), in the
unqualified form given, is not consistent with statement (d).
The experienced worker has characteristically a high speed of pro­
duction and a low accident rate. The beginner has low production
speed with a high accident rate. These relations are wholly apart
from and independent of fatigue. With the beginner it is not his
speed but his effort at speed combined with his lack of skill which
has disastrous results.
If, as seems established both by laboratory test and shop experi­
ence, there is a period with every worker beginning a task in which he
passes from a condition resembling a beginner to the full value of
such experience as he may have attained this change not only may,
but must, have some influence on the curve of accident distribution.
The suggestion, based on the inadequate data regarding press hands,
that this “ recovery of skill” might extend into the afternoon is
probably, in view of the later developments, not reasonable. This
should not lead to omitting it entirely from consideration. It still
seems reasonable to urge that the following statement in Bulletin
No. 234 (p. 159) is valid to some undetermined point during the
morning hours:
A t the outset of any effort there is a certain lack of harmony between the will and
the nervous and muscular agents by which results are attained; the coordination
is not perfect. If alongwith this imperfect coordination there is some motive, of
whatever character, leading to effort for increased speed * * * the product will
rise and the accident curve will rise more rapidly.

Such a rising product with a more rapidly rising accident rate to
some point in the morning spell is a conspicuous feature of Charts
13 and 14.
It is distinctly unfortunate that the authors of Bulletin No. 1*06
should have chosen to designate their “ accident-product ratio ” as the
“ accident risk.” Risk is something which pertains to workers rather
than to product. It has happened in the past that the rate of acci­
dent “ per 1,000,000 tons mined” has been presented as evidence of
improving conditions, when the actual risk to the men was materially
increasing. The “ accident-product ratio” does not in itself disclose
the risk to the men and should not be presented in a form to suggest
that it does.
In fact, different portions of the curve corresponding to the “ acci­
dent-product ratio ” must have a different significance. For example,
in the forenoon a rising product is accompanied by a rising accidentproduct ratio; in the afternoon a declining product is accompanied by
a similarly rising ratio. There is no reason for thinking that this
course of the ratio has the same significance in both cases. The
morning rise must be largely due to the readjustment of the worker
to his task, already mentioned, while the afternoon rise is doubtless
in correspondence to developing fatigue.




CHAPTER VIII.— “ ENGINEERING REVISION.”

The safety man has been too much occupied with the urgent

{)roblem of meeting the immediate situation to take many long
ooks ahead. From time to time there has arisen in his mind the
interesting question “ How far am I expected to go ? ” “ Is it reason­
able to look forward to a time when serious accidents will have
become so few that their occurrence will be a matter of surprise or
must we look forward to a constant and huge toll of human life and
limb from year to year?”
Until very recently it has been the prevailing belief that practical
elimination of serious and mortal injury could not be regarded as
something even to be hoped for. The study of accident causes
which has occupied the preceding chapters suggests very pointedly
that while the minor accident which causes a few days’ disability
must probably continue in some degree, it is the privilege and duty
of industry to make its conditions so safe that serious injury will
be of exceptional occurrence. This conclusion is based on close
analysis of the experience of the iron and steel industry, but in a
broad way it should be applicable to all industry.
Before presenting the evidence regarding the importance of
“ engineering revision” it is necessary to indicate carefully just
what is meant by the expression. While it is steadily gaining
recognition as a useful expression, it is still new enough to require
some explanation.
' It was devised to include in a single brief expression the widest
possible application of engineering skill to the safety of industrial
plants. It would include the design and location oi the buildings
with special reference to the necessary connection with transporta­
tion facilities, ready and safe access to every point where workers
must go, the provision of adequate and properly arranged lighting,
the provision of machines designed from the safety standpoint
and the guarding of such machines of faulty design as the plant
was unfortunate enough to have, and proper attention to all danf erous conditions. It is a fact that safety men themselves are
ardly aware of the extent of the changes which have gradually
occurred under their supervision. It is much more impressively
evident to one who saw conditions before the safety man began
his work and who returns after an interval and notes the transfor­
mation.
Why should so obviously important an item in the accident pre­
vention effort have been relegated to a secondary place and even
regarded as having only temporary importance? There are two
reasons which have been most influential:
,
(1)
Accident prevention has grown out of the system of em­
ployers’ liability. Under that system it was necessary for the em­
ployer for self-protection to make the most of his possible defenses,
of which the most important was negligence on the part of the worker.
192




i i

ENGINEERING REVISION.

77

193

It has not been possible thus far to escape from that habit of mind
which ascribed much to the “ carelessness” of the worker and stressed
little the importance of safe tools, safe machines, safe practices,
and safe construction. Carelessness and ignorance on the part of
the worker are a prolific source of minor injury. The organization
of safety committees and the active propaganda undertaken in the
interests of safety had an immediate and striking effect in reduc­
tion of minor injury. With it went a moderate decline in severity,
due, as will be shown, mainly to engineering changes. It some­
times happened, however, that in the midst of conspicuous success
in removal of minor cases an actual increase in the severer injuries
occurred. It is not too much to say that if personal carelessness
were entirely eliminated the effect upon serious and fatal cases
would be slight if the engineering defects went unremedied.
(2)
Until very recently safety men and accident statisticians have
confined attention to the frequency of accidents and have used no
method by which changes in severity could be easily detected and
remedies suggested. The vast majority of the accidents occurring
in the iron and steel industry are of minor character. When those
producing disabilities not extending beyond the day of the accident
are left out of account nearly or quite 50 per cent of all injuries
reported caused disabilities terminating in one week or less. In
spite of their number these short-term disabilities are of compara­
tively small importance from the standpoint of severity. The
accidents resulting in death, although constituting only about 1.5
per cent of the total number of accidents, caused a total loss of time
amounting to more than 65 per cent of the total time losses caused
b y accidental injuries.
In order to study the influence of various methods in controlling
accident occurrence it was necessary to develop and apply a method
of severity rating such as that described in Chapter II. The essen­
tial feature of this method is the use of a scale of equivalents, exEressed in terms of work days lost, for such cases as death, loss of
and, etc. For example, the average age of those killed in industry
is about 30 years. At 30 years the expectation of working life is
about 20 years or 6,000 working days. This figure is accordingly
used to translate the fatal cases into terms the same as those which
determine the severity of temporary disability.
By a study of the severity rates resulting from the application
of this method in plants where the structural changes which had
occurred during the same period were known it became possible for
the first time to get some measure of the influence of such changes.
It is proposed now to show that in many cases it is possible to con­
nect directly certain items of “ engineering revision” with definite
improvement in the severity rates and to contrast these changes
with the corresponding changes which may be attributed to the
exercise of greater personal caution.
The material will be presented under three heads: (1) Departments
of the iron and steel industry; (2) deaths in the industry; (3) nature
of injury causing death.




194

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

ACCIDENT CAUSES, BY DEPARTMENTS, OYER A PERIOD OF YEARS.
BLAST FURNACES.

In the blast furnaces under consideration hot metal “ breakouts”
contributed to the severity rate more largely than any other cause in
the early years of the period. From 1910 onward this cause practi­
cally disappears. Its disappearance was due to structural changes
which increased the resistance of the furnaces to such an extent as to
eliminate the breakouts.
Second in importance as a cause of serious accident in the earlier
years was asphyxiating gas. Breakouts and gas furnished 50 per
cent of the severity rate in 1906. The situation regarding gas has
been improved mainly by such structural improvements as carrying
the gas mains high in the air and providing more effective control by
means of improved valves. In addition protective devices, such as
oxygen helmets, have been provided for use when it is necessary to
go where gas is necessarily present.
When examination is made of the accident rates for those causes
which are more affected by the personal care of the worker, it is
evident that while accident reduction of great importance has
occurred it does not approach in significance that arising from the
control of the above causes to which engineering revision was applied.
For example, “ falls of worker” may be regarded as greatly influenced
by personal care. In these blast furnaces the severity rate reduction
was 0.47 day (i. e., from 1.87 days to 1.40 days lost per 1,000 hours’
exposure) between 1906 and 1913. This may be compared with a
reduction of 14.71 days in case of injuries due to hot substances (i. e.,
from 15.14 days to 0.43 day) and a reduction of 2.50 days (i. e., from
3.83 days to 1.33 days) in the case of injuries due to asphyxiating gas.
Even these statements do not present the case fully. In the early
days there were one or two deaths annually from falls of painters
engaged upon the stacks or stoves. The provision of a suitable
sling and seat for painters has entirely eliminated such deaths.
Furthermore a considerable portion of the reduction of 0.47 day for
falls of worker may be attributed to such mechanical contrivances as
safer ladders, railings on runways, and similar provisions.
Personal care must be very important in the reduction of accidents
due to handling objects and tools. In frequency the decline was
notable but in severity it was but 0.30 day from 1905 to 1913, an
amount altogether insignificant when compared with that produced
by engineering change in hot substances and asphyxiating gas. It
must not be forgotten that part of this small saving was the result
of better engineering in the matter of safer tools kept in better
condition.
From whatever point considered these blast furnaces give evidence
of the high importance of engineering revision in bringing about
reduction of accident severity.
OPEN HEARTHS.

In the open-hearth department injuries caused by cranes show
high severity in the earlier years, particularly in 1907. This can be
connected directly in a number of cases with structural defects then
prevalent, such as absence of footwalks, poor access to the crane




i i

ENGINEERING REVISION.

195

cage, and overhung gears.

By 1911 these defects had been largely
corrected and severity rates dropped markedly and continuously.
In injuries caused by hot substances, explosions other than ingot
are the main cause of the early high severity rates. It is obvious
that the carefulness of the individual workman can do little to pre­
vent such explosions. When they occur some workmen are inevitably
killed or injured more or less severely. There is rarely any warning
to enable those exposed to escape. The lessened severity rate of
recent years is mainly due to revisions in structure and in method
which were primarily introduced to favor production. They both
lessen the likelihood of explosion and protect the worker when
explosion comes. These structural revisions have not been rated at
their true value from a safety standpoint because, as stated above,
they are almost all related to production.
The reduction of the severity rate for injuries due to power vehi­
cles must be largely attributed to improved transportation facilities.
The cause groups noted above are obviously those in which engi­
neering revision might be expected to show the largest results. This
expectation is fully borne out by the figures combining these groups.
They show a decline from 13.0 days in 1907 to 2.3 days in 1912, or
82 per cent. In such cause groups as “ handling objects and tools,”
where personal care is a larger factor, the decline was little or nothing.
If frequency is considered the showing is very different. The
cause groups dependent on engineering improvement declined in
frequency rates from 39.3 cases per 1,000,000 hours' exposure in 1907
to 21.5 cases in 1912, or 45 per cent. From 1907 to 1914 “ handling
objects and tools” declined 50.3 per cent. On the basis of frequency
personal care had decidedly the better record. How completely the
record is reversed when severity is considered is emphasized when it
is remembered that while “ handling objects and tools” was making
the notable reduction of 50.3 per cent in frequency, this cause group
showed no decline in severity.
BOLLING MILLS.

In heavy rolling mills the only cause of injury about which it is
possible to make a positive statement is the overhead crane (see
Table 27). The reduction in severity rates recorded is mainly due
to better cranes, better chains, and improved operative methods.
Of tube mills it may be said that the lessened severity rates may
very properly be attributed in considerable measure to increased
personal care. In such mills there are many opportunities to elimi­
nate moderately severe accidents by greater skill and care on the part
of the men. Fatalities do not occur often enough in tube mills to
give opportunity to form a conclusion.
MISCELLANEOUS DEPARTMENTS.

In plate and sheet mills (Tables 30 and 31), in the mechanical
department (Table 33), and in the fabricating shops (Table 34) it
is difficult to decide which factor— personal care or engineering
revision— has had the greater influence on the severity rates. Since
many of the operations are of a personal and manual nature it is
fair to give considerable importance to individual care. Making
all allowance for these facts, it still appears that in cases of high ,




196

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

severity many of them involved some structural defect admitting
of remedy.
YARDS.

In the yard department injuries caused by hot substances show a
remarkable decline in severity rates (Table 35). Most of this is
clearly attributable to improved methods in the transport of hot
metal.
When the power vehicle as a cause of accident is studied it becomes
evident that the introduction of automatic couplers, the provision
of adequate clearances, improved loading methods such as the use
of magnets, better systems of signaling, and the elimination of grade
crossings have been the main factors in the decline in severity which
has taken place.
FATAL INJURIES.

Fatalities, when adequately weighted, are more influential than
all other elements in the severitv rate. It is accordingly of the
greatest significance to consider tne cause of such occurrences and
to appraise the value of the measures taken for their prevention.
It was possible to consider 372 cases of death from this stand­
point. These deaths occurred in plants employing an average of
247,038 workers. The fatality rate was 0.50 per million hours’
exposure. This may be compared with 0.40 for the entire industry.
Clearly these plants were not exceptional in character. The follow­
ing table lists the 372 deaths by causes:
Causes o f 372 cases o f fatal injury in the iron and steel industry, 1910 to 1914 .

Engines, motors, etc......................................................................................................................
3
Transmission gear............................................................................................................................
3
Working machines:
=====
Adjusting...................................................................................................................................
2
Operating........... ...................................................................
2
Oiling and cleaning...............................................................................................................
2
Repairing..................................................................................................................................
5
Objects flying...........................................................................................................................
4
Miscellaneous...........................................................................................................................
2
Total........................................................................................................................................

17

Cranes and hoists:
Operating...................................................................................................................................
Oiling and cleaning...............................................................................................................
Repairing..................................................................................................................................
Breakage....................................................................................................................................
Falling loads........................
Hoisting and lowering...........................................................................................................
Miscellaneous...........................................................................................................................

1
3
3
7
23
8
32

Total............................

77

Hot substances:
Electricity.................................................................................................................................
Explosions.................................................................................................................................
Hot m etal..................................................................................................................................
Hot metal flying.....................................................................................................................
Flames........................................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous...........................................................................................................................

16
12
15
25
5
3

Total........................................................................................................................................

76




“ ENGINEERING REVISION.”

197

Falling objects:
Collapse of building, etc.....................................................................................................
Stored or piled materials.....................................................................................................
From trucks or vehicles.......................................................................................................
From buildings, scaffolds, etc..........^ ..............................................................................
Misc ellaneous...........................................................................................................................

9
7
3
4
27

Total.......................................................................................................................................

50

Falls of worker:
From ladders............................................................................................................................
From scaffolds.........................................................................................................................
From vehicles.........................................................................................................................
From structures......................................................................................................................
From other elevations..........................................................................................................
Into openings..........................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous...........................................................................................................................

5
6
1
20
4
3
6

Total........................................................

45

Handling tools and objects:
Tools in hands of worker.....................................................................................................
1
Loading and unloading.............................................................................................................
3.
Objects flying from tools......................................................................................................
1
Total.......................................................................................................................................

5

Power vehicles.................................................................................................................................

57

Miscellaneous:
Flying objects not otherwise specified...........................................................................
Asphyxiating gas....................................................................................................................
Heat............. .............................................................................................................................
Moving objects not otherwise specified..........................................................................
Miscellaneous...........................................................................................................................

4
19
4
6
6

Total.......................................................................................................................................

39

Grand total..............................................................................................................................372

It is necessary to state the principles upon which the following
interpretation of these death cases rests:
First. It is assumed that it is the primary duty of the safety man
to make conditions safe rather than to educate the men to avoid
unsafe conditions over which they have no control. In considering
any given case, if it appears that the immediate cause of the accident
was some weakness in an appliance, or faulty construction, or poor
arrangement, which, if remedied, would have prevented the injury,
no amount of so-called “ contributory negligence” on the part of the
man is considered sufficient to transfer the responsibility to him.
Second. The fact that an apparatus can be used with entire safety
by the exercise of special care is not regarded as excusing the failure
to provide safer apparatus. For example, a ladder without safety
feet may be used on a hard floor by taking certain precautions. If
a man falls and is killed under such circumstances the unsafe appa­
ratus is regarded as the point to be considered rather than the failure
to take the possible precautions.
Third. The costliness of remedying structural defects, even to the
extent of entirely reconstructing a mill, should not bar its
consideration.
The cause groups of the table will now be followed and commented
upon in the order in which they appear:




198

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Engines and motors caused three deaths. Two of these could have
been avoided by the guarding or removal of projections on the m ov­
ing parts.
Transmission gear caused three, deaths. Two of these were due
to projecting set screws on shafts.
In working machines, 9 out of 17 deaths were due to mechanical
or other conditions which should have been remedied and over which
the operator had little or no control.
Cranes and hoists were the cause of the largest number of fatali­
ties— 77. One which occurred in operating a crane was due to some
defect in the electrical control of the crane. Three, which were of
oilers, were attributable to the necessity of approaching moving parts
not properly guarded. Seven due to breakage were all preventable
by proper design or greater strength. Of 23 due to falling loads,
some weakness in the crane, imperfect chains, faulty signals, or some
other condition which the management should have improved was
a factor in all but one case. Some of these involved an element of
contributory negligence, but if this had not been combined with
mechanical defects no accident would have occurred. Miscella­
neous causes incident to cranes and hoists contributed 32 cases, of
which 10 were clearly due to defects such as absence of footwalks and
of proper means for reaching the crane cage. To sum up, 43 out of
77 cases in the operation of cranes and hoists could have been pre­
vented by better design in the crane and such operating methods as
now prevail. It may be strongly suspected that into the other 34
cases there entered not infrequently elements of unsafe practice or
imperfect structure for whose presence the workers were not respon­
sible and which no education of them could remove.
Hot substances caused 76 fatalities. Sixteen of these were due to
electric burns, and of these 13 were preventable by the kind of con­
struction now in common use in electrical installation. Of 12 deaths
due to explosions, 7 were of a kind which could scarcely occur at
present with the improved modern practices. Hot metal caused 40
deaths, and in 32 o f these bad method or imperfect structure had a
part. For each condition under which these 32 cases occurred an
effective remedy has been found. It should be emphasized that this
does not mean teaching the men caution. It means a correc­
tion of faults in the apparatus and in methods of using it. Not
fewer, therefore, than 52 out of the 76 deaths due to hot substances
presented problems of revision of structure and methods.
Of 50 deaths due to falling objects 29 were preventable by appro­
priate structural changes.
Falls of worker caused 45 deaths. Of these 22 might have been
prevented by better scaffolds, stairs, platforms, railings, and other
structural provisions which are now regarded as a matter of course.
Of 57 deaths due to power vehicles 34 were the result of causes
such as the following: Failure to install automatic couplers, inade­
quate clearance between cars and buildings, grade crossings upon
which men could come without being able to see the approaching
locomotive, bad signal systems which permitted cars to be shunted
down upon standing cars under which men were at work, and absence
of proper grab irons for getting on and off cars. None of these pre­
sent any insuperable difficulties to the engineer..




a

ENGINEERING REVISION.

99

199

There were 19 deaths from asphyxia. All of these were related
to imperfect gas mains, unventilated inclosed spaces, leaky valves,
and other conditions involving changes in the apparatus.
To summarize this examination, 212 out of 372 deaths, i. e., 57 per
cent, could have been prevented b y some engineering revision. This
can be said without qualification. It can not be said that all the
other 43 per cent would have been amenable to educational methods
in response to which caution would insure safety. In only about 10
per cent of these deaths would it be safe to say positively that the
man’s own carelessness clearly appears as the major factor. In the
remainder either no conclusion is justified by the record or there is a
mixture of contributory negligence with possible structural imper­
fection impossible to untangle.
The above compilation of fatal injury cases represents a combina­
tion of data for the years 1910 to 1914. It is of interest to compare
with it a body of material for a group of plants for the year 1916,
that year being one of extraordinary activity in the industry. In
this group of mills, with 84,305 workers, 72 deaths occurred. This
is at a rate of 0.29 cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure as against the
rate of 0.50 for the preceding group for the years 1910 to 1914.
This lower fatality rate represents a distinct improvement, the
probable result of very extensive structural revision made by these
plants. In spite of this improvement, however, an analysis of the
72 death cases indicates that at least 58 per cent of them involve
elements o f structural defect or improper operative methods.
ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF INJURY IN FATAL CASES.

Further light upon the possibility of reducing the number of
serious accidents may be derived from a study of the nature of the
injury causing death. This is desirable also because the consideration
< f rates and distribution from year to year comes to have a rather
5
formal interest and fails to give due emphasis to the vital importance
of these cases.
The nature o f the injury causing death was available in 956 cases.
In the following table they are distributed according to the nature
of the injury and the part of the body affected:
T a b l e 6 3 .—NATU RE AND ANATOM ICAL LOCATION O F INJURIES CAUSING D E A T H IN

956 CASES IN TH E IRON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1905 TO 1914.
Anatomical location of injury.
Nature of injury.
Head, .
general.
Bruises, cuts, lacerations, and
punctures....................... ............
Bruises, etc., with infection.......
Bums and seaMs.......................... s
Concussions..... .............................
Dislocations....................................=
Fractures.______________________;
Traumatic dismemberment____
Total*...................................

Skull.

3’
1

Neck.

Face.

6

1
1

5

Back.

1
1

Chest.

2
1
8

5
1
74

3

218

1
20

13 .

220

5

23

24

300

14
i 13

218

1 Includes *2 cases of decapitation caused by hot n o d .




Scalp.

6

200

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

TABLE 6 3 .— N A T U R E AND ANATOM ICAL LOCATION OF INJURIES CAUSING D E A T H IN
956 CASES IN TH E IR O N AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1905 TO 1914—Concluded.
Anatomical location of injury.
Nature of injury.
Abdo­
men.
Bruises, cuts, lacerations, and punc­
tures .......................................................
Bruises, etc., with infection.................
Burns and scalds.....................................
Burns, etc., with infection...................
Concussions..............................................
tDislocations..............................................
Fractures..................................................
Fractures, with infection......................
Traumatic dismemberment.................
Asphyxia..................................................
Electrocution...........................................
Heat exhaustion......................................
Miscellaneous...........................................
Total...............................................

Pelvis.

26

Arm.

1
2

26

Hand.

4
1

33

6
1
6

1

16

6

Not
Foot. located. Total.

2
19
1
65
1
89

26

7

1

3
55

Leg.

33

1

1
71
23
7
39

898

12

2 147

4

37
18
136
2
5
1
585
3
24
71
23
7
44
956

2 Includes 4 cases of cremation by falling into a furnace or being covered by molten metal.
8 Includes 1 case of dismemberment caused by hot rod.

The largest group in the table is that of fractures. When severe
enough to cause death these involve nearly always an element of
crushing injury. When the cases are closely studied there is found
to be in a m a j o r i t y of them— it is impossible to determine the exact
number— some indication of faulty structure which might have been
remedied. For example, a man’s life is crushed out between a mov­
ing car and a post beside the track. What was needed to make him
safe ? Six inches more of space— easy, almost costless, to give at the
time of building, but looking so difficult and costly after construction
is finished that it is not provided until after the man is killed.
Next in importance to fractures are burns and scalds, with 136
cases. Of these the most striking are 4 cases of cremation, 1 due to
falling into a furnace and 3 to being overwhelmed by molten metal.
In the cremation cases due to molten metal, rearrangements were
worked out after the catastrophe which tend to lessen very much the
chance of a recurrence of such an accident. In a large proportion
of the less striking cases some structural improvement, lessening the
danger, has been made subsequent to the accident.
The fact that infection was formerly a very serious menace is
attested by the fact that 23 deaths occurred in which without this
complication there would very likely have been recovery. None of
the injuries in which it figured were in themselves of sufficient seri­
ousness to cause death. This emphasizes very strongly the great
value as a life saver of adequate emergency treatment, with sufficient
insistence upon it to secure prompt report of even slight injury.
The 23 cases of electrocution were largely needless. They repre­
sent faulty installation or a method of doing work which should not
be tolerated. The same statement is, in a measure, to be made
regarding 71 cases of asphyxia. Sufficient care in construction and
in methods of work would do away almost entirely with this death
hazard.
Finally, 24 cases are presented which afford a startling climax to
this presentation. These are cases of traumatic dismemberment, in
which arms, legs, or heads were burned, sheared, or forcibly torn




£i

ENGINEERING REVISION.

201

from the body. Of the nine cases of legs so lost one leg was burned
off by a hot rod in a rod mill. The feet lost were ground off in the
exposed gearing of the transfer tables of rolling mills. Four decapi­
tations are recorded. Of these, two were due to being caught by the
hot rod loop in the rod mills; the other two were the result of power
vehicle accidents.
The question of the reasonableness of the costliest efforts to render
such events impossible can scarcely be debated.
ENGINEERING REVISIONS PROPOSED BY SAFETY COMMITTEES.

The foregoing discussion has two elements of weakness: (1) It is
based to a considerable extent on material pertaining to a period in
which the safety movement had not gotten fairly under way. It
may fairly be urged that attention would first be directed to
engineering defects and that they might be expected in the course
of time to become relatively of small importance. (2) The judgment
of the authors may have been faulty. They were studying records,
possibly imperfect, at a time so remote from the events that no veri­
fication or amplification o f them was possible.
Either of these is of sufficient significance to make very important
any opportunity to test the conclusions by more recent events sub­
jected to the scrutiny of those who would have full opportunity to
learn all the essential facts.
The following table, drawn from the experience of a large steel
company, is accordingly of great interest.
T a b l e 6 4 .—CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS B Y S A F E T Y COMMITTEES OF A STEEL

COM PANY, 1915 TO 1917.

Number of cases of disabling accident.
Preventsible by—
Disability of—
Trade
risk.

TotaL

Engi­
neering
revision.

Care of
worker.

Six weeksand under.............................................................................
Over six weeks........................................................................................
Death and major mutilation................................................................

56
16
39

973
100
10

381
48
19

1,410
164
68

Total...............................................................................................

111

1,083

448

1,642

Percentage distribution.
Six weeks and under.............................................................................
Over six weeks........................................................................................
Death and major mutilation................................................................

4
10
57

69
60
15

27
30
28

100
100
100

Total...............................................................................................

7

66

27

100

This company has during the past eight years very carefully con­
sidered each case involving loss of time. The table is restricted to
three recent years in order not to involve conditions prior to the time
when safety work became somewhat standardized.
In each plant of the company the plant safety committee, in which
were included the director of safety and a group of superintendents,
made a careful study of the cases as they occurred. If there were
71087°— 22------ 14




202

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

peculiar or doubtful features the safety inspectors from the director’s
office made a special investigation, which was reported to the director
and by him to the committee. In this way there was established for
the consideration of the committee a reliable and exact record of the
occurrence upon which 1 base a judgment as to the causes of the
?o
accident and as to the measures, if any, for the prevention of its
recurrence.
The scrutiny did not stop there. At stated intervals the conclu­
sions of these plant committees were taken up by the central safety
committee of the company. This committee, after due considera­
tion, would affirm the conclusion of the plant committee, return it
for further evidence, or in some cases modify or reverse it.
There is probably no group of cases on record in the country which
was subjected to more exacting study before the final decision was
reached.
The bearing of this compilation on the question of the importance
of “ engineering revision” is found in the percentage column headed
“ Preventable by 1engineering revision.7 7
7
It will be observed that of accidents causing six weeks’ disability
or less only 4 per cent could have been prevented, in the judgment of
the committee, by engineering methods, in cases causing over six
weeks’ disability 10 per cent could Lave been so prevented, while in
cases involving death or major mutilation the percentage was 57.
It is worthy of remark that this figure, 57 per cent, is the same
as that reached in the Bureau of Labor Statistics study above men­
tioned. The exact correspondence is of course purely a coincidence,
but a very significant one. The results of this careful study, based
on fresh material with full opportunity for learning all the facts
before a conclusion was reached, do not differ materially from those
of the earlier study of records of which no correction or amplifica­
tion was possible.
DEATH AND MAJOR MUTILATION.

Evidently the most important matters to be considered in this
connection are death and major mutilation. The cost of these, ade­
quately valued, outweighs that of all other injuries. It becomes, there­
fore, of great importance to consider with searching care the results of
study of such cases by safety committees.
For this reason the
details of 207 cases of death and major mutilation, including the 68
cases in Table 64, are recorded at the end of this chapter. A sufficient
description of each case is given to indicate the nature of the hazard
involved.
The cases are grouped under three heads, as determined by the
safety committees who considered them: (1) “ Preventable by engi­
neering revision,7 (2) “ preventable by care either of injured or his
7
fellow workers,7 and (3) “ unavoidable trade risk.7
7
7
In the opinion of the committees who passed upon them, 65 per
cent of these cases were preventable by engineering revision, 24
per cent were preventable b y care of the injured person or his fellow
workers, and 11 per cent were due to trade risk.
It will be observed at once that in this group of cases the com­
mittees assign to the section “ preventable by engineering revision’7
a considerably larger percentage than the 57 per cent so assigned in




a

EKOINEEHI5TO REVISION.

203

the earlier study b y the Bureau of Labor Statistics and in the case
of the large iron and steel company mentioned above.
This review of the findings of safety committees reenforces the
conclusion reached from a study of various angles of the subject
that the three main methods by which accident prevention is secured
are the following: (1) Engineering revision to cut down serious and
fatal accidents; (2) Supervision to reduce both serious and minor
injury; (3) Instruction of the men in skillful methods of work to
reduce minor injury.
ORGANIZATION.

The great success of organized safety effort in the reduction of
minor injury has diverted attention from this fundamentally im­
portant matter of the engineering factor. Does the fact that it is
now demonstrable that for relief from fatal injury the appeal must
be to the engineer discredit organization? Not in the least. It
simply indicates a direction in which organization must turn its
energies. Organization and the interest it evokes lead to the dis­
covery o f structural defects and their remedy. Without organiza­
tion the revision already accomplished would never have occurred.
The obvious faults have been largely corrected. The determination of
the more obscure must be increasingly the duty and opportunity of
the engineer.
EXTENT OF REDUCTION OF ACCIDENTS.

In conclusion it is appropriate to consider in the light of the
foregoing review the question of the extent to which serious and fatal
accidents may be eliminated. The conviction that there must always
remain an “ irreducible minimum;’ of accident rests largely upon the
idea that the main cause of such accident is human recklessness.
Since a perfected humanity can scarcely be looked for in the lifetime
of the present generation, the hope of an industry measurably free
from accidental death has seemed an “ iridescent dream.”
Two things may be regarded as proved by the results of the safety
movement: (1) Proper education and the development of interest
among the men will go a long way in the reduction of minor injury;
(2) Adequate engineering revision will reduce serious cases to an, as
yet, undetermined degree.
The degree of this reduction is largely conditioned on the definition
of “ adequate.” It is entirely possible to imagine structures and
apparatus so strong, so well designed, so intelligently operated, that
failure and consequent death will be the rare exception. The
possibilities of improvement from an engineering standpoint are
almost unlimited.
ILLUSTRATIVE CASES.

The following descriptive lists include, in addition to the 68 cases
of death and major mutilation which occurred in one large steel
company's plants (see p. 201), 139 cases drawn from other sources,
making a total of 207. The classification o f oasesfollows the judgment
o f the committees, and no attempt is made to modify conclusions which
are in some cases obviously doubtful.




204

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Ca ses

P reven table

b y

S ome

F orm

of

“ E n g in e e r in g

R e v is io n . ”

Case 1. — Helper asphyxiated when he went to put stove on furnace. Pulled
burner back too far. Fatal. Stop installed to prevent running burner back bo far.
Case 2 . — Top filler caught by elevator. H e neglected to insert safety pin in starting
lever, the result being that when his partner took hold of lever it moved unexpectedly.
Man evidently negligent, but a safer device is possible.
Case 3 . — Laborer, given permission to leave his gang for a short time, sat down on
the electric rail of transfer track. Fatal. Had been warned about the rails. Track
has been entirely fenced in.
Case 4 . — Laborer caught between buggies when a train of buggies was pushed
from the yard against the one which he was loading. Amputation of leg. Foreman
did not exercise due care to see that his men were m the clear.
Case 5 . — Inexperienced man working as oiler. Greasing bearing on front trucks
of trolley of ore unloader. Trolley was racked back, catching head. Fatal. Recom­
mended that machine be stopped while greasing is being done.
C ase6. — Nozzle, setter was caught by molten metal when ladle of metal turned
in stirrup hooks, pouring out metal which ran down into the pit side. Fatal.
Trunnions have been changed so as to lower the center of gravity from 8J inches
below trunnions to 17 inches below.
Case 7 . — Pipe-fitter’s helper had climbed to the runway of crane to close a valve.
He was caught between column and crane. Fatal. The pipe fitter was regarded as
at fault in not looking out for the safety of his men when working on the crane runway.
Case 8 . — Car-blocker’s helper was at work under a car when engine pushed other
cars against it, catching the man under the wheel. Fatal. Car blocker at fault in
not putting out stop signals. Engine crew should have determined whether any
one was in danger before moving cars.
Case 9 . — Laborer on top of coke ovens was caught by larry car which carries the
coal to the ovens. Fatal. It seems to be the case that the steam from the quench­
ing platform blinded him and he lost his way. The committee is of the opinion
that the only way to prevent such accidents is to remove the quenching from the
vicinity of the ovens to a quenching station.
Case 10. — Repair man was caught by trolley of unloader when it started unex­
pectedly, ran to the top of the incline, broke the cables, and then slid back against
the man. Fatal. This starting would have been prevented had the safety switch
been pulled out and properly locked. The man had a safety padlock. The com­
mittee regard the dock management as negligent in not having called attention to
the use of these padlocks.
Case 11. — Ladle liner was caught between edge of ladle and wall of shop. He had,
apparently, climbed on ladle to inspect it and his weight caused it to tip over. Fatal.
The committee is of the opinion that the number of foremen on this job is not suffi­
cient to supervise the operations properly.
Case 12.— Repair man was changing insulators on the third rail at one of the batteries
of a coke oven. This battery had been cut out so that the rail was dead. The car
in order to get over this dead space would run at some speed and drift by. The man
put his hand on the third rail while the car was bridging the gap between this battery
and the next, thus making the rail alive. Fatal. Committee recommended that
the cut-out be so arranged that both batteries have dead rails when it is thrown.
This makes it impossible for a car to bridge over and make a supposedly dead rail
alive.
Case IS . — On starting an air compressor operated by a 2,200-volJ circuit the relay
exploded, burning the man. Fatal. Recommended that high-voltage switches be
removed from the board and that temporary steel shields be installed until removal
can be accomplished.
Case 14. — Laborer cleaning up the scale car track had his wheelbarrow between the
rails. ^Scale car struck wheelbarrow, throwing man against column. Fatal. The
committee feels that the management was slack at this point or the dangerous practice
of putting the wheelbarrow between the rails would have been stopped.
Case 1 5 . — Melter’s helper was assisting to set the hot metal spout at the electric
furnace. Was loosening crane hook from loop of spout when it suddenly came away
and he lost his balance and fell to the floor, the spout tipping over on him. Fatal.
The committee regards the melter foremen as responsible for failure to have some parts
of the apparatus in proper order.
Case 1 6 . — Rigger was going with his gang to work with a locomotive crane. A sh e
walked beside the crane he suddenly stepped in front of some cars on an adjacent
track and was run down. Fatal. Recommended that cranes do not move through,
this busy yard under their own power but be handled by the yard engines.




ci

ENGINEERING REVISION.

