View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . N. DOAK, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEW ART, C om m issioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES1
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/
P R O D U C T I V I T Y

.

.

.

CCA
llO e 0 0 U

#

S E R I E S

CARGO HANDLING
AND

LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS

FEBRUARY, 1932

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1932

F or sale by the Superintendent o f D ocum ents, W ashington, D. C .




-

-

-

Price 55 cents




Acknowledgment
This bulletin was prepared by Boris Stem, of the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
m







Contents
Page

Introduction_______________________________________________________
Chapter 1.—Problems and methods of cargo handling________________
Principal factors of cargo handling_______________________________
The ship as a cargo carrier__________________________________
Foreign trade ships_____________________________________
The intercoastal ship___________________________________
Coastwise vessels______________________________________
The pier as a cargo receiver_________________________________
Nature of the cargo handled________________________________
Loading bulk cargoes___________________________________
Discharging bulk cargoes_______________________________
General cargo__________________________________________
Methods of loading and discharging general cargo_________
Pier equipment____________________________________________
Chapter 2.— Productivity of labor in stevedoring ship’s cargo_________
Units of cargo measurement_____________________________________
Units of labor time_____________________________________________
Method of presentation of statistical data________________________
Productivity of labor in discharging and loading general cargo_____
Productivity of labor in loading individual commodities___________
Cotton____________________________________________________
Case oil___________________________________________________
Flour_______ ^_____________________________________________
Lumber___________________________________________________
Steel and steel products_____________________________________
Oil cake___________________________________________________
Copper____________________________________________________
Principal individual commodities____________________________
Productivity of labor in discharging individual commodities________
Raw sugar_________________________________________________
Coffee_____________________________________________________
Newsprint paper___________________________________________
Lumber. ________,___________________ _______________________
Bananas___________________________________________________
Burlap_____ _______________________________________________
Nitrate of soda_____________________________________________
Wet hides_________________________________________________
Wood pulp________________________________________________
Ore_______________________________________________________
Principal individual commodities____________________________
C hapter 3.— Longshore labor conditions in the United States__________
Foreign and intercoastal trade___________________________________
Nature of longshore work___________________________________
Hours of work and rates of wages___________________________
Conditions of employment__________________________________
Conditions at ports not decasualized_____________________
Conditions under decasualization________________________
Longshore labor conditions in major ports of the United States _
New York_____________________________________________
Boston________________________________________________
Philadelphia___________________________________________
Baltimore_____________________________________________
New Orleans__________________________________________
Houston and Galveston________________________________
Seattle________________________________________________
Tacoma_______________________________________________
Portland______________________________________________
San Francisco_________________________________________
Los Angeles___________________________________________
Prospects of decasualization_________________________________




V

1
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
10
10
12
17
17
18
19
34
42
42
44
46
47
49
50
51
51
53
53
55
57
57
59
61
62
62
63
63
64
67
67
67
68
70
70
73
74
74
82
83
85
87
90
92
94
95
96
98
102

VI

CONTENTS

C hapter 3.— Longshore labor conditions in the United States—Contd.
Longshore labor conditions in coastwise trade_____________________
Wage rates of coastwise longshoremen_______________________
Earnings of longshoremen in the coastwise trade______________
General tables:
Seattle (1926)—
T able 1.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo,
by kind of trade and individual commodities_______________
T able 2.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 3.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 4.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 5.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities______________________________________
Tacoma (1926)—
T able 6.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo,
by kind of trade and individual commodities_______________
T able 7.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade 1_____________________________________
T able 8.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities_____________________________________
Grays Harbor (1926)—
T able 9.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading lumber,
by kind of trade___1_____________________________________
T able 10.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading lumber
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 11.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading lum­
ber in intercoastal trade__________________________________
T able 12.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading lum­
ber in coastwise trade____________________________________
Portland, Oreg. (1926)—
T able 13.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 14."—Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade____________________________________
T able 15.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 16.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade__________________________________
T able 17.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities-------------------------------------------------------San Francisco (1926)—
T able 18.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 19.—Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade____________________________________
T able 20.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 21.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade__________________________________
T able 22.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities_____________________________________
Los Angeles (1926)—
T able 23.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 24.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade____________________________________
T able 25.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 26.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade__________________________________
T able 27.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities_____________________________________




Pas®
103
103
104

113
114
117
121
123
129
130
131
135
135
136
137
139
140
141
143
145
152
153
164
172
174
180
181
191
196
198

CONTENTS
General tables—Continued.
Cristobal, Canal Zone (1926)—
T able 28.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 29.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade-------------------------------------------------------T able 30.—Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
individual commodities-----------------------------------------------------Galveston (1927)—
T able 31.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 32.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade-------------------------------------------------------T able 33.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade__________________________________
T able 34.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities-------------------------------------------------------Houston (1927)—
T able 35.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 36.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade_____________________________________
T able 37.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade_______ ! ------------------------------------T able 38.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade__________________________________
T able 39.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
individual commodities___________________________________
Port Arthur (1927)—
T able 40.— Productivity of labor and labor costs in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 41.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade_____________________________________
T able 42.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
individual commodities___________________________________
New Orleans (1927)—
T able 43.— Productivity of labor and labor costs in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 44.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade-------------------------------------------------------T able 45.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 46.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade___________________________________
T able 47.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities_____________________________________
Mobile (1927)—
T able 48.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 49.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade_____________________________________
T able 50.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 51.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling in­
dividual commodities--------------------------------------------------------Charleston (1927)—
T able 52.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 53.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in foreign trade_____________________________________
T able 54.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in intercoastal trade________________________________
T able 55.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo in coastwise trade___________________________________
T able 56.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities-----------------------------------------------------------




VH
Page
201
202
208
211
212
216
218
225
226
233
234
235
239
239
240
243
244
261
265
267
279
280
287
291
294
295
297
298
299

VIII

CONTENTS

General tables— Continued.
Savannah (1927)—
T able 57.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 58.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 59.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade------------------------------------------------------------T able 60.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________
Norfolk and Newport News (1927)—
T able 61.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 62.-—Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 63.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 64.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 65.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________
Baltimore (1927)—
T able 66.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 67.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 68.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 69.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 70.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________
Philadelphia (1927)—
T able 71.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 72.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 73.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 74.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 75.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________
Boston (1928)—
T able 76.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 77.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 78.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 79.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 80.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________
New York (1928)—
T able 81.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling
cargo, by kind of trade and individual commodities_________
T able 82.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in foreign trade__________________________________________
T able 83.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in intercoastal trade______________________________________
T able 84.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling cargo
in coastwise trade________________________________________
T able 85.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in handling indi­
vidual commodities_______________________________________




Page
303
304
308
311
314
315
328
329
333
341
343
353
359
364
380
382
397
402
405
421
422
441
444
449
461
464
527
533
539

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
n o . 550

WASHINGTON

F e b r u a r y , 1932

CARGO HANDLING AND LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS
INTRODUCTION
The operations of loading and discharging ships are customarily
known as “ stevedore” operations. Precisely defined, stevedoring
applies to the transfer of commodities from the ship to the first place
of rest on the pier and to the direct transfer of commodities from the
ship to a railroad car or lighter, and vice versa. In discharging
cargo, stevedoring therefore includes the sorting of the commodities
as well as the piling on the pier; in loading cargo it includes the
stowing of the cargo in the various ship compartments. With a few
exceptions, which are clearly specified, this definition of stevedoring
has been used throughout this report, in spite of the fact that certain
ports do not as yet strictly adhere to it. In Seattle and Tacoma, in
Portland, Oreg., on the Panama Canal, and in Charleston, S. C., the
term “ stevedoring” often merely signifies the transfer of the cargo
from the ship to the “ apron” of the pier, while the sorting and re­
moving of the commodities from ship’s side to the shed of the pier
and piling them on the pier are classified under the separate heading
of “ dock operations.” In contrast with the dock operations, the
ship's operations are often referred to as “ ship's tackle” or “ ship’s
side” operations.
In these ports it is the custom for the pier operators to supply all
the labor used on the pier, and the stevedore companies are required
to supply the labor aboard ship. This artificial division between
ship labor and dock labor in stevedoring often leads to erroneous
conclusions in determining the labor productivity and labor cost of
cargo handling. For example, a certain shipping company in port
“ X ” discharges and loads some of its ships at its own piers and some
at piers operated by different companies. At its own piers the com­
pany supplies both the ship and the dock labor for handling the cargo;
at the other piers it supplies only the force aboard ship, and the dock
labor is supplied by the pier operators. This distinction, however,
is not shown in the records of the company, with the result that the
cost of cargo handling shown for the ships discharged or loaded at
other than the company's piers is 20 to 30 per cent smaller than that
shown for the ships discharged or loaded at the company's piers. To
avoid such inconsistencies the data for all the ports presented here
are based on the definition of stevedoring given above rather than on
the customs and rules prevailing in each port.
1




2

CARGO HANDLING AND LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS

The organizations or the individuals undertaking the stevedoring
operations of loading and discharging ships are called stevedore com­
panies or stevedores, and their foremen in charge of these operations
are called stevedore foremen. The men performing the actual work
of loading and discharging cargo are called longshoremen, although
these are often segregated into groups of hold men, winch men,
hatch tenders, truckers, etc., for the purpose of indicating the precise
nature of their tasks.
In the days, not so long ago, when the tramp steamer was still the
predominant feature in shipping, the stevedore company was an
independent organization, entirely separate from the shipping com­
pany. When a ship arrived in port stevedores were given an oppor­
tunity to bid for the privilege of discharging and loading the cargo,
agreeing either to supply the necessary labor at a specified charge to
the ship for the services rendered—a practice which still exists in
some of the lumber ports in the Pacific Northwest—or to handle the
entire cargo of the ship at a specified rate per ton of cargo loaded or
discharged. In all cases the ship would be considered a complete
and independent entity. At present, however, with regular lines of
vessels running on the same route and covering a definitely established
trade, the position of the stevedore company has changed considerably.
Some of the larger so-called contract stevedore companies still remain,
but their agreement with the shipping company now covers the entire
line of ships and for a long period of time, usually a year or more.
Because of the more intimate contact with the shipping company,
some of the stevedore organizations, particularly those which do the
work of one line only, have lost their identity and have become
subsidiary agencies of the shipping company. Some of the larger
shipping companies now do their own stevedoring work, having
merely added a stevedore department to their existing organization.
It is not the intention in this report to contrast the productivity
of labor in loading or discharging cargo by a stevedore company on
a contract basis with that of a stevedore company subsidiary to or
organized by the shipping company, nor is it the aim to stress differ­
ences in productivity as between one stevedore company and another
or one shipping company and another. The statistics of the individual
companies are used merely as samples of productivity in the port as
a unit, and are presented in such form as to preclude the possibility
of identifying the data.
In gathering the information presented in this report the Bureau
of Labor Statistics received the cooperation of numerous large and
small shipping and stevedore companies, and the bureau takes this
opportunity to express its gratitude to these organizations. As it is
impossible to name them all, mention is made only of those organiza­
tions without whose cooperation the task of the bureau could hardly
have been accomplished.
Among the shipping companies, the following lines deserve special
mention: American-Hawaiian Steamship Co.; Cunard Steamship
Lines; Dollar Line; Eastern Steamship Lines; Furness, Withy &
Co. Lines; Holland America Line; International Mercantile Marine
Lines; Luckenbach Steamship Co.; Merchant & Miners Transporta­
tion Co.; Munson-McCormick Lines; Norton & Lilly Lines; Pacific
Steamship Co.; United Fruit Co.; and United States Shipping Board
Lines.




INTRODUCTION

3

Of the stevedore companies, the following organizations gave their
utmost cooperation to the bureau: Atlantic Coast Shipping Co., New
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, and New Orleans,
John W. McGrath, president; B. A. Carroll Stevedore Co., Boston,
Mark McHugh, vice president; Crescent Wharf & Warehouse Co.,
San Pedro, Calif., Eugene Mills, president; E. Goudge & Son, steve­
dores, Galveston and Houston, Capt. E. Goudge, president; Jarka
Corporation, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, Capt.
F. Jarka, president; Murphy-Cook Stevedore Co., Philadelphia, Dan
J. Murphy, president; and Pacific Lighterage Co., Seattle and San
Francisco.
The following individuals were particularly helpful to the bureau:
John B. Bryan, president, Longshoremen’s Association of San Fran­
cisco, San Francisco, Calif.; Frank P. Foisie, Waterfront Employers’
Union, Seattle, Wash.; Edwin Nichols, manager, Marine Service
Bureau, San Pedro, Calif.; T. V. O’Connor, chairman United States
Shipping Board, Washington, D. C.; Joseph P. Ryan, president,
International Longshoremen’s Association, New York, N. Y.; and
F. Toppin, chairman, Trans-Atlantic Shipping Conference, New
York, N. Y.




C hapter

1.—PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO
HANDLING

The principal difficulties encountered in the present survey of pro­
ductivity of longshore labor in loading and discharging cargo were
caused by the multiplicity of variable factors involved in cargo hand­
ling. One can hardly imagine any other industry offering less uni­
formity of conditions than those found in loading and discharging
ships. No two ports, no two companies, no two piers, and no two
ships are exactly alike so far as the nature of the cargo or the meth­
od of cargo handling is concerned. Each ship, or rather each voy­
age of the same ship, is an independent unit, having but slight, if
any, relationship to its previous or subsequent voyages. The labor
productivity in loading and discharging cargo is affected by the type
and the physical conditions of the ship, by the nature and quantity
of the commodities carried, and by the proportional distribution of
these commodities from hatch to hatch. It is also affected by the
general and physical conditions of the dock where the cargo is handled,
and by the stevedore equipment and the size of the gangs used in
loading or discharging the ship. There are many other major and
minor factors which directly or indirectly influence the productivity
of labor in handling ship cargoes. These variations in ships, in car­
goes, in docks, and in equipment are so large and so numerous that
doubt has been expressed as to whether it is possible to arrive at an
average productivity of labor which would be fairly representative of
conditions existing in the port.
Fortunately, there are factors which work in the opposite direction,
making it possible, partly at least, to overcome the difficulties noted
above. These factors are largely utilized by the contracting stevedore
companies in their bids for discharging or loading individual ships, or
in determining the tariff rates at which they agree to handle the
cargoes of all the ships of a regular line for a year or longer. The most
important of these factors are as follows: (1) The import and export
statistics of the individual ports show that certain ports in different
parts of the country specialize more or less in the handling of a few
commodities, which constitute the bulk of the cargo handled in those
ports. Lumber in the Northwest, canned goods in California, and
cotton in the South are a few outstanding examples of such speciali­
zation. (2) Certain regular ship lines not only have their specialized
or so-called preferred commodities, but each vessel on those lines
seems to carry these commodities in a fairly constant proportion to
the other commodities, which may be classified as mixed or general
cargo. In handling a large number of such vessels over a considerable
penod of time, the contracting stevedores are able, by examining the
manifests of the ship's cargo, to tell with a fair degree of accuracy the
number of hours it will take to load or discharge the cargo specified.
This method of ascertaining the working hours of a ship in port, even
if only approximately, is sufficient to prove that an average produc4




THE SHIP AS A CARGO CARRIER

5

tivity in stevedoring ship cargoes does exist, and at the same time
it provides a key for the procedure of arriving at such averages.
It is clear that if one could secure the data for loading and dis­
charging a sufficiently large number of ships engaged in the same
trade and carrying approximately the same group of commodities,
the average productivity of these ships should prove fairly repre­
sentative for the commodities concerned. Similarly, if one could
secure the statistics for the majority of the principal lines operating
to and from a given port, the average productivity of these lines
should prove representative of that of the port as a whole. This
was the method pursued by the United States Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics in securing and preparing the data on labor productivity in hand­
ling ships’ cargoes presented in this report.
The problem of labor productivity in cargo handling resolved itself
into a study of the separate trade routes and of the principal lines
operating on these routes. This made it necessary to segregate the
foreign trade from the intercoastal trade and the latter from the coast­
wise trade. These differ, not only in the nature of the commodities
handled, but also in the methods of handling the cargo and in the
kind of equipment and labor used in loading and discharging the ships.
Also, the foreign trade, wherever possible, had to be subdivided
according to the principal trade routes—Europe, Latin America,
Oriental, etc.—chiefly because of the differences in commodities which
make up the bulk of trade on these routes. In each subdivision a
clear line had to be drawn between commodities which are generally
carried in bulk, such as grain, ore, pig iron, coal, and sulphur, and
other commodities which come in packages, bales, bags, boxes, or
barrels, etc. Finally, the ships carrying full cargoes of any one com­
modity, such as raw sugar, coffee, wood pulp, paper, lumber, etc.,
had to be considered separately from the ships carrying the same
commodities in parcel lots only, along with parcel lots of other com­
modities.

Principal Factors of Cargo Handling
Before proceeding with the statistical data on handling cargo and
their significance, it is necessary to discuss some of the most important
elements of cargo handling, as well as the principal methods used in
loading and discharging ships.
The Ship as a Cargo Carrier
Foreign Trade Ships

From the point of view of cargo handling, ships as cargo carriers
may be classified into the following groups:
(1)
Giant passenger liners such as the Majestic, the Leviathan, or
the Bremen, which were built for speed and primarily for the trans­
portation of passengers. These giant liners carry comparatively little
cargo, and that is mostly of a special kind, requiring rapid transporta­
tion between ports. The element of productivity in cargo handling,
therefore, plays a minor role in comparison with the speed and the
passenger accommodation requirements of these vessels, and for this
reason this group of ships has been omitted in the present survey.




6

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO HANDLING

(2) Other passenger ships which, in addition to a fairly large number
of passengers, carry or are capable of carrying a large quantity of
cargo. In this group are included all the trans-Atlantic and trans­
pacific passenger ships equipped with accommodations for 100 or more
passengers, but not large enough to be grouped with the giant liners.
Judged by the labor productivity of cargo handled on these vessels
they belong to the least efficient cargo carriers. Their hatches are,
as a rule, comparatively narrow and deep. They have too many
decks not easily accessible to the hatches, and because of their height
and size, it requires a long time for commodities to travel from the
pier into the hold of the ship, and vice versa. New York is the only
port in the United States where these passenger vessels carry a very
large percentage of the total cargo handled in the port. Unquestion­
ably this is one of the main reasons for the reputation of New York as
the most expensive port for cargo handling. In the present survey
this group of ships js classified separately.
(3) The freighted or cargo carrier par excellence, which is devised
and built for the transportation of cargo exclusively. In this group
are also included the smaller passenger ships with accommodation
for the transportation of about 100 passengers or less. This group
of vessels transport the biggest proportion of foreign-trade cargo
handled in all the ports of the United States. Unless otherwise
specified, the data on labor productivity of cargo handling presented
in this report refer to this type of carrier only.
The Intercoastal Ship

Very few of the vessels engaged in our intercoastal commerce have
accommodations for passenger traffic, but even those vessels which
are equipped with such accommodations regard their passenger trade
as subordinate to the cargo carried. They may therefore be classified
with the freighters.
From the point of view of cargo handling, the intercoastal liners
as a group may be considered the most efficient cargo carriers.
They have proportionately more hatches than the foreign trade ships
of the same size; their hatches are larger and better suited for the
transfer of the cargo from the ship to the pier, and vice versa. They
also have a smaller number of 'tween-decks and are generally better
equipped with booms and winches for the actual transfer of the cargo.
A possible reason for this superiority of the intercoastal carriers may
be found in the fact that these vessels are called upon to transport
large quantities of lumber and steel of various dimensions and are
therefore built to suit the requirements of these commodities. This
is only another way of stating that the intercoastal vessels are gen­
erally built to suit the requirements of the trade, which, unfortunately,
is not yet the case with the larger number of vessels engaged in
foreign trade.
Coastwise Vessels

The problem of passenger accommodations, so important in the
case of foreign and intercoastal ships, loses its significance in the
coastwise trade. The majority of our coastwise ships do carry
passengers, and some of them even specialize in passenger trade in
preference to cargo. All of them, however, are equipped with side




THE PIER AS A CARGO RECEIVER

7

ports for the purpose of receiving and discharging their cargoes.
The side ports are usually hinged to the decks below the passengers’
quarters, and for that reason productivity in cargo handling in coast­
wise trade is not affected to any great extent by the presence of the
passenger accommodations. The cargo is transferred from the ship
to the pier, and vice versa, by means of hand or power trucks over
gangplanks or ramps, which connect the apron of the pier with the
hold of ship. The stowage requirements in coastwise trade are not
as severe as in the case of foreign and intercoastal shipping, and the
holds of the coastwise vessels are more spacious and offer fewer
obstacles for cargo handling than the type of vessel which predomi­
nates in foreign trade shipping. (See fig. 1.)
The Pier as a Cargo Receiver
There is no attempt in the present survey to distinguish between
what is scientifically known as a pier, which is projected into the
water at a right angle to the shore line, and a dock or a wharf built
along the shore line. The pier type predominates in most of the
ports of the United States, although the wharf is an outstanding
feature in New Orleans, in Portland (Oreg.), and in Savannah (Ga.).
The differences between the two types are not particularly significant
in the problems of cargo handling, and in the present survey the terms
“ wharf,” “ dock,” and “ pier” have been used interchangeably, this
being in accordance with the practice existing on the water front.
The size of the pier, the method of construction, and particularly
the width of the “ apron” and the degree of congestion in the “ shed,”
are much more important from the point of view of productivity in
cargo handling than the differences between a wharf and a pier.
The shed is the inclosed part of the pier where the cargo is tem­
porarily stored before it is loaded into the ship, or before it is removed
from the pier on the way to its final destination. The apron is the
open section of the pier, between the shed and the water's edge,
where the ships are docked. From the point of view of cargo handling
the apron may be defined as the portion of the pier where the cargo
is first landed when discharged from the ship, or from which it is
lifted when the ship is being loaded.
There are in this country, and particularly in the larger ports like
New York, a large number of piers which in size and method of
construction hark back to the days of sailboats and the small tramp
vessels. These piers, built some 40 or 50 years ago, are inadequate
to handle the cargo of even a moderate sized steamer, not to speak
of the giant liners which now predominate in our foreign and inter­
coastal trades. As a result, there is congestion and confusion on the
dock a short time after the discharging of cargo begins. Every
square inch of floor space is occupied, and there is none available for
the utilization of any equipment which might expedite the process
of discharging the cargo. Not only is there lack of space, but the
wharf could not possibly stand a more rapid pace of accepting the
cargo from the ship.
In direct contrast with these old and dilapidated piers, with their
low and narrow sheds and complete absence of any kind of apron
between the shed and the ship’s side, there are scattered throughout
the country a considerable number of more or less up-to-date piers




8

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF-CARGO HANDLING

with more spacious sheds, with wider aprons, and equipped with all
the necessary facilities for quicker dispatch to the ship and more
efficient loading and discharging of the cargo. In most cases the
aprons of these piers are provided with one or two car tracks, which
make it possible to handle cargo directly from the ship into railroad
cars, and vice versa. As a sample of these more up-to-date piers
may be mentioned the group of piers at Cristobal in the Canal Zone,
the Alabama State piers in Mobile, and the recently completed unit
of the Western Maryland Railroad in Baltimore. Several piers in
Philadelphia, the Staten Island group in New York, the new coffee
pier in New Orleans, and a number of piers on the west coast may
also be included in this group.
Nature of the Cargo Handled
By far the most important factor in the problem of cargo handling
is the nature of the cargo itself. It is necessary first to distinguish
between bulk cargo, solid or liquid, which is shipped in mass without
containers, and the so-called general cargo which comes in units or
packages and is therefore sometimes classified as “ package” cargo.
The latter may also be divided into uniform cargoes of a single
commodity, constituting the entire ship’s cargo, and miscellaneous
or mixed cargoes, consisting of a large number of heterogeneous
commodities in an endless variety of containers.
Loading Bulk Cargoes

There is little or no stevedoring required in loading bulk com­
modities such as oil, grain, or coal. Oil is usually transported in
tankers and is loaded at the refineries by means of large pumps and
pipes which require no labor other than the starting and stopping of
the pumps.
Grain easily lends itself to transference by means of a gravity flow
and is therefore loaded either directly at grain elevators or from
barges by means of floating grain elevators. The latter is the usual
practice in the port of New’ York, although it is quite extensively
used also in Philadelphia. At the elevators the grain is transferred
from the storage bins to the pier by a series of endless belts and is
dumped into the ship’s hold by gravity, through large pipes or flexible
hose. In the elevator proper the entire work of loading, which
consists of starting and supervising the flow of the grain, is done by
the permanent organization of the elevator and includes the elec­
tricians, the grain weighers, the belt operators, etc. The only steve­
doring work involved in loading the grain consists of rigging the
hatches, or moving the pipes or the hose from hatch to hatch, and
of trimming the grain. The term “ trimming” here signifies the
shoveling of the grain into compartments of the ship which can not
be reached by the gravity flow of the grain.
The operations of a floating elevator consist of drawing the grain
from a barge and elevating it to the weighing bin by means of a
“ marine leg” or an endless bucket chain, and then dumping it into
the ship’s hold exactly as is done at a regular elevator. In New
York all the operations, including the rigging of the hatches and the
trimming of the grain, are performed by the unit of workers perma-







F

ig u r e

1.— L o a

d in g

C

argo

t h r o u g h

S

id e

po r t

by

T

ra cto r

and

T

r a il e r

S

ystem




F i g u r e 2 .—b e l t S y s t e m

o f

d e liv e rin g

C o al to

S h ip .

B a ltim o re




F

ig u r e

3 .—A u

t o m a t ic

T

r im m e r

in

O

pe r a t io n

in

Lo

a d in g

C

oal o n

Ba

r g e

.

Ba

l t im o r e

F

ig u r e

4.—s y

st em




u s e d f o r l o a d in g

S

u lph u r

, Et

c

.

P

b u lk

Ca

o r tla n d

r g o es su ch as

, O

r eg

.

O

r e

,

g r a in

,

NATURE OF CARGO HANDLED

9

nently attached to the floating grain elevators, while in Philadel­
phia the work of rigging and trimming the grain is done by longshoremen.
Coal as cargo is loaded in large quantities in only a few ports of
the United States. These are equipped with special coal piers,
which are operated by the several railroads which deliver the coal to
the pier. The largest loading coal piers are to be found in Norfolk,
Newport News, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. No two of these piers
operate exactly alike, although the principles involved in the actual
loading of the coal are very much the same. The coal is first dumped
from railroad cars into special large containers or on a belt system,
and then elevated to the coal pier, from which it is dumped by gravity
into the ship. The work on the piers is done by permanent pier
crews, and longshoremen are called upon merely to rig the ship and
to trim the coal. Most of the coal piers are now equipped with auto­
matic trimmers which are capable of shooting the coal into the far­
thest and most inaccessible compartments of the ship, thus at times
completely dispensing with the services of longshoremen as coal
trimmers. (See figs. 2 and 3.)
The methods used in loading full cargoes of grain and coal are also
used for partial cargoes of these commodities, as well as in the loading
of sulphur, ore, and other commodities of a similar nature. In all
cases the work of loading is performed by mechanical equipment,
and the dispatch of the ship depends exclusively on the number of
hatches used and the capacity of the ship to receive the cargo. Spe­
cial ships with large open hatches and no ’tween-decks, designed
exclusively as bulk-cargo carriers, load much faster than ordinary
ships. They also require much less trimming of the cargo than in
the case of ships with smaller hatches and a larger number of ’tweendecks. (See fig. 4.)
Discharging Bulk Cargoes

The principal bulk commodities discharged in large quantity in the
ports of the United States are pig iron, ore, sulphur, and coal. Smaller
quantities of china clay, chalk, fertilizer, and bones, are also handled
in bulk. These commodities are, as a rule, discharged directly into
railroad cars either by means of clamshell grabs operated by locomo­
tive or floating cranes, or by means of tubs operated by the ship’s
gear. In either case the cargo must first be trimmed or shoveled
from the various compartments of the ship toward the center of the
hatch. This is the principal job of longshoremen in discharging bulk
cargoes. When tubs are used, the process of dischargmg differs
very little from the handling of general cargo and the entire work is
done by longshoremen exclusively. But when a crane is used, either
on land or afloat, the longshoremen do the work in the ship’s hold
and on the railroad cars, while the actual operation of transferring
the cargo from the ship to the car is performed by the permanent
crane crews.
Dispatch in discharging bulk cargoes depends very largely on the
extent and the amount of trimming required, as well as on the nature
of the commodities handled. Chrome ore, because of its fineness,
is discharged much faster than manganese ore or pig iron, just as
potash and sulphur or coal can be discharged much faster than china
66490°—32------2




10

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO HANDLING

clay or chalk or bones. Several ports (particularly the port of Bal­
timore) have a special bulk-cargo pier equipped with gantry cranes
and mechanical trimmers, which do away, to a large degree, with
hand trimming, especially in the case of large bulk-cargo carriers.
This system greatly increases the dispatch of the cargo of the ship
and reduces the cost of discharging bulk cargoes. (See figs. 5 and 6.)
General Cargo

The operations of discharging and loading general or package
cargoes are entirely different from those used for bulk commodities.
The individual packages, in barrels, bags, boxes, or crates, which
make up the composition of the general cargo will not flow by gravity
from the pier into the hold of the ship. They must be handled indi­
vidually or a few at a time. They are transferred from the pier to
the ship either by way of hatches with the help of the ship’s gear,
which is the practice in our foreign and intercoastal shipping, or by
way of side ports, which is most common in the coastwise trade. In
the ship the packages must be stowed, or so packed that they will
occupy the least amount of space and will not shift while en route if
stormy seas are encountered. The processes of transferring and stow­
ing cargo are greatly facilitated by uniform cargoes consisting of con­
tainers of the same type and, preferably, the same size. Sometimes
these commodities come in full ships’ cargoes, as is the case with raw
sugar or coffee, canned goods, case oil, paper, etc. The uniformity
of the packages offers an opportunity for the utilization of more
modem methods and better equipment in handling the cargo than is
possible in the case of cargoes with mixed commodities in packages
of all types and sizes.
Methods of Loading and Discharging General Cargo

The outstanding characteristic of cargo handling in the ports of
the United States is the universal use of ship’s gear for the purpose
of transferring cargo from the ship to the pier, and vice versa. Even
on those piers which are equipped with overhead movable cranes,
as is the case in Astoria (Oreg.), or Staten Island (N. Y.), and on the
new Western Maryland pier in Baltimore, these cranes are used only
occasionally to supplement, rather than to replace, the ship’s gear.
Our system is the exact opposite of the method used in most European
ports, which are generally equipped with overhead or gantiy cranes.
There cranes are used exclusively in loading and discharging cargo
and only occasionally are they supplemented by the equipment aboard
ship. The problem of dock equipment versus ship’s gear has occu­
pied the mind of the shipping and port interests for some time past.
The opinion as to the effectiveness and economy of the two systems
seems to be sharply divided, with no conclusive proof presented by
either side. The statistical data of cargo handling given in this report
are based almost entirely on the use of ship’s gear in loading and dis­
charging cargo. A similar survey conducted in several of the
European ports using the crane and quay system should contribute
the necessary data for a comparison of the two processes, which
should show conclusively which of the two is, in the long run, the
more effective and more economical for the handling of cargo.







F

ig u r e

5 .— D

is c h a r g in g

P

ig

Ir o n

w it h

a

G

rab

o p er a te d

w it h

a

C

r a n e

.

Ba

l t im o r e

f ig u r e

6.— D

is c h a r g in g




B

ulk

c a r g o

Ba

w it h

l t im o r e

s p e c ia l

T

r im m in g

M

a c h in e

.

METHODS OF LOADING AND DISCHARGING

11

The term “ ship’s gear” is applied to the booms and winches which
are to be found on nearly every ship, somewhere in the vicinity of the
opening of the hatches. A winch is a hoisting or pulling machine with
a horizontal drum used for lifting the drafts of cargo from the pier
aboard ship and of lowering them into the hatch. The operations are
reversed in discharging cargo. The power is supplied to the winch
by steam or electricity; hence the classification of steam and electrical
winches. All kinds and types of winches are found aboard ships;
they vary in design, structure, power, and speed, but all winches
are comparatively simple to operate. Most winches are equipped
with levers which move in the same direction as the cargo, upward
when the cargo is to be lifted and downward when it is to be lowered.
The speed of the winches and their position relative to the opening
of the hatch through which the cargo is loaded or discharged are very
important from the viewpoint of productivity of labor in handling the
cargo of the ship. In this respect the intercoastal liners, as a group,
are better equipped for the handling of their cargoes than the foreign
trade ships. Their winches are more powerful and work faster both
when the hook is loaded and when it is without a load. Some winches
on the west coast, particularly those used in discharging raw sugar
in San Francisco, are capable of handling 150 or more loads per hour,
while 40 to 50 loads per hour would seem to be a fair representation
for the majority of winches found on foreign-trade vessels. The
average is considerably below these figures. On the majority of
intercoastal liners the winches are placed in pairs, so that one man
can easily operate the two winches required in loading or discharging
cargo with the ship’s gear. They are also placed sufficiently close to
the opening of the hatch to enable the operator to see what is going
on in the hatch, rather than to follow blindly the hand signals of the
hatch tenders. The intercoastal winches are thus not only more effi­
cient in cargo handling, but also require a smaller size gang than is
needed for the average winch found on average foreign-trade vessels.
(See fig. 7.)
The simplest method of using ship’s gear may be found in the case
of loading cargo with one boom and one winch and with a series of
skids leading from the pier to the deck of the ship and to the opening
of the hatch. This method is known as the “ whip.” The boom is
placed directly over the hatch. One end of the fall is wound around
the drum of the winch, while the other end, which passes over the
tackle at the top of the boom, is attached to the hook. The pieces of
cargo are made up into sling loads or drafts on the apron of the pier
at the foot of the inclined skid which leads from the pier to the deck of
the ship. When the hook is attached to the sling and the winch started,
the draft is dragged up the skid and oyer the railing of the ship to the
opening of the hatch. It is lowered into the hatch by gravity. To
prevent the draft from swinging to the side of the hatch, a worker on
the deck of the ship steadies it by means of a rope attached to the
hook. When the cargo is landed on the bottom of the hatch the hook
is released and the deckman pulls it out with the help of the same guide
rope, and throws it back to the wharf for a second draft. This
system of cargo loading is widely used in New Orleans and Philadel­
phia, where it is applied to all cargoes which will stand the wear and
tear of being dragged over a skid. By far the largest percentage of
cotton in the South is loaded with a “ whip.”




12

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO HANDLING

It is not possible, however, to use the whip for the purpose of dis­
charging cargo. Two winches and two booms must then be put into
operation. Depending upon the method used in rigging the two falls,
the systems used are called a “ double whip,” a “ Burton,” or a
“ union” or “ married” fall. In all cases the up-and-down fall oper­
ates over the hatch, and is used either to raise the cargo from the
hatch, in discharging, or to lower it into the hatch, in loading. When
discharging with a double whip, a deckman releases the up-and-down
hook from the draft immediately after the draft is landed on the
deck of the ship, and the hook is thrown back into the hatch for
another sling load. In the meantime, another deckman attaches the
hook of the other fall to the sling on the deck of the ship, and the load
is swung from the opening of the hatch athwart ship to the railing
by means of a moving boom, and is then lowered to the apron of the
pier. In the case of the Burton system, the “ Burton man,” as the
deckman is usually called, throws the hook of the second fall around
the first fall and unites the two while the sling load is being lifted to the
opening of the hatch. The load is then raised over the coaming of the
hatch and is moved athwart ship and down to the pier by the joint
operation of the two winches. However, just before the load is about
to be lowered from the ship to the apron of the pier, the Burton man
releases the hook of the up-and-down fall and throws it into the hatch
for another sling load. The double whip system is used extensively
in the South and in Philadelphia, usually in conjunction with the use
of a whip for loading purposes. The Burton system, described above,
is used chiefly in the port of New York, both in loading and discharg­
ing cargo.
In the case of the “ union” or “ married” fall, the two falls are
permanently rigged together before the loading or discharging of the
cargo begins. In discharging cargo the three movements of the sling
load—upward from the hatch to the deck of the ship, athwart ship,
and downward to the apron of the pier—are performed in one con­
tinuous operation by the two winches. In loading cargo the move­
ments are reversed. This system is found in nearly all of the ports of
the United States, but it is particularly prevalent on the west coast,
where it is used exclusively both for loading and discharging general
cargo. Whenever possible, the two winches are operated by one man,
and the three movements of the cargo are performed so rapidly and so
smoothly that it is almost impossible to tell when one movement
ends and another begins.
Pier Equipment
The various methods of using ship’s gear in loading and discharging
cargo apply only to the transfer of the cargo from the ship to the apron
of the pier, and vice versa. Other devices and other equipment must
be used to move the cargo from the apron of the pier into the shed, and
vice versa, and still other devices must be used for piling the cargo.
The most common piece of equipment, found on all piers in all the
ports of the United States, is the 2-wheel hand truck used to transfer
the cargo between the apron of the pier and the shed. On many a
pier it is still the only type of equipment used. In recent years, how­
ever, there has appeared a large array of other types of trucks which
have entered into competition with the hand truck, with the result




F

ig u r e

7.—w

e s t

Co

a st




S

y s t e m

, O

ne

Man

o p e r a t in g

Bo

th

w in c h e s




F

ig u r e

8.— d

is c h a r g in g

su g a r

by

H

a n d -o p e r a t e d

4-w

h eel

pl a t fo r m

T

r u c k s

.

G

a lv esto n

fig u r e




9 —D

el iv e r in g

Canned

S

almon

fr o m

M

S

hed

o t o r

.

to

S

S

h i p ’s

ea ttle

S

id e

on

T

r a il e r s

pu lle d

by

E

l e c t r ic

F




ig u r e

10.— E l

e c t r ic

L

if t

T

ruck

about

to

l ift

p l a t f o r m

,

o r

“C

a m el

,”

lo a d ed

w it h

C

arg o

METHODS OF LOADING AND DISCHARGING

13

that on some piers the hand truck has either been relegated to a
secondary position or has been completely replaced by the more upto-date type of equipment.
The first change was the introduction of the 4-wheel platform
truck operated by man power. The main advantage of the platform
truck over the hand truck lies in the fact that the cargo from the ship
can be landed directly on the truck and taken into the shed without
first undoing the sling of the load on the apron. This change elimi­
nates several handlings of the cargo. ^ The next step was replacing the
push-and-pull man power by electricity or gas and substantially to
increase the weight of each sling load. The power truck has several
advantages over the hand truck, but the principal advantages are
twofold: 1. The power truck actually eliminates several handlings of
the cargo on the pier which can not be avoided when hand trucks are
used; 2. The power truck rapidly clears the space on the apron directly
under the ship’s hook where the cargo is landed, thus facilitating
constant operation of the hook. Both advantages lead to higher labor
productivity and lower cost of cargo handling. (See fig. 8.)
There now exists a large variety of types and makes of these electric
and gasoline power trucks. For the purpose of the present survey,
however, it is necessary to distinguish only three types of power
trucks as follows:
1. The electric platform truck is a complete unit consisting of a
large 4-wheel platform truck equipped with an electric motor. The
cargo from the ship is landed directly on the platform of the truck and
is immediately removed from the apron into the shed. In loading,
the sling loads are made up on the platform at the pile in the shed and
are lifted directly from the truck to the ship.
2. The tractor and trailer system consists of a separate engine,
operated by gas or electricity, and 4-wheel platform trucks or trailers.
The engine is used only when the latter are to be moved between the
apron of the pier and the shed. The advantage of this system is that
more than one trailer can be pulled at the same time, and also the engine
may be engaged elsewhere while the cargo is being loaded on or
removed from the trailers. (See fig 9.)
3. The electric lift truck and the skid system. The skid is a plat­
form built on solid legs which raise it a short distance (about a foot)
from the floor. The electric lift truck is supplied with a movable
platform which, when projected under the skid, lifts it from the
floor. It is then transported with ease from one section of the pier to
another. The lift truck and skid combination has the same advan­
tages as the truck and trailer system, since the truck may be engaged
elsewhere while the skid is in the process of being loaded or discharged.
(See fig. 10.)
In Cristobal, where much cargo is transferred from one pier to
another, the tractor and trailer system is used in combination with
the lift trucks and skids. The loaded skids are placed on trailers and
are transported to their proper piers. There the lift trucks remove the
skids from the trailers and dehver them to the ships to be loaded.
(See fig. 11.)
Recently it was found feasible to leave the loaded skid in the shed
until the commodity is removed from the pier for its final delivery.
Similarly, in loading cargo the commodities, when delivered to the pier,
are at once placed on the skid in readiness to be transported to the
ship’s side and into the ship. This practice, which is used on some



14

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO HANDLING

piers in Seattle, San Francisco, New York, and Cristobal, reduces the
number of handlings of the cargo to a minimum and greatly increases
the labor productivity in cargo handling on those piers.
In New York, a certain shipping company, working in cooperation
with a railroad company, extended the use of the lift truck and
skid combination much further than described above. The company
discharges large quantities of canned goods and loads large quantities
of flour in the port of New York. Most of the cargo is discharged on
lighters and then delivered to the railroad pier, where it is loaded into
box cars. In loading cargo the process is reversed. Formerly
individual packages had to be handled several times on their way
between the ship and the railroad car, and vice versa, but now, in
discharging cargo the commodities are placed on skids in the hatch of
the ship, lifted overboard to the lighter, where a lift truck removes the
loaded skid from under the ship’s hook to its place on the lighter.
The commodities are left intact on the skids, and at the railroad pier
the lift trucks remove the loaded skids from the lighter directly into
box cars, where the commodities are removed from the skid and stowed
into the car. When loading the ship, the commodities are placed on
skids, in the box cars, in which they are delivered to the railroad pier.
The lift trucks remove the skids from the cars to the lighter, and leave
the loaded skids on the lighter. From the lighter the loaded skids are
lifted aboard ship and into the hatch, where the individual com­
modities are removed and stowed away in the ship's hold. Whether
in loading or discharging cargo, the lift truck and skid system thus
used requires only one operation of loading and one operation of
discharging the skid, during the entire process of transferring the
cargo from the ship to the lighter, to the pier, and to the railroad car,
or vice versa. (See fig. 12.)
In spite of the success of the company in greatly reducing its cost of
cargo handling by the new system, the universal adoption of the lift
truck and the skid method is confronted with serious drawbacks:
1. It can be used effectively for uniform cargoes only. Mixed cargoes
in different containers can not be easily handled on the skids; besides,
the sorting and classifying of the commodities nullify most of the
economies effected by the skids. 2. The numerous empty and loaded
skids occupy too much space in the shed of the pier. Even the larger
piers soon find themselves congested with these skids, while the aver­
age and the smaller piers, which predominate in this country, can not
ossibly find the necessary space for a successful application of the
ft truck and skid system.
In addition to the several types of power trucks described above,
other equipment has been devised for the purpose of more rapid
transfer of the cargo from the ship's side to the shed of the pier, and
vice versa. There are trucks equipped with small “ gyp cranes" and
other contrivances which make it possible not only to transfer the
cargo rapidly but also to pile it rapidly on the pier. There are also
a large number of portable conveyors and portable stackers used on
several piers. Figures 13 to 17 illustrate the various methods used in
piling large quantities of uniform cargoes. The hand or “ stage"
process, shown in Figure 13, can still be found in several ports, particu­
larly in the piling of raw sugar or nitrate of soda; but in most ports
this process has been replaced by one mechanical device or another,
resulting in very large economies in the cost of piling the cargo.

E




F

ig u r e




II.—T

r a in

o f

T

r a il e r s

w it h

sk id s

Loa

ded

w it h

C

a r g o

,

a s

Use

d

in

C

r is t o b a l

, C

anal

Zone

F IG U R E

1 2 .— L O A D E D S K I D




A B O U T T O B E L O W E R E D IN T O H A T C H .

Y

o rk

NEW




F

ig u r e

13.— H

and

o r

“S

ta g e

S

y s t e m

”

o f

P

il in g

Ca

rg o

on

P

ie r




F

ig u r e

14.—s t

a c k in g

C

arg o

w it h

P

orta ble

C

o n v ey o r

.

C

r ist o b a l

, C

anal

Zon

e




F

ig u r e

15.—P

il in g

su g a r

w it h

po r ta b le

C

ra n e

.

N

ew

Y

o r k




F I G U R E 1 6 .— S T A C K I N G N E W S P R I N T P A P E R W I T H S P E C I A L C R A N E .

NEW Y O R K

F

ig u r e

17.—p i l

in g




b a g g ed

C

arg o

by

Sc

r ew

-t

y pe

Con

veyor




F

ig u r e

1 8.— L o

a d in g

O

ra n g es

w it h

po r t a b l e

C

o n v ey o r

.

Lo

s

A

n g eles

METHODS OF LOADING AND DISCHARGING

15

There exists in New York an organization which specializes in the
production of these types of equipment. This firm either rents the
equipment to shipping and stevedore companies which are not in a
position to buy it outright, or undertakes to do the pier part of steve­
doring if the shipping companies so desire. Undoubtedly, so far a£
pier equipment is concerned, the hand truck, or even the 4-wheel
platform truck operated by man power, is bound soon to give way to
power equipment except where the distances between the ship’s side
and the shed of the pier are very short, or when the piers are so con­
gested that there is no room for the operation of any kind of power
truck. This is especially true in the case of uniform cargoes, either in
full shipments or in parcel lots. Labor productivity in handling these
uniform cargoes, whether expressed in terms of output per gang per
hour or per man per hour, has recently been greatly increased, due to
the use of the newer types of pier equipment. (See fig. 18.)
This is not true, however, m the case of miscellaneous cargoes,
which come in bags and barrels, in bales and boxes, in crates of all
shapes and dimensions, and frequently in no containers at all. There
is almost no limit to the size of these commodities or to their variations.
This heterogeneous mass of commodities defies any attempt at descrip­
tion, but a good picture of the situation may be had by visiting any
pier in the Chelsea district or the Bush terminals in New York, and
watching one of the overseas or intercoastal giants disgorge from its
hold literally tens of thousands of pieces of cargo, each with a distinctlabel calling for individual attention before it is piled away safely on
the pier or placed in a railroad car destined perhaps a thousand miles
away from the water front.
These commodities are, as a rule, sorted and classified immediately
after the sling load is landed on the apron of the pier. This particular
spot on the apron of the pier must be considered the important point
in discharging miscellaneous cargoes. While the dock crew is engaged
in sorting the commodities, the hook of the ship either stands idle or
hangs over the deck of the ship with another load of miscellaneous,
cargo ready to be landed on the apron. Productivity in discharging
miscellaneous cargoes will thus fall or rise according to the dispatch
in classifying the commodities and removing them from the apron to
their destination on the pier. The new pier equipment has not as yet
done away with this need of classifying and sorting miscellaneous,
cargoes, and for that reason productivity of labor in discharging,
miscellaneous cargoes has not been greatly affected by the change.
In loading miscellaneous cargoes the important point is the hold of
the ship. In some ports, and particularly in New York, there is even,
greater variation in the nature and the size of commodities loaded
than in those discharged. These commodities come from prairies and
mines, from mills and forests, from tobacco fields and orchards, from
oil fields and meat-packing plants, and from factories, stores, and
warehouses. They include automobiles and automobile parts, har­
vesters and other agricultural machinery, copper and gold bars, bales
of cotton and rags, barrels and bags of flour, barrels and boxes of fruit,
drums and cases of oil, and thousands of other articles and machines.
The problem in loading miscellaneous cargo is not, however, in
sorting the commodities, but in stowing them safely in the hold of the
ship. With the exception of an occasional application of gravity
rollers and dollies, there is practically no device of any kind used to




16

CHAP. 1.— PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF CARGO HANDLING

facilitate the transfer of the individual pieces of cargo from the center
of the hatch to their place of stowage, which may be some 30 to 50 feet
from the center of the hatch.
Barrels, bags, boxes, and loose pieces do not of themselves make a
compact wall for stowage purposes, and it requires all the ingenuity
of the longshoremen and much dunnage to pack this heterogeneous
mass of commodities sufficiently tight in their places to guarantee a
safe crossing of the ship. Cargo stowing is a very slow process, and
the hook on the ship and the pier equipment stand idle until the crew
in the hold of the ship removes the last piece of cargo from the center
of the hatch to make room for another sling load
In connection with the loading and discharging of miscellaneous
cargoes it must be stated that at present there exist certain more or
less definite limits beyond which one can not increase the productivity
of cargo handling by merely improving or changing the equipment on
the pier or on the deck of the ship. The problem of handling miscel­
laneous cargoes is more a problem of types of packages rather than of
the equipment used in handling these packages. Certain commodities
must be packed in boxes, others in bags, and still others in barrels or
crates. This variation in the kind and size of commodities is not
going to diminish with time; on the contrary, it is bound to increase
with the industrial and economic world moving to more and more
complex stages. It is possible, therefore, that in spite of the increasing
utilization of up-to-date pier equipment, productivity of labor in
handling miscellaneous cargoes will show a decrease rather than an
increase unless special attention is given to the package problem.
Certain standardization of packages can be effected by eliminating
the use of several kinds of containers for any one commodity. For
instance, if flour is loaded in bags, there is no need for it to be loaded
also in barrels, and similarly, if apples are loaded in barrels, there is
no need for them to be loaded in boxes of several sizes. Such stand­
ardization of packages, which can be applied to a large number of
commodities, will greatly overcome the difficulties in sorting and
stowing miscellaneous cargo. Other changes have been suggested,
such as special large containers, to be carried by the ship, for a large
number of the smaller pieces of cargo assigned to any one shipper
to any one part of the country. Instead of handling the individual
pieces of cargo, the operations of discharging and loading would merely
consist in handling the standardized containers, thus eliminating the
element of sorting while the ship remains in port. The dispatch of
the ship would then depend exclusively on the speed of the winches
and the ability of the pier crew to remove the cargo containers from
the apron of the pier. At any rate, not until these changes have been
made or other solutions devised to facilitate the sorting and stowing
of miscellaneous commodities can much headway be expected in the
field of loading and discharging miscellaneous cargoes.




Chabter 2.—PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR IN
STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO
Units of Cargo Measurement
There are no data available, either in this country or abroad,
pertaining to the productivity of longshoremen in loading and dis­
charging ship cargoes. In undertaking the survey of labor pro­
ductivity in handling cargo, the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics had first to determine the units by which to measure such
productivity. The work done is usually expressed in terms of tons
handled, but the word “ ton” may and does mean several different
things. On the west coast it may mean either a weight ton of 2,000
pounds or a measurement ton of 40 cubic feet. When applied to
bulk cargoes, such as grain, ore, O coal, etc., it frequently means a
r
long ton (2,240 pounds). When a ship arrives in Seattle, for instance,
with approximately 500 long tons of ore, 50Q short tons of cargo on a
weight basis, and 500 tons of cargo on a measurement basis, the ship
is said to have brought 1,500 tons of cargo, which in shipping circles
are termed “ revenue tons,” for they constitute the basis on which
the revenue of the ship is calculated. On its next trip the same
vessel may again bring 1,500 revenue tons, but it may consist of 200
tons of bulk cargo, 400 weight tons, and 900 measurement tons.
On the Gulf and the Atlantic the weight ton is the long ton, but
the measurement ton of 40 cubic feet is retained, and the total of
the two tonnages constitutes the revenue tonnage of a ship. It is
clearly a different kind of revenue ton from that used on the west
coast. On the Panama Canal and to a large extent in the port of
New York the metric weight ton of 2,204 pounds and the metric
measurement ton are used quite extensively, particularly in our Euro­
pean import trade. These are added to the tons previously mentioned to
constitute the total revenue tonnage of a ship. There are ship mani­
fests with six or more kinds of tons thus added together to constitute
the total cargo tonnage. In intercoastal and coastwise trade, how­
ever, throughout the United States the revenue ton is the short ton
(2,000 pounds).
The practices of the different shipping companies in the different
ports and even in the same port are also different. In one port, for
instance, apples or automobiles may be carried on a weight basis of
2,240 pounds per ton, while in another port the same commodities
are carried on a measurement basis of 40 cubic feet per ton. For
this reason the ship, when leaving the two ports with approximately
the same group of commodities and with a similar distribution, may
register twice as much or more cargo for one port than for the other.
Finally, contracting stevedore operators do not always agree to handle
the cargo by the tonnage shown on the ship’s manifest, and thus
there appears another kmd of a ton—a “ stevedore ton”—which has
very little in common with any of the tons previously discussed.




17

18

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

The “ revenue ton” is the only unit of cargo measurement which
can be found in all the ports of the United States, but it can not be
defined in units either of weight or of space occupied by the cargo.
It varies from port to port, from line to line, and from ship to ship,
depending on the customs of the port and the nature of the cargo
carried by the individual vessels. For any one port, however, and
particularly for any one group of ships specializing in the same trade
and carrying approximately the same kind of commodities, the
“ revenue ton” represents a tangible unit of cargo measurement, and
is frequently used as the only means of expressing the total cargo of
the ships. All ships show on their manifests their total revenue
tonnage, and quite often they also indicate in long tons the total
weight of the cargo.

Units of Labor Time
The next problem confronting the Bureau of Labor Statistics
was to decide upon a unit to measure the labor time of loading and
discharging cargoes. It is customary in shipping and stevedoring
circles to express the work of longshoremen in terms of ship-hours,
hatch-hours, gang-hours, and man-hours.
By “ ship-hours” is meant the time the ship remains at the pier for
the purpose of loading or discharging its cargo. Ship-hours are a
very important factor to the operator, for a ship in port is* a liability
to him and his object is to clear it as soon as possible. But the “ shiphour” gives no indication of the actual amount of labor involved in
the operations of loading or discharging, as one ship may operate only
one or two hatches while another may work as many as eight hatches
at a time. Again, some hatches may be worked the entire time the
ship remains at the pier, while others may be worked only a part of
the time.
“ Hatch-hours” represent the total hours worked at all hatches of
the ship in loading or discharging the cargo. If, for example, hatch
No. 1 worked 10 hours, hatch No. 2, 20 hours, hatch No. 3, 5 hours,
and hatches Nos. 4 and 5, 15 hours each, the total number of hatchhours worked by the ship would be 10 + 20 + 5+15+15, or 65 hatchhours in all. (Incidentally, the longest time worked at any one hatch
would also indicate approximately the number of ship-hours—in the
example just given, 20.) The difficulty in the case of “ hatch-hours”
is that some hatches on the ship are comparatively small, while
others are very large. A small hatch can hardly accommodate a
whole gang, while in the larger hatches two or more gangs may be
working simultaneously. “ Hatch-hours” can therefore be used
accurately only when it is known that in no hatch was more than one
gang working at any one time.
The “ gang-hour” is a more adequate and more frequently used unit
of measuring longshore labor time. A gang is a group of longshore­
men so distributed between the ship and the pier as to allow for the
uninterrupted flow of cargo from the ship to the pier and vice versa.
An average gang is said to consist of 1 foreman, 6 to 10 men working
in the hold of the ship, 1 hatch tender, 2 winch men, and 6 to 8
truckers. Neither the size of the gang nor its composition are in any
way stabilized, and wide variations are to be found not only from
port to port but from ship to ship and from hatch to hatch. The




METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

19

size of the gangs may vary from 12 men or less to as many as 40 or
more. In the long rim, however, for any one port, and particularly
for any one line or group of ships, the average size of a gang remains
sufficiently constant to warrant the use of “ gang-hours” as a unit for
the measuring of longshore labor time. The same unit is also used
to indicate the dispatch with which ships are being loaded or discharged
at a given port.
The most exact and at the same time the most effective means of
measuring longshore time is presented by the use of “ man-hours.”
Whether a ship works only one hatch or eight hatches, whether one
or more gangs are used at a single hatch at the same time, and whether
the gangs are made up of 10 men or 40 men, the results will be re­
flected in the total man-hours consumed in loading or discharging the
vessel. Scientifically speaking, there is but one way of measuring
the productivity of longshore operations, and that is in terms of cargo
loaded or discharged per man per hour. Unfortunately, however,
the output per man per hour does not always tell the whole story of
stevedoring operations, in the sense that higher productivity per man
per hour does not always signify greater dispatch and vice versa.
The clash between higher man-hour output and quicker ship dis­
patch causes many a difficulty between the stevedore company, which
is primarily interested in output, and the shipowners, interested in
getting the ship away as fast as possible. Very often one has to be
sacrificed to the other. But this difficulty illustrates the fact that
man-hour output alone is not adequate to describe the situation in
the stevedoring industry. It is only when both total man-hours and
total gang-hours are given that it is possible to draw a clear picture
of the productivity of labor in cargo handling. The data on produc­
tivity presented in this study are therefore expressed in terms of long
tons and revenue tons of cargo loaded or discharged per gang-hour
as well as per man-hour.

Method of Presentation of Statistical Data
The second part of this bulletin (pp. 113 to 559) is devoted to the
presentation of statistical data on productivity of longshore labor in
loading and discharging cargo in the principal seaports of the United
States. The data for the ports covered are given separately and in the
order in which the survey was made—Seattle, Tacoma, Grays Harbor,
Portland (Oreg.), San Francisco, and Los Angeles on the Pacific coast;
Cristobal in the Canal Zone; Galveston, Houston, Port Arthur,
New Orleans, and Mobile on the Gulf; and Savannah, Charleston
(S. C.), Norfolk, and Newport News, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston,
and New York on the Atlantic coast. The shipping lines are classified
under foreign trade, intercoastal trade, and coastwise trade, and the
foreign trades lines, according to the principal trade routes, such as
Europe, Latin America, the Orient, etc.1 Statistics for special com­
modities transported in full cargoes, such as grain, raw sugar, paper,
etc., follow those of the general cargo. In each case data for loading
operations are presented separately from those for discharging
operations.
i For convenience the shipping lines are numbered, and the same line numbers are used in the text tables
in the first part of the bulletin.




20

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

The data for each port extend over the period of a year, but they
do not represent all the lines nor all the ships which loaded or dis­
charged cargo at the port during the year. Many stevedore com­
panies do not keep records of the labor time spent by the longshore­
men in loading or discharging cargo, and some stevedore companies
were not willing to give the bureau access to their files. The records
of other organizations are kept in such form that they could not be
used for the present survey. The shipping lines stevedored by these
organizations were of necessity omitted by the bureau; but even the
remaining lines proved to be too numerous to be included in this
survey. Only the largest and the most important lines in the port,
and particularly those lines which carry large cargoes and which
operate ships in many, if not all, the major ports in the country, have
therefore been selected.
Each voyage of a ship is considered a separate unit, and the number
of ships, or voyages, chosen to represent a single line also had to be
limited. A ship a month, or 12 ships for the year covered, was con­
sidered sufficient to represent a line engaged in foreign or intercoastal
trade, a smaller number of ships being shown only when fewer than 12
ships were operated by the company during the year. The actual
number of ships used was determined by the importance of the line
and the quantity of cargo carried by the ships. The object was to
cover approximately 30 to 50 per cent of the total cargo handled by
the line, but in many instances the entire cargo carried by the line dur­
ing the year is given. This is true of the coastwise trade, of some inter­
coastal lines, and of several lines carrying individual commodities,
such as raw sugar, bananas, etc.
The form and the method used in presenting the statistical data
are shown in Tables 1 to 7. Each table covers a representative
shipping line, selected at random, in one of the ports covered by the
survey. The same form is used to present the data for foreign and
for intercoastal shipping. In the order given are shown the cargo
tonnage expressed in long tons and in revenue tons; the number of
gang-hours worked in handling the cargo; the output per gang per
hour expressed in long tons and in revenue tons; the average number
of men per gang; the output per man per hour also expressed in long
tons and in revenue tons; and the average labor cost of handling a
long ton and a revenue ton of cargo.
The gang-hour productivity was determined by dividing the total
cargo tonnage shown by the total number of gang-hours shown.
The average number of men per gang was determined by dividing the
total number of man-hours (not shown in the table) by the total num­
ber of gang-hours. The labor productivity per man-hour was derived
by dividing the total cargo tonnage by the total number of manhours. The man-hour productivity can also be determined by divid­
ing the gang-hour output by the average number of men in the gang.
The average labor cost of the cargo handled was determined by
dividing the regular hourly rate of wages for longshore work by the
number of tons handled per man per hour. This method is generally
used to determine what is known as the “ straight-time-basis ” cost.
This cost is considerably lower than the actual labor cost of handling
the cargo, as it does not take into consideration the higher rate of wages
received by some men in the gang, the higher penalty rates applied
to some commodities, and especially the amount of overtime worked




METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

21

by the men in handling the cargo. Actual labor cost of cargo hand­
ling, however, can not be used as a criterion for the productivity of
labor in handling the cargo. It is quite conceivable, for instance, that
ships loaded or discharged during overtime hours should have a
higher man-hour productivity than ships handled during straighttime hours. Nevertheless the actual labor cost for the first group will
invariably prove higher than that for the second group, simply
because the overtime rate of wages is much higher than the regular
straight-time rate. The difference in the two rates is so large that
the actual cost depends more on the amount of overtime involved
than on the labor productivity in handling the cargo. The “ straighttime-basis” cost eliminates the effects of overtime work, except in so
far as it directly influences the output of labor.
In each table the total number of ships loaded or discharged, the
total cargo handled, the average labor productivity, and the average
labor cost for the entire cargo appear first. Whenever it was possible
to segregate the total cargo and give the principal commodities and
also to determine the labor time spent on each commodity, these are
shown next. (See Tables 2, 3, and 6.) Following the data for total
cargo are the figures for individual ships. Data for six ships of each
line are shown in detail, the distribution of their cargoes by com­
modities and the labor productivity for the ship as a whole as well as
for the individual commodities, if available, being given. The first two
ships shown are those with the highest man-hour productivity for the
line, the next two represent the lowest man-hour productivity, and the
last two represent the average man-hour productivity. The data for
these six ships are calculated to tell the whole story of the line. They
give an idea of the nature of the commodities carried by the line,
their quantities, and their distribution from ship to ship. They also
give for the entire line the range within which the productivity of
labor and the labor cost of cargo handling varied during the period
covered. The data for the remaining ships are presented in the same
form as those for the total cargo, to indicate the variation of labor
productivity and labor cost from ship to ship.2
Table 1 covers a representative shipping line loading cargo in New
York which is destined for Australia. The line is represented by 12
ships with a total cargo of 57,199 long tons or 106,057 revenue tons.
The principal commodities and their tonnages were: Automobile and
automobile parts, 13,130 long tons or 47,400 revenue tons; lubricating
oil, in drums and barrels, 11,535 long tons or 17,300 revenue tons;
refined oil, in cases, 6,573 long tons or 9,222 revenue tons; and agri­
cultural implements, 3,225 long tons or 6,450 revenue tons. The
rest was mixed or general cargo.
The average output per gang-hour for all 12 ships was 12.3 long
tons or 22.8 revenue tons, and the average productivity per man-hour
was 0.56 long ton or 1.05 revenue tons. The straight-time-basis
labor cost was $1.52 per long ton or 81 cents per revenue ton. The
labor productivity and the labor cost of loading the individual com­
modities are not shown because there was no way of segregating the
labor time spent on these commodities.
The data for the first two ships give the maximum productivity of
labor, measured in terms of revenue tons loaded per man per hour, as
* In the general tables in the second part of the bulletin the data for “ other ships ” are omitted in most
cases, because of lack of space.




22

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

1.39 revenue tons per man-hour for the first ship and 1.35 revenue
tons per man-hour for the second ship. The figures for the next two
ships show the minimum man-hour productivity, which is 0.84 revenue
ton for the third ship and 0.90 revenue ton for the fourth ship. The
data for the last two ships represent the average productivity per manhour, which are 1.05 revenue tons for the fifth ship and 1.12 revenue
tons for the sixth ship. (The man-hour productivity of the remaining
six ships varied between 0.94 and 1.19 revenue tons.) The distribu­
tion of the ships’ cargoes by commodities is given in the table,
thus indicating the principal commodities of the line. The figures
shown emphasize clearly the differences in the tonnages of the cargo
when measured in long tons and in revenue tons, which is a character­
istic feature of most ships loaded in the port of New York.
T able

1.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading cargo in New York for
foreign trade: Australia

{Principal commodities: Automobiles and automobile parts, 13,130 long tons or 47,400 revenue tons; lubri­
cating oil, 11,535 long tons or 17,300 revenue tons; case oil, 6,573 long tons or 9,222 revenue tons; and
agricultural implements, 3,225 long tons or 6,450 revenue tons]
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
gang-hour
man-hour borcost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue men Long enue Long enue
per
tons tons gang tons tons ton
ton

1928
L ine N o. 59
Total, 12 ships__________________ 57,199 106,057 4,658.0

12.3

22.8

21.8

0.56

1.05 $1.52' $0.81

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (February):
Automobiles and parts______
Lubricating oil________ _____
Agricultural implements_____
General cargo_______________

850
515
840
365

3,700
773
1,280
456

Total_____________________ 2,570

6,209

No. 2 (March):
Automobiles and parts_______
500
Lubricating oil______________
785
441
General cargo_______________
Case oil____________________ 1,200
Total_______ _____________

2,926

200.5

12.8

3,000
1,178 1 179.0
578
1,700
38.0
217.0

13.5

6,456

31.0

22.3

0.57

9.6

26.6

22.0

.44

1.21

1.93

.70

31.6

44.7

22.0

1.44

2.03

.59

.42

29.8

22.0

.61

1.35

1.39

.63

0.84 $1.93

$1.01

1.39 $1.49

$0.61

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (May):
Automobiles and parts_______ 1,050
Lubricating oil______________ 1,400
Agricultural implements_____
535
General cargo_______________ 1,632

3,500
2,100
1,070
2,222

T o ta l...__________________ 4,617

8,892

479.0

9.6

18.6

22.0

0.44

No. 4 (December):
Automobiles and parts.—.......
600
Lubricating oil.........................
800
Agricultural implements.........
400
Steel..........................................
825
Asphalt________________ ____
725
General cargo_______________ 1,670
Case oil_______________ _____ 1,140

2,000
1,200
800
825
725
1,890
1,600

415.0

12.1

17.9

22.0

.55

.81

43.0

26.5

37.2

22.0

1.21

1.69

.70

.50

9,040

458.0

13.4

19.7

22.0

.61

.90

1.39

.94

Total______________ _____




6,160

1.55

1.05

23

METHOD OP PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

T able 1.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading cargo in New York for

foreign trade: Australia—Continued
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
man-hour bor cost per—
gang-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Rev­ men Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
enue
tons enue per
tons gang tons tons ton ton

Ships with average efficiency

1928
L ine N o. 59—Continued
No. 5 (October):
Automobiles and parts_______ 1,350
Lubricating oil______________
350
300
Agricultural implements_____
500
Pipe_______________ ________
220
Paper______________________
General cargo_______________ 1,018

5,000
525
600
500
220
1,438

Total...................................... 3,738

8,283

No. 6 (July):
730
Automobiles________________
Lubricating oil______________ 1,470
900
Paper______________________
General cargo_______________ 1,945

4,500
2,205
900
2,605

Total...................................... 5,045

10,210

357.0

10.5

23.2

22.0

0.48

413.0

12.2

24.7

22.0

.55

1.05 $1.77

1.12

1.55

$0.81

.76

Table 2 gives data for a representative line discharging cargo in
Boston which originated in South America. This line is represented
by 24 ships, with a total cargo of 49,612 long or revenue tons, the
long ton in this case serving as a revenue ton. The principal commodi­
ties were hides (dry and wet), coffee, wool, and quebracho. For this
line it was possible to segregate the labor time spent in discharging
individual commodities, ana their tonnages and the productivity of
labor are shown immediately after the total cargo of the 24 ships.
The average gang-hour productivity for the entire cargo was 21.9
long tons. Coffee, with 31.1 long tons discharged per gang-hour,
showed the highest gang-hour productivity, and dry hides, with only
6.7 long tons, showed the lowest gang-hour productivity. The manhour productivity for the entire cargo was 0.92 long ton. Wool
showed the highest man-hour productivity, with 1.47 long tons, and
dry hides the lowest productivity, with 0.33 long ton discharged per
man per hour. The straight-time-basis labor cost for the entire cargo
was 92 cents per long ton, with a minimum cost of 58 cents per ton of
wool discharged ana a maximum cost of $2.58 per ton of dry hides.
The data for the first two ships show the maximum man-hour produc­
tivity of 1.27 long tons for the first ship and 1.25 long tons for the
second ship. The minimum man-hour productivity in the third and
fourth ships was 0.72 and 0.75 long ton, respectively; and the average
man-hour productivity shown for the fifth and for the sixth ships was
0.92 and 0.93 long ton, respectively.




24

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able 2.—Productivity of labor and labor cost in discharging cargo in Boston in
foreign trade: South America
Output per
gang-hour

Aver­
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue
Long Revenue men
per
tons
tons
tons
tons
gang
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity

Output per Average la­
bor cost
man-hour
per—
Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

1928
L ine N o. 11
Total, 24 ships.......................... 49,612

49,612 2,262.8

Hides, wet.......................... 15,651 1720,005
633 1104,290
Hides, dry...................... .
14,438 2244,747
Coffee...........................—
4,758
Wool................................... 4,758
Quebracho.........................
1,976
1,976
General cargo..................— 12,156
12,156

902.3
94.2
464.1
163.1
84.7
554.4

21.9

23.8

0.92

17.4 1798.0
6.7 il, 107.0
31.1 2 527.0
29.2
29.2
23.3
23.3
21.9
21.9

25.0
20.6
27.1
19.8
21.6
20.9

.70
.70
.33
.33
1.15 219.3
1.47 1.47
1.08 1.08
1.05 1.05

21.9

0.92 $0.92

$0.92

1.21
1.21
2.58
2.58
.74 3 4.43
.58
.58
.79
.79
.81
.81

Ships w ith m axim u m efficiency
No. 1 (December):
Coffee.................................
Wool...................................
Quebracho.........................
Casein............................. .
General cargo.....................
T ota l--.........................
No. 2 (June):
Coffee............................ .
Hides, w e t .................... .
Canned goods....................
Wool...................................
Skins and pelts............—
Total...............................

21.5
21.8
9.3
8.0

29.9
32.2
27.8
22.5

? 507.7
32.2
27.8
22.5

27.9
19.5
22.5
20.6

1.07 218.2 $0.79 3$4.67
1.65 1.65
.52
.52
1.24 1.24
.69
.69
1.09 1.09
.78
.78

1,781

60.6

29.4

29.4

23.1

1.27

679 211,475
159 14,850
137 <11,000
155
*350
20
20

20.0
5.3
7.3
4.3
1.0

33.9 2 573.8
30.0 1915.1
18.8 <1,506.9
*81.4
36.0
20.3
20.3

27.6
24.0
19.0
18.5
27.0

1.23 220.8
1.26 1.26
1.00 1.00
1.95 1.95
.75
.75

37.9

30.3

24.3

1.25

642 2 10,917
702
702
257
257
123
123 }
57
57
1,781

1,150

1,150

30.3

1.27

1.25

.67

.67

.69 34.09
.67
.67
.85
.85
.44
.44
1.13
1.13
.68

.68

Ships w ith m in im u m efficiency
No. 3 (March):
Coffee _________________
W o o l__________________
Quebracho______________
Hides, wet______________
General cargo___________

878
105
150
777
49

878
106
150
777
49

Total............................. .

1,960

1,960

No. 4 (October):
Coffee.............................. .
Hides, wet..........................
Bones.............................. .
Hides, dry..........................
General cargo.....................
Total...............................

105.8 18.0

3 0 25,750 13.0
4
4 0 123,478 28.5
5
9
2
9
2 11.0
2
0
2
0
25
0
2 5 } 11.5
0
1,107 1,107 64.0

18.0

25.9 0.72 0.72 $1.18 $1.18

26.1 2442.3 27.0
15.8 1823.8 24.0
8.4
8.4 19.0
19.6
19.6 20.9

.97

17.3

.75

17.3 23.0

216.4 .88 35.18
.66 .66 1.29 1.29
.44 .44 1.93 1.93
.94 : .94 .90 .90
.75 1.13

1.13

Ships with average efficiency
No. 5 (October):
Coffee.................................
Hides, dry..........................
Hides, wet......................
Skins, pickled....................
Bones..................................
Quebracho...................... —
Wool................................General cargo.....................
Total..................... .........

i Pieces.




*Bags.

6 5 210,250 21.3
0
2.3
2 14,400
7
3 4 118,817 20.5
3
63 7
9
24
9
6.0
15
8
1 5 18.0
8
9
2
92
8
4
8 | 14.0
4
11
0
11
0
1,723 1,723 82.1
3Per 1 0bags.
0

28.4 2481.2 27.0 1.05 217.9 $0.81 3
$4.75
12.0 11,955.6 19.0 .63 .63 1.35 1.35
16.3 1917.9 25.9 .63 .63 1.35 1.35
49.1 666.2 18.8 2.60 2.60 .33 .33
10.3
10.3 19.0 .54 .54 1.57 1.57
19.8
19.8 18.7 1.06 1.06 .80 .80
21.0
*C
ases.

21.0 22.7

.92

*Bales.

.92

.92

6Casks.

.92

25

METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA
T a b l e 2 .—

Productivity of labor and labor cost in discharging cargo in Boston in
foreign trade: South America— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Aver­
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men
Long Revenue
per
tons
tons
tons
tons
gang
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity

Output per Average la­
bor cost
man-hour
per—
Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

Ships with average efficiency—Continued

1928
L in e No. 11—Continued

No. 6 (March):
Coffee.......... .......................
Hides, wet..........................
Other cargo........................
Total...............................

404 26,850
1,254 l 58,513
1,491
1,491
3,149

3,149

13.0
83.0
51.0

31.1
15.1
29.2

a 526.9
»704.9
29.2

26.1
24.7
19.3

147.0

21.4

21.4

22.9

1.19 220.2 $0.71 3
$4.21
.61
.61 1.39
1.39
1.52 1.52
.56
.56
.93

.93

.91

.91

0.86 $0.99
1.19
.71
.84 1.01
1.04
.82
1.02
.83
.82 1.03
.86
.99
.86
.99
.80 1.06
.94
.90
.83 1.02
1.08
.79
1.11
.77
.97
.88
1.24
.69
.78 1.09
1.04
.82
.85 1.00

$0.99
.71
1.01
.82
.83
1.03
.99
.99
1.06
.94
1.02
.79
.77
.88
.69
1.09
.82
1.00

Other ships
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

7 (January)....................
8 (January).....................
9 (February)..................
10 (February)___ _____
11 (April).......................
12 (M ay).......................
13 (M ay).......................14 (June).............. ..........
15 (M ay).............. .........
16 (June)........................
17 (July).........................
18 (July).........................
19 (August).......... ..........
20 (August)....................
21 (September)..............
22 (October)...................
23 (November)..............
24 (December)................
i Pieces.

1,912
2,417
1,682
1,819
4,227
3,398
3,931
2,372
2,000
2,282
1,980
1,315
1,929
2,200
1,558
1,401
1,011
1,308

1,912
2,417
1,682
1,819
4,227
3,398
3,931
2,372
2,000
2,282
1,980
1,315
1,929
2,200
1,558
1,401
1,011
1,308

98.8
86.6
87.8
73.1
175.9
177.6
187.8
118.2
101.7
106.9
100.2
51.8
72.8
103.6
53.3
68.4
41.1
61.3

2 Bags.

19.4
27.9
19.2
24.9
24.0
19.1
20.9
20.1
19.7
21.4
19.8
25.4
27.4
21.2
29.2
20.5
24.6
21.3

19.4
27.9
19.2
24.9
24.0
19.1
20.9
20.1
19.7
21.4
19.8
25.4
27.4
21.2
29.2
20.5
24.6
21.3

22.5
23.4
22.9
24.0
23.5
23.4
24.5
23.3
24.7
23.7
23.9
23.4
23.9
21.9
23.6
26.2
23.6
25.1

0.86
1.19
.84
1.04
1.02
.82
.86
.88
.80
.90
.83
1.08
1.11
.97
1.24
.78
1.04
.85

3 Per 100 bags.

Table 3 shows data for a line loading cargo in Mobile destined for
South America and the Orient. The 12 ships chosen to represent the
line carried 40,855 long or revenue tons. It being possible to segre­
gate the labor time spent in loading the principal commodities of this
line, these commodities, viz., lumber, shooks, agricultural implements,
iron and steel, zinc slabs, rosin, and lubricating oil, and the labor
productivity and labor cost therefor are shown immediately after the
data for total cargo of the 12 ships of the iine. The gang-hour output
for the entire cargo was 13.5 long tons, while that for individual com­
modities ranged from 11.1 long tons in loading lumber to 23.1 long
tons in loading rosin. The man-hour productivity for the entire
cargo was 0.77 long ton, and that for individual commodities ranged
from 0.63 long ton of agricultural implements to 1.43 long tons of
rosin. The labor cost for the entire cargo was 78 cents per long ton,
with a minimum cost of 42 cents per ton of rosin, and a maximum of
95 cents per ton of agricultural implements. The maximum manhour productivity, shown in the data for the first two ships, was 0.85
and 0.84 long ton, respectively; the minimum man-hour productivity,
shown for the next two ships, were 0.65 and 0.69 long ton, respectively;
and the average man-hour productivity, shown for the last two ships
given in detail, were 0.77 and 0.75 long ton, respectively.
66490° —32----- 3




26

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able

3*— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading cargo in Mobile for foreign
trade: South America and Orient

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per
labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang tons nue
nue
tons tons1
tons* ton to n 1

1927
L ine No. 7
Total, 12 ships................................. 40,855
Lumber....................................
Shooks............ ..........................
Agricultural implements.........
Iron and steel.......... ................
Zinc slabs-------------- ------------Rosin......... ...............................
Oil_________________________
General cargo...........................

15,115
10,581
5.030
2,651
1,290
1,271
1,001
3,916

40,855 3,028.3

13.5

13.5

17.6

0.77

0.77 $0.78

8,781 1,361.5
10,581
616.5
5,030
434.0
2,651
183.3
1,290
58.0
1,271
55.0
53.0
1,001
267.0
3,916

11.1
17.2
11.6
14.5
22.2
23.1
18.9
14.7

6.4
17.2
11.6
14.5
22.2
23.1
18.9
14.7

16.0
19.6
18.4
19.5
17.0
16.1
19.1
18.6

.69
.87
.63
.74
1.31
1.43
.99
.79

.40
.87
.63
.74
1.31
1.43
.99
.79

$0.78

.87
.69
.95
.81
.46
.42
.61
.76

1.50
.69
.95
.81
.46
.42
.61
.76

0.87 $0.69
1.33
.45
.90
.67
.87
.69
.57
1.05
.46 •.72
.54 1.11

$0.69
.45
.67
.87
.57
1.30
1.11

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (June):
741
Shooks_____________________
277
Rosin___________ __________
153
Agricultural implements
Hoop steel. ________ _________
136
Sheet steel..________________
116
Lumber____________________ 2,042
131
General cargo.____ ___ ______

741
277
153
136
116
1,130
131

44.5
13.0
11.0
10.5
5.5
153.5
14.0

16.7
21.3
13.9
13.0
21.1
13.3
9.4

16.7
21.3
13.9
13.0
21.1
7.4
9.4

19.2
16.0
15.5
18.9
20.0
16.0
17.3

0.87
1.33
.90
.69
1.05
.83
.54

Total___________________ _ 3,596

3,596

252.0

14.3

14.3

16.8

.85

.85

.71

.71

No. 2 (November):
Shooks___________________ _ 1,170
400
Zinc slabs...______ _________
Iron and steel_______________
175
Lumber____________________ 2,504
333
General cargo_______________

1,170
400
175
1,473
333

50.0
19.5
10.5
218.5
20.0

23.4
20.5
16.7
11.5
16.7

23.4
20.5
16.7
6.7
16.7

20.0
16.5
20.1
16.1
19.8

1.17
1.24
.83
.71
.84

1.17
1.24
.83
.42
.84

.51
.48
.72
.85
.71

.51
.48
.72
1.43
.71

4,582

4,582

318.5

14.4

14.4

17.1

.84

.84

.71

.71

0.60 $1.00
.79
.76
.97
.62
.86
.70
.36
.95
.63
.95

$1.00
.79
.97
.70
1.67
.95

Total.....................................

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (February):
528
Iron and steel_______________
604
Shooks________________ ____
Agricultural implements_____
340
130
Drum oil___________________
Lumber____________________ 1,336
General cargo_______________
285

528
604
340
130
765
285

46.5
45.5
31.5
9.5
133.0
25.5

11.4
13.3
10.8
13.7
10.0
11.2

11.4
13.3
10.8
13.7
5.8
11.2

18.8
17.6
17.5
16.0
16.0
17.9

0.60
.76
.62
.86
.63
.63

Total_____________________ 3,223

3,223

291.5

11.1

11.1

17.0

.65

.65

.92

.92

982
226
188
143
614
406

982
226
188
143
350
406

60.5
24.0
8.5
13.5
66.5
26.0

16.2
9.4
22.1
10.6
9.2
15.6

16.2
9.4
22.1
10.6
5.3
15.6

20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
16.0
18.6

.81
.47
1.05
.50
.58
.84

.81
.47
1.05
.50
.33
.84

.74
1.28
.57
1.20
1.03
.71

.74
1.28
.57
1.20
1.82
.71

Total..................................... 2,559

2,559

199.0

12.9

12.9

18.6

.69

.69

.87

.87

No. 4 (February):
Shooks....... ...... ................ ........
Agricultural implements_____
Oil_________ ________ ____ —
Sanitary fixtures____________
Lumber____________________
General cargo_______________

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




27

METHOD OP PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

T able 3.— Productivity of labor and labor cost in loading cargo in Mobile for foreign
trade: South America and Orient— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton tnue1
on

Ships with average efficiency

1927
L in e N o. 7—Continued

No. 5 (March):
Shooks....................................... 1,059
Agricultural implements_____
486
Drum oil....................... ..........
179
Iron and steel_______________
160
Sheet steel................................
165
Rosin........................................
239
Lumber...................................
229
General cargo...........................
172

1,059
486
179
150
165
239
142
172

70.5
33.5
8.5
11.3
10.5
10.0
24.0
14.5

15.0
14.5
21.1
13.3
15.7
23.9
9.5
11.9

15.0
14.5
21.1
13.3
15.7
23.9
5.9
11.9

20.3
19.5
20.0
19.7
19.3
16.4
16.0
17.7

0.75
.74
1.05
.67
.81
1.46
.60
.67

0.75 $0.80
.74
.81
.57
1.05
.67
.90
.81
.74
.41
1.46
.37 1.00
.67
.90

$0.80
.81
.57
.90
.74
.41
1.62
.90

Total..................................... 2,679

2,679

182.8

14.6

14.6

18.9

.77

.77

.78

.78

No. 6 (July):
Agricultural implements_____ 1,119
Shooks.......................................
879
Rosin........................ ...............
404
Iron and steel...........................
148
Oil.............................................
126
Sheet steel................................
104
Tobacco....................................
193
Lumber............................ ........
723
General cargo...........................
117

1,119
879
404
148
126
104
193
429
117

101.5
49.5
18.0
8.0
5.5
6.0
10.5
67.5
12.0

11.0
17.8
22.4
18.5
22.9
17.3
18.4
10.7
9.8

11.0
17.8
22.4
18.5
22.9
17.3
18.4
6.4
9.8

18.7
19.8
16.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
16.0
20.1

.59
.90
1.40
.97
1.15
.87
.92
.67
.49

.59
.90
1.40
.97
1.15
.87
.92
.40
.49

i.02
.67
.43
.62
.52
.69
.65
.90
1.22

1.02
.67
.43
.62
.52
.69
.65
1.50
1.22

Total...................................... 3,813

3,813

278.5

13.7

13.7

18.2

.75

.75

.80

.80

1Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.

Table 4 presents data for a line loading cargo in Los Angeles des­
tined for the Orient. The line is represented by 15 ships, with a
total of 10,231 long tons or 12,981 revenue tons. The principal
commodities were old newspapers, cotton, and soda ash, but it was
not possible to secure the labor time spent on loading these com­
modities. The average output per gang per hoar was 19.2 long
tons or 24.4 revenue tons. The man-hour output was 1.01 long
tons or 1.29 revenue tons, and the average labor cost for the en­
tire cargo was 89 cents per long ton and 70 cents per revenue ton.
The maximum man-hour output, shown in the data for the first
two ships, were 1.98 and 1.54 revenue tons, respectively; the mini­
mum man-hour output, shown for the next two ships, were 0.99 and
1 revenue ton, respectively; and the average man-hour output,
shown for the last two ships given in detail, were 1.28 and 1.33
revenue tons, respectively. The productivity of the remaining ships
ranged from 1.03 to 1.39 revenue tons per man-hour.




28

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able 4*— Labor productivity and labor cost in loading cargo in Los Angeles for

foreign trade: Orient

- [Principal commodities: Old newspapers (6,314 long tons or 7,072 revenue tons), cotton, and soda ash]

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Total, 15 ships................................ 10,231

12,981

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
bor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
ton
tons
tons

1926
L ine No. 15
531.9

19.2

24.4

19.0

1.01

1.29 $0.89

$0.70

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (December):
Cotton...............
Copper..............
General cargo...
Total _
No. 2 (April):
Old newspapers..
Soda ash_______
Total-

425
212
109

1,071
237
163

746

1,471

453
136

507
152

589

659

39.2

19.0

37.6

19.0

1.00

1 98 $0.90

22.5

26.2

29.3

19.0

1.38

1.54

$0.45

.65

.58

0.99 $1.11

$0.91

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (April):
Old newspapers..
General cargo___
Total _
No. 4 (August):
Old newspapers..
General cargo___
Total _

454
154

509
228

608

737

341
54

382
61

395

443

39.4

15.4

18.8

19.0

0.81

23.3

16.9

19.0

19.0

.89

1.00

1.01

.90

Ships with average efficiency
No. 5 (November):
Old newspapers..
Cotton................
Soda ash............
General cargo___
TotalNo. 6 (December):
Old newspapers..
C otton...............
Soda ash............ .
General cargo___
Total _

402
93
140
281

450
235
157
330

916

1,172

405
60
180
44

454
116
202
66

689

838

48.3

19.0

24.3

19.0

1.00

1.28 $0.90

$0.70

33.1

20.7

25.3

19.0

1.09

1.33

.83

.68

1.00
.85
1.02
1.10
1.12
.87
1.22
.97
1.00

1.16 $0.90 $0.78
.78
1.16 1.06
.88
.66
1.37
.82
1.39
.65
.80
.71
1.26
.87
1.03 1.03
.74
.66
1.36
•93
.77
1.17
.90
.76
1.19

Other ships
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

7 (February)_
_
8 (March)-------9 (March).........
10 (April)..........
11 (June)--.......
No. 12 (July)---------No. 13 (July)______
No. 14 (August)____
No. 15 (September).




960
629
519
1,433
860
533
415
535
404

1,121
859
695
1,809
964
631
464
641
477

50.7
39.1
26.7
68.6
40.8
32.1
18.0
28.9
21.2

19.0
16.2
19.4
21.1
21.3
16.5
23.2
18.4
19.0

22.0
22.0
26.0
26.4
23.9
19.6
25.8
22.2
22.6

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

29

METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

Table 5 gives data for an intercoastal line discharging cargo in
New Orleans. The line is represented by 22 ships, with a total cargo
of 58,629 long tons or 65,673 short tons. The short ton is the reve­
nue ton in intercoastal trade. The major commodities were canned
goods (19,665 short tons), lumber (5,890 short tons), refined sugar
(5,052 short tons), flour (3,153 short tons), and beans (2,464 short
tons). The average gang-hour output for the entire cargo was 19.7
long tons or 22.1 short tons; the average man-hour output was 0.73
long ton or 0.82 short ton; and the average labor cost was 89 cents
per long ton or 79 cents per short ton. The maximum productivity,
shown m the data for the first two ships, was 1 and 1.10 short tons
respectively per man-hour; the minimum productivity was 0.65 and
0.60 short ton per man-hour; and the average productivity was 0.83
and 0.82 short ton, respectively, per man per hour for the last two
ships given in detail. The productivity of the other ships varied from
0.70 to 1.00 short tons per man-hour.
T able 5. —Labor productivity and labor cost in discharging cargo in New Orleans

in intercoastal trade
[Principal commodities: Canned goods, 19,665 short tons; lumber, 5,890 short tons; refined sugar, 5,052
short tons; flour, 3,153 short tons; beans, 2,464 short tons]
Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
gang-hour
man-hour bor cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons* ton
ton*

1927
Line N o. 19
Total, 22 ships............................ 58,629

65,673 2,977.3

19.7

22.1

27.0

0.73

0.82 $0.89

$0.79

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (November):
Lum ber___ ____________
995
Canned goods_____________
310
Flour...... .............................
100
General cargo_____________ 3,419

1,114
347
112
3,830

Total_________ _________ 4,824

5,403

No. 2 (July):
Sugar, refined....... ................ 1,804
Lumber..............................
331
Canned goods....... ...............
760
General cargo____ _________
634

2,020
371
851
710

Total.................................. 3,529

3,952

200.4

24.0

27.0

27.0

0.89

132.8

26.5

29.7

27.0

.98

1.00 $0.73

1.10

$0.65

.66

.59

0.65 $1.12

$1.00

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (February):
Canned goods...................... .
734
Flour.....................................
400
Beans....................................
325
General cargo........................ 1,031

822
448
364
1,155

Total..................................

2,490

2,789

No. 4 (March):
Lumber....................... .........
Canned goods_____________
Beans............... ....................
Flour........................... .........
General cargo.................. .

884
690
275
210
182

990
773
308
235
204

Total.................................. 2,241

2,510

1Short tons.




157.9

15.7

11.6

27.0

0.58

14.3

16.2

27.0

.53

*
156.2

.60

1.23

1.08

30

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able 5.—Labor productivity and labor cost in discharging cargo in New Orleans
in intercoastal trade— Continued
Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
man-hour bor cost per—
gang-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons i ton
ton*

Ships with average efficiency

1927
L ine N o. 19—Continued
No. 5 (April):
CJanned goods,
Flour_____ ____ - ..............
Beans.,
_
General cargo_____________

1,050
200
160
394

1,176
224
179
441

Total................................. - 1,804

2,020

No. 6 (May):
Lumber__________________
Canned goods____________
Flour_____________________
General cargo_____________

216
850
280
356

1,912

20.0

22.4

27.0

0.74

86.6

19.7

22.1

27.0

.73

0.83 $0.88

$0.78

242
952
314
404

Total................................... 1,702

90.3

.82

.89

.79

0.77 $0.94
.99
.73
.70 1.03
.77
.94
.85
.86
1.00
.72
.80
.90
.76
.96
.71 1.02
.82
.88
.80
.92
.91
.80
.79
.93
.70 1.05
.84
.87
.71 1.03

$0.84
.66
.93
.84
.76
.65
.81
.86
.92
.74
.81
.71
.82
.93
.77
.92

Other ships
No. 7 (January)......................... .
No. 8 (January)....................... .
No. 9 (March)..................... ........
No. 10 (April).............................
No. 11 (M ay)................... ...........
No. 12 (June).................... .........
No. 13 (June)................ ..............
No. 14 (July)...............................
No. 15 (August)........................
No. 16 (August)...........................
No. 17 (September)...... ..............
No. 18 (September)----------------No. 19 (October)................. ........
No. 20 (October)......................
No. 21 (December)....... ..............
No. 22 (December)____________

2,882
3,420
2,695
1,334
1,424
3, 531
2,203
1,467
1, 079
2,562
1,875
3,450
3,191
3, 370
3,856
3,700

3,228
3,830
3,019
1,494
1,595
3,955
2,468
1,644
1,209
2,869
2,100
3,864
3,574
3, 775
4,319
4,144

155.0 18.6
143.0 24.0
159.6 17.0
71. 5 18.6
69.7 20.5
146.0 24.3
114.1 19.4
80.3 18.4
62.6 17.3
120.1 21.3
97.3 19.2
157. 8 21.9
167.9 18.9
200.3 16.7
191.1 20.3
216.8 17.0

20.8
26.7
18.9
20.8
23.0
27.0
21.6
20.5
19.2
23.8
21.6
24.6
21.3
18.9
22.7
19.2

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

0.69
.89
.63
.69
.76
.90
.72
.68
.64
.79
.71
.81
.70
.62
.75
.63

i Short tons.

Table 6 presents data for an intercoastal line discharging cargo in
Seattle. The line is represented by 22 ships, with a cargo of 19,396
long tons or 21,723 short tons. Data for the principal commodities
(tin plate and steel), and the productivity and the labor cost of loading
these commodities are shown immediately after the total cargo.
The average gang-hour productivity for the entire cargo was 21.9
long tons or 24.5 short tons. Of the commodities, tin plate with 36.8
short tons per gang-hour showed the highest average productivity,
and general cargo with 14.6 short tons per gang per hour showed the
lowest average productivity. The man-hour output for the entire
cargo was 1.32 long tons or 1.48 short tons; the highest average
man-hour output was 2.16 short tons for tin plate and the lowest was
0.77 short ton for general cargo. The average labor cost for the
entire cargo w 68 cents per long ton and 61 cents per short ton,
ate
with 42 cents per short ton of tin plate and $1.17 per short ton of
general cargo. The data for the first two ships show a maximum
productivity of 2.67 and 2.34 short tons, respectively, per man per




31

METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

hour; those for the next two ships give the minimum productivity of
0.86 and 0.95 short ton, respectively, per man per hour; and those for
the last two ships shown in detail give the average productivity of
1.48 and 1.42 short tons, respectively, per man per hour.
T able 6.— Labor 'productivity and labor cost in discharging cargo in Seattle in

intercoastal trade

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons i

Total, 22 ships............................. 19,396

21,723

Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
gang-hour
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
tons tons i gang tons tons 1 ton ton i

1926
L in e No. 6

Tin p la te ............................. 8,833
Steel....................................... 6,088
General cargo........................ 4,475

9,894
6,818
5,011

887.5

21.9

24.5

16.5

1.32

1.48 $0.68

$0.61

269.0
276.0
342.5

32.8
22.1
13.1

36.8
24.7
14.6

17.0
13.0
19.0

1.93
1.69
.69

2.16
1.90
.77

.47
.53
1.30

.42
.47
1.17

2.67 $0.38
2.70
.37

$0.34
.33

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (February):
Tin plate............................... 1,113
Pipe.......................................
250

1,246
281

27.5
8.0

T o ta l-............................... 1,363

1,527
616

No. 2 (March): Tin plate...........

550

40.4
31.3

45.3
35.1

35.5

38.4

43.0

16.1

2.38

2.67

.38

.34

15.5

35.5

39.7

17.0

2.09

2.34

.43

.38

2.52 $0.40
.42 2.43

$0.36
2.14

17.0
13.0

2.38
2.41

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (May):
Steel...............
General cargo.

.

263
133

295
148

9.0
17.5

29.3
7.6

32.8
8.5

13.0
20.0

2.25
.37

Total-

.

396

443

26.5

14.9

16.7

17.6

.85

.95

1.06

.95

No. 4 (December):
Steel_________
General cargo..

267
174

299
195

13.5
20.0

19.7
8.7

22.1
9.8

13.0
20.0

1.52
.44

1.70
.49

.59
2.05

.53
1.84

Total _

441

494

33.5

13.2

14.7

17.2

.77

.86

1.17

1.05

$0.39
1.34

Ships with average efficiency
No. 5 (January):
Steel..........
General cargo.

341
96

382
108

13.0
8.5

26.2
11.3

29.4
12.7

13.0
21.0

2.02
.60

2.26 $0.40
.67 1.50

Total.

437

490

21.5

20.3

22.8

15.4

1.32

1.48

.68

.61

General cargo.

372
203
157

417
227
176

11.0
9.0
14.5

33.8
22.5
10.8

37.9
25.2
12.1

17.0
13.0
19.0

1.99
1.73
.57

2.23
1.94
.64

.45
.52
1.58

.40
.46
1.41

T o ta l.........

732

820

34.5

21.2

23.8

16.8

1.26

1.42

.71

.63

No. 6 (September):
Tin plate______

i Short tons.




32

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

Table 6.— Labor productivity and labor cost in discharging cargo in Seattle in
intercoastal trade—Continued
Output per Aver­ Output per Averagelabor
gang-hour age m
an-hour cost per—
num­
Ship num date of operation,
ber,
G
angber of
and commodity
hours
en
Long Reve­
Long Reve­ m Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue per
nue
nue
tons tons 1
tons tons 1 gang tons tons 1 ton ton »
Cargo tonnage

12
96
Line No 6 Continued
. —
No. 7 (January).....................
No. 8 (February)..................
No. 9 (March)......................
No. 10 (April).......................
No. 1 (April).......................
1
No. 12 (April).......................
No. 1 (May).......................
3
No. 14 (July).......................
No. 1 (July)........................
5
No. 1 (July)....................... .
6
No. 1 (August).......... .........
7
No. 18 (August)................... .
No. 1 (September)................
9
No. 2 (October)....................
0
No. 2 (November)...............
1
No. 22 (December).................

Other ships
35
7
42
0
73
8
87
7
73
2
89
0
2,690 3,012
1,127 1,262
72
6
83
5
9
98 1,118
63
1
67
8
1,352 1,514
1,796 2,012
82
2
91
2
67
3
74
1
65
0
67
7
1,064 1,192
40
0
48
4
70
3
87
1

13.0
47.5
37.0
95.0
59.0
42.0
42.5
27.5
56.0
76.5
44.5
22.0
40.0
55.0
24.0
39.0

28.8
16.5
19.5
28.3
19.1
18.1
23.5
22.3
24.1
23.5
18.5
29.0
15.1
19.3
16.7
18.7

32.3
18.5
21.9
31.7
21.4
20.3
26.3
25.0
27.0
26.3
20.7
32.5
16.9
21.7
18.7
20.9

14.1
14.8
16.8
16.8
16.4
16.9
16.9
18.1
16.9
16.1
15.8
17.0
16.7
16.5
16.3
17.0

2.05
1.11
1.16
1.68
1.16
1.07
1.39
1.23
1.43
1.45
1.17
1.70
.91
1.17
1.03
1.10

2.30 $0.44
1.24 .81
1.30 .78
1.89 .54
1.30 .78
1.20 .84
1.55 .65
1.38 .73
1.60 .63
1.63 .62
1.31 .77
1.91 .53
1.01 .99
1.32 .77
1.15 .87
1.23 .82

$0.39
.73
.69
.48
.69
.75
.58
.65
.56
.55
.69
.47
.89
.68
.78
.73

i Short tons.

Table 7 shows data for a coastwise line loading cargo in San Fran­
cisco. The form used for coastwise trade is different from the form
used for foreign and intercoasta] shipping. The cargo is expressed in
short tons only, which are the revenue tons in coastwise trade. As
the longshoremen are not arranged in regular gangs, instead of ganghours the total number of man-hours is shown m the table. The
ships carry comparatively small quantities of cargo, but they make
frequent voyages between ports. The entire cargo of the line is there­
fore shown by weeks rather than by ships as the unit of presentation.
The total number of ships and the total cargo is shown first. Then
follow the two weeks of the year during which the ships loaded or dis­
charged showed the maximum productivity per man per hour; next
are shown the two weeks with the minimum productivity per man per
hour, and following these the two weeks with the average productivity
per man per hour. The data for these 6 weeks are given in detail for
the individual ships handled, showing their cargo tonnage and their
man-hour productivity. For the remaining weeks only the weekly
tonnages and the weekly productivity are given.
In 1926 the line for which data is shown in Table 7 loaded in the
port of San Francisco 243 ships, with a total cargo of 193,025 short
tons. The average output per man per hour for the whole line was
1.13 short tons. The average straight-time-basis labor cost was 80
cents per short ton. The maximum man-hour output, shown in the
first two weeks, was 1.32 and 1.24 short tons, respectively; the mini­
mum man-hour output, in the next two weeks, was 0.97 short ton for
both weeks; and the average man-hour output, in the last two weeks
given in detail, was 1.13 short tons also for both weeks. The produc­
tivity of labor during the remaining weeks varied from 1.01 to 1.22
short tons loaded per man-hour.




33

METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

T able 7.— Labor productivity and labor cost in loading cargo in San Francisco for
coastwise trade

Week ending-

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons i)

Manhours

Out­
La­
put
bor
per
cost
manper
hour
(reve­ reve­
nue
nue
tons*) ton*

Week ending-

1926

1926

L in e N o . 26

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­ La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
per
hour reve­
(reve­ nue
nue ton*
tons

Weeks with average effi­
ciency—Continued

Lin e N o . 26— Con.

Total, 243 ships..

193,025 170, 645.8

1.13

$0.80

Oct. 2 1 ,4 ship©-----

700
502
427

Weeks with maximum
efficiency
Total..
Dec. 22, 5 ships...

425.0
851.5
627.0
259.0
563.0

1.44
1.28
1.39
1.71
1.04

2, 725.5

1.32

332
334
543
1,223
482

254.0
244.4
495.5
964.5
355.5
343.0

1.31
1.37

11
.1

.66

3,296

2, 657.0

1.24

.73

610
.,086
870
443
587

Total.......
Dec. 14, 6 ships.

Total-

$0.63
.70
.65
.53
.87

1.10
1.27
1.36

.71
.81

Weeks with minimum
efficiency
Dee. 7, 4 ships-----

616
449
972
576

713.0
377.5
1, 025.5

Total.......

2,613

2, 687.5

Feb. 28, 2 ships.

671
661

621.5
748.0

1,332

1, 369.5

0.86

Total.......

571.5

1.19
.95

$1.05
.76
.95

1.01

.89

.97

.93
1.02

.97

.93

Weeks with average effi­
ciency
582.5
1. 025.5
1. 030.5
386.5
1. 067.5

1.05
1.06
1.18
1.18
1.18

$0.86

458
1,255

Oct. 7, 5 ships_
_

4,622

4, 092.5

1.13

.80

609
1,089

11
,2 1
Total.




1,020

.85
.76
.76
.76

960.0
615.5
362.0
396.5

1.06
1.14
1.39
1.08

.7 9
.6 5
.83

2,649

2, 334.0

1.13

.80

Other weeks
Jan. 7, 8 ships____
Jan. 14, 6 ships---Jan. 21, 6 ships___
Jan. 31,8 ships___
Feb. 7,5 ships----Feb. 14,5 ships— .
Feb. 21,4 ships— .
Mar. 7, 5 ships----Mar. 14,4 ships—
Mar. 21, 5 ships...
Mar. 31,5 ships...
Apr. 7, 6 ships___
Apr. 14,4 ships...
Apr. 21,8 ships...
Apr. 30,4 ships—
May 7, 2 ships___
May 14,4 ships...
May 21,4 ships...
May 31, 6 ships...
June 7,5 ships___
June 14, 2 ships...
June 21, 4 ships__
June 30, 5 ships...
July 7, 2 ships___
July 14, 6 ships_
_
July 21,7ships . . .
July 31,6 ships_
_
Aug. 7,4 ships___
Aug. 14, 3 ships...
Aug. 21, 6 ships...
Aug. 31, 5 ships...
Sept. 7, 6 ships___
Sept. 14, 5 ships. _
Sept. 21, 6 ships. _
Sept. 30, 7ships. .
Oct. 14, 9 ships___
Oct. 31, 6 ships___
Nov. 7, 4 ships___
Nov. 14, 5 ships....
Nov. 21, 4 ships...
Nov. 30, 8ships...
Dec. 31, 3 ships—

3,723
4,350
4,064
6,321
3,254
4,003
2,789
4,359
2,535
3,522
3,937
5.293
3,516
7,943
3,178
2,267
3,382
3,099
4,594
4.294
1,987
3,697
4,173
2,370
4,945
6,095
5,849
3,909
2,607
4,977
5,529
5,411
3,751
5,260
5,511
6,361
4,777
2,830
3,384
2, 551
5,889
2,631

3, 390.8
3. 901.5
3. 574.0
5. 213.5
2. 994.5
3. 362.0
2. 746.5
4. 038.0

1.10

3. 302.0
3. 519.5
4 ,5 5 4 0
3. 029.0
7. 531.5
2. 986.5
2. 203.0
2. 905.0
2. 796.5
4. 248.0
3. 631.0
1. 791.0

12
.1

.83
.79
.8 4
.8 0
.7 8
.78

11
.1

.8 5
.87
.7 8
.81
.8 3
.7 6
.81

2 2 .0
.2 0

.

3 144.5

3. 770.0
2. 034.5
4. 113.5
5. 230.0
4. 819.0
3. 876.0
2. 255.0
4. 187.5
4. 936.5
4. 664.0
3. 235.0
4. 316.0
4. 900.5
5. 350.0
4. 331.5
2, 657. 5
3. 233.0
2. 266.5
5. 373.0
2. 148.5

11
.1
11
.2
1.14

1.09
1.19
1.02
1.08
1.14
1.07
1.16
1.16
1.05
1.06
1.03
1.16
1.08
1.18

11
.1
1.18
1.11
1.16
1.20

1.17
1.21

1.01
1.16
1.19
1.12
1.16
1.16
1.22

1.12
1.19

10
.1

1.06
1.05
1.13
1.
1.22

1
0

$0.82
.81
.79
.7 4
.83
.76

.88

.8
6

.76
.81
.78
.7 5
.7 7
.7 4
.8 9
.78
.76
.8 0
.78
.78
.74
.8 0
.7 6
.8 2
.8 5

.8
6

.8 0
.82
.7 4

34

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

Productivity of Labor in Discharging and Loading General
Cargo
Table 8 contains a summary of the productivity of longshore labor
in discharging and loading miscellaneous or general-foreign-trade cargo
in the principal seaports of the United States; Table 9, a summary of
productivity of longshore labor in loading and discharging intercoastal
cargo; and Table 10, a summary of the productivity of longshore labor
in handling coastwise cargo.
The term “ general cargo” is used here to indicate the sum total of
the cargo handled by the individual lines. It must be emphasized
that the types of general cargo handled in the different ports vary
considerably. As shown in the preceding tables, the cargo handled
in New York is of an entirely different type from the cargo handled in
Boston, in Mobile, or in Los Angeles. This is true of the foreign
trade, of the intercoastal cargoes, and of the coastwise trade alike.
In intercoastal trade the cargo loaded in the eastern ports is discharged
on the west coast, and the cargo loaded in the western ports is dis­
charged on the east coast. In the coastwise trade the cargo loaded
in the North is discharged in the South, and vice versa. The varia­
tions in the nature of the cargo are so important that the differences
in the productivity of longshore labor in handling miscellaneous car­
goes in the different ports, which are shown in Tables 8, 9, and 10,
must be related to the differences in the cargo rather than to any
other cause, such as methods of cargo handling or equipment used in
loading and discharging ships.
In (Sscharging foreign cargo the average productivity per man per
hour is shown to vary from 0.57 long ton for large passenger liners in
New York to 1.85 long tons for the oriental trade of Portland, Oreg.
In the intercoastal trade the productivity per man-hour varies from
0.53 short ton for Charleston to 1.32 short tons for Mobile; and in the
coastwise trade from 0.51 short ton for Galveston to 1.54 short tons
for Los Angeles.
In loading foreign cargo the productivity per man-hour varies from
0.50 long ton for Charleston, S. C., to 1.45 long tons for Mobile. In
the intercoastal trade the variations in loading are from 0.53 short
ton per man per hour for Boston to 1.28 short tons for Portland, Oreg.
In the coastwise trade the loading productivity per man per hour
varies from 0.69 short ton for Charleston to 1.51 short tons for Seattle
and Galveston.




35

DISCHARGING AND LOADING GENERAL CARGO
T able 8.— Labor productivity in handling general cargo in foreign trade

[ Por Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Cristobal, data are for 1926; for Galveston, Houston,
Port Arthur, New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, Norfolk, and Newport News, Baltimore,
and Philadelphia, for 1927; and for Boston and New York, for 1928]
SEATTLE
Discharging cargo
Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Long
tons

Orient:
Line No. 1............ 22.5
Line No. 2............ 25.3
Line No. 3............ 0)
Average............. 2 24.2

Loading cargo
Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

53.6
44.4
26.2

1.02
.94
0)

35.8 | 2.97

2.44
1.65
.85
1.26

Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Orient:
Line No. 4...........
Lins No. 5...........
Average..........

Long
tons

26.5

Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

0

36.6
26.8

1.28
0)

1.76
1.17

3 26.5

29.5

81.28

1.32

15.8

17.7

0.82

0.92

PORTLAN D
Europe:
Line No. 1............
Line No. 2............

25.9
13.9

29.0
15.6

1.61
.87

1.80
.97

Average............

20.6

22.8

1.23

1.43

Orient:
Line No. 3............

24.4

27.3

1.85

Europe:
Line No. 4...........

2.07

SAN FRANCISCO
Europe:
Line No. 1..

Orient:
Line No. 2~
Line No. 3 Line No. 4-.

26.8
18.6
0)

Average..

219.5

Latin America:
Line No. 5~
Line No. 6~

(0
21.1

Averaga..

321.1

1.57

Europe:
Line No. 7.
Line No. 8_

21.0

34.2
28.4

1.48
1.07

1.79
1.44

Average..

(0

22.9

!9.9

1.17

1.53

2.08
1.03
0)

2.32
1.56
1.56

Orient:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

0)
0)
.94

2.17
1.70
1.57
1.47

28.3 2 1.12

21.8

0)

9.
10.
11.
12.

21.2

0)
0)
16.9

28.3
26.5

1.62

Average..

2 17.7

31.4

0)
1.10

1.62
1.23

Latin America:
Lina No. 13.
Line No. 14.

24.7 3 1.10

1.41

Average. _

30.0
28.1
28.1

25.6
23.7

1.20

24.7
22.3

1.79

1.

1.48
1.41

0)

22.4

(9

21.1

14.7
14.0

28.4
23.8
17.0

1.11

.82
.78

1.50
1.32
.94

LOS ANGELES
Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

l.__.
2— .
3— .
4— .

12.9
17.0
14.0
9.8

14.5
19.1
16.4
11.9

1.08
.90
.78
.51

1.20
1.01

Average___

13.6

15.7

.81

.93

.91
.62

Europe:
Line No. 9.
Line No. 10.
Line No. 11

28.2
28.5

31.6
31.9

1.51
1.19

1.69
1.33

Average___

28.3

31.7

1.38

9.0

10.0

.65

.73

15.5

20.8

.85

1.14

11.1

12.4

.85

.95

Orient:
Line No. 13.
Line No. 14.
Line No. 15.

21.8

18.8

19.2

35.6
30.6
24.4

.94
1.14

1.01

1.78
1.61
1.29

19.8

31.1

1.02

1.60

1.54

Central America:
Line No. 7— .

Average..
Latin America:
Line No. 12.

Average...

South America:
Line No. 5—
Line No. 6....

Orient:
Line No, 8— .

13.0




16.8

.C
3

.82

2Average for 2 lines only.

a Average for 1 line only.

36

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able

8.— Labor 'productivity in handling general cargo in foreign trade— Continued
C R ISTOBAL (CANAL ZONE)
Discharging cargo
Output per
gang-hour

Trade route, and
line number

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

Long
tons

Loading cargo
Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Europe:
Line No. 9.

Long
tons

Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long
nue
tons
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average..
Latin America:
Line No. 5.
Line No. 6.
Line No. 7.
AverageUnited States:
Line No. 8.

0.64
.46
.42

19.9
17.7
14.8
11.9

0)

15.9

(0

27.5
17.8
16.4
23.0

(0

18.7

(0

0)

11.5

0)

0.39

8

12.9

8

.47
.41

Average. _

<
9

12.4

0)

.43

United States:
Line No. 12.

(0

19.9

(9

.57

2...........
3______
4...........
5______

24.3

24.3

19.9
24.3

20.0
19.9
24.3

1.28
1.25
1.24
1.23

1.28
1.25
1.24
1.23

21.7

21.7

1.25

1.25

Europe:
Line No. 4...........
Line No. 5...........
Line No. 6...........
Line No. 7...........
Line No. 8______
Line No. 9...........

25.5
23.0
22.9
21.7
20.5
15.9

25.5
23.0
22.9
21.7
20.5
15.9

1.32
1.28
1.28
1.26
1.14

1.32
1.28
1.28
1.26
1.14

Average............

22.5

22.5

1.24

1.24

19.0

19.0

0.75

0.75

Europe:
Line No. 8...........
Line No. 9...........
Line No. 10.........
Line No. 11.........
Line No. 12_____
Line No. 13.........
Line No. 14.........
Average.......... .

18.4
17.6
19.2
14.8
14.1
15.4
13.0
16.5

18.4
17.6
19.2
14.8
14.1
15.4
13.0
16.5

1.08
1.03
.96
.87
.83
.85
.77
.95

1.08
1.03
.96
.87
.83
.85
.77
.95

Latin America:
Line No. 16.........
Lins No. 17.........
Line No. 18
Average............

16.4
17.0
14.5
15.9

16.4
17.0
14.5
15.9

.97
.93
.85
.92

.97
.93
.85
.92

Orient:
Line No. 1 ...........

17.4

17.8

1.03

1.05

.42

.46
.34
.55

(0

Average..............

1.
2.
3.
4.

8
0)
0
)

.42

Latin America:
Line No. 10.
Line No. 11 .

12.2

GALVESTON
Europe:
Line No. 1 ..

20.7

20.7

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1.29

20.0

HOUSTON
Europe:
Line No. 1.
Line No. 2.
Line No. 3.

20.6

20.6
20.3
10.9

1.14
1.13
.94

1.14
1.13
.94

Average.

14.1

14.1

1.03

1.03

20.3
10.9

.88

.88

P O R T AR TH U R
Europe:
Line No. 1.
NEW ORLEANS
Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

25.5
27.9

25.5
27.9

19.4
19.5
14.8

19.4
19.5
14.8

Average.............

22.0

22.0

1.50
1.47
1.16
1.08

1.50
1.47
1.16
1.08

.77

.77

1.02

1.02

21.2

21.2

1.15

1.15

Latin America:
Line No. 7~

19.9

19.9

1.05

1.05

Orient:
Line No. 1_.

33.8

33.8

1.78

1.78




37

DISCHARGING AND LOADING GENERAL CARGO

T able 8.- - Labor productivity in handling general cargo in foreign trade— Continued
M OBILE
Loading cargo

Discharging cargo
Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Europe:
Line No. 1-...........

Long
tons

16.7

Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

16.7

1.02

1.02

Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Output per
man-hour

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons
tons

Europe:
Line No. 2...........
Line No. 3...........
Line No. 4...........

16.9
15.4
14.2

16.9
15.4
14.2

1.02

1.02

.95
.90

.95
.90

Average............

15.0

15.0

.94

.94

Latin America:
Line No. 5...........
Line No. 6...........
Line No. 7...........

17.9
17.8
13.5

17.9
17.8
13.5

1.08
.99
.77

1.08
.99
.77

Average............

15.4

15.4

.88

.88

Orient:
Line No. 8---------

25.0

25.0

1.45

1.45

Europe:
Line No. 2...........
Line No. 3.........
Line No. 4.........

17.9
17.4
14.3

17.9
17.4
14.3

0.85
.80
.67

0.85
.80
.67

Average.......... .

16.1

16.1

.75

.75

Orient:
Line No. 5...........

23.7

23.7

1.15

1.15

11.6

11.6

0.50

0.50

19.4

19.4

.74

.74

Europe—N orfolk:
Line No. 4...........
Line No. 5......... .
Line No. 6...........
Line No. 7...........
Line No. 8...........

26.7
24.7
20.3
16.4
16.2

26.7
24.7
20.3
16.4
16.2

SAVANNAH
Europe:
Line No. 1............

20.9

20.9

0.78

0.78

CHARLESTON
Europe:
Line No. 1............

23.2

23.2

0.66

0.66

Europe:
Line No. 2...........
Orient:
Line No. 3...........

N O R F O LK AND N EW PORT NEWS
Europe—Norfolk:
Line No. 1___

26.9

26.9

1.20

1.20

1.19

1.19

1.10

1.10

.90
.79
.74

.90
.79
.74

Average............

22.3

22.3

1.11

1.11

Europe*— ew p ort
N
News:
Line No. 9.........
Line No. 10.........

23.0
16.7

23.0
16.7

.92
.72

.92
.72

Average______

Latin America—Nor­
folk:
Line No. 3..........




31.5

21.4

32.3

21.4

1.34

1.37

.83

22.1

22.1

.90

.90

Europe—Norfolk and
Newport News:
Line No. 11.........
Line No. 12.........

25.5
23.1

25.5
23.1

1.13
1.04

1.13
1.04

Average............

Europe—Norfolk and
Newport News:
Line No. 2. ..........

24.3

24.3

1.09

1.09

O rien t—N e w p o r t
News and Norfolk:
Line No. 13.........
Line No. 14.........
Line No. 15_____

19.9

19.9

Average..........

20.0

20.0

.88

.88

15.6

.68

.68

18.1

18.1

.77

.77

15.6

.77

.77

38

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able

8.— Labor 'productivity in handling'general cargo in foreign trade— Continued
B A LTIM O R E
Discharging cargo
Output per
gang-hour

Trade route, and
line number

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1............

Long
tons

Loading cargo
Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

3..........
4.......... .

30.4
26.5
23.4
16.5

30.6
26.5
23.4
16.5

1.47
1.23
1.17
.84

1.47
1.23
1.17
.84

Average........... .

24.3

24.4

1.19

Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1.19

2............

5...........

6______

Long
tons

27.7
24.2

Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

27.7
24.2

1.34
1.24

19.8

.93

20.2

Average............

21.9

21.9

1.12

1.12

Orient:
Line No. 9...........
Line No. 10.........
Line No. 11.........

25.8
23.4
17.6

25.8
23.4
17.6

1.43

1.43

Average...........

23.6

23.6

1.20

31.2
31.1
23.9
23.2
19.8
18.5
14.8

31.2
31.1
24.1
23.2
19.8
18.5
14.8

1.42

1.42

1.07
1.08
.89
.76

1.08
1.08
.89
.76

1.00

1.00

19.8

20.2

1.34
1.24

7.........
8........—

1.11

1.12

.84

1.11

.93

1.12
.84

1.20

PHILADELPHIA
Europe:
Line No. 1____
Line No. 2........ . .
Line No. 3______
Line No. 4............
Line No. 5______
Line No. 6______
Line No. 7.......... .
Line No. 8..........
Line No. 9............

C)
1
26.1

21.1

24.0 * 1.05

1.09

Average______

23.2

23.3

Orient:
Line No. 19. ____
Latin America:
Line No. 20_____

19.6

21.1

1.04

1.12

33.3

33.3

1.35

1.35

22.9
18.1
14.7
0)

22.9
18.1
14.7
10.7

1.22

1.22

Average............ 6 18.5

16.5

6
.95

.87

12,8

C)
1

.70

21.1

23.2
22.5
22.4

21.3
18.9

21.3

Average........... . ^23.2
Orient:
Line No. 10 ___
Latin America:
Line No. 11_____

12.........
13-------14-------15-------16_____
17_____
18_____

1.21
1.20

23.2
22.5
22.4

21.8

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

0)
1.18
1.08
1.06
1.06
1.05
.94
.91
.82

26,8
26.7

21.8
20.1

1.08
1.06
1.06
1.05
.94
.91

1.20

.68

1.20

.68

.86

0)

40.2

0)

1.69

24.4

24.4

1.02

1.02

BOSTON
Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1 ______
2............

3______
4______
5............
6..........
7______
8______

28.7
26.1

28.7
26.1

1.52
1.34

18.4
0)
18.3
16.3
0)

18.4
18.0
18.3
17.0
15.4

1.05
0)
.98

20.6

Average............. 5 20.8

20.6

1.10

1.52
1.34

1.10

1.05

1.00

.86
0)

1.08

19_____
20.........

21.........
22_____

.92
.76
0)

.92
.76
.61

.98
.90
.85

19.9 « 1.11

Europe:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

Near East:
Line No. 9............
Line No. 10..........

33.6
28.2

33.6
28.2

1.74
1.48

1.74
1.48

Average............

29.1

29.1

1.53

1.53

Latin America:
Line No. 11..........

21.9

21.9

.92

.92

24.2

31.3
30.1
29.9
24.4
20.3
19.9
13.4

1.26
1.18
0)
1.26
0)
.98
.67

1.63
1.63
1.51
1.26
1.09
.98
.67

24.3 7 1.16

1.27

Orient:
Line
Line
Line
Line
Line
Line
Line

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

12_____
13..........
14..........
15..........
16..........
17..........
18..........

21.8
0)

24.4
0)
19.9
13.4

Average............ 7 22.1

Orient:
Line No. 2 3 ......

0)

i Not availabe.
4Average for 8 lines only.
5 Average for 6 lines only.
6 Average for 3 lines only.
7Average for 5 lines only.




39

DISCHARGING AND LOADING GENERAL CARGO

T a b l e 8 .— Labor productivity in handling general cargo in foreign trade— C o n t in u e d
NEW Y O R K
Discharging cargo
Output per
gang-hour
Trade route, and
line number

Long
tons

Europe—Large pas­
senger ships:
Line No. 1............
Line No. 2...........
Line No. 3...........
Line No. 4........
Line No. 5............
Line No. 6............
Line No. 7............
Line No. 8............
Line No. 9............

18.3
15.4
14.2
15.6
13.5
<
*)

(0

(9

12.1

Average---.......
14.6
23.3
15.4
23.0

38.4
26.2
26.6
24.0
24.1
19.3
17.0
14.2
18.3

22.2

0
)
0)
16.6
15.1
13.4

(9

Average......... .

37.5
23.4
30.9
23.3
22.7
22.9
20.0
19.5
17.3
15.8
14.2

20.6
31.3
21.2

18.3
19.1
17.1

0)

17.9

36.1
42.9
27.2
23.2
19.1
20.3
23.8
20.1

Reve­
nue
tons

«. 57
.62
1.27
.58
1.13
1.01

<
9

0)
.76
.72
.61

0

.86

1.07
.78

0
)
.71

0.95
.63
.72
.59
.56
.51
.70
.52
.48

1.26
1.08
1.05

.95

Average.............

16.5

26.3

.64

1.03

1.60
1.28
1.16
1.15
1.04
.99
.96
.90
.83
.72

Europe—Other ships:
Line No. 43_____
Line No. 44_____
Line No. 45------Line No. 46.........
Line No. 47.........
Line No. 48------Line No. 50.........
Line No. 49_____
Line No. 51------Line No. 52------Line No. 53.........
Line No. 54-------

22.0

1.02

1.52
1.49
1.45
1.35
1.26
1.24
1.23
1.23

21.8

32.7
33.7
25.8
27.6
27.9
25.8
25.4
28.4
26.5
26.9
28.1
35.3

Average— ’. ----- ! 18.2

28.3

.68

1.76
1.56
1.55
1.09
1.07
.93
.92

25.0

9.93

Latin America:
Line No. 38.......
Line No. 39.......
Line No. 40.......
Line No. 41........
Line No. 42.......

29.4
30.5
21.5
26.4
18.5

31.0
30.5
21.5
26.4
19.1

1.17
1.23
1.05
.96
.65

1.24
1.23
1.05

23.2

23.7

.92

.94




Orient and Africa:
Line No. 55.........
Line No. 56.........
Line No. 57.........
Line No. 58.........
Line No. 59------Line No. 60.........
Line No. 61_____
Line No. 62....... .
Line No. 63.........

19.9
12.8

24.3
20.1

14.4
13.4
17.7
22.1

0
)

18.3

13.9
11.7

(9

15.7
12.3
14.3
13.5

27.4
27.4
22.1
20.5
22.8

11.2

20.3
20.5
18.9
16.8

Average............ <•12.7

»20.4

1 Not available.
4Average for 8 lines only.
Average for 6 lines only.

Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons

29.0
26.1
23.6
33.2
23.6
25.7
23.1
23.8
22.7

Average.........

Average.........

Long
tons

21.7
15.0
16.2
19.1
13.0
13.4
17.1
14.6
12.9

.97

10
.0
1.14
11
.2

Trade route, and
line number

Output per
man-hour

Europe—Large pas­
senger ships:
Line No. 10.........
Line No. 11 .........
Line No. 12.........
Line No. 13.........
Line No. 14_____
Line No. 15_____
Line No. 16.........
Line No. 17.........
Line No. 18.........

81

21.0

Orient and Africa:
Line No. 30........
Line No. 31........
Line No. 32........
Line No. 33..........
Line No. 34.......
Line No. 35.......
Line No. 36____
Line No. 37____

Output per
gang-hour

Output per
man-hour

Reve­ Long
nue
tons
tons

24.2

Europe—Other ships:
Line No. 19_____
Line No. 20..........
Line No. 21..........
Line No. 22.......
Line No. 23____
Line No. 24.......
Line No. 25.......
Line No. 26.......
Line No. 27.......
Line No. 28.......
Line No. 29.......

Loading cargo

.88

.72
1.18
.91
.69
.65
.77

10
.0
(9

.71
.67

1.02

1.02
.97
.95
.85
.84

1.20

1.19
1.09
1.08
1.28

.56

<
9

.81
.56
.74
.65

1.36
1.31
1.13
1.06
1.05
1.04
.99
.96
.91

22.0

Latin America:
Line No. 64.........
Line No. 65_____
Line No. 66.........
Line No. 67....... .
Line No. 68.........
Line No. 69.........

(9

<
9

.60

.71
.94

16.3
11.7
14.9

29.6
24.6
27.0
26.2
21.2
14.9

0
)
.74
.63
.79

1.38
1.25
1.23
1.19
1.15
.79

Average______ 7 15.9

25.3

7.77

1
.2

15.1
18.5

(9

7 Average for 5 lines only.
8Average for 11 lines only.
9 Average for 7 lines only.

40

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

T a b l e 9.— Labor productivity in handling general cargo in intercoastal trade
[For Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, data are for 1926; for Houston, New
Orleans, Mobile, Charleston, Norfolk, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, for 1927: and for Boston ana New
York, for 1928]
Discharging cargo

Loading cargo

Output (reve­
nue tons!)
per—
Port, and line number
Ganghour
Seattle:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

6___________

7___________
8______ ____
9........ ...........
10..... .............

Manhour

24.5
13.9

1 48
90
.89
.85
.72

20.0
15.9
12.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

16.5
15.4

22.6

Output (reve­
nue tons!)
per—
Port, and line number

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

Ganghour

Manhour

22.4

1.12

20.0

1.05

20.2

Seattle:
Line No. 11_________
Line No. 12................

20.0

Average....... ...........

21.2
18.6

.97

19.1

26.3
25.8

1.33
1.17

22.1

26.2

1.28

20.5

21.5
22.7
20.7
17.3

1.25
1.15
.97

1.21

18.0
18.8
18.0
17.6

.98

20.4

18.6
17.0

17.6

.93 |

18.9

15.6

86

18.0

27.3
19.1

1 21
1.12

22/5
17.0

Tacoma:
Line No. 2.... .............
Portland:
Line No. 7_________
Line No. 8.................

Average.....................

25.0

1.19

21.1

Average...................

San Francisco:
Line No. 15 ________
Line No. 16 ________
Line No. 17____ _____
Line No. 18
__
Line No. 19........ .........
Line No. 20..................

19.1
16.9
18.1
17.9
14.8
13.0

1 21

1 01

99
.83
.72

15.8
15.5
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

Average....................

16.1

.93

17.4

Average...................

20.9

1.15

18.2

Los Angeles:
Line No. 21................
Line No. 22________

23.7
19.7

1.16
1.03

20.4
19.0

Average...................

21.9

1.11

19.7

New Orleans:
Line No. 20................
Line No. 21................
Line No. 22................

16.4
17.0
15.4

.96
.89
.81

17.0
19.0
19.0

Average..................

15.8

.85

18.6

10......... ......
11................
12................
1 3 .............

20.9
18.6
17.6
17.2

1.10

1.23

1.01

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

Average..... .............

18.1

1.07

17.0

Norfolk:
Line No. 17...... .........
Line No. 18................

13.9
11.5

.67
.55

20.9

Average..................

12.5

.60

20.8

22.8

Average....... .............
Tacoma:
Line No. 1___________
Portland:
Line No. 5___________
Line No. 6_ _ _ ..........................

Los Angeles:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

1 09

16 — ......... .
17
___
18..................
19..................
20............. .

27.1
19.2
12.9
15.7

17.7
17.9

11.6

1.53
1.07
1.07
.93
.91

Average.............. ......

16.7

1.03

16.2

Houston:
Line No. 10..................
New Orleans:
Line No. 19 ________

21.4

1.03

20.8

22.1

.82

27.0

Mobile:
Line No. 9

________

Charleston:
Line No. 4....................
Norfolk:
Line No. 16
- _____

Baltimore:
Line No. 12............. .....

22.4

1.32

12.0

San Francisco:
Line No. 21.... .........
Line No. 22________
Line No. 23________
Line No. 24..............

19.8

17.0

12.8

17.0

17.4

.53

33.0

25.8

1.11

23.2

Mobile:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

Baltimore:

1.03

20.6

i L'hort Ions.




i.aft

20. 7

14________
15________
16____ ____
17................

22. 5

22.0
18.8
17.7

1.38
1.23
1.09
1.03
.94

16.6
18.3
20.4
18.2
18.8

Average..................

atj. i

21.2

1.11

19.2

Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

41

DISCHARGING AND LOADING GENERAL CARGO
T able

9.— Labor 'productivity in handling general cargo in intercoastal trade—
Continued
Discharging cargo

Loading cargo

Output (reve­
nue tons!)
per—
Ganghour

Manhour

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

Philadelphia:
Line No. 21_.
Line No. 22..

25.0
24.7

1.32
1.06

19.0
23.5

Average...

24.9

Port, and line number

Output (reve­
nue tons!)
per—
Port, and line number

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

19.3
18.2

Manhour

Philadelphia:
Line No. 23...............
Line No. 24___...........
Line No. 25...............
Line No. 26................

18.0
17.3
14.2
17.8

1.03
.96
.80
.78

22.8

1.23

Average..................

17.4

.93

18.8

1.07
.94

18.0
19.3

Boston:
Line No. 26................
Line No. 27...............

11.3
9.2

.55
.51

20.5
18.0

Average...................

Boston:
Line No. 24..
Line No. 25-

Ganghour

10.3

.53

19.2

15.8
14.1
13.0

.72
.63
.56

22.0
22.2

14.3

.63

22.7

Average.
New York:
Line No. 70Line No. 71..
Line No. 72-

26.7
22.7
19.1

1.14
1.09
.77

23.3
20.9
24.9

New York:
Line No. 73................
Line No. 74................
Line No. 75......... ......

Average.—

22.0

.95

23.2

Average..................

17.5
18.0
17.5

23.2

i Short tons.
T able

10.— Labor productivity in handling cargo in coastwise trade

[For Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, data are for 1926; for Galveston, Houston, New
Orleans, Savannah, Charleston, Norfolk, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, for 1927; and for Boston and
New York, for 1928]
Output (revenue
tons!) per manhour

Output (revenue
tons 0 per manhour

Port

Port
Dis­
charged

Seattle.____________________
Portland____________ _____
San Francisco
Los Angeles________________
Galveston
Houston___________________
New Orleans_______________
Savannah______ ____ _______
Average. ........................

1.03
1.35
1.54
.51
.60
.52

1.51
1.27
1.13
1.39
1.51
.98
.89

.82
.75

1.60
.96

1.10

Dis­
charged

Loaded

.80
.52

.69

Norfolk

.80
.91

Average_____ ___

7

ATAC cro
ff
*e

New York_________________

Average___ ___________
i Short tons.

