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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR




No. 9 3 -M A R C H , 1911
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1911




COKTEETSi
Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1910:
Page.
Introduction.........................................................................................................
309
Prices of commodities, 1910 compared with 1909 ........................................ 309-317
Prices of commodities, 1910, and December, 1910, compared with previous
years back to 1890........................................................................................... 317-327
Prices of commodities, by months, January, 1900, to December, 1910... 327-332
Influences affecting prices.................................................................................
333
Explanation of tables......................................................................................... 334-361
Table I.—Wholesale prices of commodities from January to December,
1910.................................................................................................................... 362-411
Table II.—Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1910, monthly actual and relative prices, January to Decem­
ber, 1910, and base prices (average for 1890-1899).................................... 412-464
Table III.—Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1910, and
monthly relative prices, January to December, 1910............................... 465-499
Report of British Board of Trade on cost of living in the principal industrial
cities of the United States:
Introduction......................................................................................................... 500,501
Scope of the investigation.................................................................................. 501,502
Rates of wages...................................................................................................... 502-512
United States................................................................................................ 502-510
United States and England and Wales compared................................. 510-512
Hours of labor...................................................................................................... 512-514
United States................................................................................................ 512,513
United States and England and Wales compared.................................513,514
Housing and rents............................................................................................... 515-517
United States................................................................................................ 515,516
United States and England and Wales compared.................................516,517
Retail prices......................................................................................................... 517-536
United States................................................. . .....................'......................517-531
United States and England and Wales compared................................. 531-536
Rents and retail prices combined.................................................*.................
536
Family income and cost of living.................................................................... 536-555
United States............................................................................................... 536-550
United States and England and Wales compared................................. 551-555
Summary of conclusions..................................................................................... 555,556
Reports of British Board of Trade on cost of living in England and Wales,
Germany, France, Belgium, and the United States:
Introduction........................................................................................................ 557-559
Rates of wages..................................................................................................... 560-563
Hours of labor....................................................................... -............................. 563-565
R ents..................................................................................................................... 565, 566
Retail prices of commodities............................................................................ 566-569
Cost of food consumed weekly in the British workman’s family.............. 569,570




HI

IV

CONTENTS.

Page.
Hours of labor of men, women, and children employed in factories in Austria. 571-606
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:
Chile—Report on the condition of labor in the saltpeter industry............ 607-611
Finland—Report on conditions of employment of clerks and assistants
in business offices and mercantile establishments.....................................611-616
Germany—
Report of relief work done by the city of Dusseldorf........................... 616-621
Report on women’s organizations............................................................. 622-626
Italy—Report on housing condition among public administration employ­
ees in the city of Rome and among railway employees........................... 626-631
Sweden—Report on employment of alien laborers.......................................
632
Decisions of courts affecting labor:
Decisions under statute law.............................................................................. 633-654
Combinations in restraint of trade—antitrust law—penalties—juris­
diction—constitutionality {Grenada Lumber Co. etalv. State)......... 633, 634
Employers’ advances—contracts with intent to defraud—peonage—
constitutionality of statute {Bailey v. Alabama)................................ 634-639
Employers’ liability—mine regulations—disobedience by employ­
ers—assumption of risk—negligence of licensed employees {Poll v.
Numa Block Coal Co.)............................................................................. 639-641
Employers’ liability—railroad companies—fellow -servant act—
death—survival of action {Sumner v. Missouri Pacific By. Co.)...
641
Employers’ liability—railroad companies—fellow -servant law—
constitutionality of statute (Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City R. R.
Co. v. Tumipseed).................................................................................... 641-644
Employers’ liability-—railroad companies—relief benefits—receipt
not a bar in suits for damages—construction of statute (Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy R. R. Co. v. McGuire)...................................... 644-649
Employment of women—hours of labor—constitutionality of stat­
ute—police power (Withey v. Bloem)................................................... 649,650
Garnishment of wages—class legislation—constitutionality of statute
( White v. Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry. Co.)..................................... 650-652
Payment of wages—wages as preferred claims—assignment of rights
{Richeson v. National Bank of Mena)..................................................
653
Public work—protection of laborers and material men—contractors’
bonds ( Title Guaranty & Trust Co. v. Crane Co.)........................... 653,654
Decisions under common law............................................................................ 654-672
Employer and employee—contract of employment—breach—
accord and satisfaction—necessary elements {Fuller v. Smith)....... 654-657
Employers’ liability—injuries by fellow-servants—“ initiation” of
new employees {Medlin Milling Co. v. Boutwell)............................... 657,658
Employers’ liability—injury to employee being transported to place
of employment {Headline v. Great Northern Ry.)................................ 658,659
Employers’ liability—railway relief fund—malpractice—charities
{Texas Central R. R. Co. v. Zumwalt)................................................... 659-661
Employers’ liability—relation of employer and employee—inde­
pendent contractors—assumption of risk—contributory negli­
gence—questions for jury—fear of discharge—safe place to work
{Jewell v. Arkansas City Bolt & Nut Co. et al.)................................. 661-667
Labor organizations—right to withhold service—boycott—action for
damages {Meier v. Speer)......................................................................... 667-670
Labor organizations—rules—expulsion of members—regulation by
courts {Crutcher v. Easter Division, No. 321, of the Order of Railway
Conductors of America)............................................................................ 670-672



B U L L E T IN
OP THE

BUREAU
No. 93.

OF

LABOR.

WASHINGTON.

March,

1911.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
INTRODUCTION.

The average of wholesale prices in 1910, as measured by the prices
of the 257 commodities included in the present investigation, was
4 per cent higher than the average of 1909, and with this advance
the level was 1.6 per cent above the high average of 1907 prices.
Wholesale prices during 1910 were 19.1 percent higher than in 1900;
46.7 per cent higher than in 1897, the year of lowest prices in the
21-year period from 1890 to 1910; 16.6 per cent higher than in 1890;
and 31.6 per cent higher than the average price for the 10 years 1890
to 1899.
The highest point reached in 1907 was in the month of October,
from which month there was a general decline until August, 1908.
Beginning with September, 1908, wholesale prices increased without a
break in any month up to March, 1910; in the months of April, May,
and June prices declined slightly, but from June to December, 1910,
prices remained very nearly at the same level. Wholesale prices in
March, 1910, were higher than at any time in the preceding 21 years,
being 10.2 per cent higher than in August, 1908, 7.5 per cent higher
than in March, 1909, 21.1 per cent higher than the average yearly
price of 1900, and 49.2 per cent higher than the average yearly price
of 1897. Wholesale prices in December, 1910, however, were 1.4 per
cent lower than in December, 1909, and 2.5 per cent lower than in
March, 1910, but they were still 30.4 per cent higher than the average
price for the 10 years 1890 to 1899, and 45.4 per cent higher than the
prices of 1897.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1910 COMPARED WITH 1909.

Comparing 1910 with 1909 the group of commodities showing the
greatest increase in prices was lumber and building materials, the
increase in the group as a whole being 10.7 per cent. Six other groups
show an increase in 1910 of 2.7 to 7.5 per cent, while of the remaining 2



309

310

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

of the 9 groups into which all commodities have been classified 1 shows
a decrease of 0.1 per cent and 1 a decrease of 3 per cent.
Of the 257 articles for which wholesale prices were obtained, 148
showed an increase in the average price for 1910 as compared with
1909, 26 showed no change in the average price for the year, and 83
showed a decrease in price. The following table shows for each of the
9 groups the number of articles covered, the per cent of increase or
decrease in the average price for 1910 as compared with that for 1909
for each group as a whole, and the number of articles that increased
or decreased in price:
PERCENT OF INCREASE IN AVERAGE PRICES FOR 1910 AS COMPARED WITH AVER­
AGE PRICES FOR 1909 AND NUMBER OF ARTICLES THAT INCREASED OR DE­
CREASED IN PRICE, BY GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.
Number of commodities show­
ing—
cent
Number Per moi
of com­ crease in
No
modities. price.
Increase. change in Decrease.
price.

Group.
Farm products....................................__........„....^__
Food, etc..........................................................................
Cloths and clothing........................................................
Fuel and lighting,.........................................................
Metals and implements................................................
Lumber and building materials.................................
Drugs and chemicals.....................................................
House-furnishing goods.................................................
Miscellaneous..................................................................
All commodities..................................................

1 Decrease.

20
57
65
13
38
28
9
14
13
257

7.5
3.2
2.7
*3.0
3.0
lft7
4.1
l.l
5.7
4.0

14
34
41
2
22
21
2
5
7
148

3
7
2
4
1
4
3
2
26

6
20
17
9
12
6
3
6
4
83

From the above table it is seen that in farm products, taken as a
whole, there was an increase in price of 7.5 per cent in 1910 over the
average price for 1909. Among the 14 articles for which prices in­
creased were hops, hogs, flaxseed, barley, live poultry, cotton, mules,
sheep, hay, and cattle. The 6 articles that decreased in price were
oats, corn, tobacco, wheat, hides, and rye.
Food as a whole increased 3.2 per cent in the average price for 1910
as compared with 1909. Among the 34 articles showing an increase in
price were mess pork, bacon, lard, coffee, hams, dressed poultry, eggs,
butter, mutton, and fresh beef. No change took place in the price of
soda, starch, and one quotation for loaf bread. The principal arti­
cles of the 20 showing a decrease in price were canned tomatoes, flour,
corn meal, rice, and potatoes.
In the group of cloths and clothing as a whole there was an average
increase of 2.7 per cent in price, the increase being mainly in the prices
of cotton goods and the decrease in the prices of raw wool and raw
silk.
In fuel and lighting as a group there was a decrease in price of 3 per
cent. The commodities showing the greatest decrease in prices were



WHOLESALE PRICES,

1890

TO

1910,

311

crude and refined petroleum. There was no considerable variation
in the price of coal during the year.
In the metals and implements group the increase in the average
price for 1910 over 1909 was 3 per cent. Twenty-two of the 38 arti­
cles in this group increased in price, 4 remained unchanged, and 12
decreased in price.
Twenty-one of the 28 articles included under lumber and building
materials increased in price in 1910 as compared with 1909. Some of
the products showing an increase in price were linseed oil, tar, turpen­
tine, and glass. All the grades of lumber except spruce and yellow
pine siding advanced in price during the year. In this group as a
whole there was an increase in price of 10.7 per cent; one of the arti­
cles showed no change, and 6 articles decreased in price in 1910 com­
pared with 1909.
The increase in the average price of drugs and chemicals in 1910 over
1909 was 4.1 per cent, the articles showing an increase in price being
glycerin and opium. Muriatic acid, grain alcohol, and quinine
showed a decrease in price.
House-furnishing goods as a whole decreased 0.1 per cent in price.
Six of the 14 articles decreased, while 5 increased in price.
In the miscellaneous group there was a marked increase in the prices
of rubber, cottonseed oil, and malt. There was no change in the price
of plug tobacco and wrapping paper, while there was a decrease in the
prices of 4 articles. Taken together, the group of miscellaneous arti­
cles increased in price 5.7 per cent.
The per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price
for 1910 in each of the 257 articles as compared with the price for
1909 is shown on pages 340 to 343.
In addition to the classification into the nine groups named above,
the 257 articles included in the investigation have been divided into
two general groups, designated as raw commodities and manufactured
commodities. A clearly defined classification of this character can
not be made, but the commodities here designated as raw may be
said to be such as are marketed in their natural state and such as
have been subjected to only a preliminary manufacturing process,
thus converting them into a marketable condition/ but not to a
suitable form for final consumption, while the commodities here
designated as manufactured are such as have been subjected to
more than a preliminary factory manipulation and in which the
manufacturing labor cost constitutes an important element in the
price. In the group designated as raw are included all farm products,
beans, coffee, eggs, milk, rice, pepper, tea, vegetables, raw silk, wool,
coal, crude petroleum, copper ingots, pig lead, pig iron, bar silver,
spelter, pig tin, brimstone, jute, and rubber—a total of 54 articles.
All the other articles are classed as manufactured commodities.



312

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

As thus grouped, the average wholesale price of raw commodities
for 1910 was 2.1 per cent above that for 1909, and the average whole­
sale price of manufactured commodities for 1910 was 4.6 per cent
above that for 1909.
The following table shows for all commodities the per cent that the
average price for each month of the year 1910 was above or below the
average price for the year and, in the last column, the per cent of
decrease of the average December price below the average price for
each preceding month:
COMPARISON OF AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF 1910 WITH THE AVERAGE
PRICE FOR THE YEAR, AND OF THE AVERAGE PRICE FOR DECEMBER, 1910, WITH
THE AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE YEAR.
Per cent of price per
month—

Per cent of
decrease in
December
as com­
Above av­ Below av­ pared with
each pre­
erage price erage price ceding
for year. for year. month.

Month.

January.........................................................................................................
February...............................
March.............................................................................................................
April...............................................................................................................
May....................................„..........................................................................
June................................................................................................................
July................................................................................................................
August...........................................................................................................
September.....................................................................................................
October..........................................................................................................
November................1...................................................................................
December.....................................................................................................

0.8
1.0
1.7
1.8
.2

0.4
7
.5
.2
.6
1.1
.9

17
1.9
25
2.2
LI
.5
.2
.5
,7
.3
1.2

1 Increase.

In March, 1910, prices were at the highest point of the year, being
1.7 per cent above the average price for the year. Prices advanced
from January to March, declined each month from April to July,
advanced slightly during August and September, declined slightly
again in October and November, and advanced slightly in December.
From the figures in the last column of the table it is seen that the
average of wholesale prices in November, 1910, were lower than the
average price for any other month of the year. The price for Decem­
ber was 0.2 per cent above the November price and 2.5 per cent lower
than that for March, the month of highest prices.
The change that took place in wholesale prices month by month
during 1910 in each of the nine groups already referred to will be seen
in the following table:




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

313

COMPARISON OP THE AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OP 1910 WITH AVERAGE
PRICE FOR THE YEAR, AND OF AVERAGE PRICE FOR DECEMBER, 1910, WITH THE
AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE YEAR, BY GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES.
Farm products.

Month.

January....
February...
March.........
April...........
May._____
June............
July.............
August.......
September
October___
November
December..

Food, etc.

Cloths and clothing.

Per cent of price Per cent
for month—
of increase (+ )
or de­
crease (—)
Above Below in Decem­
average average ber as
price price compared
for
for with each
year. year. preceding
month.

Per cent of price Per cent
for month—
of in­
crease (+ )
or de­
crease (—)
Above Below in Decem­
average average ber as
price price compared
for with each
for
year. year. preceding
month.

Per cent of price Per cent
for month—
of in­
crease (+ )
or de­
crease (—)
Above Below in Decem­
average average ber as
price price compared
for
for with each
year. year. preceding
month.

2.9
6.4
10.0
7.5
2.4

—11.2
—14.1
—16.9
—15.0
—10.7
— 7.8
- 6.9
- 6.9
— 5.5
- 3.2
— .3

0.8
1.8
1.8
3.2
5.5
8.3
8.6

January___
February...
March.........
April............
May.............
June............
July.............
August........
September .
October...
November.
December.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or de­
crease (—)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year. year.
ceding
month.
4.5
3.9
3.9
(l)




1.0

.7
1.7
1.5
1.2
2.5
2.0
1.3

.3
1.1
.7
.2

0.4
.7
1.5
.5
.7

—0.2
+ -5
—1.5
— .7
+ .9
+1.7
+ -6
— .2
— .9
— .5
+ -9

2.6
2.4
2.2
.7
.1

0.3
1.5
1.7
1.5
1.1
.8
.7

—3.2
-3 .1
—2.8
—1.4
— .8
— .4
+ -8
+1.0
+ .8
+ .3
+ -1

Metals and implements.

Fuel and lighting.
Month.

0.3
1.7
.8

—5.6
—5.0
-5 .0
—1.3
- .3
— .6
+ .4
+ .1
— .2
+1.2
+ .7

Lumber and building
materials.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or de­
crease (—)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year. year.
ceding
month.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or de­
crease (—>
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year. year. ceding
month.

0.9
.6
" .3
2.3
1.1
.5

2.2

-1 .9
1.6
-3 .6
-2 .4
1.8
1.1
-

-

0.2
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.3

-

.2

.2

- .3
-

1 Same as average price for the year.

.2

.3
1.3
1.8
1.8
2.2
2.1

2.5
1.1
1.2
.8
1.3
1.0

+4.8
+3.2
+3.4
+2.9
+3.4
+3.2
+1.8
+ .8
+ .3
+ .3
- .1

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

314

COMPARISON OF THE AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF 1910 WITH AVERAGE
PRICE FOR THE YEAR, AND OF AVERAGE PRICE FOR DECEMBER, 1910, WITH THE
AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE YEAR, BY GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES—Concluded.
Drugs and chemicals.

House-furnishing
goods.

Miscellaneous.

All commodities.

Per cent of Per Per cent of Per Per cent of Per Per cent of Per
price for cent of price for cent of price for cent of price for cent of
month. increase month. increase month. increase month. increase
(+ )°r
(+ )or
(+ )or
(+ ) or
de­
de­
de­
de­
crease
crease
crease
crease
Month.
( - ) in
< -)in
( - ) in
(-> in
Above Below Decem­ Above Below Decem­ Above Below Decem­ Above Below Decem­
aver­ aver­ ber as aver­ aver­ ber as aver­ aver­ ber as aver­ aver­ ber as
age age com­ age age com­ age age com­ age age com­
price price pared price price pared price price pared price price pared
for for with for for with for for with for for with
each
each
each
each
year. year. preced­ year. year. preced­ year. year. preced­ year. year. preced­
ing
ing
ing
ing
month.
month.
month.
month.
January__
February..
March.........
April...........
May............ 0.1
June........... 0)
July............
August.......
September. .4
October___ .4
November.
December.. 1.5

0.3
.2
.5
.7
.2
.7
.3

+1.8
+1.7
+2.1
+2.2
+1.5
+1.5
+1.7
+2.2
+1.1
+1.1
+1.9

0.7
.7
.7
.7
.7
.7
.7
.7
«

2.2
1.7
1.7
.......

1 Same as average price lor the year.

+2.3
+1.7
+1.7
— .7
— .7
— .7
— .7
— .7
— .7
— .7
— .7

i.5
2.9
2.3
.5
1.7
2.6

1.0
1.9
.7

1.9
2.9
2.9

—2.0
—1.1
—2.3
—4.4
—5.6
—5.1
—3.4
—4 6
—5.4
—1.1
(2)

0.8
1.0
1.7
1.3
.2

2 Same as price for December.

0.4
.7
.5
.2
.6
1.1
.9

—1.7
—1.9
—2.5
—2.2
—1.1
— .5
— .2
— .5
— .7
— .3
+ .2

In March, 1910, the wholesale prices of farm products were 10 per
cent above the average price for the year, this being the highest point
of the year. The lowest monthly price of the year was December,
being 16.9 per cent below the price for March. The movement in
prices during the year for each of the articles in this and other groups
will be found in Table II, pages 412 to 464, or the full details of the
prices throughout the year may be found in Table I, pages 362 to 411.
Food commodities were at their highest price in March and at
their lowest in June, when they were 1.5 per cent below the average
price for the year. In December they were 1.7 per cent higher than in
June.
The price of cloths and clothing was above the average price for
the year during the first five months and below the average for the
other seven months. From January to August each month showed
a recession from the price for the previous month. From September
to December prices advanced each month over the prices for the
month before. The January price was 2.6 per cent above the average
price for the year and the December price was 3.2 per cent lower
than the price in January.
The price of the fuel and lighting group was above the average
price for the year from January to March, the same price in April,



WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1910.

315

and below the average from May to December. The highest price
was in January, when the price was 4.5 percent above the average
for the year. In December the price was 1.2 per cent above the
average price for October, the month of lowest prices, and 5.6 per
cent lower than the price for January.
The price of the metals and implements group was at the highest
point of the year in April, when the price was 2.3 per cent above the
average price for the year; from that time to August the price de­
clined each month. The month of lowest price was December, when
the average price was 3.6 per cent below that for April.
The price of lumber and building materials in the month of Janu­
ary was 2.5 per cent below the average price for the year. There
was a material advance from January to November, when the average
price was 2.2 per cent above the average price for the year. The
price in December was 2.1 per cent above the average for the year
and 4.8 per cent higher than the price for January.
Drugs and chemicals as a group were at their lowest price for the
year in April and August, being 0.7 per cent below the average price
for the year. In December the price was 1.5 per cent above the
average for the year and higher than the price for any other month
of the year.
House-furnishing goods were below the average price for the year
during the first three months of the year, above the average for the
next eight months, and the same as the yearly average for the last
month of the year. The lowest price for this group was in January,
when the price was 2.2 per cent below the average price for the year.
The price for December was 2.3 per cent higher than in January.
The price of miscellaneous articles was below the average price for
the year during the first three and last three months and above the
average price from April to September. The price in December was
2.9 per cent below the average price for the year and 5.6 per cent
lower than in May, the month of highest prices.
A few of the articles showing the most marked variation in price
within the year 1910 are here noted. Plain to choice wethers declined
from an average of $8.2750 in March to $3.6813 in November, this
being a decline of 55.5 per cent. Heavy hogs declined 28.7 per cent
from March to November; corn, 26.4 per cent from January to Decem­
ber; dressed mutton, 50.2 per cent from April to November; corn
meal, 31.9 per cent from February to December; mess pork, 27.7
per cent from March to November; short-rib bacon, 26.4 per cent
from March to December; smoked hams, 25.1 per cent from July to
December; lard 25.4 per cent from March to December; dressed
poultry, 24.2 per cent from April to December; Elgin creamery
butter, 19.7 per cent from January to June; Bessemer pig iron, 20.6



BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

316

per cent from January to November; rubber, 54.2 per cent from
April to November; cottonseed oil, 34.5 per cent from September to
December.
Of the increases in prices within the year 1910 the most noticeable
are as follows: Flaxseed advanced 28.9 per cent from January to
November; potatoes, 302.4 per cent from June to August; eggs, 90.2
per cent from May to December; coffee, 61.1 per cent from June to
December; mess beef, 35.2 per cent from January to October; rosin,
52.4 per cent from January to October; turpentine, 36.7 per cent
from January to November; linseed oil, 25 per cent from January to
November.
The following table shows, for both raw and manufactured commod­
ities, according to the classification already explained, the per cent
that prices in each month in 1910 were above or below the average
prices of the year, and the per cent of increase in December above each
preceding month of the year:
COMPARISON OF THE AVERAGE PRICES OF RAW AND MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES
FOR EACH MONTH OF 1910 WITH THE AVERAGE PRICES FOR THE YEAR, AND OF
THE AVERAGE PRICES FOR DECEMBER, 1910, WITH THE AVERAGE PRICES FOR
EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE YEAR.
Raw commodities.
Month.

January....
February...
March.........
April...........
May.............
June............
July.............
August.......
September..
October___
November..
December

Manufactured commodities.

All commodities.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or decrease (—)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
ceding
year. year.
month.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or decrease (—)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
ceding
year. year.
month.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
(+ ) or de­
crease (—)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year. year. ceding
month.

3.7
3.7
3.7
2.6
.4

1.1
1.1
.6
1.1
2.6
3.3
2.3

—5.8
—5:8
—5.8
—4.7
—2.7
—1.2
—1.2
—1.7
—1.2
+ .4
+1.0

0.1
.2
1.1
.9
.1

0.2
.6
.5
.1
.2
.6
.6

—0.7
— .8
—1.7
—1.5
— .7
— .4
(i)
- .2
— .5
— .5
0)

0.8
1.0
1.7
1.3
.2

0.4
.7
.5
.2
.6
1.1
.9

—1.7
—1.9
-2 .5
-2 .2
-1 .1
- .5
- .2
- .5
- .7
- .3
+ .2

i Same as average price for December.

From this table it is seen that there was a greater fluctuation in the
prices of raw commodities during the year than in the prices of manu­
factured commodities. In January, February, and March the price
of raw commodities was 3.7 per cent above the average price for the
year, while in November the price was 3.3 per cent below the average
price for the year. In manufactured commodities the highest prices
were in March, when the average was 1.1 per cent above the average



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

317

price for the year, while in July, November, and December the average
was 0.6 per cent below the average price for the year. Thus, January,
February, and March marked the highest prices in raw commodities,
and March marked the highest.prices in manufactured commodities;
while prices of raw commodities were the lowest in November, manu­
factured commodities showed lowest prices during July, November,
and December. The average prices of raw commodities in December
was 5.8 per cent lower than in January, February, and March. The
December prices.of manufactured commodities were 1.7 per cent lower
than those prevailing in March.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1910, AND DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED
WITH PREVIOUS YEARS BACK TO 1890.

Thus far attention has been directed to the changes that took place
ip. wholesale prices in the year 1910 as compared with 1909 and the
movement of wholesale prices month by month during the year 1910.
Attention is now directed to the course of wholesale prices from year
to year since 1890. The following table shows, by relath e prices, the
changes in the average wholesale prices of the articles for which
prices were secured by years from 1890 to 1910, inclusive, and by
months from January to December, 1910. The relative price used
in this table is simply a percentage. The base on which the relative
price is computed is not the price in any one year, but the average
price for ten years, from 1890 to 1899, inclusive. The reason for
adopting this base is fully explained, on pages 347 and 348. Relative
prices, such as are here shown, are also sometimes spoken of as rela­
tive numbers or as index numbers. For explanation of the method
used in computing the relative price of all commodities, see pages
347 and 348.
To assist in comparing the average wholesale prices for the year
1910 and for December, 1910, with the prices back to 1890, two col­
umns are given in the table, one showing the per cent of the increase
in prices for 1910 over the prices for each of the preceding years, and
the other showing the per cent of the increase (or decrease) in prices
in December, 1910, as compared with the prices for the preceding
years and months.




318

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, BY YEARS, 1890 TO 1910, AND BY MONTHS, JAN­
UARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1910 OVER
EACH PRECEDING YEAR, AND FOR DECEMBER, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING MONTH
OR YEAR.
Per cent of increase—
Year or month.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1898.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.

Relative
price of all In 1910
commodi­ over each
ties.1 preceding
year.
112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5
131.6

1910.

January...
February..
March.......
April........
May..........
June..........
July..........
August....
September
October...
November
December.

1 Average for 1890-1899=100.0.

132.7
132.9
133.8
133.3
131.9
131.1
130.7
131.0
131.3
130.8
130.1
130.4
* Decrease.

16.6
17.8
24.0
24.6
36.9
40.6
45.6
46.7
40.9
29.4
19.1
21.3
16.6
15.8
16.5
13.5
7.4
1.6
7.2
4.0

In Decem­
ber, 1910,
over each
preceding'
month or
year.
15.5
16.7
22.9
23.5
35.7
39.3
44.2
45.4
39.6
28.2
18.6
20.2
15.5
14.8
15.4
12.5
6.4
.7
6.2
3.1
*.9
*1.7
*1.9
*2.5
*2 2
* l!l
*.5
*.2
*.5
*.7
*.3
.2

The relative wholesale prices during the years 1890 to 1910 set
forth in tabular form in the preceding table, are shown also in the
graphic table which follows.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910*

319

RELATIVE PRICES OP ALL COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910.
[Average for 1890 to 1399-10&0.}

This table shows that the average wholesale prices declined each
year from 1890 to 1897, or 8 years of constantly falling prices. From
1898 to 1910 has been a period of advancing prices with only 3 of
the 13 years showing a decrease from the prices of the previous year.
These 3 years were 1901,1904, and 1908, the decline of the 1908 prices
from those of 1907 being heavier than the decline in either 1901 or
1904. The lowest year of the 21-year period was 1897 and the highest
was 1910.




320

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

As indicated by the figures on page 318, the average of wholesale
prices of all commodities for 1890 was 112.9 per cent of the average
of wholesale prices for the years from 1890 to 1899; in other words,
the average of wholesale prices in 1890 was 12.9 per cent higher than
the average for the 10-year period named.
In 1891 relative wholesale prices declined to 111.7; that is, to a
point where the average wholesale price for the year was 11.7 per cent
above the average price for the 10 years from 1890 to 1899.
In 1892 relative wholesale prices dropped to 106.1 and in 1893 to
105.6. In the next year, 1894, wholesale prices fell to 96.1, a point
3.9 below the average price for the 10-year base period. In each of
the three succeeding years wholesale prices declined until in 1897 they
reached 89.V; that is, 10.3 per cent below the average price for the
10-year period. In each of the three years next succeeding wholesale
prices advanced, in 1900 reaching 110.5. In 1901 wholesale prices
dropped back to 108.5. The next year, however, marked an increase,
prices in 1902 being on an average a restoration of the prices in 1890,
namely, 112.9. In 1903 prices advanced to 113.6. The next year,
1904, showed a slight decline, nearly back to the prices of 1890 and
1902. In 1905, 1906, and 1907 prices advanced each year. In 1908
prices declined, but advanced in 1909, and advanced again in 1910
to 131.6, thus reaching a higher level than in any other year of the
21 years covered by the investigation.
The second column of the table (p. 318) shows that the price in
1910 was 4 per cent above the price in 1909, 7.2 per cent above the
price in 1908, 16.6 per cent above the price in 1890, and 46.7 per cent
above the price in 1897, the year of lowest average prices within the
last 21 years.
The last column of the table shows that the price in December,
1910, was 0.9 per cent below the average price for the year 1910 and
below the average price for each preceding month of the year except
November, but 3.1 per cent above the price for 1909, 15.5 per cent
above the price for 1890, and 45.4 per cent above the price for 1897.
The relative prices appearing in this table are based on 251 articles
in 1890 and 1891, on 253 articles in 1892, on 255 articles in 1893, on 256
articles in 1894, on 257 articles in 1909 and 1910, on 258 articles from
1906 to 1908, on 259 articles in 1895,1904, and 1905, on 260 articles in
1896 and from 1899 to 1903, and on 261 articles in 1897 and 1898.
Having shown the movement in wholesale prices for the period from
1890 to 1910 in all commodities taken as a whole, a table is given
showing the movement in each of the nine groups previously referred to.
This table gives for each group the relative prices and the per cent of
increase or decrease of prices for the year 1910 as compared with the
prices for preceding years, and for December, 1910, with each preced­
ing month or year.



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

321

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, BY YEARS, 1890 TO 1910, AND BY MONTHS
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1910
OVER EACH PRECEDING YEAR, AND FOR DECEMBER, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR YEAR, BY GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.
Food, etc.

Farm products.
Per cent of increase—
Year or
month. Relative
In Decem­ Relative
ber,
In
price.1 over1910 over 1910, price.1
each
each
preceding
preced­
ing year. month or
year.
1890....
1891___
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897___
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903______
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910___

110.0
121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1
100.0
109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1
133.1
153.1
164.6

36.8
23.9
34.7
39.5
56.9
61.3
92.2
76.6
56.6
50.5
37.4
28.7
15.3
26.7
19.3
21.2
21.8.
9.8
13.1
2 1.7
2 8.6

112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7
112.6
117.8
120.6
124.7
128.7

2 11.2
2 14.1
2 16.9
2 15.0
2 10.7
2 7.8
2 6.9

49.6
35.5
47.4
52.5
71.6
76.4
110.2
93.2
71.3
64.6
50.3
40.8
26.1
38.6
50.4
32.5
33.2
20.1
23.7
7.5

129.1
128.2
130.9
129.8
127.8
126.8
128.1
129.1
.130.1
129.6
127.8
128.9

Cloths and clothing.

Per cent of increase—
In 1910
over each
preced­
ing year.
14.5
11.2
24.2
16.8
29.0
36.0
53.6
46.8
36.3
30.9
23.5
21.5
15.6
20.2
20.1
18.4
14.3
9.3
6.7
3.2

Per cent of increase—

In Decem- Relative In 1910 In Decem­
bei, 1910,
over ber, 1910,
over each price.1 each over each
preceding
preced­ preceding
month or
ing year. month or
year.
year.
14.7
11.4
24.4
17.0
29.2
36.3
53.8
47.0
36.5
31.1
23.7
21.7
15.8
20.4
20.2
18.6
14.5
9.4
6.9
3.4
.2

113.5
111. 3
109.0
107.2
96.1
92.7
91.3
91.1
93.4
96.7
106.8
101.0
102.0
106.6
109.8
112.0
120.0
126.7
116.9
119.6
123.7

8.2
.5
8 1.5
2.7
.9
1.7

126.9
126.7
126.4
124.6
123.8
123.3
121.8
121.6
121.8
122.4
122.7
122.8

9.0
11.1
13.5
15.4
28.7
33.4
35.5
35.8
32.4
27.9
15.8
22.5
21.3
16.0
12.7
10.4
3.1
2 2.4
5.8
3.4

8.2
10.3
12.7
14.6
27.8
32.5
34.5
34.8
31.5
27.0
15.8
21.6
20.4
15.2
11.8
9.6
2.3
2 3.1
5.0
2.7
*.7

1910.

Jan........
Feb___
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
June__
July....
Aug___
Sept___
Oct.......
N o v ....
Dec.......

169.4
175.1
181.0
177.0
168.5
163.3
161.6
161.6
159.3
155.5
151.0
150.5

26.9
2 5.5

2 3.2
2.3

1 Average for 1890-1899*100.0.

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----2




.6
2.2

2.9
2.5
.9

* Decrease.

*
*

3 .2
3.1

* 2.8

a 1.4
2.8

2.4
.8
1.0
.8
.3
.1

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

322

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, BY YEARS, 1890 TO 1910, AND BY MONTHS
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1910
OVER EACH PRECEDING YEAR, AND FOR DECEMBER, 1930, OVER EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR YEAR, BY GROUPS OF COMMODITIES—Continued.
Fuel and lighting.

Metals and implements.

Per cent of increase—
Year or
month. Relative
In Decem­ Relative
In
ber,
price.1 over1910 over 1910, price.1
each
each
preced­ preceding
ing year. month or
year.
1890....
1891___
1892___
1893....
1894___
1895....
1896___
1897___
1898___
1899___
1900___
1901___
1902___
1903___
1904___
1905___
1906___
1907___
1908___
1909___
1910___

104.7
102.7

101.1
100.0

92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119 5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3
125.4

19.8
22.1
24.0
25.4
35.7
27.8
20.2
30.1
31.4
19.4
3.7
4.9
2 6.6
2 16.0
2 5.4
2 2.6
2 4.9
*7.1
*4.1
2 3.0

18.2
. 20.5
22.5
23.8
34.0
26.2
18.7
28.4
29.8
17.9
2.4
3.6
2 7.8
2 17.1
2 6.6
2 3.9
2 6.1
2 8.3
2 5.4
2 4.3
2 1.3

119.2
111.7
106.0
100.7
90.7
92.0
93.7
86.6
86.4
114.7
120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
135.2
143.4
125.4
124.8
128.5

5
5.0
5.0
1.3
2.3
2.6
.4

129.7
129.3
128.9
131.5
129.9
129.1
128.2
127.0
127.0
127.2
127.1
126.8

Lumber and building materials.

Per cent of increase—
In 1910
over each
preced­
ing year.

In Decem­ Relative
In Decem­
ber, 1910,
In 1910 ber, 1910,
over each price.1 over each over each
preceding
preced­ preceding
month or
ing year. month or
year.
year.

7.8
15.0
27.6
41.7
39.7
37.1
48.4
48.7
21.2

12.0
6.6

14.8
9.6
9.3
17.2
4.9
2 5.0
*10.4
2.5
3.0

Per cent of increase—

#

6.4
13.5
19.6
25.9
39.8
37.8
35.3
46.4
46.8
10.5
5.2
13.3
8. 2 7.8
15.7
3.5

2 6.2
2 11.6
1 .1
1.6
2

1.3

111.0

108.4
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
133.1
138.4
153.2
102.8

38.0
41.3
49.0
50.3
59.1
62.8
64.0
69.5
59.9
44.8
32.4
31.3
29.0
26.2
24.9
20.0
9.4
4.3
15.1
10.7

40.9
44.3
52.1
53.5
62.4
66.2
67.5
73.0
63.3
47.8
35.2
34.0
31.6
28.8
27.5
22.5
11.6
6.5
17.5
13.0
2.1

1910.

Jan.......
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May....
June__
July....
A ug....
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

131.1
130.3
130.3
125.4
124.2
124.5
123.3
123.5
123.9
122.3
122.9
123.8

2 .6
2
2
2

.2
2.1
1.2

.7

1 Average for 1890-1899=100.0.




2 2.2
2
2 1.6
2
2
2 1.8
2 1 .1
2.2
2.2

1.9
3.6
2.4
2.3

2.2

149.3
15L5
151.3
152.0
151.2
151.6
153.6
155.2
155.9
155.9
156.5
156.4
* Decrease.

4.8
3! 2
3*4
2.9
3*4
3.2
1.8
*8

.3

3
<1

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

323

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, BY YEARS, 1890 TO 1910, AND BY MONTHS
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1910
OVER EACH PRECEDING YEAR, AND FOR DECEMBER, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR YEAR, BY GROUPS OF COMMODITIES-Coneluded.
Drugs and chemicals. House-furnishing goods.

Miscellaneous.

Per cent of in­
crease—

Per cent of in­
crease—

Per cent of in­
crease—

Per cent of in­
crease—

All commodities.

Year or
In De­
In De­
In De­
In De­
month. Rela­ In 1910 cember, Rela­ In 1910 cember, Rela­ In 1910 cember, Rela­ In 1910 cember,
tive
1910, tive
tive over 1910, tive over 1910, price.1 over ^ver price.1 over 1910,
over
price.1 each over price.1 each over
each each
each
each
each
preced­ preced­
preced­ preced­
preced­ preced­
preced­ preced­
ing ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
year. month
year. month
year. month
year. month
or year.
or year.
or year.
or year.
1890....
1891....
1882....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910___

110.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6
110.4
112.4
117.0

6.2
12.9
13.7
16.4
30.3
33.1
26.3
23.9
9.8
5.1
1.1
1.6
2.5
3.9
6.4
7.2
15.6
6.8
6.0
4.1

7.8
14.7
15.5
18.2
32.3
35.2
28.3
25.8
11.4
6.7
2.7
3.1
4.0
5.5
8.0
8.9
17.4
8.4
7.6
5.7
1,5

111.1
110.2
106.5
104.9
100.1
96.5
94.0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5
114.0
111.7
111.6

1.8
1.7
2.1
2.2
1.5
1.5
1.7
2.2
1.1
1.1
1.9

109.1
109.7
109.7
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
111.6

0.5
1.3
4.8
6.4
11.5
15.6
18.7
24.3
21.3
17.4
5.2
.6
2.5
2 1.2
2.1
2.3
.5
25.8
22.1
2.1

0.5
1.3
4.8
6.4
11.5
15.6
18.7
24.3
21.3
17.4
5.2
.6
2.5
2 1.2
2.1
2.3
.5
25.8
2 2.1
2.1
(3)

110.3 20.7
109.4 21.7
106.2 25.3
105.9 25.7
99.8 33.4
94.5 40.8
91.4 45.6
92.1 44.5
92.4 . 44.0
97.7 36.2
109.8 21.2
107.4 23.9
114.1 16.7
113.6 17.2
111.7 19.2
112.8 18.0
121.1
9.9
4.7
127.1
119.9 11.0
125.9
5.7
133.1

17.1
18.1
21.7
22.0
29.5
36.7
41.4
40.3
39.8
32.2
17.7
20.3
13.2
13.7
15.7
14.5
6.7
1.7
7.8
2.6
* 2.9

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5
131.6

131.8
130.6
132.2
135.1
136.9
136.1
133.8
135.4
136.6
130.6
129.2
129.2

2 2.0
2 1.1
2 2.3
2 4.4
2 5.6
2 5.1
2 3.4
2 4.6
^5.4
2 1.1
(3)

16.6
17.8
24.0
24.6
36.9
40.6
45.6
46.7
40.9
29.4
19.1
21.3
16.6
15.8
16.5
13.5
7.4
1.6
7.2
4.0

132.7
132.9
133.8
133.3
131.9
131.1
130.7
131.0
131.3
130.8
130.1
130.4

15.5
16.7
22.9
23.5
35.7
39.3
44.2
45.4
39.6
28.2
18.0
20.2
15.5
14.8
15.4
12.5
6.4
.7
6.2
3.1
2.9

1910.