2 05

Case 17. — Cinder snapper was digging away cinder and iron about monkey in order
to substitute a new one. ^ The blast had been turned off when the process began but
later was turned on again. Monkey blew out and gas flames burned several, one
fatallv. ^ Foreman used bad judgment in turning on the blast while men were working
in position to be injured if an explosion occurred.
Case 18. — Laborer was crushed by falling ingot mold flask. It fell when a crane
lifted another which was on the same car. Fatal. Foreman should have seen to it
that the flasks were more securely placed.
Case 1 9 . — Craneman opening windows in monitor of merchant mill caught hold of
6,000-volt wire. Fatal. High-tension wires are being removed to underground
conduits.
Case tO .— Oiler knocked from platform of ore bridge by grab bucket. Fell into *
bin about 40 feet. Fatal. Rule made that no work shall be done on this platform
when bridge is in operation.
Case 2 1 .— Lidsman at coke ovens struck by chute on larry car. Fatal. Gas inspector
who was on the car thought not to have been duly carefuL
Case 2 2 .— Craneman sitting down in his cab may have fallen asleep. He was found
with his head against the hoist fuse terminals. Fatal. A guard should have been
placed over the fuse blocks.
Case 2 8 . — Switchman riding on footboard of engine was caught by a bar projecting
from the pile of scrap at the side of the track. Loss of foot. Yard foreman should be
more careful to keep yard clear.
Case 2 4 .— Laborer stepped from dock wall onto flat car of slowly moving train. Just
then the engineer slacked suddenly to test the coupling between two cars of the
string. The jar caused man to fall under the wheels. Fatal. The man evidently
crossed the track to reach a toilet. Such conveniences should not be placed where
men must cross tracks in order to reach them.
Case 2 5 .— Pipe fitter’s helper sitting on a brace of the skip incline was caught when
the skip came down. Fatal. The foreman had attached a sign to the controller of the
skip hoist showing that it should not be operated. This was removed by some one
unknown. Recommended that all levers and switches whose operation would
endanger a workman shall be locked during the time the work is going on.
Cases 2 6 - 3 1 .— Six men at work in blast furnace mains died of asphyxia when gas
washer man was unable to close valve of water seal. Arrangements made to lock
water seal valves when men are working in mains and additional valve will be installed
in mains.
Cases 3 2 -3 4 . — Three masons at work on a ladle foundation in pit were fatally burned
when furnace broke out. The furnace had just been rebuilt and was on its first heat.
An explosion occurred within, blowing out the tap hole, and the metal poured out on
the men. Rule adopted that furnaces shall not be put in operation until all repairs
on them are completed.
Case 3 5 . — Millwright caught by 1,000-pound weight to door qf open hearth when
bar with eye in end gave way. Fracture of leg, followed by infection. Fatal.
Recommended that guards be placed around weights.
Case 8 6 .— Laborer killed by fragment of heater which exploded in the shanty where
he was eating lunch. Investigation showed that the blow-off valve was in bad con­
dition. Recommended that better valves be installed and that they be inspected
at frequent intervals.
Case 3 7 . — Sheeter’s helper was holding sheet in place on side of mill. To steady
himself he was holding on to rail of crane runway. Crane came down, crushing hand.
Loss of hand. This crane was not equipped with wheel guards in accordance with
the company rules.
Case 3 8.— Laborer struck by engine and leg crushed. Fatal. On investigation it
developed that the same foreman had had two other cases of fatal injury in his gang
under similar circumstances and was not in the vicinity on any occasion. Recom­
mended that, as these gangs are largely of elderly men, the foreman should exercise
greater care.
Case 3 9 .— Laborer assisting to replace derailed mold buggy. As the crane raised
the buggy one of the molds fell over, catching the man’s leg. # Fatal. Recommended
that molds be removed from derailed buggies before attempting to replace them.
Case 40. — Laborer assisting in removing molds from buggies. After adjusting chain
to lugs of mold he stepped back on a track where a train was moving. Fatal. The
switchman of the moving train should have been on front of his train or preceding it.
Recommended to install better lighting at this point.
Case 4 1 .— Laborer tightening bolts on pig machine was caught by his clothes on an
axle pin and crushed against a column. Fatal. Recommended that a guard be
placed along this runway. Foremen should not permit working on moving machinery.




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Case 42. — Laborer crossing track was run down by coal car. Fatal. The switchman
should have been in position to warn this man.
Case 4 3 . — Laborer was struck by falling concrete chute when the manila rope hold­
ing it broke. Fatal. Recoinmended that wire cable be used for such purposes.
^ Case 4 4 .— Lineman came in contact with high-tension wires on the pole where he
was working. Fatal. Recommended that the clearance between high-tension wires
be increased to not less than 6 feet.
Case 4 5 .— Boiler maker was shifting planks of scaffold at furnace top when he lost
balance and fell 90 feet to roof of cast house. One plank fell with him. Fatal.
Recommended that it be made a rule that such work shall not be done without use
of safety belt.
Case 4 6 . — Laborer assisting in jacking up car for repairs. It was necessary to lower
the car somewhat, and when this was done it canted over, catching the man and crush­
ing his skull. Fatal. Recommended that track adjacent to one on which cars are
being repaired be kept clear. Also that in jacking up cars they be followed with
blocking and that a shore be used on side next other repair track.
Case- 47 .— Laborer carrying drinking water to open hearth was walking between
building and narrow-gauge track when he was run down by locomotive. Fatal.
Recommended (1) the installation of drinking fountains in the mills, so that men will
not be obliged to carry water through the yards and mills; (2) to require switchmen
to ride where they can see track in direction in which locomotive is moving; (3) to
improve the lighting in this part of the yard.
Case 48. — Laborer caught by splashing metal when the ladle carried by the crane
bumped against an empty ladle which was being lined near the mixer. Fatal.
Recommended that ladle lining be conducted in some part of the mill where hot
metal is not being constantly carried.
Case 49 .— Boiler washer entered boiler 11 hours after it was taken off steam line.
Part of wall fell, and he was burned by the hot dust. Fatal. Recommended that it
be arranged that in washing down boiler man stand outside fire door. Also that if the
wall shows bulging from the heat it be tom down and rebuilt.
Case 5 0 .— Laborer caught between roll swinging from crane and pile of rolls on the
ground. Fatal. Recommended that roll racks be installed in the yard.
Case 5 1 . — Carpenter’s helper using a belt pole to unship belt was struck in the
abdomen when pole caught in the belt. Fatal. Recommended that a loose pulley
be installed and that a lock be provided to prevent the use of the machine by unau­
thorized persons.
Case 5 2 .— Scrap man wandered from his proper place and attempted to get on board
a larry car. In doing so he started the car and was caught and crushed. Fatal.
Recommended that car be so inclosed that men can not get on the car without being
seen by operator.
Case 5 3 .— Top filler riding up in cage attempted to stop cage at about 50 feet. To
do this, he reached through the structural work and grasped the operating cable which
is placed in opposite hoistway. He pulled cable in the wrong direction, causing
speed of cage to increase suddenly, and was dragged from cage and fell 50 feet. Fatal.
Recommended to remove operating cable to a position in which it can not be reached
from the other cage. Also to inclose cages to the height of 7 feet.
Case 5 4 . — Laborer passing cold saw was struck by the belt when it broke. Fatal.
Recommended that the belt guard be extended so as entirely to cover the belt.
Case 5 5. — Take-off at shear bed was caught under falling load of angles. The load
was not evenly balanced, and the end which hung down struck the side of the car and
the angles skidded from the chain, striking the man. Fatal. The foreman did not
exercise good judgment in choosing the apparatus used in this operation.
Case 5 6 .— Casting man was opening valve on ladle to make a pour. Metal splashed
over top of ladle. Fatal. Recommended (1) that a canopy be erected over the pour­
ing platform, which would catch the metal in such a case. (2) That the height of
ladles be not increased without a corresponding adjustment of the trunnions. In
this case 6 inches had been added.
Case 5 7 .— Laborer overcome by fumes when rescuing fellow worker in benzol house.
Fell on stairs, causing fracture of neck. Fatal. Recommended that means be pro­
vided to remove fumes when it is necessary to open faucets to drain water from storage
tanks. Also that a door be cut through, so that escape from the space will be easier.
Case 58 .— Crane hooker, for unknown reason, went up ladder to crane runway and
was caught between crane girder and column. Fatal. Recommended that a warning
sign be placed at foot of ladder warning all workmen not to go upon the runway with­
out the permission of the crane foreman.
Case 5 9 .— Laborer was at work in a car from which unloading was going on by means
of a clam. A switching crew bumped into this car, and the man was caught between




“ ENGINEERING REVISION. '*

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clam and end of car. Fatal. Recommended that a derailer be installed, so that cars
can not be shunted down into this track.
Case 60 .— Laborer stepped out of shanty onto a track on which a car was running out
of control. The men on the car and others shouted to the man, but he could not hear
on account of noise due to blast-furnace stoves blowing off. Fatal. Recommended
that the installation of mufflers on stoves to reduce noise be hastened.
Case 61 .— Fireman in boiler house caught when water tube burst. Fatal. Recom­
mended that new type of fire doors be installed.
Case 62 .— Weighmaster caught under plates falling from a pile. Some small plates
had been piled on top of larger ones. Fatal. Recommended that in piling plates
those of the same size be placed together. Also that the covering of the shipping
area with a roof be considered. The icy condition of the plates may have been a
factor in their falling.
Case 68 .— Chipper attempted to cross tracks just in front of engine and was struck.
Fatal. Recommended that a subway be provided, since there is a large amount of
necessary passing.
•
Case 64 .— Boiler maker’s helper struck by metal splashing from ladle when it struck
mold which he was repairing. Fatal. Recommended that molds be removed to
some safe place for repair.
Case 65. — Laborer entered boiler which was to be cleaned and was overcome by gas.
Fatal. The foreman should have stayed with his men and seen that the required
procedure in cleaning the boiler was observed.
Case 66. — Repair man caught when a car operated by a cable into a dumping pit
started down the incline. The wheels had been imperfectly blocked, and the jar due
to removing rivets probably threw blocks out of place. Fatal. Proper clamps for
use in such conditions had been provided, but the foreman in charge had not been
informed regarding them.
Case 67. — Laborer returning from emergency hospital along railway tracks was
run down. Fatal. Recommended that men having slight injuries be furnished street
car tickets and sent to another hospital, which will not require walking on tracks.
Case 6 8 .— Brakeman riding on car pushed by engine was caught against coal box
of dinkey engine when the car on which he was riding was derailed due to accumula­
tion of cinder and dirt. Recommended that track be kept clean, so as to avoid dan­
ger of derailment.
Case 69 .— Stopper setter helping to pour heat in Bessemer. The molds as poured
were capped with a cap weighing about 230 pounds. As the third mold was being
poured the second exploded, forcing up the cap and spraying the entire vicinity with
molten metal. Fatal. Recommended that the type of mold used at the time of
accident be discarded and a safer type substituted.
Case 70. — Mold capper. See Case 69. Fatal.
Case 7 1 .— Mold capper. Bee Case 69. Fatal.
Case 72 .— Lever man working on pulpit 15 feet from mold. Case 69. Fatal. Rec­
ommended that a pulpit be erected inclosed with steel and wire glass.
Case 73. — Lever man. See Case 72. Permanent total disability.
Case 7 4. — Conductor went between engine and car to adjust coupler. Caught
between drawheads. Fatal. Recommended that a coupling adjuster be applied.
Case 7 5 .— Fireman of steam shovel struck by brake band falling from shelf in cab.
The shelf was about 6 feet from floor. The brake band weighed about 50 pounds.
Pneumonia developed. Fatal. Recommended that storage of spare parts in such
a situation be discontinued. ^
Case 76 .— Helper was assisting in enlarging tapping hole at blast furnace. Metal
finally came out suddenly and struck some pipe scrap placed in the runner. The
metal exploded. Fatal. Recommended that the placing of pipe scrap in the runner *
be discontinued.
Case 77. — Laborer run down when cleaning up at crossover. Fatal. The train
crew did not have proper lookout when moving.
Case 7 8 . — Helper struck by rod attached to heavy cable, when it fell from bustle
pipe. This cable had been pushed aside to allow crane to pass. When crane moved
the cable became entangled in the trolley and was pulled down. Fatal. Recom­
mended that clamps be placed on crane runway, which will prevent crane from pass­
ing cable which operates cinder gate. When necessary for crane to pass this point
millwright shall remove clamps and supervise the operations until clamps are replaced.
Case 7 9 . — Hooker caught by falling ingot mold. The crane had set the mold down
and the man had unhooked the chain. He stooped for some^urpose and the mold
toppled over on him. Fatal. Recommended that foreman should maintain better
conditions in the yard and supervise operations more closely.
Case 8 0 . — Pipe fitter’s helper, using elevator as a platform in disconnecting a steam
pipe, was caught between railing at back of elevator and floor of open hearth. Just




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ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

how elevator was started is not known, as man was alone at time. Fatal. Recom­
mended that the railing at back be extended to 7 feet in height.
Case 81. — Laborer cleaning track run down by engine. Fatal. Train crew were
not keeping proper lookout.
bCase 82, — Hook-on caught when charging box full of bloom ends struck a bridge
girder and was thrown from the car. Hook-on was riding the car and was thrown off
with the box. Fatal. Recommended that clearance be increased at this point.
Case 83. — Laborer fell through temporary covering of pit, in which there was about
6 inches of hot water. Fatal. Recommended that the opening into the treating
tank be railed securely.
Case 84*— Boiler maker fell from blast-furnace stove 100 feet to the ground. When
he loosened one bolt the spring of a channel caused another to break. Foreman should
have required use of life belt.
Case 85. — Track cleaner was attempting to loosen defective brake, so as to be able
to move the car. As he worked on the brake in front of the wheels, cars were shunted
down the track and bumped the one on which he was#working. Fatal. Recommended
(1) that steps be taken to have defective brakes repaired more promptly; (2) that
some signal system be adopted which will warn men when cars are to be shunted
into this track.
Case 86. — Laborer struck when hose blew off from oxygen tank. Fatal. Recom­
mended that a more secure type of coupling be installed on the oxygen tanks.
Case 87. — Laborer was moving car at pig machine with pinch bar. As he worked,
another car was bumped into it by an engine coming to couple on. Fatal. Rec­
ommended that a derailer be installed at the top of the grade and that train crew send
some one ahead when coming down.
Case 88. — Laborer run down by dinkey engine at point where clearance was inad­
equate. ^ Fatal. Recommended^ (1) increased clearance; (2) better,lighting; (3)
change in engine cab, so as to give engineer better view.
Case 89. — Laborer knocked from coal barge into river by cable used to move barges
into position for being unloaded. Fatal. Recommended that it be made the rule
that operator before starting cable shall look to see that men on the barges are in the
clear. The place is well lighted, so that the operator can easily see where the men are.
Case 90. — Pit laborer in Bessemer struck by scrap falling from the roof 25 feet above.
This scrap accumulates rapidly at times from the blow of the converter. It is removed
«,s promptly as possible, but sometimes becomes clinched under the iron plates form­
ing the roof and can not be got off without shutting down the mill. In this case
the jar of the scrap buggy overhead caused a portion to be loosened and fall. Fatal.
Recommended that an angle be attached to roof edge, which will tend to keep loosened
pieces from falling.
Case 91. — Pipe fitter’s helper was removing brick for installation of steam pipe
in gas main. Starting to go out the man took the wrong direction and fell into a downtake 12 feet dee;& in which was a quantity of hot soot. Fatal. Recommended that
gates be installed in mains to prevent men working in them from reaching the downtakes by mistake.
Case 9 2 — Laborer ran across railway track in front of a train coming on the other
track just in time to be struck by engine. Fatal. Recommended that watchman
be stationed at this point to direct men to use a footbridge, which is provided over
the tracks.
Case 93. — Rigger and four fellow workers were removing bolts holding platform on
which they stood, the other side being fastened to girder of building. When the
bolts were partly removed the platform canted, throwing man off to the floor, 25 feet
below. Fatal. Recommended that foreman be instructed to stay such platforms
by use of block and fall when it is necessary to remove bolts. Also that a knee brace
be placed under each platform.
Case 94. — Rigger fell into furnace, 100 feet, when chain block broke. Fatal. Rec­
ommended (1) that 4-ton, instead of 2-ton, blocks be used, and (2) that the cross arms
of new blocks be steel forging instead of cast steel.
Case 95. — Boring mill hand used wrench to loosen tool which he took out for grind­
ing. When he put the tool back he did not remove the wrench, and when the ma­
chine was started, the wrench was carried around by the platform and he was caught
between it and the upright. Fatal. Recommended (1) that a rack be provided along­
side the machine for tools; (2) change the position of the starting lever so that a man
will face machine when starting up.
Case 96. — Repair man asphyxiated when he went into a pit to find a bell valve
which had fallen from its proper place. Fatal. Recommended that this bell valve
be more securely fastened in place.




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209

Case 97 .— Laborer injured when heater exploded. A boiler was blown off into
this heater, giving rise to an undue pressure. Fatal. Recommended that arrange­
ments be made to blow off into air or into sewer.
Case 98 .— Laborer crossing track between two cars was caught between bumpers.
Fatal. Recommended that when cars are moved in the mill a member of train crew
go ahead to see that men are in the clear.
Case 99 .— Lineman came in contact with 6,000-volt power line. Fatal. Recom­
mended that, if possible, greater clearance be established.
Case 100.— Laborer run down by engine. Fatal. This crossing will always be
very dangerous as long as the railway has tracks in addition to the mill tracks. The
railway tracks should be removed.
Case 101 .— Craneman sitting on track was struck when buggy came up the mill. Rec­
ommended that fenders be placed on this car and that a warning signal be installed.
Case 102. — Wireman and helper drilling holes to fasten electric conduit to wall.
Were using board to pry drill up to its work! Board broke and helper fell. Fatal.
Recommended that a stronger piece of timber be used as a pry in such cases.
Case 103.— Repair man sharpening chisel on emery wheel when it burst. Fatal.
Recommended that this and all other similar wheels be equipped with the standard
safety hood.
Case 104.— Steel pourer was caught when on opening the stopper a quantity of steel
jumped over the ladle top. Fatal. Recommended that canopies be installed over
all pouring platforms in open hearths.
Case 105.— Laborer sitting on larry car track was caught by car. Fatal. The
guard provided was in bad order. Directed that when guards become ineffective
machines be stopped until repairs are made.
Case 106 .— Man was holding sledge for fellow worker to strike with another sledge
in removing wheel from shaft. A chip flew, striking abdomen. Fatal. Recom­
mended that hereafter hydraulic pushers be used exclusively in removing wheels
from shafts. The use of sledges is to be discontinued entirely.
Case 107 .— Wireman’s helper came in contact with high-tension w£res and fell
from tower about 42 feet. Fatal. Recommended that distance between hightension wires be increased and that where they enter the mills they be inclosed in
conduits.
Case 108 .— Drier man’ s clothes were set on fire by back fire ip drier which burst
out at the cleaning door where he was working. Fatal. Recommended that a half­
inch steam line be led into the drier at this point which, when opened, will force
the dust out without danger of back-firing. A platform will also be installed tcf im ­
prove the working conditions.
Case 109 .— Man fell down 26 feet inside of pipe at condensers being erected. Fatal.
Recommended that men doing this kind of work be required to wear a life belt.
Case 110.— Foundry rammer was caught under a core barrel which was overset
when the craneman began to hoist another barrel whose flange was caught under
that of the overset barrel. Fatal. Recommended that greater care be exercised in
storing these barrels that the flanges do not overlap, and that the light in this part
of the foundry be improved.
Case 111.— Oiler received shock from motor which he was oiling. Due to defective
insulation the motor frame had become electrified. Fatal. Recommended that the
frames of such motors be grounded.
Case 112. — Cinder dump man was caught by hot cinder when an explosion caused
ladle to overturn. Fatal. Recommendations: (1) Make center pin longer and provide
for a cotter pin through the end. This will prevent ladle from leaving truck. (2) Place
a rail clamp on each end of cinder truck, such as is in use on locomotive crane.
Case 113 .— Ore bin laborer fell through a space about 3 feet wide between trestle
platform and girder carrying track rail. Cause of fall unknown. Suffocated in ore.
Fatal. Recommended that this opening be closed with a grating of about a 10-inch
opening.
Case 114.— Laborer shoveling out dirt from dumping car when bottom closed up
catching man. Fatal. Found that the cylinders for closing the bottom were not
in good order. Ordered that they be put in proper order.
Case 115 .— Millwright caught by explosion of coal dust at bin in open hearth. Fatal.
Recommended that the slide feed for coal dust be replaced by a dust-proof screw
feed.
Case 116 .— Millwright’s helper. See Case 115. Fatal.
Case 117 .— Boiler maker foreman caught by platform which swung around when
locomotive crane pulled and hoisted on it. Platform and steps were being removed.
Recommended that in work of this kind two hitches be made to material instead
of one.




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THE

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AND

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Case 118.— Laborer shoveling coal into chute under car when car door dropped
down, crushing him against rail. Fatal. Recommended that in such unloading
of coal the foreman shall remain in direct charge of the work until it is completed.
Also that the coaling station be removed to some locality not on main track which
will permit unloading without haste.
Case 119.— Laborer. See Case 118. Fatal.
Case 120.— Laborer. See Case 118. Fatal.
Case 121.— Laborer caught between peel of charging car and charging buggy when
controller of charging car stuck and operator was unable to control car. Fatal.
Recommended that charging cars be pushed entirely clear of furnace before attempt­
ing to do w
’ork of this kind.
Case 122.— Laborer passing between two cars when engine bumped them. Fatal.
Recommended (1) that cars be not left with space between them into which men
can go. (2) That a derailer be placed at the entrance of this mill.
Case 123.— Pipe fitter’s helper burned when torch exploded and threw burning oil
over clothes. Fatal. Recommended (1) that electric extension lights be used for
such work whenever possible. (2) Tnat three small holes be made in the cap of
each torch so that pressure inside may be relieved without explosion.
Case 124.— Laborer caught between magnet and side of car from which he was
unloading scrap. The rails were wet and the crane trolley slipped causing magnet
to swing. Recommended that men be instructed to stand outside of car when direct­
ing cranemen in using magnet for unloading.
Case 125.— Track laborer fell onto track and was run over by engine. Fatal. Rec­
ommended that lighting in tunnel where accident occurred be improved so that
engineers can see more clearly the men who are obliged to work there.
Case 126. — Brakeman in getting off footboard of engine caught raincoat on bolt
causing him to fall, striking his head. Fatal. Recommended that as rapidly as
possible the passenger type of platform be installed on all locomotives.
Case 127.— Laborer caught between pieces of scrap steel in furnace being repaired.
The pieces weighed about 6,000 pounds each. One had been moved to the side of
the furnace. When man began to shovel out loose brick the other piece toppled
over. Fatal. Recommended that such pieces of scrap be entirely removed from
furnaces undergoing repair.
Case 128. — Laborer caught by explosion in dryer of coal pulverizer in open hearth.
Fatal. Recommended: (1) That dust-proof screw feed take the place of mechanical
sli^e feed. (2) That bin be cut off when repairs are in progress. (3) Inspection of
bin to see that it is empty before repairs begin. (4) Installation of recording ther­
mometer to show when temperature is running dangerously high.
Case 129.— Man was replacing lamp above coal conveyor. Stepped into opening
where plate had been removed in order to observe when coal was entirely out of con­
veyor. Loss of leg. Directed that plate be not removed until conveyor has been
operating one half hour. This gives time for complete emptying and plate can be
immediately replaced. Use of powdered coal will be shortly abandoned at this
plant, removing several hazards.
Case 130. — Laborer whose duty it was to replenish oil in cans on the gallery of
foundry apparently stepped onto runway whilelooking for a can. In some way he came
in contact with power rail and fell across the runway. In this position a crane which
was down for repair was pushed by another crane onto the man. Whether the shock
or the crushing injury was the cause of death could not be determined. Fatal.
Recommended that cranes down for repairs shall not be pushed about by other cranes.
This may be made impossible by chaining the idle crane in place.
Case 131. — Chipper caught under falling load of billets when link of chain broke.
Fatal. Links of chain had evidently been affected by acid used in pickling billets
before chipping. In some of them the cross section had been reduced from
to f
inch. Recommended that billets be placed in the pickling vats when empty and thus
avoid exposing chains to action of acid.
Case 132. — Laborer caught between grab bucket and side of car when unloading.
Fatal. Recommended that cranemen do not operate grab bucket in car while man is
inside car.
Case 133.— Patrolmen brought motor boat into boathouse during a storm at night.
They closed windows and the door to protect themselves from the storm. The engine
continued to run and the fumes from exhaust caused asphyxia. Fatal. Recom­
mended that in motor-boat houses and garages where it may be desirable to keep
engines running provision be made for piping the exhaust into the open air.
Case 134.— See Case 133. Fatal.




(( E N G I N E E R I N G
C a s e s in

w h ic h

Ca r e

on

th e

R E V I S IO N .

P a r t o f t h e I n ju r e d
th e O n ly R em ed y .

9 9

o r

H is

211
F ello w

W o r k e r is

Case 1 .— Crane hooker adjusting chain on lift of billets. On his signal to lower the
craneman hoisted. Cable broke and block and hooks fell, striking man on thigh.
Amputation of leg necessary. Craneman at fault.
Case 2 .— Cooling tank for crane tongs overset when craneman started crane without
raising tongs. Laborer seated near tank was caught and held by the foot and the hot
water poured over him. Fatal. Craneman at fault. No safeguard possible.
Case 3 .— Electrician pulled disconnecting switch of wrong engine and was burned
by the flash. Fatal. Man familiar with conditions and should not have made the
mistake.
Case 4 -— Fell hand undertook during a delay in rolling to grind a pass in the rolls
which had become roughened. When rails began to move he was caught and legs
crushed. Fatal. Man should have gotten away sooner.
Case 5 . — Carpenter climbing ladder carrying scantling. Fell 36 feet. Fatal.
Ropes are provided for pulling up material. Man should have used this provision.
Case € .— Carpenter removing tiles from roof of building stepped on tile at an unsup­
ported point. The tile gave way and the man fell 50 feet. Fatal. Man aware of
danger of stepping on tile where not supported.
Case 7 .— Lamp trimmer was hanging lamps from the vicinity of crane runway.
Did not see approaching crane and hand was caught. Amputation necessary. Crane­
man at fault.
Case 8 . — Machinist’s helper, after inspecting crane trolley according to directions
of foreman, came down from trolley platform to the top of cab. There he lay down
and crawled between cage and beam of crane. He then ordered craneman to rack
out and was caught by trolley. Fatal. No remedy except greater care on part of
men.
Case 9 . — Crane-repairman left crane at platform to repair switch. Craneman then
proceeded to transfer materials with magnet. The repair man, after finishing his job,
must have gotten on the crane, crossed to other side, and there, in trying to get off,
was caught and crushed. Fatal. The repair man should have notified the craneman
that he needed to cross.
Case 10.— Oiler fell from ore bridge to bottom of ore bin— 90 feet. Fatal. Was sup­
posed to be.oiling on another bridge at some distance from this. Reason, if any, for
being on this bridge unknown. The point from which, apparently, man must have
fallen is well guarded by railing and toeboard. Nothing in the way of prevention
except on the part of the men can be suggested in such cases.
Case 1 1 .— Loader was caught between lift of billets and side of car when craneman
racked in. Fatal. Loader was adjusting the side blocks, which had fallen down.
Craneman regarded as negligent and discharged.
Case 12. — Extra craneman left the crane and then attempted to return without
signaling to stop. He stepped on the end truck and, slipping off onto the walk, was
crushed between girder and column. Fatal. Man negligent, but craneman some­
what at fault.
Case 1 3 . —Man struck by engine when walking through subway. Fatal. Engine
crew claimed that smoke obscured view as they backed out of mill. Should have
waited for smoke to clear.
Case 14. — Car blocker run down by cars which railroad crew were moving. Fatal.
Crew at fault in not notifying foreman of coal hopper according to rule.
Case 1 5 . — Chipper struck by block falling from crane. Fatal. Craneman pulled
main switch of crane just as hoist block was about to strike limit switch. This killed
the limit and block went up until cables broke and block fell.
Case 1 6 . — Painter fell from plank which he had placed on a temporary safety barri­
cade. H e fell from roof to scaffold two floors below. Fatal. Partner warned bim of
the insecurity of the arrangement which he made. Man clearly took a chance rather
than do the work necessary to safety.
Case 1 7 .— Gas washer went into fan house to pack leaky bearing and was asphyxiated.
Fatal. ^ It was not his duty to attend to this work, and a rule requires men not to go
alone into places where gas is likely to accumulate. Methods of keeping inclosed
spaces clear of gas deserve further attention.
Case 1 8. — Laborer going home from work was run down by train. Thought that he
was under the influence of liquor and tried to board moving train. Fatal. No
safeguard except care on part of man.
Case 1 9 .— Laborer run down by a string of cinder pots being pushed out of open
hearth pit% He was standing on the track with his back to the approaching train
warming himself from molds which stood on an adjacent track. The train was mov-




212

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

ing very slowly, and when someone noticed the man’s danger and signaled the
engineer he stopped at once, but when the slack of the coupling straightened out it
was enough to strike the man and knock him down. Fatal. Only care can prevent
such occurrences.
Case 2 0. — Craneman left his crane, and for some unknown reason went upon the
crane runway and was caught between the end carriage of another crane and a column
of the building. No duty required or even suggested his being at the point where
he was injured. Fatal. Care is the only remedy.
Case 2 1 .— Unloader operator started motor and left his cab to readjust part of ma­
chine, using a bar for this purpose in the vicinity of some open gears. When the part
he was adjusting came into place the sudden movement of the bar threw him into the
gears. Fatal. Man had been warned not to leave the cab and leave the motor running.
The adjustment he tried to make was another man’s duty. Covers were in process of
construction for the gears.
Case 2 2. — Switchman went between cars to couple. Caught and crushed. Fatal.
Care is the only possible safeguard.
Case 2 3 . — Coal elevator operator removed cover of manhole and went down into
coal bunker. There his head was caught between conveyor buckets and bracket.
Fatal. No duties requiring man to enter the bunker. Rules forbid doing repairs or
approaching machinery when it is in motion.
Case 24. — Welder struck head against hydrogen tank, making slight wound. When
he reported to hospital several days later the wound was infected. It seemed to yield
to treatment but later changed for the worse and he finally developed a case of menin­
gitis. Fatal. Prompt report of even slight injury is the only safeguard.
Case 2 5. — Laborer working with others on scaffold in furnace removing old lining
preparatory to relining. Around the scaffold is a space of about 12 inches through
which the bricks may fall to the bottom of the furnace. Through this space the man
fell. Fatal. There seems to be no way to conduct this operation in a safer manner.
Care on the part of workers is the only safeguard.
Case 2 6 .— Car inspector stepped between cars to allow engine to pass. A locomotive
making up a train on the track on which he was standing bumped the cars, knocking
him down, and the wheels passed over him. Fatal. Care on part of man only safe­
guard.
Case 27. — Larry car learner was on platform alongside hopper of larry car at coke
ovens. Man is not supposed to remain on this platform when car is in motion, since
the clearance at various points is not sufficient to pass safely. He was caught and
crushed at such a point. Fatal, The regular operator warned him to get down into
cage. Only care on men’s part will avoid such occurrences.
Case 2 8. — Crane hooker had lain down to sleep behind a pile of steel. Craneman,
moving castings, in some way shut power off and casting fell on hooker. Fatal.
Hooker to blame, since he had no right to use the place which he did for taking a nap.
The craneman can not be blamed, since he could not see man in position he occupied.
Case 29. — Tool repair man stood on track watching locomotive on another track and
failed to notice one on track where he was standing. Knocked down and crushed.
Fatal. There are no curves at this point and the only available safeguard is attention
on the part of those having to cross the yard.
Case 30. — Boiler maker adjusting a channel with crane when knot of rope slipped,
allowing channel to fall. It weighed about 1,400 pounds. Fatal. The man had
himself made an improper knot in adjusting the rope.
Case 31. — Laborer run down by train. Loss of leg. Man was getting out of mill
somewhat before quitting time by an improper route. The train crew did all possible
to save him.
Case 3 2 . — Laborer helping to move car along track was caught by swinging magnet
of crane. Fatal. Craneman disregarded rules in moving the magnet.
Case 3 3. — Laborer crossing track run down by engine. Fatal. Train crew taking
all possible precautions. Man took chance in crossing ahead of engine. Should have
waited for it to pass.
Case 3 4. — Switchman forgot to throw switch directing cars on proper track. As a
result they came back on the track from which they had just been pulled. He was
walking on this track with his back to the cars, evidently expecting them to take the
track for which he had not thrown the switch. The engineer could not see the man
in this position. Fatal. The man only could prevent such accidents.
Case 3 5. — Yard cleaner run down by ladle train. Fatal. Train crew were following
usual procedure. It would seem to be a case where only care on man’s part could
prevent accident.
Case 3 6. — Fireman scalded when a head-on collision occurred between his train and
another. Fatal. Flagman did not go back proper distance and give signal.




<i ENGINEERING

REVISION.

)9

213

Case 3 7 .— Conductor closing switch walked onto adjacent track and was struck by
another train. Fatal. Man of long experience and should have been properly
cautious.
Case 3 8 .— Laborer washing at a drain where the clearance was insufficient was
struck when train pushed in. Fatal. There is a shanty not far from this place
provided with basins and other conveniences, so there was no occasion to use this
dangerous place. Man must be held responsible.
Case 39. — Laborer struck by slide bar when crane lowered lift of rails. In piling
100-pound rails, 16-pound rails about 15 feet long are used to separate the successive
layers. One of these was allowed to project about 24 inches. The load struck this
projecting end, causing the light rail to swing around violently. Fatal. Men
instructed to place slide bars so that they will not project.
Case 4 0 .— Engineer caught between tender and locomotive when his engine collided
with another. Fatal. Man did not have his train under proper control on a down
grade.
Case 4 1 .— Track laborer run down by train. Fatal. Train crews must be educated
to take greater precautions in moving through yards.
Case 4 2 .— Watchman on bridge struck by engine. Fatal. Train crew should use
greater care in keeping effective lookout.
Case 4 3 .— Laborer run down by engine. Fatal. Train crew not sufficiently on the
lookout.
Case 44. — Laborer caught under slab falling from magnet. Fatal. Men had been
cautioned not to get too near when manipulating objects on magnet since power is
likely to go off without warning.
Case 4 5 .— Brakeman stepped between cars on short side of curve to adjust coupling
and was caught. Fatal. Man did not observe rules.
Case 4 6 .— Piler caught between lift of plates and pile when craneman pulled wrong
lever, racking out trolley instead of lowering. Fatal. Craneman entirely at fault.
Case 47. — Craneman raised his lift until the limit switch was brought into action.
He got on the crane to locate the trouble and fell to the plate which was being carried.
Fatal. The man had been directed by motor inspector to remain on platform of crane
until trouble was located. This he did not do. The action of the limit switch in this
case doubtless prevented the blocks from going so high as to break the cables. If this
had happened several men on the floor below would have been endangered.
Case 48. — Laborer caught under falling lift of plates when crane dog came off. Fatal.
Care on man’s part not to get under loads would seem the only remedy.
Case 49. — Blacksmith’s helper struck in abdomen when end of bar he was turning
on anvil slipped from anvil. Fatal. Greater care on part of man only possible
preventive.
Ca ses

I n v o l v in g

U n a v o id a b l e

T rade

B is k .