66490°—32----- 4




.99
.97

.97

. 99

.96
.93

.98

.*66

.95

.80

Q
Q
.O
O

1. 12

A verage______________

1.22

.97
.96

1.24
1.07

Bnstnn

1.04

.84

Average____________
Philadelphia________ ___

1.40

Charleston

Baltimore________________

Loaded

1.35
1.08
•9
«>

1.05

1.08

1.29
1.04
99
.74

1.80
1.71
1.19

1.01

.91

1.23

42

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

Productivity of Labor in Loading Individual Commodities
In addition to miscellaneous cargoes, a considerable number of
important commodities are handlea in the individual ports, either
in full-ship cargoes or in lots sufficiently large to permit measurement
of the productivity of longshore labor in handling these individual
commodities. The methods of handling these commodities differ
considerably from port to port and not infrequently from line to line
in the same port. The statistics of labor productivity for some of
these commodities, presented below, offer an opportunity of com­
paring the productivity of longshore labor not only as it varies from
port to port, but also as it varies with the different equipment or
methods used.
Loading Cotton
Table 11 gives the productivity of labor in loading cotton, in terms of
long tons and bales handled per gang per hour and per man per hour,
in Galveston, Houston, New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Charleston,
and Norfolk and Newport News. It also shows the average number
of men used per gang in loading cotton in the various ports mentioned.
There is very little difference in the methods used in loading cotton
in the Gulf ports. Most of the cotton shipped abroad comes in highly
condensed bales. It is loaded by means of the ship’s gear and a single
fall, commonly known as the “ whip.” Only one boom and one
winch are used by each gang. The bales of cotton are brought to the
apron of the pier either on a hand truck or, less often, on a 4-wheel
truck, and are placed in rope slings at the foot of an inclined plat­
form, which is rigged to lead from the pier to the ship’s railing, and
from there to the hatch. When the sling load is formed (usually three
bales to a load) and the hook of the ship’s fall is attached to the sling,
the winchman starts the operation of the winch, and the load is
dragged upward along the slanting platform to the deck of the ship
and from there to the hatch. It is then lowered into the ship by its
own weight and the hold men stow the bales in the ship after the
sling has been undone and the hook is returned to the pier.
The process of loading cotton is shown in Figure 19. It shows the
truckers delivering cotton to the apron of the pier, and a series of
inclined heavy platforms leading from the pier to the deck of the
ship. At the foot of one of these platforms three bales of cotton can
be seen lying on a rope, and the “ slinger” is about to raise the rope to
complete the sling load. On the next platform can be seen a sling
load of cotton in the process of being dragged upward from the pier to
the deck of the ship. Figure 20 shows the men in the hold of the
ship stowing the cotton in the hatch.
in Savannah, Charleston,^ and Norfolk a somewhat different
arrangement of ship’s gear is used in loading the cotton. This
arrangement, by which two winches and two falls are used in the
operation, is known as the “ union” or “ married” fall. By the joint
operations of the two winches the sling load is lifted directly from the
pier over the railing of the ship and is lowered into the hold of the
ship with a single uninterrupted movement. No skids are used,
either leading from the apron of the ship or on the ship proper. The
size of the gang used is also different in these ports. In Galveston
and Houston the average gang consists of 15 men, but double gangs







F

ig u r e

19.— L o a d i n g C

o tto n

a t

a

P

ie r

in

G

alveston




F

ig u r e

2 0 .—F

in is h in g

St

o w in g

C

o tto n

in

H

atch

43

LOADING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

are frequently used at one hatch. In New Orleans and Mobile the
average gang consists of from 16 to 18 men, while in Savannah,
Charleston, and Norfolk the gang is at times made up of 30 or more
men, whicn corresponds approximately to the double gang used in
Galveston and Houston.
Because of the variation in the size of the gang, there is a marked
variation in the productivity of labor expressed in terms of cotton
handled per gang per hour. Norfolk and Newport News show an
average of 135 bales per gang per hour, while Houston and Galveston
show somewhat less than 100 bales per gang per hour. Based on the
output per man per hour, Houston leads all other ports with 1.47 long
tons, or 6.6 bales, of cotton loaded per man per hour, while Charleston
shows the lowest productivity, 0.69 long ton, or 3.1 bales, loaded per
man per hour.
T able

11.— Productivity of labor in the loading of cotton
Output per gang-hour

Port, and line number
Long tons
Galveston:
Line No.
Line No.
TiiiiA No,
Line No.

Bales

Output per man-hour

Average
number of
men per
gang

Long tons

Bales

106.0
98.8
98.4
95.7

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.57
1.47
1.47
1.42

7.1

21.9
21.3

_________________ - ____

21.8

97.7

15.0

1.45

6.5

Houston:
Line No. 14,10 ships,______ ___________
Line No. 15,16 ships. ________________
Line No 16, 32 ships __ . ____ . . ______

23.2
22.3

104.0

100.2
97.2

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.54
1.48
1.44

7.0
6.7
6.5

13,8 ships___________________
15, 35 ships__________________
14, 10 ships
______________
16, 34 ships. ________ ____.___

Average

23.6

22.1

21.6

6.6
6.6
6.'4

________________________

22.0

99.1

15.0

1.47

6.6

Line No. 4, 9 ships (hand stowed and
screwed)________ ________________

14.5

65.3

20.1

.72

3.3

New Orleans:
Line No. 41, 21 ships__________________
Line No. 39,14 ships_________________
Line No. 40,14 ships__________________

20.3
19.5

88.6

99.3
91.2

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.23
1.13
1.08

5.5
5.1
4.9

Average__________________________

20.7

93.7

18.0

1.15

5.2

20.2
19.9
15.2

89.5
88.3
67.4

16.9
17.0
16.3

1.19
1.17
.93

5.3
5.2
4.1

19.9

88.3

16.9

1.18

5.2

26.7
22.5
24.4

100.1

119.0

20.0

86.0

30.0
28.9
32.0
30.3
30.0

.89
.78
.76

19.1

109.8
90.0

.64

4.0
3.5
3.4
3.0
2.9

22.1

98.8

30.3

.73

3.3

20.2
18.7
16.9

91.3
84.0
75.2

26.8
27.2
26.4

.75
.69
.64

3.4
3.1

Average__ ,__ - ____________________

18.5

82.8

26.8

.69

3.1

Norfolk and Newport News:
Line No. 11,17 ships__________________
Line No. 4, 23 ships___________________
Line No. 6,10 sh ips...,,_____________ _

30.5
30.3
28.9

135.4
136.5
130.0

22.5

22.6
22.9

1.35
1.34
1.26

6.0
6.0

Average_________________ _________

30.0

135.0

22.6

1.33

6.0

Average

Mobile:
Line No. 15, 26 ships__________________
Line No. 3, 9 ships
________________
Line No. 2,17 ships___________________
Average_______________________
Savannah:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

3,11 sh ips__________________
15,13 ships........................... .
16, 21 ships
- _____________
17,13 ships_________________
4,15 ships _____ ___________

Average____________________________
Charleston:
Line No. 3,11 ships___________________
Line No. 13,18 ships.________________
Line No. 14,13 ships_______ ___ ________




22.1

.66

2.8

5.8

44

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

Loading Case Oil
Case oil is the term applied to refined oil loaded in 5-gallon con­
tainers and packed into uniform boxes, two containers per box. In
large quantities case oil is loaded at the refineries proper, which are
generally well equipped for the purpose of supplying the oil to their
piers, and in some ports they are also equipped to load the case oil
into ships. #At times, however, particularly in the port of New York,
the case oil is loaded at the refineries into lighters and then is moved to
the berth of the ship, where it is loaded from the lighter into the ship.
Table 12 gives the figures of productivity of longshore labor in loading
case oil at the refineries in San Francisco, Port Arthur, New Orleans,
Philadelphia, and New York, and for the last-named city also showing
the productivity in loading case oil from lighters to the ship.
There are three distinct methods used in loading case oil in the
ports shown in this table. The first method used in San Francisco
and in New York in loading case oil from lighters to the ship differs
very little from the usual handlingof general cargo prevailing in the
port. In both ports the ship’s gear is used exclusively and two winches
and two falls are used for each hatch. The cases are formed into
sling loads, on “ platform” or “ airplane” slings as they are called in
New York, lifted aboard ship and into the hatch by a joint operation
of the two winches, and then stowed^ into the hold of the ship. The
methods used in San Francisco and in New York in loading case oil
from lighters^ are so similar that the productivity of the two ports
varies but slightly when measured in terms either of gang-hour or
of man-hour output. San Francisco shows an average of 825.2 cases
or 31.2 long tons per gang-hour and 49.1 cases or 1.86 long tons per
man-hour, while New York, in loading from lighters to ships, shows
an average of 857 cases or 32.5 long tons per gang-hour and 45 cases
or 1.71 long tons per man-hour.
In the second method, which applies to the refineries of Philadelphia
and New York, ship’s gear is also used for the purpose of loading the
case oil. The system used in Philadelphia involves the utilization of
three falls, one for lifting the case-oil slings from the “ apron” of the
pier to the deck of the ship along a system of platforms similar to that
described in the case of cotton. Once the sling load is landed on the
deck of the ship, a special deck man at once releases the hook of the
pier fall and drops it back on the pier for another sling load. In the
meantime, another deck man attaches the hook of one of the two upand-down hatch falls to the sling load on the deck of the ship and the
oil is lowered into the hatch and then stowed in the ship by the hold
men. In New York the prevailing “ Burton” system is used, except
that the refinery supplies one winch and a winch operator for the
purpose of lifting the case oil from the pier to the deck of the ship.
While the sling load is still in process of being lifted from the pier to
the ship and before it is landed on the deck, the “ Burton ” man, as the
deckman is called, throws the hook of the up-and-down fall around the
sling load so as to attach it to the load. The ship’s winch is then
started in operation and the sling load of case oil is moved athwart
ship ami is lowered into the hatch. But while the sling load is being
lowered into the hatch, the “ Burton” man releases the fall of the pier
winch and returns it to the pier for another sling load. The two falls,
although operated independently of each other, are so quickly united




F

ig u r e

2 1 .— M

a k in g

up




S

l in g

on

P

a pr o n

o f

h il a d e l ph ia

P

ie r

in

l o a d in g

Ca

se

O

il

.

F ig u re

22.— L o a d i n g




C ase

O il w ith S p ira l
N ew O rlea ns

C on v eyo r

in to

H a tc h .

LOADING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

45

and then disengaged by the experienced “ Burton” man, that the proc­
ess of loading appears to be moving at a uniform and uninterrupted
pace.
In both New York and Philadelphia the longshoremen performing
the work of loading case oil are especially trained for this work. The
gang used in Philadelphia is larger than that in New York, averaging
about 23 men, while the NewJYork gang averages 17 men. But the
productivity in loading case oil in Philadelphia as measured in terms
of output per gang per hour is also higher than in New York. Since
in both ports only two hatches can be loaded at one time, greater
ship dispatch seems to be attained at Philadelphia than at New
York. On the other hand, the productivity measured in terms of
output per man per hour seems to be larger in New York than in
Philadelphia. In New York the average output per man per hour is
2.95 tons or 78.2 cases, while in Philadelphia the output is 2.65 tons
or 73 cases.
The third system of loading case oil is used at the refineries of Port
Arthur and New Orleans. In both ports the cases are delivered to the
pier from the warehouses of the refineries by means of a series of belts
and gravity rollers. In both ports the piers at the refineries are
equipped with specially built spiral conveyors, which are lowered into
the hold of the ship by means of a crane supported by a movable tower
which is capable of traveling on rails along the entire length of the pier.
By means of gravity rollers the individual cases are delivered to the
conveyor and then down into the hold of the ship. The base of the
spiral conveyor is equipped with a ring of gravity rollers and the in­
dividual cases upon leaving the spiral conveyor are diverted along the
several short lines of gravity rollers scattered throughout the hold of
the ship. The only work performed by the longshoremen consists of
rigging the ship and then removing the cases from the rollers and stow­
ing them into the hold.
Figure 23 shows the hold of a ship at the refinery in New Orleans
with the men at the foot of the spiral conveyor diverting the cases
from the conveyor into the various sections of the ship by means of
gravity rollers. The refinery at New Orleans has only one of these
conveyors, while the refinery at Port Arthur has two similar spiral
conveyors and is therefore capable of loading two hatches simultane­
ously. At both ports the speed of loading is limited only by the ability
of the men in the hold to remove the cases from the conveyor and to
stow them in the ship. A single conveyor is capable of supplying the
ship with 4,000 to 4,500 cases per hour, but the actual quantity stowed
is considerably below the capacity of the conveyor. When the present
survey was made in New Orleans in 1927 the spiral conveyor at the
refinery had been in use for only a short time, and the statistical data
shown for this port are based on a smaller number of ships and for a
shorter period of time than in the case of Port Arthur. In Port
Arthur, as may be seen from the data for the two separate shipping
lines shown in Table 12, the productivity of labor is more stabilized,
with an output for the two lines averaging 2,029 cases or 76.2 long tons
per gang per hour, and 88.2 cases or 3.31 long tons per man per hour.
For New Orleans the average productivity per gang-hour is only 1,830
cases or 68.4 long tons per gang per hour, and 55.3 cases or 2.07 long
tons per man per hour. It may also be seen from Table 12 that manhour productivity in New York and in Philadelphia is considerably




46

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

higher than in New Orleans. The man-hour productivity for one
line in New York is even higher than the average of Port Arthur, due
chiefly to the remarkable skill developed by the longshoremen in both
New York and Philadelphia in handling this particular commodity.
T able

12.— Productivity of labor in the loading of case oil
Output per gang-hour

Port, and line number
Long tons

Cases

Output per man-hour

Average
number of
men per
gang

Long tons

Cases

San Francisco—refinery: Line No. 37,3 ships.

31.2

825.2

16.8

1.86

49.1

Port Arthur—refinery:
Line No. 3,11 ships_________________
Line No. 4, 23 ships...............................

76.5
75.9

2.035.0
2.024.0

23.1
23.0

3.32
3.30

88.2
88.0

Average____________________ _____

76.2

2,029.0

23.0

3.31

88.2

New Orleans—refinery: Line No. 42,11 ships.

68.4

1,830.0

33.0

2.07

55.3

Philadelphia—refinery:
Line No. 50,19 ships________________
Line No. 52,12 ships__________ ______

60.6
58.4

1.675.0
1.604.0

22.9

22.6

2.68
2.55

74.0
70.0

Average_______________ ___________

60.1

1,660.0

22.7

2.65

73.0

New York—refinery:
Line No. 115,12 ships............................
Line No. 116,6 ships_______________
Line No. 117,9 ships.............................

56.6
52.1
47.4

1.510.0
1.335.0
1.266.0

17.1
16.3
17.5

3.30
3.20
2.71

88.3
81.9
72.5

Average______________ ___________

50.7

1,345.0

17.2

2.95

78,2

New York—from lighters:
Line Nn. ITS, IS s h i p s . , . „ . ___ _
Line No. 119,17 ships,..........................

34.3
31.4

908.0
824.0

18.7
19.3

1.84
1.63

48.6
42.7

32.5

857.0

19.1

1.71

45.0

Average___________________ _

Loading Flour
Flour is loaded in nearly every port of the United States. In some
ports, however, particularly in the East, it was not possible to de­
termine the labor productivity in handling flour separately from the
other commodities. ^Table 13, which gives the productivity of long­
shore labor in loading flour, therefore refers only to the following
orts: Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, Astoria, Galveston, Houston,
tort Arthur, and Norfolk. In these ports flour is loaded either
in full-ship cargoes or in quantities sufficiently large, in comparison
with the other commodities, to make it possible to determme the
productivity of longshore labor in loading this commodity. With
the exception of line No. 1 in Tacoma, and line No. 1 in Portland,
the methods used in the ports shown do not differ from the usual
method of cargo handling in those ports. The productivity of labor
in loading flour on these lines varies from 0.68 long ton per man per
hour for Port Arthur to 1.75 long tons per man per hour for the ports
of Tacoma and Portland.
In Tacoma and in Seattle a large proportion of the flour is loaded
directly at the flour mills by means of belt conveyors and chutes. The
ship is rigged out with a series of chutes which lead directly from the
mill to the hatch and thence into the various compartments of the ship.
The bags of flour are conveyed on belts from their place of storage in
the mill and then of their own gravity down the chutes and into the
hatch. At this place a special platform is rigged, which slows down

?







F

ig u r e

2 3.— Lo

a d in g

C

ase

O

il w i t h

S

p ir a l

Co

n v e y o r

,

b a se

o f

Co

n v ey o r

in s id e

H

atch

F

ig u r e




2 4 .—L o

a d in g

f l o u r

w it h

po r ta b le

b elt

C

o n v ey o r

and

H

a tch

C

h u te s

in

P

o r t l a n d

, O

r e g

.

47

LOADING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

the speed of the bag and enables the man working at the platform,
known as the “ sack turner,” to divert the individual bags into the
several chutes which lead from this platform into the different
sections of the ship’s hold. The speed of loading the ship by this
method depends almost entirely on the ability of the men in the
hold to stow away the bags. The average output per gang per
hour by this method is shown in Table 13 to be 44.9 long tons per
gang per hour, or 3 long tons per man per hour, but individual
ships have been loaded at an average speed of more than twice the
tonnage shown in this table.
In Portland, Oreg., portable conveyors are used extensively for
the purpose of loading flour* from the pier to the ship. As seen in
Figure 24, the portable belt conveyor is rigged so as to lead from the
apron of the pier to the hatch, where chutes are rigged on a system
similar to the one described for Tacoma. The flour is delivered to
the conveyor by means of large 4-wheel platform trucks operated
by a gasoline tractor, and is unloaded bag by bag from the truck
to the conveyor which carries the flour into the ship. The average
output per gang per hour for this method is shown in Table 13 to be
62.7 long tons, which is the highest gang-hour productivity shown
for loading flour. But because of the larger size of the gang used,
the man-hour output is 2.31 long tons, which is considerably lower
than the Tacoma average for line No. 9.
T able

13.— Productivity of labor in the loading of flour

Port, and line number

Out­
Aver­
put
age
per
num­
gang- ber of
hour men per
(long
gang
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
Gong
tons)

Seattle:
Line No. 4, 14 ships__
Line No. 24,13 ships.

40.1
24.9

20.1
21.0

1.99
1.19

Port, and line number

Portland, Oreg. (Astoria):
Line No. 18,11 ships..

42.9

25.6

1.68

Galveston:
Line No. 4,10 ships..
Line No. 17, 27 ships.
Line No. 5,8 ships...

23.1
20.4
23.6

16.0
15.9
19.8

1.45
1.28
1.19

Average...................

21.0

16.5

1.27

24.3

18.0

1.35

19.2

28.3

.68

28.3

24.0

1.18

Average...................

32.2

20.6

1.56

Tacoma:
Line No. 9,10 ships. .
Line No. 10,19 ships.

44.9
32.9

21.0

15.0

3.00
1. 57

Average...................

33.7

19.3

1. 75

Houston: Line No. 9, 11

Portland, Oreg.:
Line No. 16,30 ships.
Line No. 17,20 ships.

62.7
37.9

27.1
24.7

2.31
1.53

Port Arthur: Line No. 1 ,
22 ships.........................
Norfolk: Line No. 6, 18

Average...................

44.4

25.4

Out­
Out­
Aver­
put
put
age
per
per
num­
gang- ber of manhour men per hour
(long
(long
gang
tons)
tons)

1.75

Loading Lumber
There are two sections in this country which specialize in loading
lumber: The Pacific Northwest, centering in the State of Washington,
where the lumber is chiefly softwood; and the South, where hardwood
lumber is predominant. In the Northwest lumber is measured in
board feet exclusively, while in the South it is sometimes measured
in board feet, but more often in long tons. ^The statistical data shown
in Table 14, giving the longshore productivity in loading lumber per
gang-hour and per man-hour, are therefore expressed either in terms




48

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

of board feet or in terms of long tons, or both. In Seattle, Tacoma,
Grays Harbor, and Portland, the principal lumber ports on the Pacific
Northwest, lumber is loaded either at the piers of the lumber yards or
at special lumber piers. The cargo is delivered to the ship’s side either
by means of gantry cranes or Ross carriers, supplied by the operators
of the pier. The data for loading lumber, therefore, cover only the
operations of lifting the lumber from the ship’s side into the ship and
stowing it in the ship’s hold. This operation is usually referred to as
“ ship’s tackle” or “ shipside” stevedoring. (See fig. 25.)
On the Pacific coast the methods of lifting the lumber into the ship
vary but little from port to port. Ship’s gear is used almost exclu­
sively, with the two winches and a “ union” or “ married” fall operated
by one winchman. The productivity of labor in loading lumber on
the Pacific coast is shown to vary from an average of 10,200 board feet
for Portland and the Columbia River lumber ports to 12,000 board feet
per gang per hour for Seattle and the neighboring lumber towns.
Expressed in terms of output per man per hour, the productivity varies
from 790 board feet per man per hour in Portland to 920 board
feet in Seattle.
In the southern ports the lumber is loaded either from the general
cargo pier or from a railroad car, exactly in the same way as the general
cargo is loaded, except in the case of logs, which are often loaded
directly from the stream into the ship. The output per gang per hour
varies from 7.5 long tons for Charleston, S. C., to 18.2 long tons for
Norfolk and Newport News. The man-hour output varies from 0.33
long ton for Charleston to 0.95 long ton for Port Arthur.
T able

14.— Productivity of labor in the loading of lumber
Output per ganghour

Port, and line number
Long tons

Seattle and Puget Sound ports:
Line No. 25, 9 ships----- -----Line No. 26,37 ships.............

Board
feet

Output per man*
hour
Average
number
of men
per gang Long tons Board
feet

13.0
13.0

0.59
.57

12,000

13.0

.58

13,000

13.0

.64
.52

10,100

9,800

1 .0
2
1 .0
2

10,200

Average.
Grays Harbor:
Line No. 8,19 ships..
Line No. 1,80 ships..
Line No. 2,28 ships..
Line No. 3,26 ships..
Line No. 4,47 ships..

12.1

13,400
10,600

15.2

11,100

14.0
14.8

11,600

(9

12.0

0)

210,900

Average..
Portland and Columbia River ports:
Line No. 18,29 ships....................
Line No. 19,13 ships.................... .
Line No. 20,11 ships.....................
Line No. 21,26 ships.....................
Line No. 22,7 ships.......................

1 Not availablo.

11.900
11.900
9,400
9,500
9,000

13.0
13.2
12.0
13.0
14.1

10. 200

Average.,




12,300
11,900

7.5
Tacoma:
Line No. 11,30 ships..
lin e No. 12,40 ships..
Line No. 13,28 ships..

7.7
7.5

12.9

2Average for 4 lines only.

F

ig u r e




2 5 .— l o

a d in g

L

um ber

D

e l iv e r e d

C

P

to

ra n e

.

ie r

Lo

in

O

pen

n g v ie w

, W

C

a r s

a sh

.

o r

by

R

o s s

C

a r r ie r s

and

G

an try

F

ig u r e

2 6.— l o

a d in g




T

in

P

late

in

in t o

Ba l t im
Hatch

o r e

,

l o w e r in g

S

l in g

Loa

d

49

LOADING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES
T able

14.— Productivity of labor in the loading of lumber— Continued
Output per ganghour
Port, and line number
Long tons

Board
feet

Output per manhour
Average
number
of men
per gang Long tons Board
feet
18.0

0.54

Fort Arthur: Line No. 5,13 ships_________________

13.7

7,600

14.3

.95

530

New Orleans:
Line No. 16, 45 ships__________________________
Line No. 18, 39 ships______ _____ _____________

10.6
9.9

5.600
5.600

17.0
17.0

.63
.58

330
330

Average_________________________ __________

10.1

5,600

17.0

.59

330

13.1
13.4
12.3
9.6

7.600
7.600
6,800
5,700

15.7
15.2
15. 7
14.0

.84

.78
.69

.88

480
500
430
400

12.0

6,800

15.1

.79

450

9.7

Mobile:
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

16,31 ships_________________________
4,17 ships__________________________
17,26 ships________________________ _
18,26 ships............................... ..............

Average_________________________________ _
Savannah: Line No. 3,11 ships___________________

9.2

17.2

Charleston: Line No. 15,14 ships_________________

7.5

23.1

.33

Norfolk and Newport News:
Line No. 6,10 ships__________________________
Line No. 5,18 ships__________________________
Line No. 11,17ships..............................................
Line No. 29,8 ships............. ...... ........... ...............

18.3
18.8
16.1
18.0

22.0
22. 5
22.1
22.0

.83
.83
.73
.82

22.2

.82

Average___________________________________

18.2

10,000

1

.54

450

Loading Steel and Steel Products
Table 15 presents the productivity of longshore labor in loading
steel and steel products such as rails, pipes, etc., including tin plate.
Data for these commodities were secured for the ports of Houston,
Mobile, Newport News, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York.
Most of the steel and steel products are loaded directly from open
cars which are switched to the apron of the pier alongside the ship
directly opposite the hatch into which the steel is to be loaded.
Ship’s gear is used almost exclusively in all the ports mentioned.
The productivity of labor expressed in terms of long tons per gang
per hour varies from 7.8 long tons of rails loaded in Houston to 32.7
long tons oi tin plate loaded in Baltimore. The man-hour produc­
tivity varies from 0.59 long ton per man per hour of miscellaneous
steel products of all sizes loaded in New York to 2.1 long tons for
uniform size billets loaded in Newport News.
Figure 27 shows the operation of loading long steel from open rail­
road cars into ship at an open pier in the port of Philadelphia. The
pier is equipped with a series of high booms which, when rigged in
conjunction with the ship’s gear, make it possible to load steel of any
length from cars stationed on any one of the several tracks seen on
the pier.




50

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO
T a b l e 15 .— Productivity of labor in the loading of steel and steel products

Port, commodity, and line
number

Out­
put
per
ganghour
Gong
tons)

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

.74

Newport News: Steel billets—
Line No. 32,17 ships........ 31.1

25.2

Average.........................

14.8

2.10

15.8

l.i

27.7

17.5
18.0
16.0

1.43
1.20
1. 73

24.3

17.4

25.0
21.6

22.6

1.35
.99

17.4

.86

18.5

1.09

19.1

1.34

18.9

.86

15.2
14.9

14.8
14.2

1.02

14.6
18.6

21.1

15.1
14.5
15.0
25.5
14.2

.97
1.28
1.45
.82
1.49

Philadelphia:
Rails—Line No. 19, 20 ships..
Pipe—Line No. 19, 20 ships. _
Miscellaneous steelLine No. 19,20 ships (sheets).
Line No. 23,23 ships...........
Line No. 24,25 ships...........
Line No. 26, 23 ships...........
Line No. 53,16 ships...........

1.75
1.87

21.8
20.9

18.2

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Wirerods,LineNo.9,14ships 25.7
Steel products: Line No. 14,
13 ships................................ 16.2

1. 26

26.6
28.2

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
men
per
gang

Average......................... 20.2

1.67

15.1
18.1
15.2
15.1

22.8

Average....................
P ip e Line No. 14,13 ships..........
Line No. 15, 24 ships_____
Line No. 41,9 ships..........

Baltimore—Continued.
Sheet steelLine No. 9,14 ships........... 24.5
Line No. 10,14 ships______ 22.4
Line No. 13,13 ships........... 14.9

9.0

Mobile:
Pipe—Line No. 5,15 ships.
Iron and steel—Line No. 7,
12 ships.............................

9,14 ships............
10,14 ships______
13,13 ships..........
42,6 ships............

Port, commodity, and line
number

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

1.30

Houston: Rails—Line No. 18,
9 ships.................................

Baltimore:
Rails—
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.
Line No.

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

1.05

Average......................... 19.2

15.0

1.28

1.40

Tin plate—Line No. 19, 20
ships_____________ _______ 25.0

20.2

1.24

New York:
Pipe and steel products—
Line No. 121, 22 ships,____ 21.6
^teel products—Line No. 122,
12 ships................................ 11.6

16.0

1. 35

19.7

. 59

Tin plate—
Line No. 9,14 ships............
Line No. 10,14 ships..........
Line No. 13,13 ships..........
Line No. 15,24 ships_____

31.3
31.6
30.6
34.5

18.7
23.0
17.1
22.4

1.67
1.37
1.78
1.54

Average_____________

32.7

21.2

1.54

Loading Oil Cake
Table 16 gives the productivity of labor in loading cottonseed cake
and meal in Houston, Port Arthur, and Savannah, and linseed cake
in Philadelphia and New York. The productivity^ per gang per
hour ranges from 21.3 long tons of oil cake loaded in Port Arthur
to 45.9 long tons of oil cake loaded in New York. The productivity
per man per hour ranges from 0.88 long ton for Port Arthur to 1.89
long tons in New York.
T a b l e 16.— Productivity of labor in the loading of oil cake and cottonseed meal

Port, commodity, and line
number

Houston:
Cottonseed meal—
Line No. 7, 9 ships.
Line No. 8, 7 ships.

Out­ Aver­
put
age
per n u m ­
gang- ber of
hour men
(long per
tons) gang

20.4

Output
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Average...............

1. 32
1.25

17.5

22.6

15. 4
18.0

1.27

Oil cake—
Line No. 4, 9 ships.
Line No. 7, 9 ships.

26.0
21.7

19.0
17.7

1. 37
1.23

Average..............

24.3

18.5

1.31




;

1
1
:j

1
1

Port, commodity, and line
number

I
j

Port Arthur:
Oil cake—Line No. 1, 22
ships.......... ................. ........
Savannah:
Cottonseed meal and oil
cake—Line No. 3,11 ships..
Philadelphia:
Oil cake—Line No. 10, 14
ships____________________
New York:
Oil cake—Line No. 120, 18
ships____________________

Out­ Aver­
put age
per num ­
gang- ber of
hour men
(long per
tons) gang

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

21.3

24.2

.8
8

21.4

16.7

1.28

38.9

26. f
t

1.46

45. 9

24.2

1.89

51

LOADING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

Loading Copper
In Table 17 is shown the productivity of labor in loading copper
in the ports of Tacoma, Portland, San Francisco, Cristobal, and
Baltimore. In Tacoma and Portland the copper is loaded directly
from open railroad cars to the ship. In the other ports it is loaded
from the pier. Ship’s gear is used in all ports.
The gang-hour productivity of labor in loading copper ranges from
22.8 long tons in Cristobal to 40.3 long tons in Baltimore. The
man-hour productivity ranges from 0.66 long ton in Cristobal to
2.14 long tons in Portland, Oreg.
T able

17.— Productivity of labor in the loading of copper

Port, commodity, and line
number

Out­ Aver­
put age
per nu m ­
gang- ber of
hour men
(long per
tons) gang

Tacoma:1
Line No. 6,11 ships........ __ 29.0
Line No. 7, 29 ships_______ 25.3

13.0
13.1

Out­
put
per
manhour
Gong
tons)

2.23
1.93

Average...........................

25.9

13.1

1.98

Portland, Oreg.:1 Line No. 14,
9 ships____ ______________

25.3

11.8

Port, commodity, and line
number

San Francisco: Line No. 38, 12
ships___________ ______
Baltimore: Line No. 5, 11
ships___________________
Cristobal: Line No. 12, 11
shins
_ _ _ _ .

Out­ Aver­
put
age
per n u m ­
gang- ber of
hour men
(long per
tons) gang

Out­
put
per
manhour
Gong
tons)

30. 5

18.0

1.69

40.3

19.0

2.12

22.8 34.6

.66

2.14

i Ship’s tackle, or direct from car to ships.

Loading Principal Individual Commodities
Table 18 contains a summary of the data for all the individual
commodities for which it was possible to determine the productivity
of labor in loading. The maximum productivity is shown in case
oil loaded in Port Arthur with 76.2 long tons per gang per hour and
3.31 long tons per man per hour. The minimum productivity is
shown in loading lumber in Charleston with 7.5 long tons per gang
per hour and 0.33 long tons per man per hour.




52

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

Table 18.— Productivity of labor in the loading of individual commodities, by port
Seattle

Commodity

Out­
put
per
maniout hour
(long (long
tons) tons)
Out­
put
per
gang-

1.40

Apples ______________ 26.6
Box shooks____________
goods __
19.7
Copper_______________
Doors_________________
Flour_________________ 32.2
Tyiimhflr
- __ ___ 7.5
Oil, refiTiftri . _
Tobacco______________ 24.3

.99

Tacoma

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

12.8

Grays
Harbor

Portland
(Oreg.)

0.74

Out­
put
per
gang
hour
(long
tons)

U5.8

1.16
2.14
.57
1.75
2.79

1.18

Agricultural implements
A sphalt______________
Box shooks____________
C em ent______________
Cotton________________ 21.8
Flour __ _____________ 21.0
Glucose.
___________
Grain (trimming)______
Iron and steel:
Miscellaneous______
Pipe______________
Rail___ ___________
Logs _ ______________
Lumber_______________
Naval stores___________
Oil, refined___________
Oil, lubricating________
Oil cake and cottonseed
meal________________
Oyster shells__________
Tobacco______________

24.3

1.47
1.35

7.8

.54

.68

1.15
*440.40

13.7

.95

10.1

.59

76.2

3.31

68.4
36.2

2.07

524.3 *1.31 521.3

».88
27.8

1.54

Newport
News

Norfolk

2.11

Baltimore
32.0

28.3

1.18

1.33
1.18
28.3
<3
) ‘ 280.0

1.86

Mobile

18.0

| 30.1

.74
1.30

12.3

12.0

.78
.79
1.40

18.9

.99

22.3

Savannah

.87
1.55
1.18

22.5

1.36

22.1

0.73

9.2
25.8

1.20

21.4

1.22

1.28

.95




* 1,000 board feet.

.54

Philadelphia New York

61.5

(3
)

2.24

1.09
*363.0

25.7

.82

1.25

19.2
14.9
15.2

1.28
1.05

11.6
21.6

.59
1.35

60.1
34.0

.86

1.40

2.65
1.50

50.7

2.95

38.9
32.5
25.0

1.46
1.29
1.24

45.9

1.89

1.34

32.7

1.66
1.09

1.54

1.02

i

i Apples and prunes.

0.66

0.63

17.2
26.5
19.9
19.8
15.9

25.5

20.2

2.10

.33

22.8

2.12

16.2
24.3
26.3
31.1

0.94
1.69

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

1.97

40.3
0.69

16.6
30.5

14.5
20.7

19.2

20.7

.87

9.7

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

11.6

1.13

0

Charleston

A sphalt______________
Cement_______________
C o p p e r _____________
Cotton
__________ 18.5
Flour..............................
Grain, trimming_______
Iron and steel:
Miscellaneous______
Pipe____ _____ ____
Rails._ ___________
Sheet steel_____ _
Steel billets..............
Wire rods.
__
L u m ber........................
7.5
Oil, refined____________
Oil, lubricating
Oil cake and cottonseed
meal _ _ _______
Sulphate of ammonia
Tin plate. _________
Tobacco______________

22.0

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Port Arthur New Orleans

29.1
1.45
1.27

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

10.82

24.4
25.3

Houston

Cristobal

31.2

Out­ Out­ Out­
put
put
put
per
per
per
man- ?ang- manhour aour hour
(long (long (long
tons) tons) tons)

25.9 1.98
13.9
.71
10.8
44.4
1.56 33.7 1.75
U 0.2 2.86 HO. 9 2 0.83 210.2
.58

Galveston

San Fran­
cisco

3Not available,

<Bushels,

0 Oil cake only.




F

ig u r e

2 7.— L o a

d in g

Lo

n g

S

teel

fro m

C

ar

to

S

h ip

.

P

h il a d e l p h ia




F i g u r e 2 8 .— d i s c h a r g i n g

ra w

s u g a r a t a

re fin e ry

in S a n F r a n c i s c o .

O ld

m e th o d

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

53

Productivity of Labor in Discharging Individual Commodities
Discharging Raw Sugar
Raw sugar from Cuba, Porto Rico, the Hawaiian Islands, and the
Philippine Islands comes to this country in full-ship cargoes. The
sugar is discharged chiefly at the piers of the sugar refineries, although
occasionally it is also discharged at a general cargo pier. Data for
the productivity of longshore labor in discharging raw sugar have been
secured for the following ports: San Francisco, Galveston, New
Orleans, Savannah, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, and New York.
Ship’s gear and rope slings are used in all ports for the purpose of
transferring the sugar from the hold of the ship to the apron of the
pier. But the equipment on the pier and the methods used in
transferring^ the sugar from the^ ship’s side to the refinery proper or
to the pile in the shed of the pier vary greatly from one refinery to
another. Table 19 gives ^the statistics of discharging raw sugar
expressed in long tons and in bags handled per gang per hour and per
man per hour. The productivity per gang per hour is shown to vary
from an average of 40 long tons discharged at the general cargo
piers in New Orleans to an average of 80.4 long tons discharged at the
two refineries in San Francisco. #The man-hour output varies from
1.35 long tons at a general cargo pier in Galveston to 3.45 long tons at
the two refineries in San Francisco.
The two outstanding cases of high productivity in discharging raw
sugar, measured in terms of either gang-hour or man-hour output, are
to be found in refinery No. 1 in San Francisco and in refinery No. 1
in New York. Both refineries have recently introduced new equip­
ment and new methods of transferring the raw sugar from the apron
of the pier to the refinery proper, with an increased productivity
of longshore labor resulting directly from these changes in the pier
equipment.
The refinery in San Francisco discharges Hawaiian sugar only,
which ^comes in bags of 130 to 135 pounds each. The “ union” or
“ married” fall, operated by one winchman, is used to transfer the
sling loads from the hold of the ship to a large movable platform
erected on the apron of the pier. Each sling is made up of 16 to 17
bags, thus averaging about 1 long ton per load. Previous to the
installation of the new system hand trucks were used to transfer the
sugar from the platform on the pier to the scales and thence to the
refinery proper or to the warehouse. # This method (illustrated in
fig. 28) is still used in several refineries in the country. With the
old system the average output of a gang consisting of 34 longshore­
men was about 1,200 bags or 70 long tons per gang per hour, and about
35 bags or 2 long tons per man per hour.
Under the present system the platform on which the sugar is landed
from the ship is placed on the second floor of the pier, which is at
about the same level as the deck of^ the ship, thus enabling the
winchmen to see where the sling load is landed and dispensing with
the services of a signal man. During the process of unloading, the
)latform is attached to a portable conveyor equipped with two endess belts, each passing over a scale for the purpose of weighing the
bags. The individual bags are shoved by hand from the platform to

!




54

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

the two belts and their weights are determined as they pass over the
scales. From the conveyor the bags fall down into an opening in
the floor leading to an inclosed system of conveyors which carry the
bags from the pier either directly into the melting section of the
refinery or to the warehouse. This method of discharging the sugar,
although exceedingly simple from a technical point of view, seems to
prove very effective so far as the productivity of labor is concerned.
With a gang consisting of 21 longshoremen, the average output for
1926 was 1,681 bags or 94.7 long tons per gang per hour and 80.1
bags or 4.51 long tons per man per hour, which is the highest average
productivity for any one commodity loaded or discharged in bags or
other containers. From individual ships a maximum of 2,500 bags
of sugar has been discharged per gang per hour, the rate of discharging
being limited only by the capacity of the winches and the ability of
the men in the hold to make up the sling loads. This method of
transferring the sugar from the pier to the refinery is illustrated in
Figure^ 29, showing the platform on which the sugar is landed from
the ship, the portable conveyor with the two endless belts passing
over two scales, and the opening in the floor leading to the system
of inclosed conveyors which carry the sugar to the refinery.
The New York refinery has also increased the productivity by a
change in the equipment used on the pier which took place very
recently. The old hand-truck system, which was similar to the old
system used in San Francisco, has now given way to a system of
electric platform trucks. Ship’s gear is used to transfer the sling
loads containing four to five bags of Cuban sugar from the hold to
the deck of the ship, and electric cranes, which travel on rails on the
roof of the pier shed, lift the sling loads from the deck of the ship
and load them on the electric trucks. These carry the sugar first to
the scales to be weighed and thence either to the pile or to the melting
dump of the refinery. Under the old system, with a gang of 29 long­
shoremen, the average output for 1923 was 59.2 long tons or 408
Cuban bags per gang per hour and 2.04 long tons or 14.1 Cuban bags
per man per hour. With the new equipment and with a gang of 22
men the average output for 1928, given in Table 19, was 87.7 long
tons or 597 Cuban bags per gang per hour, and 3.99 long tons or 27.1
bags per man per hour, an increase of nearly 100 per cent if measured
in terms of productivity per man per hour.




55

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES
T able

19.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of raw sugar
Output per ganghour

Port, and line number
Long tons
San Francisco—refinery:
Line No. 35,103 ships.............................................
Line No. 2, 53 ships.................................... - .........

Bags

94.7 U,681.0
59.6 11 , 101.0

Output per manAverage
hour
number
of men
per gang Long tons Bags

26.6

21.0

4.51
2.24

180.1
141.3
161.9

80.4 11,442.0

23.3

3.45

Galveston—pier: Line No. 12, 27 ships.....................

49.2

a 338.6

36.4

1.35

29.3

New Orleans—refinery: Line No. 34, 72 ships...........

55.2

3 386.0

23.0

2.40

3 16.8

New Orleans—pier:
Line No. 35,36 ships........ ............... ................... .
Line No. 36,12 ships..............................................
Line No. 37,22 ships.........................- ...................

45.0
36.3
34.2

2315.0
2254.1
2 239.4

23.0

1.96
1.73
1.49

212.1
210.4

Average____________ _____ _________________

21.0

23.0

2 13.7

Average___________________________________

40.0

2280.0

22.5

1.78

3 12.5

Savannah—refinery: Line No. 13, 40 ships................

56.6

a396.0

33.0

1.72

3 12.0

Baltimore—refinery:
Line No. 35, 43 ships...................................... ........
Line No. 36,42 ships..............................................

49.4
36.2

2 348.0
i 611.0

29.0
29.0

1.70
1.25

3 12.0

Average___________________________________

43.1

29.0

1.48

Philadelphia—refinery:
Line No. 47, 68 ships..............................................
Line No. 49,7 ships................................................
Line No. 48,19 ships..............................................
Line No. 49, 29 ships..............................................

66.4
48.1
46.9
43.9

35.0
34.0
34.0
34.0

1.90
1.41
1.38
1.29

34.6

1.61

29.0
29.0
27.8

2.47
2.45
2.03

28.4

2.25

25.0
24.4
23.9
25.0
24.1
21.9
29.0

22.0

3.99
2.67
2.57
2.33
2.32
2.30
2.05
2.04

23.5

2.72

Average____________ _____ ________________
Boston—refinery:
Line No. 43. 23 ships......................................... .
Line No. 44, 22 ships........................................... .
Line No. 45,47 ships..............................................
Average________ _

___________________

New York—refinery:
Line No, 104, 43 ships.......... ........................ .........
Line No. 106,13 ships......................................... .
Line No. 107,14 ships.............................................
Line No. 108,36 ships.............................................
Line No. 109, 23 ships..................... ......................
Line No. 110,14 ships.............................................
Line No. I ll, 15 ships.............................................
Line No. 105, 65 ships.............................................
Average___________

_____________________

2449.0
a405.0
2317.0
<759.0

55.7
71.7
71.0
56.4

3 595.3
2486.4
2395.1

63.8
87.7
66.7
62.6
55.7
58.0
55.3
45.0
59.2

2597.0
2467.0
2438. 0
3 601. 0
« 769. 0
2387.0
* 741.5
2408.0

63.9

121.1

3 12.8
3 11.9
29.3
<22.3

3 20.5

216.8

2 14.2

2 27.1

218.7
2 18.0
3 25.1

430.8
2 16.1
433.9

2 14.1

i Hawaiian sugar, about 135 pounds to the bag.

1 Cuban sugar, about 330 to 350 pounds to the bag.

8 Porto Rican sugar, about 250 to 270 pounds to the bag.
4 Philippine sugar, about 135 pounds to the bag.

Discharging Coffee
Table 20 shows the labor productivity in discharging coffee in
Seattle, Cristobal (Canal Zone), Galveston, New Orleans, Phila­
delphia, Boston, and New York. Most of the coffee discharged
in these ports comes in parcel lots, together with parcel lots of other
South American products such as linseed, hides, quebracho, etc.,
although occasionally, especially in New Orleans and Cristobal,
coffee is discharged in full-ship cargoes.
The coffee comes in bags of an average weight of 135 pounds, and
it is not a particularly hard commodity to handle. The principal
difficulty, however, in discharging coffee is due to the need of sort­




56

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

ing the bags according to the numerous marks which appear on
them; this has to be done on the pier during the operation of dis­
charging. It is therefore impracticable to use any kind of equip­
ment for the transfer of the bags from the apron of the pier to the
pile in the shed. The sorting also slows down the operations of
the ship’s gear. Each bag has to be handled separately and in most
ports the hand truck stiff proves the most effective piece of equip­
ment used in this connection. In some ports, as for instance New
Orleans or Boston, the coffee is discharged onto large 4-wheel trucks
which are then moved into the shed of the pier, where the sorting
is done by a special gang of sorters who remove the bags from the
truck to the respective piles a bag at a time. This necessitates the
use of a much larger gang than is customary in the port for the
handling of any other commodity. As many as 39 men per gang
are used in New Orleans, while 47 men are used in Cristobal.
In Houston a permanent conveyor system is used to transfer the
bags of coffee from the ship’s side to the second floor of the ware­
house. The coffee is assorted and piled by workers supplied by the
warehouse operator, and it w as impossible to determine the pro­
~
ductivity of the longshoremen in Houston on a basis comparable
with the other ports.
The productivity per gang per hour varies from 18.6 long tons for
Galveston to 39.3 long tons for New Orleans, while the productivity
per man per hour varies from 0.46 long ton for Cristobal to 1.25 long
tons for Philadelphia. Considering that this is a uniform cargo in
comparatively small bags, the productivity is very small, particu­
larly when contrasted with the handling of raw sugar, which comes
in similar or even larger bags. Not until a system has been devised
by which the bags will be loaded into the ship, already sorted, or
until a better system of sorting is developed, is there any chance of
increasing the productivity of labor in discharging coffee.
T able

20.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of coffee
Output per ganghour

Port, and line number
Long tons
Seattle: Line No. 15, 7 ships______________________
Cristobal (Canal Zone):
Line No. 13,9 ships___ ___ _________________
_
Line No. 14,10 ships_ ______________________

430.0

24.9

1.04

21.2
22.2

8

45.2
49.4

.47
.45

0)
0)

Average___________________________________

21.7

0)

47.2

.46

0)

Galveston: Line No. 10, 8 ships..__________________
New Orleans: Line No. 30, 22 ships_______________
Philadelphia: Line No. 11, 18 ships________________
Boston: Line No. 11, 24 ships_____________________

18.6
39.3
34.8
31.1

313.4

666.0

571.0
527.0

18.5
39.0
27.9
27.1

1.01
1.01

1.25
1.15

17.0
17.1
20.4
19.3

New York:
Line No. 86, 24 ships..............................................
Line No. 87, 12 ships_________________________
Line No. 41,13 ships_________________________
Line No. 42,13 ships_________________________

34.9
32.5
25.2

28.7
28.7
31.7
33.0

1.22

20.8

21.6

597.0
552.0
428.0
372.0

.66

19.2
13.4
11.3

Average___________________________________

27.8

474.0

30.9

.90

15.3

i Not available.




25.8

Bags

Average Output per manhour
number
of men
per
gang Long tons Bags

1.13
.79

17.7




F

ig u r e

2 9.— P

resen t

M

eth o d

o f

D

isc h a r g in g

R

aw

su g a r

a t a

R

e fin e r y

in

S

an

F

r a n c is c o

F ig u r e



3 0.— D

isc h a r g in g

L

u m ber load ed

U n it s a n d h e l
S an F r a n c is c o

in

d

T

o g et h e r

by sp e c ia l

ir o n

b a n d s o r

h o o k s

.

F

ig u r e




31.— D

is c h a r g in g

Lu

m b e r w i t h s h i p ’s

G

ea r

.

B

o s t o n

.

R

o s s

Ca

r r ie r

R

eady to

P

ic k u p

L

um ber

F

ig u r e

3 2.— d

is c h a r g in g
lea n s




.

S

ban a n a s

tem s

b e in g

w it h

L

Co

po c k e t

if t e d

fr o m

H

n v ey o r

atch

, N

ew

O

r

­

57

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

Discharging Newsprint Paper
Newsprint paper is discharged in nearly every major port in the
United States. Most of the paper comes from Canada in full cargo
lots, although some paper also comes from Europe w
~ith wood pulp
and other commodities. Table 21 shows the productivity of labor in
discharging paper in Los Angeles, Galveston, Houston, New Orleans,
Norfolk and Newport News, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New
York. The paper is discharged at the general cargo piers by means
of the ship’s gear, and is removed to the warehouse either on long
hand trucks or by electric trucks equipped with a special device for
stacking the paper in piles. The highest gang-hour productivity
shown in Table 21 is for the port of Philadelphia, with an output of
34.4 long tons, while the highest man-hour output is shown for New
York, with an average of 1.94 long tons. It is in New York that
the electric trucks are used in discharging and stacking the paper.
It must be emphasized that the figures for New York refer to the
first year of the use of these trucks for discharging and stacking paper.
T able 21.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of newsprint paper

Port, and line number

Output Aver­ Output
per
age
per
gang- number manhour of men
hour
(long
(long
per
tons)
tons)
gang

Los Angeles: Line No. 31,
26 ships..____________
Galveston: Line No. 11,
9 ships............ ..............
Houston: Line No. 13, 8
ships______ __________
New Orleans: Line No.
32,13 ships___________

30.2

18.0

1.61

20.3

17.8

1.14

17.3

1.06

19.0

1.24

18.3
23.6

Port, and line number

Output
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Aver­
age
number
of men
per
gang

Norfolk and Newport
News: Line No. 25, 11
ships________________
Baltimore: Line No. 29,
6 ships...........................
Philadelphia: Line No.
45, 8 ships.....................
New York: Line No. 101,
12 ships______________

25.0

19.3

23.2

17.6

1.31

34.4

20.9

1.64

29.2

15.1

1.94

Output
per
manhour
(long
tons)

1.29

Discharging Lumber
Large quantities of lumber in full-ship cargoes are discharged in
San Francisco, Los Angeles, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, and
New York.^ Table 22 shows the labor productivity of longshoremen
in discharging lumber in these ports, measured in terms of board
feet discharged per gang-hour and per man-hour. With the excep­
tion of a single line in San Francisco which uses a system of two
gantry cranes for this operation, and a single line in New York which
is using a system of movable electric cranes, all lines presented in
the table use the ship’s gear exclusively. A large proportion of the
lumber is discharged either at the lumber mills or at special lumber
piers and the stevedores merely handle the lumber from the ship to
the apron of the pier. The lumber is then taken away from the
apron and stored by means of special gantry cranes, Ross carriers,
or other lumber-pier equipment. Except in cases where the lumber
is delivered directly to a railroad car, a lighter, or a regular pier
(in which cases a complete gang is used), the data for discharging
refer to the operation of the longshoremen only, which is usually
termed “ ship’s tackle” and is so designated in the table.
The lumber discharged in San Francisco and in Los Angeles is
loaded in comparatively large lumber schooners especially devised
66490°-32------5



58

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

for carrying this kind of cargo. The labor productivity in discharg­
ing lumber in these ports is therefore considerably higher than that
for the eastern ports. But even the high productivity of these two
ports is very small in contrast with the productivity of the special
San Francisco line which is using the^ gantry-crane system for dis­
charging lumber. The high productivity of this company, however,
is due not so much to the equipment as to the system used in stowing
the lumber when loading the ship. The company loads and dis­
charges its own lumber. When loading, the lumber is arranged into
units of uniform size and especially improvised iron hooks are placed
around each unit before loading it into the ship. The iron hooks
are left with the unit, so that in discharging the cargo the hold men
merely attach the lifting chains of the crane to the iron hooks on
the unit of lumber. This system eliminates the necessity of stowing
the individual pieces of lumber when loading and of making up the
sling loads when discharging. The make-up of the individual units
of lumber and the two cranes in process of discharging the lumber
from the ship are shown in Figure 30.
The average output in discharging lumber by this system is shown
to be 68,800 board feet per crane per hour, and 5,970 board feet per
man per hour. The man-hour productivity of this system of dis­
charging lumber is nearly three times as large as for the line with
the highest man-hour productivity attained by using the ship’s gear
and by stowing the lumber by individual pieces. The principal
obstacles to the utilization of the unit system for intercoastal lumber
are due to the fact that in using the unit system a large percentage of
the cargo space is wasted in the process of stowing the units. Also,
the lumber when stowed in units is not so compact as when stowed
by the piece and there is danger of the lumber shifting in stormy
weather.
In the eastern ports the average productivity per gang per hour
varies from 9,200 board feet discharged at the general cargo piers in
Boston to 15,400 board feet discharged by “ ship’s tackle” m New
York. The man-hour productivity of eastern ports varies from an
average of 560 board feet for the same lines in Boston to 1,050 board
feet discharged by “ ship’s tackle” in New York. (See fig. 31.)
T a b l e 22»— Productivity of labor in the discharging of lumber

Port, and line number

San Francisco—ship’s tackle:
Line No. 27,19 ships..................................................................
Line No. 28,10ships__________ _____ _ _______ ___ _____ _
Line No. 29,22 ships........ ............................................................
Line No. 30,18 ships............... ......................................................

Average
Output per number of Output per
gang-hour
man-hour
men per (board feet)
(board feet)
gang

31,480
27,330
34,100
24,400

15.3
15.5
24.4
19.9

2,050
1,760
1,390
1,230

___________________________

28,950

16.5

1,650

Line No. 31, 31 ships—gantry crane, unit system of stowage_______

68,800

11.5

5,970

Los Angeles—ship’s tackle:
Line No. 25, 20 ships___ _____________________ ______ _______
Line No. 26,20 ships..... ..................................................................
Line No. 27,19 ships.......................................................................
Line No. 28,18 ships......................................................................
Line No. 29, 23 ships................ ............................................. ........

31,270
24,570
31,710
24,010
24,870

16.0
12.7
16.7
14.1
15.7

1,950
1,940
1,900
1,710
1,580

26,660

14.7

1,820

Average___________________

Average__________________________________ ____ ________




59

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES
T able

22.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of lumber— Continued

Port, and line number

Average
Output per number of Output per
man-hour
gang-hour
(board feet) men per (board feet)
gang

Baltimore—ship’s tackle and railroad cars:
Line No. 27,11 ships_______________________________________
Line No. 28,15 ships___ ________ ________ ___________________

11,200

15,900

18.1
17.3

880
650

Average............................................ ...........................................

14,500

17.9

810

13,700
13,600
12,600

12,000
9,900
9,300

16.7
17.8
16.9
17.0
16.0
15.0

820
770
740
710
620
620

Philadelphia—ship’s tackle and railroad cars:
Line No. 37,11 ships............................................................. .........
Tiine No. 38,12,qhips._
_
_
Line No. 39,15 ships............. ............................................... .........
Line No. 40,9 ships.......... ..............................................................
Line No. 41,9 ships________________________________________
Line No. 21,38 ships.......... ............... .................... ......................
Average____________________________________ ____________

11,700

16.5

710

Boston:
Ship’s tackle—
Line No. 38,17 ships— ______ _______________ __________
Line No. 39,18 ships______ _____ ___________ ___________
Line No. 40, 22 ships______________________________ __ __

14,400
12,900
11,500

15.7
15.7
15.4

920
820
750

Average_____________________________________________

13,200

15.6

850

Pier and railroad cars—
Line No. 41,4 ships____________________________________
Line No. 42,7 ships_____________________________________

9,200
9,300

15.6
17.2

590
540

Average_____________________________________________

9,200

16.5

560

New York:
Ship’s tackle—
Line No. 89,47 ships............. ............... .......... ......................
Line No. 90,25 ships................................................................
Line No. 91,15 ships___________________________________
Line No. 92,24 ships___________________________________
Line No. 93,15 ships________________ ____ ______________
Line No. 94,18 ships___________________________________
Line No. 95,13 ships___________________________________

16,300
16,100
15,100
15,000
14,400
13,500

1,120
1,110

12,600

14.6
14.5
14.4
14.9
14.6
14.8
14.7

15,400

14.6

1,050

14,800
13,400
11,700
12,400
12,700
12,300

20.0
18.6
16.9
18.1
18.8
18.3

740
720
690
680
680
670

13,000

18.6

700

Average____________ ________________________________
Pier and railroad cars—
Line No. 70, 25 ships....................................................... ........
Line No. 96,14 ships______ ______ ______________________
Line No. 97,15 ships_________________________ __________
Line No. 98,9 ships_____ _______________ ____________
Line No. 100, 20 ships____ __________________________
Line No. 99,17 ships____________________________________
Average..___________________________________________

1,040

1,010

990
910
860

Discharging Bananas
Table 23 gives the average productivity of labor in discharging
full cargoes of bananas in New Orleans, Mobile, Charleston, Balti­
more, Philadelphia, Boston, and New York. There is more special
equipment now in use in the several ports for the purpose of dis­
charging bananas than for any other single commodity. The piece
of equipment most commonly used is the pocket belt conveyor. In
New Orleans and in Mobile the conveyors constitute a permanent
feature of the banana piers. Each belt is operated from an electric
tower which travels on rails along the entire length of the pier.
Figure 32 shows a pocket conveyor in the process of lifting the
stems of bananas from the hatch of the ship and delivering them to
the pier. The wooden superstructure over the belt is used to protect
the bananas from inclement weather.




60

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

Figure 33 shows the pier side of the operation with two men stationed
at each conveyor to transfer the stems of bananas from the pockets
of the conveyor to an endless belt which runs along the entire length
of the pier. While traveling on this belt the bananas are classified by
the degree of ripeness and by size (determined by the number of
“ hands” on the stem) and are then lifted over to one of the several
other belts which run at right angles to the main longitudinal belt.
Alongside each of these belts freight cars are placed, into which the
bananas are removed and stowed by man power.
Figure 34 shows a section of the belt system, with a series of box
cars placed on either side of the belt. The men are seen removing
the stems of bananas from the belt and canning them on their
shoulders into the cars to be stowed for immediate destination.
In the^ other ports portable belt conveyors are used, which are
lowered into the hatch with the help of the ship’s gear, and are
operated by electricity supplied by a portable motor on the pier.
The portable conveyors are much smaller than those used in New
Orleans or in Mobile and do not extend beyond the opening of the
hatch. From these the bananas are transferred to the side of the
ship and thence to the apron of the pier by means of portable endless
belt conveyors, which are so rigged as to make a complete unit with
the pocket conveyor in the hatch. From the apron of the pier the
stems or bunches of bananas are earned away by man power and are
carefully stowed into box cars stationed inside the shed of the pier.
In New York and in Baltimore a large proportion of the bananas is
loaded into box cars on floats, and gravity rollers are often used to
transfer the bananas from the side ports of the ship to their destina­
tion in the car. In Boston, New York, Baltimore, and Philadel­
phia a considerable proportion of the cargo is auctioned off on the
pier and is loaded directly into trucks at the apron of the pier, thus
eliminating the need of stowing the bananas in the cars.
The statistics on labor productivity given in Table 23 cover all the
workers engaged in the process of handling the bananas, including
the car stowers. The total number of man-hours used in the entire
process was divided by the total number of conveyor-hours in opera­
tion in order to determine the average number of men used per
conveyor-hour. The labor productivity is given in terms of “ stems”
or bunches handled per hour as the weight of the bunches is too
variable to permit its use as a unit of measurement for the handling
of bananas. The average output of discharging bananas varies from
465 bunches per conveyor per hour for Baltimore to 1,833 bunches
for New Orleans, and from 9.66 per man per hour for Charleston
(discharging partly by hand and partly by conveyors) to 20.06 per
man per hour for Philadelphia. The lower man-hour productivity
in New Orleans and Mobile in connection with a higher conveyorhour output is due to the fact that in these two ports nearly all the
bananas are loaded into cars, while in the eastern ports a large per­
centage of the bananas is loaded into trucks requiring no stowage.
An interesting comparison of labor productivity in handling
bananas is offered by the change in the method of handling bananas
in the port of New York. In 1925, before the conveyor system was
introduced, the average productivity for 66 ships handled by one line
was 561 stems per gang per hour, or 12.42 stems per man per hour.
With the conveyors in operation in 1928, the average productivity



F

ig u r e

3 3.— D

is c h a r g in g




O

ba n ana s
rlea n s

,

w it h

p ie r

b elt

v ie w

Co

nveyor

in

N

ew




F

ig u r e

3 4.—

r e m o v in g

ban ana s

fro m

b e lt

S

y stem

in t o

b o x

c a r s

.

N

ew

O

rlea ns

61

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES

for 97 ships handled by the same line was 776. 5 stems per conveyor
per hour, or 18.37 stems per man per hour, an increase of nearly 50
per cent in the man-hour output, which can be directly attributed to
the use of pier equipment.
T able

23.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of bananas

Port, and line number

Average
Output
per gang number of
or convey­ men per
or hour
gang or
conveyor
(stems)

Output
per manhour
(stems)

New Orleans:
Line No. 25,165 ships......................................................................
Line No. 26, 313 ships______________________________________

2,299.4
1,663.2

158.8
124.5

14.48
13.36

Average_________________________________________________

1,832.8

133.7

13.71

Mobile: Line No. 14,166 ships_________________________________
Charleston: Line No. 7,53 ships________________________________
Baltimore: Line No. 24,69 ships________________________________
Philadelphia: Line No. 31,94 ships_____________________________
Boston: Line No. 34,102 ships. ______ _____ ___ ____ ____________
New York: Line No. 84,97 ships.................... ............ ......................

1,369.0
0)
465.0
806.0
572.1
776.5

100.0

13.69
10.40
14.53
20.06
13.39
18.37

(9

32.0
40.2
42.7
42.3

1 Not available; the discharging was done partly by a belt conveyor, but chiefly by hand power.

Discharging Burlap
Table 24 gives the productivity of labor in discharging burlap in
the following ports: Seattle, Galveston, New Orleans, Savannah,
Norfolk, and Boston. The output per gang per hour varies from
21.9 long tons discharged in Norfolk with a gang averaging 21.4 men
to 33.8 long tons discharged in New Orleans with a gang averaging
19 men. The output per man per hour ranges from 0.73 long ton
for Savannah to 1.78 long tons for New Orleans.
T able

24.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of burlap

Port, and line number

Seattle:
Line No. 2,16 ships________________________________________
Galveston:
Line No. 8,10 ships_______ ______ _____ _____ _______________
Line No. 9,11 ships.........................................................................
Average......... ...... .................................. ............ .................... .

Output
per ganghour

Long tons

Average
number of
men per
gang

Output
per manhour

Long tons

1.12

27.2

24.4

27.1
23.6

20.0
19.0

1.36
1.24

24.9

19.6

1.27

New Orleans: Line No. 27,14 ships_________________________ ____
Savannah: Line No. 10, 6 ships............ ..................... .........................
Norfolk: Line No. 1, 7 ships......................... ..................... .................
Boston:
Line No. 13,15 ships................ .................................................. .
Line No. 12, 8 ships.........................................................................

33.8
30.5
21.9

19.0
41.5
21.4

1.78
.73

29.1
26.9

18.5
19.0

1.57
1.39

Average___ _____ _________________ ____________ __________

27.6

18.8

1.47




1.02

62

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

Discharging Nitrate of Soda
Table 25 shows the productivity of labor in discharging nitrate of
soda in the following ports: San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans,
Savannah, Charleston, and Norfolk. The productivity of labor in
discharging nitrate is shown to vary from 24.6 ]ong tons per gang
per hour in Norfolk to 53.5 long tons per gang per hour in Savannah.
The man-hour productivity ranges from 0.65 long ton in Norfolk
to 1.66 long tons in New Orleans.
T a b l e 25.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of nitrate of soda

Port, and line number

Output
per ganghour

Average
number of
men per
gang

Long tom

San Francisco: Line No. 32, 7 ships_________ ________ ___________
Los Angeles: Line No. 30,11 ships______________________________
New Orleans: Line No. 31,14 ships_____________________ ___
Savannah: Line No. 12,10 ships___________________________
Charleston:
Line No. 10,6 ships_____________________________________
Line No. 11,11 ships__________________________ ____________
Average_____________________________________________
Norfolk: Line No. 26,18 ships________________________________
Baltimore:
Line No. 30,12 ships________________ ________________ ____ _
Line No. 31,11 ships_____________ ______ __ ______________ _
Average_______________________________________________

Output
per manhour

Lon g tons

29.9
38.7
44.9
53.5

20.3
24.0
27.0
1 57.0

1.66

43.1
40.6

140.7
139.9

1.06

41.5

140.2

1.03

24.6

i 38.0

.65

36.8
34.7

31.9
31.8

1.15
1.06

35.9

31.8

1.13

1.47
1.61
.94

1.02

i Inclusive of men piling cargo by hand.

Discharging Wet Hides
In Table 26 is shown the productivity of labor in discharging wet
hides in the following ports: Norfolk, Philadelphia, Boston, and New
York. The hides discharged in these ports come in single pieces loosely
piled in the hold of the ship. They are taken out of the ship with the
ship’s gear, the hook lifting as many hides as will stick to it during the
transfer from the hold to the apron of the pier. Hand trucks, hand
carts, or electric carts are used to transfer the hook load from the
apron to the shed, where the hides are weighed and rolled into individ­
ual bundles before being piled on the pier or loaded into box cars for
immediate shipment. Figure 35 shows a load of wet hides in the proc­
ess of being lifted out of the hatch of a ship in Norfolk.
The work of weighing and rolling the hides is not performed by the
longshoremen, and therefore these operations are not included in the
table. Productivity in discharging wet hides is shown to vary from
17.5 long tons per gang per hour in Boston to 21.2 long tons per gang
per hour in Philadelphia. The man-hour productivity ranges From
0.70 long ton in Norfolk to 0.85 long ton in Philadelphia,







F

ig u r e

3 5.— D

is c h a r g in g

W

et

H

id e s

in

N

o r fo lk




F

ig u r e

3 6.— d

is c h a r g in g

O

re

w it h

s h i p ’s

G

ear

and

T

ubs

63

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES
T a b l e 26*— Productivity of labor in the discharging of wet hides

Output
per ganghour

Port, and line number

Norfolk: Line No. 3, 9 ships....................................... ................. ......
Philadelphia: Line No. 11,18 ships........................................... .........
Boston:
Line No. 17,15 ships........ ..............................................................
Line No. 11, 24 ships____ _____________ _____________________

Average
number of
men per
gang

Long tons

Output
per manhour
Long tom

21.2

ia 3

26.1
25.0

0.70
.85

18.7
1.7.4

21.1

.88

25.0

.70

Average.-i______________________________________________

17.5

24.5

.71

New York:
Line No. 112, 9 ships_______ ____ _______________ ______ _____
Line No. 113,10 ships______________________________________

22.9
16.2

26.1
23.5

.88

Average______________________________________ _________

19.2

24.7

.78

.69

Discharging Wood Pulp
Table 27 gives the productivity of labor in discharging wood pulp
in the following ports: Norfolk, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Boston.
The output per gang per hour varies from 27.2 long tons in Philadel­
phia to 35.7 long tons m Baltimore. The man-hour output varies from
1.24 long tons in Philadelphia to 1.62 long tons in Baltimore.
T a b l e 2 7 .— Productivity of labor in the discharging of wood pulp

Port, and line number

Norfolk and Newport News: Line No. 1,12 ships____________:____
Baltimore:
Line No. 37, 8 ships________________________________________
Line No. 38, 9 ships________________________________________

Output
per ganghour

Average
number of
men per
gang

Long tons
33.3

24.5

39.5
32.8

22.0
22.0

Output
per manhour

Long tons

1.36
1.79
1.49

Average, 2 lines__________________________________________

35.7

22.0

1.62

Philadelphia: Thrift No. 2, 33 ships______________________________
Boston:
Line No. 1, 8 ships_________________________________________
Line No. 46, 28 ships_______________________________________

27.2

21.9

1.24

31.5
29.0

18.9
18.7

1.67
1.55

Average_________________________________________________

29.2

18.7

1.56

Discharging Ore
Table 28 presents the productivity of labor in discharging ore in the
following ports: Tacoma, San Francisco, Norfolk, Baltimore, Phila­
delphia, Boston, and New York. The first section of the table shows
the productivity of labor in discharging ore with ship’s gear and with
tubs and the second section the productivity in discharging ore with
grabs operated by a crane. (See also fig. 36.)
In discharging ore with tubs the productivity of labor is shown to
vary from 23.7 long tons per gang per hour in New York to 37.8 long
tons per gang per hour in San Francisco. The man-hour productivity
ranges from 1.43 long tons in New York to 2.16 long tons in San Fran­
cisco. In discharging ore with grabs, operated by a crane, the pro­




64

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP'S CARGO

ductivity of labor varies from 36.9 long tons per gang-hour in Boston
to 221.2 long tons per gang-hour in Philadelphia. The man-hour
productivity, which includes also the trimming of the ore, ranges from
4.16 long tons in Philadelphia, where the ore is trimmed by hand, to
10.00 long tons in Baltimore, where the ore is trimmed with the Avery
automatic trimmer. (See fig. 6, p. 10.)
Table 28.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of ore

Port, and line number

Out­
put per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Aver­ Out­
age
num­ put per
ber of manhour
men
Gong
per
gang tons)

With tubs and
ship’s gear
Tacoma:
Line No. 3,15 ships____
San Francisco:
Line No. 33,10 ships___
Norfolk:
Line No. 24,10 ships___
Baltimore:
Line No. 32, 24 ships—
Manganese ore_____
Chrome ore________

24 2

12.2

1.99

37.8

17.5

2.16

28.6

14.4

1.99

28.6
36.3

16.4
16.7

1.73
2.17

Average_________

31.2

16.5

1.89

Philadelphia:
Line No. 43, 7 ships____
Line No. 42,11 ships___

36.0
37.4

19.2
18.0

1.88

2.08

36.6

18.6
15.4
17.3
16.7

With cranes and
grabs
Baltimore:
Line No. 32, 20 ships—
Discharging.............. 149.1
Discharging and
trimming__ _____
0)
Philadelphia:
Line No. 44, 42 ships—
Discharging.............. 221.2
Discharging and
trimming________
(0
Boston:
Line No. 50,17 ships—
oa y
T^ionhoi*(riTicr
i/lSuiiarging..
oo» q
Discharging and
trimming________
0)

J
!
6.8

21.90

(0

10.00

6.5

3402

1.94
1.15

23.7

Aver­ Out­
age
num­ put per
ber of manmen hour
(long
per
gang tons)

1.97

29.8
19.8

Port, and line number

Out­
put per
ganghour
(long
tons)

1. 43

Average, 2 lines.
New York:
Line No. 102,11 ships...
Line No. 103, 12 ships...
Average, 2 lines.

V)

2.0
(l)

416
18.43
443

i The longshoremen are not arranged in gangs.

Discharging Principal Individual Commodities
Table 29 contains a summary of the commodities discharged in
the ports covered in this survey, for which it was possible to deter­
mine the productivity of labor. With the exception of commodities
which are handled in bulk, the gang-hour productivity of labor is
shown to range from 16.8 long tons of mixed iron and steel discharged
in Boston to 80.4 long tons of raw sugar discharged in San Francisco.
The man-hour productivity ranges from 0.65 long ton of nitrate of
soda discharged in Norfolk to 3.45 long tons of raw sugar discharged
in San Francisco.




65

DISCHARGING INDIVIDUAL COMMODITIES
T a b le

29.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of individual commoditiesy by
ports

Seattle

Commodity

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Burlap_____________
Canned goods.______
C offee,..................
Copper____________
Copra. .............. ........
Iron and steel:
Miscellaneous___
Pipe___________
Lumber.. Nitrate of soda______
Ore______ __________
Paper______________
Silk_______ _____ _
Sugar, raw_________
Tea___ ____ ________
Tin plate___________

27.2
29.5
25.8

Tacoma

Portland,
Oreg.

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons;

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

34.7

1.85

28.8

2.45

1.55
1.04

Bananas.... .............. .
Bones______________
Burlap....... ................
Cement____________
Coffee____ ____ ____
Fertilizer___________
Iron and steel: Cotton
bands____________
Nitrate of soda______
Newsprint paper____
Sisal............................
Sugar:
Raw___________
Refined________
Sulphur.......... ...........

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

1.12

24.0
19.5

1.50

---- ---24.2

22.7
25.9
31.9

27.0
26.5

2.13

1.88

1.99

129.0 i 1.65
29.9
1.47
37.8
2.16
80.4

.75

1.88

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

24.9
18.6

42.5
Houston

1.27

1.01

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

21.9

1.37

20.7

1.15

1.14

18.3

1.06

49.2

1.35

11,000 board feet.

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

21.7
28.5

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

0.46
.75

21.4
1.78
126.6 i 1.81
38.7
1.61
30.2

1.67

2.57

New Orleans
Outr
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

3.45

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Mobile
Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

1,369.0 213.69
*1,832.8 H3.71 2
14.2
.73
19.9
1.05
33.4
1.85
39.3
1.01
15.2
.82

20.3




2.69

.77

Galveston

Commodity

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Cristobal
(Canal
Zone)

1.66

44.9
23.6
31.4

1.24
1.75

48.1

2.11

20.7

Savannah
Out­ Out­
put put
per
per
gang-■manhour hour
(long (long
tons) tons)

Charleston
Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

(3
)

29.66

30.5

0.73

24.7

.90

33.1

.85

28.0

.69

53.5

.94

41.5

1.03

56.6
35.4

1.72
.81

1.29

‘ 37.’ 5' ' T i s

66

CHAP. 2.— PRODUCTIVITY, STEVEDORING SHIP’S CARGO

T able

29.— Productivity of labor in the discharging of individual commodities, by
ports— Continued
Norfolk
Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Commodity

Bananas
Bones________________________
Burlap_______________________
Canned goods_________________
Cement______________________
C halk............— _____ ________
China clay___________________
Coffee_______________________
Copper ________ ____________
Cotton (Egyptian)____________
Fertilizer___ ________________
Hides, wet___________ _______ _
Iron and steel:
Miscellaneous_____________
Pig iro n _________________
Licorice root._________________
Linseed______________________
Lumber______________________
Nitrate of soda________________
O n ion s._____________________
Ores:
General.... ................. ......... .
Chrome.......... .......................
Manganese_______________
Paper
________________________
Quebracho___________________
Rags_________________________
Sugar, raw___________________
Sulphur.......... .......... ..................
Wood pulp__________ _________
Wool____ ____________________
i l , 000 board feet.




Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

21.9
25.4

Baltimore
Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Philadelphia
Out­
put
per
ganghour
Oong
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Boston

New York

1.02

18.3

.65

1.80

i 14.5
35.9

1.81
1.13

/31.2
I (3
)
28.6
25.0

32.9
33.3

2Stems.

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
ganghour
(long
tons)

Out­
put
per
manhour
(long
tons)

*465.0 *14.53 2806.0 220.06 2572.1 213.39 2776.5 2 18.37
18.5
1.00
27.6
1.47
21.7
.97
1.07
27.6
43.9
1.97
1.39
40.5
.94
16.1
3.53
.82
16.6
25.0
.78
34.8
1.25
31.1
1.15
27.8
.90
1.90
31.1
21.4
1.18
28.7
1.50
28.4
1.48
21.2
.70
17.5
.71 19.2
.85
.78
26.9

24.6

Out­
put
per
ganghour
Oong
tons)

1.89

* 10.00

1.99
1.29

23.2

2.05
1.36

20.8

43.1
1.48
45.80
(3
)
1.62
35.7

1.31

3Not available.

1.41
16.8
26. 7
2.90
1.47
1.34
1.71 i 13.2

1.85

22.5

46.4
28.2
30.0
i 11.7

1.18

(9

<4.43

37.4
2.08
<4.16 }
(3
)
36.0
34.4

1.14
1.61

27.2

1.24

2.39
11.05

12.8

1.64

34.4
115.4

24.9

1.88

28.7
55.7

1.05
1.81

1.51
.72
1.94
.74
2.72

23.3

1.08

29.2
21.3

63.8

2.25

63.9

29.2
26.5

1.56
1.32

* Discharging

and trimming.

C h a p t e r 3 .—

LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN
THE UNITED STATES
Foreign and Intercoastal Trade
Nature of Longshore Work

The longshoreman does not work alone, as an individual. In
order to transfer the ship’s cargo to the pier and vice versa, the workers
are arranged into gangs with definite junctions allocated to the sep­
arate groups which make up the gang. A gang usually consists of
three such groups: One group working on the pier, the second on
the deck of the ship, ana the third in the hold of the ship.^ When
discharging, the men in the hold of the ship “ break out” the individ­
ual bags or boxes from their places of stowage and carry them to the
center of the hatch where they are placed in drafts or slings. Upon
a signal from the hatch tender, the winch operators start the upward
journey of the sling from the hold to the deck, then to the side of the
ship, and finally onto the apron of the pier. There the sling may be
landed on a 4-wheel truck or a power platform and at once taken to
the proper place on the pier where it is piled away, thus completing
the operations generally assigned to the work of longshoremen, or
it may be landed on the floor of the apron, the sling undone and the
individual pieces placed upon 2-wheel trucks and then taken to
their separate destinations on the pier. In loading, the operations
are reversed.
These are the most simple operations involved in loading, or dis­
charging cargo. The methods used vary considerably from port to
port, from pier to pier, and from commodity to commodity. At some
piers only 2-wheel trucks are used; at other piers only 4-wheel plat­
form trucks. In New York, the method of transferring the loaded
slings from the ship to the pier and vice versa, is known as the “ Bur­
ton” system. In Philadelphia and New Orleans, a variation of this
system is used and is called the “ whip,” while on the West Coast
another variation is used, which is known as the “ married” or
“ union” fall. Occasionally the winches are dispensed with alto­
gether and a crane or a conveyor is used instead.
But whatever the system used, the longshoremen are usually re­
quired to handle and often also to lift the individual pieces of cargo.
A bag of flour ranges from 100 to 150 pounds; a bag of coffee from 135
to 200 pounds; a bag of Porto Rican sugar weighs 250 pounds and a
bag of Cuban sugar 330 pounds; cottonseed and linseed cake and meal,
nitrate of soda, sulphates, and other fertilizers come in bags from
200 to 300 pounds each. A bale of American cotton weighs 500
pounds and a bale of Egyptian cotton 750 pounds; a bale of crude
rubber 224 pounds; a barrel of lubricating oil about 500 pounds; and
a hogshead of tobacco from 500 to 1,000 pounds. At once it becomes
very clear that the essential requirements for the job of a longshore­
man are a mighty arm, a hard muscle, and a large, strong back.




67

G
8

CHAP. 3,— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

As to the amount of brain and skill involved in the work of loading
and discharging cargo the question can not be so simply answered.
There is no apprentice system existing in longshore work. The new
worker, the inexperienced man (or the “ stiff,” as the newcomer is
commonly called), is placed in the gang on an equal basis with the
older men and at equal pay. While it takes time to learn how to
handle a 2-wheel truck, this work can hardly be classified as skilled.
But when it comes to the handling of the ship’s winches or to stowing
the cargo in the ship’s hold, the degree of training required^ the
amount of judgment, and the sense of responsibility involved in so
placing the cargo as to make the best possible use of the space and to
insure that no damage will be done either to the cargo or to the ship
during the crossing—such work can be learned only after several
years of constant and persevering application. Certainly this part
of the work of the longshoreman is undoubtedly skilled labor, and
should be classified as such.
Hours of Work and Rates of Wages
All major ports in the United States have definitely established
rules pertaining to the hours of work and the rates of wages for long­
shoremen engaged in foreign and intercoastal shipping. Theoretically
the 8-hour day and the 44-hour week has been accepted as the stand­
ard for longshore work, but in practice longshoremen are called upon
to work at any hour of the day or night, depending on the hours of
arrival and departure of ships. The rate of wages, however, is deter­
mined by the time during which the actual work of loading and dis­
charging is performed. The hours between 8 a. m. and 12 noon and
between 1 p. m. and 5 p. m. on all week days, exclusive of Saturday
afternoon, are considered the basic working hours. For work per­
formed during these hours the longshoremen are paid on a straighttime basis. All other time, except meal hours, is counted overtime
and the workers are paid one and one-half times the straight rate.
Work done during meal hours, which are somewhat differently defined
in the various ports, is usually paid for at double the regular long­
shore rate. On the west coast the prevailing rate for longshoremen
is 90 cents an hour straight time and $1.35 an hour overtime. In
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore the rate is 85 cents
an hour straight time and $1.30 an hour overtime. In Norfolk,
New Orleans, Houston, and .Galveston the regular union rate is 80
cents an hour straight time and $1.20 an hour overtime.
These rates of wages apply to the handling of* all commodities
which are classified as general cargo. Certain commodities, however,
which are dangerous to handle, such as explosives, for example, or
which, like wet hides, are objectionable because of the odor or some
other characteristic feature, are classified among the so-called “ pen­
alty” commodities. The rate of wages for handling these commod­
ities is usually higher than that for general cargo. The following
two schedules of wages—one from the agreement between the Inter­
national Longshoremen’s Association and the employers’ organiza­
tions in New York, and the other from the San Francisco agreements
between the Longshoremen’s Association of San Francisco and the
employers’ organization—are presented as examples of the variations
in the rates of wages existing in the different ports.




69

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL, TRADE
Rates of Wages in New York , 1928

1. On general cargo from 8 a. m. to 12 o’clock noon and from 1 to 5 p. m. on
all week days, exclusive of Saturday afternoon, men shall receive 85 cents per
hour.
2. All other time, except meal hours, shall be counted and paid for at the
rate of $1.30 per hour.
3. Meal hours are 6 a. m. to 7 a. m., 12 noon to 1 p. m., 6 p. m. to 7 p. m.
and 12 midnight to 1 a. m. For the hour 12 noon to 1 p. m. week days, except
Saturdays and holidays, the rate shall be $1.30, this rate to continue until the
men are relieved; for all other meal hours, including Saturdays, Sundays and
holidays, the men shall be paid double the prevailing rate. Men to be paid for
the fuU meal hour if worked any part of it.
4. Men employed on bulk cargo, ballast, and all coal cargoes, including loading
and trimming coal for a steamer’s own bunker purposes, to receive 90 cents per
hour between the hours of 8 a. m. and 12 o’clock noon and from 1 to 5 p. m. on
all week days, except Saturday afternoons. All other time, except meal hours,
to be considered as overtime and paid for at $1.35 per hour.
5. Men handling wet hides shall receive $1 per hour regular time and $1.45
per hour overtime.
6. Kerosene, gasoline, and naphtha in cases, when loaded by case gangs, to
pay $1.05 per hour. All other time to be $1.60 per hour.
7. When men are employed in handling and stowing in refrigerator space,
meats, fowls, and other similar cargo, which are to be transported with the
temperature in the boxes at freezing or lower, the men are to receive $1.05 per
hour straight time and $1.50 overtime.
8. (a) When men are handling explosives down the bay the following scale
to apply: From 8 a. m. to 12 o’clock noon and from 1 to 5 p. m. on all week days,
exclusive of Saturday afternoons, $1.70 per hour.
(b) All other time shall be counted and paid for at the rate of $2.60 per hour.
Rates of Wages in San Francisco, 1927

Occupation, or kind of commodity

Longshore work______________________________________________________________
Shoveling (all commodities)___________________________________________________
Shoveling bones in bulk_______________________________ ______ _________________
Oriental oil (in cases)_____________
______________________________________
Explosives: When general cargo is loaded into a compartment in which explosives
are already loaded (stowed) unprotected or when general cargo and explosives are
being loaded into different compartments simultaneously______________________
Damaged cargo: If cargo of vessel either in whole or in part is badly damaged by fire,
collision, springing a leak, or stranding, for handling only that part of the cargo
which is in badly damaged or offensive condition__________________ _______ ____
Creosote lumber or piles______________________________________________________
Cement (domestic) __________________________________________________________
Cement (foreign): Packed in bags with no inner container and a very loose mesh.. . .
Green hides__________________________________________________ ______ _________
Base fertilizer (animal)________________________________________________________
Scrap-metal cargoes (excluding rails), discharging only__________________________

Straight
time
$0.90

Over­
time

1.65

1.00

$1.35
1.65
1.65
1.50

1.35

1.35

1.35

1.35
1.50
1.35
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1. 50

1.10

1.00
.90

1.00
1.00

10
.0
10
.0

The regular and penalty rates in the other ports are somewhat
different from the rates given for New York and San Francisco.
For example, in Houston, Galveston, and New Orleans the union
rates on cotton and tobacco are established on a piece basis; and in
Boston, coffee is classified among the penalty commodities, while
cement is omitted.
Finally, there are variations in the rates of wages among the dif­
ferent workers constituting a gang. In all ports the gang leader
receives a higher wage than the other men. In some ports the
winchmen get a higher wage than the hold men, and the latter get
a higher wage than the truckers. The majority of the men in the
gang, however, receive the prevailing regular rate and in the sub­
sequent tables on the earnings of longshoremen, as well as those on




70

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

the cost of cargo handling, this rate alone has been taken into
consideration.
Conditions of Employment
The longshoreman can get work only for the period the ship remains
in port for the purpose of discharging or loading cargo. More ships
in port mean more jobs for longshoremen; a storm delaying sea
traffic means no work for the longshoremen during the delay, followed
by a period of feverish activity in order to catch up with the work and
enable the ship to sail on time. Ships may arrive and leave the port
every day, some after a stay of only a day or two, others after a week
or 10 days. Sometimes they straggle in one by one, and sometimes
they come in numbers. Again, at certain seasons of the year there
may be more ships and more cargo than at other seasons. All of
these fluctuations in shipping affect the jobs of the longshoremen.
The shipping companies or the contracting stevedores doing the
work of discharging and loading the ships are seldom in a position to
know in advance how long the actual work of loading or discharging
will last or how many men they will need for this work. Hence there
has developed the system of hiring the longshoreman by the hour and
hiring him only where and when actually needed. When a ship
arrives in port only a handful of men may be put to work at first, for
the purpose of rigging up the masts, opening the hatches, setting up
the gear, etc. After this is done more men are added until the work
of discharging is completed and the loading begins. Then suddenly
it may develop that not enough cargo has been assembled on the pier
to occupy all the hands engaged, and the entire crew of longshoremen
is dismissed until a day or two before sailing time when the men must
work day and night to complete the loading and release the ship on
schedule time. These are the conditions of the longshore industry
which deservedly place it at the head of the list of casual industries.
So far the picture presented above applies equally to all ports in
the United States. But when attention is turned to the problem of
employment of longshore labor, the methods of hiring and the systems,
if any, used in adjusting the supply of longshore labor to the demand,
the situation becomes more complicated. Generally speaking, how­
ever, and this applies to the ports in Europe as well as in the United
States, it is possible to distinguish two groups of ports: Those at
which no attempt has been made to regulate the supply and demand
of longshore labor, and those at which the difficulties and the casual­
ness of the longshore industry have been recognized and various
schemes adopted to adjust the supply of longshore labor to the vary­
ing needs of the port. In the first group belong the majority of ports
in the United States, with New York as the leading example. Seattle,
Portland, Oreg., and Los Angeles are the only three ports in this
country which belong to the second group, usually known as “ de­
casualized” ports. In Europe, and particularly in Great Britain,
nearly all the ports have been decasualized. London introduced a
system of decasualization as early as 1891; Hamburg in 1906; Liver­
pool in 1912; Rotterdam in 1916; and Antwerp in 1929.
Conditions at Ports not Decasualized

A port which has not been decasualized has no definite system of
informing the workers as to the exact date or hour the ship will dock







FIG U R E 37.— A “ S H A P E ”

O F L O N G S H O R E M E N IN N E W Y O R K

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

71

at the pier. In the days of the saloon, notices of arrival were posted
on bulletin boards especially kept in the saloon for that purpose. In
several ports to-day blackboards are placed in pool rooms, soft-drink
establishments, cheap restaurants, and other such places near the
water front where the longshoremen are known to congregate between
spells of work. The more literate longshoremen also follow the reports
of ship movements in the daily papers, English or foreign. Finally,
the news of the ship’s arrival is transmitted by word of mouth from
the ship foremen to the gang leaders and from them to the men.
In no case, however, is there the slightest indication given as to
the amount of cargo to be handled or the number of men to be engaged.
The longshoremen never know whether they will be employed at a
given pier and when they are hired they do not know how long their
work will last. Three times a day, and in some ports even oftener,
the workers must congregate at the entrance to the pier where the
hiring foreman selects the men wanted for the job. This gathering
of longshoremen seeking work at the pier is known as the “ shape.”
The following description of a “ shape” is taken from page 313,
Volume III, of Henry Mayhew’s book, “ London Labor and the London
Poor,” published in 1861:
He who wishes to behold one of the most extraordinary and least-known scenes
of this metropolis, should wend his way to the London Dock gates at half-past
7 in the morning. There he will see congregated within the principal entrance
masses of men of all grades, looks, and kinds. * * *
Presently you know, by the stream pouring through the gates and the rush
toward particular spots, that the “ calling foremen” have made their appearance.
Then begins the scuffling and scrambling forth of countless hands high in the
air, to catch the eye of him whose voice may give them work. As the foreman
calls from a book the names, some men jump up on the backs of the others, so
as to lift themselves high above the rest, and attract the notice of him who hires
them. All are shouting. Some cry aloud his surname, some his Christian name,
others call out their own names, to remind him that they are there. Now the
appeal is made in Irish blarney—now in broken English. Indeed, it is a sight
to sadden the most callous, to see thousands of men struggling for only one day’s
hire; the scuffle being made the fiercer by the knowledge that hundreds out of
the number there assembled must be left to idle the day out in want. To look
in the faces of that hungry crowd is to see a sight that must be ever remembered.
Some are smiling to the foreman to coax him into remembrance of them; others,
with their protruding eyes, eager to snatch at the hoped-for pass. For weeks many
have gone there, and gone through the same struggle—the same cries; and have
gone away, after all, without the work they had screamed for.

The “ shape” found any day in New York at any large pier on
the North River, in Hoboken, or in Brooklyn, is not much different
from the London shape of nearly 70 years ago. Some of the Irish
are still there, so are the Poles whom the author speaks of in a passage
not quoted above, but in addition there are Germans and Scandina­
vians, dark Italians and blonde Italians, and a representative body of
colored men which grows in number as we move from New York to
Philadelphia and Baltimore, and finally becomes the predominant
element south of the Hampton Roads ports. It is true that the
“ scuffling and the scrambling” are not so violent now as when Mayhew described them in London in 1861, and the shouting has almost
completely disappeared. But the eyes of all men in the “ shape” are
fastened upon every move of the hiring foreman who either calls out
the men by their names or walks slowly along the “ shape” pointing
with his finger at a man here in the first row, at another man in the sec­
ond row, and perhaps still a third man in the last row, A few seconds
later he picks a whole group of five or more men who are standing




72

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

together and sends them to the gate where they give their names to
the clerk and receive the brass number which entitles them to the
work on the pier; then again he proceeds slowly along the “ shape”
and picks an occasional man here and another man there until his
quota is complete. When the picking is finished, the men who were
unfortunate enough to be left behind, sullenly and sadly move away
from the pier only to return several hours later in the hope of being
more successful in the next “ shape.” (See fig. 37.)
It is obvious that the hiring foreman occupies a position of the
greatest importance on the water front. It is largely left to him to
decide who shall be employed and who shall be left behind. He is
seldom hampered in his choice, especially in regard to the more
casual men. ^ He can take them or reject thentL He can call them
to-day and ignore them to-morrow. It would indeed be strange if
such concentration of autocratic power in the hands of a single person
controlling the jobs of so many men did not result in some cases in
the abuse of this power. This may be as mild as the acceptance of
an occasional drink or a cigar, or it may go so far as to amount to
a systematic sharing by the foreman in the earnings of the long­
shoreman as payment for the job. Such cases are hard to trace.
Although the unions of longshoremen and the shipping industry
discourage such practices, they persist in several ports.
Every pier of any importance in the port thus becomes a center for
the hiring of longshoremen. #Some piers, particularly those of the
regular passenger and freight lines with a more or less definite schedule
of ships arriving and departing, have a larger following of longshore­
men than the other piers which have only a ship now and then. It
therefore not infrequently happens that certain piers have an over­
supply of longshoremen looking for work, while other piers find them­
selves short of labor. While the longshoremen are wandering from
pier to pier in search of work with no means of knowing at what pier
men are needed, the employers who are short of men are equally at
sea as to where efficient men can be had. Both employers and long­
shoremen suffer from this failure to make connections, but^ there is
no machinery available to correct this paradoxical condition of a
large oversupply and a shortage of labor existing at the same time.
The “ shapes” are usually formed at all piers at the same hour and
when the selection at any one pier has been completed it is too late
for those who are left to look for work at another pier.
The casual character of tha longshore industry is thus rendered
more acute by the practice of making each pier an employment center
with its own problem^of supply and demand of labor. Each employer
aims to have at his pier as large a number of longshoremen as he may
need to satisfy the demand on the peak days of shipping; also, to
enable the foremen to select better men. The foremen, therefore,
look with disfavor upon and may actually refuse work to longshore­
men known to participate in the “ shape ” of another pier, even though
only occasionally. Each company thus creates an individual reserve
of men, and these reserves when combined constitute a total very much
in excess of the actual number of workers needed even on the busiest
days of the port.
Irregularity of hours of work is one result of the casualness of the
longshore industry and the irregularity of employment. There is no
such thing as “ regular hours ” in the longshore industry. Even where




FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

73

the workers “ shape” regularly only once or twice a day, the hour of
“ shaping” has no direct bearing on the actual hours of work. Ships
arrive and leave the port at all hours of the day and night, and the
work of longshoremen also begins and ends at all hours of the day
and night; Because of the difficulty of getting a job and the uncer­
tainty of its duration, the individual longshoreman remains at work
as long as his endurance lasts, or the foreman permits him to remain.
Stretches of 20 to 30 hours of uninterrupted work, except for the
short meal periods, are not unknown even at the present time in the
ports of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Even longer
stretches of work may be found in New Orleans, Galveston, and
Houston in the peak of the cotton season.
Days or weeks of enforced idleness, followed by periods of equally
enforced hard labor, are reflected in the weekly earnings of the long­
shoremen. Even those who are most favored by the foremen and
who can be regarded as permanent employees in the sense that they
work at one pier only and are given the preference whenever work is
available—even they show extreme variations in their earnings from
week to week, and some weeks they may have no earnings at all.
As to the others, who constitute by far the larger body of longshore­
men, those working a day at one pier, half a day at another pier,
half a night at still a third pier, and perhaps another day or night at
the first or second pier, their earningjs are so irregular that it is alto­
gether impossible to measure them with any degree of approximation.
And when pay day comes they must go from pier to pier and stand in
line at each in order to collect the small amounts of money they earned.
Briefly, the characteristics of a port which has not been decasualized,
are:
(1) A large, highly immobile body of workers scattered over the
entire water front and ignorant of the actual time and place where
work is to be had.
(2) A large number of individual employers each aiming to create
as large a reservoir of labor as he may need to satisfy his maximum
demands, thus increasing the total supply of workers to a number far
in excess of the demands of the entire port.
(3) Complete dependence of the job of the longshoreman on the
good will of the foreman and on chance.
(4) Conditions of hiring longshore labor which, because of the
autocratic power concentrated in the hands of the foreman, pave the
way for unfair practices.
(5) Periods of enforced idleness, alternating with long stretches of
hard labor.
Conditions under Decasualization

The object of a port decasualization scheme is to do away with some
of the more glaring evils presented above. It is quite obvious that
very little can be done as regards demand for longshore labor. Small
changes could be effected; as, for instance, the concentrated sailings
on certain days of the week or the month could be spread out more
evenly over the week and the month. But even the most scientific
organization of a port will not altogether eliminate the daily and
seasonal fluctuations in shipping. Whatever is done, ships will con­
tinue to arrive, in greater numbers at one time than at another, and
there always will be busy periods and slack periods.
(36490°—32----- 6




74

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

Recognizing this as a fact, most of the ports with schemes of decasualization concentrate on the manipulation of the longshore labor
supply in the attempt to bring about an adjustment of this supply to
the changing demands of the shipping industry. Only the major
requirements of such a plan of decasualization are presented here.
These requirements are characteristic of all decasualized ports and
without them no plan can be effective.
First, there must be complete registration of all longshoremen in
the port, these to constitute the total supply of labor which is to be
reduced or enlarged in accordance with the demands of the port.
Only those on the register should be permitted to work on the water
front. Second, all employers on the water front must give up their
right to hire longshore labor individually at their piers or elsewhere,
and must secure their labor from the central office where the registry
of the longshoremen is kept. Without these two important points,
namely, the workers’ giving up the right to seek work individually
along the water front and the employers’ giving up their right to
hire labor individually, no scheme^ of decasualization can succeed.
In fact what decasualization really implies is a coordinated organiza­
tion of each port as a single employing unit under a single administra­
tion with power to direct the supply of labor and to swing it from
point to point as needed.
The practical application of a scheme of decasualization, methods of
organization, composition of central agencies, systems of distributing
and dispatching the workers to the various piers, etc., may vary in
accordance with the conditions and the needs of the individual ports.
London has one scheme; Liverpool another; and Hamburg still
another. In this country the system used in Seattle is different from
that used in Portland, which in turn is different from the one used in
Los Angeles.
In all cases, however, decasualization does or should accomplish
the following:
(1) It guarantees to all the employers an equal chance to obtain
workers as needed.
(2) It guarantees to all the longshoremen an equal chance of getting
a job when work is available.
(3) It tends to eliminate the power of the hiring foreman and the
abuses and favoritism that go with it.
(4) It gradually reduces the total number of longshoremen in port
to that approximating the actual needs of the port and thus raises the
average earnings of the men left on the register.
Longshore Labor Conditions in Major Ports of United States
This contrast between labor conditions in a decasualized port and
a port which has not been decasualized will serve to clarify the long­
shore labor conditions as they now exist in some of our major ports.
The port of New York is discussed first partly because it is the largest
port, but mainly because the many-sided conditions in New York
will help to throw light on the conditions existing in the other ports.
New York

The total number of longshoremen in the port of New York is
unknown, but various estimates suggest that 50,000 is a close approxi­
mation to the total. Of these, slightly more than half are engaged in




FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

75

handling foreign and intercoastal cargoes and are known as “ regular
longshoremen,” in contrast with the other men, engaged in coastwise
trade, in the banana trade, or in loading and discharging lighters and
scows. Only the regular longshoremen are organized as members of
the International Longshoremen’s Association, which has a general
agreement with the employers regulating rates of wages, hours, etc.
This agreement, however, has no reference whatever to the problem
of supply and demand of longshore labor or to the methods of hiring
practiced in the port. It provides only that union men be given
preference in employment, and specifies the exact hours for “ shaping.”
Three times a day, at 7.55 a. m., 12.55 p. m., and 6.55 p. m., the long­
shoremen are required to “ shape” at the entrance to each pier,
irrespective of whether they have been working on that pier the day
before or even that very day, and the hiring foreman selects the men
needed at the pier for the next few hours of work. The method of
selection is similar to that described for the port which has not been
decasualized. Some foremen hire their men by the gang; others
form their gangs when a ship first arrives and keep them intact until
the work of loading or discharging has been completed. The larger
shipping companies, which do their own stevedore work, and some of
the contracting stevedore companies have a considerable following of
more or less permanent men who are given preference over the other
men. These constitute the skeleton organization of the company.
When more work is available the permanent gangs are broken up and
used as nuclei for a larger number of gangs. When work drops off
the newer men are discharged and the original gangs are formed again.
The powers of the hiring foreman in selecting or rejecting the men
at will are still unabridged, but due to the cooperation between the
union and the employers some of the most flagrant abuses of this
power have been eliminated to a certain extent. Much abuse still
persists, however, particularly in the so-called “ fly-by-night” steve­
dore companies and in the subcontracting agencies which are small
and are often formed to load or discharge an individual ship. But
the number of such companies in port is very large.
The union has no strict rules for the regulation of the membership
in the numerous locals existing in the port and the rules it has have
no relationship to the problem of the supply and demand for labor,
although New York is conspicuous for its fluctuations in the employ­
ment of longshore labor.
In the special survey of the port conducted in 1920 for the National
Adjustment Board by B. M. Squires, these fluctuations in demand for
longshore labor, gauged by the quantity of cargo tons entering the
port in 1919, indicated a range from 65,700 cargo tons for the week
ending March 28, to 221,596 cargo tons for the week ending August 22,
or in the ratio of 1 to 3.4; and a range from 104,200 cargo tons leav­
ing the port during the week ending March 28, to 471,200 cargo tons
for the week ending May 2, or a ratio of 1 to 4.5. On this basis the
National Adjustment Board concluded that it seemed safe to assume
that the number of men required is at least three times as great at
the peak as at the lowest point of demand.
The fluctuations in demand from day to day are shown to be even
more violent than the weekly fluctuations, but nothing has been done
either by the union or b j the employers to remedy the situation.
On the contrary, the practice of dividing the port into smaller sections,




76

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

such as the Chelsea piers, Hoboken, Staten Island, Brooklyn, Newark,
etc., without the right of moving labor from section to section; the
“ shape” at each pier and the “ shaping” at all piers at the same
hour—all of these conditions render the situation even more acute
than is warranted by the fluctuations in the total demand for long­
shore labor.
All attempts by various agencies to determine the average
earnings of longshoremen in New York so far have proved unsuccess­
ful. Upon the passage of the longshoremen’s compensation act in
1927, the union and the employers agreed on an average weekly rate
of $30 as a basis for computing accident compensation under the
law, but this is merely an estimate. Short of personal accounts kept
by the individual longshoremen, there is no way of arriving at their
average earnings, and this condition will continue as long as the
present system of hiring persists in the port of New York.
It is of interest and value, however, to ascertain the limits within
which these earnings can be expected to move, and this is made
possible by the existence in the port of New York of several big ship­
ping and stevedore companies with large followings of longshoremen
of whom a considerable proportion are on a more or less permanent
basis. These companies may be regarded as miniature cross sections
of the port and to that extent indicative of conditions. Table
30 presents the total weekly pay rolls of three such companies for
four months in the year 1928—January and April, which may be
considered as average months, and the months of July and October,
which are the slackest and the busiest months, respectively. These
pay rolls are distributed in $5 groups, ranging from^ earnings of less
than $10 per week to $50 and over. Company A is the largest of
the three companies and perhaps the largest in the port. The total
number of men hired by this company during any one week ranges
from a low of 542 men hired during the week ending January 25 to
a high of 1,018 for the week ending October 17. Company B showed
a variation from 189 to 493, and Company C from 350 to 509.
T a b le

30 .— Distribution of longshore labor on basis of weekly earnings in three
large companies in New York in specified weeks of 1928
January

Wage group

April

Week ending

July

Week ending

October

Week ending

Week ending-

Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. July July July July Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct*
18 25
4
11
11
18 25
4
11
18 25
3
10 17 24
COMPANY A

97
60

Under $10______ 135
$10 and under $15. 70

83
38

Total

205

121

$15 and under $20.
$20 and under $25.
$25 and under $30.

57
56
55

64
39
106

57
90
59

168 209

206

Total

86 162 134 150

135

157 221
65
60
65

80

80

242 214

50

Total.......... 344

403

214

131

88

63

82

168
71

145

257

232

239

79
126

42
41
45

89
56
49

66

45
57

32
62
74

295 307

194

156

113

131

128

194

168

168

79 1 63
35 i 80
32 57
23 30
29
15

47
62
53
28
83

23
55
53
32
95

52
76
36
33
27

54
67
107
94
204

85
123
90
79
151

70
129
148

183

56
106
108
61
142
473

127
54

91
37
32

19

38

8

43

28
44
59

294

148
76
20 61
9
59
3 74

102 194 150

33
46
34

190 211
57
42

207
37

53
48
55

60
95
140

98
42
31
39
4

189
60

62
63
69

99
89
106

85
76
113
60
69

125
118

200 161 302 243 249 244

70
72
69

$30 and under $35. 95
$35 and under $40. 101
$40 and under $45. 76
$45 and under $50. 23
$50 and over____
49

82 222
79 80

12

102

88

418

296

210 198 } 245 273 258 224 526 528 618

Grand totaL 717 733 577 542 871
—---- ---- ----

804

705




666 ! 741

..1

672

620

599

799

979 1018

880

77

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

T a b l e 30 .— Distribution of longshore labor on basis of weekly earnings in three

large companies in New York in specified weeks of 1928 — Continued
January
Wage group

April

July

October

Week ending—

Week ending—

Week ending—

Week ending—

Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. July July July July Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct.
18 25
3
4
11
18 25
4
11
10 17 24
18
4
11
25
COMPANY B

24

20

99
27

86
58

31
58

53
63

163

44

126

144

89

116

125

73

1 151
22 22

17
4
19

21

57
40
65

63
13
26

39
19
40

19

36
80

34
47
15

12

4
5

26

40
51
123

3
187
57

137

96

162

102

98

57

214

9

106

29

36
24

24
18
45
7
5

5
17
23
14
90

37

48
7

5
18

3

5
49

Under $10............
$10and under $15.

35
80

41
7

71
33

27
136

Total.........

115

48

104

$15 and under $20. 113
$20 and under $25. 46
$25 and under $30. 30

5

50

Total.........

189

28

223

40

$30 and under $35.
$35 and under $40.
$40 and under $45.
$45 and under $50.
$50 and over........

9
3

36
9
31

23
26
16

21

12

25

12 113

Total

Grand totaL 316

189

10
12

87
414

24
4
4

2

55
258

12
3

1

21

13
52
53

20
28
79

122 168 187
303

390

493

85 35
40 . 38

22

30
58
106

2
2

163
28

137
81

59
33

69
31

212 191

218

92

100

37
13
18

2

15
3

66

247

68

20

105

12
1
6

49
13

9
4
19
53
129

45
24
26
39
57

91

121

8

6
2
2

32
7

99

149

253

62

85

19

72

214

191

290

363

435

349

306

457

358

326

396

Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Apr. Apr. Apr. Apr. July July July July Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct.
11
12 19 26
4
18 25
12 19 26
5
5
5
12 19 26
COMPANY

c

Under $10............
$10 and under $15.

29
35

50
28

40
16

112

26

90
42

19
93

46
32

31
26

41
29

47
16

51
27

45
17

34

11

49
24

43
25

41
15

Total.........

78

64

56

138

132

112

78

57

70

63

78

62

45

73

68

56

$15 and under $20.
$20 and under $25.
$25 and under $30.

34

22

44
29
39

40
36
65

33
35
95

33
41
48

51

22
46

28
37
29

31
17
42

16
27
38

14
26
29

19
23
31

23
14
38

23
14
13

11
12

16

42
50
57

28
32
23

Total.........

93

112 141

163

122 119

94

90

81

69

73

75

50

39

149

83

$30 and under $35.
$35 and under $40.
$40 and under $45.
$45 and under $50.
$50 and over........

57
53
64
30
26

102

88

54
58
59
25
24

64
99
24
7

93

46
63
42
39
19

58
64
54
36
15

38
51
62
70

34
54
54
44
61

12
21

26
28
55
87

51
76
18

15
18
26

37

60
67
50
i6

2

38
9
3

1

79
35
4

2

47
55
54
26
7

68
19

10
20

22

42
44
207

120

6
10

Total.......... 230

195

153

208

189

220 194 210 209 227 243 247 326 316 161

Grand totaL 401

371

350

509

443

451

366

357

360

359

394

384

421

428

378

21

232
312
451

Examination of the table shows that no matter how busy or how
slack the work of a particular week may be, there are always some
men in each of the 10 groups indicated. There are always some men
earning less than $10 per week, at least as far as the company in
question is concerned, and some earning a little more, others still
more, and finally some earning as high as $50 per week and over.
This distribution, which is very different from a normal distribu­
tion of earnings in a stabilized industry, suggested a regrouping of
the men into three categories—those with earnings of less than $15
per week, who may be classified as casual workers moving from
pier to pier to pick up a day’s work here and another day’s work
elsewhere; those with earnings of from $15 to $30 per week, who




78

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

may be classified as semipermanent in the sense that they prefer to
work at one pier, but would change to another pier when the oppor­
tunity of getting work there presented itself; and finally those with
earnings of $30 per week and over who remain more or less perma­
nently with one company. The men in the last group are usually
given the preference by the foremen and they also know that if there
is no work for them during the first part of the week they will prob­
ably get day and night work during the balance of the week. These
men rarely change to another pier.
The three subgroupings given in the table show that, no matter
how large a single company may be or how anxious to give all its
work to the so-called permanent men, there will always be a need
for a very large number of casual workers and a considerable pro­
portion of semipermanent men. This condition is inherent in the
longshore industry, and no single shipping or stevedore company
can cope with the difficulties in the way of adjusting the supply to
the demand for longshore labor. Instead, the policies of such com­
panies merely result in dividing the workers into groups, some of
which can show very high earnings of $50 or more per week, while
the others will earn $10 per week or less. The men in the low-eamings group are, of course, privileged to look for work elsewhere but
how successful they are in their search is the problem which makes
it so hard to determine the earnings of the longshoremen.
But the earnings of even the so-called permanent men are far
from being stabilized. Table 31 represents the actual earnings, by
months, of eight gangs more or less permanently employed by a
single shipping company, designated as Company D. Each gang
is supposed to consist of at least 18 men, and the data therefore
cover 144 men more or less permanently employed.
T a b l e 31 .— Monthly earnings in 1928 of eight gangs 1 more or less permanently

employed by a large shipping company (Company D) in New York
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month

January____________
February___________
March_____________
April.................... ......
M ay_______________
June_______________
July........ ...................
August_____________
September_________
October____________
November.................
December_________ _

Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

$119.47
139.10
199.22
130.72
216.67
135.00
155.44
196.75
198.38
165.60
214.52
144.37

$146.53
163.12
186.75
129.73
226.84
149.45
166.85
214.35
195.20

Total................ 2,015.24
Average per month. _

167.94

k Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 8

245.98
139.30

$104.77
113.58
181.73
122.23
200.09
118.73
148.00
177.07
182.75
192.45
222.48
131.38

$106.23
139.05
204.83
131.80
244.83
130.03
134.27
212.47
180.82
188.60
212.30
146.82

$141.10
152.93
201.25
143.30
251.74
145.85
144.67
165.34
185.43
199.00
225.85
146.90

$135.08
123.41
197.48
127.27
228.32
131.65
145.30
187.06
165.50
185.03
214.95
117.80

$102.82
143.60
178.77
128.13
204.20
137.40
134.30
143.47
170.92
165.42
156.36
98.88

$116.58
134.83
185.80
142.98
193.20
127.95
130.29
183.99
175.68
150.85
213.20
127.87

2,175.32

1,895.26

2,032.05

2,103.36

1,958.85

1,764.27

1,883.22

• 181.28

157.94

169.34

175.28

163.24

147.02

156.94

211.22

118 men in a gang.

The earnings of gangs Nos. 1 and 8 are given in Table 32 and are
plotted on the charts on pages 80 and 81. The curves on the left show
the variations in the weekly earnings for each week of the year 1928,




79

FOREIGN* AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

and the columns on the right represent the monthly earnings for the
same period. Nothing can better illustrate the instability and the
fluctuations in the longshore industry, as far as any one company is
concerned, than the ups and downs on these two curves. Even to the
so-called permanent workers these ups and downs mean long stretches
of hard labor, day and night, followed in turn by long periods of idle­
ness. Some weeks are very lean, others very fat; a slack month or
two are followed by months of unceasing industry.
Table 32.— Weekly earnings in 1928 by gangs Nos. 1 and 8 , employed by Company
D, New York
Earnings per
man in—

Earnings per
man in—
Week ending—

Gang Gang
No. 1 No. 8

Gang
No. 8

Jan. 5______ ____ $18.27 $11.50
Jan. 12................. 48.70 49.75
Jan. 19.................. 45.70 31.60
23.73
Jan. 26.................. 6.80
119.47

116.58

46.30
9................... 45.85
16................. 36.75
23................. 10.20

39.90
41.45
36.28
17.20

Total

139.10
42.40
52.60
42.15
28.50
33. 57

40.45
23.00
66.40

Total.......... 199.22

185.80

Apr. 5................... 9.77
Apr.12 ................. 37.40
Apr. 19_________ 44.00
Apr. 26................. 39.55

7.20
39.15
59.95
36.68

Total_____ 130. 72

142.98

3..................
10.................
17.................
24................
31

$38.40
44.77
31.90
35.35
66.25

$34.40
43.50
33.65
23.10
58.55

rPntn1

216. 67

193.20

June 7................... 72.35
June 14................. 6.80
June 21................. 26.00
T a 28
iitk
29.85

56.70
9.77
31.20
30.28

T o ta l_____ 135.00

127.95

5...................
12.................
19.............. ...
26.................
Total..........

30.77
48.77
45.90
30.00
155.44

22.95
53.37
23.95
30.02
130.29

Aug. 2..................
Aug. 9_.................
Aug. 16............... .
Aug. 23k...............
Aug. 30.................
Total..........

40.90
32.60
33. 00
49. 25
41.00
196.75

36.17
34.65
25.10

May
M ay
May
May
M ay

134.83

Mar. 1
Mar. 8..................
Mar. 15................
Mar. 22................
Mar. 29................

Total
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.

Week ending—

Week ending—
Gang
No. 1

2

22.10
33.85

Earnings per
man in—

July
July
July
July

52.60

35.47
183.99

Gang Gang
No. 1 No. 8
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.

6_ ...............
1 3 ..............
20. ..............
27................

$43.73 $35.98
62.75
54.15
32.40 27.90
59. 50 57.65

Total

198.38

175.68

Oct. 4
Oct. 11.................
Oct. 18..................
Oct. 25..................

44.85
62.05
29.20
29.50

43.25
57.42
18.50
31.68

Total

165. 60

150.85

40.27
47.62
44.53
31.10
51.00

37.40
39.10
49.20
29.85
57.65

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

1
8..................
15____ ____
22................
29................

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

6................... 45. 57

Total_____ 214.52 213.20
13....... ......... 42.90
28.90
27................. 32.00

28.65
42.90
22.60
33.72

Total.......... 144.37

127.87

20_________

Briefly, the longshore labor situation in New York may be sum­
marized as follows: On the one hand, a considerable percentage of
longshoremen making high wages, and a smaller proportion with
very high earnings; on the other hand, a large number of casual
workers, with indeterminate but undoubtedly low earnings, and a
very low standard of living; and finally, a very large body of long­
shoremen with earnings between these two extremes.
The longshore labor conditions in the other Atlantic ports differ
from those of New York primarily because of the great difference
in the size of these ports as compared with New York. In New
York the Chelsea pier section alone supplies work to more long­
shoremen than any other port on the Atlantic or any other port
in the country. Undoubtedly, as far as size is concerned, New
York stands in a class by itself, and this difference must be con­
sidered in any comparison made with this port.




CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE
LABOR
CONDITIONS
I TJ.
N




8

3Q

FOREIGN
AD
N
INTERCOASTAL
TRADE




00

82

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.
Boston

In Boston all the longshoremen engaged in foreign and intercoastal
trade belong to the three locals of the International Longshoremen’s
Association, with a total registered membership of 1,761. Of these
only 1,300 are classified as active members more or less permanently
engaged in longshore work. A high initiation fee and other strict
rules operate as a limitation on the membership, which is largely
Irish or Irish-American of the second generation. The agreement
between the union and the employers has more reference to the
problem of supply and demand of longshore labor than the New
York agreement. The men are required to “ shape” at the piers
only when the ship first arrives in port. Once selected and the
gangs formed, the longshoremen remain with the ship until the
work of discharging and loading has been completed. The “ shap­
ing” and the process of selecting the men are not much different
from the practices in New York% There is no rotation scheme of
any kind for the purpose of equalizing the earnings of the men and,
as in New York, there is no way to measure their actual earnings.
Also, because of the comparatively small quantity of cargo handled
in the port by the individual companies, the pay roll of any one
company may not be representative of earnings in the port.
T able 33.— Average weekly earnings of longshoremen in Boston, 1928
AverWeek ending—

Total pay
rolls

8.........
15........
22........
20........

$34,648.71
45,226.04
48,847. 74
26,144. 30

$26.65
34.79
37.58

Total.

154,! 1 . 79
6

Feb. 4.........
F e b .11.......
Feb. 18____
Feb. 25.......

Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.

Week ending—

earnings

Total pay
rolls

Aver­
age
earn­
ings

July 7.........
July 14.......
July 21.......
July 28____

$34,266.49
39,937.41
38,287.83
35,996.11

$26.36
30.72
29.45
27.69

119.13

Total.

148,487.84

114.22

32,180.40
38,952.97
43,976.18
26,713.08

24.75
29.96
33.83
20. 55

Aug. 4........
Aug. 11___
Aug. 18.......
Aug. 25____

31,577.90
41,890.00
41,744.68
38,159.65

24.29
32.22
32.11
29.35

20.11

Total.

141,822.63

109.09

Total.

153,372.23

117.97

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

3........
10......
17......
24___
31......

40,161.43
44.715.00
35.971.00
37.936.00
26,593.15

30.89
34.40
27.67
29.18
20.46

Sept. 1........
Sept. 8........
Sept. 15......
Sept. 22......
Sept. 29......

44,393. 20
30,134.37
39,697.80
35,875.45
35,602.27

34.15
23.18
30.54
27.60
27.39

Total.

185,376. 58

142.60

Total.

185,703.09

142.86

Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.

7........
14.......
21____
28___

28,766.46
33.940.73
33,959.67
36.398.73

22.13
26.11
26.12
28.00

6.........

20........
27.......

41,351.64
30,154.89
34,837.23
37,713.92

31.81
23.20
26.80
29.01

Total.

133,065. 59

102.36

Total.

144,057.68

110.82

May 5........
May 12___
M ay 19___
M ay 26.......
Total.

39,432. 35
47,583.09
26,794.38
44,064. 00
157,873.82

30.33
36.60
20.61
33.90
121.44

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

3____
10___
17___
24......
Total.

•25,208.45
36,554. 02
37,847.56
29,801.10
129,411.13

19.39
28.12
29.11
22.92
99.54

June 2. .......
June 9........
June 16.......
June 23.......
June 30___
Total.

51,019.33
50,075. 72
30,966.17
38,311.12
33,858.04
204,230.38

39.25
38.52
23.82
29.47
26.04
157.10

Dec. 1 ........
Dec. 8........
Dec. 15.......
Dec. 22.......
Dec. 29___
Total.

31, 504.84
43,399.07
41,372.11
31,245.18
35,763.81
183,285. 01

24.23
33.38
31.82
24.03
27.51
140.97




Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

13____

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

83

It was possible, however, to combine the total weekly pay rolls of
all the employers of longshore union labor, which are shown in Table
33, and which indicate approximately the variations in the demand for
labor in the port. These were divided by the number of active long­
shoremen in the three locals, the quotient thus representing the aver­
age weekly earnings of the men in Boston. The earnings vary from
$19.39 for the week ending November 3 to $39.25 for the week ending
June 2, 1928, with the larger number of weeks averaging from $25 to
$35. These averages are somewhat higher than the actual averages
because they do not include the 461 union longshoremen who, while
absent from the water front for more than six months, nevertheless
do work now and then as longshoremen, particularly in the busy
periods, and to that extent lower the average earnings in the port.
On the whole it would seem that the figure of $27 per week on which
the union and the employers agreed as a basis for accident compensa­
tion would come very close to the average. ^ But the average throws
no light on the actual earnings^ of the individual men. Here as in
New York some men earn considerably more than the average and
some considerably less. The differences may not be as extreme as
in the case of New York, but they exist nevertheless.
Philadelphia

There are from 4,000 to 5,000 longshoremen in the port of Phila­
delphia, of whom about 2,500 are organized in one local of the Inter­
national Longshoremen’s Association. The membership is fairly
evenly divided between colored and white,^ the white workers being
predominantly Polish or of other Slavic nationalities.
The agreement with the employers provides that the longshore­
men shall “ shape” three times a day at all piers, but customarily the
majority of men “ shape” in one section of the water front, near
Washington Street. The foremen pick their men there, load them
into trucks, ^and dispatch them to their respective piers. This
custom provides a somewhat unified system for the port, which has
its piers and docks scattered for miles along both sides of the Dela­
ware River.
Some stevedore companies have a permanent following of men,
organized into permanent gangs, but the majority of the foremen pick
their men and form them into gangs at each “ shape.” There is no
system of dividing the work among the men, and because of the fact
that many #
longshoremen do work for several employers during any
one week, it is impossible to determine the average earnings of the
port.
Table 34 gives the distribution, according to weekly earnings, of
longshoremen employed by two companies in the port. For Com­
pany E data were available only for October, November, and Decem­
ber, 1929. This particular company is known to have a permanent
following of longshoremen organized into permanent gangs, but in
spite of this more than 30 per cent of the men earn less than $15
per week. Of the 8,575 pay envelopes issued by the company during
the 13 weeks shown in the table, 3,308 contained less than $15, and
5,635, or nearly two-thirds of the total, contained amounts under $30
per week. A similar distribution of the pay rolls of Company F, for
the same period, shows that slightly less than half of the total pay




84

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

envelopes contained amounts less than $15 per week and more than
three-fourths of the total amounts less than $30 per week. Undoubt­
edly, some of the men employed by these two companies worked also
for other companies during the same period, but there is at present
no way of telling either their number, or their additional earnings.
T a b le

34.— Distribution, according to earnings, of longshoremen employed by two

companies (E and F) in Philadelphiay 1929

Number of men earning—
Total

Week ending—
Under $15

$15 and
under $30

$30 and
over

207
199

134
197
143
159

274
197
259
228
303

615
593
614
610
817

156
135

134
310
296
150

599
689
859
529

284

806
597

COMPANY E

Oct. 3______ _
Oct. 10................................................................................
Oct. 17................................................................................
Oct. 24................................................................................
Oct. 31............................................................... ................

223
302

212

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

7................................................................................
14..............................................................................
21............ ......... ............... ................. ......... ...........
28.......................................... ...................................

309
244
353
197

210

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

5____________ ________ ___ _____ _______ ________
12. ..............................................................................
19__________ ___ ______________________________
26
_ „
_ _

292
235
275
260

230
160
176
233

215

666

3,308

2,327

2,940

8,575

Ont. 4
Oct. 11................................................................................
Oct. 18................................................................................
Oct. 25................................................................................

270
118
138
176

165
70

86

84

101

521
260
285
361

Nov. 1................................................................................
Nov. 8___________ - __________________________ _____
Nov. 15_____ ______________ _______________________
Nov. 22___________________________________________
Nov. 29..............................................................................

180
153

no

122
200

106
78
93
139
115

198
172
225

202

117
125
132
54

92
85
171

407
382
528
256

2,362

1,344

1,074

4,780

Total___

212

182

j
!

202
88

581

COMPANY F

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

6_____________________________________________

13...............................................................................
20_______________________ _____ _______________
27__
___
__
_ _
Total

208

66

72
81

6

80

121

69

396
237
295
460
392

Table 35 gives the average weekly earnings of the longshoremen
employed by Company G during a whole year, from July 6,1927, to
June 27, 1928. Very few of these men ever work for another com­
pany, and the averages shown in this table come very close to repre­
senting the actual weekly earnings of the men. These averages are
shown to vary from $19.09 per man, during the week ending on Sep­
tember 14, 1927, to $39.38 auring the week ending on May 16, 1928,
earnings in the greater number of weeks falling within the $25 to
130 range.




85

FOREION AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE
T a b l e 3 5 .—

Average weekly earnings of longshoremen employed by Company G,
in Philadelphia, July 6, 1927, to June 27, 1928

Aver­
age
Num­
earn­
ber
Week ending—
of ings per
men man per
week
1927
July 6
July 13.
July 20.
July 27.

190
181
182
250

$31.81
25.31
27.14
27.54

111. 80

Total...
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.

3—
10..
17..
24..
31..

259
317
221

153
191

129.39

Total—
Sept. 7—
Sept. 14.
Sept. 21.
Sept. 28-

30.00
27.63
24.93
23.59
23.24

184
142
169
184

22.67
19.09
24.87
26.98

180
191
155
178

27.37
35.42
33.46
26.61

Total-.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

5_.
12.
19.
26.

93.61

Total...
Nov. 2.
Nov. 8..

122.86

233
254

Week ending-

1927
Nov. 16......
Nov. 23----Nov. 30___

Aver­
Num­
age
ber
earn­
of ings per
man per

135
204
216

131.45

T ota l152

Dee. 7—
Dec. 14Dec. 21Dec. 28-

210

157
147

Jan. 4Jan. 11.
Jan. 18Jan. 25.

131
166
117
179

27.94
25.95
24.18
32.80
110.87

Total—
Feb. 1...
Feb. 8„ ,
Feb. 15.
Feb. 22.
Feb. 29-

31.50
23.30
32.84
26.75
114.39

Total—.
1928

$30.90
31.86
18.07

171
161
159
162
158

Total..

20.71
30.97
31.57
31.23
35.05
149.53

Week ending—

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

1928
7........
14___
21......
28......

Aver­
Num- age
ber
earn­
of ings per
men man per
week

164
122
211

147

Total—.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.

3—.
111825-

133.92
147
160
136
142

Total..
May 2__
May 9__
May 16May 23May 30-

Total..

27.88
37.91
29.80
27.15
122.74

140
162
186
150
182

Total—
June 6—
June 13June 20-.
June 27..

$34.32
26.77
. 37.82
35.01

25.49
36.65
39.38
30.01
31.52
163.05

162
129
152
174

27.95
28.84
31.13
28.58
116.50

22.78
27.84

Baltimore

Longshore labor conditions in Baltimore are very similar to those
existing in Boston. As in Boston all foreign and intercoastal cargoes
are handled entirely by union labor—members of the International
Longshoremen’s Association. In Baltimore, however, the long­
shoremen are made up of approximately 60 per cent colored and 40
per cent white, the white^ workers being largely of Slavic origin.
As in Boston a high initiation fee and strict rules operate to keep a
more or less definite limit on the total supply of labor in port. All
men are organized in gangs, the foremen of which are approved by the
employers and the unions. The hiring, therefore, is also done in gangs.
The men are required to “ shape ” twice a day from 8 to 10 in the morn­
ing for the day shift, and from 3 to 5 in the afternoon for the night
shift. With the exception of a small number of men “ shaping”
on the Canton piers, all longshoremen “ shape” around the union
headquarters at the entrance to the B. & O. pier. Very little actual
“ picking” of men takes place there, however, as the gang leaders are
usually notified in advance where and when to bring their men.
There are about 100 gangs altogether, the majority of which are
assigned to individual companies. It is the aim of each of these
companies to keep all their work for their own gangs, but as in the
case of New York, this aim falls very short of its mark due to the
fluctuations in the number of ships in port. There is no system of
rotating the gangs working for any one employer or of changing them
from one employer to another for the purpose of equalizing the earnings




86

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

of the men. The result is that certain gangs, particularly those
which are known to specialize in the handling of certain commodities
like tin plate, steel rails, lumber, etc., are known to make considerably
higher wages than the other gangs. No check is kept on the gangs or
on the individual men as they go from one employer to another and,
therefore, there is no way of telling their actual earnings.
As in the case of Boston, however, it was possible to combine the
weekly earnings of the port for a whole year, and this total figure
when divided by the total number of active longshoremen in the
port gives an approximation of the average weekly earnings of the
men in Baltimore. There were, in 1927, altogether 2,159 members
in the two cargo and one grain locals in the port, and of these only
1,948 men were classified as active members engaged exclusively in
longshore work. The weekly averages of these men for the year 1927,
shown in Table 36, ranged from $14.43 for the week ending October 21
to $33.44 for the week ending March 4, with the larger number of
weeks averaging from $20 to $30. These averages are somewhat
lower than they might have been if it had been possible to eliminate
those men in the union who are away from the water front more than
six months in the year, as was done in the case of Boston.
T a b le

36. Average weekly earnings of longshoremen in Baltimore, 1927
—

Total pay
rolls

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
man

Jan. 7______
Jan. 14_____
Jan. 21_____
Jan. 28_____

$38,475.39
47,300.18
54, G70.22
47,879.04

$19.75
24.28
28.06
24.58

Week ending—

Total..

188,324.83

>6.67

Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.

4..........
11 ........
18........
25....... .

62,585.14
45,066. 20
39,829. 73
54,190.70

32.13
23.13
20.45
27.82

Total..

201,671.77

103. 53

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

4.........
11____
18____
25____

65,150.65
47,205.30
47,119.10
50,012.34

33.44
24.23
24.19
25.67

Total..

209,487.39

107.53

Apr. 1......... .
Apr. 8......... .
Apr. 15....... .
Apr. 22....... .
Apr. 29....... .

58,327.71
60,194.66
41,036.80
47,946.35
61,979.83

29.94
30.90
21.07
24.61
26.68

Total..

259,485.35

133.20

May 6.........
May 13.......
May 20.......
May 27....... .

64,494. 53
47,311.33
52,677.32
48,782.44

33.11
24.29
27.04
25.04

Total..

213,265. 62

109.48

June 3..........
June 10....... .
June 17....... .
June 24....... .

42,512. 50
53,125.15
37,094.13
54,880.95

21.82
27.27
19.04
28.17

Total.

187,612.73

96.30




Week ending-

July 1 . .
July 8. .
July 15.
July 22.
July 29.
Total..
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.

5—
12. .
19..
26..
Total..

Total pay
rolls

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
man

$41,057.63
31,857.02
47,519.38
45,762.29
56,244.82

$21.08
16.35
24.39
23.49
28.87

222,441.14

114.18

49,067.11
45,451.74
46,357.72
49,644. 59

25.19
23.33
23.80
25.48

190,521.16

97.80

Sept. 2______
Sept. 9______
Sept. 16_____
Sept. 23_____
Sept. 30_____
Total..

45,811.61
43,164.59
36,708.20
44,714.22
46,361. 50
216,760.12

23.52
22.16
18.84
22.95
23.80
111. 27

Oct. 7—
Oct. 14.
Oct. 21.
Oct. 28Total..

43,401.16
41,576.09
28,104.20
56,576. 50
169,657.95

22.28
21.34
14.43
29.04
87.09

Nov. 4 . .
Nov. 11 .
Nov. 18.
Nov. 25.
T ota l-

50,696.22
43,048.00
51,208.02
48,872. 67
193,824.91

26.02

Dec. 2...
Dec. 9...
Dec. 16Dec. 23..
Dec. 30Total..