Jan. . . .
Feb..!!
Mar___
Apr___
May....
June__
July....
Aug__
Sept.
Oct__
Nov__
Dec___

116.7
116.8
116.4
116.2
117.1
117.0
116.8
116.2
117.5
117.5
116.6
118.8

i Average for 1890-1899=100.




2.3
1.7
1.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7

* Same as average price for December.

2 1.7
2 1.9
2 2.5
2 2.2
2 1.1
2.5
2.2
2.5
2.7
2.3
.2

324

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In this table the average relative prices of farm products are based
on 16 articles from 1890 to 1907 and on 20 articles from 1908 to 1910;
of food, etc., on 53 articles from 1890 to 1892 and from 1904 to 1907,
54 from 1893 to 1903, and on 57 from 1908 to 1910; of cloths and cloth­
ing, on 65 articles in 1909 and 1910, on 66 in 1908, on 70 in 1890 and
1891, 72 in 1892, 73 in 1893 and 1894, 75 in 1895,1896,1906, and 1907,
and 76 from 1897 to 1905; of fuel and lighting, on 13 articles; of
metals and implements, on 37 articles from 1890 to 1893, 38 in 1894
and 1895 and from 1899 to 1910, and 39 from 1896 to 1898; of lum­
ber and building materials, on 26 articles from 1890 to 1894, 27 from
1895 to 1907, and on 28 from 1908 to 1910; of drugs and chemicals,
on 9 articles; of house furnishing goods, on 14 articles; and of mis­
cellaneous, on 13 articles.
The greatest advance in any group was in farm products, in which
the advance in 1910 over 1896 was 110.2 per cent, making the price
in 1910 more than twice that in 1896, but in December, 1910, the price
was below the average prices for the years 1909 and 1910. The aver­
age price in December, 1910, was lower than the average price for
each preceding month of the year and was 16.9 per cent lower than
for March, the month of highest prices for this group.
Food, etc., in the year 1910 was 53.6 per cent above 1896, and the
December price was 53.8 per cent higher than the average price for
1896. In December, 1910, the price was 0.2 per cent higher than for
the year 1910, and 3.4 per cent higher than the 1909 average price.
Cloths and clothing in 1910 were 35.8 per cent higher than in 1897,
and in December, 1910, they were 2.7 per cent higher than the 1909
average price.
Further study of the table shows that the 1910 average price for
7 of the 9 groups was higher than the 1909 average price and that 2
groups, fuel and lighting and house-furnishing goods, show a decrease.
The December, 1910, average price of 6 groups shows a decline from
the January, 1910, price by percentages from 0.2 to 11.2 per cent.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

325

In order to follow the movement in the two great classes—raw and
manufactured commodities—the following table has been prepared.
The articles included under each of the two groups are indicated on
page 311.
RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW AND MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, BY YEARS, 1890
TO 1910, AND BY MONTHS, JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND PER CENT OF
INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1910 OVER EACH PRECEDING YEAR, AND FOR DECEMBER,
1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING MONTH OR YEAR.
Manufactured commodities.

Raw commodities.

All commodities.

Per cent of increase—
Per cent of increase—
Per cent of increase—
Year or
month. Rela- In 1910 In Decern- Rela- In 1910 In Decem­ Rela­ In 1910 In Decem­
tive
over ber, 1910, tive
over ber, 1910,
over her, 1910, tive
price.* each over each price.1 each over each price.1 each over each
preced­ preceding
preced­ preceding
preced- preceding
ing month or
ing month or
ing month or
year.
year.
year.
year.
year.
year.
1890....
1891....
1892___
1893___
1894___
1895___
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1901....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910___

21.5
20.1
29.5
33.8
49.9
52.3
66.3
59.5
48.6
31.9
24.8
25.4
14.1
13.9
16.7
15.3
10.4
4.7
11.3
2.1

18.7
17.4
26.5
30.7
46.5
48.9
62.5
55.8
45.2
28.9
22.0
22.5
11.5
11.2
14.0
12.6
7.9
2.3
8.8
2.2
2 2.3

112.3
110.6
105.6
105.9
96.8
94.0
91.9
90.1
93.3
100.7
110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5
111.3
114.6
121.6
128.6
122.2
123.9
129.6

2 5.8

115.0
116.3
107.9
104.4
93.2
91.7
84.0
87.6
94.0
105.9
111.9
111.4
122.4
122.7
119.7
121.2
126.5
133.4
125.5
136.8
139.7

129.7
129.9
131.0
130.8
129.7
129.3
128.8
129.0
129.5
129.4
128.8
128.8

14.7
16.5
22.0
21.6
33.1
37.0
40.2
43.0
38.0
27.9
16.9
19.5
16.5
15.5
15.7
12.4
5.9
.2
5.4
4.0
2.6

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5
131.6

2.7
2.8
2 1.7
2 1 .5
2.7
2.4
( )
' 2.2
2.5
2.5

132.7
132.9
133.8
133.3
131.9
131.1
130.7
131.0
131.3
130.8
130.1
130.4

15.4
17.2
22.7
22.4
33.9
37.9
41.0
43.8
38.9
28.7
17.6
20.2
17.2
16.2
16.4
13.1
6.6
.8
6.1
4.6

16.6
17.8
24.0
24.6
36.9
40.6
45.6
46.7
40.9
29.4
19.1
21.3
16.6
15.8
16.5
13.5
7.4
1.6
7.2
4.0

1910.

Jan.......
Feb___
Mar___
Apr___
May___
June....
July___
Aug___
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.__
D ec.. ..

15.5
16.7
22.9
23.5
35.7
39.3
44.2
45.4
39.6
28.2
18.0
20.2
15.5
14.8
15.4
12.5
6.4
.7
6.2
3.1
2.9
1

144.9
144.9
144.9
143.3
140.3
138.1
138.2
138.8
138.2
136.0
135.1
136.5

25.8
25.8
24.7

•

2 2.7
21.2
21.2
21.7
21.2
.4
1.0

i Average for 1890-1899=100.0.

2 Decrease.

3

(3
)

3 Same as average price for December.

2 1.7
2 1.9
2 2.5
2 2.2
2 1.1
2.5
2.2
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.0

In 1890 the relative prices of raw commodities were higher than
those of manufactured commodities and remained so until 1893,
when prices of raw commodities declined and those of manufactured
commodities were slightly above the prices of 1892. From 1894 to
1896 there was a marked decline in both groups, the raw commodi­
ties being lower than the manufactured in each of these years. In




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

326

RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW AND MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES,
1890 TO 1910.

Raw




_________ ^M anufactured

WHOLESALE PRICES,. 1890 TO 1910.

327

1897 raw commodities advanced and manufactured declined. From
1898 to 1900 there was a decided advance in both groups each year,
raw commodities advancing to a higher point than manufactured. In
1901 there was a very slight decline in raw and a more marked decline
in manufactured commodities. In 1902 both groups made a decided
advance, raw commodities much the greater, and in 1903 both
slightly advanced. In 1904 both raw and manufactured commodi­
ties declined, but in 1905 both groups advanced. In 1906 both
made a sharp advance, and another advance, equally great, was made
in both groups in 1907. In 1908 both raw and manufactured com­
modities declined.
In 1909 both general groups advanced, but the increase in raw was
much more marked than in manufactured commodities. In 1910
both groups advanced, but manufactured commodities made the
greater gain. Both the raw and manufactured groups in March,
1910, were at the highest point attained during the 21 years covered.
For the period included in this table it will be seen that generally
during the years of high prices raw commodities were higher than
manufactured commodities, and during the years of low prices raw
commodities were lower than manufactured commodities. This is
more clearly shown in the graphic table on page 326.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, BY MONTHS, JANUARY, 1900, TO DECEMBER,
1910.

An opportunity is given in the table below to study the movement
in prices for each of the 9 groups and for all commodities, month by
month, from January, 1900, to December, 1910, inclusive.
RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1900, TO DECEM­
BER, 1910, BY GROUPS.
FARM PRODUCTS.
[Average for 1890-1899=100.0.)
Year.
1900.......
1901.......
1902.......
1903.......
1904.......
1905.......
1906.......
1907.......
1908.......
1909.......
1910.......

Yearly
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. aver­
age.
104.5
112.8
126.7
123.3
120.8
124.1
119.5
129.0
129.8
138.5
169.4

108.7
113.2
126.8
124.8
127.2
125.9
118.7
134.0
128.8
141.7
175.1

109.8
114.0
129.0
127.0
130.3
127.1
119.4
135.4
134.2
147.5
181.0




114.3
115.9
134.4
125.0
129.2
127.0
122.5
136.5
135.0
149.7
177.0

110.8
116.8
137.7
122.1
127.6
125.2
124.2
139.9
134.9
156.4
168.5

109.6
114.3
137.6
121.1
126.8
126.2
126.2
144.2
132.8
155.7
163.3

109.2
117.1
141.1
115.8
125.2
128.9
124.0
140.5
134.0
153.3
161.6

106.8
119.0
131.0
114.8
125.3
125.3
122.8
141.0
133.8
149.6
161.6

108.1
117.8
129.7
117.2
126.0
120.4
123.8
145.5
132.7
151.4
159.3

109.8
118.3
126.3
112.5
125.4
120.1
125.2
144.4
133.9
158.4
155.5

112.6
118.4
123.5
109.9
126.4
119.7
126.9
128.9
133.5
164.3
151.0

110.9
124.1
122.3
112.2
122.2
121.8
130.0
128.3
135.2
169.2
150.5

109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1
133.1
153.1
164.6

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

328

BELATIVE PBICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1900, TO DECEM­
BER, 1910, BY GROUPS—Continued.
FOOD, ETC.
Year.
1900___
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....

Yearly
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. aver­
age.
103.7
106.4
111.4
112.3
106.3
112.2
112.3
117.0
120.5
122.6
129.1

103.6
105.6
111.8
111.4
108.3
113.6
112.2
118.2
119.8
122.9
128.2

102.9
104.9
111.1
112.3
108.7
110.3
111.7
116.7
120.2
123.8
130.9-

102.5
103.2
111.4
110.0
107.4
109. Q
111.0
113.9
121.3
125.1
129.8

101.6
102.9
112.6
104.8
105.2
104.6
109.8
113.8
118.2
126.5
127.8

101.2
102.9
109.3
105.6
105.1
102.7
111.1
115.2
120.3
126.5
126.8

102.5
103.2
109.3
103.8
105.2
103.2
112.3
114.9
120.2
126.7
128.1

103.3
106.0
108.5
103.1
106.3
105.9
113.2
115.3
120.0
125.1
129.1

104.4
109.9
107.9
107.1
108.5
108.3
112.4
117.4
121.9
128.0
130.1

106.7
107.4
112.2
104.4
107.8
108.8
112.7
123.5
122.6
125.4
129.6

108.5
107.6
112.6
105.6
110.2
110.2
115.8
122.8
121.9
127.4
127.8

108.3
111.1
114.1
105.5
111.4
112.1
118.2
120.8
124.4
129.0
128.9

104.2
105.9
111.3
107.0
107.2
108.7
112.6
117.8
120.6
124.7
128.7

105.2
100.8
102.0
108.2
108.4
114.5
119.7
129.2
114 2
121.3
121.8

104 4
101.0
102.7
108.0
108.4
115.2
120.3
128.8
114 2
122.6
122.4

104 7
101.2
102.8
108.1
108.3
116.1
121.6
128.2
114 8
124.5
122.7

105.2 106.8
101.4 101.0
103.0 102.0
108.6 106.6
108.6 109.8
117.1 112.0
122.2 120.0
127.1 126.7
115.6 116.9
125.2 119.6
122.8 123.7

116.4
120.2
127.2
140.4
128.8
126.5
131.9
135.2
130.4
128.5
123.9

117.4
121.7
175.9
141.2
129.1
132.2
132.2
139.9
130.7
133.9
122.3

118.7
124.9
158.0
140.1
130.8
134 5
134.5
139.9
131.9
133.5
122.9

116.9
124 2
171.2
139.8
133.9
134.7
136.5
133.6
132.5
133.5
123.8

120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3
125.4

111.9
112.5
119.4
114 3
107.7
124.2
139.3
135.4
124.8
128.1
127.2

112.4
112.6
118.7
111.8
110.7
126.3
143.6
133.3
125.1
129.3
127.1

112.6
112.6
117.3
109.0
113.4
129.3
146.9
129.8
125.7
130.6
126.8

120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
*135.2
143.4
125.4
124.8
128.5

116.3
119.4
122.6
124.3
119.4
134 2
141.6
142.2
132.3
143.5
156.5

115.8
113.0
122.7
123.1
120.1
132.1
143.3
137.2
136.3
145.0
156.4

115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
133.1
138.4
153.2

CLOTHES AND CLOTHING.
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905___
1906___
1907___
1908___
1909....
1910....

107.7
102.8
101.5
104.2
110.4
109.6
119.4
123.2
124.0
116.1
126.9

108.4
102.2
101.5
104.5
112.1
108.5
119.5
123.9
121.2
116.5
126.7

109.0
101.8
101.9
104.9
111.9
108.7
119.6
124.6
119.9
116.7
126.4

108.9
100.4
101.5
105.0
111.7
108.8
119.3
125.3
118.5
116.7
124.6

108.5
99.8
101.5
105.4
110.9
109.0
119.5
125.9
117.6
117.0
123.8

108.1
99.8
101.6
106.3
110.5
110.1
119.4
126.9
114.7
117.5
123.3

106.5
100.3
101.8
107.5
108.8
111.5
119.3
128.0
114.5
119.5
121.8

105.5
99.7
101.5
107.8
108.6
113.8
.119.3
128.3
114.4
121.0
121.6

FUEL AND LIGHTING.
1900___
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....

122.6
119.3
119.4
178.6
143.6
130.8
134 0
135.8
134.3
131.7
131.1

127. 5
120. 0
118. 6
178. 6
141. 9
132. 8
131. 3
136. 6
132. 5
130. 0
130. 3

129.3
120.5
118.9
154.8
138.7
130.5
130.9
135.5
132.9
128.9
130.3

126.9
116.5
118.1
149.0
130.6
125.8
131.7
132.1
128.5
126.3
125.4

122.2
115.5
123.3
145.0
129.1
124.0
129.9
132.6
127.8
126.2
124 2

117.8
115.3
125.9
143.1
129.4
124.4
128.6
131.2
129.0
126.0
124.5

115.2
116.8
121.0
141.1
127.8
124.3
129.7
132.9
129.2
127.3
123.3

114.2
119.5
120.8
140.3
128.2
125.3
131.3
134.1
130.2
126.5
123.5

METALS AND IMPLEMENTS.
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....

127.8
110.4
111.4
119.4
108.9
115.2
131.0
147.9
127.4
126.1
129.7

129.2
110.0
112.2
119.6
109.0
119.7
131.6
149.1
126.7
124.4
129.3

129.6
111.2
1141
121.6
109.6
122.6
131.5
148.8
125.9
122.6
128.9

128.7
112.0
115.1
123.1
111.0
122.5
131.3
148.6
125.9
121.8
131.5

124.6
112.3
118.1
121.9
110.6
122.3
132.3
148.8
125.8
121.3
129.9

120.9
112.0
119.9
119.7
109.3
121.2
133.2
148.1
124.8
121.6
129.1

118.0
111.6
119.9
118.1
108.6
120.8
133.1
146.9
124.0
122.3
128.2

116.4
112.6
120.6
117.0
108.3
122.3
133.2
142.7
124.5
123.5
127.0

114 3
112.8
120.4
115.8
107.6
123.2
135.4
140.8
124 7
125.8
127.0

LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS.
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___
1910....

115.5
114 4
111.4
120.7
123.6
120.1
135.0
145.9
138.9
137.4
149.3

116.4
115.2
112.8
122.8
124 4
121.9
138.4
147.3
138.1
137.8
151.5

117.1
117.7
113. 2
123.5
123.5
120.7
139.6
149.1
135.2
136.1
151.3




117.3
118.1
116.3
120.9
123.6
122.8
139.2
150.5
135.9
135.8
152.0

116.3
116.2
120.5
118.7
123.9
124 5
140.4
150.4
131.6
135.7
151.2

116.9
116.1
121.5
120.6
125.5
130.7
139.8
149.8
128.8
135.5
151.6

115.4
118.0
120.1
120.1
124.4
128.0
141.5
149.2
128.8
135.3
153.6

114.4
117.3
121.6
119.5
123.6
131.6
139.9
149.0
129.9
m s
155.2

113.0
115.7
121.0
121.5
120.4
131.9
141.0
147.2
130.4
141.3
155.9

114.1
119.3
121.8
121.3
119.5
133.4
141.1
144 9
131.1
140.6
155.9

RELATIVE;PRICES OF ALL COMMODITIES, BY MONTHS, JANUARY, 1906, TO DECEMBER, 1910.
[Average for 1890 to 1899=100.0.]
m um ,
pmces JAN.

J9 0 6
A P R * JULY'

OCT

JAN.

1907
APR. JULY

OCT.

JAN.

.1908
APR. JULY

OCT.

JAN.

1909
APR. JULY

OCT

/36

JAN.

1910
APR. JULY
,

OCT. DEC.

>

\

132
.o—

130

Z ___

/28

r

126

/___

/
\

\

/

_ \

/

\

/
A 1
* *
JO
—O^

\

/

/2 4

\

/22

Af

***
120
1/8

S '

t/

V

pi,® -!= ^Sr

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

134.

//6
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no




00
to
C
O

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

330

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1900, TO DECEM­
BER, 1910, BY GROUPS—Concluded.
DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.
Year.
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1903....
1909....
1910....

Yearly
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. aver­
age.
114.6
115.8
119.1
111.8
111.7
108.9
102.9
102.1
109.5
112.2
116.7

115.6
112.0
117.2
111.4
110.4
109.4
101.5
103.5111.1
110.9
116.8

116.8
112.7
117.4
113.7
110.6
110.0
101.2
103.4
110.9
110.6
116.4

115.9
113.1
117.3
111.4
111.8
110.5
101.0
105.0
110.2
110.3
116.2

113.8
113.9
114.3
112.8
112.3
109.0
100.2
104.8
107.1
109.5
117.1

112.9
114.5
114.3
113.7
110.6
108.8
100.3
104.4
108.4’
110.5
117.0

113.1
114.3
112.6
113.1
109.9
106.4
100.3
108.1
112.7
111.8
116.8

116.5
117.2
111.4
113.9
109.6
108.1
101.6
119.1
112.1
111.7
116.2

117.5
115.3
110.2
112.8
108.5
110.0
100.9
119.1
111.2
112.9
117.5

117.1
114.2
112.3
112.6
108.2
110.2
100.7
116.7
109.7
114.7
117.5

116.7
120.5
113.5
112.5
107.7
109.5
100.7
115.8
110.2
116.3
116.6

117.5 115.7
118.7 115.2
111.5 114.2
111.4 112.6
109.1 110.0
108.8 109.1
102.9 101.2
112.4 109.6
110.9 110.4
117.2 112.4
118.8 117.0

106.5
110.9
112.5
112.7
111.8
109.1
112.1
120.5
111.2
110.7
112.4

106.5
110.9
112.5
113.5
111.8
109.1
112.7
120.5
111.2
109.9
112.4

106.5
110.9
112.5
113.5
111.8
109.1
115.0
120.2
110.5
109.8
112.4

105.6
110.9
112.5
113.5
111.8
109.1
115.0
120.2
110.5
109.8
111.6

106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5
114.0
111.7
111.6

108.5
108.2
113.6
114.4
111.2
111.8
121.4
127.8
118.5
128.7
136.6

107.5
109.3
111.7
114.5
111.6
112.5
120.3
129.5
118.2
130.8
130.6

106.5
109.5
110.9
110.4
109.7
113.3
123.4
124.3
116.7
131.1
129.2

105.8
111.8
112.9
110.1
111.5
115.1
125.8
120.6
117.1
131.4
129.2

109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6
111.7
112.8
121.1
127.1
119.9
125.9
133.1

108.6
109.4
112.3
113.3
112.0
116.7
122.6
130.8
121.8
128.1
131.3

108.7
109.4
115.5
112.3
111.8
117.6
123.5
131.0
122.1
129.0
130.8

109.6
109.9
114.6
112.1
112.7
118.7
125.7
128.9
122.1
130.9
130.1

109.5 110.5
110.4 108.5
115.3 112.9
111.7 113.6
113.5 113.0
119.8 115.9
127.6 122.5
126.4 129.5
123.6 122.8
132.2 126.5
130.4 131.6

HOUSE-FURNISHING GOODS.
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906___
1907....
1903___
1909___
1910....

105.5
110.9
111.5
112.2
111.9
109.1
103.8
115.0
117.0
114.5
109.1

106.0
110.9
111.5
112.2
111.5
109.1
108.8
115.0
117.0
113.7
109.7

106.0
110.9
111.5
113.1
111.5
109.1
108.8
117.2
117.0
113.1
109.7

106.0
110.9
111.5
113.1
111.5
109.1
108.8
117.5
117.0
113.1
112.4

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
108.8
117.5
117.0
113.1
112.4

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
108.8
118.5
114.5
110.8
112.4

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
112.1
119.6
114.1
110.8
112.4

106.5
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
112.1
120.5
111.2
110.8
112.4

MISCELLANEOUS.
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905___
1903....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....

109.8
105.2
115.7
113.3
110.2
111.2
118.6
126.0
122.6
117.1
131.8

110.7
105.4
112.3
113.5
111.2
113.8
118.9
123.8
121.4
117.9
130.6

112.2
104.7
114.0
114.9
112.9
114.6
118.1
128.5
120.1
124.0
132.2

113.1
106.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
113.9
117.6
128.9
120.6
122.3
135.1

114.1
107.3
115.9
115.1
112.7
112.1
121.3
129.5
121.9
124.4
136.9

110.7
107.5
116.6
114.3
111.6
112.9
122.2
128.8
121.1
126.4
136.1

110.5
106.7
116.7
114.3
112.9
110.6
122.6
130.3
121.5
126.7
133.8

108.1
107.1
114.2
114.4
111.6
111.6
123.0
127.5
118.9
130.6
135.4

ALL COMMODITIES.
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907___
1908....
1909....
1910....

111.4
108.3
110.3
115.9
113.2
114.0
120.8
127.9
125.7
124.0
132.7

112.5
107.9
110.4
116.1
114.4
115.2
121.1
129.0
124.4
124.0
132.9

112.9
108.2
110.9
115.9
114.6
114.9
121.1
129.4
124.2
124.5
133.8

112.9
107.6
111.7
114.9
114.0
114.6
121.0
129.1
124.0
124.6
133.3

111.4
107.3
113.3
113.2
113.2
113.6
121.2
129.6
122.4
125.4
131.9
t

110.2
107.1
113.1
113.4
112.9
114.1
121.6
130.1
121.5
125.5
131.1

109.3
107.6
113.0
112.6
112.0
114.3
122.1
130.3
-121.7
126.2
130.7

108.7
108.5
112.2
112.2
112.0
116.0
122.3
130.2
121.4
126.4
131.0

The course of prices, by months, from January, 1906, to Decem­
ber, 1910, as represented by all commodities, is shown clearly in the
graphic table on page 329. The earlier years are omitted from the
chart for lack of space.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

381

The following table shows the movement in the wholesale prices of
raw commodities and of manufactured commodities, month by
month, from January, 1900, to December, 1910. A description of the
two classes will be found on page 311.
RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW COMMODITIES, OF MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, AND
OF ALL COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1900, TO DECEMBER, 1910.
RAW COMMODITIES.
[Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Year.
1900___
1901___
1902___
1903___
1904___
1905___
1906___
•1907___
1908___
1909___
1910....

Yearly
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. aver­
age.
115.1
111.0
117.0
133.0
121.8
123.0
125.5
1^4.7
124.3
132.9
144.9

116.4
110.3
116.2
133.0
123.6
124.1
124.4
136.1
123.9
134.4
144.9

116.1
110.8
117.0
127.8
123.2
122.6
123.0
136.2
125.2
135.8
144.9

116.2
108.7
117.5
125.8
121.1
119.6
124.7
133.9
124.0
136.8
143.3

113.5
109.4
122.8
121.5
119.7
118.2
123.6
136.0
122.4
139.9
140.3

109.8
107.5
121.1
121.6
118.5
117.4
124.9
136.9
123.8
138.9
138.1

108.7
109.6
121.8
119.9
117.5
118.4
124.9
134.2
124.8
138.8
138.2

107.8
112.5
119.8
118.6
118.7
118.4
125.4
132.3
125.3
136.4
138.8

108.1
112.4
131.3
118.1
117.3
122.1
128.4
134.3
127.1
138.7
136.0

110.8
114.3
128.7
117.2
120.7
123.8
132.4
128.1
127.8
141.0
135.1

110.8
117.6
131.4
117.5
122.1
126.3
135.6
124.2
132.2
143.1
136.5

111.9
111.4
122.4
122.7
119.7
121.2
126.5
133.4
125.5
136.8
139.7

108.8
108.6
110.6
111.6
110.3
116.0
121.8
130.3
120.9
125.6
129.5

108.8
108.7
111.7
110.9
110.5
116.6
122.4
130.2
120.9
126.6
129.4

109.3
108.9
111.2
110.9
110.8
117.5
124.1
129.1
120.8
128.4
128.8

109.1
108.7
111.5
110.4
111.5
118.2
125.6
127.0
121.5
129.5
128.8

110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5
111.3
114.6
121.6
128.6
122.2
123.9
129.6

108.6
109.4
112.3
113.3
112.0
116.7
122.6
130.8
121.8
128.1
131.3

108.7
109.4
115.5
112.3
111.8
117.6
123.5
131.0
122.1
129.0
130.8

109.6
109.9
114.6
112.1
112.7
118.7
125.7
128.9
122.1
130.9
130.1

109.5
110.4
115.3
111.7
113.5
119.8
127.6
126.4
123.6
132.2
130.4

110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5
131.6

107.4
112.9
119.6
120.7
119.1
119.6
126.3
132.8
125.6
138.2
138.2

MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES.
1900___
1901___
1902___
1903....
1904___
1905___
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___
1910....

110.5
107.7
108.7
111.8
111.1
111.9
119.7
126.3
126.1
121.8
129.7

111.5
107.3
109.0
112.0
112.2
113.1
120.3
127.3
124.7
121.5
129.9

112.2
107.5
109.5
113.1
112.5
113.1
120.6
127.8
124.0
121.6
131.0

112.1
107.3
110.3
112.3
112.3
113.4
120.1
128.0
124.0
121.5
130.8

110.9
106.8
111.0
111.3
111.6
112.5
120.6
128.0
122.4
121.8
129.7

110.3
107.0
111.2
111.4
111.5
113.3
120.9
128.5
121.1
122.2
129.3

109.4
107.1
110.9
110.9
110.7
113.3
121.5
129.4
120.9
123.0
128.8

108.9
107.5
110.4
110.7
110.4
115.4
121.5
129.7
120.5
123.9
129.0

ALL COMMODITIES.
1900....
1901___
1902___
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908___
1909....
1910___

111.4
108.3
110.3
115.9
113.2
114.0
120.8
127.9
125.7
124.0
132.7

112.5
107.9
110.4
116.1
114.4
115.2
121.1
129.0
124.4
124.0
132.9

112.9
108.2
110.9
115.9
114.6
114.9
121.1
129.4
124.2
124.5
133.8

112.9
107.6
111.7
114.9
114.0
114.6
121.0
129.1
124.0
124.6
133.3

111.4
107.3
113.3
113.2
113.2
113.6
121.2
129.6
122.4
125.4
131.9

110.2
107.1
113.1
113.4
112.9
114.1
121.6
130.1
121.5
125.<5
131.1

109.3
107.6
113.0
112.6
112.0
114.3
122.1
130.3
121.7
126.2
130.7

108.7
108.5
112.2
112.2
112.0
116.0
122.3
130.2
121.4
126.4
131.0

The course of prices of raw and manufactured commodities from
January, 1906, to December, 1910, is shown, by months, in the
graphic table which follows. The years 1900 to 1905 are omitted
for lack of space.




332

RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW AND MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, BY MONTHS, JANUARY, 1906, TO DECEMBER,
1910.
[Average for 1890 to 1899=100.0.]




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

J9 06'
mmt
J 9 08
/9 07
.
PRICES J/w : AtPR. JOIY Oi: t jaW APR/ JOLY OiIT. J.\W APR. JOIY
.
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//6

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

333

INFLUENCES AFFECTING PRICES.

No attempt has been made to investigate the causes of the rise and
fall of prices. The aim has been to, give only the prices as they
actually prevailed in the market and such summaries thereof as
appear necessary. The causes are too complex, the relative influence
of each too uncertain, in some cases involving too many economic
questions, to permit their discussion in the present report. An
enumeration of some of the influences that cause changes in prices
may be of interest, however. Such influences include variations in
harvest, which not only contract or expand the supply and conse­
quently tend to increase or decrease the price of a commodity, but
also decrease or increase, to a greater or less degree, the purchasing
power of such communities as are dependent in whole or in part
upon such commodity; changes in demand due to changes in fash­
ions, seasons, etc.; legislation changing internal-revenue taxes,
import duties, or bounties; inspection as to purity or adulteration;
use of other articles as substitutes—as, for instance, an advance in
the price of beef will cause an increased consumption of pork and
mutton and, it may be added, a probable increase in the price of
both pork and mutton; improvements in methods of production
which will tend to give either a better article for the same price or
an equal article for a lower price; cheapening of transportation or
handling; speculative manipulation of the supply or of the raw
product; commercial panic or depression; expanding or contract­
ing credit; overproduction; unusual demand owing to steady employ­
ment of consumers; short supply owing to disputes between labor
and capital in industries of limited producing capacity, as in the
anthracite coal industry in 1902; organization or combination of
mills or producers, thus enabling, on the one hand, a greater or less
control of prices or, on the other hand, economies in production or
in transportation charges through the ability to supply the article
from the point of production or manufacture nearest the purchaser.
No conclusion can be formed safely as to causes without an exami­
nation of the possible influence of several—in some cases, perhaps
all—of these causes. For example, the various internal-revenue and
tariff acts have, in a marked degree, no doubt affected the prices of
proof spirits, of tobacco, and of sugar; but, on the other hand,
they have not been alone in their influences, and it probably would
not in all cases be accurate to give the change of tax or duty as
representing the measure of a certain and definite influence on the
prices of those commodities.




334

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

The general statistical tables of this report are three in number,
entitled as follows:
I. —Wholesale prices of commodities from January to December,
1910.
II. —Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1910, and monthly actual and relative prices, January to
December, 1910, and base prices (average for 1890-1899).
III. —Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1910, and
monthly relative prices, January to December, 1910.
Table I .— Wholesale prices of commodities, January to December,
1910, pages 362 to J f l l .—This table shows in detail the actual prices
from January to December, 1910, as obtained for the several com­
modities embraced by this report.
In 1901 the Bureau of Labor collected data relating to the whole­
sale prices of the .principal staple commodities sold in the United
States for the period from 1890 to 1901, inclusive. The actual prices
for the 12 years and the relative prices computed therefrom were pub­
lished in Bulletin No. 39, issued in March, 1902. The purpose of the
investigation was to furnish a continuous record of wholesale prices
and to show the changes in the general price level from year to year.
The investigation thus begun has been continued each year and the
results published in the March issue of the Bulletin to show actual
prices for the year immediately preceding and relative prices for the
period since 1890. The present Bulletin contains actual prices for
January to December, 1910, and relative prices for the 21 years
from 1890 to 1910.
In these reports wholesale prices have been presented for a large
number of carefully selected representative staple articles secured in
representative markets of the United States. That it would be
impossible to secure prices for all articles in all markets is obvious.
In the present report prices are given for 257 articles. With few
exceptions these articles are of the same description as those which
have been covered in the preceding reports on this subject, though
several commodities shown in the data for 1908 to 1910 were not
included in previous years.
There is not space within a Bulletin article to publish in full the
actual prices for all commodities for the entire 21-year period. Prices
for 1890 to 1909 may be found, however, in preceding March Bulle­
tins of this Bureau.
It is important that the greatest care be exercised in the choice of
commodities in order that a simple average of their relative prices
shall show a general price level, and it has been the aim of the Bureau
to select only important and representative articles in each group.



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

335

The use of a large number of articles, carefully selected, minimizes
the effect on the general price level of an unusual change in the price
of any one article or of a few articles. It will be seen that more than
one series of prices have been given in the case of articles of great
importance. This has been done for the purpose of giving weight to
these important commodities, no other method of accomplishing
this having been found satisfactory by the Bureau. The same means
have been employed by Mr. Sauerbeck in his English prices, as
explained in Bulletin No. 39, and the approximate accuracy of the
same, as an indication of the variation of prices, has been proved
by various tests based on the amount of production, etc.
Various methods of weighting have been attempted in connection
with compilations of relative prices. One method employed by Euro­
pean statisticians is to measure the importance of each commodity by
its annual consumption by the entire nation, the annual consumption
being found by adding to the home production the amount imported
and subtracting the amount exported. The method employed by the
Bureau of Labor in its publication of Retail Prices of Food in the
Eighteenth Annual Report and in Bulletins 59, 65, 71, and 77, con­
sisted in giving to the various articles of food an importance based
upon their average consumption in normal families. While it was
possible to determine the relative importance as far as the consump­
tion of food is concerned, there are, of course, many commodities the
importance of which can not be measured by this method. The
impossibility of securing even approximately accurate figures for
annual consumption in the United States of the commodities included
in this compilation renders this method unavailable for the Bureau.
It has been thought best in the present series of index numbers,
after a careful consideration of all methods of weighting, to use simply
a large number of representative staple articles, selecting them in
such a manner as to make them, to a large extent, weight themselves.
Upon a casual examination it may seem that by this method a com­
paratively unimportant commodity—such, for instance, as tea—has
been given the same weight or importance as one of the more impor­
tant commodities, such as wheat. A closer examination, however,
discloses the fact that tea enters into no other commodity under con­
sideration, while wheat is not only quoted in the raw state, but
enters into the two descriptions of wheat flour, the two descriptions
of crackers, and the three descriptions of loaf bread.
In securing these prices an effort has been made to include staple
commodities only. In a number of instances it was found possible
to continue prices for the same commodities that were included in the
Report on Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation, submitted
by Mr. Aldrich, from the Senate Committee on Finance, March 3,1893.
Many articles which ‘were included in that report are no longer manu­



336

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

factured, or, if still manufactured, have ceased to be important
factors in the market. On the other hand, a number of articles not
shown in that report have become of such importance as to render
necessary their inclusion irL any study of the course of prices.
Although in the case of commodities of great importance more than
one series of quotations have been used, in no case has an article of a
particular description been represented by more than one series of
quotations from the same market. For this reason the terms “ series
of quotations” and “ commodities” have been used interchangeably
in this report.
In the record of prices from 1890 to 1910, 236 series of quota­
tions have been presented for the entire period and an additional 36
for some portion of the period. Of the latter number, 15 articles have
been discontinued, as follows: No quotations are shown for imported
tin plate since 1898; for Ashton’s salt since 1903; for beaver over­
coatings since 1905; for sun-dried apples, nutmegs, cotton and wool
blankets, split boots, men’s 84-needle hose, linen thread, all-wool
chinchilla overcoatings, shawls, Atlantic brown sheetings, Hope
bleached sheetings, and indigo 16-ounce suitings since 1907; nor for
cotton warp chinchilla overcoatings since 1908. The actual prices
of the above-named articles are not shown in any table in this pre­
sentation, and those wishing to secure them for the years for which
quoted may do so by consulting preceding March Bulletins. As may
be seen by reference to Table II, 2 articles were quoted for the first
time in 1892, 2 in 1893, 1 in 1894, 3 in 1895, 1 in 1896, 1 in 1897,
and 11 in 1908.
In all there are 257 series of quotations in the present report.
Material changes in the description of 3 articles were made in 1902,
of 2 articles in 1903, of 1 article in 1904, of 5 articles in 1905, of 7
articles in 1906, of 3 articles in 1907, of 19 articles in 1908, of 1 article
in 1909, and of 2 articles in 1910. For 7 of these articles the trade
journals no longer supply satisfactory quotations, the manufacture of
the particular grades of 13 previously quoted has been discontinued
by the establishments heretofore furnishing quotations, and for 23
articles the substituted descriptions more nearly represent the present
demands of the trade.
In making these substitutions, articles were supplied corresponding
as closely as possible to those which were previously used.
The prices quoted in every instance are wholesale prices. ' Whole­
sale prices have invariably been used in ^compilations made for the
purpose of showing changes in the general price level of all commod­
ities. They are more sensitive than retail prices and more quickly
reflect changes in conditions, and, too, it is much more difficult to
follow the changes in the quality of commodities quoted in retail



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

337

prices than in wholesale prices. Eetail prices usually follow the
wholesale, but not always in the same proportion. The margin
between them in the case of some commodities is so great that slight
changes in the wholesale price do not affect the retail price. Changes
in the wholesale price, which last for a short time only, do not usually
result in corresponding changes in the retail price.
The net cash prices are shown for textiles and all articles whose list
prices are subject to large and varying discounts. In the case of a
number of articles, such as white pine, nails, etc., however, whose
prices are subject to a small discount for cash, no deduction has been
made.
The prices have been collected from the best available sources—
standard trade journals for 131 articles, officials of boards of trade
for 9 articles, chambers of commerce for 1 article, produce exchanges
for 7 articles, leading manufacturers or their selling agents for 108
articles, and a Government bureau for 1 article.
About one-half of the prices quoted are the prices in the New York
market. For grains, live stock, etc., Chicago prices are quoted; for
fish, except salmon, Boston prices; for tar, Wilmington (N. C.) prices;
for Elgin creamery butter, Elgin (111.) prices, etc. The prices for tex­
tiles are the prices in the general distributing markets, such as New
York, Boston, and Philadelphia; and where no market is mentioned
in the prefatory note to the article in Table I it should be understood
that the prices are for the general market.
The following table shows the different markets represented and
the number of articles in each group quoted for each market:
NUMBER OF COMMODITIES OR SERIES OF QUOTATIONS CLASSIFIED BY MARKETS
FOR WHICH SECURED, 1910.
Market.
New York..............................
Chicago...................................
Factory, mine, wells, etc. -.
Pittsburg...............................
Philadelphia.........................
Boston....................................
Trenton, N. j ........................
Cincinnati..............................
Eastern markets (Balt.,
Boston, N. Y., Phila.). . . .
East St. Louis, 111................
Elgin, ill................................
La Salle, 111...........................
Louisville, K y......................
Peoria, 111...............................
Washington, D. C..............
Wilmington, N. C................
General market....................
Total............................