Case 1 .— Carpenter helping to remove scaffold from furnace after relining. A piece
of scantling slipped from a bundle which had been hoisted to the top of furnace. It
fell back inside the furnace striking the man on the head as he came back onto the
scaffold. No recommendation.
Case 2 . — Laborer passing under boiler floor was struck on the head by a brick falling
from floor above— about 24 feet. No recommendation.
Case 3 . — Labor foreman in charge of gang of laborers was engaged in taking down
from a coal stock pile a section of railroad track. The pile was about 10 feet high.
It did not appear that the track was dangerously undermined until it gave away and
as it slid down the man was crushed between the rails. The committee makes no
recommendation.
Case 4 . — Laborer fell from walk into ore bin and was smothered. No recommenda­
tion.
#
Case 5 . — Regular engineer had got out of cab to assist the switchman. The deceased
offered to run the engine. On getting into cab he apparently lost control of engine
and ran iuto platform and was crushed. No recommendation.
Case 6 . — Lineman fell from tower, probably due to contact with live wires. He and
fellow worker had been engaged on dead circuits on tower. He was going to secure
material when it is supposed he came in contact with the live wire. No recommenda
tion.
Case 7 .— Fell from gondola car on which he was standing when locomotive crane
kicked another car against it. No recommendation.
Case 8 . — Machinist’s helper came in contact with overhead trolley bars and was
electrocuted. Man climbed up to the vicinity of the bars without direction from the
machinist and for no apparent reason. M ay have misunderstood his directions. N o
recommendation.




214

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Case 9 . — Laborer poshing truck on which were loaded ingot mold flasks. The flasks
were to be transferred by crane from the door of shop. The truck got out of control
and ran past the point where the crane was waiting. The crane hooks caught on the
flasks causing them to fall. The man was crushed. No recommendation.
Case 1 0 .— Hammerman forging steel billet on 2,000-pound steam hammer. Was
cutting billet. Cutter had stuck and man was using set on top of it. When hammer
came down the set twisted, throwing handle against man with so much force as to
puncture his liver. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 11 . — Brakeman standing on end sills of car was probably thrown off by jar of
starting. The wheels passed over his body. Fatal, No recommendation.
Case 1 2 .— Brakeman fell from car and wheels passed over body. Fatal.
No recom­
mendation.
Case 13. — Charger placing billet in heating furnace when end swung around striking
him in abdomen. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 14 .— Rigger was thrown into top of furnace when chain block broke. He fell
120 feet. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 15 .— Laborer engaged in tearing down open hearth furnace overcome by heat.
Had been working a spell of not more than 15 minutes. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 1 6 .— Conductor thrown from car when engineer applied brakes suddenly
thinking he was likely to run down a water boy. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 1 7 .— Fireman suffered heat stroke. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 18. — Craneman was crossing the bridge over the coupling box when the same
broke and apiece flew up striking him. Fatal. No recommendation. The coupling
casting had a flaw which could not be detected externally.
Case 19 .— Man riding ore car on trestle to set brake and stop car at desired point.
It would seem that the sill of the car where he was standing was slippery and that the
jar of the car threw him off. Fatal. No recommendation.
Case 20 . — Man riding on footboard of dinkey coal box was thrown from same when
car pushed by dinkey was derailed. Loss of leg. No recommendation.
Case 2 1 . — Cinder pit man fell from ladle cars when going out of pit. Fatal. No
recommendation. Not known just how accident happened.
Case 2 2 .— Laborer caught when gun carriage fell from crane due to breakage of
chain. Fatal. No recommendation. No flaw in chain, which was of a size which
should be ample to sustain weight.
Case 23.— Brakeman fell from footboard of engine and was dragged for some distance.
Fatal. N o recommendation.
Case 24- — inspector had his clothes set on fire by the explosion of a torch. Fatal.
No recommendation. Experiment with new type of searchlight. Tests did not
indicate the cause of torch explosion. It does not seem to be possible to detect flaws
in the steel except by the use of the torch.




CHAPTER IX.— THE ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.1
4

The current chapter will attempt to present as complete a record
of the accident experience of the iron and steel industry up to the
end of the year 1919 as the available data will permit.
In each of the following tables the year 1907 is introduced when­
ever possible since it represents the conditions which prevailed prior
to the beginning of the organized safety movement. The figures
presented do not fully indicate the unsatisfactory situation of that
period. The keeping of usable records accompanied the giving of
more attention to preventive measures and consequently the plants
and companies data for which it was possible to utilize are not an
average but represent the best conditions then existing.
THE INDUSTRY.

Table 65 and Charts 15, 16, and 17 show conditions in the industry
as a whole.
T able

65.—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR THE IRON AND STEEL
INDUSTRY, 1907 TO 1920, BY YEARS AND PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure) .
posure).

Number of cases.
Year or
period.

Number
of
workers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

1907............

27,632

61

1910............
1911............
1912............
1913............
1914............
1915............
1916............
1917............
1918............
1919............
1920............

202,157
231,544
300,992
319,919
256,299
116,224
166,646
410,852
474,435
377,549
442,685

327
204
348
426
219
87
159
523
543
419
327

1910 to 1914. 1,310,911
1915 to 1919. 1,545,706

106

Tem­
po­
rary
dis­
abil­
ity.
6,530

Per­
ma­
nent
Total. Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Per­
Tem­
po­
ma­
rary To­
nent
dis­ tal. Death. dis­
abil­
abil­
ity.
ity.

Tem­
po­
rary To­
dis­ tal.
abil­
ity.

6,697

0.7

1.3

78.8 80.8

4.4

1.7

1.1

7.2

848 44,108 45,283
931 34,676 35,811
1,241 54,575 56,164
1,200 55,556 57,182
860 37,390 38,469
372 13,481 13,940
728 20,655 21,542
1,268 57,094 58,885
1,253 54,293 56,089
848 41,009 42,276
1,084 49,482 50,893

.5
.3
.4
.4
.3

1.4
1.3'
1.4
1.3

3.2

1.2
1.1
1.1

.8
.6
.8

.3
.4
.4
.4

1.4

.2

1.0
.8

72.7
49.9
60.4
57.9
48.6
38.7
41.3
46.3
38.1
40.2
37.3

5.2
3.5
4.2
4.3
3.2
2.7
3.5
4.0
3.6
3.6
2.7

1,524 5,080 226,305 232,954
1,731 4,469 186,532 192,732

.4
.4

1.0

.2

1.1
1.1

1.0

.9

1.3

74.7
51.5
62.2
59.6
50.0
40.0
43.0
47.7
39.4
41.6
38.3

2.3
2.7
1.7
1.5
1.9
2.5
2.3

57.5 59.2
40.2 41.6

2.3

1.8

2.2

1.5

2.2

.9
.9
.7

1.0

.9

.7
.6

.5

.6
.6

.5

.8
.8
.8

.4

1.1
.8

.6

.6

.7

4.1
3.6

The foregoing table and Charts 15, 16, and 17 have points of interest
which will be found common in a greater or less degree to all the
departments which are represented in it: (1) The year 1907 exceeds
in every particular any later year. (2) There are points of high fre­
quency and severity corresponding with the periods of industrial
1 Rates are introduced for 1920 whenever available.
4




215

2 1 6

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

revival. It should be noted that it is the period of revival rather than
the period of high productivity which shows the tendency to increas­
ing rates. It will appear repeatedly in other connections that the
necessary introduction of new men into the working force is the
prime cause of this increase. The fluctuation chart brings out very
Ch a r t

F T L IE
A A IT S

15.

PERM EN
AN T

a

TEM
PORARY

clearly this relation of accident rates to the movement of industry.
(3) The chart showing trend, in which overlapping five-year intervals
are utilized, indicates two things: (a) There nas been a steady and
marked downward tendency during the entire period; ( b ) This
tendency has been more marked in minor injury, which determines
frequency, than in severe injury, reflected in the severity rates.




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

217

Attention should be called to the fact that in both the fluctuation
and the trend charts in this chapter the position and relation of the
frequency and severity curves are significant. (1) The higher the
rates the farther up on the charts will the curves run. (2) Commonly
the severity curve runs below the frequency. Approach to or passing
above the frequency curve on the part of the severity curve indicates
C h a r t 16 .

a relatively higher severity. For example, in blast furnaces the
severity curve lies entirely above the frequency curve, while in sheet
mills the reverse condition obtains.
All the charts in this chapter are drawn on the same scale so that
in a direct comparison the impression received through the eye gives
a correct idea of the relationships of the departments involved.
71087°— 22------ 15




218

ACCIDENTS IN THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Chabt 17.

TREND

OF

A C C ID E N T
IRON

Tr f Ehdiqg
S£~
QU
ENCY VEtflTY l 9i r




«S

AND

Endifip
191J

R A T E S — MOVING
STEEL

5 -Y E A R

TOTAL

IN D U S T R Y

Ending Endirw Ending
191+ 191T 1916 £i #

'

Ending
l 9lo

19#

J&CCHM3NT RBCOHD TO 1919.

219

B L A ST F e m fA C E S .

Table 66 and Charts 18, 19, and 20 present the facts as to blast
furnaces;.
T ab le

66.-ACCIBENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR BEAST FURNACES,
1907 TO 1920, BY YEARS AND PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours7ex­
(p 1,000,090 hours7 ex­
ear
posure).
posure).

Number of case®
.
Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
workers

1997...........

1,560

1910............
m i ............
m 2 ............
m 3 .,.........
©14............
m s ............
m e ............
1917............
m&............
m 9 ............
®20.............

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

19,389
21,479
27,154
. 34988
20,572
10,721
14,905
41,449
32,889
35,470

mo to 1914. 126,582
1915 to 1919. 136,166

9

II

Tem­
po­
rary
dis­
abil­
ity.
456

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­ Death. nent rary To­
Total. Death. dis­ dis­ tal.
dis­ dis­ tal.
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
476

1.9

2.3

68 4,971 ! 5,107
1.2 1 1.2
68
54 ; 3,303 , 3,40ft
.8
.8
52
1.1
73
87 4,796 4,95ft
.9
80
80 4,749 , 4,945
.9 , .8
.6
1.0
77 3,935 4,057
45
981 1,023
.6
.7
23
19
m
23 : S t
I .5 1.3
i
‘
79 : m ; 4,440 j
a
.9
102
4,3S& : 4,53*
n
.ft
94
1.0
.7
67 3,745 3,906
.4
.5
47
58 3,214 3,319
324
317

366 22,578 23,
j
:
312 15,287 15,916 ‘

.9

1.0

.8

.8

97.1 101.3
85.5
51.3
58.8
58.1
49.4
30.5
m*
40i 9
mo
38.0
30.2

11.5

87.9
6.9
52.9
4.8
60.8
5.4
59.8
5.3
51.0
3.5
31.8
3.5
4L2
3.1
: 42.5 : 4.4
3 4
ft.
4*9
39.7
5.7
31.1
2.7

60.4 62.3 '
37.4 39.0

5*2
4.7

2.7

1.8

16.0

1.7
.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
.6
.9 ;

1.0
9.6
.8 i 6.5
7.2
.8
.9 . 7.2
.7
5.2
.4
4.5
Aft
*6
.5 i 5.8
.ft : .5
6.2
1.0
7.2
.5
.4
.9
4.0
1.0
.9

.ft :
.5

7.0
6.1

Inspection will immediately disclose that this department is one erf
relatively high hazard. The black portions of the bars in the severity
chart, indicating as they do the relative seriousness of death in each
of the several years, is an impressive indication that this department
demands constant and energetic attention if it is to reach and main­
tain a satisfactory accident level. The seeond five-year period has
a lower rate than the first, but each of the eharts shows a disquiet­
ing tendency during the war period in the direction of increase which
should be resisted with the utmost possible vigor.
Table 67 shows how the different occupational groups in the blast
furnaces fared in the matter of injury.
In frequency both in the earlier and the later period the east-house
men had a most undesirable preeminence. In severity their rate in
the earlier period (17.9 days per 1,000 horn# exposure) is higher than
any other. Their situation improves in the second period to such an
extent that their rate (6.9 days) is below that o f the laborers (9.8
days) and of the unclassified workers (11.7 days).
An interesting light is shed upon the probable cause o f this im­
provement by noting that of the rate of 6.9 days for cast-house men
m the later period 5.8 days are due to burns, while laborers have but
1.8 days ana the unclassified group 3 days. I t m well known that in
>
the course of development of the blast furnace^ improvements in
structure have been made which have materially lessened the chance
#f fatal injury through u breakouts ” of hot metal. This improvement
is reflected m the much lower severity rate of cast-house men in the
second period.




220

A C C ID E N T S

IN

THE

IK O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

T able 6 7 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR BL A S T FU RN ACES.
1905 TO 1914 AN D 1915 TO 1919, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

Occupation.

Frequency rates
Number of workers. (per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

1905-1914 1915-1919 1905-1914 1915-1919 1905-1914 1915-1919
Cast-house men.................................................
Common labor..................................................
Mechanics...........................................................
Stockers..............................................................
Unclassified.......................................................

1,357
4,930
3,670
886
3,000

1,727
6,273
4,670
1,128
3,824

126.8
83.5
42.7
52.3
46.4

71.8
39.3
28.7
23.4
46.6

17.9
8.9
6.4
9.0
15.4

• 6.9
9.8
6.0
3.4
11.7

Total.........................................................

13,849

17,621

66.9

40.3

10.6

8.53

m

f a t a l it ie s ,




m

PERM ANENT

□

.T E M P O R A R Y




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.
Chart

19.

2 2 1

2 2 2

A C C ID E N T S I N

THE

IK O N
Ch a r t

TF?END

OF

AC C ID E N T




Ending
19k

STEEL

Ending
1915

IN D U S T R Y ,

20.

R A T E S — MOVING

BLAST
Ending
FRE­ „ S E QUENTYVERITY m i

AND

5 -Y E A R

T O TA L

FURNACES

Ending

m f

Ending
1915

Ending
1916

W

Ending
1918

Ending

1919

223

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.
BESSEM ER D EPARTM EN T.

Table $8 and Charts 21, 22, and 23 show the situation in the
Bessemer department.
T a b l e OB.—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR T H E BESSEMER DE­

P A R T M E N T , 1907 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
po­
rary
dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary
nent rary
Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total. Death. nent dis­ Total
dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

1907.................

967

1

5

383

389

0.3

1.7

134.0

2.1

0.9

2.4

5.4

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920..................

5,070
5,155
6,521
6,885
4,470
3,160
4,070
5,979
5,881
6,555
6,907

20

18
24
37
42
25
21
34
21
18

1,981
1,267
1,938
1,668
716
517
894
1,235
908
881

7.9
2.3
2.8
4.6

.9
1.1
1.6
1.2

2.2

1.2
1.4
2.1

16
11
1.5
12
.9
.8
12
12
.8

5

1.3
.4
.5
.8
.4
.2
1.1
1.1
.7
.7

1.2 127.7 130.2
1.6 79.9 81.9

18
9

1,943
1,237
1,892
1,610
685
494
848
1,194
877
849

.6

19.4
4.5
5.3
7.0
4.3
3.5
9.7
9.2
9.2
5.7
2.3

1910 to 1914... 28,101
1915 to 1919... 25,645

57
62

146
112

13
to

8.4
6.9

6

9

16
6
2
13
20
13
14

750

7,367

4,262

7U

7,570

4,430

1.9
2.0

1.8

2.2
2.8

1.2
1.0
.9

m o

96.7
77.9
51.1
52.1
69.5
66.6
49.7
43.2

99.1

80.7
53.3
54.5
73.4
68.9
51.4
44.8

.2

A

36.2

.7

1.7
15

87.4

89.8

8bA

8 7 .7

.8

36.3

1.3
&4
6.7
4.4
4.3
1.4
4.0
4.8

1.3
1.0
.5
.3
1.1
1.1

.9

The rates for this department are very erratic and seem to have
been influenced more by the conditions prevalent during the war period
than were other departments. The result is that the second fiveyear period somewhat exceeds in severity the earlier period although
m frequency there was a satisfactory decline. The question ought
always to be raised in such a case whether the falling frequency has
not given a false idea of improvement when in fact the condition is
actually becoming more hazardous. It is admittedly difficult to
safeguard against some of the serious dangers which prevail in this
department, but that much can be accomplished by persistent effort
is proved by the experience of certain plants.




ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

224

Chart 21.

■




FATALITIES

PERM ANENT

□

TEM P O R A R Y




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.
Chart 22.

225

2 2 6

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Chart 23.

TREND

OF

A C C ID E N T

RATES — M W tN G

5 -Y E A R

TOTAL

BESSEM ER
FRESEEnd ind Ending
gt/ENOf k f? r T Y
19: r
m
f




Ending Ending
1913

1914-

Ending
1913

Ending

Encfing

Ending

1916

1917

1 9 #

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919,

227

OPEN HEARTHS.

Open hearths have a slightly decreased severity in the second fiveyear period, due to the decrease in permanent injury and temporary
disability. Death slightly increases. The fluctuation chart shows a
rather violent upward swing in the years 1917 and 1918. This is
sufficient to give an upward trend at the close of the period even
when five-year periods are considered.
T a b l e 6 9 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND SE V E R IT Y RATES FOR OPEN H E A R T H S 1901

TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S A N D PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Number of cases.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours'
exposure).

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1907..............

2,987

14

14

908

936

1.6

1.6 101.3 104.5

9.3

4.0

1.1

14.4

1910..............
1911..............
1912..............
1913..............
1914..............
1915..............
1916..............
1917..............
1918..............
1919..............
1920..............

9,739
10,718
17,355
20,604
12,877
5,969
9,654
21,457
26,410
22,685
28,823

29
18
47
35
14
8
12
47
71
53
43

53
45
99
95
41
20
37
86
103
71
70

3,028
1,890
4,039
4,368
2,484
832
1,458
3,187
3,983
3,103
3,164

3,110
1,953
4,185
4,498
2,539
860
1,507
3,320
4,157
3,227
3,277

1.0
.6
.9
.6
.4
.4
.4
.7
.9
.8
.5

1.8 103.6 106.4
1.4 58.8 60.8
1.9 77.6 80.4
1.5 70.7 72.8
1.1 64.3 65.8
1.1 46.5 48.0
1.3 50.3 52.0
1.3 49.5 51.5
1.3 50.3 52.5
1.0 45.6 47.4
.8 37.0 38.3

6.0
3.4
5.3
3.4
2.2
2.7
2.5
4.4
5.4
4.7
3.0

2.4
1.1
1.9
1.4
1.5
.9
.8
1.2
1.4
1.3
.8

1.4
.9
1.0
1.0
.8
.6
.9
.8
1.1
.8
.5

9.8
5.4
8.2
5.8
4.5
4.2
4.2
6.4
7.9
6.8
4.3

1910 to 1914. 71,293
1915 to 1919. 86,175

143
191

333
317

15,809
12,563

16,285
13,071

.7
.7

1.5
1.2

4.0
4.4

to
1.2

to
.9

6.6
6.5




Per­
ma­
Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
po­
rary
dis­
abil­
ity.

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­
po­
ma­
po­
Death. nent rary TotaL Death. nent rary Total.
Total.
dis­
dis­
dis­
dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity.

72.8
48.6

75.0
50.5

228

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Chart 24.

FATALITIES




PERM ANENT

□

TEMPORARY

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

229

Chart 25.

FLUCTUATION

OF

A C C ID E N T
O PEN

FRE- SE­
Q EN V R Y
U - E IT
U . ___

1910




1911

191 2

1913

RATES

FRO M

1910

1916

1917

to

1919

HEARTHS
1914

1915

1918

191 9

130

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON A N D STEEU IN DU STR Y.




C S R 26.
HS T

231

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 19£$.
FOUNDRIES.

The trend in accident rates for foundries is shown in Table 70 and
Charts 27, 28, and 29.
T a ble

7 0 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hoars' ex­
posure).

N umber of cases.

Year or
period.

Number
oi
workers-

Per­
ma­
nent
Death.
dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
po­
rary
dis­
abil­
ity.

Per­
ma­
nent
Total. Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

FO U N D R IE S,

1907

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ exposnre).

Tem­
Per­
ma­
po­
rary To­
nent
dis­
tal. Death. dis­
abil­
abil­
ity.
ity.

Tem­
po­
rary To­
dis­
tal.
abil­
ity.

1907..............

939

1

3

179

183

0.4

1.1

63.5

65.0

1910..............
1911..............
1912..............
1913..............
1914..............
1 9 1 5 .... . .
1916..............
1917..............
1918..............
1919..............
1920..............

16,8*5
13,499
23,294
24,605
17,634
1.399
1,231
31,895
32,181
24,220
35,300

7
18
23
22
14

2,615
1,970
4,512
5,236
3,432
118
145
6,810
5,482
4,048
6,688

2,700
2,045
4,670
5,376
3,507
120
152
6,956
5,611
4,125
6,798

.1
.4
.3
.3
.3

1
45
23
15
13

78
57
135
118
61
2
6
101
196
62
97

.3
.5
.2
.2
.1

1.5
1.4
1.9
1.6
1.2
.5
1.6
1.1
1.1
.9
.9

51.6
48.6
64.6
70.9
64.9
30.0
39.3
71.4
56.8
55.7
63.2

53.2
.8
50.4
2.7
66.3
2.1
72.8
1.7
66.4
1.6
30.5
41.2 " Y e '
73.0
2.8
58.1
1.5
56.8
1.2
64.2
.7

1.0
1.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
.2
.6
1.0
1.0 ;
.8
.8

.6
.6
.8
.8
.7
.4
.7
.9
.7
.7 :
.8

2.3

1910 to 1914. 95,917
1915 to 1919. 92,746

84
84

449
277

17,765
16,604

18,298
16,965

.3
.3

1.6
1.0

61.7
59.7

63.6
61.0

1.1
.9

.7
.7

3.6
3.4

2.1

1.8
1.8

0.3

1.0

3.4
2.4
4.3
4.4
3.7
3.3
.6
2.9
4.7
3.2
2 .7

Foundries have a distinctly lower hazard than the departments
already considered. The showing must be regarded as rather dis­
appointing. The second five-year period has a very slightly lower
severity rate, due entirely to a decline in the permanent injuries. A
goodly number of foundries have made a record of declining severity
but this is clearly overbalanced by the record in others in which the
situation was not regarded as serious enough to demand strenuous
effort. The fluctuation chart shows that the course of rates has been
rather wildly erratic, particularly in the severity curve. This is
accounted for in part by the fact that whenever the rate is low, due
to a small number of deaths, when deaths do occur they influence
the curve so much as to obscure the significance. It is particularly
necessary in such cases to resort to some “ smoothing” process which
will give a more correct idea of the trend. Consulting the trend chart
it becomes evident that the foundries here covered nave gone along
a nearly even course. They certainly do not exhibit any marked
improvement.
That improvement is possible and has been attained in certain
cases is indicated by Table 71 in which occupational rates are shown
for two periods. These cover the same plants and doubtless to a
certain extent the same employees. Among cleaners there is a
noteworthy decline in severity, which can be almost entirely attributed




232

ACCIDENTS IN THE IEON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

to the greatly extended use of protective goggles which has largely
reduced the eye injuries formerly so common among this class of
employees. The rates for core makers, who have a very low rate in
any case, increased somewhat in frequency but declined in severity.
The other occupations do not have any material change.
It must be suggested again that a declining frequency has perhaps
obscured the fact that severity was not moving in the same direction.
T able 7 1 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR FO U N D RIES, 1910 TO
1914 AN D 1917 TO 1919, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Number of cases.

Occupation and
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

f

Cleaners:
1910 to 1914...
1917 to 1919...
Core makers:
1910 to 1914...
1917 to 1919...
Mel t er s and
helpers:
1910 to 1914...
1917 to 1919...
M o l d e r s and
helpers:
1910 to 1914...
1917 to 1919...

4,196
3,857

Per­ Tem­
ma­
po­
nent rary
Death.
dis­ dis­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.

4
2

Per­ Tem­
ma­
po­
To­ Death. nent rary
dis­ dis­
tal.
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.

60 2,153 2,217
23 1,350 1,375
1

1,273
1,520

241
318

242
318

8
4

220
260

228
265

0.3
.2

To­
tal.

4.8 171.1 176.2
2.0 116.7 118.9

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours'
exposure).
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­
Death. dis­ dis­
tal.
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.

3.9
2.3

1.6
1.3

7.4
4.6

.4

1.9
1.0

.5
.6

.9
.6

.3

63.1
82.9

63.4
82.9

.2

2.1
.7

58.2
48.7

60.3
49.6

1.1

1.8
.7

.6
.6

2.4
2.4

.3
.6

3.4 103.2 106.9
1.9 72.8 75.3

1.9
3.8

3.0
1.1

1.1
1.0

6.0
5.9

1,261
1,778

1

5,266
5,202

5
10

54 1,631 1,690
30 1,129 1,169

Total, 1910
to 1914.... 11,996
Total, 1917
to 1919.... 12,357

9

123 4,245 4,377

.3

3.4 118.0 121.7

L5

2.9

1.1

5.5

13

57 3,057 3,127

.4

1.4

2.1

1.3

1.0

4.4




82.5

84.3

233

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.
Chart

FATALITIES

71087°— 22------ 16




27.

PERM ANENT

I

I TEM PO R AR Y

234

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.




ACCreEJSTT RE COED TO 1919.

235

Chabt 29.

TREND

O
F

ACCIDENT

RATES— M V G 5 -YEAR TO L
O IN
TA
F O U N D R IE S

n in nding E d g E d g
n in
n in
FRE­ SE­ E d g E dm E d g E d g Ending E d g E
n in
n g n in n in
Q E C V R Y 1911 1912 1913 191? 191? 1916 1917 191# 1919
U N Y E IT
150
15

100

10

11

*

AT

hi

J r
8

TB

7T

50

i s

*■<31

if"

—
JLQ.




fffEOUBCY
SI V E R IT Y

ab

■ar

“ ' I

?

*

—

•J2S

236

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

BAR MILLS.

Accident frequency and severity rates for bar mills for 1915 to 1920
are presented in Table 72.
T able

7 3 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR BAR MILLS, 1915 TO 1920,
B Y Y E A R S A N D PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

•
1915..................
1916..................
1917..................
1918..................
1919..................
1920.................

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­
rary
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
Death.
dis-;. dis­ Total.
dis­ Total.
dis­ dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
ity.

3,232
3,042
7,472
5,734
4,601
3,880

1
4
8
6
1
1

7
11
34
18
7
5

577
783
1,940
756
689
525

585
798
1,982
780
697
527

0.1
.4
.4
.3
.1
.1

0.7
1.2
1.5
1.0
.5
.4

59.5
85.8
86.5
43.9
49.9
44.8

60.3
87.4
88.4
45.2
50.5
45.3

0.6
2.6
2.1
2.1
.4
.5

0.6
.5
1.0
.7
.5
.2

0.7
1.1
1.0
.7
.7
.5

1.9
4.2
4.0
3.5
1.6
1.2

1915 to 1919... 24,081

20

77

4,745

4,842

.3

1.1

65.6

67.0

1.7

.7

.7

3.1

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS.

Severity in heavy rolling mills is slightly greater in the second of
the two 5-year periods. When, however, the fluctuation chart and
general trend are considered it will be evident that a really material
improvement has been brought about, obscured by the intrusion of
two bad years, 1915 and 1917.
In frequency there is an almost continuous decline when the 5-year
periods are considered. During the war period an upward trend was
established which, it may be hoped, has now come to an end.
T able 7 3 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR H E A V Y
M ILLS, 1907 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AN D PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ «
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1907.................

Per­
ma­
nent
Death.
dis­
abil­
ity.

ROLLING

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total. Death. nent rary
nent rary
dis­
dis­ dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

4,556

8

10

874

892

0.6

0.7

64.0

65.3

3.5

0.3

1.0

4.8

1910.................
9,442
1911................. 12,409
1912................. 16,258
1913................. 17, 569
1914................. 11, 985
1915.................
7,148
1916................. 10,076
1917................. 20,530
1918................. 19,807
1919................. 17,605
1920................. 20,787

19
9
20
16
10
10
7
30
24
20
12

57
48
41
60
55
24
44
87
67
53
34

2,167
1,636
2,395
1,910
899
596
959
1,784
1,900
1,711
1,638

2,243
1,693
2,456
1,986
964
630
1,010
1,901
1,991
1,784
1,684

.7
.2
.4
.3
.3
.5
.2
.5
.4
.4
.2

2.0
1.3
.8
1.1
1.6
1.1
1.5
1.4
1.1
1.0
.5

76.5
43.9
49.1
36.2
25.0
27^8
31.7
29.0
32.0
32.4
26.3

79.2
45.4
50.3
37.6
26.8
29.4
33.4
30.9
33.5
33.8
27.0

4.0
1.4
2.3
1.7
1.5
2.8
1.4
2.9
2.4
2.3
1.2

1.5
.9
.9
.6
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.0
.9
1.1
.4

1.0
.7
.7
.6
.4
.3
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4

6.5
3.0
3.9
2.9
2.9
4.1
3.2
4.4
3.8
3.9
2.0

1910 to 1914... 67,663
1915 to 1919... 75,166

74
91

261
275

9,007
6,950

9,342
7,316

.4
.4

1.3
1.2

44.4
30.8

46.1
32.4

2.1
2.4

.9
1.0

.6
.5

3.6
3.9




A C C ID E N T RECORD TO

1919.

237

Chart 30.

ACCIDENT

SEVERITY

R AT E S,. IN

H EAVY

FOR

SPECIFIED

PER IO D S
-

ROLLING

M IL L S

15

FATALITIES




PERM ANENT

□

TEM PO R AR Y

n

s

ACCIDENTS m




T O E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
C5A&T 31.




ACCIDENT KECOBD TO IMS.
C hart 32.

239

240

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL, INDUSTRY,

PLATE MILLS.

No department shows a more pronounced and regular decline of
severity than the plate mills during the earlier 5-year period. The
department is not an exception to the usual rule that the war period
is marked by a strong tendency to rising rates. This is probably
accentuated by the fact that the great demand for ship plates led
to the use of some rather-improvised mills which could not, in the
time available for their installation, be put in the best condition from
the safety standpoint.
It will be observed that the rather sudden rise which occurred
during the war, shown in the fluctuation chart, is almost entirely
smoothed out when the overlapping 5-year periods are plotted.
T able 7 4 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR PLATE MILLS, 1907
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AN D PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Number of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death.
dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­
rary Total. Death nent rary
nent rary
dis­
dis­ dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

1907.................

1,915

4

12

637

653

0.7

2.1 110.9 113.7

4.2

3.7

1.2

9.1

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

3,287
4,390
5,128
5,430
3,476
2,086
4,681
6,764
9,650
11,892
11,928

7
5
2
3
2
1
3
4
8
9
9

27
15
25
25
13
9
15
22
19
24
23

602
590
893
725
319
121
436
766
1,446
1,247
1,147

636
610
920
753
334
131
454
792
1,473
1,280
1,179

.7
.4
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.3
.3

2.7
1.1
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.1
.7
.7
.6

61.1
44.8
58.0
44.5
30.6
19.3
31.0
37.7
49.9
35.0
32.1

64.5
46.3
59.7
46.2
32.0
20.9
32.3
39.0
50.9
36.0
33.0

4.3
2.3
.8
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.7
1.5
1.5

1.6
1.0
2.0
1.2
1.0
.6
.7
.9
.6
.5
.6

.7
.6
.8
.6
.5
.3
.5
.5
.7
.5
.4

6.6
3.9
3.6
2.9
2.6
1.9
2.5
2.6
3.0
2.5
2.5

1910 to 1914... 27, 711
1915 to 1919... 35,073

19
25

105
89

3,129
4,016

3,253
4,130

.3
.2

1.6
.8

48.0
38.2

49.9
39.2

1.8
1.4

1.4
.6

.7
.5

3.9
2.5




241

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

C A T 33.
HB

FATALITIES/




j |

i

PERMANENT

TEMPORARY

242

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.




Chast 34.

A C C ID E N T EECOBD TO 1 $ $ ,

243

C h a r t 3 5.

The rates for puddling mills are not very satisfactory. They are
based on a small exposure and it has not been possible to separate
the accidents related to the puddling process from the rolling-mill
cases which occurred in the rolling of the puddled iron into muck
bar. It is quite probable that some of the deaths recorded for this
department were due to the rolling-mill operations rather than to
the puddling process. This process, while very laborious and only
possible to men of considerable strength and endurance, does not
give rise to a great number of serious accidents.




244
T

able

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
7 5 .—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR PU D D LIN G M ILLS, 1917
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1917.................
1918.................
1919 . .
1920.................

4,129
2,712
1,619
2,007

1
3

1917 to 1919...

8,460

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­
rary
nent rary
nent rary
Death.
dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total.
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity.
ity.
572
370
140
243

583
377
141
254

0.1
.4

1

10
4
1
10

46.2
45.5
28. 8
40.3

47.1
46.4
29.0
42.2

0.5
2.2

.2

0.8
.5
.2
1.7

4

15

1,082

1.101

.2

.6

42.6

43.4

1.0

0.6
.4
.1
.8

0.6
.6
.4
.6

1.7
3.2
.5
2.4

.9

.4

.6

1.9

R O D MILLS.

No data are available for rod mills prior to 1915. Since there has
been in recent years considerable replacement of the older types of
rod rolling mills by continuous mills, which do not require so many
men for their operation and do not require them to occupy such
dangerous positions, it may fairly be inferred that severity rates
before 1915 were higher than they have been since.
The 5-year period covered is of course influenced by war condi­
tions and the apparent lack of improvement may be less significant
than it seems.
T

ab le

7 6 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D SE V E R IT Y RATES FOR ROD MILLS, 1915 TO
1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1915..................
1916..................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920..................

2,062
2,493
4,951
3,249
2,463
3,729

7
5
2
1

10
16
23
11
10
9

229
259
699
350
184
344

239
275
729
366
196
354

0.5
.5
.3
.1

1.6
2.1
1.5
1.1
1.4
.8

37.0 38.6
34.6 36.7
47. 1 49. 1
35.9 37.5
24.9 26.6
30.7 31.6

2.8
3.1
1.6
.5

0.7
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
.5

0.5
.5
.5
.6
.5
.4

1.2
2.4
4.7
4.7
3.5
1.5

1915 to 1919... 15,218

14

70

1,721

1,805

.3

1.5

37.7

1.8

1.3

.5

3.6




Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­
po­
rary
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­
dis­
dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

39.5

245

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

SHEET MILLS.

The sheet mills present a very interesting situation. As compared
with other departments they had low rates at the outset. The
fluctuation chart shows these varying in accord with the usual ex­
perience but notably, and with a fair degree of steadiness, declining.
This becomes more noticeable when the severity curve of the trend
chart is considered. Only two 5-year periods show a rising rate and
neither of these has a conspicuously rising rate.
Table 77 includes all occupations of the sheet mills, and the severity
rate for the second 5 years is 1.5 days per 1,000 hours’ exposure.
Elsewhere it will appear that the characteristic operation of these
mills, namely, sheet rolling, has an even lower rate (0.34 day). It
is the common impression that the apparatus of the sheet mill has
been but little modified in the course of time. In general appearance
and in mode of operation this is quite true, but in capacity to do work
and in safety to the worker there has been an important advance.
T

able

77

.—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR SHEET MILLS, 1907 TO
1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PER IO D S.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours'
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­
po­
ma­ po­
rary
nent rary
nent rary
dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

1907.................