57,059.31
53,351.22
42,379. 75
60,261.27
61,957.14
275,008.69

29.29
27.39
21. 76
30.93
31.81
141.18

22.10

26.29
25.09
99.50

87

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

In addition to the above averages, Table 37 presents the actual
monthly earnings of 10 of the 20 more or less permanent gangs
employed by one of the largest stevedore companies in the port.
Here is a condition not much different from the picture presented
for the port of New York, namely, weeks and months of low earnings
alternated by periods of very high wages, with the weekly earnings
ranging all the way from less than $10 to $50 and over. Whether
or not the slack periods for any one company were supplemented by
work with another company is a question which can not be answered
in Baltimore any more than in New York or in Boston, although the
comparatively low averages for the whole port would indicate a
negative answer.
T a b le

37. Monthly earnings of 10 gangs 1 of longshoremen employed by a large
—
stevedore company in Baltimore, 1927
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month
Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

$106.20
156. 60
200.40
168. 20
157.45
211.60
129.20
191.60
138.80
117.80
184.75
141.35

$153.80
132.80
175.20
153.00
141.40
154.60
119.40
144.20
103.65
91.65
139.30
136.80

$143.20
148.20
134. 00
100.60
157.00
153.40
103.00
130.00
80.20
104.40
133.75
156.80

$129.20
130.00
141.20
70.60
77.15
136.00
66.80
85.80
75.40
86.05
190.00
145.35

$141.95
72.00
130.00
115.80
160.00
169.80
116.40
138.90
117.60
89.85
155.75
131.85

Total______________________________________ 1,903.95

1,645.80

1,544.55

1,333.55

1,539.90

158.66

137.15

128.71

111. 12

128.33

January_________________________________________
February..................... ................................................
March__________________________________________
April________________ __ ___________ _
May_________________ __________________________
June____________________ _ ____________________
July____________________________________________
August_________________________________________
September______________________________________
October____________________ _____________________
November______________________________________
December_______________________________________

Average per month_________________________

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 8

Gang
No. 9

$133.00
144.60
134.20
165.80
153.30
201. 70
120.60
189.60
137.00
97.45
118.30
134.85

$152.40
167.80
158.20
153. 20
189.80
177.20
130.20
128.00
134.00
121.25
166.00
141.80

$119.20
153. 00
180.10
70.80
95.60
177.40
121.40
126.60
104.05
151.10
131.65

$131.05
170.20
178.40
107. 00
164.15
219.20
115.55
128.20
133. 20
122.85
166.30
135. 75

$94.00
117.20
157.60
132.00
163.80
178.10
111. 60
140.80
104.80
102.65
156.10

Total______________________________________ 1,730.40

1,819.85

1,551.90

1,771.85

1,560.65

151.65

128.50

147.65

130.05

January.___ _______ ___________ - ________________
February__ . . . ____ _____ ,__ ____ ____ . . . _________
March________________ _________________________
April______________________ ____ ________________
May________________ ______ _______ . . . ________
June________________ ___ ____ . . . ______ __________
July................................................................................
August____ _________»___ ______ _____ ___________
September___________ ______ ____________________
October_________________________________________
November___________ ___________________________
December___ - _______ . . . . _______________________

Average per month............. ........

.. ^ _____

144.20

121.00

Gang
No. 10

102.10

118 men in a gang.

New Orleans

The longshore labor situation in New Orleans is very much con­
fused by the existence in the port of large bodies of union and non­
union labor with different rates of wages. The union longshoremen
do all the work for the United States Shipping Board, while all other
companies use nonunion labor. It frequently happens, therefore,
that a stevedore company operating on a pier uses one kind of labor for
one ship and a different kind of labor for another ship. There is there­




88

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

fore no limit to the supply of longshore labor in port. While no fig­
ures of actual earnings are available, it is generally admitted by all the
union men, white and colored alike, and by many employers, that the
average earnings of the longshoremen are very low.
The docks cover a long stretch along the Mississippi River and the
workers are required to “ shape” at each pier where they are taken on
for work by the hiring foremen. In New Orleans there are more
rumors current of the abuse of the hiring power by the foremen than
at any other port in the United States. It is stated that the workers
are often compelled to borrow money from the foremen at exorbitant
rates of interest. In other cases the colored men are merely paid a
certain amount for the week, and the balance goes to the foreman,
who is permitted to draw the pay on the brass checks turned over to
him by the workers. These checks are often sold to saloon keepers
and money lenders on the water front at very large discounts.
While it is absolutely impossible to get the average earnings of the
longshoremen for the port as a whole, the three tables of earnings
given below may be used as indicative of the average earnings of the
union longshoremen in New Orleans. Table 38 represents the total
distribution of the longshoremen working for a single company employ­
ing union labor only. The total at the bottom of the table represents
the total number of pay envelopes issued by that company during the
year 1926. Out of 10,573 such pay envelopes, 3,890 contained
amounts of less than $15 per week, 3,505 from $15 to $25 per week,
and only 3,178 pay envelopes contained $25 or more. Thus, more
than two-thirds of all the pay envelopes issued by that company in
1926 contained amounts of less than $25 per week.
T a b le

38,— Distribution, on basis of weekly earnings, of union longshoremen
employed by a large stevedore company in N e w Orleans, 1926
Numb B of men eai•ning—
r
Week ending—
$15 and
Under $15 under $25

$25 and
over
49
31
47
57

201

22

67
48
82
135

152
193
224
237

79
17

36
87

212

89

27

201

225

41

293
58
262
152

55
52
37
29

97
61
65

Feb. 6.................................................................................
Feb. 13...............................................................................
Feb. 20.......................................................... ....................
Feb. 27...............................................................................

68

17 '
90
54

Mar. 6................................................................................
Mar. 13.................................................- ......... - ........... Mar. 20___________________________________________
Mar. 27............................................... - .............................

97
19
94
85

Apr. 10____________________________________________
Apr. 17........................- ........................ - ...........................
Apr. 24................................................................................

27
47
97
57

96
31

69
64

44
67
42
98
30

69
72
59
118

110
2
110

106
24
38
46

18
71
115
23

15
7
76

May 1.................................................................................
May 8.................................... - ----------------------------------May 22__............................................. - ................ ...........
May 29................................ ................... .........................
June 5_____________________________________________
June 12_ . ..........................................................................
June 19......................................... ...... .............................




55

88
80

Total

2

11

65
13

144
149

88

123
94

178
152

211
100

258

124

110

160
145

89

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

38*— Distribution, on basis of weekly earnings, of union longshoremen
employed by a large stevedore company in N e w Orleans, 1926— Continued

T a b le

Number of men earning—
Week ending-$15 and
Under $15 under $25
July 3.................................................................................
July 10.............................................................................. . !
July 17....................... — ................................................. . j
July 24................................................................................

34
42
42

66

109
71
38
103

7.............. ............ ........................ .........................
14........................ ....................................................
21.................................................... .........................
28-........................... - ........... ...................................

40
166
85
77

27
62
38

Sept. 4.................................................. — ..................... .
Sept. 11.......... ....................................... ............... ...........
Sept. 18....... ......... .................................. ..........................
Sept. 25............................................................. ................

87
31
59
133

2.................................................................................
9_...........— ..................................................... .........
16................. ............................- .............................
23..................................... ............................... ...........
30................................................. ........... ..................

75
116
44
124
190

124
65

6.................... ......................................... ............... ;
13............................................................................. !
20_______________________________________ ___ 1
27................................................................. .............|

Dec. 4 _________ ____ ____ _________________________
Dec. 11.............................................................................. !!
Dec. 18---- --------- --------- --------- --------------------------------Dec. 25____________________________________________
Dec. 31................................. ...................... ................. .

Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.

Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

T o ta l--...................................................................

Total

$25 and
over
41
105
73
71

184
218
153
240

88
11

36

106
229
235
126

41
82
31
92

58
24
126
63

186
137
216
288

105

8

81
104
31

86

70

261
228
199
190
346

46
242
87
155

175
40
123
56

212
27
99
53

433
309
309
264

60
27
123
156

101

98
37
81
179
67

243
81
57
57
128

401
145
261
392
296

3,890

3,505

3,178

10,573

66

1

Table 39 shows the actual monthly earnings of five union white
longshoremen and seven colored men who have been selected as a
sample because they were known to have worked permanently for
one company during the entire year 1926. The average for the white
men varies from $55.84 to $128.11 per month and the average for
the colored men varies from $60.74 to $112.30 per month. Table 40
represents the distribution of the average weekly earnings of some
70 colored union men taken from the records of the union, which
assesses its membership in proportion to their earnings. As the table
shows, the earnings of the majority of the men fell within the two
groups from $15 to $25, with the average around $20. per week.
The three tables seem to prove the contention that the average
earnings of the union men in the port of New Orleans are considerably
lower than in any other large port in the United States.
6 6 4 9 0 °-3 2 ------7




90

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

T a b le

39.— Monthly earnings of individual union longshoremen who worked
'permanently for one company in N e w Orleans, 1926
White longshoremen
Month
No. 2

No. 1

No. 4

No. 3

No. 5

January.................
February...............
March....................
April......................
May.......................
June..............-........
July-......................
August..................
September.............
October..................
November.............
December..............

$131.17
138.87
76.48
111. 70
130.40
78.40
146.03
83.35
111. 60
131.32
135. 91
148.49

$175.07
172.37
81.28
116.45
124.80
78.40
146.03
83.75
109.60
131.72
167.66
150.22

$120.37
179.72
59.68
114.40
127.85
78.40
154.43
63.75
109.60
126.52
87.51
146.62

$104.07
123.85
17.20
84.30
53.19
47."49
28,40
73.67
43.59
51.15
43.22

$105.03
133.80
80.55
95.60
124.00
81.26
154.64
101.90
106.80
128.53
74.56
120.89

Total............

1,423.72

1,537.35

1,368.85

670.13

1,307.56

Average for month.

118.64

128.11

114.07

55.84

108.96

Colored longshoremen
Month
No. 1
January.............. .
February________ _
March.......... ..........
April...................
May....................
June-------- ----------July_____________
August..................
September.......... .
October__________
November.........—
December..............
Total.........—
Average per month

T a b le

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

$104.63 $100.63 $57.04 $71.00 $109.67
115.95
112.45 111.08 125.16
135. 61
78.75
78.75 106.46
72.40
83.94
95.55
48.80
95. 55 66.36
56.15
108.30
125. 90 26.40
70.20
111. 25
79.26
95.76
33.40
14.40
66.20
152. 24
121.84 115. 08 82.01
127.96
74.70
102.30 24.30
41.15
71.75
112.00 102. 22
107.60
38.70
107. 20
132. 73
100.02
104. 55
112.26
31.80
119.66
129. 41 70.15
92.00
113. 48
123. 48
108. 75 133.44 22.25
163.12
1,292.85 1,283. 36
107.74

106.95

931. 48

60.74

No. 7

$93. 21
143. 75
90.09
60.80
131.40
53.85

$157.52
100.80
64.00
106.50
131.20
65.60
140.08
90.85
109.60
126. 52
109.51
145. 42

67.55

112. 26

103.98
163.12

1 2 .0
,0 0 1

728.87

77.62

No. 6

104.88

85.00

1,347. 6
112. 30

40.— Distribution, on basis of weekly earnings, of colored union longshore
workers in N e w Orleans, 1926
Number having classified weekly earnings
Weekly wage group

August Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­
ber
ber
ber
(average, (average, (average, (average,
5 weeks) 2 weeks) 4 weeks) 4 weeks) (average,
4 weeks)

Under $10_______________________________________
$10 and under $15________________________________
$15 and under $20_______________ ______ __________
$20 and under $25............................ .............................
$25 and over_____________________________________

7
31
29

8
g

1
11

22

1

13
14

53
4

19
43

Total....................................................................

70

65

69

70

2

2
6

5
5

11

35
13
69

Houston and Galveston

In the two Texas ports, Houston and Galveston, nearly all foreign
and intercoastal cargoes are handled by members of the union locals,
the work being divided more or less equally between the white and
colored longshoremen. The total ^membership of each local is kept
within certain limits, and a rotation system is used by the locals,




91

FOREIGN A.ND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

which helps to distribute the work and the earnings of the men as
r
equitably as possible considering the abnormal seasonal and other
fluctuations in the demand for longshore labor. The worst of these
fluctuations are due to the guaranteed sailings on the 1st and 15th
of each month. There is probably no other single cause which creates
more hardships to the dock operators, stevedore companies, and long­
shoremen alike than this practice of guaranteed semimonthly sailings.
A union representative of Houston describes the situation thus:
With 10 days of idleness during the first part of the month, followed by 5 days
of rush which taxes the ingenuity of the business agent under obligation to supply
the men when wanted,, we have a condition which we shall never be in a position
to overcome. It is entirely unreasonable to expect two to three hundred men to
remain idle day after day with the expectation of working perhaps two or three
days in the middle of the month and then as many days at the end of the month.
During the first and the third weeks of the month only a very small percentage
of the men are working, and for almost half of the second and the fourth weeks
there is work for only one-half of our membership. During the remaining parts
of the second and the fourth weeks, however, most of the men work day and
night, and still there are often ships for which we can not supply enough labor.
Although the men are crowded to the very limit of their endurance, much of the
work must be turned over to nonunion casuals, with resulting inefficiency to the
companies and reductions in the total earnings of the regular longshoremen.

Table 41 represents the individual monthly earnings of four gangs
(of 10 men each) of white longshoremen in the port of Houston for
the whole year of 1927. ^
Table 42 represents the earnings of 10 colored
gangs (of 10 men each) in Galveston, given by semimonthly periods
from September 17, 1927, to April 15, 1928, inclusive; this period
covers almost the entire cotton season. Because of the rotation
system used by the local unions the earning;s of these gangs are fairly
representative of the earnings of the other men in the two ports.
In Houston the earnings vary from $38.69 for the month of July
to $179.46 in January, with an average of about $100 per month.
The earnings for the 2-week period in Galveston vary from $16.50
to $119.16, thus reflecting the fluctuations in the demand for long­
shore labor. For the entire period, however, the average earnings
of the Galveston men show a variation from $32.16 to $33.74 per
man per week, thus clearly indicating the effects of the earnings
equalization scheme used by the union.
Table 41.— Monthly earnings of four gangs1 of white longshoremen in Houston,
Tex., 1927
Monthly earnings per man in—
X IOiltu
V
Gang No. 1 Gang No. 2 Gang No. 3 Gang No. 4
January___________________________________________
February__________________________________________
March____________________________________________
April____ _________________________________________
M ay______________________________________________
June______________________________________________
July....................................................................................
August____________________________________________
September________________________________________
October___________________________________________
November_________________________________________
December_________________________________________

$147.15
121.91
136.70
74.16
105.04
39.68
53.45
79.93
118.80
142.34

Total........................................................................
Average per month_________________________________

*10 men per gang.




55.50

$179.46
98.21
146.67
109.46
62.88
60.69
55.69
82.19
121.36
139.30
132.88
83.03

$47.22
130.18
119.90
96.04
60.21
62.23
53.34
91.51
98.19
145.15
138.50
69.86

$145.46
143.02
120.95
70.71
93.15
60.82
38.69
107.22
127.74
136.28
106.65
109.10

1,195.86

1,271.82

1,112.33

1,259.79

99.66

105.99

92.69

104.98

121.20

92

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TT. S.

T a b le

42.— Semimonthly earnings of 10 gangs1 of colored longshoremen in Galves­
ton, Tex., September 17, 1927, to April 15, 1928
Semimonthly earnings per man in—

2-week period

Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang Gang
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7 No. 8 No. 9 No. 10

Sept. 17 to Oct. 2, 1927_______ $60.29 $64.77 $59.09 $62.57 $50.78 $79.40 $51.39 $72.48
Oct. 3 to Oct. 15, 1927.............. 78.32 90.38 64.08 80.96 91.60 53.61 92.12 72.88
Oct. 16 to Nov. 1, 1927............. 95.07 116.37 102.24 94.15 94.42 119.16 69.62 85.64
Nov. 2 to Nov. 14, 1927.......... . 57.50 17.20 50.00 50.86 38.74 41.20 55.38 57. 56
Nov. 15 to Dec. 2, 1927............ 66.35 61.28 69.69 63.41 78.26 85.00 83.93 80.64
Dec. 3 to Dec. 17,1927..... ........ 45.03 43.40 44.63 48.50 25.75 22.34 39.73 16.50
Dec. 18,1927, to Jan. 1,1928— . 66.87 60.79 41.46 44.05 51.60 55.90 63.60 60.63
Jan. 2 to Jan. 16, 1928________ 48.87 53.42 91.62 53.89 52.33 76.85 72.87 73.94
Jan. 17 to Feb. 1,1928............. 59.55 57.43 25.52 53.94 55.84 22.77 45.91 44.67
Feb. 2 to Feb. 14, 1928............. 63.97 72.06 54.85 76.17 78.71 74.64 52.70 64.88
Feb. 15 to Feb. 29, 1928........ . 96.26 66.08 96.26 69.98 70.28 86.92 108.22 78.77
Mar. 1 to Mar. 16, 1928......... . 62.48 93.52 66.08 84.18 95.16 110.99 54.74 101.12
Mar. 17 to Apr. 1, 1928_______ 80.26 55.97 68.18 67.94 52.17 34.98 84.85 38.86
Apr. 2 to Apr. 15, 1928_______ 63.92 77.22 66.79 62.46 73.06 62.91 49.14 72.94

$73.72 $70.36
74.80
77.97
64.91
68.07
76.02
73.71
76.10
59.20
32.70
58.46
47.66
61.30
114.93
56.86
22.85
59.41
76.17
46.89
70.33
63.37
119.10 105.71
42.05
53.96
61.76
63.10

Total (28 weeks)_______ 94474 929.89 900.49 913.06 908.70 926.67 924.20 921.51 927.84

943.63

33.14

33.70

\verage per week___________

1 10 men per gang.

33.74

33.21

32.16

32.61

32.45

33.10

33.01

32.91

Seattle

Seattle has the distinction of being the first port in the United
States to introduce a system of decasualization for its water front,
which became effective in 1921. The men are listed at the central
employment office called the “ dispatching hall” and are classified
into longshoremen proper (those working either on the deck or in the
hold of the ship) and truckers working on the pier. The longshoremen
proper are organized into gangs of 10 men each and are subdivided
into three groups: (1) Company gangs definitely assigned to one
shipping or stevedore company; (2) hall or reserve gangs to be dis­
patched from the central employment office as needed; and (3) casual
men to be called upon only when all other longshoremen are already
occupied. The truckers are also divided into registered truckers,
regularly dispatched from the hall, and casual workers, to be used
only when additional need for truckers arises.
The principle of dividing the work for the purpose of equalizing the
earnings of the men is applied to the company and hall gangs and to
the registered truckers. Thus, no company gang is supposed to earn
more than a certain maximum per week if the earnings of the hall
gangs are falling below a certain minimum. The “ casuals,” however,
are definitely told that they will get work only in case of demand for
additional labor. They are free to work anywhere outside the water
front, but the registered men are required either to be present in the
dispatching hall, as is the case with all truckers, or to be ready for
work on very short notice. In November, 1926, the membership of the
dispatching hall in Seattle was as follows:
Number

Longshoremen proper:
of m
en
Registered longshoremen (33 gangs)______ ______________ 338
Extra registered men----------------------------------------------------- 260
Casual workers_________________________________________ 93
Total__________________ ________ _____________________"691
Truckers:
Registered truckers_____________________________________ 189
Casual truckers________________________________________
75
Total._______ ______ __________________ ______ _______ ” 264




Total membership------------ -------- --------------------------------- 955

93

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

The dispatching hall keeps a complete daily record of all the men
dispatched for work, as well as a record of the individual earnings of
the men which is used for the earnings equalization plan. It also has
a central pay station, which enables the' men to receive in one sum
their earnings from all the companies for which they worked during
the week. A strict rotation system applies to all the registered men
except the company gangs and keeps their earnings on a more or less
equal basis from month to month. Table 43 shows the actual monthly
earnings of all the hall or reserve gangs for the year 1925. While
these vary from $88, made by Gang No. 17 during January, to $244
made by Gang No. 11 during April, the average monthly earnings of
all the gangs for the whole year, however,, vary only from $153.33 to
$162.10. These variations are comparatively small, and disappear
altogether, as the scheme of earnings equalization is carried on not
only from month to month but from year to year.
Table 43.— Monthly earnings of hall or reserve gangs1 in Seattle, 1925
Monthly earnings per man fn—
Month
Gang
No. 1
January___
February...
March____
April..........
M ay...........
June............
July............
August.......
September..
October___
November..
December..

$149.00
157.00
176.00
219.00
118.00
115.00
138.00
127.00
180.00
167.00
167.00
171.00

$115.00
186.00
141.00
209.00
168.00
118.00
144.00
132.00
169.00
180.00
175.00
152.00

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 8

$111.00 $122.00 $115.00 $184.00 $120.00 $135.00

Gang
No. 9

142.00
177.00
212.00
131.00
109.00
150.00
131.00
178.00
173.00
164.00
166.00

$143.00
124.00
168.00
209.00
134.00
138.00
162.00
119.00
163.00
161.00
185.00
134.00

Total............ . 1,884.00 1,889.00 1,840.00 1,857.00 1,933.00 1,874.00 1,856.00 1 868.00

1,840.00

Average per month.

157.00

157.42

164.00
169.00
189.00
149.00
126.00
158.00
127.00
167.00
162.00
188.00
130.00

153.33

159.00
177.00
169.00
160.00
154.00
115.00
153.00
168.00
184.00
161.00
135.00

154.75

152.00
249.00
177.00
147.00
142.00
122.00
155.00
170.00
194.00
163.00
147.00

161.08

124.00
189.00
185.00
130.00
113.00
167.00
134.00
162.00
181.00
159.00
146.00

156.17

156.00
193.00
183.00
159.00
116.00
160.00
132.00
166.00
163.00
142.00
166.00

,

154.67

155.67

153.33

Monthly earnings per man in Month

Gang
No. 13

Gang
No. 14

Gang
No. 15

Gang
No. 16

Gang
No. 17

Gang
No. 18

$151.00
January___________ $120.00 $138.00
133.00
151.00
February_________
159.00
March____________ 154.00
157.00 ~$i66."00’ 208.00
April_____________
222.00 244.00 214.00 179.00
148.00
May______________ 151.00
141.00
147.00
111.00 120.00
June______________ 168.00
107.00
117.00
130.00
159.00
132.00
July______________
159.00
126.00
129.00
148.00
August___________
164.00
166.00
199.00
172.00
September________
195.00
171.00
198.00
October___________ 160.00
144.00
147.00
166.00
November________
156.00
159.00
179.00
178.00
December_________ 181.00

$147.00

$135.00
147.00
178.00
197.00
132.00

$133.00
152.00
151.00
213.00
117.00
140.00
143.00
154.00
157.00
181.00
141.00
195.00

$88.00
145.00
177.00
196.00
151.00
144.00
129.00
130.00
184.00
168.00
156.00
182.00

$142.00
157.00
173.00
190.00
132.00
138.00
153.00

Total_______ 1,921.00 1,905.00 21,621.00 1,877.00 1,908.00 1,854.00 1,877.00 1,850.00

1,883.00

Average per month.

Gang
No. 10

160.08

Gang
No. 11

Gang
No. 12

158.75 2162.10

110 men in a gang.

156.42

120.00
222.00

192.00
141.00
134.00
170.00
126.00
171.00
159.00
174.00
152.00

159.00

120.00

130.00
132.00
158.00
184.00
179.00
162.00

154.50

156.42

154.17

112.00

189.00
186.00
154.00
157.00

156.92

210 months only.

The earnings of the company gangs are somewhat higher than those
of the hall or reserve gangs, as these men have the right at any time
to be transferred back to the list of the reserve gangs. The earnings




94

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

of the truckers, on the other hand, are considerably lower, because
their rate of pay is 10 cents per hour lower than those of the regular
longshoremen. The earnings of the registered truckers for 1925
varied from $107 for the month of June to $137 for the month of
April. The casual longshoremen earned for the year 1926 an average
of $1,087.85, or a monthly average of $90.67, while the casual truckers
earned a monthly average of only $60.17. But even these lowest
figures, for the casual men, are considerably higher than the average
of the port before decasualization was put into effect.
Tacoma

In Tacoma all the longshoremen are organized into two union
locals affiliated with the International Longshoremen’s Association.
The larger local composed of freight handlers has a membership of
about* 600, while the other composed of lumber handlers has about
200. The original distinction between the two locals—the nature of
the cargo handled by the members—has been abolished, and members
of either local now handle both lumber and general cargo. About
50 per cent of the membership of the two locals are of Scandinavian
origin.
There is no written agreement between the organization of em­
ployers and the two union locals, but an understanding exists, by
virtue of which the employers agree to choose their longshore labor
from the ranks of the organized workers exclusively. The freight
handlers’ local has a large commodious dispatching hall, and the
hiring of the men takes place in this hall. Each morning and after­
noon the foremen of the stevedore companies come to the hall, pick
their men, and order them out to the docks, where they are formed
into gangs before going to work. The stevedore foremen are not
hampered in their choice of the individual men, and some men in­
variably get more work than others. Although the two locals restrict
their membership to a definite number of men, the port of Tacoma
can not be classified among the decasualized ports. ^
The rates of wages and conditions of work are similar to those in
Seattle. The employers have a central pay station where the long­
shoremen are paid off once a week for all work done during the week.
The work, however, is not divided equally among the men, and their
earning's, varying from $1,000 and less to $2,400 and over per year,
bear witness to the existing inequalities. Table 44 shows the distri­
bution of the total yearly earnings of 222 longshoremen selected
from among the more steady workers. The average yearly earnings
for these men were $1,613 in 1927, $1,616 in 1928, and $1,766 in
1929. The other men not included in this table earned considerably
less than these averages.




95

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE
T a b l e 44.
—

Classified yearly earnings of longshoremen in Tacoma , 1927, 1928,
and 1929
Number having classified yearly
earnings
Wage group
1927

1928

Under $1,000............................ ........................ ........... ............ ............
$1,000 and under $1,200_________________________________________
$1,200 and under $1,400________________ ____ ____________________
$1,400 and under $1,600_________________________________________
$1,600 and under $1,800___________ ______________________ _____
$1,800 and under $2,000____ ______________ _______ ____________
$2,000 and under $2,200! __________ _______________ ___ _______
_
$2,200 and under $2,400- ______ __________________________ _____
_____ _______ ________ ________ _____________
$2,400 and over____

37
34
30
38
26

Total___________ _______________________ ___ ___ _________
Average for year_______________________________________________

19

21

1929
19
23
37
33
31
34

12
12

28
31

22

13

12

46
29
23
19

222

222

222

$1,613

$1,616

$1,766

10
7

20

Portland

Portland, Oreg., inaugurated its scheme of decasualization in 1923.
In Portland there is no segregation between longshoremen proper and
truckers, all the men being classified as longshoremen, at equal rates of
pay^ also, there are no individual company gangs. The labor force
consists of 300 so-called “ permanent” men, divided into 25 gangs
of 12 men each. These are considered the backbone of the organiza­
tion and are given the preference on all work. Then there are about
400 so-called “ extra board” men from whom extra gangs are formed
when needed. These men are also used to supplement the permanent
gangs when additional truckers are needed, as well as to replace the
absentees in the gangs. Finally, there are about 400 casual workers
also registered at the hall, but these are dispatched only when all the
regular men are already working.
The dispatching hall uses a rotation system for the purpose of
equalizing the earnings of all the permanent gangs. Every month
the earnings of the individual gangs are checked and the gang with
the lowest earnings is placed first on the list, followed by the next
to the lowest, etc. These earnings, however, do not include the
additional amounts^ earned by the men when working outside of the
gang or when working in any of the Columbia River ports which are
outside of the jurisdiction of the dispatching hall.
Table 45 shows the average monthly earnings of the 25 permanent
gangs for the 5-year period, 1924 to 1928. In 1928 the average low
rate was $127.05 and the average high rate was $146.95. The
“ extra board” men, for whom no figures are kept, earned less than
these gangs and the casual workers, of course, still less.




90
T a b le

CHAP. 3,

LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

45.— Average monthly earnings of 25 permanent gangs in Portland, Oreg.,

1924 to 1928

Average monthly earnings per man
Gang
1925

1924
Gang No. I ...
Gang No. 2.. .
Gang No. 3__.
Gang No. 4__.
Gang No. 5_.
Gang No. 6__
Gang No. 7__.
Gang No. 8__
Gang N o .9 _ .
Gang No. 10_.
Gang No. 11_.
Gang No. 12Gang No. 13_.
Gang No. 14-.
Gang No. 15Gang No. 16Gang No. 17_
Gang No. 18Gang No. 19Gang No. 20Gang No. 21 _
Gang No. 22Gang No. 23Gang No. 24Gang No. 25-

$149.08
145. 63
144. 28
142.90
145.23
149. 20
143. 09
152.96
148.47
143.02
142.73
144.75
152.16
149.83
143.38
155. 57
148.89
143.64
145.93
146.92
149.64
145.15
141.33
148.93
155. 73

2Average for 4 years.

$135. 29
135.88
132. 45
142.13
144.91
142. 69
136.77
143. 47
132.14
133. 63
119. 87
134. 24
143.08
139. 06
138.72
145.84
141.16
135.47
139. 66
136.03
140.17
145. 09
127.13
142. 70
141. 42

1926
$139. 47
136.17
138.89
156.81
149.39
141. 46
156.50
144.13
148.82
132.28
0)
142.28
139.53
137.12
135.79
149.88
143.82
0)
144.20
139.18
143.49
150.18
135.31
138. 51
148. 76

8Average for 3 years.

1927
$126.89
121. 78
121.76
128.65
132. 27
130.16
110. 84
126. 63
126. 00
113.93
(l)
124.20
128.90
(l)
124.43
131.72
120.17
(l)
126.33
128.04
124.05
127.92
127.83
118. 56
133.17

1928
$135.80
127. 05
127.98
146. 95
138. 91
133.33
135.85
143.65
143.29
0)
140.00
132.20
139. 24
141. 00
134.88
132. 27
140.27
(l)

139.84
140.80
142.44
137.18
135.19
129.78
142.74

1924-1928
$137.31
133.30
133.07
143.49
142.14
139.37
136.61
142.17
139.74
2130.72
3 134. 20
135. 53
140. 58
2 141. 75
135. 44
143.06
138.86
* 139. 56
139.19
138.19
139.96
141.10.
133.36
135.70
144.36

‘ Average for 2 years.

The dispatching hall operates a central pay office, all the men,
irrespective of their place of work, being paid off there. In addi­
tion, it also operates a loan fund from which money is advanced to
the individual men on their brass checks and from which aid is given
to sick and injured workers.
In neither Seattle nor Portland, however, do the schemes of
decasualization cover all the longshore workers in the ports. # Both
plans were organized against the opposition of the local unions of
the International Longshoremen’s Association, and in both ports
there still remain a considerable number of men who refuse to accept
the plan. These remain on the water front accepting work here and
there, particularly from such organizations as the United States
Shipping Board or the port authorities, which because of their official
position have adopted an attitude of neutrality as between the
dispatching hall and the union locals.
San Francisco

San Francisco is the only large port on the Pacific coast which
has not been decasualized. The employers' organization has an
agreement with the Longshoremen’s Association of San Francisco by
which members of the association are given preference for work in
port. Of a total of approximately 5,000 men registered with this
organization, about 3,000 pay regular dues and are active on the
beach. #Some of these men are permanently employed by individual
companies; others, of course, are compelled to look for work along
the entire waterfront. The longshoremen “ shape” oncea day at
the foot of Market Street, where the hiring foremen “ pick” their
men and order them to report at the respective piers or dispatch




97

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

them in trucks to the more distant piers. Here, as in other ports
which have not been decasualized, it is impossible to establish even
approximately the average weekly earnings of the men in the port
as a whole.
The trend of the earnings of the permanent men, however, may be
determined from Table 46, representing 10 of the 15 permanent
gangs of 18 men each employed by Company H and 8 permanent
gangs employed by Company I.
T a b le

46.— Monthly earnings of 10 permanent gangs1 of longshoremen employed
by two companies in San Francisco, 1926
Company H
Monthly earnings per man in—

Month
Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

January.................... $163.00 $174.00
February.................. 164.00 171.00
March...................... 207.00 232.00
April......................... 165.00 187.00
May.......................... 139.00 127.00
June.......................... 226.00 238.00
July.......................... 197.00 163.00
August...................... 230.00 227.00
September................ 174.00 149.00
October.................... 186.00 178.00
November................ 281.00 255.00
December................. 176.00 165.00

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

$35.00 $149.00
136.00 183.00
247.00 221.00
158.00 180.00
159.00 137.00
188.00 238.00
150.00 198.00
200.00 218.00
141.00 171.00
175.00 208.00
243.00 281.00
168.00 173.00

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 9

Gang
No. 8

$184.00 $121.00 $158.00 $110.00
230.00 207.00 156.00 123.00
255.00 216.00 199.00 239.00
166.00 166.00 143.00 150.00
166.00 152.00 119.00 172.00
209.00 231.00 200.00 147.00
166.00 194.00 105.00 150.00
251.00 127.00 138.00 242.00
155.00 183.00 102.00 122.00
209.00 196.00 74.00
80.00
253.00 291.00 233.00
5.00
182.00 183.00 93.00

Gang
No. 10

$76.00 $96.00
138.00
207.00 ""i3i.‘ 5o
163.00 103.00
150.00
36.00
161.00 135.00
76.00 151.00
233.00 185.00
129.00 107.00
199.00 106.00
210.00 266.00
177.00 115.00

Total.............. 2,308.00 2,266.00 2, 000.00 2,357.00 2,426.00 2,267.00 1,720.00 1,540.00 1,919.OOjl, 431.00
Average per month—

192.33

188.83

166.67

196.42

202.17

188.92

143.33

128.33

159.92

119.25

Company I
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 8

January____________ $168.54
February___________
164.14
March_____________
188.76
April...........................
140.41
M ay_______________
195.98
128.08
June_______________
July____ __________
139.51
August_____________ • 200.94
172.13
September_________
215.67
October____________
November__________
170.90
190.37
December__________

$182. 71
164.26
172.60
160.11
183.83
134.33
139.73
195.07
167.19
234.80
166.39
197.34

$196.44
164.27
190.14
149.87
182.39
158.87
112. 74
217.81
149.68
215.34
182.72
209.26

$159.99
173.36
180.46
155.48
185.19
138.84
131.19
194.86
159.09
211.52
200.49
186.09

$185.79
158.24
187.47
160.31
195.10
137.73
116.34
219.63
160.11
201.95
171.45
206.80

$167.64
150.53
186.99
154.37
204.76
134.25
129. 36
207.15
151. 66
217.91
183.30
187.89

$158.43
174.65
172.13
171.01
193.97
151.69
111. 84
219.40
157.51
208.01
176.52
206.35

$183.17
146.49
176.41
155.49
207.24
150.08

Total_________ 2,075.43

2,098.36

2,129.53

2,076.56 |2,100.92

2,075.81

2,101.51

2,096.03

172.95

174.86

177.46

172.98

175.13

174.67

Average per month...

Gang
No. 1

173.05

175.08

122.88

217.60
155.49
211.19
176.97
193.02

118 men per gang.

The monthly averages of the 10 gangs of Company H show a range
from $119.25 for Gang No. 10 to $202.17 for Gang No. 5. Company I
uses a regular rotation scheme for its employees, and every week and




98

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN TJ. S.

every month the list of the gangs is so rearranged as to give the gang
with the lowest earnings the first chance for work. The earnings of the
gangs are posted regularly on a bulletin board so that the men know
their standing in the rotation scheme. The average earnings of these
eight gangs for the year 1926 show variations from $172.95 per man
per month for gang No. 1 to $177.46 per man per month for gang
No. 3. The small range shows the results of the equalization scheme
used by the company.
There is, however, no check on the earnings of the casual men,
whose numbers often are considerably larger than those in the per­
manent gangs. The data below, which were taken from the pay
rolls of Company K, give an approximate idea of the actual distri­
bution of the earnings of the casual and permanent men combined.
There were 354 longshoremen who worked for this company eight
weeks or more during the year 1926.
Number
of men

Weekly earnings

Under $10__________________________________________________ _12
$10 to $14.99_______________________________________________ _38
$15 to $19.99_______________________________________________ _62
$20 to $24.99_______________________________________________ _85
$25 to $29.99_______________________________________________ _63
$30 to $34.99_______________________________________________ _43
$35 and over________ _______ _______ _______ _______________ _51
Total________________________________________________ 354

The statement below shows the distribution of the same men, on
the basis of the number of weeks worked for this company:
Number
of men

8 to 11 weeks_______________________________________________ _16
12 to 15 weeks______________________________________________ _49
16 to 19 weeks______________________________________________ _30
20 to 23 weeks______________________________________________ _29
24 to 27 weeks______________________________________________ _28
28 to 31 weeks___________ __________________________________ _26
32 to 35 weeks______________________________________________ _21
36 to 39 weeks______________________________________________ _26
40 to 43 weeks______________________________________________ _24
44 to 47 weeks______________________________________________ _18
48 weeks and over__________________________________________ _87
Total___ _____ _______________________________________354

#The above figures, showing some men in every one of the wage or
time groups, speak of conditions similar to those found in the Atlantic
ports. The same inequalities in distribution of work and in the
corresponding earnings exist in San Francisco as in New York or
Baltimore. Here also the practices of some companies in keeping
permament gangs merely result in very high earnings for the privileged
men, with correspondingly low earnings for all other longshoremen.
Los Angeles

The port of Los Angeles was decasualized in 1922. It is the only
port in the United States whose scheme of decasualization applies to
all longshoremen in port. All the men are registered in the Marine
Service Bureau, which is the central dispatching hall of the port.
In 1929 the men were divided into the following groups: ’




99

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE
Ship men (regular longshoremen):
61 gangs_____________________________________________
6 shoveling gangs___________________________________

Number
of men

549
54

67 gangs_____________________________________________

603

Dock men:
89 gangs_____________________________________________
Special steady men___________________________________

554
50

Total______________________________________________

604

Lumbermen:
Steady men__________________________________________
Extra men___________________________________________

95
175

Total______________________________________________

270

Casual workers (ship, dock, and lumber)_________________

151

Total number of registered men____________________

1, 628

The majority of these men are assigned to individual companies,
the number sent to each being determined by the ability of the com­
pany to supply more or less steady work to the men assigned to it.
The workers retain their right to return to the hall-gang list if earnings
are unsatisfactory or for any other valid reason. Each company is
therefore required to keep a record of the earnings of their men, and
since October, 1929, the Marine Service Bureau has been supplied
by these companies with daily reports of the hours worked ana the
earnings for all the ship gangs.
Table 47 shows the earnings of the 61 permanent ship gangs for the
seven months from October, 1929, to April, 1930, inclusive. These
late figures are shown here because total figures for the entire port are
not available for any previous period. # In spite of the trade depression,
which must have affected the shipping in this port as in the other
ports, the seven months’ average earnings of these gangs, varying
from $126.62 to $199 per man per month, are considerably higher
than at any other port.
T a b le

47.— Earnings of 61 gangs of longshoremen in Los Angeles, in specified
months, 1929 and 1930
Earnings per man per month
1929

Average
Total
earnings
earnings
per
month

1930

Gang
October Novem­ Decem­ January Febru­
ary
ber
ber

March

April

Company L
Gang No. 1............ $177.53
Gang No. 2............ 180.57
Gang No. 3............ 182.59
Gang No. 4............ 168.30
Gang No. 5............ 184.17
Gang No. 6............ 208.80
Gang No. 7............ 180.90
Gang No. 8............ 169.77
Gang No. 9............ 180.23
Gang No. 10.......... 161.10
Gang No. 11.......... 169.20




$199.24
186.44
206.89
194.13
201.27
244.02
180.79
200.03
197.89
182.37
173.71

$220.95
192.38
231.19
219.94
218.37
207.00
180.68
230.29
215.55
194.63
178.20

$185.40
184.05
201.83
212.40
201.15
180.90
182.70
174.83
185.85
176.63
190.58

$154.80
151.88
185.40
162.00
171.00
147.27
155.70
170.10
133.20
170.67
173.93

$205.09
216.00
202.05
192.38
167.18
230.97
216.45
199.80
199.80
232.20
187.20

$176.63 $1,319.64
175.84 1,287.16
183.04 1,392.99
189.34 1,338.49
207.12 1,350.26
170.78 1,389.74
194.40 1,291.62
174.38 1,319.20
177.75 1,290.27
160.88 1,278.48
178.20 1,251.02

$188.52
183.88
199.00
191.21
192.89
198.53
184.52
188.46
184.32
182.64
178.72

100

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

T a b le

47. Earnings of 61 gangs of longshoremen in Los Angeles, in specified
—
months, 1929 and 1980— Continued
Earnings per man per month
1929

Gang

1930

October Novem- Decem­ January Febru­
ber
ber
ary

March

April

Average
earnings
Total
earnings
per
month

Company M
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

$187.54
168.81
185.08
182.14
171.79
176.74
164.54
179.51
189.64

$165.83 $145.80
153.79
141.98
146.03
163.69
138.38
170.55
127.58
156.94
154.80
140.18
145.02
130.73
125.78
157.17
148.73
146.25

$124.99
156.72
164.03
174.38
162.45
174.49
170.67
146.77
158.63

$150.75
141.98
156.60
160.65
156.94
153.00
153.90
176.85
166.73

$173.48 $1,158.99
169.77 1,128.69
170.44 1,192.31
172.80 1,192.63
164.14 1,126.49
178.54 1,176.43
181.69 1.131.95
165.04 1.152.95
164.37 1,204.98

$165.57
161.24
170.33
170.38
160.93
168.06
161.71
164.71
172.14

$253.13 $203.74 $161.55 $188.78 $155.25 $147.60 $150.08 $1,260.13
205.43
127.58
142.65
166.73
175.50
151. 65 168.30 1,137.84
222.30
177.30
199.80
162.79
177.30
142.43
153.23 1.235.15
248.85
162.57
152.78
200.37
147.83
136.13
137.82 1,186.35
209.03
175.17
175.28
243.79
158.40
156.83
144.23 1,262.73
255.04
201.21
148.28
173.70
168.08
187.65
160.23 1,294.19
176.85
171.00
179.55
243.45
201.20
139.28
147.83 1.259.16
141.53
160.99
147.60
209.82
175.67
146.59
128.48 1 110.68
250.54
205.61
161.55
165.15
167.40
137.93
151.65 1,239.83
218.37
149.18
168.08
167.85
183.77
129.83
148.95 1,166.03
160.43
145.01
165.83
129.60 151.77
119.70
147.60 1,019.94
153.23
146.03
256.62
264.16
153.45
144.68
166.73 1,284.90

$180.02
162.55
176.45
169.48
180.39
184.88
179.88
158.67
177.12
166.58
145.71
183.56

$210.60
195.64
206.44
193.73
186.64
198.68
185.40
201.83
230.63

Company N
Gang No. 21Gang No. 22Gang No. 23..
Gang No. 24..
Gang No. 25..
Gang No. 26..
Gang No. 27..
Gang No. 28..
Gang No. 29..
Gang No. 30..
Gang No. 31..
Gang No. 32-

,

Company O
Gang No. 33..
Gang No. 34..

$163.69
175.73

$154.14
152.34

$132.64
141.08

$127.58
106.65

$162.45
142.88

$141.75
136. 69

$140.07 $1,022.32
142.99
998.36

$146.05
142.62

$157.50 $180.23 $203.13 $179.55 $180.00 $225.90 $164.70 $1,291.01
157.15
140.85
175.05
172.80
168. 75 208.35
180.45 1, 203.40
140.85
147.83
154.80
162.45
167.85
192.60
153.00 1,119.38
147.60
167.63
187.65
181.35
188.10
220.95
193.95 1,287.23
174.15
131.94
181.35
172.35
156. 60
193.05
170.10 1,179.54
184.95
127.80
156.38
142. 65
166. 50
197.10
156.15 1,131.53
129.15
132.98
136.80
126.90
135.90
162.90
135.00
959.63

$184.43
171.91
159.91
183.89
168.51
161.65
137.09

Company P
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.
Gang No.

353637..
38..
39..
40..
41..

Company Q
Gang No. 42..
Gang No. 43..
Gang No. 44..
Gang No. 45..
Gang No. 46..

$263.59
241.54
239.74
238.62

$225. 68 $187.77 $120.60
168.08
114.80
210. 16 178.77 122.94
207. 51
175.28
128.03
212. 18 185.74 127.35

___ _

$107. 67
102.27
120.27
108.45
112.05

$122.85
141.30
155.25
142.65
155.70

$123. 19 $1,151.35
117. 45
643.90
132. 30 1,161.23
113. 40 1,115.06
125. 10 1,156.74

$164.48
128.78
165.89
159.29
165.25

$142.65 $135.90 $123.30 $132.30 $133.43 $1,007.35
140.97
128.14
123.87
125.55
130.62
951.50
141.42
136.58
128.59
136.92
144.23 1,020.54
133.77
131.29
128.48
130.50
132.75
995.54
113.07
129.27
118.80
138.15
135.00
934.50
124.43
122.74
123.30
131.85
136.02
937.66
126.12
129.83
131.85
128.37
132.98
981.21
113. 85
123.53
125.44
141.30
127.69
900.69
141.87
118.24
125.10
133.77
136.02
963.14
115.32
132.64
117.00
131.40
139.17
930.71
118.24
118.92
138.15
118.24
127.80
886.31
123.37
136.13
129.27
131.40
140.63
991.48
121.05
124.54
132.08
132.30
130.73
949.70
124.88
123.75
146.25
137.25
135.23
961.72
123.98
143.10
129.38
136.13
135.90
979.00

$143.91
135.93
145.79
142.22
133.50
133.95
140.17
128.67
137.59
132.96
126.62
141.64
135.67
137.39
139.86

Extra gangs i
Gang No. 47..
Gang No. 48Gang No. 49..
Gang No. 60..
Gang No. 61..
Gang No. 52Gang No. 53..
Gang No. 54..
Gang No. 55Gang No. 56Gang No. 57..
Gang No. 58..
Gang No. 59Gang No. 60..
Gang No. 61-

$178.99 $160.78
147.77
154.58
158.08
174.72
157.51
181.24
137.76
162.45
141.25
158.07
152.73
179.33
141. 30
127. 58
146.70
161.44
158.67
136.51
127.71
137.25
151.35
179.33
143.35
165.65
147.49
146.87
145.13
165.38

1 Rotated from company to company.




101

FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL TRADE

As a check on the above figures, in Table 48 are shown the 1926
earnings of the gangs assigned to two companies. The average
monthly earnings vary for one company from $144.47 to $175.94 and
for the other from $155.16 to $208.31 per man—averages which are
substantially higher than for the 7-month period shown above.
Although the truckers earn much less than the permanent gangs,
and the casual men considerably less, the average earnings of the
longshoremen in the port of Los Angeles are undoubtedly higher
ana more equitably distributed than in any other port in the United
States.
T a b le 48.
—

Monthly earnings of 16 gangs 1 of longshoremen assigned to two com­
panies in Los Angeles, 1926
Company R
Monthly earnings per man in—

Month

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

Gang
No. 6

Gang
No. 7

Gang
No. 8

$195.60
164.67
162.79
191.20
166.09
203.78
129.10
183.03
186.38
142.72
178.49
206.77

$209.99
232.34
158.52
259.65
169.67
216.63
169.45
179.61
21& 43
177.33
170.51
217.02

$190.25
174.83
176.64
228.83
164.03
222.81
190.77
149.44
188.72
189.06
162.14
217.27

$211.28
204.74
196.01
302.50
189.32
219.04
161.32
174.72
222.96
184.82
187.44
228.42

$218.67
195.56
200.51
297.95
190.32
232.22
159.92
164.98
253.08
177.04
188.04
221.37

$199.93
209.14
191.80
238.71
181.13
224.59
169.58
154.12
212.14
192.84
217.47
223.72

$140.33
161.62
149.25
180.08
153.88
162.15
117.44
132.89
197.63
139.59
143.13
183.95

Gang
No. 1

January__________ $225.53
February_________
158.18
March____________ 201.76
April_____________ 285.41
M ay______________ 199.03
June______________ 216.01
July______________ 170.25
158.58
August___________
September________ 199.18
October___ _______ 187.23
November________
191.37
December_________ 230.46

Gang
No. 9
$188.67
165.11
135.24
192.84
141.37
197.45
150.11
114.36
196.11
138.45
143.94
183.64

Total_______ 2,422.99 2, 110. 62 2,377.15 2,254.79 2,482.57 2,499.66 2,415.17 1,861.94 1,947.29
Average per month.

201.92

175.89

198.10

187.90

206.88

208.31

201.26

155.16

162.27

Company S
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month

Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

January...................
February-................
March......................
April........................
M ay........................
June.........................
July.........................
August.....................
September...............
October....................
November...............
December.—i .........

$171.34
152.50
185.96
162.03
154.79
182.29
155.60
142.35
204.51
207.61
180.95
211.31

$162.04
172.39
144.89
165.63
149.28
161.52
169.33
143.42
185.36
179. 74
163.98
215.07

$151.65
138.42
187.91
166.86
159.03
153.99
148.14
152.76
208.98
182.57
170.01
159.66

$162.97
158.12

Total..............

2, 111. 24

2,012.65

1,979.98

Average per month.

175.94

167.72

165.00




1 10 men in a gang.

Gang
No. 7

196.40
153.66
202.40

$161. 34
141.48
179.54
155.97
136.70
187.32
161.81
146.25
162.64
175.36
75.28
48.75

$165. 73
174.31
174.19
175.40
145.67
158.88
187.62
143.39
182.86
180.47
80.89

2,062.39

1,898.60

1,732.44

*1,769.41

171.87

158.22

144.47

2160.86

202.00

167.05
140.38
154.79
148.90
145.19
215.28
198.38
163.00
206.33

$167.70
136.10
169.98
133.50
96.94
153.23
135.94
152.54

Gang
No. 6

200.21

1 11 months.

102

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

Prospects of Decasualization
In view of the extreme differences in the systems of employing
longshore labor, particularly in the distribution of the work and the
earnings of the men on the water fronts of the three decasualized
ports—Seattle, Portland, and Los Angeles—as contrasted with the
other ports in the United States, it might be worth while to inquire
into the prospects of decasualizing the other ports. The question is
rather hard to answer because of certain complications in the relation­
ship between the employers of Seattle, Portland, and Los Angeles and
the International Longshoremen’s Association. It so happened that
Seattle, Portland, and Los Angeles adopted their schemes of decas­
ualization only after a long period of serious and violent labor clashes
which resulted in the defeat of the local unions, members of the in­
ternational. In none of the three ports is the union now considered
an important factor on the water front, and the employers refuse to
recognize the International Longshoremen’s Association ^ as the
representative of their men. The result is that the international, as
an organization, is definitely antagonistic to any scheme of decasuali­
zation, which it regards simply as a union-breaking medium.
That this is not necessarily the case, however, can be shown from
the experience of most of the decasualized European ports, particu­
larly Liverpool, where union labor is now an effective element in the
operation of the scheme of decasualization. From a neutral and
almost antagonistic observer at the inception of the plan in 1912, the
union has now become a most enthusiastic defender of the plan. On
the other hand, it must also be emphasized that the conditions in
Seattle, Portland, and Los Angeles are somewhat lacking in stability
because of the absence of a labor organization outside their dispatching
halls. The plans of decasualization there were originated and are
now managed almost exclusively by the employers, with the workers
having comparatively very little to say either in the management or
in the operation of the respective schemes.
In the eastemports not even the employers are unanimously in favor
of decasualizing their ports. It will therefore require a considerable
amount of education to get the union and the employers favorably
disposed to any scheme oi decasualization. Finally, not all the ports
in the country are ready for such reorganization. Certain ports can
be decasualized more quickly and more successfully than other ports.
Assuming a favorable attitude by both capital and labor, which must
be considered requisite for any effective scheme of decasualization,
the ports of Boston and Baltimore on the Atlantic coast, Houston and
Galveston on the Gulf, and San Francisco on the Pacific, offer the
most favorable conditions for a successful beginning. In all of these
ports the unions have a more or less definite limit on their member­
ship, which would make it comparatively simple to obtain a complete
registry of the longshoremen in the port. In Baltimore and in the
Texas ports the gang system is in vogue and is favorably regarded by
both the unions and employers; Houston and Galveston, and to
some extent San Francisco also, have systems of dividing the work
on a rotation basis, and Houston even has a central pay station for
all longshoremen. The relationship between the employers and the
local unions in these ports has been very cordial for a number of years,
and the ground has been thus prepared for an experiment in decas-




COASTWISE TRADE

103

ualization carried out by efforts of both sides. The details of the
schemes used will greatly depend on the local conditions in each port,
but the management must necessarily be vested in a central agency
consisting of representatives of employers and workers.
With these ports decasualized or even on the road toward decasu­
alization, New York and other ports will follow suit. A compre­
hensive system of decasualization for the port of New York was
proposed by the mayor’s committee on unemployment in 1916, but the
scheme failed of realization largely because it originated from sources
other than those actually engaged in the longshore industry. With
the organization of employers and the local unions in favor of such a
plan, New York too can be decasualized.

Longshore Labor Conditions in Coastwise Trade
Longshore labor conditions in the coastwise trade are considerably
different from those found in foreign and intercoastal shipping.
These differences are due primarily to the nature and characteristics of
the coastwise trade. Coastwise shipping is carried on by compara­
tively few regular lines. The ships cover a small number of ports
and on many occasions run between two ports only. They make
short and frequent voyages between ports, and their arrivals and
departures are kept strictly within schedule time. An occasional
storm or fog may delay the docking or the departure of a coastwise
vessel for a few hours or even for a whole day, but such interferences
are few and far between. All coastwise shipping companies operate
their own docks and do their own stevedoring. In the majority of
the ports the coastwise schedules are so arranged that there is a ship
in port either loading or discharging nearly every day. Longshore
work in the coastwise trade therefore is more regular from day So day
and less subject to the violent fluctuations which are the rule in
“ deep-water” shipping. Each shipping company usually has a per­
manent following of men to do the regular work of loading and dis­
charging the cargo. In many cases these permanent men report for
work daily at regular hours, and some men are paid on a weekly or
monthly basis. Additional workers, when needed, are hired either
from the shape at the gate of the pier or from the longshore dispatch­
ing hall, if the port has been decasualized.
Wage Rates of Coastwise Longshoremen
With the exception of the port of San Francisco, where coastwise
longshoremen are regular members of the Longshoremen’s Association
of San Francisco, there is no union now existing among the coastwise
longshoremen in the ports of the United States. On the west coast
there is no line drawn between coastwise workers and other groups of
longshore labor. The rate of wages is the same for all groups. In
Portland, Oreg., and Los Angeles coastwise workers are regular
members of the labor dispatching hall, and their work and earnings
are controlled by the same conditions which apply to other longshore
workers. In Seattle coastwise workers are not officially members of
the dispatching hall, but a definite understanding exists between the
company employing coastwise labor and the dispatching hall which
makes it possible when needed to dispatch labor from the hall to the




104

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

company, and vice versa. In the Atlantic ports and on the Gulf the
rates of wages for coastwise labor are generally lower than those for
longshoremen engaged in “ deep-water” shipping.
In 1928 the regular and overtime rates of wages for coastwise long­
shore labor in the different ports were as follows:
T able

49.— Rates of wages for coastwise longshore labor, by 'port

Port

Seattle________________________
Portland __ __________________
San Francisco____ ___ _________
Los Angeles___ _____________
Galveston......................... ...........
Houston _ _ . _ ___________
New Orleans______________ ___

Straight
time

Over­
time

$0.90
.90
.90
.90
.60
.60
.60

$1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
.90
.90
.90

Straight
time

Port

Savannah____ __________ ____
Charleston____________________
Norfolk_______________________
Baltimore. __________________
Philadelphia_________ _________
Boston_______________________
New York___________ ______

$0.40
.40
.40
.45
.50
.75
.75

Over­
time
$0.40
.60
.60
.65
.70

1.10
1.10

Earnings of Longshoremen in the Coastwise Trade
Tables 50 to 57 give the earnings of coastwise longshoremen in the
ports of Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Galveston, New Orleans,
Norfolk, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. On the west coast
coastwise longshoremen are arranged in gangs, and therefore the
earnings of the individual men for Seattle, San Francisco, and Los
Angeles are given by gangs. In Seattle a rotation scheme is used to
distribute the work among the 250 men employed by the coastwise
shipping company and the earnings of the six gangs shown in Table 50
may therefore be taken as representative of all coastwise longshoremen
in Seattle. While the actual monthly earnings of the individual men
in the six gangs are shown to vary from a low of $96.47 earned by the
men in Gang No. 3 during the four weeks of December to a high of
$226.23 earned by the men in Gang No. 4 during the five weeks of
July, 1926, the average weekly earnings for the whole year are shown
to vary only from $32.44 per man in Gang No. 6 to $37.50 per man
in Gang No. 5.
T able

50*— Monthly earnings of 6 gangs 1 of longshoremen in coastwise trade in
Seattle, 1926
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month
Gang
No. 1

January (5 weeks)-------------------------------February (4 weeks)------------------------- —
March (4 w e e k s ) .____________ ________
April (5 weeks)_______ ____ _____ _______
May (4 weeks)______________________ _
June (4 weeks)_________________________
July (5 weeks) -------------------- ------------ ..
August (4 weeks)____ __________________
September (4 weeks)___________________
October (5 weeks)____________________ .
November (4 weeks)__________ ____
December (4 weeks)
_____
Total (52 weektO. . .
Average per weak..

1 16 men in a gang.




Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

$132.59
97.10
153.98
154.30
118.86
142.85
199.09

162.90
209.31
133.61
105.22

$154.85
138.83
121.70
177.83
97.04
135.58
205.36
187.60
188.60
213.64
124.31
110.58

$152.02
130.46
154.61
156.55
127.95
124.02
193.20
193.88
148.56
178.17
132.46
96.47

$134.02
115.68
142.94
206.89
105.14
137. 66
226.23
185.51
163. 76
206.63
146.37
115.24

$154. 74
127.77
140.35
207.20
133.51
141.61
202.28
183.19
189.05
216.90
126.77
126. 66

I.K09.93

1.855.92

1. 788. 35

1,886.07

1,950. m

1,686.62

M SI
l,

35. *9

34. 39

36.27

37.50

32.44

200.12

Gang
No. 6
$146.39
125.96
130.26
148.75
110.75
117.86
167.28
191.34
157.03
162.49
126.87
101.64

105

COASTWISE TRADE

Table 51 gives the actual earnings of 20 gangs of coastwise long­
shoremen of San Francisco for the year 1926. Each gang consists of
15 men. Seventeen of these gangs are considered permanent gangs
and their average weekly earnings vary from $28.54 per man for Gang
No. 17 to $32.60 per man for Gang No. 10. The three remaining
gangs are used only when the permanent men are already engaged,
and their weekly averages vary from $20.47 to $22.55.
T a b le

51. Monthly earnings of 20 gangs1 of longshoremen in coastwise trade in
—
San Francisco, 1926
Earnings per man per month
Gang

April
January February March
June
May
July
(4 weeks) (4 weeks) (5 weeks) (4 weeks) (4 weeks) (5 weeks) (4 weeks)

Gang No. 1__________________
Gang No. 2............ .....................
Gang No. 3.................................
Gang No. 4.................................
Gang No. 5__________ ________
Gang No. 6....... ............ ............
Gang No. 7________ __________
Gang No. 8........................... ......
Gang No. 9.......... ............... ......
Gang No. 10________________ _
Gang No. 11................. .......... .
Gang No. 12............... ................
Gang No. 13__________________
Gang No. 14___....... ............ ......
Gang No. 15......................... ......
Gang No. 16....... ........................
Gang No. 17....... ........................
Gang No. 18 2__..........................
Gang No. 19 2................ ............
Gang No. 20 2__..........................

$125.05
89.20
95.00
89.20
137.05
125.10
97.45
146.45
173.95
157. 75
137. 20
98.45
126. 20
110.30
114.40
110.75
88.85
98.25
81.40
124.70

$82.30
77.05
87.85
165.20
142.65
144.20
113.50
82.25
132.65
160.25
143.05
187.40
164.80
174.02
134.25
143.65
106.85
74.70
134.00
110.25

$146.00
147.10
158.55
146.30
138.80
202.50
149.05
151.95
193.45
197.95
195.45
132.95
167.00
113.05
130.40
114.50
139.40
131.20
110.90
124.40

$133.70
152.30
123.90
112.70
136.00.
132.65
89.10
97.05
126.54
130.75
110.95
143.07
144.85
131.90
126.85
126.30
122.30
94.45
107.05
96.85

$109.00
98.75
101.05
98.95
96.25
95.55
106.35
97.85
99.90
88.90
83.80
95. 57
88.80
91.85
103 40
94.85
91.70
74.80
71.75
72.45

$134.55
131.05
132.65
125.25
138.80
141.70
153.40
144.40
131.40
135.40
122.65
135.90
147.80
146.40
110 65.
114.65
128.77
63.00
83.50
82.18

$118.30
129.80
121.45

110.20

116.40
125 95
120.80
121.55
126.85
113.15
120.55
113.15
123.00
112.45
123.15
117.17
95.30
73.30
75.05
77.70

Earnings per man per month
Aver­
Total
age
Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­ (52weeks) per
August
ber
ber
ber
week
(5 weeks) (4 weeks) (4 weeks) (5 weeks) (4 weeks)

Gang

. 1.....................................
.2 .....................................
Gang No.. 3.....................................
.4 ................................. .
. 5.....................................
. 6.................... ................
. 7.....................................
. 8____________ ____
. 9..... ...............................
.10.................... ..............
. 11.......... .............. .........
. 12..................................
. 13....... ........... ...............
. 14...................................
. 15...................................
. 16...................................
. 17................................ .
. 18 2_..............................
. 19 2__........................... .
. 20 2.... .......................... .
115 men in a gang.

$153.60
163.00
167.90
156.10
159.70
163.05
142.75
150. 65
158.35
154. 55
154.25
159.60
159.50
153.15
161.90
152.00
166.90
103.20
80.85
60.75

$127.55
140.55
123.50
120.25
128.10
139. 45
132.05
133. 85
139.90
135.75
133.80
132.05
119.15
125.50
120.65
141.15
115.15
97.30
94.05
104. 65

$164.25
144.85
143.65
129.55
146.40
156.75
161.95
158. 55
147.10
148. 65
148.60
134.40
138.15
135.30
145.00
144.50
138.85
128.10
119.05
107.95

$158.82
155.00
147.35
161. 90
157. 05
148.85
173.75
166.95
160.80
162.35
154. 65
150.25
143.10
153.55
154.90
149.35
166.85
122.35
127.70
70.10

$113.35
119.90
109.45
118.35
110.85
118.00
108.40
92.00
97.80
109.50
104.40
114.60
143.45
95.90
117.40
127.90
123.00
101.05
87.05
32.60

$1,566.45
1,548.55
1,512.30
1.533.95
1,608.05
1,693.75
1,548. 55
1,540.50
1,688.70
1.694.95
1,609.85
1,597.39
1,665.80
1,543.37
1.542.95
1,536.77
1,483.92
1,161. 70
1,172. 35
1,064. 58

$30.12
29.78
29.08
29.50
30.92
32.57
29.78
29.63
32.47
32.60
30.96
30.72
32.04
29.68
29.67
29.55
28.54
22.34
22.55
20.47

2Extra gangs used only when the permanent gangs are already employed.

In Los Angeles coastwise longshoremen are assigned to the company
on the same basis as deep-water longshoremen are assigned to the
other companies, and the men retain their right, to report back to the
dispatching hall should their earnings fall below- the average earnings
66490°—32----- 8




106

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

of the hall gangs. Table 52 gives the earnings of seven coastwise
gangs, 16 men in a gang, for 32 weeks from January 1 through the
first week of August, 1927. The first six gangs represent the per­
manent force, while Gang No. 7 is an extra gang used only when the
other six gangs are already engaged. The average weekly earnings of
the men in the permanent gangs vary from $45.21 for Gang No. 4 to
$47.61 for Gang No. 2. The average weekly earnings of the men in
Gang No. 7 is $38.91, which is still considerably higher than the aver­
age weekly earnings of coastwise longshore labor in any other port
of the United States.
T a b le

52. Monthly earnings of 7 gangs1 of longshoremen in coastwise trade in
—
Los Angeles, 1927
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month

Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

Gang
No. 6

January (5 weeks)____________
February (4 weeks)___________
March (4 weeks)_____________
April (5 weeks)_______________
May (4 weeks)_______________
June (4 weeks)_____________ _
July (5 w eek s).______________
August (1 week)______________

$206.99
226. 56
218.98
212. 62
177. 92
204.04
223. 67
42.07

$217.15
201.36
199.70
266.07
198.31
185. 75
218.37
36.89

$178.32
218.87
219.78
236.29
183.61
175. 23
236.40
28.74

$206.69
207.77
220.24
204.03
200.61
158.26
203.38
45.67

$181.37
189.88
194.60
210.83
159.56
167. 85
238.09
43.95

$205.51
204.94
197.46
230.86
178.39
174.37
228.29
45.67

$205.72
176.09
163.31
176.98
141.69
160.08
175.83
45.36

Total (32 weeks)________

1,512.85

1,523. 60

1,477.24

1,446,65

1,386.13

1,465.49

1, 245.06

Average per week____________

47.28

47.61

46.16

45.21

46.13

45.80

38.91

116 men in a gang.

Gang
No. 72

2Extra gang used when the other six gangs are already employed.

Table No. 53 gives the classified earnings of coastwise longshore­
men in the port of Galveston for 13 weeks during the months of
March, June, and September, 1926, the seven wage groups therein
varying in earnings from $10 or less to $35 and over per week. Dur­
ing March and June the wage group with the largest number of men
was the $20-and-under-$25 group, while during the month of Sep­
tember it shifted to the $25-and-under-$30 group. Out of the 7,412
pay envelopes issued to the men during the three months shown,
3,709, or about 50 per cent, fell within these two groups, making the
average earnings of the men about $25 per week.




107

COASTWISE TRADE
T a b le 53. —

Classified weekly earnings of longshoremen in coastwise trade in
Galveston, 1926
Number of men earning
Week ending—

Under

$10

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

$30
$25
$15
$20
$10
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under
$35
$25
$20
$30
$15

27............................................................ -

23
16
13
169

34
46
24
162

210

84
56
44
119

6___________________________________
13

..............—.......................................

20_ _______________________________

169
95
106

$35
and
over

Total

133
213
192
13

56
73
84
4

31

91

12

571
585
543
573

Total_______________________________

221

266

303

580

551

217

134

2,272

June 5 ___________________________________
June 12 _________________________________
June 19__________________________________
.Thrift 2 6 __________________________________

7

75

10
13

122

12

24
71
18
37

143
83
231

210

164
77
164
133

113
52
39
33

39
132
3

8

565
547
557
542

Total_______________________________

42

150

395

667

538

237

182

2,211

Sept. 4.__________________________________
Sept. 11 __________________________________
Sept. 18_________________________ _____ __
Sept 25..............................................................
Oct. 2................. ...............................................

15

15

27
13
56
18
40

58
23
156
42
67

180
62
137
106
124

172
118
127
198
149

131
174
82
144
130

25
198
7
64
38

608
600
578
580
563

Total______ ________________________

63

154

346

609

764

661

332

2,929

Total (13 weeks)______ _____ _____ ___

326

570

1,044

1,856

1,853

1,115

648

7,412

12

13

8

89
109

Table 54 gives the earnings of the coastwise workers in the port of
New Orleans during 12 weeks in March, June, and October, 1926.
Earnings are classified in seven wage groups from under $5 per week
to $30 and over per week. During the month of March the earnings
group with the largest number of men was $20 and under $25 per
week, during June, $15 and under $20 per week, and during October,
$25 and under $30 per week. Of the 7,298 pay envelopes issued to
the men during the 12 weeks, 4,874, or about two-thirds, fell within
the three groups from $15 to $30 per week.
T a b l e 54. —

Classified weekly earnings of longshoremen in coastwise trade in New
Orleans, 1926
Number of men earning—

Week ending—

Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

Total
$20and
Under $5 and $10 and $15 and under $25 and $30 and
under under under
under
$5
over
$15
$20
$25
$30
$10

10. - .................... ...... ................ .
17___________ ______ _________
24.............................................
31.................................................

8
12

102
57
60
95

100
201

175
154
181

81
147
189
55

24
53

27

77
49
51
46

68
19

615
622
634
624

223

314

551

4

117
133

210

Total......... ......................... ......

51

720

472

164

2,495

June 9...................................................
June 16....................... .............. ...........
June 23............................... ..................
June 30........ ......... ...............................

1

13
5
5

38
76
32
41

92
177
80
75

323
184
130
116

90
76
205
235

28
27
87
78

8
12
20
18

580
565
559
568

Total...........................................

24

187

424

753

606

220

58

2,272

6....................................................

100

8

76
56
52
72

145
103

27_____________________ ______

32
25
30
35

145

20............... .............................. .

45
16
15

150
97

140

179
197
115
95

125
184
208

622
622
632
655

Total................ 1........................

84

122

256

492

474

586

517

2,531

Total (12 weeks)........................

159

532

994

1,796

1,800

1,278

739

7,298

Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

13__________________ ____ ____




86

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

108

Table 55 gives the actual earnings of 12 individual longshoremen—
6 white longshoremen and 6 colored—for the 52 weeks of 1926. The
6 white men show a range of average weekly earnings from $18.95
to $27.68, while the colored men show a range from $22.91 to $26.17.
The figures in Tables 54 and 55 would indicate that the average
earnings of coastwise longshoremen in New Orleans during 1926 were
about $20 to $25 per week.
T a b le

55.— Actual earnings of 6 white and 6 colored longshoremen in coastwise

trade in N e w Orleans, 1926

Actual earnings per man—White longshoremen
Month
No. 1

No. 2

$79.65
75.60
136.20
95.55
79.30
107.25
74.70
110. 55
101. 70
110. 55
131.25
89.55

$100.95
111. 75
150.60
105.15
94.35
124.95
85.50
127.80
116. 55
135.75
148.80
100.35

$63.90
71.85
104.85
80.25
69.70
98.55
65.10
90.30
79.35
86.55
104.40
70.80

$92.70
114.60
163.80
117.75
99.45
117.45
98.85
133.10
114.90
139.65
129.75
117.30

$99.15
107.85
150.60
78.60
67.80
104.10
72.30
126.60
114.90
121.65
126.60
54.45

$86.55
106.20
143.85

Total (52 weeks)........... .............. ...... 1,191.85

1,402.50

985.60

1,439.30

1,224.60

1,354.20

22.92

26.97

18.95

27.68

23.55

26.04

January (4 weeks)........ ............................ .
February (4 weeks).....................................
March (5 weeks)......... ....................... ........
April (4 weeks)............................................
M ay (4 weeks).............................................
June (5 weeks)...........................................
July (4 weeks).............- ................... ...........
August (5 weeks)_ _____ ______________
September (4 weeks)----------------------------October (4 weeks)............................ ......... .
November (5 weeks)- ------ . ------ ----------December (4 weeks)......................... ...........

Average per week.............................. .........

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

101.10

93.45
125.10
84.75
127.95
110.55
130.65
144.00
100.05

Actual earnings per man—Colored longshoremen
Month
No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

127.05
88.65

$86. 55
97.55
136.95
80.10
85.95
114.90
76.80
116. 55
107.55
122.70
94.65
71.10

$83.10
94.95
140.85
96.75
82.20
110.40
77.15
117.00
100.95
115.95
100.95
79.80

$95.40
104.45
148.05
100.95
96.30
121.95
83.40
130.65
110.40
127. 65
142.95
98.85

$84.75
96.45
119.85
83.70
83.10
109.35
89.10
112.80
99.00
122.25
127.20
88.50

Total (52 weeks)--------------------------- 1,278.30

1,184.55

1,191.35

1,200.05

1,361.00

1,216.05

24758

22.78

22.91

23.08

26.17

23.39

January (4 weeks).-------- ----------------------February (4 weeks______________ _____ _
March (5 weeks)_______________________
April (4 weeks)-------------------------- --------May (4 weeks)------ ------------------------------June (5 weeks)------------------------------- -----July (4 weeks)------ ------------------------------August (5 weeks)_______________________
September (4 weeks)----------------------------October (4 weeks)______________________
November (5 weeks)___________________
December (4 weeks)____ _______________

Average per week----------- ------ ---------------

$92. 55
103. 65
125.25
93. 75
49.95
123. 75
89.25
126.15
105. 75
124.50
141.60
102.15

$76.80
96.60
120.30
80.85
89.55
95.70
85.65
110.25
93.15

120.00

Table 56 gives the average weekly earnings and the number of
men employed in 1928 by different companies in the following ports:
One company in Norfolk, one in Baltimore, one in Philadelphia, one
in Boston, and two companies in New York. In Norfolk the average
weekly earnings per man for the year 1928 were $16.88; in Baltimore,
$16.93; in Philadelphia, $23.17; in Boston, $26.68; and in New York,
$27.25 for one company and $28.70 for the other. A comparison of
these earnings and the rates of wages for coastwise labor in the five
ports will establish the fact that in coastwise shipping there is a
direct relation between the earnings of the longshoremen and the
existing rate of wages. Norfolk, with the lowest rate of 40 cents per
hour, shows the lowest earnings per man; New York and Boston,




109

COASTWISE TRADE

with the highest rate of 75 cents per hour, also show the highest
earnings per man. This direct relationship between rates of wages
and earnings can not, however, be proven to be the case in foreign
and intercoastal shipping.
T able

56.— Number of men and average weekly earnings of coastwise longshoremen
in specified ports, 1928
New York *
Norfolk 1

Baltimore 1 Philadelphia 1

Boston 1
Line No. 1

Week end­
ing—

Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age Num­ age Num­ Average Num­ Average Num­ Average Num­ Average
ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earnings ber of earnings ber of earnings ber of earnings
men ings men ings men per man men per man men per man men per man
per
per
man
man

Jan. 4............
Jan. 11...........
Jan. 18.........
Jan. 25______
Feb. 1............

212
211

Total. .

----

8............

216

Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.

15........
22_____
29_____

214 $15.00
14.89
14.89
218 17.23
219 19.73

220
222
218

7______
14_____
21
28_____
Total-

Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.

4............
11_____
18..........
25_____

223
219

220

$20.07
18.85
19.13
20.82
24.82

81.74 ......... 76.63

----

103.69

229

23.17
19.52
18.93
18.39

16.66
18.76
19.11
15.94

197
195
196
199

17.05
15.41
17.60
15.30

215

212

221

216
217

175
170
174
172
173

18.90
17.20
15.63
15.35

204
196
197
198

17.32
16.58
15.94
14.72

206
190

210

18.45
19.92
20.15
21.18

.....

67.08

----

64.56

.....

215
213

17.86
16.83
14.45
15.27

204
199
198
196

18.23
14.53
16.34
15.29

200

20.75
20.09
21.18
25.13

210

206

64.41

212

192
166
169

211

203

T otal..

16.87
15.55
13.33
15.88
15.70

198
194
192
193
191

17.86
16.00
16.89
14.71
14.17

164
161
162
170
133

24.62
23.03
22.57
21.53
27.79

77.33

208
214

168
171
168
172

.....

79.63

.....

171
165
157
156

14.87
18.87
16.46
15.48

168
162
198
171

20.22

205

212
215
208

12.55
15.87
15.52
13.97
57.91

.....

65.68

.....

194
194
194
197
197

14.60
13.77
16.64
16.64
14.18

168
180
189
182
158

24.89
19.17
20.53
25.78
24.13

151
146
151
150
148

T ota l..

----

July 4............
July 11______
July 18..........
July 25______
Aug. 1...........

206
205

Total. .

----

81.60

.....

75.83

.....

198

17.07

197
191
195
193

16.49
14.96
17.69
18.92

200
184
182
184

22.67
28.20
25.79
29.64

.....

68.06

.....

106.30

148
142
142
141

114.50

Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.

8...........

15..........
22.........
29.........
T ota l..

201 15.95
210 15.90
205

18.10

.....

67.02

23.16
20.42
21.71
21.95

21.99
22.64
20.53
23.66
23.52

23.77
30.01
27.79
28.69

32.24
34.23
35.91
39.34
32.60

944
956
959
944

28.95
28.13
29.54
27.40
114.02

213
217

29.26
30.63
28.46
29.28

27.06
27.81
32.53
27.24

27.12
26.77
23.86
24.25

931
919
912
943
926

25.65
27.38
26.42
30.18
27.64

26.86
40.74
31.12
29.32

201

26.10
34.86
24.79
25.67
30.95

200

205

29.75
25.30
3Q.15
27.06
112.26

24.55
24.20
26.79
21.99
97. 53

202
199
198
198
190

23.20
29.03
22.80
24. 55
22.23
121.81

189
188
187
196

33.90
21.44
22.19
25.65
103.18

199
197
194
197
190

142.37
929
958
972
959

28.40
31.39
24.71
25.74
110.24

204
205

128.04
932
950
924
922
907

29.07
26.46
28.92
26.13
110.58

207
207
207

137.27
902
931
929
923

$25.13
24.37
23.75
23.60
24.39
121.24

215
214
216
215

102.00

174.32
151
150
153
153

221

114.64

110.26
145
143
151
146
145

216
218

117.63
944
941
960
954

112.34

79.03

15.84
15.82
200 16.71
205 17.05
202 16.18

23.29
16.43
19.09

23.77
22.40
24.20
19.83

$27.30
27.41
27.49
26.61
26.38
135.19

977
954
962
970

87.24

118k 54

184
189
192
189

June 6. ..........
June 13.........
June 20__.......
June 27_____

20.55
24.90
24.95
26.14

90.20

87.15

64.39

990
947
941
960
940

96.54

79.70

219

$24.76
27.21
22.03
21.26
26.15
121.41

174
172
162
161

80.01

65.36

213
213
219
209

Total
May 2........._
May 9______
May 16..........
May 23_____
May 30_____

197 $16.30
198 14.37
197 15.47
198 13.86
193 16.63

70.47

Total
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.

Line No. 2

26.08
25.04
22.26

22.22
23.82

119.42
185
184
179
189

23.45
23.19
27.74
30.98
105.36

i Rates of wages per hour: Norfolk, 40 cents; Baltimore, 45 cents; Philadelphia, 70 cents; Boston and
New York, 75 cents.




110

CHAP. 3.— LONGSHORE LABOR CONDITIONS IN U. S.

T able

56.— Number of men and average weekly earnings o f coastwise longshoremen
in specified ports, 1928 — Continued
New 1
fork i
Norfolk 1

Baltimore i

Philadelphia1

Boston 1
Line No. 1

Week end­
ing—

Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.

5...........
12.........
19.........
26.........

Aver­
age
Num­ earn­ Num­
ber of ings ber of
men
per men
man

Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

3_______
10...........
17...........
24..........
31...........

Aver­
age
earn­ Num­ Average Num­ Average Num­ Average Num­ Average
ings ber of earnings ber of earnings ber of earnings ber of earnings
per men per man men per man men per man men per man
man

213 $19.34
207 16.09
211 18.66
206 19.39

189 $20.30
189 16.43
190 20.85
196 23.70

73.48

81.28

Total
208
205
205
207
204

20.14
21.29
19.00
20.38
19.13

197

224
175
198
176

$27.94
25.58
26.51
30.64

197
194
194

222
221

189
224

20.29
26.48
26.83
26.44
26.25

235

Total. .
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.

99.94

.....

98.78

.....

202 20.14

195
199
195
197

18.82

220

30.30
22.64
29.30
29.67

206
203
199

18.26
16.86
16.71
71.97

19.94
19.66

243
224
218

957
963
961
947

164
163
163
164
166

29.11
32.16
33.45
32.96
31.03

203
191
194

200

112.07
957
958
953
960
971

158.71
172
168
170
172

$28.11
29.30
27.92
26.74

26.20
977
971
30.94
29.14
975
34.30 1,002

115.28
206
214
209
203
214

159.72

163.77
33.52
25.67
29.58
28.34

38.88
30.80
29.87
27.37
32.80

211

207
204
208

35.88
29.25
31.06
38.10
134.29

117.11

111.91

201

194

18.10
17.74
15.99
12.83

230
231
226
196

16.83
23.08
19.72
26.33

.....

64.66

.....

85.96

91.24

110.06

118.24

5______
12........ .
19..........
26.......-

18.52
17.30

201

Total . .

.....

64.58

196

120.58

32.89
30.27
29.05
36.91
34.65

$26.19
26.22
25.00
37.87

75.28

207
203

202 13.46
202 15.30

16.86

$23.48
27.34
30.44
29.27
110.53

126.29

7______
14.........
21_____
28
Total

Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

158
160
160
161

110.67

19.73
17.82
24.34
18.30
18.59

201

Line No. 2

173
179
176
177

27.33
995
28.28 1,002
20.18
996
15.45
982

27.78
27.46
27.43
27.39

226
226

221
221

33. 57
31. 22
30.70
22.75

Grand
total.

877.53

880.14

1,204.75

1,387.39

1,492.41

1,416.89

Average per
week______

16.88

16.93

23.17

26.68

28.70

27.25

i Rates of wages per hour: Norfolk, 40 cents; Baltimore, 45 cents; Philadelphia, 70 cents; Boston and
New York, 75 cents.

Table 57 gives the earnings of coastwise longshoremen lor one com­
pany in the port of Boston which is not shown in Table 55. This
company has all its longshore labor organized into permanent gangs
of 22 men each. The work is so distributed among the gangs from
week to week and from month to month as to insure equalized earnings
for all the men in the gangs. The actual monthly earnings and the
average weekly earnings of the 12 gangs employed by this company
are shown in this table. The weekly average earnings per man vary
only from $24.08 for gang No. 4 to $24.77 for gang No. 8. The experi­
ence of this company in Boston and the practice on the west coast
show that rotation of longshore labor is also possible in the coastwise
trade. Here, as in deep-water shipping, it proves to be the most
effective method for an equal distribution of the work among the men.




111

COASTWISE TRADE
T a b le

57.— Earnings of 12 gangs 1 of coastwise longshoremen for one company in
Boston, 1928
Monthly earnings per man in—
Month
Gang
No. 1

Gang
No. 2

Gang
No. 3

Gang
No. 4

Gang
No. 5

$92.39
100.13
115.58
81.64
87.17
120.49
111. 91
128.41
103. 31
119.71
125.18
77.37

$96.93
108.31
121.16
81.81
92.99
109.57
121.69
112.46
108.17
128.32
125.05
74.96

$93.48
103.24
115.46
83.96
95.94
109.34
110.41
116.89
105.81
115.93
126,09
84.24

$92.57
104.14
112.64
84.05
94.08
114. 31
101.81
114.54
109.18
120.48
83.59

$95.98
106.15
115.85
85.19
94.13
119.98
108.66
117.01
105.31
118.70
122.39
85.96

$93.53
102.85
117.44
84.78
92.24
112.58
106.81
112.80
110.04
116.96
124.59
87.49

Total (52 weeks)__________________ 1,263.29

1,281.42

1,260.79

1,252.25

1,275.31

1,262.11

24.64

24.25

24.08

24.53

24.27

January (4 weeks)___________ _________
February (4 weeks)___________ _______
March (5 weeks)_________ ______ _______
April (4 weeks)___________________ ____
May (4 weeks)____________ ___________
■ n (5 weeks)________________ ______
T np.
July (4 weeks) ^________________________
August (5 weeks)_______ _______________
September (4 weeks)_______ __________
October (4 weeks)_________ ____________
November (5 weeks)____ _______________
December (4 weeks)____________________

Average per week__ _____________ ______

24.29

120.86

Gang
No. 6

Monthly earnings per man in—
Month
Gang
No. 8

Gang
No. 9

81.38

$90.89
105.11
115.73
86.56
91.88
117.78
113.20
118.45
112.41
120.93
126.71
88.24

$97.49
104.35
117.48
86.79
94.69
119.81
103.38
119.64
113.83
114.63
119.32
82.71

$93.42
107.10
117.98
89.79
91.51
115.97
105.28
115.44
105.99
110.15
118.59
82.08

$91.44
108.28
111. 11
83.96
91.68
110.74
106.58
120.76
110.69
117.18
123.82
88.06

$93.89
108.44
116.66
84.91
92.79
110.41
103.05
120.57
109.21
108.76
124.96
84.55

Total (52 weeks)................................ 1,262.30

1,287.89

1,274.12

1,253.30

1,264.30

1,258. 20

24.77

24.50

24.10

24.31

24.20

Gang
No. 7
January (4 weeks)........ .............................
February (4 weeks)___________ _____ ___
March (5 weeks)__________ _______ ___
April (4 weeks)________________ ______
May (4 weeks)..____ __________ ________
June (5 weeks)________________ ____ ____
July (4 weeks)___________ _____ ________
August (5 weeks).......................... ..............
September (4 weeks) ___________ _____ _
October (4 weeks)_________ ____________
November (5 weeks)___________________
December (4 weeks)____________________

Average per week______________ ____ _

1 22 men in a gang.




$90.68
105.40
117.57
86.51
86.79
111. 55
113.31
120.46
104. 71
122.28

121.66

24.28

Gang
No. 10

Gang
No. 11

Gang
No. 12




GENERAL TABLES
Seattle (1926)
T a b le

1.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO, B Y
KIN D OF T R A D E AN D INDIVIDU AL COM MODITIES

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Ganghours

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
ber of
Rev­ men
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons gang tons tons ton
ton
Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo:
Orient—
No. 1............. ............... 11,238
No. 2..................... ........ 20,861
No. 3
Loading cargo:
Orient—
No. 4.............................. 44,619
No. 5

26,807
36,604
43,802

500.0
824.0
1,670.9

22.5
25.3

53.6
44.4
26.2

22.0 1.02 2.44 $0.88 $0.37
.94

1.65
.85

.96

.55
1.06

61,686
116,099

1,686.3
4,333.9

26.5

36.6
26.8

20.8 1.28

1.76
1.17

.70

.51
.77

1.32 2 1.48 $0.68
.81 2.90 1.11
.79 2.89 1.14
.76 2.85 1.18
.64 2.72 1.41

2$0.61
21.00
21. 01
21.06

27.0
31.0

22.9

Intercoastal trad e 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 6.................................... 19,396 221,723
No. 7................... ................ 5,353 25,996
No. 8___ ________________ 35,740 240,028
No. 9................... — ........— 17,384 2 19,472
No. 10................................... 14,337 2 16,058
Loading cargo:
No. 11..................... ............ 27,375 2 30,663
No. 12................................... 27,235 2 30,506

887.5
432.0
1,999.1
1,226.0
1,310.6

21.9
12.4
17.9
14.2
10.9

1,366.1
1,522.0

20.0

224.5
2 13.9

16.5
15.4

2 15.9
12.3

18.6
17.0

220.0 22.6
2

20.0 1.00 21.12
17.9 2 20.0 20.4
.88 2.98
2

22.4

.90

1.02

2

1.25

2.80
2.92

Coastwise trad e 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 13...............
Loading cargo:
No. 14___ ____

2 140,654
2 170,906

3

136,575.0

1.03

2$0.87

113,497.0

1.51

2.60

In dividu al commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Coffee, No. 15....... ......... _ 2,055
Salmon, No. 16.................... 57,915
Steel pipe, etc., No. 17........ 24,160
16,207
Iron and steel, No. 18 -..
23,372
Tinplate, No. 19.............
Loading cargo:
Apples—
28,157
No. 20.......... .............
10,432
No. 21........ ..........
Canned goods—
No. 22.......................
3,789
7,873
No. 23____ ________
Flour, No. 24.................
10,055
Lumber—
11,094
No. 25.......................
36,780
No. 26_______ _____
No. 27 6____ ____ —
No. 28 5____ _______
Salmon, No. 29_________
10,538

2 2,292
2 64,868
2 27,062
218,156
226,179

79.5
1,962.1
1,226.0

2
2
2

28.8
33.1

2

741.0

25.8
29.5
19.7
18.5
31.5

231,537
211,685

1,040.5
410.3

27.1
25.4

2

24,243
28,820

166.7
388.0
403.1

22.7
20.3
24.9

2

21 ,2 2
16
417,750
458,848
439,018
442,067
211,802

1 Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.
2Short tons.
3 Man-hours.




8 a0
7

1,442.4
4,929.1
2,285.9
1,942.3
428.3

21.16 $0.87 2$0.78
21.74 .58
21.70 .59
21.59 .63 2.57
1.86 2 2.08 .48 2.43

22.1

20.7
35.3

24.9
19.0
13.0
13.0
17.0

1.04
1.55
1.52
1.42

30.3
28.5

19.0
19.0

1.42
1.34

2

25.5
22.7
27.9

19.0
19.0

1.20

2

21.0

1.07
1.19

7.7 412.3
7.5 411.9
417.1
421.7
24.6 2 27.6

13.0
13.0
16.3
22.4
19.0

4
.95
4
.92
41.05
4
.97
1.29 21.45

2

2

2
2

.59
.57

2

2
2

1.60
1.50

.63
.67

1.34

.75
.84
.76

2 .6 7

1.53
1.58

*.95

.70

4.93
2.62

1.20

1.33

41,000 board feet.
* Coastwise trade.

113

2 .5 6

2.60
2.75

48
.9

114
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
3.—PRODTJCTIVITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TR AD E

Discharging cargo: Orient
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Total, 12 ships__________________ 11,238

26,807

a , jrage
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang tons nue ton nue
tons tons
tons
ton

Line No. 1
500.0

22.5

53.6

22.0

1.02 2.44 $0.88 $0.37

Ships w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Porcelain. ___
Silk....... .................................
Tea. _____________________
General cargo___

604
340
70
149

1,510

Total...................................... 1,163

2,871

No. 2 (February):

1,020

176
165

168
810
248

2,794

24.2

59.8

22.0

1.10

2.72 $0.82

48.5

25.3

57.6

22.0

1.15

2.62

$0.33

504
2,027
263

Total...................................... 1,226

48.0

Porcftlain.
. - General cargo_______________

.78

.34

S h ip s w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Silk____________ ___________
Porcelain___________________
Total......................................

130
347

391

868

477 • 1, 359

No. 4 (June):
Silk............................................
Porcelain___________________

186
424
610

1,617

15.4

40.6

22.0 0.70

1.85 $1.29

$0.49

33.8

18.0

47.8

22.0

2.17

1.10

.41

$0.36

557
1,060

Total.......................... - .........

31.0

.82

Sh ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Silk .......................................
General cargo_______________

113
704

339
1,760
38.7

21.1

54.2

22.0 0.96

2.47 $0.94

816

15.0

19.9

54.4

22.0

.91

2.47

36,604

824.0

25.3

44.4

27.0

0.94

6,602
2,253
3, 536
24, 213

110.0 25.9 60.0

34.5
29.5
24.4
25.4

.75
.77

Total_____________________

817

2,099

No. 6 (M ay):
Silk....... ....................................
General cargo_______________

130
169

391
425

Total.....................................

299

Total, 16 ships........... ..................... 20,861

.99

.36

1.65 $0.96

$0.55

1.20

.52
1.05
.51
.51

Line No. 2

Tea............................................
Silk..............— .............. .........
Burlap_____________________
General cargo______________ -




2,854

2,021

2,260
13,726
[

89.0
83.0
542.0

22.7
27.2
25.3

25.3
42.6
44.7

1.12
1.00

1.74

.86

1.75
1.76

1.17
.80
.90

F

ig u r e




3 8 .— M

en

w it h

T

r u ck s

r id in g

"Iron

st e v e d o r e

"

fr o m

S

id e

P

o r t

to

lev el

o f

p ie r

.

S

eattle


F ig u r e 3 9 .— l o a d in g


a p p l e s

fro m

g r a v it y

R

ollers to

T

r a il e r s fo r

d e l iv e r y

to

s h i p ’s

S

id e

.

S

ea ttle

115

SEATTLE (1926)

T a b l e S .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

F O REIGN TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
man-hour labor cost
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Sh ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

L in e No. 2— Continued

No. 1 (June):
Silk............................................
120
Tea............................................
168
General cargo.............. ............ 1,211

131
364
2,198

3.4
5.6
43.2

35.3
30.0
28.0

38.5
65.0
50.9

36.0
32.0
25.0

0.98
.95

1.12

1.06 $0.92
.95
2.06
2.04
.80

$0.85
.44
.44

Total........ ............................. 1,499

2,693

52.2

28.7

51.6

26.4

1.09

1.95

.83

.46

201

140
655
844

225
289
826
1,724

6.3
4.7
16.8
25.0

31.9
29.8
39.0
33.8

35.7
61.5
49.2
68.9

29.6
32.5
27.8

1.21

20.2

1.08
.92
1.78
1.67

1.89
2.24
3.41

.83
.98
.51
.54

.74
.48
.40
.26

Total...................................... 1,840

3,064

52.8

34.8

58.0

23.0

1.52

2.52

.59

.36

0.49 $2.05
1.50
.98

$1.84
.60

No. 2 (June):
Silk................................. .........
T e a ..______________________
Burlap......................................
General cargo...................... —

S hips w ith m inim um efficiency

No. ^ (N ovember):
General cargo. . .

163
945

182
1,538

14.5
40.5

11.2
23.3

12.5
38.0

25.3
25.2

0.44
.92

Total________

1,108

1,720

55.0

20.1

31.3

25.3

.80

1.24

1.13

.73

92
860

102
1,061

9.8
40.0

9.4
21.5

10.4
26.5

22.9
25.8

.41
.83

.45
1.03

2.20
1.08

2.00
.87

952

1,163

49.8

19.1

23.4

25.3

.76

.92

1.18

.98

1.03 $0.98
2.27
.87
1.29 1.96
2.03
.50
1.65 1.01

$0.87
.40
.70
.44
.55

1.67

.99

.54

1.17
1.32
.97
.80

1.05
.58

No. 4 (

S
ii:

General cargo.
Total..

Ships w ith average efficiency

No. 5
Tea.
Rattan..........
Sugar..............
General cargo.
Total........-

97
215

33.0
28.0
25.0
19.1
23.7

0.92
1.03
.46
1.81

21.1

33.8
62.9
32.1
38.4
39.1

22.4

41.2

24.6

.91

23.8

.93

22.1

31.0
34.1
27.5
26.9

.77

25.5
30.3

26.5
51.8
37.1
55.9

12
.1

1.54
1.35
2.07

9.5

26.8

47.6

29.1

.92

1.64

.55

0.85

$1.06

1.36
1.31

$0.66

127
645

108
472
234
142
1,194

3.2
7.5
7.3
3.7
30.5

30.3
28.6
11.4
34.3

1,167

2,150

52.2

145

11.4
9.9

No. 6 ^September):
T e a " I I ” ” ” II” I "
Burlap_______ ____
General cargo---------

252
670

162
590
367
1,236

Total........... .........

1,327

2,355

6
.1

22.8

.67
.43

L in e No. 3

Total, 28 ships................

43,802 1,670.9

26.2

31.0

Ships w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March).
No. 2 (April)__




2,182
2,164

63.0
52.8

34.6
41.0

25.5
31.2

116

GENERAL TABLES
3.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LA BO R COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN
FO R E IG N T R A D E —Continued

T a b le

Discharging cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships w ith m inim um efficiency

L in e

N o. 3—Continued

No. 3 (November)______________
No. 4 (November)______________

1,628
1,172

20.8

78.1
56.7

20.7

35.5
34.7

0.59
.60

$1.53
1.50

0,85
.85

$1.00
1.06

Ships w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (January)_________________
No. 6 (April)___________________

1,060
1,224

56.5
56.4

18.8
21.7

22.1
25.4

Loading cargo: Orient
L in e

N o. 4

Total, 14 ships................................ 44,619
Flour i....................................... 14,675
Tobacco....................... ............ 6,264
Automobiles and machinery. __ 1,374
General cargo........................... 22,306

61,686 1,686.3

26.5

36.6

20.8

1.28

1.76 $0.70

$0.51

366.2
257.3
87.7
975.1

40.1
24.3
15.7
22.9

44.9
27.1
48.8
34.9

20.1
20.6
20.6
21.0

1.99
1.18
.76
1.09

2.23
1.32
2.37

.45
.76
1.18
.83

.40

$0.38
.40
.35
.52

16,437
6,982
4,281
33,986

1.66

.68

.38
.54

S hips w ith m axim um efficiency

. 1 (June):
Flour......................................... 1,000
Canned goods........................
446
Automobiles and machinery. _.
128
General cargo........................... 1,148

1,128
525
483
1,524

22.6 44.2
12.2 36.6

9.0
36.4

14.2
31.5

50.0
43.0
53.7
41.9

24.0

1.31

2.38 $0.43
.47
2.26
1.32
1.74
.69

Total...................................... 2,722

3,660

80.2

33.9

45.6

22.1

1.54

2.07

.58

.43

. 2 (April):
Flour......................................... 1,350
Tobacco....................................
530
Automobiles and machinery. __
336
General cargo........................... 1,540

1,500
590
833
2,735

27.3
26.1
16.7
64.0

49.5
20.3

55.9

20.1

22.6

24.0

49.9
42.7

20.0 2.47
21.0 .97
21.0 .96
21.0 1.15

2.75
1.07
2.36
2.03

.36
.93
.94
.78

.33
.84
.38
.44

Total...................................... 3,756

5,658

134.1

28.0

42.2

20.1

2.11

.65

.43

1.88 $0.54

21.0
19.0

21.0

2.11

1.92

.68 2.56

1.39

S h ip s w ith m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (December):
Flour.........................................
760
Tobacco....................................
363
Cotton goods............................
160
General cargo............................ 2,240

855
405
334
3,306

12.8

110.4

22.3
12.5
20.3

37.5
24.9
26.1
30.0

24.0

21.0

.52
.97

1.24
1.09
1.43

.81
1.73
.93

$0.48
.73
.83
.63

Total...................................... 3,523

4,900

162.3

21.7

30.2

20.9

1.03

1.44

.87

.63

1,688

43.2
25.1

34.7
9.2

20.0

56.2

21.7

39.1
15.3
31.6
35.3

18.0
24.0
24.0

1.74
.51
1.19
.90

1.95
.85
1.31
1.47

.52
1.76
.76

1.00

.46
1.06
.69
.61

145.5

24.4

32.4

21.8

1.12

1.49

.80

.60

No. 4 (October):
Flour......................................... 1,500
Apples.......................................
230
Tobacco....................................
600
General cargo................. ......... 1,220
Total...................................... 3,550
* All flour loaded at mill.




384
663
1,985

4,720

22.8 33.3
16.3

21.0 28.6

20.0 1.67
20.0 1.11

117

SEATTLE (1926)
T a b le

2.—PR ODU CTION OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
FO REIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Reve­
nue
tons

Long
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve
nue gang tons nue ton nue
tons tons
ton
tons
S hips w ith average efficiency

L ine N o. 4—Continued
No. 5 (July):
Flour..................................... . 2,210
Canned goods......................... 220
Tobacco................................. .
756
General cargo...........................
735

2,475
243
845
1,259

62.6
3.4
24.1
46.2

35.3
64.7
31.4
15.9

39.5
71.5
35.1
27.3

20.0 1.77
21.0 3.08
21.0 1.49
21.0 .76

Total...................................... 3,921

4,822

136.3

28.8

35.4

20.5

1.40

1.72

.64

.52

No. 6 (August):
Flour....................................... - 1,400
Tobacco....................................
830
General cargo............ — ........ 1,090

1,574
928
1,457

37.5
32.3
37.4

37.3
25.7
29.1

42.0
28.7
39.0

20.0 1.87
20.0 1.28
22.0 1.32

2.10

.48
.70

.68

.43
.63
.51

Total.................................. — 3,320

3,959

107.2

31.0

36.9

20.7

1.50

1.78

.60

.51

26.8

22.9

1.98 $0.51
.29
3.40
.60
1.67
1.30 1.18

1.44
1.77

$0.45
.26
.54
.69

L ine No. 5
Total, 29 ships__________________

116,099 4,333.9

1.17

$0.77

1.52
1.54

$0.59
.58

0.85
.81

$1.01
1.16

1.13

$0.80
* .74

S h ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January)_________________
No. 2 (March).............. .................

6,205
5,028

202.5
170.5

30.6
29.5

20.2
19.2

Sh ip s w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October)............ .......... ......
No. 4 (December) ...........................

3,000
2,328

21.8

137.6
114.7

20.3

25.5
25.1

Sh ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (August)_____ ______ _____
No. 6 (November)..........................

T a b l e 3 . — PR O D U C TIV ITY

3,383
3,760

121.4
136.7

27.9
27.5

24.7

1.22

22.6

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN
IN TERCOASTAL TR AD E

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Total, 22 ships................................ 19,396

21,723

887.5

21.9

24.5

16.5

1.32

1.48 $0.68

Tin plate............................... . 8,833
Steel.......................................... 6,088
General cargo........................... 4,475

9,894
6,818
5,011

269.0
276.0
342.5

32.8

36.8
24.7
14.6

17.0
13.0
19.0

1.93
1.69
.69

2.16
1.90
.77

L in e N o.

6

1 Short tons.




22.1

13.1

.47
.53
1.30

$0.61
.42
.47
1.17

118

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 3 .—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING

IN TER C O A STA L T R A D E —Continued

CARGO IN

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons 1 gang tons tons t o n 1 ton 1
S h ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

L in e N o . 6— Continued

No. 1 (February):
T in plate___________________
Pipe...........................................

113
260

1,246
281

27.5
8.0

40.4
31.3

45.3
35.1

Total_____________________ 1,363

1,527

35.5

38.4

43.0

616

15.5

35.5

39.7

No. 2 (March): Tinplate________

660

17.0
13.0

$0.34
.33

2.38
2.41

2.67 $0.38
2.70
.37

16.1

2.38

2.67

.38

.34

17.0

2.09

2.34

.43

.38

2.52 $0.40
.42 2.43

$0.36
2.14

S hips w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Steel..........................................
General cargo_______________

?,63
133

295
148

9.0
17.5

29.3
7.6

32.8
8.5

13.0
20.0

2.25
.37

Total_____________________

396

443

26.5

14.9

16.7

17.6

.85

.95

1.06

.95

No. 4 (December):
Steel,______________ ____ ___
General cargo_______________

267
174

299
195

13.5
20.0

19.7
8.7

22.1
9.8

13.0
20.0

1.52
.44

1.70
.49

.59

2.05

.53
1.84

Total_____________________

441

494

33.5

13.2

14.7

17.2

.77

.86

1.17

1.05

S h ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Steel..........................................
General cargo_______________

341
96

382
108

13.0
8*5

26.2
11.3

29.4
12.7

13.0
21.0

2.02
.60

2.26 $0.40
.67 1.50

$0.34
1.39

Total_____________________

437

490

21.5

20.3

22.8

15.4

1.32

1.48

.68

.61

No. 6 (September):
T in plate___________________
Steel..........................................
General cargo_______________

372
203
157

417
227
176

11.0
9.0
14.5

33.8
22.5
10.8

37.9
25.2
12.1

17.0
13.0
19.0

1.99
1.73
.57

2.23
1.94
.64

.45
.52
1.58

.40
.46
1.41

Total____ ________________

732

820

34.5

21.2

23.8

16.8

1.26

1.42

.71

.63

Total, 8 ships.......................... ........ 5,353

5,996

432.0

12.4

13.9

15.4

0.81

0.90 $1.11

$1.00

No. 1 (February)....................... . .
No. 2 (April)............................ ......
No. 3 (M ay)___________________
No. 4 (July).....................................
No. 5 (August)_______________

593
1,242
1,017
717
409
309
1,104
605

38.8

63.5
55.0
22.8
28.8
102.5
32.0

13.6
12.5
14.3
11.6
16.0
9.6
9.6
16.9

15.3
14.0
16.0
13.0
17.9
10.7
10.8
18.9

16.8
15.6
15.6
14.5
16.7
16.7
13.6
17.4

.81
.80
.92
.81
.96
.48
.71
.97

40,028 1,999.1

17.9

20.0

22.6

0.79

L in e N o . 7

No. 6 (October)..............................

No. 7 (November)..........................
No. 8 (December)____________

529
1,109
908
640
365
276
986
540

88.6

.91
.90
1.03
.90
1.08
.64
.79
1.09

1.1 1
1.13
.98
1.11
.94
1.88
1.27
.93

.99
1.00
.83
1.01
.80
1.47
1.14
.83

0.89 $1.14

$1.01

1.10 $0.92
1.11
.91

$0.82
.81

0.53 $1.91
.68 1.48

$1.70
1.32

L in e N o . 8

_
Total, 30 ships_______________ _ 35,740

Ships w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March) __
No. 2 (October).

1,317
. 1,059

1,475
1,186

70.8
45.0

18.6
23.5

20.8
26.4

18.9
23.7

0.98
.99

S hips w ith m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (M ay).
No. 4 (M ay).
* Short tons.




. 1,022
979

1,145
1,096

103.3
73.6

9.9
13.3

11.1
14.9

20.9
22.0

0.47
.61

119

SEATTLE (1926)

T a b l e 3 .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons *

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons 1 ton ton i
S h ip s w ith average efficiency

L in e N o.

8—Continued

i

No. 5 (February)..................... .
No. 6 (July).............................. .

. 1,003
793

53.8
42.0

18.7
18.9

21.1

20.9

23.5
23.9

0.80
.79

0.89 $1.13
.89 1.14

$1.01
l. 01

19,472 1,226.0

14.2

15.9

18.6

0.76

0.85 $1.18

$1.06

1.07 $0.94
.98 1.02

$0.84
.92

0.73 $1.38
.69 1.45

$1.23
1.30

1,123

888

L in e N o. 9

Total, 29 ships...........................

. 17,384

Sh ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)............................
No. 2 (July)___ ________________

398
887

446
994

24.5
50.5

16.2
17.6

18.2
19.7

17.0

20.0

0.96

.88

S hips w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October)..............................
No. 4 (December)...........................

479
558

537
625

41.0
50.0

11.7

11.2

13.1
12.5

18.0
18.0

0.65
.62

S h ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (September)........No. 6 (September)--------

452
622

30.0
40.5

15.1
15.4

16.9
17.2

20.0 0.75
20.0 .77

0.84 $1.20
.86 1.17

$1.07
1.05

16,058 1,310.6

10.9

12.3

17.0

0.72 $1.41

$1.25

0.96 $1.06
1.08

$0.94
.97

0.63 $1.61
.61 1.67

$1.43
1.48

0.64
.64

0.72 $1.41
.72 1.41

$1.25
1.25

20.0 1.00

1.12 $0.90

$0.80

1.39 $0.73
1.56
.65

$0165
.58

506
697

L in e N o . 10

Total, 21 ships.................

14,337

0.64

S h ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1_.
No. 2_.

627

702

664

43.2
42.0

14.5
14.0

16.3
15.7

17.0
17.0

0.85

Ships w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3.............................................. .
No. 4....................... ........................

478
632

535
708

50.0

68.8

9.6
9.2

10.7
10.3

17.0
17.0

0.56
.54

S h ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5................................................
No. 6............................................

771
655

864
734

71.0
60.2

10.9
10.9

12.2
12.2

17.0
17.0

L in e N o. 11

Total, 33 ships................................ 27,375

30,663 1,366.1

20.0 22.4

S hips w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April)...................................
349
No. 2 (October)............ ................. 1,198
1Short tons.




391
1,342

14.8
44.2

23.6
27.1

26.4
30.4

19.1
19.5

1.24
1.39

GENERAL TABLES

120

T a b l e 3.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OP LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
man-hour
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons 1 gang tons tons 1 ton ton 1
S hips w ith m inim um efficiency

L in e N o .

11—Continued

No. 3 (M ay)................................ No. 4 (November)........................ -

289
841

324
942

20.0 14.5
59.2

14.2

16.2
15.9

19.3
21.7

0.84 $1.20
.73 1.38

$1.07
1.23

1.11 $0.91
.91
1.11

$0.81
.81

0.88 0.98 $1.02

$0.92

0.75
.65

S h ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (July)............
No. 6 (September).

1,217
1,078

61.5
54.8

19.8
19.7

22.2
22.0

20.0 0.99

30,506 1,522.0

17.9

20.0

20.4

1,363
1,207

19.9

.99

L in e N o . 12

Total 27 ships..............

27,23",

S h ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (September):
Pier 1_________
Pier 1_________
Pier 2 (salmon).
Pier 3 (salmon).
Pier 4.................
Total.
No. 2 (November):
Pier 1 (salmon).
Pier 2 (salmon).
Total .

836
360
444
544
140
2,324

33.5
17.5
16.0
21.5
7.5

24.9
20.5
27.8
25.4
18.7

27.9
23.0
31.1
28.4
20.9

20.0
19.0
24.0
24.0
23.0

1.25
1.08
1.15

96.0

936
403
497
610
157

24.2

27.1

21.4

1.13

1.27

.80

.71

10
.1
.81

1.40 $0.72
.83
1.29
.78
1.23
.82
.91

11
.2

11
.1

$0. 64
.74
.70
.73

253
227

283
255

8
.0
9.0

31.6
25.3

35.4
28.3

20.0
20.0

1.58
1.27

1.77
1.42

.57
.71

.51
.63

480

538

17.0

28.2

31.6

20.0

1.41

1.58

.64

.57

0.59 $1.70

$1.53

S hips w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April): Pier 1____________

473

530

36.0

13.1

14.7

25.0

0.53

No. 4 (August):
Pier 1 (hemp)...........................
Pier 2______________________

156
252

175
282

9.0
21.5

17.3
11.7

19.4
13.1

21.0
22.0

.83
.54

.93
.60

1.08
1. 67

.97
1.50

Total_____________________

408

457

30.5

13.4

15.0

21.7

.62

.69

1.45

1.30

1.21 $0.83

Sh ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Pier 1 (salmon)______________
Pier 2 (salmon)______________
Pier 3 (salmon)_____ ________
Pier 4___________________

589
577
519
450

660
646
581
504

32.0
34.0
25.0
33.5

18.4
17.0
20.7
13.4

20.6
19.0
23.2
15.0

20.0 .85
20.0 1.04
22.0 .61

Total ____________________ 2,135

2,391

124.5

17.1

19.2

19.8

20.0 14.6

37.0

17.6

25.0

24.5

19.7
16.3
27.4

20.0

82.0

19.0

21.2

21.6

No. 6 (December):
Pier 1 ..................................... .
Pier 2______________________
Pier 3 (salmon)______________

652
291
612

Total_____________________ 1,555
* Short tons.




730
326

686

1,742

17.0

22.0

23.0

.95
1.16

.68

1.06
.87
1.48

$0.74
.95
.78
1.32

.87

.97

1.03

.93

.80
.63

.90
.71
1.37

1.13
1.43
.74

1.00

1.22
.88

.98

1.02

.92

1.08

1.27

.66

SEATTLE (1926)

121

T a b l e 4.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons!)

Out­
put
per
Man- manhours hour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
rev­
enue
ton 1

L in e N o. 13

Total, 149 ships—

L in e N o . 13—Con.

140,654 136,575

1.03

Jan. 14, 3 ships.

627
530
821

541
360
706

1.16
1.47
1.16

$0.78
.61
.78

Total___

1,978

1,607

1.23

.73

Jan. 7, 3 ships _

724
1,004
675

707
600
658

1.02
1.67
1.03

.54
.87

2,403

1,965

1.22

.74

Weeks w ith m inim um effi­
ciency

Aug. 31, 3 ships.

2,040
754
1,848

2,275
693
2,055

0.90
1.09
.90

Total.......

4,642

5,023

931
1,827
675

852
2,142
757

1.09
.85

3,751

$1.00

.92

Sept. 21, 3 ships.

.92

Total.......

.83

10
.0
.83
1.06
1.01

Weeks w ith average efficiency

1,483

542
461
1,378

Total....... .

2,444

2,381

1.03

.87

Apr. 14, 3 ships..

744
720

720
672
1,004

1 03

*8
77

2,500

2,396

1.04

June 30 3 ships.

Total....... .

1Short tons.

66490°—32------ 9




1.04
.86

1.08

1.07
1.03

Out­
put
per
Man- manhours hour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
rev­
enue
ton*

Other weeks

$0.87

Weeks w ith m axim um effi­
ciency

Total___

Week ending-

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons *)

$0.87
1.05

.84
.87
.87

Jan. 21,3 sh ips...
Jan. 31,4 ships_
_
Feb. 7,3 ships___
Feb. 14, 3 ships...
Feb. 21, 3 ships...
Feb. 28, 2 ships...
Mar. 7, 3 ships_
_
Mar. 14, 3 ships. _
Mar. 21,3 ships._.
Mar. 31,5 ships. _
Apr. 7,3 ships___
Apr. 21, 3 ships.........
Apr. 30,4 ships...
M ay 7,2 ships___
M ay 14,3 ships...
M ay 21, 3 ships__
May 31,4 ships.........
June 7,3 ships—
June 14, 3 ships...
June 21,4 ships...
July 7, 3 ships----July 14, 3 ships...
July 21,3 ships...
July 31,4 ships. „
Aug. 7, 3 ships___
Aug. 14, 3 ships—
Aug. 21, 3 ships—
Sept. 7,3 sh ip s...
Sept. 14, 2 ships. .
Sept. 30,3 ships-_
Oct. 7,3 ships----Oct. 14,3 ships. __
Oct. 21,3 ships—_
Oct. 31,4 ships— _
Nov. 7,3 ships—Nov. 14, 3 ships—
Nov. 21, 3 ships__
Nov. 30, 4 ships__
Dec. 7, 3 ships___
Dec. 14, 2 snips...
Dec. 21, 2 ships—
Dec. 30,4 ships...

2,515
3,376
2,573
1,699
2,513
2,104
2,874
2,355
2,330
4,225
2,830
3,385
3,248
2,249
2,437
2,375
4,186
2,722
2,676
2,984
3,703
2,917
3,220
4,494
4,177
2,979
3,591
3,686
2,341
3,369
3,130
3,142
2,857
3,666
2,516
2,403
2,062
3,950
2,370
2,287
2,151
2,587

2,309
2,850
2,534
1,615
2,346
2,080
3,053
2,235
2,469
4,577
3,025
3,270
3,197
2,226
2,238
2,109
3,962
2,376
2,396
2,790
3,422
2,588
3,183
4,519
3,805
2,979
3,716
3,785
2,381
3,471
3,001
3,164
2,754
3,458
2,398
2,398
2,176
3,785
2,244
2,203
2,007
2,358

1.09
1.18

1.02

1.05
1.07

1.01

.94
1.05
.94
.92
.94
1.04

1.02
1.01

1.09
1.13
1.06
1.15

1.12

1.07
1.08
1.13

1.01

.99

1.10
1.00
.97
.97
.98
.97
1.04
.99
1.04
1.06
1.05

1.00

.95
1.04
1.06
1.04
1.07

1.10

$0.83
.76
.87

.86

.84
.89
.96

.86

.96
.98
.96
.87

.88

.89
.83
.80
.85
.78
.80
.84
.83
.80
.89
.91
.82
.90
.93
.93
.92
.93
.87
.91
.87
.85

.86

.90
.95
.87
.85
.87
.84
.82

GENERAL TABLES

1 22

T a b l e 4.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons 9

Out­
put
per
Man- manhours hour
(rev­
enue
tons*)

Labor
cost
per
rev­
enue
toni

L in e N o. 14

Total, 109 ships__

L in e No. 14—Con.

170,906 113,497

1.51

2,418

1,211

286
667
1,410

548

1.92
1.82
1.71

$0.47
.49
.53

Total.......

4,177

2,363

1.77

.51

July 14, 2 ships.

1,747
895

936
604

1.87
1.48

.48
.61

Total.......

2,642

1,540

1.72

.52

Weeks w ith m inim um
ciency

Jan. 31, 2 ships..........

effi­

799
2,314

536
2,096

1.49

1.10

$0.60
.82

Total________

3,113

2,632

1.18

.76

Feb. 14, 2 ships.........

863
2,619

537
2,164

1.61

1.21

.56
.74

Total...............

3,482

2,701

1.29

.70

Weeks w ith average efficiency

Oct. 14,2 ships...........
Total............ .

2,490
1,390

1,639
928

1.52
1.50

$0.59
.60

3,880

2,567

1.51

.60

Aug. 14, 2 ships.........

1,759
2,134

1,321
1,246

1.33
1.71

.53

Total...............

3,893

2,567

1.52

.59

1Short tons.




Out­
put
per
Man- manhours hour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
rev­
enue
ton 1

Other weeks

$0.60

Weeks w ith m axim um effi­
ciency

M ay 21, 3 ships.

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons 0

.68

Jan. 7, 2 ships.
Jan. 14, 2 ships..
Jan. 21, 2 ships.
Feb. 7, 2 ships. .
Feb. 21, 3 ships.
Feb. 28, 2 ships.
Mar. 7,4 ships..
Mar. 14,1 ship_
Mar. 21, 3 ships.
Mar. 31, 3 ships.
Apr. 7, 3 ships..
Apr. 14, 2 ships.
Apr. 21, 3 ships.
Apr. 30, 3 ships.
May 7,1 ship...
May 14, 2 ships.
M ay 31, 2 ships.
June 7, 2 ships..
June 14, 2 ships.
June 21, 2 ships.
June 30, 3 ships.
July 7, 2 ships. .
July 21, 2 ships.
July 31, 3 ships.
Aug. 7, 2 ships—
Aug. 21, 2 ships.
Aug. 31, 3 ships.
Sept. 7, 2 ships.
Sept. 14, 2 ships.
Sept. 21, 1 ship..
Sept. 30, 4 ships.
Oct. 7, 2 ships. .
Oct. 21, 2 ships..
Oct. 31, 3 ships.
Nov. 7, 2 ships—
Nov. 14, 2 ships.
Nov. 21, 2 ships.
Nov. 30, 3 ships.
Dec. 7, 2 ships..
Dec. 14, 2 ships.
Dec. 21, 2 ships.
Dec. 31, 2 ships.

2,483
3,445
3,242
2,699
2,549
3,735
3,216
3,221
4,059
6,405
1,294
2,591
4.589
1,032
1,899
2,605
3,515
1,949
2,240
4,004
3,893
2,083
4,699
3,357
2,712
5,126
3,036
3.589
1,941
7,418
4,180
4,283
6,861
5,546
3,276
4,110
5,161
4,797
3,578
2,986
2,420

1,704
2,048
1,930
1,688
1,883
2,594
2,459
2,105
2,394
2,996
4,618
906
1,566
3,253
619
1,348
1,523
2,303

11
,2 0

1,310
2,734
2,520
1,409
2,909
2,037
1,994
3,158
2,094
2,506
1,298
5,249
2,979
2,783
4,246
3,803
2,071
2,755
3,406
2,963
2,356
1,924
1,476

1.46
1.68
1.68

1.60
1.35
1.44
1.58
1.53
1.35
1.35
1.39
1.43
1.65
1.41
1.67
1.41
1.71
1.53
1.61
1.71
1.46
1.54
1.48
1.62
1.65
1.36
1.62
1.45
1.43
1.50
1.41
1.40
1.54
1.62
1.46
1.58
1.49
1.52
1.62
1.52
1.55
1.64

$0.62
.54
.54
.56
.67
.63
.57
.59
.67
.67
.65
.63
.55
.64
.54
.64
.53
.59
.56
.53
.62
.58
.61
.56
.55
.66

.56
.62
.63
.60
.64
.64
.58
.56
.62
.57
.60
.59
.56
.59
.58
.55

123

SEATTLE (1926)

T a b l e 5 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Line No. 15:
Total, 7 ships............................ 2,055

2,292

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

C o ffe e

No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7

(September)...................
(October).......................
(November)___________
(December)....................
(January).......................
(February).....................
(March).........................

238
231
281
332
270
351
352

79.5 825.8

28.8

24.9

1.04

1.16 $0.87

7.5
11.0
11.7
13.3
11.0
12.0
13.0

31.6
21.0
24.0
25.0
24.6
29.2
27.1

35.5
23.5
26.9
28.0
27.5
31.9
30.3

21.6
20.0
24.5
25.0
20.0
31.6
29.4

1.46
1.04
.97
1.00
1.25
.93
.92

1.64
1.17
1.09
1.12
1.40
1.01
1.03

.62
.87
.93
.90
.72
.97
.98

.55
.77
.83
.80
.64
.89
.87

64,868 1,962.1

29.5

33.1

19.0

1.55

1.74 $0.58

$0.52

2.46 $0.41
.49
2.06

$0.37
.44

1.48 $0.68
.69
1.45

$0.61
.62

1.77 $0.57
1.75
.58

$0.51
.51

266
259
315
372
303
383
394

$0.78

Sa lm o n

Line No. 16:
Total, 19 ships.......................... 57,915

S hips w ith m axim um efficiency

No. l_
No. 2-.

4,954
5,331

5,549
5,971

118.5
152.6

41.8
34.9

46.8
39.1

19.0
19.0

2.20
1.84

S h ip s w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3„
No. 4.

3,999
10,138

4,479
11,355

159.3
410.9

25.1
24.7

28.1
27.6

19.0
19.0

1.32
1.30

S hip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5......................................... 2,808
No. 6__.....................................
645

3,145
723

93.5
21.8

Line No. 17:
Total, 25 ships.......................... 24,160 827,062

122.6

33.6
33.2

19.0
19.0

1.58
1.56

19.7 222.1

13.0

1.52 21.70 $0.59 2
$0.53

30.0
29.6

S t e e l P ipe , etc .

Sh ip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1......................................... 1,195
No. 2.........................................
722

21,338
2 809

54.3
29.2

22.0 824.6
24.7 827.7

13.0
13.0

1.69 81.90 $0.53 2$0.47
1.90 22.13
•47 2.42

Ships w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3.........................................
No. 4.........................................

662
579

2742

2648

39.4
35.2

16.8 218.8
16.4 218.4

13.0
13.0

1.29 21.45 $0.70 2$0.62
1.27 21.42
.71
2.63

Ship s w ith average efficiency

No. 5.........................................
609
No. 6......................................... 1,036

2682
21,160

30.8
53.3

19.8 222.1
19.4 221.8

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




13.0
13.0

1.52 21.70 $0.59 2$0.53
1.50 21.67
.60
2.54

2Short tons.

124

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 5.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN HA N D L IN G INDIVIDUAL

C O M M O D ITIE S—C ontinued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Line No. 18:
Total, 20 ships.......................... 16,207

18,156

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons* ton toni

I r o n a n d St e e l a

878.0

18.5

20.7

13.0

1.42

1.59 $0.63

$0.57

2.38 $0.42
2.08
.48

$0.38
.43

1.28 $0.79
1.24
.81

$0.70
.72

1.60 $0.63
1.59
.63

$0.56
.57

S hip s w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (September)...................
No. 2 (April)............................

879
658

985
737

31.8
27.3

27.6
24.1

31.0
27.0

13.0
13.0

2.13
1.86

S h ip s w ith m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November).
No. 4 (October)___

655
1,139

734
1,276

44.2
79.1

14.8
14.4

16.6
16.1

13.0
13.0

1.14
1.11

S h ip s w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (June)...
No. 6 (March).

1,584
1,584

1,774
1,774

85.4
85.8

23,372 226,179

741.0

20.8
20.7

13.0
13.0

1.43
1.42

31.5 235.3

17.0

1.86 22.08 $0.48 2$0.43

18.5
18.5

T in P l a t e

Line No. 19:
Total, 20 ships.........

S hips w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1.
No. 2.

542
1,432

2607
21,604

13.7
37.5

39.6 244.3
38.2 242.8

17.0
17.0

2.30 22.60 $0.39 2$0.35
2.20 22.50
.41
2.36

S h ip s w ith m inim um efficiency

984 21,102
2 723
645

No. 3..
No. 4.

40.0
27.7

24.6 227.6
23.3 226.1

17.0
17.0

1.40 21.60 $0.64 2$0.56
.64
1.40 21.50

20
.6

S hips w ith average efficiency

No. 5.
No. 6.

1,124 21,259
1,527 21,710

36.0
50.2

31.2 235.0
30.4 234.1

17.0
17.0

1.80 22.10 $0.50 3$0.43
2.45
1.80 22.00
.50

19.0

1.42

Loading cargo
A pples

Line No. 20:
Total, 22 ships.......................... 28,157

31,537 1,040.5

27.1

30.3

1.60 $0.63

$0.56

1.99 $0.51
.57
1.77

$0.45
.51

S hip s w ith m axim um efficiency

715
No. 1.........................................
No. 2_____ _________________ 2,674

801
2,995

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




21.2
89.0

33.7
30.0

37.8
33.7

2Short tons.

19.0
19.0

1.78
1.58

8 Discharged directly to cars.

125

SEATTLE (1926)
T a b l e S .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y

OF LABO R AN D L A BO R C<
BOR
LABO COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL
M M O D ITIE S—Contim
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

A p ples —Continued

Line No. 20.—Continued.
No. 3 _ _ ...................................
No. 4 . . .....................................

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tonsi gang tons tons* ton ton*

784
535

878
599

34.9
25.2

22.5
21.2

25.2
23.8

19.0
19.0

1.18
1.12

1.32 $0.76
1.25
.80

$0.68
.72

1.57 $0.64
1.64
.62

$0.57
.55

Ships with average efficiency

802
422

898
473

30.2
15.2

Line No. 21:
Total, 20 ships.......................... 10,432 211,685

410.3

No. 5 ._ .....................................
No. 6 . . . ..........................................

29.7
31.1

19.0
19.0

1.40
1.46

25.4 2 28.5

19.0

1.34 2 1.50 $0.67 «$0.60

26.6
27.8

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February).
No. 2— ...............

406
857

2455
2960

12.8
27.3

31.7 2 35.5
31.4 2 35.2

19.0
19.0

1.67 2 1.87 $0.54 2$0.48
1.65 21.85
.55 2.49

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November).
No. 4 (November).

401
355

2 449
2398

24.1
20.3

16.6 2 18.6
17.5 2 19.6

19.0
19.0

0.88 20.98 $1.02 2$0.92
.92 2 1.03
.98 2.87

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November) _
No. 6 (September) .

2 250
2 694

8.8
24.6

25.3 228.4
25.2 2 28.2

19.0
19.0

1.33 21.50 $0.68 2$0.60
1.33 21.48
.68 2. 6I

3,787 24,243

166.7

22.7 225.5

19.0

1.20 21.34 $0.75 2$0.67

223
620

C a.n n ed G oods

Line No. 22:
Total, 11 ships.

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (August) .
No. 2 (August).

261
728

2 292
2 815

7.5
27.9

34.8 238.9
26.1 229.2

19.0
19.0

1.83 22.05 $0.49 2$0.44
1.37 21.54
.66
2.58

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February)__
No. 4 (September).

90
238

2 101
2 267

5.0
12.8

18.0 220.2
18.6 220.9

19.0
19.0

.95 21.06 $0.95 2$0.85
.92 2.82
.98 21.10

Ships with average efficiency

661
262

2 740
2294

29.1
11.5

Line No. 23:
Total, 17 ships.......................... 7,873

8,820

388.0

No. 5 (March)..........................
No. 6 (October)...................... .

22.7 225.4
22.8 225.6

19.0
19.0

1.20 21.34 $0.75 2$0.67
1.20 21.35
.75 2.67

20.3

19.0

1.07

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




22.7

1.20 $0.84

2 Short tons.

$0.75

126

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 5 .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

C OM M O DITIES—C on tinued

Loading cargo—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with m axim um efficiency

C a n n e d G oods— Continued

Line No. 2&—Continued.
No. 1.......................................
No. 2.......................................

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton1

532
431

596
483

23.0
16.5

23.1
26.1

25.9
29.3

19.0
19.0

1.22
1.37

1.36 $0.74
1.54
.66

$0.66
.58

0.92 $1.10
1.00 1.00

$0.98
.90

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

281
468

No. 3..
No. 4..

315
524

18.0
27.5

15.6
17.0

17.5
19.1

19.0
19.0

0.82
.90

Ships with average efficiency

649
867

No. 5_„
No. 6 -

727
971

32.0
42.5

20.3
20.4

22.7
22.8

19.0
19.0

1.07
1.07

1.20 $0.84
1.20
.84

$0.75
.75

10,055

11,262

403.1

24.9

27.9

21.0

1.19

1.33 $0.76

$0.68

2.00 $0.50
1.87
.54

$0.45
.48

0.69 $1.45
.83 1.22

$1.30
1.08

Flour*

Line No. 24:
Total, 13 ships___

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)___
No. 2 (December)..

530
760

594
851

12.2
20.0

43.4
38.0

48.6
42.6

24.3
22.5

1.79
1.67

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June).
No. 4 (June).

1,030
612

1,154
685

94.9
45.6

10.9
13.4

12.2
15.0

17.4
18.2

0.62
.74

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November)No. 6 (October)___

650
640

728
717

25.4
29.5

25.6
21.7

28.7
24.3

20.8
21.4

1.23
1.02

1.38 $0.73
1.14
.88

$0.65
.79

17,750 1,442.4

7.7

12.3

13.0

.59

.95 $1.53

$0.95

L um ber

Line No. 25:
Total, 9 ships........
No. 1 (March)—
Bellingham..
Tacoma.........
Ludlow.........
Total .
No. 2 (May)—
Bellingham.
Seattle.........
Tacoma.......
Total.
No. 3 (September)Aberdeen_____
Port Angeles—
Mukilteo_____
Total.

.11,094
261
1,208
970

418
1,932
1,552

35.0
53.3
53.6

7.5
22.7
18.1

11.9
36.3
29.0

13.0
13.7
13.0

.57
1.64
1.39

.92
2.64
2,23

1.58
.55
.65

.98
.34
.40

. 2,439

3,902

141.9

17.2

27.5

13.3

1.29

2.07

.70

.43

875
284
1,015

1,400
454
1,624

83.5
30.0
115.0

10.5
9.5
8.8

16.8
15.1
14.1

12.6
13.0
13.0

.83
.73
.68

1.33
1.16
1.09

1.08
1.23
1.32

.68
.78
.83

. 2,174

3,478

228.5

9.5

15.2

12.9

.74

1.18

1.22

.83

844
409
369

1,350
654
590

146.0
87.0
53.5

5.8
4.7
6.9

9.2
7.5
11.0

13.0
13.0
13.0

.44
.36
.53

.71
.58
.85

2.05
2.50
1.70

1.27
1.55
1.06

. 1,622

2,594

286.5

5.7

9.1

13.0

.44

.70

2.05

1.29

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




* Loaded at mill.

127

SEATTLE (1926)

T a b l e 5 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LA BO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDU AL

CO M M O D ITIE S—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

L u m ber— Continued
Line No. 25—Continued.
No. 4 (October)—
Seattle.......................
Aberdeen...................

TotalNo. 5 (November)—
Seattle...............
Tacoma................
TotalNo. 6 (November)—
Tacoma...............
Port Angeles.......
TotalNo. 7 (December)—
Mukilteo- ..........
Everett.-a..........
Total-

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reveper
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons1 tons ton enue
ton1

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

63
849

100
1,359

8.5
138.5

7.4
6.1

11.8
9.8

13.0
13.0

0.57
.47

912

1,459

147.0

6.2

9.9

13.0

.48

.76

1.88

1.18

94
87

150
140

19.0
16.5

4.9
5.3

7.9
8.5

13.0
13.0

.39
.41

.62
.66

2.31
2.20

1.45
1.36

181

290

35.5

5.1

8.2

13.0

.40

.64

2.25

1.41

255
390

409
624

45.5
67.0

5.6
5.8

9.0
9.3

12.9
13.1

.43
.44

.69
.71

2.09
2.05

1.30
1.27

645

1,033

112.5

5.7

9.2

13.0

.44

.70

2.05

1.29

647
1,069

1,035
1,710

108.0
144.5

6.0
7.4

9.6
11.8

13.0
13.0

.46
.57

.73
.91

1.96
1.58

1.23
.99

0.92 $1.58 $0 .98
.76 1.91
1.18

1,716

2,745

252.5

6.8

10.9

13.0

.52

.84

1.73

1.07

No. 8 (January)—
Bellingham...
Port Angeles..