Farm Food, Cloths Fuel
and and
prod­ etc. cloth­ light­
ucts.
ing. ing.
3
15

46
O
3

1

1

i
20

9
3
1

21
1
1
7
4

57

Lum­
ber and Drugs
and
build­ chem­
ing ma­ icals.
terials.
23
1
3

9

House­ Mis­
fur­ cella­
nishing neous. Total.
goods.
6
3

12

7

a

3

2
1
61
65

13

2
38

131
2a
10
4

1

1

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----3



2

Metals
and
imple­
ments.

1
1
28

9

2
14

13

3
a
2.
i
l
i
L
1
L
1
65>
257

338

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

As regards the description of the commodity it should be stated
that the greatest care has been taken to secure prices throughout the
period from 1890 to 1910 for a commodity of precisely the same
description. Changes in quality are, of course, reflected in prices,
and for this reason note has been made of any important changes
vhich have occurred. In the case of certain commodities, such as
butter, eggs, etc., prices for the best quality have been taken in order
to avoid frequent changes in grade. It should also be stated in this
connection that in the case of commodities for which prices were
secured from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter the lowest quotations
were taken where a range of prices was found, because of the fact that
in that publication these represent the prices of large lots, while the
highest quotations represent the prices of smaller lots.
Weekly quotations have been secured in the case of all articles
which are subject to frequent fluctuations in price, such as butter,
cheese, eggs, grain, live stock, meats, etc. In the case of articles
whose prices are more stable, monthly quotations have ,been taken.
The following table shows the number of series of weekly and monthly
price quotations:
NUMBER OF COMMODITIES OR SERIES OF QUOTATIONS, CLASSIFIED AS TO THEIR
FREQUENCY OF QUOTATION, 1910.
Cloths Fuel
Farm
and and
Frequency of quotation. prod­ Food, cloth­ light­
etc.
ucts.
ing. ing.
Weekly..................................
Monthly.................................
Total............................

17
3
20

25
32
57

1
64
65

1
12
13

Metals
and
imple­
ments.
38
38

Lum­
ber and Drugs
and
build­ chem­
ing ma­ icals.
terials.
28
28

9
9

House- Misfur­ cellanishing neous. TotaL
goods.
14
14

1
12
13

45
212
257

The character of each series of quotations as regards frequency is
shown in all cases in Table I in a prefatory note, which states the
date of the quotations and, if weekly, whether the quotations are for
some particular day of the week, the average for the week, or the
range for the week. The majority of the weekly quotations show
the price on Tuesday, and if for any reason Tuesday’s price was not
obtainable the first price in the week has been taken. The quotations
from trade and other journals, when, credited to the first of each
month, are not in all instances the price for the exact day stated, as
it is a common practice of the daily papers which make a specialty
of market reports to devote certain days to the review of the market
of certain articles. For example, the Boston Herald quotes fish on
Saturday only. The prices are, however, the earliest prices quoted
in the journal to which the article is credited. It should also be



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

339

stated that the monthly prices credited to weekly publications are
the earliest quotations shown in such publications for each month.
In many localities the price of bread per loaf is not affected by
changes in the price of flour, yet the weight of the loaf is changed
from time to time. With the advance in the price of flour, the weight
of the loaf is decreased in some localities. For this reason the relative
prices of bread are computed on the price per pound and not per loaf.
Table I shows the price per loaf, the price per pound, and the weight
each month from January to December, 1910.
The average price for the year was obtained by dividing the sum of
the quotations for a given commodity by the number of quotations
shown. For example, the sum of the 52 Tuesday’s prices of cotton
for 1910 (shown on page 363) was $7.8615. This total divided by
52 gives $0.15118 as the average price for the year. When a range
was shown the mean price for each date was found, and this was used
in computing the yearly average as above described. The reader
will understand that, in order to secure for any commodity a strictly
scientific average price for the year, one must know the quantity
marketed and the price for which each unit of quantity was sold.
It is manifestly impossible to secure such detail, and even if it were
possible the labor and cost involved in such a compilation would be
prohibitive. It is believed that the method adopted here, which is
also that used in the construction of other index numbers, secures
results which are quite as valuable for all practical purposes.
The price of 8-penny nails quoted in this report is, by the estab­
lished nail card of the trade, uniformly 10 cents per 100 pounds
higher than the base price, the price given in market quotations.
For an explanation of the nail card, the reader is referred to Bulletin
No. 39, page 226.
The prices for the two quotations of wool appearing in this report
were obtained as for washed wool and then reduced to the scouredwool basis by increasing the price in proportion to the amount of
shrinkage.




340

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

On preceding pages of this report an opportunity has been afforded
to note the extent of the change in wholesale prices between 1909 and
1910 by groups of commodities. The following table shows the per
cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price in 1910 for
each individual article as compared with the price in 1909:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRIjCES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909.

Farm products, 20 articles.
[For a more detailed description of the articles, see Table I, page 362 et seq .]
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.
PRICE INCREASED.

Mules: 16 hands high, medium to extra..
Sheep: wethers, plain to choice................
Sheep: wethers, fair to fancy....................
Cattle: steers, choice to prime..................
Poultry: live fowls......................................
Barley: choice to fancy malting...............
Cattle: steers, good to choice.....................
Horses: draft, good to choice..................
Hogs: heavy.................................................
Hogs: light............... ...................................
Cotton: upland, middling.........................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................................

1.3
2.4
2.1
5.9
5.9
6.8
8.8
9.2
18.1
22.4
24.9
28.3

Article.
price increased—concluded.
Hops: New York State, prime to choice.
Flaxseed: No. 1...........................................

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.
28.9
44.8

PRICE DECREASED.

Rve: No. 2, cash..........................................
Hides* green, salted, packers’...................
Wheat: regular grades, cash......................
Tobacco: Burley, dark red, good leaf___
Com: contract grades, cash.......................
Oats: contract grades, cash.......................

.7
6.1
8.5
11.7
13.0
19.8

Food\ etc., 57 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York mar­
ket)............................................................
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............
Starch: pure corn.......................................
PRICE INCREASED.

Fish: salmon, canned.................................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)...........
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market).....................................................
Tea: Formosa, fine.’. .................................
Fish: herring, large, Nova Scotia split..
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by...
Sugar: granulated.......................................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal.................................
Sugar: 89° fair refining...............................
Meat: beef, fresh, carcass, good native
steers (Chicago market)..........................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle........
Cheese: New York State, full cream........
Lard: prime, contract................................
Bread: crackers, oyster..............................
Bread: crackers, soda.................................
Fruit: currants, in barrels.........................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New
York market)...........................................
Canned goods: com, Republic No. 2.—
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice............
Poultry: dressed, fowls, western, dry
p ick ed ....................................................
Milk: fresh....................................................
Butter: dairy, New York State...............
Meat: pork, salt, mess................................




PRICE INCREASED—co n clu d ed .

Meat: mutton, dressed...............................
Spices: pepper, Singapore.........................
Meat: bacon, short, clear sid es..............
Meat: bacon, short, rib sides....................
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s........
Coffee: Rio, No. 7....................................1.
Tallow...........................................................
2.6 Meat: hams, smoked, loose........................
2.9 Meat: beef, salt, extra mess......................
2.9 Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s.............
PRICE DECREASED.
3.0
3.1
3.5 Meat: beef, salt, hams, western................
3.6 Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
4.2 Canned goods: Peas, Republic No. 2 ....
4.7 Fish: cod, dry bank, large........................
Beans: medium, choice.............................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch............................
5.4 Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
5.8 Vegetables: fresh, onions...........................
5.9 Canned goods: tomatoes, Standard New
7.2 Jersey No. 3 .............................................
7.0 Flour: wheat, spring patents....................
7.0 Meal: com, fine white................................
8.0 Flour: rye.....................................................
Salt: American, medium...........................
8.2 Meal: com, fine, yellow.............................
8.3 Flour: buckwheat.......................................
8.7 Rice: domestic, choice, head....................
Flour: wheat, winter straights.................
Glucose......................................................
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage........................
8.9
9.5 Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........
11.2

8.8

11.8

12.5
13.6
13.8
17.7
21.6
22.7
25.5
32.4
43.2

.4
LO
1.2
2.1
1.2

2.8

3.6
4.1
4.3
4.5
5.1
5.7
7.7
8.2
9.2
11.6
13.9
21.5
32.9
37.7

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

341

P E R CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN TH E A V E R A G E W H O LESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED W ITH 1909—Continued.

,

Cloths and clothing 65 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt.........................................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................
Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats___
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers,-white,
all wool, 18-gauge....................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
merino, 60 per cent wool, 24-gauge.......

Article.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —c o n c lu d e d .

Overcoatings: Kersey, 28-ounce...............
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag........................
Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic...................
Sheetings: brown, Lawrence L. L...........
Tickings: Amoskeag, A. C. A ...................
Drillings: Stark A .......................................
Calico: American standard prints, 64 by
64.................................................................
Blankets: cot on, 2 pounds to the pair..
Ginghams: Lancaster.................................
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head...............
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1.........
Drillings: brown, Pepperell......................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1.........
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
0.3 Cotton flannels: 3£ yards to the pound..
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T___
.7 Ginghams: Amoskeag................................
.7 Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound..
PRICE DECREASED.
1.0
Leather: harness, oak.................................
1.3 Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
1.5 less, fast black, carded yarn...................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 122.0 ounce, Washington Mills........................
Women’s dress goods: Panama cloth___
2.2 Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes...........................................................
2.3 Leather: chrome calf..................................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16-ounce
3.2 Washington Mills....................................
3.8 Suitings: serge, Fulton Mills 3192............
4.8 Leather: sole, hemlock...............................
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine...
Boots and-shoes: men’s brogans, split...
5.6 Worsted yams: 2-32s, crossbred stock,
6.3 white..........................................................
6.3 Overcoatings: covert cloth, 14-ounce___
6.6 Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured...............
6.9 Silk: raw, Japan..........................................
Silk:
7.6 Wool:raw, Italian........................................
Ohio, medium fleece, scoured........

PRICE INCREASED.

Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seamless,
fast black, carded yam...........................
Leather; sole, oak........................................
Carpets: Brussels, 6-frame, Bigelow........
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow.........
Broadcloths: first quality, black..............
Shirtings: bleached. Fruit of the Loom..
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Hamilton.......................................
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3........
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale..................
Shirtings: bleached, Rough Rider...........
Women’s dress goods: Sicilian cloth........
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ...........................
Boots and shoes: men’s vici calf shoes,
Blucherbal........................ ......................
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yam.................................................
Trouserings: fancy worsted.......................
Women’s dress goods: Poplar cloth........
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair..
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, Atlantic Mills.................................
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell.................
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R.................
Print cloths: 64 bv 64.................................
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each..
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
....

.5
1.0
1.1
1.6

5.4

7.7
8.4
8.7
8.7
8.8
9.0
9.9
10.0
10.7
11.0
11.5
11.8
13.5
15.8
18.5
18.6
19.1
19.4
.4
.8

1.2
1.3

1.6
1.6
1.8

2.2

3.3
4.2
5.2
5.9
6.0
7.0
8.2
&5

Fuel and lighting, 13 articles.
PRICE same as in 1909.
Candles: adamantine..................................
Matches: parlor, domestic.........................
PRICE INCREASED.
Coal: anthracite, egg..................................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
mine).........................................................
PRICE DECREASED.
Coal: anthracite, broken............................
Cosd: anthracite, stove...............................




PRICE DECREASED—concluded.
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.........................
Coal: bituminous,Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York Harbor).................................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny),lump............................................
0.6 Coke: Connellsville, furnace.....................
Petroleum: refined, for export..................
2.1 Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white..........................................................
Petroleum: cmde, Pennsylvania.............
0)
0)

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

0.1
.2
.5
1.7
7.8
11.9
19.2

342

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909—Continued.

Metals and implements, 38 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2..................
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7........................
Steel rails......................................................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick...........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Copper: sheet, hot-rolled...........................
Hammers: Maydole No. 1£........................
Shovels: Ames No. 2..................................
Steel sheets: black, No. 27.........................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee.............................
Spelter: western..........................................
Q niftlrsilv er_ _
..............................
Tinplates: domestic, Bessemer...............
Steel billets...................................................
Locks: common mortise............................
Silver: bar, fine...........................................
Lead: pig......................................................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch........
Lead: pipe....................................................
Bar iron: best refined, from store.............
Zinc: sheet....................................................

0.6
.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.8
2.8
3.1
8 .6
4.0
4.4
4.7
5 .0
5.1
5 .7

Article.
price increased—concluded.
Bar iron: common to best refined, from
mill.............................................................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane..............
Tin: pig................................7......................
Butts: loose pin, wrought steel, 3£ by 3£
inches..........................................................
Door knobs: steel, bronze-plated.............
Wood screws: 1-inch...................................
price decreased.
Files: 8-inch mill bastard...........................
Pig iron: Bessemer......................................
Nails: Cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Copper: ingot, electrolytic.........................
Augers: extra, 1-inch..................................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern..................
•Pig iron: foundry No. 1.............................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound........................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2.............................
Copper wire: bare........................................
Barb wire: galvanized...............................

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.
6.2
8.3
15.6
16.0
18.8
28.6
.4
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.7
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.6
3.2
9.6

Lumber and building materials, 28 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Lime: common.............................
PRICE INCREASED.

Hemlock..................................................
Shingles: red cedar................................
Pine: yellow, flooring...........................
Cement: Portland, domestic...............
Maple: hard............................................
Pine: white, hoards, No. 2 ham.........
Oak: white, quartered..........................
Oxide of zinc: American......................
Pine: white, hoards, uppers.................
Poplar......................................................
Shingles: cypress....................................
Carbonate of lead: American...............
Oak: white, plain..................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 5 to 10
square feet.............................' ............

0.2
.2
1.0
2 .6
2.6
3.1
4.1
4.1
6.2
6.7
6,9
8.6
12.1
23.4

PRICE increased—concluded.
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 3 to 5
square feet.................................................
Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Tar.................................................................
Turpentine: spirits of.................................
Linseed oil: raw..........................................
Rosin: common to good, strained. . . . . . .
PRICE DECREASED.

Cement: Rosendale.....................................
Spruce...........................................................
Putty: bulk.................................................
Doors: western white pine........................
Pine: yellow, siding....................................
Brick: common domestic..........................

26.3
26.4
37.7
39.1
46.0
49.5
.4
2.6
4.2
5.7
6.8
10.4

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.

PRICE DECREASED.

Alcohol: wood, refined...............................
Alum: lump.................................................
Brimstone: crude........................................
Sulphuric acid........................... ................

Quinine: American.....................................
Alcohol: grain..............................................
Muriatic acid................................................

PRICE INCREASED.

Opium: natural, in cases...........................
Glycerin: refined.........................................




16.5
26.0*

0 .6
2.5
3.0

WHOLESALE PEICES, 1890 TO 1910.

343

P E R CENT O F'INC REA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN T H E A V ER A G E W H O LESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1910, COM PARED W ITH 1909—Concluded.

House-furnishing goods, 14 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Table cutlery: carvers................................
Table cutlery: knives and forks...............
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.........
PRICE INCREASED.

Earthenware: plates, cream-colored........
Earthenware: plates, white granite.........
Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite........................................................
Furniture: bedroom sets, 3 pieces...........
Furniture: tables, kitchen........................

Articles.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE DECREASED.

Woodenware: nails, oak-grained..............
Furniture: chairs, kitchen........................
Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained..............
Glassware: nappies.....................................
Glassware: pitchers....................................
0.8 Glassware: tumblers...................................
.8
.8
9.2
11.1

0.9
1.5
10.6

Miscellaneous, IS articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.
Paper: wrapping, manila..........................
Tobacco: plug..............................................
PRICE INCREASED.
Paper: news, wood.....................................
Rope: m a n ila .........................................................
Cottonseed meal..........................................
Jute: raw ......................................................
Malt- western made....... .................. . _

0.5
45
48
8.2
12.7

PRICE INCREASED—concluded.
Rubber: Para island., n ew .....................
Cottonseed oil: summer yellow, prim e...
PRICE DECREASED.
Proof spirits..................................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated.................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure......................
Starch: laundry......................... .., ............

OQ Q
<60. O
35.7
2.4
2.5
6.4
9.1

The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
average wholesale price in December, 1910, for each individual arti­
cle as compared with the price in December, 1909. Of the 257 articles,
83 were above the price in December, 1900, 57 at the same price, and
116 below the price in December, 1909, and for 1, onions, there was no
quotation in December, 1909.
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED WITH DECEMBER, 1909.

Farm products, 20 articles.

[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 362, et seq»]
Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Mules; 16 hands high, medium to extra.
p r ic e in c r e a s e d .

Rye: No. 2, cash.........................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................
Horses: draft, good to choice...
Barley: choice to fancy malting
Flaxseed: No. 1...........................
PRICE DECREASED.

Cotton: upland, middling.........................
Cattle: steers, good to choice....................




Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

p r ic e d e c r e a s e d — co n clu d ed .

Poultry: live, fowls.....................................
Hogs: light./...............................................
Hogs: heavy................................................
Wheat: regular grades,
4.2 Cattle: steers, choice to cash......................
prime..................
Hides: green, salted, packed...................
Com: contract grades, cash......................
red, good leaf...
40.4 Tobacco: Burley, darkcash.......................
Oats: contract grades,
Sheep: wethers, plain to choice................
Sheep: wethers, fair to fancy....................
1.7 Hops: New York State, prime to choice..
6.7

7.1
7.4
16.8
17.6
18.3
25.4
26.4
27.7
28.1
28.8
38.6

344

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

P E R CENT OF INC REA SE OR D EC REASE IN TH E A VERAG E W H OLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN DECEM BER, 1910, COM PARED W ITH D EC EM BER , 1909-Continued.

,

Food etc., 56 articles.
Per cent
of in-

Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Bread: crackers, oyster..............................
Bread: crackers, soda.................................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)...........
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York mar­
ket).............................................................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market),
Canned goods: com, Republic No. 2....... .
Canned goods: peas,Republic No.2..........
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western...............
Milk: fresh...................................................
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............
Starch: pure com...................................... .
Tea: Formosa, fine.....................................

Per cent
of in­
crease or

PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Spices: pepper, Singapore........................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer..
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.......
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by___
Canned goods: tomatoes, Standard New
Jersey No. 3...............................................
Tallow...........................................................
Fish: salmon, canned.................................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice...........
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large........................
Fruit: currants, in barrels....................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch...........................
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess......................
Coflee: Rio No. 7 ........................................
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s........
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s.............

Article,

1.4
3.0
7.1

8.3

11.1
15.4
16.4
15.7
21.4
21.4
22.2
25.5
54.1
60.4
63.6

Beans: medium, choice..........*.................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New York
market)......................................................
Fish: herring, large, Nova Scotia, split..
Flour: buckwheat.......................................
Flour: rye.....................................................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal.................................
Meat: beef, fresh, carcass, good native
steers (Chicago market)..........................
Sugar: granulated.......................................
Flour: wheat, spring patents....................
Sugar: 89° fair refining...............................
Rice: domestic, choice, head.....................
Meat: hams, smoked, loose........................
Cheese: New York State, full cream.........
Poultry: dressed, fowls, western, dry
picked...................... ..................................
Salt: American, medium...........................
Butter: dairy, New York State...............
Butter: creamery Elgin (Elgin market)..
Butter: creamery, extra (New York mar­
ket).............................................................
Meat: pork, salt, mess................................
Lard: prime, contract................................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides..................
Flour: wheat, winter straights................
Glucose..........................................................
Meat: bacon, short rib sides......................
Meat: mutton, dressed...............................
Meal: com, fine white................................
Meal: com, fine yellow.............................
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage........................

0.6

2.6
3.3
4.3
4.6
4.9
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.6
7.7
7.9
8.5
11.0
11.5
12.2
13.8
15.1
18.0
20.4
21.0
21.1
21.2
21.3
23.6
29.9
41.8

Cloths and clothing, 65 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair..
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid snoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................
Calico: American standard prints, 64 by
64................................................................
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow..........
Cotton thread.** 8-cord, J. & P. Coats.......
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
Drillings: brown, Peppereli.....................
Ginghams: Amoskeag................................
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seamless,
fast black, carded yam............................
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour..............
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge.....................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white
merino, 60 per cent wool, 24-gauge.........
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, Atlantic mills................................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ...........................
Women’s dress goods: Poplar cloth......
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Hamilton......................................:
PRICE INCREASED.

Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
___
Overcoatings: Kersey, 28-ounce...............
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1.........



PRICE INCREASED—c o n c lu d e d .

Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic...................
Silk: raw, Italian........................................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1.........
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yam.................................................
Trouserings: fancy worsted.......................
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag................... .
Sheetings: brown. Indian Head.............•
Drillings: Stark A ................... ;.................
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T.......
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each..
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A ....................
Blankets: cotton, 2 pounds to the p ail..
Cotton flannels: 3J yards to the pound...
Silk: raw, Japan..........................................
Cotton flannels: 2| yards to the pound...
PRICE DECREASED.

Boots and shoes: men’s viei calf shoes,
Blucher bal...............................................
Broadcloths: first quality, black..............
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard.................................
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
less, fast black, carded yam ..................
Sheetings: brown, Peppereli R ...............
Sheetings: bleached, Peppereli................
Ginghams: Lancaster.................................
Women’s dress goods: Sicilian cloth.......
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
1.3 shoes...........................................................
2*2 Women’s dress goods: Panama cloth—

1.1

2.3
2.4
4.0
4.2
4.5
5.1
6.3
6.3
6.9

6.1
8.0

10.0

11.1
15.6
16.1

1.6
1.9
2.9
3.0
3.2
3.6
3.7
4.0
4.8
5.2

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

345

P E R CENT OF INC REA SE OR DEC REASE IN T H E A VERA G E W H O LESA LE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN DECEM BER, 1910, COMPARED W ITH D EC EM BER , 1909-Continued.

Cloths and clothing, 65 articles—Concluded.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

Article.

Percent
of in­
crease or

PRICE DECREASED—c o n c lu d e d .

p r ic e d e c r e a s e d —c o n tin u e d .

5.7
5.8
6.3
6.3
7.8
7.9
8.3
8.3
10.0
10.2

Sheetings: brown, Lawrence L. L...........
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine...
Leather: harness, oak.................................
Print cloths: 64 by 64.................................
Leather: sole hemlock................................
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale..................
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3........
Shirtings: bleached, Rough Rider...........
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured...............
Shirtings: bleached. Fruit of the Loom...
Leather: chrome calf..................................

8.8

Leather: sole, oak........................................
Overcoatings: covert cloth, 14-ounce........
Suitings: serge, Fulton Mills 3192............
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16ounce, Washington Mills........................
Worsted yams: 2-32s, crossbred stock,
white............. I..........................................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 12ounce, Washington Mills........................
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split___
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured.......

10.6
11.1
11.7
12.5
12.5
13.6
14.3
20.0

Fuel and lighting, 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.

PRICE DECREASED.

Coal: anthracite, broken-..........................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York Harbor).................................
Petroleum: refined, for export..................
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania.............
Petroleum: refined, 150° nre test, water
white..........................................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace......................

Candles: adamantine...................................

Matches: parlor, domestic.........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Coal: anthracite, chestnut.........................
Coal: anthracite, stove...............................
Coal: anthracite, egg..................................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
mine)........................................................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lump...........................................

K

0)

2.8
8,1

12.2

21.3
42.0

3.6
6.4

Metals and implements, 38 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.

PRICE DECREASED.

Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2 ..
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7.........
Steel rails......................................
Tinplates: domestic, Bessemer,
Trowels: M. C. O., brick........... .
PRICE INCREASED.

Hammers: Maydole No. 1£.......................
Lead: pig.....................................................
Augers: extra, 1-inch..................................
Silver: bar, fine...........................................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee............................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.............
Wood screws, 1-inch..................................
Butts: loose pin, wrought steel, 3£ by 3£
inches.........................................................
Locks: common mortise...........................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch....... .
Tin: pig........................................................
Door knobs: steel, bronze plated............




0.9
2.3
2.7
4.5
11.1
11.1
12.2
13.3
15.9
17.7
25.0

6.1

Shovels: Ames No. 2..................................
Copper: ingot, electrolytic........................
Zinc: sheet...................................................
Lead: pipe....................................................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound........................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Spelter: western....'..................................
Copper wire: bare........................................
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled...........................
Steel sheets: black, No. 27.........................
Bar iron: best refined, from store.............
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Barb wire: galvanized...............................
Steel billets...................................................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern..................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1.............................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2.............................
Bar iron: common to best refined, from
mill.............................................................
Pig iron: Bessemer.....................................
Quicksilver..................................................

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

2.2
2.8

3.1
4.5
5.0
5.3
6.3
7.5
8.5
10.2
10.5
14.2
16.4
16.7
17.9
18.7
19.1

6.6

20.1
20.1

346

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

P E R CENT OF IN C R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN T H E A V E R A G E W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN DECEM BER, 1910, COM PARED W ITH D EC EM BER , 1909—Concluded.

,

Lumber and building materials 28 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.

Lime: common...............
Oxide of zinc: American,
PRICE INCREASED.

Pine: white, boards, No. 2, barn.............
Oak: white, quartered...............................
Oak: white, plain.......................................
Pine: yellow, flooring................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 3 to 5
square feet.................................................
Poplar........................................... ...............
Cement: Portland, domestic....................
Pine: white, boards, uppers.....................
Maple: hard.................................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 5 to 10
square feet.................................................
Carbonate of lead: American....................

Article.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —co n c lu d e d .

Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Tar.................................................................
Turpentine: spirits of.................................
Rosin: common to good, strained............
1.3 Linseed oil: raw..........................................

2.6
2.8
4; 2
6.1
7.7
8.1
8.1

PRICE DECREASED.

Pine: yellow, siding...................................
Hemlock........................................................
Cement: Rosendale.....................................
Spruce...........................................................
Putty: bulk.................................................
Shingles: cypress.........................................
Shingles: red cedar.....................................
9.4 Doors: western white pine........................
11.6 Brick: common domestic..........................

20.0
20.0
30.0
37.7
44.9
46.2

1.6
2.4
2.6
4.0

4.2
4.3
9.8
10.9

20.0

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Alcohol: wood, refined...............................
A lum : lu m p .........................................................
Brimstone: crude........................................
Muriatic acid................................................
Quinine: American.....................................
Sulphuric acid.............................................

PRICE INCREASED.

Glycerin: refined.........................................

36.8

PRICE DECREASED.

Alcohol: grain..............................................
Opium: natural, in cases...........................

3.4
19,2

House-furnishing goods, 14 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.........
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.........................
Glassware: nappies.....................................
Glassware: pitchers...................................
Glassware: tumblers..........................-........
Table cutlery: carvers................................
Table cutlery: knives and forks...............
Woodenware: pails, oak-grained..............

PRICE INCREASED.

Earthenware: plates, cream colored........
Earthenware: plates, white granite.........
Earthenware: teacups and saucers,
white granite.............................................
Furniture: bedroom sets, 3 pieces...........
Furniture: tables, kitchen.........................

1.0
1.0
1.0
4.3

16.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained..............

3.0

Miscellaneous, 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN DECEMBER, 1909.
Paper: wrapping, m anila...............................
Tobacco: plug..............................................
PRICE INCREASED.

Rope: m a u iia ...............................................
Paper: news, wood......................................
Malt: western made....................................
Jute: raw......................................................




PRICE DECREASED.

Proof spirits..................................................
Tobacco: sm oking, granulated.................
Cottonseed oil: summer yellow, prime ..
Starch: laundry...........................................
Cottonseed m eal.........................................
9.1 Soap: castile, mottled, pure......................
12.8 Rubber: Para Island, new........................
23.4
39.9

1.6
3.3
3.4
12.5
14.3
22.7
28.0

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

347

Table II.—Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1910; monthly actual and relative prices, January to December,
1910, and base prices {average for 1890-1899), pages lf.12 to 464.—This
table shows for each commodity the average price for each of the 21
years from 1890 to 1910 and for each month from January to Decem­
ber, 1910. In the parallel column following is given the relative
price for each year or month—that is, the per cent that the price in
each year or month is of the average price for the 10 years from 1890
to 1899. In the line above the price for 1890 is given the average
price for the 10-year period taken as the basis of comparison.
The average price for each year or month was obtained, as has been
explained on page 339, by dividing the sum of the quotations shown
in Table I by the number of quotations. The average for articles in
which a range is quoted is computed from the mean of the two prices
limiting the range.
It was impossible to secure quotations during all of the months of
1910for 13 of the 257 articles, viz: Buckwheat flour, cabbage, onions,
and all the 10 descriptions of lumber.
For the 11 articles quoted in 1908 for the first time, no monthly or
yearly relative price could be computed because the average for the
base period of 10 years was not secured. However, these articles
have been given due weight in the subgroups and general groups to
which they belong. See discussion on page 349.
In reducing a series of actual prices to relative prices or index
numbers a base must first be chosen, and this may be either a single
quotation, the average price for one year, or the average for two or
more years. If the price for a single year is chosen, it is essential
that that year be a normal one, for if prices are high in the year chosen
for the base any subsequent fall will be unduly emphasized, while on
the other hand, if prices are low any subsequent rise will be unduly
emphasized. For the reason that all the commodities probably
never present a normal condition as regards prices in any one year, it
was decided that an average price for a number of years would better
reflect average or approximately normal conditions and form a
broader and more satisfactory base than would the price for any
single year. The period chosen as this base was that from 1890 to
1899—a period of 10 years. For the 10 articles that do not show
prices for the entire period of 10 years the base in each case is the
average of the years prior to and including 1899.
The relative prices as shown in this and other tables have been
calculated in the usual manner and represent simply the percentage
which each monthly or yearly price is of the base price. The average
price for the first 10 years of the period; that is, the base, always
represents 100, and the percentages for each month or year enable
the reader to measure readily the rise and fall, from month to month
or from year to year, of the prices of each single commodity, of any



348

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

group of commodities, or of all the commodities' involved. These
commodities are arranged in alphabetical order under each of the
nine general groups, as in Table I.
In order that the method pursued may be more readily understood,
the reader is referred to the table itself, as given on pages 412 to 464.
Taking up the first commodity shown, barley, we find that the aver­
age price per bushel for the base period, 1890 to 1899, inclusive, was
45.34 cents; the average price for January, 1910, was 72.69 cents; that
for February was 71.25 cents; the average for 1910 was 71.97 cents,
etc. The relative price for the base period, as heretofore explained, is
always 100, and is so given in the table. The relative price for
January, 1910, is shown to be 160.3, or 60.3 per cent higher than
the base or average for the 10 years. In February the relative price
was 157.1, or 57.1 per cent above the base, etc. The relative price
for the year 1910 was 151.7, or 51.7 per cent above the base. The
remainder of the table may be analyzed in a similar manner.
The value of prices given in this relative form, it will readily be
seen, consists in the means afforded for tracing and measuring the
changes from month to month, from year to year, or from period to
period, and more especially in the grouping of the prices of a suffi­
cient number of commodities to show the general price level. It
must not be assumed that a system of relative prices of representative
commodities will enable one to trace the causes of changes in the
general price level or to determine the effect of such changes on any
class of consumers or on all consumers. The use of such a system
is to show the general course of prices from time to time of one com­
modity, or of a group of commodities.
It is stated on page 336 that certain articles are no longer quoted
and other articles of the same class are substituted.
An explanation of the method of computing the relative price of
these, articles is necessary, and harness leather will be used as an illus­
tration. It must be understood that during the years when “ country
middles” were quoted, they were assumed to represent the several
grades of oak harness leather; that is, that the course of prices of a
standard grade of oak harness leather in an index number of prices
fairly rerepresents the course of prices of the various grades of oak
harness leather. Therefore, when it became necessary to substitute,
in 1902, “ packers' hides” for the “ country middles,” prices were
secured for packers7 hides for both 1901 and 1902, and it was found
that the average price for the year 1902 was the same as, or 100 per
cent of, the average price for the year 1901. The relative price of
country middles in 1901 was 114.7 (average price for the 10 years,
1890 to 1899, equals 100), and if country middles represented oak
harness leather at that time, and packers7hides represented the class
in 1902, harness leather (shown by the price of packers7 hides)
remained the same price in 1902 as in 1901, and the relative price in



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

349

1902 was therefore 100 per cent of 114,7, the relative price in 1901,
which gives 114.7 as the relative price in 1902. The average price of
harness leather in 1910 was 99.58 per cent of the average price in 1909;
therefore the relative price in 1910 was 99.58 per cent of 131.5, the
relative price of 1909, which gives 130.9 as the relative price in 1910.
This method was used in computing relative prices for each month.
The same method of computing the relative prices was followed for
sheep, crackers, herring, blankets, boots and shoes, calico, hosiery,
leather, overcoatings, serge, sheetings, shirtings, women’s dress goods,
worsted yams, augers, bar iron, butts, copper, vises, doors, plate glass,
white pine, shingles, bedroom sets, and jute. For trouserings and
underwear the exact grade quoted for 1903 was not manufactured in
1902. The manufacturer of trouserings, however, estimated that one
half of the advance in price over the price for the grade quoted for
previous years was due to the fact that it was a better article and the
other half to the advance in price of material and cost of manufacture.
The advance was $0.1125 per yard over the price in 1902; one-half of
this, $0.05625, was added to the 1902 price of the 22 to 23 ounce
trouserings to secure a theoretical 1902 price for the 21 to 22 ounce
trouserings, and the 1903 relative price was then computed as above.
Underwear was arbitrarily given the same relative price in 1903 as in
1902, as the all-wool underwear manufactured by the same firm
showed no change in price. In 1904 and following years relative
prices of trouserings and underwear were found in the same way as
explained above for harness leather.
Table III.—Yearly relative 'prices of commodities, 1890 to 1910, and
monthly relative prices, January to December, 1910, pages 465 to 499.—
In this table the relative prices appearing in Table II are repeated
and arranged in groups for convenience in comparison. In addition,
averages are presented for the several groups and subgroups.
In 1908, as elsewhere stated, a number of articles were quoted for
the first time. Relative prices for these articles could not be com­
puted, as the prices for the base period, 1890 to 1899, were not
obtained. As these articles were added, however, to make a larger
representation for the groups in which they were included, it was
deemed necessary to carry their price into the group and subgroup
averages. Up to this time such averages were simple averages of the
relative prices of the several articles in the group, but as relative prices
for these articles could not be computed, a different method had to
be followed, which is here briefly explained:
• When the 1908 prices were obtained, prices were obtained for 1907.
The 1908 price for each article, old and new, was divided by the 1907
price, giving a percentage based on the 1907 price. These several
percentages for the articles in the group were then added and divided
by the number of such percentages, giving an average percentage



350

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

showing the per cent the price for the group in 1908 was of the price for
the group of 1907. The relative price of the group for 1907 having
been established in the preceding report, such relative price for 1907
was multiplied by the average percentage above described, producing
the relative price for the group in 1908.
This method of obtaining the yearly relative price for a group was
followed in obtaining the monthly relative price for a group, the
yearly average actual price in 1907 being used as the base and divided
into each monthly actual price of 1908. In other words, having
obtained the average percentage for a group, the relative price for
a group was computed as was the relative price for a single article
when a substitution was made therein, for an explanation of which
see page 348. This system also was followed in computing the relative
price for all commodities taken as a whole.
Averages for the year 1909 and the year and months of 1910 were
computed by the same method.
The following table shows for each of the nine general groups the
relative prices of 1910, compared with the average for 1890 to 1899.
There are included in this table only those commodities which have
retained practically the same description throughout the 21-year
period. The average price for 1890 to 1899 is in every case the base,
or 100 per cent. It should be kept in mind, in using the table, that
the comparison is between the relative prices for 1910 and the average
price for the base period.
RELATIVE PRICES, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899.

Farm products, 14 articles.

[For a more detailed description ol the articles see Table I, page 362 et seq. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.1
Relative
price,
1910.

Article.
PRICE INCREASED.
Oats: contract grades, cash.......................
Cattle: steers, choice to prime..................
Hops: New York State, prime to choice..
Wheat: regular grades, cash......................
Rye.; "Wo. 2, cash
_____ ____
Cattle: steers, good to Choice ..............
C om : contract grades, cash.......................

143.5
146.1
146.1
146.1
147.0
148.2
152.7

Article.
PRICE increased—concluded.
Barley: choice to fancy m alting..............
Hides: green, salted, packers"...................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................................
Cotton: upland, middling..........................
Hogs: heavy.................................................
Flaxseed: No. 1...........................................
Hogs: light...................................................

Relative
price,
1910.
158.7
165.0
165.6
194.8
202.7
203.7
203.8

Food, etc., 48 articles.
PRICE INCREASED—c o n tin u e d .

PRICE INCREASED.

Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s..............
Sugar, granulated......................................
Spices: pepper, Singapore..........................
Salt: American, medium...........................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal................................
Sugar 89p fair refining...............................
Starch: pure com........................................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)...........
Flour: buckwheat.......................................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle........



103.2
104.9
106.8
107.1
108.2
108.4
109.5
109.6
110.2
117.3

Fish: salmon, canned.................................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch............................
Flour: wheat, winter straights.................
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large.......................
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York mar­
ket).............................................................
Flour: rye.....................................................
Flour wheat, spring patents....................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New
York market)...........................................
Meat: mutton, dressed................................

118.4
118.4
122.0
124.2
126.2
127.5
127.9
133.2
133.3

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

351

R ELA TIV E PRICES, 1910, COMPARED W ITH AVERA G E FOR 1890-1899—Continued.

—

Food, etc., 48 articles Concluded.
Relative
price,
1910.

Article.
piftcE

in c r e a s e d —c o n tin u e d .

Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market)......................................................
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western................
Butter: dairy, New York State...............
Beans: medium, choice..............................
Milk: fresh....................................................
Meal: com, fine yellow...............................
Meal: com, fine white................................
Cheese: New York State, full cream____
Eggs: n e w -la id , fa ir to fancy, n e a r-b y . . .
Meat: hams, smoked, loose........................
Tallow...........................................................
Fruit: currants, in barrels.........................
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess......................
Lard: prime, contract................................