2,211

2

8

274

284

0.3

1.2

43.3

44.8

1.8

1.9

0.4

4.1

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913..............
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

18,501
29,710
32,087
25,938
22,187
16,266
24,722
26,855
17,278
19,214
24,279

28
9
19
21
11
7
13
11
3
3
14

52
71
67
67
51
23
62
38
17
32
59

3,310
3,625
5,497
3,717
3,113
1,901
2,655
2,687
937
1,854
2,979

3,390
3,705
5,583
3,805
3,175
1,931
2,730
2,736
957
1,889
3,052

.5
.1
.2
.3
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
.2

.9
.8
.7
.9
.8
.5
.8
.5
.3
.6
.8

59.6
40.7
57.1
47.8
46.8
39.0
35.8
33.4
18.1
32.0
40.1

61.0
41.6
58.0
49.0
47.8
39.6
36.8
34.0
18.5
32.7
41.0

2.9
.7
1.2
1.6
.9
.9
.6
.8
.3
.3
1.2

.8
.7
.7
.5
.5
.3
.5
.6
.5
.4
.7

.6
•4
.7
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
.2
.4
.8

4.3
1.8
2.6
2.7
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.0
1.1
2.3

1910 to 1914... 128,423
1915 to 1919... 104,335

88
37

308 19,262 19,658
172 10,034 10,243

.2
.1

.9
.5

50.0
32.1

51.1
32.7

1.4
.7

.6
.4

.6
.4

2.6
1.5




2

m

ACCIDENTS I N

TH E BEtON AND STEEL. INDUSTRY.
CHART 3 6 .

A C E T SE E IT RATES IN SHEET MILLS
C ID N
VR Y
FOR SPECIFIED

P R D.
E IO S
J
O

F T L IE
A A IT S




[permanent

15

I

[ temporary




ACCIDENT BEOOBD TO 1919.
Chart 37.

247

248

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.




Chart 38.

249

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919,

TUBE MILLS.

The tube mills have nearly as low rates as the sheet mills, but they
are much less regular. The fluctuation chart indicates that their range
of variation was rather wide. This is due in part to the fact that the
tube mill as ordinarily considered is made up of two rather distinct
elements, (1) the furnaces and rolling and drawing apparatus and
(2) the finishing floor, where the operations are more like those of a
machine shop.
For some reason the tube mills were influenced by the conditions
attending the war period to an unusual degree. In the year which
seems on the whole to be the culmination of war-time conditions
(1917) the rates both for frequency and severity shot up with sur­
prising rapidity, subsiding, not so rapidly, the following year.
T

able

7 8 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR TU BE MILLS, 1907
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Number of cases.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours'
exposure).

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1907.................

2,007

1

4

575

580

0.7

95.5

96.4

1.0

0.6

1.5

3.1

1910.................
1911........ .
1912.................
1913................1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

9,767
13,676
17,080
18,909
13,906.
7,109
11,355
19,819
18,499
18,326
22,666

3
1
10
15
7
2
2
17
8
9
13

25
53
60
72
39
21
26
51
41
39
71

1,608
2,080
2,154
1,586
1,195
182
425
1,967
1,127
1,127
2,166

1,636
2,134
2,224
1,673
1,241
205
453
2,035
1,176
1,172
2,250

.1
.03
.5
.3
.2
.1
.1
.3
.1
.2
.2

.9
1.3
1.2
1.3
.9
1.0
.8
.9
.7
.7
1.0

54.9
50.7
42.0
28.0
28.6
8.5
12.5
33.1
20.3
20.4
31.9

55.9
52.0
43.7
29.6
29.7
9.6
13.4
34.3
21.1
21.3
33.1

.6
.2
1.3
1.6.
1.0
.6
.4
1.7
.9
1.0
1.1

.4
.8
.8
.7
.6
.6
.3
.5
.4
.6
.5

.7
.5
.5
.4
.4
.2
.3
.4
.3
.3
.5

1.7
1.5
2.5
2.7
2.9
1.4
1.9
2.6
1.6
1.9
2.1

36
38

249
178

8,623
4,825

8,908
5,041

.2
.2

1.1
.8

39.2
21.4

40.5
22.4

1.0
1.0

.7
.5

.5
.3

2.2
1.8

1910 to 1914... 73,338
1915 to 1919... 75,108

71087°— 22-




Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­
ma­
po­
nent rary
nent rary
Death. dis­
Total. Death.
Total. Death. nent rary Total.
dis­
dis­
dis­
dis­ dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.

-17

0.2

250

ACCIDENTS IN

TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Chart 39.

PEf?t-

ACCID T^SEVERITY R T S IN TUBE M
EN
AE
ILLS

005




FO SPECIFIED P R D
R
E IO S
ID

FATALITIES.

PERM EN
AN T

15

1

1TEM
PORARY




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 19*19.
C h j a je t *0

251

252

ACCIDENT'S IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

UNCLASSIFIED ROLLING MILLS.

The unclassified rolling mills are a miscellaneous group whose exact
status it was not possible to determine. The showing is chiefly in­
teresting because it reflects in considerable measure the situation in
the mills which are hand operated as distinguished from those more
largely mechanically operated.
When the two 5-year periods are contrasted, it is evident that a
very material improvement has come about.
T

able

7 9 .—ACCIDENT FR E Q U E N C Y AND SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR UNCLASSIFIED R O LL­
ING MILLS, 1910 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1*15.................
Iyl6.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
19201...............

14,434
21,231
22,909
23,382
22,873
4,367
8,082
27,978
37,163
25,106
21,055

15
16
16
24
11
2
5
10
22
14
16

1910 to 1914... 104,829
1915 to 1919... 102,696

82
53

Per­
ma­
Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Subject to correction.




Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per- Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma-, po­
rary
Total. Death. nent rary Total. Death. nent rary Total.
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity. ity.
4,925
3,480
4,752
5,159
3,627
491
952
4,335
4, 111
3,026
2,869

0.3
.3
.2
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1
.2
.2
.3

360 21,501 21,943
218 12,644 12,915

.3
.2

49
76
76
84
75
14
25
60
74
45
68

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

4,861
3,388
4,660
5,051
3,541
475
922
4,265
4,015
2,967
2,785

1.1 112.3 113.7
1.2 53.2 54.7
1.1 67.8 69.1
1.2 72.0 73.5
1.1 51.6 52.9
1.1 36.2 37.5
1.0 38.0 39.2
.7 50.8 51.6
.7 36.0 36.9
.6- 39.4 40.2
1.1 44.1 45.4

2.1
1.5
1.5
2.0
1.0
.9
1.2
.7
1.2
1.1
1.5

1.6
1.1
1.0
1.1
.8
.5
.6
.7
.5
.4
.9

1.3
.7
.9
1.0
.7
.4
.7
.7
.5
.6
.5

5.0
3.3
3.4
4.1
2.5
1.8
2.5
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.9

1.2
.7

1.7
1.0

1.1
.5*

.9
.6

3.7
2.1

71.8
41.0

73.3
41.9

ACCIDENT RECORD'TO 1919.

253

Chart 41.

A C E T SEVERITY RATESJN U C SSIFIE RO
C ID N
N LA
D
LLIN M
G
ILLS
FOR SPECIFIED PERIODS.
15

10

FATA
LITIE
S




PERM EN
AN T

□

TEMPORARY

254

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,




€ hajit 42.

255

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

FABRICATING SHOPS.

The fabricating shops resemble in many particulars the machineusing mechanical departments. They differ in the amount of shift­
ing that it is necessary to do by means of cranes. The handling of
heavy girders seems to involve, as does crane operation in general, a
considerable number of severe injuries. Of a severity rate in 19151919 of 18.55 days per 10,000 hours7 exposure due to machinery in
these shops, 12.46 days were due to the operation of cranes.
The second 5-year period shows a material improvement over the first.
T able

8 0 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R A T E S FOR F A m iC A T lN O SHOES,
1907 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

A

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Number of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

ccident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Accident severity rates
(pef 1,900 hours’
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per- Tesnpo­
ma­
po­
m s*
p&
rary
nent rary
Total. Death. dis­ dis­ Total. Dearth. nent rary Total.
dis­
disUs­
abil­ abil­
abil­
abil- abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.
; ity. ity.

1907.................

2,081

6

12

571

589

1.0

5.8

2.$

0.8

0.5

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

8,713
19,530
28,988
30,470
20,837
3,818
4,980
23,614
29,166
19,407
17,216

11
8
32
34
13
*3
7
21
22
6
14

33
92
119
104
77
15
25
67
29
27
68

3,901
3,244
6,890
7,368
4,103
471
703
4,192
5,077
2,752
2,721

3,945
3,344
7,041
7,506
4,193
489
735
4,280
5,128
2,785
2,803

.4
.1
.4
.4
.2
.3
.5
.3
.3
.1
.2

1.3 149.2 150.9
2.5
1.6 55.4 57.1. 1
,7
1.4 79.2 81.0
2.1
2.2
1.1 80.6 82.1
1.2 65.6 67.0
1.2
1.3 41.1 42.7
1,6
1.7 47.1 49.3
2.8
.9 59.2 60.4
1.8
.3 58.0 58.6
1.5
.5 47.3 47.9
.7
1.3 52.7 5 4 . 2
1.6

1.0
1.#

1A

5.4
2.3
3.8
3.8
2.9
2.9
4.4
3.1
2.6
1.5
3.3

1910 to 1914... 108,538
1915 to 1919... 80,985

98
59

425 25,506 26,029
163 13,195 13,417

.3
.2

1.3
.7




1.9

91.5

78.3
54.3

94.4

79.9
55.2

1.7
1.5

A
A

LO
.6
.7
.6
.3
1.1
.9*
.5

.6
,8 :
.8
.7
.7
.2
.7
.6
,5
A

.8 •
A

3.4
2.6

256

A C C ID E N T S I N

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

C h a r t 43.

FATALITIES




PERMANENT

□

TEMPORARY

A C C ID E N T

RECORD
Ch a k t 4 4

F L U C T U A T IO N

OF

A C C ID E N T

FRET- SE­
Q E - VERITY
U TN
,C X,,.

1910




1911

1912

1913

.

RATES

F A B R IC A T IN G
1914

257

TO 1919.

FROM

1910

to

1919

SHOPS
1915

1916

1917

1918,

1919

2 5 8

A C C ID E N T S I N

THE

IB O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

FORGE SHOPS.

The accident fluctuation in forge shape from 1915 to 1920 is shown
in Table 81.
T able 8 1 .—

ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR FORGE SHOPS,
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S , AND 1910 TO 1919 B Y PERIODS.

Number of cases*
Year or
period.

Num­
Per­
ber of
work­
ma­
ers. Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure).

Accident severity rates
(per 1,090 hours'
exposure).

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
rary Total. Death. nent rary Totah Death.
dis­ dis­
dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­
ity. ity.
ity.

3,881
6,408
2,169
2,197

3
4
2

15
26
4
5

917
1,009
257
380

935
1,039
263
385

0.3
.2
.3

1910 to 1914... 6)249
1916 to 1919... 12,667

8
9

19
45

1,080
2,189

1,107
2,243

.4
.2

1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920___ . . . .

1.3 78.8
3-.
1.4 S 2
.6 ' 39.5
*
. 8 58. 6
1.0
1.2

57.6
57.6

1 917

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary Total.
dis­ dis­
abil­ abil­
ity. ity.

80.4
54.8
40.4
59.4

1.5
1.2
1.8

1.6
1.1
.3
.8

1.3
.7
.6
.7

4.4
3.0
2.7
1.5

59.0
59.0

2.6
1.4

.6
1.1

.7
.9

3.9
3.4

WIRE DRAWING.

The most notable feature of the record for wire drawing is the
large contribution to the severity rate made by permanent injury.
This is conspicuous in each o f the years covered by the record.
This is related to the liability of the worker to become entangled
in the wire as it comes off the reel and moves toward the block.
When so entangled there is every likelihood that, unless the machine
is provided with a stop such as is made a part o f the design in
modern practice, the worker may lose a hand, a foot, or at least a
finger. There are still enough draw benches of the older type, to
which no stop has been applied, to maintain the excess in this matter
of permanent injury.
The fluctuation chart shows that after an initial rapid rise in the
war period there was a most striking decline in both frequency and
severity.
T a b l e 8 2 . —ACCIDENT




F R E Q U E N C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R A T E S F O R W IR E D R A W IN G , 1910
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.

A C C ID E N T RE-CCKED 1 0

1^19.

2 5 9

C h a r t 45.

PR
E I­
OS
D

ACCIDENT




SEVER IT Y
FOR

RATES

SP E C IF IE D

IN

WIRE

DRAWING

PER IO D S.

K
3

F ATAL IT IES

PERMANENT

15

□

TEMPORARY

2 6 0

A C C ID E N T S I N




T H E IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

Chart 46.

A C C ID E N T

RECORD

TO

261

1919.

E L E C T R IC A L D E P A R T M E N T .

The record for the electrical department is a distinct disappoint­
ment. The severity is high and there is no indication of any im­
provement. The exposure to fatal electric shock is reflected in the
irregularity of the rate and the proportion of it which is attributable
to deaths.
It has been demonstrated by some companies that the work of
this department can be carried on with a much greater degree of
safety than is indicated by this record. In another smaller group
which has been studied regarding the matter of causes of injury to
these workers the severity rate of the latter 5-year period shown in
the table is 5.2 days instead of 7.2 days. Since the smaller group is
included in the larger it is evident that there is a section of the in­
dustry in which conditions for the electrical workers are distinctly
bad.
T able

8 3 .—ACCIDENT FR E Q U E N C Y AND SE V E R IT Y R AT ES IN TH E ELECTRICAL
D E P A R T M E N T , 1910 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AN D PER IO D S.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

1,526
2,760
3,796
4,012
2,327
612
1,635
4,385
4,747
4,644
4,473

2
3
6
14
8
1
6
16
10
13
5

3
9
15
15
6
1
6
16
10
7
3

282
356
523
495
301
23
289
571
485
483
403

287
368
544
524
315
25
301
603
505
503
411

0.4
.4
.5
1.2
1.1
.5
1.2
1.2
.7
.9
.4

0.7
1.1
1.3
1.2
.9
.5
1.2
1.2
.7
.5
.2

61.6
43.0
45.9
41.1
43.1
12.5
58.9
43.4
34.1
34.7
30.0

62.7
44.5
47.7
43.5
45.1
13.5
61.3
45.8
35.5
36.1
30.6

2.6
2.2
3.1
7.0
6.9
3.3
7.3
7.3
4.2
5.6
2.2

0.9
.9
1.7
1.2
1.0
.2
.4
1.3
1.1
.9
.1

0.7
.5
.5
.5
.5
.1
.8
.7
.4
.5
.4

4.2
3.6
5.3
8.7
8.4
3.6
8.5
9.3
5.7
7.0
2.7

1910 to 1914... 14,921
1915 to 1919... 16,023

33
46

48
40

1,957
1,851

2,038
1,937

.8
1.0

1.1
.8

45.2
38.5

47.1
40.3

4.6
5.7

1.2
1.0

.5
.5

6.3
7.2




Per­
ma­
nent
Death.
dis­
abil­
ity.

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
Death.
dis­
dis­
dis­
dis­ Total.
dis­ Total.
abil­ abil­
abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity. ity.

2& 2

A C C ID E N T S I N

THE

IR O N
Ch a r t

H




FATALITIES

AND

ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

47.

PERMANENT

□

TEMPORARY




A C C ID E N T BECOBD TO 1M.91
.

263

264

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.

The mechanical department shows -a definite improvement as to
safety in the second .5-year period. It is not, however, as large as
might have been expected. It is necessary repeatedly to recall the
fact that this later period includes the war. To have come through
that with a decrease instead of an increase is in itself an achievement.
The curves of the fluctuation chart run in this case an unusually
parallel course. This indicates that specially severe injuries do not
so frequently intrude with their disturbing influence as is the case
in some of the departments.
T a b l e 8 4 . — ACCIDENT

F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R A T E S IN M ECHANICAL D E ­
PAR TM EN TS, 1908 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S AN D PERIODS.

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total. Death. nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
dis­ dis­ Total.
dis­ dis­
dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity. ity.

1908.................

1,619

4

7

430

441

0.8

1.4

89.1

91.3

4.9

0.6

1.1

6.6

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920..................

15,927
17,863
21,591
24,009
17, 772
5,987
16,920
33,328
58,002
40,609
34,648

18
13
19
36
18
3
9
43
54
45
26

56
80
95
103
60
27
86
134
162
83
68

2,618
3,015
4,040
4,972
3,149
573
2,245
5,201
6,054
4,483
3,767

2,692
3,108
4,154
5,111
3,227
603
2,340
5,378
6,270
4,611
3,861

.4
.2
.3
.5
.3
.2
.2
.4
.3
.4
.3

1.2
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.1
1.5
1.7
1.3
.9
.7
.7

54.8
56.3
62.4
69.0
59.1
31.9
44.2
52.0
34.8
36.8
36.2

56.4
58.0
64.2
70.9
60.5
33.6
46.1
53.7
36.0
37.9
37.2

2.3
1.5
1.8
2.9
2.0
1.0
1.1
2.6
1.9
2.2
1.5

.9
1.1
1.2
1.0
1.0
.7
1.5
1.0
1.0
.7
.6

.5
.7
.8
.9
.7
.4
.6
.8
.4
.5
.5

3.7
3.3
3.8
4.8
3.7
2.1
3.2
4.4
3.3
3.4
2.6

1910 to 1914... 97,161
1915 to 1919. .. 154,846

104
154

392 17, 794 18,292
492 18,556 19,202

.4
.3

1.3
1.1

61.0
39.9

62.7
41.3

2.1
2.0

1.1
1.0

.8
.5

4.0
3.5




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.

265

CHAET 49.

H

FATALITIES.

71087“— 22------18




PERM
ANENT

□

TEM
PORARY

266

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
CHART 50.

POWER HOUSES.

Table 85 presents the trend of accident rates for power houses from
1915 to 1920.




ACCIDENT RECORD TO

1919,

267

Table 85.—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND SE V E R IT Y RATES FOR PO W ER HOUSES, 1917
TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S, AND 1912 TO 1919, B Y PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

4,552
3,699
4,093
4,591

7
9
11
4

7
10
2
1

210
254
213
172

224
273
226
177

0.5
.8
.9
.3

0.5
.9
.2
.1

15.4
22.9
17.3
12.5

16.4
24.6
18.4
12.9

3.1
4.9
5.4
1.7

1912 to 1914... 8,083
1915 to 1919... 13,219

6
27

21
21

544
739

571
787

.2
.7

.9
.5

22.4
18.6

23.5
19.8

1.5
4.1

Per­
ma­
nent
Death.
dis­
abil­
ity.

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
po­
ma­
rary
nent rary
dis­ Total. Death. dis­
dis­ Total. Death.
abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.

Tem­
po­
nent rary
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity.
Per­
ma­

1.0
,5
.1

C)
.8

0.3
.4
.2
.2

4.4
5.8
5.7
1.9

.3

2.6
5.0

.3

1 Less than 0.05.

YARDS.

The yards department is an extraordinarily difficult one to deal
with from the safety standpoint. Its salient feature is movement.
Wherever there may be sudden approach at varying speeds accidents
are likely to happen. The slight excess in the severity rates for the
second 5-year period would have been much more pronounced had it
not been for the fact that 1915 had no deaths.
On the whole it must be said that conditions in the internal trans­
portation of the plants have shown no improvement since the earliest
records were compiled. This is partly due to the fact that in many
large plants the growth has gone beyond the available space and a
condition of congestion prevails which can not be remedied without
more drastic changes in arrangement than the management is as yet
willing to undertake.
T able

8 6 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR Y A R D S , 1907 TO 1920,
B Y Y E A R S AND PERIODS.
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Nttmber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­
po­
po­
ma­
rary
rary
nent rary Total.
Total. Death. nent dis­ Total. Death. dis­
dis­
dis­
dis­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity.
ity.

1907.................

2,618

5

10

509

524

0.6

1.2

64.8

66.6

3.8

2.6

1.1

7.5

1910.................
1911.................
1912.................
1913.................
1914.................
1915..............
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

15,932
9,085
11,180
11,859
7,879
3,843
7,853
15,732
16,354
10,108
12,087

40
11
23
28
10

2,054
1,336
1,940
1,807
975
417
929
1,792
1,526
1,021
922

2,143
1,390
2,027
1,885
1,022
432
997
1,905
1,621
1,094
965

.8
.4
.7
.8
.4
.5
.8
.7
.8
.3

1.0
1.6
1.9
1.4
1.6
1.3
2.4
1.6
1.2
1.6
.9

43.0
49.0
57.8
52.0
41.2
36. 2
39.4
38.0
31.1
33.7
25. 4

44.8
51.0
60.4
54.2
43.2
37.5
42.3
40.4
33.0
36.1
26.6

5.0
2.4
4.1
4.7
2.5

i2
36
33
25
10

49
43
64
50
37
15
56
77
62
48
33

3.1
4.6
4.0
4.9
1.7

1.0
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
1.0
2.2
1.7
1.2
1.9
1.3

.5
.7
.8
.7
.6
.4
.6
.6
.6
.6
.4

6.5
5.0
6.3
6.4
4.5
1.4
5.9
6.9
5.8
7.4
3.4

1910 to 1914... 55,932
1915 to 1919... 53,890

112
106

243
258

8,112
5,685

8,467
6,049

.7
.7

1.5
1.6

48.6
35.2

50.8
37.5

4.0
3.9

1.4
1.6

.6
.6

6.0
6.1




2 6 8

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
Ch ar t

■FAm m Es




51.

PERM
ANENT

I

|TEMPORARY




ACCIDENT RECORD TO
C h a r t 52.

1919.

269

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

270

ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL.

In Table 87 are presented the accident frequency and severity
rates for the erection of structural steel, from 1915 to 1920.
T

able

ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL
ERECTION, 1915 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S , AN D 1912 TO 1919 B Y PER IO D S.

8 7 .—

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure).

Num­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ber of
work­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­
nent rary Total. Death. nent rary
ers. Death. nent rary
dis­ Total. Death. dis­ dis­
dis­
dis­ dis­ Total.
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity.
ity. ity.

1915..................
1916..................
1917..................
1918..................
1919..................
1920.................

803
1,011
1,156
1,234
775
637

12
10
5
6

7
3
15
3
7
12

251
251
442
364
214
204

266
264
469
'377
226
222

3.3
3.3
3.5
2.7
2.2
3.3

2.9 104.2 110.4
1.0 82.7 87.0
4.3 127.5 135.3
.8 98.3 101.8
3.0 86.8 92.0
6.6 111.8 121.7

19.9
19.8
20.8
16.2
12.9
19.7

4.3
1.7
4.0
2.0
1.3
3.7

1.2
i:7
2.2
1.4
1.3
2.5

25.4
23.2
27.0
19.6
15.5
25.9

1912 to 1914...
1915 to 1919...

2,157
4,979

26
45

24
35

738
1,522

788
1,602

4.0
3.0

3.7 114.0 121.7
2.3 101.9 107.2

24.1
18.1

5.5
2.6

1.8
1.6

31.4
22.3

8
W

It has long been known that this department was among the most
hazardous in which men are occupied It probably has not been
fully realized that it was the most hazardous of all. Consulta­
tion of Table 89 (p. 274) will show that in the severity of accidents
only one department (doeks and ore yards) exceeds the structuralsteel -erectors in any particular. The severity rate for permanent
disability for docks ana ore yards for 1915 to 1919 is 4.1 days per 1,000
hours’ exposure, while erectors have 2.6 days. Since the exposure in
docks and ore yards is rather small, the rates are less reliable than
those for the larger departments.
The erectors’ severity from fatal injury of 18.1 days may be con­
trasted with the rate for brakemen in railway yards (16.6 days),
road freight brakemen (14.1 days), electrical workers (5.7 days), and
blast-furnace employees (4.7 days).
The five years ending with 1919 show a decided improvement when
compared with the earlier period (22.3 days as against 31.4 days).
Two things are perfectly clear when these rates are considered:
(1) Conditions in erecting are sufficiently serious to call for the most
careful attention from those in charge; (2) the experience seems to
indicate that much improvement is possible.
The inherent hazard of this occupation must be recognized as high.
Added to this are some features which differentiate it from what may
be termed fixed industry. Where all apparatus is necessarily port­
able it is much more difficult to apply adequate safeguards. All
construction work is likely to be carried on under conditions of greater
hurry and pressure than in ordinary manufacturing. Both contractor
and owner are desirous of the earliest possible termination of the
operation. Such conditions of haste do not make for safety. The
temporary and migratory character of the business makes it more
difficult to organize the working force along the lines which have
roved successful in safety work in ordinary plants. It is clear,
owever, that these difficulties are not insurmountable. The same

E




ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919.
271




C h a r t 53.

272

ACCIDENT'S IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

principles that govern in fixed industry are applicable here, and the
attention now being directed toward them by important construc­
tion firms should bring a further improvement in the near future.
The high rates prevalent in this occupation have often been ascribed
to the reckless behavior of the men. This, like all such explanations,
should be regarded with much skepticism. The poise with which
one of these men works under conditions which would be impossible
to a less experienced man is an evidence of his training rather than
any willful disregard of his own safety. It has not been possible to
make a critical study of the causes which are operative in this field
such as has been made in some of the iron and steel departments,
but such attention as it has been possible to give indicates very
definitely that here, as elsewhere, there is great chance for the appli­
cation of engineering skill in devising methods both safer and more
efficient than those now in use.
MISCELLANEOUS DEPARTMENTS.

In Table 88 are given accident frequency and severity rates for
1915 to 1920 for the following miscellaneous departments: Coke
ovens, armor-plate works, axle works, car wheels, docks and ore yards,
woven-wire fence, nails and staples, and unclassified departments.
T

8 8 . — ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR M ISCELLANEOUS
DEPAR TM EN TS IN TH E IRON AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S
AN D FOR SPECIFIED PER IODS.

able

COKE OVENS.
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure).

Number of cases.
Year or
period.

Num­
Per­
ber of
work­
ma­
ers. Death. nent
dis­
abil­
ity.

1915.................
1,648
1916.................. 2,195
1917.................
6,641
9,395
1918.................
9,022
1919.................
8,620
1920.................
1912 to 1914... 13,282
1915 to 1919... 28,901

2
5
26
21
12
6
27
66

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours'
exposure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­
po­
ma­
po­
rary
rary
Total. Death. nent dis­ Total. Death. nent rary Total.
dis­
dis­
dis­
dis­
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity.
ity. ity.
ity.
ity.

4
6
10
14
10
11
39
44

128
150
508
662
647
518
1,651
2,095

134
161
544
697
669
535
1,717
2,205

0.8
.9
.5
.5
.4
.4
1.0
.5

0.4
.8
1.3
.7
.4
.2
.7
.8 .

25.9
22.7
25.5
23.5
23.9
10.0
41.4
24.1

27.1
24.4
27.3
24.7
24.7
10.6
43.1
25.4

2.4
4.6
7.8
4.5
2.7
1.4
4.1
4.6

0.6
.5
.5
.5
.6
.7
1.5
.5

0.3
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.6
.4

3.3
5.5
8.7
5.4
3.7
2.4
6.2
5.5

49.2
53.6
42.5
57.6
41.9
50.4

3.0
5.6
3.8
1.8
2.7
3.8

1.8
.1
.1

1.1
.9
.6
.8
.7
.8

5.9
6.6
4.5
2.6
3.9
4.9

0.3
.1
.9
1.1
.7
.7
1.6
.7

3.4
.1
.fl
5. C
.7
.7
6.7
l.g

ARMOR-PLATE WORKS.
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1911 to 1914...
1916 to 1919...

660
1,438
1,581
1,082
3,000
4,761

1
4
3
1
4
9

2
2
1 ,
12
5

96
225
198
186
362
705

99
231
202
187
378
719

0.5
.9
.6
.3
.4
.6

1.0
.5
.2
1.3
.4

47.7
52.2
41.7
57.3
40.2
49.9

.5
.3

AXLE WORKS.
1915.................
1916..................
1917..................
1918.................
1919..................
1920.................
1912 to 1914...
1915 to 1919...

191
372
713
609
582
743
1,326
2,467




1
3
2

4
4

21
17
81
156
63
100
438
338

22
17
81
159
63
100
444
342

1.7

0.5

36.6 38.3
15.2 15. 2
37.9 37. 9
1.6 85.4 87.0
36.1 36.1
44.8 44.8
1.0 110.1 111.6
.5 45.7 46.2

3.1
3.9
3.0

2.1
1.2

ACCIDENT RECORD TO 1919,

273

T able 8 8 .—ACCIDENT F R E Q U E N C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR M ISCELLANEOUS
DEPAR TM EN TS IN TH E IR ON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1920, B Y Y E A R S
AND FOR SPECIFIED PER IODS—Concluded.

CAR WHEELS.
Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
(per 1,000 hours' exposure).
posure).

Number of cases.

Year or
period.

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. dis­
abil­
ity.

1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

389 .. . . . .
734
1,296
3
1
1,866
1,619
1
1,215

1912 to 1914...
9115 to 1919...

2,367
5,904

3
7

1
2
4

Tem­
Per­
po­
ma­
rary
nent
dis­ Total. Death. dis­
abil­
abil­
ity.
ity.

11
4

25
348
250
337
353
170

26
352
257
338
365
174

0.9
.8
.2
.2

15
18

609
1,313

627
1,338

.4
.4

Tem­
Per­
po­
ma­
rary
nent
dis­ Total. Death. dis­
abil­
abil­
ity.
ity.

0.9 21.4 22.3
.9 158.0 159.8
1.0 64.3 66.1
60. 2 60.4
2.3 72.6 75.1
1.0 46.7 47.7

5.4
4.6
1.1
1.2

2.1
1.0

88.3
75.5

85.8
74.1

0.3
1.0
.4

Tem­
po­
rary Total.
dis­
abil­
ity.

i.o
.9

0.7
2.1
.9
.6
1.0
.6

1.0
8.5
x5.9
1.7
3.2
1.5

2.5
2.4

.9
.5

1.3
1.0

4.7
3.9

0.1
.5
1.0
.3
.5
.1

2.4
38.6
13.0
6.0
10.9
8.3

DOCKS AND ORE YARDS.
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

115
195
353
368
352
379

3
2
1

1911 to 1914...
1915 to 1919...

1,293
1,383

7
16
78
35
39
12

9
21
81
37
45
15

5.1
1.9
.9

1

2
2
1
1
6
2

3
6

11
12

139
175

153
193

20.3
27.4
73.6
31.7
37.0
10.6

26.1
35.9
76.4
33.5
42.7
13.3

30.8
11.3
5.4

.9

5.8
3.4
.9
.9
5.7
1.8

5.3

2.3
7.3
.7
.3
10.4
2.9

.8
1.4

2.8
2.9

35.8
42.2

39.4
46.5

4.6
8.7

2.8
4.1

.8
.5

8.2
13.3

2.1
3.7
2.6
1.1
1.0
1.8

63.1
37.0
25.7
16.8
8.7
14. 6

65.2
40. 7
28.3
17.9
9.9
16.4

1.2
3.0
2.1
1.0
.6
2.9

0.5
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2

1.7
3.4
2.5
1.2
2.3
3.1

2.1

31.2

33.4

.3

1.6

.3

2.2

1.7
1.0
2.1
1.2
.5
.8

0.3
1.4
.3
.2
.1
.1

3.3
2.4
3.3
1.4
.6
.9

WOVEN-WIRE FENCE.
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

1,552
1,623
1,269
1,531
1,336
1,097

1915 to 1919...

7,311

1
1

10
18
10
5
4
6

294
180
98
77
35
48

304
198
108
82
40
54

47

684

732

0.2
.1

1.5

NAILS AND STAPLES.
1915.................
1916.................
1917.................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................

1,546
1,993
2,323
1,916
2,040
2,364

1

1915 to 1919...

9,818

2

1

12
10
16
10
8
8

181
236
184
123
58
164

194
246
201
133
66
172

0.2

56

782

840

.1

.1

2.6
.2
2.3
1.7
1.3
1.1

39.0
39.5
26.4
21.4
9.5
23.1

41.8
39.7
28.8
23.1
10.8
24.2

1.3

1.9

26.5

28.5

.4

1.3

.3

2.0

.9

UNCLASSIFIED.
1915................. 21,547
1916................. 24, 216
1917................. 71,249
1918................. 97,513
1919................. 78,804
1920................. 104, 741

16
17
65
79
60
72

41 2,749 2,806
72 2,714 2,803
164 8,165 8,394
284 9,930 10,293
145 7,054 7,259
261 11,208 11,541

0.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2

0.6
1.0
.8
1.0
.6
.8

42.5
37.4
38.2
33.9
29.8
35.7

43.3
38.6
39.3
35.2
30.7
36.7

1.5
1.4
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4

0.6
1.4
.8
.9
.7
.9

0.6
.6
.5
.5
.4
.5

2.7
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.8

1915 to 1919... 293,329

237

706 30,612 31,555

.3

.8

34.8

35.9

1.6

1.3

.5

3.4




274

ACCIDENT'S IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
A N E W S T A N D A R D O F C O M P A R IS O N .

In Bulletin No. 234 the suggestion was made that the period of five
years from 1910 to 1914 afforded a sufficient exposure to be regarded
as typical of the industry and the departments composing it. It
afforded, therefore, a fair standard by which to measure the success
of the safety movement, since it covered a period in which the efforts
for safety had become somewhat standardized and in which time had
been afforded for them to exercise a reasonable amount of influence.
With the intrusion of the great war it would not have been greatly
surprising if conditions had arisen much less satisfactory than those
of the earner period. Fortunatelv, the safety movement had become
sufficiently strong so that not only did it prevent serious increase of
rates but oft the whole it was able materially to lower them. It is
proper, therefore, to insist that the experience of 1915 to 1919 should
now be regarded as a representative standard by which the various
departments may test their progress. Lower rates than those of that
period represent progress, higher rates misfortune or disgrace. Either
condition ought to be the basis for continued effort which should in
the next five years set a still higher standard.
T a b l e 8 9 — ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AN D S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR THE IRON AND STEEL

IN D U ST R Y FOR THE 5-YEAR PERIOD 1915 TO 1919.

Number of cases.

Department.

Blastfurnaces___
Bessemer...............
Open hearths........
Crucible.................
Foundries.............
Bar mills...............
Heavy
rolling
mills...................
Plate mills.............
Puddling mills___
Rod mills..............
Sheet mills............
Tube mills............
Miscellaneous roll­
ing mills.............
Fabricating...........
Forge shops..........
Wire drawing.......
Electrical...............
Mechanical...........
Power houses.......
Yards.....................
Structural steel
erection..............
Coke ovens...........
Armor plate.........
Axle works...........
Car wheels.............
Docks and ore
yards...................
Wire fence.............
Nails and staples..
Unclassified..........

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
nent
Death. disa­
bil­
ity.

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
exposure).
posure).

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
nent rary
rary Total. Death. disa­ disa­
disa­
bil­ bil­
bility.
ity. ity.

To­
tal.

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
rary
Death. nent disa­ To­
disa­
tal
bil­ bil­
ity. ity.