450
526

720
842

62.0
97.0

7.3
5.4

11.6
8.7

13.0
13.0

.56
.42

.90
.67

1.61
2.14

1.00
1.34

Total---------

976

1,562

159.0

6.1

9.8

13.0

.47

.75

1.91

1.20

58
371

93
594

10.0
69.0

5.8
5.4

9.3
8.6

13.0
13.0

.45
.41

.72
.66

2.00
2.20

1.25
1.36

429

687

79.0

5.4

8.7

13.0

.42

.67

2.14

1.34

58,848 4,929.1

7.5

11.9

13.0

0.57

0.92 $1.58

$0.98

1.23 $1.17
1.25 1.15

$0.73
.72

0.70 $2.05
.72 2.00

$1.29
1.25

0.87 $1.67
1.07 1.34
.64 2.25

$1.03
.84
1.41

No. 9 (February)—
Seattle...........—
Mukilteo...........
TotalLine No. 26:
Total, 37 ships.

36,780

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June), Seattle..
No. 2 (July), Everett..

281
477

450
763

28.2
46.9

10.0
10.2

15.9
16.3

13.0 0.77
13.0. .78

Ships w ith m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (May), Everett..............
No. 4 (November), Seattle___

519
230

830
367

90.8
39.2

5.7
5.9

9.1
9.4

13.0
13.0

0.44
.45

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)—
Seattle....... ........................
Everett...............................
Seattle.............................. .

466
584
128

746
934
204

66.2
67.2
24.7

7.0
8.7
5.2

11.3
13.9
8.3

13.0
13.0
13.0

0.54
.67
.40

T o ta l-............................ 1,178

1,884

158.1

7.4

11.9

13.0

.57

.92

1.58

.98

394
287
634

631
459
1,015

63.3
30.9
81.0

6.2
9.3
7.8

10.0
14.8
12.5

13.0
13.0
13.0

.48
.71
.60

.77
1.14
.96

1.88
1.27
1.50

1.17
.79
.94

Total.............................. 1,315

2,104

175.2

7.5

12.0

13.0

.58

.92

1.55

.98

No. 6 (December)—
Seattle.............................. .
Seattle................................
Everett............................. .

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




128

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 5 .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LA BO R COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Reve­
nue
tons*

Long
tons

Output per Aver­
gang-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per
nue
tons tons* gang

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons* ton ton i

Lu m ber— Continued

Line No. 27: *
Total, 18 ships.................

39,018 2,285.9

17.1

16.3

1.05

$0.86

i
I
10.25
1.23

$0.72
.73

1
Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (No vember-D ecember).
No. 2 (October)......................

2,195
2,194

111.0
118.5

19.8
18.5

15.8
15.1

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April)— .
No. 4 (January) .

2,317

2,074

144.0
139.5

16.1
14.9

18.5
15.6

0.87

$1.03
.94

Ships with average efficiency

18.9
17.7

18.0
16.9

1.05
1.05

$0.86

42,067 1,942.3 ......... 21.7

No. 5 (June-July)..
No. 6 (July)..........

22.4

0.97

$0.93

1.06
1.02

$0.85

0.87

$1.03
1.01

0.98
.96

$0.92
.94

1/45 $0.70

$0.62

1.74 $0.58
2.14
.47

$0.52
.42

1.13 $0.89
1.24
.81

$0.80
.73

1.41 $0.71
.71
1.42

$0.64
.63

2,156
2,148

Line No. 28:5
Total, 10 ships.

114.0
121.5

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November)No, 2 (August).......

4,136
4,267

166.5
162.0

24.8
26.3

23.4
25.8

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (M ay)...........
No. 4 (September) .

4,245
4,100

216.0
225.8

19.7
18.2

22.7
20.5

Ships w ith average efficiency

4,254
4,180

No. 5 (July)..........
No. 6 (December) -

134.0
241.5

11,802

428.3

31.8
17.3

32.4
18.1

27.6

19.0

Sa lm o n

Line No. 29:
Total, 20 ships___

. 10,538

24.6

1.29

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1.........................................
No. 2.........................................

296
1,699

331
1,903

10.0
46.8

29.6
36.3

33.1
40.7

19.0
19.0

1.56
1.91

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

404
316

No. 3.
No. 4-

452
354

21.0
15.0

19.2
21.1

21.5
23.6

19.0
19.0

1.01
1.11

Ships with average efficiency

444
567

No. 5.
No. 6.

497
635

18.5
23.5

24.0
24.1

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




26.9
27.0

19.0
19.0

1.26
1.27

6 Puget Sound ports.

Tacoma (1926)
T a b l e 6 . - -PRODU OTIVITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO, B Y

KIN D OF T R A D E A N D IN D IV ID U A L COM M ODITIES

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Output per Aver­ Output per
gang-hour age
man-hour

labor cost
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton '
Intercoastal trade 3

Discharging cargo: No. 1_
Loading cargo: No. 2____

2,030 32,272
12,150 3 13,609

146.0
733.0

13.9 *15.6
16.6 318.6

18.0
19.1

0.77 30.86 $1.17 3$1.05
.87 3.97 1.03 3.93

Individual commodities *

Discharging cargo—Ore: No. 3„
Loading cargo:
Box shooks—
No. 4.............................
No. 5..............................
Copper—
No. 6—..........................
No. 7..............................
Doors, No. 8........................
Flour (via chute), No. 9___
Flour (ship’s gear), No. 10- _
Lumber—
No. 11............................
No. 12............................
No. 13............................
Wheat (via chute), No. 14__

29,923

29,923 1,236.6

24.2

24.2

12.2

1.99

1.99 $0.45

4,206 34,711
6,342 37,102

306.8
520.4

13.7 315.4
12.2 313.6

17.0
17.4

.81
.70

3.90
3.79

1.11 3 1.00
1.29 3 1.14

5,641 3 6,318
22,425 325,114
5,104 3 5,717
14,071 315,760
24,250 327,160

194.5
886.8
368.0
313.6
736.8

29.0
25.3
13.9
44.9
32.9

32.5
328.3
315.5
350.3
336.8

13.0
13.1
19.4
15.0
21.0

2.23
1.93
.71
3.00
1.57

32.50
32.16
3.80
33.35
*1.76

.40 3.36
.47 3.42
1.27 3 1.13
.30 3.27
.57 3.51

39,890 3,058.6
92,742 9,216.9
86,236 9,080.8
199.2
13,067 314,635

8.4
6.3

13.0
10.1
9.5
65.6 373.5

13.0
12.0
12.0
15.0

.64
.52

1.00
.84
.79
34.90

1.41
1.73

25,551
57,964

3

" O

f

.2 1

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
3 Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.




$0.45

129

.90
1.07
1.14
3.18

130
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
7.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Total, 12 ships................................ 2,030

2,272

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

L ine No. 1
146.0

13.9

15.6

18.0

0.77

0.86 $1.17

$1.05

1.06 $0.96
1.11
.91

$0.85
.81

0.69 $1.45
.70 1.45

$1.30
1.29

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)................................ .
No. 2 (July)............. ......................

278
177

311
198

15.5
10.5

17.9
16.9

20.1
18.9

19.0
17.0

0.94
.99

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June)___
No. 4 (August)..

217
106

243
119

19.5
9.5

11.1
11.2

12.5
12.5

18.0
18.0

0.62
.62

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay)...................................
No. 6 (July)
_________________

211
163

236
183

16.0
11.0

13.2
14.8

14.8
16.6

18.0
19.0

0.73
.78

0.82 $1.23
.88 1.15

$1.10
1.02

19.1

0.87

0.97 $1.03

$0.93

2.61 $0.39
1.72
.59

$0.34
.52

0.72 $1.38
.73 1.38

$1.25
1.23

0.92 $1.10
.94 1.07

$0.98
.96

Loading cargo
Lin e No. 2

Total, 18 ships................................ 12,150

13,609

733.0

16.6

18.6

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (July)___
No. 2 (October).

647
824

725
923

18.5
30.0

35.0
27.5

39.2
30.8

15.0
17.9

2.33
1.53

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (June).
No. 4 (July)..

221
546

247
611

15.5
45.5

14.3
12.0

15.9
13.4

22.0
18.5

0.65
.65

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March).
No. 6 (July)___
i Short tons.




1,379
240

1,545
269

80.5
13.0

17.1
18.5

19.2
20.7

21.0
22.0

0.82
.84

131

TACOMA (1926)

T a b le 8.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton1
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

O re

Line No. 3:
Total, 15 ships____ ____ _____ 29,923

29,923 1,236.6

24.2

24.2

12.2

1.99

1.99 $0.45

$0.45

2.42 $0.37
.32
2.79

$0.37
.32

1.71 $0.53
1.55
.58

$0.53
.58

2.03 $0.44
1.92
.47

$0.44
.47

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)—.....................
925
No. 2 (October)................. ...... 1,339

925
1,339

35.0
40.0

26.4
33.5

26.4
33.5

11.0
12.0

2.42
2.79

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March).......................... 5,016
No. 4 (N ovem ber).......... ...... 1,132

5,016
1,132

240.0
60.6

20.9
18.7

20.9
18.7

12.2
12.0

1.71
1.55

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay)____________
1,613
No. 6 (December)----------------- 1,897

1,613
1,897

66.3
82.0

24.3
23.1

12.0
12.0

2.03
1.92

13.7 215.4

17.0

0.81 20.90 $1.11 2$1.00

24.3
23.1

Loading cargo
B ox Shooks
Line No. 4:
Total, 12 ships.......................... 4,206 24,711

306.8

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1.........................................
No. 2...................................... -

506
231

2 567
2 259

30.1
13.7

16.8 218.8
16.9 218.9

17.0
17.0

0.99 21. 11 $0.91 2$0.81
.91 2.81
.99 21. 11

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3.........................................
No. 4........... .............................

146
290

2 164
2 325

14.9
24.9

9.8 211.0
11.6 213.1

17.0
17.0

0.58 20.65 $1.55 2$1.38
.69 2.77 1.30 2 1.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5.........................................
No. 6......................................-

403
349

2 451
2 391

27.1
23.7

Line No. 5:
Total, 12 ships......... ...............

6,342

7,102

520.4

14.9 216.6
14.7 216.5

17.0
17.0

0.87 20.98 $1.03 2$0.92
.87 2.97 1.03 2.93

12.2

17.4

0.70

13.6

0.79 $1.29

$1.14

0.98 $1.02
.93 1.08

$0.92
.97

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1..................................... ...
No. 2________ ______________

622
343

697
384

37.4
21.7

16.6
15.8

1Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




18.6
17.7

19.0
19.0

0.88
.83

aShort tons.

132
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
8.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons nue ton tnue1
on
tons 1
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

B ox S h ooks— Continued.
Line No. 5—Continued
No. 3...................................
No. 4....................................

520
442

582
495

48.5
47.4

10.7
9.3

12.0
10.4

17.0
17.0

0.63
.55

0.71 $1.43
.61 j 1.64

$1.27
1.48

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5.........................................
No. 6.........................................

451
620

505
694

37.6
51.6

12.0
12.0

13.4
13.4

17.0
17.0

0.71
.71

0.79 $1.27
.79 1.27

$1.14
1.14

Line No. 6:
Total, 11 ships.......................... 5,641

6,318

194.5

29.0

32.5

13.0

2.23

2.50 $0.40

$0.36

2.87 $0.35
2.78
.36

$0.31
.32

2.15 $0.47
.47
2.15

$0.42
.21

C opper

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1..
No. 2..

400
500

448
560

12.0
15.5

33.3
32.3

37.3
36.1

13.0
13.0

2.56
2.48

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3.........................................

400
500

448
560

16.0
20.0

25.0
25.0

28.0
28.0

13.0
13.0

1.92
1.92

Ships with average efficiency

972
550

No. 5..
No. 6..
Line No. 7:
Total, 29 ships.

1,089
616

33.5
19.0

29.0
28.9

32.5
32.4

13.0
13.0

2.23
2.23

2.50 $0.40
2.49
.40

$0.36
.36

22,425

25,114

886.8

25.3

28.3

13.1

1.93

2.16 $0.47

$0.42

2.92 $0.34
2.83
.36

$0.31
.32

1.82 $0.56
1.73
.58

$0.49
.52

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)----No. 2 (October).

624
750

699
840

18.4 33.9
22.8 ! 32.9

38.0
36.8

13.0
13.0

2.61
2.53

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 4 (July).

1,300
1,000

1,456
1,120

61.6
49.7

21.1
20.1

23.6
22.5

13.0
13.0

1.62
1.55

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M arch)-........................ 1,050
No. 6 (August)......................... 1,500

1,176
1,680

41.6
59.5

25.3
25.2

28.3
28.2

13.0
13.0

1.94
1.94

2.17 $0.46
.46
2.17

$0.41
.41

5,717

368! 0

13.9

15.5

19.4

0.71

0.80 $1.27

$1.13

D oors

Line No. 8:
Total, 10 ships.......................... 5,104

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet*




133

TACOMA (1926)
T a b le

8.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons* gang tons nue ton nue
tons1
ton1

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Ships with m axim um efficiency

D o o r s —Continued

Line No. 8—Continued.
No. 1 (January)....................... 1,493
No. 2 (February).................. .
521

1,672
583

1
I

64.1
19.9

23.3
26.2

26.1
29.3

21.0
21.0

1.11
1.25

1.24 $0.81
1.40
.72

$0.73
.64

0.48 $2.09
.56 1.80

$1.88

0.72 $1.41
.78 1.29

$1.25
1.15

$0.27

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October)___
No. 4 (November).

463
442

519
495

56.5
46.8

8.2
9.4

9.2
10.6

19.0
19.0

0.43
.50

1.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September) .
No. 6 (November) .

498
246

558
275

40.9
18.5

12.2
13.3

.14,071

15,760

313.6

522
1,228
547
558
1,339
3,214
1,317
1,062
1,116
3,168

585
1,375
613
625
1,500
3,600
1,475
1,189
1,250
3,548

13.6
14.9

19.0
19.0

0.64
.70

44.9

50.3

15.0

3.00

3.35 $0.30

10.7 48.8
29.1 42.2
13.7 39.9
20.4 27.4
26.6 50.3
72.0 44.6
30.7 42.9
24.3 43.7
24.2 46.1
61.9 51.2

54.7
47.3
44.7
30.6
56.4
50.0
48.0
48.9
51.7
57.3

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

3.25
2.81
2.66
1.82
3.36
2.98
2.86
2.91
3.07
3.41

3.64
3.15
2.98
2.04
3.76
3.33
3.20
3.26
3.44
3.82

32.9 236.8

21.0

1.57 21.76 $0.57 2$0.51

F lour

Line No. 9 (via chute):
Total, 10 ships........... .
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1_.
2__
3 ..
4 ..
5__
6_.
78__
9_.
10..

.
.
.
.

Line No. 10:
Total, 19 ships.

.24,250 *27,160

736.8

.28
.32
.34
.49
.27
.30
.31
.31
.29
.27

.25
.29
.30
.44
.24
.27
.28
.28
.26
.24

Ships with maximum efficiency

. 3,699 24,143
. 3,350 2 3,752

No. 1.
No. 2.

103.6
89.7

35.7 240.0
37.3 241.8

21.0
21.0

1.70 21.90 $0.53 2$0.47
1.78 21.99
.51
2.45

Ships with m inim um efficiency

525
2 588
1,470 2 1,646

No. 3.
No. 4.

18.7
56.8

28.1 231.5
25.9 229.0

21.0
21.0

1.34 21.50 $0.67 2$0.60
1.23 21.38 .73
2.65

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5.........................................
No. 6.........................................

583
875

2 653
2980

17.8
26.7

32.8 236.7
32.8 236.7

21.0
21.0

1.56 21.75 $0.58 2$0.51
.58
1.56 21.75
2.51

L u m ber
Line No. 11:

Total, 30 ships............................... 25,551

3,989 3,058.6

8.4

13.0

13.0

.64

1.00 $1.41

$0.90

1.17 $1.23
1.24 1.17

$0.77
.73

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)..
No. 2 (July).......

1,015
363

1,624
582

106.8
36.1

* Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 feet.




9.5
10.1

15.2
16.1

13.0 0.73
13.0 .77

2 Short tons.

134

GENERAL TABLES
8.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

T a b le

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L u m b e r — Continued

Line No. 11— Continued.
No. 3 (February).....................
No. 4 (M ay)..........................-

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons nue gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
tons1

406
892

658
1,428

57.1
139.8

7.1
6.4

11.4
10.2

13.0
13.0

0.55
.49

0.88 $1.64
.79 1.84

$1.02
1.14

1.02 $1.41
1.03 1.41

$0.88
.87

Ships with average efficiency
602
No. 5 (January)........................
No. 6 (August)......................... 1,017

963
1,627

72.6
121.7

Line No. 12:
Total, 40 ships.......................... 57,964 292,742 9,216.9

8.3
8.4

13.3
13.4

13.0
13.0

0.64
.64

6.3 U O .l

12.0

0.52 20.84 $1.73 2$1.07

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1...................................... No. 2.........................................

1,183
1,619

1,893
2,590

161.5
214.0

7.3
7.6

11.7
12.1

12.0
12.0

0.61
.63

0.98 $1.48
1.01 1.43

$0.92
.89

0.70 $2.05
.70 2.05

$1.29
1.29

0.84 $1.73
.84 1.70

$1.07
1.07

0.79

$1.14

0.92
.90

$0.98

0.64
.69

$1.41
1.30

0.82
.82

$1.10
1.10

Ships with m inim um efficiency

1,069
680

No. 3.
No. 4.

1,710
1,088

203.0
129.0

5.3
5.3

8.4
8.4

12.0
12.0

0.44
.44

Ships with average efficiency

1,989
1,524

No. 5.
No. 6.
Line No. 13:
Total, 28 ships.

3,183
2,438

317.0
240.8

6.3
6.3

12.0
12.0

9.5

86,236 9,080.8

10.0
10.1

0.52
.53

12.0

Ships with maximum efficiency

2,585
3,017

No. 1No. 2.

1 .0
1

234.2
277.9

10.9

12.0
12.0

10
.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

669
3,124

No. 3.
No. 4.

7.6
8.3

87.6
378.1

12.0
12.0

Ships with average efficiency

1,922
2,237

196.3
228.3

14:
[, 6 ships............................ 13,067

14,635

199.2

1,000
5,154
1,905
2,000
2,008
1,000

1,120
5,772
2,134
2,240
2,249
1,120

No. 5..
i.......................................
No. 6.
h ea t

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.




9.8
9.8

12.0
12.0

(V ia C h u te )

73.5

15.0

4.37

4.90 $0.21

19.8 50.5 56.6
93.4 55.2 61.8
30.0 63.5 71.1
26.2 76.3 85.5
19.8 101.4 113.6
10.0 100.0 112.0

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

3.37
3.68
4.23
5.09
6.76
6.66

3.77
4.12
4.74
5.70
7.57
7.47

65.6

1Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.

2Short tons.

.27
.25
.21
.18
.13
.13

$0.18
.24
.22
.19
.16
.12
.12

Grays Harbor (1926)
T a b le

9.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST * IN LOADING LU M B E R , B Y
KIND OF TRAD E
Output
Output
per gang- Average per man- Average
labor cost
hour number
hour
of men
(1,000 per 1,000
(1,000
per
board
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Line number and kind of trade

Foreign trade:
No. 1 _ _ _ ............ ...................................
No. 2 ..........................................—...........
Intercoastal trade:
No. 3......................................................
No. 4______ _____ — ..............................
Coastwise trade:
No. 5............................................... - ........
No. 6________________________________
No. 7________________________________
No. 8________________________________

Ganghours

233,616
64,241

22,109.6
5.797.0

10.6
11.1

12.0
14.0

0.88
.79

$1.02
1.14

4.343.5
50,310
128,369 2165,860.0

11.6

14.8

.78
.77

1.15
1.17

27.1
20.9
15.8
13.4

20.7
18.1
16.1
15.2

1.31
1.16
.98
.88

.69
.78
.92
1.02

31,772
23,704
18,964
15,770

1.173.5
1.132.0
1.200.0
1,176.0

i Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.

2 Man-hours.

T a b le 10.-— R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN LOADIN G LU M B E R IN
P

FOREIGN TR AD E

Ship number and date of operation

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Ganghours

233,616

22,109.6

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
hour number man-hour labor cost
men (1,000
per 1,000
(1,000 ofper
board
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

L in e No. 1

Total, 80 ships__ ___ ___ - ________________

10.6

12.0

0.88

$1.02

1.44
1.61

$0.63
.56

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April)............ .......................................
No. 2 (August)___________________________

1,160
3,506

67.2
181.9

17.3
19.3

12.0
12.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June)________________________ _____
No. 4 (August)___________________________

1,670
1,502

250.5
211.5

6.7
7.1

12.0
12.0

0.56
.59

$1. 61
1.53

0.88
.88

$1.02
1.02

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April) ___________________________
No. 6 (August)___________________________

3,064
4,100

290.2
390.4

10.6
10.6

12.0
12.0

Labor productivity and costs, by months

January, 5 ships..________________________
February, 7 ships_____________________- _
_
March, 4 ships___________________________
April, 6 ships____________________________
May, 5 ships______________ - _____________
June, 6 ships_____________________________
July, 4 ships_____________________________
August, 8 ships. _______________________
September, 8 ships_______________________
October, 12 sh ips_______________________ _
November, 8 ships__ _______ _____________
December, 7 ships_______________________ *




10,727
19,167
12,532
9,534
17,859
15,771
13,422
23,721
26,243
34,326
25,872
24,442

1,106.7
1,908.5
1,234.0
840.7
1,721.1
1,676.2
1,264.0
2,362.8
2.362.0
3,234.6
2.133.0
2,266.0

9.7
10.0
10.2
11.3
10.4
9.4
10.6
10.0
11.1
10.6
12.1
10.8

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

0.81
.84
.85
.94
.86
.78.
.88
.84
.93
.88
1.01
.90

135

$1.11
1.07
1.06
.96
1.05
1.15
1.02
1. 07
.97
1.02
.89
1.00

136

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 1 0 . — P R O D U C TIV IT Y

OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN LOADIN G L U M B E R IN
FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Ship number and date of operation

Line N o. 2
Total, 28 ships.................................................

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

64,241

Ganghours

5,797.0

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
number man-hour labor cost
hour
per 1,000
of men
(1,000
(1,000
board
per
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

11.1

14.0

0.79

$1.14

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)......................................—
No. 2 (March).................................................

1,215
2,864

99.5
217.0

12.2
13.2

12.2
13.0

1.00
1.01

$0.90
.89

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January^...............................................
No. 4 (M ay).......................................... .........

1,204
2,019

130.0
236.0

9.3
8.6

15.3
14.2

0.60
.60

$1.50
1.50

0.79
.78

$1.14
1.15

Ships w ith average efficiency

No. 5 (April)............... ...................................
No. 6 (M ay)................... ............... ............ .

3,343
2,000

308.5
171.5

10.8
11.7

13.6
15.0

T able 1 1 .-P R 0 D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN LOADING LU M B E R IN
IN TER C O A STA L T R A D E

Ship number and date of operation

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Ganghours

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
hour number man-hour labor cost
men
per 1,000
(1,000 ofper
(1,000
board
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

Line N o . 3
Total___________________________________

50,310

4,343.5

11.6

14.8

0.78

$1.15

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)--........................................
No. 2 (March).............. .................................

4,024
3,270

315.0
221.0

12.8
14.8

14.1
15.5

0.90
.95

$1.00
.95

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)...............................................
No. 4 (January)—......... ................................

858
1,142

88.0
112.0

9.8
10.2

15.6
16.2

0.63
.63

$1.43
1.43

0.78
.78

$1.15
1.15

0.77

$1.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)...............................................
No. 6 (June).....................................................

1,986
2,111

155.0
168.5

12.8
12.5

16.5
16.1

L ine N o . 4
Total_____ __ _____________ __ __ ________

128,309 1165,St)0.0

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (M ay)______ - __ . . . . . . . . . ___ _______
No. 2 (August)_____________________ _____
i Man-hours.




3,018 i 2,872.0
1,919 1 1,923.0

1.05
1.00

$0.8r
»
.90




F

ig u r e

4 0.— v ie w

o f

l u m b e r

P

ie r

at

g r a y s

H

a r b o r

,

w a s h

.

137

GRAYS HAJRBOR (1926)

T a b l e ii.~ P R O D U C T I V I T Y OF LABOR A N D &ABOR COST IN LOADIN G L U M B E R IN

IN TER C O A ST A L TR AD E —Continued

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Ship number and date of operation

Ganghours

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
hour number man-hour labor cost
of men
per 1,000
(1,000
(1,000
board
per
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 4—Continued
No. 3 (April)____________________________
No. 4 (M ay)_____________________________

970 U,636.0
1,500 12,691.0

0.59
.56

$1.52
1.61

0.77
.77

$1.17
1.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)_____________________________
No. 6 (September)_______________________

3,204 14.168.0
1,471 11.922.0

Labor productivity and costs, by months

January, 2 ships_________________________
5,786 17.168.0
________________________ 3 ships
February,
9,860 112.900.0
March, 3 ships___________________________
9,321 112.498.0
April, 2 ships____________________________
4,870 16.656.0
7,534 110.023.0
May, 3 ships____________________________
9,257 112.423.0
June, 3 ships................... ..................... ...........
July, 2 ships________________ ____ ________
3,498 15.453.0
13,312 116.403.0
August, 4 ships_______________ ________ __
September, 8 ships_______________________
18,493 122.926.0
October, 8 ships__________________________
21,791 128.702.0
11,397 114.950.0
November, 4 ships_____________ __________
December, 5 ships _ _ ___________________
13,250 115.803.0

0.81
.76
.75
.73
.75
.74
.64
.81
.81
.76
.76
.84

$1.11
1.18
1.20
1.23
1.20
1.22
1.41
1.11
1.11
1.18
1.18
1.07

1Man-hours.
T a b le 13.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN LOADING LU M B E R IN

COASTW ISE TR AD E

Ship number and date of operation

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Ganghours

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
hour number man-hour labor cost
men (1,000 per 1,000
(1,000 ofper
board
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

L in e N o. 5

Total, 20 ships.................................................

31,772

1,173.5

27.1

20.7

1.31

$0.69

1.83
1.77

$0.49
.51

Ships with m aximum efficiency

1,652
1,605

48.0
50.0

34.4
32.1

18.9
18.1

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3................................................................
No. 4................................................................

1,494
1,458

69.0
77.0

21.7
18.9

20.8
18.3

1.04
1.04

$0.87
.87

Shtps with average efficiency

1,605
1,633

54.0
65.0

29.7
25.1

22.3
19.6

1.33
1.28

$0.68
.70

23,704

1,132.0

20.9

18.1

1.16

$0.78

L ine No. 6

Total, 23 ships...................... ............ .............

66490°—32----- 10



138
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
13.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN LOADING LUM BER IN
COASTWISE TKADE—Continued

Ship number and date of operation

Cargo
tonnage
(1,000
board
feet)

Ganghours

Output
Output Average
per gang- Average
per
hour number man-hour labor cost
of men
per 1,000
(1,000
(1,000
per
board
board
board
gang
feet
feet)
feet)

Ships with m axim um efficiency

L ine No. 6—Continued
No. 1 (September)........................................ .
No. 2 (October)...............................................

1,075
1,064

48.0
46.5

22.4
22.9

17.3
17.6

1.30
1.30

$0.69
.69

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)............................................. .
No. 4 (April)...................................................

1,022
1,042

61.0
55.0

16.8
19.0

18.2
19.1

0.92
.99

$0.98
.91

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September)........................................
No. 6 (December)—. .............................. ........

1,063
1,033

50.0
46.0

21.1
22.5

18.2
19.5

1,16
1.15

$0.78
.78

18,964

1,200.0

15.8

16.1

0.98

$0.92

Line N o. 7
Total, 22 ships............................................. .

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)................................................—
No. 2 (November).........................................

911
834

53.0
53.0

17.2
15.7

13.3
13.9

1.29
1.13

$0.70
.80

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (M ay).................................................No. 4 (August)................................................

870
867

59.0
57.0

14.7
15.2

16.6
17.1

0.89
.89

$1.01
1.01

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July)....................................... ............
No. 6 (December)..... .....................................

889
860

48.0
53.0

18.5
16.0

18.9
16.4

0.98
.98

$0.92
.92

15,770

1,176.0

13.4

15.2

0.88

$1.02

Line N o . 8
Total, 19 ships.................................................

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (M ay).................................................. .
No. 2 (August)................................................

850
880

49.0
52.0

17.4
16.9

16.9
16.6

1.03
1.02

$0.87
.88

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (J u ly)..................................................No. 4 (November).........................................-

895
785

68.0
82.0

13.2
9.6

17.5
13.0

0.75
.75

$1.20
1.20

0.88
.86

$1.02
1.05

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 ('January)...____ ______________ _____
No. 6 (Dem'nber)___________ ____ ________




771
802

51.0
64.0

15.1
12.5

17.2
14.6

Portland, Oreg•(1926)
T a b le

13.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO, B Y
KIND OF T R A D E A N D IN DIVIDU AL COM MODITIES
Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour age man-hour labor cost
per—
num­
ber of
men
per
Rev­
Long Rev­ gang Long enue Long Rev­
enue
tons tons1
tons tons1 ton enue
ton1

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Reveenue
tons 1

Foreign trade 2

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1_________________
No. 2...............................
Orient—No. 3 _____ - ______
Loading cargo:
Europe—No. 4____________

6,028
6,752
2,874
2,566
17,799 3 19,936
9,480

10,619

233.0
184.5
730.5

25.9 29.0
13.9 15.6
24.4 327.3

16.1
15.9
13.1

598.5

15.8

19.4

17.7

1.61 1.80 $0.56
.87
.97 1.03
1.85 32.07
.49
.82

.92

1.10

$0.50
.93
3.43
.98

Intercoastal trade 2

Discharging cargo:
No. 5...............- .....................
No. 6......................................
Loading cargo:
No. 7......................................
No. 8......................................

65,035 3 72,845
16,962 3 18,999

2,673.0
995.7

24.3 327.3
17.0 319.1

22.5
17.0

1.08 31.21 $0.83 3$0.74
1.00 31.12 .90 3.80

63,780 3 71,440
28,696 3 32,144

2.713.0
1.244.0

23.5 326.3
23.1 325.8

19.8
22.1

1.19 31.33
1.04 31.17

.76
.87

3.68
3.77

Coastwise trade 2

3 69,619 463,338.0
3146,173 <114,759.0

Discharging cargo: No. 9______
Loading cargo: No. 10—__ - ___

31. 10
31.27

3$0.82
3.71

$0.43
3.38
3.31

Individual commodities2

Discharging cargo:
Pipe—No. 11_____
Steel—No. 12........
Tin plate—No. 13Loading cargo:
Copper—No. 1 4 Doors—No. 15____
Flour—
No. 16.............
No. 17.............
No. 18«...........
Lumber—
No. 19.............
No. 20.............
No. 21.............
No. 22.............
No. 23.............
Salmon—No. 24 *—

2,399
4.598
5,735

32,688
3 5,147
3 6,426

90.5
170.0
135.0

26.5 329.7
27.0 330.3
42.5 347.6

14.1
12.7
16.5

1.88 3 2.11 $0.48
2.13 3 2.39
.43
2.57 32.88
.35

7,960
3,811

3 8,915
4,267

315.0
352.0

25.3 328.3
12.1

11.8
19.0

2.14 32.40
.57
.64

13,028
21,806
7,385

14,593
24,425
3 8,272

207.8
576.0
172.0

62.7 70.2
37.9 42.4
42.9 348.1

27.1
24.7
25.6

2.31
1.53

24,752

3,764

30,373
50,987
16,801
34,213

2,088.0
3.056.0
3.226.0
5.388.0
1.864.0
154.0

11.9
11.9
9.4
9.5
9.0
24.4 327.4

13.0
13.2
12.0
13.0
14.1

.91
.90
.79
.73
.64
1.16 31.30

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
2 Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.




10.8

21.0

1.58

2.59
1.72

.39

1.68 31.88

.52

.78

4 Man-hours.
« Loaded at Astoria.

139

3.38
1.41
.35
.52
3.46
1.00
1.14
1.23
1.41

140
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
14.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
bours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Total, 7 ships.................................. 6,028

6,752

233.0

25.9

29.0

16.1

1.61

1.80 $0.56

$0.50

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

240
1,182
555
1,625
720
1,130
576

269
1,324
622
1,820
806
1,266
645

11.5
29.0
32.0
49.5
29.5
45.0
36.5

20.9
40.8
17.3
32.8
24.4
25.1
15.8

23.4
45.7
19.4
36.7
27.3
28.1
17.7

18.0
16.0
12.0
19.8
17.0
17.2
12.0

1.16
2.55
1.45
1.66
1.44
1.46
1.32

1.30
2.86
1.62
1.86
1.61
1.64
1.48

.78
.35
.62
.54
.63
.62
.68

.69
.31
.56
.48
.56
.55
.61

Total, 6 ships.................................. 2,566

2,874

184.5

13.9

15.6

15.9

0.87

0.97 $1.03

$0.93

499
371
525
405
456
310

559
415
588
454
511
347

50.0
23.5
32.5
38.5
24.5
15.5

10.0
15.8
16.2
10.5
18.6
20.0

11.2
17.7
18.1
11.8
20.9
22.4

13.8
18.0
13.6
16.7
17.0
21.6

.72
.88
1.19
.63
1.09
.92

.81
.98
1.33
.71
1.23
1.03

L in e N o . 1

1 (March): Steel......................
2 (March): Cement.................

3 (April): Steel........................
4 (May): Cement.................. .
5 (May): Cement....................
6 (August): Cement................
7 (September): Steel...............
L in e No. 2

No. 1 (April): Coke........................
No. 2 (May): Steel.........................
No. 3 (September): Coke...............
No. 4 (September): Steel...............
No. 5 (September): Steel...............
No. 6 (October): Steel....................

1.25
1.02
.76
1.43
.83
.98

1.11
.92
.68
1.27
.73
.87

Discharging cargo: Orient
L in e N o . 3

Total, 15 ships................................. 17,799 U9,936

730.5

24.4 127.3

13.1

1.85 12.07 $0.49 i$0.43

Copra........................................ 9,832 Ul,002
General cargo........................... 7,967 18,934

409.0
321. 5

24.0 126.9
24.8 127.8

8.9
18.5

2.69 13.01
1.34 11.50

.33
.67

1.30
1.60

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December): Copra..............
No. 2 (April): Copra......................

761
838

1852
1933

25.5
32.0

29.8 133.4
26.2 129.3

9.0
9.0

3.32 13.72 $0.27 i$0.24
2.91 13.26 .31
1.28

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June): General cargo...........
No. 4 (November): General cargo_

217
453

1243
1507

11.5
23.0

18.9 121.2
19.7 122.1

18.0
18.0

1.05 il. 18 $0.86 i $0.76
1.09 1.22
.83
1.74

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Copra........................................ 1,367 11,531
General cargo........................... 1,172 U,313

62.5
42.0

21.9 124.5
27.9 131.2

9.0
18.0

2.43 12.72 $0.37 i$0.33
1.55 U.74
.58
1.52

Total...................................... 2,539 i 2,844

104.5

24.3 127.2

12.6

1.93 12.16

.47

1.42

1778
1292

32.0
12.5

21.7 124.3
20.8 123.3

9.0
17.0

2.41 12.70
1.22 il. 37

.37
.74

1.33
1.66

955 11,070

44.5

21.5 124.1

11.2

1.91 12.14

.47

1.42

No. 6 (August):
Copra........................................
General cargo...........................
Total......................................
i Short tons.




695
260

F

ig u r e

4 1 .— P




o r ta ble

Con

veyor

fro m

S

id e p o r t

to

2-s t

o r y

p ie r

.

P

o r tl a n d

, O

r e g

.

V ie w

o f

f ir s t

flo o r

F

ig u r e

4 2.— p o r t a b l e C o n v e y o r f r o m
S
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . V ie w L e a d in g




id e
to

Port to
Second F

2-s t
loor

o r y

p ie r

.

141

PORTLAND, OREG. (1926)
T a b le

1 4 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Shin number, date of operation.
and commodity

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Total, 7 ships.................................. 9,480

10,619

598.5

15.8

17.7

19.4

0.82

0.92 $1.10

$0.98

1,952
1,428
522
702
1,924
919
2,033

2,186
1,600
585
787
2,155
1,029
2,277

125.5
84.0
37.5
34.0
133.0
62.0
122.5

15.6
17.0
13.9
20.6
14.5
14.8
16.6

17.4
19.0
15.6
23.1
16.2
16.6
18.6

18.8
20.0
19.5
19.0
19.0
19.5
20.0

.83
.85
.71
1.09
.76
.76
.83

.93
.95
.80
1.22
.85
.85
.93

1.08
1.06
1.27
.83
1.18
1.18
1.08

.97
.95
1.13
.74
1.06
1.06
.97

L in e N o . 4

No. 1 (January): Apples................
No. 2 (February): Apples..............
No. 3 (October): Prunes................
No. 4 (October): Prunes................
No. 4 (October): A p p les..............
No. 6 (November): Apples............
No. 7 (November): Apples............

T a b le 15.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L T R AD E

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number and date of
operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

L in e N o. 5

Total, 73 ships................................. 65,035

72,845 2,673.0

24.3

27.3

22.5

1.08

1.21 $0.83

$0.74

2.53 $0.40
2.57
.39

$0.36
.35

0.92 $1.10
.95 1.06

$0.98
.95

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. l (M ay)....................................
No. 2 (June;....................................

724
990

811
1,109

24.0
27.0

30.2
36.7

33.8
41.1

13.4
16.0

2.26
2.30

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July)............
No. 4 (November).

863
562

967
630

43.0
11.5

20.1
22.0

22.5
24.7

24.3
25.9

0.82
.85

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January).
No. 6 (M arch)...

1,168
1,257

1,308
1,408

44.5
51.0

26.2
24.6

29.4
27.6

24.4
22.8

1.08
1.08

1.21 $0.83
1.21
.83

$0.74
.74

16,962

18,999

995.7

17.0

19.1

17.0

1.00

1.12 $0.90

$0.80

1.64 $0.62
.59
1.71

$0.55
.53

a 77 $1.30
.81 1.25

$1.17
1.11

Lin e No.

Total, 37 ships...........

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (M a y )....
No. 2 (August).

537
1,029

602
1,153

21.6
61.4

24.9
16.8

27.9
18.8

17.0
11.0

1.46
1.52

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September).
No. 4 (November).
Short tons.




202
478

226
535

15.4
38.9

13.1
12.3

14.7
13.8

19.0
17.0

0.69
.72

142

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le

15.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G C ARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number and date of
operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons* gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Ships with average efficiency

L ink N o . 6— Continued

No. 5 (February)_______________
No. 6 (M ay)____________________

683
753

765
843

38.0
39.7

18.0
19.0

20.1
21.2

18.0
19.0

1.00
1.00

1.12 $0.90
1.12
.90

$0.80
.80

26.3

19.8

1.19

1.33 $0.76

$0.68

1.85 $0.55
.65
1.56

$0.49
.58

Loading cargo
L in e N o. 7 2

Total, 36 ships................................. 63,780

71,440 2,713.0

23.5

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February-March)...............

713
1,028

799
1,151

22.8
38.8

Total.................................... - 1,741
No. 2 (April)...................................
Total............................... ...

31.3
26.5

35.0
29.7

19.0
19.0

1.65
1.39

1,950

61.6

28.3

31.7

19.0

1.49

1.67

.60

.54

857
673

960
754

31.9
21.6

26.9
31.2

30.1
34.9

19.0
19.0

1.41
1.64

1.58
1.83

.64
.55

.57
.49

1,530

1,714

53.5

28.6

32.0

19.0

1.50

1.69

.60

.53

0.97 $1.05
1.15
.88
.87
1.16

$0.93
.78
.78

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

791
657
629

886
736
705

43.7
32.1
30.4

18.1
20.5
20.7

20.3
22.9
23.2

21.0
20.0
20.0

0.86
1.02
1.04

Total.................................... - 2,077

2,327

106.2

19.6

21.9

20.4

.96

1.07

.94

.84

471
400
735

528
448
823

25.0
18.9
33.4

18.8
21.2
22.0

21.1
23.7
24.6

21.0
21.0
20.0

.90
1.01
1.10

1.00
1.13
1.23

1.00
.89
.82

.90
.80
.73

Total............................... ...... 1,606

1,799

77.3

20.8

23.3

20.6

1.01

1.13

.89

.80

1.10 $0.92
1.29
.78
1.48
.68

$0.82
.70
.61

No. 3 (M ay)....................................

No. 4 (July).....................................

Ships with average efficiency

530
232
1,160

594
260
1,299

Total...................................... 1,922
544
510
741

Total...................................... 1,795

No. 5 (January)..............................

No. 6 (March).................................

25.8
8.4
41.9

20.5
27.6
27.7

23.0
31.0
31.0

21.0
24.0
21.0

0.98
1.15
1.32

2,153

76.1

25.3

28.3

21.3

1.18

1.33

.76

.68

609
571
830

29.4
22.9
25.9

18.5
22.3
28.6

20.7
24.9
32.0

19.0
20.0
19.0

.97
1.12
1.50

1.09
1.25
1.68

.93
.80
.60

.83
.72
.54

2,010

78.2

23.0

25.7

19.3

1.19

1.33

.76

.68

32,144 1,244.0

23.1

25.8

22.1

1.04

1.17 $0.87

$0.77

1.64 $0.62
2.02
.50

$0.55
. 45

L in e N o . 8

Total, 61 ships................................. 28,696

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February).......................... .
No. 2 (December)...................... .

1Short tons.




512
766

574
858

17.0
20.0

30.1
38.3

33.8
42.9

20.6
21.3

1.46
1.80

* Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.

143

PORTLAND, OREG. (1926)

T a b le 13.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
IN TER C O A STA L T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number and date of
operation
Reve­
nue
tons1

Long
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Ships with m inim u m efficiency

L ine N o. 8—Continued
No. 3 (M ay)___ ____________
No. 4 (November)______________

184
223

206
250

12.5
14.0

14.7
15.9

16.5
17.9

23.0
24.5

0.64
.65

0.72 $1.41
.73 1.38

$1.25
1.23

1.15 $0.88
1.16
.87

$0.78
.78

Ships with average efficiency

432
448

No. 5 (June)...................................
No. 6 (December).................... ......

484 ! 18.5
502 | 20.0

23.4
22.4

26.2
25.1

22.8
21.6

1.02
1.04

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 7 ships----------- ------------February, 6 ships____ _____ _____
March, 3 ships......... .......................
April, 5 ships____ ______ ______
May, 5 ships...................................
June, 5 sh ip s................ ...............
July, 6 ships................ ..................
August, 4 ships...............................
September, 4 ships......... ...............
October, 6 ships.......... ................ .
November, 6 ships.........................
December, 5 ships______________

3,401
2,694
1,031
1,619
1,398
1,643
2,313
2,176
2,424
4,513
2,981
2,503

3,808
3,018
1,155
1,814
1,566
1,840
2,590
2,438
2,716
5,055
3,340
2,804

128.5
109.5
46.0
81.5
62.5
89.5
128.0
97.0
100.0
185.0
127.0
89.5

26.5
24.6
22.4
19.9
22.4
18.4
18.1
22.4
24.2
24.4
23.5
28.0

29.7
27.6
25.1
22.3
25.1
20.6
20.3
25.1
27.1
27.3
26.3
31.4

23.0
23.4
22.7
22.7
21.4
18.8
20.6
21.7
23.1
22.8
22.6
22.1

1.15
1.05
.99
.87
1.05
.98
.88
1.03
1.05
1.07
1.04
1.27

1.29 $0.78
1.18
.86
1.11
.91
.97 1.03
1.18
.86
.92
1.10
.99 1.02
.87
1.15
1.18
.86
.84
1.20
.87
1.16
1.42
.71

$0.70
.76
.81
.93
.76
.82
.91
.78
.76
.75
.78
.63

1 Short tons.
T a b le 16.—PR ODU C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TR AD E

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage Man(rev­ hours
enue
tons i)

Out­
put Labor
per
cost
man- per
hour rev­
(rev­ enue
enue ton 1
tons1
)

Week ending—

L in e N o. 9

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­ hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons *)
enue ton 1
tons1
)
Weeks with average efficiency

Total, 103 ships......... 69,619

63,338

1.10

$0.82

Line N o. 9—Con.

Jan. 31, 3 ships_____

614
518
819

559
532
688

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

Apr. 7, 2 ships...........
Total
May 14,2 ships____
Total...............

1.10
.97
1.19

$0.82
.93
.76

814
773

613
476

1.33
1.62

$0.68
.56

Total...............

1,951

1,779

1.10

.82

1,587

1,089

1.46

.62

June 7, 2 ships______

830
663

682
673

1.22
.99

.74
.91

726
0 *7
0

595
502

1.22
1.33

.74
. 68

Total...............

1,493

1,355

1.10

.82

1,395

1,097

1.27

.71
UUltT WtCKS

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

Jan. 7, 2 ships______
Total
Oct. 7,1 ship

489
399
888

591
429
1,020

0.83
.93
.87

$1.08
.97
1.03

521

579

.90

1.00

1 Short tons.




Jan. 14,1 ship - .......
Jan. 21, 2 ships_____
Feb. 7,1 ship______
Feb. 14, 2 ships_____
Feb. 21, 2 ships_____
Feb. 28, 3 ships.........

515
1,370
997
1,307
1,668
2,167

524
1,153
897
1,245
1,475
1,990

0.98
1.19
1.11
1.05
1.13
1.09

$0.92
. 76
.81
.86
.80
.83

144
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
16.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN
COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­
hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons J
)
enue to n 1
tons1
)

W eek ending—

Other weeks—Continued

L ine N o. 9—Con.
Mar. 7, 2 ships........
Mar. 14, 2 ships.......
Mar. 21, 3 ships......
Mar. 31,1 ship____
Apr. 14, 2 ships.......
Apr. 21, 2 ships____
Apr. 30, 3 ships____
May 7, 2 ships........
May 14, 2 ships.......
May 21, 3 ships.......
June 14, 3 ships____
June 21,1 ship........
June 30, 2 ships____
July 7, 2 ships....... .
July 14, 2 ships____
July 21, 2 ships........
July 31, 3 ships........
Aug. 7, 2 ships.........

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­ hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons 0
enue to n 1
tons1
)
Other weeks— Continued

L in e No. 9— Con.
1,066
1,336
1,694
822
1,592
1, 752
2,521
945
1,079
2,158
1,725
617
1,639
1,245
1,295
1,469
2,359
1,937

10
.0
11 10
,1 2 .2

1,059

1,624
751
1,412
1.646
2,400
924
884
2,157
1,370
517
1,357
1,175
1,096
1,218
1,954
1,748

.98
1.09
1.13
1.06
1.05

12
.0
12
.2
10
.0

$0.90
.75
.92
.83
.80
.85

.8
6
.8
8

11
.2

.74
.90
.71
.76
.74

11
.2
11
.2
11
.1

.76
. 74
.74
.81

1.26
1.19

1.06
1.18

.8
5

Aug. 14, 2
Aug. 21, 2 ships.
Aug. 31, 3 ships.
Sept. 7 ,1 ship..
Sept. 14, 3 ships
Sept. 21, 2 ships.
Sept. 30, 3 ships.
Oct. 14, 3 ships.
Oct. 21, 2 ships .
Oct. 31, 3 ships.
Nov. 7 ,1 ship..
Nov. 14, 2 ships.
Nov. 21, 1 ship.
Nov. 30, 4 ships.
Dec. 7 ,1 ship...
Dec. 14, 2 ships.
Dec. 21, 3 ships.
Dec. 31, 3 ships.

1,288
1,337
1,916
861
2,746
1,366
2,116
2,087
1,224
1,515
430
1,449
631
2,355
623
1,097
1,861
1,717

1,262
1,165
1,792
683
2,647
1,233
1,835
2, 111
1,129
1,568
438
1,280
591
2,344
525
1,067
1,650
1,411

1.02
1.15
1.07
1.26
1.04
1.11
1 .15
.99
1.08
.97
.98
1.13
1.07
1.00
1.19
1.03
1.13
1.22

$0.88
.78
.84
.71
.87
.81
.78
.91
.83
.93
.92
.80
.84
.90
.76
.87
.80
.74

Loading cargo
L in e No. 10

Other weeks

Total, 118 ships......... 146,173 114,759

1.27

$0.71

Weeks with maximum efficiency

June 2 1 ,1 ship..........

1,267

860

1.47

$0.61

Nov. 30, 5 ships........

1,232
1, 281
1,635
1,265
1, 357

790
924
1,121
888
926

1.56
1.39
1.46
1.42
1.47

.58
.65
.62
.63
.61

Total...............

6,770

4,649

1.46

.62

Weeks with m inimumefficiency

Feb. 28, 3 ships.........

1,160
1,309
880

1,081
1,069
1,015

1.07
1.22
.87

$0.84
.74
1.03

Total...............

3,349

3,165

1.06

.85

July 14, 2 ships.........

1,224
1,079

1,099
971

1.11
1.11

.81
.81

Total...............

2,303

2,070

1.11

.81

Weeks zoith average efficiency

Feb. 14, 3 ships-------

1,049
1,185
1,195

901
882
916

1.16
1.34
1.30

$0.78
.67
.69

Total................

3,429

2,699

1.27

.71

May 14, 2 ships.........

1,466
1,279

1,229
927

1.19
1.38

.76
.65

Total...............

2,745

2,1.56

1.27

.71

* L'hort tons.




L in e No. 10—Con.

Jan. 7, 2 ships_____
Jan. 14,1 snip..........
Jan. 21, 3 ships_____
Jan. 31, 4 ships_____
Feb. 7, 3 ships........
Feb. 21, 3 ships....... .
Mar. 7, 3 ships........ .
Mar. 14, 2 ships........
Mar. 21, 3 ships____
Mar. 31,1 ship_____
Apr. 7, 2 ships.........
Apr. 14, 2 ships.......
Apr. 21, 2 ships____
Apr. 30, 3 ships____
May 7, 2 ships.........
May 21, 2 ships.......
May 31, 3 ships.......
June 7,1 ship........
June 14, 3 ships____
June 30, 3 ships.......
July 7, 2 ships......... .
July 21, 2 ships....... .
July 31, 3 ships.........
Aug. 7, 2 ships..........
Aug. 14, 2 ships____
Aug. 21, 2 ships........
Aug. 31, 4 ships........
Sept. 7,1 ship......... .
Sept. 14, 3 ships____
Sept. 21, 2 ships____
Sept. 30, 3 ships____
Oct. 7,1 ship______
Oct. 14, 3 ships____
Oct. 21, 2 ships.......
Oct. 31, 3 ships....... .
Nov. 7, 2 ships........
Nov. 14, 2 ships...... .
Nov. 21, 2 ships...... .
Dec. 7,1 ship..........
Dec. 14, 3 ships.......
Dec. 21, 5 ships.......
Dec. 31, 4 ships.......

2,457
1,192
3,143
4,315
3,658
4,062
3,905
2,501
3,957
1,436
3,022
2,813
3,061
3,863
2,926
2,789
3,809
1,092
3,349
3,576
2,071
2,253
3,433
2,381
2,443
2,260
4,686
996
3,793
2,274
3,557
1,065
3,778
2,472
3,706
2,735
2,422
2,447
1,159
4,282
6,492
4,679

1,968
1,045
2,552
3,420
2,828
3,362
3,304
2,009
3,452
1,046
2,196
2,325
2,260
2,727
2,347
2,050
3,022
840
2,721
2,765
1,488
1,856
2,703
1,745
1,913
1,886
3,784
848
2,999
1,759
2,733
864
2,859
2,082
2,951
2,111
1,911
1,903
827
3,289
5,007
3,403

1.25
1.14
1.23
1.26
1.29
1.21
1.18
1.24
1.15
1.37
1.38
1. 21
1. 35
1.42
1.25
1.36
1.26
1.30
1.23
1.29
1.39
1.21
1.27
1.36
1.28
1.20
1.24
1.17
1.26
1.29
1.30
1.23
1.32
1.19
1.26
1.30
1.27
1.29
1.40
1.30
1.30
1.37

$0.72
.79
.73
.71
.70
. 74
.76
.73
.78
.66
.65
.74
.67
.63
.72
.66
.71
.69
.73
.70
.65
.74
.7 1
.66
.70
.75
.73
.77
.7 1
.70
.69
.73
.68
.76
.71
.69
.7 1
.70
.64
.69
.69
.66

145

PORTLAND, OREG. (1926)
T a b le

17.—PRODU CTIVITY OF LA BO R AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton1

Pipe

Line No. 11:

2,399 22,688

90.5

26.5 229.7

14.1

1.88 22.11 $0.48 2$0.43

Ships with m axim um efficiency

........................
No. 1 (March) 3
No. 2 (March)8_____ ________

150
49

2 168
255

4.5
1.5

33.3 237.3
32.7 236.7

10.0
11.0

3.33 23.73 $0.27 2$0.24
2.97 23.33
.30 2 .27

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July)4- . ....................

67
212

2 75
2237

2.5
10.0

26.8 230.0
21.2 223.7

17.0
16.0

1.58 21.76 $0.57 2$0.51
1.33 21.48
.68 2.61

Total. -----------------------------

279

2312

12.5

22.3 225.0

16.2

1.38 '21.54

.65

2.58

No. 4 (December)4...................

154

2 173

7.0

22.0 224.7

15.0

1.47 j21.65

.61

2.55

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)4 .................. —
.

103
94

2 115
2 106

Total...... ................... ...........

197

No. 6 (June)3
----- ------ ----------

95

5.0
2.5

20.6 223.0
37.6 242.4

14.0
17.0

1.47 21.64 $0.61 2$0. 55
2.21 22.49
.41 2.36

2 221

7.5

26.3 229.5

15.0

1.75 21.96

51

2.46

2106

3.5

27.1 230.2

16.0

1.70 21.89

.53

2.48

Line No. 12:
Total, 13 ships...... ................... 4,598 2 5,147

170.0

27.0 230.3

12.7

2.13 22.39 $0.43 2$0.38

Steel

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)..
No. 2 (August)_
_

429
793

2 480
2888

11.5
28.5

37.3 241.7
27.8 231.2

12.0
11.0

3.11 23.48 $0.29 2$0.26
2.53 22.83
.36 2.32

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (January).
No. 4 (June)___

129
119

2144
2133

6.5
8.0

19.8 222.2
14.9 216.6

16.0
12.0

1.24 21.38 $0.73
1.24 21.39
.73

!$ 0 . 6 5
2 .6 5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)............
No. 6 (November)..

279
216

2312
2 242

10.5
8.0

26.6 229.7
27.0 230.3

12.0
12.0

2.21 22.48 $0.40 2$0.36
2.25 22.52
.40 2.36

5,735 2 6,426

135.0

42.5 247.6

16.5

2.57 22.88 $0.35 2$0.31

T in P late

Line No. 13:
Total, 21 ships.........

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January).......................
No. 2 (November).............. .

298
181

2334
2203

5.5
3.0

54.2 260.7
60.3 267.7

17.0
18.0

3.19 23.57 $0.28 2$0.25
3.35 23.76
.27 2.24

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
2 Short tons.
3 Discharged directly to cars.
* Discharged to dock. For ships Nos. 3 and 5 data shown, other than totals, are for daily or hatch
productivity and cost.




146
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
17.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

T in

P la t e —

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with m inim um efficiency

Continued

Line No. 13—Continued.
No. 3 (March).........................
No. 4 (September)................ .

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

152
104

2170
2 116

27.6 230.9
34.7 238.7

5.5
3.0

16.0
19.0

1.73 21.93 $0.52 2$0.47
1.82 22.04
.49
2.44

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)...... ...................
No. 6 (July)..............................

109
329

2 122
2368

2.5
6.5

43.6 248.8
50.6 256.6

$0.35 2$0.31
.36 2.32

17.0
20.0

2.56
2.53

11.8

2.14 22.40 $0.43 2$0.38

22.87
22.83

Loading cargo
C opper

Line No. 14: *
Total, 9 ships.

7,960 28,915

315.0

25.3 228.3

Ships with maximum efficiency

2.59 22.90 $0.35 2$0.31
2.74 23.07
.33 2.29
2.63 22.94
.34 2.31

No. 1 (February)__

228
241
246

2 255
2270
-275

8.0
8.0
8.5

28.5 231.9
30.1 233.8
28.9 232.4

11.0
11.0
11.0

Total....................

715

2800

24.5

29.2 232.7

11.0

2.65 22.97

.34

2.30

No. 2 (December),.

670
625

2 750
2 700

19.0
26.0

35.3 239.5
24.0 226.9

11.0
11.0

3.21 23.59
2.19 22.45

.28
.41

2.25
2.37

1,295 2 1,450

45.0

28.8 232.2

11.0

2.62 22.93

.35

2.31

Total...................

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April)______

Total...................

2 155
2502
2422
2 603

5.0
14.0
17.5
30.0

27.6
32.0
21.5
17.9

231.0
235.9
224.1
220.1

14.0
12.0
14.0
15.0

1.97
2.67
1.54
1.20

1,501 2 1,682

138
448
377
538

22.21 $0.46 2$0.41
22.99
.34 2.30
‘ 1.72
.58 2.52
21.34
.75 2.67

66.5

22.6 225.3

14.0

1.61 21.80

.56

2.50

No. 4 (September).

208
573

2233
2642

12.0
26.5

17.3 219.4
21.6 224.2

12.0
11.0

1.44 21.62
1.97 22.20

.63
.46

2.56
2.41

Total...................

781

2875

38.5

20.3 222.7

11.3

1.79 22.01

.50

2.45

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)_____

367
330

2 411
2 370

13.0
16.0

28.2 231.6
20.6 223.1

Total...................

697

2 781

29.0

No. 6 (September).

688

2 771

27.5

11.0
12.0

2.57 22.87 $0.35 2$0.31
1.72 21.93
.52 2.47

24.0 226.9

11.6

2.08 22.33

.44

2.39

25.0 228.0

12.0

2.08 22.34

.43

2.38

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
2Short tons.
5 Data shown, other than totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




147

PORTLAND, OREG. (1926)
T a b le

17.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton nue
ton1
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

D ooss
Line No. 15:
Total, 7 ships_______________ 3,811

4,267

352.0

10.8

12.1

19.0

0.57

693
650
655
598
520
471
680

47.0
42.5
57.5
54.5
41.5
42.5
66.5

13.2
13.6
10.1
9.8
11.2
9.9
9.1

14.7
15.3
11.4
11.0
12.5
11.1
10.2

19.0
19.0
19.2
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

.69
.72
.53
.52
.59
.52
.48

Line No. 16:
Total, 30 ships______________ 13,028 214,593

207.8

62.7 270.2

27.1

No. 1 (January)_____________
No. 2 (April) — ................. No. 3 (July) ______________
No. 4 (August)
No. 5 (October)_____________
No. 6 (November)...... .........
No. 7 (December)_____ ______

620
580
583
535
465
420
608

0.64 $1.58
.78
.81
.59
.58
.66
.58
.54

1.30
1.25
1.70
1.73
1.53
1.73
1.88

$1.41
1.15
1.11
1.53
1.55
1.36
1.55
1.67

Flour•

2.31 2 2.59 $0.39 2$0.35

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)___________
No. 2 (December)___________

223
631

2 250
2707

3.0
8.5

74.3 283.3
74.2 283.2

26.0
26.0

2.86 23.21 $0.31 2$0.28
.31
2.86 23.20
2.28

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

354
2397
No. 3 (August) ____________
_____________ No. 337
4 (October)
2 377

8.0
7.0

44.3 249.6
48.1 253.9

30.0
28.0

1.48 21.65 $0.61 2$0.55
1.72 21.92
.52
2.47

Ships with average efficiency

839
2 940
No. 5 (April)________________
421
2 471
No. 6 (August)______________
Line No. 17:
Total, 20 ships____ ___ - _____ 21,806 24,425

14.1
7.0
576.0

59.5 266.7
60.1 267.3

26.0
26.0

2.29 22.57 $0.39 2$0.35
.39 2.35
2.31 22.59

37.9

24.7

1. 53

42.4

1.72 $0.59

$0.52

$0.39

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March)___

446

500

8.0

55.8

62.5

27.0

2.06

2.31 $0.44

No. 2 (August)—
Pier 2..............
Pier 3..............

446
446

500
500

9.0
5.0

49.6 55.6
89.2 100.0

28.0
31.0

1.77
2.88

1.99
3.23

.51
31

.45
28

Total...........

892

1,000

14.0

63.7

29.1

2.19

2.45

.41

.37

$0.45
.60

71.3

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November)—
Pier 2..................................
Pier 3..................................
T otal-...........................
No. 4 (December)—
Pier 2..................................
Pier 3.............................. .
Total. ......................... .

640
808

717
905

12.5
24.0

51.2
33.7

57.4
37.7

29.0
25.0

1.77
1.35

1.98 $0.51
1.51
.67

1,448

1,622

36.5

39.7

44.4

26.4

1.50

1.69

.60

.53

688
437

771
489

16.0
14.5

43.0
30.1

48.2
33.7

28.0
26.0

1.54
1.16

1.72
1.30

.58
.78

.52
.69

1,125

1,260

30.5

36.9

41.3

27.0

1.36

1.52

.66

.59

* Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




2 Short tons.

6 Loaded by portable conveyors.

148
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
17.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton to n 1
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons
F l o u r — Continued

Ships with average efficiency

Line No. 17—Continued.
No. 5 (April)—
Pier 1.......................
Pier 3. ......................

892
587

1,000
656

20.5
24.0

43 5
24.4

48.8
27.3

27.0
18.3

1.61
1.33

1.81 $0.56
1.49
.68

$0.50
.60

Total. ...................

1,479

1,656

44.5

33.2

37.2

22.3

1.49

1.67

.60

.54

No. 6 (April)—
Pier 2.......................
Pier 1........................
Pier 1........................

436
698
174

488
782
195

10.5
16.0
5.5

41.5
43.6
31.6

46.5
48.9
35.5

27.0
28.0
28.0

1.54
1.56
1.13

1.72
1.75
1.27

.58
.58
.80

.52
.51
.71

T otal....................

1,308

1,465

32.0

40.9

45.8

27.7

1.48

1.66

.61

.54

Line No. 18:7
Total, 11 ships................

7,385

8,272

172.0

42.9

48.1

25.6

1.68

1.88 $0.52

$0.46

2.40 $0.42
2.08
.48

$0.38
.43

1.56 $0.65
1.08
.94

$0.58
.83

1.87
1.81

$0.48
.50

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April)_____
No. 2 (September).

750
871

840
976

14.0
18.0

53.6
48.4

60.0
54.2

25.0
26.0

2.14
1.86

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February) No. 4 (August)_
_

415
262

4fi5
293

11.5
10.5

36.1
25.0

40.4
28.0

26.0
26.0

1.39
.96

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)..................
No. 6 (A pril)...................

540
1,771

605

13.5
39.0

1.67
1.62

44.8
50.8

24.0
28.0

24,752 2.088.0

11.9

13.0

0.91

$0.99

186
497
1,591
831
456
225
415
926
462
216

26.6
44.7
126.2
82.8
34.1

7.0
11.5

.54

9.1

13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0

1.67
1.02
.93
1.17
.87
1.08
1.03
.74
.98
1.29

812
766
1,841
1,038
1,082
1,082
607
1,193
926
448
860
3,196
942

76.0
64.5
119.6
67.5
81.8
95.4
67.0
115.3
79.3
50.5
72.3
316.9

10.7
11.9
15.4
15.4
13.2
11.3
9.1
10.3
11.7
8.9
11.9
10.1
13.5

13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0

40.0
45.4

0.54
.56

L u m be r

Line No. 19:
Total, 29 ships..................
Long-Bell—
No. 1(April).............
No. 2 (April)............
No. 3 (June).............
No. 4 (July).............
No. 5 (August) ___
No. 6 (August)........
No. 7 (October).......
No. 8 (October).......
No. 9 (October).......
No. 10 (November) Westport—
No. 11 (January)___
No. 12 (February) _ _
No. 13 (February)._
No. 14 (March).......
No. 15 (M ay)...........
No. 16 (M ay)______
No. 17 (M ay)...........
No. 18 (June)..........
No. 19 (July)______
No. 20 (August)____
No. 21 (August).......
No. 22 (September) .
No. 23 (November) _

21.0

36.8
58.8
38.5
23.8

1 Except for, lumber, which is, in 1,000 board feet.




12.6
10.0

13.4
10.7
11.3
15.7
12.0

.8
8

.97
.77
1.03
.83
.87
1.21

.92
.70
.91
1.18
1.18
1.02
.87
.70
.79
.90

.6
8

.91
.78
1.04

7 Loaded at Astoria.

10
.1
.99
.76
.76

.8
8

1.03
1.29
1.14

10
.0

1.32
.99
1.15
.87

149

PORTLAND, OREG. (1926)
T a b le

17.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL
C O M M O D ITIE S—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

L u m ber— Continued

Line No. 19—Continued.
Other
Columbia
River
ports8
—
No. 24 (M ay).............. .
No. 25 (M ay).............. .
No. 26 (June)...............
No. 27 (July)..... ...........
No. 28 (November)___
No. 29 (December).......
Line No. 20:
Total, 13 ships.

13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0

1.51
.99
.79
.96
.90
1.03

$0.60
.91
1.14
.94

75.3

19.6
12.9
10.3
12.5
11.7
13.4

36,485 3,056.0

11.9

13.2

0.90

$ .0
10

457
514
427
1,040
1,013

35.8
35.4
49.8
34.1
88.6

10
.0
.87

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January) at—
Long-Bell...................
Inman Paulsen Pier_.
Astoria.......................

71.5
125.5
51.0

14.6
16.1

13.0
13.0
13.0

12
.1

248.0

14.3

13.0

10
.1

.82

1,585
465

106.5
43.5
76.5

14.9
10.7
12.9

13.0
11.0
13.0

1.14
.97

.79
.93
.91

3,030

16.5

13.4

12.6

1.06

.85

0.89
.77
.77

$ .0
11

1,043
2,016
500

T o ta l.

No. 2 (April) at—
Inman Paulsen Pier___
Astoria...........................
Southern Pacific Siding
Total..

1.24
.75

$0.80
.73
1.20

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (February) at—
Beaver Mills..............
St. Helens..................
Inman Paulsen Pier..
Total .
No. 4 (March) at—
Eastern and Western Pier.
Westport............................
Total .

994
950
1,149

86.0
95.0
114.5

11.6
10.0
10.0

13.0
13.0
13.0

3,093

295.5

10.5

13.0

1,072

40.0
105.0

11.7
10.2

15.0
15.0

1,540

145.0

10.7

15.0

1.17
1.17

11
.1
.78

1.15
1.32
1.27

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June) at—
Inman Paulsen PierWest Oregon Mills.
Inman Paulsen Pier-

1,524
620
410

136.5
49.5
28.5

11.2
12.5
14.4

13.0
13.0
13.0

06
.8
.96
11
.1
.92

2,554

214.5

12.0

13.0

No. 6 (November) at—
Inman Paulsen Pier-

2,025

181.0

11.2

12.7

Line No. 21:
Total, 11 ships.................

30,373

3,226

9.4

12.0

Total.

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
8 Includes St. Helen, Wilson, Vancouver, East and West Mills, and Linton.




$1.05
.94
.81

12
.0
0.79

$1.14

150
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
17.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABO R COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Ships with m axim um efficiency

L u m ber— Continued

Line No. 21—Continued.
No. 1 (November)........—
No. 2 (November)______

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
man-hour
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
Long nue
nue
nue
per
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

3,334
3,402

275.0
293.5

1 .1 1 .6
2
1
1 .6 1 .6
1
0

1.04
1.09

$0.87
.83

0.59
.64

$1.53
1.41

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April)___
No. 4 (October) -

2,303
3, x05

309.0
4,140

7.5
7.5

1 .6
2

11.7

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)..........
No. 6 (September) _
Line No. 22:
Total, 26 ships.......

1,822
3,972

193.0
408.5

50,987 5,388.0 .........

9.4
9.7

1 .6
2
12.2

0.75
.79

$1.20
1.14

9.5

13.0

0.73

$1.23

0.96
.95

$0.94
.95

0.59
.52

$1.53
1.73

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April)..
No. 2 (April)..

2,796
923

216.0
74.5

12.9
12.4

13.5
13.0

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March)........
No. 4 (September) -

3,176
629

417.0
93.0

7.6

12.9
13.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August).......
No. 6 (November) .
Line No. 23:
Total, 7 ships-.......
No. 1 (January)—
Terminal No. 4.........
Westport....................
Long-Bell...................
Inman Paulsen Pier..
Beaver Mills.............
Total.
No. 2 (February)—
Terminal No. 4.........
Inman Paulsen Pier..
Terminal No. 4.........

174.0
231.0

9.1
10.2

12.6
13.8

0.7
2
.74

$1. 25
1.22

16,801 1,864.0

9.0

14.1

0.64

$1.41

.72
.74

1.25
1.22
1.32
1.48
1.32

1,577
2,347

183
463
841
365
158

19.5
44.5
88.0
42.5
16.5

9.4
10.4
9.5
8.5
9.5

13.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0

2, OlO

211.0

9.5

13.9

364
1,713
322

43.5
174.0
42.5

8.4
9.8
7.6

14.0
14.0
14.0

260.0

9.2

14.0

TotalNo. 3 (March)—
Terminal No. 4.........
Knappton__________
Inman Paulsen Pier_.

421
496
1,287

45.5
46.0
149.5

9.2
10.8
8.5

2,204

241.0

9.2

14.2

.6
8
.6
8

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




1.32
1.50
1.29
1.67

.6
6

14.0
15.0
14.0

Total_____ _______

.61

1. 36
1.36
1.25
1.48

.64

151

PORTLAND, OREG. (1920)

T a b le 17.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDU AL

CO M M O D ITIE S—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton to n 1

L u m ber— Continued

Line No. 23—Continued.
No. 4 (March)—
Westport____________ - __
Terminal No. 4__________
TTnappton
Tpm^n Pan IsAn Piftr
Beaver Mills____________
Tnmftn Pftftlsftn Pifir,

629
337
352
723
261
986

65.0
38.0
38.0
67.0
34.0
130.5

9.7
8.8
9.2
10.8
7.7
9.5

14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
14.0

0.69
.63
.61
.77
.51
.68

$1.30
1.43
1.36
1.17
1.76
1.32

14.1

.68

1.32

14.0
12.0
14.0
14.0
14.0 -------

.62
.86
.62
.69
.64 -------

1.45
1.05
1.45
1.30
1.41

Total_________________

3,288

345.5

9.5

No. 5 (M ay)—
Westport________________
Astoria_________________
TftnniTiftl No, 4
._
Tnmftn Paulsen Pier...
Eastern and Western Pier.

526
233
341
1,044
350

61.0
22.5
39.5
108.5
39.0

8.7
10.3
8.7
9.7
9.0

Total..............................-

2,494

70.5

9.2

13.8

.67

1.34

No. 6 (July)—
Inman Paulsen Pier_____
Westport_______________
Terminal No. 4__________
Inman Paulsen Pier_____

351
408
165
893

41.5
57.0
25.0
108.0

6.7
7.1
6.6

15.0
14.0
14.0
15.0

.56
.51
.47
.55

1.61
1.76
1.91
1.64

Total_______ __________

1,817

231. 5

7.9

14.6

.54

1.67

7.4
9.5
5.6
7.1
9.0

14.0
14.0 .........
15.0
15.0
14 0

.53
.68 .........
.47
.59
.64

1.70
1.32
1.91
1.53
1.41

8.5

14.4

.59

1.53

27.4

21.0

No. 7 (November)—
Knapp ton....

37.5
57.5 ------52.5
61.5
95.5

Inman Paulsen P ie r_____
Beaver Mills____________
Eastern and Western Pier.
Tnmaii Paulsen Pier_____

276
545
374
540
854

Total_________________

2,589

304.5

4,213

154.0

S a lm o n *

Line No. 24:
Total, 16 ships______________

3,764

24.4

1.16

1.30 $0.78

$0.69

1.76 $0. 57
1. 55
.65

$0.51
.58

1.06 $0.95
1.11
.91

$0.85
.81

1.31 $0.77
1.31
.77

$0.69
.69

Ships with maximum efficiency

328
No. 1 (July)..............................
367
2 (July) 201
________________ No. 179

9.9
6.2

32.1
28.4

37.1
32.4

21.0
21.0

1. 57
1.38

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (September)__________
No. 4 (October)_____________

373
134

418
150

18.7
6.4

20.4
21.2

22.4
23.4

21.0
21.0

0.95
.99

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)________________
No. 6 (October)____ ____ ____

395
308

442
345

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
7 Loaded at Astoria.




1 6 .1 2 4 . 5
12.6 |24.4

27.5
27.4

21.0
21.0

1.17
1.17

San Francisco (1926)
T a b le

18.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO, BY
KIN D OF T R A D E AND IN DIVIDUAL COM M ODITIES
Output per Aver­ Output per Average
age man-hour labor cost
gang-hour
per—
num­
ber
of
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
per
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number,
and commodity

G^nghours
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo:
Europe, No. 1__
Orient—
No. 2..........
No. 3..........
No. 4...........
Latin AmericaNo. 5..........
No. 6..........
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 7..........
No. 8..........
Orient—
No. 9..........
No. 10........ .
No. 11.........
No. 12........
Latin America—
No. 13........
No. 14_____

___

___

27,107

1.241.5

21.8

13.9

2 18,010
130,444
15,502

600.5
4.639.0
552.0

26.8
18.6

2 30.0
28.1
28.1

12.9
18.0
18.0

2.08 2 2.32 $0.43 2.39
1.03 1.56
.87
.58
1.56
.58

40,348

50,267
245,189

1.960.5
1.910.0

21.1

25.6
2 23.7

15.8
19.2

1.62
1.10 2 1.23

.56
.82 2.73

30,644
63,340

37,095
85,410

1.084.5
3.011.0

28.3
21.0

34.2
28.4

19.1
19.7

1.48
1.07

1.79
1.44

.61
.84

.50
.63

35,956

323,443
50,743
99,859
189,395

8.778.0
1.697.5 21.2
3.529.5
7,138.2 ~l6."9

36.8
29.9
28.3
26.5

17.0
17.6
18.0
18.0

1.20

2.17
1.70
1.57
1.47

.75
.96

.41
.53
.57
.61

317.0
4.362.0

24.7
22.3

16.7
15.8 : : : : : :

1,48 .........
1.41

.61
.64

16,082

120,855

7,819
97,141

1.57

.94

$0.57

Intercoastal trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 15.............................
No. 16.............................
No. 17..............................
No. 18..............................
No. 19..............................
No. 20..............................
Loading cargo:
No. 21..............................
No. 22.............................
No. 23.............................
No. 24.............................

16,224 218,171
41,627 246,523
86.706 2 97,110
36,323 2 40,567
127,628 2143,191
26,700 229,903

952.5
2,750.5
5,352.8
2,262.6
9,647.5
2,304.0

17.0
15.1
16.2
16.1
13.2
11.6

2 19.1
2 16.9
2 18.1
2 17.9
214.8
2 13.0

15.8
15.5
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.08
.98
.90
.89
.74
.64

2 1.21 $0.83 2$0.74
2 1.09
.92 2.83
2 1.01 1.00 2.89
2.99 1.01 2.91
2.83 1.22 2 1.08
2.72 1.41 2 1.25

111,693 2 167,652
133,081 2 149,050
138,062 2 154,803
54,146 2 60,644

5,811.0
6,564.0
7,469,0
350.7

19.2
20.3
18.5
15.4

2 28.9
222.7
2 20.7
2 17.3

18.0
18.8
18.0
17.6

1.07
1.08
1.03
.86

21.60
2 1. 21
2 1.15
2.97

.84
,83
.87
1.05

2.56
2.74
2.78
2.93

Coastwise trade 1

Discharging cargo: No. 25Loading cargo: No. 26........

2247,185 3 182,763.0
2 193,025 3 170,645.8

2$0.67

2 1 .3 5
2 1 .1 3

2.80

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Lumber—
4 30,312
No. 27..................... .
* 42,067
No. 28..................... .
4 18,965
No. 29.....................
414,845
No. 30.....................
478,558
No. 315...................
12,296 2 13,770
Nitrate of soda, No. 32..
14,174 2 15,875
Ore, No. 33....................
Pineapples, canned, No.
34................................ 158,027 2 176,986
Sugar, raw—
No. 35..................... 502,426 6 8,916,404
No. 36..................... . 221,641 64,095,418
Loading cargo:
7,372 8 194,739
Case oil, No. 37..............
Copper, No. 38..............
12,216 213,682
1 Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.
2 Short tons.
3 Man-hours,

152




963.0
1.539.5
556.8
608.5
1.142.5
411.5
375.3

29.9
37.8

4 31.5
4 27.3
4 34.1
4 24.4
4 68.8
2 33.5
2 42.3

4.548.0

34.7

2

38.9

18.8

1.85

5.305.0
3.724.0

94.7 «1,681.0
59.5 8 1,100.0

21.0
26.6

4.51 «80.10
2.24 6 41.30

.2 7 .1
0 12

236.0
400.7

31.2 8825.2
30.5 2 34.1

16.
18.0

1.86 »49.10
2 1.89

.48 •1.83
.53 2 . 4 8

4 1,000 board feet.
5 Discharged with crane.

15.3
15.5
24.4
19.9
11.5
20.3
17.5

4 2.05
41.76

$0.44
4. 5 1

41
.
41
.

4. 6 5
4. 7 3

4 5.98
1.47 2 1.65 $0.61
2.16 2 2.41
.42

2 .5 5
2 .3 7

2.07

2.43

1
.

2

.49

4. 1 5

.40 7 2.18

* Per 100 bags.
• Per 100 cases.




F

ig u r e

4 3.—

d is c h a r g in g

, S

o r t in g

,

and

r e m o v in g

L

u m b er

in

S

an

F

r a n c isc o

153

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b le 19.*—
PR ODU CTIVITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREION TR AD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Output per Aver­ Output per Average
labor cost
gang-hour age
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Revenue
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons tons gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons
L in e N o. l

Total, 10 ships.______________

27,107 1,241.5

21.8

13.9

1.57

$0.57

2.07
2.05

$0.39
.44

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June): Ore____________
No. 2 (September): Coke..........

3,185
4,911

31.2
28.8

102.0
170.5

13.0
14.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November):
Coke____________________
Manganese (bulk)________
Manganese (barrels)______

1,661
455
409

Total................................

2,525

No. 4 (April):
Coke____________________
Chalk...................................
General cargo____________

3,237
546
145

Total__ _______________

3,928

153.5

16.5

14.0

1.15

$0.78

243.5

16.2

14.0

1.17

.77

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Tin plate_____ ____ ______
General cargo__ __________

1,528
243

Total__________________

1,771

57.0

31.1

19.0

1.63

$0.55

No. 6 (March): General cargo .

463

19.0

24.4

16.0

1.53

.59

Discharging cargo: Orient
Lin e N o. 2

2.08 12.32 $0.43 1$0.39
2.45 12.74
.37 1.33

Total, 13 ships...........................
Copra *.................................

16,082
11,735

i 18,010
113,142

..........
No. 1 (October): Copra 8

375
327
329
335
320
382
363
141

1420
1366
1368
1375
1358
1428
1407
1158

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
12.0
10.0
3.5

46.9
40.9
41.1
41.9
40.0
31.8
36.3
40.3

152.5
145.8
146.1
146.9
144.8
135.7
140.7
145.1

11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0

4.26
3.72
3.74
3.81
3.64
2.89
3.30
3.66

600.5
407.0

26.8 130.0
28.8 132.3

12.9
11.8

Ships with m aximum efficiency

14.77 bo. 21 i$0.19
14.17
.25 1 .22
14.19
.24 1.21
14.27
.24 1.21
14.08
.25 1 .22
13.24
.31 1.28
13.70
.27 1.24
14.10
.25 1.22

Total.................................

2,572

12,880

65.5

39.3 144.0

11.0

3.57 14.00

.25

1.23

No. 2 (July): Copra8................

560
849
850
850
927
920

1627
1951
1952
1952
U,038
U,030

19.5
22.0
21.0
22.0
24.0
24.0

28.7
38.6
40.5
38.6
38.6
38.3

132.2
143.2
145.3
143.3
143.3
142.9

11.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0

2.61
3.86
3.68
3.51
3.51
3.48

12.92
14.32
14.12
13.93
13.93
13.90

.34
.23
.24
.26
.26
.26

1.31
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.23
1.23

Total.................................

4,956

i 5,550

132.5

37.4 141.9

10.8

3.45 13.86

.26

1.23

* Shor* tons.
*Data only for quantity for which separate labor time was available.
8 Data shown, other than totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.

66490°—32---- U



154

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 19.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HAN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E-Continued

Discharging cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L ine N o. 2—Continued
No. 3 (February): General cargo.
No. 4 (July):
Copra___________________
General cargo____________
Total..............................-

302

1338

18.5

16.3 118.3

12.0

1.36 11.52 $0.66 i$0.59

378
241

1423
1270

28.0
14.5

13.5 U5.1
16.6 118.6

12.0
16.0

1.12 11.26
1.04 il. 16

.80
.87

1.87
1.78

619

1693

42.5

14.6 116.3

13.4

1.09 11.22

.83

1.74

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December): Copra_____
No. 6 (December): Copra_____

721
315

1808
1353

28.0
135.0

25.8 128.9
23.4 126.2

13.0
12.0

1.98 12.22 $0.45 i $0.41
1.95 12.18
.46 1.41

18.6

18.0

1.03

L ine N o. 3 4
5 86,334 «130,444 4,639.0

Total, 26

28.1

1.56 $0.87

$0.58

$0.39

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (M ay):
Hemp___________________
Pig iron_________________
General cargo......................
D o.............................. -

510
92

357
572
102
6,409

Total__________________

4,750

7,440

254
275

457
525
284
307
6,148

4,975

7,721

No. 2 (January):
Hemp and cotton_________
Coffee___________________
Pig iron_________________
General cargo____________
D o „ ........................ ......
Total__________________

178.3

26.6

41.8

18.0

1.48

2.32 $0.61

210.6

23.6

36.7

18.0

1.31

2.04

.69

.44

1.24 $1.11

$0.73

Ships with m inim um efficiency

2,650

4,054

No. 4 (February):
Rattan__________________
Pig imn „ ___
General cargo____________
Do__________________

300
272

Total__________________

2,870

4,432

181.0

14.6

22.3

18.0

0.81

190.2

15.1

23.2

18.0

.84

293
336
303
3,500

No. 3 (December): General cargo.

1.29

1.07

.70

1.51 $0.88

$0.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
H e m p __________________
General cargo - __________

172
4,188

Total__________________

2,950

4,360

160.9

18.4

27.2

18.0

1.02

No. 6: General cargo_________

2,270

3,483

130.8

17.3

26.6

18.0

.96

15,502

552.0

28.1

18.0

1.48

.94

.61

L ine N o. 4
Total, 9 ships.

_____ ______

1.56

$0.58

i Short tons.
* Passenger line.
• Principal commodities: Pig iron, 3,955 long tons or 4,430 revenue tons; hemp, 6,859 revenuo tons.




155

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b l e 19-—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

F OREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Orient— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­ men
Revenue
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long enue
tons tons gang tons enue ton ton
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m axim um efficiency
L in e N o . 4— Continued

No. 1 (M ay): General cargo .
No. 2 (November): General
cargo______ i ______________

3,288

97.9

33.7

18.0

1.87

$0.48

1,695

57.6

29.3

18.0

1.63

.55

$0.77

S kips with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April):
Sugar___________________
Copra___________________
General cargo____________

758
258

Total__ _______________
No. 4 (November):
Copra___________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________

849
289
130
1,268

400

60.2

21.1

18.0

1.17

53.1

24.7

18.0

1.37

.66

450
706
154

Total.................................

1,310

-------

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Copra___________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________

1,053

1,179
946
68

Total__________________

2,193

76.7

28.6

18.0

1.59

$0.57

No. 0 (September): General
cargo______________________

2,166

76.4

28.4

18.0

1.58

.57

• Principal commodity: Coffee, 30,138 revenue tons.




156

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 19.—
-PRODU CTIVITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Central America— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Rev­
Revenue
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long enue
tons enue gang tons tons ton ton
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o. 5—Continued

No. 3 (September):
Coffee___________________
General cargo____________

431
785

Total.................................

1,216

No. 4 (April):
Coffee___________________
General cargo____________

1,223
1,013

Total__________________

2,236

65.5

18.6

16.0

1.16

$0.78

119.0

18.7

16.0

1.17

.77

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February):
Coffee___________________
General cargo____________

1,387
893

Total.................................

2,280

No. 6 (March):
Coffee __________________
General cargo____________

1,296
570

Total__________________

1,866

88.5

25.8

16.0

1.61

$0.56

71.5

26.1

16.0

1.63

.55

Discharging cargo: South America
L in e N o . 6

Total, 12 ships_______________ 740,348

i 45,189 1,910.0

21.1 123.7

19.2

1.10 11.23 $0.82 1$0.73

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Fertilizer________________
Bones (bag) ____________
Coffee and cocoa_________
Maize, y e llo w .__________
General cargo____________
Total

.............................

15.5
1 433
9.5
1312
11,716
11,086 | 102.5
U35

Total.................................

4,053

17.1
13.9

11.63
12.36

i$0.55
1.38

128.1

20.1

U.43

1.63

127.5

25.8 128.9

19.0

1.34 11.50 $0.67

i .60

24.5
1713
12,083
U,628 | 134.0
1115

3,287

No. 2 (November):
Fertilizer________________
Coffee and cocoa_________
Corn (sacks)_____________
General cargo____________

127.9
132.8

129.1

19.3

11.50

1.60

128.6

20.1

U.42

1.63

158.5

25.6 i 28.6

20.0

1.28 11.43

13,682

l 4,539

.70

1.63

1 Short tons.
7 Principal commodities: Coffee and cocoa, 18.937 long tons or 21,210 short tons; bones, 4,514 long tons or
5,086 short tons; fertilizer, 2,619 long tons or 2,933 short tons; hides, 1,110 long tons or 1,243 short tons.




157

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b l e 1 9 . — P R O D U C TIV ITY

OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE—C ontinued

Discharging cargo: South America — Continued
Average,
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
Revenue
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o . 6— Continued

No. 3 (August):
Fertilizer.............
Hides..............—
Nuts....................
Coffee and cocoa.
General cargo----Total-

1725
i 185
1 145
i 1,246
i 214

Total-

137.2
113.8
116.1

20.7
21.7
14.5
20.4

1 2,515

135.0

16.6 118.6

20.1

1 589
i 122

16.0
12.0
10.5
109.0

136.8

12,188
1275

2,246

No. 4 (October):
Fertilizer.............
Hides...................
Bones...................
Coffee and cocoa.
General cargo-----

19.5
14.5
10.5
90.5

17.6
122.6

19.3
19.7
13.0
23.6

11.91
i .52
1.58
1.96

3,254

147.5

1 22.1

22.0

i1 0 1 1
.0 .0

10
8

2,905

112.8

1 10.2

19.7

11.79
1.59
1.95
1.79

i $0.50
U.53
1.95
11.14
$1.08

1.97
1.47
11.73
11.55
1.94
1.90

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Hides...................
Bones...................
Coffee and cocoa.
General cargo----T otal-............

1404
1750
11,837

i 13.3
118.3
125.8

18.0
14.0
20.8

I.74
I I.31
1 1.37

i 4,092

174.5

20.9 123.5

18.7

1 2 11.25
.1

1473
1116
186
164
i 2,343
i 122
1530

18.0
7.0
7.5
6.5

126.3
116.6
111.5

19.1
19.7
14.6
13.4

i 1.38
1.84
i .78
I.74

l .65
11.07
11.15

123.0

124.4

20.3

II.2
0

1.75

162.0

20.6 ‘ 23.1

19.6

1.05 11.18

19.1

1.48

11 0
,1 1
3,654

No. 6 (September):
Fertilizer...........
Hides .
Nuts------ ----------Bones...................
Coffee and cocoa..
Canned meat____
General cargo___
Total-

30.5
41.0
103.0

3,334

i 3,734

1$1.22
1.69
1.66
$0.80

1.72

1 .2
12
1.76

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e N o. 7

Total, 11 ships...........................

*30,644 8 37,095 1,084.5

28.3

34.2

1.79 $0.61

$0.50

$0.41

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (July):
Canned fruit—
Canned salmon Barley................
Wheat................
General cargo...
TotalNo. 2 (April):
Canned goods...
Canned salmon .
Barley................
General cargo. —
Total .

1,183
135
4,319
2,000
34

1,677
171
4,837
2,240
52

7,671

8,977

95
297
1,100
14

132
376
1,232
21

1,506

1,761

218.0

35.2

41.2

19.0

1.90

22.2 $0.47

51.5

29.2

34.2

19.0

1.55

1.82

.58

.49

i Short tons.
8 Principal commodities: Barley, 14,444 long tons or 16,111 revenue tons; canned goods, 11,717 long tons or
15,635 revenue tons; dried fruit, 1,467 long tons or 1,876 revenue tons.




158

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 19.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABO R COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Revenue
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 7—Continued
No. 3 (March):
Canned fruit,.

282
771
65

385
977
96

1,118

1,458

General cargo ___________

944
524
1,070
14

1,295
663
1,131
16

Total.................................

2,552

3,105

Cannpd salmon

General cargo____________
Total

________________

No. 4 (August):
Canned fruit Cannftd sftlTnnrn

52.0

21.5

28.0

20.0

1.09

1.42 $0.83

109.0

23.4

28.5

19.0

1.22

1.48

$0.63

.74

.61

$0.51

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Canned goods____________
Canned salmon
„
Barley___________________

1,322
135
1,748

1,799
171
1,958

T o ta l...............................

3,205

3,928

No. 6 (October):
Canned fr u it____________
Canned salmon
- _____
Dried fr u it ______________
Barley
__ __ __ _____
Pig lead ________________

419
635
113
1,865
506

559
805
146
2,089
567

Total__________________

3,538

4,166

114.0

28.1

34.5

19.0

1.45

1.78 $0.62

121.0

29.2

34.4

19.0

1.50

1.77

.60

.51

•85,410 3,011.0

21.0

28.4

19.7

1.07

1.44 $0.84

$0.63

L ine N o. 8
Total, 22 ships_______________

63,340

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Barley___________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo ___ - _
Total__________________

1,120
73
528
1,338

No. 2 (April):
Barley
_ Lumber .
____________
General cargo - - ___ __
Total__________________

1,721

52.5

25.5

32.8

19.0

1.34

1.72 $0.67

$0.52

131.5

24.4

31.6

19.0

1.29

1.67

.70

.54

2,419
304
1,429
3,204

4,152

®Principal commodities: Barley, 11,850 revenue tons; refrigerator cargo, 4,154 revenue tons; lumber,
3,541 revenue tons




159

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b l e 19.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

F O REIGN T R A D E —
-Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per
labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
Revenue
nue
nue
tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 8—Continued
No. 3 (June):
Lumber_________________
Barley__________________
General cargo__________ —
Total_______________ __

480
191
2,919
2,520

No. 4 (February):
Refrigerator cargo________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________
Total__________________

3,590

166.5

15.1

21.6

19.0

0.78

83.5

21.7

28.7

25.0

.86

1.11 $1.15

$0.81

174
122
2,103
1,815

2,399

1.14

1.05

.79

$0.63

Ships of average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Lumber___________ __ ___
General cargo____________
Total.................................

80
4,502
3,298

No. 6 (November):
Refrigerator cargo________
Lumber_________________
Barley__________________
General cargo.,__________
Total

4,582

162.0

20.4

28.3

20.0

1.04

1.44 $0.87

136.0

20.7

28.5

20.0

1.04

1.44

36.8

17.0

529
131
698
2,516
2,810

3,874

.87

.63

Loading cargo: Orient
L ine N o . 9
Total, 61 sh ips...____________

323,443 8,778.0

2.17

$0.41

2.95 1
2.93 |
j—

$0.31
.31

1.80
1.82

$0.50
.49

2.18
2.18

$0.41
.41

Ships w ith m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)_____________
No. 2 (October)______ . . . . ____

3,581
4.749

71.4
95.4

50.2
49.8

17.0
17.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August)______________
__- ______________

6,300
4,220
No. 4 (June)

206.4
136.6

30.6
30.9

17.0
17.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)_________________
No. 6 (December)____________




5,055
o,857

136.5
158.0

37.1
37.1

17.0
17.0

160

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 19.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long enue
Revenue
enue gang tons
ton ton
tons tons
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Labor productivity and cost, by months
L in e N o. 9—Continued

688
25,478
676
25,167
25,391
659
22,372
585
24,734
635
704
26,001
728
26,209
28,787
860
35,223 1,021
804
30,352
25,509
676
742
28,220

January, 5 ships,. .
March, 5 ships -

„

July, 5 ships_________________
September, (Tships __
November, 5 ships

,

_________

37.0
37.2
38.5
38.2
39.0
36.9
36.0
33.5
34.5
37.8
37.7
38.0

29.9

2.18
2.17
2.27
2.25
2.29
2.17
2.12
1.97
2.03
2.22
2.22
2.24

1.70 $0.75

$0.53

1.33

17.6

$0.41
.41
.40
.40
.39
.41
.42
.46
.44
.41
.41
.40

1.90 $0.68

$0.47

1.48

1.90

.61

.47

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

L in e N o . 10

0
Total, 17 ships__________ - ___ 1 35,956

1 50, 743 1,697.5
0

21.2

1.20

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. l ’(July):
Case oil_________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo
_______

3,645
292
300

5,100
343
580

Total__________________

4,237

6,023

No. 2 (August):
_______
Case oil
Drum oil__
__________
Lumber_________________
General cargo ____________

1,275
865
177
180

1,783
969
208
240

Total................................

2,497

3,200

179.5

23.6

33.6

17.7

99.0

25.2

32.3

17.0

!

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November):
Case oil_________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________

243
782
308

340
920
535

Total.................................

1,333

1,795

No. 4 (September):
Case o il._________________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________

1,125
325
950

1,576
382
1,638

Total.................................

2,400

3,596

81.5

16.4

22.0

17.0

0.96

1.30 $0.94

$0.69

136.0

17.6

26.4

17.7

1.00

1.49 , .90

.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Case oil___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumber________ ________
General cargo____________

820
139
261

1,150
164
454




1,220

1,768

28.8

1.70 $0.80 $0.53
•
10 Principal commodities: Case oil, 23,194 long tons or 32,965 revenue tons; lumber, 5,156 long tons or
6,231 revenue tons.
Total__ _______________

63.5

19.2

17.0

1.13

161

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b le 19.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E-C ontinued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long enue
Revenue
tons tons gang tons enue ton ton
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with average efficiency—Continued

L in e N o. 10—Continued

No. 6 (December):
Case oil_________________
Drum oil . _____
Lumber_________________
General cargo**.................

1,960
355
170
80

2,838
398
208
140

Total................................

2,665

3,584

111. 5

23.0

32.1

19.0

28.3

1.21

18.0

1.69 $0.74

$0.63

1.57

$0.57

L in e N o . 11

1199,859 3,529.5

Total, 13 s h ip s ......_________

S hips with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Case oil_________________
Asphalt_______
General cargo____________

4,707
718
3,885

640

9,310

Total_________ _______
1

No. 2 (June): General cargo.- _

249.1

37.4

18.0

2.08

$0.43

7,900

228.2

34.6

18.0

1.92

.47

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Drum oil_________ _______
General cargo____ ___ - -

230
880

365
1,157

Total................................

1,110

1,522

No. 4 (March):
Case oil_________________
Drum oil________________
Asphalt_________________
General cargo____________

3,165
372
4,060
769
8,356

10,778

23.8

18.0

0.96

1.32 $0.94

434.5 19.62

24.8

18.0

1.09

1.38

4,419
595
4,547
1,217

Total................................

64.2 17.28

$0.68

.83

.65

1.60 $0.78

$0.56

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Case oil_________________
Drum oil________________
Asphalt_________ — ........
General cargo____________

7,068
222
553
514

9,880
355
619
711

Total................................

8,347

11,565

No. 6 (December):
Case oil_______ _____
Lubricating oil....................
Asphalt—. .........................
Lumber................................
Canned goods.......... ..........
Cotton__________________
General cargo____________

3,535
630
1,429
350
440

4,888
1,005
1,600
487
547
1,183
323

Total_________________
'

10,033

402.3 20.70

28.8

18.0

360.6

27.9

18.0

1.15

1.55

.58

ii Principal commodities: Caso oil, 41,919 revenue tons; drum oil, 8,198 revenue tons; asphalt, 22,717
revenue tons.




162

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 19.—P R O D U C TIV IY OF LA BO R A N D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FO R E IG N TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
Revenue
enue
tons enue gang tons enue ton ton
tons
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons
Lin e No. 12

Total, 26 ships_______________

120,855 12189,395 7,138.2

16.9

26.5

18.0

0.94

1.47 $0.96

$0.61

1.69 $0.91

$0.53

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1:
C otton _________________
Oil ...................................
LUTnhpr
_
304
806
Do ..............................

1,396
488
458
340
903
3,419

4,096

7,004

Oil ftnd glass............... General cargo____________
D o.................................

130

Total.................................

3,694

6,553

230.1

17.8

30.4

18.0

0.99

217.7

16.9

30.1

18.0

.94

1,756
247
4,403
147

Total.................................
No. 2 (January):

1.67

.96

.54

1.32 $0.97

$0.68

S hip s with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Drum oil________________
Asphalt_________________
Steel....................— ...........
General cargo____________
Do ..............................

436
445
718

243
488
498
4,334
804

Total.................................

4.459

6,367

No. 4 (August):
Cotton
_______ _____
Oil
............ — ........... —
General cargo____________
Total................................

267.4

16.7

23.8

18.0

0.93

191.4

17.6 .23.8

18. C

.98

553
159
3,833
3,385

4,545

1.32

.92

.68

1.47 $0.92

$0.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
Tobacco_________________
Oil........................................
Flour____________________
Asphalt__________________
General cargo____________
D o..................................

1,597
217
1,035

1,080
268
1,789
243
3,391
1,159

Total__________________

5,304

7,930

336

1,798
367
451
376
4,310
762

4,976

8,064

No. 6 (December):
Cotton__________________
O i l _____________________
Lumber_________________
Rice_____________________
General cargo___ ___ _____
Do____ ____ __________
Total.................................

300.3

17.6

26.5

18.0

0.98

3,053

16.4

26.5

18.0

.91

1.47

.99

.61

*2 Principal commodities: Cotton and tobacco, 24,270 revenue tons; oil and glass, 7,492 revenue tons
steel, 3,470 revenue tons.




163

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b le

19.—PR O D U C TIV IY OP LABO R A N D LA BO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age
man-hour
per—
num­
Gang
ber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long Rev­
tons tons gang tons tons ton enue
ton

L ine No. 13
7,819

Total, 8 ships...............
No. 1 (May):
Lumber..........
General cargo.
Total.............................

280
500

No. 3 (July):
Lumber.. .........................
General cargo..................
Total .
No. 4 (August): General cargo..
No. 5 (September): General
cargo........................................
No. 6 (October): General cargo.

Total .

>9.5
2,305

16.7

22.5

17.0

58.5

14.0

1.48

19.8

81.0

1.16

$0.61

1.32 $0.78
2.01

500
340
840

1,055

45.0

18.7

3.4

17.0

1.13

1.42

275

312

15.5

17.7

20.1

17.0

1.02

1.16

485

760

30.0
20.5

16.2

25.3
19.3

18.0
18.0

.89

1.40
1.09

22.9

19.0

27.1

17.0

.45

600
455

No. 7 (November):
Lumber...............................
General cargo......................

No. 8 (December): General
cargo............... —................... .

24.7

330
560

780

No. 2 (June): General cargo..

317.0

.80

.63
.78

1.01

.64
.83

764
416
649

1,180

51.5

922

34.0

17.1

1.20

.75
.56

Lin e N o. 14

Total, 34 ships..............

1*97,141 4.362.0 ......... 22.3

15.8 ......... 1.41

) .64

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Lumber..........
Gasoline.........
Flour..............
Com________
Rice........... —
General cargo-

326
193
465
1,371
408
532

Total...........

3,295

107.0

30.7

61.0

No. 2 (November): General
cargo...................................... .

>.0

16.0

1.92

$0.47

15.0 ......... 1.93

.47

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Flour.............. .
General cargo..

500

Total........... .

1,488

No. 4 (February):
Lumber.......... .
Tallow............ .
Hay.................
General cargo..

2,908

16.8

16.0

1.05

$0.86

170.5

17.1

16.0

1.07

.84

447
140
159
2,162

Total........... .

88.3

1 principal commodities: Flour, 10,866 revenue tons; lumber, 8,396 revenue tons.
3




164

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le

1 9 —PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LA BO R A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­ men
Long enue
Long enue per
Revenue
tons
tons
tons tons gang lons I tons ton ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L ine N o. 14—Continued
No. 5 (March):
________
Lumber
General cargo____________

844
1,162
2,006

Total - . _______________ ________
No. 6 (April):
Lumber _______________
Hay
____________
General cargo____________
Total

89.5

22.4

16.0

1.40

$0.64

99.0

21.0

15.0

1.40

.64

296
308
1,474
2,078

................

T a b l e SO.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LA BO R A N D LABOR COST IN HAN DLING CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L TR AD E

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
tons
tons 1
tons tons* gang tons tons * ton ton i
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

L in e N o. 15

Total, 14 ships............................... 16,224

18,171

952.5

17.0

19.1

15.8

1.08

1.21 $0.83

$0.74

1.93 $0.52
1.73
.58

$0.47
.52

0.85 $1.18
.92 1.10

$1.06
.98

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)..................................
No. 2 (M ay)..................................

658
1,525

737
1,708

24.0
81.5

27.4
18.7

30.7
21.0

16.0
12.0

1.72
1.54

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June)..................................
No. 4 (August)..............................

1,443
977

1,616
1,094

116.5
70.0

12.4
14.0

13.9
15.6

16.0
17.0

0.76
.82

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)..........................
No. 6 (July)...................................

487
1,056

546
1,183

28.0
59.5

17.4
17.8

19.5
19.9

17.0
15.0

1.05
1.17

1.18 $0.86
1.31
.77

$0.76
.69

46,523 2,750.5

15.1

16.9

15.5

0.98

1.09 $0.92

$0.83

1.48 $0.68
1.31
.77

$0.61
.69

L in e N o. 16

Total, 41 ships............................... 41,627

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (July)...................................
No. 2 (October).............................
* Short tons.




953
886

1,067
992

48.0
50.5

19.8
17.5

22.2
19.6

15.0
15.0

1.32
1.17

165

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b le

20.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE-Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
enue
tons
tons1
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton to n 1
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

L in e N o. 16—Continued

No. 3 (February)..........................
No. 4 (September)........................

Ships with m inim um efficiency

768
1,049

860
1,175

66.5
83.0

11.6
12.6

13.0
14.1

16.0
16.0

0.72
.79

0.81 $1.25
.88 1.14

$1.11
1.02

1.10 $0.92
.94
1.08

$0.82
.83

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)..........................
No. 6 (June)..................................

1,299
982

1,455
1,100

83.0
63.5

15.7
15.4

17.6
17.3

16.0
16.0

0.98
.96

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 2 ships............. ..............
February, 2 ships......... ............ .
March, 4 ships................. ............
April, 4 ships.................................
May, 4 ships.................................
June, 4 ships.............. - ____ _____
July, 5 ships.................................
August, 5 ships..............................
September, 5 ships........................
October, 4 ships.............................
November, 2 ships........................
December, 1 ship...........................

3,048
2,067
3,713
4,637
4,279
3,763
4,334
3,460
4,331
3,691
2,321
1,983

198.5
149.5
241.5
319.0
292.0
232.0
261.0
214.0
324.0
229.5
169.0
120.5

15.4
13.8
15.4
14.5
14.7
16.2
16.6
16.2
13.4
16.1
13.7
16.5

17.2
15.5
17.2
16.3
16.4
18.2
18.6
18.1
15.0
17.6
15.4
18.5

Total, 48 ships............................... 86,706

97,110 5,352.8

16.2

Pier A ..................................... 73,179
Pier B ..................................... 12,928
Pier C......................................
599

81,960 4,574.0
14,479
740.5
671
38.3

16.0
17.5
15.6

3,414
2,315
4,159
5,193
4,793
4,215
4,855
3,875
4,851
4,033
2,599
2,221

15.4
16.0
15.3
15.8
15.5
15.5
15.4
15.6
15.7
15.5
15.0
15.0

1.00
.86
1.00
.92
.94
1.05
1.08
1.04
.85
1.04
.92
1.10

1.12 $0.90
.97 1.05
1.12
.90
1.03
.98
1.06
.96
1.17
.86
1.21
.83
.87
1.16
.96 1.06
1.13
.87
1.03
.98
1.23
.82

$0.80
.93
.80
.83
.85
.77
.74
.78
.94
.80
.87
.73

18.1

18.0

0.90

1.01 $1.00

$0.89

17.9
19.6
17.5

18.0
17.7
18.0

.88
.99
.87

1.02
.91
1.03

.91
.81
.93

L in e N o. 17

.99
1.11
.97

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Pier A 2
.......

766
1,149
2,057

Total.

2,304

101.0
54.5
39.0

1,974

Total.
No. 2 (June):
Pier A 2 . .
.

32.0
48.0
21.0

1,150

Pier B -.

93.5

23.9
23.9
18.5

18.9

22.8

18.1

21.1
21.1

20.4

18.1
18.1
18.0

17.4
16.6

21.1

17.0

1.32
1.32
1.03
1.12

$0.68
.68
.87
.71

1.22
1.28
1.11

1.26 $0.80

.74
.70

1.24

.81

.73

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Pier A 2
...........

Total-

594
552
784

Pier B _.
Total-

1,201

1 Short tons.




1,930

136.5

580
558
207

1,723

No. 4 (February):
Pier A 2
..........

42.0
39.0
55.5

40.0
38.5
21.0

1,345

19.5

14.1
14.2
14.1

12.1

14.1

17.5

14.5
14.5
9.9

12.6

18.0
18.0
16.7

18.0
18.0
18.0

13.5

18.0

0.79
.79
.84
0.72

$1.14
1.14
1.07

.81 $1.25

1.11
1.11
1.11
1.43

.67

.75

2 Data are for daily or batch productivity and cost.

1.34

1.20

166
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
20.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
IN TER COASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons
tons1
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 17—Continued

No. 5:
Pier A 2................... ................

837
684
412

51.0
42.5
17.5

1,933

111.0

770
1,244
346

40.5
64.5
19.0

2,360

124.0

Total, 21 ships_________________ 336,323 340,467 2,262.6

Pier B ......................................
Total_____________ ______

1,726

No. 6 (September):
Pier A 2....................................
Pier B ......................................
Total................ ...................

2,107

16.4
16.1
23.5

17.3
17.0
17.8

17.4

17.3

19.0
19.3
18.2

19.1
18.6
18.0

17.0

19.0

18.7

.91

16.1

17.9

18.0

0.89

15.5

0.95
.95
1.32
0.90

$0.95
.95
.68

1.01 $1.00

.89

1.00
1.04
1.01

.90
.87
.89

1.02

.99

.88

0.99 $1.01

$0.91

L in e N o. 18

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Steel, etc__________________
General cargo______________
Total....................................

1,101
1,845
2,630

No. 2 (January):
Steel, e t c __________________
General cargo______________
Total...................................

2,946

84.3

31.2

34.9

18.0

1.73

1.94 $0.52 $0.46

68.2

23.1

25.9

18.0

1.29

1.44

1,004
766
1,580

1,770

.70

.63

0.70 $1.45

$1.29

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April):
Steel
_ ____ _____
General cargo______________
Total____ ____ ___________
No. 4 (September):
Steel
General cargo

627
918
1,379

123.4

11.3 12.6

18.0

0.62

18.0

.70

509
1,059

__ _____
___ ___

Total..................... ..............

1,545

1,400

1,568

112.1

12.5

14.0

.78

1.29

1.15

0.99 $1.02

$0.91

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Steal
...........................
General cargo
Total____________________
No. 6 (November):
Steel
General cargo
Total

-

698
1,141
1,642

102.9

15.9

17.8

18.0

0.88

121.3

16.1

18.0

18.0

.89

1,280
908

__
___

________________

1,839

1,954

2,188

1 Short tons.
2 Data are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
3 Principal commodity: Steel, etc., 13,990 long tons or 15,669 short tons.




1.00

1.01

.90

167

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b le

30.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE-Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
enue
tons1
tons
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton t o n 1
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

L in e N o. 19

Total, 71 ships............................... 127,628

143,191 9,647.5

13.2

14.8

18.0

0.74

0.83 $1.22

$1.08

0.61 $1.67
0.62 1.64

$1.48
1.45

1.28 $0.79
.82
1.23

$0.70
.73

0.83 $1.22
0.83 1.22

$1.08
1.08

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January).............................
No. 2 (February)...........................

1,576
1,631

1,765
1,827

161.3
163.3

9.8
10.0

11.0
11.2

18.0
18.0

0.54
0.55

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August)..............................
No. 4 (July)...................................

1,321
1,851

1,479
2,073

64.3
93.9

20.6
19.8

23.0
22.1

18.0
18.0

1.14
1.10

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)...............................
No. 6 (M ay)-—.............................

1,450
1,696

1,624
1,900

108.2
127.9

13.3
13.3

14.9
14.9

18.0
18.0

0.74
0.74

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 4 ships............
February, 5 ships_____
March, 7 ships............ .
April, 6 ships................
May, 5 ships_________
June, 8 ships.................
July, 6 ships..................
August, 6 ships.............
September, 5 ships.......
October, 6 ships............
November, 6 ships____
December, 7 ships_____

6,441
8,058
13,420
12,784
10,912
13,388
10,537
10,248
8,582
10,407
11,473
11,378

7,215
503.5
9,269
684.6
15,029 1,033.8
14,318 1,017.6
12,222
855.0
14,997 1,009.0
11,802
728.0
11,477
700.0
9,612
604.0
765.0
11,657
12,849
882.0
12,744
865.0

12.8
11.8
13.0
12.6
12.8
13.3
14.5
14.6
14.2
13.6
13.0
13.2

14.3
13.5
14.5
14.1
14.3
14.9
16.2
16.4
15.9
15.2
14.6
14.7

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

0.75
.65
.72
.70
.71
.78
.80
.81
.79
.76
.72
.73

0.85 $1.20
.75 1.38
.81 1.25
.78 1.29
.79 1.27
.87 1.15
.90 1.15
.91 1.11
.88 1.14
.85 1.18
.81 1.25
.82 1.23

$1.06
1.20
1.11
1.15
1.14
1.03
1.00
1.99
1.02
1.06
1.11
1.10

26,700

29,903 2,304.0

11.6

13.0

18.0

0.64

0.72 $1.41

$1.25

0.82 $1.23
0.81 1.25

$1.10
1.11

0.63 $1.61
0.64 1.58

$1.43
1.41

0.72 $1.41
0.73 1.38

$1.25
1.23

L in e N o. 20

Total, 21 ships..............

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January).............................
No. 2 (August)..............................

1,346
1,625

1,507
1,820

102.4
125.3

13.2
13.0

14.8
14.6

18.0
18.0

0.73
0.72

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (June)..................................
No. 4 (July)...................................

969
1,177

1,085
1,318

95.2
115.3

10.1
10.3

11.3
11.5

18.0
18.0

0.56
0.57

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)...............................
No. 6 (February)........................
1Short tons.




1,135
1,578

1,271
1,767

97.8
133.9

11.6
11.7

13.0
13.1

18.0
18.0

0.64
0.65

168

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le

30.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo
Output per Aver­
gang-hour age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Long enue per
Long Revenue
tons tons1 gang
tons
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Rev­
Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
tons tons1 ton ton1

Lin e N o . 21

Total, 21 s h i p s .._______—_____ 111,693 4167,652 5,811.0

19.2 528.9

18.0

1.07 51.60 $0.84 5$0.56

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
General cargo
Do
..............................

314

* 2,155
« 610
«4 ,150
5 352

T o ta l..................................

3,813

57,267

No. 2 (July):
Hay and hops .......
T/limber
.....
General cargo
, . ,
D o ...................................

575

52,313
5847
« 5,381
5 644

Total....................................

5,006

59,185

Lumber

210.2

18.2 534.6

18.0

288.6

17.3 531.9

18.0

1.01 51.92 $0.89 5$0.47

.96 51.77

.94

5.51

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Lum ber__________________
General cargo______________
D o ...................................

525

5890
56,454
5 588

Total____________________

5,689

5 7,932

No. 4 (February):
Lumber
General cargo
_ _
Do ..................................

883
4,827

5 6,740

17.8 524.8

18.0

0.99 51.38 $0.91 5$0.65

253.2

18.9 526.5

18.0

1.05 51.47

5483
5 5,268
5 989

Total....................................

319.1

.86

5.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Rags and hemp ____ . . . . .
Wine and tallow
______ _ _
Lumber
General cargo
Do
......................

735

5520
5 371
5 544
57,883
5823

Total____________________

6,579 510,141

No. 6 (January):
Wool, rags, etc.
___
Lumber
General cargo
D o ...................................

1,099

5 385
5 542
56,258
51,231

5, 781

« 8,416

Total.............. .............. .
1 Short tons.
4 Revenue tons.
tons.
3 Revenue tons.




.

349.7

18.7 529.0

18.0

1.04 51.61 $0.87 5$0.56

292.1

19.8 528.8

18.0

1.10 51.60

.82

5.5f»

Principal commodities: Lumber, 10,947 revenue tons; hay and hops, 12,263 revenue

169

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b le

20.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Output per Aver­
gang-hour age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Long Revenue
Long enue per
tons
tons1
tons tons1 gang
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
tons tons* ton enue
ton*

L ine N o. 22
Total, 45 ships............................... 133,081

149,050 6,564.0

20.3

22.7

18.8

1.08

1.21 $0.83

Pier A «................................... 98,536
................................... 24,650
Pier B 7
Pier C s................................... 4,384
Pier D »................................... 4,007
Piers E and F » . .................... 1,504

110,360 4,956.0
27,608 1,153.0
187.0
4,910
4,488
192.0
1,684
76.0

19.9
21.4
23.4
20.9
19.8

22.3
23.9
26.3
23.4
22.2

18.7
18.8
19.0
19.3
18.4

1.06
1.14
1.24
1.08
1.08

1.19
1.27
1.39
1.21
1.20

$0.74

.85
.79
.73
.83
.83

.76
.71
.65
.74
.75

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
_
Pier A *_

1,033
825
1,858

Pier C .
P ierB .
Total....................................

3,952

73.0

1,414
1,432
360
1,220

TotaL
No. 2 (September):
Pier A a
.............

170.0

22.7

23.3

18.3
18.0

25.5

18.0

25.7
25.8
25.7

55.0
55.5
14.0
45.5

4,426

28.7
22.3

36.0
37.0

19.0
19.0
19.2
19.3

26.0

19.0

1.57
1.24
1.25

$0.57
.73
.64

1.35
1.36
1.34
1.39

1.21

1.40 $0.72

.67

L36

.67
.65
.74

.66

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March):
Pier A *___

Total _

1,948

No. 4 (July):
Pier A K .
Total-

18.4
18.4
18.4

31.5
36.0
51.0
2,182

16.4

18.0
18.0
18.2

18.4

18.0

678
537
1,085

39.0
31.0

17.4
17.3

70.0

17.4

18.0

0.91

.88

$0.99

18.0
18.0

1,215

$0.88

1.02
1.02
1.01

.94
.86

.96

1.05

.94

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
Pier A 2
...

351
1,528
1,385
761

Total.

3,594

No. 6 (October):
Pier A 2.........
P ie rB ..
Total-

3,061

4,025

174.0

973
1,924
531

P ie rB -.

154.5

28.7

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

1.15
1.16
1.17
1.51

23.1

19.0

1.22 $0.83

.74

22.1
22.1

44.0
86.5
24.0

3,428

22.2

16.0
69.0
62.5
26.5

18.0
18.2
18.0

1.23
1.22
1.23

.73
.74
.74

22.2

18.0

22.0
22.1

20.7

22.2

19.8

1.09

1.22

$0.78
.78
.77
.60

.83

.74

1 Short tons.
89 ships, loading chiefly canned pineapples.
2 Data are for daily or hatch productivity and cost. •5 ships, loading chiefly general cargo,
« 45 ships, loading chiefly general cargo.
w 2 ships, one at each pier, loading general cargo
7 30 ships, loading chiefly canned goods.

66490°—32----- 12




170

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le

20.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
‘ Rev­
Long Revenue
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long Rev­
enue
tons
tons1
tons tonsi gang tons tons1 ton enue
ton 1
Cargo tonnage

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

L in e N o . 23

Total, 71 ships............................... 138,062

154,803

746.9

18.5

20.7

18.0

1.03

1.15 $0.87

$0.78

1.71 $0.59
.73
1.38

$0.53
.65

0.79 $1.27
.78 1.29

$1.14
1.15

1.15 $0.87
1.16
.87

$0.78
.78

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)........................... No. 2 (July)...................................

2,504
2,434

2,804
2,726

91.0
109.8

27.5
22.2

30.8
24.8

18.0
18.0

1.53
1.23

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February)..........................
No. 4 (M ay)..................................

1,810
1,249

2,027
1,399

142.8
99.5

12.7
12.5

14.2
14.0

18.0
18.0

0.71
.70

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)...............................
No. 6 (December).........................

908
2,087

1,017
2,337

49.1
111.8

18.5
18.6

20.7
20.9

18.0
18.0

1.03
1.04

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 5 ships............................
February, 6 ships..........................
March, 6 ships..............................
April, 6 ships.................................
May, 6 ships..................................
June, 6 ships........................... ......
July, 6 ships..................................
August, 6 ships. ...........................
September, 6 ships........................
October, 6 ships.............................
November, 6 ships........................
December, 6 ships.........................

9,511
10,740
9,624
9,022
8,675
7,692
7,776
14,677
14,695
17,689
15,745
12,216

10,652
12,030
10,778
10,104
9,716
8,615
8,708
16,662
16,410
19,812
17,634
13,682

520
708
522
548
536
433
440
724
759
904
801
574

18.3
15.2
18.4
16.5
16.2
17.8
17.6
20.3
19.4
19.6
19.7
21.3

20.5
17.0
20.6
18.5
18.1
19.9
19.7
22.7
21.7
22.0
22.1
23.9

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.02
.84
1.02
.92
.90
.99
.98
1.13
1.08
1.09
1.09
1.18

1.14 $0.88
.94 1.07
1.14
.88
1.03
.98
1.01 1.00
.91
1.11
.92
1.10
1.28
.80
1.21
.83
1.22
.83
1.22
.83
1.32
.76

$0.79
.96
.79
.87
.89
.81
.82
.70
.74
.74
.74
.68

0.97 $1.05

$0.93

L in e N o . 24

Total, 19 ships.............................. 54,146

60,644

350.7

15.4

17.3

17.6

0.86

1
Canned goods......................... 1 7,294

1 8,169
1

439.0

16.6

18.6

17.8

.94

1.05

.96

.86

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (July):
Canned goods
Pineapples
General cargo

1,660
299
850

Total....................................

2,508

No. 2 (October):
Canned goods
PinAAnnlAs
General cargo..........................
T o ta l..................................
i Short tons




50.0
13.5
76.7

2,809

140.2

283.8

1.95
1.30
.65

33.2
22.1
11.1

17.0
17.0
17.0

17.9

20.1

17.0

1.05

1.18 $0.86

$0.76

18.5

20.7

18.0

1.03

1.15

.87

.78

1,540
642
3,669
5,224

5,851

u Data for 6 ships only, as hours of labor for others were not available.

171

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b l e 20.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OP LA BO R AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

IN T E R C O A ST A L TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o. 24—Continued

No. 3 (February):
Copper__________ __________
Cannfid goods
Pineapples_________________
General cargo.___ __ _______
Total____________________

298
630
275
2,387
3,205

No. 4 (January):
Canned goods______________
Lath........................................
Copper_______ _____ _______
Pineapples________ ________
General cargo______________
Total....................................

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton nue
ton 1

14.5
38.0
12.5
184.0

18.4
14.8
19.6
11.6

20.6
16.6
22.0
13.0

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.02
.82
1.09
.64

3,590

249.0

12.9

14.4

18.0

.71

.80

1.27

1.13

284.8

13.2

14.8

18.0

.73

.82

1.23

1.10

0.96 $1.05

$0.94

1.14 $0.88
.92 1.09
1.22
.83
.72 1.40

$0.78
.99
.75
1.24

1,470
250
294
395
1,811
3,768

4,220

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Canned goods.___ ____ _____
Pineapples_______. . ________
Peanuts______ ____________
General cargo__ __________
Total....................................

600
165
203
1,498
2,202

No. 6 (July):
Canned goods._____________
Copper____________________
Pineapples________ ___ _
General cargo - ________ ___ _
Total....................................
>Short tons.




2,466

142.6

15.4

17.3

18.0

0.86

131.8

15.8

17.6

18.0

.87

675
159
390
1,107
2,081

2,331

.98

1.03

.92

172
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
31.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN
COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­
La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
hour per
(reve­ reve­
nue
nue
tons1) to n 1

Week ending—

1.36

$0.67

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

620.5
457.0
612.0
743.5
963.5
524.5
360.5
1,369.0

1.69
1.72
1.51
1.82
1.81
1.33
1.64
1.47

$0.53
.52
.60
.49
.50
.68
.58
.61

5,550.5

1.62

.56

1,128
2,595
868
1,461

746.5
1,533.5
545.0
1,037.0

1.51
1.69
1.59
1.41

.63
.57
.64

i, 052

3,862.0

1.57

.57

1,051
786
773
1,352
1,745
698
554
2,007

Total.— .
Apr. 7, 4 ships..

Total..

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

Oct. 31, 7 ships___

1,527
1,527
1,167
580
2,346
1,019
917

1,284.5
1,139.0
1,165.5
497.0
2,105.5
830.0
766.5

1.19
1.34
1.00
1.17
1.11
1.23
1.20

Total___

9,083

7,788.0

1.17

.77

Dec. 7 4 ships.

970
1,453
1,177
1,148

873.0
1,245.0
951.0
1,034.0

1.11
1.17
1.24
1.11

.81
.77
.73
.81

4,748

4,103.0

1.16

.78

Total..

$0.76
.67
.90
.77
.81
.73
.75

Weeks with average efficiency

Apr. 14, 5 ships.. .
1,512
1,374
571
2,139
Total..
1 Short tons.




Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton i

Weeks with average efficiency —

Lin e N o. 25

Total, 238 ships— 247,185 182,763.0

Mar. 31,8 ships___

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

684.0
1,133.5
990.5
397.0
1.544.0

1.26
1.33
1.39
1.44
1.39

6,458

4.749.0

1.36

10.71
.68
.65
.63
.65

Continued

L ine N o. 25—Con.
July 7,4 ships.......

753
1,329
900
496

636.5
1,081.0
565.5
405.5

1.40
1.23
1.59
1.22

$0.64
.73
.57
.74

Total............

3,478

2,688.5

1.34

.67

Other weeks

Jan. 7,5 ships........
Jan. 14, 5 ships___
Jan. 21,4 ships----Jan. 31,10 ships- —
Feb. 7, 5 ships.......
Feb. 14, 5 ships___
Feb. 21, 3 ships___
Feb. 28, 7 ships___
Mar. 7, 3 ships......
Mar. 14, 5 ships___
Mar. 21, 4 ships___
Apr. 21, 4 ships___
Apr. 30,6 ships----May 7, 2 ships.......
May 14, 3 ships___
May 21, 5 ships___
May 31, 5 ships___
June 7,6 ships
June 14, 2 ships___
June 21,6 ships___
June 30,6 ships___
July 14, 6 ships___
July 21, 4 ships___
July 31, 7 ships___
Aug. 7, 5 ships.......
Aug. 14, 5 ships___
Aug. 21, 4 ships___
Aug. 31, 6 ships___
Sept. 7, 5 ships----Sept. 14, 4 ships-- Sept. 21, 6 ships-- Sept. 30, 7 ships-- Oct. 7,3 ships.. Oct. 14, 7 ships___
Oct. 21,4 ships___
Nov. 7,4 ships ,.
Nov. 14, 5 ships___
Nov. 21, 4 ships___
Nov. 30, 7 ships___
Dec. 14, 5 ships___
Dec. 21,5 ships___
Dec. 31,4 ships-----

4,747
5,202
4,164
9,326
4,596
4,247
4,366
7,600
4,074
4,964
4,661
5,042
6,733
2,459
2,710
3,821
4,689
4,697
1,706
5,004
5,345
4,725
4,013
6,761
5,038
4,709
4,189
5,634
4,979
3,684
4,691
7,454
2,651
9,005
3,584
4,560
5,779
3,882
6,853
6,634
6,093
3,429

3,328.0
3,539.0
2,932.5
6,527.5
3,695.5
2,888.5
3,334.5
5,343.0
2,950.5
3,341.5
3,189.0
3,627.5
4,805.0
1,580.0
1,760.5
2,462.0
3,253.5
3,846.0
1,145.0
3,640.0
3,862.0
3,688.0
2,763.0
4,797.5
3,448.5
3,863.0
3,118.0
4,253.0
3,575.5
2,959.5
3,645.5
5,915.0
2,149.0
7,111.0
2,998.0
3,603.0
4,220.5
3,004.0
5,830.0
4,991.0
4,943.5
2,409.5

1.43 $0.63
1.47
.61
1.42
.63
1.43
.63
1.25
.72
1.47
.61
.69
1.31
.64
1.40
1.38
.65
1.49
.60
.62
1.46
1.39
.65
1.40
.64
.58
1.56
.68
1.54
.58
1.55
1.44
.63
1.22
.74
.60
1.49
.64
1.41
1.39
.65
.68
1.32
.62
1.45
.64
1.41
.62
1.46
.74
1.22
.67
1.34
.68
1.32
1.39
.65
1.24
.73
1.29
.70
1.26
.71
1.23
.73
1.27
.71
1.20
.75
1.27
.71
1.37
.66
1.29
.70
1.18
.76
1.33
.68
1.23
.73
1.42
.63

173

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b l e 2 1 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN
COASTWISE TBADE-Continued

Loading cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons l)

Manhours

Out­
La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
hour per
(reve­ reve­
nue
nue
tons1 ton 1
)

Week ending-

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons i)

L in e N o. 26

1.13

$0.80

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

610
1,086
870
443
587

425.0
851.5
627.0
259.0
563.0

1.44
1.28
1.39
1.71
1.04

Total............

3,596

2,725.5

1.32

.68

Dec. 14, 6 ships-----

332
334
543
1,223
482
382

254.0
244.5
495.5
964.5
355.5
343.0

1.31
1.37
1.10
1.27
1.36
1.11

.69
.66
.82
.71
.66
.81

3,296

2,657.0

1.24

.73

Total....... ..

$0.63
.70
.65
.53
.87

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

Dec. 7,4 ships

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

Other weeks

Total, 243 ships___ 193,025 170,645.8

Dec. 22, 5 ships___

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

616
449
972
576

713.0
377.5
1,025.5
571.5

0.86
1.19
.95
1.01

$1.05
.76
.95
.89

Total............

2,613

2,687.5

.97

.93

Feb. 28, 2 ships___

671
661

621.5
748.0

1.08
.88

.83
1.02

Total_______

1,332

1,369.5

.97

.93

Weeks with average efficiency

Oct. 7, 5 ships........

609
1,089
1,211
458
1,255

582.5
1,025.5
1,030.5
386.5
1,067.5

1.05
1.06
1.18
1.18
1.18

$0.86
.85
.76
.76
.76

Total............

4,622

4,092.5

1.13

.80

Oct. 21, 4 ships___

1,020
700
502
427

960.0
615.5
362.0
396.5

1.06
1.14
1.39
1.08

.85
.79
.65
.83

Total............

2,649

2,334.0

1.13

.80

1 Short tons.




L ine No. 26—Con.
Jan. 7,8 ships____
Jan. 14, 6 ships___
Jan. 21, 6 ships___
Jan. 31,8 ships___
Feb. 7,5 ships----Feb. 14, 5 ships....
Feb. 21,4 ships_
_
Mar. 7, 5 ships......
Mar. 14,4 ships___
Mar. 21, 5 ships___
Mar. 31, 5 ships___
Apr. 7,6 ships...
Apr. 14, 4 ships. _
Apr. 21, 8 ships. .
Apr. 30, 4 ships..
May 7, 2 ships...
May 14, 4 ships..
May 21,4 ships___
May 31, 6 ships.
June 7, 5 ships...
June 14, 2 ships.
June 21, 4 ships.
June 30, 5 ships___
July 7, 2 ships___
July 14, 6 ships___
July 21, 7 ships___
July 31, 6 ships___
Aug. 7, 4 ships___
Aug. 14, 3 ships—
Aug. 21, 6 ships___
Aug. 31, 5 ships...
Sept. 7, 6 ships__
Sept. 14, 5 ships..
Sept. 21, 6 ships_
_
Sept. 30, 7 ships.
Oct. 14, 9 ships___
Oct. 31, 6 ships___
Nov. 7, 4 ships.
Nov. 14, 5 ships _
Nov. 21, 4 ships_
_
Nov. 30, 8 ships. . .
Dec. 31, 3 ships___

3,723
4,350
4,064
6,321
3,254
4,003
2,789
4,359
2,535
3,522
3,937
5.293
3,516
7,943
3,178
2,267
3,382
3,099
4,594
4.294
1,987
3,697
4,173
2,370
4,945
6,095
5,849
3,909
2,607
4,977
5,529
5,411
3,751
5,260
5,511
6,361
4,777
2,830
3,384
2,551
2,631

3,390.8
3.901.5
3.574.0
5.213.5
2.994.5
3.362.0
2.746.5
4.038.0
2.220.0
3.302.0
3.519.5
4.554.0
3.029.0
7.531.5
2.986.5
2.203.0
2.905.0
2.796.5
4.248.0
3.631.0
1.791.0
3.144.5
3.770.0
2.034.5
4.113.5
5.230.0
4.819.0
3.876.0
2.255.0
4.187.5
4.936.5
4.664.0
3,235. 0
4,316. 0
4.900.5
5,350. 0
4,331. 5
2,657. 5
3.233.0
2.266.5
5.373.0
2.148.5

1.10
1.11
1.14
1.21
1.09
1.19
1.02

1.08
1.14
1.07
1.12
1.16
1.16
1.05
1.06
1.03
1.16
1.11

1.08
1.18
1.11
1,18
1,11

1.16
1.20
1.17
1.21

1.01
1.16
1.19
1.12
1.16
1.16
1.22

1.12
1.19
1.10
1.06
1.05
1.13
1.10
1.22

$0.82
.81
.79
.74
.83
.76
.88
.83
.79
.84
.80
.78
.78
.86
.85
.87
.78
.81
.83
.76
.81
.76
.81
.78
.75
.77
.74
.89
.78
.76
.80
.78
.78
.74
.80
.76
.82
.85
.86
.80
.82
.74

174

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 2 2 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES

Discharging cargo

Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Ganghours
Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
tons gang tons tons ton ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Revenue
tons

Long
tons

L um ber

Line No. 27:1
Total, 19 ships_________

230,312

963.0

2 31.5

15.3

22.05

2$0.44

2.49
2.31

2$0.36

2 1.80
2 1.85

2$0.50
2.49

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October) —
No. 2 (November) .