Article.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —concluded.
Meat: bacon, short rib sides......................
134.1 Meat: bacon, short clear sides...................
137.2 Meat: pork, salt, mess................................
138.2
PRICE DECREASED.
143.6
143.7
144.3 Fruit: Apples, evaporated, choice...........
145.5 Bread: crackers, soda.................................
147.0 Rice: domestic, choice, head....................
159.3 Vegetables, fresh: onions...........................
166.0 Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........
167.1 Tea: Formosa, fine.....................................
167.6 Fruit: raisins,California, London layer..
173.6 Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s.........
182.0 Coffee: Rio No. 7.........................................
191.6 Soda: bicarbonate of, American...............

Relative
price,
1910.
196.8
197.3
204.1
98.7
97.5
97.5
87,2
85.7
84.5
81.3
80.7
72.5
47.8

Cloths and clothing, 42 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE INCREASED—co n c lu d e d .

Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured.......
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................
Boots and shoes': men’s brogans, split...
Ginghams: Lancaster.................................
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T __
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge.....................................
Broadcloths: first quality, black..............
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard.................................
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
—
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow..........
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A ...................
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale..................
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine...
Leather: sole, oak.......................................
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3........
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured...............
Boots and shoes: Women’s solid grain
shoes...........................................................
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair..

102.1 Shirtings: bleached, Fruit of the Loom..

107.0
111.1
113.0
115.0
115.2
115.3
115.8
117.8
119.0
119.9
120.0
121.1
121.1
122.7
123.0
123.3
123.5
124.2
125.1
125.5

Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats.......
Leather sole: hemlock................................
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound..
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1.........
Cotton flannels: 3J,yards to the pound..
Ginghams: Amoskeag................................
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ................
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head...............
Print cloths: 64 by 64.................................
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each..
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1.........
Denims: Amoskeag...................................
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell.................
Drillings: brown. Pepperell......................
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag........................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ...........................
Drillings: Stark A .......................................

126.0
126.4
127.2
127.5
127.9
130.4
131.3
132.7
133.4
134.8
135.3
138.9
138.9
142.0
144.2
146.0
149.9
164.5

PRICE DECREASED.

Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yam ...............................................
Silk: raw, Italian........................................
Silk: raw, Japan..........................................

87.7

Fuel and lighting, 13 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York Haroor).................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace......................
Petroleum: refined, for export.................
Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white.........................................................
Coal: anthracite, broken............................
Coal*: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghioghenyl lum p.........................................
Coal: anthracite, stove...............................




111.1
115.9
118.6
121.2
124.7
125.2
127.0

PRICE INCREASED—concluded.
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.........................
Coal: anthracite, egg..................................
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania.............
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at
the mine)..................................................
PRICE DECREASED.
Candles: adamantine.................................
Matches: parlor, domestic.........................

133.9
133.9
147.7
158.5
92.7
85.4

352

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

R EL A T IV E PRICES, 1910, COMPARED W ITH A VERA G E FOR 1890-1899—Continued.

Metals and implements, 31 articles
Relative
price,
1910.

Article.
PRICE SAME AS BASE.

Article.
PBICE

Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2,
Trowels: M. C. O., brick........

100.0

100.0

PRICE INCREASED.

Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Saws: band, Disston No. 7......................
Steel
.*,*.****‘ *.*.*!! .**! ‘'.*.*.* .*! ]
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled.........................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........................
Bar iron: best refined, from store...........
Quicksilver................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1...........................
Lead: pig....................................................
Steel billets.................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2...........................
Spelter: western........................................
Pig iron: Bessemer....................................

100.9
101.3
105.0
107.4
108.7
109.1
112.8
116.1
117.3
117.6
117.9
122.4
124.6
124.8

.

Relative
price,
1910.

in c r e a s e d — co n c lu d e d .

Planes: Bailey No. 5,
Hammers: Maydole No. 1 |...
Pig iron: gray forge, southern.................
Zinc: sheet..................................................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee...........................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.......
Tin: pig.......................................................
Locks: common mortise...........................
Door knobs: steel, bronze-plated...........

125.4
129.8
131.4
132.2
145.2
183.5
186.3
202.0
279.9

PRICE DECREASED.

Wood screws: 1-inch.................................
Shovels: Ames No. 2.................................
Copper wire: bare......................................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common
Barb wire: galvanized.............................
Silver: bar, fine..........................................

98.5
98.4
98.0
87.3
84.4
72.4

Lumber and building materials, 20 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Brick: common domestic...........................
Cement: Rosendale....................................
Carbonate of lead: American....................
Maple: hard..................................................
Shingles: -cypress.........................................
Lime: common............................................
Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Oxide of zinc: American...........................
Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Oak: white, plain........................................
Oak: white, quartered...............................
Pine: yellow, siding..................................

102.8
106.6
119.9
120.0
123.8
125.4
128.5
134.5
136.2
144.9
163.9
166.8

PRICE increased —concluded.
Spruce...........................................................
Hemlock.......................................................
Linseed oil: raw..........................................
T ar............................................................... .
Poplar...........................................................
Turpentine: spirits of.................................
Rosin: common to good, strained............

171.4
172.4
186.7
187.1
196.1
204.3
363.4

PRICE DECREASED.

Putty: bulk..................................................

72.8

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Alum: lump.................................................
Brimstone: crude........................................
Sulphuric acid.............................................
Alcohol: grain..............................................
Muriatic acid...............................................
Glycerin: refined.........................................

PRICE in c r e a s e d — concluded.
104.8 Opium: natural, incases..........................
106.3
112.4
PRICE DECREASED* 113.9
125.0 Quinine: American....................................
153.1 Alcohol: wood, refined...............................

227.6
56.9
52.4

House-furnishing goods, 13 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Glassware: nappies..............................
Earthenware: plates, white granite.
Earthenware: plates, cream-colored
Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained__
Furniture: tables, kitchen................
Furniture: chairs, kitchen................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.
Woodenware: pails, oak-grainea....




PRICE DECREASED.

100.9
103.2
104.8
119.7
138.6
143.8
145.3
146.3

Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite........................................................
Table cutlery: carvers................................
Table cutlery: knives and forks...............
Glassware: pitchers....................................
G lassw are: tu m b le r s ..........................................

99.5
93.8
825
80.2

67.6

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

353

RELATIVE PRICES, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899—Concluded.

Miscellaneous, 12 articles.
Relative
price,
1910.

Article.

Relative
price,
1910.

Article.

PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE DECREASED.

Starch: laundry...........................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated.................
Proof spirits..................................................
Tobacco: plug.............................................
Malt: western made....................................
Cottonseed m eal.................................. —
Soap: castile, mottled, pure......................
Cottonseed oil: summer yellow, prime...
Rubber: Para Island, new........................

112.1 Rope: manflft...............................................
114.9 Paper: wrapping, manila...........................
115.2 Paper: news, wood......................................
118.6
126.1
• 152.8
171.4
196.1
238.2

94.1
85.9
68.9

The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following table, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each
group, classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PRICES OF ARTICLES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED BY PER CENT OF
CHANGE, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899.
N um ber of articles for which price—

Group.

Farm products..............................
Food, etc........................................
Cloths and clothing......................
Fuel and lighting.........................
Metals and implements...............
Lumber and building materials.
Drugs and chemicals...................
House-furnishing goods...............
Miscellaneous................................
Total....................................

Increased—
Num­
ber of
arti­ 100 50 25 10
cles. per and and and
cent under under under
100 50 25
and per per per
more. cent. cent. cent.
14
48
42
13
31
20
9
13
12
202

3 ' 5
1
9
1
1
2
2
2
7
1
1
1
3
29
10

59

47

Decreased—
Was
10 25
Less same Less and and 50
than as than under under per
10 base. 10 25 50 cent
per per per and
per
cent.
cent. cent cent more.

23

2

12

12

7

1

The number and per cent of the above articles which showed each
classified increase or decrease are given in the following table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ARTICLES, BY CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN PRICE, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899.
Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.
Price increased:
100 per cent and more........
50 and under 100 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent...
10 and under 25 per cent...
Less than 10 per cent..........
Total..................................
Price same as base......................

10
4.9
29 , 14.4
29.2
59
47
23.3
11.4
23
83.2
168
2
1.0

86026°—Bull. 93—11----- i



Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent........
10 and under 25 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent..
50 per cent and more.........

12
12
7
1

5.9
5.9
3.5
.5

Total................................
Grand total.....................

32
202

15.8
100.0

354

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

In the following table the December, 1910, relative price is com­
pared with the average for 1890 to 1899. The average price for 1890
to 1899 is in every case the base, or 100 per cent. Only those
commodities are included for which the quotations throughout the
21-year period have been for practically the same description of
article. In using this table it must be borne in mind that the com­
parison is between the relative prices for December, 1910, and the
average price for the base period.
RELATIVE PRICES, DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1C90-1S99.

Farm products, 14 articles.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 362 et seq. Average for 1890-1399=100.0.]
Relative
price, De­
cember,
1910.

Article.
PRICE INCREASED.

Oats: contract grades, cash.......................
Hops: New York State, prime to choice.
Com: contract grades, cash.......................
Cattle: steers, choice to prim e, ...........
Cattle: steers, good to choice....................
Wheat: regular grades, cash.....................
Rye: No. 2, cash..........................................

117.1
121.4
125.8
126.1
129.8
131.7
153.0

Article.
price increased—concluded.
Hides: green, salted, packed..................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................................
Hogs: light...................................................
Hogs: heavy................................................
Barley: choice to fancy malting...............
Cotton: upland, middling.........................
Flaxseed: No. 1...........................................

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1910.
154.7
169.6
172.9
175:6
189.0
193.7
224.6

Food, etc., 47 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —co n c lu d e d .

Coffee: Rio No. 7.........................................
Sugar: 89° fair refining...............................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal.................................
Flour: wheat, winter straights.................
Salt: American, medium...........................
Spices: pepper, Singapore.........................
Starch: pure com........................................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)...........
Meal: com, fine white.................................
Fruit: prunes, California 60s to 70s *........
Meal: com, fine yellow...............................
Flour: buckwheat.......................................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle........
Flour: wheat, spring patents....................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice............
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New York.
market)......................................................
Flour: rye....................................................
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York
market)......................................................
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s.............
Fish: salmon, canned.................................
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market)......................................................
Beans: medium, choice.............................
Butter: creamery (Elgin market)............

100.5
102.0
102.5
108.1
109.3
109.3
109.5
109.6
112.1
111.5
115.5
115.8
117.3
119.0
122.2
122.6
123.2
124.4
126.2
127.4
132.4
133.0
134.7
137.1

Meat: hams, smoked, loose........................
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western.................
Butter: dairy, New York State...............
Vinegar: cider, Monarch............................
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large........................
Cheese: New York State, full cream.......
Meat: bacon, short rib sides......................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides..................
Lard: prime, contract................................
Milk: fresh....................................................
Meat: beef, salt extra, mess.......................
Tallow..................... .....................................
Meat: pork, salt, mess...............................
Fruit: currants, in barrels.........................
Eggs: New-laid, fair to fancy near-by...

137.5
138.2
143.6
148.8
152.2
157.0
161.0
162.8
163.6
166.7
169.0
172.4
177.6
398.4
233.1

PRICE DECREASED.

Sugar: granulated.....................................
Bread: crackers, soda.................................
Meat: mutton, dressed...............................
Rice: domestic, choice, head....................
Vegetables, fresh: onions...........................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer..
Tea: Formosa, fine.....................................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............

98.8
97.5
96.9
93.6
88.2
85.0
84.5
77.7
47.8

Cloths and clothing, # articles.
PRICE SAME AS BASE.

Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler v a m ...............................................

100.0

PRICE INCREASED.

Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour...............
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split...
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................



102.1
106.1
111.1

price increased—continued.
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................
Leather: sole, o o k ........................................
Ginghams; Lancaster.................................
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3 ___
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T___
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard.................................

113.0
113.0
113.4
114.1
115.3
115.6

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

355

R E L A T IV E PRICES, DECEM BER, 1910, COM PARED W ITH A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899—Con.

Cloths and clothing, 42 articles —Concluded.
Relative
price. De­
cember,
1910.

Article
price increased—continued,
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge....................................
Broadcloths: first quality, black..............
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair.
Wool: Ohio fine fleece, scoured...............
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine...
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale................ .
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow........ .
Leather: sole, hemlock..............................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
Shirtings: bleached, Fruit of the Loom..
Shirtings: bleached, W am sutta^f*---Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats . . . .
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A....................
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound..
Cotton flannels: 3| yards to the pound..

Article.

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1910.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —co n c lu d e d .

115.8
116.6
119.0
119.4
119.9
120.3
120.4
121.1

Ginghams: Amoskeag................................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1.........
Print cloths: 64 by 64.................................
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each..
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R .................
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head...............
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell.................
Drillings: brown, Pepperell......................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1.........
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag........................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ............................
Drillings: Stark A .......................................

122.3
123.6
125.3
PRICE DECREASED.
126.4
127.2 Silk: raw, Japan.........................................
127.5 Silk: raw, Italian........................................
130.4 Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured___

131.3
132.0
132.1
135.3
136.1
138.9
139.8
143.3
144.2
146.1
146.5
148.3
168.3
98.4
98.3
97.4

Fuel and lighting , 13 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white.........................................................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York Harbor).................................
Petroleum: refined, for export................
Coal: anthracite, broken...........................
Coal: anthracite, stove..............................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lump...........................................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.........................

103.9
113.0
114.0
124.7
130.4
132.3
137.7

PRICE INCREASED—co n c lu d e d .
C oal: a n th ra c ite , eg g ..........................................
P e tro le u m : c m d e , P e n n s y lv a n ia ................
C oal: b itu m in o u s, G eorges C reek ( a t th e
m in e )......................................................................
PRICE DECREASED.
C oke, C onnellsville, f u r n a c e .........................
C andles: a d a m a n tin e .........................................
M atches: p a rlo r d o m e stic ................................

137.7
142.8
163.2
95.7
92.7
85.4

Metals and implements, 31 articles.
PRICE SAME AS BASE.

Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2.................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick...........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Copper: sheet, hot rolled...........................
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7.......................
Lead pipe......................................................
Quicksilver...................................................
Steel billets.................................................
Bar iron: best refined, from store............
Steel rails......................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1.............................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard..........................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2.............................
Pig iron: Bessemer.....................................
Lead: pig......................................................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern..................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.............




PRICE INCREASED—concluded.
100.0 Hammers: Maydole No. 1£........................
100.0 Spelter: western..........................................
Zinc: sheet...................................................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee.............................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.........
100.4 Tin: pig........................................................
101.3 Locks: common mortise............................
101.7 Door knobs: steel, bronze-plated.............
102.8
PRICE DECREASED.
106.8
107.3
107.4 Wood screws: 1-inch..................................
108.1 Copper wire: bare.......................................
109.1 Shovels: Ames No. 2..................................
112.2 Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common..
115.4 Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common
118.1 Barb wire: galvanized...............................
124.0 Silver: bar, fino...........................................
128.6

130.1
132.7
134.2
149.2
200.6
206.7
208.1
294.6
99.3
97.3
94.7
93.0
83.3
79.2
73.8

356

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OF LABOR.

RELATIVE PRICES, DECEMBER,T910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899—Con.

Lumber and building materials, 20 articles.
Relative
price. De­
cember,
1910.

Article.
PRICE INCREASED.

Cement: Rosendale.....................................
Shingles: cypress.........................................
CarDonate of lead: American....................
Lime: common............................................
Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Maple: hard.................................................
Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Oxide of zinc: American............................
Oak: white, plain........................................
Oak: white, quartered...............................
Pine: yellow, siding....................................
Spruce...........................................................

104.3
118.7
123.2
125.4
126.2
126.4
133.9
134.5
145.6
163.5
165.2
167.3

Article.
PRICE in c r e a s e d — concluded.
Hemlock........................................................
Poplar.....................................................
Linseed oil: raw..........................................
Tar............................................... T .
Turpentine: spirits of.................................
Rosin: common to good, strained..........

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1910.
171.4
197.7
209.5
215.8
234.8
420.2

PRICE DECREASED.

Brick: common domestic..........................
Putty: hulk..................................................

89.9
72.8

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE DECREASED.

Alum: lump.................................................
Brimstone: crude........................................
Sulphuric acid.............................................
Alcohol: grain..............................................
Muriatic acid................................................
Glycerin: refined.........................................
Opium: natural, in cases...........................

104.8 Quinine: American.....................................
106.3 Alcohol: wood, refined...............................
112.4
112.5
125.0
185.8
205.5

56.9
52.4

House-furnishing goods, 13 articles.
PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Earthenware: plates, white granite.........
Earthenware: plates, cream-colored____
Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained..............
Furniture: chairs, kitchen........................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple____
Furniture: tables, kitchen........................
Woodenware: pails, oak-grained..............

103.4
105.0
118.8
143.8
145.3
145.5
146.3

Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite........................................................
Glassware: nappies.....................................
Table cutlery: carvers................................
Table cutlery: knives and forks...............
Glassware: pitchers....................................
Glassware: tumblers..................................

99.8
98.2
93.8
82.5
76.6
67.6

Miscellaneous, 12 articles.
FBICE INCREASED.

Starch: laundry...........................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated.................
Proof spirits.................................................
Tobacco: p lu g ...........................................
Cottonseed meal.........................................
Malt: western made....................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure......................
Rubber: Para Island, new........................
Cottonseed oil: summer yellow, prime...




PRICE DECREASED.

100.6 Rope: manila....................
113.9 Paper: wrapping, manila.
115.7 Paper: news, wood...........
118.6
135.9
146.5
149.4
154.2
169.4

96.4
85.9
73.6

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

357

The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following table, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each
group, classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PKICES OF ARTICLES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED BY PER CENT OF
CHANGE, DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899.
Number of articles for which price—
Increased—
Num­
ber
of
50 25 10
arti­ 100 and and and
cles. per under under under
cent 100 50 25
and per per per
more. cent. cent. cent.

Group.

Farm products.........................................
Food, etc....................................................
Cloths and clothing.................................
Fuel and lighting.....................................
Metals and implements..........................
Lumber and building materials.............
Drugs and chemicals...............................
House-furnishing goods...........................
Miscellaneous...........................................
Total................................................

14
48
42
13
31
20
9
13
12
202

1
1
4
4
1
11

7
10
1
1
5
1
2
27

4
10
17
5
5
6
1
4
3
55

2
10
18
3
4
2
2
1
3
45

Decreased—
Was
10 25
Less same Less and and
than as than under under
10 base. 10 25 50
per
per per per
cent.
cent. cent. cent.
8
2
1
9
1
2
2
1
26

1
2

4
3
2
4

3

3
1
17

4
1

2
1
2
1
11

1
1
1
2
1
1
7

The number and per cent of the above articles which showed each
specified increase or decrease are given in the following table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ARTICLES, BY CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE OR
DECREASE, DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899.
Number Per cent
of arti­ of arti­
cles.
cles.
Price increased:
100 per cent and more.........
50 and under 100 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent...
10 and under 25 per cent...
Less than 10 per cent..........
Total..................................
Price same as base......................

11
27
55
45
26
164
3

5.4
13.4
27.2
22.3
12.9
81.2
1.5

Number Per cent
of arti­ of arti­
cles.
cles.
Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent........
10 and under 25 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent..
Total................................
Grand total.....................

17
11
7
35
202

8.4
5.4
3.5
17.3
.100.0

In Table III, page 465 et seq., relative prices for articles of like char­
acter in a general group have been brought together for easy compari­
son. A table is here given in which the relative prices of certain raw
commodities and of articles manufactured therefrom, or of articles
otherwise closely related, classified in the general tables in different
groups, have been assembled for ready comparison.




358

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO DECE MBER
1910.
[Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle and cattle products.
Dairy products.
Year
or
Beef,
Beef,
Beef, Tallow. Hides;
Milk.
month. Cattle. fresh. hams. mess.
Butter. Cheese.
80.4
89.2
86.8
99.6
103.1
100.4
1890..-.
89.5
105.7
97.1
106.2
104.4
1891.... 109.2
85.8
101.5
116.1
102.4
111.0
104.7
95.4
80.5
1892....
98.8
106.4
116.4
84.8
92.8
105.1
107.2
105.4
102.2
1893.... 103.0
98.6
79.9
109.4
121.3
125.1
109.0
97.0
101.5
68.4
1894....
96.3
101.0
103.1
102.2
110.3
107.4
101.4
102.7
95.9
109.7
99.2
94.1
1895.... 103.7
99.8
94.5
88.3
90.5
86.6
1896....
88.1
93.7
78.9
82.3
91.8
92.0
106.3
92.2
84.1
99.5
99.7
125.1
95.7
1897....
76.3
98.1
114.2
101.3
118.8
122.8
1898.... 102.2
81.8
93.7
86.8
83.3
108.3
125.6
115.9
104.1
99.2
1899.... 113.2
131.8
95.8
108.9
114.2
104.3
127.4
1900.... 111.3
121.7
111.5
107.5
101.7
114.3
102.1
112.6
116.3
1901___ 116.6
119.1
132.0
102.4
102.7
97.7
1902.... 139.5
125.9
118.0
147.1
142.8
112.1
144.6
112.9
114.1
117.2
113.1
101.7
117.2
1903.... 105.8
124.8
112.9
105.7
123.3
123.5
109.4
124.4
1904.... 110.9
106.1
98.4
107.8
103.2
105.5
104.0
121.6
152.6
1905.... 111.2
125.0
103.2
113.3
112.8
122.8
119.2
101.2
110.3
1906.... 114.2
119.3
164.7
118.0
113.1
133.0
144.0
155.3
114.7
122.5
131.4
142.8
128.5
1907___ 122.9
143.3
153.2
129.5
122.1
164.5
142.6
1908.... 127.4
129.0
138.2
126.7
133.1
138.8
137.5
175.8
1909.... 137.1
136.6
132.5
131.7
150.5
142.2
138.2
165.0
182.0
144.3
1910.... 147.1
167.6
138.5
159.3
1910.
Jan........ 137.1
138.2
135.7
189.4
145.3
161.6
155.2
155.9
174.2
138.2
F e b .... 139.6
151.2
131.7
157.2
156.9
176.1
135.5
174.8
138.2
M ar.... 155.3
142.1
152.1
147.1
148.1
183.6
162.8
174.8
Apr___ 158.0
157.3
138.2
140.4
193.3
143.1
172.4
158.8
174.5
May---- 157.6
153.2
138.2
164.1
193.3
168.1
117.6
131.5
150.3
138.2
144.4
143.9
194.9
June__
160.7
155.9
168.1
117.6
128.5
July.... 153.4
146.1
138.2
193.3
130.1
156.6
153.5
127.8
150.1
138.2
A ug.... 151.0
190.2
137.3
141.8
169.7
160.1
134.5
151.5
136.4
138.2
165.4
143.9
144.6
191.8
178.2
Sept___ 146.8
152.6
Oct.......
138.2
141.7
136.7
196.5
181.1
156.9
136.7
170.8
153.3
138.2
N ov .... 132.9
187.1
156.9
136.5
182.3
142.8
162.8
155.0
134.4
138.2
D ec.... 127.9
172.4
166.7
138.0
169.0
154.7
157.0
Sheep and sheep products.
Hogs and hog products.
Year
or
Hams, Mess pork. Lard.
month. Hogs.
Sheep.
Bacon. smoked.
Mutton.
Wool.
89.3
89 2
101.1
104.4
96.8
119.3
123.7
1890....
132.1
99.2
103.7
1891....
99.8
100.9
lf7.8
97.2
125.8
114.9
115.7
109.3
99.1
125.2
1892....
116.6
117.9
121.2
113.2
154.7
1893....
126.9
157.5
103.8
106.5
148.6
157.6
101.6
118.2
112.2
111.8
80.2
1894....
103.6
121.4
73.6
79.1
96.3
96.2
99.8
78.4
1895....
96.6
101.7
82.2
70.1
95.8
71.7
78.3
73.1
78.7
1896....
76.8
82.9
70.6
1897....
82.8
67.4
'79.9
90.9
94.2
96.6
76.6
88.7
89.4
84.4
104.9
1898....
85.6
82.0
98.0
84.8
108.3
91.8
85.8
93.8
94.3
1899....
80.3
85.0
104.3
110.8
115.5
111.5
104.2
105.5
96.4
1900....
107.5
112.0
117.7
132.3
109.2
135.3
1901....
134.5
89.5
134.2
92.0
96.6
159.3
123.1
1902....
155.2
103.2
154.2
161.9
97.9
100.8
143.1
98.4
98.7
129.2
134.1
1903....
137.2
142.6
110.3
116.7
1904....
115.1
108.9
111.8
109.1
103.2
120.6
115.5
106.3
120.2
1905....
119.0
113.9
131.5
113.9
127.3
123.9
142.2
125.5
120.7
139.9
121.1
1906....
135.6
150.5
132.6
132.4
1907....
139.2
140.7
140.7
116.0
151.0
126.9
121.5
114.3
129.5
133.1
138.8
1908....
114.5
118.3
137.3
111.0
133.1
169.1
173.4
178.7
1909....
121.7
119.2
183.5
126.5
167.1
203.3
204.1
133.3
197.2
124.4
1910....
191.6
115.8
1910.
Jan.......
192.2
197.4
194.3
150.0
134.7
131.8
126.8
205.0
F eb....
206.8
155.7
207.1
199.9
196.2
144.3
161.4
124.9
Mar___
219.8
238.0
176.8
219.3
232.3
189.4
175.7
123.3
Apr—
223.2
218.1
181.1
203.4
186.5
120.1
220.5
182.5
M!ay....
214.8
211.1
180.4
200.8
143.3
161.8
208.0
118.5
June...
213.2
214.5
182.0
119.4
209.5
192.0
140.1
116.8
July....
205.8
200.5
183.6
221.3
122.7
96.0
183.6
113.4
Aug....
195.4
183.3
97.7
194.9
173.6
214.0
116.0
111.8
Sept...
194.3
212.5
168.7
203.1
194.6
117.8
101.5
108.3
Oct___
195.8
179.2 •
110.2
162.6
194.5
94.4
108.3
180.5
Nov__
167.3
169.9
150.4
168.1
171.4
92.8
85.2
108.3
Dec__
174.3
162.0
87,3
96.9
108.3
137.5
163.6
177.6



WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO 1910,

353

RELATIVE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
and
Wheat and
Flaxseed, etc. Ryeflour. rye wheat flour.
Flour, etc.
Com, etp.
Year
or
'month. Com. Glu­ Meal. Flax­ Linseed Rye. Rye Wheat. Wheat Wheat Crack­ Loaf
flour. flour. ers. bread.
seed. oil.
flour.
cose.1
100.8 125.5 135.8 103.0 101.4 118.9 120.9 120.9 107.7 100.9
1890.... 103.8
142.0 97.1 106.8 157.6 148.3 128.1 125.6 125.6 107.7 100.9
1891.... 151.0
1892.... 118.3
114.0 91.4 90.0 127.7 121.1 104.9 104.2 104.2 104.3 100.9
1893.... 104.2 124.3 105.8 97.7 102.2 92.6 93.0 90.1 89.3 89.3 100.6 100.9
1894.... 113.7 111.4 105.6 121.6 115.6 88.1 83.8 74.4 77.6 77.6 98.8 100.9
98.7
1895.... 104.0 109.2 103.3 111.8 115.6 91.2 94.5 79.9 84.4 84.4 95.6
94.5
1896.... 67.8 81.7 77.4 72.9 81.2 66.5 80.9 85.4 91.2 91.2 94.1
1897.... 66.9 86.0 76.5 78.1 72.2 74.9 84.6 105.8 110.1 110.1 85.3 100.9
1898.... 82.6 91.8 83.7 99.8 86.5 93.8 92.9 117.8 109.0 109.0 107.3 100.9
1899.... 87.6 95.6 91.2 104.0 94.1 104.4 99.4 94.7 87.9 87.9 99.1 100.9
1900.... 100.2 104.9 97.0 145.7 138.7 97.9 103.3 93.7 88.3 88.3 102.7 100.9
1901.... 130.6 116.0 115.5 145.8 140.0 100.8 100.1 95.7 87.4 87.4 108.2 100.9
1902.... 156.9 153.6 148.2 135.0 130.8 102.5 103.8 98.7 89.7 89.7 108.2 100.9
1903.... 121.1 129.7 124.7 94.1. 91.9 97.5 94.9 105.1 97.1 97.1 101.3 100.9
1904.... 132.6 126.3 129.5 *99.6 91.7 133.4 131.1 138.3 125.4 125.4 103.4 106.0
1905.... 131.7 125.1 128.4 107.6 103.1 134.5 134.7 134.5 122.3 122.3 113.8 110.9
1906.... 121.8 142.9 122.5 99.1 89.3 115.5 115.9 105.6 96.8 96.8 112.1 110.9
1907.... 138.8 159.4 131.5 106.1 95.7 145.4 138.7 120.8 108.6 108.6 112.1 110.9
1908.... 179.9 186.2 156.4 108.0 96.5 148.0 142.8 131.8 118.8 118.8 112.1 114.5
1909.... 175.5 174.4 156.7 140.6 127.9 148.0 135.2 159.7 138.6 138.6 112.8 117.1
1910.... 152.7 136.9 146.3 203.7 186.7 147.0 127.5 146.1 125.8 125.8 120.7 117.9
1910.
Jan___ 170.9 149.5 162.3 178.8 167.6 151.7 131.9 158.6 136.8 136.8 120.7 117.9
F eb.... 169.2 153.0 167.1 187.7 169.8 153.5 131.9 159.5 136.5 136.5 120.7 117.9
Mar___ 164.2 153.0 167.1 192.7 169.8 149.7 133.4 157.8 135.4 135.4 120.7 117.9
Apr---- 153.0 146.0 147.7 203.0 178.6 148.4 129.6 150.6 129.3 129.3 120.7 117.9
May.... 158.4 138.9 147.7 212.5 185.2 146.6 128.1 146.8 125.4 125.4 120.7 117.9
June... 154.6 136.1 147.7 186.8 180.8 143.0 125.9 138.4 119.1 119.1 120.7 117.9
July.... 162.9 129.0 147.7 181.9 174.2 144.4 125.9 152.0 128.5 128.5 120.7 117.9
Aug.... 165.0 139.6 147.7 212.0 198.5 143.3 129.6 148.2 126.8 126.8 120.7 117.9
Sept... 145.3 139.6 147.7 221.9 198.5 139.0 121.3 141.9 122.4 122.4 120.7 117.9
Oct___ 130.2 122.0 145.3 211.6 198.5 144.1 122.1 136.9 118.8 118.8 120.7 117.9
Nov__ 131.3 118.5 113.8 230.4 209.5 147.7 125.9 131.1 114.8 114.8 120.7 117.9
Dec___ 125.8 117.8 113.8 224.6 209.5 153.0 124.4 131.7 116.0 116.0 120.7 117.9
Cotton and cotton goods.
Year. Cotton: Bags:
or
Ging­ Ho­
Cotton Cotton
month. upland, 2-bushel, Calico. flannels. thread. Cotton Denims. Drill­ hams. siery.
ings.
yams.
mid­ Amosdling.
keag.
129.7
113.9* 117.5 121.8 101.6 111.7 112.5 121.1 119.1
1890.... 142.9
104.0 121.8 100.7 112.8 109.6 114.6 122.1
122.8
1891.... 110.8
111.7
117.4
1892....
110.8
117.5 115.9 100.7 117.0 109.6 102.2 122.1
99.0
109. 4
113.0 101.4 100.7 110.5 112.5 105.6 114.9
1893.... 107.2
106.8
97.1
100.8
1894....
90.2
99.5
93.0 105.4
89.5
91.1
95.7 100.7
94 6
93.2
94 9
92.1
87.0
94 4
82.2
94 0
91.7 100.7
1895....
94 9
94 6 100.2
93.9
99.6
93.0
88.0
90.5
1896.... 102.0
91.6
88.6
89.2
90.4
84 2
92.2
92.9
90.4
98.4
86.7
90.6
1897....
83.1
81.4
98.4
85.9
86.8
83.4
76.9
81.0
1898....
95.6
90.8
87.3
98.4
1899....
103.4
88.0
85.8
88.5
89.7
82.5
84 7
88.5
87.3
94 9 101.6 120.1 115.5 102.8 105 0
96.3
1900.... 123.8
112.6
90.4
98.3 100.2 102.2
92.3
85.9
1901.... 111.1
95.4 120.1
101 0
90.4
99.2
85.2
1902.... 115.1
102.4
96.1 120.1
94 0 100.6 102.0
90.1
1903.... 144 7
91.1 106.8 120.1 112.9 108.0 109.9 101.8
104 2
128.4
95.7 125.6 120.1 119.5 116.6 126.7
99.9
89.2
1904.... 155.9
109.6
93.5 119.7 120.1 105.7 103.7 123.8
93.4
87.5
1905.... 123.1
129.1
1906.... 142.0
99.5 128.2 120.1 120.8 118.1 138.8 104.7
89.7
121.0 139.5 134 8 133.9 132.3 147.2 122.0
97.4
1907.... 153.0
138.5
104 3 119.2 131.7 108.8 111.1 130.6 101.5
1908.... 134 8
134 3
89.,5
1909.... 156.0
134.6
97.1 108.4 126.4 118.6 119.9 139.7 107.2
92.3
146.0
106.8 128.9 126.4 133.4 138.9 1542 123.2
93.1
1910.... 194 8
1910.
Jan___ 191.3
105.1 128.9 126.4 139.1 143.7 151.4 124 5
139.4
93.4
F eb .... 189.4
143.0
105.1 128.0 126.4 136.2 143.7 151.4 124 5
93.4
Mar___ 193.8
114 6 128.9 126.4 131.9 143.7 151.4 124 5
143.0
93.4
Apr___ 194.1
114 6 128.9 126.4 131.3 143.7 152.1 124 5
143.0
94 7
M ay.... 199.9
150.1
105.1 128.9 126.4 132.6 1341 152.1 124 5
94 7
June... 198.9
150.1
105.1 128.9 126.4 128.9 1341 156.0 122.3
90.9
July.... 200.8
150.1
105.1 128.9 126.4 127.4 1341 156.0 122.3
90.9
Aug—
214 6
105.1 128.9 126.4 132.1 134.1 156.0 122.3
90.9
146.5
Sept... 178.6
105.1 128.9 126.4 131.3 138.9 156.0 122.3
146.5
92.8
O ct.... 186.5
105.1 128.9 126.4 134 9 138.9 156.0 122.3
146.5
94 7
Nov__
93.8
190.7
105.1 128.9 126.4 136.2 138.9 156.0 122.3
146.5
Dec---193.7
105.1 128.9 126.4 139.1 138.9 156.0 122.3
146.5
93.8
* Average for 1893-1899=100.0.



BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

360

RELATIVE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
Cotton and cotton goods.
Year
or
month. Print Sheet­ Shirt­ Tick­
cloths. ings. ings. ings.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1896....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
June...
July....
Aug---Sept...
Oct___
Nov__
Dec___

Wool and woolen goods.
Blan­
Wool. kets (all Broad­ Carpets. Flan­
nels.
wool). cloths.

Horse
blan­
kets.

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
110.0
127.7
167.4
118.0
126.5
1348

117.6
112.3
103.8
107.7
95.9
94 6
97.4
91.8
86.7
92.2
105.9
101.8
101.4
110.6
121.1
113.5
122.4
132.2
120.0
119.6
131.5

112.9
110.2
107.4
110.2
99.9
97.6
97.9
92.0
83.8
87.8
100.4
98.9
98.8
103.2
104 7
101.2
111.1
137.4
120.0
116.4
119.8

113.1
110.7
108.4
111.3
102.2
948
96.0
91.9
843.
87.0
102.2
95.5
99.0
1041
114 3
102.1
119.0
129.4
106.0
111.3
121.1

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5
118.3
126.5
115.8

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0
113.1
119.0
125.5

11&7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6
115.6
116.6
117.8

105.3
112.8
104 5
1045
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5
100.2
99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6
110.0
115.7
117.7
123.2
118.9
116.8
117.3

116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
941
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114 3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1
122.4
121.9
123.5

109.1
104 7
109.1
104 7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94 2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9
126.5
126.5
135.3

147.6
149.8
145.3
133.9
126.6
127.7
126.0
132.1
131.0
132.6
133.2
132.1

135.5
1341
134 7
130.9
129.2
128.7
128.6
128.0
129.7
132.4
132.9
133.5

128.1
128.1
128.1
117.6
117.1
117.1
114 3
115.1
115.1
117.7
119.3
119.3

132.0
132.0
132.0
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
117.8
m 2
127.2
127.2

126.8
124 9
123.3
m i
118.5
116.8
113.4
111.8
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3

131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
1141

135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3




WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1910.

361

RELATIVE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO DECEMBER,
1910—Concluded.
Hides, leather, and boots
and shoes.

Wool and woolen goods.
Year
or
month. Over­ Suit­
coat­
ings (all ings.
wool).
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907.,..
1908....
1909....
1910%...
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
M ar....
Apr___
May....
June...
July....
Aug—
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec___

Petroleum.

Under­ Women's Worst­
Boots
wear dress
and
ed
(all goods (all yams. Hides. Leather. shoes. Cmde.
wool). wool).

Re­
fined.

111.9
111.9
111.9
108.6
97.5
90.8
86.7
87.8
97.1
100.6
116.1
105.3
105.3
110.2
110.3
118.2
126.1
124.8
122.6
109.8
110.7

113.1
113.1
113.4
112.7
98.3
89.2
87.8
88.7
103.4
106.1
115.8
104.9
105.8
109.0
109.0
122.7
134.8
133.1
127.6
135.1
134.7

106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

117.6
123.0
124.1
114.7
90.6
82.7
74.1
82.2
88.5
102.7
118.7
107.9
109.8
114.4
115.6
129.7
134.1
130.9
127.0
133.4
136.3

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74.0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0
116.5
124.7
128.5
127.9
117.6
130.2
123.7

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8
165.0

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
124.0
119.4
126.8
125.3

104.8
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
98.7
99.6
97.2
96.3
96.8
99.4
99.2
98.9
100.2
101.1
107.4
121.8
125.9
121.3
128.1
126.6

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5
195.6
182.7
147.7

112.4
102.2
91.5
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119.3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1
143.1
133.7
120.5

114.0
114.0
114.0
111.0
111.0
111.0
111.0
111.0
107.9
107.9
107.9
107.9

139.6
140.8
140.8
139.3
139.3
139.3
128.8
128.8
129.7
130.1
130.1
lbO.l

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
136.3
132.5
132.5
132.5
132.5
132.5
133.4

130.0
130.0
128.7
127.5
123.6
123.6
123.6
120.1
118.8
118.8
118.8
120.3

189.4
176.1
152.1
158.8
168.1
168.1
153.5
160.1
165.4
170.8
162.8
154.7

130.8
130.8
128.9
128.3
127.0
127.0
125.0
123.8
122.2
120.8
119.4
119.4

129.5
128.8
128.8
128.8
127.5
126.9
126.9
125.4
124.8
124.8
124.1
123.4

157.1
153.8
153.8
153.8
148.3
148.3
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8

127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
126.2
126.2
119.9
117.2
117.2
110.5
109.7
109.7




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

362

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 334 to 346.]