136,166
25,645
86,175
4,647
92,746
24,081

317
62
191
2
84
20

312 15,287 15,916
112 4,262 4,436
317 12,563 13,071
13
766
781
277 16,604 16,965
77 4,745 4,842

0.8
.8
.7
.1
.3
.3

0.8
1.5
1.2
.9
1.0
1.1

37.4
55. 4
48.6
54.9
59.7
65.6

39.0
57.7
50.5
55.9
61.0
67.0

4.7
4.8
4.4
.9
1.8
1.7

0.9
1.1
1.2
1.0
.9
.7

0.5
1.0
.9
.8
.7
.7

6.1
6.9
6.5
2.7
3.4
3.1

75,166
35,073
8,460
15,218
104,335
75,108

91
25
4
14
37
38

275 6,950 7,316
89 4,016 4,130
15 1,082 1,101
70 1,721 1,805
172 10,034 10,243
178 4,825 5,041

.4
.2
.2
.3
.1
.2

1.2
.8
.6
1.5
.5
.8

30.8
38. 2
42.6
37.7
32.1
21.4

32.4
39.2
43.4
39.5
32.7
22.4

2.4
1.4
.9
1.8
.7
1.0

1.0
.6
.4
1.3
.4
.5

.5
.5
.6
.5
.4
.3

3.9
2.5
1.9
3.6
1.5
1.8

102,696
80,985
12,667
52,666
16,023
154,846
13,219
53,890

53
59
9
12
46
154
27
106

218 12,644 12,915
163 13,195 13,417
45 2,189 2,243
321 6,912 7,245
40 1,851 1,937
492 18,556 19,202
21
787
739
258 5,685 6,049

.2
.2
.2
.1
1.0
.3
.7
.7

.7
.7
1. 2
2.0
.8
1.1
.5
1.6

41.0
54.3
57.6
43.7
38.5
39.9
18.6
35.2

41.9
55. 2
59.0
45.8
40.3
41.3
19.9
37.5

1.0
1.5
1.4
.5
5.7
2.0
4.1
3.9

.5
.5
1.1
1.6
1.0
1.0
.6
1.6

.6
.6
.9
.5
.5
.5
.3
.6

2.1
2.6
3.4
2.6
7. 2
3.5
5.0
6.1

4,979
29,901
4,761
2,467
5,904

45
66
9

1,522’ 1,602
2,095 2,205
705
719
338
342
1,313 1,338

3.0
.8
.6

2.3 101.9 107.2
.5 24.1 25.4
.4 49.9 50.4
.5 45. 7 46. 2
1.0 74.1 75.5

18.1
4.6
3.8

1.6
.4
.8

2.4

2.6
.5
.3
L2
.5

1.0

22.3
5.5
4.9
1.9
3.9

1,383
7,311
9,818
293,329

6
1
2
237

12
175
193
47
684
732
56
782
840
706 30,612 31,555

1.4
.1
.1
.3

8.7
«3
.4
1.6

4.1
1.6
1.3
1.3

.5
.3
.3
.5

13.3
2.2
2.0
3.4




7

35
44
5
4
18

.4

2.9
2.1
1.9
.8

42.2
31.2
26.5
34.8

46.5
33.4
28.5
35.9

. 7

CHAPTER X.— ACCIDENT RATES AND THE WAR.

For a very long time to come the question of the influence of the
World War upon our social and industrial life will be a subject of
earnest debate. It is accordingly appropriate to devote a chapter
of this bulletin to presenting some illustrations which seem most
clearly to indicate the result upon accident rates which war conditions
have tended to produce.
BASIC D EPARTM EN TS OF TH E INDUSTRY.

The first case to be considered is that of a group of mills which have
been combined because they afford opportunity both to determine
severity rates and to examine the movement in considerable detail.
These mills are largely devoted to the fundamental departments of
the industry, namely, blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills.
They employed in the years covered (1914 to 1919) men varying in
number from 35,000 to 50,000. The size of the group is accordingly
sufficient to assume that the results obtained are fairly typical.
Chart 54 will first be considered, in which are shown from month to
month over the six years the fluctuations of four items, namely,
employment, frequency of nondisabling accident, frequency of dis­
abling accident, and severity of disabling accident. The figures of
each group are reduced to index numbers on the basis of January,
1914, as 100. They are then plotted on a percentage scale which
shows the per cent of increase or decrease from month to month.
It is desirable before proceeding with discussion of the features of
this chart to emphasize one point which is brought out by it. That
is the accidental character of accidents. Even in a group of employees
as large as the present one, it will be found that general conclusions
which seem to be fully warranted are flatly contradicted by a great
number of special cases. Accidents in their very nature depend on
combinations of circumstances which might never occur twice. It
is the unexpected which gives character to accidental happenings.
This is true m some measure of all types of accidents, but particularly
is it true of those which involve death or serious injury. It should
be expected therefore that just such fluctuations as those recorded
between the months would occur. The fact that there is not the
same regularity as that found in other statistical fields does not in the
least imply imperfection in the basic data nor error in the treatment.
If employment be considered, it will become evident that it was
fairly constant during the first eight months of 1914. It is known
from other sources of information that this was at a considerably lower
level than for the year 1913, which was a year of particularly high
activity in the industry. There is then a further decline from which
recovery begins with 1915. This increase continues with some un­
steadiness until a maximum is reached in the month of January, 1919.
From that point there is a general tendency to decline.
Turning now to nondisabling accidents, it will appear that while
they are doubtless influenced by the changes in employment they are




275

CHART 54.—F LUCTUATION FROM MONTH TO MONTH OF SEVERITY R ATES, OF FREQU EN CY R ATES, AND OF EMPLOYMENT, 1914 TO 1919.

276
ACCIDENTS IN TH E IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,




ACCIDENT RATES AND TH E WAR.

277

more responsive to other and more obscure factors. When employ­
ment is at the lowest point this class of accidents is also at a low point.
From January, 1915, there is an irregular rise, more rapid than the
rise in employment, until August, 1916, from which there is a decline
with some upward movements in each year.
The frequency of disabling accidents runs a somewhat similar
course but nowhere departs so widely from the level of January, 1914,
as do nondisabling accidents. The high month is August, 1916, from
which point there is an irregular decline.
The severity of disabling accidents is much more irregular from
month to month and nowhere reaches a level as high as that of
January, 1914. The high months are August, 1916, February, March,
and August, 1918, and July, 1919. This irregularity and the frequent
departure from the showing regarding frequency are entirely normal
in view of the fact that the comparatively small number of deaths
have a controlling influence on severity rates and the deaths are not
distributed regularly.
Chart 54 shows the percentage variations which occur from month
to month. It is desirable to present the same data in a form in which
the irregularities are u smoothed” and the general trend of events
made evident without the confusion due to temporary conditions.
In Chart 55 the rates were calculated for the years endmg with each
month, beginning with December, 1914. Each point in the curves
resulting from plotting these values therefore represents an entire
year and the irregularities seen in Chart 54 are in a measure eliminated.
A study of Chart 55 reveals that there was a slight downward
trend in employment during the early portion accompanied by down­
ward movements in each of the three accident curves. This was
most pronounced in severity of disabling accident, less so in fre­
quency of disabling cases, and least in nondisabling cases.
Then, from the year ending June, 1915, to that ending June, 1916,
employment was rapidly increasing. Each of the accident curves
rises with the employment curve, the three pursuing nearly parallel
courses, and both frequency curves rising more rapidly than the
employment curve. It is known from other study of the situation
that this upward movement in employment involved a high accession
rate of men new to the business. The huge demand for steel which
came with the opening of the war led to taking on any man who
offered himself and seemed equal to the physical demands of the
task. Such a high accession rate of inexperienced men is always
accompanied by increasing accident rates.
From the year ending June, 1916, to that ending January, 1917,
the rise in employment continued, but at a less rapid rate. The
proportion of inexperienced men introduced is known to have been
markedly less. The accident curves rise to this point but show the
influence of the slackening in accessions. From the year ending
January, 1917, the employment curve continues to rise quite steadily
but the accident curves begin to decline. In the case of nondisabling
and disabling frequency this decline continues to the calendar year
1919.
In the severity curve there appears a striking disagreement with
the trend of frequency. While frequency is falling from the year
ending January, 1918, severity rises to the year ending December,




Chart 55.—TREND OF SE V E R IT Y R AT ES, OF FREQUENCY RATES FOR DISABLING AND N ONDISABLING ACCIDENTS, AND OF EM PLOY­
MENT, 1914 TO 1919.

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEER INDUSTRY,




ACCIDENT RATES AND THE WAR.

279

1918. From that point irregular decline occurs to the year ending
December, 1919.
Chart 54 attempts to present the fluctuations from month to month
and Chart 55 the general trend over the six years. With this picture
in mind it is possible to consider the relations of these several
curves to war conditions and to suggest some explanations of the
phenomena.
It may first be noted that the records embodied in the charts do
not go back quite far enough to give all the desirable information.
Periods of high industrial activity are necessarily those in which
accident rates will tend to rise. During the period from 1906 on­
ward there have been three conspicuous periods of this kind. They
are approximately 1906-1907, 1912-1913, 1916-1918. The death
rates, per 1,000,000 hours worked in the mills under consideration
for the years since 1910 are as follows: 1910, 0.70; 1911, 0.60;
1912, 0.63; 1913, 0.67;, 1914, 0.47; 1915, 0.37; 1916, 0.50; 1917, 0.40;
1918, 0.53; 1919, 0.40. It will be observed that these figures have
high points in 1910, 1913, and 1918, with depressed intervals be­
tween. The important point to be noted is that the prewar high
point of 1913 is higher than the war high point of 1918, in the pro­
portion of 67 to 53. That is to say, the tendency to rising rates
which war conditions brought about either was opposed by more
effective safety measures or was intrinsically less than that existing
in the prewar period. It may fairly be urged that the explanation
is to be found to a considerable degree in the improved construction of
the new buildings and machinery which were installed in response
to the war demand and in the active efforts put forth in training
and introducing the new men who had to be employed.
A considerable number of industrial concerns took the position
that the demands of war production were so imperative that they
were perfectly justified in relaxing attention to safety measures of
all sorts. The result is reflected in the increased accident occurrence
registered by many agencies. Whether or not this increase brought
the rates generally above the prewar standard is a matter which
can not be determined with certainty. It is to the great and lasting
credit of the iron and steel industry that it did meet the situation
directly and endeavored to combat the inevitable tendency by
increased efforts. The outcome of these various efforts was first
to check the rising accident rates and finally to bring them down
to points lower than the prewar level.
It is now pertinent to examine the contradiction noted above
between the indications afforded by the frequency rates and severity
rates for the years ending in the months of 1918. In this portion
of the charts, frequency rates both for disabling and nondisabling
accidents show a tendency to decline while severity is rising. This
condition is of interest from several standpoints. It has often been
noted that frequency and severity rates give these opposite indica­
tions; indeed, this fact was the moving reason for working out the
system of severity rates. It is not often, however, that the con­
tradiction is as pronounced and long continued as in this case.
It is clear that the efforts of one sort and another which kept severity
below the rate of 1913 and produced a marked decline of frequency
after 1916 were after all not so well adapted to meet the severity
problem as they were to deal with the problem of minor injury.




ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

280

Severity, .it is true, did decline for a time concurrently with fre­
quency but it then took a turn in the opposite direction, which con­
tinued. until the close of the calendar year 1918. From that point
the curve again concurs with those of frequency. The extent to
which minor injury was controlled in 1918 and the failure equally
well to control the severer forms are strikingly brought out by
contrasting the years 1915 and 1918, as is done in Table 90.
T able 9 0 .—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y R ATES FOR A GROUP OF MILLS IN
TH E IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y , 1915 AN D 1918, B Y MONTHS.

Month.

Frequency
rates (p e r
1,000,000
hours’ e x ­
posure).
1915

January...............
February.............
March...................
April....................
May......................
June......................
July......................

32.4
33.3
39.7
44.1
53.3
59.3
62.7

1918
45.7
37.8
44.6
41.5
43.5
41.0
40.5

Severity rates
(per
1,000
hours’ e x ­
posure).

1915
1.4
3.6
2.6
2.8
.6
4.3
1.2

Month.

1915

1918
4.5
5.6
5.6
4.1
3.9
3.9
3.1

Frequency
rates ( p e r
1,000,000
hours’ e x ­
posure).
1918

Severity rates
(per
1,000
hours’ e x ­
posure).

1915

1918

August.................
September...........
October................
November...........
December............

61.5
62.1
63.9
57.3
57.8

41.6
35.7
32.5
31.6
31.5

4.2
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.6

5.3
3.4
1.9
5.0
4.0

Total.............

53.2

38.8

3.0

4.1

Inspection of this table will disclose that 9 of the 12 months of
1915 have higher frequency rates than the same months of 1918. On
the contrary 1918 shows higher severity in 9 of the 12 months.
Evidently the conditions of the two years were in some way distinctly
different. Superficially the differences appear to be that 1915 was a
year of rapid changes m the working force and that 1918 was one of
relative stability of the workers but of intense industrial activity.
In the first condition it is clear that all accident rates tend to rise
rapidly. It is the uniform experience that whenever the accession
of inexperienced men is increasing the accident rates tend strongly to
go up and will do so unless very rigorous measures are taken in
opposition.
A reasonable explanation of the rising severity of the years ending
in 1918 is much less easy. The greater industrial activity of that
year must have had its influence, but knowledge of the plants does
not seem to justify placing any great stress upon that factor. The
operations of such mills as are here grouped are necessarily of a rather
leisurely character and can not in the nature of the case be hurried
sufficiently to increase greatly the hazard of the individual man. *
It has been suggested that the “ flu” epidemic may have so in­
fluenced the physical condition of the men that they were more liable
to accidental injury. This can scarcely be given great weight since,
though the severity rate for the months when flu was most prevalent
is higher than the average, it is not higher than that for several other
groups of months in which there was no flu complication.
It would appear that this is another case where the operators of the
mills were led mto a mistaken sense of security by the steadily falling
frequency rates and so did not maintain full and rigorous attention
to the causes of more severe injury. At all events, it may be said
that without constant attention to the severity rate it is impossible
to have an accurate idea of the conditions which must be met.
The rates which form the basis of the foregoing charts and discus­
sion are given in Tables 91 and 92.




ACCIDENT BATES AND THE WAR.

281

T able 91.—ACCIDENT F R E QU EN C Y AND S E V E R IT Y RATES FOR A GROUP OF MILLS IN
TH E IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y , 1914 TO 1919, B Y MONTHS.

Month.

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

Frequency rates for nondisabling accidents (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure).
January..............................................................

November.........................................................
December...........................................................

203
190
229
228
239
270
267
263
234
199
165
167

164
178
252
281
309
327
349
360
358
317
281
279

293
268
300
329
404
381
404
418
377
341
315
285

306
265
254
272
303
332
317
311
254
244
223
185

189
186
232
223
276
281
238
269
221
211
177
173

175
171
182
178
186
220
230
141
157
302
234
215

Total........................................................

222

292

343

272

223

203

March......................................... ......................
April...................................................................
May.....................................................................
June....................................................................
July.....................................................................
September.........................................................

Frequency rates for disabling accidents (per 1,000,000.
hours’ exposure).
January..............................................................
February...........................................................
March.................................................................
April...................................................................
May.....................................................................
June....................................................................
July.....................................................................
August...............................................................
September.........................................................
October..............................................................
November.........................................................
December...........................................................

59.0
57.7
61.3
54.5
54. 9
53.0
55.6
51.1
44.4
34. 9
29.4
37.5

32.4
33.3
39.7
44.1
53.3
59.3
62.7
61.5
62.1
63.9
57.3
57.8

66.4
62.0
67.2
62.1
56 5
67.0
81.7
84.7
69.7
66.7
63.1
55.8

63.8
54.9
56.3
52.9
51.7
50.8
54.6
55.5
46.5
49.6
46.6
35.6

45.7
37.8
44.6
41.5
43.5
41.0
40.5
41.6
35.7
32. 5
31.6
31.5

37.9
36.5
38.1
38.0
37.0
38.5
39.0
37.9
35.2
36.2
37.3
39.9

Total........................................................

50.0

53.2

66.9

51.5

38.8

37.7

Severity rates for disabling accidents (per 1,000 hours’
exposure).
January..............................................................
February...........................................................
March..................................................................
April....................................................................
May.....................................................................
June....................................................................
July.....................................................................
August................................................................
September.........................................................
October..............................................................
November.........................................................
December...........................................................

7.5
3.4
4.6
5.9
2.7
2.0
2.0
3.5
3.7
4.0
3.0
2.9

1.4
3.6
2.6
2.8
.6
4.3
1.2
4.2
4.0
3.0
4.5
3.6

3.9
4.6
4.5
3.9
2.5
3.7
2.7
6.5
2.4
2.5
6.6
4.5

5.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
2.1
3.5
5.5
2.2
3.5
2.6
4.4
1.5

4.5
5.6
5.6
4.1
3.9
3.9
3.1
5.3
3.4
1.9
5.0
4.0

4.0
4.3
2.0
4.1

Total........................................................

3.8

3.0

4.0

3.3

4.1

3.2

71087°— 22------19




3.5
3.5
2.2
2.7
3.4
1.2
6.0

1.7

A C C ID E N T S I N

282

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y .

9 3 .—ACCIDENT FRE QU EN C Y AND SE V E R IT Y R ATES FOR A GROUP OF MILLS
IN THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 19H TO 1919, B Y Y E A R S ENDING W IT H EACH
MONTH.

tab le

Year ending with—

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

Frequency rates for nondisabling accidents (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure).
January...
February..
March..."..
April.........
May...........
June...........
July..........
August___
September
October...
November.
December.

222

219
218
220
225
231
237
245
255
267
277
285
292

299
307
310
314
322
327
332
337
339
341
343
343

344
343
339
334
326
322
315
306
296
288
280
272

263
256
255
251
248
243
236
233
230
227
223
223

221
219
215
211
205
201
200
195
189
195
196
200

Frequency rates for disabling accidents (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure).
January...
February.
March.......
April.........
May...........
June..........
July...........
August___
September
October...
November.
December.

50.0

47.8
45.6
43.7
42.7
42.7
43.4
44.2
45.4
47.1
49.6
51.7
53.2

55.8
58.0
60.1
61.4
61.5
62.2
63.8
65.8
66.4
66.7
67.2
66.9

66.7
66.1
65.2
63.7
63.9
62.5
60.3
58.0
56.1
54.6
53.2
51.5

50.0
48.6
47.7
46.8
46.1
45.2
44.0
42.8
41.8
40.3
39.1
38.8

38.2
38.0
37.6
37.3
36.7
36.5
36.3
36.0
35.9
36.3
36.7
37.5

Severity rates for disabling accidents (per 1,000 hours’
exposure).
January................................................................................
February.............................................................................
March................................................................................... .
April.....................................................................................
May........................................................................................
June...................................................................................... .
July.......................................................................................
August...................................................................................
September........................................................................... .
October................................................................................
November.............................................................................
3.8
December...........................................................

3.3
3.3
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.8
3.0
3.5

3.2
3.3
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.9
4.0

4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.8
4.0
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.3

3.3
3.5
3.7
3.7
3.9
3.9
3.7
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.9
4.1

4.1
39
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.3
3.5
3.2
3.2
3.4
3.2
3.2

D EPARTM EN TS OF TH E INDUSTRY MANUFACTURING VARIOUS
PRODUCTS.

The foregoing discussion illustrates the trend of accident rates in
the basic departments of the industry. It will be of interest to
determine whether the same forces were at work in other departments
and to what extent the results were the same.
The plants for which it is possible to follow the details of war-time
experience employed during the 7 years which are covered a number
of men varying from 110,000 to 186,000. The groups forming this
total, which will be analyzed in seeking to determine the war-time ex­
perience in manufacturing various products, are sufficiently large to
afford reasonable confidence that they represent typical conditions.
Chart 56 exhibits the trend of employment and of accident fre­
quency rates in the entire group of plants from the year ending




ACCIDENT RATES AND THE WAR.

283

December, 1913, to that ending December, 1919. The year 1913, as
before noted, was one of high industrial activity. Both in that
particular and in the matter o f accident rates the year formed a peak
in the curves. Following 1913 employment declined to tne year
ending May, 1915, and .accident rates to the year ending July, 1915.
Employment was increasing from that year until that ending No­
vember, 1917. A decline then began which was still in progress in
the year ending December, 1919. Accident frequency increased from
the year ending July, 1915, to the year ending September, 1916,
and then while employment was still rising began to decline and conChabt 56.—T R E N D OF F R E QU EN C Y R A T E S A N D OF EM PLO YM EN T
AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1913 TO 1919.

IN THE IRON

tinued so to do to the year ending December, 1919. It will be seen
that this was in substantial agreement with what happened in the
smaller group already considered.
The component parts of this total are presented in Chart 57. It
presents two groups of mills which produce miscellaneous steel
products and one group each of mills producing sheets and tin plate,
wire products, tubes, and fabricated products.
Five of the six show a declining accident frequency to a year ending
in some month about the middle of 1915. The sheet mills are
unique among these production groups in that they show a declining
accident frequency with only minor irregularities from the year




284

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

ending December, 1913, to the year ending December, 1919. The
other five groups have a rising frequency rate, from a year ending
near the middle of 1915 to a year ending with some month in 1916,
varying from March to December. From that point there is a
continuous, though not perfectly regular, decline to the year ending
Ch

ar t

57.—TR E N D OF F R E Q U E N C Y R A T E S IN TH E M A N U FA C TU R E OF S PECIFIED
PR ODUCTS, 1913 TO 1919.

December, 1919, except in one case. One of the two groups which
produce miscellaneous steel products has a second low point in the
year ending February, 1918, from which a rise occurs until the year
ending January, 1919. The second peak is slightly higher than the
first.
It is evident that in all essential particulars the experience of these
diverse production groups is the same as that of the fundamental
departments.
The rates on which the charts are founded are presented in Table 93.




285

ACCIDENT RATES AND THE WAR.

T able 9 3 .—F R E QU EN C Y R ATES (PER 1.000,000 H O U R S’ E X P O S U R E ) FOR MILLS MAKING
SPECIFIED PRODUCTS, DECEM BER, 1913, TO DECEM BER, 1919, B Y Y E A R S ENDING
W IT H EACH M ONTH.

Year ending with—

Fabri­
cated
products.

Sheets.

Wire
products.

Miscellaneous steel
products.
Tubes.

Total.
Group A.

December, 1913......................
January, 1914..........................
February, 1914........................
March, 1914.............................
Ajpril/l914..............................
May, 1914.................................
June, 1914................................
July, 1914.................................
August, 1914............................
September, 1914.....................
October, 1914..........................
November, 1914......................
December, 1914......................
January, 1915..........................
March, 1915.............................
April, 1915...............................
May, 1915.................................
June", 1915............................
July, 1915.................................
August, 1915........................
September, 1915.....................
October, 1915..........................
November, 1915......................
December ,1915......................
January, 1916...................
February, 1916....................
March, 1916..............................
Ajpril, 1916...............................
May, 1916.................................
June, 1916___
July, 1916.................................
August, 1916..
September, 1916.....................
October, 1916..........................
November, 1916......................
December, 1916......................
January, 1917..........................
February, 1917........................
March, 1917....
April, 1917...............................
May, 1917.................................
June, 1917................................
July, 1917.................................
August, 1917............................
September, 1917....................
October, 1917..........................
November, 1917......................
December, 1917......................
January, 1918..........................
February, 1918........................
March, 1918..............................
April, 1918...............................
May, 1918.................................
June, 1918................................
July, 1918.................................
August, 1918............................
September, 1918.....................
October, 1918..........................
November, 1918......................
December, 1918......................
January, 1919..........................
February, 1919........................
March, 1919.............................
Aj)ril, 1919...............................
May, 1919.................................
June, 1919................................
July,1919.................................
August, 1919............................
September, 1919.....................
October, 1919..........................
November, 1919.....................
December. 1919......................




100.3
96.2
92.2
87.9
88.2
78. 7
75.5
71.9
66.7
63.2
61.6
59.5
59.0
55.1
55.0
53.3
53.3
51.2
49.3
50.9
52.2
51.8
53.0
53.5
53. 4
53.3
52.8
52.7
53.9
54.5
54.1
54.7
53.5
53.4
52.4
52.1
52.9
53.1
54. 0
54.3
54.0
53.3
53.1
52.7
52. 7
52.5
53.2
51.3
49.1
48.7
47. 4
46.9
46.3
45.7
45.1
42.6
40.8
40.0
37.8
38.2
38.5
37.3
36.8
35.8
34.4
33.6
32.7
32.3
33.3
33.3
32.6
32.8

61.6
59.9
58.9
57.7
56.6
55.0
53.7
52.4
49. 4
47.4
47.2
47.3
47.2
46.9
46.6
45.1
44.7
43.0
41.8
40.0
39.0
38.5
38.0
38.1
37.3
37.0
37.0
37.3
37.1
36.8
36.5
36.6
36.1
35.7
35.2
34.9
34.0
34.1
33.6
33.1
32.3
32.2
32.3
33.6
34.9
34.2
34.2
33.8
33.9
32.0
33.1
32.7
32.7
32.3
31.3
29.4
27.5
27.4
26.5
24.9
25.9
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.6
24.9
24.4
24.2
24.7
24.8
25.1
25.5
23.8

59.3
56.5
54.7
53.1
53.1
52.5
51.0
49.6
48.9
48.0
46.8
46.7
46.2
45.4
45. 4
43.7
43.2
43.3
44.3
45.1
46.2
49.9
51.4
51.5
52.4
52.6
52.8
53.3
52.9
52.9
52.2
51.5
51.1
49.7
48.9
49.3
48.2
47.1
46.4
45. 5
45.0
44.2
42.6
41.0
39.5
37.2
36.0
33.9
32.5
31.6
30.7
29.1
27.6
25.8
24.6
23.4
22.1
21.2
19.9
19.0
18.8
18.2
17.4
17.0
16.2
15.7
15.4
14.7
14.2
13.5
13.1
12.9
12.5

27.2
25.6
24.0
22.5
21.2
20.1
19.1
17.3
16.0
15.0
13.9
13.2
12.5
11.8
11.1
10.2
9.3
9.0
8.7
8.8
9.6
10.0
10.5
10.7
10.8
11.1
11.3
11.6
12.1
12.2
12.2
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.2
12.1
12.4
12.0
12.1
11.9
11.6
11.5
11.5
11.1
10.7
10.6
10.4
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
9.9
10.0
9.9
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.1
9.1
9.2
9.2
9.1
9.0
8.7
8.8
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
9.1

70.9
70.1
69.3
68.6
67.3
65.5
62.8
60.6
57.8
55.7
53.5
51.8
50.7
48.4
45.4
43.5
42.3
42.1
42.7
43.5
45.0
46.8
48.5
50.4
51.9
54.7
57.5
59.8
61.2
62.0
62.7
64.3
66.0
66.7
67.6
67.9
67.6
67.2
66.5
65.5
64.6
63.6
62.2
60.2
57.9
55.8
54.2
52.9
51.3
49.9
48.6
47.6
46.7
46.0
45.2
44.5
44.0
43.5
42.6
41.7
42.0
** 41.9
41.8
41.5
41.5
41.1
40.7
40.0
39.2
38.8
38.7
39.2
39.7

Group B.
41.3
39.4
38.5
38.9
35.5
34.2
33.3
30.4
31.0
29.4
28.4
27.4
27.6
26.9
27.7
27.1
26.4
25.1
23.3
21.8
20.1
20.4
21.0
22.1
23.0
24.5
25.4
25.3
25.4
26.1
27.0
27.5
28.5
28.7
29.0
28.7
28.2
27.4
26.6
26.2
25.8
25.3
24.5
23.5
22.5
21.5
21.0
20.6
20.5
20.1
20.0
20.8
21.6
22.7
24.3
25.9
28.3
29.2
29.9
30.7
31.4
32.1
31.5
31.2
30.7
29.9
28.4
27.6
25.5
24.7
24.5
23.7
23.0

60.3
58.7
57.3
56.1
54.7
53.2
51.6
49.9
47.9
46.3
45.0
44.0
43.5
42.4
41.0
39.3
39.1
38.3
38.0
37.6
38.1
39.5
40.3
40.9
41.5
42.4
43.3
43.9
44.2
44.6
44.7
45.1
45.4
45.2
45.0
44.9
44.4
43.9
43.4
42.8
42.2
41.6
40.5
39.4
38.3
37.0
36.2
35.3
34.5
33.6
32.9
32.3
31.9
31.8
31.1
30.7
30.2
29.9
29.2
28.9
28.8
28.9
28.6
28.3
28.1
27.6
27.1
26.7
26.2
25.9
25.9
26.0
26.1

286

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

9 3 .—FREQUEN CY RATES (P E R 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 HOURS’ EX PO SU RE) FOR MILLS MAKING
SPEC IFIED , PRODUCTS, DECEM BER, 1913, TO D EC E M B E R , 1919, BY YEARS ENDING
W ITH EACH MONTH—Concluded.

T able

NU M BER OF W O R K E R S .

Fabri­
Sheets.
cated
products.

Year ending with—

June, 1914............................
June, 1915............................
June, 1916............................
June, 1917............................
June, 1918............................
June, 1919............................

8,817
6,706
8,276
10,110

10,349
9,904

Miscellaneous steel
products.

Wire
products. Tubes.

16,841
15,759
21,906
25,504
25,939
22, 685

Total.
Group A.

25,575
22,434
31,377
32,928
30,393
29,324

Group B.

41,744
35,670
45,673
49,893
50,803
50,652

18,922
13,477
23,000
27,046
28,289
26,906

19,944
13,329
2L031
24,880
23, 787
23,871

137,816
111,794
160,819
182,587
180, 204
176,867

F L U C T U A T IO N I N R A T E S F O R C A U S E S .

It has been shown that certain very definite characteristics can be
traced in the curves which represent the trend of accident rates over
the war period. It is possible to examine the situation from another
point of view. If the rates for the various causes be determined it
will be possible to observe whether the indications from the groupings
already presented are repeated in the various cause groups.
Table 94 shows the main cause groups.
T able 9 4 .—ACCIDENT FREQUEN CY RATES (PE R 1,000,000 HOURS’ EX PO SU RE) IN T H E

IRON AND S TE EL INDUSTRY, BY ACCIDENT CAUSES.
Accident cause.

Machinery............................................................................
Working machines....................................................
Caught in ..............................................................
Breakage...............................................................
Moving material in ............................................
Cranes...........................................................................
Overhead..............................................................
Locomotive..........................................................
Other hoisting......................................................
Vehicles............................................................................... .
Hot substances....................................................................
Electricity...................................................................
Hot m etal............. ..................................................... .
Hot water, steam, etc............................................... .
Falls of persons................................................................... .
From l a d d e r s . .........................................................
From scaffolds.............................................................
Into openings..............................................................
Due to insecure footing.............................................
Falling material, not otherwise specified....................
Handling objects and tools.............................................
Objects dropped in handling...................................
Caught between object handled and other object
Trucks and barrows..................................................
Lifting or pulling............... ........................................
Objects dying from tools...........................................
Slivers and edges........
? .....................................
Using tools...................................................................
Miscellaneous......................................................................
Asphyxiating gas....................................................... .
Flying objects not striking eye................................
Flying objects striking eye.......................................
Heat cramps, etc.........................................................
Other causes.................................................................
Total...........................................................................




1913
7.3
3.8
2.5
.1
1.2

3.5
2.8

.3
.4
2.3
5.4
.5
3.6
1.3
4.5
.3
.2
.2

3.8

1914 1915 1916 1917
5.0
2 .7

1.8
.1
.8
2.3
1.9
.2
.2
1.9
3.6
.4
2.1
1.1
4.1
.1
.2
.1
3 .7

1.2

.7

11.2

7 .3

26. 7 19.4
3.4
1.9
2.5

8.0

2.6
1.0
2.3
.2
3.4
2.6
8.8
.2
.6
2.1
.8
5.1

60.3

43.5

.2

3.8
3.7
12.9
.3
.8

2.9
.9

4.9
2.6
1.7
.1
.8
2.3
2.0
.2
.1
1.6
3.7
.2
2.3
1.2
3.5
.1
.2
.1
3.1
.7
20.6
7.6
2.6

5.4
2.6

1.7

.1
.8
2.8

2.5
.2
.1

1.7
4.5
.4
3.0
1.1

4.5
2.0
1.2
.1
.7
2.5
2.2
.2
.1
1.7
3.6
.3

2.5

3.7

.5
1.9
.4
4.1

.8
3.2
.1
.3
.2
2.6
.4
15.7
6.1
2.1
1.2
2.0
.1
2.2
2.0
5.4
.1
.4
1.6
.1
3.2

4 1 .5

44.4

34.5

3.7
.1
.2

.3
3.1
.6

21.5
8.4
3.1
1.4 1.4
2.5
2.5

.1
3.8
2.6
6.5
.1
.6
1.7

.4

.1

3.1
2.9
7.0
.1

1918 1919
4.0
1.8
LI
.1
.6
2.2

1.9

.2
.1
L3
3.0
.3
2.1
.6
2.8
.2
.2
.1
2.3
.3
12.8
5 .5

1.7

.9

1.4
.1
1 .5
1 .7
4 .6

.1
.5

1.6
.2
2.2
2 8 .8

3.3
1.4
.9
.1
.4
1.9
L6
.2
.1
1.2
2.8
.2
2.0
.6
2.8
.1
.2
.1
2.3
.4
11.7
5.0
1.7
.7
1.4
.1
1.3
1.4
4.1
.2
.3
1.3
.1
2.2
2 6 .3

A C C ID E N T

RATES

AND

THE

W AR.

287

It will be found that in practically all the cause groups there is a
decrease after 1913 through the years 1914 and 1915, followed by
increase to a peak in 1916, followed by another decrease. The han­
dling of objects and tools produces more accidents than any other
single group of causes. The rates per 1,000,000 hours7 exposure for
each year, beginning with 1913, are 26.7, 19.4, 20.6, 21.5, 15.7,
1 2 .8, and 11.7.
Inspection of this series discloses the characteristic
high point in 1916.
It is possible to recapitulate and summarize the facts of the war
period and the explanations which may be offered of the course of
events. It may be noted that—
1 . Whatever form of classification is used (the fundamental de­
partments, production groups, or cause groups) the same trend is
shown.
2 . The period just prior to the war was a period of industrial
decline. Employment went down. “ Labor m obility7 almost ceased.
7
Accident rates dropped more rapidly than employment.
3. As soon as the effect of European war orders began to be felt in
this country, employment began to increase. The accession of
inexperienced men increased even more rapidly. Accident rates
went up.
4. The iron and steel industry was alarmed by the increasing acci­
dent occurrence and undertook a strenuous counter campaign.
5. This was very successful in controlling, and in finally causing a
decline in, minor injury.
6 . Major injury was not controlled as perfectly but was prevented
from rising above the level of 1913 and was finally considerably
reduced.
This review of the war period strongly supports the contention
that even in the most strenuous times it is possible to hold in check
the tendency to rising accident rates by the application of the three
cardinal methods of the safety movement: (1) Adequate instruction
of the men in skillfitl methods of work; (2) Careful supervision of the
well instructed man; (3) “ Engineering revision,7 by which the
7
safety of work places is increased.




CHAPTER XI.— STATISTICAL M ETHODS FOR THE SAFETY M AN.

It has been urged that the chapter in Bulletin No. 234 entitled
“ Methods for the Safety Man” should be expanded into a general
exposition of safety methods. The literature on safety has now
become so extensive that volumes would be required to contain
all that can properly be said on the subject. This literature is so
easily available to the safety man that it does not seem desirable in
this report to go outside of its specific field in order to present the
general subject of safety methods. It has accordingly been deter­
mined that the present chapter will adhere even more closely than
that in Bulletin No. 234 to a statement of those statistical methods
which, having been tried in connection with the bureau’s study of
the accident problem, have been found to be useful.
It is believed that it will be of interest and may afford some prac­
tical suggestions to outline the procedure of the bureau in the hand­
ling of the material on which it bases its discussions.
The specially significant items of the reports of the bureau are the
rates of various sorts. These are essentially ratios between the num­
ber of hours of exposure to hazard, used as a base, and the number of
occurrences, such as accidents, accessions to or dismissals from service
etc., which happened in the conduct of the concerns under considera­
tion.

As a basis for the calculation of such rates, two items of information
are necessary: 1. A record of “ man hours,” classified in accordance
with the departments of the plant and where possible by occupations,
age groups, and other subdivisions of the working force which it may
be desired to study; 2. Accurate statements, lor specified periods,
of the occurrences whose relation to the working force it is desired
to determine.1 The reports from the plants which are included in
the bureau’s studies, giving “ man hours” or other information from
which “ man hours” may be determined, are received annually upon
the form shown.
R EPO R T OP EM PLOYM EN T.
Company.............................................................