2
2

1,652
1,648

4 5 .0 .........
4 2 .0 _____

2
2

36.7
39.2

14.7
17.0

2
2

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

2 1,588
2 1,533

No. 3 (June)-----No. 4 (January).

57.0
58.0

2
2

27.9
26.4

15.5
14.3

Ships with average efficiency

21,605
2 1,613

No. 5 (November).
No. 6 (April)—.......
Line No. 28: *
Total, 10 ships.

2 4 2 ,0 6 7

56.0
56.0
1,539.5 ....... .

2 28.7
2 28.8

13.9
13.9

2 2.06
2 2.07

2$0.44
2.43

2 27.3

15.5

a1.76

2$0.51

1.93
1.85

2$0.47

1.54
21.62

2$0.58
2.56

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (July)............
No. 2 (September).

2
2

4,254
4,252

150.0
153.0

2
2

28.4
27.8

14.7
15.1

2
2

Skips with m in im u m efficiency

24,180
24,245

No. 3 (December).
No. 4 (June)....... -

168.0
168.0

2
2

24.9
25.3

16.2
15.6

2

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December).
___
>
No. 6 (November).
Line No. 29: i
Total, 22 ships.

4,136
4,231

134.0
150.0

2
2

30.9
28.2

17.4
15.8

2

1.77
1.78

2$0.51
2.51

18,965

556.8

2

34.1

24.4

2 1.39

2$0.65

21.6
2 1. 5

2$0.54

2 1.23
2 1.23

2$0.73

2
2

2

2

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December).
No. 2 (October). _.

2
2

824
843

22.0

23.5

2
2

37.5
35.9

22.5
22.5

2.57

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January).
No. 4 (M ay)___




2 873

i Discharged with ship’s gear.

30.0
28.5

2 28.8
2 30.6

23.3
24.9

21,000 board feet.

.73

175

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b l e 2 2 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

L u m ber— Continued

Line No. 291
—Continued.
No. 5 (June)__________
No. 6 (April) ________ _
Line No. 30:
Total, 18 ships_________

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
gang tons nue
tons
ton
tons
tons ton
Output per
gang-hour

Ships with average efficiency

2911
2 875

27.5
24.5

2 33.1
2 35.7

214,845

608.5

2 24.4

19.9

2 1.40
2 1.40

23.7
25.8

----

21.23

2$0.64
2.64

----

2$0.73

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)—
No. 2 (November).

2800
2 804

27.5
32.0

2 29.1
2 25.1

2 1.52
2 1.39

2$0.59
2.65

21.03
2 1.09

19.2
18.1

2$0. 87

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August)----No. 4 (December)..

2850
2 785

34.0
35.0

2 25.0
2 22.4

24.4
20.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March).
No. 6 (April)..
Line No. 31:»
Total, 31 ships.

35.0
31.0

2 23.4
2 27.4

19.0
22.2

2 78,558 1,142. 5

2 68.8

----

11.5

2820
2 850

2 1.23
21.23

.....

2$0.73
2.73

2 5.98

2$0.15

2 7.04
26.77

2$0.13
2.13

2 4.86
2 5.05

a$0.18
2.18

2 5.97
2 5.98

2$0.15
2.15

26.62
2 5.73
2 6.36
2 6.23
2 5.78
2 5.65
2 5.50
2 5.78
2 5.22
2 6.01
2 6.00
26.03

2$0.14
2.16
2.14
2.14
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.17
2.15
2.15
2.15

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (M arch)...
No. 2 (January)..

22,552
2 2,373

31.5
30.5

2 81.0
2 75.3

11.5
11.5

Ships with m in im um efficiency

No. 3 (September).
No. 4 (February)__

22,796

2 2,324

50.0
40.0

2 55.9
2 58.1

11.5
11.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October).
No. 6 (April)....

2 2,471
2 2,443

36.0
35.5

268.6
268.8

11.5
11.5

Labor productivity and costf by months

January, 4 ships----February, 4 ships...
March, 3 ships____
April, 4 ships______
May, 1 sh ip..........
June, 1 ship............
July, 1 ship.............
August, 4 ships.......
September, 2 ships.
October, 3 ships___
November, 2 ships.
December, 2 ships..
1Discharged with ship’s gear.




29,560
2 9,658
2 7,566
29,818
2 2,526
2 2,565
2 2,532
210,361
2 5,404
2 7,812
2 5,483
2 5,273

125.5
146.5
103.5
137.0
38.0
39.5
40.0
154.0
90.0
113.0
79.5
76.0

21,000 board feet.

2 76.2
265.9
2 73.1
2 71.7
266.5
2 64.9
2 63.3
267.3
260.0
269.1
269.0
2 69.4

11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5

___

3 Lumber in units discharged with crane.

176
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
^ . —P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang tons nue
ton nue
tons
ton
tons
tons
Output per
gang-hour

N itrate of S oda

Line No. 32:
Total, 7 ships...........

12,296

4 13,770

411.5

29.9

4 33.5

20.3

1.47 41.65 $0.61 4$0.55

No. 1 (January)8
-

1,037
907
321

41,161
41,016
4 359

33.5
29.5
10.5

31.0
31.0
31.0

4 34.7
4 34.4
4 34.2

20.3
20.3
20.0

1.53 41.71
1.52 41.70
1.53 41.71

.59
.59
.59

4. 53
4. 53
4. 53

Total.............

2,265

4 2,536

73.5

31.0

4 34.5

20.2

1.53 41.71

.59

4. 53

695
731
612
484

4 778
4819
4686
4542

32.0
24.0
20.0
18.0

21.7
30.5
30.6
26.9

4 24.3
4 34.1
4 34.3
4 30.1

19.5
20.0
21.0
21.0

1.12
1.53
1.46
1.28

.80
.59
.62
.70

4. 72
4. 53
4. 55
4. 63

Total.............

2,522

4 2,825

94.0

26.8

4 30.1

20.2

1.33 41.49

.68

4. 60

No. 3 (A pril)«.

496
804
727
507
357

4 555
4 900
4814
4 568
4 400

19.5
32.0
23.5
13.5
15.5

25.4
25.1
30.9
37.6
23.0

4 28.5
4 28.1
4 34.6
4 42.1
4 25.8

20.0
20.0
20.0
19.2
20.0

1.27
1.26
1.54
1.96
1.15

41.42
41.41
41.73
4 2.19
41.29

.71
.71
.58
.46
.78

4.63
4.64
4. 52
4. 41
4. 70

No. 2 (M arch)«

41.25
41.71
41.63
41.43

Total...........

2,891

4 3,237

104.0

27.8

4 31.1

19.9

1.39 41.56

.65

4 58
.

No. 4 (M a y )..

700

4 784

22.5

31.1

4 34.8

20.4

1.53 41.71

.59

4. 53

No. 5 (July) 5_

250
925
820

4 280
4 1,036
4 918

7.5
26.0
20.0

33.3
35.6
41.0

4 37.3
439.9
4 45.9

21.3
21.4
21.7

1.56 41.75
1.67 41.87
1.89 4 2.12

.58
.54
.48

'*.51
4. 48
4. 42

Total...........
No. 6 (August)____
No. 7 (September).

1,995

4 2,234

53.5

37.3

441.7

21.5

1.74 4 1.95

.52

4. 46

1,531
392

41,715
4 439

50.5
13.5

30.3
29.0

4 34.0
4 32. 5

20.3
20.5

1.50 41.68
1.42 4 1.59

.60
.63

4. 54
4. 57

14,174

415,875

375.3

37.8

442. 3

17.5

2.16 4 2.41 $0.42 4$0.37

O re

Line No. 33:
Total, 10 ships........

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1(April): Ore (sacks).
No. 2 (May): Ore (sacks).

1,475
1,397

41,652
«1 ,565

25.5
26.5

57.8
52.7

464.8
4 59.1

19.7
19.4

2.92 *3.28 $0.31 4$0.27
2.72 *3.05
.33
4. 30

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Ore (bulk and sacks).

902
1,163

41,010
41,303

24.0
45.5

37.6
25.6

4 42.1
4 28.6

18.3
18.0

2.05 *2.30 $0.44 4$0.39
1.42 *1.59
.63
4 57
.

Total.....................

2,065

4 2,313

69.5

29.7

433.3

18.1

1.64 41.84

.55

4 49
.

No. 4 (April): Ore (sacks).

506

4 567

16.0

31.6

435.4

19.0

1.67 41.87

.54

4 48
.

4 Short tons.
5 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




177

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)
T a b l e 3 3 .— PR O D U C TIV ITY

OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL
COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

O re— Continued

No. 5 (August):
Ore (sacks) ............

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons
ton nue
ton
Output per
gang-hour

Ships with average efficiency

1,465
1,204

41,641
41,348

32.5
35.0

45.1
34.4

4 50.5
4 38.5

18.2
18.3

2.48 42.78 $0.36 4$0.32
1.88 42.11
.48
4.43

2,669

4 2,989

67.5

39.5

444.3

18.2

2.17 4 2.43

.41

4. 37

Ore (sacks)...............

185
267
184
61

4 207
4 299
4 206
4 68

8.0
8.0
5.5
1.5

23.1
33.4
33.4
40.7

4 25.9
4 37.4
4 37.5
445.5

14.0
14.0
14.0
20.0

1.65
2.38
2.39
2.03

4 1.85
42.67
4 2.68
4 2.27

.55
.38
.38
.44

4.49
4.34
4. 34
4.40

Total.....................

697

4 780

23.0

30.3

4 33.9

14.4

2.11

4 2.36

.43

4.38

4176,986 4,548.0

34.7

438.9

18.8

1.85 4 2.07 $9.49 4$0.43

Total.....................
No. 6 (January):
Ore (bulk)8
....... ......

P ineapple , C a n n e d

Line No. 34:
Total, 63 ships................ 158,027

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January).............
No. 2 (July)........ ...........

1,396
5,218

41,564
45,844

26.5
113.0

52.7
46.2

459.0
451.7

17.0
20.0

3.09 43.46 $0.29 4$0.26
2.30 42.58
.39 4.35

Ships with m in im um efficiency

No. 3 (August)________
No. 4 (October)_______

4,919
2,694

45,509
4 3,017

170.0
90.0

28.9
29.9

432.4
433.5

20.4
20.2

1.42 4 1.59 $0.63 4$0.57
1.48 4 1.66
<.54
.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay)._...............
No. 6 (November).........

1,481
2,637

41,659
42,954

41.0
72.5

36.1
36.4

440.5
440.7

19.6
19.7

1.85 4 2.07 $0.49 4$0.43
1.85 4 2.07
.49
4.43

Labor productivity and coat, by months

January, 5 ships—
February, 4 ships..
March, 5 ships___
April, 4 ships____
May, 5 ships.........
June, 5 ships.........
July, 6 ships_____
August, 7 ships—
September, 7 ships
October, 5 ships..November, 5 ships.
December, 5 ships.

10,073
9,913
6,194
4,870
9,211
11,993
19,445
29,540
22,572
12,653
10,990
11,293

411,282
410,296
4 6,937
45,461
410,317
413,533
4 21,778
433,085
4 25,281
414,059
412,309
412,648

264.0
247.0
168.0
137.0
251.0
336.0
502.0
871.0
720.0
389.0
326.0
337.0

38.2
37.2
36.9
35.5
36.7
35.7
38.7
33.9
31.4
32.5
33.7
33.5

442.7
441.7
441.3
4 39.9
441.1
440.3
443.4
4 38.0
4 35.1
436.1
437.8
437.5

4 Short tons.
•Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




19.0
19.2
17.6
17.6
18.8
19.1
18.3
19.9
19.7
20.1
18.1
15.5

2.01
1.94
2.10
2.11
1.95
1.87
2.11
1.88
1.59
1.61
1.83
1.74

4 2.25 $0.45 4$0.40
4.41
4 2.17
.46
4 2.35
.43
4.38
4 2.37
.43
4.38
4.41
4 2.19
.46
4 2.11
.48
4.43
4 2.37
.43
4.38
4 2.10
.48
4.43
4 1.78
.57
4. 51
4 1.79
.56
4.50
4 2.04
4.44
.49
41.94
.52
4.46

178

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 22.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons
ton
tons gang tons tons ton

R a w S u g ar

Line No. 35:
Total, 103 ships.

502,426 68,916,404 5,305.0

94.7 61,681.0

21.0

4.51 6 80.10 $0.20 7$1.12

Skips with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (M ay)___
No. 2 (October) .

10,939
3,306

« 195,692
6 57,492

92.0 118.9 62,127.1
29.0 114.0 61,982.4

21.0
21.0

5.66 6101.30 $0.16 7 $0.8!
5.43 694.40
.17

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April).
No. 4 (M ay)..

2,938
8,182

6 52,656
6 146,226

43.0
124.0

68.3 61,224.5
66.0 61,179.2

21.0
21.0

3.25 6 58.30 $0.28 7$1.54
3.14 6 56.20
.29 7 7.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Feburary).
No. 6 (July)_____

3,113
1,901

6 55,668
« 34,186

33.0
20.0

94.3 61,686.9
95.1 61,709.2

21.0
21.0

4.49 680.30 $0.20 7$1. 12
4.53 6 81.40
.20 7 1.11

Labor productivity and cost, by months

December (1925), 6 ships___
January, 10 ships----------February, 9 ships_______
March, 11 ships________
April, 12 ships--------------May, 12 ships...................
June, 12 ships__________
July, 6 ships___________
August, 6 ships-------------September, 7 ships______
October, 8 ships________
November, 4 ships______
Line No. 36:
Total, 53 ships—........

17,973
53,479
56,796
67,291
68,823
65,387
66,215
18,045
16,815
29,179
28,449
13,974

6 320,841
6 895,734
6 1,014,865
6 1,204,856
6 1,230,336
6 1,169,011
6 1,182, 208
6 322,416
6 299,785
« 518,435
e 507,435
6 250,482

209.0 86.0 61,535.0
588.0 91.0 61,523.0
587.0 96.8 61,729.0
690.0 97.5 61,746.0
754.0 91.3 61,632.0
730.0 89.6 61,601.0
687.0 96.4 61,721.0
184.0 98.1 61,752.0
172.0 97.8 61,743.0
290.0 100.6 61,788.0
278.0 102.3 61,825.0
136.0 102.8 61,842.0

221,641 64,095,418 3,724.0

59.5 61,100.0

6 75.00 $0.22 7$1.20
.21 71.24
6 72.50
6 82.30
.20 71.09
6 83.20 .19 71.08
6 77.70
.21 7 1.16
.21 7 1.18
6 76.30
6 81.90
.20 7 1.10
6 83.40
.19 7 1.08
6 83.00
.19 7 1.08
685.10
.19 71.06
686.90
.18 7 1.04
6 88.00
.18 7 1.02

21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0

4.10
4.33
4.61
4.65
4.35
4.27
4.59
4.67
4.66
4.79
4.87
4.91

26.6

2.24 641.30 $0.40 7$2.18

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April).
No. 2 (June)..

4,672
1,010

6 82,821
6 18,052

72.0 64.89 61,150.2
13.5 74.73 61,337.3

25.0
27.0

2.82 650.00 $0.32 ’$1.80
.32 7 1.82
2.77 649.50

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (June) —
No. 4 (March).

1,295
1,985

6 23,259
6 38,074

30.0 43.12 6 775.2
43.0 46.07 6 885.3

30.0
30.0

1.44 625.80 $0.63 7$3.49
1.54 629.50
.58 7 3.05

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)—.
No. 6 (September) .




6 Bags.

3,229
4,266

6 56,969
6 76,448

53.0 60.99 61,074.9
71.0 60.03 61,076.8

7 Per 100 bags.

27.0
27.0

i
!
2.26 639.80 $0.40 7$2.26
2.22 639.90
.41 7 2.26

179

SAN FRANCISCO (1926)

T a b l e 22.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN HAN DLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

R a w S u gar— Continued
Line No. 36—Continued.
January, 2 ships....................
February, 7 ships...... ...........
March, 5 ships......................
April, 7 ships.........................
May, 6 ships.........................
June, 6 ships.........................
July, 5 ships...... ....................
August, 6 ships.....................
September, 4 ships................
October, 3 ships....................
November, 2 ships................

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang
nue
tons
tons tons ton nue
tons
ton
Labor productivity and cost, by months

7,005
36,186
19,744
40,998
30,402
19,472
18,082
21,376
10,465
11,190
6.721

«140,353
« 676,390
« 368,221
« 763,625
« 582,726
« 348,706
« 324,846
«381,815
« 187,029
« 200,741
« 120,966

27.0
27.6
25.9
25.1
26.4
27.6
26.0
27.2
26.5
25.9
33.0

9 825.2

16.8

1.86 949.10 $0.48 1$1.83
0

8.0 32.75 9 875.0

17.0
17.0
17.0

1.93 951.50
1.76 946.70
1.72 945.60

111

49.3
38.9
59.6
54.2
58.7

66.2
66.5
65.2
61.6
59.8
60.5

«981

636.40 $0.50 7$2.47
639.90 .4? 72.26
643.00 .39 7 2.09
640.20 .41 72.24
642.60 .40 7 2.11
643.00 .37 7 2.09
645.80 .36 7 1.97
642.70 .38 7 2.11
641.60 .39 7 2.16

6 1,101
6 1,112
6 1,010
6 1,125
6 1,186
6 1,194
6 1,164
6 1,100
6 1,073
6 1,090

143
614
331
756
518
294
272
328
170
187

1.81
2.13
2.30
2.16

2.22

2.40
2.55
2.39
2.33
2.31 642.90
1.84 633.20

.39 7 2.10
.49 7 2.71

Loading cargo
C a se Oi l 8

Line No. 37: 5
Total, 3 ships___

236.0 31.2

7,372

®194,739

No. 1 (March) .

262
448
117

9 7,000
#11,898
93,102

15.0 29.87 9 793.2
4.0 29.25 9 775.5

.47
1.75
.51 w 1.93
.52 io 1.97

Total..........

827

9 22,000

27.0 30.63 9814.8

17.0

1.80 947.90

.50 1 1.88
°

No. 2 (June).

675
537
700

9 18,000
914,300
918,625

24.0 28.13 9 750.0
15.5 34.65 9922.6
24.0 29.17 9 776.0

17.0
17.0
17.0

1.65 944.10
2.04 954.30
1.72 945.70

0
.55 1 2.04
.44 101.66
.52 io 1.97

Total.........

1,912

9 50,925

63.5 30.11 9802.0

No. 3 (July).

535
735
795
538
1,355
675

»14,800
919,560
918, 507
9 14,856
9 36,093
9 17,998

18.0
31.5
27.5
16.5
37.0
15.0

4,633

9 121,814

Total------------

17.0

1.77 947.20

.51 io 1.91

9 822.2
9 621.0
9 673.0
9900.4
9975.5
91,199.9

17.0
17.0
16.0
16.0
17.0
17.0

1.75
1.37
1.81
2.04
2.15
2.65

.50
.44
.42
.34

145.5 31.84 9 837.2

16.7

1.91 950.10

18.0

1.69 41.89 $0.53 4$0.48

29.72
23.33
28.91
32.61
36.62
45.00

948.40
936.50
942.10
956.30
957.40
970.60

.51 io 1.86
.66 1 2.47
0
io 2.14
io 1.60
io 1.57
io 1.27
.47 io 1.80

Copper

Line No. 38:
Total, 12 ships..

12,216

* 13,682 1 400.7

30.5

434.1

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April)....
No. 2 (August).

1,344
937

4 1,505

41,050

38.5
26.2

35.0
35.8

439.2
440.1

18.0
18.0

1.94 42.18 $0.46 <$0.41
1.99 42.23
.45
4.40

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)_________
No. 4 (May) .................

627
932

4702
41,044

25.9
38.1

24.3 1 427.2
24.4 | 427.4

18.0
18.0

1.35 41.51 $0.67 4$0.60
1.36 4 1.52
.66 4.59

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)..........
No. 6 (September)-

4 1,018
1,121

41,255

30.4
30.9

27.0
30.7

433.5
434.4

4Short tons.
5 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
6Bags.




18.0
18.0

1.66 41.86 $0.54 <$0.48

1.71

41.91

8 Samples.
9 Cases.

.53

10 Per 100 cases.

4.47

Los Angeles (1926)
T a b le 2 3 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO, B Y

KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN DIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Ganghours

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Foreign trade1

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1............................
No. 2............................
No. 3............................
No. 4............................
Latin America—
No. 5.................. - ........
No. 6............................
No. 7............................
Orient—No. 8.....................
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 9............................
No. 10...........................
No. 11...........................
Latin America—No. 12—
Orient—
No. 13...........................
No. 14...........................
No. 15...........................

9,364
7,856
20,283
4,069

10,488
18,828
23,753
4,932

725.8
462.9
1,448.0
416.2

12.9
17.0
14.0
9.8

14.5
19.1
16.4
11.9

12.0
19.1
18.0
19.0

1.08
.90
.78
.51

1.20 $0.83
1.01 1.00
.91 1.15
.62 1.76

16,341
8,861
11,610
16,192

18,301
9,925
13,000
20,912

579.0
310.7
1,295.0
1,243.0

28.2
28.5
9.0
13.0

31.6
31.9
10.0
16.8

18.7
24.0
13.7
20.6

1.51
1.19
.65
.63

1.69
1.33
.73
.82

.60
.76
1.38
1.43

.53
.68
1.23
1.10

9,984
8,328
19,910
5,090

13,460
13,436
24,170
5,700

473.5
564.8
1,420.8
460.0

21.1
14.7
14.0
11.1

28.4
23.8
17.0
12.4

19.0
18.0
18.0
13.0

1.11
.82
.78
.85

1.50
1.32
.94
.95

.81
1.10
1.15
1.06

.60
.68
.96
.95

16,228
12,576
10,231

30,660
17,672
12,981

861.0
578.2
531.9

18.8
21.8
19.2

35.6
30.6
24.4

20.0
19.0
19.0

.94
1.14
1.01

1.78
1.61
1.29

.96
.79
.89

.51
.56
.70

$0.75
.89
.99
1.45

Intercoastal trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 16.................................
No. 17.................................
No. 18................................
No. 19.................................
No. 20.................................
Loading cargo:
No. 21.................................
No. 22.................................

264,558
2124,138
250,269
2195,238
2 29,437

2,383.5
6,469.0
3,908.6
12,402.0
2,527.0

62,324 2 69,803
42,221 247,288

2,951.0
2,402.9

57,646
110,834
44,881
174,352
26,280

227.1
219.2
212.9
215.7
211.6

17.7
17.9
12.0
17.0
12.8

1.37 31.53 $0.66 2$0.59
.96 21.07
.94 2.84
.96 21.07
.94 2.84
.83 2.93 1.08 2.97
.82 2.91 1.10 2.99

21.1 223.7
17.6 219.7

20.4
19.0

1.03 21. 16
.92 21.03

24.2
17.1
11.5
14.1
10.4

.87
.98

2.78
2.87

Coastwise trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 23 .............................
Loading cargo:
No. 24.................................

2224,415 3145,660.0
2 61,443

21.54

2$0.58

21.39

344,073.0

2.65

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Lumber—
No. 25.........................
No. 26.........................
No. 27.........................
No. 28.........................
No. 29..........................
9,118
Nitrate of soda—No. 3 0 Newsprint paper—No. 31- 14,812
Pipe—
8,637
No. 32.....................
6,946
No. 33......................
* Wage rate: 90 cents per hour.

180




4 31,834
4 40,548
428,985
438,807
423,704
10,211
16,587

1,018.0
1,650.0
914.0
1,616.0
953.0
235.6
491.2

431.3
424.6
431.7
424.0
424.9
38.7 43.3
30.2 33.8

16.0
12.7
16.7
14.1
15.7
24.0
18.0

41.95
<$0.46
41.94
4.46
41.90
4 .47
41.71
4.53
41 58
4.57
1.61 1.81 $0.56
.50
1.67 1.88
.54
.48

29,670
7,779

372.0
356.0

23.2 226.0
19.5 21.9

12.0
12.0

1.93 22.17
1.63 1.83

2 Short tons.

3 Man-hours.

.47
.55

41,000 board feet.

2.41
.49

181

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b l e 24.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L ine N o. 1 1
Total, 7 ships.________. . . . _____ 9,364
No. 1 (February):
Pipe___ _____ _____________
Chemicals_________________
General cargo______________

606
526

Total____________________ 1,132
No. 4 (March):
Pipe........................................
General cargo_____________
Total___ ___, ______ ^
No. 5 (June):
Pipe.........................................
Coke._________ ___________
General cargo______________

725.8

12.9

14.5

12.0

1.08

1.20 $0.83

1,404

92.4

13.6

15.2

12.0

1.13

1.27

.80

.71

13.7

15.3

12.0

1.14

1.28

.79

.70

.32

.29

$0.75

903
644
358

Total____________________ 1,905
No. 3 (March):
Pipe.........................................
Chemicals_________________

10,488

961
268
25

Total.................................... 1,254
No. 2 (March):
Steel....... ...... ......... ................
Pipe.........................................
General cargo______________

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
per—
hour
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton
Output
per ganghour

2,134

138.9

_
1,268

34.0

33.4

37.4

12.0

3.78

935

49.0

17.0

19.0

12.0

1.42

1.59

.63

.57

1,120

85.1

11.8

13.2

12.0

.98

1.10

.92

.82

2,239

261.6

7.7

8.6

12.0

.64

.72

1.41

1.25

3.11

783
52
835
505
451
44

Total.................................... 1,000
No. 6 (July):
Steel___________ . __________ 1,220
Pipe.........................................
299
General cargo._____________
480
Total_____ _______ _______ 1,999
No. 7 (December):
Pipe______________________
Potash____________ ________

767
472

Total..... .................

1,239

1,388

64.8

19.1

21.4

12.0

1.59

1.78

.57

.51

L ine N o. 2
Total, 13 ships____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,856

2 8,828

462.9

17.0

19.1

19.1

0.90

1.01 $1.00

$0.89

$0.62

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Pipe............./ . _____________
General cargo__________ ___

193
75

216
84

268

300

497
259
169
191

557
290
189
232

Total.................................... 1,116

1,268

Total___ _______ ______ _
No. 2 (February):
Stone___ ____ ______ _______
Pipe and steel_____ ________
Glass.......................................
General cargo..........................

10.8

24.7

27.7

19.0

1.30

1.46 $0.69

49.6

23.2

26.4

19.0

1.22

1.39

.74

.65

* Most of cargo discharged directly to railroad cars.
2 Principal commodities: Pipe iron and steel 2,633 short or revenue tons; window and plate glass,
1,104 short or revenue tons.




182

GENERAL TABLES

TABLE 2 4 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—C ontinued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Total............................... .
No. 4 (March):
General cargo______________

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L ine N o . 2—Continued
No. 3 (July):
Window and plate glass.........
Bananas___________________
General cargo______________

Output
per ganghour

246
98
87

276
110
96

431

482

37.9

11.4

12.7

19.0

0.60

392

429

29.6

13.3

14.4

19.0

.70

0.67 $1.50
.76

$1.34

1.29

1.18

0.96 $1.05

$0.94

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Sugar_________—__________
Bags______________________
General cargo..____________

229
123
337

256
138
378

Total....................................

689

772

No. 6 (April):
Pipe and steel______________
Window glass_____ _________
General cargo______________

441
104
144

494
116
161

Total....................................

689

771

42.2

16.3

18.2

19.0

0.86

38.4

18.1

20.1

19.0

.95

Total, 29 ships_________________ 20,283 3 23,753 1,448.0

14.0

16.4

18.0

0.78

1.06

.95

.85

0.91 $1.15

$0.99

$0.50

L ine N o. 3

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (August):
Bananas______ ____________
Pig iro n __________________
General cargo______________

159
100
331

178
112
440

Total...................................

590

730

No. 2 (October):
Pig iro n __________________
General cargo______________

297
382
679

815

25.7

32.6

18.0

1.46

1.81 $0.62

25.0

27.0

32.4

18.0

1.50

1.80

333
482

Total_______________ ____

23.0

.60

.50

0.49 $2.05

$1.84

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Bananas___________________
General cargo______________

75
115

84
130

Total................... ...............

190

214

No. 4 (December):
Bananas__________ ___ __ _
General cargo______________

135
243

151
272

Total____________________

378

423

24.0

45.0

7.9

8.4

8.8

.94

18.0

0.44

18.0

.47

.52

1.91

1.73

3 Principal commodities: Coke, 2,770 revenue tons; cement, 1,836 revenue tons; pig iron, 1,652 revenue
tons; bananas, 689 revenue tons.




183

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T abu s * 4 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

L ine N o. 3—Continued

i

Output
per ganghour

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton
ton
Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay):
Coke........................................
498
Pig iron...................................
200
General cargo.......................... 1,157

558
224
1,351

Total ___________________ 1,855

2,133

135.0

13.7

15.8

18.0

0.76

278

17.5

14.1

15.9

18.0

.78

* 4,932

416.2

9.8

11.9

19.0

0.51

No. 6 (July):
Bananas..................................
General cargo...................... ...

52
195
247

Total, 11 ships_________________ 4,069

$1.02

60
218

Total____________________

0.88 $1.18

.88

1.15

1.02

0.62 $1.76

$1.45

0.82 $1.27

$1.10

Line No. 4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Bananas..................................
General cargo..........................

215
360

241
425

Total____________________

575

666

No. 2 (March):
Bananas___________________
General cargo..........................

277
270

310
360

Total____________ . . . . _--

547

670

42.6

13.5

15.6

19.0

0.71

49.3

11.0

13.7

19.0

.58

.72

1.55

1.25

0.50 $2.37

$1.80

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

1

No. 3 (October):
Bananas..................................
General cargo..........................

173
70

204
116

Total_________________ _
_

243

320

32.9

7.2

9.5

19.0

0.38

161

181

20.7

7.8

8.7

19.0

.41

No. 4 (June): Bananas........... .

.46

2.20

1.96

0.64 $1.70

$1.41

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November):
Bananas___________________
General cargo..........................
Total_________________ _

320
60

358
99

380

457

No. 6 (December):
Bananas___________________
General cargo______________

273
85
358

442

10.1

12.2

19.0

0.53

39.1

9.1

11.2

19.0

.48

306
136

T otal-.................... ............

37.7

4 Principal commodity: Bananas, 2,803 short or revenue tons.




.59

1.88

1.53

184

GENERAL TABLES

T able 34 —P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E-Continued

Discharging cargo: Latin America
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

16,341

s 18,301

Average
Output
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
per—
hour
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

L ine No. 5

Total, 12 ships____ ___________

579.0

28.2

31.6

18.7

1.51

1.69 $0.60

$0.53

$0.29

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Coffee......................................
Linseed...................................
General cargo.........................

688
701
944

659
785
1,057

Total........... ................... _

2,233

2,501

48.0

46.5

52.1

17.0

2.73

3.06 $0.33

No. 2 (April):
Coffee and cocoa.............. ......
853
Fertilizer and bones............... 1,156

955
1,295

24.0
32.0

35.5
36.2

39.8
40.5

22.0
17.0

1.62
2.12

1.81
2.38

.56
.42

.50
.38

Total. .......... ..................... 2,009

2,250

56.0

35.9

40.2

19.1

1.87

2.10

.48

.49

$0.92

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (October):
Coffee......................................
General cargo'.____________

487
514
26

645
576
29

T o ta l........................ ........

1,027

1,150

Fertilizer and bones__________

65.0

15.8

17.7

18.0

0.87

0.98 $1.03

No. 4 (January):
Coffee.....................................
512
20.5
573
________ Fertilizer and bones29.0
636
567

25.0
19.6

28.0
21.9

22.0
18.0

1.13
1.09

1.27
1.22

.80
.83

.71
.74

21.8

24.4

19.7

1.11

1.24

.81

.73

$0.82
.41

Total ................................

1,079

1,209

49.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 6 (March):
Coffee and cocoa....................
Asphalt__________________
General cargo____________

4

632
518
535

596
580 }
599

23.5
31.5

22.7
33.4

25.4
37.4

23.0
17.0

0.98
1.96

1.10 $0.92
.46
2.20

55.0

28.8

32.3

19.6

1.47

1.65

.61

.55

1,585

1,775

487
817

545
915

1,304

1,460

46.5

28.0

31.4

18.0

1.55

1.74

.58

.52

Total, 92 ships_________________ 8,861

6 9,925

310.7

28.5

31.9

24.0

1.19

1.33 $0.76

$0.68

1.94 $0.52
.62
1.63

$0.46
.55

Total..................................
No. 6 (December):
Coffee .
Fertilizer
Total............................... .
L ine No. 6

Ships with m aximum efficiency

653
No. 1 (January): Nitrate of soda..
1,022
No. 2 (July): Nitrate of soda.

731
1,145

15.7
29.2

44.5
35.0

46.6
39.1

24.0
24.0

1.73
1.46

5 Principal commodities: Coffee and cocoa, 6,672 short or revenue tons; fertilizer and bones, 6,668 short
or revenue tons.
6 Principal commodities: Nitrate of soda, 6,938 long tons or 6,650 revenue tons; fertilizers, 2,402 long tons
or 2,691 revenue tons.




185

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T able 24.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
per ganghour

Output
Average
Aver­ per manla oor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with m inim u m efficiency

L in e N o . 6— Continued

No. 3 (October):
Fertilizer-......................... ......
General cargo.........................

282
218

T o ta l--......................

500

561

21.3

23.5

26.4

24.0

0.98

1.10 $0.92

No. 4 (February): Nitrate of soda„ 1,468

1,644

57.1

25.7

28.8

24.0

1.07

1.20

316
245
$0.82

.84

.75

Ships with average efficiency

N o. 5 (M ay): Nitrate of soda ..
No. 6 (November): Fertilizer.......

845
845

946
947

29.2
30.5

28.8
27.6

32.4
31.0

24.0
24.0

1.20
1.15

1.35 $0.75
.78

$0.67
.70

1,295.0

9.0

10.0

13.7

0.65

0.73 $1.38

$1.23

1.10 $0.92

$0.82

1.29

L in e N o . 7

Total, 18 ships___________ _____ 11,610

13,000

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November): General car­
go__________________________
No. 2 (April):
Coffee_______________ _____
Bananas__________________
Total___________________

470

526

159

293

13.4

15.0

13.7

0.98

20.0

13.1

14.7

15.1

.87

178

262

35.0

103

115
.97

1.03

.93

0.51 $1.96

$1.76

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April):
Pipe.......................................
General cargo______________

447
528

500
592

Total....................................

975

1,092

165.0

5.9

6.6

13.1

0.46

No. 4 (December): General car­
go_________________ ______

261

292

44.0

5.9

6.6

11.7

.51

.57

1. 76

1.58

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February): General cargo.
No. 6 (July): General cargo.____

878

653

983
731

114.0
55.0

7.7
11.9

8.6
13.3

12.2
17.6

0.63
.67

0.71 $1.43
.75 1.34

$1.27
1.20

20.6

0.63

0.82 $1.43

$1.10

1.15 $0.98
.99
1.13

$0.78
.80

Discharging cargo: Orient
L ine No. 8

Total, 22 ships............................... 716,192

20,912 1,243.0

13.0

16.8

Ships with maximum efficiency

904
No. 1 (August).............................
No. 2 (September)........................ 1,109

1,140
1,375

47.0
62.0

19.2
17.9

24.3
22.2

21.0
19.7

0.92
.91

7 Principal commodities: Canned pineapple, 7,310 long tons; refined sugar, 5,340 long tons.

66490°—32------13



186

GENERAL TABLES

T able 34.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 8—Continued
No. 3 (October)______ _________
452
282
......... ............... ...... No. 795 ay) 971
4 (M

50.0
78.0

5.6
10.2

9.0
12.4

21.2
22.0

0.27
.46

0.43 $3.33
.56 1.96

$2.09
1.01

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)..................... .........
No. 6 (November)___________

999
555

1,260
802

73.0
45.0

13.7
12.3

17.3
17.8

21.3
22.4

0 64
.55

0.81 $1.41
.79 1.64

$1.11
1.14

19.0

1.11

1.50 $0.81

$0.60

$0.33

Loading cargo: Europe
L ine N o. 9
Total, 12 ships_________________ *9,984 8 13,460

473.5

21.1

28.4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Cotton.
General cargo__

107

51

269
57

Total______________ _____

158

326

No. 2 (December):
Cotton____________ ________
General cargo__

689
41

1,738
.48

730

1,786

Total................................

6.3

25.1

51.7

19.0

1.32

2.72 $0.68

38.2

19.2

46.7

19.0

1.01

2.46

.89

.37

1.12 $0.90

$0.80

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Copper__________________
Canned fish _
General cargo___ ____
T o ta l...._________ _______
No. 4 (September):
Copper__________________
General cargo______ _ „
Total—
___ ______________

487
118
333

546
132
371

938

1,049

375
202

420
306

577

726

49.4

19.0

21.3

19.0

1.00

30.7

18.8

23.6

19.0

.99

1.24

.91

.73

1.45 $0.69

$0.62

.94

.58

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Copper____________________
General cargo______________

539
102

604
114

Total____ ___ ____ _______

641

718

No. 6 (November):
Cotton___ _____________
Copper_____ ______________
Canned fish________________
General cargo_________

305
434
158
47
944

1,504

24.7

27.6

19.0

1.30

51.5

18.2

29.3

19.0

.96

770
487
177
70

Total........... ........................

26.0

1.54

8Principal commodities: Copper and concentrates, 3,541 long tons or 3,969 revenue tons; cotton, 1,508
long tons or 3,803 revenue tons; cottonseed meal, 2,589 long tons, or 2,800 revenue tons.




187

LOS ANGELES (1926)
T

able

2 4 . — P R O D U C TIV ITY

OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
per—
hour
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

L in e No. 10

Total, 18 ships....... ...................... 8,328 913,436

564.8

14.7

23.8

18.0

0.82

1.32 $1.10

$0.68

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Cotton
.............. .
General cargo______________

271
64

591
87

Total _____ _____________

335

678

403
202
204

992
225
253

809

1,470

No. 2 (June):
Cottonseed rrie.al
General cargo,
T o ta l--.............................. -

17.9

18.7

37.8

18.0

1.04

2.10 $0.87

$0.43

43.4

18.7

33.8

18.0

1.04

1.88

.87

.48

0.80 $1.70

$1.13

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Oranges________________ General cargo______________

214
409

364
581

Total____________________

623

945

65.2

9.5

14.4

18.0

0.53

No. 4 (December): General cargo.

217

220

14.0

15.5

15.8

18.0

.86

.88

1.05

1.02

1.31 $0.87

$0.69

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Canned goods........ .. .......
General cargo______________
Total____________ _____
No. 6 (December): General cargo.

313
47

350
110

360

460

19.4

18.5

23.1

18.0

1.03

263

449

19.5

13.5

23.0

18.0

.75

19,910 io 24,170 1,420. 8

14.0

17.0

18.0

0.78

1.28

1.20

.70

0.94 $1.15

$0.96

L ine No. 11

Total, 28 ships_____________

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Cotton____________________
Borax_________ ____ _______
Oranges......... ................. ......
General cargo__________ ___

470
186
102
176

526
208
114
199

T o ta l................. ................

934

1,047

No. 2 (August):
C ottonseed meal.................
General cargo...................... .

1,004
35

1,124
40

Total___________ ____ ___

1,039

1,164

39.4

23.8

26.6

18.0

1.32

1.48 $0.68

$0.61

47.9

21.6

24.3

18.0

1.20

1.35

.75

.67

fl Principal commodities: Cotton, 1,866 long tons or 4,297 revenue tons; oranges, 1,908 long tons or 3,299
revenue tons.
1 Principal commodities: Cotton, 6,444 long tons or 7,218 revenue tons; oranges, 4,346 long tons or 6,470
0
revenue tons; borax, 1,992 long tons or 2,230 revenue tons.




188

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 24.—PR O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

L ine N o . 11—Continued

Average
Output
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October):
Cotton.....................................
General cargo..........................

202
218

226
270

Total____________________

420

496

No. 4 (April):
Cotton.....................................
Oranges...................................
Borax.......................................
General cargo..........................

321
121
108
159

360
175
121
190

Total....................................

709

846

41.7

10.1

11.9

18.0

0.56

68.6

10.3

12.4

18.0

.57

0.66 $1.61

.69

$1.36

1.58

1.30

0.94 $1.18

$0.96

Skips with average efficiency

No. 5 (May)
Oranges___________________
Borax...................................
Cotton.....................................
Hides.......................................
General cargo..........................

318
164
149
144
56

450
184
167
161
62

Total____________________

831

1,024

No. 6 (August):
Oranges___________________
Cottonseed meal.....................
General cargo..........................

757
750
49

1,087
840
57

Total___ ____ ____________ 1,556

1,984

60.8

13.7

16.9

18.0

0.76

119.0

13.1

16.7

18.0

.73

13.0

0.85

.93

1.23

.97

0.95 $1.06

$0.95

1.43 $0.70
1.15
.87

$0.63
.78

0.60 $1.67
.69 1.45

$1.50
1.30

0.97 $1.09
.97 1.03

$0.93
.93

Loading cargo: Latin America
Line N o. 12

Total, 13 ships_________________ 5,090

5,700

460.0

11.1

12.4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (July)...................................
No. 2 (January)........................... -

405
587

454
658

24.0
43.0

16.9
13.7

18.9
15.3

13.3
13.3

1.28
1.03

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 ( ____
No. 4 (March).

308
495

345
554

38.0
62.0

8.1
7.9

9.1
8.9

15.2
13.0

0.54
.62

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)____________ ______
No. 6 (December)— __ . . . ______




295
371

330
416

27.0
35.0

10.9
10.6

12.2
11.9

12.6
12.2

0.87
.87

189

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b l e 3 4 .— P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COSTS IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Orient
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output
Aver­
labor cost
per manage
per—
hour
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

L in e N o. 13

Total, 22 sh ip s..._____ _________ 16,228

30,660

861.0

18.8

35.6

20.0

0.94

1.78 $0.96

$0.51

2.54 $0.95
2.53
.69

$0.35
.36

1.02 $2.00
1.14 1.32

$0.88
.79

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November)_____________
No. 2 (October)________________;

558
778

1,497
1,500

29.0
28.0

19.2
27.8

51.6
53.6

20.3
21.2

0.95
1.31

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September)_____________
No. 4 (February)_______________

545
548

1,245
912

62.0
37.0

8.8
14.8

20.1
24.6

19.7
21.7

0.45
0.68

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December)______________

729
1,433
43.0 17.0 33.3
No. 6 (April)..................................
858
1,520
41.0 20.9 37.1

18.7
20.7

0.91
1.01

1.78 $0.99
.89
1.79

$0.51
.50

19.0

1.14

1.61 $0.79

$0.56

$0.40

Lin e N o. 14

Total, 11 ships_________________ 12,576 ii 17,672

578.2

21.8

30.6

Ships w ith m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (September):
Case oil_______
General cargo______________

1,110
83

1,549
91

Total____________________ 1,193

1,640

No. 2 (September):
Case oil.
_____________
General cargo___________ _

1,247
236

2,052

31.4

42.9

19.0

1.65

2.26 $0.55

57.0

26.0

36.1

19.0

1.37

1.90

1,745
307

Total.................................... 1,483

38.1

.66

.47

1.20 $1.07

$0.75

.93

.64

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Case oil
_________ ___
Lubricating oil_____________
General cargo______________

570
257
71

800
410
78

Total....................................

898

1,288

No. 4 (May):
Case oil___________________
Lubricating oil_____________
General cargo_____ ________

964
501
130

1,350
813
143

Total..................................

1,595

2,306

56.5

16.0

22.8

19.0

0.84

86.3

18.4

26.8

19.0

.97

1.41

“ Principal commodities: Case oil, 9,461 long tons or 13,231 revenue tons; lubricating oil, 2,028 long tons
or 3,246 revenue tons.




190
T

able

GENERAL TABLES
3 4 .—

P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COSTS IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L

in e

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Output
per ganghour

Ships with average efficiency

N o. 14—Continued

No. 5 (December):
Case oil___________________
General cargo______________

284
89

398
98

Total____________________

373

496

1,400
856
344

1,950
1,370
157

Total.................................... 2,400

16.4

22.8

30.4

19.0

1.20

1.60 $0.75

3,477

113.2

21.3

30.8

19.0

1.12

1.62

Total, 15 ships_________________ 10,231 1212,981

531.9

19.2

24.4

19.0

1.01

1.29 $0.89 $0 .70

No. 6 (June):
Case oil___________________
T iiih rifta tin g o il

_ .

General cargo______________

L in e

.80

$0.56

.56

No. 15

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Cotton ________ •________
_
Copper. __________________
General cargo______________

425
212
109

1,071
237
163

Total.......................... .........

746

1,471

No. 2 (April):
Old newspapers____________
Soda ash___________________

453
136

507
152

Total....................................

589

659

39.2

19.0

37.6

19.0

1.00

1.98 $0.90

22.5

26.2

29.3

19.0

1.38

1.54

$0.45

.65

.58

0.99 $1.11

$0.91

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April):
Old newspapers____________
General cargo______________

454
154

509
228

Total...................................

608

737

No, 4 (August):
Old newspapers____________
General cargo______________

341
54
395

443

15.4

18.8

19.0

0.81

23.3

16.9

19.0

19.0

.89

382
61

Total....................................

39.4

1.00

1

1.01

.90

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November):
Ola newspapers____________
Cotton __________________
Soda ash.
__ __ __________
General cargo______________

402
93
140
281

450
235
157
330

Total_______________ ____

916

1,172

No. 6 (December):
Old newspapers
Cotton____________________
Soda ash__________________
General cargo___________ _

405
60
180
44

454
116
202
66

Total____ ______ _________

689

838

48.3

19.0

24.3

19.0

1.00

1.28 $0.90

$0.70

33.1

20.7

25.3

19.0

1.09

1.33

.83

.68

1 Principal commodity: Old newspapers, 6,314 long tons or 7,072 revenue tons.
2




191

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b l e 2 5 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

IN TERCOASTAL T R AD E

Discharging cargo

Ganghours

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons 1 gang tons tons i ton ton i

2,383.5

24.2

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons i

Lin e N o. 16

Total, 32 ships...........................

57,676 2 64,558

27.1

17.7

1.37

1.53 $0.66

$0.59

$0.36

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Pipe____________________ _
General cargo_____________
Total___________________

4,074
259
3,869

No. 2 (December):
Pipe ____________________
General cargo________- ____
Total

........................... —

4,333

94.0

41.2

46.1

18.7

2.21

2.47 $0.41

95.0

30.2

33.8

17.7

!. 7!

1.92

2,335
878
2,869

3,213

.53

.47

0.80 $1.27

$1.13

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (November):
Lumber__________________
General cargo_____________
Total___________________

228
239
417

No. 4 (December):
Pipe_____________________
General cargo_____________
Total___________________

467

36.0

11.6

13.0

16.3

0. 71

37.5

15.4

17.2

19.0

.81

366
278
575

644

.91

1.11

.99

1.37

1.53 $0.66

$0.59

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Pipe_____________________
General cargo_____________

1,492
853
2,094

24.9

27.9

2, 657

96.0

24.7

27.7

18.0

1.37

1.53

.66

.59

Total, 61 ships________________ 110,834 124,138

6,469.0

17.1

19.2

17.9

0.96

1.07 $0.94

$0.84

$0.79
.75
.62
.83
.76

Total..................................

2,345

18.2

84.0

Total___________________
No. 6 (May):
Pipe _________________ _
General cargo_____________

1,571
1,086
2,372

Lin e N o. 17

M onth with m aximum efficiency

October, 5 ships_______________

1,595
1,437
1,747
1,816
1,946

1,786
1,609
1,957
2,039
2,179

85.0
72.5
73.5
108.0
106.5

18.7
19.8
23.7
16.8
18.3

21.0
22.2
26.6
18.8
20.5

18.5
18.4
18.4
17.5
17.2

1.02
1.07
1.29
.96
1.06

1.14 $0.88
1.20
.84
1.45
.70
.94
1.08
.85
1.19

Total_________________ _

8,541

9,570

445.5

19.2

21.5

17.9

1.07

1.20

i Short tons.
* Principal commodity: Pipe, 41,390 short or revenue tons.




.84

.75

192

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 35.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L in e

Reve­
nue
tons1

No. 17—Continued

Ganghours

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons 1 gang tons tons i ton ton i

M onth with m in im u m efficiency

1,761
1,825
1,371
1,113
2,006

Total.

1,972
2,044
1,536
1,247
2,247

130.0
113.0
89.5
94.0
115.5

13.6
16.2
15.4
11.9
17.4

15.2
18.1
17.2
13.3
19.5

16.2
17.2
16.8
18.0
16.6

0.84
.94
.91
.66
1.04

8,076

February, 5 ships.....................

9,046

542.0

14.9

16.7

16.9

.88

0.94 $1.07
1.05
.96
1.02
.99
.74 1.36
.87
1.17
.99

$0.96
.86
.88
1.27
.77

1.02

.91

1.08 $0.94
1.08
.94
.92 1.10
1.14
.88
1.21
.83

$0.83
.83
.98
.79
.74

M onth with average efficiency

May, 5 ships..

Total.

2,524
1,951
2,661
1,653
2,143

2,827
2,185
2,980
1,851
2,400

152.5
116.5
169.5
88.0
113.0

16.5
16.8
15.7
18.7
18.9

18.5
18.8
17.6
21.0
21.2

17.2
17.5
19.2
18.4
17.5

0.96
.96
.82
1.02
1.08

. 10,932

12,243

639.5

17.1

19.1

18.0

.95

.

1.06

.95

.85

Other months

8,897
10,133
8,631
9,122
8,013
8,538
7,634
11,464
10,853

9,964
11,349
9,667
10,217
8.975
9,562
8, 551
12,840
12,154

498.0
670.5
533.0
491.0
456.0
471.0
426.5
684.5
611.5

17.9
15.1
16.2
18.6
17.6
18.1
17.9
16.7
17.7

20.0
16.9
18.1
20.8
19.7
20.3
20.0
18.8
19.9

17.2
17.2
18.0
19.3
18.6
17.8
18.1
18.1
18.1

1.04
.88
.90
.96
.95
1.02
.99
.93
.98

1.17 $0.87
.99 1.02
1.01 1.00
1.08
.94
1.06
.95
1.14
.88
1.11
.91
1.04
.97
1.10
.92

$0.77
.91
.89
.83
.85
.79
.81
.87
.82

44,881 3 50,269

January, 5 ships.............
March, 6 ships.............. .
April, 5 ships.................
June, 5 ships................ .
July, 5 ships...................
August, 5 ships............. .
September, 5 ships------November, 5 ships.........
December, 5 ships........ .

3,908.6

11.5

12.9

12.0

0.96

1.07 $0.94

$0.84

L in e N o . 18

Total, 38 ships.............. .

Ships with m atim um efficiency

No. 1 (Api*il):
Iron and steel..
General cargo..

1,087
399

1,218
446

1,486

1,664

No. 2 (May):
Iron and steel..
General cargo..

1,571
323

Total........... .

1,894

2,121

99.3

15.0

16.8

12.0

1.25

1.40 $0.72

$0.64

126.5

15.0

16.8

12.0

1.25

1.40

.72

.64

0.58 $1.73

$1.55

1.36

1.22

1, 760
361

Total........... .

.

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September):
Iron and steel.
General cargo..

377
285

420
322

Total.............

662

742

No. 4 (M ay):
Iron and steel—
General cargo..

705
432
1,137

1,274

6.2

7.0

12.0

0.52

143.3

7.9

8.9

12.0

. 66

790
484

Total.............

107.5

i Short tons.
3 Principal commodity: Iron and steel, 30,212 short or revenue tons.




.74

193

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b l e 2 5 .—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G CARGO IN
F
AN D
I

ERCOASTAL
INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 18—Continued

No. 5 (October):
Iron and steel.
General cargo..

1,057
332

Total...................

1,184
372
120.7

11.5

12.8

12.0

0.96

119.7

11.4

12.7

12.0

.95

174,352 195,238 12,402.0

14.1

15.7

17.0

0.83

1,556

Total.
No. 6 (March):
Iron and steel.
General cargo.

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per
labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

873
482

1,518

$0.84

978
540

1,355

1.07 $0.94

1.06

.95

L in e N o . 19

Total, 75 ships..............

0.93 $1.08

$0.97

1.18 $0.86
.90 1.13
1.11
.91
.86 1.17
1.00 1.01
1.04
.97
.94 1.07

$0.76
1.00
.81
1.05
.90
.87
.96

M onth with m aximum efficiency

June, 7 ships.

2,426
1,805
1,739
1,729
2,173
1,910
2,083

2,717
2,022
1,948
1,936
2,434
2,139
2,333

136.5
133.0
104.0
133.0
143.4
121.6
147.5

17.9
13.6
16.8
13.1
15.1
15.8
14.3

20.1
15.3
18.9
14.6
17.0
17.7
16.0

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

1.05
.80
.99
.77
.89
.93
.84

Total.

13,865

15,529

919.0

15.0

16.9

17.0

.89

1.00

1.01

.90

0.76 $1.32
.72 1.41
.75 1.34
.84 1.20
1.03
.98
.86 1.17

$1.18
1.25
1.20
1.07
.87
1.05

M onth with m inim um efficiency

April, 6 ships.

Total.

2,587
1,704
1.402
2; 612
2,531
2,437

2,898
1,909
1,570
2,926
2,835
2,730

225.5
156.0
124.5
206.3
163.0
186.8

11.6
10.9
11.4
12.8
15.6
13.1

12.9
12.2
12.8
14.3
17.5
14.6

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

0.68
.64
.67
.75
.92
.77

13,273

14,868

1,062.1

12.5

14.0

17.0

.74

.83

1.22

1.08

0.84 $1.20
.77 1.30
.94 1.07
1.20
.84
.92 1.10
.97 1.03

$1.07
1.17
.96
.75
.98
.93

M onth with average efficiency

December, 6 ships..

2,121
2,885
2,434
3,083
2,131
3,398

2,376
3,231
2,726
3,453
2,387
3,806

167.3
248.3
169.8
170.7
153.6
230.7

12.8
11.7
14.3
18.2
13.9
14.8

14.3
13.1
16.0
20.4
15.6
16.5

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

0.75
.69
.84
1.07
.82
.87

Total.

16,052

17,979

1,140.4

14.1

15.8

17.0

.83

.93

1.08

.97

0.84 $1.20
.85 1.18
.96 1.05
.91 1.11
.99 1.02
.94 1.07
.92 1.10
.98 1.03
1.00 1.01

$1.07
1.06
.94
.99
.9!
.96
.88
.92
.90

Other months

January, 7 ships.—
February, 4 ships,.
March, 7 ships____
May, 7 ships..........
July, 7 ships...........
August, 6 ships----September, 6 ships.
October, 6 ships___
November, 6 ships.
1 Short tons.




13,849
8.924
16,704
16,009
11,400
14,562
16,204
18,329

15,509
9,956
18,708
17,005
17,929
12,769
16,309
18,148
20,529

1,095.6
694.6
1,147.4
1.104.7
1,074.9
801.3
1.048.7
1,097.0
1,216.3

12.6
12.8
14.6
13.7
14.9
14.2
13.9
14.8
15.1

14.2
14.3
16.3
15.4
16.7
15.9
15.5
16. 5
16.9

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

0.75
.76
.86
.81
.88
.84
.82
.87
.89

194
T a b le

GENERAL TABLES
2 5 .-P R 0 D U C T IV I T Y OF LA BO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
INTERCOASTAL T R A D E -Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton nue 1
ton

L ine No. 20

Total, 19 ships............................. 26,280

29,437

2,527.0

10.4

11.6

12.8

0.82

0.91 $1.10

$0.99

1.12 $0.90
1.11
.91

$0.80
.81

0.67 $1.50
.79 1.27

$1.34
1.14

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (July)....................... .........
No. 2 (July)________ ______

1,805
1,532

2,022
1,716

149.0
131.0

12.1
11.7

13.6
13.1

12.1
11.8

1.00
.99

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October)..........................
No. 4 (M ay)................................

1,005
978

1,126
1,095

118.0
102.0

8.5
9.6

9.5
10.7

14.2
13.6

0.60
.71

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December)_____________
No. 6 (August)________________

2,025
1,162

2,268
1,302

197.0
116.0

10.3
10.0

11.5
11.2

12.5
12.5

0.82
.80

0.92 $1.10
.90 1.12

$0.98
1.00

23.7

20.4

1.03

1.16 $0.87

$0.78

$0.64
.62
.74
.76
.66

Loading cargo
L ine No. 21

Total, 59 ships_______________ - 62,324

69,803

2,951.0

21.1

M o n th with m axim um efficiency

October, 5 ships...........................

1,057
1,431
2,021
1,009
1,052

1,184
1,603
2,263
1,130
1,178

39.0
56.0
85.0
45.0
39.0

27.1
25.5
23.7
22.4
27.0

30.4
28.6
26.9
25.1
30.2

21.7
19.6
21.8
21.2
22.3

1.25
1.30
1.09
1.06
1.21

1.40 $0.72
1.46
.69
1.22
.83
1.19
.85
1.36
.74

T ota l.................. ..............

6,570

7,358

264.0

24.9

27.9

21.3

1.17

1.31

.77

.69

0.88 $1.14
1.16
.87
1.03
.98
1.09
.93
.87
1.15

$1.02
.78
.87
.83
.78

.96

.86

$0.77
.76
.90
.73
.72

M o nth with m inim um efficiency

May, 5 ships............ ......... .........

923
1,006
1,286
984
842

1,034
1,127
1,440
1,102
943
5,646

.53.0 17.4
45.0 22.3
68.0 18.9
47.5 20.7
41.0 20.5
254. 5

19.8

19.5
25.0
21.2
23.2
23.0

22.1
21.5
20.6
21.4
20.0

0.79
1.04
.92
.97
1.03

22.2

21.1

.94

1.05

M onth with average efficiency

March, 5 ships_____ ____ ______

894
788
938
1,362
830

1,001
883
1,051
1,525
930

39.5
38.0
50.5
62.5
35.5

22.6
20.7
19.3
21.8
23.4

25.3
23.2
21.6
24.4
26.2

21.6
19.6
21.7
19.8
20.9

1.04
1.06
.89
1.10
1.12

1.17 $0.87
1.19
.85
1.00 1.01
.82
1.23
1.25
.80

Total_______________ _____

4,812

5,390

226.0

21.3

23.8

20.7

1.03

1.15

1 Short tons.




.87

.78

195

liOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b l e 25.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued.

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation)
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Other months

L in e N o . 21— Continued

January, 5 ships------------------February, 5 ships...... ........—
April, 4 ships---- -------- ---------June, 5 ships. ______ ________
July, 5 ships________ ________
August, 5 ships........................
September, 5 ships....... ...........
November, 5 ships......... ........
December, 5 ships...................

5,647
3,293
3,499
4,895
5,776
5,114
6,015
5,808
5,854

6,324
3,688
3,919
5,483
6,468
5,729
6,737
6,505
6,556

257.5
169.0
171.5
260.0
299.5
228.0
275.0
267.5
278.5

21.9
19.5
20.4
18.8
19.3
22.4
21.9
21.7
21.0

24.6
21.8
22.9
21.1
21.6
25.1
24.5
24.3
23.5

20.0
20.6
20.6
18.5
20.2
21.1
20.6
20.6
21.0

1.10
.95
.99
1.02
.96
1.06
1.06
1.05
1.00

1.23 $0.82
1.06
.95
1.11
.91
1.14
.88
.94
1.07
.85
1.19
1.19
.85
.86
1.18
1.12
.90

$0.73
.85
.81
.79
.84
.76
.76
.76
.80

42,221

47,288

2,402.9

17.6

19.7

19.0

0.92

1.03 $0.98

$0.87

$0.69
.76
.71
.68
.77
.70

L in e N o . 22

Total, 74 ships.........................

M on th with m aximum efficiency

November, 6 ships.

Total.

602
824
1,076
579
645
535

674
923
1,205
649
722
599

27.4
40.9
50.2
25.8
32.5
24.5

22.0
20.1
21.3
22.6
19.8
21.9

24.7
22.6
23.9
25.3
22.2
24.5

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

1.16
1.06
1.12
1.19
1.04
1.15

1.30 $0.78
1.19
.85
1.26
.80
1.33
.76
1.17
.87
1.29
.78

4,261

4,772

201.3

21.1

23.6

19.0

1.11

1.24

.81

.73

0.96 $1.05
.69 1.45
.95 d. 06
1.02
.99
.61 1.67

$0.94
1.30
.95
.88
1.48

M onth with m inim um efficiency

April, 5 ships.

Total-

240
181
339
305
158

269
203
380
342
177

14.7
15.4
21.1
17.6
15.2

16.3
11.8
16.2
17.3
10.3

18.2
13.1
18.1
19.4
11.6

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

0.86
.62
.85
.91
.54

1,223

1,371

84.0

14.6

16.4

19.0

.77

.86

1.17

1.05

1.17 $0.87
.96 1.05
1.12
.90
.92
1.10
.96 1.05
1.18
.86
1.00 1.01
.90 1.13

$0.77
.94
.80
.82
.94
.76
.90
1.00

M onth with average efficiency

August, 8 ships.,

621
595
484
416
639
639
722
752

27.8
32.5
22.8
19.9
35.0
28.5
38.4
44.1

19.8
16.3
19.0
18.6
16.3
20.0
16.9
15.2

22.2
18.2
21.3
20.9
18.2
22.4
19.0
17.1

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

1.04
.86
1.00
.98
.86
1.05
.89
.80

4,346

4,868

249.0

17.5

19.6

19.0

.92

1.03

S
o

Total.

554
531
432
371
571
571
645
671

.98

j

i

Other months

January, 7 ships___
February, 6 ships...
March, 6 ships____
May, 7 ships..........
June, 6 ships______
July, 7 ships______
September, 5 ships.
October, 5 ships___
December, 6 ships..
* Short tons.




4,186
3,939
3,202
3,255
2,066
3,026
3,863
5,496
3,358

4,688
4,412
3,588
3,644
2,314
3,389
4,327
6,155
3,760

214.2
244.3
192.0
184.6
133.8
172.2
223.6
285.7
218.2

19.6
16.2
16.7
17.7
15.4
17.7
17.3
19.2
15.4

22.0
18.1
18.7
19.8
17.2
19.8
19.4
21.5
17.2

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

1.03
.85
.88
.93
.81
.93
.91
1.01
.81

1.15 $0.87
.95 1.06
.99 1.02
1.04
.97
.91 1.11
1.04
.97
1.02
.99
1.13
.89
.91 1.11

$0.78
.95
.91
.87
.99
.87
.88
.80
.99

GENERAL TABLES

190

T a b le 2 6 —P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND

LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN
COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Out­
Cargo
put Labor
per
cost
tonnage
Man- man- per
(rev­
enue
hours hour rev­
tons 0
(rev­ enue
enue t o n 1
tons1
)

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage Man(rev­
hours
enue
tons i)

L in e No. 23

Total, 250 ships.. _

1.54 $0.58

249
1,856
830
692

255
1,045
394
330

0.98
1.78
2.11
2.10

0.92
.51
.43
.43

Total_____

3,627

2,024

1.79

.50

Mar. 21, 4 ships..

1,097
688

454
Total.........

2,778

1.72

259 2.66
267 1.70
442 j 1.22
1,607

1.73

.52

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

June 21, 4 ships..

Total—
July 21, 3 ships

Total—

748
568
545
1,018

426
541
665
669

2,879

2,301

1.25

852
545
356

769
339
287

1.11
1.61
1.24

.81
.56
.73

1,753

1,395

1.26

.71

1.76 $0.51
1.05
.82
1.52
.59

10
.1

Weeks with average efficiency

Feb. 7, 4 ships..

Total—
Jan. 7, 3 ships.

T otal...
1 Short tons.




Labor
cost
per
rev­
enue
ton 1

Other weeks

224,415 145,660

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

June 7, 4 ships..

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

914
1,422
870
721

901
568

1.52 $0.59
1.58
.57
.59
1.53
.58
1.55

3.927

2,538

1.55

.58

1,050
517
1,259

565
342
903

1.86

1.51
1.39

.48
.60
.65

1,810

1.56

.58

L in e N o. 23—Con.

Jan. 15, 5 ships____
Jan. 21, 5 ships____
Jan. 31, 8 ships........
Feb. 14, 6 ships.......
Feb. 21, 5 ships.......
Feb. 28, 7 ships.......
Mar. 7, 5 ships____
Mar. 14, 6 ships......
Mar. 31, 7 ships.......
Apr. 7, 4 ships.........
Apr. 14, 4 ships.......
Apr. 21, 4 ships.......
Apr. 30, 4 ships.......
May 7, 5 ships.........
May 14, 5 ships.......
May 21, 4 ships.......
May 31, 6 ships.......
June 14, 8 ships.......
June 30, 6 ships.......
July 7, 5 ships.........
July 14, 4 ships.......
July 31, 8 ships.......
Aug. 7, 5 ships.........
Aug. 14, 5 ships.......
Aug. 21, 4 ships.......
Aug. 31, 7 ships.......
Sept. 7, 5 ships____
Sept. 14, 5 ships___
Sept. 21, 4 ships___
Sept. 30, 6 ships___
Oct. 7, 5 ships.........
Oct. 14, 5 ships.......
Oct. 21, 5 ships........
Oct. 31, 6 ships........
Nov. 7, 5 ships........
Nov. 14, 5 ships___
Nov. 21, 5 ships___
Nov. 30, 6 ships___
Dec. 7, 5 ships.........
Dec. 14, 6 ships.......
Dec. 21, 6 ships.......
Dec. 31, 7 ships.......

3,009
3,609
5,621
5,220
3,920
5,126
5,689
5,018
7,234
4,854
3,578
5,141
5,467
4,352
4,383
3,704
5,544
7,097
4,938
3,739
3,486
6,431
4,239
3,742
3,758
5,752
4,843
3,837
4,355
6,178
5,835
4,877
5,114
5,667
4,486
5,882
4,192
5,325
4,688
6,152
5,064
5,479

1,990
2,519
3,555
3,143
2,250
3,133
3,403
3,171
4,397
3,118
2,475
3,099
3,513
2,687
2,631
2,335
3,255
4,691
3,024
2,589
2,559
4,372
2,544
2,571
2,303
3,482
3,261
2,710
2,797
4,236
4,175
3,332
3,490
3,875
3,101
4,005
2,866
3,378
3,135
3,751
3,351
3, 713

1.51
1.43
1.58
1.66
1.74
1.64
1.67
1.58
1.65
1.56
1.45
1.66
1.56
1.62
1.67
1.59
1.70
1.51
1.63
1.44
1.36
1.47
1.67
1.46
1.63
1.65
1.49
1.42
1.56
1.46
1.40
1.46
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.47
1.46
1.58
1.50
1.64
1. 51
1.48

$0.60
.63
.57
.54
.52
.55
.54
.57
.55
.58
.62
.54
.58
.56
.54
.57
.53
.60
.55
.63
.66
.61
.54
.62
.55
.55
.60
.63
.58
.62
.64
.62
.61
.62
.62
.61
.62
.57
.60
.55
.60
.61

197

LOS ANGELES (1926)

T a b le 26.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
cost
tonnage
Man- man- per
(rev­
enue
hours hour rev­
(rev­ enue
tons 0
enue ton1
tons1
)

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­
hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons i)
enue ton i
tons1
)
Other weeks

L in e N o. 24
Total, 204 ships...

61,443

44,073

1.39

$0.65

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

Apr. 7, 4 ships..

503
242
242
732

124
182
375

1.57
1.95
1.33
1.95

;0.57
.46

Total....... .

1,719

1,001

1.72

.52

Feb. 28, 5 ships..

917
583
148

607
253

.55
.67
.56

429

127
317

1.51
2.30
1.32
1.65
1.35

2,287

1,416

1.62

210

Total-

112

.68
.46

Weeks with m inim um efficiency
Dec. 21, 3 ships.

212

1.37
1.13
1.44

964

783

1.23

.73

545
190

478
480

Total___
July 21, 3 ships.

Total___

485

1.14
1.57
1.25

.79
.57
.72

1,079

1.24

.73

290
550
124

1,334

121

.80

Weeks with average efficiency

Mar. 14, 3 ships

654
296
342

440

Total.......

1,292

928

1.3

Apr. 14, 4 ships.

341
226
234

238
195
147
153

1.43
1.16
1.59
1.38

211
Total..

1,012

1Short tons.




211
277

1.49
1.40
1.23

1.38

$0.60
.64
.73
.65

L in e N o. 24—Con.

Jan. 7, 2 ships-------Jan. 14, 4 ships........
Jan. 21, 4 ships____
Jan. 21, 7 ships____
Feb. 7, 4 ships.........
Feb. 14, 4 ships.......
Feb. 21, 3 ships.......
Mar. 7, 4 ships____
Mar. 21, 3 ships___
Mar. 31, 7 ships___
Apr. 21, 4 ships.......
Apr. 30, 5 ships.......
May 7, 4 ships.........
May 14, 5 ships.......
May 21, 4 ships____
May 31, 4 ships.......
June 7, 3 ships.........
June 14, 7 ships.......
June 21, 4 ships.......
June 30, 4 ships.......
July 7, 3 ships.........
July 15, 4 ships........
July 31, 7 ships.......
Aug. 7, 4 ships.........
Aug. 14, 4 ships____
Aug. 21, 4 ships.......
Aug. 31, 4 ships.......
Sept. 7, 4 ships____
Sept 14, 5 ships____
Sept 21, 3 ships.......
Sept 30, 5 ships.......
Oct. 7, 5 ships..........
Oct. 14, 5 ships____
Oct. 21, 4 ships____
Oct. 31, 7 ships____
Nov. 7, 4 ships____
Nov. 14, 3 ships____
Nov. 21, 4 ships____
Nov. 30, 4 ships____
Dec. 7, 4 ships.........
Dec. 14, 4 ships.......
Dec. 31, 5 ships.......

536
1,247
1,402
2,187
1,134
1,612
1,622
1,339
769
3,173
1,122
1,164
1,089
3,275
1,152
890
982
1,969
1,081
1,416
994
1,070
2,155
883
1,036
903
1,342
1,207
1,151
1,168
1,292
1,213
1,151
922
1,770
1,252
606
833
753
955
1,126
1,892

365
872
937
1,487
731
1,140
1,064
923
575
1,967
705
793
717
928
771
619
715
1,518
838
1,002
794
828
1,718
619
833
611
923
874
867
937
920
894
838
668
1,327
948
478
656
551
645
899
1,638

1.47
1.43
1.50
1.47
1.55
1.41
1.52
1.45
1.34
1.61
1.59
1.47
1.52
1.37
1.49
1.44
1.37
1.30
1.29
1.41
1.25
1.29
1,25
1.43
1.24
1.48
1.45
1.38
1.33
1.25
1.40
1.36
1.37
1.38
1.33
1.32
1.27
1.27
1.37
1.48
1.25
1.16

$0.61
.63
.60
.61
.58
.64
.59
.62
.67
.56
.57
.61
.59
.66
.60
.63
.66
.69
.70
.64
.72
.70
.72
.63
.73
.61
.62
.65
.68
.72
.64
.66
.66
.65
.68
.68
.71
.71
.66
.61
.72
.78

198

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 27.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

L um ber

Line No. 25:
Total, 20 s h i p s . . . . . . . . . . .____

31,834 1,018.0

31.3

16.0

1.95

$0.46

2.35
2.23

$0.38
.40

1.45
1.77

$0.62
.51

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)_____________
No. 2 (September)__________

1,606
1,619

46.5
46.0

34.5
35.2

14.7
15.8

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June)________________
No. 4 (June)________________

1,558
1,588

64.5
58.5

24.2
27.6

16.7
15.3

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)_______ ____
No. 6 (December)....................
Line No. 26:
Total, 20 ships______________

1,494
1,619

47.5
47.5

31.5
34.1

16.0
17.6

1.97
1.93

$0.46
.47

40,548 1,650.0

24.6

12.7

1.94

$0.46

2.21
2.10

$0.41
.43

1.71
1.74

$0.53
.52

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December)....................
No. 2 (January)........................

2,040
1,815

82.5
75.0

24.7
24.2

11.2
11.5

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)..........................
No. 4 (M ay).............................

1,897
2,137

75.5
115.5

25.1
18.5

14.7
10.7

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July)________________
No. 6 (August).........................

2,175
2,093

85.5
79.5

25.4
26.3

13.1
13.3

1.93
.1.98

$0.47
.45

Line No. 27:
Total, 19 ships..........................

28,985

914.0

31.7

16.7

1.90

$0.47

2.41
2.19

$0.37
.41

1.64
1.65

$0.55
.55

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (April).............................
No. 2 (April).............................

1,595
1,664

39.5
52.5

40.4
31.7

16.8
14.4

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June).............................
No. 4 (M ay)................. ...........

1,577
1,650

* Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




66.0
62.0

23.9
26.6

14.6
16.1

LOS ANGELES (1926)

199

T a b l e 2 7 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G IN D IV ID U A L

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




GENERAL TABLES

200

T a b le 37.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABO R COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons
N itrate of Soda—Continued
Line No. 30—Continued.
No. 3 (N ovem ber)................
No. 4 (March)........................

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour age
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Rev­ Long Reve­
enue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
1
Ships with m inim um efficiency

670
833

750
933

23.8
28.8

28.1
29.0

31.5
32.5

24.0
24.0

1.17
1.21

1.31 $0.77
1.36
.74

$0.69
.66

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October)......................
No. 6 (October)......................

926
1,228

1,037
1,375

23.9
34.4

38.6
35.8

43.2
40.1

24.0
24.0

1.61
1.49

1.80 $0.56
1.67
.60

$0.50
.54

14,812

16,587

491.2

30.2

33.8

18.0

1.67

1.88 $0.54

$0.48

2.61 $0.39
2.62
.38

$0.34
.34

1.25 $0.80
1.48
.68

$0.72
.61

1.86 $0.54
1.87
.54

$0.48
.48

N ewsprint Paper
Line No. 31:
Total, 26 ships........................

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (December)...................
No. 2 (October)......................

606
702

567
787

12.0
16.6

41.9
42.1

46.9
47.9

18.0
18.0

2.33
2.34

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July)............................
No. 4 (August).................. —-

615
647

689
612

30.4
23.0

20.2
23.8

22.6
26.7

18.0
18.0

1.12
1.32

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February).................
No. 6 (N ovem ber)-...............
Pipe 2
Line No. 32:
Total, 12 ships........................

596
697

667
781

20.0
23.2

8,637 39,670

372.0

29.8
30.1

33.4
33.7

23.2 326.0

!
18.0 ! 1.66
18.0 j 1.67

12.0

1.93 32.17 $0.47 3$0.41

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April)...........................
No. 2 (July)............................

331
556

3 371
3 623

10.0
17.0

33.1 337.1
32.7 336.6

12.0
12.0

2.76 33.09 $0.32 3$0.29
2.72 33.05
.33 3.30

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (October)......................
No. 4 (April)...........................

321 'I 3360
1,551 31,738

18.0
85.0

17.8 320.0
18.3 320.4

12.0
12.0

i
1.48 31. 67 $0.61 3$0.55
1.52 31.70
.59
3.53

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November)..................
No. 6 (September).................
Line No. 33:
Total, 8 ships.....................
No. 1 (February). ...............
No. 2 (April)..........................
No. 3 (M ay)...........................
No. 4 (October)____________
No. 5 (October)..........._..........
No. 6 (October)................. .
No. 7 (November)...... ...........
No. 8 (November)..................

703
530

3783
3 594

33.0
25.0

6,946

7,779

356.0

. 411
532
746
369
1,357
1,670
1,568
293

460
•9
56
835
413
1,520
1,870
1,755
330

21.0
36.0
29.0
17.0
63.0
98.0
86.0
16.0

1Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




21.3 323.7
21.2 323.7

12.0
12.0

1.78 32.00 $0.50 3$0.45
1.77 J 2.00
3
.50
3.45

19.5

21.9

12.0

1.63

1.83 $0. 55

$0. 49

19.3
14.9
26.2
21.2
25.7
17.2
18.2
18.6

21.6
16.7
29.3
23.7
28.8
19.3
20.4
20.8

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

1.61
1.24
2.18
1.77
2.14
1.43
1.52
1.55

1.80
1.39
2.44
1.98
2.40
1.60
1.70
1.74

. 56
.73
.41
.51
.42
.63
.59
.58

.50
.G
5
.37
.45
.38
.56
.53
.52

2 Discharged to cars.

3 Short tons.

Cristobal, Canal Zone (1926)
T a b le 38.—PR ODU C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST * IN HAN DLING CARGO, BY

KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN DIVIDU AL COM MODITIES

Car tonnage
Operation, line number, and com­
modity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
per ganghour

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
per—
hour
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1...... ........... ...............
No. 2____ ______________
No. 3..................................
No. 4_______ ______ _____
Latin America—
No. 5___________________
No. 6__................. .............
No. 7_______ ____ _______
United States—No. 8________
Loading cargo:
Europe—No. 9______________
Latin America—
No. 10_................... ..........
No. 11............................—
United States—No. 12.............

356.5
858.5
688.0
539.5

19.9
17.7
14.8
11.9

37.0
38.2
35.4
39.6

0.54
.46
.42
.30

$0.48
.57
.62
.87

32,405 1,177.5
303.5
5,390
446.5
7,340
84,907 4,531.5

27.5
17.8
16.4
18.7

40.4
39.0
49.0
44.1

.68
.46
.34
.42

.38
.57
.76
.62

7,088
15,200
10,203
6,414

981.0

11.5

29.3

.39

.67

13,987 1,081.0
29,030 2,389.0
44,945 2,262.5

12.9
12.2
19.9

27.6
29.4
34.6

.47
.41
.57

.55
.63
.46

11,259

Individual commodities1

Discharging cargo:
Coffee—
No. 13 .............................
No. 14_ ...............................
Loading cargo:
Bananas—
No. 15. ...............................
No. 16__............................
No. 17-...................... ........
1

7,890
8,788

372.5
395.0

2263,614
22,675 8930,911
2,584 3119,659

289.5

7,890
8,788

Wage rate: 26 cents per hour.

66490°—32------ 14




21.2
22.2

21.2
22.2

45.2
49.4

8.9 2413.3 47.3

2 Stems.

0.47
.45

0.47 $0.55
.45
.58

$0.55
.58

210.26
3 2.63
.21 28.79 1.57 3 3.07
.19 28.80 1.37 32.95

3 Per 100 stems.

201

GENERAL TABLES

202

T a b le 29.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
tons enue gang tons tons ton enue i
ton
tons

Line N o. 1
Total, 11 ships...............................

7,088

356.5

19.9

37.0

___

0.54

___

$0.48

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November)_____________
695
_________________ No. 2 (March)
603

25.0
28.0

27.8
21.5

38.0.
33.0

0.73
.65

$0.36
.40

0.44
.44

$0.59
.59

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

394
No. 3 (January)__________ ____ _
................................. No. 4 (April)
698

24.0
43.0

16.4
16.2

37.0
36.6

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September)........................
No. 6 (Novem ber)--.....................

623
467

32.0
24.0

19.5
19.5

36.0
36.0

0.54
.54

$0.48
.48

15,200

858.5

17.7

38.2

0.46

$0.57

0.80
.59

$0.33
.44

0.29
.37

$0.90
.70

L ine N o . 2
Total, 17 ships_________________

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)______________
No. 2 (March)____________ ____

654
549

21.0
24.5

31.1
22.4

39.0
38.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July)..................................
No. 4 (September)........................

1,133
858

98.5
61.5

11.5
14.0

40.0
38.0

Ships with average efficiency

No 5 (October).............................
No. 6 (December)........................

1.128
928

62.5
52.5

18.0
17.7

38.0
37.4

0.47
.47

$0.55
.55

10,203

688.0

14.8

35.4

0.42

$0.62

0.64
.59

$0.41
.44

0.22
.31

$1.18
.64

L ine No. 3
Total, 17 ships...............................

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)— ,...................
No. 2 (August)..............................

718
330

33.5
14.0

21.4
23.6

33.6
39.7

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (December).........................
No. 4 (December).........................




280
297

32.0
21.0

8.8
14.1

39.0
45.0

203

CRISTOBAL, CANAL ZONE (1926)

T a b l e 3 9 . — PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton
Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 3—Continued

No. 5 (January).............................
No. 6 (July)............................... .

405
560

31.5
40.0

12.9
14.0

29.2
37.2

0.44
.38

$0.59
.68

6,414

539.5

11.9

39.6

0.30

$0.87

0.44
.40

$0.59
.65

0.20
.23

$1.30
1.13

0.30
.31

$0.87
.84

0.68

$0.38

L in e N o . 4

Total, 17 ships.................... .........

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March)...............................
No. 2 (January)___ - ___________

310
320

17.0
21.0

18.2
15.2

41.6
38.0

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (July)...................................
No. 4 (M ay)..................................

326
337

38.0
44.0

8.6
7.7

42.0
33.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)...............................
No. 6 (August)________ ________

351
340

32.0
25.5

11.0
13.3

37.0
43.1

Discharging cargo: Latin America
L in e N o . 5

Total, 15 ships------------Copper---------General cargo..

27.5

32,405 1,177.5
12, 341

12,341
20,064

433.0
744.5

58.5

40.4

28.5
26.9

38.1
42.0

0.75

.75 $0.35
.64

.35
.41

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Copper______
Cotton............
General cargo.

1,963

Total .
iSl'o. 2 (February):
Copper_______
Cotton.............
General cargo..
Total-




1,963
109
2,152

2,036

50.0

43.0

37.1

1.16

*0.22

73.0

29.8

38.7

.77

.34

2,035
107
31
2,173

204

GENERAL TABLES

T able 3 9 —P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E-C ontinued

Discharging cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
tons enue gang tons enue ton Ton
tons
tons
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L ine N o. 5—Continued
No. 3 (June):
Copper________ ____ _______
Cocoa_____________________
Cotton _
General cargo.........................
Total____________ _____
No. 4 (June):
C o p p e r_
_
Cotton .
General cargo...................... .
Total___________

2,258

1,402

118.0
2,258
200
160 | 18.0
82
2,700
136.0
1,402
216
70
1,688

65.5

19.1

19.1

33.0

24.9

38.8

.64

.41

19.9

33.8

.59

.44

25.8

41.7

.62

.42

0.58

0.58 $0.45

$0.45

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
CopperGeneral cargo........................
Total___________ __
No. 6 (November):
Oopper _
Ivory nuts__
Cotton

General cargo______________
Total..................................

3,197

1,628

1,197
367
1,564

30.0
24.0
54.0

29.0

40.1
46.0
42.7

0.68

$0.38

1,628
266
133
147
2,174

80.5

27.0

41.0

.66

.39

L ine N o. 6
* 5,390

303.5

17.8

39.0

0.46

$0.57

No. 1 (January):
Cocoa_______________
General c a r g o --............. ......
Total____________ _____

360
120
480

17.0

28.2

34.5

.82

.32

No. 2 (February):
Coffee________ ________
General cargo......... ............ .
T otal-................................

740
75
815

40.0

20.4

36.8

.55

.47

No. 3 (March):
Coffee.—..........................
Cedar logs........................ ......
T otal-..................................

626
248
874

48.0

18.2

36.2 -------

.50

No. 4 (April):
Coffee.....................................
Cedar logs. .........................
Cocobolo.......... ...................—
T o ta l--............ ................

515
501
125
1,141

72.0

15.8

35.7

.44

.59

No. 5 (May):
Coffee__________ _______
Ivory nuts.............................
General cargo..........................
T o ta l--................. .............

851
125
54
1,030

67.5

15.3

41.7

.37

.70

No. 6 (June):
Coffee_________ ________
Ivory nuts...............................
Total....................................

800
250
1,050

59.0

17.8

45.0

.40

.65

Total, 6 ships__________

1 Principal commodity: Coffee, 3,532 revenue tons.




----

.52

205

CRISTOBAL, CANAL ZONE (1920)

T a b le 29.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Latin America-^Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton
tons

Line N o. 7
_
Total, 13 ships_

__ _

2 7,340

446.5

16.4

0.34

$0.76

0.47
.44

$0.55
.59

0.18
.22

49.0

$1.44
1.18

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January)________ ____ _
No. 2 (January)......................... .

567
411

33.0
21.0

17.2
19.6

36.2
44.0

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (November)______ _____
No. 4 (December)_______ _____

250
524

27.0
39.0

9.3
13.4

51.1
62.3

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July)............................. .
625
293
________________ No. 6 (August):

36.0
15.0

17.4
19.5

52.0
58.0

----

0.33
.34

----

$0.79
.76

Discharging cargo: United States
L in e N o. 8

Total, 27 ships________________

84,907 4,531.5

18.7

44.1

0.42

$0.62

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November) ____________
No. 2 (February)........................

5,886
5,321

164.5
272.0

35.8
19.6

49.3
37.0

0.73
.53

----

$0.36
.49

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (August)__________ ______

3,464
233.5
14.8
1,475
95.0
No. 4 (June)___________________ 15.5

45.8
45.4

0.32
.34

$0.81
.76

0.42
.41

$0.62
.63

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)_________________
2,865
164.0
2,274
........................ No. 6 (February) 148.0
2 Principal commodity: Coffee, 5,010 revenue tons.




17.5
15.4

41.2
37.2

206

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 29.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
tons enue gang tons enue ton ton
tons
tons

Line N o. 9

Total, 15 ships...............................

311,259

981.0

11.5

29.3

0.39

$0.67

27.3

0.60

$0.43

29.8

.50

.52

0.24
.25

$1.08
1.04

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February): General cargo.

459

No. 2 (April):
Coffee................................Lentils.................... ...........
General cargo.....................

145
300

Total...............................

645

28.0

16.4

200

43.5

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June): General cargo------No. 4 (November): General cargo.

424
750

61.5
100.0

6.9
7.5

28.7
30.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September):
Copper
____ _
Coffee_______________ ____
General cargo.-____________

300
200
175

Total.................................-

675

55.0

12.3

31.5

0.39

$0.67

No. 6 (August): General cargo.. .

375

32.5

11.5

28.9

.40

.65




Loading cargo: Latin America

207

CRISTOBAL, CANAL ZONE (1926)

T a b l e 29.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­
Rev­ men
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton

Lin e N o. 11

Total, 27 ships___ - ___________

12.2

29,030 2,389.0

0.41

$0.63

0.51
.50

$0.51
.52

0.34
.36

$0.76
.72

31.4
28.4

0.41
.41

$0.63
.63

34.6

0.57

$0.46

29.4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March)_________________
No. 2 (March) __________________

952
897

65.0
57.0

14.6
15.7

28.9 ------31.6

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September)........................
No. 4 (January)________________

1,194
1,118

11.7
12.2

102.0
92.0

34.8
33.6

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)______________
No. 6 (October)________________

1,110
1,224

12.8
11.8

87.0
104.0

Loading cargo: United States
Line N o. 12

Total, 26 ships_______ __________

44,945 2,262.5

19.9

Copper........................................... 13,978 13,978
612.5 22,8 22.8
Bananas_____________________• <52,000
_
1,270
120.5 4432.0 10.5
__________________ General cargo
« 29,697 1,529.5
19.4

34.6 0.66
54.7 <7.90
33.0

.66 $0.39
.19 «3.29
.59

.39
1.37
.44

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (February):
Coffee_____________________
Coconuts________________ _
General cargo____ __________

429

Total................................. .

928

No. 2 (April):
Copper................................ .
Coconuts________________ _
Coffee and cocoa............... .
General cargo.... ................ .

389
no

1,963

Total.............................

16.0 ------- 58.0

1,963
51.5
176
174 | 40.0
214
2,527

91.5

38.1

30.0

38.1

35.0

14.1

32.8

27.6

34.0

$1.35

1.93
1.09

1.09 $0.24

----

.81

.24
.60

.43

----

.32

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (December):
Bananas_____ _
49,000
Coconuts________________
Coffee_____________________
General cargo______________
Total_ *________________
_

225
21.0 <429.0 10.7
160
130 | 32.0
14.5
175
690

53.0

13.0

49.3 <8.70
36.0

.40

.65

41.3

.32

.81

4 Stems.
• Per 100 stems.
6 Principal commodities: Copper, 5,916 revenue tons; coconuts, 5,576 revenue tons.




0.22 5$2.99 $1.18

208

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 39.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FO REIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: United States— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
age
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
tons tons gang tons nue ton nue
tons
ton

Ships with m in im u m efficiency— C o n tin u ed

L in e N o. 12—Continued

No. 4 (October):
Bananas............ ........... ...
48,000
Coffee........ .........................
Coconuts__________________
Ivory nuts_____ ____ _______
General cargo__________
Total____________

180
364.0 8.2
22.0 4
316
160 • 58.0
14.2
110
236
1,002

80.0

12.5

43.7 48.30

0.19 «$3.13 $1.37

32.0

.44

35.2

.36

.72

0.57

$0.46

.64
.44

.41
.59

.58

.45

.

.59

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Copper...... .................. _
Coffee...................................
Coconuts...... .......................
Ivory nuts.............. ............
General cargo......................

871

Total......... ............
No. 6 (May):
Copper........ ...............
Ivory nuts................... ........
General cargo— ...................

871
777
210
154
99
2,111

1,363

Total___________

114.0

55.5
1,363
220 } 34.5
206
1,789

18.5

90.0

24.6
12.3

38.1
28.1

19.9

24.6

32.7

34.3

0.64

4 Stems.
5 Per 100 stems.
T a b l e 3 0 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
Long nue
Long Reve­
per
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons nue tons
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

C offee

Line No. 13:
Total, 9 ships.......................... 7,890

7,890

372.5

21.2

21.2

45.2

0.47

0.47 $0.55

$0.55

0.61 $0.43
.56
.46

$0.43
.46

0,35 $0, 74
.67

$0. 74
.(>V

0,49 $0. 53
.44
.61

$0, 53
.61

Ships with m axim um efficiency
No. 1 (November)_________
No. 2 (March).......................

810
700

810
700

28.0
32.5

28.9
21.5

28.9
21.5

47.3
38.4

0.61
.56

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. .'i (September),.
No. 4 (July). , .

750
PO
O

750
900

50,0
53.0

15.0
17.0

15.0
J7.0

42,4
43.3

0,35
.39

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December).............. .
No. 6 (August).......................




835
930

835
930

37.5
41.5

22.3
22.4

22.3
22.4

45.4
50.6

0.49
.44

209

CRISTOBAL, CANAL ZONE (1926)

Y
T a b le 3 0 —PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL

C OM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons nue tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

C o f f e e — Continued

Line No. 14:
Total, 10 ships....................... 8,788

8,788

395.0

22.2

22.2

49.4

a 45

0.45 $0.58

$0.58

0.56 $0.46
.55
.47

$0.46
.47

0.36 $0.72
.36
.72

$0.72
.72

0.44 $0.59
.46
.57

$0.59
.57

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)..................- 1,062
745
No. 2 (June)...........................

1,062
745

39.0
25.5

27.2
29.2

27.2
29.2

48.4
53.5

0.56
.55

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (October)......................
No. 4 (December)............—

720
270

720
270

34.5
15.0

20.9
18.0

20.9
18.0

58.0
50.0

0.36
.36

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March).......... ............ 1,050
No. 6 (M a r c h )..................... 1,077

1,050
1,077

52.5
48.0

20.0
22.4

20.0
22.4

45.1
48.0

0.44
.46

Loading cargo
Bananas

Line No. 15: i
Total, 19 ships

___________

2263,614

210.26

3$2.63

213.47
213.71

>$2.00

7.69
8.42

3$3.51
3 3.21

210.29
210.24

3$2.62
32.64

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March)........
No. 2 (September).

2 15,763
2

9,914

31.97

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (M ay)..........
No. 4 (September)..

2 9,204
2

2
2

13,672
Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (November).
No. 6 (November).
Line No. 16:1
Total, 56 ships.

2 16,419

2 15,243
22,675 2930,911

0.21 28.79 $1.57 3$3.07
Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June).
i..........
No. 2 (September).

281 2 11,736
422 218,455

* Loaded with conveyor and by hand.




0.33 213.61 $0.82 3 $1.98
.30 213.28 .90 32.03
2 Stems.

3 Per 100 stems.

GENERAL TABLES

210

T a b l e 3 0 .—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

Reve­
nue
tons

Long
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

B an an as— Continued

Line No. 16i—Continued.
No. 3 (July)____________
No. 4 (July)____________

0.15 2 6.19 $1.80 3 $4.36
If) 26.13 1.80 34.40

424 2 17,327 1
______ |
_____
382 215 138 j
j

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)-.
No. 6 (M ay)..

402 2 16,937
425 217,310

0.21 2 8.82 $1.29 3$3.06
.22 28.85 1.23 3 3. 05
Labor productivity and cost, by months

264,073

January, 4 ships.—
February, 4 ships..
March, 5 ships___
April, 4 ships____
May, 4 ships........
June, 8 ships_____
July, 4 ships_____
August, 4 ships___
September, 5 ships
October, 5 ships...
November, 4 ships
December, 5 ships.

1,499
1,688
2,397
1,749
1,866
2,756
1,440
1,257
1,888
2,226
1,829
2,080

Line No. 17:4
Total, 11 ships

2,584 2 119,659

0.24
.22
.20
.21
.23
.22
.17
.19
.24
.25
.22
.20

270,393
298,783
2 72,160
2 75,793
2 112,708
257,939
2 52, 883
278, 768
289,629
275, 026
282, 756
289. 5

8.9 2413.3

47.3

210.08
29.18
28.40
28.70
29.19
28.86
2 6.80
2 7.99
29.85
29.92
29.16
2 7.85

$1.13
1.23
1.35
1.29
1.17
1.23
1.59
1.42
1.13
1.08
1.23
1.35

3$2.68
3 2.94
3 3.21
3 3.10
3 2.94
3 3.05
33.97
3 3.38
32.74
3 2.72
3 2.95
3 3.44

0.19 2 8.80 $1.37 3$2.95

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (M ay).
No. 2 (June).

235 2 10,763
8,901
187

24.0
18.0

9.8 2448.5
10.4 2495.0

37.0
40.0

0.26 212.10 $1.00 3 $2.15
.26 212.40 1.00 3 2. 10

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (October) _
No. 4 (March)_.

240 2 10,960
337 2 15,312

36.0
46. 5

6.7 2304.4
7.2 2329.3

46.0
49.0

0. 14 2 6.60 $1.86 3 $3.94
. 15 2 6.70 1.73 3 3.88

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)....................... .
No. 6 (June)_________ _____

368 2 16,733
176 28,090

i Loaded with conveyor and b y hand.




a Stems.

36.0
22.5

10.2 2464.8
7.8 2359.6

3 Per 100 stems.

50.0
44.0

0.20 29.30 $1.30 3$2.80
. 18 28.20 1.44 3 3.17

4 Loaded with ship’s gear.

Galveston (1927)
T a b le 31.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO, B Y

KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN DIVIDU AL COM MODITIES

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number,
and commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per
labor cost
gang-hour age
man-hour
per—
num­
ber
of
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue per
nue
tons tons gang tons tons tons nue
tons
Foreign trade i

Discharging cargo, Europe:
No. 1.................................
Loading cargo, Europe:
No. 2— ...................... .
No. 3.............................
No. 4............. ...............
No. 5-------------------------

8,755

8,755

423.6

20.7

20.7

16.0

1.29

1.29 $0.62

11,353
21,206
5,841
11,076

11,353
21,206
5,841
11,076

466.3
1,058.6
294.2
456.3

24.3
20.0
19.9
24.3

24.3
20.0
19.9
24.3

19.0
16.0
16.0
19.7

1.28
1.25
1.24
1.23

1.28
1.25
1.24
1.23

.63
.64
.65
.65

$0.62
.63
.64
.65
.65

Coastwise trade 2

Discharging cargo: No. 6
Loading cargo: No. 7_____

3 301,577 <586,837.0
3 507,868 <336,175.0

30.51
3 1.51

3$1.18
3.40

Individual commodities 5

Discharging cargo:
Burlap—
No. 8....................... 24,574
No. 9_____________ 20,472
Coffee—No. 10. - ......... . 3,536

24,574
20,472
«59,579

905.2
866.0
190.1

11______ ___________ 5,411
6,061
Sugar—No. 12............... 96,375
*662,798
Loading cargo:
Cotton—
No. 13____ _______ 5,017
822,576
No. 14____________ 9,797
8 44,086
No. 15____________ 69,627
8 311,532
No. 16____________ 55,383
s 249,223
32,641
Flour—No. 17................ 32,641
Spelter—No. 18_______ 5,834
5,834
Wheat (trimming)—
No. 19____________ 97,566 io 3,896,128
No. 2 0 -.......... ........ 16,550
io 618,000

267.1
1,957.5

Newsprint paper— N o.

27.1 27.1 20.0 /l. 36
1.36 $0.59
1.24
.65
23.6 23.6 19.0 1.24
18.6 6313.4 18.5 1.01 6 17.0
.79
20.3 22.7
49.2 6
338.6

213.0 23.6
448.1 21.9
3,153.5 22.1
2,605.0 21.3
1,602.6 20.4
264.7 22.0

8
106.0
598.4
898.8
9 95.7
20.4
22.0

17.8
36.4

1.27
1.14
1.35 6 9.30

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.9
16.0

1.57
1.47
1.47
1.42
1.28
1.38

<7,364.5
<1,180.5

.63
.70
.59 78.60

8 7.07
8 6.61
8 6.59
8 6.38
1.28
1.38

.90
.90
.90
.90
.63
.58

13.25 10529.00
14.02 10523.50

9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
.63
.58

.06 ii 1.51
.06 ii 1.53

1 Wage rate: 80 cents per hour.
2 Wage rate: 60 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.
< Man-hours.
* Wage rate: 80 cents per hour except for cotton which is paid on piece basis.
6 Bags.
7 Per 100 bags.
8 Bales.
• Piece rate per bale.
1 Bushels.
0
1 Per 1,000 bushels.
1




$0.59
.65
74.71

211

212

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 33.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L ine No. 1
8,755

8,755

423.6

20.7

20.7

16.0

1.29

1.29 $0.62

Steel products............. ............. 4,914
General cargo_______________ 3,841

4,914
3,841

224.8
198.8

21.9
19.3

21.9
19.3

16.0
16.0

1.37
1.21

1.37
1.21

Total, 15 ships______ ________ _

$0.62

.58
.66

.58
.66

$0.43

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (July): Steel cotton bands..

503

503

No. 2 (September):
Steel............................. ............
General cargo_______________

788
166

788
166

Total......................................

954

954

16.8

29.9

29.9

16.0

1.87

1.87 $0.43

31.9

29.9

29.9

16.0

18.7

1.87

.43

.43

$1.00

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Steel_______________________
General cargo_____ __________

138
189

138
189

Total_____________________

327

327

25.4

12.8

12.8

16.0

0.80

0.80 $1.00

No. 4 (September):
Steel cotton bands________ ..
Paper______________________
General cargo_______________

120
56
72

120
56
72

7.5
2.1
5.9

16.0
26.6
12.3

16.0
26.6
12.3

16.0
16.0
16.0

1.00
1.66
.77

1.00
1.66
.77

.80
.48
1.04

.80
.48
1.04

Total......................................

248

248

15.5

16.0

16.0

16.0

1.00

1.00

.80

.80

1.21 $0.66
.89
.90

$0.66
.90

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Steel bars___________________
General cargo_______________

278
20

278
20

14.3
1.4

19.4
14.2

19.4
14.2

13.0
16.0

1.21
.89

Total.....................................

298

298

15.7

18.9

18.9

16.0

1.18

1.18

.68

.68

No. 6 (June): Steel______________

502

502

22.3

22.4

22.4

16.0

1.40

1.40

.57

.57

$0.63

Loading cargo: Europe
Lin e N o. 2

Total, 12 ships____ _____________ 11,353

11,353

466.3

24.3

24.3

19.0

1.28

1.28 $0.63

Cottonseed meal - ............
9,150
General cargo_______________ 2,203

9,150
2,203

372.7
93.6

24.6
23.5

24.6
23.5

19.0
19.0

1.29
1.24

1.29
1.24

.62
.65

.62
.65

$0.42

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December): Cottonseed
meal....... .............. ......................
No. 2 (November): Cottonseed
meal____ _____________ _______




200

200

5.5

36.5

36.5

19.0

1.92

1.92 $0.42

200

200

6.8

29.5

29.5

19.0

1.55

1.55

.52

.52

fig u r e




4 4.— E n

d less

b elt

Co

n veyors

C

o n n e c t in g

sid e

p o r t s

w it h

A

pr o n

o f

p ie r

.

G

alveston

213

GALVESTON (1927)

T a ble 33.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 2—Continued
No. 3 (January):
Cottonftofld man.!
General cargo___ ___________

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

200
116

200
116

19.5

17.3
14.6

17.3
14.6

19.0
19.0

0.91
.77

16.2

11.6
7.9

0.91 $0.88
.77 1.04

16.2

19.0

.85

.85

.94

.94

$0.88
1.04

Total......................................

316

316

No. 4 (November):
Cottonseed meal
Flour........................................

400
60

400
60

18.9
3.9

21.1 >21.1
15.4 15.4

19.0
19.0

1.11
.81

1.11
.81

.72
.99

.72
.99

Total.....................................

460

460

22.8

20.1

19.0

1.06

1.06

.75

.75

20.1

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October): Cottonseed meal.
No. 6 (August): Cottonseed meal.

700
400

28.6
16.6

24.5
24.1

24.5
24.1

19.0
19.0

1.29
1.27

1.29 $0.62
1.27
.63

$0.62
.63

21,206 1,058.6

20.0

20.0

16.0

1.25

1.25 $0.64

$0.64

422.3
186.3
450.0

21.5
19.9
18.7

21.5
19.9
18.7

16.0
16.0
16.0

1.34
1.24
1.17

1.34
1.24
1.17

700
400

L ine N o. 3
Total, 20 ships__________________ 21,206
Flour and rice_______________ 9,081
Cottonseed meal____________ 3,700
General cargo_______________ 8,425

9,081
3,700
8,425

.60
.65
.68

.60
.65
.68

$0.53

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Cottonseed meal ___________ 1,100
Flour and rice.___ __________
296

1,100
296

Total.....................................

1,396

1,396

57.7

24.2

24.2

16.0

1.51

1.51 $0.53

No. 2 (March):
Flour _ _____ ________________
General cargo_______________

995
91

995
91

44.4
4.7

22.4
19.4

22.4
19.4

16.0
15.0

1.40
1.28

1.40
1.28

.57
.63

Total_____________________ 1,086

1,086

49.1

22.2

22.2

15.9

1.39

1.39

.58

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Flour.........................................
Asphalt____________________
General cargo_______________

298
107
20

298
107
20

Total......................................

425

425

26.8

15.8

15.8

16.0

0.99

0.99 $0.81

No. 4 (September):
Flour........................................
Spelter.......... ........... ........... ....
General cargo_______________

765
150
122

765
150
122

43.8
8.8
11.4

17.5
17.0
10.7

17.5
17.0
10.7

16.0
16.0
16.0

1.09
1.07
.67

1.09
1.07
.67

.73
.75
1.19

.73
.75
1.19

Total___________ _________ 1,037

1,037

64.0

16.2

16.2

16.0

1.01

1.01

.79

.79




$0.81

214

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 33.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o . 3— Continued

No. 5 (March):
Cottonseed meal.
Asphalt..............
Flour...................

1,300
108
81

1,300
108
81

64.9
4.9
3.9

20.0
22.0
20.8

20.0
22.0
20.8

16.0
16.0
16.0

1.25
1.38
1.31

1.25 $0.64
1.38
.58
1.31
.61

Total.

1,489

1,489

73.7

20.2

20.2

16.0

1.26

1.26

.63

.63

No. 6 (July):
Flour..............
Asphalt______
General cargo.

1,077
125
33

1,077
125
33

51.7
8.0
1.8

20.8
15.6
18.3

20.8
15.6
18.3

16.0
16.0
16.0

1.30
.98
1.18

1.30
.98
1.18

.62
.82
.68

.62
.82
.68

1,235

1,235

61.5

20.2

20.2

16.0

1.26

1.26

.63

.63

. 5,841

5,841

294.2

19.9

19.9

16.0

1,24

1.24 $0.65

$0.65

. 2,157
3,684

2,157
3,684

93.3
200.9

23.1
18.3

23.1
18.3

16.0
16.0

1.45
1.15

1.45
1.15

T otal.—...............

$0.64
.58
.61

L in e N o . 4

Total, 10 ships................
Flour. ............
General cargo.

.55
.70

.55
.70

$0.49
.62

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (June):
F lo u r.............
General cargo.

125
109

125
109

4.8
5.3

25.9
20.8

25.9
20.8

16.0
16.0

1.62
1.30

1.62 $0.49
1.30
.62

Total _

234

234

10.1

23.2

23.2

16.0

1.45

1.45

.55

.55

No. 2 (August):
Flour......... .
Genaral cargo-

719
54

719
54

28.2
3.0

25.4
18.4

25.4
18.4

16.0
16.0

1.59
1.15

1.59
1.15

.50
.70

.50
.70

T o ta l.........

773

773

31.2

24.8

24.8

16.0

1.55

1.55

.52

.52

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Flour________
General cargo

.

94
150

94
150

4.4
9.7

21.4
15.5

21.4
15.5

16.0
16.0

1.34
.97

1.34 $0.60
.97
.82

$0.60
.82

Total______

244

244

14.1

17.3

17.3

16.0

1.08

1.08

.74

.74

No. 4 (January):
Flour..............
General cargo.

375
36

375
36

18.8
4.5

20.0
8.0

20.0
8.0

16.0
16.0

1.25
.50

1.25
.50

.64
1.60

.64
1.60

Total...........

411

411

23.3

17.6

17.6

16.0

1.10

1.10

.73

.73




215

GALVESTON (1927)

T a bl e 32.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FO REIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with average efficiency

L ine N o. 4—Continued
No. 5 (August):
• sphalt___________________
A
General cargo_______________

134
228

134
228

Total_ ______ ___________
_

362

362

18.4

19.7

19.7

16.0

1.23

1*23 $0.65

$0.65

No. 6 (January):
fJottonsaftd Tnfi»l _
General cargo_________- _____

203
35

203
35

10.2
1.7

20.0
20.8

20.0
20.8

16.0
16.0

1.25
1.30

1.25
1.30

.64
.62

.64
.62

238

238

11.9

20.0

20.0

16.0

1.25

1.25

.64

.64

Total, 8 ships. _________________ 11,076

11,076

456.3

24.3

24.3

19.7

1.23

1.23 $0.65

$0.65

Flour . _ _________________ 6,620
Cottonseed meal-______ _____ 2,400
General cargo ______________ 2,056

6,620
2,400
2,056

281.0
92.0
83.3

23.6
26.1
24.7

23.6
26.1
24.7

19.8
20.3
19.0

1.19
1.29
1.31

1.19
1.29
1.31

.67
.62
.61

.67
.62
.61

850
503
255
22

850
503
255
22

28.6
20.0
16.6
2.5

29.7
25.2
15.5
8.9

29.7
25.2
15.5
8.9

18.0
15.0
18.0
15.0

1.65
1.68
.86
.59

1.65
1.68
.86
.59

.48
.48
.93
1.36

.48
.48
.93
1.36

1,630

1,630

67.7

24.1

24.1

17.0

1.42

1.42

.56

.56

750
456

33.3
15.0

22.5
30.4

22.5
30.4

23.0
20.0

.98
1.52

.98
1.52

.82
.53

.82
.53

Total

^ ^ _______ -__ *

L ine N o. 5

No. 1 (January):
Cottonseed meal____________
Oil cake__ _________________
Flour
___________________
General cargo_______________
Total _ _________________
No. 2 (March):
Cottonseed meal____________
Flour. .....................................-

750 ‘
456

_________________

1,206

1,206

48.3

25.0

25.0

22.1

1.13

1.13

.71

.71

No. 3 (March) :
Flour _____________________
Cottonseed meal____________

1,657
50

1,657
50

72.9
4.0

22.7
12.4

22.7
12.4

18.0
18.0

1.26
.69

1.26
.69

*.63
1.16

.63
1.16

Total

Total_____________________ 1,707

1,707

76.9

22.2

22.2

18.0

1.23

1.23

.65

.65

No. 4 (May): Flour_____________ 1,407
No. 5 (July): Flour_____________ 1,613
329
No. 6 (August): Flour___________

1,407
1,613
329

55.6
66.6
14.2

25.3
24.2
23.2

25.3
24.2
23.2

22.0
20.0
20.0

1.15
1.21
1.16

1.15
1.21
1.16

.70
.66
.69

.70
.66
.69

No. 7 (September):
Flour_____ _______ __________ 1,029
400
Cottonseed meal____________

1,029
400

Total_____________________ 1,429

1,429

58.0

24.6

24.6

20.0

1.23

1.23

.65

.65

No. 8 (October):
Flour______________________
Cottonseed meal____________
Oil cake_______ ____________

903
750
102

903
750
102

40.3
25.7
3.0

22.4
29.2
34.3

22.4
29.2
34.3

20.0
20.0
26.0

1.12
1.46
1.32

1.12
1.46
1.32

.71
.55
.61

.71
.55
.61

Total-......... ......... ...... .........

1,755

1,755

69.0

25.4

25.4

20.3

1.26

1.26

.63

.63




216

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 33.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage Man(reve­ hours
nue
tons)1

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons) i

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton i

301,577 586,837

0.51

$1.18

Week ending-

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(reve­ hours
hour reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons) i
nue ton i
tons) i
Other weeks

Line N o . 6

Total, 122 ships—

Weeks

Jan. 7,4 ships.

with m aximum
efficiency

4,592
1,973
2,348
2,344

4,738
3,750
4,465
4,669

0.99
.53
.53
.50

$0.61
1.13
1.13
1.20

11,257

17,622

.64

.94

M ay 7, 3 ships.

1,873
2,998
2,278

4,062
2,598
4,573

.46
1.15
.50

1.30
.52
1.20

Total___

7,149

11,233

.64

.94

Total—

Weeks with m inim um effici­
ency

Apr. 4, 2 ships.

2,671
1,950

6,412
5,655

0.42
.34

$1.43
1.76

Total___

4,621

12,067

.38

1.58

Oct. 31, 2 ships.

1,569
3,244

3,764
7,478

.42
.43

1.43
1.40

Total___

4,813

11,242

.43

1.40

Weeks with average efficiency

Feb. 21, 2 ships.........

3,810
3,898

7,523
7,299

0.51
.53

$1.18
1.13

Total.......

7,708

14,822

.52

1.15

Mar. 7,3 ships.

1,458
2,588
466

2,771
5,593
711

.53
.46
.66

1.13
1.30
.91

4,512

9,075

.50

1.20

Total..
1 Short tons.




L in e N o . 6— Con.

Jan. 14, 2 ships__
Jan. 21,1 ship___
Jan. 31, 4 ships.. .
Feb. 7,3 ships___
Feb. 14, 2 ships...
Feb. 28, 2 ships—
Mar. 14, 2 ships...
Mar. 21, 2 ships..
Mar. 31, 3 ships. _
Apr. 7, 3 ships___
Apr. 21, 2 ships—
Apr. 30, 3 ships...
M ay 14, 2 ships—
May 21, 3 ships_
_
May 31, 3 ships.........
Junj 7, 2 ships...........
June 14, 3 ships_____
June 21, 2 ships.........
June 30, 2 ships—
July 7, 3 ships___
July 14, 2 ships___
July 21,3 ships_
_
July 31, 3 ships_
_
Aug 7, 3 ships-----Aug. 14, 2 ships...
Aug. 21, 3 ships—
Aug. 31, 3 ships—
Sept. 7, 2 ships___
Sept. 14, 3 ships.
Sept. 21, 2 ships.
Sept. 30, 4 ships. ..
Oct. 7, 2 ships____
Oct. 14,1 ship___
Oct. 21, 4 ships___
Nov. 7, 3 ships___
Nov. 14, 2 ships...
Nov. 21, 3 ships...
Nov. 30, 3 ships...
Dec. 7, 2 ships___
Dec. 14, 2 ships...
Dec. 21, 2 ships...
Dec. 31,3 ships...

5,698
3,217
13,884
11,549
6,878
6.624
6,206
5,472
7,532
7,622
5,765
7,670
4,942
4,911
6,487
4,712
5,428
5,244
4,971
6,822
3,301
5,915
7,782
5,469
4,914
5,917
7,268
5,178
6,052
4,997
10,158
5,019
2,207
10, 611
6,223
5,087
7,238
6,669
5,088
4,586
5,415
4,789

10,730 0.53 $1.13
5,914
.54
1.11
22,882
.61
.98
18,371
.63
.95
14,050
.49
1.22
14,082
.47
1.28
13,455
.46
1.30
11,216
.49
1.22
16,376
.46
1.30
13,283
.57
1.05
11,019
.52
1.15
14,391
.53
1.13
9,484
.52
1.15
9,354
.53
1.13
12,908
.50
1.20
8,990
.52
1.15
10,427
.52
1.15
10,557
.50
1.20
10,032
.50
1.20
11,947
.57
1.05
7,014
.47
1.28
11,470
.52
1.15
15,661
.50
1.20
11,390
.48
1.25
10,846
.45
1.33
12,612
.47
1.28
16,020
.45
1.33
11,540
.45
1.33
11,646
.52
1.15
9,551
.52
1.15
20,792
.49
1.22
11,276
.45
1.33
5,155
.43
1.40
19,868
.53
1.13
13,492
.46
1.30
10,763
.47
1.28
11,671
.62
.97
13,997
.48
1.25
9,669
.53
1.13
8,261
.56
1.07
10,198
.53
1.13
.57
8,416
1.05

217

GALVESTON (1927)

T a b le 3 3 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABO R COST IN HANDLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo

Cargo
tonnage Man(reve­ hours
nue
tons)1

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

2507,868 336,175

Week ending—

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons)

1.51

$0.40

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(reve­ hours hour reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons) i
nue to n 1
tons)1
Other weeks

L in e N o. 7

Total, 121 ships..

Weeks with m axim um effi­
ciency

Sept. 21, 3 ships.

5,274
942
3,295

2,909
738
1,619

1.81
1.28
2.04

.47
.29

Total.......

9,511

5.266

1.81

.33

Sept. 7, 2 ships.

4,779
1,663

2,603
1,068

1.84
1.56

.33

Total.......

6,442

3,671

1.75

.34

Weeks with m inim u m effi­
ciency

July 7, 3 ships...........

1,834
5,378
2,177

1,262
3,735
3,300

1.45
1.44
.66

$0.41
.42
.92

Total...............

9,389

8,297

1.13

.53

May 7, 2 ships..........

2,059
5,699

1,843
4,642

1.12
1.23

.54
.49

Total...............

7,758

6,485

1.20

.50

Weeks with average efficiency

Mar. 14, 3 ships........

3,838
3,021
3,987

2,475
2,273
2,441

Total...............

10,846

7,189

1.51

2,517
1,967
6,123

1,844
1,585
3,592

1.36
1.24
1.70

7,021

1.51

21,312
10,728
8,706
11,082
20,622
8,724
12,822
11,721
7,358
7,189
16,278
6,359
10,088
9,139
11,118
13,785
18,275
10,917
10, 111
15,100
9,793
7,064
14,629
5,812
15,271
7,255
6,036
8,561
11,179
6,984
7,828
7,738
10,913
10,976
13,121
4,003
12,601
10,390
7,811
10,674
9,646
13,696

.44
.48
.35

Total:.............. 10,607

Jan. 7, 4 ships. .........
Jan. 14, 2 ships.........
Jan. 21, 2 ships-------Jan. 31, 2 ships.........
Feb. 7,4 ships...........
Feb. 14, 2 ships.........
Feb. 21, 2 ships.........
Feb. 28, 2 ships_____
Mar. 7, 2 ships..........
Mar. 21, 2 ships........
Mar. 31, 3 ships____
Apr. 7, 2 ships______
Apr. 14, 3 ships.........
Apr. 21, 2 ships....... .
Apr. 30, 2 ships........
May 14, 4 ships....... .
May 21, 3 ships....... .
May 31, 3 ships_____
June 7, 2 ships______
June 14, 3 ships_____
June 21, 3 ships_____
June 30,1 ship_____
July 14, 3 ships_____
July 21,1 ship..........
July 31, 4 ships.........
Aug. 7, 2 ships_____
Aug. 14, 2 ships_____
Aug. 21, 3 ships.........
Aug. 31, 3 ships.........
Sept. 14, 2 ships------Oct. 7, 2 ships...........
Oct. 14, 2 ships.........
Oct. 21, 3 ships_____
Oct. 31, 3 ships.........
Nov. 7, 3 ships..........
Nov. 14,1 ship..........
Nov. 21, 3 ships........
Nov. 30, 3 ships____
Dec. 7, 2 ships......... Dec. 14, 2 ships.........
Dec. 21, 2 ships.........
Dec. 31,4 ships.........

.43

Sept. 30, 3 ships........

L in e N o . 7—Con.

.40

1

Short tons.

66490°— 32------ 15




1.55
1.33
1.63

$0.39
.45
.37

* Principal commodity: Copper.

13,399
6,487
6,176
7,643
13,277
5,684
7,838
7,608
4,654
4,639
9,919
4,696
6,743
6,904
7,903
10,655
12,780
7,966
6,454
10,077
6,359
4,857
11,406
4,164
10,569
4,584
3,673
5,314
6,480
4,562
5,329
4,606
7,162
6,872
7,825
2,558
7,692
6,930
4,790
6,140
5,882
8,990

1.59
1.65
1.41
1.45
1.55
1.53
1.64
1.54
1.58
1.55
1.64
1.35
1.50
1.32
1.41
1.29
1.43
1.37
1.57
1.50
1.54
1.45
1.28
1.40
1.44
1.58
1.64
1.61
1.73
1.52
1.47
1.68
1.52
1.60
1.68
1.56
1.64
1.50
1.63
1.72
1.64
1.52

$0.38
.36
.43
.41
.39
.39
.37
.39
.38
.39
.37
.44
.40
.45
.43
.47
.42
.44
.38
.40
.39
.41
.47
.43
.42
.38
.37
.37
.35
.39
.41
.36
.39
.38
.36
.38
.37
.40
.37
.35
.37
.39

218

GENERAL TABLES

T able 34.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Line No. 8 :1
Total, 10 ships.......... . 24,574

24,574

Ganghours

Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
gang-hour age
num­
ber of
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long Reve­
nue per
nue
tons tons gang tons
ton
tons
ton

B urlap

905i2

27.1

27.1

20.0

1.36

1.36

$0.59

$0.59

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)........ 1,115
936
830
320

1,115
936
830
320

40.0
36.0
29.0
7.0

27.8
26.0
28.6
45.8

27.8
26.0
28.6
45.8

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.39
1.30
1.43
2.29

1.39 $0.58
1.30
.62
1.43
.56
2.29
.35

Total........................ 3,201

$0.58
.62
.56
.35

3,201

112.0

28.6

28.6

20.0

1.43

1.43

.56

.56

516
1,082
185

$16
1,082
185

24.5
33.3
5.0

21.0
32.4
37.0

21.0
32.4
37.0

20.0
20.0
20.0

1.05
1.62
1.85

1.05
1.62
1.85

.76
.49
.43

.76
.49
.43

Total.............. ......... 1,783

1,783

62.8

28.4

28.4

20.0

1.42

1.42

.56

.56

1.45
1.49
1.11

1.45 $0.55
1.49
.54
1.11
.72

$0.55
.54
.72

No. 2 (June)_________

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (October)...........

474
1,016

474
1,016

16.3 29.0
34.0 29.8
16>3 22.2

29.0
29.8
22.2

20.0
20.0
20.0

66.6

27.8

27.8

20.0

1.26

1.26

.63

.63

20.5
40.5
33.5
28.0

25.2
20.2
29.4
29.4

25.2
20.2
29.4
29.4

20.0
20.0
30.0
20.0

1.26
1.01
1.47
1.47

1.26
1.01
1.47
1.47

.63
.79
.54
.54

.63
.79
.54
.54

25.7

25.7

20.0

1.28

1,28

.63

.63

$0.58
.56
.62
.63

362

362

Total.............. .........

1,852

1,852

No. 4 (January)..........

516
819
984
825

516
819
984
825

Total........................ 3,144

3,144

122.5

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July).................

826
1,104
595
448

826
1,104
595
448

30.0
39.0
23.0
17.8

27.6
28.4
25.8
25.2

27.6
28.4
25.8
25.2

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.38
1.42
1.29
1.26

1.38 $0.58
1.42
.56
1.29
.62
.63
1.26

Total........................ 2,973

2,973

109.8

27.0

27.0

20.0

1.35

1.35

.59

.59

No. 6 (August)______

514
1,076
635
246

514
1,076
635
246

20.5
38.8
23.5
6.0

25.0
27.8
27.0
41.0

25.0
27.8
27.0
41.0

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.25
1.39
1.35
2.05

1.25
1.39
1.35
2.05

.64
.58
.59
.39

.64
.58
.59
.39

Total........................

2,471

2,471

88.8

27.8

27.8

20.0

1.39

1.39

.58

.58

23.6

i
19.0 j 1.24

1.24 $0.65

$0.65

1.33 $0.60
1.31
.61

$0.60
.61

Line No. 9:
Total. 11 ships............. 20,472

20,472

866.0

23.6

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)........... 1,595
No. 2 (M ay)......... .
1,308

1,595
1,308

63.1
52.7

25.3
24.9

25.3
24.9

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




19.0
19.0

1.33
1.31

219

GALVESTON (1927)

T a b l e 34 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ganghours

Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
gang-hour age
man-hour
cost per—
num­
ber of
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long Reve­
nue per
nue
tons tons gang tons
tons
ton
ton

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

B u r la p — Continued

Line No. 9—Continued.
No. 3 (September)----- 3,404
No. 4 (November)___ 1,850

3,404
1,850

151.4
82.5

22.4
22.4

22.4
22.4

19.0
19.0

1.18
1.18

1.18 $0.68
1.18
.68

$0.68
.68

1.24 $0.65
1.26
.63

$0.65
.63

3$4.71

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)......... .
No. 6 (December)..

1,506
1,701

1,506
1,701

63.8
70.9

3,536

2 59,579

190.1

18.6 2313.4 18.5

1.01

2 17.00 $0.79

368
394
412
485
493
485
429
470

2 6,250
2 6,500
27,000
2 8,250
28,250
28,250
27,162
2 7,917

13.9
21.9
23.0
29.8
27.5
28.8
21.1
24.1

26.5
18.1
18.0
16.4
17.9
16.8
20.3
19.5

2450.4
2296.8
2304.7
2277.6
2300.0
2286.5
2339.4
2328.5

18.0
19.0
18.0
18.0
20.9
22.6
15.0
15.1

1.47
.95
1.00
.91
.85
.75
1.36
1.29

225.00
2 15.60
216.90
2 15.40
214.40
212.70
222.60
2 21.80

Line No. 11:
Total, 9 ships............. 45,411

<6,061

267.1

20.3

22.7

17.8

1.14

23.6
23.9

23.6
23.9

19.0
19.0

1.24
1.26

C offee

Line No. 10:
Total, 8 ships........
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1( January)....
2 (March)-----3 (June).........
4 (July)--------5 (August)___
6 (September)___
7 (October)_____
8 (N ovem ber),..

.54
.84
.80
.88
.94
1.00
.59
.62

3 3.20
3 5.13
34.73
3 5.19
3 5.56
3 6.30
33.54
33.67

1.27 $0.70

$0.63

2.15 $0.42
1.46
.62

$0.37
.55

0.99 $0.91
1.12
.80

$0.81
.71

1.27 $0.71
1.30
.69

$0.63
.62

N ew sprin t P aper

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (October)..........
No. 2 (August)............

451
742

505
831

13.1
33.7

34.6
22.1

38.7
24.8

18.0
17.0

1.92
1.30

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3............................
No. 4 (March).............

321
817

360
915

21.4
48.1

15.0
17.0

16.8
19.0

17.0
17.0

0.88
1.00

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)..........
No. 6 (August)............

598
575

670
644

26.5
27.6

22.6
20.9

25.3
23.4

3 Per 100 bags.
* Principal commodity: Paper, 5,349 long tons or 5,991 short tons.




20.0
18.0

1.13
1.16

220

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 34.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Ganghours

Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
gang-hour age
num­
ber of
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long Revenue per
tons tons gang tons
tons
ton *nue
ton

1,957.5

49.2 2338.6 36.4

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Line No. 12: i
Total, 27 ships......... . 96,375

*662,798

S ugar

1.35

29.30 $0.59

*$8.60

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (June)................ 1,731
871
1,437

211,702
25,883
29,715

25.5
16.5
21.0

68.0 2458.6 36.0
52.9 2356.4 36.0
68.3 2462.5 39.0

1.89
1.47
1.75

212.70 $0.42 3$6.30
2 9.90
.54 38.08
2 11.90
.46 3 6.72

Total........................ 4,039

227,300

63.0

64.1 2433.3 37.0

1.73

2 11.70

.46

36.84

891
261
1,845

2 6,050
21,764
2 12,442

14.0
4.0
30.5

63.7 2432.0 36.0
65.1 2441.0 42.0
60.5 2407.9 36.0

1.77
1.55
1.68

2 12.00
210.50
211.30

.45
.52
.48

36.66
3 7.62
37.08

T o ta l--............ ........ 2,997

220,256

48.5

61.8 2417.7 36.5

1.69

2H.40

.47

3 7.02

2 6.90 $0.81
25.40 1.04
26.20
.89
2 5.10 1.11
2 4.80 1.18

3$11.59
»14.81
312.90
315.69
316.67

No. 2 (August)— .......

Ships w ith m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March)_______

750
1,483
1,619
1,330
815

2 5,244
210,410
211,047
2 9,289
25,706

20.0
47.0
46.0
46.0
30.0

Total........................ 5,997

* 41,696

189.0

No. 4 (March)............. 1,142
702
664
546
855
192
555

2 7,960
2 4,910
24,645
23,817
25,980
2 1,347
23,884

31.0
17.0
17.5
16.0
24.0
6.0
15.0

4,656

232,543

126.5

T o ta l--....................

37.6
31.6
35.1
28.8
27.2

2262.2
2221.4
2240.2
2202.0
2
190.4

38.0
41.0
39.0
40.0
40.0

0.99
.77
.90
.72
.68

31.7 2220.6 39.8

.80

25.50

2256.7
2288.8
2265.3
2238.7
2249.3
2224.6
2259.1

33.0
35.0
33.0
37.0
32.0
37.0
33.0

1.12
1.18
1.15
.92
1.11
.86
1.12

*7.80
28.30
28.00
2 6.50
2 7.80
2 6.10
2 7.90

.71
.68
.70
.87
.72
.93
.71

310.26
39.64
3 10.00
3 12.31
3 10.26
3 13.11
310.13

36.8 2257.3 33.8

1.09

2 7.60

.73

310.53

37.0
41.3
38.0
34.0
35.5
31.8
37.0

1.00 3 14.55

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October)--------- 1,848
1,579
299

2 12,503
210,666
22,090

37.0
34.0
10.5

50.0 2338.0 34.0
46.6 2313.8 34.0
28.5 2199.0 32.0

1.47
1.37
1.89

29.90 $0.54 3 $8.08
29.20
.58
38.70
2 6.20
.42 3 12.90

T otal-...................... 3,726

2 25,259

81.5

45.7 2309.9 33.7

1.35

29.20

.59

38.70

No. 6 (June)......... ...... 1,975
1,340
763
581

2 13,352
29,164
2 5,173
23,957

41.0
25.5
18.0
13.0

48.2
52.5
42.5
45.2

33.0
37.0
36.0
35.0

1.46
1.42
1.18
1.29

2 9.90
29.70
28.00
2 8.70

.55
.56
.68
.62

38.08
38.25
3 10.00
39.20

Total........................ 4,659

231,646

97.5

47.8 2324.6 34.9

1.37

*9.30

.58

38.60

2325.7
2359.3
2287.3
2304.5

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
2 Bags.
3 Per 100 bags.




221

GALVESTON (1927)

T a b l e 34 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo
Output per Aver­
gang-hour age

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Ganghours
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Line No. 1 3 :1
Total, 8 ships........... — 5,017

* 22,576

Output per
man-hour

Average labor
cost per—

|rmm-

berof
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long Reve­
nue
nue per tons
tons
ton
tons tons gang
ton

C otton
213.0

23.6 *106.0

15.0

1.57

*7.07 $0.90

«$0.20

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November)___

802

8 3,609

27.0

29.7 5
133.7 15.0

1.98

*8.91

No. 2 (September)___

87
136
221

*390
*610
*1,000

4.5
5.5
7.0

19.3 *86.7 15.0
24.6 *110.9 15.0
31.8 *142.9 15.0

1.28
1.64
2.12

*5.78 $0.90 e $0.20
*7.39
.90
6.20
*9.53
.90
6.20

Total........................

444

*2,000

17.0

26.1 *117.6 15.0

1.74

*7.84

.90

6.20

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March)_______

221
179

* 1,000
*800

12.0
11.8

18.5 *83.3
15.1 *67.8

Total........................

400

* 1,800

23.8

16.8 *75.6

No. 4 (July).................

310

* 1,393

14.8

21.0 *94.1

1.23
1.00

*5.55 $0.90 6 $0.20
*4.52
6.20
.90

15.0

1.12

*5.04

.90

«.20

15.0

1.40

*6.27

.90

6.20

15.0
15.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October)...........

489

*2,200

20.8

23.6 *105.8 15.0

1.57

*7.05 $0.90 e $0.20

No. 6 (August)............

143
401

*644
*1,805

6.8
15.0

21.0 *94.7 15.0
26.7 *120.3 15.0

1.40
1.78

*6.31
*8.02

.90
.90

6.20
6.20

T o ta l................... .

544

*2,449

21.8

24.9 *112.4 15.0

1.66

*7.49

.90

6.20

Line No. 14:1
Total, 10 ships_______ 9,797

*44,086

448.1

21.9 *98.4

1.47

*6.61 $0.90 6$0.20

15.0

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November)___
No. 2 (December)___-

543
562

* 2,445
*2,531

22.0
23.0

24.7 *111.1 15.0
24.5 *110.1 15.0

1.65
1.63

*7.41 $0.90 I6 $0.20
*7.34
.90 j 6.20

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (M arch)-...........

714
534

* 3,211
*2,404

33.0
29.5

21.6 *97.4
18.1 *81.5

15.0
15.0

1.44
1.21

*6.49 $0.90 6 $0.20
*5.43
.90
«.20

Total........................ 1,248

*5,615

62.5

20.0 *89.9

15.0

1.33

*5.99

.90

®.20

969
886
142

* 4,360
* 3,986
*639

48.0
42.5
6.0

20.2 *90.9 15.0
20.8 *93.8 15.0
23.7 *106.5 15.0

1.35
1.39
1.58

*6.06
*6.25
*7.10

.90
.90
.90

® 20
.
6.20
6.20

Total........................ 1,997

*8,985

96.5

20.7 *93.2

1.38

*6.21

.90

6.20

No. 4 (February!).