FA RM PR O D U CTS.
BARLEY: Choice to fancy malting, by sample.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the Secretary of the Chicago Board of
Trade.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$0.69H&0.74 Apr___
.71 - .74
.72*- .74
.72*- .74
.69 - .71 M ay...
.70 - .73
.71 - .73
.70 - .73
.68*- .73 June...
.68 - .70
.68 - .71
.67 - .69

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

t0.65-S0.68 Ju ly... t0.65-t0.69 Oct........
.63- .66
.68- .74
.65- .70
.75- .77
.62- .67
.70- .77
.62- .64
.66- .73
.62- .64 Aug....
.65- .69 Nov___
.63- .65
• .67- .70
.65- .68
.68- .75
.65- .67
.72- .75
.64- .67 S ep t...
.69- .73 Dec........
.65- .67|
.69- .71
.64- .68
.71- .75
.62- .66
.71- .74*
.70- .72
Average.

Price.
$0.71 -tO. 76
.7 5 - .77
.7 4 - .77
.7 2 - .76
.72*- .78
.78*- .82
.82 - .83*
.7 9 - .82
.80 - .83*
.84 - .90"
.8 6 - .89
.8 3 - .89
.83*- .89
tO. 7197

CATTLE: Steers, choice to prime.
[Price per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers’
Journal.]
Jan........

$7.15-t8.40 Apr___
7.15- 8.10
7.10- 7.90
6.85- 8.00
6.65- 7.75
M ay...
0)
7.00- 8.00
6.90- 7.90
7.25- 8.10
7.40- 8.15 June...
7.65- 8.40
8.20- 8.65
8.15- 8.85
7.85- 8.60

t8.00-t8.65 July...
7.90- 8.60
7.90- 8.60
7.75- 8.50
7.50- 8.30 Aug....
8.00- 8.55
7.90- 8.60
8.00- 8.75
8.00- 8.60
8.20- 8.75 Sept...
8.15- 8.75
8.15- 8.85
7.60- 8.40

Mar........

$7.15-t7.75
7.35- 7.90
7.25- 7.90
7.30- 7.90
7.00- 7.60
6.90- 7.50
6.75- 7.50
6.65- 7.25
6.60- 7.15
6.35- 7.25
6.20- 6.75
6.60- 7.00
6.50- 7.00

Average.

Feb........

t7.75-t8.55 Oct........
7.60- 8.50
7.85- 8.55
7.50- 8.35
7.35- 8.05 Nov.......
7.50- 8.25
7.45- 8.25
7.90- 8.50
7.60- 8.30
7.50- 8.35 Dec...'..
7.50- 8.35
7.30- 8.25
7.15- 7.90

t7.7712

CATTLE: Steers, good to choice.
[Price per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers,
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$5.75-17.10 Apr___
5.65- 7.10
5.60- 7.00
5.80- 6.75
5.70- 6.60
M ay...
0)
6.00- 6.90
6.00- 6.85
6.30- 7.10
6.60- 7.30 June...
6.75- 7.60
7.25- 8.10
7.50- 8.10
7.25- 7.75




t7.40-S7.90 July...
7.50- 7.85
7.50- 7.85
7.30- 7.75
7.15- 7.50 Aug....
7.50- 7.90
7.40- 7.85
7.50- 7.90
7.50- 7.85
7.75- 8.15 Sept...
7.75- 8.10
7.70- 8.10
7.10- 7.55

t6.35-$7.00
6.50- 7.25
6.30- 7.15
6.40- 7.25
6.25- 6.90
6.15- 6.80
6.00- 6.65
5.90- 6.60
6.00- 6.50
6.00- 6.35
5.70- 6.15
6.00- 6.50
6.00- 6.45

Average.
1No quotation for week.

t7.25-t7.70 Oct........
7.00- 7.50
7.15- 7.75
6.85- 7.45
6.75- 7.30 Nov___
6.85- 7.40
6.75- 7.40
7.20- 8.50
6.90- 7.50
6.90- 7.40 Dec.......
6.80- 7.40
6.65- 7.25
6.40- 7.00

$7.0173

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

363

T a ble I*— WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.

COTTON: Upland, middling.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
$0.1590 Apr___
$0.1410
$0.1545 Oct........
$0.1455 July...
.1530
.1545
.1530
.1475
.1385
.1595
.1445
.1515
.1435
.1550
.1460
.1525
.1530 Nov___
Feb........
.1455
.1470 M ay...
.1530 Aug....
.1500
.1495
.1600
.1570
.1500
.1455
.1570
.1575
.1655
.1485
.1410
.1535
.1975
.1510
.1550
Mar........
.1485 June...
.1425 Dec.......
.1500
.1520 Sept...
.1480
.1385
.1505
.1530
.1515
.1375
.1515
.1530
.1510
.1360
.1595
.1495
.1530
Average.
$0.15118
FLAXSEED: No. 1 and No. 1 Northwestern, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on the first of each month; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
Jan........ $1.94 -$2.04 Apr___ $2.21 -$2.31 July... $1.97£-$2.07£ Oct........ $2.29 -$2.42
Feb........ 2.04 - 2.14 M ay... 2.31|- 2.41£ Aug.... 2.31 - 2.41 Nov___
2.50 - 2.63
Mar........ 2.09J- 2.19| June... 2.03 - 2.13 Sept... 2.41 - 2.53 Dec........ 2.43J- 2.56§
Average.
$2.2671
HAY: Timothy, No. 1.
[Price per ton, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Inter-Ocean.]
Jan........ $16.50-117.00 Apr.... $16.00-$17.00 Ju ly... $17.00-$18.00 Oct........ $17.50-118.50
16.50- 17.00
18.00- 18.50
16.00- 17.00
19.00- 20.00
18.00- 18.50
16.50- 17.00
20.00- 21.00
16.00- 17.00
18.00- 18.50
16.50- 17.00
15.50- 16.50
20.00- 21.00
Feb........ 17.50- 18.00 M ay... 15.00- 16.00 Aug.... 20.00- 21.00 Nov....... 16.00- 16.50
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
15.00- 16.00
20.00- 21.00
17.00- 18.00
17.50- 18.50
13.50- 14.50
18.00- 19.00
17.00- 18.00
19.00- 20.00
18.00- 19.00
12.50- 13.00
17.50- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
15.00- 16.00
Mar....... 17.00- 18.00 June... 15.00- 16.00 Sept... 16.50- 17.50 Dec........ 18.00- 19.00
17.00- 18.00
16.50- 17.50
18.00- 19.00
14.50- 15.50
16.50- 17.00
17.00- 18.00
14.50- 15.50
16.50- 17.50
16.50- 17.00
17.00- 18.00
16.00- 16.50
15.50- 16.00
16.50- 17.00
Average.
$17.2692



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

364

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.

HIDES: Green, salted, packer's, heavy native steers.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on the first of each month; quotations from the Shoe and Leather Reporter. ]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

t0.17| Apr___ $0.14|-|0.15 July... «0.14*-|0.14* Oct........
.16* M ay... .1 5 - .16* A ug....
.15 Nov.......
.14* June... .15*- .16 Sept...
.15* D ec...:.
Average.

Price.
$0.16
.154
.14*
$0.1546

HOGS: Heavy.
[rrice per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers' and Drovers'
Journal.]
Jan........

I8.55-S8.65 Apr___ $10.55 -$10.70 July...
10.00 - 10.15
8.60- 8.72*
9.30- 9.40
8.70- 8.85
9.50- 9.60
8.35- 8.50
8.45- 8.57*
M ay... 9.22*- 9.32* Aug....
0)
8.75- 8.85
9.40- 9.50
9.20- 9.40
9.55-. 9.65
9.55- 9.65
9.65- 9.75
9.52*- 9.62*
9.80- 9.95 June... 9.20- 9.30 Sept...
10.55-10.80
9.35- 9.45
10.7510.90
9.50- 9.65
10.7510.90
9.30 - 9.45
10.80-10.95

Mar........

$8.40-$8.70
8.20- 8.60
8.35- 8.85
8.35- 8.75
7.70- 8.35
7.90- 8.40
7.70- 7.90
7.10- 7.25
7.05- 7.25
7.40- 7.55
7.90- 8.05
7.60- 7.75
7.80- 7.95

Average.

Feb........

$9.00-$9.30 Oct........
8.45-8.80
8.40- 8.75
8.35- 8.60
7.75- 8.10 Nov.......
7.80- 8.30
8.05- 8.45
8.35- 8.70
8.90- 9.20
9.10- 9.65 Dec........
8.95- 9.50
8.60- 9.10
8.75- 9.25

$8.9428

HOGS: lig h t.
[Price per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers' and Drovers’
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$8.25- $8.50 Apr___ $10.30-$10.55 Ju ly...
8.30- 8.60
9.95- 10.15
9.20- 9.50
8.40- 8.70
9.30- 9.55
8.05- 8.35
8.15- 8.45
M ay... 9.10- 9.30 Aug....
0)
9.25- 9.45
8.50- 8.75
9.45- 9.62*
8.90- 9.25
9.50- 9.75
9.25- 9.50
9.45- 9.57*
9.50- 9.80 June... 9.15- 9.30 S ept...
9.30- 9.45
10.25- 10.65
9.45- 9.70
10.50- 10.75
9.40- 9.60
10.55- 10.80
10.45- 10.80

$9.25- $9.45 Oct........
8.90- 9.25
8.60- 9.00
8.60- 8.90
8.20- 8.65 Nov.......
8.55- 9.00
8.55- 8.95
8.75- 9.15
9.10- 9.50
9.50- 10.00 Dec........
9.60- 10.10
9.30- 9.75
9.25- 9.65

$8.60-19.00
8.45- 8.95
8.85- 9.40
8.90- 9.40
8.30- 8.75
8.00- 8.35
7.45- 7.85
6.80- 7.15
6.75- 7.10
7.20- 7.55
7.65- 8.00
7.50- 7.75
7.60- 7.90

Average.

$9.0091

HOPS: New York State, prime to choice.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.33-$0.35 Apr___
.33- .35 M ay...
.32- .34 June...




$0.28-$0.30 July...
.24- .25 Aug....
.23- .24 Sept...
i No quotation for week.

$0.22-$0.23 Oct........
.22- .23 Nov.......
.21- .22 Dec........
Average.

$0.21-$0.23
.22- .23
.21- .22
$0.2588

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

365

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.

HORSES: Draft, good to choice.
[Price per head, in Chicago, on Wednesday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers’
Journal.]
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Jan........ $180.00-1255.00 Apr___ $175.00-1275.00 Ju ly... $170.00-$265.00 Oct........ $170.00-$275.00
175.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 275.00
180.00- 255.00
175.00- 275.00
170.00- 250.00
170.00- 265.00
182.50- 260.00
175.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 275.00
182.50- 260.00
Feb........ 182.50- 260.00 M ay... 175.00- 275.00 Aug.... 170.00- 265.00 Nov....... 170.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
175.00- 275.00
182.50- 260.00
170.00- 265.00
175.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
185.00- 260.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 275.00
185.00- 260.00
175.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 265.00
0)
Mar....... 187.50- 265.00 June... 175.00- 275.00 S ep t... 170.00- 275.00 Dec........ 170.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
187.50- 270.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
190.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
170.00- 275.00
170.00- 275.00
190.00- 275.00
170.00- 265.00
190.00- 275.00
Average.
$221.9100

MULES: 16 hands high, medium to extra.
[Price per head, in East St. Louis, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Daily National Live Stock
Reporter.]
Jan........ $150.00-$275.00 Apr___ $150.00-5275.00 Ju ly... 150.00-1275.00 Oct........ $150.00-$275. CO
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
Feb........ 150.00- 275.00 M ayi.. 150.00- 275.00 Aug.... 150.00- 275.00 Nov....... 150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
Mar....... 150.00- 275.00 June... 150.00- 275.00 Sept... 150.00- 275.00 Dec........ 150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
150.00- 275.00
Average$212.5000

OATS: Contract grades, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
Jan........ $0.45$-$0.45§ Apr___
.46$- .46|
.47
.47|- .47$
Feb.......
.47 - .47$ M ay...
.47 - .47$
.48$
.46$
Mar........
.47$ June...
.44$
.45|- .45$
. 43f- .43$
.44




i No quotation for week.

$0.40 Oct........
.41$
.42
.41
.37f Nov.......
• 36$
.36$
$0.34- .34$
.33
.33$ Dec........
.33$
.34
.32$

$0.32$
.31$
.30
.30$
.31$
.31$
.31$
.30$
.31|
.31$
.31$
.31$
.31|

Average.

0)$0.42$ July...
.42$
.42$
.42 Aug....
.42$
.42$
.39$
.36$
.37$ Sept...
.35
.39$
.39$

$0.3856

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

366

T a ble I*— WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.

POULTRY: Live, fowls.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Saturday of each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.J
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.15* Apr___
$0.20 July....
$0.17* Oct........
.16
|0.18|- .19
.16*
.18
.20*
$0.17- .18
.17
.20*
.19
.16
.20*
.17*- .18
.17 May....
.17* Aug.... .17*- .18 Nov.......
$0.19- .20
.18*
.15*- .16
.18
.17
.1 5 - .15*
.20
.14*- .15
.19
June...
.20 Sept...
.17 Dec........
.17
.19*
.17
.18
.18
.1 5 - .16
.19- .20
.16
.17
Hf,
00

Mar........

Month.

Price.

Average.

Price.
$0.17 -$0.18
.1 6 - .16*
.1 6 - .17
.16
.13*- .14
.13*
.12*- .13
.1 4 - .15
.1 3 - .13*
.1 2 - .13
.1 3 - .14*
.14*- .15
.13*- .14
. 13*- . 14
SO.1091

RYE: No. 2, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.)
Jan........ SO. 79*-$0.81 Apr___
.79*- .82
.79*- .81
.79 - .80*
Feb........
.81 May__
.81*
.81
.8 1 - .81*
Mar........ .7 8 - .80 June...
.78 - .79*
.78*- .79*
.79 - .79*
.79*- .80

S0.79-S0.80 July.... SO. 74 -SO. 76 Oct........
.78- .79
.7 5 - .76
.77 - .78
.78
.78
.7 7 - .78
.77- .78 Aug....
.77* Nov.......
.78- .79
.77*- .78
.78- .80
.76*
.77
.73 - .76
.72 - .73*
.75- .76
.75- .77 Sept...
.73* Dec.......
.75- .77
.73
.75- .76
.73*
.74- .76
.74

S0.74J-S0.75
* -. <6
m
.76*
.77
.77
.78
.78*
.80
.81
.81*
.80*
.80*

Average.

SO.7774

SHEEP: Native, wethers, fair to fancy.
[Price per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers’
Journal.)
Jan----Feb........
Mar........

S5.75-S6.25 Apr___
5.85- 6.35
5.90- 6.40
5.60- 6.00
5.75- 6.25
May....
0)
6.35- 7.00
7.00- 7.50
7.25- 7.90
7.50- 8.15 June...
7.65- 8.15
8.15- 8.65
8.75- 9.25
8.50- 9.00




$8.15-58.50 July....
8.15- 8.60
7.25- 8.40
7.25- 8.15
7.15- 7.75 Aug....
7.00- 7.60
6.35- 6.90
5.25- 5.60
5.00- 5.25
5.40- 5.75 S ep t...
5.90- 6.35
4.75- 5.25
4.00- 4.75

$4.15-54.50
4.15- 4.50
4.25- 4.65
4.15- 4.40
4.00- 4.35
3.85- 4.25
3.60- 4.10
3.25- 3.90
3.40- 4.10
3.50- 4.25
3.50- 4.35
3.50- 4.15
3.65- 4.25

Average.
1 No quotation for week.

$4.00-54.85 Oct........
4.35- 4.00
3.75- 4.00
4.15- 4.50
4.15- 4.50 Nov.......
4.50- 4.85
4.05- 4.40
4.00- 4.40
4.25- 4.50
4.25- 4.50 Dec.......
4.75
4.25- 4.75
4.50- 5.00

55.5438

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

367

T able I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued,
F A R M P R O D U C T S —Concluded.

SHEEP: Western, wethers, plain to choice*
[Pries per 100 pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers'
Journal.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.
$5.50-$6.10
5.605.60- 6.30
5.35- 5.90
5.50- 6.25
0)
6.25- 6.90
6.75- 7.40
7.00- 7.85
7.25- 8.10
7.40- 8.10
8.00- 8.60
8.60- 9.30
8.40- 9.00

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

May....
June...

$8.00-18.60
8.15- 8.65
7.00- 8.35
7.007.00- 7.75
6.85- 7.50
6.00- 6.60
5.00- 5.50
4.80- 5.15
5.30- 5.75
5.75- 6.25
4.65- 5.25
4.15- 4.75

July__
8.15
Aug....
Sep t...

$4.20-$4.75 Oct........
3.90- 4.35
3.50- 4.10
4.00- 4.50
4.00- 4.40 Nov.......
4.15- 4.25
4.05- 4.40
4.00- 4.35
4.10- 4.60
4.10- 4.50 Dec........
4.35- 4.40
4.15- 4.65
4.25

$4.00-$4.25
4.00- 4.25
3.65- 4.25
3.50- 4.25
3.50- 4.30
3.50- 4.20
3.40- 4.25
3.10- 3.75
3.25-' 4.00
3.40- 4.66
3.35- 3.70
3.50- 3.85
4.20- 4.25

Average.

Apr___
6.25

$5.3947

TOBACCO: Burley, dark red, good leaf.
[Price per 100 pounds, in Louisville, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Western Tobacco
Journal.]
Apr___ $14.75-$16.25 July.... $16.00-^17.00 Oct........
0
16.00- 17.00
14.75- 16.25
$15.25-$16.75
16.00- 17.00
14.75- 16.25
15.25- 16.75
16.00- 17.00
14.75- 16.25
15.25- 16.75
15.00- 16.50
17.00
Feb........ 14.75- 16.25 May.... 14.75- 16.25 Aug.... 16.00- 17.00 Nov.......
16.0014.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
16.00- 17.00
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
16.00- 17.00
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
16.00- 17.00
15.50- 16.25
17.00
15.50Mar........ ii. 75- 16.25 June... 15.50- 16.25 Sept... 16.00- 17.00 Dec........
16.0016.25
14.75- 16.25
16.00- 17.00
15.50- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
16.00- 17.00
15.50- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
Average.

Jan........

$16.00-$17.00
15.50- 16.50
15.50- 16.50
15.00- 16.00
14.25- 15.25
14.00- 15.00
13.75- 14.75
13.75- 14.75
13.00- 14.00
13.00- 14.00
13.50- 14.50
11.50- 12.50
11.50- 12.50
$15.5368

WHEAT: Regular grades, cash*
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Jan___
F eb ....
Mar....

$ l.li•5§-$l
11.27
1. 1- 1.25

1 11]
1.. li0|- 1.23
1.24;
1.20
1.12

1.12j 1.23i
1.15 1.25
1. 16*- 1.26

Apr..
May..
June.




$1.15 -$1.20 July.... $1.00 -$1.15 Oct........
1.05 - 1.22
1.11*- 1.15|
1.08 - 1.12
1.091- 1.27
1.07?r 1-26*
1.09*- 1.13*
1.01*- 1.22* Nov.......
1.09*- 1.14* A ug....
1.02 - 1.22*
1.12 - 1.18*
1.01 - 1.23
1.11 - 1.15
- 1.22
1.07 - 1.10*
LOO*- 1.19
.99 - 1.05*
1.001- 1.03* Sept... .99*- 1.17 Dec........
.99 - 1.04
b 1-14*
197*r- 1.15*
1.00*- 1.08
.97|b 1.14
l.Olf- 1.14
Average.
1 No

quotation for week.

$1.0973

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

368

T a ble I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
FO O D , ETC.

BEANS: Medium, choice.
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $2.25 -$2.30 Apr___
$2.30 July.... $2.40 -$2.45 Oct........
2.37* May__ $2.22§- 2.25 Aug.... 2.42J- 2.45 Nov.......
Reb.......
Mar........ 2.32§- 2.35 June... 2.35 - 2.37J Sep t... 2.70 - 2.72£ Dec........
Average.

Price.
$2.70
$2.3&- 2.40
2.25
$2.3090

BREAD: Crackers, oyster, in boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.07 Apr___
.07 May.—
.07 June...

$0.07 July....
.07 Aug—
.07 Sept....

$0.07 Oct........
.07 Nov.......
.07 Dec........
Average.

$0.07
.07
.07
$0.0700

BREAD: Crackers, soda, in boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.07 Apr___
.07 May—
.07 June...

$0.07 July....
.07 Aug---.07 Sept...

$0.07 Oct........
.07 Nov.......
.07 Dec........
Average.

$0.07
.07
.07
$0.0700

BREAD: Loaf, after baking, 14^ ounces.
[Price per loaf, in Washington, D. C., on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 16J ounces. Price
per pound (before baking) $0.0388.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04 Apr___
.04 May....
.04 June...

$0.04 July....
.04 Aug....
.04 S ept...

$0.04 Oct........
.04 Nov.......
.04 Dec.......
Average.

$0.04
.04
.04
$0.0400

BREAD: Loaf, homemade.
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 16 ounces. Price per
pound (before baking) $0.04. Standard weight and standard prices charged by bread manufacturers in
New York and Brooklyn and in New Jersey who deliver their bread in Manhattan.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04 Apr___
.04 May....
.04 June...

$0.04 July....
.04 Aug....
.04 S ept...

$0.04 Oct........
.04 Nov.......
.04 Dec........
Average.

$0.04
.04
.04
$0.0400

BREAD: Loaf, Vienna.
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 15§ ounces. Price per
pound (before baking) $0.0413. Standard weight and standard prices charged by bread manufacturers
m New York and Brooklyn and in New Jersey who deliver their bread in Manhattan.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04 Apr___
.04 May....
.04 June...




$0.04 July....
.04 Aug....
.04 Sept...

$0.04 Oct........
.04 Nov.......
.04 Dec........
Average.

$0.04
.04
.04
$0.0400

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

369

T able I . —WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

BUTTER: Creamery, Elgin.
[Price per pound, in Elgin, 111., on Monday of each week; quotations furnished by the manager of the Elgin
Dairy Report.]
Price.

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.31 July....
.31
.32
.29
.29 Aug....
.27
.27
.28
.28
.27 Sept...
.27
.27
.27*

$0.36 Apr—
.36
.36
.30
.31
.29 May....
.28
.30
.31
.31 June...
.31
.32
.32

Month.

$0.27* Oct........
.28
.28
.27
.28 Nov.......
.29
.29
.30
.30
.31 Dec.......
.30
.29
.29
Average.

Price.
$0.29
.29
.29
.29*
.30*
.31
.31
.31
.30
.29
.30
.30
.30
$0.2977

BUTTER: Creamery, extra.
[P rice per pound, in N ew Y ork , on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the N ew Y o rk Journal of

Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

.[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
*
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.33-$0.34 Apr___
.33- .34
.33
.29- .30
.28- .29 May....
.28
.27
.29
.30 June...
.31
.31
.31- .31*
.32- .33

$0.30-$0.31 July—
.30- .31
.31- .32
.28- .29
.29 Aug....
.27- .28
.28
.28
.28
.28 S ep t...
.27
.27
.27*

$0.28 Oct........
$0.28
.28
.28
$0.27- .27*
$0 . 29 - .29*
.27
.29 - .29
.27- .27* Nov.......
.2 9 - .30
.27- .28
.30
.28
.3 0 - .31
.28- .28*
.30
.2a- .28*
.29 - .30
.28- .28* Dec........
.28*- .29
.2 9 - .30
.28- .29
.28
.29
.28
.29
Average.

86026°—B ull. 93—11----- 5




$0.2906

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

370

T a bl e 1 .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—‘C ontinued.
F O Q I> , E T C .—Continued.

CANNED trOOBS:: O o n , R^aM fe No. 2, fancy.
f Price per dozen-eans, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

10.95 Apr___
1.00 M ay....
1.00 June...

Price.

Month.

$1.00 July....
1.00 Aug....
1.00 S ept...

Price.

Month.

$1.00 Oct........
1.00 Nov.......
1.00 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.95
.95
.95
$0.9833

CANNED GOODS: Peas, Republic No. 2, sifted.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each monthj
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.....

$1.30 Apr___
1.30 May—
L40 June...

$1.40 July....
L 40 A ug....
1.40 Sep t...

$1.40 Oct........
1.40 Nov.......
L 40 Dec........
Average.

$1.40
1.40
1.40
$1.3833

CANNED GOODS: Tomatoes, Standard New Jersey No. 3.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month.]
J a n ..,..’
Feb........
Mar........

$0.90 Apr___
.90 May—
.90 June....

$0.90 July....
.90 Aug....
.90 Sept...

$0.90 Oct........
.90 Nov.......
.95 Dee.......
Average.

$0.95
.95
1.00
.$0.9208

CHEESE: New York State, full cream, large, colored, fancy.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan____
Feb........
Mar.. ...

$0.17 Apr___
.17*
.17*
.17*
.17* May__
.17*
.17*
.17*
.17* Jun e...
.17*
.17*
.17*
.17*

$0.17* July....
.17*
.17*
$0.17- .17*
.17- .17* Aug....
.13*
.14
.. !4f
.14*
.14 - S ep t...
.14
.14*
.14*

$0.15 Oct........
• !5|
.14|
.14*
.14* Nov.......
.14}
.15 •
.15}
.15}
.15 Dec........
.15
.15
.15*

$0.15*
.15*
.15
.15
.15
.15*
.15*
.15}
.15}
.15}
. 15}
. 15}
.15}

Average.

$0.1572

COFFEE: Rio No. 7, Brazil grades.
[Price per pound, in New York, on ftae first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
------------------ »
Jan........ $0.08|-$0.08f Apr___ $0.08f-$0.08} July.... $0.08f-$0.08} Oct........ $0.11 -$0.11*
.1 1 - .11*
Feb.......
.08|- .06* May__
.08|- .08} Aug.... .081- .08* Nov.......
.13}- .13*
Mar.......
.08*- .08} June... .08}- .08* Sept... .10}- .10* Dec........
$0.0952
Average.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

371

T a bu s I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

EGGS: New-laid, fair to fancy, near-by.
[Price per dozen, in New York on Tuesday of each week: quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.}
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

SO. 36-10.50 Apr___ $0.23 -SO. 25 July....
.40- .50
.23 - .25$
.42- .50
.23 - .25
.23 - .25
.38- .45
.32- .37 May.... .23 - .25 A ug....
.22 - .25
.28-* .35
.22$- .26
.28-* .37
.22$- .26
.30- .40
.22$- .26
.26- .30 June... .22 - .25 Sep t...
.21 - .26
.25- .28
.23 - .28
.25- .28
.23- .25
.23 - .28
.22- .25

Price.

Month.

Price.

Feb.......
Mar........

S0.22-S0.27 Oct........
.24- .29
.25- .30
.25- .33
.25- .32 Nov.......
.25- .32
.25- .32
.25- .33
.25- .33
.26- .34 Dec........
.28- .35
.30- .40
.30- .40

S0.30-S0.40
.32- .42
.33- .42
.33- .45
.35- .50
.38- .50
.40- .55
.40- .55
.38- .55
.40- .55
.40- .55
.40- .50
.36- .50

Average.

Jan........

SO. 3258

FISH: Cod, dry, bank, large.
[Price per quintal, in Boston, on the first of each m onth; quotations from the Boston Herald.]

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

S7.00 Apr___
7.00 May....
7.00 June...

S6.25-S6.50 July....
6.25- 6.50 A ug....
6.25- 6.50 S ept...

S6.25-S6.50 Oct........
6.50- 6.75 Nov.......
6.50- 6.75 Dec........
Average.

S7.50
7.50
8.50
S6.9375

FISH: Herring, large, Nova Scotia split.
[Price per barrel, in Boston, on the first of each month; quotations from the Boston Herald.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

S7.00-S8.00 Apr___
7.00- 8.00 May....
7.00- 8.00 June...

S7.00-S8.00 July....
7.00- 8.00 Aug....
7.00- 8.00 Sept...

S7.00-S8.00 Oct........
6.50- 7.00 Nov.......
6.50- 7.00 D ec.___
Average.

S7.00-S7.50
7.00- 7.50
7.00- 7.50
S7.3125

FISH: Mackerel, salt, large No. 3s.
[Price per barrel, in Boston, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

S11.50 Apr___
12.00 May....
12.50 June...

S13.00 July....
13.0(7 Aug....
14.00 Sept...

SI 4.50 Oct........
15.00 Nov.......
16.00 Dec........
Average.

S17.50
18.00
18.00
S14.5833

FISH: Salmon, canned, Columbia River, 1-pound tails.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan.........
Feb........
Mar.......

S1.50-S1.85 Apr___
1.50- 1.85 May....
1.50- 1.85 June...




S1.50-S1.85 July....
1.50- 1.85 A ug....
1.50- 1.85 S ep t...

S1.50-S1.85 Oct........
1.50- 1.85 Nov.......
1.50- 1.85 Dec........
Average.

Sl.90-S2.00
1.90- 2.00
1.90- 2.00
SI. 7438

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

372

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C *—Continued.

FLOUR: Buckwheat.
[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Chamber of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$2.00 Apr___
2.00 May....
2.00 June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

0/

July....
Aug....
Sept...

0)
0)
0)

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........
Average.

0>

Price.
$2.35
2.25
2.25
$2.1417

FLOUR: Rye.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$4.15-$4.60 Apr___
4.15- 4.60 May....
4.25- 4.60 June...

$4.00-$4.60 July....
3.90- 4.60 Aug---3.85- 4.50 Sept...

$3.85-$4.50 Oct........
4.00- 4.60 Nov.......
3.75- 4.30 Dec........
Average.

$3.75-$4.35
3.90- 4.45
3.85- 4.40
$4.2292

FLOUR: Wheat, spring patents,
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week: quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

$5.25-$5.85 Apr___
5.50- 6.00
5.50- 6.00
5.40- 5.90
5.40- 5.90 May....
5.40- 5.85
5.40- 5.85
5.45- 5.90
5.45- 5.90 June...
5.40- 5.80
5.35- 5.80
5.35- 5.80
5.30- 5.80

$5.30-$5.80 July—
5.15- 5.70
5.00- 5.60
5.00- 5.60
5.10- 5.65 A ug....
5.35- 5.80
5.35- 5.80
5.20- 5.65
5.00- 5.50
4.90- 5.45 S ep t...
4.90- 5.45
5.00- 5.55
5.10- 5.75

Mar........

$5.20-$5.65
5.20- 5.65
5.10- 5.55
5.10- 5.50
4.90- 5.40
4.80- 5.30
4.80- 5.35
4.90- 5.45
5.00- 5.45
5.00- 5.50
5.00- 5.50
5.00- 5.50
5.00- 5.50

Average.

Feb........

$5.25-$5.90 Oct........
5.45- 6.00
5.75- 6.25
5.85- 6.35
5.75- 6.10 Nov.......
5.75- 6.10
5.75- 6.10
5.45- 5.80
5.40- 5.75
5.40- 5.75 Dec........
5.30- 5.75
5.30- 5.75
5.30- 5.75

$5.4952

FLOUR: Wheat, winter straights.
[Price per barrel, in New York on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$5.25-$5.50 Apr___
5.25- 5.55
5.25- 5.55
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.55 May—
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.60
5.25- 5.60 June...
5.20- 5.50
5.20- 5.50
5.20- 5. 50
5.15- 5.40




$5.15-$5.40 July....
5.00- 5.25
4.85- 5.10
4.75- 5.00
4.65- 4.95 Aug....
4.75- 5.00
4.75- 5.00
4.50- 4.75
4.25- 4.50
4.25- 4.60 Sept....
4.15- 4.50
4.20- 4.50
4.25- 4.60

.$4.30-$4.65 Oct........
4.35- 4.70
4.45- 4.80
4.45- 4.85
4.35- 4.70 Ncv.......
4.30- 4.70
4.40- 4.75
4.25- 4.60
4.25- 4.60
4.25- 4.60 Dec.......
4.20- 4.55
4.20- 4.50
4.25- 4.50

$4.20-$4.40
4.20- 4.40
4.10- 4.35
4.10- 4.35
4.00- 4.30
4.00- 4.30
4.00- 4.35
4.00- 4.35
4.00- 4.35
4.00- 4.35
4.00- 4.35
4.00- 4.35
3.90- 4.30

Average.

$4.6913

* No quotation for month.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

373

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

FRUIT: Apples, evaporated, choice.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Month.
Price.
Jan........ 10.07 -10.09
Feb........ .06*- .09*
Mar........ .062- -09*

Month.
Month.
Price.
Apr___ $0.06f-|0.08| July....
May.... .07 - .08* Aug....
June... .07 - .08* Sep t...

Price.
$0.07 -$0.09
.07|- .09
.0 8 - .09

Month.
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.08 -$0.09*
.08*- .09
.1 0 - .10
$0.0836

FRUIT: Currants, uncleaned, in barrels.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........ $0.05^-10.06 Apr___ $0.05*-$0.06 July.... $0.06 -$0.06* Oct........ $0.07*—
#0.07#
.07*- .07#
.06 May....
.06 Aug.... • 06§- .06* Nov.......
Feb........
Mar........
.07*- .07f
.06 June... .06 - .06* S ep t... .07 - ,07| Dec........
Average.
$0.0651
FRUIT: Prunes, California 60s to 70s, in 25-pound boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce'and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........ $0.05*-$0.05* Apr___ $0.05-$0.05* July.... $0.05*-$0.06 Oct........ $0.07*-$0.07f
.05*- .06 Nov.......
.08 - .08:
.05- .05* A ug....
Feb........ .05*- .05* May—
Mar........ .05 - .05* June...
.07 Dec........
.08*- .08i
.05- .06 S ep t...
Average.
$0.0625
FRUIT: Raisins, California, London layer.
[Price per box, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
$1$1.20-$l. 35
Jan........ $1.17*— 30 Apr___ $1.15-$1.25 July.... $1.20-$1.25 Oct........
1.20- 1.25 Nov.......
1.20- 1.25
Feb........ 1.15 - 1.25 May....
1.15- 1.20 A ug....
Mar........ 1.15-1.25 June...
1.20- 1.35
1.20- 1.25 Dec........
1.20- 1.25 Sep t...
Average.
$1.2240
GLUCOSE: 42° mixing.
[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.)
$2.12 A pr....
$1.83 Oct........
$1.73
Jan........
$2.07 July....
1.68
2.17 May....
1.98 Nov.......
Feb........
1.97 Aug....
1.98 Dec........
Mar........
1.93 Sep t...
1.67
2.17 June...
Average.
$1.9417
LARD: Prime, contract.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.)
Jan........ $0.1290-10.1300 Apr___ $0.1415-$0.1425 July.... $0.1220-$0.1250 Oct........ $0.1285-$0.1295
.1275- .1285
.1285- .1295
.1375- .1385
.1190- .1200
.1265- .1275
.1285- .1295
.1255- .1265
.1175- .1185
.1245- .1250
.1205- .1215
.1190- .1200
.1255- .1265
Feb........ .1240- .1250 May__ .1310- .1320 Aug.... .1170- .1180 Nov....... .1215- .1225
.1185^ .1195
.1260- .1270
.1340- .1350
.1160- .1170
.1130- .1140
.1290- .1300
.1340- .1350
.1195- .1205
.1040- .1050
.1320- .1330
.1280- .1290
.1215- .1225
.1010- .1020
.1270- .1280
.1230- .1240
Mar........ .1370- .1380 June... .1245- .1255 S ep t... .1245- .1255 Dec........ .1015- .1025
.1045- .1055
.1260- .1270
.1390- .1400
.1255- .1265
.1095- . 1105
.1250- .1260
.1285- .1295
.1460- .1470
.1105- .1115
.1460- .1470
.1285- .1295
.1225- .1280
.1465- . 1475
Average.
$0.1253



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

374

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O I> , E T C .—Continued.

MEAL: Com, fine white.
[Price per bag of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.] •
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

Sl.65-U.70 Apr___
1.70- 1.75 May....
1.70- 1.75 June...

Price.

Month.

$1.55-11.60 July....
1.55- 1.60 A ug....
1.55- 1.60 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$1.55-$l. 60 Oct........
1.55- 1.60 Nov.......
1.55- 1.60 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$1.55-$l. 60
1.15- 1.20
1.15- 1.20
$1.5417

MEAL: Com, fine yellow.
[Price per bag of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$1.6541.70 Apr___
1.70- 1.75 May—
1.70- 1.75 June...

$1.4541.50 July....
1.45- 1.50 Aug....
1.45- 1.50 S ep t...

$1.4541.50 Oct........
1.45- 1.50 Nov.......
1.45- 1.50 Dec........
Average.

$1.4041.45
1.15- 1.20
1.15- 1.20
$1.4792

MEAT: Bacon, short clear sides, smoked, loose.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

MEAT: Bacon, short rib sides, smoked, loose.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]
Jan..

Apr..

Feb.

May..
13$- .13

Mar..




June.

$0.14|40.14 July..
•Mi- .14
.14 - .1*
.13f- .13.131- .13 Aug..
.13|- -M
.1 4 - .14
.131- .Ids
.13f- .1$
.13f- .13, Sept.
.1 4 - .141
.141- .14
.141- .14

Oct.
Nov..
Dec.

$0.11J40.1
2
.Ilf- .12
.111- .Ilf
.111- .Ilf
/Llf- .Ilf
. 11 - . 11§
. 11- .111
.101- .loi
.10- .1 1
0
.10- .1 1
0
.101- -10f
101 -11
• 10j4- -11
-

Average.

$0.1291

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

375

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

MEAT: Beet, fresh, carcass, good native steers.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

Price.
10

.
.104. 104.104.10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .114-

12
.12
.12
.12

,.114
,.114
,.114
,.114
,.114
. 114
. 114
,.114
.124

Price.

Month.

Apr___ 50.12 -50.124 July....
.12 - .124
.12 - .124
.12 - .124
.12 - .124
May.... .12 - .124 A ug....
.12 - .124
.114- .12
.12
.114- .12
June..
.1 1 S ep t...
.1 1 - .12
.12
.114- .12
.114-

Price.

Month.

50.114-50.12 Oct........
. 114- .12
.114- .12
.114- .12
.1 1 - .12
.1 1 - .12
Nov.......
.1 1 - .12
.1 1 - .12
.114- .12 Dec.......
.114- .12
.114- .12
.114- .12
.114- .12
Average.

Price.
50.114-50.12
.114- -12
. 114- .12
.114- .12
. 114- .12
:iil
. 114- .114
. 114- .114
. 114- .114
. 114- .114
.10 - .124
. 1 0 - .114
. 1 0 - .114
50.1154

MEAT: Beef, fresh, native sides.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily Tribune.]
Jan........ 50.08 -50.114 Apr---- 50.11 -50.124 July.... 50.09 -50.12 Oct........
.0 8 - .11
.09 - .124
.1 1 - .124
.0 9 - .124
.1 1 - .13
.084- .114
.0 8 - .10
.0 9 - .124
. 114 - .124
Feb........ .0 8 - .1 1 May.... .1 1 - .124 A ug.... . 084- .114 Nov.......
.0 9 - .12
.1 1 - .12
.084- .11
. 0 8 - .104
.1 1 - .12
.084- -Hi
.1 1 - .12
.0 8 - .12
. 0 8 - .104
.10 - .12
.124
Mar........ .0 8 - .11 June... .09 - .12 Sep t... .084- .124 Dec.......
. 084. 084- .12
.08 - .12
.084- -11
.0 9 - .12
.09 - .124
. 104- .12
.09 - .12
.0 9 - .12
.104- .12
.1 1 - .124
Average.