P lant.............................................................

Y ear.

If total hours are not available
report as below.
Department.

Total hours
worked by all
men as shown
by time books.

Average
number
employed.

Days de­
partment
was in
operation.

i A full exposition of the method of preparing such rates is to be found in Chapter II.
28 8




Usual
length of
day or
turn.

S T A T IS T IC A L

M ETHODS

FOR

THE

SAFETY

M AN,

289

The accident records are received either in classified and tabulated
form as shown in the following form, or the records of the individual
cases of personal injury are transmitted.
SCHEDULE OF DISABLING ACCIDENTS (RESULTING IN D E A T H , PER M AN EN T DIS­
A B IL IT Y , OR T E M P O R A R Y D ISA B IL IT Y B EY O N D D A Y OF IN JU R Y) OCCURRING
DURING TH E Y E A R ENDING DECEM BER 31, 192
Name of p lant..............................................................
1
1

|
|

Name of company.............................................................;

|
|
1

t

|

|

|
1
|
1
|
|

j

| Death.
| Loss of both arms.
| Loss of both legs.
1 Loss of both hands.
[ Loss of both feet.
[ Loss of both eyes.
| Other.
| Total.
[ Loss of 1 arm.
| Loss of 1 hand.
| Loss of 1 leg.
*
| Loss of 1 foot.
1 Loss of 1 eye.
| Loss of 1 thumb.
| Loss of 1 finger.
I Loss of 2 fingers.
1 Loss of 3 fingers.
Loss of 4 fingers.
Loss of thumb and 1 finger.
Loss of thumb and 2 fingers.
Loss of thumb and 3 fingers.
1 Loss of thumb and 4 fingers.
1 Loss of great toe.
| Loss of any 2 toes.
! Other.
I Total.
[ Grand total.
First week.
| Second week.
1 Third week.
Fourth week.
Fifth week.
Sixth to thirteenth week.
Fourteenth week or later.
Duration of disability not known.
Total.
Grand total.

Department
of plant.

Partial, b

|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
Total.

Accidents resulting
m temporary dis­
ability terminating
m—
|

Accidents resulting in permanent disability.®

a Cases of plural injuries which might be entered in more than one of these classes should be entered but
once under what is regarded as the more severe injury. An injury included among permanent injuries
should not bemlaced also among temporary disabilities. Amputation between the knee and the ankle or
between the elbow and wrist is considered as the loss of a foot or a hand, at or above the knee or elbow as
the loss of a leg or an arm.
b Loss of a phalanx, permanent malformation, or permanent stiffness of a joint is regarded as equivalent
to the loss of the member.

If the individual cases are reported, it is done either in the form of
a duplicate of some record prepared by the plant for its own use or
the items are transcribed upon a special card furnished by the bureau.
In order to indicate the method of using this card, it is here presented
completely filled out.
RECORD OF AC C ID EN T.
Establishment No. 6 9 . Date, 6 /4 /1 5 . Hour, 6 p . Age, 8 8 . Sex, M . Married, Y e s .
Dependents, how many? 8 . Speak English? Y e s . Race, S la v . Dept. A x l e w o rk s.
Occupation, L a b o r e r . Worked for company how long? 6 y e a rs .
Had the injured worked in the industry elsewhere? ---------. If so, how long?--------- .
Machine, tool, appliance, object, or condition in connection with which accident occurred? C r a n e .
Describe in full how the accident happened: H o o k in g lift o f p la te. I t low ered o n his fo o t.
What part of the body was injured? F o o t. Was the injury an abrasion, bruise, cut, laceration, puncture,
burn, scald, concussion, dislocation, fracture, sprain, strain, dismemberment by the accident, nervous
shock, or other? C o n tu sio n . Did the injury become infected? N o .
Results of injury: DEATH ? N o . PER M AN EN T D ISAB ILITY? N o . If so, state nature. ---------.
TEM PO R AR Y DISAB ILITY? Y e s . Days lost, 70.

SPACES RESERVED FOR CODES.
Serial No. 16019.
A g e , 88.

Experience, * 1 0 .
Location, 6 1 .

Dept., 2 6 .
Sex, 1.
Occ., 098.
Nature, 02.

Year, 15.
Conj. cond., 1.
Cause, 1.
Result, 8.

Month, 5 .
Depend., 0 8 .
Cause anal., 08 2 .
Per. dis., 0 0 .

Day of week, 3.
English, 1 .
Part, 0 .
Temp, dis., 1 2 .

Hour, 1 2 .
Race, 2 5 .
Mode, 0 .
Time, 0070.

It will be noticed that the upper part of this card record contains
spaces in which such items as the date, the hour, the age, sex, cause of




290

A C C ID E N T S IN

THE

IR O N

AND

STEEL

IN D U S T R Y ,

injury etc.rmay be entered. On the lower part of the form are spaces
in which code numbers are to be entered. The codes which have been
used recently by the bureau are as follows:
CODIES FOR T A B U L A T IO N OF ACC ID EN T D A T A .
SERIAL NUMBE’ R.

RESULTS.

RACE.

Code
No.
Death.........................................
1
2
Permanent disability.............
Temporary disability.............
3

B. L. S. filing number.
M ONTH.
Recorded number.
YEAR.
Terminal digits.
D A Y OF W E E K .
1 to 7.
Code No.
Unknown..................................
9
H OUR .
D a y . W ight.
Beginning—
13
6 .............................. .. 01
14
7 .............................. .. 02
15
8 .............................. .. 03
16
9 .............................. .. 04
17
10.............................. .. 05
11.............................. .. 06
18
19
12.............................. .. 07
20
1 .............................. .. 08
21
2 ............................... .. 09
22
3 ............................... .. 10
23
4 .............................. .. 11
24
5 .............................. .. 12
€0
Unknown................. .. 00
AGE.
Recorded age.
Unknown................ .

00

SEX.
Male............................
Female......................
Unknown...................

1
2
9

CONJUGAL CONDITION.
1
2
3
4
9

Married. ................... .
Single........................ .
Widowed....................
Divorced................... .
Unknown................. .
D EPEN D EN TS.
Recorded number.
None...........................................
Unknown..................................

00
99

ENGLISH SPEAK ING.
Yes..............................................
N o ...............................................
Unknown..................................

1
2
9

D EPAR TM ENTS.
Blast furnaces...........................
Bessemer...................................
Open hearths............................
Duplex........................... . .........
Crucible.....................................
Electric......................................
Foundries..................................
Bar mills...................................
Heavy rolling mills.................
Plate mills.................................
Puddling mills............ ...........
Rod mills...................................
Sheet mills................................
Tube mills.................................
Miscella neous ..........................
Fabrication...............................
Forges.........................................
Wire drawing...........................
Electrical...................................
Mechanical...........................
Power houses............................
Yards.........................................
Coke............................................
Armor.........................................
Axles..........................................
Car wheels................................
Docks.........................................
Erecting.....................................
Fence..........................................
Nails...........................................
Plot mills...................................
Cold rolling m ills.....................
Unclassified..............................
Unknown..................................

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
98
99

Code
No.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
98
99

American (white)....................
Austrian..............................
Belgian.......................................
Bulgar........................................
Dane...........................................
English.......................................
Finn...........................................
French.......................................
German......................................
Greek..........................................
Hebrew......................................
Hollander..................................
Hungarian.................................
Italian........................................
Irish............................................
Lithuanian................................
Montenegrin.............................
Norwegian.................................
Pole............................................
Portuguese................................
Rumanian................................
Russian.....................................
Scotch.........................................
Serb............................................
Slav............................................
Spaniard....................................
Swede.........................................
Swiss..........................................
Turk...........................................
Welsh.........................................
American (Negro)...................
Unclassified..............................
Unknown..................................
E X P E R IE N C E .

1 week and under....................
1
Over 1 and not over 2 weeks.
2
Over 2 and not over 3 weeks.
3
Over 3 weeks and not over 1
month.....................................
4
Over 1 and not over 3 months.
5
Over 3 and not over 6 months.
6
Over 6 months and not over
1 year.....................................
7
Over 1 and not over 2 years. .
8
Over 2 and not over 5 years. .
9
Over 5 and not over 10 years. *10
Over 10 years............................ *11
Unknown.....................................*12

PER M AN EN T D IS A B IL IT Y —TIME E Q U IVAL EN T S.

Part of body .

For
1 For disa­ Equiv­
loss. bility. alent.
Code
N o.

E yes............................................
Arms . ............... ....................
Hands
............................
Legs
............. .........................
Feet _ .
_______ _______
Hand and font
.....................
Mind...........................................
Other .........................................
Arm
.
_________
Eye.............................................. •
Hand...........................................
Thumb.......................................
Thumb and 1 finger .............
Thumb and 2 fingers............... *
Thumb and 3 fingers............... “




01
02
03
04
05
06
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Part of body.

Code
No

Code
N o.

35
36
37
38
39
40
41

For
For
disa­ Equiv­
loss. bility. alent.

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
4000
1800
3000
0600
1200
1500
2000

Thumb and 4 fingers...............
1st finger.....................................
2d finger.....................................
3d finger.......................» ............
4th finger....................................
Any 2 fingers.............................
Any 3 fingers.............................
Any 4 fingers.............................
Leg............................ ..................
Foot.............................................
Great toe.................... ................
Any 2 toes.................................
Nonpermanent.........................
Unknown...................................

■
.

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
00
99

Code
N o.
42
43
44

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

2400
0300
0300
0300
0300
0750
1200
1800
4000
2400

0300
0300

STATISTICAL M E T H O D S F O E T H E

SAFETY

MAN,

291

T EM PO R AR Y D ISAB IL IT Y.
Code
No.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10

1 day...........................................................................
2 days..........................................................................
3 to 7 days.................................................................
8 to 14 days................................................................
15 to 21 days..............................................................
22 to 28 days..............................................................
20 to 35 days..............................................................
36 to 42 days..............................................................
43 to 49 days..............................................................
50 to 56 days..............................................................

Code
No.
. 11
. 12
. 13
. 14
. 15
. 16
. 17
. 00
. 99

57 to 63 days...
64 to 70 days...
71 to 77 days...
78 to 84 days. .
85 to 91 days...
92 to 365 days.,
Over 365 days.
Nontemporary
Unknown........

OCCUPATIONS IN THE IR ON AND STEEL IN D U S T R Y.
Code
No.
Assemblers..................................001
Axle cutters................................ 002
Axle finishers..............................003
Axle makers................................004
Axle turners..................
005
Ball cleaners................................006
Bailers.......................................... 007
Barbed-wire operators............008
Bar and clay men......................009
Bar pullers..................................010
Bellers.......................................... Oil
Bench and vise hands............012
Benders....................................... 013
Bending machine operators.. 014
Blacksmiths................................015
Bloom runners............................016
Blowers........................................017
Boiler cleaners............................ 018
Boilermakers............................. 019
Bolters......................................... 020
Bottom fillers..............................021
Bottom house men....................022
Bottom makers.......................... 023
Brakemen....................................024
Bricklayers................................. 025
Bucklers.......................................026
Buck ups..................................... 027
Bundlers..................................... 028
Bushelers..................................... 029
Cabinetmakers.......................... 030
Cable makers..............................031
Gagers...........................................032
Car dump operators.................. 033
Carpenters................................... 034
Casting cleaners..........................035
Catchers............................. ? . . . 036
Calkers......................................... 037
Chargers.......................................038
Charging car operators........... 039
Charging crane operators....... 040
Chippers.......................................041
Cinder men................................. 012
Cinder snappers....................... 043
Clampers......................................044
Clippers....................................... 045
Conveyol men............................ 046
Core makers................................047
Counters...................................... 048
Cover operators.......................... 050
Crane hookers........................... 051
Cranemen.................................... 052
Cross rollers.................................053
Cupola chargers..........................054
Cupola liners..............................055
Cut-off men................................. 056
Die reamers.................................057
Die setters................................... 058
Door operators............................059
Doublers...................................... 060
Drag downs.................................061
Drag outs..................................... 062
Draw bench m en....................... 083
Drillers.........................................064
Drop men.................................... 065
Dustmen..................................... 066
Electricians-................................067
Erectors....................................... 068
Engineers.....................................069
Feeders...................................... 070
Fence makers..............................071




Code
No.
Finishers...................................... 072
Firemen....................................... 073
Fitters.......................................... 074
Foremen.......................................075
Furnace men.............................. 076
Gaggers.........................................077
Gas makers..................................078
Gas washers................................ 079
Gaugers........................................ 080
Grinders....................................... 081
Guide setters.............................. 082
Hammermen.............................. 083
Handymen.................................084
IRaters.........................................085
Hookers........................................086
Hook runners..............................087
Hookups..................................... 088
Horseshoe operators.................. 089
Hot bed m en.............................. 090
Ingot car operators.................... 091
Ingot stripper............................. 092
Inspectors....................................093
Iron breakers.............................. 094
Iron handlers..............................095
Keepers........................................ 096
Knobblers....................................097
Laborers.......................................098
Ladle liners................................. 099
Ladle men................................... 100
Lamp trimmers..........................101
Lathe hands................................102
Larry men................................... 103
Layers out................................... 104
Lever men................................. 105
Line drawers.............................. 106
Linemen.......................................107
Loaders........................................ 108
Loom operators.......................... 109
Machinists................................... 110
Machine hands........................... I ll
Manipulators.............................. 112
Markers...................................... 113
Matchers...................................... 114
Melters......................................... 115
Manganese heaters.....................116
Millwrights..................................117
Mixer men................................... 118
Motormen.................................... 119
Mold cappers.............................. 120
Mold ear cleaners....................... 121
Molders........................................ 122
Nail machine operators......... 123
Oilers............................................ 124
Openers........................................ 125
Ore bridge operators............... 126
Painters....................................... 127
Pattern filers...............................128
Patternmakers........................ 129
Piercers...................................... 130
Pig-machine men.......................131
Pilers.......................................... 132
Pipe carriers................................ 133
Pipe cutters................................ 134
Pipefitters.................................. 135
Pipepatchers............................ 136
Pipe testers............................... 137
P itm en..................................... 138
Plumbers................................... 139
Pointers..................................... 140
Pot fillers................................... 141

Code
No.
Press hands.......................
Puddlers............................. . . . . 143
Pullers out......................... . . . . 144
Pump men........................ . . . . 145
Punchers............................ . . . . 146
Pushers............................... . . . . 147
Rammers............................ . . . . 148
Reamers............................. . . . . 149
Regulators......................... ____150
Reelers................................ . . . . 151
Repairmen........................____ 152
Riggers............................... . . . . 153
Riveters............................. . . . . 154
Roll engineers...................____ 155
Rollers................................ ____156
Rollers off.......................... ____ 157
Roll hands......................... ____ 158
Roughers............................____ 159
Rumblers........................... . . . . 160
Runner men......................____ 161
Samplers............................ . . . . 162
Sand blasters.................... ____ 163
Saw m en............................ . . . . 164
Scale car operators.................. 165
Scale men...........................____ 166
Scrap men..........................____ 167
Screw downs..................... ____168
Shaker men....................... ____ 169
Shearmen..........................____ 170
Sheet-iron workers.................. 171
Shippers............................. ____ 172
Shovelers........................... ....... 173
Skip hoist operators........ ....... 174
Socket bellers.................... ....... 175
Socket benders................. ....... 176
Socket heaters.................. ....... 177
Socket reamers......................... 178
Socket tappers.................. ....... 179
Squeezer men........................... 180
Stampers.......................... ........ 181
Steel pourers..................... ....... 182
Stick ins............................. ....... 183
Stockers............................. ____ 184
Stopper setters................ ........ 185
Stove cleaners.......................... 186
Stove tenders........................... 187
Straighteners........................... 188
Stranders.................................. 189
Switchmen........................ ....... 190
Tablemen......................... ....... 191
Take offs.......................... ........ 192
Tappers............................ ....... 193
Teamsters........................ ....... 194
Teemers.................................... 195
Tinsmiths......................... ........196
Tong carriers................... ....... 197
Tong cleaners................... ....... 198
Tong men.......................... ....... 199
Tong runners................... ........200
Tong take offs................. ........ 201
Top fillers......................... ....... 202
Toppers............................ ........ 203
Transfer car men............ ........204
Truckers........................... ........ 205
Turndowns...................... ....... 206
Tuyere men...................... ....... 207
Unloader operators........ ........208
Vessel men....................... . . . . . 209
Water tenders.................. ....... 210
Weighers.......................... . . . . . 211

292

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,
OCCUPATIONS IN T H E IR ON AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y —Concluded.

Code
No.
Welders........................................212
Winders....................................... 213
Wire cleaners..............................214
Wire drawers.............................. 215
Wiremen......................................216
Wire spoolers.............................. 217
Watchmen...................................218
Yard masters.............................. 219
Bolt threaders............................ 220

Code
No.
Burners........................................ 221
Rivet heaters.............................. 222
Wheel rollers.............................. 223
Wheel turners............................ 224
Structural-iron workers......... 225
Forging-press operators..........226
Lid men....................................... 227
Vat men..................................... 228
Salt men.................................... 229

Code
No.
Standpipe men.......................... 230
Breeze men..................................231
Luters....................................... 232
Door cleaners............................ 233
Tarmen........................................ 234
Damper men.............................. 235
Still operators............................ 236
Motor-truck drivers..................237

G EN ER AL CAUSE GROUPS.
Group.
Machinery..................................................................
1
2
Boilers and steam-pressure apparatus.................
Vehicles......................................................................
3
Hot substapees, explosives, etc..........................
4
Poisons........................................................................
5
Falls of persons.........................................................
6
Falling objects...........................................................
7
Objects and tools being handled..........................
8
Unclassified...............................................................
9
Unknown...................................................................
0
Cause Group N o . 1—Machinery .
Code No.
Prime movers and power transmission:
Steam engines...................................................... 001
Internal-combustion engines...........................002
Dynamos and motors......................................... 003
Compressed-air motors.......................................004
Water motors.......................................................005
Other prime movers........................................... 006
Shafts.....................................................................007
Shaft collars and couplings...............................008
Set screws, keys, and bolts...............................009
Belts and pulleys................................................ 010
Chains and sprockets......................................... 011
Ropes, cables, etc................................................ 012
Cogs, cams, gears, etc......................................... 013
Working machines:
Bending rolls........................................................ 014
Bolt and nut machines......................................015
Boring mills..........................................................016
Bulldozers............................................................. 017
Bundlers............................................................... 018
Charging cars........................................................019
Charging cranes...................................................020
Chipping hammers............................................. 021
Doublers............................................................... 022
Drill presses..........................................................023
Drills, portable electric......................................024
Drills, portable pneumatic................................025
Forging hammers................................................ 026
Gear cutters..........................................................027
Grinding wheels.................................................. 028
Hot and cooling beds......................................... 029
Ingot cars..............................................................030
Lathes, general.................................................... 031
Lathes, turret...................................................... 032
Lathes, wood........................................................033
Millers.................................................................... 034
Molding machines...............................................035
Mud gun............................................................... 036
Pig breaker........................................................... 037
Pig machine..........................................................038
Planers, metal...................................................... 040
Planers, wood...................................................... 041
Presses, punch.....................................................042
Presses, stamping............................................... 043
Pushers................................................................. 044
Reamers.................................................................045
Riveters................................................................. 046
Rolls.......................................................................047
Roll tables............................................................ 048
Rotary shears...................................................... 049
Sand rammers...................................................... 050
Saws, band......... •
.............................................. 051
Saws, crosscut...................................................... 052
Saws, metal.......................................................... 053
Saws, rip............................................................... 054




Cause Group N o . 1—Machinery —Concluded.
Working machines— Concluded.
Code No.
Shapers.................................................................. 055
Shears..................................................................... 056
Skull crackers...................................................... 057
Slitters................................................................... 058
Slotters...................................................................059
Stone crushers...................................................... 060
Straighteners........................................................ 061
Tappers................................................................. 062
Threaders..............................................................063
Transfer tables.....................................................064
Tube drawing benches....................................... 065
Wire-drawing benches........................................066
Welders, fR-c..........................................................067
Welders, oxyacetylene......................................068
Power hammers...................................................069
Butt welders........................................................ 070
Lap welders.......................................................... 071
Forging press........................................................ 072
Elevator accidents...............................................075
Crane, caught by chain or hook.......................078
Crane, car striking person................................. 079
Crane, cable catching person............................ 080
Crane, load swinging.......................................... 081
Crane, load lowering........................................... 082
Crane, load falling............................................... 083
Crane, load falling, broken machinery........ 084
Crane, load falling, hitch slipped.....................085
Crane, objects falling from crane..................... 086
Crane, falls from crane or truck.......................087
Crane, other accidents....................................... 088
Derricks................................................................. 089
Construction hoists and elevators................... 090
Blocks and tackles, windlasses, etc................ 091
Conveyors..............................................................092
Gantry cranes.......... >...................................... 093
Locomotive cranes.............................................. 094
Pumps............................... 1............................... 095
Fans and blowers.................................................096
Unclassified........................................................ 198
Not reported...................................................... 199
M a c h in e s — P a r t o f M a c h i n e .

Code No.
Point of operation............................................•
____
l
Belts............................................................................
2
Cranks and eccentrics.............................................
3
Flywheels.................................................................
4
Gears............................................................................
5
Set screws, keys and bolts.....................................
6
Counterweights........................................................
7
Other parts.................................................................
8
Unknown...................................................................
9
Nonmachine...............................................................
0
M a c h in e s — M o d e o f O c c u r r e n c e .

Code No.
Adjusting, machine, tool, or work.......................
1
Starting, stopping, or operating............................
2
Cleaning and oiling..................................................
3
Repairing...................................................................
4
Breaking of machine or tool..................................
5
Objects flying from machine..................................
6
Other conditions......................................................
7
Unknown.......................
9
Nonmachine..............................................................
0

STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE SAFETY MANT,

293

G E N E R A L CAUSE GROUPS—Continued.
Cause Group N o. 2—B oilers and Steam P res­
sure A pparatus .
Code No.
B o i l e r s , e x p l o s io n s ............................................................... 200
B o i l e r s , a l l o t h e r ..................................................................... 201
S t e a m p i p e s , e x p l o s i o n s ..................................................... 202
S t e a m p i p e s , a l l o t h e r ..........................................................203
G a u g e s , e x p l o s i o n s .................................................................204
G a u g e s , a l l o t h e r ..................................................................... 205
O t h e r a p p a r a t u s , e x p l o s i o n s ............................................206
O t h e r a p p a r a t u s , a l l o t h e r .................................................207
U n k n o w n .................................................................................... 299
Ca u s e G r o u p N

o.

3— V

e h ic l e s .

S t e a m a n d e l e c t r i c r a i lw a y s :
C od e N o.
T r a i n w r e c k s , c o l l i s i o n .............................................. 301
T r a i n w r e c k s , d e r a i lm e n t ..........................................302
F a lls , g e t t i n g o n o r o f f, i n m o t i o n ........................303
F a ll s , g e t t in g o n o r o f f, a t r e s t ...............................304
F a lls , r i d i n g o n , s u d d e n s t a r t o r s t o p ................ 305
F a ll s , r id in g o n , s l i p p i n g o r l o s t b a l a n c e . . . 306
F a lls , r i d i n g o n o v e r h e a d s t r u c t u r e ....................307
F a lls , r id in g o n s i d e s t r u c t u r e ................................ 308
F a lls , n o t o t h e r w i s e c la s s ifie d .................................309
S t r u c k b y o r c a u g h t b e t w e e n ................................ 310
C o u p li n g o r u n c o u p l i n g ............................................311
S w i t c h i n g .......................................................................... 312
R e p a i r i n g e n g in e s o r c a r s ......................................... 313
R e p a i r i n g t r a c k ..............................................................314
C r o s s in g t r a c k ..................................................................315
S t a n d in g o r w a lk in g o n t r a c k . .............................. 316
S e t t in g o r r e le a s in g h a n d b r a k e s ..........................317
O b je c t s fa ll i n g f r o m ...................................................... 318
O th e r a c c id e n t s ............................................................... 319
A u t o v e h ic le s :
C o llis io n s w i t h c a r s o r e n g i n e s ...............................330
C o llis io n s w i t h o t h e r v e h i c l e s ................................ 331
C o llis io n s w i t h s t a t io n a r y o b j e c t s ....................... 332
O v e r t u r n i n g ...................................................................... 333
C r a n k in g ............................................................................. 334
F a lls f r o m ...........................................................................335
S t r u c k b y ........................................................................... 336
O b je c t s f a ll i n g f r o m ..................................................... 337
O b je c t s s h i ft i n g o n l o a d ............................................. 338
A l l o t h e r ..............................................................................339
A n i m a l - d r a w n v e h ic le s :
C o llis io n s w i t h c a r s o r e n g i n e s ...............................350
C o llis io n s w i t h o t h e r v e h i c l e s .................... '____ 351
C o llis io n s w i t h s t a t io n a r y o b j e c t s ....................... 352
O v e r t u r n i n g ...................................................................... 353
W h i fl l e t r e e s .......................................................................354
F a lls f r o m ...........................................................................355
S t r u c k b y ........................................................................... 356
O b je c t s fa ll i n g f r o m ..................................................... 357
O b je c t s s h ift in g o n l o a d ............................................. 358
A l l o t h e r ..............................................................................359
W a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n :
C o llis io n s w i t h v e s s e l s ................................................ 370
C o llis io n s w i t h o t h e r o b j e c t s ...................................371
C a p s iz in g ............................................................................. 372
H a w s e r s a n d o t h e r r o p e s ............................................373
A l l o t h e r .......................................................: ................. 374
N o t c l a s s i f i e d .................................................................. 398
N o t r e p o r t e d ..................................
399
C a u s e G r o u p N o . 4— H o t a n d C o r r o s i v e S u b ­
s t a n c e s , E x p l o s iv e s , E l e c t r ic it y , a n d F ir e s .
C ode N o.
E x p l o s i v e s , s t o r a g e ................................................................401
E x p l o s i v e s , t r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d h a n d li n g ...............402
E x p lo s i v e s , b l a s t i n g ........................................................... 403
E x p l o s i v e s , d u s t ................................................................... 404
E x p l o s i v e s , g a s ......................................................................... 405
E x p l o s i v e s , g a s o l in e ........................................................... 406
E x p l o s i v e s , o t h e r ................................................................. 407
E l e c t r i c i t y , s h o r t c ir c u i t s a t s w i t c h e s ........................408
E l e c t r ic i t y , c o n t a c t e x p o s e d c o n d u c t o r s ................ 409
E l e c t r ic i t y , o t h e r .................................................................... 410
C o n fla g r a t io n s ...........................................................................411
H o t s u b s t a n c e s a n d f la m e s , a s p h a lt , e t c .:
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , l i q u i d s , w a t e r ............................ 413
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , l i q u i d s , o t h e r l i q u i d s ...............414
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , m e t a l, f a ll s o n s h e e t s ..........415
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , m e t a l , h a n d li n g s h e e t s . . . 416
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , h o t b a r s i n r o l l s ..................... 417
H o t s u b s t a n c e s , h o t s c a le ......................................... 418




Cause Group N o . 4—H ot and Corrosive Sub ­
s t a n c e s , E x p l o s iv e s , E l e c t r ic it y , and
F ires —Concluded.
Hot substances and flames,
~ , X
T
asphalt, etc.—Concluded.
Code No*
Hot substances, hot stock ejected............. 419
Hot substances, rod loops.............................. 420
Hot substances, molten metal, breakouts.. 421
Hot substances, molten metal, explosions*.. 422
Hot substances, molten metal, ingot explo­
sions................................................................. 423
Hot substances, molten metal, sparks
andsplashes.................................................... 424
Hot substances, molten metal, spills..........425
Hot substances, molten metal and slag,
other................................................................. 426
Hot substances, steam................................... 427
Hot substances, flames..................................... 428
Hot substances, all other................................. 429
Corrosive substances................................................ 430
Unclassified............................................................... 498
Ca u se

Group N

o.

6— F a l l s

of

P erson s.
C ode N o.

F r o m b e n c h e s , b o x e s , c h a ir s , a n d t a b l e s .............. 601
F r o m b o a t s ? b r i d g e s , d a m s , a n d d o c k s ..................... 602
F r o m b u i l d i n g s , i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o r d e m o l i t i o n . 603
F r o m c r a n e s , d e r r ic k s , o r h o is t s , i n e r e c t in g o r
r i g g i n g ....................................................................................... 604
F r o m flo o r s , t e m p o r a r y ....................................................... 605
F r o m l a d d e r s ............................................................................. 606
F r o m e n g in e s , b o i le r s , a n d m a c h i n e s ........................ 607
F r o m p i l e s .................................................................................. 608
F r o m p o l e s a n d t r e e s ........................................................... 609
F r o m r o o f s ............................................................................... 610
F r o m r u n w a y s , b a l c o n i e s , a n d p l a t f o r m s ............. 611
F r o m s c a f fo ld s o r s t a g i n g .................................................. 612
F r o m s t a i r s .............................................................................. 613
F r o m t r a m w a y s a n d t r e s t l e s ........................................... 614
F r o m w in d o w s o r w a l l o p e n i n g s ...................................615
F r o m o t h e r e l e v a t i o n s .........................................................616
I n t o b i n s a n d v a t s ............................................................... 617
I n t o flo o r o p e n i n g s .................................................................618
I n t o m a n h o l e s ........................................................................ 619
I n t o e x c a v a t i o n s ..................................................................... 620
D u e t o s l i p p i n g o n l e v e l .................................................. 621
D u e t o s t u m b l i n g o n l e v e l ............................................. 622
O t h e r f a ll s ................................................................................. 698

Cause Group N o . 7— F alling Objects.
Collapse of building or w^alls...........
Collapse of piled material.................
Collapse of scaffolds or staging.......
From buildings...................................
From chutes, conveyors, or slides..
From machines or work benches...
From piles...........................................
From racks and shelves....................
From runways, balconies, etc.........
From scaffolds and staging.............
From temporary floors.....................
From tramways and trestles...........
From other elevations......................
Into ditches or trenches....................
Into other excavations......................
Cave in of ditches...............................
Cave in of tunnels..............................
Cave in of other excavations...........
Falling poles.......................................
Falling trees and limbs....................
Objects tipping over (not vehicles)
Other falling objects..........................
Cause Group N o . 8—Objects
H andled .

and

Code No.
...........701
........... 702
........... 703
.............. 704
........... 705
........... 706
........... 707
........... 708
........... 709
........... 710
........... 711
........... 712
........... 713
........... 714
........... 715
........... 716
........... 717
........... 718
........... 719
........... 720
........... 721
........... 798
T ools B eing

Code No.
Objects dropped in handling................................. 801
Caught between object handled and other
object...................................................................... 802
Lifting or pulling, causing strain.........................803
Handling glass............................................................ 804
Handling sheet metal................................................ 805
Handling objects with protruding nails............... 806
Handling other sharp objects..................................807

294

ACCIDENTS I N TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
G E N E R A L CAUSE GR OUPS—Concluded.

C a u s e G r o u p N o . 8— O b j e c t s a n d T o o l s B e i n g
H a n d l e d — Continued.

Code No.
Handling trucks or barrows, collide with person 808
Handling trucks or barrow, collide with objects. 809
Handling trucks or barrows, overturn................810
Handling trucks or barrows, objects fall from .. 811
Handling trucks or barrows, other accidents___ 812
Tools in hands of worker:
Tools, glance or slip........................................... 813
Tools, break or come apart.............................814
Tools, objects fly from, not otherwise
specified............................................................. 815
Tools, objects fly from nails and spikes... 816
Tools, objects fly from metal chips................... 817
Tools, objects fly from stone or cem ent.... 818
Tools in hands of fellow worker:
Tools, glance or slip............................................819
Tools, break or come apart............................ 820
Tools, objects fly from, not otherwise
specified............................................................. 821
Tools, objects fly from nails and spikes___ 822

C a u s e G r o u p N o . 8— O b j e c t s a n d T o o l s B e i n g
H a n d l e d — C oncluded.

Tools in hands of fellow worker—Concluded.
C ode N o .
T o o l s , o b j e c t s f ly fr o m m e t a l c h i p s ......................823
T o o l s , o b j e c t s f ly f r o m s t o n e o r c e m e n t ..........824
U n c la s s i f ie d ................................................................................898

C ause Group N o. 9—Miscellaneous Causes .
C ode N o.
A n i m a l s .........................................................................................901
A s p h y x i a t i n g g a s .................................................................... 902
C o l d ................................................................................................. 903
D o o r s , w in d o w s , e t c ........................................................... 904
D r o w n i n g .................................................................................. 905
F l y i n g o b je c t s ( n o t o t h e r w is e c l a s s i f i e d ) .............. 906
H e a t ................................................................................................907
.L i g h t n in g .................................................................................. 908
N a ils a n d s h a r p o b j e c t s s t e p p e d o n ............................ 909
V i o l e n c e ...................................................................................... 910
S t r ik in g a g a in s t o b j e c t s .......................................................911
U n e v e n f o o t i n g . ..... ................................................................. 912
M o v i n g o b j e c t s n o t o t h e r w is e c l a s s i f i e d ....................913
A l l o t h e r ..................................................................................... 998

LOCATION OF IN J U R Y .

Head:
Code No.
Brain.......................................................... 01
Eye............................................................. 02
Both eyes.................................................... 03
Internal ear................................................. 04
.Both internal ears...................................... 05
External ear................................................ 06
Skull........................................................... 07
Scalp........................................................... 08
Head, not otherwise classified.................... 09
Face and neck:
Forehead..................................................... 10
Eyelids........................................................ 11
Nose............................................................ 12
Cheek.......................................................... 13
Upper jaw................................................... 14
15
Lower jaw..................
Teeth.......................................................... 16
Tongue........................................................ 17
Lips and chin............................................. 18
Face, not otherwise classified..................... 19
Neck...............................................
20
Trunk:
Back........................................................... 21
Vertebrae.................................................... 22
Thorax, external........................................ 23
Thorax, internal........................................ 24
Abdomen, external..................................... 25
Abdomen, internal..................................... 26
Groin.......................................................... 27
Pelvis.......................................................... 28
Generative organs....................................... 29
Upper extremities:
Scapula....................................................... 30
Clavicle....................................................... 31
Shoulder..................................................... 32

Upper extremities—Concluded.
Code No.
Hum erus.......................................................... 33
Upper a rm ......... ............................................ 34
Elbow.............................................................. 35
U lna................................................................. 36
R adius............................................................. 37
Both ulna and radius.................................... 38
Forearm........................................................... 39
W r i s t ............................................................ 40
H a n d ...............................................
41
Both hands..................................................... 42
One finger........................................................ 43
Two fingers...................................................... 44
Three fingers................................................... 45
Four fingers.................................................... 46
T hum b.............
47
Thumb and 1 finger....................................... 48
Thumb and 2 fingers..................................... 49
Thumb and 3 fingers..................................... 50
Thumb and 4 fingers..................................... 51
Lower extremities:
H ip .................................................................. 52
F em ur............................................................. 53
Upper leg........................................................ 54
Knee................................................................ 55
Tibia................................................................ 56
F ibula.............................................................. 57
Both tibia and fibula..................................... 58
Lower leg........................................................ 59
Ankle............................................................... 60
Foot................................................................. 61
Both feet.......................................................... 62
Great toe.......................................................... 63
Any two toes................................................. 64
Unclassified........................................................... 98
Unknown............................................................... 99

N A T U R E OF INJURY..
Code No.
Code No.
Abrasion..................................................................... 01 Cut with infection.................................................... 14
Bruise.......................................................................... 02 Laceration with infection....................................... 15
Cut............................................................................... 03 Puncture with infection......................................... 16
Laceration.............................................................. 04 Burn.or scald with infection.................................. 17
Puncture.................................................................... 05 Fracture with infection........................................... 18
Burn or scald............................................................. 06 Hernia......................................................................... 19
Concussion...........................................*.................... 07 Asphyxia.................................................................... 20
Dislocation................................................................. 08 Electric flash............................................................. 21
Fracture..................................................................... 09 Crushing injury......................................................... 22
Sprain or strain (not herma)................................. 10 Heat exhaustion....................................................... 23
Accidental dismemberment.................................. 11 Other........................................................................... 98
Nervous shock.......................................................... 12 Unknown................................................................... 99
Abrasion with infection.........................................