,.

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
« Bales.
« Piece rate per bale.




15.0

GENERAL TABLES

222

T a b le 34 .—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
gang-hour age
num­
ber of
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long Reve­
nue
nue per
ton
tons tons gang tons
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

C otton — Continued
Line No. 14 *
—Contd.
No. 5 (January) ____

Ganghours

673
1,164
616

5 3,030

5 5,240
6 2,770

25.0
56.0
32.0

20.8 593.6
19.2 586.6

26.9 5121.2

35.0
15.0
15.0

1.80
1.39
1.28

58.08 $0.90 *$0.20
5 6.24
•. 20
.90
«. 20
5 5.77
.90

Total......................... 2,453

511,040

113.0

21.7 597.7

No. 6 (September)___

389

«1,750

17.0

Line No. 15: i
Total, 35 ships............. 69,627

«311,532

3,153.5

15.0

1.45

5 6.51

.90

«.20

22.9 5102.9 15.0

1.52

5 6.86

.90

6.20

22.1 598.8

1.47

5 6.59 $0.90 6$0.20

15.0

Ships with maximum efficiency

511.49 $0.90 6$0.20

1,582

s 7,121

41.3

38.3 5172.4 15.0

2.55

No. 2 (February)........ 1,143
1,085

«5,142
64,883

53.0
33.0

21.6 597.0 15.0

32.9 5148.0 15.0

1.44
1.97

56.47
58.86

.90
.90

6.20
6.20

Total........ —............. 2,228

6 10,025

86.0 25.9 5116.6 15.0

1.73

5 7.77

.90

6.20

No. 1 (January)..........

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (September)......

546
363
245

5 2,455
« 1,635
5 1,102

24.0
24.0
17.5

22.7 5102.3 15.0
15.1 5 68.1 15.0
14.0 563.0 15.0

1.01

5 6.82 $0.90 6$0.20
5 4.54
.90
«. 20
5 4.20
.90
6.20

1.52
.93

Total........................

1,154

«5,192

65.5

17.6 5 79.3

15.0

1.17

5 5.28

.90

6.20

No. 4 (September)----

966
779

5 4,345
5 3,509

42.0
55.0

23.0 5103.5 15.0
14.2 563.8 15.0

1.53
.94

56.90
5 4.25

.90
.90

6.20
6.20

Total........................

1,745

5 7,854

97.0

18.0 581.0

1.20

5 5.40

.90

6.20

15.0

Ships with average efficiency

1.36
1.62

5 6.12 $0.90 6$0.20
5 7.29
.90
6.20

22.2 5100.0 15.0

1.48

5 6.67

.90

6.20

22.8 5102.5 15.0
15.0

1.52
1.39

1.66

15.0

1.73
1.27

56.83
5 6.27
57.47
5 7.79
5 5.73

.90
.90
.90
.90
.90

6.20
6.20
6.20
6.20
6.20

22.3 5100.2 15.0

1.48

56.68

.90

6.20

21.3 595.7

1.42

56.38 $0.90 6$0.20

32.0
28.0

20.4 591.8 15.0
24.3 5109.4 15.0

5 6,000

60.0

5 3,074
5 3,011
5224
5 1,402
5 559

30.0
32.0

20.9 594.1

6.5

19.1 5 86.0

1,838

58,270

82.5

Line No. 16:1
Total, 34 ships............. 55,383

5 249,223

2,605.0

No. 5 (November)___

653
680

5 2,937
53,063

Total........................

1,333

No. 6 (October)..........

683
669
50
312
124

Total........................

2.0 24.9 5112.0 15.0
12.0 26.0 5116.8 15.0

i Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




15.0

6 Bales.

6 Piece rate per bale.

223

GALVESTON (1927)

T a b le 3 4.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ships with m axim um efficiency

C o tto n — Continued
Line N o . 161 Contd.
—
N o. 1 (M arch)...........

Output per A ver­ . Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
gang-hour
age
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long
Reve­
Long
Revenue Long
nue
per
nue
tons
tons
tons
ton
tons gang
ton

302
38
391
131
122
170
279

* 1,357
8 173
8 1,759
8 590
8 549
8 765
8 1,256

12.5
1.8
13.3
4.0
4.0
7.5
12.0

20.8
21.3
29.4
32.8
30.5
22.7
23.3

8 93.8
8 96.0
8132.3
8147.5
8137.3
8102.0
8104.7

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.39
1.42
1.96
2.18
2.03
1.51
1.55

8 6.25
8 6.40
8 8.82
8 9.83
8 9.15
8 6.-80
8 6.98

$0.90 e $0.20
.90
6.2 0
.90
6 .20
.90
«-.20
.90
6.2 0
.90
6.2 0
.90
6.2 0

Total.... .............

1,433

8 6,449

55.1

26.0 8117.0

15.0

1.73

8 7.80

.90

6.2 0

N o. 2 (January)..

272
1,053

8 1,222
8 4,741

11.0
41.3

24.7 8111.2
25.5 8114.8

15.0
15.0

1.65
1.70

8 7.41
8 7.65

.90
.90

6.2 0
« .2 0

T otal...................

1,325

8 5,963

52.3

25.3 8114.0

15.0

1.69

8 7.60

.90

6.2 0

Ships with m in im u m efficiency
N o. 3 (December)..

15.0
15.0

1.14
.98

8 5.12
8 4.41

16.6 8 74.9

15.0

1.11

8 4.99

.90

6.2 0

22.2 8100.1
16.9 8 76.1

15.0
15.0

1.48
1.13

8 6.67
8 5.07

.90
.90

6.20
6.20

15.0

1.13

8 5.10

.90

6.20

955
176

8 4,298
8 793

56.0
12.0

T o ta l.........................

1,131

8 5,091

68.0

N o. 4 (September)..

22
1,117

8 100
8 5,024

1.0
66.0

1,139

8 5,124

67.0

17.0 8 76.5

T o ta l.

17.1 8 76.8
14.7 8 66.2

$0.90 6 $0. 20
.90
6.2 0

Ships with average efficiency
N o. 5 (D ecem ber)___

795
1,359
373

e 3,576
8 6,114
8 1,681

36.0
72.0
12.0

22.1 8 99.3 15.0
18.9 8 84.9 15.0
31.2 8140.3 .15.0

1.47
1.26
2.08

8 6.62
8 5.66
5 9.35

$0.90 6 $0.20
.90
6 .20
.90
6 .2 0

T o ta l.............................

2,527

s 11,371

120.0

21.1 8 94.8

15.0

1.40

8 6.32

.90

6.2 0

N o. 6 (October)............

349
1,217
74

8 1,569
8 5,477
8 333

15.0
60.0
4.0

23.2 8104.6
20.3 8 91.4
18.5 883.3

15.0
15.0
15.0

1. 55
1.35
1.23

8 6.97
8 6.09
5 5.55

.90
.90
.90

8 .20
6 .2 0
6 .2 0

T o ta l.............................

1,640

8 7,379

79.0

20.8 8 93.5

15.0

1.38

5 6.23

.90

6 .20

Line N o. 17:
Total, 27 ships............... 32,641

32,641

1,602.6

20.4

15.9

1.28

1.28

$0.63

$0.63

1.47 $0.54
1.45
.55

$0.54
.55

1.01 $0.79
1.03
.78

$0.79
.78

1.28 $0.63
.62
1.29

$0.62
.63

F lour
20.4

Ships with m axim um efficiency
N o. 1 (April)..................
N o. 2 (August)_
_

654
882

654
882

27.9
38.0

23.4
23.2

23.4
23.2

15.9
16.0

1.47
1.45

Ships with m in im u m efficiency
N o .3 (November)..
N o. 4 (October)___

981
1,240

981
1,240

61.0
75.4

16.2
16.5

16.2
16.2

16.0
16.0

1.01
1.03

Ships with average efficiency
N o . 5 (January)..
N o. 6 (July)..........

1,394
928

1,394
928

77.8
45.0

17.9
20.6

17.9
20.6

1Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.




14.0
16.0

1.28
1.29

* Bales.

•Piece rate per bale.

224

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 34.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LA BO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Line No. 18:
Total, 10 ships............. 5,834

5,834

Ganghours

Output per Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
gang-hour age
num­
ber of
Reve­
Long Reve­ men Long Revenue Long nue
nue per
ton
tons
tons tons gang tons
ton

S pelter

264.7

22.0

22.0

16.0

1.38

1.38 $0.58

$0.58

2.01 $0.40
1.56
.51

$0.40
.51

1.01 $0.79
.73
1.10

$0.79
.73

1.41 $0.57
1.42
.56

$0.57
.56

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)..
No. 2 (March)...

755
750

755
750

23.5
30.1

32.2
25.0

32.2
25.0

16.0
16.0

2.01
1.56

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February)..
No. 4 (March)___

525
562

525
562

32.6
31.9

16.2
17.6

16.2
17.6

16.0
16.0

1.01
1.10

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)___
No. 6 (November)___

675
350

675
350

30.0
15.4

22.6
22.7

22.6
22.7

16.0
16.0

1.41
1.42

W h e a t (Trimming) '

Line No. 19:
Total, 32 ships......... . 97,566 83,896,128 •7,364.5

13.25

8529.00 $0.06 w $1.51

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)...
No. 2 (February)..

2,571
6,482

896,000
8242,000

» 77.00
•204.0

33.39 8
1,246.80 $0.02 w $0.64
N.67
.03
31.80 81,186.30

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)...........
No. 4 (September). . .

3,348
2,786

8 125,000
8 104,000

•375.0
•310.0

8.93 8 333.30 $0.09
8.99 8 335.50
.09

io 2.40
io 2.38

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5----------- -----No. 6 (March)___

2,571
2,223

Line No. 20:
Total, 6 ships.......

16,550

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6

(January).........
(January)........
(March)...........
(April)..............
(May)..............
(September)_
_

2.142
2,571
2,785
2.142
3,696
3,214

8 137,920
885,286

9275.0
9171.0

8618,000 • 1,180.5
880,000
896,000
8 104,000
8 80,000
8 138,000
8 120,000

»102.0
9182.0
9 167.5
9167.0
9 284.0
9 278.0

? Data for ships Nos. 5 and 6 include also other grain.
s Bushels.




9.35 8501.50 $0.09 io $1.60
13.00 8498.70
.06 io 1.60
14.02 8523.50 $0.06 io $1.53
21.00
14.13
16.62
12.83
13.01
11.56

8 784.30
8527.50
8620.90
8479.00
8485.90
8 431.70

•Man-hours,
w Per 1,000 bushels.

.04
.06
.05
.06
.06
.07

io 1.02
1 1.52
0
io 1.29
io 1.67
io 1.65
io 1.85

Houston (1927)
T a b le 35.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABO R COST IN H AN DLING CARGO, BY

KIN D OF T R A D E AND IN DIVIDU AL COMMODITIES

Output per Aver­ Output per Average la­
man-hour bor cost
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo, Europe:
No. 1...................................
No. 2 ..................................
No. 3_..................................
Loading cargo, Europe:
No. 4................................
No. 5........ ...........................
No. 6 _ _ ............................................ .
No. 7........... .......................
No. 8.................................
No. 9....................................

16,862
5,837
24,316

16,862
5,837
24,316

817.0
287.0
2,223.3

20.6
20.3
10.9

20.6
20.3
10.9

18.0
18.0
11.6

1.14
1.13
.94

1.14 $0.70
1.13
.71
.94
.85

18,943
37,403
36,747
9,836
10,349
5,941

18,943
37,403
36,747
9,836
10,349
5,941

744.2
1,624.5
1,603.2
454.3
504.4
374.5

25.5
23.0
22.9
21.7
20.5
15.9

25.5
23.0
22.9
21.7
20.5
15.9

19.2
18.0
18.0
17.1
18.0
18.0

1.32
1.28
1.28
1.26
1.14
.88

1.32
1.28
1.28
1.26
1.14
.88

.61
.63
.63
.63
.70
.91

$0.70
.71
.85
.61
.63
.63
.63
.70
.91

Intercoastal trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 10................................... 47,180

352,840

2,464.5

19.1 321.4

20.8

0.92 31.03 $0.87 3$0.78

Coastwise trade 2

Discharging cargo:
No. 11...... ............................
Loading cargo:
No. 12...................................

3 27,288 <45,155.0

30.60

8
$1.00

339,450 <40,134.0

3.98

3 61
.

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Newsprint paper—No. 13. _ 4,214
Loading cargo:
Cotton—No. 14................... 15,686
No. 15.......................... 29,259
No. 16......................... 56,197
No. 177.......................... 13,928
Rails—No. 18____________ 11,509

3 4,720
5 70,591
8131,704
8253,396
8 62,675
11,509

230.1

18.3 320.5

677.5 23.2
1,314.5 22.3
2,606.8 21.6
960.0 14.5
1,470.6
7.8

8104.0
8100.2
897.2
565.3
7.8

17.3

1.06 31. 18 $0.75 3
$0.68

15.0
15.0
15.0
20.1
9.0

1.54
1.48
1.44
.72
.87

87.00
86.70
86.50
83.30
.87

.90
.90
.90
(8
)
.92

1 Wage rate: 80 cents per hour.
2 Wage rate: 60 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.
4 Man-hours.
* Bales.
6 Piece rate per bale.
7 Cotton hand stowed and screwed.
8 Piece rate: 20 cents per bale for hand-stowed and 40 centsper bale for screwed cotton.




225

® 20
.
«.20
0.20
(8
)
.92

226

GEN ERAL TABLES

T a b le 36.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long Rev­
tons tons gang tons tons ton enue
ton

L in e No. 1

Total, 24 ships...... ....................... 116,862

16,862

817.0

20.6

20.6

18.0

1.14

1.14 $0.70

$0.70

$0.35
1.25

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Steel angles...... ................... .
General cargo______________

601
19

601
19

14.7
1.6

40.7
11.5

40.7
11.5

18.0
18.0

2.26
.64

2.26 $0.35
.64 1.25

Total......... .......................-

620

620

16.3

38.0

38.0

18.0

2.10

2.10

.38

.38

No. 2 (February):
Sheet steel_________________
General cargo______________

518
120

518
120

638

638

21.0

30.4

30.4

18.0

1.69

1.69

.47

.47

0.69 $1.16

$1.16

Total............................... .

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Steel products..... ......... ...... ...
Manure salts_______________
General cargo___________ - -

525
278
179

525
278
179

T o ta l.-............ .........

......

982

982

No. 4 (June):
Sheet ir o n ________________
General cargo______________

198
75

198
75

T o ta l-..............................-

273

273

79.5

12.4

12.4

18.0

0.69

18.2

14.9

14.9

18.0

.83

.83

.96

.96

1.14 $0.70

$0.70

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Steel products __ _____
General cargo______________

646
140

646
140

Total. ..................................

786

786

38.2

20.5

No. 6 (February):
Iron tubes_________________
paper________ ____________
Kainit (bulk)____________ General cargo______________

20.5

18.0

287
190
105
10

19.1
287
190
105 | 10.2
10

Total ___________________

592

592

29.3

5,837

5,837

Cotton bands__ _____ ______ 4,000
General cargo______________ 2 1,837

4,000
1,837

1.14

15.1

15.1

18.0

.84

.84

.95

.95

30.1

30.1

18.0

1.67

1.67

.48

.48

20.2

20.2

18.0

1.12

1.12

.71

.71

287.0

20.3

20.3

18.0

1.13

1.13 $0.71

$0.71

193.2
93.8

20.7
19.6

20.7
19.6

18.0
18.0

1.15
1.10

1.15
1.10

.70
.73

.70
.73

L in e N o. 2

Total, 7 ships...... ..........................

No. 1 (January):
Cotton bands______________
General cargo.........................

1,000
142

1,000
142

48.3
7.8

20.7
19.9

20.7
19.9

18.0
18.0

1.15
1.11

1.15
1.11

.70
.72

.70
.72

Total.............- .....................

1,142

1,142

56.1

20.7

20.7

18.0

1.15

1.15

.70

.70

1 Principal commodity: Iron and steel products, 12,961 long tons.
* Principal commodity: Burlap, 1,233 long tons.




227

HOUSTON (1927)

T a b le 36.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

1,000
107
41

1,000
107
41

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
age man-hour labor cost
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
per
Long Rev­ gang Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue
tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton

L ine N o . 2—Continued
No. 2 (March):
Cotton hands „
Burlap____________ ______
General cargo______________

48.6
4.6
3.2

20.5
23.4
12.6

20.5
23.4
12.6

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.14
1.30
.70

1.14 $0.70
1.30
.62
.70 1.14

$0.70
.62
1.14

1,148

1,148

56.4

20.3

20.3

18.0

1.13

1.13

.71

.71

No. 3 (April): Cork____________

164

164

18.2

9.0

9.0

18.0

.50

.50

1.60'

1.60

No. 4 (August):
Burlap
General cargo

319
15

319
15

Total.................................

334

334

9.9

33.8

33.8

18.0

1.88

1.88

.43

.43

221

221

23.6

9.4

9.4

18.0

.52

.52

1.54

1.54

No. 6 (September):
Cotton bands T .............
Burlap_________ __________

1,000
596

1,000
596

45.7
16.5

21.8
36.2

21.8
36.2

18.0
18.0

1.21
2.01

1.21
2.01

.66
.40

.66
.40

Total..................................

1,596

1,596

62.2

25.6

25.6

18.0

1.42

1.42

.56

.56

1,000
211
21

1,000
211 }
21

50.6
10.0

19.8
23.2

19.8
23.2

18.0
18.0

1.10
1.29

1.10
1.29

.73
.62

.73
.62

1,232

1,232

60.6

20.3

20.3

18.0

1.13

1.13

.71

.71

24,316 2,223.3

10.9

10.9

11.6

0.94

0.94 $0.85

$0.85

$0.58

Total__________________
No. 5 (August): Cork............ ......

No. 7 (September):
Cotton bands______________
Burlap____________ ____ ___
General cargo____________ _ _
Total........... .......................
L ine N o. 3

Total, 18 ships_________________ 324,316

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Steel. _
Pipe _
General cargo__

__

Total............................. ......
No. 2 (September):
Steel......... ............
General cargo.
Total..................................

399
316
127

399
316
127

842

842

462
405

462
405

867

867

63.5

13.3

13.3

9.7

1.37

1.37 $0.58

56.7

15.3

15.3

12.4

1.23

1.23

.65

.65

0.68 $1.18

$1.18

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Steel..............................
General cargo _

873
130

873
130

Total..................... ...... ........

1,003

1,003

No. 4 (January):
Steel___ ______ ________ ____
General cargo______________

915
105

915
105

Total....................................

1,020

1,020

a Principal commodity: Steel, 17,706 long tons.




130.5

7.7

7.7

11.3

0.68

114.5

8.9

8.9

11.7

.76

.76

1.05

1.05

228

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 3 6 . -P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­ per
Long enue gang Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons tons
tons enue ton enue
tons
ton
Ships with average efficiency

L ine N o . 3—Continued
No. 5 (July):
Steel
General cargo

-

_

Total....................................
No. 6 (May):
Steel
General cargo
Total_______ ____________

1,086
388

1,086
388

1,474

1,474

821
221

821
221

1,042

1,042

153.0

9.6

9.6

10.3

0.94

101.0

10.3

10.3

11.1

.93

0.94 $0.85

.93

$0.85

.86

.86

$0.61

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e N o. 4

Total, 9 ships__________________ 18,943

18,943

744.2

25.5

25.5

19.2

1.32

1.32 $0.61

13,467
5,476

13,467
5,476

517.8
226.4

26.0
24.2

26.0
24.2

19.0
19.9

1.37
1.22

1.37
1.22

Oil cake__________________
General cargo.. . _________

.58
.66

.58
.66

1.79 $0.45
1.50
.53

$0.45
.53

$0.63
1.18
1.60

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March): Oil cake..............
No. 2 (March): Cottonseed meal.

2,700
650

2,700
650

94.4
24.1

28.6
27.0

28.6
27.0

16.0
18.0

1.79
1.50

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Oil cak e__________________
Flour______________________
Hardwood_________________

3,019
88
49

3,019
88
49

130.7
8.7
6.5

23.0
10.2
7.5

23.0
10.2
7.5

18.0
15.0
15.0

1.28
.68
.50

1.28 $0.63
.68 1.18
.50 1.60

145.9

21.6

21.6

17.7

1.22

1.22

.66

.66

140.3

25.6

25.6

21.0

1.22

1.22

.66

.66

$0.54
1.01
.52

Total__ ______ ___________

3,156

3,156

No. 4 (September):
Oil cake
. - ____________
Cottonseed meal___________
F lo u r..................... ................

3,067
500
30

3,067
500
30

Total____________________

3,597

3,597

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Oil cake___________________
Cottonseed meal___________
Flour_____________ ________
Total................ ............ .
No. 6 (March): Cottonseed meal..




1,006
85
29

1,006
85
29

42.7
6.8
1.3

23.5
12.6
23.1

23.5
12.6
23.1

16.0
16.0
15.0

1.47
.79
1.54

1.47 $0.54
.79 1.01
1.54
.52

1,120

1,120

50.8

22.1

22.1

15.9

1.38

1.38

.58

.58

850

850

30.9 | 27.6

27.6

20.0

1.38

1.38

.58

.58

229

HOUSTON (1927)

T a b l e 36 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO I N

FOREIGN TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Output per A ver­
gang-hour age
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long enue per
tons tons gang

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L in e No. 5

Total, 24 ships_________________ <37,403

37,403 1,624.5

23.0

23.0

18.0

1.28

1.28 $0.63

$0.63

$0.53
.60

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No.*l (June):
Flour.............................
General cargo. _ __________

1,311
84

1,311
84

53.9
3.5

24.3
24.0

24.3
24.0

18.0
18.0

1.51
1.33

1.51 $0.53
1.33
.60

57.4

24.3

24.3

18.0

1.49

1.49

.54

.54

26.4

26.6

26.6

18.0

1.48

1.48

.54

.54

$0.76

Total____________________

1,395

1,395

No. 2 (January):
Flour and rice______________
General cargo______________

596
105

596
105

Total....................................

701

701

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September):
Flour______________________
Lumber_______ ______ _____
General cargo______________

1,726
155
86

1,726
155
86

Total____________________

1,967

1,967

General cargo_________________

1,399
200
14

1,399
200
14

Total____________________

1,613

1,613

No. 4 (August):
Flour_______________ ______
Cottonseed meal................ .....

103.8

18.9

18.9

18.0

1.05

1.05 $0.76

76.9

21.0

21.0

18.0

1.09

1.09

.73

.73

$0.63
.60
.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Flour.......................
Rice____ _________
Cottonseed meal___

1,155
285
275

1,155
285
275

50.9
11.8
11.6

22.7
24.2
23.7

22.7
24.2
23.7

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.26
1.34
1.32

1.26 $0.63
1.34
.60
1.32
.61

Total...................

1,715

1,715

74.3

23.1

23.1

18.0

1.28

1.28

.63

.63

No. 6 (February):
Flour......................
General cargo.........

513
91

513
91

19.1
7.7

26.9
11.8

26.9
11.8

18.0
18.0

1.49
.66

1.49
.66

.54
1.21

.54
1.21

Total....................

604

604

26.8

22.5

22.5

18.0

1.25

1.25

.64

.64

36,747 1,603.2

22.9

22.9

18.0

1.28

1.28 $0.63

$0.63

$0.34

L in e

No. 6

Total, 25 ships...............

«36,747

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (August): Oil cake.......... .
No. 2 (November): Cottonseed
meal................................ ...........

588

588

14.0

42.1

42.1

18.0

2.34

2.34 $0.34

250

250

8.7

28.6

28.6

18.0

1.59

1.59

.50

.50

* Principal commodities: Flour, 29,217 long tons; rice, 3,348 long tons; cottonseed meal, 2,628 long tons.
4 Principal commodities: Cottonseed meal, 14,030 long tons; oil cake, 11,774 long tons; flour, 7,478 long
tons; rice, 1,448 long tons.




230

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 36.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OP LA BO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FO REIGN T R A D E -C ontinued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Aver­
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Long enue per
tons tons gang

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Rev­
Long enue Long Rev­
tons tons ton enue
ton

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L ine N o. 6—Continued
No. 3 (October):
Flour............... ......................
Cottonseed meal___________
Oil cake___________________
Rice_______________________
Scrap metal......... .............. . .

783
8-50
200
101
51

783
850
200
101
51

Total.... ........ ................... .

1,985

1,985

No. 1 (May):
Hominy feed_______________
Flour.....................................
Oilcake___________ ______
General cargo.........................

295
184
101
187
767

767

18.0

18.0

18.0

1.00

1.00 $0.80

42.3

18.2

18.2

18.0

1.01

1.01

295
184
101
187

Total____________________

109.8

$0.80

.79

.79

$0.58
.66
.71

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Cottonseed meal___________
Oil cake_________________
Rice____ ________________ .
Flour.... ....................... ...........

1,750
832
370
440

1,750
832
370
440 }

Total____________________

3,392

No. 6 (November):
Flour_____________ ________
Cottonseed meal__________
Rice and scrap___________ _
Total............. ................. .

70.1
37.9
40.3

25.0
22.0
20.2

25.0
22.0
20.2

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.39
1.22
1.12

1.39 $0.58
1.22
.66
1.12
.71

3,392

148.3

22.9

22.9

18.0

1.27

1.27

.63

.63

653
630
25

653
630
25

33.3
21.4
1.5

19.6
29.3
17.1

19.6
29.3
17.1

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.09
1.63
.95

1.09
1.63
.95

.73
.49
.84

.73
.49
.84

1,308

1,308

56.2

23.2

23.2

18.0

1.29

1.29

.62

.62

9,836

9.836

454.3

21.7

21.7

17.1

1.26

1.26 $0.63

6,999 655,167
1,837
1,837
1,000
1,000

323.0
90.0
41.3

21.7 8170.8
20.4
20.4
24.2
24.2

17.7
15.4
16.5

9.
1.23 ® 70
1. 32 1.32
1.47 1.47

L ine N o . 7
Total, S ships................................
Oil cake___________________
Cottonseed meal___________
General cargo______________

.65
.61
.54

$0.63
78.25
.61
.54

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March): Cottonseed meal.

287 6 2,903

No. 2 (December):
Oil cake...................................
Cottonseed meal.............. ......

100
6 740
900 ®9,364

Total____________________

1,000 810,104

13.0

22.1 8223.0

14.0

1.58 816.00 $0. 51 7$5.00

41.0

24.4

16.5

1.47

24.4

1.47

.54

.54

$0.70
.50
.86

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (December): Cottonseed
m eal8
_______________________

Total____________________

• Bags.

*’Per 100 bags.




100
150
200

100
150
200

5.5
7.0
13.5

18.2
21.4
14.8

18.2
21.4
14.8

16.0
14.7
16.0

1.14
1.46
.93

1.14 $0.70
1.48
.55
.93
.86

450

450

26.0

17.3

17.3

15.7

1.11

1.11

.72

8 Data, except totals, are for_daily or hatch productivity and cost.

.72

231

HOUSTON (1927)

T a b l e 36 .—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe —Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
gang tons
tons tons
tons ton ton

Ships with m in im u m efficiency—Continued
L in e No. 7—Continued

63,282
81,855
64,622
*2,320
64,242
«1,779
64,459
«1,502

18.0
12.0
24.0
12.0
24.0
9.0
30.0
9.0

000 624,061

No. 4 (October): Oil cake8
___

138.0

409
232
578
289
530

222

558
182
TotaL

22.7
19.3
24.1
24.1
22.1
24.7
18.6
20.8

6182.0
6155.0
6193.0
3.0
6177.0
6198.0
6149.0
6167.0

21.7 6174.0

16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
18.5

1.42
1.13
1.33
1.27
1.20

19.0
18.0

1.23
.97
1.16

18.2

1.20

20.0

611.40 $0.56 i $7.02
fi9.10 .71 7 8.79
610.70 .60 7 7.48
610.20 .63 77.84
69.60 .67 7 8.33
69.90 .65 7 8.08
67.80 .82 710.26
«9.30
7 8.60
69.60

.67 7 8.33

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September): Oil cake8___

Total........................
No. 6 (October): Oil cake8

Total.................................. .

109
6 867
146 6 1,171
505 6 4,031
6 894
113
828 6 6,585

8.0
8.0
21.5
i 7.0
,38.3

1,701 613,548

13.6
18.3
23.5
16.1
21.6

6108.0
6146.0
6187.0
6128.0
6172.0

15.0
16.5
17.0
16.0
17.0

0.90
1.12
1.38
1.00
1.27

67.20 $0.89 7$11.11
6 8.90
.71 7 8.99
611.00 .58 77.27
68.00
.80 7 10.00
610.10 .63 7 7.92

82.8

20.6 6164.0

16.7

1.23 «9.80

.65

7 8.16

6 3,481
63,108
6 1,095
6 648
6 2,649
6 462

19.5
16.0
7.0
4.0
16.0
2.7

23.3
25.3
20.3
21.1
21.6
21.9

6179.0
6194.0
6156.0
6162.0
6166.0
6168.0

18.0
17.0
18.0
16.0
18.0
18.0

1.29
1.48
1.13
1.32
1.20
1.21

69.90
611.40
68.70
10.10
69.20
69.30

.62
.54
.71
.61
.67
.66

7 8.08
7 7.02
7 9.20
7 7.92
78.70
78.60

1,490 611,443

65.2

22.8 6175.0

17.6

1. 30 69.90

.62

7 8.08

$0.70

454
405
142
84
346
59

L ine N o . 8
Total, 7 ships.................................

10,349

10,349

504.4

20.5

20.5

18.0

1.14

1.14 $0.70

Cottonseed meal...... .............
General cargo______________

8,745
1,604

8,745
1,604

387.5
116.9

22.6
13.7

22.6
13.7

18.0
18.0

1.25
.76

1.25
.76

.64
1.05

.64
1.05

No. 1 (April):
Cottonseed meal_____ ______
Lumber_________ ______ ___
Sulphur_____ ____ ________
Flour and rice........................

178
163
136
150

178
163
136
150

10.4
22.0
8.6
4.8

17.1
7.4
15.7
31.3

17.1
7.4
15.7
31.3

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

.95
.41
.87
1.74

.95
.41
.87
1.74

.84
1.94
.92
.46

.84
1.94
.92
.46

T o ta l--......................... ......

627

627

45.8

13.7

13.7

18.0

.76

.76

1.05

1.05

No. 2 (April):
Cottonseed meal....................
Flour_________ ________
Corn______________________
General cargo______________

1,500
438
255
112

1,500
438
255
112

53.9
17.7
10.3
8.8

27.7
24.7
24.7
12.6

27.7
24.7
24.7
12.6

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.54
1.37
1.37
.70

1.54
1.37
1.37
.70

.52
.58
.58
1.14

.52
.58
.58
1.14

Total........... ........................

2,305

2,305

90.7

25.4

25.4

18.0

1.41

1.41

.57

.57

No. 3 (June):
Cottonseed meal................... .
Lumber____ _____ ________
General cargo_____________ _

2,001
183
20

2,001
183
20

71.0
26.3
2.8

28.3
7.0
7.2

28.3
7.0
7.2

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.57
.39
.40

1.57
.39
.40

.51
2.05
2.00

.51
2.05
2.00

2,204

2,204

100.1

22.0

22.0

18.0

1.22

1.22

.66

.66

147
1,250

147
1,250

15.6
69.2

9.4
18.0

9.4
18.0

1.80
18.0

.52
1.00

.52
1.00

1.54
.80

1.54
.80

2,114

2,114

100.3

21.1

21.1

18.0

1.17

1.17

.68

.68

1,702

1,702

82.7

20.5

20.5

18.0

1.14

1.14

.70

.70

Total.............. ................ .
No. 4 (June): C ork... _________
No. 5 (Octobcr): Cottonseed meal.
No. 6 (November): Cottonseed
meal_____________ ____ ______
No. 7 (November): Cottonseed
meal...........................................
6 Bags.

7 Per 100 bags.




8 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.

232

G EN ERAL TABLES

T a b l e 3 6 . - PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

F OREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

5,941

5,941

374. 5

15.9

15.9

18.0

0.88

0.88 $0.91

1,094
987
3,860

1,094
987
3,860

45.0
101.9
227.6

24.3
9.7
17.0

24.3
9.7
17.0

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.35
.54
.94

1.35
.54
.94

L in e N o . 9

Total, 11 ships___________ ____
Flour_____________________
Lumber...................................
General cargo. ........................

$0.91

.59
1.48
.85

.59
1.48
.85

$0.47
1.63

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Flour........................ ..............
General cargo______________

375
53

375
53

12.2
6.1

30.8
8.8

30.8
8.8

18.0
18.0

1. 71
.49

1. 71 $0.47
.49 1.63

Total. ......... ........................

428

428

18.3

23.4

23.4

18.0

1.30

1.30

.62

.62

No. 2 (March):
Rice_____________________
Sulphur___......... .......... .........

360
100

360
100

15.3
5.2

23.6
19.1

23.6
19.1

18.0
18.0

1.31
1.06

1.31
1.06

.61
.75

.61
.75

Total. .................... .............

460

460

20.5

22.3

22.3

18.0

1.24

1.24

.65

.65

$1. 36

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Lumber___________________
Cottonseed meal___________
General cargo....... ..............
Total- .............................
No. 4 (November):
Lumber___________________
Rice___ ___________________
General cargo.........................
Total- - ..............................

397
168
46

397
168
46

611

611

57.3

10.6

248
144
80

248
144
80

32.1
11.1
1.6

472

472

44.8

10.6

10.6

18.0

0.59

0.59 $1. 36

7. 7
13.0

7. 7
13.0

.43
.72
2.86

.43
. 72
2.86

1.86

1.11

1.11

51.3

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.86

51.5

10.6

18.0

.59

.59

1.36

1.36

0.65 $1.23
.51
1.57
1.02
.78

$1.23
.51
.78

.28

.28

Ships with average efficiency
. 5 (April):

Lumber..... .............................
Sulphur___________________
General cargo______________

318
121
122

318
121
122

27.2
4.3
6.7

11.7
28.3
18.4

11.7
28.3
38.4

18.0
18.0
18.0

0.65
1.57
1.02

Total..................... ..............

561

561

38.2

14.8

14.8

18.0

.82

.82

.98

.98

Flour........... ................. .........
General cargo______________

250
110

250
110

12.0
7.4

20.9
14.9

20.9
14.9

18.0
18.0

1.16
.83

1.16
.83

.69
.96

.69
.96

Total____________ _______

360

360

19.4

18.5

18.5

18.0

1.03

1.03

.78

.78

. 6 (January):




233

HOUSTON (1927)

T able 37.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

IN TERCOASTAL T R A D E

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons *

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men Long Rev­ Long Rev­
Long enue per
enue
tons tons1 gang ton tons1 ton enue
ton i

L ine No. 10

Total, 20 ships............................... 247,180

52,840 2,464.5

19.1

21.4

20.8

0.92

1.03 $0.87

$0.78

$0.58

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Hfvnnp.d goods

.......

Sugar
Beans
____
Shingles__________________
General cargo______________

1,457
451
216
315
196

1,632
505
242
352
220

Total....................... - .........

2,635

2,951

Sugar_____________________
Beans . . . . .
- .T General cargo______________

1,537
914
221
415

1,722
1,024
247
465

Total____ ______ ____ ____

3,087

3,458

No. 2 (October):

f1a.nnp.rl goods

101.0

26.1

29.2

21.0

1.24

1.39 $0.65

119.5

25.8

28.9

21.0

1.23

1.38

.65

.58

0.71 $1.27

$1.13

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Canned goods______________
Beans_____________________
Lumber___________________
Shingles___________________
General cargo.............. ...........

806
109
1,360
188
177

903
122
1,523
211
198

Total____________________

2,640

2,957

No. 4 (February):
Canned goods.........................
Sugar.. __________________
L um ber__________________
Shingles___________________
General cargo______________

518
451
1,570
243
166

Total____________________

2,948

3,302

13.3

14.9

21.0

0.63

14.1

15.8

20.3

.69

580
505
1,758
273
186

198.5

209.5

.77

1.16

1.04

1.01 $0.89

$0. 79

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Sugar________________ ____ _
Canned goods.........................
Lumber___________________
Shingles...................................
General cargo..........................

1,046
621
508
489
228

1,171
696
569
548
255

Total____________________

2,892

3,239

No. 6 (December):
Canned goods.........................
Sugar.................... .................
Lumber.................... ..............
Shingles..................................
General cargo..........................

859
451
166
506
355

962
505
186
567
398

Total....................................

2,337

2,618

154.0

18.8

21.1

20.8

0.90

123.0

19.0

21.3

21.0

.90

1.01

.89

.79

1Short tons.
* Principal commodities: Canned goods, 15,600 long tons; sugar, 13,701 long tons; lumber, 5,743 long tons;
shingles, 5,460 long tons.

66490°-32----- 16




234

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 3 8 . — PR O D U C TIV IT Y

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G CARGO IN
COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

L ine N o . 11

Total, 34 ships2__

27,288

45,155

0.60

1,118
734

1,408
960

0.79
.76

$0.76
.79

Ships with m inim um effi­
ciency

Aug. 13, 1927Oct. 8, 1927—

754

1,688

1,837

0.45
.48

$1.33
1.25

Ships with average efficiency

Aug. 27,1927Mar. 2 ,1928-

915
724

1,543
1,191

0.59
.61

Other ships

$1.00

Ships with maximum effi­
ciency

Mar. 26,1928.
Jan. 28, 1928-

Week ending"—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­ hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons *)
enue ton i
tons i)

L in e N o . 11— Con.

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(rev­ hours hour rev­
enue
(rev­ enue
tons *)
enue ton *
tons 0

$1.02

Aug, 5,1927.........
Aug, 20, 1927........
Sept, 1, 1927.........
Sept, 10, 1927____
;.
Sept,. 17, 1927____
Sept, 22, 1927____
;.
Oct. 2, 1927______
Oct. 15, 1927_____
Oct. 22, 1927_____
Oct. 29, 1927—
Nov.. 3, 1927_____
Nov. 12, 1927_______
Nov . 19, 1927____
Nov. 25, 1927____
Dec. 1, 1927_____
Dec. 9, 1927..........
Dec. 16, 1927_____
Dec. 24, 1927_____
Jan. 6, 1928______
Jan. 13, 1928.........
Jan. 21, 1928_____
Feb. 2, 1928_____
Feb. 11, 1928........
Feb. 17, 1928_____
Feb. 26, 1928_____
Mar.. 11, 1928........
Mar,. 17, 1928____
Mar.. 31, 1928........

934
905
777
836
969
725
486
1,064
671
893
647
971
1,321
691
824
713
594
846
562
502
664
1,129
674
562
1,090
983
408
713

1,811
1,591
1,148
1,553
1,757
1,250
957
2,096
1,230
1,428
1,153
1,529
2,068
1,211
1,313
1,258
907
1,524
782
785
934
1,488
981
927
1,427
1,453
741
1,226

0.52
.57
.68
.54
.55
.58
.51
.51
.55
.63
.56
.64
.64
.57
.63
.57
.65
.56
.72
.64
.71
.76
.69
.61
.76
.68
.55
.58

$1. l.r
>
1.05
.88
1.11
1.09
1.03
1.18
1.18
1.09
.95
1.07
.94
.94
1.05
.95
1.05
.92
1.07
.83
.94
.85
.79
.87
.98
.79
.88
1.09
1.03

Loading cargo
L in e No. 12—Con.

L in e N o . 12

Total, 34 ships 2. ..

39,450

40,134

0.98

Ships with m aximum effi­
ciency

Mar. 17, 1928........
Jan. 6,1928......... .

727
907

503
699

1.45
1.30

$0.41
.46

Aug. 20, 1927.............
Aug. 27, 1927........ .
Sept. 1, 1927..............
Sept. 10, 1927............
Sept. 17, 1927_______
Sept. 22,1927_______
Oct. 4, 1927________
Oct. 8, 1927____ ____
Oct. 15, 1927________
A/>+ 90 1Q07

Ships with m inim um effi­
ciency

Aug. 5,1927Aug. 13,1927.

1,947
1,166

2,918
1,689

0.67
.69

$0.90
.87

Ships with average efficiency

Dec. 24, 1927..
Oct. 29, 1927..




1,555
1,108

1, 587
1,123

i Short tons.

0.98
.99

Other ships

$0.61

$0.61
.61

Nov. 3, 1927________
Nov. 12, 1927......... .
Nov. 19, 1927_______
Nov. 25, 1927
Dec. 1, 1927________
Dec. 9, 1927________
Dec. 16, 1927_______
Jan. 13, 1928............
Jan. 21, 1928________
Jan. 28, 1928________
Feb. 2,1928________
Feb. U, 1928.............
Feb. 26, 1928............
JMar. 2, 1928________
Mar. 11, 1928_______
Mar. 17, 1928_______
Mar. 26,1928.........
Mar. 31, 1928_______

1,246
1,218
1,551
1,492
1,368
1,251
965
861
1,396
1,131
1,497
948
284
1,078
1,160
963
1,018
1,246
1,489
1,332
1,463
1,039
1,002
884
1,013
987
1,090
1,068

21 ship each week.

1,324 0.94
1,236
.99
1,946
.80
1,605
.93
1,715
.80
1,136 1.10
1,075
.90
915
.94
1,294 1.08
1,117 1.01
1,479 1.01
951 1.00
288
.99
1,035 1.04
1,111 1.04
925 1.04
892 1.14
1,073 1.16
1,292 1.15
1,126 1.18
1,426 1.03
992 1.05
795 1.26
812 1.09
1,060
.96
926 1.07
1,084 1.01
985 1.08

$0.64
.61
.75
.65
.75
.55
.67
.64
.56
.59
.59
.60
.61
.58
.58
.58
.53
.52
.52
.51
.58
.57
.48
. 55
.63
.56
.59
.56

235

HOUSTON (1927)

T a b l e 39*—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING IN DIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Revenue
Long Reve­ per Long nue Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

N ew spr in t P aper

Line No. 13:
Total, 8 ships.......................... 4,214
No. 1 (March)........................
No. 2 (March)........................
No. 3 (March)........................
No. 4 (June)_______________
No. 5 (July)_________ ______
No. 6 (August)....... ................
No. 7 (August).......................
No. 8 (November) ..................

442
567
512
485
621
474
557
556

14,720

230.1

1495
1635
i 573
1543
1696
1531
1624
1623

21.9
28.3
21.0
23.1
37.9
28.4
40.2
29.3

18.3 120.5

17.3

1.06 il. 18 $0.75 i$0.68

20.2
20.0
24.3
21.1
16.4
16.7
13.8
18.9

122.6
122.4
127.2
123.6
118.3
118.8
115.4
121.2

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
15.0
18.0
17.0
18.0

1.12
1.11
1.35
1.17
1.09
.93
.81
1.05

23.2 3104.0

15.0

1.54 37.00 $0.90 <$0.20

11.25
11.24
il. 51
11.31
11.22
11.04
1.91
11.18

.71
.72
.59
.68
.73
.86
.99
.76

1.64
1.65
1.53
1.61
1.66
1.77
1*88
1.68

Loading cargo
C otton

Line No. 14 2
Total, 10 ships__ ___________ 15,686 3 70,591

677.5

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)____________

358
* 556
876

31,613
3 2,508
83,935

14.0
18.0
31.8

25.6 3115.0
30.9 3139.0
27.6 3124.0

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.71 37.70 $0.90 <$0.20
2.07 39.30
.90
<.20
1.84 38.30 .90 <.20

T otal.—. . , ...............

1,790

3 8,056

63.8

28.1 8126.0

15.0

1.87 38.40

.90

<.20

No. 2 (January)____________

266
295
321

3 1,200
31,324
3 1,446

11.0
12.2
12,8

24.2 3109.0
24.2 3109.0
25.1 3109.0

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.62 37.30
1.62 37.30
1.67 37.50

.90
.90
.90

<.20
<.20
<.20

Total....................................

882

3 3,970

36.0

24.6 *111.0

15.0

1.64 37.40

.90

<.20

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (November)__________ 1,050
144
1,064

i

!
$

1

25.3 3114.0
18.0 3 81.0
17.8 3 80.0

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.69 37.60 $0.60 <$0.20
1.20 35.40
.90 <.20
1.18 35.30
.90 <.20

2,258 310,158

__

41.5
8.0
59.8
109.3

20.7 3 93.0

15.0

1.38 36.20

.90

<.20

3 998
3 731
3 801
3 807
3 400
3 459

1 0 .0

22.0
19.3
26.7
24.7
24.2
25.6
19.3

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.47
1.29
1.78
1.64
1.62
1.71
1.29

36.60
35.80
38.00
37.40
37.30
37.70
3 5 . 80

.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90

<.20
<.20
<.20
<.20
<.20
<.20
<.20

22.1

15.0

1.47 36.60

.90

<.20

220
162
179
180
90
102
332

«1,497

8.4
6.7
7.3
3.7
4.0
17.2

Total.................................... 1,265

3 5,693

57.3

o o o o o o o

Total-

3 4,750
3 649
34,759

399.0

i Short tons.
* Data, except for totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost,




a Bales.
<Piece rate per bale.

236

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 39.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Revenue
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

Ships with average efficiency

C o tto n — Continued

Line No. 14 ^Continued.
No. 5 (February)....................

324
245
650
305
200

3 1,448
* 1,107
3 2,929
* 1,365
3 910

15.5
11.7
27.3
13.3
6.5

20.9 3 94.0
20.9 3 94.0
23.8 3107.0
22.9 3103.0
31.1 3140.0

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.40
1.40
1.58
1.53
2.07

T o ta l.................................. 1,724

3 7,759

849

3 3,821

74.3

23.2 3104.0

15.0

1.55 37.00

.90

*.20

36.2

23.5 3106.0

15.0

1.56 37.00

.90

*.20

Line No. 15:2
i
Total, 16 ships........................ 29,259 8131,704 1,314.5

22.3 3100.2

15.0

1.48 36.70

No. 6 (September)..................

36.30 $0.90 *$0.20
36.30
.90 *.20
37.10
.90
*.20
36.90
.90
*.20
39.30
.90
*.20

$.90 *$0.20

Ships with m axim um efficiency

12.5
23.3
21.2

22.3 3100.5
25.4 3114.3
30.3 3136.5

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.49 36.70 $0.90 *$0.20
1.69 37.60
.90
*.20
2.02 39.10
.90 *.20

3 7,317

57.0

28.5 3128.3

15.0

1.90 38.60

.90

*.20

No. 2 (October)...................... 2,252 310,133

89.3

25.2 3113.4

15.0

1.68 37.60

.90

*.20

279
591
756

31,248
3 3,161
3 2,908

Total.................................... 1,626

No. 1 (February)....................

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (September)..................

259
380

31,175
31,700

16.5
18.8

15.7 3 70.5
21.3 396.0

15.0
15.0

1.04 34.70 $0.90 *$0.20
1.42 36.40
.90 *.20

Total........... ........................

639

3 2,875

No. 4 (March).......................

22
824
495
352
269

3 100
3 3,634
3 2,237
31,580
3 1,279

35.3

18.2 3 81.9

15.0

1.21 35.40

.90

*.20

1.0
47.5
24.0
18.0
15.0

22.3
17.0
20.7
19.5
18.0

3100.5
3 76.5
3 93.2
3 87.8
3 81.0

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.49
1.13
1.38
1.30
1.20

36.70
35.10
36.20
35.90
35.40

.90
.90
.90
.90
.90

*.20
*.20
*.20
*.20
*.20

Total.................................... 1,962

3 8,830

105.5

18.6 3 83.7

15.0

1.24 35.60

.90

*.20

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February).................... 2,206

39,970

99.0

22.3 3100.7

15.0

1.49 36.70 *$0.90 *$0.20

No. 6 (March)........................ 1,725
636
873

3 7,763
3 2,874
83,915

61.0
31.0
54.5

24.7 3111.0
20.6 392.7
16.1 3 72.5

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.64 37.40
1.37 36.20
1.07 34.80

.90
.90
.90

*.20
*.20
*.20

T ota l................................... 3,234 314,552

146.5

22.1 399.5

15.0

1.47 36.60

.90

*.20

* Data, except for totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost. 3 Bales. * Piece rate per bale.




237

HOUSTON (1927)

T a ble 39 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING IN DIVIDUAL

C OM M O DITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
Long Revenue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
tons
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

C otton —Continued
Line No. 16:2
Total, 32 ships...................... 56,197 3253,396 2,606.8

21.6

397.2

15.0

1.44 36.50 $0.90 <$0.20

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November)_________

72
80
243
101
145
51
519

» 317
3 360
3 1,100
3 459
®643
3 228
3 2,342

2.8
4.0
9.0
3.7
5.3
2.5
20.0

25.7
20.0
27.0
27.3
27.3
20.3
26.1

3115.5
390.0
3121.5
3123.0
3123.0
391.5
3117.0

15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

1.71
1.33
1.80
1.82
1.82
1.36
1.73

37.70 $0.90 <$0.20
36.00
.90
<.20
38.10
.90
<.20
38.20
.90
<.20
38.20
.90
<.20
36.10
.90
<.20
.90
<.20
37.80

35,449

47.3

25.7 3115.7

15.0

1.71 37.70

.90

<.20

555
483

3 2,498
3 2,175

21.7
19.0

25.5 3114.8
25.4 3114.3

15.0
15.0

1.70 37.70
1.69 37.60

.90
.90

<.20
<.20

Total____________________ 1,038

34,673

40.7

25.5 3114.8

15.0

1.70 37.70

.90

<.20

Total____________________ 1,211
No. 2 (M ay)...........................

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November)__________

744
600

3 3,350
3 2,700

40.0
47.5

18.6
12.7

383.7
357.0

15.0
15.0

1.24 35.60 $0.90 <$0.20
.84 33.80
.90
<.20

36,050

87.5

15.3

368.9

15.0

1.02 34. f*0

.90

<.20

No. 4 (December)__________

456
67
497

3 2,058
3 300
3 2,230

28.5
4.0
28.3

16.0 *72.0
16.7 ?75.0
17.7 3/9.5

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.07 34.80
1.11 35.00
1.18 35.30

.90
.90
.90

<.20
<.20
<.20

Total___________ ________

1,020

34,588

60.8

16.8

375.6

15.0

1.12 35.00

.90

<.20

Totnl............................. ...... 1,344

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August)_____________ 1,815

38,167

84.0

21.6

397.5

15.0

1.44 36.50 $0.90 <$0.20

No. 6 (March)_____________

100
569
757

3 450
3 2,561
3 3,404

6.0
25.5
34.5

16.7 375.0
22.3 3100.5
21.7 398.7

15.0
15.0
15.0

1.11 35.00
1.49 36.70
1.47 36.60

.90
.90
.90

<.20
<.20
<.20

Total_______________ ____

1,426

36,415

66.0

21.6

397.2

15.0

1.44 36.50

.90

<.20

Line No. 17: #
Total, 9 ships.......................... 13,928

362,675

960.0

14.5

365.3

20.1

.72 33.30

(6
)

(6
)

1,262 35,682
38,450
1,878
618 32,780
770 33,464
2,064
39,286
2,286 310,287
1,239
35,573
1,896
?8,537
1,915
38,616

74.5
136.0
44.0
58.8
131.5
163.2
87.0
140.0
125.0

16.9
13.8
14.0
13.1
15.7
14.0
14.2
13.5
15.3

376.1
362.1
363.0
359.0
370.7
363.0
363.9
360.8
368; 9

19.7
18.8
20.0
20.0
21.2
19.6
20.0
19.7
21.5

.86
.74
.70
.66
.74
.71
.71
.69
.71

33.90
33.30
33.20
33.00
33.30
33.20
33.20
33.10
33.20

<>
J

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 (February)___________
2 (February)___________
3 (March)........................
4 (September)____ _____
5 (October)____________
6 (October)................. .
7 (October)......................
8 (November)......... ........
9 (November)__________

2Data, except for totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.

(6
)
(6
)
(0

(6)

(6
)

(6)

(6
)
8
/g\
(«)
(«)

3Bales.
<Piece rate per bale
« Cotton hand stowed and screwed.
6 Wage rate for hand-stowed cotton 20 cents per bale, for screwed cotton (stowing with tools) 40 cents
per bale or about 90 cents per long ton for hand-stowed and $1.80 for screwed cotton.




238

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 3 9.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Revenue
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons
tons
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

R a il s 7

Line No. 18:
Total, 9 ships.............*........... 11,509

11,509 1,470.6

7.8

7.8

9.0

0.87

0.87 $0.92

$0.92

1.63 $0.49
1.07
.75

$0.49
.75

0.60 $1.33
.64 1.25

$1.33
1.25

0.85 $0.94
.82
.98

$0.94
.98

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February).................... 2,202
No. 2 (August)........................
619

2,202
619

149.7
64.1

14.7
9.6

14.7
9.6

9.0
9.0

1.63
1.07

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (October).....................
No. 4 (October).......................

517
955

517
955

95.0
165.4

5.4
5.8

5.4
5.8

9.0
9.0

0.60
.64

Ships with average efficiency

No* 5 (April).........................
No. 6 (February)...................
i Loaded directly to open cars.




3,825
954

3,825
954

502.1
128.5

7.7
7.4

7.7
7.4

9.0
9.0

0.85
.82

Port Arthur (1927)
T a b le 40.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COSTS IN H A N DLIN G CARGO,

BY KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN DIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Operation, line number, and
commodity

Long
tons

Long Revenue
tons
tons

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
Rev­ men
per
enue gang
tons

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Rev­
Long Rev­ Long enue
tons enue ton ton
tons

Foreign trade 1

Loading cargo:
Europe—No. 1-

22,918

22,918 1,205.0

19.0

19.0

25.3

0.75

0.75 $1.07 $1.07

1.13 $0.71 $0.71

Individual commodities l

Loading cargo:
Asphalt—No. 2....................
Case oil—
No. 3..............................
No. 4....................... .
Lumber—No. 5___________

13,087

13,087

449.0

66,980 2 1,781,370
875.5
83,167 2 2,218,345 1,096.0
35,736 419,854 2,617.0

29.1

25.8

1.13

76.3 2 2,035.0
75.9 22,024.0
13.7
4 7.6

23.1
23.0
14.3

3.32 288.2
3.30 288.0
.95 4 53
.

29.1

1 Wage rate: 80 cents per hour.

.24
.24
.84

8
.91
3.91
4 51
.

8 Per 100 cases.
4 1,000 board feet.

T a b l e 41.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

FO REIGN TR AD E

Loading cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons tons ton enue
tons
ton

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

22,918

22,918 1,205.0

L in e N o . 1

Total, 22 ships................
Oil cake..........
Flour..............
General cargo.

6,754 i 51,856
3,763
3,763
812,401 12,401

317.5
196.5
691.0

19.0

25.3

21.3 i 163.3
19.2 19.2
17.9 17.9

19.0

24.2
28.3
24.9

0.75

0.75 $1.07 $1.07
i 6.76
.68

.72

.91 2 11.83
1.18 1.18
1.11 1.11

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Case oil...........
General cargo.

760
45

Total.
No. 2 (November):
Asphalt_______
Oil products___
Total.

760
45
805

337

337

705

705

30.0

26.8

26.8

24.5

1.10

1.10 $0.73 $0.73

12.0

14.0

30.7
24.1

30.7
24.1

25.0
25.0

1.23
.96

1.23
.96

26.0

27.1

27.1

25.0

1.08

.65
.83

.65
.83

.74

.74

2 Per 100 bags.
8 Principal commodities: Oil products, 4,971 long tons; sulphur, 1,080 long, tons; asphalt, 1,133 long tons;
and wax, 1,086 long tons.




239

240

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 4 1 . -P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E-C ontinued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
enue
enue
tons tons* gang tons tons1 ton enue
tons 1
ton 1

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L ine N o . 1—Continued
No. 3 (January):
Flour________________ ______
General cargo_______________
Total ........................... ........
No. 4 (July):
Wax
Oil products
Asphalt

444 U0,650
177
177

30.0
25.5

14.8 i 355.0
6.9
6.9

26.0
24.0

621

55.5

11.2

11.2

25.1

.45

.45

1.78

1.78

38.5

13.3

13.3

25.3

.52

.52

1.54

1.54

621

0.57 113.7 $1.40 2$5.84
.29 2.76 2.76
.29

219 1 2,264
235
235
57
157

Total ____________________

511

511

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Oil products
Asphalt
General cargo

415
144
171

415
144
171

730

730

_____

446
291
154
93

446
291
154
93

Total________ ____ ________

984

984

Total .............. ................... .
No. 6 (March):
Flour
Oil products
Asphalt
General cargo

_
_

______

40.0

18.3

18.3

24.2

0.76

53.5

18.4

18.4

25.1

.73

i Bags.

0.76 $1.05 2$1.05

.73

1.10

1.10

2 Per 100 bags.

T a b l e 4 2 ,—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Loading cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Line No. 2:
Total, 13 ships................... 13,087

13,087

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang
nue
tons
tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

A sphalt

449.0

29.1

29.1

25.8

1.13

1.13 $0.71 $0.71

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (December).......... . 1,228
978
No. 2 (January).................




1,228
978

26.0
28.0

47.2
34.9

47.2
34.9

26.5
24.8

1.78
1.41

1.78 $0.45
1.41
. 57

$0.45
.57

241

POET ARTHUR (1927)

T \ b le 42.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

A s p h a lt—

Revenue
tons

Aver­
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per
nue
tons tons gang

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

Ships with m inim um efficiency

Continued

Line No. 2—Continued.
No. 3 (September)........
No. 4 (April).................

Output per
gang-hour

520
673

520
673

26.5
29.5

19.6
22.8

19.6
22.8

26.3
25.5

0.75
.89

0.75 $1.07
.89
.90

$1.07
.90

1.17 $0.68
1.08
.74

$0.68
.74

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)........
No. 6 (June)........

683
1,678

683
1,678

22.5
59.0

66,980 21,781,370

875.5

30.4
28.4

26.0
26.4

1.17
1.08

76.5 22,035.0

23.1

3.32 2 88.2 $0.24 8$0.91

30.4
28.4

C a se O il

Line No. 3:
Total, 11 ships...

S h ip s with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November) No. 2 (February)__

6,480
6,567

2 172,800
2175,127

79.5
82.5

81.5 22.173.0
79.6 22.123.0

22.9
23.0

3.57 295.0 $0.22 3$0.84
3.47 292.4
.23
3.87

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (December)..
No. 4 (January)....

2 54,362
2 158,924

5,790
5,960

87.5
82.5

66.2 21,764.0
72.2 21,926.0

23.0
23.0

2.88 2 76.7 $0.28 3 $1.04
3.14 283.8
.25
3.95

Ships with average efficiency

lin e No. 4:
Total, 23 ships.......

6,200
3,380
83,167

2

165,289
90,182

2

2

81.5
44.0

2,218,345 1,096.0

oo

No. 5 (February)—
No. 6 (September) _

22.8
23.0

3.33
3.34

2
2

88.9 $0.24 3$0.90
89.1
.24
3.90

75.9 22,024.0

23.0

3.30

2

88.0 $0.24 3$0.91

76.1
76.8

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (April)...................... 4,590
No. 2 (M ay)...................... 4,000

2 122,419
2 106,565

56.0
49.5

82.0 22,186.1
80.8 22,152.8

23.0
23.0

3.56 2 95.0 $0.22 3$0.84
3.51 293.6
.23
3.85

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September)............. 3,700
No. 4 (Novem ber)........... 2,800

298,638
2 74,602

54.0
40.0

68.5 21,826.6
70.0 21,865.1

23.0
23.0

2.98 2 79.4 $0.27 3 $1.01
3.04 281.1 .26
3.99

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)...................... 3,650
No. 6 (February)............... 5,275




297,264
2 140,681

48.0
70.0

76.0 22,026.3
75.4 22,009.7

23.0
23.0

& 100cases.
Per

3.31 288.1 $0.24 3$0.91
3.28 287.4
.24
3.92

242

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 42.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per Aver­
gang-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per
nue
tons tons gang

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

L um ber

Line No. 5:
Total, 13 ships................... 35,736

*19,854 2,617.0

13.7

*7.6

14.3

0.95 *0.53 $0.84 *$1.51

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)............... 1,344
No. 2 (June)....................... 5,805

*747
*3,225

50.5
267.0

26.6
21.7

*14.8
*12.1

16.4
14.5

1.62 *0.90 $0.49 *$0.89
1.50 *.83
.53
*.96

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)_________
No. 4 (August)__________

851
1,343

*473
*746

128.5
148.5

6.6
9.0

*3.7
*5.0

14.4
14.3

0.46 *0.25 $1.74 *$3.29
.63 *.35 1.27 *2.20

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April)__
No. 6 (March).
* 1,000 board feet.




4,244
969

*2,358
*538

304.0
61.0

14.0
15.9

*7.8
*8.8

14.1
14.4

0.99 *0.55 $0.81 *$1.45
1.10 *.61
.73 *1.31

New Orleans (1927)
T a b le 43.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO,
B Y KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN D IV ID U A L COM M O DITIES

Output per
gang-hour

Aver­
age
num ­
ber of
men
Long Revenue per
gang
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Operation, line number,
and commodity
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1....................
No. 2....................
No. 3....................
No. 4....................
No. 5....................
No. 6....................
Latin America—
No. 7....................
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 8....................
No. 9...................
No. 10..................
No. 11..................
No. 12..................
No. 13..................
No. 14_____ ____
Orient—No. 15...........
Latin America—
No. 16..................
No. 17..................
No. 18..................

25,480
17,293
34,357
34,395
18,308
11,661

25,480
17,293
34,357
34,395
18,308
11,661

998.2
620.3
1.564.5
1.776.5
940.2
789.0

25.5
27,9
22.0
19.4
19.5
14.8

25.5
27.9
22.0
19.4
19.5
14.8

17.0
19.0
19.0
18.0
19.0
19.0

1.50
1.47
1.16
1.08
1.02
.77

1.50 $0.43 $0.43
1.47
.54
.54
1,16
.69
.69
1.08
.74
.74
1.02
.78
.78
.77 1.04 1.04

11,520

11,520

578.1

19.9

19.9

19.0

1.05

1,05

.62

.62

77,961
145,120
37,910
64,382
19,830
31,784
31,665
27,220

77,961
145,120
37,910
64,382
19,830
31,784
31,665
27,860

4,248,2
8,264.0
1,974.5
4,339.8
1,403.2
2,066.0
2,432.3
1,562.8

18,4
17.6
19.2
14.8
14.1
15.4
13.0
17.4

18.4
17.6
19.2
14.8
14.1
15.4
13.0
17.8

17.0
17.0
20.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
17.0
17.0

1.08
1.03
.96
.87
.83
.85
.77
1.03

1.08
1.03
.96
,87
.83
.85
.77
1.05

.74
.78
.68
.75
.96
.94
1.04
.63

.74
.78
.68
.75
.96
.94
1.04
.62

50,457
59,312
57,062

50,457
59,312
57,062

3,073.4
3,492.9
3,924.3

16.4
17.0
14.5

16.4
17.0
14.5

17.0
18.0
17.0

.97
.93
.85

.97
.93
.85

.67
.86
.76

.67
.86
.76

Intercoastal trad e 2

Discharging cargo:
No. 19.........................
Loading cargo:
No. 20-......................
No. 21....................
No. 22.........................

58,629

365,673

2,977.3

19.7

3 22.1

27.0

19,352
25,285
77,048

3 21,675
8 23,320
386,291

1,324.5
1,668.4
5,620.3

14.6
15.2
13.7

3 16.4
3 17.0
3 15.4

17.0
19.0
19.0

0.73 3 0.82 $0.89 3$0.79
.86 3.96
.79 3.89
.72 3.81

.76
.82
.90

3.68
3.73
3.80

Coastwise trade *

Discharging cargo:
No. 23...............
Loading cargo:
No. 24...............

8256,372 «491,444.0

3

*371,705.0

0.52
3.89

3$1.15
3,67

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Bananas *—
No. 25.........
No. 26_____
Burlap—No. 27Bones— No. 28..

47,521
5,118

7 5,022,408 8 2,184.2
7 9,987,808 8 6,005,3
1,404.4
47,521
5,118
361.3

33.8
14.2

•2,299.4 158.8
• 1,663.2 124.5
33.8 19.0
14.2 19.4

1 Wage rate: Union, 80 cents per hour; nonunion, 65 cents per hour.
2 Wage rate: 65 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.
4 Wage rate: 60 cents per hour.
* Man-hours.




1.78
.73

714.48
1 $3.11
0
713.36
1 3.37
0
1.78 $0.37
.37
.73 1.10 1.10

« Wage rate: 45 cents per hour.
7 Stems.
« Conveyor-hours.
* Stems per conveyor-hour,
io per 100 stems.

243

244

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 43.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D L A BO R

COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO,
B Y K IN D OF T R A D E AND IN D IV ID U A L COM M O DITIES—Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Aver­
age
nu m ­
ber of
men
Long Revenue per
gang
tons
tons

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Operation, line number,
and commodity
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons ton nue
ton

Individual commodities 1
—Continued

Discharging cargo—Con.
32,972
Cement—No. 29........ 32,972
Coffee—No. 30........... 46,962 11 795,665
Nitrate of soda—
79,684
No. 31_______ ____ 79,684
Newsprint p a p e r —
332,869
29,347
No. 32___ ____
13,552
Sisal—No. 33----------- 13,552
Raw sugar (to refin­
302,642
ery)—No. 34--------- 302,642
Raw sugar (to pier)—
106,694
No. 35.................. 106,694
41,633
No. 36.................. 41,638
43,965
43,965
No. 37..................
Bauxite—No. 38
93,556
93,556
Loading cargo:
Cotton—
1 51,719
6
No. 39................ 11,489
1 94,089
6
No. 40._________ 20,720
Cotton and tobacco—
30,615
No. 41____________ 30,615
Case oil—No. 42........ 8,795 i» 235,190
Drum oil—No. 43___ 8,320
2 41,600
1
Grain—
No. 44
. ___
231,874,509
2 1, 020,000
3
No. 45
...........
3
No. 462
4
....... 50,164 2 1,893,507

33.4
H 666.0

18.0
39.0

1.01 1117.0

1.85

1.85 $0 .43 $0 .43
.79 124.68

44.9

44.9

27.0

1.66

1.66

.39

.39

23.6
31.4

3 26.4
31.4

19.0
18.0

1.24 3 1.39
1.75 1.75

.52
.37

3.47
.37

55.2

23.0

2.40

2.40

.27

.27

45.0 23.0 1.96 1.96
36.3 21.0 1.73 1.73
34.2 23.0 1.49 1.49
14250.8 1* 14.0 17.91 17.91

.33
.38
.44

.33
.38
.44

.81
.81

17 18
.
17.18

988.3
1,193.9

33.4
39.3

1,774.7
1,245.3
431.2
5,481.9

55.2

2,370.8
45.0
1,147.8
36.3
1,286.4
34.2
13373.1 14250.8
567.0
1,062.0

20.3
19.5

1 91.2
6
1 88.6
6

18.0
18.0

6
1.13 1 5.07
1.08 i«4.92

1,378.5
128.5
230.0

22.2

22.2

18.0
33.0
17.2

1.23 1.23
2.07 i»55.30
2.11 2 10.50
i

68.4 191,830.0
2 181.0
i
36.2

13163.0
13750.0

1411,500.01___
1
1413,602. C ___

3
11.67 2440.4

( 18)

(IS)

.39 2 1.45
0
2
.38 2 7.62

5
.07 2 1.82

i® Cases.
2 Per 100 cases.
0
2 Drums.
1
2 Per 100 drums.
2
2 Bushels.
3
2 Trimming only.
4
2 Per 1,000 bushels.
1

i Wage rate: Union, 80 cents per hour; nonunion, 65 cents per hour.
3 Short tons,
u Bags.
1 Per 100 bags.
2
1 Ship-hours.
3
1 Per ship-hour.
4
m Men on pier only; trimming not included,
w Bales.
17 Piece rate per bale.
1 Piece rates: Cotton, 18 cents per bale; tobacco, 50 cents per hogshead.
8

T a b l e 4 4 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

125,480

25,480

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e No. 1

Total, 12 ships_______________

998.2

25.5

25.5

17.0

1.50 $0.43

$0.43

1.79

1.79 $0.36

$0.36

1.81

1.81

1.50

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (May):
Burlap..................................
General cargo......................

2,068
200

2,068
200

T o ta l...............................

2,268

2,268

No. 2 (July):
Burlap..................................
Coconuts..............................

2,129
59

2,129
59

T o ta l...............................

2,188

2,188

1 Principal commodity: Burlap, 19,246 long tons.




74.5

30.4

30.4

71.1

30.8

30.8

17.0

17.0

.36

.36

F IG U R E 45.— BELT C O N VE Y O R




DELIVERIN G D R U M S O F O IL FR O M

R E F IN E R Y T O PIER.

NEW ORLEANS

245

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 4 4 .—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FO R E IG N TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 1—Continued
No. 3 (February):
Burlap__________________
General cargo____________

2,140
60

2,140
60

Total........... .....................

2,200

2,200

No. 4 (March):
B urlap_________________
General cargo____________

1,681
432
2,113

2,113

22.8

22.8

17.0

1.34

1.34 $0.49

$0.49

100.1

21.1

21.1

17.0

1.24

1.24

.52

.52

$0.44

1,681
432

Total.................................

96.4

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Burlap__________________
General cargo____________

1,907
544

1,907
544
98.0

25.0

25.0

17.0

1.47

1.47 $0.44

2,231

90.3

25.0

25.0

17.0

1.45

1.45

.45

. 45

17,293

620.3

27.9

27.9

19.0

1.47

1.47 $0.54

$0.54

$0.39

Total.................................

2,451

2,451

No. 6 (November):
Burlap___________ ______ _
General cargo____________

1,699
532

1,699
532

Total.................................

2,231

2 17,293

L ine N o. 2
Total, 29 ships_______________

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Fuller’s earth____________
General cargo____________

156
156

156
156

Total.................................

312

312

No. 2 (August):
Fuller’s earth...... ................
Spiegeleisen ore (bulk)____
General cargo____________

313
222
83

313
222
83

Total.................................

618

618

7.9

39.3

39.3

19.0

2.07

2.07 $0.39

16.4

37.8

37.8

19.0

1.99

1.99

.40

.40

$0.70

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Manganese ore_________ _
General cargo__________

200
262

200
262

Total.................................

462

462-

No. 4 (April):
Burlap............ .....................
Wire— .............................
General cargo. _ . _

120
101
64

120
101
64

285

285

T o ta l-..........................

21.2

21.9

21.9

19.0

1.15

1.15 $0.70

13.9

20.5

20.5

19.0

1.08

1.08

* Principal commodities: Spiegeleisen ore, 4,943 long tons; fuller’s earth, 3,632 long tons.




.74

.74

246

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 44.— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R CCST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 2—Continued

273

273

Spiegeleisen ore__________
General cargo____________

251
501
392

251
501
392

T o t a l...............................

1,144

1,144

No. 5 (June) „ __-

-

-- -

No. 6 (August):

10.1

27.0

27.0

19.0

1.42

1.42 $0.56

39.7

28.9

28.9

19.0

1.52

1.52

.53

.53

34,357 1,564.5

22.0

22.0

19.0

1.16

1.16 $0.69

$0.69

$0.43

$0.56

L in e No. 3

Total, 16 ships_______________

834,357

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (May):
Paper___________________
R ic e ..__________________
Bone flour_______________
Rags and waste__________
Bauxite_________________
General cargo____________

1,007
735
498
191
568
321

1,007
735
498
191
568
321

T otal................................

3,320

3,320

No. 2 (April):
Kainit___________________
Paper. _________________
Rags and waste_____ _____
N aphthalene..................... .
Seeds. __ ______________
General cargo____________

1,331
803
371
272
108
294

1,331
803
371
272
108
294

Total__________________

3,179

3,179

94.6

35.2

35.2

19.0

1.85

1.85 $0.43

126.6

25.1

25.1

19.0

1.32

1.32

.61

.61

0.83 $0.96

$0.96

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Glauber salts_____________
Crockery________________
Toys.....................................
General cargo____________

246
130
137
257

246
130
137
257

Total.................................

770

770

No. 4 (December):
S eed....................................
Paper...................................
General cargo____________

394
148
156

394
148
156

Total_______ ____ ______

698

698

48.7

15.8

15.8

19.0

0.83

45.3

15.4

15.4

19.0

.81

.81

.99

.99

1.19 $0.67

$0.67

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February):
Paper___________________
Rags and waste...................
Seeds_ ____ ____________
_
Kainit..................................
Fertilizer.................... ..........
General cargo____________

1,189
620
714
181
114
235

1,189
620
714
181
114
235

Total.................................

3,053

3,053

135.2

22.6

22.6

19.0

1.19

3 Principal commodities: Chemicals and fertilizer, 9,922 long tons; paper and pulp, 7,746 long tons;
bagging and rags, 3,038 long tons; seeds, 2,539 long tons.




247

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 44.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons gang tons nue ton nue
tons
ton
Ships with average efficiency —Continued

L in e N o. 3—Continued

No. 6 (October):
Pig iron_________________
Paper __________________
General cargo____________

500
429
133

500
429
133

Total__________________

1,062

1,062

48.6

21.9

21.9

19.0

1.15

1.15 $0.70

$0.70

34,395 1,776.5

19.4

19.4

18.0

1.08

1.08 $0.74

$0.74

$0.50

L in e No. 4

Total, 23 ships_______________

* 34,395

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Shingles_________________
General cargo____________

612
236

612
236

Total__________________

848

848

__________

240
154

240
154

Total______________ ___

394

394

No. 2:
Rags
_
Hnop iron

29.6

28.6

28.6

18.0

1.59

1.59 $0.50

14.7

26.6

26.6

18.0

1.48

1.48

.54

.54

0.83 $0.96

$0.96

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Hoop iron________________
Rags (bales)
General cargo____________

147
153
213

147
153
213

Total. ________ _________

513

513

34.2

14.9

14.9

18.0

0.83

No. 4 (October): General cargo.

303

303

25.8

11.7

11.7

18.0

.65

.65

1.23

1.23

$0.75

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February):
Rags and waste (bales)____
Asbestos (packages)______
Muriate of potash (bags)...
Salts (bulk).........................
General cargo____________

399
320
179
300
39

399
320
179
300
39

Total__________________

1,237

1,237

No. 6 (July):
Asbestos shingles................
Muriate of potash________
Iron and steel.....................
Rags.....................................
General cargo_____ ____ __

1,113
589
730
139
33

1,113
589
730
139
33

Total ................................

2,604

2,604

64.0

19.3

19.3

18.0

1.07

1.07 $0.75

133.3

19.6

19.6

18.0

1.09

1.09

.73

.73

* Principal commodities: Iron and steel, 10,389 long tons; rags and waste, 5,977 long tons; asbestos, 4,873
long tons; potash, 3,801 long tons.




248

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 44.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

*18,308

18,308

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e N o. 5

Total, 35 ships_______________

940.2

19.5

19.5

19.0

1.02

1.02 $0.78

$0.78

$0.67

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Rice __________________
Burlap__________________
Beet pulp________________
General cargo____________

516
325
100
120

516
325
100
120

Total__________________

1,061

1,061

No. 2 (March):
Paper___________________
Rice
. _____________
Rags____________________
General cargo____________

480
394
197
198

480
394
197
198

T otal-........................... .

1,269

1,269

47.1

22.6

22.6

19.0

1.19

1.19 $0.67

56.9

22.2

22.2

19.0

1.17

1.17

.68

.68

0.90 $0.89

$0.89

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (December):
Rice_____________________
Seeds____________________
Rags____________________
Paper _ _______________
Nitrates.. ____ 1_________
General cargo. _________

453
406
269
232
100
133

453
406
269
232
100
133

T otal-.................... ..........

1,593

1,593

No. 4 (September):
Bagging.
- _________
Toys
__
Bauxite
_
General cargo.. ________

146
91
296
250
783

783

17.1

17.1

51.4

15.2

15.2

19.0 0.90

146
91
296
250

Total........................... ....

93.3

19.0

.80

.80

1.00

1.00

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Rice
__________________
General cargo____________

124
12

124
12

Total.................................

136

136

No. 6 (July):
Bauxite.
_____ ________
General cargo.
_______

570
213
783

783

19.8

19.8

19.0

1.04

1.04 $0.77

$0.77

39.2

20.0

20.0

19.0

1.05

1.05

.76

.76

570
213

Total__________________

6.9

« Principal commodities: Rice, 3,554 long tons; paper, 3,461 long tons; rags and bagging, 2,359 long tons;
bauxite, 1,951 long tons.




249

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 4 4 .— PR ODU C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

FO R E IG N TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

• 11,661

11,661

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e N o. 6

Total, 14 ships...........................

789.0

14.8

14.8

19.0

0.77

0.77 $1.04

$1.04

0.95 $0.84

$0.84

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (July): Cork....................
No. 2 (November):
Cork................................. . .
Olives___________________
General cargo____________
T o ta l--.............................

269

269

14.9

18.1

18.1

19.0

0.95

17.1

17.1

19.0

.90

823 ’ 823
181
181
1,099
1,099
2,103

2,103

123.5

.90

.89

.89

0.61 $1.31

$1.31

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April): Cork__________

160

160

No. 4 (August):
Cork____________________
General cargo____________

362
21

262
21

Total.................................

383

383

13.8

11.6

11.6

19.0

0.61

34.4

11.2

11.2

19.0

.59

.59

1.36

1.36

0.79 $1.01

$1.01

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Cork.................... ................
Olives..................................
Rags____________________

467
275
93

467
275
93

T ota l................................

835

835

No. 6 (December):
Cork.....................................
Olives..................................

909
222

909
222

1,131

1,131

Total............................... •
_

55.7

15.0

15.0

19.0

0.79

80.8

14.1

14.1

19.0

.74

.74

1.08

1.08

1.05 $0.62

$0.62

$0.52

Discharging cargo: Central America
L in e N o. 7

Total, 14 ships.... ......... — ........

711,520

11,520

578.1

19.9

19.9

19.0

1.05

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February):
Manganese ore___________
General cargo____________

232
899

232
899

Total......... ........... ...........

1,131

1,131

No. 2 (February):
Sugar..................................
Coffee..................................
Copra.......... ....................

3,684
205
57
3,946

3,946

23.8

23.8

19.0

1.25

1.25 $0.52

149.0

26.4

26.4

19.0

1.39

1.39

3,684
205
57

Total................................

47.5

.47

.47

•Principal commodities: Cork, 7,459 tons; olives, 2,436 tons. 7Principal commodity: Coffee, 2,156 tons.

66490°—32------17



250
T

GENERAL TABLES

able

44.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Central America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons tpn ton
Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e

N o. 7—Continued

No. 3 (October):
Coffee..................................
M olasses._______________

175
38

175
38

Total__________________

213

213

No. 4 (September):
Coffee
_- - ____
Logs.
_ _____ ___

300
27

300
27

Total............................. -

327

327

17.6

12.2

12.2

19.0

0.64

27.4

12.0

12.0

19.0

.63

0.64 $1.02

.63

$1.02

1.03

1.03

$0.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Soda ash.
_______
Salt
.
..................
Manganese o r e ________ _
Burlap__. . . _____________
General cargo____________

513
200
100
126
146

Total______ ____________

1,085

No. 6 (July):
Soda ash___________ _____
Salt.....................................
General cargo____________

204
100
529

Total........... ....................

833

1,085

52.8

20.5

20.5

19.0

1.08

1.08 $0.60

833

43.0

19.4

19.4

19.0

1.02

1.02

.64

.64

17.0

1.08

1.08 $0.74

$0.74

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e

N o. 8

Total, 38 ships........................

8 77.961

77.961 4,248.2

18.4

18.4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

1

No. 1 (October):
Cotton......................... ........
Tobacco........ ...................
Oil cake..............................
Flour....................................
General cargo..................

9 472
8 71
2,027
274
186

9472
9 71
2,027
274
186

Total.............................. .

2,487

2,487

No. 2 (November):
Cotton____________ ______
Tobacco____ _____ _______
Flour...................................
Rice......................................
General cargo......................
Total...... ..........................

104.7

23.8

23.8

17.0

1.40

1.40 $0.57

$0.57

41.3

30.3

30.3

17.0

1.78

1.78

.45

.45

91,569 91,569
9 39
939
767
767
455
455
26
26
1,248

1,248

8Principal commodities: Flour, 23,449 long tons; lumber and logs, 21,897 long tons; cottonseed meal
and cake, 10,428 long tons.
9 Not included in total, as labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis.




251

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 44.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FO REIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe — Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e No. 8—Continued

No. 3 (February):
Cotton__________________
Tobacco_________________
Lumber, p in e .......................

Flour...................................
Oil.......................................
Grease_____ ___________ _
Hardwood...........................
General cargo......................
Total...............................
No. 4 (September):
Cotton.......... .......................
Lumber, pine......................
General cargo......................
Total...............................

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

9 2,324 9 2,324
9 11
*11
499
499
226
226
160
160
100
100
128
128
328
328
1,441

1,441

104.2

13.8

13.8

17.0

0.81

103.9

10.9

10.9

17.0

.64

0.81 $0.99

$0.99

®1,659 91,659
127
127
1,004
1,004
1,131

1,131

.64

1.25

1.25

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Cotton_______ __________
Tobacco..... ........... .......... .
Staves...... ......... .................
Flour....................................
o n .................... ...................
Carbon black____________
Hardwood____ ____ ______
Lumber, pine........ ............
Wax.............. .......................
Copper, pig______________
General cargo____________

9 687

#17
73
411
245
105
185
1,021
100
195
189

9 687
9 17
73
411
245
105
185
1,021
100
195
189

Total......... ......................

2,524

2,524

No. 6 (October):
Cotton.................................
Tobacco_________________
Flour..................................
Rice......... ..................... .
Hardwood...................... ....
Lumber, pine......................
General cargo......................
Total____ _____________

136.4

18.5

18.5

17.0

1.09

1.09 $0.73

$0.73

108.3

18.9

18.9

17.0

1.11

1.11

.72

.72

145,120 145,120 8,264.0

17.6

17.6

17.0

1.03

1.03 $0.78

$0.78

1.25 $0.64

$0.64

»1,160 9 1,160
9 66
966
1,027
1,027
155
155
130
130
690
690
36
36
2,038

2,038

L ine No. 9

Total, 36 ships.............. ............

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (September):
Tobacco_________________
Lumber, pine____________
Hardwood_______________
F lo u r .................................
Corn sirup_______________
Soap____________________
Wax....................................
Woodwork_______________
Cottonseed meal_________
Spelter____ ____ __________
General cargo_____ ____ _

9 217
211
1,255
2,025
343
116
167
369
103
1,001
265

9 217
211
1,255
2,025
343
116
167
369
103
1,001
265

Total.................................

5,855

5,855

275.5

21.3

21.3

17.0

1.25

9 Not included in total, as labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis.
1 Principal commodities: Timber, lumber, and lumber products. 78,078 long tons; cottonseed meal,
0
cake, and soap, 9,003 long tons; com simp, 7,210 long tons; lubricating oil, 6,951 long tons; wax 3,517 long tons.




GENERAL TABLES

252

T a b l e 44.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FO REIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Ships with m aximum efficiency—Continued

L ine N o. 9—Continued
No. 2 (September):
Tobacco_________________
C otton __________________
Lnnribfir, pine ,
Timber, pine_____________
Hardwood.... ....................
Lubricating oil___________
Rosin _ __________________
Corn sirup___________ ___
Flour. ........................... .
WftY
Spelter__________________
General cargo__ __ ____

9 31
9 135
187
40
1,335
384
147
162
203
520
500
339

«31
9135
187
40
1,335
384
147
162
203
520
500
339

Total__________________

3,817

3,817

166.4

23.0

23.0

17.0

1.35

1.35 $0.59

$0.59

0.83 $0.96

$0.96

1.18

1.18

$0.78

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Lumber, pine
Hardwood
Agricultural implements.. .
General cargo
Total____ _______ ______
No. 4 (November):
Cotton
Lumber, p in e ______ ___
Timber pine
Hardwood
.
Rice
_ _ ________
Wax
...
Carbon black . . ________
General cargo
Total........................ ........

91,043 91,043
9 31
931
194
194
148
148
215
215
129
129
686

686

48.5

14.1

14.1

17.0

0.83

159.6

11.6

11.6

17.0

.68

9 1,600 91,600
289
289
92
92
754
754
133
133
164
164
229
229
193
193
1,854

1,854

.68

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Pine
Cottonseed meal
Hardwood
Oyster shells
Staves
Soap
Hogs’ bristles
"Wood work
General cargo

___
-

__

318
600
2,134
230
285
127
160
164
206

318
600
2,134
230
285
127
160
164
206

Total.......................... ......

4,224

4,224

No. 6 (May):
Tobacco
Lumber pine
Timber pine
Hardwood
Logs
Corn sirup
Staves
___
Rice
- ,
Veneer, woodwork, etc.
General cargo

9 343
446
320
1,507
107
486
139
105
457
422

9343
446
320
1,507
107
486
139
105
457
422

Total................ - ..............

3,989

3,989

240.6

17.5

17.5

17.0

1.03

1.03 $0.78

228.8

17.5

17.5

17.0

1.03

1.03

.78

• Not included in total, as labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis.




.78

253

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 4 4 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

F O R E IG N TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation*
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L ine N o. 10
Total, 12 ships_______________

ii 37,910

37,910 1,974.5

19.2

19.2

20.0

0.96

0.96 $0.68

$0.68

$0.62

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Cotton _ _ ____________
General cargo____________

4,088
296

4,088
296

Total__________________

4,384

4,384

No. 2 (November):
C otton_________________
General cargo____________

4,457
448

4,457
448

Total............................—

4,905

4,905

208.1

21.0

21.0

20.0

1.05

1.05 $0.62

235.5

20.8

20.8

20.0

1.04

1.04

.63

.63

0.75 $0.87

$0.87

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Cott.OTl
Tobacco. __
__ _ _ _
General cargo__
__ __

218
192
603

218
192
603

Total__________________

1,013

1,013

No. 4 (November):
Cotton__________________
Staves___________________

1,650
64
1,714

1,714

15.0

15.0

20.0

0.75

101.0

17.0

17.0

20.0

.85

1,650
64

Total.................................

67.7

.85

.76

.76

0.96 $0.68

$0.68

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
C otton ____ _____________
Lubricating oil
_
Soap ______ _______
Sirup __________________
Lumber, pine
____

3,750
227
146
220
380

3,750
227
146
220
380

Total............................... .

4,723

4,723

No. 6 (December):
Cotton
- ___________
General cargo____________

3,122
511
3,633

3,633

19.2

19.2

20.0

0.96

194.8

18.6

18.6

20.0

.93

3,122
511

Total..................... ...........

246.6

.93

.70

.70

Principal commodities: Cotton, 29,214 long tons; lubricating oil, 1,177 long tons; tobacco, 1,010 long tons.




254

GENERAL TABLES

T able

44 .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D L IN G CA R G O IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e N o. 11

Total, 23 ships_______________

i2 64,382

64,382 4,339.8

14.8

14.8

17.0

0.87

0.87 $0.75

$0.75

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Cotton__________________
Lumber_________________
Lubricating oil___________
Sirup_______ ____________
General cargo____________

934
435
633
102
108

934
435
633
102
108

Total.................................

2,212

2,212

No. 2 (June):
Cotton__________________
Meal____________________

48
1,000
1,048

1,048

17.2

17.2

17.0

1.01

1.01 $0.64

$0.64

58.2

18.0

18.0

17.0

1.06

1.06

.61

.61

0.68 $0.96

$0.96

48
1,000

Total.................................

129.2

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Cotton__________________
Lumber................................
Asphalt................. ...............
Cottonseed meal_________
Rice......................................
Sirup____________________
General cargo____________

2,281
531
328
285
200
119
102
130

2,281
531
328
285
200
119
102
130

Lubricating oil_________

Total.................................

3,976

3,976

No. 4 (September):
Cotton__________________
Tobacco_________________
Lumber.............................. .
Starch..................................
General cargo . - _______

291
160
215
109
115

291
160
215
109
115

Total......... .......................

890

890

266.7

14.9

14.9

17.0

0.68

74.4

11.9

11.9

17.0

.70

.70

.93

.93

0.87 $0.75

$0.75

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5. (June):
Cotton.................................
Tobacco_________________
Lumber______ ___________
Cottonseed meal ________
Starch..................................
Lubricating oil___________
Rosin___________________
Glucose_________________
General cargo. ___________

2,395
286
846
151
163
144
218
126
176

2,395
286
846
151
163
144
218
126
176

Total_____ ____________

4,505

4,505

No. 6 (December):
Cotton______ _ ____ _
Lumber____. . . . ___ _
Rice.....................................
Carbon black. _______ _
General cargo _ __ _ _

2,292
255
201
143
53

2,292
255
201
143
53

Total.......................... ......

2,944

2,944

303.5

14.8

14.8

17.0

0.87

197.9

14.8

14.8

17.0

.87

.87

.75

.75

1 Principal commodities: Cotton, 39,114 long tons; lumber, 9,413 long tons; lubricating oil, 2,777 long
2
tons; tobacco, 1,598 long tons.




NEW ORLEANS (1927)

255

T a b l e 44.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LA BO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons gang tons nue ton nue
ton
tons

L in e No. 12

Total, 20 ships........................... w 19,830

19,830 1,403.2

14.1

14.1

17.0

0.83

0.83 $0.96

$0.96

$0.63

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
C otton _________________
Case o i l ________ ________
General cargo____________

• 1,014 91,014
1,037
1,037
257
257

Total................................

1,294

1,294

No. 2 (March):
Cotton_____
_ _ _ _____
Wax . ..............................
Lime . ...... ........................
General cargo____________

*60
1,140
201
302
1,643

1,643

21.4

21.4

17.0

1.26

1.26 $0.63

20.4

20.4

17.0

1.20

1.20

960
1,140
201
302

Total................................

60.3

80.5

.67

.67

0.53 $1.51

$1.51

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Cotton__________________
Wax ............... ...................
L im e ___________________
Pipe
_________________
Machinery_______________
General cargo- - ________

«196
566
100
157
202
98

9 196
566
100
157
202
98

Total__________________

1,123

1,123

No. 4 (October):
Cotton__________________
Cotton bands _ _ _
Wax
__________ ____
General cargo____________
Total................................

124.2

9.0

9.0

17.0

0.53

8.2

8.2

17.0

.48

9 2,099 9 2,099
458
458
113
113
116
116
687

687

83.9

.48

1.67

1.67

0.84 $0.95

$0.95

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5. (May):
Cotton __ •_ __________
_
Tobacco_________________
Rails..................... ..............
Lime
___ ___________
Pipe __________________
General c a r g o ._________
Total................................
No. 6 (November):
Cotton__________________
Lime __________________
Wax____________________
General cargo____________
Total................................

9 2,181 9 2,181
9 133
9 133
1,324
1,324
300
300
104
104
362
362
2,090

2,090

146.1

14.3

14.3

17.0

0.84

14.3

14.3

17.0

.84

92,744 9 2,744
402
402
101
101
140
140
643

643

44.8

.84

.95

.95

9 Not included in total, as labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis,
is Principal commodities: Wax, 6,738 long tons; iron and steel, 2,673 long tons; zmc, 1,604 long tons.




256

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le

44.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABO R AN D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

u 31,784

31,784

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e N o. 13

Total, 20 ships_______________

2. O
fifi

!

15.4

15.4

18.0

0.85

0.85 $0.94

$0.94

$0.78

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Cotton__________________
Tobacco_________________
Lubricating oil___________
Lumber, hardwood............
Lumber, pine . Carbon black___________
General cargo___________
Total__________________
No. 2 (March):
Cotton ____ ___________
Lubricating oil___________
Carbon b la ck ...________
Hardwood_ ____________
_
General cargo..___ —_____
Total__________________

»1,661 91,661
«208
9 208
569
569
184
184
255
255
298
298
298
298
1,604

1,604

86.9

18.5

18.5

18.0

1.03

1.03 $0.78

70.3

19.3

19.3

18.0

1.07

1.07

9 1,965 9 1,965
9 85
985
608
608
275
275
124
124
348
348
1,355

1,355

.75

.75

0.68 $1.18

$1.18

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (M ay):
Cotton. ______________ __
Tobacco
Lubricating nil
_ ____
_
Hardwood_______ _______
General c a rg o ....________
Total__________________
No. 4 (October):
Cotton
__ __
______
General cargo..
Total_______ ___________

9 1,383 9 1,383
9 93
993
396
396
184
184
335
335
915

915

75.3

12.2

12.2

18.0

0.68

47.1

8.6

8.6

18.0

.48

»2,280 92,280
405
405
405

405

.48

1.67

1.67

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Tobacco . . . .
Cotton
Lubricating oil
Rice
Hardwood
Lumber, pine. ____ ___
General cargo. ___________
Total__________________
No. 6 (November):
Cotton
_
.
Tobacco__
Lubricating oil______ ____
Carbon black__ _
__ _
Rice_____________________
Hardwood___ _______ __ _
General cargo____________
Total...... ..........................

989
9 89
9 1,839 9 1,839
283
283
106
106
128
128
539
539
235
235
1,291

1,291

--------

82.3

15.7

15.7

18.0

107.9

15.1

15.1

18.0

0.87> 0.87 $0.92

$0.92

9 1,393 9 1,393
«630
®630
498
498
189
189
396
396
356
356
195
195
1,634

1,634

.84

.84

.95

.95

9 Not included in total, as the labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis.
m Principal commodities: Lumber, 10,412 long tons; lubricating oil, 8,016 long tons; rice, 3,091 long tons;
carbon black 2,563 long tons.




257

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 44 .—P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton ton

L in e N o. 14

Total, 27 ships_______________

is 31,665

31,665 2,432.3

13.0

13.0

17.0

0.77

0.77 $1.04

$1.04

$0.70

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1:
Cotton......................... ........
Lumber, pine......................
Staves___________________
Hardwood_______________
General cargo____________

9121
90
458
449
98

9121

90
458
449
98

Total__________________

1,095

1,095

No. 2 (December):
Cotton........................... .
Staves...................... .........
Hardwood...........................
General cargo____________

9208
1,617
97
4

9208
1,617
97
4

Total__________________

1,718

1,718

56.4

19.4

19.4

17.0

1.14

1.14 $0.70

71.7

24.0

24.0

17.0

1.41

1.41

.57

.57

0.56 $1.43

$1.43

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March-April):
Cotton_________ ____ ____
Hardwood................... ........
Lumber, pine____________
General cargo--__________

9138
379
52
145

9138
379
52
145

Total__________________

576

576

No. 4 (April):
Cotton___________ _______
Hardwood_______________
General cargo____________

9306
168
149

9306
168
149

Total__________________

317

317

60.2

9.5

9.5

17.0

0.56

35.5

9.0

9.0

17.0

.53

.53

1.51

1.51

0.78 $1.03

$1.03

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Cotton_____ ____________
Staves_ ____ ___________
_
General cargo____________

9 306
2,076
127

9 306
2,076
127

Total__________________

2,203

2,203

No. 6 (October):
Wall board................... ......
Flour................... ................
Lumber, p in e............ ........
General cargo____________

167
87
1,072
26

167
87
1,072
26

Total__________________

1,352

1,352

166.1

13.3

13.3

17.0

0.78

102.8

13.1

13.1

17.0

.77

.77

9 Not included in total, as labor time was not available, handling being paid on a piece basis.
u principal commodities: Staves, 13,262 long tons; lumber, 11,737 long tons.




1.04

1.04

258

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 44.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R A N D LABO R COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo: Orient
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L ine N o . 15
Total, 15 ships.......................... . w 27,220

27,860 1,562.8

17.4

17.8

17.0

1.03

1.05 $0.63

$0.62

$0.51

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Cotton......................... ......
Sulphate of arnmrmm
Lime .
_________ ,
Rails and bars____________
Carbon black____________
General cargo____________

2,288
2,563
249
149
54
55

2,288
2,563
249
149
217
55

Total............................... .

5,358

5,521

No. 2 (July):
Corn____________________
Oats.... ........... ........... .........
Lumber, pine____ ____ ___

421
117
120
658

658

21.1

21.8

17.0

1.24

1.28 $0.52

29.9

21.9

21.9

17.0

1.29

1.29

421
117
120

Total__________________

254.5

.50

.50

0.87 $0.75

$0.75

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Cotton
Lime__________________
General cargo... _ ____ _

2,376
202
64

2,376
202
64

Total____ _____________

2,642

2,642

No. 4 (November):
Flour___ ______________
General cargo.____________

260
63
323

323

14.8

14.8

17.0

0.87

22.4

14.5

14.5

17.0

.85

260
63

Total.................................

178.2

.85

.76

.76

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
CottonTima____ _____ ___
Rosin____________________
General cargo. - __________

1,037
353
136
8

1,037
353
136
8

T o ta l.......................... ....

1,534

1,534

No. 6 (December):
Cotton.
___ ____ _____
Carbon black____________
General c a r g o . . . . . . . . . . . . _

1,712
37
167
1,916

2,026

17.7

17.7

17.0

1.04

1.04 $0.63

112.6

17.0

18.0

17.0

1.00

1.06

1,712
147
167

Total.................................

86.5

m Principal

commodities: Cotton, 13,925 long tons; zinc, 3,007 long tons.




.65

$0.63

.61

259

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 44.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons gang tons nue ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

50,457

50,457 3,073.4

16.4

16.4

17.0

0.97

5,591 172,959
525.6
i844,866 44,866 2,547.8

10.6
17.6

175.6
17.6

17.0
17.0

.63
1.04

L in e N o . 16

Total, 45 ships_______ ____ ___
Lumber

General cargo____________

0.97 $0.67
17.33
1.04

1.03
.63

$0.67

m. 97
.63

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April): General cargo_
_
No. 2 (June): General cargo___

1,056
973

46.7
43.8

1,056
973

22.6
22.3

17.6
17.6

17.0
17.0

1.33
1.31

1.33 $0.49
1.31
.50

$0.49
.50

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July);
Lumber, pine__..................
General cargo____________

186
491

17 59
491

13.8
47.5

13.4
10.4

174.3
10.4

17.0
17.0

61.3

11.1

11.1

17.0

Total..........— ..................

677

677

No. 4 (October):
Lumber, pine........ .... ........
Flour_______ ____ ________
General cargo____________

427
346
397

17 264
346
}
397

Total.................................

1,170

0.79 170.25 $0.82 17$2.60
1.07
.61 0.61 1.07
.65

.61

1.00

1.00

8.3

175.1

17.0

.49

17.30

17.0

17.0

17.0

1.00

1.00

.65

2.17

95.5

1,170

51.8
43.7

12.2

12.2

17.0

.72

.72

.90

.90

1.33 172.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Lumber, pine.... .................
Com____________________
Flour......... ........................
Oats........... ................ .........
General cargo____________

94
762
248
178
370

17 48
762
248
178
370
1,652

T ota l................................

1,652

No. 6 (April):
Lumber, pine____________
Corn____________________
Wheat..................................
General cargo____________

24
328
245
153

Total................................

750

8.1

11.6

175.9

17.0

0.68 170.34 $0.96 17$1.91

91.3

17.0

17.0

17.0

1.00

.34

.65

.65

99.4

16.7

16.7

17.0

.98

.98

.66

.66

17 14
2.4
328 1
245
42.7
153

10.2

176.1

17.0

.60

17.36

17.0

17.0

17.0

1.00

1.00

.65

.65

45.1

16.7

16.7

17.0

.98

.98

.66

.66

59,312 3,492.9

17.0

17.0

18.0

0.93

0.93 $0.86

$0.86

1.27 $0.63

$0.63

I

750

1.08 171.81

L in e N o . 17

Total, 26 ships_______________

19 59,312

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (October):
Flour____________________
General cargo____________

1,287
46

1,287
46

Total__________________

1,333

1,333

58.4

22.9

22.9

18.0

1.27

I? 1,000 board feet.
1 Principal commodities: Corn, 18,983 long tons; flour, 4,914 long tons; wheat, oats, and feed, 3,158 long
8
tons; salt, 2,676 long tons.
19Principal commodities: 18,390 long tons; lumber, 12,632 long tons; lubricating oil, 4,310 long tons; agri­
cultural implements, 3,171 long tons; rosin, 1,772 long tons.




260

GENERAL TABLES

TABLE 44.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
gang-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Ships w ith maximum efficiency—Continued

L in e N o. 17—Continued

No. 2 (December):
Shooks___________________
H ice____________________
F lo u r ___________________
Tin plate________________
Lubricating nil.
General cargo____________

1,358
1,822
688
263
211
249

Total...... ..........................

4,591

4,591

i
1
j
I
1
!

1,358
1,822
688
263
211
249

222.2 |20.7

20.7

18.0

1.15

1.15 $0.70

$0.70

0.76 $1.05

$1.05

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Agricultural implements. __
___
Shoots
Lubricating oil___________

1,940
1,180
365
174
115
205

1,940
1,180
365
174
115
205

________________

3,979

3,979

No. 4 (December):
Shooks ________________
Flour
_________________
Lumber, pine____________
General cargo____________

361
139
959
151

361
139
959
151

Total ...............................

1,610

1,610

General cargo____________

Lumber,

Total

290.6

127.5

13.7

13.7

18.0

0.76

12.6

12.6

18.0

.70

.70

1.14

1.14

0.91 $0.88

$0.88

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Rosin___________________
Case oil__________________
Shooks___________________
Lumber, pine____________
General cargo____________

470
435
303
845
116

470
435
303
845
116

Total............................. —

2,169

2,169

No. 6 (June):
Sulphur_________________
Agricultural implements ___
Lumber, pine____________
General cargo____________

435
320
1,279
318

435
320
1,279
318

2,352

2,352

Total................................

132.8

16.4

16.4

18.0

0.91

140.4

16.7

16.7

18.0

.93

57,062 3,924.3

14.5

14.5

17.0

0.85

9.9 175.6
16.8 16.8

17.0
17.0

.93

.86

.86

L in e No. 18

Total, 39 ships_______________
Lumber_________________
General cargo____________

57,062

12,595 1 7,195 1.176.6
7
44,467 44,467 2.647.7

0.85 $0.76

.58 17.33
.99
.33

$0.76

1.12
.66

171.97
.66

$0.47

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (February):
General
cargo___________________
No. 2 (December):
General
cargo______________________
17 1,000 board feet.




1,151

1,151

49.4

23.3

23.3

17.0

1.37

1.37 $0.47

1,950

1,950

98.7

19.7

19.7

17.0

1.16

1.16

.56

.56

261

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 4 4 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Reve­
nue
tons

Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e No. 18—Continued

No. 3 (April):
Lumber.......... ........... .........
General carg o___________

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

1 210
7
219

368
219

41.2
13.5

7
9.0 1 5.1
16.2 16.2

17.0
17.0

10.7

10.7

17.0

.63

8.0 1 4.6
7

17.0

.47 17.27

Total................ ............ —

587

587

54.7

No. 4 (November): Lumber___

633

1 362
7

79.1

0.53 170.30 $1.23 17$2.17
.95
.68
.95
.68
.63

1.03

1.03

1.38 1 2.40
7

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Lumber......................... ......
General cargo......................
Total............................. .

327
840

17187
840

31.3
49.4

10.4 176.0
17.0 17.0

17.0
17.0

1,167

1,167

80.7

14.5

6.0

17.0

No. 6 (May):
Lumber......................... ......
General cargo____________

322
848

17184
848

30.9
49.9

10.4 176.0
17.0 17.0

17.0
17.0

Total......... ....................

1,170

1,170

80.8

14.5

17.0

14.5

0.61 170.35 $1.07 17$1.86
1.00 1.00
.65
.65
.85

.35

.61 17.35
1.00 1.00
.85

.85

.76

1.86

1.07 171.86
.65
.65
.76

.76

17 1,000 board feet.
T a ble 45.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

IN TERCOASTAL T R AD E

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons i

verage
Output per Aver­ Output per A labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per-num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long Rev­
enue
tons tons i gang tons tonsi ton enue
ton i

L in e No. 19

Total, 22 ships_______________

58,629 265,673 2,977.3

19.7

22.1

27.0

0.73

0.82 $0.89

$0.79

1.00 $0.73

$0.65

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Lumber_________________
Canned goods____________
Flour........... .......................
General cargo____________

995
310
100
3,419

1,114
347
112
3,830

Total.................................

4,824

5,403

No. 2 (July):
Sugar, refined_______ ____
Lumber_____________ ____
Canned goods......................
General cargo................. ....

1,804
331
760
634

2,020
371
851
710

Total__________________

3,529

3,952

200.4

24.0

27.0

27.0

0.89

132.8

26.5

29.7

27.0

.98

1.10

.66

.59

1 Short tons.
2 Principal commodities: Canned goods, 19,665 short tons; lumber, 5,890 short tons; flour, 3,153 short
tons; beans, 2,464 short tons; refined sugar, 5,052 short tons.




262

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 45.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per
labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­ men
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
S kips with m inim um efficiency

L ine N o. 19—Continued
No. 3 (February):
Canned goods____________
Flour................ ............ ......
Beans.................... ..............
General cargo____________

734
400
325
1,031

822
448
364
1,155

Total..................... ..........

2,490

2,789

No. 4 (March):
Lumber..
. . ............
Canned goods____________
Beans.....
..................
Flour......... ............... .........
General cargo____________

884
690
275
210
182
2,241

2,510

15.7

17.6

27.0

0.58

156.2

14.3

16.2

27.0

.53

0.65 $1.12

$1.00

1.23

1.08

0.83 $0.88

$0.78

990
773
308
235
204

Total.................................

157.9

.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Canned goods. ___ ____ . ^
Flour___________ ________
Beans___________________
General cargo............... ......

1,050
200
160
394

1,176
224
179
441

Total___ _____ _________

1,804

2,020

No. 6 (May):
Lumber__________________
Canned goods. __________
Flour_____ ______________
General cargo____________

216
850
280
356

242
952
314
404

T o ta l..._______________

1,702

1,912

90.3

20.0

22.4

27.0

0.74

86.6

19.7

22.1

27.0

.73

16.4

17.0

0.86

.82

.89

.79

0.96 $0.76

$0.68

$0.45

Loading cargo
Line No. 20
Total, 15 ships........... ..............

19,352 321,675 1,324.5

14.6

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (November):
Oyster shells..................... .
Lard___________ _________
Hardwood..........................
General cargo.... .............. .

500
179
116
590

560
200
130
661

Total...... ..........................

1,385

1,551

No. 2 (May):
Pipe.....................................
Lard.....................................
Lumber................................
Cotton__________ ________
General cargo................... .

867
130
67
116
749

971
146
75
130
838

T o ta l...............................

1,929

2,160

63.0

22.0

24.6

17.0

1.29

1.45 $0.50

108.0

17.9

20.0

17.0

1.05

1.18

.62

.55

1 Short tons.
3 Principal commodities: Pipe, 3,963 short tons; hardwood, 2,383 short tons; oyster shells, 2,972 short
tons.




263

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 4 5 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AND LA BO R COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L TR AD E-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gang
ber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long Rev­
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton enue
to n 1
Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e No. 20—Continued

No. 3 (November):
Lard____________________
Sirup...... .............. ..............
Lumber___________ ______
Steel__________________
General cargo____________

192
112
156
103
363

215
125
175
115
407

Total...... ..................... ....

926

1,037

No. 4 (February):
Pipe......... ..................... ......
Hardwood_______________
Sirup................ ................. .
Lard____________ ________
Oyster shells_____________
Spelter........................... ......
General cargo____________

200
120
112
246
156
98
516
1,448

1,622

10.0

11.2

17.0

0.59

118.0

12.3

13.7

17.0

.72

224
134
125
276
175
110
578

Total...... ................... ......

93.0

0.66 $1.10

.81

$0.98

.90

.80

0.96 $0.76

$0.68

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (September):
Oyster shells_____________
Pipe.................................. .
Hardwood.... .......................
General c a r g o __________

469
470
279
669

525
526
313
749

Total______________ ___

1,887

2,113

No. 6 (July):
Pipe................................ . .
Hardwood____________ .
Oyster shells.................... . .
General cargo_____ ____ _

240
248
89
546

269
278
100
611

1,123

1,258

Total.......................... .

129.0

14.6

16.4

17.0

0.86

77.0

14.6

16.3

17.0

.86

25,285 428,320 1,668.4

15.2

17.0

19.0

0.79

.96

.76

.68

0.89 $0.82

$0.73

1.02 $0.71

$0.64

L in e N o. 21

Total, 25 ships_______________

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Pipe.... .............. ............... .
Plate steel........................ .
General cargo......................

1,334
368
316

1,494
412
354

Total_____________ ____

2,018

2,260

116.7

17.3

19.4

19.0

0.91

No. 2 (December): General
cargo_____________________

599

671

35.4

16.9

19.0

19.0

.89

1.00

.73

.65

0.72 $1.02

$0.90

1.03

.92

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May): General cargo___

260

291

No. 4 (August):
Structural steel....................
General cargo......................

144
198

161
222

T o ta l..________________

342

383

21.2

12.2

13.7

19.0

0.64

28.7

12.0

13.5

19.0

.63

.71

1 Short tons.
* Principal commodities: Pipe, 10,693 short tons; hardwood, 1,712 short tons; oyster shells, 1,466 short
tons; steel plates, beams, etc., 1,132 short tons.




264

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 45.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABO R AN D LABO R COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons 1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Rev­ men
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

Ships with average efficiency

Line N o. 21—Continued

No. 5 (March):
Sheet steel______________
Pipe____________ ________
Hardwood_______________
General cargo____________

188
1,469
230
280

211
1,645
258
313
142.9

15.2

17.1

19.0

0.80

119.0

15.2

17.1

19.0

.80

77,048 586,291 5,620.3

13.7

15.4

19.0

0.72

Total_____ _____ _______

2,167

2,427

No. 6 (April):
Pipe_____________________
Hardwood_______________
General cargo____________

1,462
106
250

1,637
119
280

Total__________________

1,818

2,036

0.90 $0.81

.90

$0.72

.81

.72

0.81 $0.90

$0.80

$0.71

Line N o. 22

Total, 22 ships_______________

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (May):
L a r d ___________________
H ardwood______________
Spelter_________________
General cargo____________

535
254
225
1,789

599
284
252
2,004

Total__________________

2,803

3,139 180.5

No. 2 (September):
Pipe................................ .
Oyster shells_____________
Hardwood_______________
General cargo____________

1,250
500
390
2,388
4,528

5,071 237.3

17.5

19.0

0.82

0.92 $0.79

19.0

21.3

19.0

1.00

1.12

1,400
560
437
2,674

Total__________________

15.6

.65

.58

0.71 $1.03

$0.92

1.07

.96

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Hardwood_______________
Lard____________________
Sheet steel_______________
Pipe____ ______ __________
General cargo____________

980
459
224
215
1,739

1,098
514
251
241
1,947

T o ta l...............................

3,617

4,051

No. 4 (March):
Lard_______ ____ _____ __
Spelter________ __________
Plate steel........ ...................
Hardwood____ ___________
General cargo ......................

905
325
250
240
1,330

1,014
364
280
269
1,489

Total. ...................- .........

3,050

3,416

302.8

12.0

13.5

19.0

0.63

261.8

11.6

12.9

19.0

.61

.68

* Short tons.
• Principal commodities: Pipe, 18,439 short tons; lard, 11,654 short tons; hardwood, 8,249 short tons.




265

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 45.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABO R AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G C A R G O IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Rev­
enue
tons1

Long
tons

ge
Output per Aver­ Output per A v e r acost
labor
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men Long Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per
enue Long
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton enue
ton 1
Ships with average efficiency

Line N o. 22—Continued

No, 5 (January):
Pipe.... .................................
Lard____________________
Hardwood.... .......................
General cargo____________

183
581
456
1,423

205
651
511
1,593

Total. ..............................

2,643

2,960

No. 6 (November):
Pipe.... .................................
Lard____________________
Hardwood__ ____ ________
General cargo____________

600
200
120
2,154

672
224
134
2,413

Total_______ ____ ______

3,074

3,443

191.8

13.9

15.6

19.0

0.73

228.8

13.5

15.2

19.0

.71

0.82 $0.89

.80

.92

$0.79

.81

1Short tons.
T a b l e 4 6 .—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TR AD E

Discharging cargo

Week ending-

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
(reve­ hours hour per
reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons 9
nue t o n 1
tons!)

L in e N o . 23

Total, 107 ships...

256,372 491,444

0.52

$1.15

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(reve­ hours hour reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons *)
nue ton 1
tons 0

L in e N o. 23—Con.

Weeks w ith m in im u m effi­
ciency —Continued

1926

1926
June 7, 2 ships..........

2,541
1,836

3,981
3,297

0.64
.56

Total...............

4,377

7,278

.60

1.00

2,053
1,388
2,237

3,587
2,499
3,532

.57
.56
.63

1.05
1.07
.95

2,555
2,010

4,903
4,718

0.52
.43

1.15
1.40

4,565

9,621

.47

1.28

$0.94
1.07

Dec. 21, 3 ships.........

Feb. 14, 2 ships.......
Total-

Weeks with m axim um effi­
ciency

Total...............

5,678

9,618

.59

1.02

Weeks with average efficiency

Feb. 21, 2 ships..

2,351
2,168

4,466
4,191

0.53
.52

Total.......

4,519

8,657

.52

1.15

Mar. 7, 2 ships.

2,533
2,338

4,857
4,584

.52
.51

1.15
1.18

4,871

9,441

.52

1.15

Total..
Weeks with m inim u m effi­
ciency

July 31, 3 ships..

Total..

1,444
2,789
2,226

3,278
6,409
4,440

0.44
.44
.50

$1.36
1.36
1.20

6,459

14,127

.46

1.30

i Short tons.

66490c — 3 2 --------- 1 8




$1.13
1.15

Other weeks

Jan. 7, 2 ships____
Jan. 14, 2 ships___
Jan. 21, 2 ships___
Jan. 31, 3 ships___
Feb. 7, 2 ships...........
Feb. 28, 2 snips_____

4,314
4,427
4,665
8,100
5,660
4,179

7,920
8,306
9,382
15,125
10,626
8,704

0.54
.53
.50
.54
.53
.48

$1.11
1.13
1.20
1.11
1.13
1.25

266

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 4 6 —P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

COASTWISE TBADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
per
(reve­ hours hour reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons 9
nue ton i
tons1
)

Week ending—

Out­
put Labor
Cargo
per
tonnage Man- man- cost
(reve­ hours hour per
reve­
nue
(reve­ nue
tons 9
nue ton i
tons i)

L ine No. 23—Con.

Other weeks—Continued

Line N o. 23—Con.

Other weeks—Continued

1926
Mar. 14, 2 ships____
Mar. 21, 2 ships____
Mar. 31, 2 ships____
Apr. 7, 3 ships.........
Apr. 14, 2 ships.......
Apr. 21, 2 ships.......
Apr. 30, 3 ships.......
May 7, 2 ships____
May 14, 2 ships.......
May 21, 2 ships.......
May 31, 2 ships.......
June 14, 2 ships.......
June 21, 2 ships.......
June 30, 3 ships.......
July 7, 2 ships.........
July 14,1 ship.........
July 21, 3 ships.......
Aug. 7, 2 ships........

5,561
6,002
5,566
8,283
5,019
3,837
5,752
4,048
5,004
4,268
4,277
4,199
4,918
7,483
3,926
2,069
6,734
4,803

$1.13
1.09
1.15
1.11
1.20
1.13
1.11
1.07
1.13
1.07
1.13
1.18
1.07
1.11
1.28
1.15
1.15

10,553
10,965
10,705
15,342

0.53
.55
.52
.54
10,022
.50
7,248
.53
.54
10,599
.56
7,229
.53
9, 527
7,596
.56
.53
8,013
.51
8,156
.56
8,746
.54
13,938
.47
8,417
.52
4,012
.52
12,987
.49
9,764

1.22

1926
Aug. 14, 2 ships.......
Aug. 21, 2 ships.......
Aug. 31, 2 ships____
Sept. 7, 3 ships____
Sept. 14, 2 ships___
Sept. 21,1 ship........
Sept. 30, 3 ships___
Oct. 7, 2 ships.........
Oct. 14, 2 ships____
Oct. 21, 3 ships____
Oct. 31, 4 ships........
Nov. 7, 2 ships____
Nov. 14, 2 ships___
Nov. 21, 2 ships___
Nov. 30, 3 ships___
Dec. 7, 2 ships.........
Dec. 14,1 ship.........
Dec. 31, 3 ships.......

4,772
4,950
5,851
7,645
5,603
2,324
8,147
6,868
5,811
7,653
8,247
5,119
5,169
5,125
7,575
4,729
1,754
5,467

9,294
9,890
11,576
15,847
11,107
4,712
15,117
12,857
11,139
15,135
15,560
9,976
10,287
9,979
14,942
8,563
3,401
9,438

0.51
.50
.51
.48
.50
.49
.54
.53
.52
.51
.53
.51
.50
.51
.51
.55
.52
.58

$1.18
1.20
1.18
1.25
1.20
1.22
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.18
1.13
1.18
1.20
1.18
1.18
1.09
1.15
1.03

Loading cargo
Line N o. 24
Total, 108 ships__

Line N o. 24—Con.

330,588 371,705

0.89

Other weeks

$0.67
1926

Weeks with maximum
efficiency

1926
Oct. 7, 2 ships.

3,466
4,044

3,128
3,906

1.11
1.04

$0.54
.58

Total___

7,510

7,034

1.07

.56

Nov. 7, 2 ships.

4,105
2,482

4,039
2,497

1.02
.99

.59
.61

Total___

6,587

6,536

1.01

.59

Weeks with m inim um
efficiency

Aug. 14, 2 ships.

3,006
1,922

Total.......
June 21, 2 ships.
Total___

4,273
2,309

0.70
.83

$0.86
.72

4,928

6,582

.75

.80

3,136
2,290

4,140
2,835

.76
.81

.79
.74

5,426

6,975

.78

.77

Y/eeks with average efficiency

Jan. 31, 3 ships.

3,102
4,631
2,556

3,352
4,997
3,177

0.93
.93
.80

$0.65
.65
.75

Total......

10,289

11,526

.89

.67

Apr. 14, 2 ships.

2,214
3,052

2,449
3,494

.90
.87

.67
.69

Total......

5,266

5,943

.89

.67

1 Short tons.




Jan. 7, 2 ships_
_
Jan. 14, 2 ships.. _
Jan. 21, 2 ships. .
Feb. 7, 2 ships...
Feb. 14, 2 ships..
Feb. 21, 2 ships..
Feb. 28, 2 ships. _
Mar. 7, 2 ships. _
Mar. 14, 2 ships.
Mar. 21, 2 ships.
Mar. 31, 3 ships.
Apr. 7, 2 ships. _.
Apr. 21, 2 ships..
Apr. 30, 3 ships..
May 7, 2 ships__
May 14, 2 ships..
M ay 21, 2 ships..
May 31, 2 ships..
June 7, 2 ships...
June 14, 2 ships..
June 30, 3 ships..
July 7, 2ships___
July 14,1 sh ip...
July 21, 3 ships..
July 31, 3 ships..
Aug. 7, 2 ships__
Aug. 21, 2 ships..
Aug. 31, 2 ships..
Sept. 7, 3 ships. _
Sept. 14, 2 ships.
Sept. 21,1 ship..
Sept. 30, 3 ships.
Oct. 14, 2 ships..
Oct. 21, 3 ships..
Oct. 31, 4 ships..
Nov. 14, 3 ships.
Nov. 21, 2 ships.
Nov. 30, 3 ships.
Dec. 7, 3 ships...
Dec. 14, 2 ships..
Dec. 21, 4 ships..

5,623
6,409
6,216
6,999
6,708
7,585
7,030
6,361
7,496
6,968
10,177
5,644
6,320
7,020
5,830
6,314
6,183
5,931
6,265
4,218
9,389
4,893
2,094
7,685
6,183
4,710
5,315
6,356
8,688
6,952
2,422
10,252
7,447
8,457
12,258
7,575
6,779
9,835
10,597
6,328
15,070

6,472
6,874
6,874
7,467
7,224
8,063
7,802
7,029
8,500
8,567
11,602
6,803
6,995
8,179
6,330
7,151
6,718
6,448
6,946
4,845
10,814
5,879
2,620
9,490
7,213
5,582
6,023
7,551
10,124
7,439
2,788
11,953
7,683
10,034
14,539
8,321
6,857
11,534
11,661
6,632
15,483

0.87
.93
.90
.94
.93
.94
.90
.90
.88
.81
.88
.83
.90
.86
.92
.88
.92
.92
.90
.87
.87
.83
.80
.81
.86
.84
.88
.84
.86
.93
.87
.86
.97
.84
.84
.91
.99
.85
.91
.95
.97

$0.69
.65
.67
.64
.65
.64
.67
.67
.68
.74
.68
.72
.67
.70
.65
.68
.65
.65
.67
.69
.69
.72
.75
.74
.70
.71
.68
.71
.70
.65
.69
.70
.62
.71
.71
.66
.61
.71
.66
.63
.62

267

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 47.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES

Discharging cargo

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Aver­ Output per Average labo
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
ton
tons
tons
tons
gang tons
ton
Output per
gang-hour

B ananas

Line No. 25:
Total, 165 ships.

15,022,408 22,184.2

32,299.4 158.8

114.48

<$3.11

116.97
120.63

<$2.65
<2.18

112.
112.26

<$3.72
<3.67

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June).
No. 2 (July)..

116,306
i 40,430

2 5 .8

2 17.2

32.811.4
3 2,350.6

165.7
114.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October) —
No. 4 (December).

121,938
i 20,176

2

9.9

2 8 .0

3 2,216.0
2,522.0

3

183.3
205.8

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M arch)..
No. 6 (October).

i 22.817
116,256

2 11.0
2 6.5

32,074.3 143.2
32,501.4 172.8

114.49........... <$3.11
114.48....... ... <3.11

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 13 ships..
February, 12 ships
March, 14 ships—
April, 12 ships___
M ay, 15 ships--------

June, 15 ships____
July, 13 ships____
August, 15 ships___
September, 13 ships.
October, 14 ships....
November, 15 ships.
December, 14 ships.
Line No. 26:8
Total, 313 ships.

i 325,142
i 333,426
i 481,627
i 419,714
i 424,848
1470,995
1363,136
1505. 208
1351,424
1431,569
i 452,713
1462,606

2143.9
2 176.6
3 232.0
2 196.7
2179.4
2197.1
2 150.7
2 201.4
2 140.7
2 182.0
2189.4
2 194.3

19,987,808 26,005.3

32,259.5
31. 888.0
32,076.0
3 2,133.8
3 2,368.2
3 2,389.6
3 2,409. 7
3 2,508. 5
3 2,497. 7
3 2,371.3
3 2.390.3
3 2,381
31,1

154.6
133.9
152.2
148.8
158.4
159.4
165.9
166.5
162.8
171.1
174.7

1 14. 61
1 14.10
i 13.64
114.34
i 14.97
i 15.08
i 15.12
i 15.12
i 15.01
i 14.56
i 13.97
113.63

‘ $3.08
<3.19
<3.30
<3.14
<3.01
<2.98
<2.98
<2.98
<3.00
<3.09
<3.22
<3.30

124.5

i 13.;

<$3.37

116.0
130.1
121.2
122.7
112.7
119.1

116. 52
111.04
113.50
116.12
116.94
116.67

<$2.72
<4.08
<3.33
<2.79
<2.66
<2.70

1,828.2 119.8

115.26

<2.95

158.1

Week of m aximum efficiency

February, 1926-.

Total .
1 Stems.
2 Conveyor-hours.
3 Stems per conveyor-hour.




i 30,664
115,807
i 39, 762
i 36,594
i 34,346
i 42,281
1 199,454

2 16.0
2 11.0

224.3
2 18.5
2 18.0
2 21.3
2 109.1

31,916.5
3 1,437.0
3 1,636.3
3 1,978.1
3 1,908.1
3 1,985.0
3

< Per 100 stems.
Data, except totals, are for individual ship pro­
ductivity and labor cost.

268

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 47.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
jost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
per tons
ton
tons
tons
tons
ton
Output per
gang-hour

Week of m in im u m efficiency

B ananas— Continued
Line No. 26 ®
—Contd.
September, 1926___

129,952
111,558
l 34,250
l 21,940
125,864
128,935

U3.29
111.55
112.17
19.30
18.46
115.01

‘ $3.39
<3.90
<3.70
<4.84
<5.32
<3.00

111.37

<3.96

127.7
126.1
121.7
127.7
132.6
131.3
118.3

112.34
113.09
113.84
113.45
114.76
115.02
U2.45

<$3.65
<3.44
<3.25
<3.35
<3.05
<3.00
<3.61

3 1,677.7 125.5

113.37

<3.37

31,311.2 92.7
3 1,575.0 113.6
3 1,576.5 109.1
3 1,562.3 112.2

14.14
13.87
14.45
13.93

< $3.18
<3.24
<3.11
<3.23

«1,731.3
3 1,444.8
31,502.2
31,513.1
3 1,086.7
3 1,866.8

2 8 .0

2 22.8

214.5
2 23.8
2 15.5

1152,499 2101.9

Total.

130.2
125.1
123.4
162.6
128.5
124.4

3 1,496.6 131.6

217.3

Week of average efficiency

June, 1926-

147,723
i 21,133
i 42,592
i 47,237
i 47,554
l 20,711
154,911

3 1,575.0
31,651.0
3 1,683.5
3 1,717.7
3 1,957.0
3 1,972.5
3 1,472.1

2 12.8

2 25.3
2 27.5
2 24. .3
2 10.5
237.3

1281,861 2 168.0

Total.

Labor productivity and cost, by weeks

January, 1926:
Week 1,4 ships..
Week 2,5 ships..
Week 3,5 ships..
Week 4,6 ships..
February, 1926:
Week 1,6 ships.
Week 2,6 ships..
Week 3,6 ships.
Week 4,6 ships.
March, 1926:
Week 1,7 ships.
Week 2,7 ships.
Week 3,9 ships.
Week 4,8 ships.
April, 1926:
Week 1 ,7ships.
W eek2,8ships.
Week 3,10 ships
Week 4,11 ships.
May, 1926:
Week 1,7 ships.
Week 2,8 ships.
Week 3,8 ships.
Week 4,7 ships.
June, 1926:
Week 1,7 ships.
Week 2,7 ships.
Week 3,7 ships.
Week 4,9 ships.
J u ly , 1926:
Week 1,6 ships.
Week 2,7 ships.
Week 3,6 ships.
Week 4,7 ships.
August, 1926:
Week 1,5 ships.
Week 2,6 ships.
Week 3,5 ships.
Week 4,6 ships.




i Stems.
3 Conveyor-hours.

1 93,226 2 71.1
U15,444 2 73.3.........
1173,101 2 109.8
1129,827 2 83.1. ...
1178,001
1195,362
1198,019
1199,454

2 104.8
2124.0.........
2 108.2
2 109.1 .

81,698.5
8 1,575.5
3 1,830.1
3 1,828.2

117.9
110.3
126.0
119.8

14.40
14.29
14.53
15.26

<3.13
<3.15
<3.10
<2.95

i 226,362
i 225,337
1304,066
i 280,533

2 127.7
2 128.9
2170.3
2 160.8

3 1,772.6
8 1,748.2
8 1,785.5
3 1,744.6

119.1
120.3
126.1
122.3

14.88
14.53
14.16
14.27

<3.02
<3.10
<3.18
<3.15

1235,993
i 228,557
1238,419
i 306,338

2 139.9
2121.7
2 131.3
2 166.0

8 1,686.9
3 1,878.0
81,815.8
3 1,845.4

123.4
124.1
130.8
124.9

13.66
15.14
13.88
14.77

<3.29
<2.97
<3.24
<3.05

1261,026
l 271,769
1277,025
i 266,193

2 154.8
2162.1
2 171.0
2 163.4

8 1,686.2
8 1,676.6
3 1,620.0
3 1,629.1

121.5
125.9
126.2
124.9

13.88
13.32
12.83
13.04

<3.24
<3.38
<3.51
<3.45

l 249,323
l 205,795
1281,861
1 364,569

2 154.9.
2 109.9
2 168.0
2 215.5

3 1,609.6
8 1,872.6
8 1,677.7
81,691.7

124.3
128.0
125.5
126.7

12.95
14.63
13.37
13.35

<3.47
<3.08
<3.37
<3.37

1 224,786
i 203,157
i 205,310
i 215,911

2128.8
2115.8
2 121.1.........
2 130.0 .

8 1,745.2
8 1,754.4
8 1,695.4
8 1,660.9

124.8
127.3
124.6
127.4

13.99
13.78
13.
13.04

<3.22
<3.27
<3.31
<3.45

1,596.6
8 1,596.6
8 1,542.5
8 1,778.8

127.9
127.7
126.1
121.1

12.49
12.51
12.24
14.

<3.60
<3.68
<3.06

1179,773 2112.6
1191,754 2 120.1
1132,194 285.7
1171,116 2 96.2.

8Stem per conveyor-hour.
s

.

3

< Per 100 stems.
6 Data except totals are for individual ship
productivity and labor cost,

269

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 47.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ganghours

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­

ber of
Long Revenue men Long Reve­
per
nue
tons
tons
gang tons
tons

Long Reve­
nue
ton
ton

Labor productivity and cost, by weeks—Continued

Bananas— Contd.

Line No. 26 *—Contd.
September, 1926:
Week 1,8 ships.
Week 2,7 ships.
Week 3,6 ships.
Week 4,7 ships.
October, 1926:
Week 1,6 ships.
Week 2,6 ships.
Week 3,5 ships.
Week 4,6 ships.
November, 1926:
Week 1,5 ships.
Week 2,5 ships.
Week 3,5 ships.
Week 4,5 ships.
December, 1926:
Week 1,5 ships.
Week 2,6 ships.
Week 3,5 ships.
Week 4,7 ships.

2131.6
2102.2
2101.
9
2121.1

31,679.4
31,793.1
3 1,496. '
3 1,637.2

128.7
124.3
131.6
128.2

113.05
114.43
111.37
112.77

<$3.45
<3.12
<3.96
<3.52

1163,673 2 100.6
1200,626 2 122.2
1137,954 2 91.6
1221,658 2 149.4

3 1,627.0
31,641.8
3 1,506.0
3 1,483.7

128.8
129.0
129.8
125.

112.
112.73
111.60
111.78

<3.56
<3.53
<3.88
<3.82

1181,402 2120.2
1195,093 2118.2
1143,415 2 93.9
1131,883

3 1,509.2
3 1,650.5
3 1,527.3
3 1,592.8

127.8
127.7
127.1
128.8

111.81
112.92
112.02

< 3.81
<3.48
<3.74
<3.64

1168.006
i 209,429
i 207,361
1242,683

3 1,537.1
3 1,473.8
3 1,557.9
3 1,671.4

127.1
125.6
126.7
133.3

11 .1
20

<3.72
<3.83
<3.66
<3.59

13.8

19.0

1221.005
1 183,256
1152,499
1198,264

2 109.3
2142.1
2133.1
2 145.2

1 12.

111.74
112.29
112.54

B urlap

Line No. 27:
Total, 14 ships........