50.08 -50.114
.08 - .11
.08 - .1 1
.06 - .1 1
.08 - .1 1
.08 - .1 1
.08 - .1 1
.08 - .1 1
.084r .104
.08^r -104
.083r .104
.083r .104
.084- .104
50.1027

MEAT: Beef, salt, extra mess.
[Average weekly price per barrel, in New York; quotations furnished by the statistician of the New York
Produce Exchange.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

512.00 Apr___
11.25
11.50
11.75
11.75
11.75 May....
12.25
12.25
12.25
14.25 June...
14.25
14.87
15.50




515.50 July....
15.50
15.50
15.50
15.50
15.50 Aug....
15.50
15.50
15.50
15.50 S ept...
15.50
15.75
15.75

0)

Oct........
$15.75
15.75
15.25
15.25
15.25 Nov.......
15.25
15.25
15.25
15.25 Dec.......
15.25
15.25
15.75
Average.

1No quotation for week.

$15.75
15.75
15.75
15.75
15.75
15.75
15.75
14.25
14.25
13.75
13.50
13.50
13.50
13.50
$14.5888

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

376

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C *—Continued.

MEAT: Beef, salt, ham s, western*
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $24.00-126.00 Apr___ $24.00-$26.00 July.... $24.00-$26.00 Oct........
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
Feb....... 24.00- 26.00 May.... 24.00- 26.00 Aug.... 24.00- 26.00 Nov.......
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
Mar....... 24.00- 26.00 June... 24.00- 26.00 S ep t... 24.00- 26.00 Dec.......
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
Average.

Price.
$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
$25.0000

MEAT: Hams, smoked, loose*
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]
Jan.

Mar.

$0.15$-$0.171
.15$- .17*
.14$- .17
.1 4 - .16$
.1 4 - .16$
.1 4 - .16$
.13|- .16
.13|- .16
.1 3 - .14$
.12$- .14$
.12|- .14$
.12$- .14$
.
.12$- .

Average.

Feb.

Apr___ $0.18 -$0.18$ July.... $0.18 -$0.18f Oct........
.18 - .18$
.18 - .18$
.17$r .17$
' .17$- .18$
' .17$- .18
.17$r .17$
May.... .17$r .18 Aug.... • .1 7 - .17$ Nov.......
.17 - .17$
.17$r .18
.17$r .18
.16f- 17$
.17$r .18
.16$- .17$
.17$r .18
.1 6 - .17$
June... .17$r .18 Sept.... .16 - .17$ Dec........
.17$r .18
.15|- .17$
.15|- .17$
.17$r .18
.18 - .18f
.15|- .17$

10.1644

MEAT: Mutton, dressed.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily Tribune.]
Jan........ $0.08$-$0.11 Apr---- $0.12 -$0.15 July.... $0.08$-$0.10$ Oct........
.09 - .11
.12 - .15$
.0 8 - .10$
.09 - .11
.0 8 - .10$
.1 3 - .16$
.0 9 - .11
.12$- .16
.0 8 - .10
Feb.......
.08$- .11 May__
.12 - .15 Aug.... .0 7 - .09 Nov.......
.1 0 - .12
.12 - .15
.07$- .09$
.1 0 - .12$
.0 9 - .10
.11 - .14
.10 - .13
.10 - .12$
.07$- .10
.09 - .11$
.0 8 - .10
Mar........ .11 - .13 June... .09$- .12$ Sept... .0 8 - .10 Dec........
.11 - .13$
.08 - .09$
.10 - .12$
.1 2 - .15
.0 8 - .10
.10 - .11$
.12$- .16
.08 - .10$
.08 - .09$
.12$- .16
Average.




$0.07$-$0.09$
.07$- .09
.07$- .09
.07$- .09
.06 - .08$
.0 6 - .08
.06 - .08
.06 - .07$
.06 - ..08
.06$- .08$
.06$- .08$
.06$- .08$
.05$- .08
$0.1005

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

377

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

MEAT: Pork, salt, mess, old to new.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $24.50-124.75 Apr___
$27.00 July.... $25.50-$26.00 Oct........
25.50- 26.00
24.00
$26.50- 26.75
25.50- 26.00
23.50
24.50- 25.00
23.00- 23.50
24.00- 24.50
25.50- 26.00
Feb....... 23.00- 23.50 May.... 23.75- 24.25 A ug....
25.50 Nov.......
23.00- 23.75
24.00- 24.50
24.50- 25.00
24.50- 25.50
24.00- 25.00
24.00- 24.50
24.50- 25.50
25.00- 25.50
24.00- 24.50
24.00- 24.50
24.00- 24.50
Mar....... 26.00- 26.50 June... 23.50- 24.00 Sept.... 23.50- 24.50 Dec.......
24.00- 24.50
23.50- 24.50
26.00- 26.50
24.00- 24.50
23.00- 23.50
27.00- 27.50
27.00- 28.00
23.00- 23.50
25.00- 25.50
27.75- 28.00
Average.

Price.
$21.00-$21.50
21.00- 21.50
20.50- 21.00
20.50- 21.00
20.00
19.50
19.50
19.50
19.00- 19.50
19.00- 19.50
19.75- 20.00
21.00- 21.50
22.00- 22.50
$23.7380

MILK: Fresh,
[Average monthly exchange price per quart; net price at shipping stations subject to a freight rate to New
York of 26 cents per can of 40 quarts; quotations from the Milk Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0412 Apr---.0400 May....
.0375 June...

$0.0358 July....
.0300 Aug__
.0300 Sept...

$0.0326 Oct........
.0350 Nov.......
.0367 Dec........
Average.

$0.0400
.0400
.0425
$0.0368

MOLASSES: New Orleans, open kettle.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.32-$0.42 Apr__
.32- .42 May —
.32- .42 June...

$0.32-$0.42 Ju ly ...
.32- .42 Aug....
.32- .42 Sept...

$0.32-$0.42 Oct........
.32- .42 Nov.......
.32- .42 Dec........
Average.

$0.32-$0.42
.32- .42
.30- .45
$0.3704

POULTRY: Dressed, fowls, western, dry'picked.
[Price per pound, in New York, each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.]
$0.17 Apr___
$0.19 Ju ly ...
$0.18 Oct........
$0.18
.16
SO. 19 - .19*
.17*
.18
.17
.20
.18
.17*
.17*
.20
.18*
.17
.17*
.20
.18*
' $0.15- .15*
.17* M ay... .19*- .20 Aug....
.18* Nov.......
.1 5 - .15*
Feb.......
.18
.19
.18*
.15
.18
.19
.16
.15
.18*
$0.16 .16*
.15*- .16
.19
Mar........ $0.18*- .19 June...
.16*- .17 Dec........
.1 5 - .16
.19 Sept__
.19*- .20
.18*
.1 5 - .16
.1 7 - .17*
.18*
.19*- .20
.1 5 - .15*
.18
.1 4 - .14*
.18*- .19
.18
.17*
.14
Average.
$0.1761

Jan........




BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

378

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

BICE: Domestic, choice, head.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal oi Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $0.0p-$0.05| Apr___ $0.05i-|0.05| Ju ly... $0.05l-$0.05§ Oct........
Feb........
M ay... .051- •05§ Aug.... .051- .05# Nov.......
Mar........
June... .051- -051 S ep t... .05+- .05f Dec........
Average.

Price.
S0.05i-$0.05§
.051- .0o|
$0.0547

SALT: American, medium.
[Price per barrel, in Chicago, on Friday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mai*........

$0.87 Apr___
*.87
.87
.87
.87 May. . .
.87
.87
.87
.87 June...
.87
.87
.72

$0.72 July...
.72
.67
.67
.67
.67 Aug....
.67
.67
.67
.67 Sept...
.67
.67
.67

$0.67 Oct........
.67
.67
.67
.67
.72 Nov.......
.72
.72
.77
.77 Dec........
.77
.77
.77
.77
Average.

$0.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
$0.7546

SODA: Bicarbonate of, American.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.01 Apr___
.01 M ay...
.01 June...

$0.01 July...
.01 Aug....
.01 S ept...

$0.01 Oct........
.01 Nov.......
.01 Dec........
Average.

$0.01
.01
.01
$0.0100

SPICES: Pepper, Singapore.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........ $0.08 -$0,081 Apr___ $0.07i-$0.08 July... $0.071-$0.08 Oct........
Feb........ .08 - .081 M ay... .071- .07f Aug.... .081- .081 Nov.......
Mar........ .07£- .071 June... •07£- .071 S ep t... .08 - .081 Dec........
Average.

$0.08 -$0,081
.08 - .081
.081- *081
$0.0800

STARCH: Pure com, for culinary purposes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.06 Apr___
.06 M ay...
.06 June...




$0.06 Ju ly ...
.06 Aug....
.06 S ep t...

$0.06 Oct........
.06 Nov.......
.06 Dec.......
Average.

$0.06
.06
.06
$0.0600

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

379

T able I ,— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.

SUGAR: 89° fair refinirfg.
{Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including Import duty of 1.44 cents per pound;
quotations from Willett & Gray's Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.
$0.03520
.03520
.03670
.03580
.03580
.03670
.03610
.03700
.03860
.03890
.03860
.03860
.03860
.03860

Month.
Apr___
•
M ay...
June...

Price.

Month.

$0.03860 Ju ly...
.03800
.03800
.03800
.03800 A ug....
.03740
.03740
.03770
.03740 S ep t...
.03740
.03670
.03740
.03800

Price.

Month.

$0.03830 Oct........
.03800
.03860
.03860
.03860 Nov.......
.03890
.03950
.03950
.03925 Dec........
.03860
.03860
.03740
.03550
Average.

Price.
$0.03450
.03400
.03360
.03300
.03300
.03360
.03400
.03430
.03430
.03550
.03500
.03485
.03360
$0.03685

SUGAR: 96° centrifugal.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.68J cents per pound;
quotations from Willett & Gray's Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04020 Apr___
.04020
.04170
.04080
.04080
.04170 M ay...
.04110
.04200
.04360
.04390 June...
.04360
.04360
.04360
.04360

$0.04360 Ju ly...
.04300
.04300
.04300
.04300 A ug....
.04240
.04240
.04270
.04240 Sep t...
.04240
.04170
.04240
.04300

$0.04330 Oct........
.04300
.04360
.04360
.04360 Nov.......
.04390
.04450
.04450
.04425 Dec........
.04360
.04360
.04240
.04050
Average.

$0.03950
.03900
.03860
.03800
.03800
.03860
.03900
.03930
.03930
.04050
.04000
.03985
.03860
$0.04185

SUGAR: Granulated, in barrels.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.90 cents per pound;
quotations from Willett & Gray's Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04800 Apr___
.04800
.04900
.04900
.04900
.04900 M ay...
.04900
.04900
.05000
.05100 June...
.05200
.05200
.05200
.05100




$0.05100 July.. .
.05050
.05100
.05100
.05050 Aug....
.05200
.05200
.05200
.04950 S ep t...
.05100
.05100
.05100
.05000

$0.05050 Oct........
.05050
.05100
.05100
.05050 N o v ....
.05100
.05100
.05200
.05200 Dec........
.05000
.05000
.05000
.05000
Average.

$0.05000
.04850
.04750
.04700
.04550
.04550
.04550
.04550
.04550
.04550
.04750
.04750
.04750
$0.04959

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

380

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C *—Continued.

TALLOW.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.)
Month.
Jan........

Price.

Month.

Price.

I0.06| Apr___
.06|
.061
.061 M ay...
.06§
,06|
.07
.07 June...
.07
.07
.07*
.071

Month.

Month.

Price.

Mar........

$0,065 Oct........
.06|
.07
.07
.07 N o v ....
.071
.07*
.07*
.07f
.075 D ec....
.07|
.07f
.07!

$0.07|
.07|
.07f
.07!
.07!
.08
.08
.08
.07f
.07*
.07*
.07*
.07*

Average.

Feb........

$0.07* J u ly ...
.07$
.07|
.07|
.071 Attg....
.07*
.07*
• 07|
.07
.07 S ep t...
.06|
.06f
.06!

Price.

10.0729

TEA: Formosa, line.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.23-10.25 Apr___
,2a- .25 M ay...
.23- .25 June...

$0.23-10.25 Ju ly ...
.23- .25 Aug....
.23- .25 Sept...

$0.23-$0.25 Oct........
.23- .25 Nov___
.23- .25 Dec........
Average.

$0.23-$0.25
.23- .25
.23- .25
$0.2400

VEGETABLES, FRESH: Cabbage.
[Price per ton, in New York, each week; quotations from the Producers' Price Current.)
Jan........ $24.00428.00 Apr___ $15.00-425.00 J u ly ...
Oct.........
i 1)
28.00- 30.00
25.00- 40.00
(i/
hi
28.00- 30.00
35.00-) 45.00
(l
(11
26.00- 28.00
iij
(11
hi
Feb........ 25.00- 28,00 M ay...
N o v ....
Aug....
V/
25.00- 28.00
v)
V/
h)
25.00- 30.00
25.00- 30.00
V/
v)
111
(1)
Mar........ 25.00- 30.00 June...
Dec........
Sep t...
fll
$10.00-$12.00
25.00- 30.00
20.00- 27.00
10.00- 12.00
0)
15.00- 25.00
10.00- 12.00
(i)
Average.

$10.00-412.00
6.00- 8.00
7.00- 10.00
7.00- 9.00
7.00- 9.00
7.00- 9.00
7.00- 8.00
7.00- 8.00
7.00- 8.00
7.00- 8.00
8.00- 9.00
8.00- 10.00
10.00- 12.00
9.00- 11.00
$17.5625

VEGETABLES, FRESH: Onions.
[Price per barrel, In New. York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

(2)
(2)
(2)

Apr___
M ay...
June...

J u ly ...
<2)
$3.00-44.00 Aug....
S ep t...
<2)

No quotation for week.




$3.00-43.50 Oct........
2.00- 2.50 N o v ....
3.00- 3.50 Dec........
Average.
* No quotation for month.

$2.50-43.00
2.50- 3.00
2.00- 4.00
$2.9643

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

381

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Concluded.

VEGETABLES, FRESH: Potatoes, white, good to fancy.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago Board
of Trade.)
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

Price.

10.35-10.50 Apr___
.40- .50
.40- .54
.43- .54
.40- .53
.34- .48 M ay...
.33- .43
.30- .43
.30- .43
.30- .40 June...
.25- .40
.25- .46
.20- .46

Price.

Month.

10.18-10.28 July...
.17- .28
.17- .29
.15- .26
.15- .31
.16- .33 A ug....
.18- .29
.20- .32
.20- .34
.15- .26 Sept....
.15- .28
.15- .28
.10- .20

Month.

Price.

10.10-10.20 Oct........
.10- .20
.50- .75
.55- .70
.65- .72
.60- .78 Nov___
.75- .98
.75- .93
.68- .85
.50- .87 Dec........
.63- .98
.70- .92
.50- .83
Average.

Price.
$0.50-10.74
.40- .68
.35- .60
.35- .60
.39- .60
.35- .50
.34- .48
.34- .48
.35- .48
.35- .48
.35- .45
.30- .45
.30- .45
.30- .45
$0.4275

VINEGAR: Cider, Monarch, in barrels.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.18 Apr___
.18 M ay...
.16 June...

$0.16 Ju ly...
.16 Aug....
.16 Sept...

$0.16 Oct........
.16 Nov___
.16 ..Dec........
Average.

$0.18
.22
.22
$0.1750

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G .
BAGS: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.
[Price per bag on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.19* Apr___
.20 M ay...
.20 June...

$0.20 July...
.21 Aug....
.21 Sept...

$0.21

:2t

Oct........
Nov___
Dec........
Average.

$0,201
.20*
.20*
$0.2042

BLANKETS: All wool, 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.10 Apr___
1.10 M ay...
1.10 June...

$1.10 July...
1.05 A ug....
1.05 Sept...

$1.05 Oct........
1.05 Nov___
1.05 Dec.......
Average.

$1.00
1.00
1.00
$1.0540

BLANKETS: Cotton, 10-4, 2 pounds to the pair, 54 by 74.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.)
Jan........
F eb .....
Mar.......

$0.55 Apr___
.55 May__
.55 June...




$0.55 July...
.55 Aug....
.55 Sept...

$0.55 Oct........
.55 Nov___
.55 Dec........
Average.

$0.55
.55
.55
$0.5500

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

382
T able

I .—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s brogans, split.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$1.20 Apr___
1.17| M ay....
1.17* June...

Price.

Month.

$1.17* July....
1.17* A ug....
1.15 Sept.*..

Price.

Month.

Price.

$1.15 Oct........
1.12* Nov.......
1.10 Dec........
Average.

$1.10
1.07*
1.05
1.1375

BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s vici call shoes, Blucher bal., vici calf top, single sole.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$3.05 Apr___
3.05 May....
3.05 June...

$3.05 July....
3.00 Aug....
3.00 Sept...

$3.00 Oct........
3.00 Nov.......
3.00 Dec.......
Average.

$3.00
3.00
3.00
$3.0170

BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s vici ldd shoes, Goodyear welt.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$2.60 Apr___
2.60 May....
2.60 June...

$2.60 July....
2.60 Aug....
2.60 S ept...

$2.60 Oct........
2.60 Nov.......
2.60 Dec.......
Average.

$2.60
2.60
2.60
$2.6000

BOOTS AND SHOES: Women’s solid grain shoes, leather, polish or polka.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.05 A pr..,.
1.05 May....
1.05 June...

$1.05 July....
1.02* Aug....
1.02* S ep t...

$1.02* Oct........
1.00 Nov.......
1.00 Dec.......
Average.

$1.00
1.00
1.00
$1.0229

BROADCLOTHS: First quality, black, 54-inch, made from XXX wool.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$2.06 Apr___
2.06 May....
2.06 June...

$2.06 July....
2.06 Aug---2.06 Sept...

$2.02 Oct........
2.02 Nov.......
2.02 Dec.......
Average.

$2.02
2.02
2.02
$2.0400

CALICO: American standard prints, 64 by 64, 7 yards to the pound.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.0523 Apr—
.0523 May—
.0570 June...




$0.0570 July....
.0523 Aug....
.0523 S ep t...

$0.0523 Oct........
.0523 Nov.......
.0523 Dec.......
Average.

$0.0523
.0523
.0523
$0.0531

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
T able

383

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
CARPETS: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

Price.

$1.20 Apr___
1.20 May....
1.20 June...

Price.

Month.

$1.20 July....
1.20 Aug....
1.20 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$1.20 Oct........
1.20 Nov.......
1.20 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$1.20
1.00
1.20
$1.2000

CARPETS: Ingrain, 3-ply, Lowell.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0,528 Apr___
.528 May__
.528 June...

$0,528 July ...
.528 Aug....
.528 Sept...

$0,528 Oct........
.528 Nov.......
.528 Dec........
Average.

$0,528
.528
.528
$0.5280

CARPETS: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$2,232 Apr___
2.232 May....
2.232 June...

$2,232 July....
2.232 Aug....
2.232 Sept...

$2,232 Oct........
2.232 Nov.......
2.232 Dec.......
Average.

$2,232
2.232
2.232
$2.2320

COTTON FLANNELS: yards to the pound.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.09 Apr---.09 May....
.09 June...

$0.09 July....
.09 Aug....
.09 S ept...

$0.09 Oct........
.09 Nov.......
.09 Dec........
Average.

$0.09
.09
.09
$0.0900

COTTON FLANNELS: 3} yards to the pound.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.07} Apr___
.07} May....
.071 June...

$0.07} July....
.07} Aug....
.07} Sept...

$0.07} Oct........
.07} Nov.__
.07} Dec........
Average.

$0.07}
07}
.07}
$0.0750

COTTON THREAD: 6-cord, 200-yard spools, J. & P. Coats.
[Price per spool, freight paid, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.0392 Apr___
.0392 May....
.0392 June...




$0.0392 July....
.6392 Aug....
.0392 Sept...

$0.0392 Oct........
.0392 Nov.......
.0392 Dec........
Average.

$0.0392
.0392
.0392
$0.0392

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

384

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.

COTTON YARNS: Carded, white, mule-spun, northern, cones, 10/1«
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Month.
J a n .....
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.23$ Apr___
.23 May....
.22 June...

Month.

$0.22 July....
.22 Aug....
.21 Sept...

Month.

Price.

$0.20$ Oct........
.22$ Nov.......
.22 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$0.23
.23
.23$
$0.2233

COTTON YARNS: Carded, white, mule-spun, northern, cones, 22/1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.26 Apr___
.25$ May....
.25 June...

$0.24| July__
.25$ Aug—
.25 Sept...

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.25
.25$
.26
$0.2519

$0.14 Oct........
.14 Nov.......
.14$ Dec........
Average.

$0.14$
. 14$

$0.25

:3

DENIMS: Amoskeag.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
J a n .....
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.15 Apr___
.15 May....
.15 June...

$0.15 July....
.14 Aug....
.14 Sept...

$0.1450

DRILLINGS: Brown, Pepperell.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.08$ Apr___
.08$ May....
.08$ June...

$0.08$ July....
.08$ Aug....
.08$ Sept...

$0.08$ Oct........
.08$ Nov.......
.08$ D ec.....
Average.

$0.08$
.08$
.08$
$0.0825

DRILLINGS: 30-inch, Stark A.
[Average monthly price per yard.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.0825 Apr___
.0825 May....
.0825 June...

$0.0833 July__
.0833 Aug....
.0877 S ep t...

$0.0877 Oct........
.0877 Nov.......
.0877 Dec........
Average.

$0.0877
.0877
.0877
$0.0857

FLANNELS: White, 4-4, Ballard Yale No. 3.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.4687 Apr___
.4687 May—
.4687 June...




$0.4687 July....
.4687 Aug....
.4687 Sept...

$0.4687 Oct........
.4687 Nov.......
.4687 Dec.......
Average.

$0.4687
.4687
.4300
$0.4655

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

385

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
GINGHAMS: Amoskeag.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.07 Apr___
.07 May....
.07 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.07 July....
.07 Aug....
.07 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0.07 Oct........
.07 Nov.......
.07 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.07
.07
.07
$0.0700

GINGHAMS: Lancaster.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.06? Apr___
.06| May....
.06? June...

$0.06? July....
.06? Aug....
.06* Sept...

$0.06* Oct........
.06* Nov.......
.06* Dec.......
Average.

$0.06*
.06*
.06*.
$0.0660

HORSE BLANKETS: All wool, 6 pounds each.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0,775 Apr___
.775 May....
.775 June...

$0,775 July....
.775 Aug....
.775 Sept...

$0,775 Oct........
.775 Nov.......
.775 Dec........
Average.

$0,775
.775
.775
$0.7750

HOSIERY: Men’s cotton half hose, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, single
thread, carded yarn.
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.82* Apr___
.82* May....
.82* June...

$0.82* July....
. 82* Aug....
.77* Sept...

$0.77* Oct........
.77* Nov.......
.80 Dec.......
Average.

$0.80
.80
.80
$0.8042

HOSIERY: Women’s cotton hose, high-spliced heel, double sole, full-fashioned, combed
peeler yarn.
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.77* Apr___
1.77* May__
1.77* June...

$1.85 July....
1.85 Aug....
1.85 Sept...

$1.85 Oct........
1.85 Nov.......
1.85 Dec.......
Average.

$1.85
1.85
1.85
$1.8313

HOSIERY: Women’s cotton hose, seamless, fast black, 26-ounce, 176 needles, single thread,
carded yarn.
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.82* Apr___
.82* May....
.82* June...

86026°—Bull. 93—11----- 6



$0.82* July....
.82* Aug....
.77* Sept...

$0.77* Oct........
.77* Nov.......
.80 Dec.......
Average.

$0.85
.82*
.82*
$0.8125

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

386
Table

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued,
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
L E A T H E R : Chro m e calf, glazed fin ish , B grade.

[Price per square foot on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and
Leather Reporter.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.20-10.29 Apr___
.20- .29 May....
.18- .27 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.20-$0.26 July....
.18- .27 Aug....
.18- .27 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0.18-$0.27 Oct........
.10- .27 Nov.......
.10- .27 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.18-S0.26
.18- .26
.18- .26
$0.2275

L E A T H E R : H a rn ess, o a k , packers* hid es, heavy No. 1.

[Price per pound on the first of each month, in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.39-$0.40 Apr___
.39- .40 May....
.39- .40 June...

$0.37-$0.39 July....
.38- .39 Aug—
.37- .39 Sept...

$0.36-$0.38 Oct........
.36- .38 Nov.......
.36- .38 Dec.......
Average.

$0.36-$0.38
.36- .38
.36- .38
$0.3792

L E A T H E R : Sole, h em lo ck , B u en o s A ires an d M o n tan a, m iddle w eights, first q u a lity .

[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.25-$0.26 Apr__
.25- .26 May....
.25- .26 June...

$0.25-$0.26 July....
.25 Aug....
.25 Sept...

$0.25 Oct........
.24 Nov.......
.24 Dec........
Average.

$0.24
$0.23- .24
.23- .24
$0.2467

L E A T H E R : Sole, o a k , scoured h a ck s, heavy No. 1.

[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.42-$0.43 Apr__
.42- .43 May__
.43- .44 June...

$0.43-$0.44 July....
.43 Aug....
.43- .44 Sept...

$0.41-$0.43 Oct........
.42 Nov.......
.40 Dec........
Average.

$0.38-SO. 40
.38
.38
$0.4146

L IN E N S H O E T H R E A D : 10s, B arb o u r.

[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.8930 Apr___
.8930 May....
.8930 June...

$0.8930 July....
.8930 Aug....
.8930 Sept...

$0.8930 Oct........
.8930 Nov.......
.8930 Dec.......
Average.

$0.8930
.8930
.8930
$0.8930

O V E R C O A T IN G S : Covert clo th , a ll w ool, double an d tw ist, 14-ounce.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$2.0250 Apr__
2.0250 May....
2.0250 June...




$1.9125 July....
1.9125 Aug....
1.9125 Sept...

$1.9125 Oct........
1.9125 Nov.......
1.8000 Dec........
Average.

$1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
$1.9031

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
T a b le I . —

387

WHOLESALE PRICES OP COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
O V E R C O A T IN G S : K ersey, stan d ard , 28-ounce.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

Price.

$1.92* Apr___
1.92* May__
1.92* June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$1.92* Oct........
1.92* Nov.......
1.92* Dec.......
Average.

$1.92* July....
1.92* Aug....
1.92* Sept...

Price.
$1.92*
1.92*
1.92*
$1.9250

P R IN T C L O T H S : 2 8 -in ch , 64 by 64.

[Average weekly price per yard.]

Average.

Jan
Feb........
Mar........

$0.040000 Apr___
.041875
.042500
.042500
.042500
.042500 May....
.042500
.042500
.042500
.042500 June...
.042500
.040000
.040000

$0.040000 July....
.040000
.037500
.037500
.035000
.035000 Aug....
.036250
.036250
.036250
.036250 Sept...
.036250
.036250
.036250

$0.036875
.037500
.037500
.037500
.038750
.038750
.037500
.037500
.037500
. 037500
,037500
.037500
.037500
.037500
$0.038255

$0.2287 Oct........
.2223 Nov.......
.2223 Dec........
Average.

$0.2223
.2223
.2223
$0.2254

$0.036250 Oct........
.035000
.035000
.036250
.036250
.037500 Nov.......
.037500
.037500
.037500
.037500 Dec........
.037500
.036875
.036875

S H E E T IN G S : Bleached, 9 -4 , A tla n tic.

[Average monthly price per yard.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.2203 Apr___
.2143 May....
.2256 June...

$0.2348 July....
.2348 Aug....
.2348 Sept...

S H E E T IN G S : Bleached, 10-4, Pepperell.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.28 Apr__
.28 May....
.28 June...

$0.26 July....
.26 Aug....
.26 Sept...

$0.20 Oct........
.26 Nov.......
.26 Dec........
Average.

$0.27
.27
.27
$0.2675

S H E E T IN G S : B leached, 10-4, W am su tta S . T .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.34 Apr__
.34 May....
.34 June...




$0.34 July....
.34 Aug....
.34 Sept...

$0.34 Oct........
.34 Nov.......
.34 Dec........
Average.

$0.34
.34
.34
$0.3400

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

388
Table

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
S H E E T IN G S : B ro w n , 4 -4 , In d ia n H ead.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.08* Apr___
.08* May....
.08* June...

Price.

Month.

$0.08* July....
.08 Aug....
.08 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0.08 Oct........
-.08 Nov.......
.08* Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.08*
.08*
.08*
$0.0835

S H E E T IN G S : B ro w n , 4 - 4 ,Law ren ce L L , 4 yard s to th e p ou nd .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.06f Apr___
• 06| May__
.06* June...

$0.06 July....
.05* Aug....
.05§ Sept...

$0.05! Oct........
.05! Nov.......
.06 Dec........
Average.

$0.06*
.06*
.06*
$0.0610

S H E E T IN G S : B ro w n , 4 -4 , Pepperell B .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.07* Apr___
.07f May....
.07* June...

$0.07 July....
.07 Aug....
.07 Sept...

$0.07 Oct........
.07 Nov.......
.07 Dec........
Average.

$0.07*
.07*
.07*
$0.0731

S H IR T IN G S : Bleached, 4 -4 , F ru it of th e Lo o m .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.10 Apr___
.10 May....
.10 June...

$0.09 July....
.09* Aug....
.09* Sept...

$0.08* Oct........
.08f Nov.......
.08* Dec........
Average.

$0.08f
.09
.09
$0.0917

S H IR T IN G S : B leached, 4 -4 , Lo n sd ale.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.

$0.09* Apr___
.09* May....
.09* June...

$0.08f July....
.08* Aug....
.0SI Sept...

$0.08* Oct........
.08* Nov.......
.08* Dec........
Average.

$0.08*
.081
$0.0892

S H IR T IN G S : B leached, 4 -4 , W am su tta

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.1175 Apr___
.1175 May....
.1175 June...




$0.1095 July....
.1095 Aug....
.1095 Sept...

$0.1095 Oct........
.1095 Nov.......
.1095 Dec........
Average.

$0.1188
.1188
.1188
$0.1138

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

389

Table I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.
SHIRTINGS: Bleached, 4-4, Rough Rider A l.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.09 Apr___
.09 May—
.09 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.08! July....
Aug....
Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0,081 Oct........
.081 Nov'.___
.081 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0,081
.081
.081
$0.0846

SILK: Raw, Italian, classical.
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, each month; quotations from the American Silk Journal.]
Jan........ $4.2075-$4.2670 Apr___ $3.7620-$3.8610 July.... $3.9105-$3.9600 Oct........ $4.0590-14.1085
Feb........ 3.9600- 4.0590 May.... 3.7620- 3.8610 A ug.... 3.8858- 3.9353 N ov..... 4.1580- 4.2075
Mar....... 3.8115- 3.9105 June... 3.9600- 4.0590 Sept... 4.0095- 4.0590 Dec........ 4.1580- 4.2075
$4.0054
Average.
SILK: Raw, Japan, Kansai No. 1.
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, each month; quotations from the American Silk Journal.]
J a n ..... $3.4920-13.5405 Apr---- $3.3950-$3.4435 July.... $3.3950-13.4435 Oct........ $3.5890-$3.6375
Feb........ 3.4435- 3.4920 May.... 3.4920- 3.5405 Aug.... 3.3465- 3.3950 Nov....... 3.8315- 3.8800
Mar........ 3.2980- 3.3465 June... 3.3950- 3.4435 S ept... 3.3950- 3.4435 Dec........ 3.9285- 3.9770
Average.
$3.5244
SUITINGS: Clay worsted diagonal, 12-ounce, W ashington Mills.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.3050 Apr___
1.3050 May....
1.3050 June...

$1.3050 July....
1.3050 Aug....
1.3050 Sept...

$1.1250 Oct........
1.1250 N ov.....
1.1475 Dec........
Average.

$1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
$1.2225

SUITINGS: Clay worsted diagonal, 16-ounce, W ashington Mills.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.5075 Apr___
1.5075 May....
1.5075 June...

$1.5075 July....
1.5075 A ug....
1.5075 Sept...

$1.3950 Oct........
1.3950 Nov.......
1.4175 Dec........
Average.

$1.4175
1.4175
1.4175
$1.4588

SUITINGS: Indigo blue, all wool, 54-inch, 14-ounce, Middlesex standard.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.6650 Apr___
1.6650 May....
1.6650 June...




$1.5750 July....
1.5750 Aug....
1.5750 Sept...

$1.5300 Oct........
1.5300 Nov.......
1.5300 Dec........
Average.

$1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
$1.5750

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

890

I .—WHOLESALE PRICES OP COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.

T able

S U IT IN G S : Serge, 11-o unce, F u lto n M ills 31 92 .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$1.3500 Apr___
1.3500 May....
1.3500 June...

Price.

Month.

$1.3500 July....
1.3500 Aug....
1.3500 Sept...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$1.1700 Oct........
1.1700 Nov.......
1.1700 Dec........
Average.

$1.1925
1.1925
1.1925
$1.2656

T IC K IN G S : A m oskeag A . C . A .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.14 Apr___
.14 May—
.14 June...

* $0.12 July....
.12 Aug....
.12 Sept...

$0.12 Oct........
.12 Nov.......
.12* Dec........
Average.

$0.12f
.13*
13*
$0.1285

T R O U S E R IN G S : F a n c y w orsted, 18 o u n ce, a ll w orsted w arp an d fillin g , wool an d w orsted
b a ck .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$2.4750 Apr___
2.5875 May....
2.5875 June__

$2.5875 July__
2.5875 Aug....
2.5875 Sept...

$2.5875 Oct........
2.5875 Nov.......
2.5875 Deo........
Average.

$2.5875
2.5875
2.5875
$2.5781

U N D E R W E A R : S h irts an d draw ers, w hite, a ll w ool, fu ll-fash io n e d , 18-gauge.

[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$27.00 Apr___
27.00 May....
27.00 June...

$27.00 July....
27.00 Aug....
27.00 Sept...

$27.00 Oct........
27.00 Nov.......
27.00 Dec........
Average.

$27.00
27.00
27.00
$27.0000

U N D E R W E A R : S h irts an d draw ers, w h ite, m erin o, fu ll-fash io n e d , 60 per cen t w ool, 40 p er
cent co tto n, 24-gauge.

[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$18.00 Apr___
18.00 May....
18.00 June...

$18.00 July....
18.00 A ug....
18.00 Sept...

$18.00 Oct........
18.00 Nov.......
18.00 Dec........
Average.

$18.00
18.00
18.00
$18.0000

W O M EN ’S D R E S S G O O D S : C ash m ere, a ll w ool, 8 -9 tw ill, 3 5 -in ch , A tla n tic M ills.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.3773 Apr___
.3773 May__
.3773 June...




$0.3773 July....
.3773 Aug....
.3773 Sept...

$0.3577 Oct........
.3577 Nov.......
.3577 Dec........
Average.

$0.3577
.3577
.3577
$0.3675

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

391

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Continued.

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Cashmere, cotton warp, 9-twill, 4-4, Atlantic Mills F.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

10.2303 Apr___
.2303 May....
.2303 June...

Price.

Month.

10.2303 July....
.2303 Aug....
.2303 Sept...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.2254 Oct........
.2254 Nov.......
-.2254 Dec........
Average.

$0.2254
.2254
.2254
$0.2279

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Cashmere, cotton warp, 36-inch, Hamilton.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.1911 Apr___
.1911 May__
.1911 June...

$0.1911 July__
.1911 Aug—
.1911 Sept...

$0.1911 Oct........
.1911 Nov.......
.1911 Dec.......
Average.

$0.1911
.1911
.1911
$0.1911

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Panama cloth, all wool, 54-Inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.7215 Apr___
.7215 May__
.7215 June...

$0.7215 July....
.7215 Aug....
.6750 Sep t...

$0.6750 Oct........
.6750 Nov.......
.6750 Dec........
Average.

$0.6750
.6750
.6843
$0.6952

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Poplar cloth, cotton warp and worsted fining, 36-inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

2000
..2000

$0.2000 Apr___
May....
June...

.2000
.2000

$0.2000 July—
A ug....
S ep t...

2000
..2000

$0.2000 O ct,....
Nov.......
Dec........
Average.

..2000
2000

$0.2000
$0.2000

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: SicUian cloth, cotton warp, 50-inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.3491 Apr___
.3491 May—
.3491 June...

$0.3491 July....
.3491 Aug....
.3491 Sept...

$0.3259 Oct........
.3259 Nov.......
.3259 Dec........
Average.

$0.3259
.3259
.3352
$0.3383

WOOL: Ohio, fine fleece (X and XX grade), scoured.
[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the first of
each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.7234 Apr___
.7021 May__
.7021 June...




$0. 7021 July....
.7021 Aug—
.7021 Sept...

$0.6809 Oct........
.6809 Nov.......
.6596 Dec........
Average.

$0.6596
.6596
.6596
$0.6862

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

392

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G —Concluded.

WOOL: Ohio, medium fleece (one-fourth and three-eighths grade), scoured*
[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the first of
each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$0.5556 Apr___
.5556 May....
.5417 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.5139 July....
.5000 Aug—
.4861 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0.4722 Oct........
.4583 Nov.......
. 4444 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0.4444
.4444
.4444
$0.4884

WORSTED YARNS: 2-40s, Australian fine.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb. Mar........

$1.30 Apr___
1.30 May....
1.271 June...

$1.25 July....
1.25 Aug....
1.25 Sep t...

$1.25 Oct........
1.25 Nov.......
.22* Dec........
Average.

1

1.221
1.221

$1,221

$1.2521

WORSTED YARNS: 2-32s, crossbred stock, white, in skeins*
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0,921 Apr___
.921 May—
.921 June...

$0,921 July....
.87 Aug---.87 Sept...

$0.87 Oct........
.82 Nov.......
.82 Dec........
Average.

$0.82
.82
.84
$0.8692

F U E L A N D L IG H T IN G .

CANDLES: Adamantine, 6s, 14-ounce.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0,071 Apr___
.071 May....
.071 June...

$0,071 July....
.071 Aug—
.071 S ep t...

$0,071 Oct........
.071 Nov.......
.071 Dec........
Average.

$0.071
.071
.071
$0.0725

COAL: Anthracite, broken.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$4.2000 Apr___
4.2000 May....
4.2000 June...

$4.2000 July....
42000 Aug—
4.2000 S ep t...

$42000 Oct........
42000 Nov.......
42000 Dec........
Average.

$4 2000
4 2000
4 2000
$4 2000

COAL: Anthracite, chestnut.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$4 9500 Apr___
4 9500 May—
4 9500 June...