The card is so arranged that it can be placed upon the typewriter
and the various items entered in sequence. The entry of the code
numbers is, of course, greatly facilitated if the record has been copied
upon the upper half of the card by the plant, since, in that case, when
placed upon the typewriter the record to be translated into terms of
the Qode is in a convenient position to be inspected and the proper
code numbers determined.




STATISTICAL METHODS FOR TH E SAFETY MAST.

295

In those cases where a duplicate report of one prepared by the plant
for its own use is sent in, the items on it are not copied but the trans­
lation into code numbers is made directly from the original and
entered upon the bureau card. In that case the upper portion of the
card is left blank and the card contains only the series of code numbers.
This process brings all of the individual records into a form con­
venient for filing and reference, and facilitates the next step of the
process, which consists in transferring the code numbers to punched
cards. A form of this card is shown on page 296.
The process of sorting and tabulating these punched cards is
familiar to those who have had occasion to use the system in cost
accounting and other similar operations and can not be readily
described in such manner as to render it intelligible to those who
have not seen the apparatus. It will be sufficient to indicate the
procedure in a simple case. Let it be supposed that the interest is
in the causes of injury. The principal cause groups are recorded by
means of the code figures from 1 to 9 in column 27 of the punched
card. The machine will be set to sort the cards in accordance with
the figures in that column. The result of the operation will be to
place the cards numbered from 1 to 9 in their respective compart­
ments. The cards in compartment 4, for instance, are for accidents
due to explosives, electricity, and hot and corrosive substances, and
those in compartment 7 pertain to cases of injury due to falling
objects. If it is desired to know the number of men of the several
races injured in accidents from falling objects, the cards in com­
partment 7 will be reassorted by setting the machine for columns
21 and 22. As a result of this reassorting all cards marked 01,
which represent the American whites, will be in one group, those
marked 19, representing Polish workers in another; and so on.
It is evident that by reassorting the cards into the many possible
interrelated groups indicated by the printed titles it would be pos­
sible to establish a very great number of interrelations, some of
them significant and others having little or no meaning.
This assortment of the cards will determine the number of cases
belonging to specific classifications. It has been repeatedly empha­
sized that a study of the number of cases as related to the working
force fails signally to bring out many important facts in the situation.
There is need also for some index of the severity of the cases falling
under the various classifications. Knowledge on this point is
obtained by utilizing the record found in columns 42 to 45. If the
card is one for a fatal case 6,000 will be punched out in these columns.
If a disability of one day beyond the dajr of injury is represented,
the figures punched will be 0001. In a given group of cards there
will be material variation, depending upon the degree of severity in
the individual cases. If it is desired to know what the loss equiva­
lent to the injuries arising from falling objects is, the cards from
compartment 7, as originally sorted, will be put through another
machine, which adds the time losses recorded in columns 42 to 45.
It is obvious that the equivalent time losses occurring in any grouping
which has been determined by the previous sorting may be learned
by-putting the cards through this tabulator.




0 0 0

1

Time
allowance.

Temporary
disability.

Permanent
disability.

Result.

Nature.

Location.

Cause
analyzed.

0

0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1

1

II

0 0 0 0

u

1 1 1 1 II

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

2

2

2 2 2 2

2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3

3 3 3

3

3 3 3

3

3

3 3 3 3

3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4

4

4 4 4

4.

4

4 4 4 4

4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5.5 5 5 5 5

5

5 5 5

5 5 5

5

5 5 5

5

5

5 5 5 5

5

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6

6 6 6

6 6 6

6

6 6 6

6

6

6 6 6 6

6

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

7

7 7 7

7 7 7

7

7 7 7

7

7

7 7 7 7

7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

8

8 8 8

8 8 8

8

8 8 8

8

8

8 8 8 8

8

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
1

2

3

4

5




6

7

8

9

10

ii

12 13 14 15 10 17 18 19

3

9

20

9 9

21 22

9

23

9 9 9

24 25 26

9

27

9 9 9

28 29 30

9

31

9

32

9 9 9 9

33 34 35 36

9

37

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

T H E IK O N A N D ST EE L IN D U ST R Y ,

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Cause.

Occupa­
tion.

0 0 0

C
U

Mode.

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

«
c
2

Experience.

B
0
U

English.

w

Dependents.

Hour.

[ Day of week.

| Month.

Depart­
ment.

«

b
o
<

A C C ID E N T S I N

Serial
number.

296

h
0
V

• }*

T
J
C
0
y

STATISTICAL METHODS FOR TH E SAFETY M A N .

297

The information thus obtained regarding the cases of accident
may now be formulated as rates by computing the ratio between
the man hours and the number of cases, giving frequency rates, or
between man hours and the equivalent days oi loss, giving severity
rates. In the standard table used in different parts of this report
and shown below these frequency and severity rates are given for
cases of death, permanent disability, and temporary disability.

Number of cases.

C
1)

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.

Per­
ma­
Death. nent
disa­
bility.

Accident
frequency
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure).

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure).

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­
po­
ma­
po­
rary To­ Death. nent rary To­ Death. nent rary To­
tal.
disa­
disa­ disa­ tal.
disa­ disa­ tal.
bility.
bility. bility.
bility. bility.

1 This space is for entering department, occupation, etc.

The foregoing gives an idea of the treatment of the data coming
into the bureau in the form of records of individual cases.
Tabulated records.— It has been noted above that besides the
records of individual cases a considerable body of records comes to
the bureau in the form of tabulations. From these tabulated
records it has been possible directly to calculate the frequency rates.
Determination of severity rates involves more extended computation.
For example, all cases of death must be multiplied by 6,000; loss of
thumb, by 600; disabilities terminating in 7 days or less, by 3.5.
By computations such as these the time allowances pertaining to the
several departments may be determined. Since the classification
is never expanded beyond the departments into occupations, only
departmental rates can be determined from these tabulated reports,
and it is manifest that no study of causes is possible from such
tabulation.
TH E USE OF R ECO R D S A N D CH AR TS.

The safety man will very soon find it desirable, even necessary, to
ut his records into such shape that they may be readily understood
y the management. He must show in what departments of the
plant under his charge changes in accident occurrences are happening,
either improvement or the opposite.
It may properly be emphasized again at this point that no trust­
worthy conclusions can be arrived at regarding these matters unless
the accident occurrences are related to the amount of exposure. In
other words, rates of various sorts must be prepared which will
indicate the nature of the changes which are going on. It may also
be said that exclusive attention to frequency rates is always liable
to lead to wrong conclusions, and it is certain that at intervals such
.errors will intrude if the factor of severity is not properly considered.
As a direct and forcible method of presenting the facts with regard
to accident occurrences and accident prevention, no method has
proved equal to the graphic chart. If such charts are made with due
regard to simplicity and clearness, a large amount of information can

E

71087°— 22------20




298

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

be compressed into small space and made to appeal very directly to
the observer.
There are two things which may be conveyed by the graphic
method: (1) A comparison of absolute amounts and (2) the direction
and rate of change which is occurring. It has not always been the
case that a clear distinction has been made between these two entirely
different ideas which may be embodied in a chart.
Differences in absolute amounts may be shown by charts such as
Chart 15, shown on page 216.
That chart shows by means of the horizontal bars of which it is
composed the size of the accident severity rates in the iron and steel
industry over a period of years. It also shows what contribution to
this total severity was made by each of three factors; namely, death,
permanent disability, and temporary disability.
Such charts are sometimes made with the bars vertical instead
of horizontal. This is an undesirable arrangement since it is much
less easy for the eye to make comparison of vertical distances than it
is of horizontal distances.
Whenever, therefore, it is possible to use the arrangement shown
of the elements making up the chart it is desirable to do so.
SMOOTHED CURVES.

It is usually desirable to consider the course of events in the matter
of accident occurrences in the plant as often as once a month. One
difficulty is immediately encountered, even in establishments of con­
siderable size, when the monthly unit is adopted. The amount of
exposure and the number of cases are so small that very violent and
perplexing fluctuations may occur which tend to obscure the real
course of events. When, on the other hand, comparisons are made
only between successive annual periods, the comparison is so delayed
as to lose a large part of its value.
It is desirable, therefore, to adopt, if possible, some method which
permits of a monthly presentation of relations and at the same time
deals with amounts of exposure and number of cases sufficiently large
to get away from the influence of special local conditions.
This is accomplished by the use of overlapping 12-month periods.
For example, instead of computing rates for the month of January,
February, etc., the rates are computed for the entire year ending with
each of those months. These rates are then arranged in a series and
by their rise and fall indicate in a satisfactory manner the general
trend of events.
The results of the application of this method can best be understood
by the comparison oi charts plotted from month to month and the
same data plotted by full years ending with those months.
Chart 58 shows the frequency rates by individual months from
December, 1914, to October, 1916, for five of the important depart­
ments of a large steel works. Charts of this form have been very
considerably used by safety men and when the fluctuations are not
great and the number of departments presented is relatively small^
they give a fairly satisfactory picture of conditions and permit a
ready comparison between the months. It is evident, however,
that where the fluctuations are such as those shown in this chart, it
becomes very confusing and the tracing of the record of the indi­
vidual departments is extremely difficult.




STATISTICAL. METHODS FOE TH E SAFETY M A N .

299

In Chart 59 the same data are presented modified so as to show the
rates for the full years ending with the months instead of the monthly
rates as in the preceding chart. It is possible in this chart to trace
the relations between the several departments. For example, in the
early part of the chart accident rates in the mechanical department

were materially higher than the rates in rolling mills. By the close
of the period they were considerably less. Also a changed condition
in a particular department becomes promptly evident and provides
a better basis for an intelligent conclusion regarding what ought to
be done in that department than the violent changes which are indi­
cated in many cases by the monthly summary.




due rather to the number of items which must be considered than to
any complication in their relationships.
The form introduced below is convenient for the entering of in­
formation necessary to the preparation of charts of this character.



Ch a r t

59.—ACCIDENT RATES PLOTTED B Y O VERLAPPING 12-MONTH PERIOD.

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301

STATISTICAL METHODS FOR TH E SAFETY M A N .

Accidents.

Man-hours.

By months.

By years ending—

By months.

Months.

By years
ending—

Frequency
rates by
years
ending—

1914

January.............................
February...........................
March.................................
April...................................
May....................................
.Time..........................
July..................................
August........................
September........................
October............................
November.....................
December..........................

1915

1914

1915

1914

1915

1914

1915

1914

1915

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

195,000
207,000
204.000
198.000
198.000
198.000
201,000
177,000
177,000
177,000
135.000
159.000

Total........................... 2,226,000

2.154.000
2.109.000
2,064,000

123.000
162.000
159,000

2,226,000

37
30
24
17
24
19
22
22
18
17
10
14

232
214
210

15
12
20

254

108
101
102

114

254

The above form is arranged to carry data for two years. It is, of
course, possible to increase the number of years indefinitely. In the
columns at the left the “ man hours’ ’ of the individual months are
entered. The total of the first column is the man hours for the year
ending with December, 1914. In the next two columns are entered the
man hours for the 12 month-period ending with each specified month.
The total for 1914 is 2,226,000 hours. To obtain the figure for the
year ending with January, 1915, we subtract from this total the hours
of exposure for January, 1914, and add the hours of exposure for
January, 1915 (2,226,000-195,000+123,000 = 2,154,000). Proceed­
ing in this manner, from month to month, we obtain the hours of
exposure for the years ending in each month of the period covered.
The next two columns contain the number of accidents which occurred
in each month. The total of column 5 is the number of accidents
(254) which occurred in the year ending with December, 1914. Ap­
plying a formula similar to that used for the hours o f exposure
(254 —37 + 15 = 232) gives the number of accidents for the year ending
with January, 1915. Repeating the process gives (232 —30 + 12 = 214)
the accidents for year ending February, 1915, and so on to the end
of the series.
Lastly, there are two columns in which frequency rates are entered.
These are obtained by dividing the number of accidents, as found in
columns 7 and 8, by the number of man hours, as found in columns
3 and 4.
It may be repeated that this method of indicating the trend of
events gives a much more sure and satisfactory indication of the
changing conditions than it is possible to secure by charting the indi­
vidual months.
C H A R T IN G A C C ID E N T C A U S E S .

The foregoing gives an idea of the application of smoothed curves
to the departmental rates. In a precisely similar manner the rates




302

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

for accident causes may be computed and charted. This application
is illustrated by Chart 60.
Whenever the curves for different items fall in widely separated
parts of the scale, difficulty is encountered both in the matter of space
occupied and in the comparison of the curves. In Chart 60, this

difficulty is overcome by reducing the rates which are charted to
index numbers based upon that o f the initial year taken as 100.
In this chart, the handling of objects and tools and three other causes
are plotted. For comparison with these cause curves the course of
employment and the new-man accession rate are also plotted. A
very close and significant parallelism appears in this chart between
the curve representing the new-man accession and the curve represent-




STATISTICAL METHODS FOR TH E SAFETY M A N .

80S

ing the handling of objects and tools. In fact they run so closely
together in parts of their course that it is difficult to discriminate one
from the other.
It has often been noticed that the accession of new men is almost
invariably accompanied by rising accident rates, both frequency and
severity. Chart 60 gives an idea of the kind of injury which these
new men suffer to a specially noticeable decree. It is very likely
that a man entering upon service will first be given some work involv­
ing the handling of objects or tools, and it is evident that his inexpe­
rience reveals itself in an unusually large number of injuries connected
with such handling.
Among the cause groups shown by this chart are hot substances and
cranes and hoists. These are known to give rise to a relatively high
degree of severity. When, therefore, from the year ending in June,
1915, to the year ending in June, 1916, one or both of these causes
shows a rise proportionate to or exceeding the figures of employment,
it becomes evident that the safety man should give these causes
particular attention.
Over the period mentioned the general tendency of all causes is
upward, coincident with the rise of the new-man accession rate, to
which attention has been balled. There is one notable exception to
this rule. The curve representing u falls of the worker ” declines
throughout most of the period. Special inquiry was made as to any
condition which might have influenced the course of this curve, and
it was found that a very active campaign was in progress for the im­
provement of the condition of the plant in respect to cleanliness, the
condition of stairways and ladders, and the correction of other condi­
tions likely to influence the occurrence of falls. The plotting of this
curve revealed to the management for the first time the degree to
which their efforts had been successful and also showed that other
causes which had not been subjected to special effort had at the same
time rising curves.
B y the use of colored pencils it is possible in charts prepared in
the same manner as those just described to introduce and to dis­
criminate satisfactorily a very considerable number of departments
or of cause groups. If such charts be maintained from month to
month the trend of accident occurrence will be satisfactorily shown
with scarcely more application of time and effort than that necessary
to plot the ordinary monthly summary.
The cause chart, such as that described, is particularly useful in
determining whether special efforts in certain directions are proving
effective.
The charts just presented are plotted upon an arithmetic scale.
In these particular instances the objections to the use of such a scale
which are brought out later (see page 305) do not seriously apply.
The charts convey in a fairly satisfactory manner the ideas which they
were intended to convey. It remains true, however, that these charts
would be materially improved if they were projected upon a percent­
age scale such as will now be described.




30 4

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

THE RATIO CHART.2

It has already been pointed out that when it is desired to compare
absolute magnitudes a bar chart with the bars placed horizontal is
much to be preferred. As will be amplified somewhat a little later,
conclusions based upon such charts with regard to the rate at which
change is taking place, and especially with regard to comparative rates,
are almost certain to be erroneous. For the expression of changing
relations other graphic methods are essential: The difference between
the relation of absolute magnitudes and the rate at which change is
occurring may be illustrated by the case of the city having in each
of three enumerations a population of 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000.
The relation in the matter of absolute magnitudes would be deter­
mined by noting the arithmetic difference, namely, 25,000, between the
first and second, and the same number between the second and third.
If, however, the interest is in the rate at which change has been
occurring it would be expressed by the percentage difference between
these populations. In the interval between the first and second
enumeration the population increased 50 per cent; tbetween the second
and third enumeration the increase was 33J per cent.
The arithmetic differences noted direct, attention to the absolute
magnitudes, while the statement on the percentage basis calls atten­
tion to the rate of change.
A COMPARISON OF SCALES.

It has long been a matter of interest to have a method by which
the ordinary expression of rate of change, namely, an increase or
decrease of so many per cent, could be expressed graphically. This
result is accomplished perfectly by the use of a “ ratio; ’ chart con­
structed on a “ percentage scale.”
Since the percentage scale is derived from a consideration of the
logarithms of the numbers denoting the absolute magnitudes, the
scale is frequently called “ logarithmic.”
The fundamental characteristics of each scale will be brought out
by comparison of the following form:
A R ITH M ETIC SCALE.

10
1

15

20

30

40

50

60

1

1

1

1

1

1

PE R C E N TA G E SCALE.

10
1

15
1

20
1

40
1

80
1

160
1

320
1

In the arithmetic scale shown above equal linear distances represent
equal arithmetic differences. In the percentage scale equal linear
distances express equal percentage differences. The arithmetic scale
is so constructed that each space contains 10 units. In the per­
centage scale one space represents 100 per cent difference.
2 Since the publication by Prof. Irving Fisher, of Yale University, in the July, 1/917, issue of the publica­
tions of the American Statistical Association, the ratio chart has been utilized by a number of statisticians
for the purpose of conveying ideas regarding the rate of change occurring in statistical magnitudes over a
period of time.




STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE SAFETY M A N .

305

Suppose that it is desired to introduce some intermediate numbers
between 10 and 20 on the arithmetic scale. The space between the two
would be divided into 10 equal parts, 11 would be one unit removed
from 10 while 15 would be midway between 10 and 20, since points
having equal arithmetic differences are always equidistant.
It is a more complicated matter to construct a complete percentage
scale because any magnitude compared with an ascending or de­
scending series of magnitudes is a constantly changing percentage.
To illustrate, from 100 to 110 is 10 per cent increase; from 200 to 210
the increase is 5 per cent. Therefore on the percentage scale the
linear distance from 200 to .210 will be less than from 100 to 110.
As a result, in passing up the percentage scale the numbers separated
by the same arithmetic difference will draw closer and closer together
on account of the decreasing percentage difference.
If it is desired to locate an intermediate number, such as 15 between
1 0 and 20 on the percentage scale, it will be necessary to determine
the logarithms of 10, 15, and 20 and then place 15 between 10 and
2 0 in a position representing the relation between its logarithm and
the logarithms of these two numbers. When the point 15 is thus
located, it will be found that it is not equally distant from 10 and 20
as is the case in the arithmetic scale but is nearer to 20, as shown.
This accords with the statement already made, that a given magnitude
is a constantly decreasing percentage of an increasing series of
magnitudes.
To produce percentage scales by this method of getting the
logarithms from the tables would be a somewhat laborious and timeconsuming process. Practically this may be avoided by using scales
already prepared. There are on the market papers ruled on the
percentage basis, commonly known as “ logarithmic paper.’ ’ From
them it will usually be possible to select a scale of dimensions suited
to the particular graph which it is desired to produce. In case no
paper is available having satisfactory dimensions, it is easily possible to
derive a usable scale, or the divisions on an engineer’s slide rule may
be utilized for the production of appropriate percentage scales.
ERRONEOUS USE OF ARITHMETIC CHARTS.

Before proceeding to present the characteristics and use of the
ratio chart more in detail, it is desirable to show wherein the ordinary
arithmetic scale fails to convey correct impressions. Much the most
common and also the most deceptive of such charts is the line chart
projected on an arithmetic scale.
Chart 61 is a combination of bar chart with the line chart. In it
the bars are placed vertical instead of horizontal and a so-called
curve is formed by introducing a line connecting the points at the
ends of the bars.




306

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Chart 61.—COMBINATION OF B A B AND LINE CH ART TO SHOW INCORRECT USE
OF AR IT H M ET IC PLOTTIN G .

The only things which are properly comparable in a chart such as
this are the distances from the base l^ne to the points determined;
in other words, the length of the bars. The connecting line, b y which
the points at the ends of the bars are united, diverts attention from
the appropriate comparison to a consideration of the line itself. If,
as is usually the case, the bars are not introduced, the gradient of
the line between the different points becomes the basis oi judgment
and all idea of the distances from the base as the objects to be com­
pared is lost. It is almost inevitable, under these circumstances, that
the line will be erroneously interpreted as expressing the rate of
change. This rate, however, as will be explained later, can be accu­
rately represented only by a ratio chart in which percentage differences
and not arithmetic differences are plotted.
It happens quite frequently that for some distance above the zero
line no points in the curve occur. In such a case it is a common
practice to omit entirely that portion of the scale. This at once and
completely renders impossible the only proper comparison. Suppose
the smallest magnitude in a given group is 75 and the largest magni­
tude is 100. It would then be in accordance with the common prac­
tice to cut away the lower portion of the scale to 70, for example.
The ocular comparison of the two magnitudes will, of necessity, be
that between 5 and 30 and not that between 75 and 100. This is
true because the eye judges not by the figures to which the points
correspond but by the distance of the points from the base line. An
arithmetic chart, then, in which the scale does not extend to zero is
useless or positively deceptive. Furthermore,. when the series of
magnitudes which it is desired to compare become increased beyond
two or three, it becomes difficult, even impossible, to compare the
distances from the zero line even though the entire scale be given.
Further to complicate the situation by an abbreviated scale is to
multiply obscurity by deception. Chart 62, based upon data assem-




PLOTTING OF ACCIDENT F R E Q U EN C Y RATES.

STATISTICAL METHODS TOR THE SAFETY M A N .




C h a r t 6 2 .— ARITHM ETIC

C
O
O

308

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

bled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its studies, is the usual
arithmetic projection of the experience of plants producing various
steel products.
This chart has all the confusing and deceptive features specified
above; namely, (1) the abbreviated scale, (2) confusing multiplicity
of items, and (3) the guide lines diverting attention to themselves
from the proper comparison. To test its aeceptive capacity a large
number of people were requested to state the impression conveyed
to them by the curve for fabrication as compared with that for tube
manufacture. Practically all were agreed that in the earlier years
covered by the chart conditions improved more rapidly in fabrication
than in tube manufacture. Only one person called attention to the
fact that the omission of the lower portion of the scale made impossible
the only valid comparison which such a chart should make possible.
It developed constantly that the judgment rested upon the relative
steepness of the gradients of the two lines.
To be correctly interpreted the line must be a true curve represent­
ing the rate of change. The so-called curves in this chart are not
really curves at all but are really guide lines which the eye may follow
from point to point. It is already noted that when a given point is
reached the line must be forgotten while the real comparison is made
of the relative distances from the base line. In practice it is entirely
impossible to ignore the guide lines and give attention to the really
valid comparison. The need for some form of charting from which
the rate of change can be correctly judged becomes strikingly
apparent. This need is fulfilled by the ratio chart.
Chart 63 has the same data plotted in ratio form. It will at once
be seen that while the arithmetic chart showed the line of tube
manufacture as almost horizontal, this chart shows that the rate of
change in tube manufacture was greater than that of any of the
others.
CHARACTERISTICS AND USE OF RATIO CHARTS.

To recapitulate the points thus far made: (1) Comparison of
arithmetic differences is best accomplished b y means of the horizontal
bar chart; (2) The arithmetic line chart is unsatisfactory because it
does not clearly express its arithmetic differences and because it
functions erroneously and deceptively as an indicator of rate of
change; (3) An accurate conception of rate of change can be con­
veyed only by a ratio chart.
The ratio chart is, as has been noted, one in which magnitudes
are plotted on a percentage scale. After the scale i3 worked out the
steps in the production of the chart are precisely the same as those in
an arithmetic chart. A point on the chart is determined in accord­
ance with the scale adopted for each item in the table and the points
pertaining to each particular series of magnitudes are then connected
by distinctive lines. The result is to give true curves whose direction
and the rapidity of whose rise and fall are the significant matters.
There are four important characteristics and functions of the ratio
chart which should be pointed out:
(1)
In a ratio chart a given linear distance on the scale always
represents the same percentage of difference. For example, the dis­
tance from 10 to 20 (100 per cent) is precisely the same as the distance
from 100 to 200.




STATISTICAL METHODS FOE THE SAFETY MAH.

309




Chart 63.—A “ R A T IO ” CHART OF THE D A T A SHOW N IN CHART 62.

310

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

(2) The gradient of the lines always and necessarily expresses the
rate of change in the series of statistical facts being charted. Equal
rates of change or equal percentages of difference will have the same
gradients. For example, if one magnitude increases from 10 to 11
while another increases from 100 to 110 the curves corresponding to
the change will be parallel, indicating the fact that the rate of change
is the same. Plotted on an arithmetic scale the curve from 10 to 11
would represent one-tenth of the rise of the curve from 100 to 110.
(3) A percentage scale has no zero. This is necessarily true
because when there are magnitudes that are plottable, no matter how
small, the percentage decrease can never be 100, and thus can never
reach the zero point. An arithmetic scale in order to afford correct
information must extend to zero, since the only properly comp arable
things are the distances from the zero line. It is a misapprehension to
think that the absence of zero in the percentage scale is a disadvanChart

64.—CH AR T

IL L U STR AT IN G
IN C O M PAR AB ILITY
INCREASE AND D E CR EASE.

OF

PER CEN TAG ES

OF

tage. The particular significance of the scale is related to this fact.
Since there is no zero no attention need be given to the question of dis­
tances therefrom. It is the relation of the magnitudes to each other
which is the proper subject of consideration.
(4)
The ordinary terms used to express rise and decline, such as a
50 per cent rise followed by a 25 per cent decline, are really unin­
telligible. The fact that they convey no exact and satisfactory
meaning is rarely recognized by those who use them. Comparatively
few persons are instinctively aware of the fact that an increase of
1 0 0 per cent is exactly balanced by a decline of 50 per cent.
Per­
centages of increase can be properly compared with other percentages
of the same sort and percentages of decline are similarly comparable,
but no direct comparison can be made between the percentage of
increase and the percentage of decline. Chart 64 illustrates the fact
that the two series of percentages are incomparable.




STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE SAFETY M A N .

311

For purposes of illustration a series of nine magnitudes have been
plotted; namely, 100, 200, 300, 600, 800, 600, 300, 200, 100, each
regarded as occurring in successive equal intervals of time. It will be
noted that the absolute decreases are in exact reverse order of the
increases. The percentage decreases, however, by no means coincide
with the corresponding percentage increases. Thus from 100 up to
2 0 0 is an increase of 100 per cent, while from 200 down to 100 is a
decrease of 50 per cent. From 200 up to 300 is a 50 per cent increase,
while from 300 down to 200 is a decrease of 33 per cent. From 600
up to 800 is a 33 per cent increase; from 800 down to 600 is a 25 per
cent decrease. Any comparison of such increasing and decreasing
series is impossible except by a memory of relations quite beyond the
powers of the ordinary mind or by mathematical adjustments in
each case so time consuming as to be out of the question. The
incomparability between increasing and decreasing series of mag­
nitudes is due to the necessary shifting of bases whenever there is a
change from increase to decline or the reverse. For example, going
up from 100 that number is the base and 200 is reached by a 100 per
cent step. Declining to the former level, 200 becomes the base and
1 0 0 is reached by a 50 per cent step.
It is evident that in any case
where there is frequent reversal the tangle of incomparable per­
centages will be entirely unintelligible.
The ratio chart untangles these incomparables and presents the
facts directly and accurately and in a form understandable merely
by inspection.
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS.

It is frequently desirable to compare series of magnitudes which
fall in widely separate portions of the scale. To do this in the manner
shown in the preceding charts sometimes requires an immense amount
of space or the curves may be so far separated from each other as to
render satisfactory comparison difficult.
Chart 65 illustrates a method of overcoming these difficulties.
Two portions of the scale are placed side by side and so adjusted that
the initial point of each curve falls at or near the same point. That
the scales used in the chart are portions of a single scale is demon­
strated by noting that the distance from 1.00 to 1.10 is the same as
that from 100,000 to 110,000, 10 per cent in each case. If the scale
were extended to accommodate these extremes, both the size of the
paper necessary and the distance apart of the two curves would render
that method of plotting out of the question. The marginal numbers
which appear on this chart afford some indication of the arithmetic
relations between the magnitudes, but this information is more
satisfactorily secured by reference to the tables on which the chart is
based. The number of curves which can be adjusted in this manner
is limited. It would probably not often be justifiable to thus arrange
more than two.




31 2

ACCIDENT'S IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Whenever the degree of fluctuation is the matter of chief interest
and the number of curves which it is desired to compare is consider­
able, the method illustrated by Chart 66 has a field of usefi^ness.
The magnitudes in these series are reduced to index numbers,
those of the initial year being regarded as 100. Each curve, as a

result, Starts from the same place. This procedure entirely elimi­
nates from the chart any hint of the relative size of the magnitudes
involved and confines the chart to showing the relative changes
which have occurred during the period considered.




C HART

66.—COMPARISON OF THE TREND OF SEVERAL R E L A T E D ITEMS B Y “ SMOOTHING ” REDUCING TO IN D E X NUMBERS AND
PLOTTING ON A PERCENTAGE SCALE.

71087

STATISTICAL METHODS FOB THE SAFETY MAN.

313




314

ACCIDENTS IN THE IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

It may be urged that the treatment described above is not suited
to the use of a busy safety office, where the chief concern must be to
guard against future accidents rather than to make elaborate studies
of those which have already occurred. Two things may be said
regarding such a contention: (1) The safety man needs to under­
stand, even if he does not use, the statistical devices by which the
attempt is made to interpret the facts in such a way as to give the
best possible insight into preventive measures; (2) the safety man
will find that many of the procedures outlined are much less com­
plicated than they appear and that they can be used currently
quite as readily as some that are apparently much simpler.
It will be agreed at once that extended analysis and presentation
are the proper function of national and State bureaus charged with
responsibility concerning accident problems. The safety man may
very well insist that he be provided with much more extensive and
careful expositions than have hitherto been made for his benefit.
Until his needs are more fully met by such agencies, he will find it
worth his while to examine from time to time his own experience
with the aid of any method which experience has shown to have
significance.




APPENDIX.
(DATA UPON WHICH REPORT IS BASED.)

T able 1.—HOURS OF E X PO SU R E IN PLANTS IN THE IR O N AN D STEEL IN D U S T R Y
FURNISHING RECORDS OF IN D IV ID U A L CASES, 1915 TO 1919, B Y DEPARTMENTS.

Department.
Blast furnaces.................................
Bessemer.........................................
Open hearths..................................
Foundries........................................
Heavy rolling mills.......................
Plate mills......................................
Tube mills......................................
Fabricating.....................................
Electrical.........................................
Mechanical......................................
Y a r d s..............................................
Sheet rolling mills.........................
Miscellaneous.................................

1915
6,806,374
1,456,833
8,921,814
2,055,798
12,385,781
6,363,272
4,389,775
4,994,922
1,258,863
4,311,926
% 531,473
2,145,520
13,007,553

1916
8,589,306
2,429,522
11,312,621
2,771,841
17,131,436
7,397,487
6,792,073
5,528,341
1,914,055
10,129,008
6,478,753
3,520,712
15,696,839

1917
10,284,443
3,174,195
12,008,801
3,038,145
17,356,877
8,575,644
6,310,848
5,653,286
2,138,537
11,241,895
5,662,545
2,860,827
14,864,512

1918

1919

Total.

9,721,417 17,460,009
6,594,672
2,694,484
10,399,282 18,932,450
1,937/912 20,863,694
18,620,792 15,875,557
10,127,938 11,669,132
6,310, 848
9,990,534
6,248,511 10,906,342
2,064,173
5,196,490
12,365,722 36,205,585
4,791,503
8,994,087
2,669,097
6,564,120
19,227, 851 103,804,595

52,861,549
16,349,706
61,574,968
30,666,680
81,370,443
44,133,473
33,794,078
33,331,402
12,572,118
74,254,136
29,458,361
17,760,276
166,601,350

Total......................................... 71,629,904 99,691,994 103,170,555 107,178,820 273,057,267

654,728,540




315

CAUSE.

316

T able 2 .—
-NUMBER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 1915 TO 1919, BY ACCIDENT

MACHINERY.

Prime movers and power transmission:
Steam engines...........................................
Internal combustion engines..................
Dynamos and motors..............................

Blast
Open
furnaces. Bessemer. hearths.

11
2
1

Found­
ries.

2

Heavy
rolling
mills.

Plate
mills.

Sheet
rolling
mills.

Tube
mills.

4

2

13
1




3

7

1
10

3

2

4

3

3
4

1

1
1
2

4

1

3

1

5

1
1

40
2
1

15
5

2
1
1

1

3

4

34

14

2

g
3
%

3
1

5
2
1

1
1

26
25

25

2
8

6

55
46

1
1

5

103

1

1

3

1
1

7

3

1

17

47

1

15

2

1
1
1
1

19

3
16
4

1

4
5

44
25

7

2

1

1
1

1

1

9

4

1

1
1

3

62
52
7
43

11
10

2

1

14

1
2

2

5
13

3
5
37

2

1
1

1
2

8

1

1
1

1
1

1

1

1

5

2
1

3
7

2
22

Unclassi­
fied.

8
1
1

3

7
3

Hot and cooling beds.......... _...........

Pushers.............

1
1

Yards.

1

Bolt and nut machines............................
Boring m ill..............................................
Charging cars.............................................
Charging cranes.........................................
Doublers.....................................................
Drill presses ............. ............................
Drills, portable, electric........
Drills, portable, pneumatic....................
Forging hammers.....................................
Grinding wheels......................................

Reamers................................................
Riveters........................
Rolls...................
Roll tables...........................
Saws, band........................
Saws, crosscut...........................................
Saws, metal..........................................
Saws, rip......................
Shapers.......................................................
Shears..........................................................
Slotters........................................................

& ............
r ............

Mechan­
ical.

Elec­
trical.

2

1

Set screws, keys, and bolts.....................
Belts and pulleys........................... '.........
Working machines:"

Lathes, general.........................................
Lathes, turret............................................
Lathes, wood...........................................
Millers.........................................................
Mud gun.....................................................
Planers, metal...........................................
Planers, wood..........................................
Presses, punch..................................
Presses, stamping.....................................

Fabri­
cating.

3
3

2
5
2
4
2
8
9
21
6

49
11
1
1
1
11

3

5
6
84

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Accident cause.

Total.......................................................

1

11

5
2
21

1

1

1
3
3
1
21
1
15
4
6

1
10
1
15
2
3

27
1
7
1
1
2
1

2
1

4
1

2
9

1
42

2
1

3
1

1
115
5
72
20
57
1
6
15
4
52

1

1
2

1

91
2
44
16
46
2
5

1
66
7
64
27
42
4
5
15
4
56
1
1
4

83
1
75
23
70
2
6
32

9

3

1
80

9
5
11

3
3
11

47
60
74

2

6
6
2
28

1
1
14

2
1
1
1
2
2
7
19
1

2
1

43
1
32
16
49
1
2
5
2
45

1
9
20
6
12
2
3
2
11

7
1
2

3

3
157
2
132
48
124
2
5
21
1
103
1
6
5
1
7
4

14

5

8

14

is

7

27

3

1
1
25

11

69

18

178

153

54

403

324

452

372

119

73

529

76

638

101

1,211

7
5
27
45
6
5

3
4
9
38
1
3

2

VEHICLES.