47,521

47,521 1,404.4

33.8

1.78

1.78

$0.37

$0.37

2.12
2.33

$0.31
.28

$0.31
.28

1.59
1.58

$0.41
.41

$0.41
.41

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (August)----No. 2 (December) .

1,756
2,065

♦ 1,756
2,065

43.6
46.7

40.3
44.3

40.3
44.3

19.0
19.0

2.12
2.33

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January)—
No. 4 (February).

4,633
3,827

4,633
3,827

153.4
127.2

30.2
30.0

30.2
30.0

19.0
19.0

1.59
1.58

Ships with average efficiency

4,388
3,237

4,388
3,237

129.8
95.6

33.8
33.8

33.8
33.8

19.0
19.0

1.78
1.78

1.78
1.78

$0.37
.37

$0.37
.37

Line No. 28:
Total, 8 ships.......

5,118

5,118

361.3

14.2

14.2

19.4

0.73

0.73

$1.10

$1.10

No. 1 (January)...
No. 2 (April).........
No. 3 (September).
No. 4 (September).
No. 5 (October). . .
No. 6 (November)
No. 7 (November)
No. 8 (November)

1,213
1,220
471
394
197
921
589
113

1,213
1,220
471
394
197
921
589
113

76.1
87.3
42.6
28.4
10.6
72.5
37.9
5.9

16.0
14.1
11.1
13.8
18.6
12.8
15.6
19.4

16.0
14.1
11.1
13.8
18.6
12.8
15.6
19.4

20.0
19.0
17.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

.80
.74
.65
.69
.93
.64
.78
.97

.80
.74
.65
.69
.93
.64
.78
.97

1.00
1.08
1.23
1.16
.86
1.25
1.03
.82

1.00
1.08
1.23
1.16
.86
1.25
1.03
.82

32,972

32,972

988.3

33.4

33.4

18.0

1.85

1.85

$0.43

$0.43

No. 5 ,
No. 6 (May)
B ones

C ement

Line No* 29:
Total, 22 ships___

1 Stems.
2 Conveyor-hours.
« Stems per conveyor-hour.




< Per 100 stems.
5Data, except total are for individual ship
productivity and labor cost.

270

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 47.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
tons
tons
ton
gang tons
tons
ton
Ships with m aximum efficiency

C ement—Continued
Line No. 29—Contd.
No. 1 (M ay)_._.......
No. 2 (M ay)...........

Output per
gang-hour

1,356
1,135

1,356
1,135

32.5
29.8

41.8
38.0

41.8
38.0

18.0
18.0

2.32
2.11

2.32
2.11

$0.34
.38

$0.34
.38

1.48
1.62

$0.54
.49

$0.54
.49

$0.43
.43

$0.43
.43

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 8 (September)...
No. 4 (October)____

964
1,971

964
1,971

36.3
67.8

26.6
29.2

26.6
29.2

18.0
18.0

1.48
1.62

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)___
No. 6 (November). _

1,044
3,251

1,044
3,251

31.5
97.5

33.1
33.3

33.1
33.3

18.0
18.0

1.84
1.85

1.84
1.85

6 795,665 1,193.9

39.3

6 666.0

39.0

1.01

6 17.1

$0.79 7 $4.68

1.16
1.18

6 19.5
« 19.6

$0.69 ” $4.10
.68 7 4.08

0.89
.88

6 15.2
6 14.7

$0.90 7$5.26
.91 75.44

$0.79 7 $4.65
.79 7 4.65

C offee
Line No. 30:
Total, 22 ships_____ 46,962

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January).......
No. 2 (M ay)............

2,883
1,745

e 48,425
6 29,110

63.7
38.0

45.3
46.0

« 759. 7
6 766.0

39.0
39.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January)----No. 4 (November)

2,819
1,742

« 47,919
« 29,193

80.9
50.9

34.7
34.3

6 592.4
6 573.7

39.0
39.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)-------No. 6 (March).........

1,760
2,955

44^7
75.3

39.4
39.4

6 669.2
6 666.9

39.0
39.0

1.01
1.01

617.2
6 17.2

79,684 1,774.7

44.9

44.9

27.0

1.66

1.66

$0.39

$0.39

1.91
2.07

$0.34
.31

$0.34
.31

1.22
1.09

$0.53
.60

$0.53
.60

6 29,916
6 50,234

N itrate of Soda
Line No. 31:
Total, 14 ships......... 79,684

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)___
No. 2 (February)___

3,380
3,464

3,380
3,464

65.5
62.1

51.6
55.9

51.6
55.9

27.0 1.91
27. O 2.07
l

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April).
No, 4 (July).............




7,887
810
• Bags.

7,887
810

239.5
27.4

32.9
29.4

32.9
29.4

27.0
27.0

i Per 100 bags.

1.22
1.09

271

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 47.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
tons
tons
ton
gang tons
tons
ton
Ships with average efficiency

N itra te op Soda— Con.

Line No. 31—Contd.
No. 5 (January)........
No. 6 (September)..

Output per
gang-hour

8,105
8,800

8,105
8,800

180.0
193.8

45.1
45.4

45.1
45.4

27.0
27.0

1.67
1.68

1.67
1.68

8 32,869 1,245.3

23.6

8 26.4

19.0

1.24

8 1.39

$0.52 8$0.47

1.94
1.41

8 2.17
8 1.58

$0.34 8$0.34
.46 8.41

1.02
1.01

8 1.14
8 1.13

$0.64 8 $0. 57
.64 8.58

19.0
19.0

1.25
1.25

8 1.40
8 1.40

$0.52 8 $0.46
.52
8.46

18.0

1.75

1.75

$0.37

$0.37

3.29
2.59

3.29
2.59

$0.20
.25

!0 .20

1.21
1.49

1.21
1.49

$0.54
.44

$0.54
.44

$0.38
.36

$0.38
.36

$0.39
.39

$0.39
.39

N ewsprint Paper

Line No. 32:
Total, 13 ships_____ 29,347

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)___
No. 2 (September). .

832
2,750

8932
8 3,080

22.6
103.0

36.9
26.8

841.2
8 26.8

19.0
19.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February)___
No. 4 (M ay)............

1,958
1,952

82,193
82,186

100.7
101.8

19.4
19.2

8 21.7
821.5

19.0
19.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August)......... 1,566
No. 6 (December). — 3,843

8 1,754
8 4,304

65.7
161.2

23.8
23.8

13,552

431.2

31.4

8 26.9
8 26.6

Sisal

Line No. 33:
Total, 16 ships......... 13,552

31.4

Ships with m aximum efficiency

270

No. 1 (April).
No. 2 (June).

270
486

4.6
10.4

59.2
46.6

59.2
46.6

18.0
18.0

.25

Ships with m inim um efficiency

892
1,087

No. 3 (J u ly).....
No. 4 (October).

892
1,087

40.9
40.6

21.8
26.8

21.8
26.8

18.0
18.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay)............
No. 6 (October).......

466
428

15.0
13.1

31.1
32.6

31.1
32.6

18.0
18.0

1.73
1.81

1.73
1.81

302,642 5,481.9

55.2

55.2

23.0

2.40

2.40 $0.27

466
428

R aw Sugar

Line No. 34:»
Total, 72 ships....... . 302,642

$0.27

Ships with m aximum efficiency

3,832
5,**0

No. 1 (April)_____
No. 2 (November).

* Short tons.




3,832
5,440

59.8
67.8

64.2
80.3

64.2
80.3

23.0
23.0

2.79
3.49

•Discharged to refinery.

2.79
3.49

$0.23
.19

10.23
.19

272

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 47.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

num­

Ganghours

ber of
Long Revenue men Long Reve­
per
nue
tons
tons
gang tons tons

Revenue
tons

Long Reve­
nue
ton
ton

Ships with m inim um efficiency

R a w S u g a r — Contd.

Line No. 3 4 Contd.
No. 3 (March)_____
No. 4 (November). .

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age

3,025
3,275

3,025
3,275

39.3
35.7

76.8
91.7

39.3
35.7

23.0
23.0

1.71
1.55

1.71
1.55

$0.38
.42

$0.38
.42

2.39
2.39

$0.27
.27

$0.27
.27

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May)—
No. 6 (May)__

4,730
3,833

4,730
3,833

85.8
69.7

55.0
55.0

55.0
55.0

23.0
23.0

2.39
2.39

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 4 ships...
February, 7 ships..
March, 6 ships___
April, 10 ships____
May, 7 sh ips.......
June, 6 ships_____
July, 2 ships-------August, 8 ships---September, 4 ships
October, 8 ships...
November, 8 ships.
December, 2 ships.

14,766
33,182
26,726
39,987
37.503
27,598
10,306
30,249
17,529
32,554
27,199
5,043

304.1
633.5
501.5
660.0
664.3
471.6
176.1
552.8
348.7
587.0
484.2
98.1

48.6
52.4
53.3
60.6
56.5
58.5
58.5
54.7
50.3
55.5
56.2
51.4

48.6
52.4
53.3
60.6
56.5
58.5
58.5
54.7
50.3
55.5
56.2
51.4

23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0

2.11
2.28
2.32
2.64
2.45
2.54
2.54
2.38
2.19
2.41
2.44
2.23

2.11
2.28
2.32
2.64
2.45
2.54
2.54
2.38
2.19
2.41
2.44
2.23

$0.31
.29
.28
.25
.27
.26
.26
.27
.30
.27
.27
.29

$0.31
.29
.28
.25
.27
.26
.26
.27
.30
.27
.27
.29

106,694 2,370.8

45.0

45.0

23.0

1.96

1.96

$0.33

$0.33

2.31
2.34

$0.28
.28

$0.28
.28

1.61
1.61

$0.40
.40

$0.40
.40

1.92
2.00

$0.34
.33

$0.34
.33

1.93
1.91
1.77
2.01
2.13
2.10
1.94
1.84
2.03
2.10
1.87
1.84

$0.34
.34
.37
.32
.31
.31
.34
.35
.32
.31
.35
.35

$0.34
.34
.37
.32
.31
.31
.34
.35
.32
.31
.35
.35

14,766
33,182
26,726
39,987
37.503
27,598
10,306
30,249
17,529
32,554
27,199
5,043

Line No. 35: »#
Total, 36 ships.

106,694

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June).
No. 2 (July)..

2,948
2,336

2,948
2,336

55.5
43.3

53.1
52.8

53.1
53.8

23.0
23.0

2.31
2.34

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)..
No. 4 (August)..

3,232
3,400

3,232
3,400

87.5
91.8

37.0
37.0

37.0
37.0

23.0
23.0

1.61
1.61

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February) .
No. 6 (October). . .

3,512
3,477

3,512
3,477

79.7
75.6

44.2
46.0

44.2
46.0

23.0
23.0

1.92
2.00

Labor productivity and cost, by months

January, 2 ships----February, 4 ships. _.
March, 5 ships____
April, 5 ships..........
May, 4 ships...........
June, 3 ships______
July, 4 sh ips......... .
August, 2 ships____
September, 2 ships..
October, 3 ships___
November, 1 ship..,
December, 1 ship...




5,937
10,697
15,225
15, 748
11,201
8,169
9,638
7,033
5,362
10,830
2,960
3,894

5,937
10,697
15.225
15,748
11,201
8,169
9,638
7,033
5,362
10,830
2,960
3,894

• Discharged to refinery.

133.9
243.4
372.8
340.5
228.4
169.5
216.4
166.3
114.7
224.0
68.8
92.1

44.3
43.9
40.8
46.2
49 0
48.2
44.5
42.3
46.7
48.3
43.0
42.3

44.3
43.9
40.8
46.2
49.0
48.2
44.5
42.3
46.7
48.3
43.0
42.3

23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0

1.93
1.91
1.77
2.01
2.13
2.10
1.94
1.84
2.03
2.10
1.87
1.84

1 Discharged to pier.
0

273

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b l e 47.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per-^
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
ton
tons
tons
gang tons tons
ton

R aw Sugar—Coutd.
Line No. 36: io
Total, 12 ships......... 41,638

41,638 1,147.8

36.3

36.3

21.0

1.73

1.73

$0.38

$0.38

2.14
2.05

$0.30
.32

$0.30
.32

1.47
1.44

$0.44
.45

$0.44
.45

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (May)_______
No. 2 (August).........

3,169
3,316

3,169
3,316

70.5
77.0

44.9
43.1

44.9
43.1

21.0
21.0

2.14
2.05

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October).......
No. 4. (October)___

3,407
3,464

3,407
3,454

110.2
113.9

30.9
30.2

30.9
30.2

21.0
21.0

1.47
1.44

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July).............
No. 6 (September)..

3,040
3,077

Line No. 37:
Total, 22 ships......... 43,966

85.8
86.6

35.5
35.5

35.5
35.5

21.0
21.0

1.69
1.69

1.69
1.69

$0.38
.38

$0.38
.38

43,965 1,286.4

34.2

34.2

23.0

1.49

1.49

$0.44

$0.44

1 60
1.75

$0.41
.37

$0.41
.37

1.30
1.21

1.30
1.21

$0.50
.54

$0.50
.54

1.50
1.49

1.50
1.49

$0.43
.44

$0.43
.44

14.0 17.91

17.91

3,040
3,077

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)___
No. 2 (August)........

1,979
2,896

1,979
2,896

53.8
71.9

36.8
40.3

36.8
40.3

23.0
23.0

1. 60
1.75

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September)__
No. 4 (November). . .

2,267
1,016

2,267
1,016

75.8
36.5

29.9
27.8

29.9
27.8

23.0
23.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)........
No. 6 (April)............

1,048
1,669

1,048
1,659

34.5
34.3

34.5
34.3

93,556 « 373.1 13250.8

1 250.8
3

30.3
48.4

23.0
23.0

B auxite 1
1

Line No. 38:
Total, 36 ships......... 93,556

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)____
No. 2 (M ay).............

3,058
2,536

3,058
2,636

1 9.1 13336.8
2
1 7.6 13334.6
2

1 336.8
3
1 334. 6
3

14.0 24.06
14.0 23.90

24.06
23.90

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (November)__
No. 4 (July)..............

2,474
2,495

1 Discharged to pier.
0




2,474
2,495

1 21.5 13115.1
2
1215.3 13163.6

1 Trimming hot included.
1

1 115.1
3
13163.6

14.0 8.22
14.0 11.69

12 Ship-hours.

8.22
11.69
1 Per ship-hour.
3

GENERAL TABLES

2 /4

T ab le 47.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
tons
tons
ton
gang tons tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

Bauxite » —Contd.

Line No. 38—Contd.
No. 5 (November)—
No. 6 (April)............

2,595
2,628

2,595
2,628

1210.3 13251.2
1210.6 13248.4

1 251.2
3
1 248.4
3

14.0 17.94
14.0 17.74

17.94
17.74

Loading cargo
C otton

Line No. 39: “
Total, 14 ships.........

11,489

i* 51,719

567.0

20.3

1 91.2
5

18.0

3.13

1 5.07
5

$0.81 1 $0.18
6

1.40
1.33
1.24

1 6.33
5
1 5.88
5
1 5. 56
5

$0.83 1 $0.18
6
.81 16.18
.81 16.18

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)___

316
141
178

i« 1,424
i« 635
i* 801

12.5
6.0
8.0

25.3
23.5
22.3

is 113.9
is 105.8
1 100.1
5

18.0
18.0
18.0

Total.....................

635

1 2,860
5

26.5

24.0

15107.9

18.0

1.33

1 6.00
5

.81

16.18

No. 2 (February)___

177
542
171

i« 796
1 2,437
6
i«769

8.0
17.5
5.0

22.1
31.0
34.2

1 99.5
5
15139.3
15153. 8

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.23
1.72
1.90

1 5.53
5
1 7.74
5
1 8.54
5

.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18

Total.....................

890

i« 4,002

30.5

29.2

15131. 2

18.0

1.62

1 7.27
5

.83

16.38

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January).......

430
242
498

181,936
1 1,091
*
is 2,241

32.0
24.0
21.0

13.4
10.1
23.7

1 60.5
5
1 45. 5
5
15106.7

18.0
18.0
18.0

.75
.56
1.32

1 3. 36
5
1 2.53
5
1 5.93
5

$0.83 1 $0.18
6
.81 16.18
.81 16.18

Total......................

1,170

1 5,268
5

77.0

15.2

1 68.4
5

18.0

.84

1 3.90
5

.81

16.18

No. 4 (March).........

255
608

151,147
1 2,738
5

16.0
30.0

15.9
20.3

1 71.7
5
1 91.3
5

18.0
18.0

.88
1.13

1 3.98
5
1 5.07
5

.81
.81

16.18
16.18

Total.....................

863

1 3,885
5

46.0

18.8

1 84.5
5

18.0

1.04

1 4. 70
5

.81

16.18

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)___

Total.....................
No. 6 (M ay)......... .

Total......................

h

18.0
18.0
38.0

1.22
1.03
1.27

1 5.52
5
1 4.63
5
1 5.72
5

18.0

1.14

1 5.12
5

.81

16.18

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.10
1.08
1.16

15493
1 4.86
5
1 5.22
5

.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18

1.32

1 5.03
6

.81

16.18

618
695
275

1 2,783
5
1 3,126
5
151,236

28.0
37.5
12.0

22.1
18.5
22.9

1 99.4
5
1 83.4
5
15103.0

1,588

1 7,145
5

77.5

20.5

1 92.2
5

99
311
334

1 444
5
151,401
151,504

5.0
16.0
16.0

19.8
19.4
20.9

1 88.8
5
is 87.6
1 94.0
5

744

is 3,349

37.0

20.1

1 90.5
5

18.0

$0.81 1 $0.18
6
.81 16.18
.81 16.18

11 Trimming not included.
1 Ship-hours.
2
w Per ship-huor.
Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost. 1 Bales. w Piece rate per bale.
5




275

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T a b le 4 7 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING IN DIVIDUAL
COM M ODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

C otton—Continued
Line No. 40: i«
Total, 14 ships_____ 20,720

Revenue
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
ton
tons
tons
gang tons
tons
ton

1 94,089 1,062.0
5

19.5

1 88.6
5

18.0

1.08

1 4.92
5

6
$0.81 1 $0.18

1 5.70
5
1 5.78
5
1 6.17
5
1 5.36
5
1 5.67
5
1 4.74
5

$0.81 1 $0.18
6
1 . 18
6
.81
.81
16.18
.81
16.18
16.18
.81
.81
16.18

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (September). -

Tntal
No. 2 (October).......

Total

15102.7
16104.0
1 111. 1
5
1 96.5
5
15102.0
1 85.4
5

339
103
293
573
612
769

*» 1,540
W468
1 1,333
5
i«2,605
i« 2,754
i«3,286

15.0
4.5
12.0
27.0
27.0
38.5

2,689

1611,986

124.0

21.7

1 96.7
5

18.0

1.20

is 5.37

.81

16.18

639
804
544
417

1 2,902
5
1 3,656
5
1 2,493
5
151,998

28.0
38.5
24.5
21.0

22.8
20.9
22.2
19.9

15103.6
1 95.0
5
is 101.8
1 95.1
5

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.27
1.16
1.23
1.10

is 5.76
1 5.28
5
is 5.65
1 5.29
5

.81
.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18

2,404

1 11,049
5

112.0

21.5

1 98.7
5

18.0

1.19

1 5.48
5

.81

16.18

22.6
22.9
24.4
21.2
22.7
20.0

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.26
1.27
1.36
1.18
1.26
1.11

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (A p ril)______

Total ...
No. 4 (December)—

Total ____

162
170
174
152

1 733
5
1 767
5
1 790
6
1 683
5

11.5
11.5
9.5
10.5

14.1
14.8
18.3
14.5

1 63.7
5
1 66.7
5
1 83.2
5
1 65.1
5

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

0.78
.82
1.02
.80

1 3.54 $0.81 1 $0.18
5
6
1 3.71
5
.81 16.18
is 4.62
.81 16.18
1 3.61 • .81 16.18
5

658

1 2,973
5

43.0

15.3

1 69.1
5

18.0

.85

1 3.84
5

.81

16.18

658
497
626
222

1 3,000
5
1 2,258
5
1 2,842
5
151,012

46.0
32.5
32.0
14.5

14.3
15.3
19.6
15.3

1 65.2
5
1 69.5
5
1 88.8
5
1 69.8
6

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

.79
.85
1.09
.85

1 3.62
5
is 3.86
1 4.93
5
1 3.88
5

.81
.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18

2,003

1 9,112
5

125.0

16.0

1 72.9
6

18.0

.89

1 4.05
5

.81

16.18

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February)_
_
nVv+al - — -----iotai—
No. 6 (November) _ _

TofcaL................ .

66
329
137
234

1 300
5
1 1,493
6
1 576
5
161,063

3.0
16.0
8.0
13.0

22.0
20.6
17.1
18.0

1 100.0
5
1 93.3
5
1 72.0
5
1 81.8
6

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.22
1.14
.95
1.00

is 5.56
1 5.18
5
1 4.00
5
1 4.54
5

766

1 3,432
5

40.0

19.2

1 85.8
5

18.0

1.06

1 4.77
5

.81

16.18

680
191
261
306
502
717

1 3,092
5
1 868
5
151,177
1 1,386
5
1 2,278
5
153,226

31.5
9.5
14.5
19.0
23.0
39.0

21.6
20.1
18.0
16.1
21.8
18.4

1598.2
1 91.4
5
1 81.2
5
1 73.0
5
1 99.0
5
1 82.7
5

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.20
1.12
1.00
.89
1.21
1.02

1 5.45
5
1 5.08
5
1 4.51
5
1 4.05
5
1 5.50
5
1 4.59
5

.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18

2,657

1 12,027
5

136.5

19.5

1 88.1
5

18.0

1.08

1 4.90
5

.81

16.18

30,615 1.378.5
1 117,873 1.186.5
6
1 2,562
7
53.5

22.2
22.1
27.8

22.2
1 99.3
6
1 47.9
7

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.23
1.23
1.54

1.2
1 5.5
5
1 2.7
7

.81

16.18
18.50

21.2

21.2

18.0

1.17

1.7

$0.81 1 $0.18
6
6
.81 1 . 18
.81 16.18
.81 16.18

Cotton and T obacco
Line No. 41:1
4
Total, 21 ships_____ 30,615
Cotton............... 26,191
Tobacco_______ 1,485
Cotton and to­
bacco 1 ____ 2,939
9

2,939

138.5

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch pro4
1 Hogsheads,
7
ductivity and cost.
1 Piece rate per hogshead.
8
1 Bales.
5
w Labor time not available for each commodity
is piece rate per bale.
separately.




276

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 47.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

C otton and Tobacco—

Continued
Line No. 411 —Contd.
4
No. 1 (January):
Cotton________

T otal-..........
No. 2 (June):
Cotton________

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
per
ton
tons
tons
gang tons tons
ton
Output per
gang-hour

Ships with m aximum efficiency

216
229
337
497

W974
i«l,034
161,518
1 2,237
6

6.0
6.0
16.0
15.0

36.0
38.2
21.1
33.1

15162.3
15172.3
1 94.9
5
15149.1

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

2.00
2.12
1.17
1.84

1 9.1
6
1 9.6
6
1 5.3
6
1 8.3
5

1,279

i« 5,763

43.0

29.7

15134.0

18.0

1.65

1 7.5
5

.81

16.18

277
264
245
461

is 1,246
151,189
151,103
1 2,074
5

15.0
10.0
10.0
22.0

18.5
26.4
24.5
21.0

1 83.1
5
15118.9
15110.3
1 94.3
5

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

1.03
1.47
1.36
1.16

1 4.6
5
1 6.6
5
1 6.1
5
1 5.2
5

.81
.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18
16.18

.81

16.18

Total________

1,247

1 5,612
5

57.0

21.9

1 98.5
5

18.0

1.22

1 5.5
5

Tobacco_______

100

1 185
7

2.0

50.0

17 93.0

18.0

2.78

1 5.2
7

Grand total-..

1,347

59.0

38.1

18.0

$0.81 i« $0.18
.81 i«.18
.81 i«.18
.81 16.18

2.12

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September):
Cotton________
Cotton and to­
bacco 19______

71

n 320

3.5

20.3

1 91.4
5

18.0

1.13

1 5.1
5

486
357
115

486
357
115

20.0
21.0
10.5

24.3
17.0
11.0

24.3
17.0
11.0

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.35
.94
.60

1.35
.94
.60

$0.81 1 $0.18
6

Total________

958

958

51.5

18.6

18.6

18.0

1.03

1.03

Grand total. --

1,029

1,029

55.0

18.7

18.7

18.0

1.04

1.04

196
420
302

1 882
5
151,891
1 1,360
5

16.0
24.0
19.5

12.3
17.5
15.5

1 55.1
5
1 78.8
5
1 69.7
5

18.0
18.0
18.0

.68
.97
.86

1 3.1
5
1 4.4
5
1 3.9
5

.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18

918

1 4,133
5

59.5

15.4

1 69.5
5

18.0

.86

1 3.9
5

.81

16.18

No. 4 (September):
Cotton...............

Total-..........

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January):
Cotton-...........

T o ta l--....... Cotton and to­
bacco 19______

76
356
352
107

1 343
5
151,602
151,582
1 484
5

2.0
16.0
17.0
5.0

38.0
22.3
20.7
21.4

15171.5
1 100.1
5
1 93.1
5
1 96.8
5

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

2.11
1.24
1.15
1.19

1 9.5
5
1 5.6
6
1 5.2
6
1 5.4
5

891

1 4,011
5

40.0

22.3

15100.3

18.0

1.24

1 5.6
5

511
353

511
353

23.0
16.0

22.2
22.2

22.2
22.2

18.0
18.0

1.23
1.23

1.23
1.23
1.23

$0.81 1 $0.18
6
.81 16.18
.81 16.18
.81 16.18
.81

16.18

Total...............

864

864

39.0

22.2

22.2

18.0

1.23

Grand total...

1,755

1,755

79.0

22.2

22.2

18.0

1.23

1.23

No. 6 (July): Cotton.

142
279
643

1 639
5
151,255
1 2,893
5

6.0
12.0
30.0

23.7
23.3
21.4

15106.5
15104.6
1 96.4
5

18.0
18.0
18.0

1.31
1.29
1.19

1 5.9
5
1 5.8
5
is 5.4

.81
.81
.81

16.18
16.18
16.18

1,064

1 4,787
5

48.0

22.2

1 99.7
5

18.0

1.23

1 5.5
5

.81

16.18

Total....................

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch pro4
ductivity and cost.
1 Bales.
5
Piece rate per bale.




1 Hogshaads.
7
1 Labor time not available for each commodity
9
separately.

277

NEW ORLEANS (1927)

T able 47.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G IN DIVIDU AL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Aver­ Output per Average labor
cost per—
man-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
tons
tons
ton
gang tons tons
ton

C ase Oil
Line No. 42:
Total, 11 ships_____

8,795

« 235,190

128.5

68.4 201,830.0

33.0

2.07

2 55.3
0

$0.39 2 $1.45
1

2.57 2 68.50
o
0
2.47 2 66.00

$0.31 2 $1.17
1
.32 "1.21

Ships with m axim um efficiency

1,425
712

No. 1 (June)
No. 2 (Jni™)

2 38,000
0
2 19,000
0

15.0
9.0

o
95.0 2 2,533.0
79.1 N 2, 111. 0

37.0
32.0

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

2 18,000
»
2 10,000
0

666
370

No. 3 (September)...
No. 4 (November)

12.5
7.0

0
53.3 2 1,440.0
0
52.9 2 1,429.0

34.0
37.0

0
1.57 2 42.40
1.43 2 38.60
0

1
$0.51 2 $1.89
1
.56 2 2.07

Ships with average efficiency

2 22,600
0

Line No. 43:
Total, 8 ships...........

8,320

2 41,600
2

230

36.2

No. 1 (January)____
No. 2 (June)_______
No. 3 (October).......
No. 4 (October).......
No. 5 (November) __
No. 6 (November) _ _
No. 7 (December)—
No. 8 (December)—

900
180
1,500
1,920
580
800
1,440
1,000

2 4,500
2

22.0
7.5
49.0
63.0
16.0
26.0
29.0
27.5

40.9
24.0
30.6
36.2
36.3
30.8
49.7
36.4

2 17,600
0

14.5
9.0

0
58.6 2 1,559.0
o
73.3 2 1,956.0

28.0
35.0

2.09 2 55.70
0
0
2.93 2 55.90

$0.38 2i $1.44
.27 211.43

22181.0

17.2

2.11 2210.50

3
$0.38 2 $7.62

oooooooo

850
660

No. 5 (March)_____
No. 6 (November) _ _

17.0
16.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
18.0
17.0

2.41
1.50
1.80
2.13
2.13
1.81
2.66
2.14

2212.00

.33 2 6.67
3
.53 2310.67
.44 2 8.89
3
3
.38 2 7.48
3
.38 2 7.48
.44 2 8.89
3
3
.30 2 6.02
3
.37 2 7.48

D rum Oil

22900

2 7,500
2
2 9,600
2
2 2,900
2
2 4,000
2
2 7,200
2
2 5,000
2

G rain
Line No. 44:2
4
npAfol IQ cTiinc

a

2 1,874,509 1 163.0
5
2

w 11,500.0

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January).......
No. 2 (November) _.

2 126,565
«
2 40,000
5

1 5.6
2
121.7

1 22,681.0
3
13 23,952.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

0 f AIlfflKtt
No. 4 (September) __
** Ship-hours.
13Bushels per ship-hours.
m Cases.

2 Per 100 cases.
i




2 60,000
5
2 112,000
5

1212.7
1218.6

1 4,736.0
3
1 6,028.0
3
2 Drums.
2
2 Per 100 drums.
3
2 Loaded at elevators.
4
2 Bushels.*
4

2 7.50
2
2 9.00
2
2210.70
2-10.70
2 9.00
2
2213.30
2210.70

278

GENERAL TABLES

T able 47.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship num­
ber, and date of opera­
tion

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Aver­ Output per Average labor
man-hour
cost per—
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
Long Revenue men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
tons
ton
tons
gang tons
tons
ton
Output per
gang-hour

Ships with average efficiency

Grain— Continued

Line No. 442—Contd.
4

2«88,284
2 41,143
5

1 7.4
2
1 3.4
2

13 11,898.0

2 1,020,000
5

1 75.0
2

»3 13,602.0

No 6 TMav)
Line No. 45:2
4

1 12,030.0
3

Ships with m aximum efficiency

125.1
12 3.5

2 120,000
3
2 80,000
5

1 23,622.0
3
1 22,857.0
3

Ships with m inim um efficiency

2 128,000
5
2 112,182
5

"N o 3 ( Ainnitf)
T

No 4 (September)

139,364.0I
1310,182.0
1

1 13.7
2
1 11.0
2

Ships with average efficiency

129.I
1 4.7
2

1313, 216.0
1 13,704.0
3

5
50,164 2 1,893,507 ...........

..............

2 120,000
5
2«64,000

No 5 (August)
\rn U ^Nnvftmhftrt
liU fi vll UV U vly-*
C lU
Line No. 46:26
Total, 21 ships_____

.....

5
11.67 2 440.40 $0,069 2 $1.82
7

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No 1 (April)
No. 2 (September)..

1,034
3,214

5
18.50 2 709.10 $0.043 2 $1.13
7
7
19.80 2 738.50
5
.040 2 1.08

2 39,708
5
2 120,000
5

%
Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September) __
No 4 (October)

3,000
3,643

7.70 2 285.70 $0.105 2 $2.80
5
7
9.40 2 350.10
5
.085 2 2.29
7

2 112,000
5
2 136,000
5

Ships with average efficiency

No 5 (October)
No 6 (June)

1,071
1,800

12 Ship-hours.
13Bushels per ship-hour.




2 40,000
5
2 70,052
5

2 Loaded at elevators.
4
2 Bushels.
5

5
11.50 2 430.10 $0,069 2 $1.86
7
5
.069 2 1.78
7
11.50 2 449.10

2 Trimming cargo only.
6
2 Per 1,000 bushels.
7

Mobile (1927)
T

able

48.

-P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABO R AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO, B Y
K IN D OF T R AD E AND IN DIVIDU AL COM MODITIES

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output
Average
Aver­ per manlabor cost
age
hour
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Reve­ Long Reve
gang tons nue ton nue
ton
ton

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo: Europe—
No. 1_______ ____ _____
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 2.....................
No. 3— ...................
No. 4__................. .
Latin America—
No. 5— .................
No. 6..................... .
No. 7..................... .
Orient—No. 8.................

16.7

16.7

16.4

1.02

1.02 $0.59 $0.59

988.5
803.8
2,749.5

16.9
15.4
14.2

16.9
15.4
14.2

16.5
16.2
15.8

1.02
.95
.90

1.02
.95
.90

.59
.63
.67

.59
.63
.67

892.7
1,494.4
3,028.3
1,229.5

17.9
17.8
13.5
25.0

17.9
17.8
13.5
25.0

16.6
18.1
17.6
17.3

1.08
.99
.77
1.45

1.08
.99
.77
1.45

.56
.61
.78
.41

.56
.61
.78
.41

17,124

17,124 1,025.3

16,713
12,361
39,165

16,713
12,361
39,165

15,977
26,667
40,855
30,682

15,977
26,667
40,855
30,682

Intercoastal trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 9...............
Loading cargo:
No. 10_______
No. 1 1 - .........
No. 12.............
No. 1 3 - .........

15,369

2 17,213

767.0

20.0

222.4

17.0

16,443
20,430
40,299
25,022

2 18,416
2 22,877
2 45,134
2 28,025

881.6
1,228.8
2,567.4
1,633.5

18.7
16.6
15.7
15.3

2 20.9
2 18.6
2 14.6
2 17.2

17. (J 1.10 21.23
17.0
.98 1. 10
.92 2 1.03
17.0
17.0
.90 1.01

1.18 2 1.32 $0.51 2$0.45

2
2

.55
.61
.65
.67

2.49
2.55

2.58
2.59

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Bananas8
—No. 14Loading cargo:
Cotton—No. 15___
Lumber—No. 16- _.
No. 1 7 - ......... .
No. 1 8 - ......... .

42,886,508 52,108.0
24,615
32,834
24,093
26,672

7 109,214
8 18,667
« 13,399
« 15,689

° Stems per conveyor-hour.
1 Wage rate: 60 cents per hour.

2 Short tons.

8 Wage rate: 35 cents per hour.
4 Stems.




1,220.5
2,445.3
1,962.0
2,778.6

«1,369.0
20.2
13.4
12.3
9.6

100.0

7 89.5
8 7.6
8 6.8
8 5.7

16.9
15. a
15.7
14.0

413.69

6$2.56

1.19 7 5.30 $0.50 7.11
.88 8.50
.68 8 1.20
.78 8.43
.77 81.40
.69 8.40
.87 81.50

5 Conveyor-hours.
6 Per 100 stems.
7 Bales.
81,000 board feet.

279

280

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 49 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons*

Average
Output per A v­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons* ton enue
to n 1

Line No. 1

Total, 18 ships...............................

17,124

Fertilizer.................................
Steel products.........................
General cargo..........................

6,497
3,607
7,020

17,124 1,025.3
6,497
3,607
7,020

428.5
174.5
422.3

16.7

16.7

16.4

1.02

1.02 $0.59 $0.59

15.2
20.7
16.6

15.2
20.7
16.6

18.5
16.0
14.5

.82
1.29
1.15

.82
1.29
1.15

.73
.47
.52

.73
.47
.52

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (August): Iron and st8el
h o o p s.................................... .

688

688

21.5

32.0

32.0

15.3

2.09

2.09 $0.29 $0.29

No. 2 (April):
Hoop iron...............................
General cargo.........................

299
81

299
81

8.0
7.0

37.3
11.6

37.3
11.6

16.0
16.1

2.33
.72

2.33
.72

.26
.83

.26
.83

Total....................................

380

380

15.0

25.3

25.3

16.0

1.58

1.58

.38

.38

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (M ay):
Fertilizer........
General cargo.

555
55

555
55

42.5
5.0

13.1
11.0

13.1
11.0

18.0
16.0

0.73
.69

Total_______

610

610

47.5

12.8

12.8

17.8

.72

.72

.83

.83

N° ‘ Fertilizer.
Steel bars

2,776
63

2,776
63

192.0
4.5

14.5
14.0

14.5
14.0

19.9
16.0

.73
.88

.73
.88

.82
.68

.82
.68

Total__

2,839

2,839

196.5

14.4

14.4

19.8

.73

.73

.82

.82

0.73 $0.82 $0.82
.69
.87
.87

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December): Fertilizer___

1,824

1,824

99.0

18.4

18.4

18.0

1.02

1.02 $0.59 $0.59

No. 6 (April):
Nails........................................
Steel bars................................

20
133

20
133

1.0
8.5

19.8
15.6

19.8
15.6

16.0
16.0

1.24
.98

1.24
.98

.48
.61

.48
.61

153

153

9.5

16.1

16.1

16.0

1.00

1.00

.60

.60

Total................ ............... .

Loading cargo: Europe
Line No. 2

Total, 17 ships...............................

16,713

16,713

988.5

16.9

16.9

16.5

1.02

1.02 $0.59 $0.59

Glucose....................................
Flour............................... ........
Logs.........................................
Oyster shells.........................
Cotton...................... ............ .
General cargo.........................

4,552
2,549
2,228
1,190
1,035
5,159

4,552
2,549
2,228
1,190
1,035
5,159

286.3
128.5
213.2
52.7
68.0
239.8

15.9
19.8
10.5
22.6
15.2
21.5

15.9
19.8
10.5
22.6
15.2
21.5

16.7
16.2
15.8
16.1
16.3
17.3

.95
1.22
.66
1.40
.93
1.24

.95
1.22
.66
1.40
.93
1.24

* Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




.63
.49
.91
.43
.65
.48

.63
.49
.91
.43
.65
.48

281

MOBILE (1927)

T ab le 49 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y o r LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with m aximum efficiency

L ine N o. 2—Continued
No. 1 (October):

Average
Output per Av­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton enue
ton 1

Flour
_ ________________
General cargo.....................

1,065
219
113

1,065
219
113

27.0
10.5
4.5

39.4
20.9
25.1

39.4
20.9
25.1

22.0
16.0
16.0

1.79
1.30
1.57

1.79 $0.34 $0.34
1.30
.46
.46
1.57
.38
.38

Total..................................

1,397

1,397

42.0

33.3

33.3

19.9

1.68

1.68

.36

.36

No. 2 (November):
Flour
________ _________
Cottonseed meal___________
Glucose
____ ___ ____
Oyster shells_______________
Tobacco
_______________
General cargo..........................

1,059
803
362
225
179
102

1,059
803
362
225
179
102

49.0
28.5
21.5
10.5
5.5
9.0

21.6
28.2
16.8
21.4
32.5
11.3

21.6
28.2
16.8
21.4
32.5
11.3

16.0
19.9
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

1.35
1.41
1.05
1.34
2.03
.71

1.35
1.41
1.05
1.34
2.03
.71

.44
.43
.57
.45
.30
.85

.44
.43
.57
.45
.30
.85

Total....................................

2,730

2,730

124.0

22.0

22.0

16.9

1.30

1.30

.46

.46

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Logs from cars_____________
Glucose___________________
Logs from water____ _______
General cargo...................... .

393
363
264
17

393
363
264
17

53.5
20.0
30.5
1.8

7.3
18.2
8.7
9.7

7.3
18.2
8.7
9.7

16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

0.46
1.13
.54
.61

Total................... ................

1,037

1,037

105.8

9.8

9.8

16.0

.61

.61

.98

.98

No. 4 (March):
Glucose __________________
Logs from water____________
Logs from cars........................
Oyster shells_______________

504
352
146
100

504
352
146
100

31.3
30.5
15.0
4.7

16.1
11.5
9.7
21.1

16.1
11.5
9.7
21.1

17.2
16.0
16.0
16.0

.94
.72
.61
1.32

.94
.72
.61
1.32

.64
.83
.98
.45

.64
.83
.98
.45

1,102

1,102

81.5

13.5

13.5

16.5

.82

.82

.73

.73

Total................................ .

0.46 $1.30 $1.30
1.13
.53
.53
.5 4 1.11 1.11
.61
.98
.98

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December):
Cottonseed meal___________
Flour_____________________
Glucose___________________
General cargo..................... .

315
295
199
95

315
295
199
95

11.0
15.5
16.0
10.0

28.6
19.0
12.4
9.5

28.6
19.0
12.4
9.5

20.0
16.0
15.0
16.0

1.43
1.19
.83
.59

1.43 $0.42 $0.42
1.19
.50
.50
.72
.72
.83
.59 1.02 1.02

Total.................................-

904

904

52.5

17.2

17.2

16.5

1.04

1.04

.58

.58

No. 6 (December):
Glucose________ __________
Cotton..______ ___________
General cargo...................... .

359
231
43

359
231
43

20.5
14.0
2.5

17.5
16.5
17.2

17.5
16.5
17.2

18.0
16.0
16.0

.97
1.03
1.08

.97
1.03
1.08

.62
.58
.56

.62
.58
.56

633

633

37.0

17.1

17.1

17.1

1.00

1.00

.60

.60

Total, 9 ships.................................

12,361

12,361

803.8

15.4

15.4

16.2

0.95

0.95 $0.63 $0.63

Lumber.............................. .
Cotton................................. .
General cargo................... ......

6,654
3,226
2,481

3,802
3,226
2,481

493.0
161.8
149.0

13.5
19.9
16.7

7.7
19.9
16.7

15.8
17.0
16.4

.85
1.17
1.01

.49
1.17
1.01

Total................................
L ine N o. 3

1Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.

66490°—32----- 19




.71
.51
.59

1.22
.51
.59

282

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 49 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Output per Av­ Output per Average
gang-hour erage man-hour labor cost
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton enue
ton 1
Ships with m axim um efficiency

L ine N o. 3—Continued
No. 1 (October):
Lumber...................................
General cargo........................ .

362
56

188
56

18.5
2.5

19.6
22.4

10.2
22.4

14.2
16.0

1.38
1.40

0.71 $0.43 $0.85
1.40
.43
.43

Total....................................

418

418

21.0

19.9

19.9

14.4

1.38

1.38

.43

.43

No. 2 (November):
Cotton.....................................
Coke........................................
Logs from cars........................
Lumber...................................
General cargo..........................

807
513
201
342
67

807
513
201
219
67

40.0
10.5
14.5
28.5
3.5

20.2
48.9
13.9
12.0
19.1

20.2
48.9
13.9
7.7
19.1

16.5
22.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

1.22 1.22
2.22 '2.22
.87
.87
.75
.48
1.20 1.20

.49
.27
.69
.80
.50

.49
.27
.69
1.25
.50

Total....................................

1,930

1,930

97.0

19.9

19.9

16.8

1.18

.51

.51

1.18

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (September):
Lumber___________________
General cargo..........................

1,137
66

632
66

90.0
6.0

12.6
11.0

7.0
11.0

16.0
16.0

0.79
.69

Total....................................

1,203

1,203

96.0

12.5

12.5

16.0

.78

.78

.77

.77

874
1,404
231

874
764
231

52.0
100.5
21.0

16.8
14.0
11.0

16.8
7.3
11.0

17.0
15.9
16.0

.99
.88
.69

.99
.48
.69

.61
.68
.87

.61
1.25
.87

2,509

2,509

173.5

14.5

14.5

16.2

.89

.89

.67

.67

No. 4 (January):
Cotton____________________
Lumber..................................
General cargo.......................—
Total....................................

0.44 $0.76 $1.36
.69
.87
.87

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Cotton______________ ______
Lumber........ ..........................

124
110

124
66

5.5
9.5

22.5
11.6

22.5
7.0

18.0
16.0

1.25
.72

1.25 $0.48 $0.48
.44
.83 1.36

Total....................................

234

234

15.0

15.6

15.6

16.7

.93

.93

.65

.65

No. 6 (July):
Rosin_____________________
Lumber_____________ ______
General cargo..........................

114
997
144

114
571
144

6.0
71.8
9.0

19.0
13.9
16.0

19.0
8.0
16.0

16.0
15.7
16.0

1.19
.89
1.00

1.19
.51
1.00

.50
.67
.60

.50
1.18
.60

Total....................................

1,255

1,255

86.8

14.5

14.5

15.7

.92

.92

.65

.65

Line N o . 4
Total, 31 ships...............................

39,165

39,165 2,749.5

14.2

14.2

15.8

0.90

0.90 $0.67 $0.67

Lumber, hardwood................
Lumber, pine..........................
Logs.........................................
Rosin.......................................
Oyster shells...........................
General cargo..........................

6,205
19,081
3,665
2,865
2,861
4,489

4,273
623.5
10,350 1,300.5
265.8
3,665
129.0
2,865
2,861
129.0
301.7
4,489

10.0
14.7
13.8
22.2
22.2
14.9

6.9
8.0
13.8
22.2
22.2
14.9

16.0
15.6
15.8
16.0
16.5
16.4

.62
.94
.87
1.39
1.34
.91

.43
.51
.87
1.39
1.34
.91

.97
.64
.69
.43
.45
.66

1.40
1.18
.69
.43
.45
.66

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Oyster shells...........................
Glucose....................................
Timber....................................
Lumber, pine..........................
General cargo..........................

187
101
902
206
84

187
101
451
115
84

8.5
5.5
45.0
16.0
8.0

22.0
18.4
20.0
12.9
10.5

22.0
18.4
10.0
7.2
10.5

16.0
16.0
13.0
16.0
16.4

1.38
1.15
1.54
.81
.64

1.38 $0.43 $0.43
.52
1.15
.52
.77
.39
.78
.74 1.33
.45
.94
.94
.64

Total....................................

1,479

1,479

83.0

17.8

17.8

14.4

1.24

1.24

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




.48

.48

283

MOBILE (1927)

T ab le 4 9 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E-Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L ine N o. 4—Continued

Reve­
nue
tons*

Average
Output per A v­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
tons tons1 gang tons tonsi ton enue
ton1

Ships with m axim um efficiency— Continued

No. 2 (December):
Oyster shells...........................
Logs.........................................
Timber....................................
Lumber, pine..........................
Lumber, hardwood................

125
129
414
177
105

125
129
207
99
73

5.0
9.0
21. d
9.5
9.0
|

25.0
14.3
19.7
18.7
11.7

25.0
14.3
9.9
10.4
8.1

16.0 1.56
16.0
.90
13.0 1.52
16.0 1.17
16.0
| .73

1.56 $0.38 $0.38
.90
.67
.67
.39
.79
.76
.92
.51
.65
.82 1.20
.50

Total....................................

951

951

53.5

17.8

17.8

14.8

1.20

1.20

.50

.50

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (March):
Lumber, hardwood................
Lumber, pine..........................
General cargo..........................

476
236
230

329
131
230

51.5
16.5
21.3

9.2
14.3
10.8

6.4
8.0
10.8

16.0
16.0
15.7

0.58
.89
.69

0.40 $1.C3 $1.50
.50
.67 1.20
.69
.87
.87

Total....................................

943

943

89.3

10.6

10.6

15.9

.66

.66

.91

.91

No. 4 (July):
Lumber, pine..........................
Rosin.......................................
General cargo______________

816
151
91

452
151
91

77.0
7.0
8.0

10.6
21.5
11.3

5.9
21.5
11.3

16.0
16.0
16 6

.66
1.34
.68

.37
1.34
.68

.91
.45
.88

1.62
.45
88

Total....................................

1,057

1,057

92.0

11.5

11.5

16.1

.72

.72

.83

.83

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Lumber, hardwood................
Rosin.......................................
Logs from cars..................... .
Logs from water........ .............
Oyster shells...........................
Lumber, pine—. ....... ............
General cargo..........................

494
296
169
139
125
139
24

341
296
169
139
125
76
24

53.5
12.3
11.3
3.0
7.5
8.0
1.7

9.2
24.2
15.0
46.3
16.7
17.2
13.6

6.4
24.2
15.0
46.3
16.7
9.5
13.6

15.9
16.0
15.6
14.0
16.0
16.0
16.9

0.58
1.51
.97
3.29
1.04
1.07
.81

0.40 $1.03 $1.50
.40
.40
1.51
.62
.62
.97
.18
3.29
.18
.58
.58
1.04
.60
.56 1.00
.74
.81
.74

Total.................. .................

1,384

1,384

97.3

14.2

14.2

15.8

.90

.90

.67

.67

No. 6 (May):
Oyster shells...........................
Lumber, pine.............. ..........
Lumber, hardwood........... .
Rosin........................... ..........
General cargo..........................

495
256
204
135
56

495
142
140
135
56

32.0
15.0
23.0
4.5
4.8

15.5
17.1
8.9
29.9
11.7

15.5
9.5
5.0
29.9
11.7

16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

.97
1.07
.55
1.87
.73

.97
.59
.38
1.87
.73

.62
.56
1.09
.32
.82

.62
1.02
1.58
.32
.82

Total....................................

1,145

1,145

79.3

14.4

14.4

16.0

.90

.90

.67

.67

Loading cargo: Latin America
Line N o . 5
Total, 15 ships...............................

15,977

15,977

892.7

17.9

17.9

16.6

1.08

1.08 $0.56 $0.56

Pipe.........................................
Cement...................................
General cargo_____________ _

7,787
3,803
4,387

7,787
3,803
4,387

376.0
143.3
373.4

20.7
26.5
11.7

20.7
26.5
11.7

15.9
17.2
17 ?

1.30
1.55
.68

1.30
1.55
.68

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




.46
.39
.88

.46
.39
88

284
T

GENERAL TABLES

abus

49.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G CARGO IN
F OREIGN T R A D E —Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

L ine N o. 6—Continued

Average
Output per Av­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (September):
Cast-iron pipe______________
General cargo______________

1,494
99

1,494
99

60.0
10.0

24.9
9.9

24.9
9.9

16.0
16.0

1.56
.61

1.56 $0.38 $0.38
.61
.98
.98

Total_______________ ^___

1,593

1,593

70.0

22.8

22.8

16.0

1.42

1.42

.42

.42

No. 2 (September):
Pipe and fittings. , „
General cargo______________

888
111

888
111

30.5
11.5

29.1
9.7

29.1
9.7

18.0
16.1

1.62
.60

1.62
.60

.37
1.00

.37
1.00

Total....................................

999

999

42.0

23.8

23.8

17.5

1. 36
*

1.36

.44

.44

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Steel pilings

343
343
________
19
______________ General cargo 19

24.5
5.0

14.0
3.8

14.0
3.8

16.7
16.2

0.84
.23

0.84 $0.71 $0.71
.23 2.61 2.61

Total____________________

362

362

29.5

12.3

12.3

16.6

.74

.74

.81

.81

No. 4 (April):
Cast-iron pipe__ - __________
General cargo______________

137
16

137
16

9.0
2.5

15.2
6.4

15.2
6.4

17.0
16.0

.90
.40

.90
.40

.67
1.50

.67
1.50

Total____________________

153

153

11.5

13.3

13.3

16.8

.79

.79

.76

.76

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July):
R o s in .___________________
General cargo______________

128
68

128
68

7.0
4.5

18.3
15.1

18.3
15.1

16.0
16.0

1.14
.94

1.14 $0.53 $0.53
.94
.64
.64

Total____________________

196

196

11.5

17.0

17.0

16.0

1.07

1.07

.56

.56

No. 6 (April): Cast-iron pipe.......

3,055

3,055

175.5

17.4

17.4

14.9

1.16

1.16

.52

.52

26,667 1,494.4

17.8

17.8

18.1

0.99

0.99 $0.61 $0.61

L ine N o . 6
Total, 26 ships_________________ 226,667

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (November): Rails and
fittings_____________________
2,750
92.9
2,750
4,229
4,229
____________ N o .2 (May): Rails173.3

29.6
24.5

29.6
24.5

17.0
17.0

1.74
1.44

1.74 $0.34 $0.34
.42
1.44
.42

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Brick_____________________
Flour____ _________________
General cargo______________

401
112
172

401
112
172

T o ta l--........................... —

685

685

No. 4 (January):
Shooks____________________
Agricultural implements____
Tobacco___________________
General cargo................. ........

470
234
138
135

470
234
138
135

Total...................................

977

977

92.3

7.4

7.4

19.0

0.39

110.8

8.7

8.7

19.0

.46

* Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
2 Principal commodities: Rails and fittings, 13,707 long tons; pipe, 6,112 long tons.




0.39 $1.54 $1.54

.46

1.30

1.30

285

MOBILE (1927)

T a b l e 49.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E-C ontinued

Loading cargo: Latin America — Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Av­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue per Long enue Long enue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton to n 1
Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o . 6— Continued

No. 5 (March): General cargoNo. 6 (February):
Rails......................................
Pipe.......................................
General cargo.......................
T otal-.................

238

12.5

19.0

19.0

19.0

1.00

1.00 $0.60 $0.

899

49.8

18.0

18.0

18.0

1.00

1.00

40,855

40,855 3,028.3

13.5

13.5

17.6

0.77

0.77 $0.78 $0.78

8,781 1,361.5
616.5
10,581
434.0
5,030
183.3
2,651
58.0
1,290
1,271
55.0
1,001
53.0
3,916
267.0

11.1

6.4
17.2

16.0
19.6
18.4
19.
17.0
16.1
19.1
18.6

.87
.63
.74
1.31
1.43
.99
.79

.40
.87
.63
.74
1.31
1.43
.99
.79

437
183
279

437
183
279
.60

L in e N o . 7

Total, 12 ships;............
Lumber............................
Shooks..............................
Agricultural implements.
Iron and steel...................
Zinc slabs...................... .
Rosin................................
Oil..............................
General cargo...................

15,115
10,581
5, f “
2,651
1,290
1,271

1,001
3,916

17.2

11.6
14.5

11.6
14.5

22.2

22.2

23.1
18.9
14.7

23.1
18.9
14.7

.87
.69
.95
.81
.46
.42
.61
.76

1.50
.69
.95
.81
.46
.42
.61
.76

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Shooks....................................
Rosin.......................................
Agricultural implements.......
Hoop steel...............................
Sheet steel...............................
Lumber............................ ......
General cargo______________

741 |
277i
153I
136
116
2,042
131

741
277
153
136
116
1,130
131

44.5
13.0
11.0
10.5
5.5
153.5
14.0

16.7
21.3
13.9
13.0
21.1
13.3
9.4

16.7
21.3
13.9
13.0
21.1
7.4
9.4

19.2
16.0
15.5
18.9
20.0
16.0
17.3

0.87
1.33
.90
.69
1.05
.83
.54

0.87 $0.69 $0.69
.45
1.33
.45
.67
.67
.90
.87
.69
.87
.57
1.05
.57
.46
.72 1.30
.54 1.11
1.11

T o ta l..................................

3,596

3,596

252.0

14.3

14.3

16.8

.85

.85

.71

.71

No. 2 (November):
Shooks.....................................
Zinc slabs................................
Iron and steel.........................
Lumber............................ ......
General cargo.........................

1,170
400
175
2,504
333

1,170
400
175
1,473
333

50.0
19.5
10.5
218.5
20.0

23.4
20.5
16.7
11.5
16.7

23.4
20.5
16.7
6.7
16.7

20.0
16.5
20.1
16.1
19.8

1.17
1.24
.83
.71
.84

1.17
1.24
.83
.42
.84

.51
.48
.72
.85
.71

.51
.48
.72
1.43
.71

T o ta l-.................................

4,582

4,582

318.5

14.4

14.4

17.1

.84

.84

.71

.71

Ships with m inim um efficiency
'. 3 (February):

Iron and steel.........................
Shooks.....................................
Agricultural implements.......
Drum oil.................................
Lumber...................................
General cargo.............. ..........

528
604
340
130
1,336
285

528
604
340
130
765
285

46.5
45.5
31.5
9.5
133.0
25.5

11.4
13.3
10.8
13.7
10.0
11.2

11.4
13.3
10.8
13.7
5.8
11.2

18.8
17.6
17.5
16.0
16.0
17.9

0.60
.76
.62
.86
.63
.63

T otal-..................................

3,223

3,223

291.5

11.1

11.1

17.0

.65

.65

.92

.92

Shooks.....................................
Agricultural implements.......
Oil...........................................
Sanitary fixtures.....................
Lumber...................................
General cargo..........................

982
226
188
143
614
406

982
226
188
143
350
406

60.5
24.0
8.5
13.5
66.5
26.0

16.2
9.4
22.1
10.6
9.2
15.6

16.2
9.4
22.1
10.6
5.3
15.6

20.0
20.0
21.0
21.0
16.0
18.6

.81
.47
1.05
.50
.58
.84

.81
.47
1.05
.50
.33
.84

.74
1.28
.57
1.20
1.03
.71

.74
1.28
.57
1.20
1.82
.71

Total....................................

2,559

2,559

199.0

12.9

12.9

18.6

.69

.69

.87

.87

0.60 $1.00 $1.00
.76
.79
.79
.62
.97
.97
.70
.86
.70
.95 1.67
.36
.95
.63
.95

. 4 (February):

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.




286

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 49.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E-Continued

Loading cargo: Latin America—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Ships with average efficiency

Line No. 7—Continued

No. 5 (March):
Shooks.....................................
Agiicultural implements.......
Drum oil.................................
Iron and steel.........................
Sheet steel...............................
Rosin.......................................
Lumber.............................. .
General cargo.........................
T otal-..................................

Average
Output per Av­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton to n 1

1,059
486
179
150
165
239
229
172
2,679

1,059
486
179
150
165
239
142
172

70.5
33.5
8.5
11.3
10.5
10.0
24.0
14.5

15.0
14.5
21.1
13.3
15.7
23.9
9.5
11.9

15.0
14.5
21.1
13.3
15.7
23.9
5.9
11.9

20.3
19.5
20.0
19.7
19.3
16.4
16.0
17.7

0.75
.74
1.05
.67
.81
1.46
.60
.67

0.75 $0.80 $0.80
.74
.81
.81
1.05
.57
.57
.67
.90
.90
.81
.74
.74
.41
.41
1.46
.37 1.00 1.62
.67
.90
.90

2,679

182.8

14.6

14.6

18.9

.77

.77

.78

.78

No. 6 (July):
Agricultural implements........
Shooks.....................................
Rosin.......................................
Iron and steel..........................
Oil....... .................................. .
Sheet steel...............................
Tobacco...................................
Lumber...................................
General cargo..........................

1,119
879
404
148
126
104
193
723
117

1,119
879
404
148
126
104
193
429
117

101.5
49.5
18.0
8.0
5.5
6.0
10.5
67.5
12.0

11.0
17.8
22.4
18.5
22.9
17.3
18.4
10.7
9.8

11.0
17.8
22.4
18.5
22.9
17.3
18.4
6.4
9.8

18.7
19.8
16.0
19.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
16.0
20.1

.59
.90
1.40
.97
1.15
.87
.92
.67
.49

.59
.90
1.40
.97
1.15
.87
.92
.40
.49

1.02
.67
.43
.62
.52
.69
.65
.90
1.22

1.02
.67
.43
.62
.52
.69
.65
1.50
1.22

Total....................................

3,813

3,813

278.5

13.7

13.7

18.2

.75

.75

.80

.80

14.8
12.4
13.1
13.0
14.7
13.8

18.4
16.7
17.6
18.0
17.9
17.0

0.80
.74
.75
.72
.83
.81

0.80 $0.75 $0.75
.74
.81
.81
.75
.80
.80
.72
.83
.83
.83
.72
.72
.81
.74
.74

25.0

25.0

17.3

1.45

1.45 $0.41 $0.41

89.5

19.5

19.5

16.0

1.22

1.22

.49

.49

227.0

22.3

22.3

16.0

1.39

1.39

.43

.43

137.0

17.8

17.8

16.0

1.11

1.11

.54

.54

Other ships

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

7 (April)................................8 (M ay)..................................
9 (August)..............................
10 (August).............................
11 (September).......................
12 (October)...........................

1,756
3,072
3,930
3,534
3,736
4,375

1,756
3,072
3,930
3,534
3,736
4,375

119.0
246.8
299.0
272.8
253.5
315.0

14.8
12.4
13.1
13.0
14.7
13.8

Loading cargo: Orient
L ine N o . 8

30,682 1,229.5

Total, 7 ships...................

3 30,682

No. 1 (July):
Sulphate of ammonia.
Nails...........................
Rosin..........................

1,230
350
167

1,230
350
167

T otal-.....................

1,747

1,747

No. 2 (September):
Sulphate of ammonia.
Rails...........................
Wrought-iron p ip e ...
Nails......................... .
Cotton........................
General cargo.............

1, < 5
*7
1,611
594
458
379
164

1,857
1,611
594
458
379
164

T o t a l.....................

5,063

5,063

No. 3 (October):
Cotton........................
Sulphate of ammonia.
Rosin..........................

1,344
1,021
67

1,344
1,021
67

2,432

2,432

T otal-...................

i Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
3 Principal commodities: Sulphate of ammonia, 10,007 long tons; rails and fittings, 16,072 long tons.




287

MOBILE (1927)

T ab le 4 9 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E-Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Reve­
nue
tons 1

Long
tons

Average
Output per Av­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour erage man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1

L ine N o. 8—Continued
No. 4 (October):
Steel rails...................- ...........
Sulphate of ammonia_______
Cotton____________________

2,113
1,446
322

2,113
1,446
322

Total____________________

3,881

3,881

No. 5 (January):
Rails and fittings___________
Sulphate of ammonia_______
Turpentine________________

5,466
870
6

5,466
870
6

Total....................................

6,342

6,342

No. 6 (January)
Rails and fittings___________
Sulphate of ammonia_______
Rosin_____________________

2,485
1,434
25

145.0

26.8

26.8

18.0

1.49

1.49 $0.40 $0.40

243.0

26.1

26.1

18.0

1.45

1.45

.41

.41

153.0

25.8

25.8

18.0

1.43

1.43

.42

.42

235.0

30.9

30.9

18.0

1.72

1.72

.35

.35

2,485
1,434
25

Total____________________

3,944

3,944

No. 7 (March):
Steel rails__________________
Sulphate of ammonia........ .....
Angle bars............. ............ .
Spikes and bolts___ ________
Rosin_____________________
General cargo______________

4,397
2,149
331
170
110
116

4,397
2,149
331
170
110
116

Total-...............................—

7,273

7,273

1 Except for lumber, which is in 1,000 board feet.
T a b le

50.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN
IN TER C O A STA L T R AD E

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Reve­
Long Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
per
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Long
tons

L ine No. 0
Total, 13 ships............................... 315,369

17,213

767.0

20.0

22.4

17.0

1.18

1.32 $0.51

$0.45

$0.36

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Canned goods______________
Beans
______ ___________
Sugar
________ ___
General cargo
_
_

685
220
453
107

767
246
507
121

Total....................................

1,465

1,641

No. 2 (September):
Canned goods
Sugar _
_____________
Lumber _ ________ __

366
586
417
1,369

1,533

25.0

28.0

17.0

1.47

1.65 $0.41

59.0

23.2

26.0

17.0

1.36

1.52

410
656
467

Total...................................

58.5

.44

.39

1 Short tons.
2 Principal commodities: Canned goods, 5,527 long tons; sugar, 3,017 long tons; beans, 1,574 long tons.




288

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 5 0 . — PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L TR AD E —Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

Line No. 9—Continued

No. 3 (August):
Canned goods
General cargo

148
86

Total____________________
No. 4 (January):
Shingles

......................

Total___ ________________

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton nue
to n 1

166
96

234

262

232
290
67

260
325
75

589

660

19.0

12.3

13.8

17.0

0.72

37.0

15.9

17.8

17.0

.94

0.81 $0.83

$0.74

.64

.57

$0.46

1.05

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December):
Flour
Shingles _________________

5S6
122
455
641

656
137
510
717

Total_____ ______________

1,804

2,020

No. 6 (September):
Canned goods
- ___ - __
Beans
___ _
Sugar
Shingles
________________

330
164
453
487
1,434

1,606

19.7

22.1

17.0

1.16

1.30 $0.52

69.5

20.6

23.1

17.0

1.21

1.36

.50

.44

1.10

1.23 $0.55

$0.49

370
184
507
545

Total____________________

49.5

Loading cargo
Line N o. 10

Total, 5 ships__________________ 316,443

18,416

No. 1 (January):
_____________
Pipe
General cargo - ___________

1,316
38
1,354

1,516

No. 2 (February):
Pipe
__ ___________
Rails
. ________________
General cargo______________

1,955
2,000
68

18.7

20.9

17.0

82.7

16.3

18.3

17.0

.96

1.08

.63

.56

222.4

18.0

20.2

17.0

1.06

1.19

.57

.50

209.0

19.2

21.5

17.0

1.13

1.27

.53

.47

197.5

19.0

21.3

17.0

1.12

1.25

.54

.48

1,474
42

Total____ _______________

881.6

2,190
2,240
76

Total ___________________

4,023

4,506

No. 3 (February):
Pipe
__________________
Rails
________________
General cargo. ____________

1,282
2,666
66

i

1,436
2,986
74

Total______________ _____

4,014

4,496

No. 4 (February):
Steel rails
_ __ ______
Pipe______________________
General cargo______________

3,088
574
103

3,459
643
115

Total. ..................................

3,765

4,217

i Short tons.
8 Principal commodities: Pipe, 5,695 long tons; rails, 10,418 long tons.




289

MOBILE (1927)

T a b l e 5 0 . — PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

IN TER C O A STA L TRAD E-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons 1

No. 5 (February):
Rails........................................
Pipe.........................................
General cargo......... - .............-

2,664
568
55

2,984
636
61

Total____________________

3,287

3,681

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons1 gang tons nue ton nue
tons1
ton 1

Line N o. 10—Continued

170.0

19.4

21.7

17.0

1.14

1.28 $0.53

$0.47

22,877 1,228.8

16.6

18.6

17.0

.98

1.10 $0.61

$0.55

$0.43

Line N o. 11

Total, 25 ships_________________ *20,430

Ships with maximum efficiency
No. 1 (May):
Pipe____ __________________
General cargo______________

519
387

581
434

Total____________________

906

1,015

No. 2 (September):
Pipe______________________
Rosin_____________________
General cargo______________

822
112
46
980

1,098

20.9

23.4

17.0

1.23

1.38 $0.49

48.2

20.4

22.8

17.0

1.20

1.34

921
125
52

Total____________________

43.4

.50

.45

0.90 $0.75

$0.67

Ships with minimum efficiency
No. 3 (January):
Pipe______________________
General cargo______________

379
525

424
588

T o ta l..................... ............

904

1,012

No. 4 (April):
Pipe______________________
General cargo______________

358
161

401
180

Total____________________

519

581

66.6

13.6

15.2

17.0

0.80

36.6

14.1

15.8

17.0

.83

.93

.72

.65

1.11 $5.61

$0.54

Ships with average efficiency
No. 5 (January):
Oyster shells_______________
Soil pipe___________________
General cargo______________
Total____________________

245
169
190
604

274
189
213
676

No. 6 (November):
Pipe.........................................
Rosin......................................
General cargo______________

352
122
141

394
137
158

Total....................................

615

689

36.0

16.8

18.8

17.0

0.99

37.3

16.8

18.8

17.0

.99

i Short tons.
* Principal commodities: Pipe, 12,362 long tons; rosin, 1,699 long tons.




1.11

.61

.54

290

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 50.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

IN TER C OA STA L TRAD E-C ontinued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton i

L in e N o. 12

Total, 29 ships_________________ *40,299 45,134 2,567.4

15.7

17.6

17.0

0.92

1.03 $0.65

$0.58

$0.46

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February):
_
_
Rails
Pipe__ _____ ______________
Angle bars_________________
Spikes_____________________

3,500
575
175
128

3,920
644
196
143

Total.................................— 4,378

4,903

No. 2 (March):
Pipe______ ________________
General cargo______________

1,324
237
1,561

1,748

19.7

22.1

17.0

1.16

1.30 $0.52

85.6

18.2

20.4

17.0

1.07

1.20

1,483
265

Total....................................

222.4

.56

.50

0.80 $0.85

$0.75

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (September):
Pipe____ _____ ____________
General cargo______________

488
87

547
97

Total____________________

575

644

No. 4 (February):
Pipe______________________
General cargo______________

1,256
89

1,407
99

T otal--__________________

1,345

1,506

47.5

12.1

13.6

17.0

0.71

105.1

12.8

14.3

17.0

.75

.84

.80

.71

1.03 $0.65

$0.58

.65

.58

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Pipe______________________
General cargo______________

1,573
51

1,762
57

1,624

1,819

No. 6 (M ay):
Pipe______________________
Plate steel____ ____ ________
General cargo...... ......... ......
Total____________________

104.4

15.6

17.5

17.0

0.92

1,266
70
79

1,418
78
89

1,415

1,585 | 90.8

15.6

17.5

17.0

.92

Total, 14 ships........................ ...... 625,022

28,025 1,633.5

15.3

17.2

17.0

0.90

Total__________________

1.03

L ine N o. 13

1.01 $0.67 $0 .59

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Pipe.........................................
General cargo______________

1,067
415

1,195
465

1,482

1,660

No. 2 (January):
Pipe................... .......... _
General cargo...... ........... ........

1,024
345

Total___ ________________

1,369

1,533

79.8

18.6

20.8

17.0

1.09

1.22 $0.55

78.8

17.4

19.5

17.0

1.02

1.14

1,147
386

Total__________________

1 Short tons.
8 Principal commodities: Pipe, 31,220 long tons; steel products, 6,317 long tons.
6 Principal commodity: Pipe, 18,387 long tons.




.59

$0.49

.53

291

MOBILE (1927)

T a b l e 50.—-PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

INTERCOASTAL TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Reve­
nue
tons1

Long
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gange-hour age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton i
Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o . 13— Continued

No. 3 (August):
Pipe....................................
Hardwood..........................
General cargo.....................

1,750
246
442

276

Total.

2,438

2,731

No. 4 (August):
Pipe..............
Brick......... .
Nails.............

2,415
388
619

2,705
435

3,422

3,

Total.,

13.4

254.5

15.0

17.0

0.79

0.88 $0.76

$0.68

13.4

15.0

17.0

.79

.76

.68

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December):
Pipe..................
General cargo-.

1,064
201
1,265

1,159
119
319

1,426

Total..

1,417

1,035
106
285

Total.
No. 6 (November):
P ip e ................
Rosin.................
General cargo...

1,192
225

1,597

82.0

15.4

17.2

17.0

94.3

15.1

16.9

17.0

0.91

1.02 $0.66

1.00

.67

.60

1 Short tons.
T a b le 51.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N DLIN G IN DIVIDUAL

CO M M O D ITIE S

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
(num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­
per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
gang tons tons ton nue
tons tons
ton
Output per
gang-hour

B ananas

Line No. 14:
Total, 166 ships................

12,886,508 22,108.0

«1,369.0

100.0

113.69

s$2.56

° Stems per conveyor-hour,




111,802
113,256

1 Stems?

26.4
2 6.8

*1,844.0
•I, 949.0

100.0
100.0 .........

? Qonveyor-hours,

h it

No. 1 (July)......................
No. 2 (October)................

CO
D O

Ships with m axim um efficiency

3$1.90
......... 3 1.80

? Per 100 stem

292

GENERAL TABLES

t a b l e 51.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation

Ganghours
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Long Reve­
nue
tons tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

B an an as— Continued

Line No. 14—Continued.
No. 3 (March)..............
No. 4 (October)............

228.0
220.3

i 2 2 ,3 5 1
i 2 0 ,8 2 9

« 798.0
«1,026.0

1 7.
110.26

100.0

3
$4.39
3 3.41

113.69
113.65

100.0

3$2. 56
3 2 .5 6

Ships with average efficiency

i 22,317
115,842

No. 5 (March).
No. 6 (M a y )...

216.3

«1,369.0
1,160.0

2 11.6

100.0
100.0

M o nthly summaries of ships discharging

1 134,260
1161,798
1248,480
i 254,397
1311,456
1 286,847
i 268, 743
i 240,805
i 249,190
i 238, 375
i 233, 533
1258,624

January, 8 ships........
February, 9 ships—
March, 14 ships....... .
April, 16 ships..........
May, 18 ships..........
June, 15 ships...........
July, 17 ships...........
August, 15 ships____
September, 14 ships.
October, 14 ships----November, 13 ships.
December, 13 ships..

2102. 5
2129.2
2 214.9
2 184.7
2 215.5
2195.0
2 180.4
2 157.4
2174.6
2173.3
2179.3
2201.2

®1.310.0
«1,252.0
®1,156.0
1,377.0
«1,445.0
«1,471.0
®1,490.0
«1, 530.0
«1,427.0
•1,376.0
«1,302. 0
«1,285.0

100.0......... 113.10
3
$2.67
3 2.80
1 0 0 .0 _____ 112. 52
100. 0|........ 111.56 ___ 3 3.03
ioo. o:...... 113.77
3 2.54
100.0___ 114.45
3 2.42
100.0_____ 114.71
3 2.38
100.0_____ 114.90
3 2.35
1 0 0 .0 .......... 115.30
3 2.29
1 0 0 .0 .......... 114.27
3 2.45
100.0......... *13.76 ___ 3 2.54
100.0_____ 113.02
3 2.69
100.0_____ 112.85
3 2.72

Loading cargo
C otton

Line No. 15:
Total, 26 ships.................

24,615

* 109,214 1,220.5

20.2

4 89.5

16.9

1.19 <5.30 $0.50 <$0.11

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)...
No. 2 (November).

158
2,028

<700
<8,988

6.5
90.0

24.3 <107.7
22.5 <100.0

16. o! 1.52 <6.73 $0.39 <$0.09
16. l| 1.40 <6.22

.43

<.10

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)...............
No. 4 (August).................

465
427

<2,060
<1,892

31.0
29.0

15.0
14.7

<66.5
<65.2

18.0
17.1

0.83 <3.69 $0.72 <$0.16
.86 <3.82
.70 <.16

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)...............
No. 6 (December)............
a Stems per conveyor-hour.




793
384

<3,517
<1, 701

1 Stems.

40.0
19.5

19.8
19.7

<87.9
<87.2

2 Conveyor-hours.

17.0
16.3

1.17 <5.17 $0.51 <$0.12
1.20 <5.34
.50 <.11

3 Per 100 stems,

<Bales,

293

MOBILE (1927)

T a b le 51.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR A N D LABO R COST IN HANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued

Ganghours

Commodity, ship number,
and date of operation,
Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
gang tons tons ton ton
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

L umber

Line No. 16:
Total, 17 ships.................. 32,834

618,667 2,445.3

13.4

*7.6

15.2

0.88 *0.50 $0.68 *$1.20

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)................... I
No. 2 (July)......................

3,598
2,380

*2,039
*1,255

231.5
159.5

15.5
14.9

*8.8
*7.9

15.3
14.0

1.02 *0.58 $0.59 *$1.03
1.06 *.56
.57 *1.07

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (September)......... .
No. 4 (September)______

1,002
1,499

*551
*928

87.5
133.5

11.5
11.2

*6.3
*7.0

15.9
15.7

0.72 *0.40 $0.83 *$1.50
.72 *.44
.83 *1.36

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December).
No. 6 (August)___
Line No. 17:
Total, 26 ships.

2.306
1,662
24,093

169.5
127.0

13.6
13.1

*7.7
*7.8

15.6
15.8

0.87 *0.50 $0.69 *$1.20
.83 *.49
.72 *1.22

* 13,399 1,962.0

12.3

*6.8

15.7

0.78 *0.43 $0.77 *$1.40

*1,306
*993

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (M ay).
No. 2 (July)..

3,424
1,063

*1,769
*631

199.5
64.0

17.2
16.6

*8.9
*9.9

13.9
15.8

1.23 *0.64 $0.49 $0.94
1.05 *.62
.57 *.97

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)........
No. 4 (September).

24
20

*13
*10

3.3
2.0

7.4
10.0

*4.1
*5.0

16.0
16.0

0.46 *0.26 $1.30 *$2.31
.
.63 5 31
.95 *1.94

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (
No. 6 (April).
Line No. 18:
Total, 26 ships.

154
457
26,672

*86
*254

12.5
37.0

12.3
12.4

56.8
5 6.9

16.0
16.0

0.77 50.43 $0.78 5$1.40
.77 5.43
.78 5 1.40

* 15,689 2,778.6

9.6

55.7

14.0

0.69 50.40 $0.87 5$1.50

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (April)..
No. 2 (M ay)..

962
1,372

*566
*807

68.2
105.3

14.0
13.2

*8.3
*7.7

14.0
14.0

1.00 5 0.59 $0.60 *$1.02
.94 5.55
.64 * 1.09

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (October)...
No. 4. (February).

624
1,047

5 367
*616

77.8
125.3

8.1
8.4

*4.8
54.9

14.0
14.0

0.58 5 0.34 $1.03 *$1.76
.60 *. 35 1.00 *1.71

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)...
No. 6 (February).
81,000 board feet.




1,518

*893
*402

158.6
71.3

9.5
9.5

*5.6
*5.6

14.0
14.0

0.68 *0.40 $0.88 *$1.50
.68 *.40
.88 *1.50

Charleston, S. C. (1927)
T a b l e 52.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO, BY

K IN D OF T R A D E AND IN D IV ID U A L COM M ODITIES

--------------- »
Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
tons tons gang tons nue ton nue
ton
ton
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Reve­
nue
tons

Long
tons

Ganghours

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo: Europe—
No. 1................................. 10,062
Loading cargo:
Europe—No. 2................. 5,759
Orient—No. 3................... 16,043

10,062

434.5

23.2

23.2

35.3

0.66

5,759
16,043

495.0
826.5

11.6
19.4

11.6
19.4

23.1
26.2

.50
.74

.50
.74

0.47

3 0.53

0.66 $0.61 $0.61
1.00
.68

1.00
.68

Intercoastal trade 3

Discharging cargo:
No. 4................................. 26,197

3 29,342

1,685.0

15.5

3

17.4

33.0

$0.84 3 $0.75

Coastwise trade 3

Discharging cargo:
No. 5.............. .
Loading cargo:
No. 6.............. .

116,910 * 225,739.5

3 0 .5 2

3$0.77

3 73,610 * 106,307.5

3

3 .6 9

3.58

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Bananas No. 7__
Cement2
—No. 8___
Kainit—No. 9.........
Nitrate of soda
No. 10...............
No. 11...............
Sulphur 2
—No. 12—
Loading cargo:
Cotton9
—
No. 13...............
No. 14...............
Lumber ®
—No. 15..

12,274
37,748

* 899,125 4 86,454.0
12,274
497.0
1,348.5
37,748

24.7
28.0

24.7
28.0

27.4
40.6

0.90
.69

*10.40
«$2.88
.90 $0.44
.44
.69
.58
.58

35,499 7 391,659
60,178 7 661,525
5,737
5,737

823.0
1,480.5
153.0

43.1 7 475.9
40.6 7 446.8
37.5
37.5

40.7
39.9
31.9

1.06 7 11.70
1.02 711.20
1.18 1.18

.38 8 3.42
.39 8 3.57
.34
.34

22,663 io 102,064
15,147 «>67,326
5,355
5,355

1,214.5
895.5
711.5

18.7 W84.0
16.9 1 75.2
0
7.5
7.5

27.2
26.4
23.1

.69 1 3.10
0
.64 1 2.80
°
.33
.33

.72 10.16
.78 10.18
1. 52 1.52

1 Wage rate: 40 cents per hour, except for cotton and lumber, for which the rate is 50 cents per hour*
2 Wage rate: 40 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.
4 Man-hours.
* Stems.
6 Per 100 stems.
7 Bags.




295

CHARLESTON (1927)

T a bl e 5 3 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

F OREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L in e N o. 1

Total, 11 ships...... ........... ............. 110,062

10,062

434.5

23.2

23.2

35.3

0.66

0.66 $0.61 $0.61

1.13 $0.35 $0.35

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (March):
Beet pulp_________________
Fftrtinzftr
_ _ _
Total ,

299
266

299
266

........................

665

565

No. 2 (September):
Fertilizer__________________
General cargo______________

1,052
57

1,052
57

Total____________________

1,109

1,109

15.5

36.5

36.5

32.4

1.13

39.5

28.1

28.1

33.3

.84

.84

.48

.48

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (February):
Fertilizer__________________
General cargo______________

495
8

495
8

Total____________________

603

503

No. 4 (July):
Starch_____________________
Fertilizer.................................

147
281

147
281

Total____________________

428

428

29.0

17.3

17.3

36.6

0.47

22.5

19.0

19.0

36.0

.53

0.47 $0.85 $0.85

.53

.75

.75

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
China clay and cement_____
Saltpeter__________________
Starch_____________________
General cargo______________

1,157
580
310
70

1,157
580
310
70

Total......... ..........................

2,117

2,117

No. 6 (December):
Fertilizer.................................
Starch_____________________

722
148

722
148

Total.............. ................ ....

870

870

111.0

19.1

19.1

28.9

0.6&

32.5

26.8

26.8

39.0

.69

11.6

23.1

0.50

0.66 $0.61 $0.61

.69

.58

.58

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e N o. 2
Total, 9 ships................................

2 5,759

5,759

495.0

11.6

0.50 $1.00 $1.00

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (October):
Cotton____________________
Tobacco___________________

1,072
* 27

1,072
27

Total____________________

1,099

1,099

No. 2 (October):
Cotton____________________
Tobacco___________________

540
58

540
58

T ota l--____ _____________

598

598

59.0

18.6

18.6

22.2

0.84

30.0

19.9

19.9

24.6

.81

0.84 $0.60 $0.60

.81

.62

.62

1 Principal commodity: Fertilizer, 6,923 long tons.
2 Principal commodities: Cotton, 3,333 long tons; lumber and logs, 1,933 long tons; tobacco, 301 long tons.




296

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 53.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE-Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

L in e N o. 2—Continued

No. 3 (January):
Logs______________________
Lumber___________________
General cargo______________

876
291
87

876
291
87

Total____________________

1,254

1,254

No. 4 (March):
Logs and lumber___________
Tobacco___________________

129
30
159

159

6.6

6.6

23.2

0.28

26.0

6.1

6.1

18.5

.33

0.28 $1.79 $1.79

129
30

Total____________________

190.0

.33

1.52

1.52

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Cotton.........
Tobacco-----

570
75

645

Total.
No. 6 (February):
Logs------------

570
75

161

41.0

15.7

15.7

29.6

0.53

0.53

161

22.5

7.2

7.2

17.0

.42

.42

0.74

!0.94
1.19

1.19

Loading cargo: Orient
L in e N o . 3

Total, 11 ships..............................
Cotton.....................................
General cargo..........................

16,043

826.5

19.4

19.4

26.2

12,883 458,107
53,160
3,160

636.5
190.0

20.2 491.3
16.6 16.6

26.8
24.1

16,043

0.74 3$0.68 3$0.68

.75 43.40
.69
.69

.67
6.58

4 15
.
6.58

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (September):
Cotton....... .............................
No. 2 (November):
Cotton....... .............................

1,255 4 5,700

43.0

29.2 4132.5

31.3

1,122 4 5,050

53.5

21.0 4 94.4

24.7

0.93 4 4.20 $0.54 4$0.12
.85 4 3.80

.59

4 13
.

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (April):
Cotton....................................
Lumber...................................
Logs:......... .............................
General cargo..........................
T otal...................................
No. 4 (March):
Cotton.....................................

1,252 4 5,635
205
205 1
180 }
180
17
17 1

58.0

21.6 4 97.2

29.4

0.73 43.30 $0.68 4 $0.15

48.0

8.4

8.4

22.5

.37

.37

1.35

1.35

1,654

106.0

15.6

15.6

26.3

.59

.59

.85

.85

670 4 3,013

45.5

14.7 466.2

22.2

.66 4 3.00

.76

4 17
.

1,654

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Cotton.....................................
Sulphate of ammonia.............
Total....................................
No. 6 (May):
Cotton....................................
Sulphate of ammonia.............
Total........ ............................

2,540 411,425
490
490

118.0
28.0

21.5 496.8
17.5 17.5

29.5
27.0

3,030

3,030

146.0

20.8

20.8

29.0

.72

.72

.69

.69

1,000 4 4,500
1,554
1, 554

47.5
68.5

21.1 494.7
32.7 32.7

32.3
26.9

.68 4 3.10
.84
.84

.74
.48

4 16
.
.48

2,554

116.0

22.0

28.5

.77

.65

.65

2,554

22.0

0.73 4 3.30 $0.68 4$0.15
.62
.62
.65
.65

.77

3 Since cotton constituted bulk of cargo, the wage rate for cotton of 50 cents per hour was used.
4 Bales.
« Principal commodity: Sulphate of ammonia, 2,556 long tons.
• Regular rate of 40 cents per hour was used.




297

CHARLESTON (1927)

5 4 —PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN
IN TERCOASTAL TR AD E

T a b le

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Reve­
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
enue
enue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons 1 ton ton i
tons1

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L in e N o . 4

Total, 20 ships______ ___________ 226,197

29,342 1,685.0

15.5

17.4

33.0

0.47

0.53 $0.84 $0.75

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (October):
nan'ned salmon... ...............
C ftT T ed fnilt*
5 >>
S h in g le s

_

B e a n s .............. .....
General cargo___ ________

661
525
229
162
223

740

588
256
182

250

Total. .................................

1,800

2, 016

No. 2 (August):
Canned goods
Shingles
General cargo______________

386

125
425
936

1,048

19.5

21.8

33.9

0.57

51.0

18.3

20.5

32.8

.56

432
140
476

T o ta l..................................

92.5

0.64 $0.71 $0.63

.63

.71

.63

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Canned goods______________
Shingles.................. ................
General cargo_____ _________

404

452
562

T o ta l--................................

1,155

1,294

1,255

1,406

440

280

493
123
313

2,085

2,335

No. 4 (January):
Canned goods_____________
Shingles___________________
Flour......... ........................
General cargo______________
T o ta l.-................................

502
249

110

280
104.0

11.1

12.4

33.5

0.33

143.0

14.6

16.3

34.5

.42

0.37 $1.21 $1.08

.47

.95

.85

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March):
Canned goods.........................
Shingles.—....... ............... ......
Flour.......................................
Beans......................................
General cargo............ ............

788

166
110
101
230

883
186
123
113
257

T o ta l-.................................

1,395

1,562

No. 6 (June):
Canned goods.........................
Shingles...................................
General cargo..........................

173
280
234

194
314
261

Total. ..................................

687

769

1 Short tons.

83.0

16.8

18.8

35.0

0.48

45.5

15.1

16.9

32.2

.46

2 Principal commodities: Canned goods, 12,313 long tons; shingles, 6,221 long tons.

66490°-32----- 20




0.54 $0.83 $0.74

.52

.86

.77

298

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 5 5 .— PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons*)

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tonsi)

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton 1

0.52

$0.77

L in e N o. 5—Con.

L in e N o . 5

Total, 216 ships..

116,910 225,739.5

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

1928
Apr. 19, 4 ships..
May 18, 4 ships..

2,115
1,740

3.329.0
2.735.0

0.64
.64

10.63
.63

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

1927
July 29, 4 ships..
Nov. 3, 4 ships__

Week ending—

1,670
2,570

4.379.0
6.111.0

0.38
.42

$1.05
.95

2,260
2,515

4.364.0
4.938.0

0.52
.51

10.77
.78

Other weeks

June 2, 5 ships...
June 9, 5 ships...
June 16, 5 ships..
June 23, 5 ships..
June 30, 4 ships..
July 14, 4 ships..
July 22, 5 ships..
Aug. 4, 5 ships...
Aug. 11, 4 ships..
Aug. 18, 4 ships..

2,235
1,375
2,150
2,165
2,600
1,465
2,070
2,195
2,275
1,905

3,966.0
2,616.0
4,054.0
3,626.0
4,731.0
2,636.0
3,869.0
4,721.0
4,590.0
3,980.0

0.56
.53
.53
.60
.55
.56
.54
.46
.50
.48

$0.71
.75
.75
.67
.73
.71
.74
.87
.80
.83

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons*)

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

Other weeks— Continued

1927
Aug. 25, 4 ships__
Sept. 1, 4 ships...
Sept. 15, 4 ships. _
Sept. 22, 4 ships. .
Sept. 29, 4 ships __
Oct. 6, 4 ships___
Oct. 13, 4 ships...
Oct. 20, 4 ships...
Oct. 27, 4 ships...
Nov. 10, 4 ships__
Nov. 17, 4 ships__
Nov. 24, 4 ships—
Dec. 1, 4 ships___
Dec. 8, 4 ships___
Dec. 15, 4 ships. __
Dec. 22, 4 ships...
Dec. 29, 3 ships...

2,235
2,210
1,880
2,680
2,670
2,770
3,075
2,290
2.530
2,285
1.825
1,990
1,915
1.825
1,750
1.530
800

4,674.0
4,524.0
4,131.0
6,039.0
5,823.0
5,843.0
6,373.0
5,176.0
5,689.0
5,112.0
4,199.5
4,435.0
3,958.0
3,558.0
3,661.0
2,830.0
1,364.0

0.48
.49
.46
.44
.46
.47
.48
.44
.44
.45
.43
.45
.48
.51
.48
.54
.59

2,205
4,520
4,620
3,080
4.150
2,460
2,885
2,285
1.910
2,405
1,950
2,110
1.830
2,450
1.910
1,930
1,665
1.830
1.150

3,591.0
7,599.0
7,600.0
5,750.0
7,176.0
5,266.0
5,295.0
4,176.0
3,764.0
4,363.0
3,841.0
3,701.0
3,080.0
4,006.0
3,278.0
3,294.0
2,639.0
3,268.0
2,018.0

.61
.59
.61
.54
.58
.47
.54
.55
.51
.55
.51
.57
.59
.61
.58
.59
.63
.56
.57

$0.83
.82
.87
.91
.87
.85
.83
.91
.91
.89
.93
.78
.83
.74

1928

Weeks with average efficiency

July 7, 5 ships...
Sept. 8, 4 ships..

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons i)

Jan. 5, 4 ships___
Jan. 12, 5 ships...
Jan. 19, 5 ships...
Jan. 26, 4 ships. _.
Feb. 7, 5 ships----Feb. 9, 4 ships___
Feb. 16, 4 ships. „
Feb. 23, 4 ships...
Mar. 1, 4 ships___
Mar. 8, 4 ships—
Mar. 15, 4 ships...
Mar. 22, 4 ships__
Mar. 29, 4 ships__
Apr. 5, 4 ships___
Apr. 12, 4 ships__
Apr. 26, 4 ships...
May 3, 4 ships___
May 10, 4 ships...
May 24, 3 ships__

Loading cargo
L in e N o. 6—Con.

L in e N o . 6

Total, 216 ships..

73,610 106,307.5

0.69

$0.58

Weeks with maxim um efficiency

Weeks with average efficiency

1927
July 14, 5 ships___
Oct. 27, 4 ships___

2,205
1,185

3,198.0
1,708.0

0.69
.69

$0.58
.58

1928
Jan. 5, 4 ships...
Feb. 23, 4 ships..

1,120
1,580

1.255.0
1.893.0

0.89
.83

Weeks with m in im um efficiency

Jan. 12, 4 ships..

905

1,623.0

0.56

$0.71

1,040

1,695.0

.61

.66

1927
Sept. 15, 4 ships.
1 Short tons.




Other weeks

$0.45
.48
June 2, 5 ships...
June 9, 5 ships...
June 16, 5 ships.
June 23, 5 ships.
June 30, 5 ships.
July 7, 4 ships..
July 21, 4 ships.,
July 28, 5 ships.
Aug. 4, 4 ships..
Aug. 11, 5 ships.

1,765
2,250
2,490
1,910
1,870
1,815
2,350

2,020

1,335
1,060

2,757.0
3,310.0
3,492.0
2,704.0
2,948.0
2,719.0
3,223.0
2,839.0
2,111.0
1,649.0

0.64
.68
.71
.71
.63
.67
.73
.71
.63
.64

$0.63
.59
.56
.56
.63
.60
.55
.56
.63
.63

299

CHARLESTON (1927)

T a b le 55.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OP LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Week ending—

L ine N o. 6—Con.

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

Cargo
ton­
nage
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Week ending—

L ine N o. 6—Con.

Other weeks— Continued

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

La­
bor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

Other weeks—Continued

1928

1927
Aug. 18, 4 ships—
Aug. 26, 4 ships---Sept. 1, 4 ships----Sept. 8, 4 ships___
Sept. 22, 4 ships.
Sept. 29, 4 sh ip s...
Oct. 6, 4 ships........
Oct. 13, 4 ships___
Oct. 20, 4 ships___
Nov. 3, 4 sh ips___
Nov. 10,4 ships___
Nov. 17, 4 ships___
Nov. 24, 4 ships___
Dec. 1,4 ships.......
Dec. 8, 4 ships.......
Dec. 16, 4 ships___
Dec. 22, 4 ships___
Dec. 29, 4 ships___

975
1,085
1,110
1,200
1,920
1,165
1,430
935
1,180
1,185
1,120
1,285
1,535
1,325
1,775
1,500
1,220
925

1,553.5
1,644.0
1,747.0
1,853.0
2,993.0
1.718.0
2.111.0
1,454.0
1,686.0
1,837.0
1.844.0
2.039.0
2,281.0
2,138.0
2,593.0
2,050.0
1,612.0
1,197.0

0.63
.66
.64
.65
.64
.68
.68
.64
.70
.65
.61
.63
.67
.62
.68
.73
.76
.77

$0.63
.61
.63
.62
.63
.59
.59
.63
.57
.62
.66
.63
.60
.65
.59
.55
.53
.52

Jan. 19, 4 ships___
Jan. 26, 4 ships___
Feb. 2, 4 ships.......
Feb. 9, 4 ships.......
Feb. 16, 4 ships___
Mar. 1,4 ships.......
Mar. 8, 4 ships......
Mar. 15, 4 ships___
Mar. 22, 4 ships___
Mar. 29, 4 ships___
Apr. 5, 4 ships......
Apr. 12, 4 ships___
Apr. 19, 4 ships___
Apr. 26, 4 ships___
May 3, 4 ships.......
May 10, 4 ships___
May 18, 4 ships___
May 24, 4 ships___

1,310
1,330
1,300
1,950
1,290
1,695
1,095
1,395
1,145
1,265
1,325
1,475
1,040
1,145
1,345
1,385
960
1,390

1,751.0
1,881.0
1,676.0
2,763.0
1,698.0
2,334.0
1,552.0
1,926.0
1,683.0
1,772.0
1,824.0
1,976.0
1,422.0
1,485.0
1,812.0
1,874.0
1,314.0
2,090.0

0.75
.71
.78
.71
.76
.73
.71
.72
.68
.71
.73
.75
.73
.77
.74
.74
.73
.67

$0.53
.56
.51
.56
.53
.55
.56
.56
.59
.56
.55
.53
.55
.52
.54
.54
.55
.60

1 Short tons.
T a b le 56.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HAN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Output per
gang hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Gang
hours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

B ananas

Line N o. 7:
Total, 63 ships..__________

1899,126 2 86,454

110.40

3$2.88

115.33
114.01

3$1.96
3 2.14

18.32
17.51

3$3.61
33.99

110.30
110.68

8$2.91
32.81

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)..... ...........No. 2 (M ay)______________

U3,488
120,641

3880
31,466
Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (September)..............
No. 4 (November)_________

115,006 31,803
115,258 3 2,031
Ships with average efficiency

No. 6 (October).....................
No. 6 (June)..........................

i Stem
s,



115,136 31,470
115,352 3 1,437

8Per 1 Q s,
Q stem

300

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 56.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons
B an an as— Continued
Line No. 7—Continued.
1927
June, 5 ships.........................
July, 4 ships..........................
August, 5 ships......... - .........
September, 4 ships.... ...........
October, 4 ships....... .............
November, 4 ships................
December, 4 ships.................

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours

Long Rev­
enue
tons tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Labor productivity and costs, by months

181,666
» 64,575
182,424
164,937
168,628
i 68,751
160,645

38,874
3 6,138
a 8,145
3 6,679
3 7,098
3 8,274
35,455

19.20
U0.52
U0.12
19.72
19.58
18.31
ill. 12

3$3.26
3 2.85
3 2.96
3 3.09
3 3.13
3 3.61
3 2.70

27,:

19.32
U2.77
111.04
U1.40
U2.44

3 3.22
3 2.35
3 2.72
3 2.63
3 2.41

0.90

!0.44 $0.44

1928
January, 4 ships__
February, 4 ships.
March, 4 ships___
April, 4 ships........
May, 7 ships.........

i 68,651
i 67,372
i 75, 111
170,413
1126,552

3 5,274
3 6,804
36,175
310,170

12,274

12,274

497.0

24.7

24.7

27.4

2,381
2,966
3,064
3, f “

2,381
2,965
3,064
3,864

107.5
129.0

22.1

25.1
25.4
31.4
27.8

40.6

C ement

Line No. 8:
Total, 4 ships___
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 (November.
2 (January)
3 (January)...
4 (January).._
K

111.0

149.5

23.0
27.6
25.8

22.1
23.0
27.6
25.8

37,748 1,348.5

28.0

28.0

0.90

.91

.45
.44
.45

.45
.44
.45
.43

a in it

Line No. 9:
Total, 10 ships...

37,748

0.69 $0.58 $0.58

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (October)_
_
No. 2 (December)..

8,301
2,191

8,301
2,191

319.0
62.0

26.0
35.3

26.0
35.3

30.7
46.0

0.85
.77

0.85 $0.47 $0.47
.77
.52
.52

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No 3 (January)............... ......
No. 4 (August)____________

2,184
4,170

2,184
4,170

90.5
160.0

24.1
26.1

24.1
26.1

44.0
46.1

0.55
.56

0.55 $0.73 $0.73
.56
.71
.71

Ships with average efficiency

4,093
5,000

141.0
150.0

29.0
33.3

29.0
33.3

41.9
47.8

Line N o. 10:
Total, 6 ships........................ 35,499 4391,659

823.0

43.1 4475.9

40.7

No. 5 (September)......... ......
No. 6 (August).....................
N itrate

of

* Stems.




0.69
.70

0.69 $0.68 $0.58
.57
.57
.70

Soda

1 (January)___________
2 (February)..................
3 (March).......................
4 (March).......................
5 (March_____________
No. 6 (February)___ ______

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

4,093
5,000

8,132
8,298
5,979
4,789
2,104
6,197

2Man-hours.

489,256
4 91,247
465,883
4 52,792
4 23,691
4 68,790

160.0
238.0
146.0
92.0
43.0
144.0

9 Per 100 stems.

50.8
34.9
41.0
52.1
48.9
43.0

4 557.8
4383.4
4451.3
4 573.8
4 551.0
4477.7

42.0
40.6
39.0
44.0
37.8
40.3

1.06 4 11.7 $0.38 5 $3.42
—■ it
.33 6 2.99
.47 M.26
.38 «3.45
.34 5 3.08
.31 6 2.74
.37 6 3.42

1.22 413.40
.86 49.40
1.05 411.60
1.18 413.00
1.29 414.60
1.07 4 11.70

* Per 100 bags.

301

CHARLESTON (1927)

T a b le 56 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING IN DIVIDU AL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men Long Rev­ Long Rev­
Long enue
per
tons tons gang tons enue ton enue
ton
tons
Output per
gang-hour

N itrate of Soda—Contd.
Line No. 11: •
Total, 11 ships_____ _______ 60,178 * 661,525 1,480.5

40.6 *446.8

39.9

1.02 *11.20 $0.39 *$3.57

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January)___________

Total __________________
No. 2 (February)__________

Total_____ _____________

544
1,180
1,172
1,076
1,400
451
614

* 5,987
412,983
4 12,915
411,833
415,410
44,999
4 6,963

10.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
29.0
8.0
12.5

6,437 4 71,090

119.5

912
914
915
890
141
353
1,140
1,266
1,221
1,270
421

4 10,312
4 10,571
4 10,630
4 9,781
4 1,558
4 3,882
410,334
4 13,930
4 13,436
413,964
4 4,628

18.5
20.0
20.0
20.0
4.0
8.0
20.0
30.0
30.0
30.0
11.0

9,443 4 103,026

211.5

54.4
59.0
58.6
53.8
48.3
56.4
49.1

4 598.7
4 649.2
4 645.8
4 591.6
4 531.4
4 624.9
4 557.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

53.9 4 594.9

40.0

1.35 414.90

.30 62.68

4 557.4
*528.6
*531.5
* 489.1
4 389.5
4 485.3
4 516.7
4 464.3
4 447.9
4465.5
4 420.7

39.0
39.0
41.0
40.0
40.0
39.0
40.0
41.0
40.0
40.0
41.0

1.26 414.30
1.17 413.60
1.12 413.00
1.11 412.20
.88 49.70
1.13 412.40
1.43 412.90
1.03 411.30
1.02 411.20
1.06 411.60
.93 410.30

.32
.34
.36
.36
.45
.35
.28
.39
.39
.38
.43

44.6 4487.1

40.1

1.11 412.20

.36 *3.28

49.3
45.7
45.8
44.5
35.3
44.1
57.0
42.2
40.7
42.3
38.3

1.36 415.00 $0.29 *$2.67
1.48 416.20
.27 82.47
1.47 416.10
.27 62.48
1.35 414.80
.30 * 2.70
1.21 413.30
.33 4 3.01
1.41 415.60
.28 *2.56
1.23 413.90
.33 5 2.88

5 2.80
*2.94
*3.08
*3.28
*4.12
*3.23
*3.10
*3.54
*3.57
*3.45
*3.88

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (April)___ ____ ______

2,000 4 22,000

70.0

28.6 4 314.3

39.8

No. 4 (October)___________

1,010 411,101
735 4 8,114

30.0
20.0

33.7 4 370.0
36.7 4405.7

42.0
41.0

.80 4 8.80
.90 4 9.90

.50 *4.55
.44 *4.04

Total..................................

1,745 419,215

50.0

34.9 *384.3

41.6

.84 49.20

.48 *4.35

0.72 4 7.90 $0.56 *$5.06

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay)................J........

Total................... ...............
No. 6 (September)................

Total................................

1,390
1,240
1,400
1,100

415,316
413,715
414,463
410,083

37.0
30.0
32.0
23.0

5,130 4 53,577

122.0

37.6
41.3
43.8
47.8

4413.9
4 457.2
4452.0
4 438.4

41.0
39.0
43.0
39.0

0.92 410.10 $0.43 *$3.96
1.06 411.70
.38 *3.42
1.02 410.50
.39 *3.81
1.22 411.20
.33 *3.57

42.0 4 439.2

40.7

1.03 410.80

.39 *3.70

41.5
41.1
44.0
37.8

4457.3
4454.1
*485.1
*415.9

40.0
39.0
43.0
43.0

1.04 411.40
1.05 *11.60
1.02 *11.30
.88 *9.70

.38
.38
.39
.45

41.2 *453.9

41.1

1.00 *11.00

.40 *3.64

4 12,348
416,346
414,552
411,230

27.0
36.0
30.0
27.0

4,940 454,476

120.0

5,737

5,737

153.0

37.5

37.5

31.9

1.18

1.18 $0.34 $0.34

851
1,276
1,875
450
510
775

851
1,276
1,875
450
510
775

21.0
37.0
51.5
10.0
11.0
22.5

40.5
34.5
36.4
45.0
46.4
34.4

40.5
34.5
36.4
45.0
46.4
34.4

35.2
27.8
32.9
34.2
32.3
32.2

1.15
1.24
1.11
1.32
1.44
1.07

1.15
1.24
1.11
1.32
1.44
1.07

1,120
1,480
1,320
1,020

*3.51
*3.45
*3.54
*4.12

Sulphur

Line No. 12:
Total, 6 ships........................
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 (June)_____ _________
2 (August)____________
3 (September)_________
4 (October)___________
5 (October)...................
6 (November)................

* Bags.

5 Per 100 bags.




.35
.32
.36
.30
.28
.37

• Data, except totals, are for daily or batch productivity and costs.

.35
.32
.36
.30
.28
.37

302

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 56.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo
Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
man-hour labor cost
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Rev­
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
enue
tons tons gang tons enue ton enue
ton
tons

C otton

Line No. 13:
Total, 18 ships....................... 22,663 7 102,064 1,214.5

18.7 7 84.0

27.2

0.69 7 3.10 $0.72 7$0.16

Ships with m axim um efficiency

1,611
1,134

7 7,250
7 5,102

55.5
57.5

29.0 7 130.6
19.7 788.7

30.9
24.6

0.94 7 4. 20 $0.53 7 $0.12
.80 7 3.60
.63 7.14

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January)...................
No. 4 (January)...................

560
840

7 2,521
7 3,779

54.0
55.0

10.4 7 46.7
15.3 768.7

30.0
26.0

0
5
©_________

No. 1 (October).
No. 2 (March). _

0.35
$1.43 7 $0.31
.59 7 2.60
.85 7.19

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)...
No. 6 (March).
Line No. 14:
Total, 13 ships..

890
1,525

74,010
76,861

49.5
88.0

18.0 7 81.0
17.3 7 78.0

26.1
24.8

0.69 7 3.10 $0.72 7 $0.16
.71 7.16
.70 7 3.10

15,147 7 67,326

895.5

16.9 7 75.2

26.4

0.64 7 2.8 $0.78 7
$0.18

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (January)___
No. 2 (November) _

845
897

7 3,480
7 4,034

41.0
42.5

20.6 7 84.9
21.1 794.9

22.8
28.0

0.91 73.70 $0.55 7$0.14
.75 7 3.40
.67 7.15

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (August)...
No. 4 (January).

1,
1,464

75,682
76,589

85.0
103.5

14.9 766.8
14.1 7 63.7

28.0
25.3

0.53 7 2.40 $0.94 7 $0.21
.56 7 2.50
.89 7.20

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March) .
No. 6 (July)___

1,633
703

7 7,189
7 3,163

104.5
40.5

5,355

5,355

711.5

15.6 768.8
17.4 7 78.1

24.2
27.0

0.64 7 2.80 $0.78 7 $0.18
.64 7 2.90
.78 7.17

7.5

23.1

0.33

L umber

Line No. 15:
Total, 14 ships.

7.5

0.33 $1.52 $1.52

Ships with m aximum efficiency

. 1 (N ovem ber).............
.2 (November)..............

240
601

240
601

23.5
70.5

10.2
8.5

10.2
8.5

22.0
19.0

0.46
.45

0.46 $1.09 $1.09
.45 1.11 1.11

Ships with m im im um efficiency

No. 3 (January).
No. 4 (April)___

185
340

185
340

36.5
52.0

5.1
6.5

5.1
6.5

28.0
28.0

0.18
.23

0.18 $2.78 $2.78
.23 2.17 2.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay).
No. 6 (M ay).

7Bales,




266
583

266
583

37.0
79.0

7.2
7.4

7.2
7.4

22.5
23.7

0.32
.31

0.32 $1.56 $1.56
.31 1.61 1.61

Savannah (1927)
T a b le 57..—PRODU CTIVITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO,

B Y KIN D OF T R A D E AN D IN DIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue gang tons enue ton enue
tons
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Ganghours

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo: Europe—
No. 1............................... .
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 2..........................
No. 3..........................
No. 4........ .................
Orient—No. 5...................

15,236

15,236

730.0

20.9

20.9

26.9

0.78

0.78 $0.58 $0.58

23,966
24,288
33,365
19,807

23,966
24,288
33,365
19,807

1,342.0
1,393.5
2,330.5
835.0

17.9
17.4
14.3
23.7

17.9
17.4
14.3
23.7

21.0
21.8
21.4
20.7

.85
.80
.67
1.15

.85
.80
.67
1.15

.53
.63
.67
.39

.53
.63
.67
.39

Coastwise trade 3

Discharging cargo:
No. 6................
No. 7................
Loading cargo:
No. 8................
No. 9................

3 270,942
3 122,747

<330,152.0
<163,055.0

3 0 .8 2
3 .7 5

3$0.49
3.53

3297,396 < 185,695.0
3 82,664 <86,176.0

3 1.
3 .9 6

3 .2 5
3 .4 2

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
2,682
Burlap—No. 10...........
21,357
21,357
Fertilizer—No. 11.......
Nitrate of soda—No. 12.. 49,260
49,260
Raw sugar—No. 13....... . 122,407 122,407
Refined sugar—No. 14...
9,705
9,705
Loading cargo:
Cotton 5
—
No. 15..................... .
28,318 « 125,645
No. 16..................... .
22,350 « 100,483
No. 17......................
33,015 « 148,569

88.5
646.0
920.5
2,162.5
274.0

30.5
33.1
53.5
56.6
35.4

30.5
33.1
53.5
56.6
35.4

41.5
39.1
57.0
33.0
43.8

1,255.8
915.5
1,651.0

22.5 • 100.1
24.4 • 109.8
20.0 6 90.0

28.9
32.0
30.3

1 Wage rate: 45 cents per hour, except for cotton and lumber.
2 Wage rate: 40 cents per hour.
3 Short tons.




0.73
.85
.94
1.72
.81

0.73 $0.62 $0.62
.85
.53
.53
.94
.48
.4 8
1.72
.26
.26
.81
.56
.56

.78 ®3.50
.76 ®3.40
.66 6 3.00

.64 «.14
.66 • . 15
.76 6.17

< Man-hours.
5 Wage rate: 50 cents per hour.
6 Bales.

303

304

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 5 8 — P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COSTS IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Output per Aver­ Output per Average
labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L ine N o . 1

Total, 15 ships_________________ »15,236

15,236

730.0

20.9

20.9

26.9

0.78

0.78 $0.58 $0.58

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Saltpeter (bags)____________
General cargo______________

1,071
260

1,071
260

Total____________________

1,331

1,331

No. 2 (October):
Fertilizer. ________________
General cargo______________

1,376
419
1,795

1,795

28.6

28.6

27.7

1.03

1.03 $0.44 $0.44

60.0

29.9

29.9

28.8

1.04

1.04

1,376
419

Total____________________

46.5

.43

.43

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Structural steel_____________
General cargo______________

765
316

765
316

T otal-_ ________________

1,081

1,081

No. 4 (September):
Fertilizer ________________
Burlap
_______________
General cargo______________

1,260
198
71
1,529

1,529

12.9

12.9

21.5

0.60

96.0

15.9

15.9

25.4

.63

1,260
198
71

T otal.____ _______ _______

84.0

0.60 $0.75 $0.75

.63

.71

.71

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Cement- _________________
General cargo

848
356

848
356

__________ _____

1,204

1,204

No. 6 (October):
Fertilizer
_ . __________
Saltpeter
_
_
Sulphate of ammonia (bulk)__
General cargo

1,362
985
268
160

1,362
985
268
160

2,775

2,775

T otal--

Total_____ ______________

53.5

22.5

22.5

29.1

0.77

133.0

20.9

20.9

27.0

.77

17.9

21.0

0.85

0.77 $0.58 $0.58

.77

.58

.58

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e N o . 2

Total, 23 ships............................... 2 23,966

23,966 1,342.0

17.9

0.85 $0.53 $0.53

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (March): Rosin and tur­
pentine (barrels)-------------------No. 2 (October): Rosin and tur­
pentine (barrels)_____________

383

383

12.0

31.9

31.9

24.6

1.30

1.30 $0.35 $0.35

289

289

11.5

25.1

25.1

20.8

1.21

1.21

.37

.37

1 Principal commodity: Fertilizer, 10,113 tons.
2 Principal commodities: Rosin and turpentine, 10,232 long tons; lumber and lumber products, 5,618
long tons; cottonseed meal and cake, 3,236 long tons.







F

ig u r e

46.— l

o a d in g

naval

st o r e s

in

S

avannah

305

SAVANNAH (1927)

T a b le 5 8 .—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COSTS IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
Skips with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o. 2—Continued

No. 3 (February): Staves----------

856

856

No. 4 (June):
Rosin and turpentine (bar­
rels)
_________________
Hardwood_________________
General cargo______________

516
256
89
861

861

12.2

12.2

23.7

0.52

66.0

13.0

13.0

22.0

.59

0.52 $0.87 $0.87

516
256
89

Total................... ...............

70.0

.59

.76

.76

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (April):
Rosin and turpentine (bar­
__
rels)
Oyster shells
_____
General cargo
__

203
325
157

203
325
157

Total------------------------------

685

685

32.0

21.4

21.4

24.2

0.89

No. 6 (October): Rosin and tur­
pentine (barrels)--------------------

519

519

27.0

19.2

19.2

22.1

.87

17.4

17.4

21.8

0.80

26.7 3119.0
9.2
9.2
23.1 4103.7
21.4 21.4
15.6 15.6

30.0
17.2
21.6
16.7
21.4

.89 33.97
.54
.54
1.07 4 4.80
1.28 1.28
.73
.73

0.89 $0.51 $0.51
.87

.52

.52

L ine N o . 3

Total, 11 ships______ _____ _____
Cotton__________ ________—
Lumber and logs....................
Rosin and turpentine_______
Cottonseed meal and oil cake.
General cargo--------- ------------

24,288

24,288 1,393.5

10,987 348,983
5,933
5,933
5,003 4 22,458
1,702
1,702
663
663

411.5
643.5
216.5
79.5
42.5

0.80 $0.63 $0.63
.56 3.13
.93
.93
.42 4 09
.
.35
.35
.62
.62

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Cotton................................. .
Rosin--------------------- --------- Cottonseed cakes..................
Logs and lumber.......... .........
General cargo-----------------Total-----------------------------No. 2 (June):
Cotton---------------- --------—
Rosin and turpentine----------Lumber............................ —
T o ta l-.................................

25.2 3110.4
23.5 4108.5
22.0 22.0
14.2 14.2
7.6
7.6

30.3
22.2
16.3
21.3
18.0

22.5

22.5

23.1

49.0
10.5
15.0

25.8 3113.7
28.4 4131.0
12.5 12.5

28.3
20.3
15.1

74.5

23.5

24.5

1,200 3 5,244
388 4 1,790
1,001
1,001
135
135
19
19

47.5
16.5
45.5
9.5
2.5

2,743

121.5

1,264 3 5,570
298 41,375
188
188
1,750

2,743

1,750

23.5

0.83 33.60 $0.60 3$0.14
1.05 44.90
.43 4.09
.34
1.32 1.32
.34
.76
.66
.76
.66
.42
.42 1.07 1.07
.97

.97

.91 34.00
1.40 4 6.50
.83
.83
.96

.96

.52

.52

.55 3.13
.32 4.07
.60
.60
.52

.52

with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (April-May):
Cotton--------------------Rosin and turpentine _
Lumber-------------------

708 33,184
225 41,040
450
450

34.0
10.5
59.0

Total........................

1,383

103.5

No. 4 (July):
Rosin and turpentine..
Lumber_____________
General cargo_______

842 43,825
576
576
19
19

44.5
74.0
1.5

1,437

120.0

1,437

Total------ -------------




3Bales.

20.8 3 93.

21.4 499.0
7.6
7.6
13.4

32.0
20.0

17.2

13.4

22.3

18.9 4 86.0
7.8
7.8
12.7 12.7

24.5
17.1

12.0

19.9

0.65 3 2.90 $0.77 $0.17
.42 4.09
1.07 4 5.00
.44
.44 1.14 1.14

12.0

.60

.60
43.50
.46

20.0

4 Barrels.

.60

.60

.83

.83

.58 4.13
1.09 1.09
.71
.71
.83

.83

306

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 58.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COSTS IN HAN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN T R AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

L ine N o. 3—Continued
No. 5 (January):
Cotton____________________
T.nmber
Cottonseed meal___________
General cargo______________

Ships with average efficiency

1,488 3 6,697
502
503
251
251
107
107

1.22 3 5.50 $0.41 8$0.09
.42
.42 1.19 1.19
1.14 1.14
.39
.39
.56
.56
.80
.80

38.2 3171.7
6.3
6.3
20.9 20.9
11.3 11.3

31.3
14.9
18.3
20.0

16.9

16.9

20.2

25.7 3114.3
24.4 4111.1
9.6
9.6
18.2 18.2
19.3 19.3

31.0
23.7
22.3
15.2
23.7

21.9

21.9

26.4

.76

14.3

21.4

0.67

Cotton____________________
7,910 8 35,592
414.0 19.1 386.0
13.3
General cargo______________ 825,455 25,455 1,916.5 13.3

30.0
19.7

Total...... ......... ............ ......
No. 6 (February):
Cotton____________________
Rosin_____________________
Tiiimhpr
...
_
Cottonseed meal___________
General cargo______________
Total ________ ___________

2,348

39.0
79.5
12.0
9.5

2,348

140.0

1,543 86,858
330 41,500
320
320
100
100
222
222

60.0
13.5
33.5
5.5
12.5

2,515

125.0

2,515

.83

.83

.60

.60

.83 8 3.70
1.03 44.70
.43
.43
1.19 1.19
.75
.75

.60
.44
1.16
.38
.60

3.14
4 15
.
1.16
.38
.60

.66

.66

.76

L ine N o. 4
Total, 15 ships_____ ___________

33,365

33,365 2,330.5 14.3

0.67 $0.67 $0.67

.64 3 2.90
.68
.68

.78
.66

3.17
.66

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January):
Cotton____________ ____ ___
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)_________________
Paper_____________________

11.0

25.2 3113.3

30.0

0.84 3 3.80 $0.60 i$0.13

1,136
114

1,136 }
114

65.5

19.1

19.1

17.7

1.08

1.08

.42

.42

Total........... ........................

1,527

1,527

76.5

20.0

20.0

19.4

1.03

1.03

.44

.44

No. 2 (June):
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)
Logs and lumber___________
General cargo______________

1,703
307
50

1,703
307
50

2,060

2,060

98.5

20.9

20.9

23.3

.90

.90

.50

.50

Total..................................

277 31,246

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (December):
Cotton____________________
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)......... ....................
Logs______________________
General cargo__ ___ —
______

1,229
722
33

1,229 1
722 y 204.0
33
2,300

316 81,420

18.0

222.0

17.6 3 78.9

30.0

0.59 3 2.60 $0.85 8$0.19

9.7

9.7

19.1

.51

.51

.88

.88

10.4

10.4

20.0

.52

.52

.87

.87

Total................... ................

2,300

No. 4 (May):
Cotton____________________
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)_________________
Lumber and logs___________

14.5 3 65.4

30.0

.48 3 2.20

1.04

3.23

1,357
524

1,357 }
524

186.0

10.1

10.1

21.1

.48

.48

.94

.94

Total....................................

2,106

2,106

201.5

10.5

10.5

21.8

.48

.48

.94

.94

225 31,014

15.5

8 Bales.
4 Barrels.
8 Principal commodities: Rosin and turpentine, 17,614 tons; lumber and logs, 6,318 tons.




307

SAVANNAH (1927)

T a b le 58.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 4— Continued

No. 5:
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)_____________ ___
Cottonseed meal___________
General cargo............ .............

1,575
201
96

1,575
201
96

Total____________ _______

1,872

1,872

160.0

11.7

11.7

17.7

1,934

3 8,701

No. 6 (November):
Cotton____________________
Rosin and t u r p e n t i n e
(barrels)________ _______
Logs............ ...........................
General cargo______________
Total____________________

0.66

0.66 $0.68 $0.68

107.5

18.0 3 80.9

30.0

.60 3 2.70

.83

*.19

1,149
660
129

1,149 1
660
129

144.0

13.5

13.5

16.8

.80

.80

.56

.56

3,872

3,872

251.5

15.4

15.4

22.4

.69

.69

.65

.65

>

Loading cargo: Orient
L in e No. 5

Total, 13 ships...... .....................—
Rosin and turpentine.............
General cargo..........................

19,807

19,807

835.0

23.7

23.7

20.7

1.15

15,868 <74,484
3,939
3,939

593.5
241.5

26.7 <125.5
16.3 16.3

21.5
18.9

1.24 <5.80
.87
.87

1.15 $0.39 $0.39
.36
.51

<.08
.51

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (September): Rosin and
turpentine..................................
No. 2 (October): Rosin and tur­
pentine.......................................

3,466 < 16,274

97.5

35.5 <166.9

20.8

1.71 <8.00 $0.26 <$0.06

3,768 <17,684

112.0

33.6 <157.9

19.1

1.76 <8.30

.26

<.05

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (July): Rosin and turpen­
tine.............................................

816

<3,830

47.0

17.4 <81.5

23.0

No. 4 (December):
Rosin and turpentine.............
Lumber...................................

270
1,148

<1,219
1,148

13.0
99.5

20.8 <93.8
11.5 11.5

22.6
16.4

.92 <4.20
.70
.70

.49
.64

<.11
.64

Total....................................

1,418

1,418

112.5

12.6

17.2

.73

.62

.62

12.6

0.75 <3.50 $0.60 <$0.13

.73

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May): Rosin and turpen­
tine.............................................
No. 6 (May-June): Rosin and
turpentine..................................




933

<4,381

37.0

25.2 <118.4

23.0

1.10 <5.10 $0.41 <$0.09

2,916 <13,690

114.0

25.6 <120.0

21.0

1.22 <5.70

8Bales.

<Barrels.

.37

<.08

308

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 59.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TRAD E

Discharging cargo

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton1

Week ending-

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

Other weeks

L in e N o . 6

Total, 229 ships..

270,942 330,152.0

0.82

$0.49

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

Dec. 21, 3 ships.

1,685
1,500
2,069

1,828.5
1,602.5
2,378.5

Total.......

5,254

5,809.5

.90

.44

788
1,096
873
985
1,180
529
873

807.0
1,322.0
1,063.5
1,115.5
1,283.5
518.0
1,010.0

.98
.83
.82
.88
.92
1.02
.86

.41
.48
.49
.45
.43
.39
.47

6,324

7,119.5

.89

.45

Apr. 30,7 ships..

Total-

0.92
.94
.87

$0.43
.43
.46

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

Oct. 31, 5 ships___

1,994
2,420
2,082
2,093
1,985

2,835.0
3,488. 5
2,828. 5
2,953.0
2,852.0

Total_____

10, 574

14,957.0

.71

.56

Nov. 7, 3 ships. _

1,887
1,588
1, 710

2,684.0
2, 232.0
2,301.0

.70
.71
.74

.57
.56
.54

5,185

7, 217.0

.72

.56

Total-

Manhours

Out­
put Labor
per cost
man- per
hour reve­
(reve­ nue
nue t o n 1
tons1
)

0.70
.69
.74
.71
.70

$0.57
.58
.54
.56
.57

Weeks with average efficiency

L in e N o. 6—Con.

6,211
Jan. 7, 5 ships____
Jan. 14, 5 ships___
6,915
7,394
Jan. 21, 5 ships___
Jan. 31, 7 ships___ 10,620
Feb. 7, 5 ships___
7,957
6,932
Feb. 14, 5 ships_
_
Feb. 21, 5 ships___ 5,777
5,704
Feb. 28, 5 ships_
_
Mar. 7, 5 ships___
5,449
3,920
Mar. 14, 3 ships. ..
Apr. 7, 5 ships___
5,767
4,719
Apr. 14, 5 ships_
_
3,820
Apr. 21, 4 ships_
_
3,582
May 7, 4 ships___
May 14, 4 ships.... 3,581
May 21, 6 ships.__ 5,774
May 31, 7 ships.... 6,322
3,482
June 7, 4 ships___
4,651
June 14, 5 ships_
_
June 21, 5 ships.... 4,045
June 30, 6 ships.... 6,037
July 7, 5 ships____ 4,178
July 14, 5 ships___ 4,201
3,945
July 21, 5 ships___
July 31, 7 ships___ 6,507
4,137
Aug. 7, 5 ships___
4,952
Aug. 14, 5 ships—
4,928
Aug. 21, 5 ships_
_
6,308
Aug. 31, 6 ships_
_
5,127
Sept. 7, 5 ships___
4,649
Sept. 14, 4 ships.
6,919
Sept. 21, 5 ships.
Sept. 30, 7 ships... 7,628
5,266
Oct. 7, 5 ships____
6,834
Oct. 14, 5 ships___
3,154
Oct. 21, 2 ships___
4,987
Nov. 14, 3 ships.
Nov. 21, 3 ships. .. 4,876
Nov. 30, 3 ships. .. 4,361
Dec. 7, 3 ships____ 4,780
Dec. 14, 3 ships___ 5,425
Dec. 31, 4 ships___ 8,238

7,100.5
8,883.5
9,276.0
13,608.0
9,588.5
9,231.0
7,215.0
7,105.0
7,090.0
4,977.0
6,628.5
5,350.5
4,348.0
4,250.0
4,195.5
6,627.0
7,353.5
4,097.0
5,443.5
4,592.5
7,176.0
4,972.0
4,923.5
4,661.5
7,634.0
5,272.0
5,814.0
6,041.0
7,539.0
6,233.5
5,245.5
8,359.5
9,010.5
6,472.0
8,779.5
4,343.0
6,492.0
6,063.0
5,391.0
5,825.5
6,122.5
9,252.0

0.87
.78
.80
.78
.83
.75
.80
.80
.77
.79
.87
.88
.88
.84
.85
.87
.86
.85
.85
.88
.84
.84
.85
.85
.85
.78
.85
.82
.84
.82
.89
.83
.85
.81
.78
.73
.77
.80
.81
.82
.89
.89

$0.46
.51
.50
.51
.48
.53
.50
.50
.52
.51
.46
.45
.45
.48
.47
.46
.47
.47
.47
.45
.48
.48
.47
.47
.47
.51
.47
.49
.48
.49
.45
.48
.47
.49
.51
.55
.52
.50
.49
.49
.45
.45

Total, 212 ships.... 122,747 163,055.0

0.75

$0.53

L ine N o. 7

2,222
1,475
1,300
1,151
1,331
1,058

3,130.5
1,714.5
1,432.5
1,326.0
1,364.5
1,380.5

Total........

8,537

10,348.5

.82

.49

Mar. 31, 5 ships _

1,276
722
1,068
882
1,061

1,549.0
734.5
1,372.5
1,340.5
1,121.0

.82
.98
.78
.66
.95

.49
.41
.51
.61
.42

5,009

6,117.5

.82

.49

Mar. 21,6 ships. _.

Total..
1 Short tons.




0.71
.86
.91
.87
.98
.77

$0.56
.47
.44
.46
.41
.52

Weeks with m axim um efficiency

Feb. 7, 4 ships..

Total.......
Nov. 7, 4 ships.

Total..

604
1,260
657
704
3,215
484
822
572
631
2,509

830.0
808.0
943.0
957.0
3,628.0
600.0
1,000.0
700.0
850.0
3,15tt 0

0.73
1.39
.70
.74
.89
.81
.82
.82
.74
.80

$0.55
.29
.57
.54
.45
.49
.49
.49
.54
.50

309

SAVANNAH (1927)
T a b le 59.—P R O D U C TIV ITY

OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN
COASTWISE TBADE—Continued

Discharging cargo—Continued

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons!)

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton1

Week ending—

Weeks with m inim u m efficiency

Total____
Feb. 14, 4 ships-----

Total..

750
776
467
796

1,220.0
900.0
750.0
1,200.0

2,789

.70
.73
.60
.71

.57
.55
.67
.56

820.0
1,100.0
920.0
1,100.0

2,709

$0.66

4,070.0

578
801
552
778

0.61
.86
.62

3,940.0

.47
.65
.61
.58

.58

Weeks with average efficiency

Jan. 14, 4 ships-----

Total___
July 7, 4 ships.

Total..

446
475
423

700.0
650.0
525.0
800.0

0.64
.73
.81
.83

$0.63
.55
.49

2,010

2,675.0

.75

.53

444
442
521

770.0
600.0
600.0
700.0

.77
.74
.74
.74

.52
.54
.54
.54

2,001

2,670.0

.75

.53

Other weeks

Jan. 7, 4 ships—
Jan. 31, 6 ships. _
Feb. 21, 4 ships. _

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
to n 1

Other weeks—Continued
L in e No. 7—Con.

L in e N o . 7— Con.
Jan. 21, 4 ships-----

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons l)

2,012

3,485
2,338

2.731.0
4.710.0
3.030.0

0.74
.74
.77

$0.54
.54
.52

Feb. 28, 4 ships___ 2,652
Mar. 7, 4 ships
2,535
Mar. 14, 4 ships_
_ 2,573
Mar. 21, 5 ships. __ 2,553
Mar. 31, 5 ships_
_ 2,613
Apr. 7, 4 ships
2,243
Apr. 14, 4 ships___ 2,113
Apr. 21, 4 ships___ 2,371
Apr. 30, 6 ships----- 2,784
May 7, 4 ships...
2,405
May 14, 4 ships___ 1,783
May 21,4 ships___ 2,030
May 31, 6 ships___ 3,341
June 7, 4 ships------ 1,921
June 14, 4 ships___ 1,819
June 21, 4 ships___ 2,138
June 30,4 ships___ 2,161
July 14, 4 ships___ 1,741
July 21, 4 ships___ 2,254
July 31, 6 ships----- 3,140
Aug. 7, 4 ships___
2,352
Aug. 14, 4 ships---- 2,175
Aug. 21, 4 ships---- 2,146
Aug. 31, 7 ships___ 3,914
Sept. 7, 4 ships----- 2,993
Sept. 14, 4 ships.__ 2,584
Sept. 21, 4 ships. __ 3,093
Sept. 30, 5 ships. __ 4,340
Oct. 7, 4 ships........ 3,455
Oct. 14, 4 ships___ 2,343
Oct. 21, 4 ships___ 2,190
Oct. 31, 6 ships___ 3,912
Nov. 14, 4 ships. __ 2,651
Nov. 21, 5 ships__ 2.479
Nov. 30, 5 ships_
_ 2,720
Dec. 7, 4 ships....... 2,082
Dec. 14, 4 ships___ 2,617
Dec. 21, 4 ships___ 2,209
Dec. 31, 6 ships___ 2,254

3,621.0
3,448.0
3,710.0
3,468.0
3,667.0
3,251.0
2,700.0
3,210.0
3,595.0
3,150.0
2,341.0
2,630.0
4,322.0
2,455.0
2,450.0
2,760.0
3,010.0
2,350.0
3,050.0
4,100.0
3,050.0
2,893.0
2,858.0
5,335.0
3,900.0
3,456.0
3,998.0
5,592.0
4,680.0
3,168.0
2,788.0
5,000.0
3,450.0
3, 200. 0
3,700.0
2,800. 0
3,350.0
2,920.0
3, 025. 0

0.73
.74
.69
.74
.71
.69
.78
.74
.77
.76
.76
.77
.77
.78
.74
.77
.72
.74
.74
.77
.77
.75
.75
.73
.77
,75
.77
.78
.74
.74
.79
.78
.77
.77
.74
.74
.78
.76
.75

$0.55
.54
.58
.54
.56
.58
.51
.54
.52
.53
.53
.52
.52
.51
.54
.52
.56
.54
.54
.52
.52
.53
.53
.55
.52
.53
.52
.51
.54
.54
.51
.51
.52
.52
.54
.54
.51
.53
.53

Loading cargo
L in e No. 8
Total, 228 ships— 297,396 185,695.0

1.60

$0.25

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

July 14, 5 ships-----

Total............
July 21, 5 ships___

Total............

915
659
1,147
603
1,724
5,048
864
1,232
1,149
869
1,305
5,419

i Short tons.




477.0
290.0
620.0
285.0
807.0
2,479.0
491.5
563.5
528.0
418.0
692.0
2,693.0

1.92
2.27
1.85
2.12
2.14
2.04
1.76
2.19
2.18
2.08
1.89
2.01

$0.21
.18
.22
.19
.19
.20
.23
.18
.18
.19
.21
.20

L in e N o. 8—Con.

Feb. 21,5 ships___

Total

T T P 5 snips___
ly-- 9
Mar. 7, W

Total............