$4 4493 July....
4 5296 Aug—
4 6169 Sept...

$4 7233 Oct........
4 8318 Nov.......
4 9054 Dec........
Average.

$4 9500
4 9489
4 9500
$4 8129

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
T a b le I . —

393

WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

FU EL AND LIG H TIN G —Continued.
C O A L : A n th ra cite, egg.

[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.)
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$4.9186 Apr___
4.9500 May....
4.9500 June...

Price.

Month.

$4 4479 July....
4 5455 Aug—
4 6149 S ept...

Month.

Price.

$4 6988 Oct........
48500 Nov.......
4 9260 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$4 9500
4.9500
4 9500
$4 8126

COAL: Anthracite, stove.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$4.9500 Apr___
4.9500 May....
4.9500 June...

$4 4498 July....
4 5337 Aug....
4 6276 S ept...

$4 7238 Oct........
4 8498 Nov.......
4 9294 Dec........
Average.

$4 9500
4 9500
4 9500
$4 8178

COAL: Bituminous, Georges Creek.
[Price per ton, at the mine, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.40 Apr___
1.40 May....
1.40 June...

$1.40 July....
1.45 A ug....
1.40 Sep t...

$1.40 Oct........
1.35 Nov.......
1.40 Dec........
Average.

$1.40
1.45
1.45
$1.4083

COAL: Bituminous, Georges Creek.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. New York Harbor, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$3.11 Apr___
3.10 May....
3.00 June...

$3.10 July....
3.00 Aug....
3.10 Sept...

$2.95 Oct........
3.00 Nov.......
3.05 Dec........
Average.

$2.95
3.10
3.10
$3.0467

C O A L : B itu m in o u s, P ittsb u rg (Y ou g h io g hen y), lu m p .

[Price per bushel, on Tuesday of each week, Cincinnati, afloat; quotations furnished by the superintend­
ent of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.08 Apr....
.08
.08
.08
.08 May....
.08
.08
.08
.08 June...
.08
.08
.08
.08




$0.08 July....
.08
.08
.08
.08 Aug....
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08 Sept...
.08
.08
.08

$0.08 Oct........
.08
.08
.08
.08 Nov.___
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08 Dec........
.08
.08
.08

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
$0.08- .084
.08 - .084
.08 - .084
.08 - . 084
.08 - .084
.08 - .084
.084- .. 08§
.084- 08f
.084- .084

Average.

$0.0805

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

394
T able

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
F U E L A N D L IG H T IN G —Concluded.

COKE: Connellsville, furnace.
[Contract price per ton, f. o. b. at the ovens, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$2.60-12.65 Apr___
2.40- 2.60 May....
2.50-2.60 June...

Price.

Month.

$2.10-S2.15 July—
1.75- 2.00 Aug—
1.80- 1.85 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$1.80-SI. 85 Oct........
1.80- 1.85 Nov.......
1.60- 1.80 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$1.60
1.55
$1.45- 1.80
$1.9688

MATCHES: Parlor, domestic.
[Price per gross of boxes (200s), in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.50 Apr___
1.50 May—
L 50 June...

$1* 50 July....
1.50 Aug....
1.50 Sep t...

$1.50 Oct........
1.50 Nov.......
1.50 Dec........
Average.

$1.50
1.50
1.50
$1.5000

PETROLEUM: Crude, Pennsylvania.
[Price per barrel, at the wells, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil City Derrick.]
Jan.........
Feb.......
Mar........

$1.43 Apr___
1.40 May—
1.40 June...

$1.40 July—
1.35 Aug---1.35 Sep t...

$1.30 Oct........
1.30 Nov.......
1.30 Dec........
Average.

$1.30
1.30
1.30
$1.3442

PETROLEUM: Refined, in barrels, cargo lots, for export.
[Price per gallon, New York loading, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0790 Apr___
.0790 May....
.0790 June...

$0.0790 July....
.0775 Aug....
.0775 S ep t...

$a0765 Oct........
.0765 Nov.......
.0765 Dec........
Average.

$0.0750
.0740
.0740
$0.0770

PETROLEUM: Refined, 150° fire test, water white, in barrels, packages included (jobbing
lots).
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$o.iif Apr___
.I lf May....
*11| June...

$0.11! July....
.I lf Aug....
.U| S ep t...

$0.10f Oct........
.10! Nov.......
.10! Dec........
Average.

$0.09!
.09!
.09!
$0.1079

M E T A L S A N D IM P L E M E N T S .

AUGERS: Extra, 1-inch.
[Price per auger, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0,330 Apr___
.330 May....
.330 June...




$0.378 July—
.378 Aug—
.378 Sept...

$0.378 Oct........
.378 Nov.......
.378 Dec........
Average.

$0,378
.378
.378
$0.3660

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

395

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

M ETALS AND IM PLEM EN TS—Continued.
AXES: M. C. O Yankee, pattern handled
pPriee per ax, in New York, on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Fob
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.625 Apr___
.625 May....
.625 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.700 • July....
.700 Aug....
.700 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0,700 Oct........
.700 Nov.......
.700 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$0,700
.700
.700
$0.6813

BAB IBON: Best refined, from store.
[Average monthly price per pound, in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and
Steel Association.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.0196 Apr___
.0196 May....
.0196 June...

$0.0190 July....
.0186 Aug---.0186 Sept...

$0.0186 Oct........
.0176 Nov.......
.0176 Dec........
Average.

$0.0176
.0176
.0176
-$0.0185

BAB IBON: Common to best refined, from m ill.
[Price per pound, on the first of each month, f. o. b. Pittsburg; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$0.0150 Oct........
Jan........
$0.0170 Apr___ |
$0.0165 July....
Feb.......
.0170 May.... $0.0155- .0160 Aug.... $0.0145- .0150 Nov.___
.0145 Dec........
Mar........ $0.0165- .0170 June:..
.0155 S ep t...
Average.

$0.0145
.0145
.0140
$0.0155

BABB WIBE: Galvanized.
[Average monthly price per 100 pounds, in Chicago; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.33 Apr___
2.33 May—
2.33 June...

$2.15 July....
2.15 Aug....
2.15 Sept...

$2.15 Oct........
2.00 Nov.......
2.00 Dec........
Average.

$2.00
2.00
2.00
$2.1325

BUTTS: Loose pin, wrought steel, 3£ by 3£ inch.
[Price per pair, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0,100 Apr___
.100 May....
.100 June...

$0,110 July—
.110 Aug---.110 S ep t...

$ano Oct........
.110 1 Nov.......
.110 1 Dec........
Average.

$0,110
.110
.110
$0.1075

CHISELS: Extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.
[Price per chisel, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan.........
Feb........
Mar........

$0,250 Apr___
.250 May....
.250 June...




$0,380 July....
.380 Aug....
.380 S ept...

$0,380 Oct........
.380 Nov.......
.380 Dec........
Average.

$0,380
.380
.380
$0.3475

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

396

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

T able

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

METALS AND IM PLEM EN TS—Continued.

COPPER: Ingot, electrolytic.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.1375 Apr___
$0.1237| Oct........
$0.1325 July....
. 1362* M ay....
.1245 Aug.... $0.1250- .1262^ Nov.......
.1262* Dec.......
. 1337* June... $0.1275- .1287* Sept...
Average.

Price.
$0.1250
.1275
.1287*
$0.1291

COPPER: Sheet, hot-rolled (base sizes.)
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.18 Apr___
.18 May....
.19 June...

$0.19 July....
.19 Aug---.18 Sep t...

$0.18 Oct........
.18 Nov.......
.18 Dec........
Average.

$0.1800
.1665
.1665
$0.1803

COPPER WIRE: Bare, No. 8, B. and S. gauge and heavier (base sizes).
[Price per pound, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
$0.15 Apr___
.15 May....
.141 June...

$0.14f July....
.14* Aug....
.141 S ep t...

$0.14 Oct........
.14 Nov.......
.14 Dec........
Average.

$0.14
.14
.141
$0.1435

DOOR KNOBS: Steel, bronze-plated.
[Price per pair, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.40 Apr___
.40 May__
.40 June...

$0.50 July....
.50 Aug—
.50 Sept...

$0.50 Oct........
.50 Nov.......
.50 Dec........
Average.

$0.50
.50
.50
$0.4750

FILES: 8-inch mill bastard, Nicholson.
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.93 Apr___
.93 May....
.93 June...

$0.93 July....
.93 A ug....
.93 Sept...

$0.93 Oct........
.93 Nov.......
.93 Dec........
Average.

$0.93
.93
.93
$0.9300

HAMMERS: Maydole No. 1*.
[Price per hammer, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0,466 Apr___
.466 May....
.466 June...




$0,470 July....
.470 Aug....
.470 S ept...

$0,470 Oct........
.470 Nov.......
.470 Dec.......
Average.

$0,470
.470
.470
$0.4690

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
T a b le

397

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
M E T A L S A N D IM P L E M E N T S —Continued.

LEAD: Pig, desilverized.
[Price per pound, in New York, from store, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $0.0470-$0.0475 Apr___ $0.044040.0442* July....
.0440 Aug....
Feb....... .0470- .0472* May....
.0437* Sept...
Mar.......
.0465 June...

Price.

Month.

$0.0440 Oct........
.0440 Nov.......
.0440 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$0.0440
.0440
.0450
$0.0448

LEAD PIPE.
[Price per 100 pounds, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$5.23 Apr___
5.46 May....
5.46 June...

$5.22 July....
4.98 Aug....
4.98 Sept...

$4.90 Oct........
4.90 Nov.......
4.90 Dec.......
Average.

$4.90
4.90
4.90
$5.0608

L O C K S : C o m m on m o rtise, k n o b lo ck , 3 *-in ch .

[Price per lock, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0,150 Apr___
.150 May....
.150 June...

$0,170 July....
.170 Aug....
.170 Sep t...

$0,170 Oct........
.170 Nov.......
.170 Dec.......
Average.

$0.170
.170
.170
$0.1650

NAILS: Cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from base
prices published in the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.95 Apr___
1.90 May....
1.95 June...

$1.95 July....
1.95 Aug....
$1.85- 1.90 Sept...

$1.8541.90 Oct........
1.75- 1.80 Nov.......
1.75 Dec.......
Average.

$1.75
1.70
1.70
$1.8438

NAILS: Wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from base
prices published in the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.95 Apr___
1.95 May....
1.95 June...

$1.95 July....
1.95 Aug....
1.95 S ept...

$1.95 Oct........
1.80 Nov.......
1.80 Dec.......
Average.

$1.80
1.80
1.80
$1.8875

PIG IRON: Bessemer.
[Average monthly price per ton, in Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and
Steel Association.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$19.90 Apr___
19.34 May....
18.60 June...




$18.34 July....
17.52 Aug....
16.62 S ept...

$16.40 Oct........
16.09 Nov.......
15.90 Dec.......
Average.

$15.90
15.80
15.90
$17.1925

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

398
T able

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
M E T A L S A N D IM P L E M E N T S —Continued.

PIG IRON: Foundry No. 1.
[Average monthly price per ton, in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and
Steel Association.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$19.50 Apr___
19.19 May....
18.50 June...

Price.

Month.

$18.25 July....
17.50 Aug....
17.15 Sep t...

Price.

Month.

Price.
$16.31
16.19
16.00
$17.3617

$16.75 Oct........
16.50 Nov.......
16.50 Dec.......
Average.

PIG IRON: Foundry No. 3, northern.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$17.90 Apr---- $16.65-$16.90 July....
$15.40 Oct........
17.90 May....
16.40 Aug....
15.15 Nov.......
17.15 June... 15.90- 16.15 S ep t... $14.65- 14.90 Dec........
Average.

$14.65-$14.90
14.90
14.65
$15.9833

PIG IRON: Gray forge, southern, coke.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Cincinnati, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $16.50-$16.75 Apr___ $14.75-$15.00 July.... $14.00-$14.25 Oct........
Feb.......
16.00 May.... 14.25- 14.50 Aug.... 13.75- 14.00 Nov.......
Mar........
15.75 June...
14.25 Sept... 13.50- 14.00 Dec........
Average.

$13.50-$14.00
13.50- 14.00
13.50- 14.00
$14.5729

PLANES: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.
[Price per plane, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$1.53 •Apr___
1.53 May....
1.53 June...

$1.70 July....
1.70 Aug....
1.70 Sep t...

$1.70 Oct........
1.70 Nov.......
1.70 Dec........
Average.

$1.70
1.70
1.70
$1.6575

QUICKSILVER.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.72 Apr___
.69 May....
.69 June...

$0.66 July....
.66 Aug....
.64 Sept...

$0.64 Oct........
.64 Nov.......
.62* Dec.......
Average.

$0.62}
. 62}
.57}
$0.6492

SAWS: Crosscut, Dlsston No. 2, 6-foot.
[Price per saw to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$1.6038 Apr___
1.6038 May....
1.6038 June...




$1.6038 July....
1.6038 Aug....
1.6038 Sept...

$1.6038 Oct........
1.6038 Nov.......
1.6038 Dec.......
Average.

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
$1.6038

WHOLESALE PEICES, 1890 TO 1910.

399

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

METALS AND IM PLEM EN TS—Continued.

SAW S: Hand, D isston No. 7, 26-inch.
[Price per dozen to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Month.

Price.

J a n .....
Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

$12.95 Apr___
12.95 M ay....
12.95 June...

Price.

Month.

$12.95 July....
12.95 Aug
12.95 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$12.95 Oct........
12.95 Nov.......
12.95 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$12.95
12.95
12.95
$12.9500

SHOVELS: Ames No. 2 , cast steel, D handle, square point, back strap, black.
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]
$7.62 Apr___
7.62 May__
7.84 June...

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$7.84 July....
7.84 Aug....
7.84 Sept...

$7.84
7.45
7.45
$7.7383

$7.84 Oct........
7.84 Nov.......
7.84 Dec.......
Average.

SILVER: Bar, fine.
[Average monthly price per ounce, in New York; quotations furnished by the Director of the Mint.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Max.......

$0.53080 Apr___
.52229 May....
.52105 June...

$0.53894 July....
.54524 Aug....
.54182 Sept...

$0.54925 Oct........
.53935 Nov.......
.54158 Dec.......
Average.

$0.56250
.56384
.55278
$0.54245

SPELTER: Western.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]

1

Jan........ $0.0625-$0.0630 Apr___
Feb.......
.0612* May....
Mar........
.0575 June...

$0.0560 July....
.0515 Aug....
.0530 Sept...

$0.0520 Oct........
.0525 Nov.......
.0540 Dec.......
Average.

$0.0560
.0595
.0600
$0.0563

STEEL BILLETS.
[Average monthly price per ton, at mills at Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron
and Steel Association.]
Jan........
F eb .....
Mar........

$27.50 Apr___
27.50 May....
27.50 June...

$26.75 July....
26.12 Aug....
25.30 Sept...

$24.87 Oct........
24.50 Nov.......
24.40 Dec.......
Average.

$23.75
23.37
23.00
$25.3800

STEEL RAILS.
[Price per ton, at mills in Pennsylvania; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and Steel
Association.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$28.00 Apr___
28.00 May__
28.00 June...




$28.00 July....
28.00 Aug....
28.00 Sept__

$28.00 Oct........
28.00 Nov.......
28.00 Dec.......
Average.

$28.00
28.00
28.00
$28.0000

BULLETIN OF THE BTJBEAU OF LABOR..

400

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

M ETALS AND IM PLEM EN TS—Continued.

STEEL SHEETS: Black, No. 27, box annealed, one pass through cold rolls.
[Price per pound, in Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$0.0235 Apr___
.0235 May....
.0235 June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.0235 July....
$0.0225 Oct........
.0235 Aug....
.0220 Nov.......
.0235 Sept... $0.0210- .0215 Dec.......
Average.

$0.0215
.0220
.0215
$0.0227

TIN: Pig.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.3315 Apr___
.3250 May....
.3287| June...

$0.3270 July....
.3270 Aug....
.3290 Sept...

$0.3290 Oct........
.3320 Nov.......
3620 Dec.......
Average.

$0.3650
.3680
.3795
$0.3420

TIN PLATES: Domestic, Bessemer, coke, 14 by 20 inch.
[Price per box of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.].
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$3.84 Apr___
3.84 May....
3.84 June...

$3.84 July....
3.84 Aug....
3.84 Sept...

$3.84 Oct........
3.84 Nov.......
3.84 Dec.......
Average.

$3.84
3.84
3.84
$3.8400

TROWELS: M. C. O., brick, lO H nch.
[Price per trowel, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.34 Apr___
.34 May__
.34 June...

$0.34 July....
.34 Aug....
.34 Sept...

$0.34 Oct........
.34 Nov.......
.34 Dec.......
Average.

$0.34
.34
.34
$0.3400

VISES: Solid box, 50-pound.
[Price per vise, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$4.60 Apr___
4.60 May....
4.60 June...

$4.60 July....
4.60 Aug....
4.60 Sept...

$4.37 Oct........
4.37 Nov.......
4.37 Dec.......
Average.

$4.37
4.37
4.37
$4.4850

WOOD SCREWS: 1-inch, No. 10, flat head.
[Price per gross, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0,135 Apr___
.150 May....
.150 June...




$0,150 July....
.150 Aug....
.150 Sept...

$0,150 Oct........
.150 Nov.......
.150 Dec.......
Average.

$0,150
.150
.150
$0.1488

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
Table

401

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
M E T A L S A N D IM P L E M E N T S —Concluded.

ZINC: Sheet, ordinary numbers and sizes, packed In 600-pound casks.
[Price per 100 pounds, f. o. b. La Salle, 111., on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$7.36 Apr___
6.95 May....
7.13 June...

Price.

Month.

$7.13 July....
6.90 Aug....
6.90 S ep t...

Price.

Month.

$6.90 Oct........
6.90 Nov.......
6.90 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$6.90
7.13
7.13
$7.0192

L U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S .

BRICK: Common domestic building.
[Price per 1,000, on dock in New York, from the first to the last of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$7.00-$6.50 Apr___
6.75- 7.00 May....
5.75- 6.25 June...

$6.25-$5.75 July....
5.75- 6.25 Aug....
6.00- 5.75 Sept....

$6.00-$5.50 Oct........
5.50- 4.75 Nov.......
4.75- 5.25 Dec........
Average.

$4.75-$5.25
5.50- 5.00
4.75- 5.75
$5.7188

CARBONATE OF LEAD: American, in oil.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.0686 Apr___
.0686 May....
.0686 June...

$0.0686- July....
.0686 Aug....
.0686 Sep t...

$0.0686 Oct........
.0686 Nov.......
.0686 Dec........
Average.

$0.0711
.0711
.0711
$0.0692

CEMENT: Portland, domestic.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$1.43 Apr___
1.43 M ay...
1.43 June...

$1.43 J u ly ...
1.43 A ug....
1.43 Sep t...

$1.43 Oct........
1.43 Nov___
1.43 Dec........
Average.

$1.43
$1.53- 1.55
1.53- 1.55
$1.4483

CEMENT: Rosendale.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.95 Apr___
.95 M ay...
.95 June...

$0.95 Ju ly ...
.95 A u g...
.95 Sept...

$0.95 Oct........
.95 Nov___
.95 Dec........
Average.

$0.95
$0.90- .95
.90- .95
$0.9458

DOORS: Western white pine, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, lf-inches thick, 5-panel,
♦
No. 1, O. G.
[Price per door, f. o. b. Chicago, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.81 Apr___
1.81 M ay...
1.81 June...

86026°—B ull. 93—11-----7



$1.68 Ju ly...
1.68 Aug—
1.68 Sept...

$1.68 Oct........
1.61 Nov___
1.61 Dec.......
Average.

$1.61
1.55
1.55
$1.6733

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

402

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
L U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S —Continued.

HEMLOCK: Base price, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

8

$21.00 Apr___ I20.50-S21.00 July.. .
Oct........
N o v ....
21.00 M ay... 20.50- 21.00 Aug....
21.00 June... 20.50- 21.00 Sept... $20.50-121.00 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$20.50-121.00
19.00
20.00- 21.00
$20.6250

LIME: Rockport, common.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.02-11.07 Apr___
1.02^ 1.07 M ay...
1.02- 1.07 June...

$1.02-SI. 07 J u ly ...
1.02- 1.07 Aug—
1.02- 1.07 Sept...

$1.02-SI. 07 Oct........
1.02- 1.07 N ov.. . .
1.02- 1.07 Dec........
Average.

$1.02-SI.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07
$1.0450

LINSEED OIL: Raw, city, in barrels.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.76 Apr___
.77 M ay...
.77 June...

$0.79 Oct........
.90 Nov___
.90 Dec.......
Average.

$0.81 Ju ly...
.84 Aug---.82 S ep t...

$0.90
.95
.95
$0.8467

MAPLE: Hard and soft, 1-inch, firsts and seconds, 6 inches and up wide.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]

8

Jan........ S30.00-S32.00 Apr___ S30.00-S32.00 Ju ly...
Oct........
Nov___
Feb........ 30.00- 32.00 M ay... 30.00- 32.00 Aug....
Mar........ 30.00- 32.00 June... 31.00- 33.00 Sept... S31.00-S33.00 Dec........
Average.

S31.00-S33.00
32.00- 35.00
32.00- 35.00
$31.8000

OAK: White, plain, 1-inch, 6 inches and up wide.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Oct........
Jan........ S52.00-S54.00 Apr___ S54.00-S56.00 Ju ly...
0)
Nov___
Feb........ 52.00- 54.00 M ay... 54.00- 56.00 A ug....
(0
Mar........ 54.00- 56.00 June... 54.00- 56.00 Sept... S54.00-S56.00 Dec........
Average.

S52.00-S54.00
53.00- 55.00
53.00- 56.00
$54.2500

OAK: White, quartered, clear and good seconds, 6 inches and up wide, 10 to 16 feet long.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]

8

Oct........
Jan........ S85.00-S86.00 Apr___ S86.00-S90.00 Ju ly...
Nov___
Feb........ 86.00- 90.00 M ay... 86.00- 90.00 Aug....
Mar....... 86.00- 90.00 June... 86.00- 90.00 Sept... S86.00-S90.00 Dec........
Average.




i No quotation for month.

S86.00-S90.00
86.00- 90.00
86.00- 90.00
$87.7500

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

403

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
L U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S —Continued.

OXIDE OF ZINC: American, extra dry.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

$0.05f Apr___
.05| M ay...
June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.05| Oct........
.05| Nov___
Dec........
Average.

t°.05| Ju ly...
Aug—
Sept...

Price.

1i f
0

$0.0538

PINE: White, boards, No. 2 barn, 10 inches wide, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Jan........ $37.50-S38.50 Apr___ $37.50-538.50 Ju ly...
Feb....... 37.50- 38.50 M ay... 37.50- 38.50 Aug....
Mar........ 37.50- 38.50 June...
38.50 Sept...

0)
0)

Oct........
N o v ....
$38.50 Dec........
Average.

$38.50
38.50
38.50
$38.2500

PINE: W hite, boards, uppers, 1-inch, 8 inches and up wide, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Jan........ $93.50-597.50 Apr___ $93.50-597.50 Ju ly...
Feb........ 93.50- 97.50 M ay... 93.50- 97.50 Aug....
Mar........ 93.50- 97.50 June...
102.50 S ep t...

Oct........
0)
Nov___
$102.50 Dec........
Average.

0)

$102.50
102.50
100.50
$98.8000

PINE: Yellow, flooring, B, heart face, rift sawn, 1 inch thick, 2 \ inches wide (counted 3 inches.)
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
$45.00-546.00 Apr___ $46.00-547.00 J u ly ...
Oct........
Nov___
46.00- 47.00 M ay... 46.00- 47.00 A ug....
46.00- 47.00 June... 46.00- 47.00 S ep t... $45. d)^$46.00 Dec.......
Average.

$45.00-546.00
47.00
47.00
$46.3000

PINE: Yellow, siding, long leaf, boards, heart face, 1 inch and 1£ inch.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Oct........
Jan........ $30.00-532.00 Apr___ $30.00-532.00 Ju ly...
(l)
Nov___
Feb........ 30»00- 32.00 M ay... 30.00- 32.00 Aug....
0)
Mar........ 30.00- 32.00 June... 30.00- 32.00 S ep t... $30.00-531.00 Dec.......
Average.

$30.00-531.00
30.00- 31.00
30.00- 31.00
$30.8000

PLATE GLASS: Polished, glazing, area 5 to 10 square feet.
[Price per square foot, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.32 Apr___
.35 M ay...
.35 June...




$0.35 J u ly ...
.35 Aug---.35 Sep t...
No quotation for month.

$0.35 Oct........
.35 Nov___
.35 Dec.......
Average.

$0.35
.35
.35
$0.3475

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

404

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

LUM BER AND BU ILD IN G M ATERIALS—Continued.
PLATE GLASS: Polished, glazing, area 3 to 5 square feet.
[Price per square foot, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

80.24 Apr___
.25 May....
.25 June...

Price.

Month.

80.25 July....
.25 Aug....
.25 S ep t...

Price.

Month.

Price.

80.25 Oct........
.25 Nov.......
.25 Dec........
Average.

80.25
.25
.25
80.2492

POPLAR: Yellow, 1-inch, firsts and seconds, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month. From January to April 8 inches and up wide,
and from May to December 7 to 17 inches and up wide; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.)
Jan........ 858.00-860.00 Apr___ 860.00-862.00 July....
Oct........
0)
Nov.......
Feb........ 58.00- 60.00 May.... 62.00- 64.00 Aug....
0)
Mar........ 58.00- 60.00 June... 62.00- 64.00 Sept... 862.00-864.00 Dec........
Average.

862.00-864.00
62.00- 64.00
61.00- 63.00
861.5000

PUTTY: Bulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

80.0120 Apr___
.0115 May....
.0115 June...

80.0115 July....
.0115 Aug....
.0115 Sept...

80.0115 Oct........
.0115 Nov.......
.0115 Dec........
Average.

80.0115
.0115
.0115
80.0115

ROSIN: Common to good, strained.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New' York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.)
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

84.15-84.25 Apr___
4.40 May....
4.55 June...

84.65 July....
4.50 Aug....
4.50 Sept...

85.30 Oct........
86.00- 6.10 Nov.......
6.10 Dec........
Average.

86.40
6.10
6.05
85.2333

SHINGLES: Cypress, all heart, 5 and 6 inches wide, 16 inches long.
[Price per M, f. o. b. mills, on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

83.60 Apr___
3.85 May....
3.85 June...

83.60 July....
3.60 A ug....
3.50 Sept...

83.35 Oct........
3.35 Nov.......
3.35 Dec........
Average.

83.25
3.25
3.35
83.4917

SHINGLES: Red cedar, clear, random width, 16 inches long.
[Average monthly price at mills in Washington.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

82.05 Apr___
2.10 May....
2.15 June...




82.20 July....
2.10 Aug....
2.00 Sept...
i No quotation for month.

82.00 Oct........
1.95 Nov___
1.95 Dec.......
Average.

81.90
1.85
1.85
82.0063

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.
T able

405

I.—WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.
L U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S —Concluded.

SPRUCE: 6 to 9 inch, cargoes.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........ $24.00-$26.00 Apr___ $24.00-126.00 July....
Oct........
0)
Feb....... 24.00- 26.00 May.... 24.00- 26.00 Aug....
Nov.......
0)
Mar........ 24.00- 26.00 June... 24.00- 26.00 Sept... $23.00-$25.00 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$23.00-$25.00
23.00- 25.00
23.00- 25.00
$24.6000

TAR.
[Price per barrel, in Wilmington, N. C., on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
F eb.:...
Mar.......

$2.00 Apr___
2.00 May....
2.00 June...

$2.00 July....
2.00 Aug....
2.25 Sep t...

$2.25 Oct........
2.25 Nov.......
2.50 Dec........
Average.

$2.60
2.60
2.60
$2.2542

TURPENTINE: Spirits of, in machine barrels.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.59-10.59* Apr___
.63- .63$ May....
.63 June...

$0.63 July....
. 62$ Aug....
$0.59- .59$ Sept...

$0.67-$0.67$ Oct........
.71| Nov.......
.74* Dec........
Average.

$0.76$
.81
.78$
$0.682S

WINDOW GLASS: American, single, firsts, 25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches).
[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month,-'quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$2.88 Apr___
2.88 May....
2.88 June...

$3.Q4 July....
2.88 Aug....
2.88 S ept...

$3.04 Oct........
3.04 Nov.......
3.04 Dec........
Average.

$2.88
2.88
2.88
$2.9300

WINDOW GLASS: American, single, thirds, 25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches).
[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$2.2950 Apr___
2.2950 May....
2.2950 June...




$2.4225 July....
2.2950 Aug....
2.2950 Sept...
* No quotation for month.

$2.4225 Oct........
2.4225 Nov.......
2.4225 Dec.......
Average.

$2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
$2.3375

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

406

T able I . — WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

DRUGS AND CHEM ICALS.
ALCOHOL: Grain.
{Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

Price

Month.

$2.61 Apr___
2.61 May__
2.61 June...

Price.

Month.

$2.61 July....
2.63 Aug....
2.51 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$2.50 Oct........
2.50 Nov.......
2.55 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$2.56
2.52
2.52
$2.5525

ALCOHOL: Wood, refined, 95 per cent.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.50 Apr___
.50 May__
.50 June..

$0.50 July....
.50 Aug....
.50 Sept...

$0.50 Oct........
.50 Nov.......
.50 Dec........
Average.

$0.50
.50
.50
$0.5000

ALUM: Lump.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
J a n .;...
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.0175 Apr—
.0175 M ay...
.0175 June...

$0.0175 Ju ly...
.0175 A ug....
.0175 Sept...

$0.0175 Oct........
.0175 Nov___
.0175 Dec........
Average.

$0.0175
.0175
.0175
$0.0175

BRIMSTONE: Crude, seconds.
[Price per ton, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter. ]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$22.00 Apr___
22.00 M ay...
22.00 June...

$22.00 Ju ly...
22.00 Aug....
22.00 Sept...

$22.00 Oct........
22.00 Nov___
22.00 Dec........
Average.

$22.00
22.00
22.00
$22.0000

GLYCERIN: Refined, chemically pure, in bulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, P,aint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0,191 Apr___
.19i M ay...
.20 June...

$0.19$ Ju ly...
.191 Aug....
.20 Sept...

$0,201 Oct........
. 20f Nov.......
Dec........
Average.

$0.24
.24
.26
$0.2142

MURIATIC ACID: 20 °.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0130 Apr---.0130 M ay...
.0130 June...




$0.0130 J u ly ...
.0130 Aug---.0130 Sept...

$.0130 Oct........
.0130 Nov.......
.0130 Dec........
Average.

$0.0130
.0130
.0130
$0.0130

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

407

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

DRUGS AND CUEMICADS—Concluded.

OPIUM: Natural, in cases.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$5.75 Apr—
5.65 M ay...
5.45 June...

Price.

Month.

$5.45 Ju ly...
6.00 A ug....
5.85 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$5.65 Oct........
5.35 Nov.......
5.00 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$4.85
4.60
4.85
$5.3708

QUININE: American, in 100-ounce tins.
[Price per ounce, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Jan........
F eb .....
Mar.......

$0.14 Apr—
.14 M ay...
.14 June...

$0.14 J u ly ...
.14 Aug—
.14 Sept...

$0.14 Oct........
.14 Nov.......
.14 Dec........
Average.

$0.14
.14
.14
$0.1400

SULPHURIC ACID: 66°.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.01 Apr—
.01 May....
.01 June...

$0.01 J u ly ...
.01 A ug....
.01 Sept...

$0.01 Oct........
.01 Nov.......
.01 Dec........
Average.

$0.01
.01
.01
$0.0100

HO U SE-FU RN ISH IN G GOODS.

EARTHENWARE: Plates, credm-colored, 7-inch.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.4300 Apr___
.4300 M ay...
.4300 June...

$0.4344 J u ly ...
.4344 Aug....
.4344 Sept...

$0.4344 Oct........
.4344 Nov.......
.4344 Dec.......
Average.

$0.4344
.4344
.4344
$0.4333

EARTHENWARE: Plates, white granite, 7-inch.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.4586 Apr__
.4586 M ay...
.4586 June...

$0.4633 J u ly ...
.4633 Aug....
.4633 Sept...

$0.4633 Oct........
.4633 Nov.......
.4633 Dec........
Average.

$0.4633
.4633
.4633
$0.4621

EARTHENWARE: Teacups and saucers, white granite, with handles.
[Price per gross (6 dozen cups and 6 dozen saucers), f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$3.3869 Apr---3.3869 M ay...
3.3869 June...




$3.4214 J u ly ...
3.4214 Aug---3.4214 Sept...

$3.4214 Oct........
3.4214 Nov.......
3.4214 Dec.......
Average.

$3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
$3.4128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

408

T able I .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

HOTJSE-FURNISHINQ GOODS—Continued.

FURNITURE: Bedroom suits, 3 pieces, iron bedstead, hardwood dresser and washstand.
[Price per set, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$11.50 Apr—
11.50 M ay...
11.50 June...

Price.

Month.

$12.00 Ju ly...
12.00 Aug....
12.00 Sept...

Price.

Month.

$12.00 Oct........
12.00 Nov.......
12.00 Dec........
Average.

Price.
$12.00
12.00
12.00
$11.8750

FURNITURE: Chairs, bedroom, maple, cane seat.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$9.00 Apr___
9.00 M ay...
9.00 June...

$9.00 Ju ly...
9.00 A ug....
9.00 Sept...

$9.00 Oct........
9.00 Nov.......
9.00 Dec........
Average.

$9.00
9.00
9.00
$9.0000

FURNITURE: Chairs, kitchen, common spindle.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$5.50 Apr___
5.50 M ay...
5.50 June...

$5.50 J u ly ...
5.50 A ug....
5.50 Sept...

$5.50 Oct........
5.50 Nov.......
5.50 Dec........
Average.

$5.50
5.50
5.50
$5.5000

FURNITURE: Tables, kitchen, 3^-foot.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$18.00 Apr___
19.50 M ay...
19.50 June...

$19.50 Ju ly...
19.50 Aug....
19.50 Sept...

$19.50 Oct........
21.00 Nov.......
21.00 Dec........
Average.

$21.00
21.00
21.00
$20.0000

GLASSWARE: Nappies, 4-inch.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$0.11 Apr___
.11 M ay...
.11 June...

$0.12 Ju ly...
.12 Aug....
.12 Sept...

$0.12 Oct........
.11 Nov.......
.11 Dec........
Average.

$0.11
.11
.11
$0.1130

GLASSWARE: Pitchers, one-half gallon, common.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.)
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.80 Apr___
.80 M ay...
.80 June...




$1.00 Ju ly...
1.00 Aug....
1.00 Sept...

$1.00 Oct........
1.00 Nov.......
1.00 Dec........
Average.

$1.00
1.00
.90
$0.9420

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

409

T a b l e I . — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

H O U SE-FU RN ISH IN G GOODS—Concluded.
GLASSWARE: Tumblers, table, one-third pint, com m on,
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan!----Feb.......
Mar.......

Month.

Price.

$0.12 Apr___
.12 M ay...
.12 June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.12 Ju ly...
.12 Aug....
.12 Sept...

Month.

$0.12 Oct........
.12 Nov.......
.12 Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$0.12
.12
.12
$0.1200

TABLE CUTLERY: Carvers, stag handles.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan.....
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.75 Apr---.75 M ay...
.75 June...

$0.75 Ju ly...
.75 Aug....
.75 Sept...

$0.75 Oct........
.75 Nov___
.75 Dec.......
Average.

$0.75
.75
.75
$0.7500

TABLE CUTLERY: Knives and forks, cocobolo handles, m etal bolsters.
[Price per gross on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$5.00 Apr___
5.00 M ay...
5.00 June...

$5.00 Ju ly...
5.00 Aug.. .
5.00 S ep t...

$5.00 Oct........
5.00 Nov.......
5.00 Dec.......
Average.

$5.00
5.00
5.00
$5.0000

WOODENWARE: Pails, oak-grained, 3-hoop, wire ear.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.90 Apr___
1.90 May....
1.90' June...

$1.90 Ju ly...
1.90 Aug....
1.90 S ep t...

$1.90 Oct........
1.90 Nov___
1.90 Dec.......
Average.

$1.90
1.90
1.90
$1.9000

WOODENWARE: Tubs, oak-grained, 3 in nest.
[Price per nest of 3, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

$1.65 Apr---1.65 M ay...
1.65 June...

$1.60 Ju ly...
1.60 Aug....
1.60 Sept...

$1.60 Oct........
1:60 Nov.......
1.60 Dec.......
Average.

$1.60
1.60
1.60
$1.6125

M ISCELLANEOUS.
COTTONSEED MEAL.
[Price per ton of 2,000 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$36.40 Apr___
36.40 M ay...
36.00 June...




$35.40 J u ly ...
34.35 Aug---32.60 Sept...

$32.60 Oct........
33.60 Nov___
32.60 Dec.......
Average.

$31.60
31.35
29.85
$33.5625

410

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I , — WHOLESALE

PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1910—Continued.

M ISCELLANEOUS—Continued.

COTTONSEED OIL: Summer yellow, prime.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Re­
porter.]
Month.
Month.
Month.
Month.
Price.
Price.
Price.
Price.
$0.5719 Ju ly...
$0.5850 Oct........
Jan........
$0.6375
$0.5625 Apr___
Feb.......
.5906 Aug....
.6938 Nov___
.5625
.5213 M ay...
Mar.......
.7875 Dec.......
.5156
.5813 Sept...
.5531 June...
Average.
$0.5969

Jan........
Feb.. ..
Mar.......

JUTE: Raw, M-double triangle, shipment, medium grade.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$0.03J Oct........
$0.03| Ju ly...
$0,031 Apr___
.03* Nov___
•03| A ug....
.03} May. . .
June...
.03* Dec.......
.03i Sept...
Average.

$0.03f
.04
.04|
$0.0344

MALT: Western made.
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the last of each month; quotations from the Brewers’ Journal.]
Jan........ $0.84-$0.91 Apr___ $0.75-$0.78 Ju ly... $0.90-$0.94 Oct........
$0.91-$0.94
Feb.......
.82- .89 May....
.90- .94 Nov___
.77- .82 Aug....
.96- 1.00
Mar........
.90- .94 Dec.......
.81- .86 June...
.80- .84 Sept...
1.01- 1.05
Average.
$0.8867
PAPER: News, wood.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........ $0.0190-$0.0200 Apr___ $0.0185-$0.0200 July.... $0.0195-$0.0210 Oct........ $0.0210-$0.0215
Feb....... .0190- .0200 May.... .0200- .0215 A ug.... .0195- .0210 Nov___ .0215- .0220
Mar....... .0185- .0200 June... .0200- .0245 Sept... .0200- .0215 Dec....... .0215- .0225
Average.
$0.0206
PAPER: Wrapping, manlla, No. 1, jute.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
$0.0475 Oct........
$0.0475
$0.0475 July....
$0.0475 Apr___
.0475 Nov.......
Feb.......
.0475 Aug....
.0475
.0475 May....
Mar........
.0475 Dec.......
.0475
.0475 Sept.. .
.0475 June...
$0.0475
Average.
PROOF SPIRITS.
[Price per gallon, including tax, in Peoria, 111., on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Peoria HeraldTranscript.]
Jan........
$1.30 Oct........
$1.33
$1.35 Apr___
$1.35 July....
1.30
1.33
1.35
1.35
1.30
1.33
1.35
1.33
1.30
1.33
1.30
1.35
Feb.......
1.30 Nov.......
1.33
1.35 M ay....
1.30 Aug....
1.30
1.33
1.30
1.35
1.33
1.30
1.30
1.35
1.33
1.30
1.30
1.35
1.33
1.30
1.30
Mar.......
1.33 Dec........
1.33
1.35 June...
1.30 Sept...
1.33
1.33
1.35
1.30
1.33
1.33
1.35
1.30
1.33
1.35
1.33
1.30
1.35
Average
$1.3248



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

411

T able 1 .— WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JANUARY TO

DECEMBER, 1910—Concluded.
M IS C E L L A N E O U S —Concluded.