2
6
56
165
50
1
4
1
6
28
46

'7
36
15

§
O
M

X

1
27
17

317

Steam and electric railways:
Train wrecks, collision.............................
Train wrecks, derailment........................
Falls, getting on or off, in motion.........
Falls, getting on or off, at rest...............
Falls, riding on, sudden start or stop.. .
Falls, riding on, slipping, or lost balance
Falls, riding on overhead structure___
Falls, riding on, side structure...............
Falls, not otherwise classified................
Struck by or caught between cars.........
Coupling or uncoupling..........................
Switching..................................................
Kepairing track........................................
Crossing track...........................................
Standing or walking on track.............
Setting or releasing hand brakes...........
Objects falling from.................................
Other accidents.............................. .........

1
5

■DATA TO O K W H IC H REPORT IS BASED.

Straighteners.............................................
Tappers.....................................................
Threaders..................................................
Transfer tables..........................................
Tube drawing benches.. , ........................
Forging press.............................................
Other machinery:
Elevator accidents....................................
Crane, caught by chain hooks................
Crane, cable catching person..................
3rane,l oad swinging................................
Crane,1oad 1owering................................
Crane,1oadf ailing....................................
Crane,loadfalling, broken machinery..
Crane,1oadf ailing, hitch slipped............
Crane, objects f ailing from crane...........
Crane,fallsfrom crane or truck...............
Crane, other accidents.............................
Derricks and hoists..................................
Blocks and tackles, windlasses, etc___
Conveyors..................................................
Gantry cranes...........................................
Locomotive cranes...................................
Pumps.......................................................
Fans and blowers.....................................
Unclassified...............................................

*f

318

T able 3 .-N U M B E R OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS IN THE IRON AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y ACCIDENT
CAUSE—Continued.
'
VEHICLES—Concluded.

Blast Bessemer. Open
furnaces.
hearths.

Heavy
rolling
mills.

Foun­
dries.

Auto vehicles:
Collisions with other vehicles................
Cranking....................................................
Struck b y ...................................................
Objects falling from................................
All other.....................................
Unclassified...............................................

1

i
4

i

2
18

29

Total........................................................

149

49

202

Plate
mills.

Sheet
rolling
mills.

Tube
mills.

1

Fabri­
cating.

Mechan­
ical.

Elec­
trical.

Yards.

1
1
2

1
1

1

3

10

1
3

1

21

61

20

9

5
8
4

2
6

1

Unclassi­
fied.

1
1

1

10

27

2
26

13

7

52

487

213

HOT SUBSTANCES.

Explosives:
Transportation and handling..............
Blasting...............................................
Dust..................................................
Gas....................................................
Other.................................................
Electricity:
Short circuits at switches...................
Contact exposed conductors...............
Other.................................................
Conflagrations..........................................
Hot substances and flames, asphalt, etc.:
Liquids, water..................................
Other liquids.....................................
Metal, falls on sheets..........................
Metal, handling sheets.......................
HotbarsinroUs.................................
Hot scale............................................
Hot stock ejected.................................
Molten metal, breakouts......................
Explosions.........................................
Ingot explosions..............................
Sparks and splashes............................
Spills...................................................
Slag, other...........................................




1
1
1
2
12
8
10
1

22
5
6

27
7

15

30
3

10
2

20
7
8
1

53
22
26
2

26
5
21
1

12
15
13
17

8
1
75
29

21
2

l
6
25
188
1
21

10
19

1
6
9
19
70

*33*
37
18
285
5
27

15
1
73

1
10

6

4

40

*i9*

*i2*

‘ *3*

2

**i*

3

5
9

3
*12*

13
**i*

*55
3
1

ACCIDENTS IN THE IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Accident cause.

30
46
56
6
7

4
8
7

22
100
159
1
8

3
12
40
2
4

10
24
66
1
U

5
10
62
1
3

1
4
12
4
4

1
1
7
1

1
6
15
2
- 1

5
3
12

2

15
34
44
6
4

3

32
79
174
52
14

Total................

436

120

781

170

2
4&

162

54

39

41

124

184

51

644

1

1

1

6
2

FALLS OF PERSONS.

Falls ol persons:
From benches, boxes, chairs, and tables.
From buildings, in construction or
demolition
From cranes,, derricks, or hoists in
erecting or rigging............................
From ladders.......................................
From piles...........................................
From poles and trees...........................
From roofs...........................................
From runways, balconies, and plat­
forms...............................................
From scaffolds or staging....................
Fromstairs.........................................
From,tramways and trestles..............
From other elevations.........................
Into bins and vats, -, T ....................
Into floor openings...............................
Into manholes.....................................
Into excavations..................................
Due to slipping on level......................
Due to stumbling on level...................
Other falls............................................
Total................................. ..............

14
1

2
1

. 1
8
23
13
4
21
13
4
2
4
53
24
1
1
199

1

1

1

1

1

14
4

6
1

1

14
3

4
3

1
2

6
1

1

2

1

6
6
4

22
1
1
1
1

2
1
4

6
5
1
1

2
4
1

.3

7
1

1

1

7
4
1
58
14
14

5

2
21
22
&

23
1
10
3
3
66
32
23

7

1
14
4
4

27
4
2
1
4
1
1
89
30
30

2
1

17
6
5

23
10
1

47

282

77

204

120

38

40

1

1

20
3
3

12
4

3
4
3

16
1

4

6

4

3

2

21
3

1
2

1
38
13

6

1

5

16
41
10

3
3
2
2
6

17
14
17

5

35
1
1
7

32
........ \ __
9
2
3
16
80
5
25
28
8

3
3
3
20
20
4

37
5
17
2
14
221
78
60

94

73

73

547

1
1

294

319




l,
2

APPENDIX— DATA UPON W H I C H EEPOET IS BASED.

S te a m ..,,...........
Flames................
All other.............
Corrosive substances
Unclassified...,____

32 0

Table 2 ,—NUMBER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPECIFIED DEPARTMENTS IN TH E IRON AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y, 1915 TO 1919, B Y ACCIDENT
CATTSE—Continued.
FALLING OBJECTS.

Collapse of scaffolds or staging......................
Falling objects:
From buildings.........................................
From chutes, conveyors, or slides.........
From machines or work benches...........
From piles.................................................
From racks and shelves...........................
From runways, balconies, etc................
From scaffolds and staging.....................
From temporary floors............................
From tramways and trestles..................
From other elevations.............................
Cave in of ditches.............................................
Objects tipping over (not vehicles)..............
Other falling objects........................................
Total........................................................

Blast
Open
furnaces. Bessemer. hearths.

1

2
6
4
37
1
1
4

Heavy
rolling
mills.

Tube
mills.

Plate
mills.

.

Sheet
rolling
mills.

Fabri­
cating.

2

1
7
2
21
3
1
1

Found­
ries.

10

2
94

34
......... f . . .
21
49
8
4.
190

09

Yards.

Unclassi­
fied.

1
1
9
17
2

2
1
12
34
4

4
8
2

24
16

5

1

1

2

1

1
13

15
21
2

1
2

5
4
37
20
3
1
8

1
2
3
25

34
36
3

5
327
1
353
11

104

875

1
186

95
15

74
1
131
4

3
114
138
8

73
1

361

239

316

302

194

Mechan­
ical.

Elec­
trical.

2
1
28
1
20
64

7

65

16

17
1

87
3

11

J.88
1
108
4

40

197

32

384

1
4
1
47
104
13
1
7

OBJECTS AND TOOLS BEING HANDLED.

Objects dropped in handling.........................
Caught between object handled and other
object..............................................................
Lifting causing strain......................................
Handling glass..................................................
Handling sheet metal......................................
Handling objects with protruding nails___
Handling other sharp objects........................
Handling trucks or barrows, collide with
' person.............................................................
Handling trucks or barrows, collide with
objects.,........................................................
Handling trucks or barrows, overturn.........
Handling trucks or barrows, objects fall
from.................................................................
Handling trucks or barrows, other acci­
dents...................................... ........................




160

40

305

106

214

215

49

41

97

10

301

99

719

69
89
2

25
8

121
125

138
72
3

83
94

41
26

20
24

8
30

1
90

25

149
138
2
7
4
68

38
53
1

2
2
74

85
27
1
1
1
12

12
14
2

9

129
100
2
2
2
33

1
14

380
366
5
103
3
205

1

3

4

3
1

1
5

6

5
25

2
40

197
4

9

2

1

1

3
18

1
4

3
16

1
1

2

1
3

1

. 3

3

5

6

12

8

3

3

2

2

1

9

5

7

5

16

9

11

10

9

4

9

6

28

10

•

46
134

ACCIDENTS IN THE IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

Accident cause.

Tools in hands of worker:
Glance or s lip .............
Break or come apart...

118
7

21

103
10

73
7

188
5

88
4

35
4

51
7

79
1

21

4

23

1

9
1

15
2
20
1

2

1

15
1
55

5

7
2

2

7
1

13
2
28

24
3

3

34
6

9
4

19
1

9
1

4
2

3

1

1

4

2

1

3

6

3

1
1
21

6

19

10

7

27

584

132

881

552

780

621

221

392

20

189
18

38
1

419
15

1

27
1
54
4

10

4

38
1
44
3

5

51
4

9

speci-

Total.

10
1
1

2

14
4
6

8

7
1

62
8
4
2
5

2

9

5

2

9

6

55

409

88

1,089

300

2,652

1

22
1
7

2

2

1

23

30
5
11

250
6
61

99
4
6

19
1

1

MISCELLANEOUS.
Asphyxiating g a s............................................
Cold....................................................................
Doors, windows, etc........................................
Drowning...... ...................................................
Flying obj ects, not otherwise classified.......
H e a t.................................................................
Nails and other sharp objects stepped on ..
Violence............................. ...............................
Striking against objects..................................
Uneven footing.................................................
Moving objects, not otherwise classified—
Allother............................................................
Total........................................................

1

1

3

1
1
2

202
4
14
1
37
45
13
20

53
1

144
2
31
1
35
19
15
15

137
11

15
12
5
4

178
17
33
4
85
84
12
11

414

91

452

266

1
1
53
7
4

1
62
56
33
27

63
16
23
3
91
23
55
9

35
2
13
3

1
94
10
7
3

36
21
23
1

15
20
2
3

90
66
21
25

29
30
8
6

19
3
10
1
299
40
80
13
250
149
98
56

331

288

117

130

301

89

549

185

1,018

5
15

1
194

321




27
1

76
1
1

APPENDIX— DATA UPON W H IC H REPORT IS BASED.

fled.
...........
Objects fly from nails and spikes..
Objects fly from metal chips.........
Objects fly from stone or cement..
Tools in hands of fellow worker:
Glance or slip..........................
Break or come apart..............
specifled.
Objectsfly fromnailsand spikes.
Objects fly from metal chips.
Objects fly frc
Unclassified.

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

322
T

3 .—NUM BER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPECIFIED D EPAR TM EN TS IN TH E
IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y, 1915 TO 1919, BY CAUSE ABB LOCATION OF INJURY.

able

BLAST FURNACES.

Location of injury.

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Head:
Skull...................................
Trunk:

Generative organs...........
Upper extremities:
Clavicle..............................
Shoulder............................
Upper arm.........................
Elhnw.................................
Ulna .................................
Radios
......... ..... .
Ulna and radius...............
Forearm..............................
Wrist...................................
Hand...................................
Both hands.......................
1 fin gar...............................
2 fingers..............................
3 fingars..............................
4 fingers..............................
Thumb...............................
Thumb and 1 finger.......
Thumb and 4 fin gars.. . .
Lower extremities:
H ip .....................................
Femur................................
Upper leg...........................
Knee...................................
Tibia ................................
Fibula.................................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg....... : ..................
Ankle..................................
Foot....................................
Both feet............................
Great toe............................
Great toe and others. . . .
Other toes..........................
Unclassified..............................
Total................................

*

3
5
7
4

1

1
1
5
3
1
1

Han­
Power
Falls Falling dling
Hot
vehi­
sub­
of
objects
objects. and
cles. stances. worker.
tools.

2
4
9
9

56
2
18
68

1
5
12
14

2
5
22
4

25
2
13
20

195
2
13
12

5

17

17

9

65

3

21
5
2
2

12
3

22
3
2

3
1

16
4
11

5
1

4

3
4

Un­
classi­
fied.

1

4
4
1
1

3
4
10

3

1
4
4

46
6
1
1
11

6

11
2

2
8
1
8
1
1
1
8
14
8

21
6
47
20
6 ..........3*
2
1
1
1

2

1

2
4

4
1
4

1
1
5
1
8
1

3

6
8
40

2

1
3
1
3

117
8
1
27

4

3

3

1
1
2
6
6

1
8
9
1

9
4

5
2
6
19
1

1
3
4
9

1
7
5
18

3
1

4

25
24
64
9
2

5
13
7
2

1
153

2

10

149

438

199

284
26
94
131
1

117
84
20
16
3
7
4
31
6
21
2
1
2
43
38
117
21
194
20
2
1
49
1
1

82

1
3
4
3

I
11
11

3
11
8
51
1
26
1
2

8
14
89
69
4
1

2

3

Total.

190

584

8
7
48
59
4
1
5
63
101
266
H
110
8
3
97

414

2,128

2
5
6

3
33
28
1
4
2

BESSEMER.
Head:
E ye..............................
Skull............................
Other parts of head.
Face and neck...........
Trunk:
Back............................
Thorax........................
Abdomen...................
Groin...........................
Upper extremities:
Clavicle.......................
Shoulder.....................
Upper arm.................
Elbow..........................
Radius........................
Ulna and radius........
Forearm......................
Wrist...........................
Hand....... ....................




20

48

75

2

5

28

14
11

9
4

2

3 .......
H
1

4

6

4

1
1

1

1
1

2
2

1
1
2

2
I

4

4

11

23
34
9
2

1
2

1

2

22

1

1
11
1
2
1
2
9
8
25

APPENDIX---- DATA UPON W H IC H REPORT IS BASED,

32^

3 . — N UM BER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPECIFIED D EPAR TM EN TS IN
TH E IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y , 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AN D LOCATION OF
IN J U R Y —Continued.
BESSEM ER —Concluded.

T ab le

Location of injury.

Upper extremities—Concld.
Both hands.......................
1 finger...............................
2 fingers.............................
3 fingers.............................
Thumb...............................
Lower extremities:
H ip .....................................
Femur................................
Upper le g -..-....................
Knee...................................
Tibia........... ......................
Fibula.................................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg...........................
Ankle..................................
Foot....................................
Great toe............................
Great toe and others. . . .
Other toes..........................
Unclassified..............................
Total...............................

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Han­
Power
Hot
Falls Falling dling
vehi­
sub­
of
objects
cles. stances. worker. objects. and
tools.

Un­
classi­
fied.

5
12
2
1

13

1

5
57
7
1
16

3
2

26

2

1

3
1
2
3
2
1
1
3

Total.

10

1

4

3
3

5
3
13
14
1
5
1

6
1
23
19
1
2

2
10
5
2
1

28
25
77
39
2
7
6

69

132

91

562

280

2

2

2
1

2
1

2
2
3
1
2

1
2

1
2
1
11
2

6
6
21

54

49

120

4
4

3

4
47

2
3
14
10
2
2
4

OPEN H E A R T H S.
Head:
Eye.....................................
Skull...................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck...................
Trunk:
Back...................................
Vertebrae...........................
Thorax...............................
Abdomen...........................
Grom..................................
Pelvis.................................
Generative organs............
Upper extremities:
Clavicle...............................
Shoulder............................
Upper arm........................
Elbow................................
Ulna....................................
Radius........'.......................
Forearm.............................
Wrist..................................
Hand..................................
Both hands.......................
1 finger.. . . ...................
2 fingers..............................
3 fingers..............................
Thumb...............................
Thumb and 1 finger. . . . .
Thumb and 2 fingers___
Lower extremities:
Hip.................
........
Femur................................
Upper leg...........................
Knee...................................
Tibia...................................
Fibula................................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower l e g . . . .
Ankle.................
........
Foot..................
......
Both feet............................
Great toe............................
Great toe and others........
Other toes..........................
U n c la s s ifie d ............................
Total...............................




2
6

91

2

1

34

150

11

5

20

16
18

18

18

3
38
4

1

28
181

8

152
255

50

15

20

97

5

206

4

33
3

8
1

15

12
1

1

1
1

2

138
24
9
5
6

10
3
2

1
1
1
2

1

23

9

21
12

7

22

17

4

2

1
1

2
1
2
5
2
1
4
5
21

1
2
3
1
2
1
1
2
2
13

10
3
3
42

9

64
21
5
2

3
16
2
7
1
5
14
15
13

1
10

3
2

109
11
3
18
1
1

27
6
1
6

4
3
23
8
1
1

2
1
11
6

11
3

1
2
9
12
40
3
7

30
42
110
8
5
16

1

202

781

282

12
13
41
19
2
2
403

7

4

1

1

9
7

2

1

1
7
3
15

30
1
1
8

2
10
14
87
1
176
16
3
52

4
1
4
8

2

2

21

10
14

4
12

71
73
2

13
76
50

62
4
4

22
17
129
1
103
4
4

43

122
203
464
12
204
10
10
60

361

881

452

3,362

5
7
16

12
2
2

1
2

5
4
8
22
1
2
3
23
28
8
1

7
55
10
19
2
10
84
55
229
22
359
40
8
97
1
2

4
13
15
86

7

9

4
9

324

A C C ID E N T S I N

T H E IR O N A N D STEEL IN D U S T R Y .

3 . — NUM BER
OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS TN
T H E IRON AND S T E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF

TABLE

IN JU RY —Continued.

FOUNDRIES.

Location of injury.

Head:
Eyes.**............................
Skull.................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck..................
Trunk:
B ack.................................
Thorax..............................
Abdomen.........................
Groin.................................
Pelvis................................
Upper extremities:
Scapula ~ . .......................
Shoulder...........................
Upper arm .......................
Elbow...............................
Radius..............................
Forearm...........................
W rist................................
H an d ................................
Both hands......................
1 finger..............................
2 fingers............................
3 fingers............................
T hum b...........................
Thum b and 2 fingers. . . .
Lower extremities:
H ip ....................................
Fem ur...............................
Upper leg.........................
Knee.................................
Tibia ................................
Fibula ..............................

Tibia and fibula____
Lower leg .........................
Ankle. „ ..........................
Foot .................................
Both feet...................... ..
Great to e ..........................
•Great toe and others.
Unclassified ............................

Total .............................

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Han­
Un­
Power Hot
Falls Falling dling
of
vehi­
sub­
objects classi­
fied.
worker. objects. and
cles. stances.
tools.

18
1
6
9

1
2

8
11
1

1
2

57
1
8
10

130
1
4
4

238
4
37
49

6
4
1

37
9
5
11

2
2
1
1

59
46
10
13
2

i
l
l

2
3
6
1
4
13
52
1
147
12

1
1
3

33
5
20

3
3

9
3

2
6
1

3
12
1
1

2
1
5
2
2

1
1

■

8
5
18
1
85
14
1
31

2
1
1

7
3
14
3
2
2
1

2*
2
1
2
4
4

1
2

24

2

1
5

3

324

21

1

1
16
42
7

3
5
9
io
2

14
1

3

2

36
1

4
9

i
7
6
1

6
6

i
1
6

1
8
4

2
19
13
78

7
11
49

7
21
37

50
7

52
4

7
4

2
1
4
46
74
240
7
135
15
5

77

239

552

266

1,649

4
12
14
15

2
1
10
1
1

33
1
14
41
73

119
1
13
8
1

203
15
104
116
110

18
2
2
2
4

3

12
11
8

5

69
27
12
4
6

1
1
6
1

1

1
1
170

4
1
7

1
11
8
15
2
28
31
104
5
267
33
2
76
1

7
1

2

1
19
4
1
1
2
10
5
25

Total.

1

3

4
2
39

33

H E A V Y ROLLING MILLS.

Head:
E ye ..................................
Skull ................................
Other parts of head .........
Face and neck .................
B ack .................................
Trunk:
Thorax .............................
Abdomen .........................
Grom................................
Pelvis ...............................
Generative organs ...........

Upper extremities:
Scapula............................
Clavicle............................
Shoulder ..........................
Upper arm......................

Elbow ..............................
U lna .................................
Radius .............................
Ulna and radius ..............
Forearm ...........................
W rist ................................
H and ................................
Both hands ......................
1 fin g e r... ........................
2 fingers............................




41

8
6
32
24
8

5

23
27
7

14

6

11

5

3

3

2
1

1
1

1
1

2

4
1
2

3

1
7
91
9

2
3
2

12
2
2
2
2

6
1

6
2
6

9
16
85

2
2
10

14
2

135
13

8

5

1
1

5

31

3
1

1

2
3

1
4
18
2
32
14
6

2
9
9
1
3

3

1

2
3
32
7
15
4
6
2
45
36
176
15
254
30

A P P E N D IX — DATA U P O N W H I C H

325

REPORT IS BASED,

T able 3.—NUM BER

OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN S PEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS IN
T H E IRON AND S T E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF

IN JU R Y —Continued.

H E A V Y ROLLING M ILLS—Concluded.

Location of injury.

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Upper extremities—Concld.
3 fingers............................
4 fingers............................
Thum b..............................
Thum b and 2 fingers.. . .
Thum b and 3 fingers. . . .
Lower extremities:
H ip ...................................
Fem ur...............................
Upper leg..........................
K n e e ..............................
Tibia.................................
Fibula...............................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg..........................
Ankle....................... .
Foot..................................
Both feet..........................
Great to e..........................
Great toe and others.......
Other toes.........................
Unclassified............................

26
2
7
1

Total..............................

452

H an­
Power H ot
Falls Falling dling
Un­
vehi­
of
sub­
objects classi­
cles. stances. worker. objects. and
fied.
tools.

1

6
1
23
1

1

1
2

3

6

31

1
1
8
3
1

7

7

1
1
5
26

1

1

2
2

28
10

3
1

3
2
29
17
42

1
4
2
12
5

7
7
25
5
4

1

61

245

2
1
17
18
12
1

i
204

4
17
18
113
71
5
12
2
316

1
1
11
16
1
1
1
11
58
30

Total.

8
1
67
1
1

5
1
1
12

12
5
71
61
2
7
11
110
140
348
6
186
13
27
20

780

331

2,390

10

48
1
4
4

89
5
60
67
87
2
51
19
9
2
2

9
5
1
2
25
20
114
1
78
5
7

P LA T E MILLS.

Head:
E ye...................................
Skull.................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck..................
Trunk:
B ack.................................
Vertebrao
...................
Thorax..............................
Abdomen..........................
Groin............ ....................
Pelvis................................
* Generative organs...........
Upper extremities:
Clavicle.............................
Shoulder...........................
Uuper arm .......................
Elbow...............................
Ulna..................................
Radius..............................
Ulna and radius..............
Forearm............................
W r is t ...........................................

H and.................................
Both hands......................
1 finger..............................
2 fingers............................
3 fingers............................
4 fingers............................
Thumb..............................
Lower extremities:
H ip ...................................
Femur
_
............
Upper leg..........................
Knee................_ .............
Tibia.................................
Fihnla_
, ....... ...........
Tibia and fibula..............
Lower leg..........................
Ankle................................
Foot..................................
Both feet
............
Great toe.
(Treat toe and others
Other toes
_ ..
Unclassified
_
_
Total....... ....................




2
3
16
13
11
1
9
5
1
2
1
5
2
1
2

27

2

2
1

22
23

6
3

1

1

12
1
20
3

1

9
5
33

2

65
12
5
1
17

3

5
3
27
8

1

1

12
7
20
5
4
3

22

3

58

1

3

14
6
6

3
3
1

1

2
2

1
10
1

i

1

7

1

4

1
1
2

10
8
9

1
3
3
12

19
22
71

12
4
4

2

9
1

98
9
1

9
1

4

25

8

2
5
1
1
2

1

2
3
1

4
1

6
8

1

2
4
15
4
1

1
12
4

3

2
21
10
36

3

32

1

3

1

372

1
20

162

120

1

i

2
5
5

5

1

15
8

53
12
1

1
15
16
113
2
82
1
6

17
12
105
1
81
1
1

302

621

1

3
20
5
9
4
1
1
67
49
150
5
190
26
7
1
56

10

11
5
113
43
1
6
4
65
84
321
7
207

17

8
18

288

1,885

2

1
8
30
45

5

326

ACCIDENTS IN TH E IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Ta b IE 3.—NUM BER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS IN
T H E IR O N AND ST E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF
IN JU R Y —Continued.
TU BE K ILLS.

Location of injury.

Head:
Eye....................................
Skull..................................
Other parts of head
Trunk:
Back..................................
Thorax...............................
Abdom en..........................
Groin.................................
Pelvis.................................
Generative organs.......... . ......
Upper extremities:
Clavicle.............................
Shoulder............................
Elbow................................
U lna..................................
Radius...............................
Forearm ............................
W rist.................................
H an d .................................
Both han d s.............. .......
1 finger...............................
2 fingers.............................
3 fingers.............................
T h u m b ..............................
Thumb and one finger__
Lower extremities:
H ip....................................
F em ur...............................
Upper leg..........................
Knee.................................
T ib ia............. . ............. .
F ib u la...............................
Tibia and fibula............
Lower leg..........................
A nkle................................
F o o t...................................
Both feet...........................
Great toe...........................
Great toe and others........
Other toes.........................
Unclassified.............................
Total...............................

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Han­
Power
Hot
Falls Falling dling
Un­
vehi­
sub­
of
objects. objects classi­
and
cles. stances. worker.
fied.
tools.

$
2
9
7
7
9
2

16
9
3
1

1
2

2
1

2

5
2

1
1

1

1

3
1

2
1
1
12

1
1

25
2
8

3
2
7
3

1
1

1
2
2
2

1
2
4
1

1
1
1

2
1
1

1

3

1
1
2
3

1
1

2
1

4
3

4
2
1

9

54

7
12
5
9
1
3

4
2
1

1
4
2
1
1
4
3
23
45
8
1
8

3
3

1

6
10
7
1
4

1

2

2
3
1

3
1

5
4

1
3
3
23

2
3
36

2
3
9

17

1

3

1
119

43

9

1
5
3
7

13
1
2
2

38

64

2

2

Total.

80
3
17
24
29
27
8
9
1
6
1
8
6
1
3
17
9
53
6
81
13
1
22
1

1

8

6
2
16
n
i
i
i
17
14
81
3
29
m
1
3
10

221

117

622

5

11
3
5

25
8
15

SHEET ROLLING MILLS.

Head:
Eye....................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck ..
. ..
Trunk:
Back..................................
Thorax............. ............
Groin.................................
Upper extremities:
S h o u ld e r.........................
Upper a rm ....................
E lbow ................................
Forearm ............................
Wrist .................................
H a n d .................................
Both h an d s. . ...................
1 finger........................... .
2 fingers.............................
3 fingers........................ .
4 fingers.............................
T h u m b ..............................
Lower extremities:
H ip .....................................
Upper leg..........................




5
I
1

3

1

3

1

1

3
I
7
14
5
2
1
2
1
2

4

10
1
6
3

2

12
9
8

4

3
4
8
45
32

18
13
8

i

2
1
3
2
3

1
4

6

3
66
5
1

1

15

2

5
7
9
72
38
65
6
89
10
3
1
21

3

1

10

3

43

1
8
2
6
8

3

4

APPENDIX— DATA UPON W H IC H REPORT IS BASED,

327

T able 3.—NUM BER OP CASES OP ACCIDENT IN SP E C IF IE D DEPA RTM EN TS IN
TH E IR O N AND S T E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF
IN JU R Y —Continued.
SHEET ROLLING H ILLS—Concluded.

Location of injury.

Lower extremities—Concld.
Knee..................................
Tibia..................................
F ibula...............................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg..........................
Ankle.................................
Foot...................................
Both feet...........................
Great toe...........................
Unclassified.............................
Total..............................

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

H an­
Power Hot
Un­
Falls Falling dling
vehi­
of
sub­
objects classi­
cles. stances. worker. objects. and
fied.
tools.

3

1

6
1

1
5
2
11
1
3

1

73

1

1
2

19

5
1

Total.

34
1
2
3
22
62
135
1
27
1

39

9
22
44

15
1

2

40

40

392

130

715

1
8
5

54

185

8
.2

9
25

3
10

278
5
43
81

12

2

7
29
53

7

1

1

23
9

1
1

9
1

23

FABRICATING.

Head:
Eye....................................
Skull.................................
Other parts of h ead .........
Face and neck..................
Trunk:
Back............................. . ..
Thorax...............................
Abdomen.......
Groin......... .......................
Upper extremities:
Clavicle.............................
Shoulder............................
Upper arm .......................
Elbow ..............................
U lna..................................
Radius...............................
U lna and radius...............
Forearm ........................
W rist................................
H a n d .................................
1 finger........ .....................
2 fingers..............
3 fingers.............................
4 fingers.............................
T hu m b..............................
Lower extremities:
H ip .....................................
F em ur............
Upper leg..........................
Knee................................
Tibia...................
F ib u la..............
Lower leg........................
Ankle................
F oot...................................
Great toe__
Great toe and others........
Unclassified........................
Total...............................

26
4
15
26

13
2

8
12
4
1
3
7
3
1
1
2
8
6
32
162
24
3
1
35

1
1

11

1
1

2
3
16
11
1
4
16
18
42
26
6
529

1
1

2
7
1

1
2
2

4
2

1
4
3
5

3
2
3
1
3

2
3
4

2

5
21
6

3
5
21
117
8
1

11
15
1
2

33
36
4
4
2
10
14
14
2
2
2
18
15
78
324
39
4
1
59

1
1
1

1

2

18

1
1
5
2
1

1

1

2
1
7
15

3
9

1
15

9
7
51
59
7

8
4
22
45

4
17
27
4
2

6
5
34
53
2
5
43
55
159
135
15
4

197

409

301

1,584

1

8

31

1

1

1
2

60
5
45
29

7
2
1
3

1

2
1

4

1
4
9
2
1

1
13

1

41

94

2

ELECTRICAL.

Head:
E y e ...
SkuE..
Other parts of head
Face and neck........

Trunk:

Back........................
Thorax....................
Abdomen................
Groin.......................
Pelvis......................




10
3
5
5
5
1
1

10
1

34
16

,1

2
1

2
3
5
5
3
1
2
1

1

15
12
3
6
2

328
T

ACCIDENTS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

3.—NUM BER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS IN
T H E IRO N AND S T E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF

a b le

IN JU R Y —Continued.

E L EC TR IC A L—Concluded.

Location of injury.

Upper extremities:
Clavicle.............................
Shoulder............................
Upper arm ........................
ElUow................................
U lna..................................
Radius...............................
Forearm ............................
W rist.................................
H an d .....................
Both hands ..
1 finger...............................
2 fingers.............................
3 fingers..............
T hum b..............................
Thumb and 1 finger.........
Lower extremities:
H ip....................................
Fem ur...............................
Upper leg..........................
Knee..................................
Fibula...............................
Tibia and fibula...............
Lower leg..........................
Ankle.................................
Foot...................................
Great toe..........................
Great toe and others........
Unclassified.............................
Total...............................

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

H an­
Power Hot
Falls Falling dling
Un­
vehi­
sub­
of
objects classi­
cles. stances. worker. objects. and
fied.
tools.

1
1

2
8

1

11
2
4
1

4

1

1
1

3
1
1
1
7
3

2
2
30
4
3
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1

3

1
2

1
1
5

4
2
14
2

7

124

7

3
5

1
1
4

23
2

2

1

2
2
10

1

1
1
2
4
1

2
3

1
1
2
1
2

1

1

1
6
1
8
2
2
5
16
57
5
40
5
1
14
1

1

1
3

1
1
1
13
2

3
1
6
7

4
18
12
2
6

2
1
11
12
1
5
12
37
44
11
1
11

73

32

88

89

489

5
13
13

1
1
41
4

73
1
17
33

228

447

21
11

118
128

7

84
19
9
28
1
1

5
7

132
74

2

35
4

5

76

Total.

MECHANICAL.

Head:
E y e...................................
Skull.................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck..................
Trunk:
B ack.................................
Thorax..............................
Abdomen.........................
Groin.................................
Pelvis................................
Generative organs...........
Upper extremities :
Scapula.............................
Clavicle.............................
Shoulder...........................
Upper arm .......................
Elbow...............................
U lna..................................
R adius..............................
Ulna and radius..............
Forearm............................
W rist.................................
H and.................................
Both hands........................

1 finger..............................
2 fingers............................
3 fingers.......................... __
4 fingers............................
T hum b.............................
Thumb and 1 finger ._
Thumb and 2 fingers___
Lower extremities:
H ip ...................................

Fern nr...... .........................
Upper leg_______________
Knee...................................

T ib ia ...............................
Fibula...............................




126
4
15
25
10
12
5
1
1

1
1

10
42

2
2
1

2

2
1
2
8
4
2
4
1
16

15
51
1
138
16

3
2
48
3

19

1

1
1

2
1

2
1

1
2
2
1

13
4
40
7
3
1
2

6

1
1

1
22
1
17
2
3
3
8
19
10

5
3
10

9

25

1
5

10
2
4

2
7
3
1

6

5
2

2
14
23
1
3

1
2
15
1
12
1
1
1
14
23
123

20

6
2

9
4
8
3
4
9

1

213
22
1

7
2

6

62
2

4

1

1

7
8

20
25

2
1
15
24

i

i

6
1

1

1

1
1
17
8
2
2

21
28
1
3
2
2

12

5
67
13
44
3
9
5
59
70
145

9

395
48
4
4
126
5

2

13
4
85
93
4

7

APPENDIX---- DATA UPON W H IC H REPORT IS BASED,

329

3 .— NUM BER OF CASES OF ACCIDENT IN SPEC IFIED DEPA RTM EN TS IN
T H E IRON AND S T E E L INDUSTRY, 1915 TO 1919, B Y CAUSE AND LOCATION OF

T able

IN JU RY—Continued.

MECHANICAL —Concluded.

Location of injury.

Machin­ Steam
appa­
ery.
ratus.

Lower extremities—Concld.
Tibia and fibula..............
Lower leg..........................
Ankle................................
Foot..................................
Both feet..........................
Great toe..........................
Great toe and others.......
Other toes........................
Unclassified............................
Total.............................

6
12
10
42

4
3
5
3
1
3
1
1

16
3
3
638

Han­
Power Hot
Un­
Falls Falling dling
vehi­
sub­
of
objects. objects classi­
and
fied.
cles. stances. worker.
tools.

1

52

6
5
13
2
1

1
12
33
7

1
15
14
138
1
60
3
2

T otal

184

294

384

6

193
12
31

1,089

549

3,191

12

2

13
71
133
428

28

1

1
7
57
83

86
1
4
3

108

16
9
142
107
5
3

4

9

Y AR D S.

Head:
E y e...................................
Skull.................................
Other parts of head.........
Face and neck.................
Trunk:
B a c k ................................
Thorax..............................
Abdomen.........................
Groin................................
Pelvis...............................
Generative organs...........
Upper extremities:
Clavicle............................
Shoulder...........................
Upper arm......................
Elbow...............................
U lna.................................
R adius..............................
Ulna and radius....... ......
Forearm...........................
Wrist.......... .....................
H and.................................
Both hands......................
1 finger..............................
2 fingers............................

3
1
7
5
3
9

2
1
1
1

3
16