Weeks with m inim um
efficiency

1,559
1,675
1,956
1,546
2,141

1,253.0
1,407.0
1,463.5
1,106.0
1,733.0

1.24
1.19
1.34
1.40
1.24

$0.32
.34
.30
.29
.32

8,877

6,962. 5

1.27

.31

910
1,171
2,022
1,442
1,254

614.5
1,057. 5
1,570.0
1,216; 5
782.5

1.48
1.11
1.29
1.19
1.60

.27
.36
.31
.34
.25

6,799

5,241.0

1.30

.31

310

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 59.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TR AD E-C ontinued

Loading cargo— Continued

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons!)

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton1

Weeks with average efficiency
L in e N o . 8—Con.

Apr. 30, 7 ships-----

Total—
Oct.31, 5 ships.

Total..

1.63
1.62
1.46

$0.25
.25
.27
.18
.27
.25
.22

968
1,528
2,029
790
1,929
1,192
1,290

592.5
942.0
1.388.0
358.0
1.288.0
739.0
724.0

9,726

6,031.5

1.61

941.0
933.0
1,352.0
723.0
801.0

1.60
1.48
1.64
1,58
1.63

.25
.27
.24
.25
.25

7,552

4,750.0

1.5

.25

2.21

1.50
1.61
1.78

5.977.0
6.019.0
4.440.5
8.351.0
5.003.0
5.375.5
4.428.0
4,03a 5
5.482.0
4.256.0
5.602.0
3.829.0
3.331.5
3.777.5
3.305.5
3.665.0
4.910.5
3.019.0
3.729.0
3.433.0
4.743.0
2.881.5
3.768.0
2.612.0
2.442.0
2.225.0
2.860.0
3.072.0
2.570.0
2.313.0
3.838.5
2.424.0
4.876.5
2.303.0
2.550.5
2.490.0
2,984. 5
2.201.0
2.909.0
2,917. 5
2.984.0
3.600.5

1.39 $0.29
1.51
.26
1.51
.26
.29
1.38
.27
1.46
1.42
.28
.29
1.36
.27
1.47
1.54
.26
1.66
.24
1.47
.27
1.66
.24
1.53
.26
1.43
.28
1.49
.27
1.84
.22
1.62
.25
1.73
.23
1.69
.24
1.73
.23
1.64
.24
1.71
.23
1.80
.22
1.97
.20
1.75
.23
1.96
.20
1.88
.21
1.74
.23
.21
1.89
1.85
.22
1.98
.20
.22
1.85
1.41
.28
1.48
.27
1.69
.24
.24
1.70
1.51
.26
1.89
.21
1.69
.24
1.75
.23
1.73
.23
1.63
.25

Manhours

Out­
put Labor
per cost
man- per
hour reve­
(reve­ nue
nue to n 1
tons1
)

L in e No. 9

.25

1,508
1,381
2,220
1,139
1,304

8,297
Jan. 7, 5 ships-----9,104
Jan. 14, 5 ships—
6,717
Jan. 21, 4 ships___
Jan. 31, 7 ships---- 11,503
7,315
Feb. 7, 5 ships----7,652
Feb. 14, 5 ships—
Feb. 28, 5 ships.... 6,014
5.932
Mar. 14, 4 ships...
8,464
Mar. 21, 6 ships...
7,078
Mar. 31, 5 ships...
8,262
Apr. 7, 4 ships----Apr. 14, 5 ships.... 6,339
5,088
Apr. 21,4 ships...
5,384
M ay 7,4 ships___
4,940
May 14,4 ships...
6,753
M ay 21, 6 ships...
7.933
May 31,7 ships...
5.223
June 7,4 ships___
6,299
June 14,5 ships...
5,956
June 21,6 ships....
7,756
June 30,6 ships....
4,921
July 1, 5 ships----6,798
July 31,7 ships...
5,135
Aug. 7, 5 ships----4,284
Aug. 14,5 ships...
4,356
Aug. 21,5 ships...
5,380
Aug. 31, 6 ships...
5,336
Sept. 7, 5 ships___
4,860
Sept. 14, 5 ships..
Sept. 21,5 ships__
4,288
7,598
Sept. 30,7 ships. .
4,484
Oct. 7, 5 ships----6.869
Oct. 14, 4 ships...
3,402
Oct. 21, 2 ships.. .
4,318
Nov. 7, 3 ships___
4.224
Nov. 14, 3 ships__
4,503
Nov. 21, 3 ships__
4,149
Nov. 30, 3 ships__
4,930
Dec. 7, 3 ships___
5,098
Dec. 14, 3 ships.. .
5,164
Dec. 21, 3 ships...
5.869
Dec. 31, 4 ships...




Week ending—

Total, 211 ships___ 82,664

Other weeks

1 Short tons.

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

86,176.0

0.96

$0.42

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

Nov. 7, 4 ships

931
135
598
222

900.0
110.0
500.0
220.0

1.03
1.23
1.20
1.01

$0.39
.33
.33
.40

Total............

1,886

1,730.0

1.09

.37

Dec. 31,6 ships___

567
187
87
158
133
116

565.0
185.0
60.0
55.0
133.0
115.0

1.00
1.01
.97
2.87
1.00
1.01

.40
.40
.41
.14
.40
.40

1,248

1,143.0

1.09

.37

Total

Weeks w ith m in im u m efficiency

Jan. 21, 4 ships___

462
600
367
367

600.0
650.0
500.0
504.0

0.77
.92
.73
.73

$0.52
.43
.55
.55

Total______

1,796

2,254.0

.80

.50

Feb. 28, 3 ships___

536
288
244

703.0
297.0
244.0

.76
.97
1.00

.53
.41
.40

1,068

1,244.0

.86

.47

Total. .

.

Weeks with average efficiency

Sept. 14, 4 ships ..

125
566
151
791

T otal...........

125.0
565.0
160.0
850.0

1.00
1.00
.94
.93

$0.40
.40
.43
.43

1,633

1,700.0

.96

.42

.

273
690
293
1,068

273.0
697.0
317.0
1,131.0

1.00
,C9
.92
.94

.40
.40
.43
.43

T o ta l...........

2,324

2,418.0

.96

.42

Sept. 21, 4 ships

Other weeks

Jan. 7, 5 ships____
Jan. 14, 4 ships

1,978 ' 2,219.0 0.89
1,324 I 1,474.0 1 .90

$0.45
.44

311

SAVANNAH (1927)

T a b l e 59.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Week ending—

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(reve­
nue
tons1
)

Labor
cost
per
reve­
nue
ton1

Week ending—

Other weeks—Continued

Manhours

Out­
put Labor
per cost
man- per
hour reve­
(reve­ nue
nue ton i
tons1
)

Other weeks—Continued

L ine No. 9—Con.

L ine No. 9—Con.
Jan. 31, 4 ships___
Feb. 7, 4 ships
Feb. 14, 4 ships___
Feb. 21, 4 ships___
Mar. 7, 3 ships___
Mar. 14, 4 ships___
Mar. 21, 4 ships___
Mar. 31, 6 ships—
Apr. 7, 5 ships
Apr. 14, 5 ships___
Apr. 21, 5 ships___
Apr. 30, 6 ships___
May 7, 5 ships
May 14, 5 ships___
May 21, 4 ships___
May 31, 5 ships___
June 7, 4 ships. .
June 14, 4 ships___
June 21, 4 ships___
June 30, 5 ships___

Cargo
tonnage
(reve­
nue
tons l)

1,460
2,188
1,322
1,768
1,320
1,472
1,347
2,412
2,345
1,440
1,690
1,909
1,590
1,714
1,423
1,901
1,166
1,647
1,443
1,696

1,549.0
2,371.0
1,605.0
1,971.0
1,443.0
1,670.0
1,485.0
2,698.0
2,601.0
1,598.0
1,749.0
2,003.0
1,610.0
1,745.0
1,425.0
2,111.0
1,184.0
1,532.0
1,556.0
1,592.0

0.94
.92
.88
.90
.91
.88
.91
.89
.94
.90
.97
.95
.99
.98
1.00
.90
.98
1.01
.93
1.07

$0.43
.43
.45
.44
.44
.46
.44
.45
.43
.44
.41
.42
.40
.41
.40
.44
.41
.40
.43
.37

July 7, 4 ships........
July 14, 4 ships___
July 21,4 ships___
July 31, 6 ships___
Aug. 7,4 ships.......
Aug. 14, 4 ships___
Aug. 21, 4 ships___
Aug. 31, 6 ships---Sept. 7,4 ships___
Sept. 30, 6 ships. . .
Oct. 7, 4 ships........
Oct. 14, 4 ships___
Oct. 21, 4 ships___
Oct. 31, 5 ships___
Nov. 14, 4 ships___
Nov. 21, 4 ships___
Nov. 30, 5 ships___
Dec. 7, 4 ships
Dec. 14, 4 ships___
Dec. 21, 4 ships___

1,438
1,435
1,163
1,780
1,666
1,644
1,639
2,437
1,800
2,774
1,874
1,560
1,970
2,038
2,138
1,794
2,335
1,588
1,247
2,164

1,612.0
1,472.0
1,153.0
1,784.0
1,601.0
1,644.0
1,554.0
2,575.0
1,795.0
2,814.0
2,008.0
1,605.0
1,909.0
1,985.0
2,120.0
1,820.0
2,370.0
1,586.0
1,240.0
2,150.0

0.89
.97
1.00
1.00
.98
1.00
.99
.95
1.00
.99
.93
1.04
1.03
1.03
1.01
.99
.99
1.00
1.01
1.00

$0.45
.41
.40
.40
.41
.40
.40
.42
.40
.40
.43
.38
.39
.39
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40
.40

1 Short tons.
T a b le 60.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
age
gang-hour
man-hour
per—
num­
Gangber of
men
hours
Rev­ per
Rev­
Rev­
Long enue gang Long enue Long enue
Long Revenue
tons tons
tons tons ton ton
tons
tons
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

B ur lap

Line No 10:
Total, 6 ships_ . . . . . . . . . . . .
_

2,682

2,682

88.5

30.5

30.5

41.5

0.73

757
354
609
264
316
482

757
354
509
264
316
482

27.0
13.5
16.0
7.0
10.0
15.0

28.0
26.2
31.8
37.7
31.6
32.1

28.0
26.2
31.8
37.7
31.6
32.1

41.0
43.5
42.9
46.0
37.5
39.7

.68
.60
.74
.82
.84
.81

Line No. 11:
Total, 7 ships_____ . . . . . ___

21,357

21,357

646.0

33.1

33.1

39.1

0.85

0.85 $0.53 $0.53

No. 1 (January)_______ ___
No. 2 (February)__________
No. 3 (March)___ . . . . . . . . . .
No. 4 (August)_______ ____
No. 5 (September)_________
No. 6 (October)___________
No. 7 (December)_________

3,940
1,922
2,325
2,178
2,672
2,878
5,442

3,940
1,922
2,325
2,178
2,672
2,878
5,442

112.5
74.0
64.5
53.0
114.0
84.5
143.5

35.0
26.0
36.0
41.1
23.4
34.1
37.9

35.0
26.0
36.0
41.1
23.4
34.1
37.9

45.8
40.6
35.6
63.0
32.2
35.6
33.3

.76
.64
1.01
.65
.73
.96
1.14

.76
.64
1.01
.65
.73
.96
1.14

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 (July)_______________
2 (August)____________
3 (August)____________
4 (October)___________
5 (November)_________
6 (December)_________

0.73 $0.62 $0.62
.68
.60
.74
.82
.84
.81

.67
.75
.61
.55
.54
.56

.67
.75
.61
.55
.54
.56

F er tilizer 1

1 In bags and bulk.




.59
.70
.44
.69
.62
.47
.39

.59
.70
.44
.69
.62
.47
.39

312

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 60.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long Rev­ per Long enue Long Rev­
tons
tons enue gang tons tons ton enue
tons
tons
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

N itr at e of Soda

Line No. 12:
Total, 10 ships.......................

49,260

49,260

920.5

53.5

53.5

57.0

0.94

0.94 $0.48 $0.48

Ships with maxim um efficiency

No. 1 (February).
No. 2 (April)........

3,662

3,662
5,700

71.0
76.0

51.6
75.0

51.6
75.0

49.3
68.1

1.05
1.10

1.05 $0.43 $0.43
1.10
.41
.41

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)----No. 4 (September) _

1,977

2,020

1,977
2,020

45.0
51.0

43.9
39.6

43.9
39.6

56.3
54.9

0.78
.72

0.78 $0.58 $0.68
.72
.63

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December)
No. 6 (March)____
R

aw

2,337
7,900

2,337
7,900

46.5
147.5

50.3
53.5

50.3
53.5

53.9
58.0

0.93
.92

0.93 $0.48 $0.48
.92
.49
.49

122,407 2,162.5

56.6

56.6

33.0

1.72

1.72 $0.26 $0.26

S tj g a r

Line No. 13:
Total, 40 ships........

122,407

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (January).
No. 2 (October).

1,997
2,946

1,997
2,946

31.5
47.0

63.4
62.7

63.4
62.7

33.0
33.0

1.92
1.90

1.92 $0.23 $0.23
1.90
.24

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January)...
No 4 (February)..

1,609
2,001

1,609
2,001

33.0
42.0

48.8
47.6

48.8
47.6

33.0
33.0

1.48
1.44

1.48 $0.30 $0.30
1.44
.31
.31

Ships with average efficiency

No 5 (February). _
No. 6 (February)._

2,903
2,903

2,903
2,903

51.0
51.0

Line No. 14:
Total, 6 ships.........

9,705

9,705

274.0

No. 1 (December) „
No. 2 (January)___
No. 3 (February)__
No. 4 (March)........
No. 5 (April)..........
No. 6 (April)..........

1,270
996
1,394
2,015
504
3,526

1,270
996
1,394
2,015
504
3,526

49.0
29.0
44.0
47.0
17.0
88.0

56.9
56.9

56.9
56.9

33.0
33.0

1.72
1.72

1.72 $0.26 $0.26
1.72
.26
.26

35.4

35.4

43.8

0.81

0.56 $0.56 $0.56

25.9
34.3
31.7
42.8
29.6
40.0

25.9
34.3
31.7
42.8
29.6
40.0

41.1
39.0
46.7
48.0
41.6
43.5

.63
.88
.68
.89
.71
.92

R e f in e d Su g a r




.63
.88
.68
.89
.71
.92

.71
.51
.66
.51
.63
.49

.71
.51
.66
.51
.63
.49

313

SAVANNAH (1927)

T a b le 60.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
Rev­ men
Rev­
Long Revenue
Long enue per Long enue Long Rev­
tons tons gang tons tons ton enue
tons
tons
ton
Cargo tonnage

Commodity, ship number, and
date of operation

C otton

Line No. 15:
Total, 13 ships.......................

28,318

2

125,645 1,255.8

22.5 2 100.1

28.9

0.78

2

3.50 $0.64 2 $0.14

Ships with m aximum efficiency

3,308
1,500

2

14,330
6,700

2

120.0 27.6 2 119.4
46.0

32.6 2 145.7

29.4
33.6

0.94
.97

2
2

4.10 $0.53 2 $0.12
4.30
.52 2 . 12

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March)........
No. 4 (September).

1,676
1,870

2 7,543
28,411

77.3

102.0

21.7 2 97.5
18.3 282.5

33.5
28.1

0.65 22.90 $0.77 2$0.17
.65 2 2.90
.77 2.17

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (M ay).........
No. 6 (December).
Line No. 16:
Total, 21 ships.

1,872
1,377
22,350

8,446
6,198

75.0
59.0

25.0 2 112.6
23.3 2 105.1

31.3
28.9

0.80
.81

2
2

3.60 $0.63 2$0.14
3.60
.62 2.14

100,483

915.5

24.4 2 109.8

32.0

0.76

2

3.40 $0.66 2$0.15

2
2

5.00 $0.45 2$0.10
.45 2.10
5.00

2
2

2.70 $0.85 2$0.19
2.501 .89 2.20

2
2

2

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February)...
No. 2 (November).

166
2

2 750
1,722

5.0

33.2 2 150.0

10.0 38.3 2 172.2

30.0
34.5

1.11
1.11

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (January)___
No. 6 (September).

1,095
1 ,4 7 7

930
6,647

24 ,
2

62.0
88.5

17.7
16.7

2
2

79.5
75.1

30.0
30.0

0.59
.56

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June)_
_
No. 6 (March).
Line No. 17:
Total, 13 ships.

85.0
52.0

24.5 2 110.1
26.8 2120.6

31.9
34.5

0.77 23.50 $0.65 2$0.14
.78 2 3.50
.64 2.14

33,015 2 148,569 1,651.0

20.0 2 90.0

30.3

0.66 2 3.00 $0.76 2$0.17

2,080
1,394

29,356
2 6,273

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (
No. 2 (November) .

3,216 2 14,473
1,273 2 5,725

129.0
42.0

24.9 2112.2
30.3 2136.3

30.0 0.83 2 3.70 $0.60 2$0.14
32.01 .95 2 4.30
.53 2.12

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 4 (March).’

2,502 2 11* 259
5,235 223,559

130.0
292.0

19.2 286.6
17.9 280.7

32.0
29.1

0.60 22.70 $0.83 2 $0.19
.62 22.80
.81 2.18

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (January)___
No. 6 (September).

2Bales.

66490°—32------21




2,624 211,806
2,375 2 10,417

134.5
108.0

19.5 287.8
21.4 296.5

30.0
33.1

0.65 22.90 $0.77 2$0.17
.65 22.90
.77 • 2.17

Norfolk and Newport News (1927)
T a b l e 6 1 .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HAN DLING CARGO, B Y

K IN D OF TR AD E A N D INDIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
ber of
Rev­ men
Long enue per Long Rev­ Long Rev
tons tons gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours

Foreign trade 1

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1 a.......................
No. 2.........................
South America—
No. 3 a_____ _______
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 4 2____________
No. 5 2
......................
____ ________
No. 6 2
No. 7 2.......................
No. 8 2 . . .............. .
.
No. 9 3____________
No. 10 3____ _______
No. 11.................
No. 12.......................
Orient—
No. 13......................
No. 14______ ______
No. 15.....................-

4,633
6,819

4,633
6,985

172.0
216.5

26.9
31.5

26.9
32.3

22.4
23.5

1.20
1.34

9,830

9,830

459.5

21.4

21.4

25.7

.83

.83

.96

.96

34,990
14,233
21,630
7,357
6,058
17,039
2,032
28,475
24,781

34,990
14,233
21,630
7,357
6,058
17,039
2,032
28,475
24,781

1,311.5
575.5
1,063.5
448.5
373.0
741.0
122.0
1,116.0
1,073.5

26.7
24.7
20.3
16.4
16.2
23.0
16.7
25.5
23.1

26.7
24.7
20.3
16.4
16.2
23.0
16.7
25.5
23.1

22.4
22.6
22.7
20.8
22.0
24.9
23.0
22.6
22.1

1.19
1.10
.90
.79
.74
.92
.72
1.13
1.04

1.19
1.10
.90
.79
.74
.92
.72
1.13
1.04

.67
.73
.89
1.01
1.08
.87
1.11
.71
.77

.67
.73
.89
1.01
1.08
.87
1.11
.71
.77

12,484
12,121
14,128

12,484
12,121
14,128

627.5
605.0
902.5

19.9
20.0
15.6

19.9
20.0
15.6

22.5
25.8
22.9

.88
.77
.68

.88
.77
.68

.91
1.04
1.18

.91
1.04
1.18

1.20 $0.67 $0.67
1.37
.60
.58

Intercoastal trade *

Discharging cargo:
No. 16 2
...........................
Loading cargo:
No. 17 2
......................
No. 18 2
.............. ..........

11,282 4 12,636
9,356 4 10,480
11,031 4 12,355

1
1
23.1
489.0

425.8

23.2

12.4 4 13.9
10.3 4 11.5

753.5
1,075.0

20.6
20.9

0.99 41.11 $0.81 4$0.72
.60 4.67
.49 4.55

1.33 41.19
1.63 41.45

* 186,055 6205,343. (
4296,559 8370,162. C

4 0.91
4.80

4$0.44
4 .50

4 195,482 6159,739. C
4231, 111 6221,936.8.

4 1.22
41.04

Coastwise trade 5

Discharging cargo:
No. 19 *.............
No. 20«.............
Loading cargo:
No. 21 2
.............
No. 22 *.............

Individual commodities 1

Discharging cargo:
Burlap—No. 23______
Manganese ore—No. 24
Newsprint paper—No. 25
Nitrate of soda—No. 262
Sulphur—No. 27 *......... .
Wood pulp—No. 28____

2,432
2,432
31,479
31,479
18,043 420,211
66,200 66,200
8,004
8,004
14,008
14,008

l Wage rate: 80 cents per hour,
a Norfolk.

314




111.0
1,099.5
720.5
2,693.0
243.5
420.5

3 Newport News.
4 Short tons.

21.9
21.9
28.6
28.6
25.0 428.1
24.6
24.6
32.9
32.9
33.3
33.3

21.4
14.4
19.3
38.0
16.0
24.5

1.02 1.02 $0.78 $0.
1.99 1.99
.40
.40
1.29 41.45
.62 4 ]
.58
.65
.65 1.23 l!
.39
2.05 2.05
1.36 1.36
.59

8 Wage rate: 40 cents per hour.
6 Man-hours




F

ig u r e

47.— L o

a d in g

T

oba cco

in

No

r fo lk

315

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 61 .—P R OD U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO, BY

KIN D OF T R A D E A N D IN DIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number, and
commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
age man-hour
per—
num­
ber of
men
Rev­
Long Rev­ per Long Rev­ Long enue
tons enue gang tons enue ton ton
tons
tons

Individual commodities i—Continued

Loading cargo:
18.0 U0.0
403.0
Lumber—No. 292
______
7,265 74,026
7,124
26.2
26.2
Potatoes—No. 303..........
7,124
271.5
7,112
26.2
26.2
7,112
271.0
Starch—No. 313.............
Steel billets—No. 32 3_.__
20,736
667.0
31.1
31.1
20,736
30.1
30.1
Tobacco—No. 3 3 ..........
3,617
3,617
120.0
Grain8
—No. 342_______
24,658 »923,857
Coal—
No. 35:8 Pier opera­
tions.___________ 6,957,057 6,957,057 #178,838.0
No. 36:3 Pier opera­
tions____________ 7,203,997 7,203,997 «193,377.0
No. 37:* Pier opera­
tions____________
540,901 540,901 6 18,086.0
No. 38:2 Pier opera­
tions_________ __ 4,822,596 4,822,596 6169,771.0
No. 39:2Trimming—
Cargo 12
......... . 1,568,757 1,568,757
1,207.6 1,299.1 1,299.1
859.4 180.8 180.8
Bunker 1 .........
4
155,349 155,349
No. 40:2Trimming—
Cargo u.............. 1,914,045 1,914,045
2,698.0 709.4 709.4
Bunker 14
______ 241,984 241,984
2,150.5 112.5 112.5
No. 41:8Trimming—
Cargo 14
....... ...... 2,028,799 2,028,799
3,425.3 592.3 592.3
98.4
Bunker 14 _____ 232,305 232,305
98.4
2,359.5
NOi 42:2 Cargo and
bunker 14
............... 311,314 311,314
853.2 364.9 364.9
1 Wage rate: 80 cents per hour.
2 Norfolk.
3 Newport News.
6 Man-hours.
71,000 board feet.
8 Trimming only.

22.0
26.0
25.7
14.8
24.0

0.82 70.45 $0.98 7$1.78
.79
1.01 1.01
.79
1.02 1.02
.78
.78
2.10 2.10
.38
.38
.64
.64
1.25 1.25
.11 1®2.86
7.47 « 280.0
38.90 38.90 <“ >

(»)

37.18 37.18 <“ >

(“ >

29.91 29.91 (“ )

(“ >

28.41 28.41

<“ >

(“ )

(13)
(13)

(13)
(13)

45.0 15.76 15.76 (13)
45.0 2.50 2.50 (1 )
8

(13)
(I3
)

38.0 15.59 15.59
38.0 2.59 2.59

(13)
(13)

(13)
(1)
3

33.7 10.83 10.83

(13)

(13)

3.7 348.80 348.80
32.9 5.50 5.50

* Bushels.
io Per 1,000 bushels.
» Loading done by pier crews with various wage rates.
12 Trimmed with automatic trimmers.
13 Trimming donefby longshoremen on a tonnge basis.
14 Trimmed by hand.

T a b l e 63.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D

LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long

tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L in e N o. 1 1

Total, 8 ships...................... .

4,633

4,633

172.0

26.9

26.9

22.4

1.20

1.20 $0.67

No. 1 (March)......................
No. 2 (March)......................
No. 3 (April).........................
No. 4 (M ay).........................
No. 5 (August)......................
No. 6 (October)....................
No. 7 (October)............ ........
No. 8 (December).................

399
550
443
292
965
662
759
563

4,633
550
443
292
965
662
759
563

19.0
23.0
17.0
12.0
31.0
25.5
27.5
17.0

21.0
23.9
26.1
24.3
31.1
26.3
27.6
33.1

21.0
23.9
26.1
24.3
31.1
26.3
27.6
33.1

22.0
20.0
22.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
24.0
24.0

.95
1.20
1.18
1.22
1.41
1.09
1.15
1.38

.95
1.20
1.18
1.22
1.41
1.09
1.15
1.38

1 Norfolk.




.84
.67
.68
.66
.57
.73
.70
.58

$0.67
.84
.67
.68
.66
.57
.73
.70
.58

316

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 6 2 .—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

F O REIGN T R A D E —Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L ine N o . 2
Total, 10 ships_________ __

2 6,819

6,985

216.5

31.5

32.3

23.5

1.34

1.37 $0.60

$0.58

$0.46

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October):*
Wood pulp____________
Paper_________________

300
42

300
42

Total............................

342

342

No. 2 (August): 3
Wood p u lp ___________
____ _______
Paper
Matches ____________

300
53
21

300
53
62

Total...........................

374

415

9.0

38.0

38.0

22.0

1.73

1.73 $0.46

10.5

35.6

39.5

24.8

1.44

1.59

.56

.50

$0.70

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):1
Wood pulp____________
Paper. _ ______________

500
48

500
48

Total_______________

548

548

No. 4 (November): *
Wood pulp __________
General cargo_________

800
48

800
69

Total_______________

848

869

19.5

28.1

28.1

24.4

1.15

1.15 $0.70

30.0

28.3

28.3

23.0

1.23

1.26

.65

.63

$0.58

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May-June):3
Wood pulp________ - __

1,250

No. 6 (March):i
Wood pulp____________
Paper
__ _____
Matches
..
___

700
71
52

70C ............
71
15C

Total...........................

823

927

1,250

33.8

33.8

24.6

1.37

1.37 $0.58

28. C 29A :

33.1

23.9

1.23

1.3S

.65

.58

0.83 $0.96

$0.96

37.0

Discharging cargo: South America
L in e N o. 3 *

Total, 9 ships........................
Hides..... ........................
General cargo.................

9,830

459.5

21.4

21.4

25.7

0.83

4,974 * 191,734
4,856
4,856

271.5
188.0

18.3 4 706.0
25.8
25.8

26.1
25.7

.70 4 27.1
1.03 1.03

9,830

1 Norfolk.
2Principal commodity: Wood pulp, 6,361 long tons.
3 Newport News.




1.14 «2.95
.78
.78

* Individual hides.
* Per 100 hides.

317

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b le 6 2 .— P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo: South America —Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity

Ganghours
Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (July):
Coffee and quebracho

210

210

7.5

No. 2 (October):
Hides....... ......................
General cargo.................

110
407

4 5,500
407

Total...........................

517

517

28.0

28.0

25.0

1.12

4.5
16.0

24.4 41,222.0
25.4
25.4

26.0
25.0

.94 447.0
1.02 1.02

.85 <1.70
.78
.78

20.5

25.2

25.2

1.00

.80

25.2

1.12 $0.71

1.00

$0.71

.80

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June):
Hides..............................
Coffee and quebracho—
Total...........................
No. 4 (December):
Hides..............................
General cargo.................
Total...........................

1,998 4 80,199
355
355

123.5
18.5

16.2 4 649.0
19.2
19.2

25.9
25.0

2,353

142.0

16.6

16.6

25.8

.64

363 4 14,998
85
85

18.0
6.0

20.2 4833.0
14.2
14.2

26.0
24.0

.78 432.1
.59
.59

1.03 52.49
1.36
1.36

448

24.0

18.7

25.5

.73

1.10

2,353

448

18.7

0.62 425.1 $1.29 * $3.19
.77
.77 1.04
1.04
.64

.73

1.25

1.25

1.10

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (December):
Hides....... ......................
General cargo.................
Total............................
No. 6 (June):
Hides..............................
Quebracho......................
Total.............. .............

0.84 434. 5 $0. 95 * $2.32
.92
.87
.92
.87

696 4 28,453
219
219

30.0
9.0

23.2 4 948.0
24.3
24.3

27.5
28.0

915

915

39.0

23.5

23.5

27.6

506 419,880
162
162

24.5
5.0

20.7 4 811.0
32.4
32.4

26.0
24.0

668

29.5

22.6

22.6

25.7

.88

668

.85

.94

.94

.79 431.2
1.35 1.35

1.01
.59

«2.56
.59

.91

.91

1.19 $0.67

$0.67

.85

.88

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e N o . 4 i

Total, 23 ships...................
Tobacco........ ................ .
Cotton_____ _____ ____
General cargo.................

6 34,990

34,990 1,311.5

26.7

26.7

22.4

1.19

5,189
2,563
27,238

5,189
156.0
711,534
84.5
27,238 1,071.0

33.3
30.3
25.4

33.3
7 136.5
25.4

21.6
22.6
22.5

1.54 1.54
1.34 7 6.04
1.13 1.13

.52
.60
.71

.52
7.13
.71

i Norfolk,
4 Individual hides.
* Per 100 hides.
6 Principal commodities: Starch and flour, 10,283 tons; tobacco, 8,437 tons; lumber, 6,505 tons; and
cotton, 4,355 tons.




318

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 62.™P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Ships with m aximum efficiency

Line N o. 4 1
—Continued
No. 1 (March):
Cotton................. ...........
Starch........... ................ .
General cargo--------------

546
1,163
168

72,450
1,163
168 }

19.0
37.0

28.7 7128.9
36.0
36.0

23.0
22.0

1.25 7 5.61 $0.64 7 $0.14
1.64 1.64
.49
.49

T o ta l--................. ......

1,877

1,877

56.0

33.5

33.5

22.3

1.50

1.50

.53

.53

No. 2 (February):
Cotton— ....... ...............
Starch___________ ____
General cargo.—............

461
1,025
102

7 2,100
1,025 }
102

14.5
32.5

31.8 7 144.8
34.7
34.7

22.0
24.4

1.45 76.58
1.42 1.42

.55
.56

7.12
.56

Total-..........................

1,588

1,588

47.0

33.8

23.7

1.43

.56

.56

33.8

1.43

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (June):
Cotton....... ..........
Lumber........ ......
Flour and starch.
General cargo----Total .
No. 4 (December):
Tobacco______
Lumber______
General cargo.Total-

9.0

284
1,015
256
314

284
1,015
256 |
314

90.0

1,869

1,869

99.0 18.9

709
485
195
1,389

709
485 }
195
1,389

31.6
17.6

31.6

23.0

1.37

1.37 $0.58

$0.58

17.6

22.2

.79

.79

1.01

1.01

18.9

22.3

.85

.85

.94 .

.94

26.5
43.0

26.8
15.8

26.8
15.8

21.0
22.0

1.27
.72

1.27
.72

.63
1.11

.63
1.11

69.5

20.0

20.0

21.6

.92

.92

.87

.87

$0.55

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Tobacco.........
Cotton...........
Lumber_____
General cargo.

255
110
408
231

Total______

1,004

No. 6 (September):
Tobacco_______
Lumber_______
Flour.................
General cargo.

881
464
131
162

255
110 ]
408 }
231 )
1,004
881
464 1
131 \
162 J

8.0

31.9

31.9

22.0

1.45

1.45 $0.55

31.0

24.2

24.2

21.5

1.12

1.12

.71

.71

39.0

25.7

25.7

21.6

1.19

1.19

.67

.67

25.5

34.6

34.6

22.0

1.57

1.57

.51

.51

36.5

20.7

20.7

22.0

.94

.94

.85

.85

222.0

1.20

1.20

.67

.67

1,638

1,638

62.0

26.4

26.4

Total, 10 ships______

14,233

14,233

575.5

24.7

24.7

22.6

1.10

1.10 $0.73

$0.73

Cotton......... .
Tobacco_____
Lumber..........
General cargo.

7,732
1, 773
1,643
3,085

7,732
1,773
1,643
3,085

268.0
67.5
90.0
150.0

28.9
26.3
18.3
20.6

28.9
26.3
18.3
20.6

22.9
22.0
22.0
22.7

1.26
1.19
.83
.91

1.26
1.19
.83
.91

.63
.67
.96
.88

.63
.67
.96
.88

Total____ ____ _
L ine N o . 5 1




J Norfolk.

7 Bales.

319

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 63.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe —Continued

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

with m aximum efficiency

L in e N o. 5 1
—Continued

No. 1 (July):
Cotton.........................
Tobacco___ ____ _____
General cargo_________

467
232
126

467
232
126

12.0
5.5
6.5

38.9
42.2
19.4

38.9
42.2
19.4

23.0
22.0
23.0

1.69
1.92
.84

1.69 $0.47
1.92
.42
.84
.95

$0.47
.42
.95

T otal-........................

825

825

24.0

34.4

34.4

22.8

1.51

1.51

.53

.53

No. 2 (June):
Cotton.........................
Tobacco___ ____ _____
.General cargo_________

1,044
101
181

1,044
101
181

30.0
3.5
12.5

34.8
28.9
14.5

34.8
28.9
14.5

23.0
22.0
23.0

1.51
1.31
.63

1.51
1.31
.63

.53
.61
1.27

.53
.61
1.27

Total..........................

1,326

1,326

46.0

28.8

28.8

22.9

1.26

1.26

.63

.63

$0.86

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (September):
General cargo................

502

502

23.5

21.4

21.4

23.0

0.93

0.93 $0.86

No. 4 (September-October):
Cotton..........................
Lumber______________
General cargo....... ........

322
206
432

322
206
432

10.5
9.5
24.5

30.7
21.7
17.6

30.7
21.7
17.6

23.0
22.0
22.3

1.33
.99
.79

1.33
.99
.79

.60
.81
1.01

.60
.81
1.01

Total----------------------

960

960

44.5

21.6

21.6

22.4

.96

.96

.83

.83

$0.63
.68
1.27

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (February):
Cotton__________
Tobacco_________
General cargo.......

961
221
188

961
221
188

34.5
8.5
13.0

27.9
26.0
14.5

27.9
26.0
14.5

22.0
22.0
23.0

1.27
1.18
.63

1.27 $0.63
1.18
.68
.63 1.27

T o ta l-..............

1,370

1,370

56.0

24.5

24.5

22.2

1.10

1.10

.73

.73

No. 6 (May):
Cotton....... ..........
Lumber_________
Starch---------------General cargo------

1,002
156
111
73

1,002
156
111
73

38.0
8.5
3.5
3.5

26.4
18.4
31 7
20.9

26.4
18.4
31.7
20.9

23.0
22.0
24.0
23.0

1.15
.83
1.32
.91

1.15
.83
1.32
.91

.70
.96
.61
.88

.70
.96
.61
.88

1,342

1,342

53.5

25.1

25.1

22.9

1.10

1.10

.73

.73

21,630

21,630 1,063.5

20.3

20.3

22.7

0.90

0.90 $0.89

$0.89

14,788
1,314
1,140
4,388

14,788
1,314
1,140
4,388

18.8
28.3
25.9
23.5

18.8
28.3
25.9
23.5

22.5
24.0
22.6
22.9

.83
1.18
1.15
1.04

.83
1.18
1.15
1.04

T otal-—......... L in e N o . 6 1

Total, 18 ships______
Lumber..... ..........
Flour___________
Starch_____ _____
General cargo.......

786.0
46.5
44.0
187.0

.96
.68
.70
.77

.96
.68
.70
.77

$0.88
.56
.75
.74

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (October):
Lumber.......................
Starch........................
Tobacco..................... .
General cargo............ .

719
277
212
87

719
277
212
87

36.0
8.0
9.0
3.5

20.0
34.6
23.6
24.9

Total...... .................

1,295

1,295

56.5

No. 2 (August): Lumber..

932

932

44.5

i Norfolk.




20.0
34.6
23.6
24.9

22.0
24.0
22.0
23.0

0.91
1.44
1.07
1.08

0.91 $0.88
1.44
.56
1.07
.75
1.08
•74

22.9

22.9

22.3

1.03

1.03

.78

.78

22.5

22.5

22.0

1.02

1.02

.78

.78

320

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 68.--P B O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

A verage
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L ine No. 6 1
—Continued
No. 3 (June):
Lumbar
_ _
General cargo_________

1,019
102

1,019
102

56.5
4.5

18.0
22.7

18.0
22.7

23.0
23.0

0.78
.99

Total........... ................

1,121

1,121

61.0

18.4

18.4

23.0

.80

.80

1.00

1.00

1,180
250
119

1,180
250
119

63.2
10.0
7.5

18.6
25.8
15.9

18.6
25.8
15.9

23.0
24.0
23.0

.81
1.04
.69

.81
1.04
.69

.99
.77
1.16

.99
.77
1.16

1,549

1,549

81.0

19.1

19.1

23.1

.83

.83

.96

.96

0.84 $0.95
.99
.81
1.43
.56
.82
.98

$0.95
.81
.56
.98

No. 4:
Lumber
_ . _ _
Flour........................ ......
General cargo_________
Total_______ ____ ___

0.78 $1.03
.81
.99

1

$1.03
.81

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Tiiimbftr
_
Flour____ ______ ____
Tobacco______________
General cargo_________

1,084
273
126
189

1,084
273
126
189

56.0
11.5
4.0
10.0

19.4
23.8
31.5
18.9

19.4
23.8
31.5
18.9

23.0
24.0
22.0
23.0

0.84
.99
1.43
.82

Total ______________

1,672

1,672

81.5

20.5

20.5

23.1

.89

.89

.90

.90

No. 6 (December):
Lumber_______________
Starch and flour_______
General cargo_________

876
249
352

876
249
352

48.0
9.0
13.5

18.3
27.7
26.1

18.3
27.7
26.1

23.0
24.0
23.0

.79
1.15
1.13

.79
1.15
1.13

1.01
.70
.71

1.01
.70
.71

Total_______________

1,477

1,477

70.5

21.0

21.0

23.1

.91

.91

.88

.88

Total, 7 ships_____________

8 7,357

7,357

448.5

16.4

16.40

20.8

0.79

0.79 $1.01

$1.01

No. 1 (February):
Cotton
_________ _
Tobacco______________
Lumber _______ ____

528
273
202

528
273
202

Total_______________

1,003

1,003

61.0

16.4

16.4

21.1

.78

.78

1.03

1.03

No. 2 (March):
Cotton . _________
Tobacco
- ___ General cargo_________

764
217
260

764
217
260

1,241

1,241

78.5

15.8

15.8

21.4

.74

.74

1.08

1.08

205
148
283

205
148
283
47.0

13.5

13.5

20.2

.67

.67

1.19

1.19

49.0

16.0

16.0

21.0

.76

.76

1.05

1.05

L ine N o. 7 i

Total........... ............... |
1
No. 3 (March):
Cotton . . _________
1
Tobacco
Lumber
__________
T ota l--.............. .........

636

636

No. 4 (April):
Cotton
Tobacco______________
Lum ber and general
cargo

125
269

125
269

392

392

Total_______________

786

786

1Norfolk.




®principal commodities: Tobacco, 3,482 tons; and cotton, 1,742 tons.

321

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 6 2 — P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L ine No. 7 *
—Continued
No. 5 (October):
Tobacco______________
Lumber
T o ta l--........................
No. 6 (October):
Tobacco______________
Lumber

830
407

830
407

1,237

1,237

1,094
336

1,094
336

65.5

18.9

18.9

21.6

0.88

84.5

16.9

16.9

19.2

.88

.88

.91

.91

.75

1.07

1.07

0.74 $1.08

$1.08

0.94 $0.85

$0.85

Total............................

1,430

1,430

No. 7 (November):
Cotton .
__
Tobacco.. ____________
Lumber_ _

120
651
253
1,024

1,024

63.0

16.3

16.3

21.6

.75

•6,058

6,058

373.0

16.2

16.2

22.0

0.74

$0.91

120
651
253

T ota l--........................

0.88 $0.91

L in e No. 8 1

Total, 8 ships_____________

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (February): General
cargo___________________
No. 2 (January):
Tobacco______________
Cotton ______________
Starch and general cargo.
Total-..........................

217

217

250
222
330

250
222
330

802

802

11.0

19.7

19.7

21.0

0.94

42.5

18.9

18.9

22.5

.84

.84

.95

.95

0.59 $1.36

$1.36

1.33

l.Sb

0.72 $1.11

$1.11

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Paper pulp____________
General cargo_________

372
203

372
203

Total............................

575

575

514
167

514
167

681

681

No. 4 (May):
Paper pulp _
Lumber
Total............................

45.0

12.8

12.8

#
21.6

0.59

51.5

13.2

13.2

22.0

.60

.60

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August):
Paper pulp__
Corn flour_________
General cargo. - _.

638
109
262

638
109
262

Total............................
No. 6 (December):
Paper pulp
Tobacco
General cargo

1,009

1,009

532
467
52

532
467
52

Total_______________

1,051

1,051

_

60.0

16.8

16.8

23.3

0.72

63.5

16.6

16.6

21.6

.77

1 Norfolk.
9Principal commodities: Paper pulp, 3,083 tons; and tobacco, 1,150 tons.




.77

1.04

1.04

322

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 62.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF" LAB OR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
Rev­
per Long Rev­ Long
gang tons enue ton enue
ton
tons

L ine N o. 9 3
Total, 22 ships____________

w 17,039

17,039

23.0

741.0

23.0

24.9

0.92

0.92 $0.87

$0.87

S kips with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):

899
57

899
57

956

956

General cargo.................
.

859
47

859
47

Total_______________

906

906

T o t a l ___ ____ ______
No. 2 (December):

24.5

39.0

39.0

26.4

1.49

1.49 $0.54

$0.54

25.0

36.2

36.2

26.3

1.38

1.38

.58

.58

0.55 $1.45

$1.45

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (June):
Lumber _____________
General cargo_________

511
200

511
200

Total............................

711

711

No. 4 (June):
Lumber_______________
Flour......... ...................
General cargo_________

321
231
247
799

799

15.1

15.1

27.7

0.55

46.5

17.2

17.2

23.3

.74

321
231
247

Total............................

47.0

.74

1.08

1.08

0.93 $0.86

$0.86

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Lumber_______________
Tobacco______________

1
!

271
250

271
250

521

521

No. 6 (July):
Lumber........................ .
Starch and flour_______

259
308

259
308

Total............................

567

567

Total, 7 ships_____________

2,032

2,032

No. 1 (February): General
cargo........... ......................

210

210

No. 2 (March):
Flour................. ........
Lumber...........
. . . ..
General cargo_________

187
115
145

187
115
145

Total_______________

447

447

No. 3 (March):
Tobacco_ __________
_
General cargo......... ........

327
55

327
55

382

382 . 28.0

Total........................ .

24. o[ 21.7

21.7

23.3

0.93

24.5

23.1

23.1

26.0

.89

122.0' 16.7

16.7

23.0

0.72

.89

.90

.90

0.72 $1.11

$1.11

L ine N o. 103

Total_____________

17.5

12.0

12.0

22.0

.55

.55

1.45

1.45

21.0

21.3

21.3

24.1

.88

.88

.91

.91

13.6I

13.6i

22. C
1

.62!

.62!

1.2S>

1.29

3 Newport News.
Principal commodities: Flour and starch, 8,520 tons; lumber, 5,513 tons.




323

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 62.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L ine N o. 1 0 Continued
No. 4 (April):

133
134

Total

Total

.....

. _____

No. 7 (November):

Total___ ____ _______

267
125
129

254

254

118
92

_____________

No. 6 (October):

267
125
129

Total_______________
No. 5 (October):

133
134

118
92

210

210

237
25

237
25

262

262

18.5

14.4

14.4

24.1

0.60

12.5

20.3

20.3

24.6

.83

.83

.96

.96

11.5

18.3

18.3

22.0

.83

.83

.96

.96

13.0

20.2

20.2

22.5

.90

.90

.89

.89

28,475 1,116.0

25.5

25.5

22.6

1.13

1.13 $0.71

$0.71

30.5 7 135.4
30.2
30.2
17.5
17.5
16.1
16.1
22.6
22.6

22.5
23.3
21.1
22.1
25.4

1.35 7 6.0
1.29 1.29
.83
.83
.73
.73
.89
.89

0.60 $1.33

$1.33

Line N o. 11«
Total, 17 ships_______ ____ C otton_______________
T obacco.________ _____
Peanut meal__________
Lumber_______________
General cargo_________

28,475

19,010 7 84,494
1,615
1,615
2,314
2,314
3,390
3,390
2,146
2,146

624.0
53.5
132.5
211.0
95.0

.59
.62
.96
1.10
.90

7.13
.62
.96
1.10
.90

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June):
Cotton________________
Tobacco______________
General cargo__________

532
483
100

7 2,333
483
100

16.5
12.0
5.0

32.2 7 141.4
40.3
40.3
20.0
20.0

23.0
23.0
23.0

1.74 76.10 $0.46 7 $0.13
1.75 1.75
.46
.46
.87
.87
.92
.92

T o ta l..........................

1,115

1,115

33.5

33.3

33.3

23.0

1.45

1.45

.55

.55

No. 2 (March):
Cotton________________
Tobacco______________
Lumber_______________
General cargo________

1,971
150
216
153

78,835
150
216
153

63.0
5.5
10.0
6.5

31.3 7 140.2
27.3
27.3
21.6
21.6
23.5
23.5

22.0
22.0
22.0
23.0

1.42 7 6.40
1.24 1.24
.98
.98
1.02 1.02

.56
.65
.82
.78

7.13
.65
.82
.78

Total. .........................

2,490

2,490

85.0

29.3

22.1

1.33

.60

.60

29.3

1.33

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (December):
Cotton___________ ____
Peanut meal__________
Lumber_______________
General cargo.................

623
251
231
21

7 2,787
251
231
21

20.5
15.0
20.0
1.5

30.4 7 136.0
16.7
16.7
11.6
11.6
14.0
14.0

23.0
23.0
22.0
22.0

Total. ............... .........

1,126

1,126

57.0

19.8

19.8

22.6

No. 4 (April):
Cotton............................
Lumber_______________
General cargo__________

1,093
666
108

7 4,911
666
108

43.0
46.5
5.0

25.4 7 114.2
14.3
14.3
21.6
21.6

23.0
22.0
23.0

Total............................

1,867

1,867

94.5

19.8

22.5

9 Newport News.




* Bales,

19.8

1.32 75.90 $0.61 7$0.14
.73
.73 1.10
1.10
.52
.52 1.54
1.54
.64
.64 1.25
1.25
.87

.87

.92

.92

1.11 7 5.00
.65
.65
.94
.94

.72
1.23
.85

7.16
1.23
.85

.88

.91

.91

.88

w Norfolk and Newport News.

324

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 68.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage.
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ganghours
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Skips with average efficiency

L ine N o. 11ll—Continued
No. 5 (April):
C otton..:........................
Lumber_____ _____ ___
General cargo_________

1,552
298
85

76,876
298
85

51.5
18.0
3.5

30.1 “ 133.5
16.6
16.6
24.3
24.3

24.0
22.0
23.0

1.26 75.60 $0.63 7 $0.14
.75
.75 1.07
1.07
1.06 1.06
.75
• 40

Total_______ ____ ___

1,935

1,935

73.0

26.5

26.5

23.5

1.13

1.13

.71

.71

No. 6 (May):
Cotton________________
Lumber_______________
General cargo_________

839
136
140

73,745
136
140

24.5
11.0
7.5

34.2 7152.9
12.4
12.4
18.7
18.7

22.0
22.0
23.0

1.56 7 7.00
.56
.56
.81
.81

.51
1.43
.99

7.11
1.43
.99

Total_______________

1,115

1,115

43.0

25.9

25.9

22.2

1.17

.68

.68

24,781 1,073.5

23.1

23.1

22.1

1.04

1.04 $0.77

$0.77

4,849
19,932

30.6
21.8

30.6
21.8

21.6
22.2

1.42
.98

1.42
.98

1.17

L ine N o. 12 u
Total, 18 ships____________

12 24,781

Tobacco, 7 ships_______
General cargo____ ____ _

4,849
19,932

158.5
915.0

.56
.82

.56
.82

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Tobacco______________
Starch________________
Lumber_______________
General cargo_________

854
1,329
184
100

131,828
1,329 )
184 f
100

20.5

41.7

is 89.2

22.0

3
1.89 1 4.05 $0.42 1 $0.20
3

65.5

24.6

24.6

22.8

1.08

1.08

.74

.74

2,467

86.0

28.7

28.7

22.6

1.27

1.27

.63

.63

Total........... .............. .

2,467

No. 2 (June):
Tobacco_______ _______
Starch________________
Lumber..... ........... ..........
General cargo_________

496
997
273
193

Total__________ ____

1,959

496
997 1
273 V
193
1,959

23.5

21.1

21.1

19.0

1.11

1.11

.72

.72

50.0

29.3

29.3

24.0

1.22

1.22

.66

.66

73.5

26.7

26.7

22.4

1.19

1.19

.67

.67

0.84 $0.95

$0.95

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Tobacco______________
Starch. ........................
Lumber __________ _
General cargo_________

152
305
400
45

152
305
400
45

Total.... ......................

902

902

No. 4 (January):
Tobacco........................
Lumber ............... ........
Oyster shells____ . _
General cargo.................

482
288
220
150

482
288
220
150

T ota l..........................

1,140

1,140

48.5

18.6

18.6

22.1

0.84

57.0

20.0

20.0

22.4

.89

.89

7 Bales.
1 Norfolk and Newport News.
1
12 principal commodities: Tobacco, 8,904 tons; starch, 8,328 tons; and lumber, 3,847 tons.




.90

.90

325

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 63.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 12 h— Continued

No. 5 (November):
Tobacco
___________
Starch_____ ____ ______
General cargo.... ......... .

638
970
229

Total. .........................
No. 6 (October):
Tobacco ____________
Starch.............................
Lumber _____________
General cargo_________
T o ta l......... ..............

Ganghours

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

131,390
970
}
229

27.0

23.6

w 51.5

22.3

1.06 13 2.31 $0.75 13 $0.35

51.5

23.3

23.3

22.6

1.03

1.03

.78

.78

1,837

1,837

78.5

23.4

23.4

22.5

1.04

1.04

.77

.77

643
537
380
89

643
537
380
89

1,649

1,649

72.5

22.7

22.7

21.7

1.05

1.05

.76

.76

19.9

22.5

0.88

0.88 $0.91

$0.91

$0.73

Loading cargo: Orient
L ine N o . 13 n
Total, 9 ships..................... -- “ 12,484

12,484

627.5

19.9

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (October):
T obacco___ __________
Starch________________
Lumber

948
554
170

948
544
170

Total............................

1,672

1,672

No. 2 (February):
Tobacco______________
Starch _
- _____
Lumber _____________
General cargo
- __

887
443
308
235
1,873

1,873

25.0

25.0

22.8

1.09

1.09 $0.73

80.5

23.3

23.3

22.6

1.03

1.03

887
443
308
235

Total............................

67.0

.78

.78

0.63 $1.27

$1.27

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (May):
Starch________________
Lumber
General c a r g o ..______

308
200
120

308
200
120

Total................... ........

628

628

No. 4 (November):
Tobacco
Lumber
General cargo _ _____

1,067
211
55

1,067
211
55

Total............................

1,333

1,333

43.5

14.4

14.4

22.8

0.63

76.5

17.4

17.4

21.9

.79

.79

1 Norfolk and Newport News,
1
w Hogsheads.
h principal commodities: Tobacco, 6,911 tons; starch, 2,615 tons; and lumber, 2,248 tons.




1.01

1.0i

326

GENERAL TABLES

T a b i e 6 * .— P R O D U C TIV IT Y OP LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L ine N o. 13 h—Contiuued
No. 5 (October):
Tobacco______________
T/Umhp.r
_

Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

1,562
147

1,562
147
85.0

20.1

20.1

22.7

0.89

1,321

70.0

18.9

18.9

22.0

.86

' 12,121

605.0

20.0

20.0

25.8

0.77

Total............................

1,709

1,709

No. 6 (August):
Lumber.......... ...... ,
Starch.................
General cargo.._______-

805
277
239

805
277
239

Total_______________

1,321

w 12,121

0.89 $0.90

.86

$0.90

.93

.93

0.77 $1.04

$1.04

$0.62

L ine N o . 14
Total, 17 ships._____- _____

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Tobacco leaf ___ ______
General cargo______ ___

370
184

370
184

Total ______________

554

554

No. 2 (January):
Cotton
_______
General cargo..__ _____

224
24
248

248

33.6

33.6

26.0

1.29

1.29 $0.62

9.5

26.1

26.1

24.0

1.09

1.09

224
24

Total_______________

16.5

.73

.73

0.44 $1.82

$1.82

1.43

1.43

0.77 $1.04

$1.04

1.03

1.03

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July):
Tobacco, leaf_______ __
Staves...... .......................
Agricultural implements
General cargo.____ ____

113
351
290
91

113
351
290
91

Total................... ........

845

845

No. 4 (September):
Tobacco, leaf
.
Staves_______________ _
General cargo.. . . ____

134
489
72

134
489
72

Total...........................

695

695

69.5

12.2

12.2

27.4

0.44

48.5

14.3

14.3

25.4

.56

.56

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (October):
Tobacco, leaf..... ............
Auto parts____________

141
422

141
422

Total...........................

563

563

No. 6 (November):
Staves______ _________
Tobacco, leaf__________
General cargo_________

785
131
218

785
131
218

Total................ ; .........

1,134

1,134

31.0

18.2

18.2

23.5

0.77

57. C 19.9

19. S

25.4

.78

.78

1 Norfolk and Newport News.
1
1 Principal commodities: Tobacco and cigarettes, 6,093 tons; and barrel staves, 2,489 tons.
5




327

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T able 6 2 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
FOREIGN TR AD E —Continued

Loading cargo: Orient— Continued
Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Ganghours

Ship number, date of opera­
tion, and commodity
Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Long
tons

Rev­
enue
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
men
per Long Rev­ Long Rev­
gang tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

L in e N o. 151
1

Total, 12 ships____________

16 14,128

14,128

902.5

15.7

15.7

22.9

0.68

0.68 $1.18

$1.18

0.92 $0.87

$0.87

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October):
Tobacco' ____________
Corn flour____________
General c a r g o ....

748
486
232

748
486
232

Total_______________

1,466

1,466

64.5

22.7

22.7

24.8

0.92

No. 2 (December): Tobacco..

351

351

20.0

17.6

17.6

19.0

.92

.92

.87

.87

0.51 $1.57

$1.57

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Tobacco______________
General cargo_________

275
180

275
180

Total_______________

455

455

No. 4 (January):
T o b a c c o ___ __________
Auto parts__ __________
Cigarettes ____________
General cargo_________

801
702
150
255

801
702
150
255

1,908

1,908

T o ta l..__________ „

38.5

11.8

11.8

23.2

0.51

157.5

12.1

12.1

22.3

.54

.54

1.48

1.48

0.72 $1.11

$1.11

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Tobacco___ _____ _____
Cigarettes_____________
Flour______ ___________
General cargo_________

240
180
156
258

240
180
155
258

Total_______________

833

833

No. 6 (March):
Tobacco______________
Auto parts____________
Cigarettes_____________
General cargo__________

298
548
180
151

298
548
180
151

Total...............................

1,177

1,177

h Norfolk

50.0

16.7

16.7

23.2

0.72

80.5

14.6

14.6

23.2

.63

and Newport News.
1 Principal commodities: Tobacco, 6,046 tons; and auto parts, 2,005 tons.
6




.63

1.27

1.27

328

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 63.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

INTER COASTAL TRADE—

Discharging cargo
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Output per Aver­ Output per
man-hour
gang-hour
age
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­
tons nue gang tons nue
tons1
tons1

Average
labor cost
per—

Long
tons

Reve­
nue
tons1

Total, 17 ships................................ 11,282

12,636

489.0

23.1

25.8

23.2

0.99

1.11 $0.81

Canned goods........................... 7,924
General cargo........................... 3,358

8,875
3,761

311.5
177.5

25.4
18.9

28.5
21.2

23.8
22.2

1.07
.85

1.20
.95

Long Reve­
ton tnue
on1

L in e No. 162

$0.72

.75
.94

.67
.84

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (October):
Canned goods...........................
Beans........................................

629
117

705
130

15.0
7.5

42.0
15.5

47.0
17.3

24.0
24.0

1.75
.64

1.96 $0.46
.72 1.24

$0.41
1.11

Total......................................

746

835

22.5

33.1

37.1

24.0

1.38

1.55

.58

.52

No. 2 (March):
Canned goods...........................
General cargo...........................

875
333

980
373

27.0
15.5

32.4
21.5

36.3
24.1

22.0
22.0

1.47
.97

1.65
1.09

.54
.82

.48
.73

Total...................................... 1,208

1,353

42.5

28.4

31.8

22.0

1.29

1.45

.62

.55

0.97 $0.92
.49 1.83

$0.82
1.63

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (June):
Canned goods..
General cargo..

172
71

193
79

10.0
8.0

17.2
8.8

19.3
9.9

20.0
20.0

0.87
.44

Total.......................

243

272

18.0

13.5

15.1

20.0

.68

.76

1.18

1.05

No. 4 (January): General

554

621

32.5

17.1

19.1

22.0

.78

.87

1.03

.92

$0.73

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August): General cargo___

304

341

13.5

22.6

25.3

23.0

0.98

1.10 $0.82

No. 6 (December):
Canned goods...........................
General cargo...........................

238
51

267
57

9.5
2.5

25.1
20.4

28.1
22.8

25.0
23.0

1.00
.89

1.12
.99

.79
.90

.71
.81

Total.....................................

289

324

12.0

24.1

27.0

24.6

.98

1.10

.82

.73

13.9

20.6

0.60

0.67 $1.33

$1.19

0.93 $0.96
.82 1.10

$0.86
.98

0.49 $1.82
.52 1.74

$1.63
1.54

Loading cargo
L in e No. 172

Total, 17 ships................................ 9,356

10,480

753.5

12.4

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (February)..
No. 2 (December)..

782
571

876
639

45.0
34.5

17.4
16.5

19.5
18.5

21.0
22.5

0.83
.73

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (M ay)___
No. 4 (January).




304
596
1 Short tons.

340
668

34.5
64.0

8.8
9.3

9.9
10.4

20.0
20.0

2 Norfolk.

0. 44
.46

329

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b le 6 3 .—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

IN TER C OA STA L TR AD E-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Cargo tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity

Reve­
nue
tons 1

Long
tons

Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons1 gang tons tons1 ton ton 1
Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o. 17 2 Continued
—

No. 5 (April)...................................
No. 6 (April)...................................

35.5
55.0

12.0
12.1

13.4
13.6

20.0
20.0

0.60
.61

0.67 $1.33
.68 1.31

$1.19
1.18

12,355 1,075.0

425
666

10.3

11.5

20.9

0.49

0.55 $1.63

$1.45

0.85 $1.05
.82 1.10

$0.94
.98

0.40 $2.22
.41 2.16

$2.00
1.95

0.55 $1.63
.55 1.63

$1.45
1.45

476
746

L in e N o. 18 2

Total, 18 ships................................ 11,031

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (November)..........................
No. 2 (December)...........................

474
890

423
795

28.0
54.5

15.1
14.6

16.9
16.3

20.0
20.0

0.76
.73

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (July)...................................No. 4 (April)...................................

1,004
491

896
438

120.0
54.5

7.5
8.0

8.4
9.0

21.0
22.0

0.36
.37

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (March)................................ 1,032
293
No. 6 (September)..........................

1,156
328

101.0
30.0

10.2
9.8

11.5
10.9

21.0
20.0

0.49
.49

2Norfolk.

i Short tons.

T a b le 6 4 .— PR ODU CTIVITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

COASTW ISE TRADE

Discharging cargo

Week ending-

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­ La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
per
hour rev­
(rev­ enue
enue t o n 1
tons1
)

Week ending—

L in e N o . 192

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

La­
bor
cost
per
rev­
enue
to n 1

Weeks with m inim um efficiency

Dec. 14,5 ships___

Total.......
Dec. 21, 5 ships-

Tetal.......

$0.44

L in e No. 19 2
—Con.

Weeks with m axim um efficiency

Total, 261 ships..

July 21, 5 ships___

570
627
624
615
614

646.0
785.0
906.0
729.0
836.0

0.88
.80
.69
.84
.73

$0.45
.50
.58
.48
.55

Total.......... .

3,050

3,902.0

.78

.51

Sept. 14,5 ships.

529
479
712
541
930

659.0
563.0
828.0
677.0
1,204.0

.80
.85
.86
.80
.77

.50
.47
.47
.50
.52

Total....... .

3,191

3,931.0

.81

.49

186,055 205,343.0

0.91

656
764
656
736
965
3,777

516.0
715.0
585.0
670.0
948.0
3,434.0

1.27
1.07
1.12
1.10
1.02
1.10

$0.31
.37
.36
.36
.39
.36

549
731
484
704
624
3,092

536.0
696.0
521.0
646.0
500.0
2,899. 0

1.02
1.05
.93
1.09
1.25
1.07

.39
.38
.43
.38
.32
.37

.

1Short tons.

66490°—32------22




a Norfolk.

330

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 64.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons 0

Manhours

Out­ La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
per
hour rev­
(rev­
enue enue
tons1 t o n 1
)

Weeks with average efficiency
L in e No. 192— Con-

Feb. 28,6 ships-----

Total—
Apr. 21,5 ships___

Total-.

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

Manhours

1,199.0
997.0
422.0
1,303.0
734.0
853.0

Q 91
.
.98
1.05
.91
.89
1.05

$0.44
.41
.38
.44
.45
.38

5,021

5,508.0

.91

.44

595
686
540
331
893

692.0
786.0
706.0
342.0
838.0

.86
.87
.76
.97
1.07

.47
.46
.63
.41
.37

3,045

3,364.0

.91

.44




3,094.0
3,844.0
3,792.0
5,847.0
5,579.0
4,753.0
3,904.0
5,392.0
3,273.0
5,222.0
5,787.0
3,978.0
3,992.0
4,369.0
4,499.0
3,635.0
3,475.0
5,364.0
3,995.0
3,924.0
3,054.0
5,091.0
4,325.0
3,981.0
4,406.0
5,250.0
4,322.0
3,957.0
5,137.0
4,486.0
4,665.0
6,203.0
4,600.0
3,989.0
3,185.0
6,364.0
4,624.0
3,469.0
4,188.0
3,321.0
3,507.0
2,463.0

1.03 $0.39
.93
.43
.93
.43
.96
.42
.98
.41
.94
.43
.94
.43
.87
.46
.92
.43
.97
.41
.94
.43
.93
.43
.96
.42
.88
.45
.88
.45
.87
.46
.90
.44
.44
.91
.90
.44
.86
.47
.88
.45
.98
.41
.88
.45
.87
.46
.87
.46
.88
.45
.86
.47
.87
.46
.86
.47
.84
.48
.85
.47
.86
.47
.84
.48
.90
.44
.84
.48
.90
.44
.88
.45
.90
.44
.88
.45
.86
.47
.41
.97
1.05
.38

1Short tons.

$0.60

Total.—
Jan. 7,5 ships..

719
788
1,082
1,018
900
786

971.0
755.0
1,162.5
1,099.5
969.5
814.8

0.74
1.04
.93
.93
.93
.97

$0.54
.38
.43
.43
.43
.41

5,293

5,772.3

.92

.43

1,085
1,096
675
894
940

1,208.0
1,376.0
656.8
876.0
1,080.0

.90
.80
1.03
1.02
.87

.44
.60
.39
.39
.46

4,690

Dec. 21,6 ships___

Total..
3,191
3,558
3,542
5,608
5,443
4,472
3,685
4,709
3, 017
5,083
5,467
3,687
3,838
3,856
3,939
3,172
3,113
4,861
3,608
3,383
2,692
4,980
3,815
3,451
3,841
4,609
3,734
3,446
4,430
3,776
3,970
5,331
3,841
3,592
2,680
5,747
4,048
3,107
3,701
2,862
3,406
2,588

0.80

Weeks with m axim um efficiency

5,195.8

.90

.44

Other weeks

Jan. 7,4
Jan. 14,5 ships___
Jan. 21, 5 ships___
Jan. 31, 7 ships----Feb. 7, 6 ships.......
Feb. 14, 6 ships___
Feb. 21, 5 ships___
Mar. 7,6 ships----Mar. 14,4 ships_
_
Mar. 21,6 ships—
Mar. 31,7 ships—
Apr. 7, 5 ships.......
Apr. 14, 5 ships---Apr. 30,7 ships---May 7, 5 ships-----May 14,5 ships—
M ay 21,5 ships—
May 30,7 ships—
June 7, 5 ships-----June 14,5 ships—
June 21,4 ships—
June 30,7 ships—
July 7,5 ships-----July 14,5 ships___
July 31,5 ships----Aug. 7, 7 ships-----Aug. 14, 5 ships—
Aug. 21,5 ships—
Aug. 31, 6 ships.—
Sept. 7, 5 ships----Sept. 21,5 ships
Sept. 30, 7 ships. ..
Oct. 7,5 ships-----Oct. 14, 5 ships___
Oct. 21,4 ships___
Oct. 31,8 ships___ .
Nov. 7, 6 ships___ .
Nov. 14, 5 ships.—.
Nov. 21, 5 ships— .
Nov. 30, 5 ships— .
Dec. 7, 5 ships.......
Dec. 14,6 ships.... .

La­
bor
cost
per
rev­
enue
to n 1

L in e N o. 202

Total, 306 ships__ 296,569 370,162.0
1,093
802
443
1,190
651
842

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

Weeks with m in im u m efficiency

Mar. 7,4 ships...

927
1,063
912
1,118

1,417.0
1,882.5
1,558.0
1,599.0

0.65
.56
.59
.70

$0.62
.71
.68
.57

Total-------

4,020

6,456.5

.62

.65

June 30,8 ships..

669
1,232
919
1,157
1,098
578
563
681

1,122.8
1,600.0
1,251.5
1,542.0
1,425.0
826.0
810.0
1,069.3

.60
.77
.73
.75
.77
.70
.70
.64

.67
.52
.55
.53
.52
.57
.57
.63

6,897

9,646.6

.71

.56

T otal-

Weeks with average efficiency

Jan. 14, 7 ships.

Total_____
Mar. 21, 6 ships. _

TotaL.

1, 111
904
797
708
768
868
1,073
6,229

1,359.0
1,045.0
1,122.0
837.0
1,048.0
1,111.0
1,263.0
7,785.0

0.82
.87
.71
.85
.73
.78
.85
.80

$0.49
.46
.56
.47
.55
.51
.47
.50

873
737
1,233
1,059
1,213
' 1,081
6,196

1,122.0
866.0
1,447.0
1,507.5
1,575.0
1,241.8
7,759.3

.78
.85
.85
.70
.77
.87
.80

.51
.47
.47
.57
.52
.46
.50

2Norfolk.

331

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)
T a b le

64 t -P R 0D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN
COASTW ISE TRAD E—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons i)

Manhours

Out­ La­
put
bor
per
man- cost
per
hour rev­
(rev­ enue
enue
tons1 t o n 1
)

Week ending—

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons i)

La­
bor
cost
per
rev­
enue
to n 1

Other weeks— Continued

Other weeks

L ine No. 202
—Con.

L ine No. 20 2
—Con.
Jan. 21, 6 ships----Jan. 30,8 ships----F eb .7 ,6 ships. ....
Feb. 14, 6 ships___
Feb. 21,6 ships___
Feb. 28,4 ships___
Mar. 14, 6 ships_
_
Mar. 31,9 ships.
Apr. 7, 6 ships____
Apr. 14,6 ships___
Apr. 21, 6 ships___
Apr. 30,8 ships—.
May 7,6 ships.......
May 14, 6 ships___
May 21, 6 ships___
May 31,8 ships___
June 7, 6 ships.......
June 14,6 ships—
June 21, 6 ships—
July 7, 6 ships.......
July 14,6 ships-----

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons*)

4,676
7,394
6,829
6,772
6,087
4,246
7,158
8,847
5,613
5,307
5,600
7,041
5,559
5,092
5,783
7,890
5,445
6,017
5,963
4,061
5,126

5,912.0
9,034.0
6,776.0
7,618.0
6,028.9
5,661.1
9,535.3
10,917.3
7,009.0
7,358.0
7,166.6
8,823.5
7,100.5
6,246.0
6,603.0
9,261.0
6,237.3
8,065.1
7,547.5
5,667.5
7,240.0

0.79
.82
.86
.76
.84
.75
.75
.81
.80
.72
.78
.80
.78
.82
.88
.85
.87
.75
.79
.73
.71

$0.51
.49
.47
.53
.48
.53
.53
.49
.50
.56
.51
.50
.51
.49
.45
.47
.46
.53
.51
.55
.56

July 21, 6 ships___ 4,956
July 31,8 ships___ 7,283
Aug. 7, 6 ships....... 5,787
Aug. 14, 6 ships___ 5,560
Aug. 21, 6 ships___ 5,756
8,713
Aug. 31,9 ships—
Sept. 7, 6 ships___ 6,487
Sept. 14, 6 ships. __ 6,006
Sept. 21, 6 ships. __ 7,841
Sept. 30,8 ships.
99,927
Oct. 7,6 ships____ 7,134
Oct. 14, 6 ships___ 6,162
Oct. 21, 6 ships___ 6,984
Oct. 31,8 ships___ 9,891
5,979
Nov. 7,6 ships___
Nov. 14, 6 ships.._ 4,932
Nov. 21, 6 ships. __ 6,147
Nov. 30,8 ships_
_ 6,453
Dec. 7, 6 ships____ 6,314
Dec. 14, 6 ships----- 5,288
Dec. 31, 8 ships----- 6,129

6,717.0
9,386.6
7,086.3
6,782.0
6,590.2
10,157.6
7,787.0
7,519.0
9,930.0
11,758.0
8,846.0
7,051.0
8,425.0
13,050.0
7,755.0
6,390.8
7,387.0
7,743.6
7,602.5
6,199.0
7,690.2

0.74
.78
.82
.82
.87
.86
.83
.80
.79
.84
.81
.88
.83
.76
.77
.77
.83
.83
.83
.85
.80

$0.54
.51
.49
.49
.46
.47
.48
.50
.51
.48
.49
.45
.48
.53
.52
.52
.48
.48
.48
.47
.50

Loading cargo
L in e

No. 212

Weeks with average efficiency

Total, 268 ships.... 195,482 159,739.0

1.22

$0.33

L ine No. 212—Con.
Feb. 28, 5 ships___

Weeks with maxim um efficiency

Jan. 7, 5 ships.......

Total....... .
Dec. 31, 5 ships..

Total.

505
396
904
634
1,176
3,615

373.0
306.0
698.0
361.0
716.0
2,454.0

1.35
1.29
1.29
1.75
1.64
1.47

$0.30
.31
.31
; 23
.24
.27

Oct. 21, 7 ships___

922
535
58
686
547
2,748

714.0
337.0
44.0
465.0
356.0
1,916.0

1.20
1.58
1.32
1.47
1.54
1.43

.31
.25
.30
.27
.26
.28

Total............

Weeks with m inim u m efficiency

July 21, 5 ships___

Total....... .
June 30, 6 ships..

Total..

889
663
419
858
564
3,393
499
1,123
544
963
525
648
4,302




929.0
622.0
373.0
723.0
482.0
3,129.0
50210
955.0
453.0
913.0
459.0
644.0
3,926.0

0.96
1.06
1.12
1.19
1.17
1.08
.99
1.11
1.20
1.04
1.15
1.00
1.10

i Short tons.

$0.42
.38
.36
.34
.34
.37
.40
.36
.33
.38
.35
.40
.36

Total............

1,134
623
1,290
688
905
4,640

923.0
511.0
1,011.0
551.0
827.0
3,823.0

1.23
1.22
1.28
1.25
1.10
1.21

$0.33
.33
.31
.32
.36
.33

1,247
748
738
759
658
513
1,016
5,679

1,049.0
558.0
672.0
404.0
591.0
418.0
917.0
4,609.0

1.19
1.34
1.10
1.87
1.12
1.23
1.11
1.23

.34
.30
.37
.21
.36
.33
.36
.33

A l l other weeks

Jan. 14, 5 ships----Jan. 21, 5 ships----Jan. 31, 6 ships___
Feb. 7, 6 ships.......
Feb. 14, 4 ships----Feb. 21, 5 ships----Mar. 7, 5 ships
Mar. 14, 5 ships___
Mar. 21, 5 ships___
Mar. 31, 7 ships. .1.
Apr. 7, 5 ships-----Apr. 14, 6 ships___
Apr. 21, 5 ships . . .
Apr. 30, 6 ships___
May 7, 5 ships . . .
May 14, 5 ships___
May 21, 5 ships___
May 31,7 ships___

3,801
3,756
5,265
5,173
3,421
3,757
3,917
4,636
4,919
5,259
3,917
4,816
3,868
4,748
3,465
3,643
3,811
4,877

aNorfolk.

2,939.0
2,848.0
3,966.0
3,964.0
2,740.0
3,264.0
3,315.0
3,878.0
4,127.0
4,101.0
3,066.0
3,651.0
3,088.0
3,779.0
3,027.0
3,106.0
3,194.0
4,353.0

1.29
1.32
1.33
1.30
1.25
1.15
1.18
1.20
1.19
1.28
1.28
1.32
1.25
1.26
1.14
1.17
1.19
1.12

$0.31
.30
.30
.31
.32
.35
.34
.33
.34
.31
.31
.30
.32
.32
.35
.34
.34
.36

332

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 64,—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLING CARGO IN

COASTWISE TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued

Week ending-

L in e N o . 212 Con.
—

June 7, 5 ships.
June 14, 5 ships___
June 21, 5 ships___
July 7, 5 ships.......
July 14, 5 ships—
July 31, 7 ships—
Aug. 7, 5 ships.......
_
Aug. 14, 5 ships_
Aug. 21, 5 ships___
Aug. 31, 8 ships___
Sept. 7, 5 ships___
Sept. 14, 5 ships...
Sept. 21, 5 ships...
Sept. 30, 7 ships...
Oct. 7,4 ships____
Oct. 14, 4 ships___
Oct. 31, 7 ships___
Nov. 7, 4 ships___
Nov. 14, 5 ships....
Nov. 21, 5 ships__
Nov. 30, 7 ships....
Dec. 7, 5 ships____
Dec. 14, 5 ships___
Dec. 21, 5 ships___

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons!)

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

La­
bor
cost
per
rev­
enue
to n 1

A l l other weeks— Continued

3,739
3,908
3,853
3,519
3,406
5,521
3,739
3,948
3,707
5,775
3,843
3,613
3,802
5,748
3,036
2,765
5,417
2,661
3, 625
3,341
4,582
3,344
3,609
3,555

3,144.0
3,440.0
3,349.0
3,153.0
3,055.0
4,872.0
3,341.0
3,079.0
3,130.0
5,005.0
3,273.0
2,812.0
2,924.0
4,864.0
2, 278.0
2,122.0
4,149.0
2, 308.0
2,926.0
2,819. 0
3,612.0
2,456.0
2,544.0
2,821.0

1.19 $0.34
1.14
.35
.35
1.15
.36
1.12
.36
1.11
.35
1.13
.36
1.12
.31
1.28
.34
1.18
.35
1.15
.34
1.17
.31
1.28
.31
1.30
.34
1.18
1.33
.30
.31
1.30
.31
1.31
1.15
.35
1.24
.32
1.19
.34
1.27
.31
1.36
.29
1.42
.28
1.26
.32

L in e N o . 22*

Total, 306 ships— . 231, 111 221,936.8

1.04

$0.38

Weeks with m aximum efficiency

June 7, 6 ships.

913
523
616
629
1,128
804

803.8
482.0
563.0
575.3
1,006.5
725.1

Total___

4,613

4,155.7

1.11

.36

Apr. 7, 5 ships..

679
1,110
668
918
905

613.5
972.0
634.6
845.8
833.6

1.11
1.14
1.05
1.09
1.09

.36
.35
.38
.37
.37

4,280

3,899.5

1.10

.36

TotaL.

1.14
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.13
1.11

$0.35
.37
.37
.37
.35
.36

Weeks with m inim u m efficiency

1,598
1,175
1,051
1,149
1,400
1,433
1,332
919

1,713.3
1,290.8
966.1
1,254.3
1,371.3
1,473.3
1,443.5
991.3

Total___

10,057

10,503.9

.96

.42

Aug. 7, 6 ships..

817
712
589
573
600
674

921.1
723.3
531.0
635.8
586.3
729.0

.89
.98
1.11
.90
1.02
.92

.45
.41
.36
.44
.39
.43

3,965

4,126.5

.96

Week ending—

L in e No. 222
—Con.

Mar. 14, 5 ships___

Total______

Cargo
ton­
nage
(rev­
enue
tons i)

TotaL.




.93 $0.43
.91
.44
1.09
.37
.92
.43
1.02
.39
.41
.97
.92
.43
.93
.43

* Short tons.

La­
bor
cost
per
rev­
enue
ton 1

Weeks with average efficiency

856
864
983
1,026
1,144

806.8
781.6
1,006.6
1,022.1
1,070.8

1.06
1.11
.98
1.00
1.51

$0.38
.36
.41
.40
.37

4,873

4,687.9

1.04

.38

Aug. 31,9 ships___

718
683
578
560
510
743
1,009
621
695

780.3
678.5
599.0
585.0
516.0
723.0
794.0
641.0
595.0

.92
1.01
.97
.93
.99
1.03
1.27
.97
1.17

.43
.40
.41
.43
.40
.39
.31
.41
.34

Total............

6,117

5,911.8

1.04

.38

A l l other weeks

Jan. 7, 5 ships........
Jan. 14, 6 ships___
Jan. 21, 6 ships___
Jan. 31,8 ships___
Feb. 7, 6 ships.......
Feb. 14, 6 ships___
Feb. 21, 6 ships___
Feb. 28, 3 ships___
Mar. 7,6 ships
Mar. 21,6 ships___
Mar. 31,9 ships___
Apr. 14,6 ships___
Apr. 21,6 ships___
Apr. 30,8 ships___
May 7,6 ships____
May 14,6 ships___
May 21,6 ships___
May 31,8 ships___
June 14,6 ships___
June 21,6 ships___
July 7,6 ships____
July 14,6 ships___
July 21,6 ships___
July 31,8 ships___
Aug. 14, 6 ships___
Aug. 21,6 ships___
Sept. 7,6 ships___
Sept. 14,6 ships___
Sept. 21,6 ships___
Sept. 30,8 ships___
Oct. 7,6 ships____
Oct. 14,6 ships___
Oct. 21,6 ships___
Oct. 31,8 ships___
Nov. 7,6 ships
Nov. 14,6 ships___
Nov. 21,6 ships___
Nov. 30,8 ships___
Dec. 7,6 ships.......
Dec. 14,6 ships___
Dec. 21,6 ships___
Dec. 31,8 ships___

4,239
4,069
3,942
4,766
4,122
3,869
4,089
2,811
4,098
4,543
6,854
4,421
3,873
5,042
4,489
4,062
4,628
5,753
6,796
8,266
7,126
6,215
5,131
5,376
4,106
3,932
4,145
3,731
4,251
4,943
4,426
4,595
4,102
6,765
4,634
3,920
3,780
5,060
4,393
3,800
3,588
4,455

.42

June 30,8 ships..

Manhours

Out­
put
per
manhour
(rev­
enue
tons1
)

3Norfolk

3,876.3
3,806.5
3,687.3
4,489.3
3,795.0
3,583.2
3,870.5
2,890.4
3,881.9
4,442.6
6,394.1
4,503.0
3,696.7
4,767.5
4,241.5
3,823.0
4,267.9
5,340.1
6,299.6
7,719.7
6,707.2
6,152.2
5,142.7
5,386.8
4,037.0
3,943.7
4,055.0
3,587.7
4,260.6
4,714.8
4,152.3
4,350.1
3,917.9
6,665.6
4,504.0
3,756.2
3,644.3
4,832.7
4,030.3
3,638.4
3,412.0
4,383.4

1.09 $0.37
1.07
.37
1.07
.37
1.06
.38
1.09
.37
1.08
.37
1.06
.38
.41
.97
1.06
.38
1.02
.39
1.07
.37
.41
.98
1.05
.38
1.06
.38
1.06
.38
1.06
.38
1.08
.37
1.08
.37
1.08
.37
1.07
.37
1.06
.38
1.01
.40
1.00
.40
1.00
.40
1.02
.39
1.00
.40
1.02
.39
1.04
.38
1.00
.40
1.05
.38
1.07
.37
1.06
.38
1.05
.38
1.01
.40
1.03
.39*
1.04
.38
1.04
.38
1.05
.37
1.09
.38
1.04
.38
1.05
.38
1.02
.39

333

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)
T a b le

6 5 .-P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G IN DIVIDUAL
COM M ODITIES

Discharging cargo

Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation

B

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per
labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
tons gang tons
tons ton
ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

urlap

Line No. 23: *
Total, 7 ships—

2)432

2,432

111.0

21.9

21.9

21.4

1.02

1.02 $0.78

$0.78

157
476
478
319
329

No. 1 (Febru­
ary)...............
No. 2 (M a y )...
No. 3 (June)...
No. 4 (July)— _
No. 5 (August).
No. 6 (Septem­
ber)................
No. 7 (Decem­
ber)................

157
476
478
319
329

8.0
20.0
23.0
12.5
14.0

19.6
23.8
20.8
25.5
23.5

19.6
23.8
20.8
25.5
23.5

23.0
22.0
20.0
21.0
23.0

.85
1.08
1.04
1.22
1.02

.85
1.08
1.04
1.22
1.02

.94
.74
.77
.66
.78

.94
.74
.77
.66
.78

338

338

15.5

21.8

21.8

21.0

1.04

1.04

.77

.77

335

335

18.0

18.6

18.6

21.0

.89

.89

.90

.90

31,479

31,479

1,099.5

28.6

28.6

14.4

1.99

1.99

.40

.40

3.10
2.55

3.10 $0.26
.31
2.55

$0.26
.31

$0.56

M anganese Ore
Line No. 24:2
Total, 10 ships..

S hips with m aximum efficiency

No. l (August).
No. 2 (April) ~

1,210
4,950

1,210
4,950

30.0
109.0

40.3
45.4

40.3
45.4

13.0
17.8

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (Septem­
ber)...............
No. 4 (Octo­
ber)________

1,971

1,971

92.0

21.4

21.4

15.0

1.43

1.43 $0.56

4,088

4,088

179.0

22.8

22.8

14.8

1.54

1.54

.52

.52

$0.42

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Novem­
ber)------------No. 6 (Decem­
ber)..............
N

e w s p r in t

1,991

1,991

79.5

25.0

25.0

13.1

1.91

1.91 $0.42

2,482

2,482

98.5

25.2

25.2

13.0

1.94

1.94

18,043

320,211

720.5

25.0

328.1

19.3

1.29

.41

.41

P aper

Line No. 25:
Total, 11 ships..

31.45 $0.62 3$0.55

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (Octo­
ber) *___.......
No. 2 (Novem­
ber) *_______

2,640

3 2,957

85.5

30.9

3 34.6

19.1

1.62 3 1.81 $0.49 3$0.44

2,461

3 2,756

88.5

27.8

3 31.1

19.2

1.45 3 1.62

.55

3
.49

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (Au­
gust) 2
........ .
No. 4 (Au­
gust) *...........

»1 .10 $0.82 3$0.73

838

3 939

40.5

20.7

3 23.2

21.0

0.98

1,930

3 1,045

46.5

20.1

3 22.5

19.3

1.04 3 1.17

1 Norfolk and Newport News.
2 Norfolk.




3 Short tons.
* Newport News.

.77

3.68

334

GEN ERAL TABLES

T a b le 65.—PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N D L IN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Commodity, ship
number, ana date
of operation

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Ships with average efficiency

e w s p r in t P a­
p e r — C on tin u ed
C

N

it r a t e o f

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

N

Line No. 25—Con.
No. 5 (Septem­
ber) 4_______
No. 6 (Janu­
ary) 4_______

Average
Aver­ Output per
labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
ton
tons gang tons
ton
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

1 ,6 4 6

67.0

24.6

327.5

19.2

1 .2 8

3 1.43 $0.63 3$0.56

2 9 .5

3 1 ,8 4 3

708

24.0

3 26.9

1 8 .0

1 .3 3

31.49

2,693.0

24.6

24.6

38.0

.60

3
.54

0.65

0.65 $1.23

$1.23

0.97
.83

0.97 $0.82
.83
.96

$0.82
.96

0.39
.45

0.39 $2.05
.45 1.78

$2.05
1.78

So d a

Line No. 26:2
Total, 18 ships.

66,200

66,200

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (Febru­
ary) ________
No. 2 (April)_

1,323
10.009

1,323
10.009

36.0
318.0

36.8
31.5

38.8
31.5

38.0
38.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March)
No. 4 (M a y ).—’

2,308
1,077

2,308
1,077

156.0
63.0

14.8
17.1

14.8
17.1

38.0
38.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Febru­
ary)..............
No. 6 (April)-

1,007
7,703

1,007
7,703

40.0
296.0

25.2
26.0

25.2
26.0

38.0
38.0

0.66
.68

0.66 $1.21
.68 1.18

$1.21
1.18

8,004

8,004

243.5

32.9

32.9

16.0

2.05

2.05 $0.39

$0.39

2.44
2.41

2.44 $0.33
2.41
.33

$0.33
.33

$0.48

Sulph ur

Line No. 27:2
Total, 8 ships...

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (April)..
No. 2 (April)-.

2,207
695

2,207
695

55.5
18.0

39.1
38.6

39.1
38.6

16.0
16.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (Janu­
ary)....... ........
No. 4 (Febru­
ary)— ...........

1,252

1,252

41.5

30.2

30.2

18.0

1.68

1.68 $0.48

708

708

23.5

30.1

30.1

17.0

1.77

1.77

.45

.45

1.92
2.07

1.92 $0.42
2.07
.39

$0.42
.39

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Octo­
ber)...............
No. 6 (June)-..




2

Norfolk.

964
916

964
916

33.5
29.5

3 Short tons.

28.8
31.1

28.8
31.1

15.0
15.0
4

Newport News.

335

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)
T a b le

65 .~ P R O D U C T IV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL
COM M ODITIES—Continued

Discharging cargo— Continued

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per
labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­
Reve­
per
nue
nue Long nue
ton
tons gang tons
tons
ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation

Revenue
tons

Long
tons

W oo d P u lp

Line No. 28:1
Total, 12 ships.

14,008

14,008

420.5

33.3

33.3

24.5

J. 36

1.36 $0.59

$0.59

1.80
1.68

1.80 $0.44
1.68
.48

$0.44
.48

0.96
1.02

0.96 $0.83
1.02
.78

$0.83
.78

1.39 $0.58
1.40
.57

$0.58
.57

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (MarchApril)______
No. 2 (January).

757
1,397

757
1,397

17.5
32.0

43.3
43.7

43.3
43.7

24.0
26.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 ( Decem­
ber)................
No. 4 (June)...

1,100
400

1,100
400

46.0
14.0

23.9
28.6

23.9
28.6

25.0
28.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (July)___
No. 6 (July)— .

260
2,165

260
2,165

7.5
67.0

34.7
32.3

34.7
32.3

25.0
23.0

1.39
1.40

0.82 *0.45 $0.98 * $1.78

Loading cargo
L u m ber

Line No. 29: 2
Total, 8 ships. _
No. 1 (M ay)—
No. 2 (June)...
No. 3 (July).—
No. 4 (August).
No. 5 (Sep­
tember)_____
No. 6 (October)
No. 7 (Novem­
ber)...............
No. 8 (Decem­
ber)....... ........

7,265 *4,026.0

403.0

18.0

*10.0

22.0

1,357
830
876
512

*754.2
*461.6
* 486.6
* 273.4

66.5
43.5
50.0
24.0

20.4
19.1
17.5
21.3

* 11.3
* 10.6
*9.7
* 11.4

22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0

.93
.87
.80
.97

*.52
*.48
*.44
6.52

.86
.92
1.00
.82

716
839

* 397.7
*466.2

43.5
48.5

16.5
17.3

*9.1
*9.6

22.0
22.0

.75
.79

*.42
*.44

1.07 5 1.90
1.01 * 1.82

5 1.54
51.67
51.82
6 1.54

1,015

*563.8

53.5

19.0

*10.5

22.0

.86

*.48

1,120

* 622.5

73.5

15.2

*8.5

22.0

.69

*.39

7,124

7,124

271.5

26.2

26.2

26.0

1.01

1.01 $0.79

$0.79

1.11
1.11

1.11 $0.72
1.11
.72

$0.72
.72

0.85
.86

0.85 $0.94
.86
.93

$0.94
.93

.93

51.67

1.16 5 2.08

P o t a to e s

Line No. 30: 2
Total, 10 ships.

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June)...
No. 2 (August).

747
723

747
723

27.0
25.0

27.7
28.9

27.7
28.9

25.0
26.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August).
No. 4 (J u ly )-..

723
723

723
723

1 Norfolk and Newport News.




34.0
31.0

21.3
23.3
2 Norfolk.

21.3
23.3

25.0
27.0

*1,000 board feet.

336

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 6 5 . - PR O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN HANDLING INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—
-Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Ships with average efficiency

P o t a t o e s —Con.

Line No 30 2
—Con.
No. 5 (July)___
No. 6 (July)___

Average
Aver­ Output per
labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
ton
ton
tons gang tons
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

434
721

434
721

16.5
28.0

26.3
25.8

26.3
25.8

26.0
26.0

1.01
.99

1.01 $0.79
.81
.99

$0.79
.81

7,112

7,112

271.0

26.2

26.2

25.7

1.02

1.02 $0.78

$0.78

1.16
1.14

1.16 $0.69
1.14
.70

$0.69
.70

0.75
.94

0.75 $1.07
.94
.85

$1.07
.85

S ta r c h

Line No. 31:4
Total, 8 ships..

S kips with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December).............
No. 2 (June). . .

1,195
721

1,195
721

39.0
23.5

30.6
30.7

30.6
30.7

26.5
27.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March).
No. 4 (M a y )...

204
1,050

204
1,050

12.0
46.5

17.0
22.6

17.0
22.6

22.8
24.0

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (August).
No. 6 (March).

234
1,303

234
1,303

8.5
50.5

27.5
25.8

27.5
25.8

27.0
25.5

1.02
1.01

1.02 $0.78
1.01
.79

$0.78
.79

20,736

20,736

667.0

31.1

31.1

14.8

2.10

2.10 $0.38

$0.38

2.64
2.58

2.64 $0.30
2.58
.31

$0.30
.31

1.85
1.86

1.85 $0.43
.43
1.86

$0.43
.43

2.11
2.13

2.11 $0.38
2.13
.38

$0.38
.38

St e e l B ille ts 6

Line No. 32: *
Total, 17 ships.

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (Septem­
ber)...............
No. 2 (August).

1,011
1,025

1,011
1,025

25.5
26.5

39.7
38.7

39.7
38.7

15.0
15.0

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (March).
No. 4 (April)__

1,844
8*3

1,844
843

68.0
29.0

27.1
29.1

27.1
29.1

14.7
15.6

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (MayJune)............
No.6(October).
2 Norfolk.




1,682
827

1,682
827

54.5
25.0

Newport News.

30.9
33.1

30.9
33.1

14.6
15.5

6 From cars to ship.

337

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 65.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G IN DIVIDU AL

COM M ODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued

Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Average
Aver­ Output per
labor cost
man-hour
age
per—
num­
ber of
Reve­ men Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
ton
tons gang tons
tons
ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

T obacco

Line No. 33: i
Total, 9 ships..

3,617

3,617

120.0

30.1

30.1

24.0

1.25

1.25 $0.64

$0.64

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (Au­
gust)..............
No. 2 (M ay)-_

347
253

7702
7520

10.0
7.0

34.7
36.1

7 70.2
7 74.3

23.0
24.0

1. 51 7 3.00 $0.53 7$0. 27
1. 51 7 3.10
.53 7.26

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

No. 3 (Feb­
ruary)______
No. 4 (Octo­
ber)________

376

7721

15.5

24.3

746.5

28.0

0.87

566

566

23.5

24.1

24.1

22.0

1.09

7 1.70 $0.92 7$0.47
1.09

.73

.73

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Sep­
tember)_____
N o .6 (March).

223
746

7460
71,473

8.0
20.5

24,658

8923,857

27.9
36.4

7 57.5
7 71.9

23.0
26.0

1 3,299.0
0

1.21 7 2.50 $0.66 7$0. 32
1.40 72.80
.57 7 .29

G r a in 8

Line No. 34:2
Total, 14 ships .

7.47 #280. 00 $0.11 11$2.86

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (Au­
gust)....... —
No. 2 (Au­
gust) _______

1,714

*64.000

10106.0

1,071

•40,000

1086. 0

16.17 9604.00 $0.05 11$1.33
12.45 9465.00

.06 111.70

Ships with m inim u m efficiency

1,071
2,143

No. 3 (June)...
No. 4 (March).

940,000
980,000

3.30 9123.00 $0.24 11$6. 50
4.07 9152.00
.20 115.26

1 325.0
0
1 526.0
0
Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (Au­
gust)..............
No. 6 (Octo­
ber)....... ........

1,071

940.000;

1,500

956,000

10U2.0
10184.0

7.54 9282.00 $0.11 11 $2.84
8.15 9304.00

.10 11 2.63

C oal

Line No. 35:1
2
Total................ 6,957,057 6,957,057 10178,838.0

38.90

38.90

1 24,728.0
0
1017.219.0
1017.818.0
1014.786.0
1013.590.0
1012.506.0

34. 33
41.86
40.61
35.58
35.64
39.61

34.33
41.86
40.61
35.58
35.64
39.61

January______
February.- _
March________
April_________
May
June_________

848,865
720,718
723,501
526,034
484,352
495,409

848,865
720,718
723,501
526,034
484,352
495,409

’ Norfolk and Newport News.
2Norfolk.
7Hogsheads.




8Trimming only.
9Bushels.
m Man-hours.

1 Per 1,000 bushels.
1
i2Norfolk: Pier operations only.

338

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 65.-—
PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued
Average
Aver- Output per
labor cost
num- man-hour
per—
ber of
men
Reve­ man Long Reve­ Long Reve­
per
nue
nue
nue
gang tons tons ton
Ions
ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage
Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Long
tons

C oal—Continued
Line No. 35.1—Con.
2
July..................
August..............
September.......
October_______
November____
December_____

524.893
555,849
552,127
510,508
504,907
509.894

524,893
555,849
552,127
510,508
504,907
509 894

1013.348.0
1012.783.0
1013.155.0
1012.768.0
1012.516.0
1013.621.0

39.32
43.48
41.97
39.98
40.34
37.43

Line No. 36:«
Total................. 7,203,997 7,203,997 “ 103,777.0

39.32
43.48
41.97
39.98
40.34
37.43

37.18

37.18

January...........
February..........
March..............
April............
M ay.................
June_________
July..................
August..............
September____
October............
November____
December_____

649,615
620,192
713,228
585,922
602,259
553,936
594.359
559.298
557,907
651.360
531,623
584.298

649,615
620,192
713,228
585,922
602,259
553,936
594.359
559.298
557,907
651.360
531,623
584.298

1024.806.0
1018.463.0
1020.665.0
1015.983.0
1014.847.0
1014.477.0
1014.988.0
1014.282.0
1013.032.0
1015.309.0 ............ ............ .........
1012.085.0
1014.840.0

26.19
33.59
34.51
36.66
40.56
38.26
39.66
39.16
42.81
42.55
43.99
39.37

26.19
33.59
34.51
36.66
40.56
38.26
39.66
39.16
42.81
42.55
43.99
39.37

Line No. 37:i
T o t a l...______

540,901

540,901

1 18,086.0
0

29.91

29.91

January______
February_____
March________
April_________
M ay_________
June_________
J u ly _________
August_______
September____
October_______
November____
December_____

63,830
32,807
103,879
33,199
33,541
29,182
31,908
63,309
21,523
48,479
38,223
41,021

63,830
32,807
103,879
33,199
33,541
29,182
31,908
63,309
21,523
48,479
38,223
41,021

W3,544.0
101.551.0
103.906.0
101.388.0
101.127.0
10 883.0
10701.0
101.307.0
10469.0
101.074.0
10966.0
101, 17a 0

18.01
21.15
26.59
23.92
29.76
33.05
45.52
48.44
45.89
45.14
39.57
35.06

18.01
21.15
26.59
23.92
29.76
33.05
45.52
48.44
45.89
45.14
39.57
35.06

28.41

28.41

26.43
25.57
28.92
28.31
26.46
29.18
32.05
29.29
32.12
26.62
28.35
29.69

26.43
25.57
28.92
28.31
26.46
29.18
32.05
29.29
32.12
26.62
28.35
29.69

491,344
418,058
479,738
471,235
404,223
380,861
404,184
385,072
408,019
335,696
312,718
331,448

491,344
418,058
479,738
471,235
404,223
380,861
404,184
385,072
408,019
335,696
312,718
331,448

Line No. 39: h
T otal—
Cargo_____ 1,568,757 1,568,757
B u n k e r ___
155,349
155,349
January—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
February—
Cargo_____
Bunker___

95,567
13,488

95,567
13,488

115,839
9,184

115,839
9,184

|

o o o o o o o o o o o o

Jfl.nnfl.ry______
February_____
March________
April_________
M ay_________
June__ _______
July..................
August_______
September____
October............
November____
December_____

s s s s s s s s s s s s

Line No. 38:12
Total_________ 4,822,596 4,822,596 10169,771.0

1,207.6 1,299.1 1,299.1
859.4
180.8
180.8
95.8
81.1

3.7 348.80 348.80
32.9
5.50
5.50

998.0
166.3

3.8 265.60 265.60
35.3
4.72
4.72

85.4 1,357.2 1,357.2
65.5
140.2
140.2

3.5 287.40 287.40
34.7
4.04
4.04

998.0
166.3

i Norfolk and Newport News.
“ Man-hours.
12 Norfolk: Pier operations.
13Newport News: Pier operations.
14Norfolk: Trimming—Cargo, with automatic trimmers; bunker, by hand.




______ _

339

NORFOLK AND NEWPORT NEWS (1927)

T a b l e 6 5 .—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G INDIVIDUAL

COM M O DITIES—Continued

Loading cargo—Continued

Commodity, ship
number, and date
of operation
Long
tons

Average
Output per
labor cost
Aver- man-hour
per—
numberof
men
Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue gang tons
nue
nue
tons
tons ton
ton

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Long
tons

Revenue
tons

C oal—Continued
Line No. 39 w—Con.
March—
Cargo_____
B lin k er

April—
Cargo_____
B lin k er

May—
Cargo_____
B u n k er

June—
Cargo_____
Bunker.,

July—
Cargo_____
B u n k er

August—
Cargo_____
B u n k er

September—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
October—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
November—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
December—
Cargo_____
Bunker___

134,907
11,405

134,907
11,405

124.4 1,084.2 1,084.2
207.7
207.7
54.9

3.5 307.90 307.90
38.8
5.35
5.35

143,204
11,164

143,204
11,164

103.3 1,386.6 1,386.6
277.4
277.4
40.3

3.9 357.10 357.10
39.9
6.95
6.95

139,253
13,747

139,253
13,747

119.4 1,165.9 1,165.9
194.5
194.5
70.7

3.6 322.40 322.40
33.3
5.84
5.84

148,615
15,184

148,615
15,184

104.0 1,428.6 1,428.6
235.1
235.1
64.6

3.9 364.80 364.80
31.5
7.45
7.45

137,424
18,667

137,424
18,667

98.5 1,395.9 1,395.9
166.3
166.3
112.2

3.7 374.20 374.20
5.28
3L5
5.28

126,054
12,666

126,054
12,666

101.9 1,237.5 1,237.5
220.3
220.3
57.5

3.8 324.80 324.80
6.85
32.2
6.85

118,663
7,933

118,663
7,933

73.7 3,610.5 1,610.5
41.8
190.0
190.0

3.9 412.60 412.60
33.5
5.67
5.67

148,559
16,099

148,559
16,099

99.2 1,497.9 1,497.9
198.1
81.3
198.1

3.8 398.10 398.10
31.5
6.28
6.28

116,332
11,018

116,332
11,018

94.6 1,229.6 1,229.6
108.7
101.3
108.7

3.6 342.60 342.60
3.85
28.3
3.85

144,340
14,794

144,340
14,794

107.5 1,342.3 1,342.3
167.5
88.3
167.5

3.8 356.80 356.80
5.31
31.5
5.31

Line No. 40:1
6
Total—
Cargo_____ 1,914,045 1,914,045
241,984
Bunker___
241,984
January—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
February—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
March—
Cargo....... .
Bunker___
April—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
May—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
June—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
July—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
August—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
September—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
October—
Cargo.........
Bunker___

2,698.0
2,150.5

709.4
112.5

709.4
112.5

45.0
45.0

15.76
2.50

15.76
2.50

165,750
20,109

165,750
20,109

319.0
178.5

519.6
112.7

519.6
112.7

45.0
45.0

11.55
2.50

11.55
2.50

190,730
15,210

190,730
15,210

291.0
136.0

655.4
111.8

655.4
111.8

45.0
45.0

14.56
2.48

14.56
2.48

176,848
21,546

176,848
21,546

331.0
191.5

534.3
112.5

534.3
112.5

45.0
45.0

11.87
2.50

11.87
2.50

165,191
25,134

165,191
25,134

256.0
£33.5

645.3
107.6

645.3
107.6

45.0
45.0

14.34
2.39

14.34
2.39

117,681
16,302

117,681
16,302

154.0
173.5

764.2
94.0

764.2
94.0

45.0
45.0

16.98
2.09

16.98
2.09

123,771
17,357

123,771
17,357

141.5
157.5

874.7
110.2

874.7
110.2

45.0
45.0

19.44
2.45

19.44
2.45

155,856
20,460

155,856
20,460

189.5
169.0

822.5
121.1

822.5
121.1

45.0
45.0

18.28
2.69

18.28
2.69

174,230
20,225

174,230
20,225

222.5
202.5

783.1
99.9

783.1
99.9

45.0
45.0

17.40
2.22

17.40
2.22

159,648
18,637

159,648
18,637

203.0
180.0

786.4
103.5

786.4
103.5

45.0
45.0

17.48
2.30

17.48
2.30

187,186
18,943

187,186
18,943

205.5
128.0

910.9
148.0

910.9
148.0

45.0 20.24
3.29
45.0
1 Norfolk: Trimming—Cargo, with automatic trimmers; bunker by hand,
4
is Norfolk: Trimming, by hand.

20.24
3.29




340

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 65.—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G INDIVIDUAL

COMMODITIES—Continued

Loading cargo— Continued

Commodity, ship
number, ana date
of operation

Gang-hours
Long
tons

Average
Output per
labor cost
Aver- man-hour
per—
numberof
men
Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue gang tons
tons ton
ton
tons

Output per
gang-hour

Cargo tonnage

Long
tons

Revenue

tons

C oal—Continued
Line No.401 —Con.
5
November—
Cargo.
Bunker___
December—
Cargo.........
Bunker___

24,093

201.0
178.0

813.9
135.4

813.9
135.4

45.0
45.0

18.09
3.01

18.09
3.01

133,561
23,968

184.0
222.5

725.9
107.7

725.9
107.7

45.0
45.0

16.13

16.13
2.39

Line No. 41: w
Total—
Cargo......... 2,028, 799 2,028,799
Bunker___
232,305
232,305

3,425.3
2,359.5

592.3
98.4

592.3
98.4

38.0
38.0

15.59
2.59

15.59

374.3
263.0

465.1
92.8

465.1
92.8

38.0
38.0

12.24
2.44

12.24
2.44

469.5
100.3

469.5
100.3

38.0
38.0

12.36
2.64

12.36
2.64

January—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
February—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
March—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
April—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
May—
Cargo------Bunker----June—
Cargo------Bunker___
July—
Cargo------Bunker----August—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
September—
Cargo_____
Bunker___
October—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
November—
Cargo.........
Bunker----December—
Cargo.........
Bunker___
Line No. 42:«
Total................
January............
February_____
March..............
April.................
M ay.................
June.............. —
July..................
August...........
September........
October.......
November..
December. __

163,593
133,561
23,968

174,105
24,394

174,105
24,394

173,375
17,005

173,375
17,005

193,923
18,246

193,923
18,246

373.9
189.7

518.
96.21

518.6
96.2

38.0
38.0

13.65
2.53

13.65

156,717
20,486

156,717
20,486

284.8
203.3

550.3

100.8

550.3
100.8

38.0
38.0

14.48
2.65

14.48
2.65

188,388
19,626

188,388
19,626

262.1
193.5

718.8
101.4

718.8
101.4

38.0
38.0

18.92
2.67

18.92
2.67

138,454
20,150

138,454
20,150

183.0
169.7

756.
118.7

756.6
118.7

38.0
38.0

19.91
3.12

19.91
3.12

166,472
22,052

166,472
22,052

359.6
283.0

462.9
77.9

462.9
77.9

38.0
38.0

12.18
2.05

12.18
2.05

156,187
16,478

156,187
16,478

314.0
176.3

497.4
93.5

497.4
93.5

38.0
38.0

13.09
2.46

13.09
2.46

159,206
14,561

159,206
14,561

196.8
143.1

809.0
101.8

809.0

38.0
38.0

21.29

21.29

101.8

179,338
20,298

179,338
20,298

251.2
195.1

713.
104.0

713.9
104.0

38.0
38.0

18.79
2.74

18.79
2.74

16,816

160,809
16,816

194.5
166.3

101.1

826.8
101.1

38.0
38.0

21.76

21.76

181,825
22,193

181,825
22,193

261.8
206.9

107.3

38.0
38.0

18.28
2.82

18.28
2.82

311,314

311,314

853.2

364.9

364.9

33.7

10.83

10.83

35,678
22,814
58,582
24,141
29,745

35,678
22,814
58,582
24,141
29,745
24,376
22,713
31,863
18,963
28,879
12,518
1,042

129.9
76.2
131.4
71.1
79.3
69.8
50.3
89.3
38.8
58.2j
46.3!
12.5

274.6
299.5
445.8
339.
374.
349.0
451.2
356.6
489.4
496.5
270.1
83.4

274.6
299.5
445.8
339.6
374.9
349.0
451.2
356.6
489.4
496.5
270.1
83.4

35.6
32.5
34.6
35.0
35.3
36.3
30.9
32.1
29.0
32.3
31.4

7.72
9.20
12.89
9.71
10.62
9.61
14.60

7.72
9.20
12.89
9.71
10.62
9.61
14.60
11.10
16.90
15.39
8.60
2.58

22,713
31,863
18,963
28,879
12,518
1,042

1 Norfolk: Trimming, by hand.
5




107.3

2.68

2.

11.10

16.90
15.39
8.60
2.58

2.66

U Newport News: Trimming, by hand.

Baltimore (1927)
T a b le 66.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO, B Y

KIN D OF T R A D E A N D INDIVIDU AL COM MODITIES

Output per gang- Aver­
hour
age
num ­
ber of
men
Long Revenue per
tons
gang
tons

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number,
and commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

Revenue
tons

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Foreign trade *

Discharging cargo:
Europe—
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
Loading cargo:
Europe—
No. 5..........
No. 6_........
No. 7
No. 8
Orient—
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11

40,531
19,408
22,233
18,649

40,800
19,408
22,233
18,649

1,335.0
731.5
949.0
1,129.5

30.4
26.5
23.4
16.5

30.6
26.5
23.4
16.5

20.8
21.6
20.0
19.7

1.47
1.23
1.17
.84

1.47 $0.58 $0.58
1.23
.69
.69
1.17
.73
.73
.84 1.01 1.01

12,522
13,324
29,473
13,742

12,522
13,324
29,473
13,765

451.5
551.5
1,459.0
695.5

27.7
24.2
20.2
19.8

27.7
24.2
20.2
19.8

20.8
19.5
18.2
21.3

1.34
1.24
1.11
.93

1.34
1.24
1.11
.93

.63
.69
.77
.91

.63
.69
.77
.91

45,621
50,514
10,002

45,621
50,514
10,002

1,765.5
2,158.0
567.5

25.8
23.4
17.6

25.8
23.4
17.6

18.0
20.9
20.9

1.43
1.12
.84

1.43
1.12
.84

.59
.76
1.01

.59
.76
1.01

Intercoastal trade 1

Discharging cargo:
No. 12...............
Loading cargo:
No. 13__...........
No. 14...............
No. 15. ............
No. 16...............
No. 17................

23,107

20,632

2

3 8 ,1 6 4

a 4 2 ,7 4 6
2

26,072
146,377
20,795
34,409

2

29,139
153,747
2 23,291
2 38,634

887.0
1 ,8 7 4 .0

1,294.0
6,974.5
1,241.5
2,181. 5

23.3

2

26.1

20.7

1.13

2

1.26 $0.75 2 $0.67

20.4
20.1
21.0
16.7
15.8

*22.8
2 22.5
2 22.0
2 18.8
2 17.7

16.5
18.4
20.3
18.2
18.8

1.23
1.10
1.03
.92
.84

2
2
2
2

1.38
1.23
1.09
1.03
2 .9 4

.69
.77
.83
.93
1.01

2 .6 2
2 .6 9

2.78
2.83
2.90

Coastwise trade 8

Discharging cargo:
No. 18...............
No. 19__...........
No. 20. ............
Loading cargo:
No. 21...............
No. 22...............
No. 23...............

2 44
<45,562.4
286^845 «90,154.0
2 18,395 410,320.0

2 0.97
2.96
2 1.78

2$0.46
2.47
2.25

2 161,038 <162,113.0
243,706 * 45,218.6
2 16,863 <7,292.0

2.97
22.31

2.45
2.46
2.19

Individual commodities

Discharging cargo:
Bananas—No. 241- 27,474 *1,600,876
Copper—
9,893
2 11,081
No. 25_____
8,042
29,007
No. 26_____
Lumber—
745,971
No. 27..........
20,682
7 13,713
No. 28........

3,442.7

8.0

®465.0

32.0

0.25 *14.53 $1.80 6 $3.10

263.5
284.5

37.5
28.3

242.1
231.7

15.9
16.2

2.35 22.63
1.75 2 1.96

2,900.2
1,226.0

i6.9

715.9
711.2

18.1
17.3

« Stems per conveyor hour
1 Wage rate: 85 cents per hour.
2 Short tons.
3 Wage rate: 45 cents per hour.




.98

7.88
7 65
.

* Man-hours.
* Stems.
• Per 100 stems.
71,000 board feet.

341

.36
.49

2.32
2.43

7 97
.
.87 71.31

342

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 66.—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO, B Y

KIN D OF T R A D E A N D IN DIVIDU AL COM M ODITIES—Continued

Cargo tonnage
Operation, line number,
and commodity

Ganghours
Long
tons

D i s c h a r g i n g cargo—
Continued.
Newsprint paper—
No. 29— ..............
Nitrate of soda—
No. 30-............. 52,530
No. 31.............. 40,112
Ore—
No. 32 8 . . . ......... 120,749
No. 33 9............. 47,442
Potash salts—No.
34....... ................ 33,502
Sugar, raw—
No. 35 (Cuban). 181,252
No. 36 (Phil­
ippine)_____ 121,506
Wood pulp—
No. 37________ 25,528
No. 38________ 26,631
Sulphur—No. 39 8 72,960
-.
Loading cargo:
_ 43,911
Asphalt—No. 40_
Pipe—No. 41_____
7,878
Rails—No. 42_____ 30,824
Grain—
No. 43________
No. 44_______
No. 45........ .....
No. 46 ______ 26,932
No. 471«______ 19,506
No. 48 is______ 47,079
Coal—
No. 4 9 Pier opera­
tions....... 823,347
Trimming
_
cargo 8 _ 788,123
Trimming
35,224
bunker
No. 5 0 Pier opera­
tions........ 230.449
Trimming
cargo9_ 230.449
_
No. 51—Pier
operations.__ 559,310




2 Short tons,

Revenue
tons

Output per gang- Aver­
hour
age
nu m ­
ber of
men
Long Revenue per
gang
tons
tons

Output per
man-hour

Average
labor cost
per—

Long Rev­ Long Rev­
tons enue ton enue
tons
ton

Individual commodities —Continued

28,840

339.5

23.2

2 26.0

17.6

1.31 2 1.47 $0.65 *$0.58

52,530
40,112

1,428.0
1,154.5

36.8
34.7

36.8
34.7

31.9
31.8

1.15
1.06

120,749
47,442

1,532.5

31.0

31.0

2 37,524

1,181.0

28.4

3,672.0

49.4

3,359.0

36.2

647.0
812.0

39.5
32.8

1.372.5
284.0
1.091.5

32.0
27.7
28.2

1 610.1
3
131,126.9
1 546.5
3

823,347

1.15
1.06

.74
.80

.74
.80

16.5

10.00 10.00
1.87 1.87

.09
.45

.09
.45

2 31.8

19.2

1.48 2 1.65

.57

2.52

W348.0

29.0

1.70 1012.00

.50 U7.08

io 611.0

29.0

1.25 1021.10

.68 114.03

39.5
32.8

22.0
22.0

1.79
1.49
5.80

1.79
1.49
5.80

.47
.57
.15

.47
.57
.15

32.0
27.7
28.2

16.3
16.0
15.1

1.97
1.73
1.87

1.97
1.73
1.87

.43
.49
.45

.43
.49
.45

1*11,606.0
i< 11,361.0
i< 11,489.0

8
1 892.3 1 922.9
7

1 922.9
8

13.80 13.80
9.32 12365.6
6.92 12261.7

28.0 32.96 32.96
112.77 112.77
3.63

35,224

s Trimmed by machine.
9 Trimmed by hand.
1 Bags.
0
n Per 100 bags.
12 Bushels.

3.63

8
1 408.3 1 564.5
7

1 564.5
8

17.0 33.20 33.20

1 987.0 W566.8
7

1 566.8
8

25.0 22.67 22.67

26.92 26.92

1 Ship-hours.
3
i* Bushels per ship-hour,
is Trimming only.
ie Per 1,000 bushels.
1 Pier-hours.
7
w Per pier-hour.

.06
.06
8
.09 1 2.32
.12 1 3.24
8

343

BALTIMORE (1927)

T a b le 67 .—PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E

Discharging cargo: Europe
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

L in e N o. 1 1

Total, 15 ships................................ 2 40,531 40,800 1,335.0

30.4

30.6

20.8

1.47

1.47 $0.58 $0.58

Ships with maximum efficiency

No. 1 (January): Wood pulp........

2,295

2,295

63.5

36.1

36.1

21.0

1.72

1.72 $0.49 $0.49

No. 2 (September): Wood pulp___

1,058
814

1,058
814

32.0
20.5

33.1
39.7

33.1
39.7

21.0
21.0

1.57
1.89

1.57
1.89

.54
.45

.54
.45

Total--------------------------------

1,872

1,872

52.5

35.7

35.7

21.0

1.70

1.70

.50

.50

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (January):
Wood pulp_________________
Paper______________________

1,351
22

1,351
22

T o ta l--..................................

1,373

1,373

54.0

25.4

25.4

No. 4 (April):
Pig iron.....................................
Wood pulp................................
Paper........................................
General cargo...........................

200
1,095
681
41

200
1,095
681 |
41

6.5

30.8

30.8

75.0

24.2

24.2

Total......................................

2,017

2,017

81.5

24.8

24.8

20.3

21.0

1.21

1.21 $0.70 $0.70

18.0

1.71

1.71

.50

.50

20.5

1.18

1.18

.72

.72

1.22

1.22

.70

.70

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Wood pulp_________________
Paper______________________

3,052
683

3,052
683

T o ta l--..................................

3,735

3,735

123.0

30.4

30.4

20.7

1.47

1.47 $0.58 $0.58

No. 6 (January): Wood pulp.........

1,078
1,246
931
1,200
194

1,078
1,246
931
1,200
194

37.5
40.0
30.0
34.5
5.5

28.8
31.2
31.0
34.8
35.3

28.8
31.2
31.0
34.8
35.3

21.8
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0

1.32
1.48
1.48
1.66
1.68

1.32
1.48
1.48
1.66
1.68

.64
.57
.57
.51
.51

.64
.57
.57
.51
.51

Total.........................................

4,649

4,649

147.5

31.5

31.5

21.2

1.49

1.49

.57

.57

Total, 12 ships........... - ___________ 3 19,408 19,408

731.5

26.5

26.5

21.6

1.23

1.23 $0.69 $.069

L in e N o . 2

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (June): General cargo...........
No. 2 (July): General cargo...........

518
1,038

518
1,038

15.0
33.0

34.5
31.5

34.5
31.5j

22.6
21.8

1 Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
2 Principal commodities: Wood pulp, 35,265 long tons; paper, 4,782 long tons.
* Principal commodities: Salts, 5,283 long tons; potash, 1,415 long tons.




1.53
1.44

1.53 $0.56 $0.56
1.44
.59
.59

344

GENERAL TABLES

T a b le 67.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR A N D LABOR COST IN HAN DLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with m inim um efficiency

L in e N o 2.— Continued

No. 3 (January):
Potash (bags).
Salts (bulk)__
General cargo..

411
371
677

411
371
677

16.5
21.0
30.5

24.9
17.7
22.2

24.9
17.7
22.2

21.2
20.4
21.5

1.17
.87
1.03

1.17 $0.73 $0.73
.87
.98
.98
1.03
.83
.83

Total-

.

1,459

1,459

68.0

21.5

21.5

21.1

1.02

1.02

.83

.83

No. 4 (December):
General cargo..
Salts (bulk)___

.

1,174
790

1,174
790

43.0
42.5

27.3
18.6

27.3
18.6

21.7
20.1

1.26
.92

1.26
.92

.67
.92

.67
.92

Total-

.

1,964

1,964

85.5

23.0

23.0

20.9

1.10

1.10

.77

.77

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (May):
Potash (bags).
Kainit (bulk).
General cargo.

182
227
401

182
227
401

5.5
9.5
16.5

33.1
23.9
24.3

33.1
23.9
24.3

20.4
19.0
21.8

1.62
1.26
1.11

1.62 $0.52 $0.52
1.26
.67
.67
1.11
.77
.77

Total-

810

810

31.5

25.7

25.7

20.7

1.24

1.24

.69

.69

183
485
773

183
485
773

6.0
23.5
23.5

30.5
20.6
32.9

30.5
20.6
32.9

20.3
20.1
24.1

1.50
1.03
1.36

1.50
1.03
1.36

.57
.83
.63

.57
.83
.63

1,441

1,441

53.0

27.2

27.2

21.9

1.24

1.24

.69

.69

. *22,233 22,233

949.0

23.4

23.4

20.0

1.17

1.17 $0.73 $0.73

No. 6 (August):
Potash............
Salts (b u lk)...
General cargo.

T o ta l--.................
L in e N o . 3

Total, 9 ships..................

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Wood pulp..
Fluorspar (bulk).
Potash (bags)___
Rags....................
Clay.....................
General cargo___

1,092
2,483
508
180
110
321

1,092
2,483
508
180
110
321

35.0
65.0
17.0
12.0
4.5
26.0

31.2
38.2
29.9
15.0
24.4
12.4

31.2
38.2
29.9
15.0
24.4
12.4

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.56
1.91
1.49
.75
1.22
.61

1.56 $0.54 $0.54
1.91
.45
.45
1.49
.57
.57
.75 1.13 1.13
1.22
.70
.70
.61 1.39 1.39

4,694

4,694

159.5

29.4

29.4

20.0

1.47

1.47

.58

.58

General cargo.

1,639
482
228
255

1,639
482
228
255

61.0
15.0
7.0
14.0

26.9
32.1
32.6
18.2

26.9
32.1
32.6
18.2

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.34
1.61
1.63
.91

1.34
1.61
1.63
.91

.63
.53
.52
.93

.63
.53
.52
.93

Total...........

2,604

2,604

97.0

26.8

26.8

20.0

1.34

1.34

.63

.63

TotalNo. 2 (May:)
Wood pulp..
Clay............

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Fertilizer...................................
General cargo...........................
Total......................................
No. 4 (July):
Fluorspar..................................
General cargo...........................

632
417

30.0 21.1
28.0 14.9
|

21.1
14.9

20.0 1.05
20.0
| .74

1,049| 1,049

58.0 18.1
|

18.1

20.0

.90

.90

.94

.94

502
753

j
16.5 30.4
51.5 14.6
|

30.4
14.6

20.0 1.52
20.0
| .73

1.52
.73

.56
1.16

.56
1.16

632
417|

502]
753|

1.05 $0.81 $0.81
.74 1.15 1.15

.92
.92
.92
20.01 .92
68.01 18.5 18.5
1,2551 1,255
Total......................................
* Principal commodities: Wood pulp, 7,106 long tons; fluorspar, 6,095 long tons; potash, 1,460 long tons;
clay, 1,291 long tons.




345

BALTIMORE (1927)

T a b l e 67*—P R O D U C TIV ITY OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—
'Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe —Continued
Output per Aver­ Output per Average
gang-hour
man-hour labor cost
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o . 3— Continued

No. 5 (March):
Wood pulp..........
Potash (bags)----Potash (bulk)----Fluorspar (bulk).
Clay (bags).........
Rags.....................
General cargo___
Total .
No. 6 (February):
Wood pulp..........
Fluorspar (bulk).
Clay (bags).........
General cargo___
T o ta l--.................

1,679
669
283
1,084
220
176
245

1,679
669
283
1,084
220
176
245

73.0
39.0
10.0
34.0

4,356

7.0
16.0

23.0
17.2
28.3
31.9
27.5
25.1
15.3

23.0
17.2
28.3
31.9
27.5
25.1
15.3

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.15
.86
1.42
1.59
1.38
1.26
.77

1.15 $0.74 $0.74
.86
.99
.99
1.42
.60
.60
1.59
.53
.53
1.38
.62
.62
1.26
.67
.67
.77 1.10 1.10

4,356

187.0

23.3

23.3

20.0

1.16

1.16

.73

.73

1,167
438
306
386

1,167
438
306
386

46.5
12.0
9.5
23.5

25.1
36.5
32.2
16.4

25.1
36.5
32.2
16.4

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1.25
1.83
1.61
.82

1.25
1.83
1.61
.82

.68
.46
.53
1.04

.68
.46
.53
1.04

2,297

2,297

91.5

25.1

25.1

20.0

1.26

1.26

.67

.67

18,649 18,649 1,129.5

16.5

16.5

19.7

0.84

0.84 $1.01 $1.01

26.9
15.0

15.0
20.3

1.80
.74

1.80
.74

8.0

L in e N o . 4

Total, 15 ships................
Pig iron..........
General cargo.

3,784 3,784
8 14,865 14,865

140.5
989.0

26.9
15.0

.47
1.15

.47
1.15

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Pig iron-----....
Chemicals.......
Rags................
Wood pulp___
Crockery........
General cargo.
Total.............
No. 2 (November):
Chemicals.......
Wood pulp___
General cargo.
Total.

500
149
125
119
185
76

500
149
125
119 .
185
76

1,154

1,154

419
224
120
319

1,082

28.6

28.6

16.5

1.74

1.74 $0.49 $0.49

41.5

15.8

15.8

21.0

.75

.75

1.13

1.13

59.0

19.6

19.6

19.6

1.00

1.00

.85

.85

53.5

20.2

20.2

20.9

.97

.97

.88

.88

419
224
120
319

1,082

17.5

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (March):
Bone meal-----

200

Rags...............
Crockery........
General cargo.

175
153
201

200
175
153
201

Total...........

729

729

48.0

15.2

15.2

500
517
136 |
151

18.0

27.8

75.0

10.7

General cargo.

500
517
136
151

Total...........

1,304

93.0

14.0

No. 4 (July):
Pig iron..
Toys.......

1,304

21.0

0.72

0.72 $1.18 $1.18

27.8

14.0

1.98

1.98

.43

.43

10.7

20.0

.54

.54

1.58

1.58

14.0

18.8

.74

.74

1.15

1.15

6 principal commodities: Rags, 2,812 long tons; chemicals, 2,017 long tons; wood pulp, 1,525 long tons.

66490°—32----- 23




346

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 6 7 .— PR O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AN D LABOR COST IN H AN DLIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Discharging cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo
tonnage
) number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ships with average efficiency

L in e N o . 4— Continued

No. 5 (August):
Pig iron.............................. .
Crockery.......... ................. .

Wood pulp........................ .
Rags............ ........................
General cargo......................
Total.

284
396
209
193
110
1,192

284
12.5
396
209 • 61.5
193
110
1,192

22.7

22.7

14.0

1.62

1.62 $0.52 $0.52

14.8

14.8

20.0

.74

.74

1.15

1.15

74.0

16.1

16.1

19.0

.85

.85

1.00

1.00

No. 6 (December):
Pig iron............
Chemicals........
R a g s...............
General cargo..

300
149
100
347

300
149 ]
100 V
347

11.5

26.1

26.1

19.4

1.86

1.86

.46

.46

42.5

14.0

14.0

21.1

.66

.66

1.29

1.29

Total.

896

896

54.0

16.6

16.6

19.6

.85

.85

1.00

1.00

Loading cargo: Europe
L in e No. 5

Total, 11 ships.................................
Copper__ ______ ___________
General cargo................... ........

12,522 12,522
5,357
7,165

5,357
7,165

451.5

27.7

27.7

20.8

1.34

1.34 $0.63 $0.63

133.0
318.5

40.3
22.5

40.3
22.5

19.0
21.6

2.12
1.04

2.12
1.04

.40
.82

.40
.82

Ships with m axim um efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Copper.............
General cargo..
Total .
No. 2 (September):
Copper..............
General cargo...
Total.

986
392

986
392

20.0
19.0

49.3
20.6

49.3
20.6

19.2
19.9

2.57
1.04

2.57 $0.33 $0.33
1.04
.82
.82

1,378

1,378

39.0

35.3

35.3

19.5

1.81

1.81

.47

.47

452
163

452
163

10.5
8.0

43.1
20.4

43.1
20.4

17.7
18.5

2.43
1.10

2.43
1.10

.35
.77

.35
.77

615

615

18.5

33.2

33.2

18.0

1.84

1.84

.46

.46

Ships with m in im u m efficiency

No. 3 (M ay): General cargo______

583

583

25.0

23.3

23.3

22.0

1.04

1.04 $0.82 $0.82

No. 4 (May):
Copper......................................
General cargo............................

165
1,790

165
1,790

8.5
78.5

19.4
22.8

19.4
22.8

19.0
23.2

1.02
.98

1.02
.98

.83
.87

.83
.87

Total............................ .........

1,955

1,955

87.0

22.5

22.5

22.8

.99

.99

.86

.86

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Copper............
General cargo.

200
1,121

200
1,121

5.5
37.5

36.4
29.9

36.4
29.9

19.0
22.6

1.91
1.32

1.91 $0.45 $0.45
1.32
.64
.64

Total .

1,321

1,321

43.0

30.7

30.7

22.1

1.39

1.39

.61

.61

No. 6:
Copper...........
General cargo.

786
160

786
160

21.5
14.5

36.6
11.0

36.6
11.0

18.5
18.7

1.98
.59

1.98
.59

.43
1.44

.43
1.44

Total...........

946

946

36.0

26.3

26.3

18.6

1.41

1.41

.60

.60




347

BALTIMORE (1927)

T a b l e 6 7 .— PRODUCTrVTTYfOF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H ANDLING CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRAD E—C ontinued

Loading cargo: Europe— Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
gang-hour
man-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
tons
ton

Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons
L in e N o. 6

Total, 9 ships................................. 6 13,324 13,324

551.5

24.2

24.2

19.5

1.24

1.24 $0.69 $0.69

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (April):
Copper_____________________
Hominy____________________
General cargo_______________

910
983
349

910
983
349

T o ta l--.................................

2,242

2,242

No. 2 (February):
Copper______________ _____ _
Hominy.............................. ......
General cargo__________ ____

752
1,523
185
2,460

2,460

26.9

26.9

19.3

1.39

1.39 $0.61 $0.61

92.5

26.6

26.6

19.5

1.36

1.36

752
1,523
185

Total.....................................

83.5

.63

.63

Ships with m inim um efficiency

No. 3 (August):
Copper
__________________
Lubricating oil______________
General cargo_______________

165
242
175

165
242
175

Total_____________________

582

582

No. 4 (January):
Copper___________________
Hominy feed________________
General cargo_______________

446
245
186

446
245
186

Total_____________________

877

877

33.5

17.4

17.4

19.6

0.89

47.0

18.7

18.7

19.4

.96

0.89 $0.96 $0.96

.96

.89

.89

Ships with average efficiency

No. 5 (June):
Copper
_______ ________
_
General cargo_______________

386
296

386
296

Total_____________________

682

682

29.0

23.5

23.5

19.1

1.23

1.23 $0.69 $0.69

No. 6 (May):
Copper_____________________
Hominy
_________________
General cargo_______________
Total_____________________

336
590
389
1,315

336
590
389
1,315

53.5

24.6

24.6

19.6

1.26

1.26

Total, 14 ships__________ _______ 7 29,473 29,473 1,459.0

20.2

20.2

18.2

1.11

1.11 $0.77 $0.77

.67

.67

L in e N o. 7

Ships with m aximum efficiency

No. 1 (December):
Copper (33,206 bars)1
________

Total......................................

120
310
502
314
1,246

120
310
502
314
1,246

4.0
8.0
18.0
10.0
40.0

30.0
38.8
27.8
31.4
31.2

30.0
38.8
27.8
31.4
31.2

16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

1.88
2.42
1.74
1.96
1.95

1.88 $0.45 $0.45
2.42
.35
.35
1.74
.49
.49
1.96
.43
.43
1.95
.44
.44

i Data, except totals, are for daily or hatch productivity and cost.
• Principal commodities: Hominy, 5,168 long tons; copper, 4,557 long tons.
7 Principal commodities: Asphalt, 11,053 long tons; copper, 6,136 long tons; oats, 3,092 long tons; oil cake,
2,996 long tons; tobacco, 1,842 long tons.




348

GENERAL TABLES

T a b l e 67.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y OF LABOR AND LABOR COST IN H A N D LIN G CARGO IN

FOREIGN TRADE—Continued

Loading cargo: Europe —Continued
Average
Output per Aver­ Output per labor cost
man-hour
gang-hour
age
per—
num­
Gangber of
hours
men
Reve­
Long Reve­ per Long Reve­ Long Reve­
nue
nue
nue
tons tons gang tons tons ton nue
ton
tons

Cargo
tonnage
Ship number, date of operation,
and commodity
Long
tons

Ship s with m axim um efficiency —Continued

L ine N o. 7—Continued
N o .1 (December)—Continued.
Oil