ROPE: Manila, base sizes.
[Price per pound, f. o. b. New York or factory, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron AgeHardware.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

$0.08-$0.08* Apr—
10.08 July....
.08 May.... $0.08*- .09 A ug....
.08 June... .09 - .09* Sept...

Price.

Month.

$0.09-10.09* Oct........
.09- .09* N ov./...
.09- .09* Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$0.09 -$0.09*
.09 - .09*
.08|- .09*
$0.0879

RUBBER: Para Island, new.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$1.68-41.71 Apr___
1.79 May....
1.99- 2.00 June...

$2.60 J u ly ...
2.60 Aug....
$2.29- 2.30 Sept...

$2.25 Oct........
2.07 Nov.......
1.80 Dec........
Average.

$1.37
1.19
$1.23- 1.24
$1.9075

SOAP: Castile, mottled, pure.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.11 Apr___
.11 May—
11 June...

$0.11 Ju ly...
.11 Aug....
.11 Sept...

$0.08* Oct........
.08* Nov.......
.08* Dec........
Average.

$0.08*
.08*
.08*
$0.0975

STARCH: Laundry, 40-pound boxes, in bulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, en the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.04 Apr___
.04 May....
.04 June...

$0.04 July....
.04 Aug....
.04 Sept...

$0.04 Oct........
.04 Nov.......
.04 Dec........
Average.

$0.03f
.03*
.03*
$0.0390

TOBACCO: Plug, Climax.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.47 Apr---.47 May....
.47 June...

$0.47 July....
.47 A ug....
.47 Sept...

$0.47 Oct........
.47 Nov__ :
.47 Dec........
Average.

$0.47
.47
.47
$0.4700

TOBACCO: Smoking, granulated, Seal of North Carolina.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......

$0.60 Apr__
.60 May....
.60 June...




$0.58 July....
.58 Aug....
.58 Sept...

$0.58 Oct........
.58 Nov.......
.58 Dec........
Average.

$0.58
.58
.58
$0.5850

412

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899).

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.
Year or month.

Barley: by
sample.

Cattle: steers, Cattle: steers,
choice to extra. good to choice.

Com: cash.

Cotton: upland,
middling.
lli

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per Rela­ price per tive price per
tive
bushel. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. bushel. price. pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4534 100.0 $5.3203 100.0 $4.7347 100.0 $0.3804 100.0 $0.07762 100.0
1890............................. .5062 111.6 4.8697 91.5
87.4
1891............................. .6098 134.5 5.8851 110.6 4.1375 107.7 .3950 103.8 .11089 142.9
1892............................. .5085 112.2 5.0909 95.7 5.0976 95.0 .5744 151.0 .08606 110.8
4.4995
99.0
1893............................. .4685 103.3 5.5211 103.8 4.8394 102.2 .4500 118.3 .07686 107.2
104.2
1894............................. .5134 113.2 5.1591 97.0 4.5245 95.6 .3964 113.7 .08319 90.2
.4326
.07002
1895............................. .4300 94.8 5.4849 103.1 4.9344 104.2 .3955 104.0 .07298 94.0
1896............................. .2977 65.7 4.5957
4.2712 90.2
67.8 .07918
1897............................. .3226 71.2 5.2255 86.4 4.7736 100.8 .2580 66.9 .07153 102.0
98.2
1898............................. .4348 95.9 5.3779 101.1 4.8846 103.2 .2546 82.6 .05972 92.2
.3144
76.9
1899............................. .4425 97.6 5.9928 112.6 5.3851 113.7 .3333 87.6 .06578 84.7
1900............................. .4815 106.2 5.7827 108.7 5.3938 113.9 .3811 100.2 .09609 123.8
1901............................. .5884 129.8 6.1217 115.1 5.5901 118.1 .4969 130.6 .08627 111.1
1902............................. .6321 139.4 7.4721 140.4 6.5572 138.5 .5968 156.9 .08932 115.1
1903............................. .5494 121.2 5.5678 104.7 5.0615 106.9 .4606 121.1 .11235 144.7
1904............................. .5300 116.9 5.9562 112.0 5.1923 109.7 .5046 132.6 .12100
1905............................. .4850 107.0 5.9678 112.2 5.2192 110.2 .5010 131.7 .09553 155.9
1906............................. .5116 112.8 6.1298 115.2 5.3572 113.1 .4632 121.8 .11025 123.1
142.0
1907............................. .7663
6.5442 123.0 5.8120 122.8 .5280
1908............................. .7336 169.0 6.8163 128.1 5.9976 126.7 .6843 138.8 .11879 153.0
161.8
179.9 .10463 134.8
1909............................. .6740 148.7 7.3394 138.0 6.4529 136.3 .6677 175.5 .12107 156.0
1910............................. .7197 151.7 7.7712 146.1 7.0173 148.2 .5810 152.7 .15118 194.8
1910.
January..................... .7269 160.3 7.5050 141.1 6.3050 133.2 .6500 170.9 .14850 191.3
February................... .7125 157.1 7.5250 141.4
169.2
189.4
137.8
March........................' .6931 152.9 8.1900 153.9 6.5250 156.7 .6438 164.2 .14700 193.8
.6245
.15040
April.......................... .6520 143.8 8.2375 154.8 7.4200 161.2 .5822 153.0 .15063 194.1
7.6313
May............................ .6488 143.1 8.2200 154.5 7.6050 160.6 .6025 158.4 .15520 199.9
June........................... .6549 144.4 8.3563 157.1 7.7750 164.2 .5882 154.6 .15438 198.9
July............................ .7140 157.5 8.0813 151.9 7.3313 154.8 .6197 162.9 .15588 200.8
August....................... .7013 154.7 7.9150 148.8 7.2550 153.2 .6275 165.0 .16660 214.6
September................. .7155 157.8 7.7875 146.4 6.9750 147.3 .5529 145.3 .13863 178.6
October...................... .7475 164.9 7.5100 141.2
142.2 .4951 130.2 .14475 186.5
November................. .7969 175.8 7.0375 132.3 6.7350 133.6 .4995 131.3 .14800 190.7
December.................. .8570 189.0 6.7063 126.1 6.3250 129.8 .4785 125.8 .15038 193.7
6.1438




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

413

II. — AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.
Year or month.

Hides: green,
timothy, salted, packers’, Hogs: heavy;
Flaxseed N o.l. Hay:No. 1.
heavy native
steers.

Hogs: light.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average i
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per j Rela­
tive
bushel. price. ton. price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June .........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

81.1132
1.3967
1.0805
1.017b
1.0875
1.3533
1.2449
.8119
.8696
1.1115
1.1578
1.6223
1.6227
1.5027
1.0471
1.1088
1.1979
1.1027
1.1808
1.2019
1.5652
2.2671

100.0
125.5
97.1
91.4
97.7
121.6
111.8
72.9
78.1
99.8
104.0
145.7
145.8
135.0
94.1
99.6
107.6
99.1
106.1
108.0
140.6
203.7

$10.4304
9.9952
12.2861
11.8375
11.2067
10.4183
11.3844
10.3269
8.4423
8.3317
10.0745
11.5673
12.8255
12.6154
12.4279
11.7308
11.2596
12.9615
16.9387
12.3365
13.4567
17.2692

1.9900
2.0900
2.1450
2.2600
2.3650
2.0800
2.0250
2.3600
2.4700
2.3550
2.5650
2.5000

178.8
187.7
192.7
203.0
212.5
186.8
181.9
212.0
221.9
211.6
230.4
224.6

17.5000
17.5625
17.0500
16.3750
14.6500
15.3125
19.5000
19.4500
17.1250
17.4375
17.6500
17.6875




100.0 $0.0937 100.0 $4.4123 100.0 $4.4206
95.8 .0933 99.6 3.9534 89.6 3.9260
117.8 .0951 101.5 4.4229 100.2 4.3404
113.5 .0870 92.8 5.1550 116.8 5.0675
107.4 .0749 79.9 6.5486 148.4 6.5752
99.9 .0641 68.4 4.9719 112.7 4.9327
109.1 .1028 109.7 4.2781 97.0 4.2533
99.0 .0811 86.6 3.3579 76.1 3.5591
80.9 .0996 106.3 3.5906 81.4 3.7223
79.9 .1151 122.8 3.8053 86.2 3.7587
96.6 .1235 131.8 4.0394 91.5 4.0709
110.9 .1194 127.4 5.0815 115.2 5.1135
123.0 .1237 132.0 5.9580 135.0 5.9177
120.9 .1338 142.8 6.9704 158.0 6.7353
119.2 .1169 124.8 6.0572 137.3 6.0541
112.5 .1166 124.4 5.1550 116.8 5.1481
107.9 .1430 152.6 5.2913 119.9 5.3213
124.3 .1543 164.7 6.2351 141.3 6.3274
162.4 .1455 155.3 6.0795 137.8 6.2163
118.3 .1336 142.6 5.7986 131.4 5.6346
129.0 .1647 175.8 7.5721 171.6 7.3611
165.6 .1546 165.0 8.9428 202.7 9.0091
167.8
168.4
163.5
157.0
140.5
146.8
187.0
186.5
164.2
167.2
169.2
169.6

.1775
.1650
.1425
.1488
.1575
.1575
.1438
.1500
.1550
.1600
.1525
.1450

189.4
176.1
152.1
158.8
168.1
168.1
153.5
160.1
165.4
170.8
162.8
154.7

8.5950
9.2333
10.6150
9.9000
9.5200
9.4000
8.7063
8.3600
9.1125
8.4250
7.5688
7.7500

194.8
209.3
240.6
224.4
215.8
213.0
197.3
189.5
206.5
190.9
171.5
175.6

8.3750
9.0250
10.4050
9.8125
9.4450
9.4188
8.9938
8.8400
9.6438
8.8600
7.4313
7.6438

100.0
88.8
98.2
114.6
148.7
111.6
96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6
127.5
166.5
203.8
189.5
204.2
235.4
222.0
213.7
213.1
203.5
200.0
218.2
200.4
168.1
172.9

414

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY^ TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

Table

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.
Year or month.

Hops: New
York State,
choice.

Horses: draft, Mules: 16 hands, Oats: cash.
good to choice. medium to
good.

Poultry: live,
fowls.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive priceper tive priceper tive
tive priceper tive
♦ pound. price.
price.
price. *busheL price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.1771 100.0
1890............................. .2621 148.0
1891............................. .2640 149.1 1892............................. .2505 141.4
1893............................. .2271 128.2
1894............................. .1515 85.5
1895............................. .0940 53.1
1896............................. .0877 49.5
1897............................. .1160 65.5
1898............................. .1621 91.5
1899............................. .1563 88.3
1900............................. .1483 83.7
1901............................. .1719 97.1
1902............................. .2375 134.1
1903............................. .2825 159.5
1904............................. .3475 196.2
1905............................. .2673 150.9
1906............................. .1629 92.0
1907............................. . .1738 98.1
1908..................'......... .1188 67.1 $196.18
1909............................. .2008 113.4 203.17
1910............................. .2588 146.1 221.91
1910.
January..................... .3400 192.0 219.38
February................... , .3400 192.0 221.88
March......................... .3300 186.3 230.50
April.......................... .2900 163.7 225.00
May............................ .2450 13a 3 225.00
June........................... .2350 132.7 219.00
July............................ .2250 127.0 217.50
August....................... .2250 127.0 217.50
September................. .2150 121.4 222.50
October...................... .2200 124.2 219.38
November................. .2250 127.0 222.50
December.................. .2150 121.4 222.50

0)
0)
0)

$189.13
209.76
212.50

m

212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50

(11
v)
m
(li
(l)
l1)
h

(li
(i)
0)

A)

(i)
0)
m

?i»
(li
(li
(li
(li
(li
(li
(i)
A)
(l)
p)

$0.2688
.3106
.3873
.3042
.2827
.3110
.2373
.1801
.1825
.2470
.2452
.2271
.3179
.3960
.3541
.3649
.2990
.3282.
.4501
.5095
.4810
.3856
.4668
.4742
.4495
.4254
.4075
.3775
.4103
.3563
.3328
.3106
.3145
.3147

100.0
115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115u 7
8a 3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
ua3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4
189.5 $0.1327
17a 9 .1597
14a 5 .1691

(ii
(ii
0)

.1650
.1863
.1819
.2005
.1800
.1863
.1765
.1588
.1638
.1600
.1350
.1370

m
(i)
(it
(i)
I1)
(1)
v)
(l)
0)
(l)
(1)
«

173.7
17a 4
167.2
15 a 3
151.6
140.4
152.6
132.6
123.8
115.6
117.0
117.1

i No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 347.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

415

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.
Year or month.

Rye: No. 2,
cash.

Sheep: wethers, Sheep: wethers, Tobacco: Bur­ Wheat: cash.
good to fancy. plain to choice. ley, dark red,
good leaf.

Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
^busheL price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. nushel. price.
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March........................
Aj>ril..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$0.5288
.5447
.8334
.6754
.4899
.4660
.4825
.3517
.3962
.4958
.5521
.5177
.5328
.5418
.5156
.7056
.7113
.6107
.7688
.7825
.7826
.7774

100.0
103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4
148.0
148.0
147.0

i $3.7580

1 4.5284
i 4.5106
l 4.7798
13.8781
i 2.6957
i 2.9495
i 2.9322
i 3.4971
13.9250
1 3.8837
i 4.1236
i 3.3519
i 3.7817
13.7101
i 4.1457
i 5.0529
1 4.9481
i 4.8962
4.9505
5.4303
5.5438

1100.0
1120.5
1120.0
U27.2
U03.2
171.7
178.5
178.0
193.1
U04.4
1103.3
1109.7
189.2
1100.6
198.7
1110.3
1134.5
1131.7
1130.3
*112.3
*123.2
*125.8

2$3.9541
2 4.6644
2 4.5719
2 4.8695
*4.1255
2 2.9808
2 3.0943
2 3.1411
*3.7692
*4.1625
2 4.1615
*4.5207
2 3. 7442
* 4.1784
2 3.8769
*4.2608
2 5.0798
* 5.2793
*4.8835
4.8115
5.2707
5.3947

.8022
.8119
.7915
.7850
.7750
.7563
.7638
.7580
.7350
.7619
.7810
.8088

151.7
153.5
149.7
148.4
146.6
143.0
144.4
143.3
139.0
144.1
147.7
153.0

6.0100
7.1667
8.3750
8.0563
6.3850
5.2688
4.2759
4.3600
4.5938
4.3100
3.8063
3.8938

*136.4
*162.6
*190.0
*182.8
*144.9
*119.5
*97.0
*98.9
*104.2
*97.8
*86.4
*88.3

5.8350
7.0250
8,2750
7.9875
6.2150
5.2313
4.1625
4.2300
4.3313
3.9950
3.6813
3.7813

*100.0
*118.0
2115.6
*123.2
a104.3
*75.4
278.3
*79.4
*95.3
*105.3
*105.2
*114.3
*94.7
*105.7
298.0
2107.8
*128.5
*133.5
*123.5
4109.6 $15.0625
4120.1 17.5980
4122.9 15.5368
4133.0
4160.1
4188.6
4182.0
4141.6
4119.2
494.8
496.4
498.7
4 91.0
4 83.9
4 86.2

15.9375
15.5000
15.5000
15.5000
15.5750
15.8750
16.5000
16.5000
16.5000
15.7500
14.1250
12.8750

(*)
(*)
(5)

$0.7510
.8933
.9618
.7876
.6770
.5587
.6000
.6413
.7949
.8849
.7109
.7040
.7187
.7414
.7895
1.0390
1.0104
.7931
.9073
.9899
1.1997
1.0973

100.0
118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8
131.8
159.7
146.1

(5)
(*)
V
5/
m
v)
(6)
(5)
(*)
(5)
(5)
h
(5)

1.1908
1.1975
1.1849
1.1313
1.1023
1.0393
1.1414
1.1131
1.0653
1.0283
.9849
.9889

158.6
159.5
157.8
150.6
146.8
138.4
152.0
14a 2
141.9
136.9
131.1
131.7

i Sheep: native.
* Sheep: western.
8 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $5.7461.
4 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $5.4206.
6 No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 347.




BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

416

Table II — AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table!.]1
2
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Beans; medium, Bread: crack­ Bread: crack­
choice.
ers, oyster.
ers, soda.

Bread: loaf
(Washington
market).

Bread: loaf
homemade
(New York
market).

Average Rela* Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per Rela­
tive
bushel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound.1 price. pound.* price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892..........................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$1.6699
2.0292
2.2531
1.8698
1.9906
1.8469
1.7896
1.1740
1.0448
1.2479
1.4531
2.0969
2.1927
1.9198
2.2625
2.0104
2.1500
1.9000
1.7771
2.3198
2.4500
2.3990

100.0 2$0.0673 2100.0 $0.0718 100.0 $0.0354 100.0 $0.0317 100.0
121.5 2.0700 2104.0 .0800 111.4 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
134.9 2.0700 2104.0 .0800 111.4 .0356 100.6
112.0 2 0688 2102.2 .0763 106.3 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
.0320 100.9
119.2 2.0650 2 96.6 .0750 104.5 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
110.6 2.0650 2 96.6 .0725 101.0 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
107.2 2.0654 2 97.2 .0675 94.0 .0333 94.1 .0320 100.9
70.3 2.0650 *96.6 .0658 91.6 .0363 102.5 .0287 90.5
62.6 2.0592 2 88.0 .0592 82.5 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
74.7 2.0733 2108.9 .0758 105.6 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
* 87.0 2.0713 2105.9 .0663 92.3 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
125.6 2.0750 2111.4 .0675 94.0 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
131.3 2.0800 2118.9 .0700 97.5 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
115.0 2.0800 2118.9 .0700 97.5 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
135.5 2.0758 2112.6 .0646 90.0 .0356 100.6 .0320 100.9
120.4 2.0775 2115.2 .0658 91.6 .0363 102.5 .0350 110.4
128.8 2.0892 2132.5 .0683 95.1 .0356 100.6 .0376 118.6
113.8
100.6 .0376
106.4 2.0900 2133.7 .0650 90.5 .0356 100.6 .0376 118.6
2.0900 2133.7 .0650 90.5 .0356
118.6
138.9 .0650 *133.7 .0650 90.5 .0356 100.6 .0400 126.2
146.7 .0654 *134.5 .0654 91.1 .0377 106.5 .0400 126.2
143.7 .0700 *144.0 .0700 97.5 .0388 109.6 .0400 126.2

2.2750
2.3750
2.3375
2.3000
2.2375
2.3625
2.4250
2.4375
2.7125
2.7000
2.3750
2.2500

136.2
142.2
140.0
137.7
134.0
141.5
145.2
146.0
162.4
161.7
142.2
134.7

.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700

*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0
*144.0

.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700

97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5

.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388

109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6

.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400

1 Before baking.
2 Bread: crackers, butter.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349, average price for 1907, $0.0650.




126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

417

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OFCOMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

(For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles^
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Bread: loaf, Butter: cream­ Butter: cream­ Butter: dairy, Canned goods:
Vienna (New ery, Elgin (El­ ery, extra (New New York corn, Republic
No. 2.
State.
York market). gin market). York market).
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive dozen
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per price. price per tive
pound.1 price. pound. price. pound. price. pound.
cans. price.

1890.............................

1891
1892
1898
1894. .....................
1895 .
...............
1896...............................................
1897
1898
1899.............................
1900
1901

1902.............................
1903 .
....
1904
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

|0 .0352
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0319
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0370
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0413
.0417
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413

> Before baking.

loo. 0 0 2170 100.0 $0.2242 100.0 $0.2024 100.0
101.1 .2238 103.1 .2276 101.5 .1954 96.5
101.1 .2501 115.3 .2586 115.3 .2380 117.6
101.1 .2528 116.5 .2612 116.5 .2350 116.1
101.1 .2581 118.9 .2701 120.5 . .2521 124.6
101.1 .2194 101.1 .2288 102.1 .2091 103.3
101.1 .2064 95.1 .2137 95.3 .1882 93.0
90.6 .1793 82.6 .1841 82.1 .1665 82.3
101.1 .1837 84.7 .1895 84.5 .1684 83.2
101.1 .1886 86.9 .1954 87.2 .1749 86.4
101.1 .2075 95.6 .2126 94.8 .1965 97.1
101.1 .2178 100.4 .2245 100.1 .2115 104.5
101.1 .2114 97.4 .2163 96.5 .2007 99.2
101.1 .2413 111.2 .2480 110.6 .2318 114.5
101.1 .2302 106.1 .2348 104.7 .2150 106.2
105.1 .2178 100.4 .2189 97.6 .1970 97.3
113.6 .2429 111.9 .2489 111.0 .2339 115.6
113.6 .2459 113.3 .2489 111.0 .2325 114.9
113.6 .2761 127.2 .2830 126.2 .2671 132.0
117.3 .2692 124.1 .2711 120.9 .2449 121.0 $0.9000
118.5 .2893 133.3 .2920 130.2 .2653 133.1 .9083
117.3 .2977 137.2 .3007 134.1 .2906 143.6 .9833
$ .

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

155.8
135.9
145.2
141.7
128.1
125.0
127.3
134.6
137.1
135.5
141.7
137.1

.3350
.2938
.3240
.3088
.2850
.2794
.2832
.2933
.2969
.2975
.3105
.2981

149.4
131.0
144.5
137.7
127.1
124.6
126.3
130.8
132.4
132.7
138.5
133.0

.3238
.2813
.3115
.3025
.2810
.2738
.2756
.2785
.2819
.2863
.2990
.2906

160.0
139.0
153.9
149.5
138.8
i35.3
136.2
137.6
139.3
141.5
147.7
143.6

.9500

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
#1.0000
.9500
.9500
.9500

5 No relative price com puted. For explanation, see page 347.

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----8




.3380
.2950
.3150
.3075
.2780
.2713
.2763
.2920
.2975
.2940
.3075
.2975

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2>
(2)
(2)
(2>
(2)

418

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

II— AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.)
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Canned goods: Canned goods: Cheese: New
tomatoes.
peas, Repub­ Standard New York State,
lic No. 2.
Jersey, No. 3. full cream.

Coffee: Rio
No. 7.

Eggs: new-laid,
fair to fancy,
near-by.

Average
Average*
Average
Average
Average
price per Rela­ price per Rela­ price per Rela­ price per Rela­ price per Rela­
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
dozen price. dozen price. pound. price. pound. price. dozen. price.
cans.
cans.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$1.3833
1 4000
1.3833
1.3000
1.3000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000

G) $1.0791 0)
.9625
h
.9208 G>
0)

$0.0987
.0958
.1011
.1058
.1076
.1060
.0929
.0908
.0968
.0822
.1075
.1128
.1011
.1126
.1217
.1019
.1212
.1313
.1414
.1364
.1485
.1572

100.0 $0.1313 100.0 $0.1963
97.1 .1793 136.6 .1945
102.4 .1671 127.3 -.2160
107.2 .1430 108.9 .2167
109.0 .1723 131.2 .2247
107.4 .1654 126.0 .1835
94.1 .1592 121.2 .2002
92.0 .1233 93.9 .1741
98.1 .0793 60.4 .1718
83.3 .0633 48.2 .1817
108.9 .0604 46.0 .1994
114.3 .0822 62.6 .1977
102.4 .0646 49.2 .2095
114.1 .0586 44.6 .2409
123.3 .0559 42.6 .2418
103.2 .0782 59.6 .2650
122.8 .0832 63.4 .2712
133.0 .0811 61.8 .2615
143.3 .0658 50.1 .2771
138.2 .0628 47.8 .2788
150.5 .0783 59.6 .3146
159.3 .0952 72.5 .3258

m
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)
0)
G)
0)
(l)
(l)
0)
0)

.1719
.1725
.1725
.1722
.1483
.1425
.1481
*.1495
.1506
.1513
.1530
.1550

174.2
174.8
174.8
174.5
150.3
144.4
150.1
151.5
152.6
153.3
155.0
157.0

.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9500
.9500
.9500
1.0000

0)
0)
0)
(i)

v)
(1)

G)
G)
(1>
G)
G)

.0869
.0869
.0881
.0881
.0844
.0819
.0844
.0869
.1019
.1106
.1106
.1319

66.2
66.2
67.1
67.1
64.3
62.4
64.3
66.2
77.6
84.2
84.2
100.5

1 N o relative price com puted. For explanation, see page 347.




100.0
99.1
110.0
110.4
114.5
93.5
102.0
88.7
87.5
92.6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2
135.0
138.2
133.2
141.2
142.0
160.3
166.0

.4388 223.5
.3338 170.0
.2570 130.9
.2406 122.6
.2405 122.5
.2450 124.8
.2688 136.9
.2870 146.2
.3288 167.5
.3713 189.1
.4560 232.3
.4575 233.1

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

419

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see p. 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Fish: cod, dry, Fish: herring, Fish: mackerel, Fish: salmon,
salt, large,
canned.
bank, large. Nova Scotia
split.
No. 3s.

Flour: buck­
wheat.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
quintal. price. barrel. price. barrel. price. 12 cans. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.......................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May. - .......................
June...........................
July............................
August.....................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$5.5849
5.6771
6.7292
7.0521
6.3802
5.9583
5.5208
4.2083
4.5208
4.6667
5.1354
5.3021
5.9896
5.0938
5.8646
7.2813
7.3958
7.6042
7.7396
7.3021
7.0208
6.9375

100.0
101.7
120.5
126.3
114.2
106.7
98.9
75.4
80.9
83.6
92.0
94.9
107.2
91.2
105.0
130.4
132.4
136.2
138.6
130.7
125.7
124.2

i $3.7763
13.5250
14.7068
12.9375
13.8125
13.3958
13.1563
13.3542
13.6354
14.2083
15.0313
15.0833
14.9792
14.9063
15.7292
15.4531
16.0000
16.3438
16.1500
7.0833
7.0682
7.3125

7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
6.3750
6.3750
6.3750
6.3750
6.6250
6.6250
7.5000
7.5000
8.5000

125.3
125.3
125.3
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
118.6
118.6
134.3
134.3
152.2

7.5000
7.5000
?. 5000
7.5000
7.5000
7.5000
7.5000
6.7500
6.7500
7.2500
‘ 7.2500
7.2500

1100.0 $14.1306
193.3 18.2500
U24.6 15.3125
177J5 13.0000
1101.0 13.0000
189.9 11.0556
183.6 15.6250
188.8 13.9167
196.3 12.2292
1111.4 13.6667
U33.2 15.2500
1134.6 13.8958
U31.9 10.8182
U29.9 13.7500
U51.7 17.4479
U44.4 14.5000
1158.9 13.9167
1168.0 14.7917
U62.9 13.9167
*160.1 11.3542
*159.8 10.1875
*165.3 14.5833

100.0
129.2
108.4
92.0
92.0
78.2
110.6
98.5
86.5
96.7
107.9
98.3
76.6
97.3
123.5
102.6
98.5
104.7
98.5
80.4
72.1
103.2

$1.4731
1.6417
1.5000
1.4833
1.4938
1.4250
1.5042
1.5500
1.3375
1.2667
1.5292
1.7708
1.7125
1.6146
1.6208
1.7250
1.7042
1.6833
1.6679
1.9208
1.7000
1.7438

100.0
111.4
101.8
100.7
101.4
96.7
102.1
105.2
90.8
86.0
103.8
120.2
116.3
109.6
110.0
117.1
115.7
114.3
113.2
130.4
115.4
118.4

$1.9428
2.0214
2.4429
1.7891
2.3679
2.4357
1.6750
1.3806
1.4656
1.5500
2.3000
2.1036
2.1063
2.2357
2.3214
2.3333
2.1893
2.2333
2.5714
3.0333
2.3583
2.1417

100.0
104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4
86.2
71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5
120.1
112.7
115.0
132.4
156.1
121.4
110.2

*169.6
*169.6
*169.6
*169.6
*169.6
2169.6
*169.6
*152.6
*152.6
*163.9
*163.9
*163.9

81.4
84.9
88.5
92.0
92.0
99.1
102.6
106.2
113.2
123.8
127.4
127.4

1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
132.4
132.4
132.4

2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
(3)

102.9
102.9
102.9

2.3500
2.2500
2.2500

121.0
115.8
115.8

11.5000
12.0000
12.5000
13.0000
13.0000
14.0000
14.5000
15.0000
16.0000
17.5000
18.0000
18.0000

(3)
(3)
( 3)
(3)

1 Fish: herring, shore, round.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $7.2083.
* No quotation for month.




420

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

II.—
AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see p. 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.J
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Flour: rye.

Flour: wheat,
spring patents.

Flour: wheat,
winter straights.

Fruit: apples,
evaporated, choice.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
Average
price per tive price per tive price per Rela­ price per
tive
barrel. price. barrel. price. barrel. price. pound.
Average,-1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

Rela­
tive
price.

$3.3171
3.3646
4.9208
4.0167
3.0854
2.7813
3.1333
2.6833
2.8063
3.0813
3.2979
3.4250
3.3208
3.4417
3.1479
4.3479
4.4667
3.8438
4.6021
4.7375
4.4854
4.2292

100.0
101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.8
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7
142.8
135.2
127.5

$4.2972
5.1856
5.3053
4.3466
4.0063
3.5947
3.6434
3.7957
4.5913
4.7293
3.7740
3.8423
3.8104
3.8082
4.3303
5.3784
5.4221
4.2760
4.8755
5.4183
5.7567
5.4952

100.0
120.7
123.5
101.1
93.2
83.7
84.8
88.3
106.8
110.1
87.8
89.4
88.7
88.6
100.8
125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5
126.1
134.0
127.9

$3.8450
4.6524
4.9048
4.1216
3.2832
2.7495
3.2311
3.6197
4.3606
4.1452
3.3822
3.3490
3.3085
3.4885
3.5923
4.8264
4.5428
3.6149
3.9877
4.2909
5.4510
4.6913

100.0
121.0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8
88.0
87.1
86.0
90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
103.7
111.6
141.8
122.0

$0.0847
.1136
.1100
.0688
.0927
.1092
.0678
.0533
.0555
.0890
.0869
.0615
.0709
.0921
.0611
.0603
.0699
.0978
.0843
.0863
.0769
.0836

100.0
134.1
129.9
81.2
109.4
128.9
80.0
62.9
65.5
105.1
102.6
72.6
83.7
108.7
72.1
71.2
82.5
115.5
99.5
101.9
90.8
98.7

4.3750
4.3750
4.4250
4.3000
4.2500
4.1750
4.1750
4.3000
4.0250
4.0500
4.1750
4.1250

131.9
131.9
133.4
129.6
128.1
125.9
125.9
129.6
121.3
122.1
125.9
124.4

5.6750
5.6438
5.5950
5.3938
5.4400
5.2625
5.8500
5.7950
5.5375
5.3688
5.1350
5.2500

132.1
131.3
130.2
125.5
126.6
122.5
136.1
134.9
128.9
124.9
119.5
122.2

5.3875
5.3938
5.3500
5.0625
4.7100
4.3813
4.5688
4.4900
4.3813
4.2625
4.1650
4.1563

140.1
140.3
139.1
131.7
122.5
113.9
118.8
116.8
113.9
110.9
108.3
108.1

.0800
.0813
.0813
.0763
.0775
.0775
.0800
.0838
.0850
.0875
.0888
.1038

94.5
96.0
96.0
90.1
91.5
91.5
94.5
98.9
100.4
103.3
104.8
122.6




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

421

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see p. 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Fruit: cur­
rants, in
barrels.

Fruit: prunes, Fruit: raisins,
California, in California, Lon­
don layer.
boxes.

Glucose.

Lard: prime,
contract.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. box. price. 100 lbs. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... 10.0375 100.0 $0.0774 100.0 $1.5006 100.0 i $1.4182 100.0 $0.0654 100.0
1890............................. .0478 127.5 .1068 138.0 2.3604 157.3
.0633 96.8
.0660 100.9
1891............................. .0426 113.6 .1000 129.2 1.8021 120.1
1892............................. .0297 79.2 .0995 128.6 1.4688 97.9
.0771 117.9
1893............................. .0270 72.0 .1039 134.2 1.7000 113.3 1.7625 124.3 .1030 157.5
1894............................. .0173 46.1 .0735 95.0 1.1542 76.9 1.5802 111.4 .0773 118.2
1895............................. .0254 67.7 .0666 86.0 1.4292 95.2 1.5492 109.2 .0653 99.8
1896............................. .0327 87.2 .0581 75.1 1.0188 67.9 1.1585 81.7 .0469 71.7
1897............................. .0479 127.7 .0546 70.5 1.3979 93.2 1.2190 86.0 .0441 67.4
1898............................. .0580 154.7 .0544 70.3 1.3917 92.7 1.3021 91.8 .0552 84.4
1899............................. .0470 125.3 .0565 73.0 1.2833 85.5 1.3558 95.6 .0556 85.0
1900............................. .0720 192.0 .0522 67.4 1.5208 101.3 1.4875 104.9 .0690 105.5
1901............................. .0831 221.6 .0525 67.8 1.4417 96.1 1.6458 116.0 .0885 135.3
1902............................. .0494 131.7 .0551 71.2 1.6854 112.3 2.1788 153.6 .1059 161.9
1903............................. .0476 126.9 .0481 62.1 1.4458 96.3 1.8396 129.7 .0877 134.1
1904............................. .0488 . 130.1 .0461 59.6 1.4729 98.2 1.7917 126.3 .0731 111.8
1905............................. .0490 130.7 .0459 59.3 1.1875 79.1 1.7742 125.1 .0745 113.9
1906............................. .0614 163.7 .0646 83.5 1.6000 106.6 2.0267 142.9 .0887 135.6
1907............................. .0703 187.5 .0593 76.6 1.6271 108.4 2.2608 159.4 .0920 140.7
1908............................. .0609 162.4 .0598 77.3 1.8100 120.6 2.6400 186.2 .0908 138.8
1909............................. .0603 160.8 .0531 68.6 1.2698 84.6 2.4733 174.4 .1169 178.7
1910............................. .0651 173.6 .0625 80.7 1.2240 81.3 1.9417 136.9 .1253 191.6
1910.
January...................... .0594 158.4 .0538 69.5 1.2375 82.5 2.1200 149.5 .1271 194.3
February................... .0600 160.0 .0538 69.5 1.2000 80.0 2.1700 153.0 .1283 196.2
March......................... .0600 160.0 .0525 67.8 1.2000 80.0 2.1700 153.0 .1434 219.3
April........................... .0594 158.4 .0525 67.8 1.2000 80.0 2.0700 146.0 .1330 203.4
May............................ .0600 160.0 .0525 67.8 1.1750 78.3 1.9700 138.9 .1313 200.8
June........................... .0613 163.5 .0550 71.1 1.2250 81.6 1.9300 136.1 .1256 192.0
July............................ .0613 163.5 .0575 74.3 1.2250 81.6 1.8300 129.0 .1201 183.6
August....................... .0644 171.7 .0588 76.0 1.2250 81.6 1.9800 139.6 .1199 183.3
September................. .0719 191.7 .0700 90.4 1.2250 81.6 1.9800 139.6 .1273 194.6
October...................... .0744 198.4 .0763 98.6 1.2750 85.0 1.7300 122.0 .1272 194.5
November................. .0744 198.4 .0813 105.0 1.2250 81.6 1.6800 118.5 .1121 171.4
December.................. .0744 198.4 .0863 111.5 1.2750 85.0 1.6700 117.8 .1070 163.6




i Average price for 1893-1899.

422

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e H . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.)
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Meal: corn,
fine white.

MeaJ: com,
fine yellow.

Meat: beef,
Meat: bacon, Meat: bacon, fresh, carcass,
short clear short rib sides. good native
sides.
steers (Chi­
cago market).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
100 lbs. price. ^Wllas* price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$1.0486
1.0613
1.4746
1.1921
1.1013
1.1188
1.0721
.8129
.8158
.8821
.9554
1.0115
1.1979
1.5354
1.2967
1.3396
1.3250
1.2667
1.3575
1.6146
1.6250
1.5417

100.0
101.2
140.6
113.7
105.0
106.7
102.2
77.5
77.8
84.1
91.1
96.5
114.2
146.4
123.7
127.8
126.4
120.8
129.5
154.0
155.0
147.0

$1.0169
1.0200
1.4579
1.1608
1.0833
1.0629
1.0613
.7854
.7633
.8463
.9273
.9908
1.1875
1.5250
1.2783
1.3333
1.3250
1.2625
1.3575
1.6146
1.6104
1.4792

100.0 $0.0675 100.0 $0.0656 100.0
100.3 .0603 89.3 .0586 89.3
143.4 .0699 103.6 .0681 103.8
114.2 .0787 116.6 .0764 116.5
106.5 .1048 155.3 .1010 154.0
104.5 .0751 111.3 .0736 112.2
104.4 .0650 96.3 .0632 96.3
77.2 .0494 73.2 .0479 73.0
75.1 .0541 80.1 .0522 79.6
83.2 .0596 88.3 .0594 90.5
91.2 .0583 86.4 .0558 85.1
97.4 .0752 111.4 .0732 111.6
116.8 .0891 132.0 .0869 132.5
150.0 .1073 159.0 .1046 159.5
125.7 .0959 142.1 .0938 143.0
131.1 .0775 114.8 .0757 115.4
130.3 .0800 118.5 .0783 119.4
124.2 .0942 139.6 .0920 140.2
133.5 .0954 141.3 .0919 140.1
158.8 .0901 133.5 .0870 132.6 $0.1053
158.4 .1173 173.8 .1134 172.9 .1095
145.5 .1332 197.3 .1291 196.8 .1154

1.6750
1.7250
1.7250
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.1750
1.1750

159.7
164.5
164.5
150.2
150.2
150.2
150.2
150.2
150.2
150.2
112.1
112.1

1.6750
1.7250
1.7250
1.4750
1.4750
1.4750
1.4750
1.4750
1.4750
1.4250
1.1750
1.1750

164.7
169.6
169.6
145.0
145.0
145.0
145.0
145.0
145.0
140.1
115.5
115.5

.1341
.1353
.1490
.1477
.1426
.1447
.1385
.1314
.1303
.1207
.1133
.1099

198.7
200.4
220.7
218.8
211.3
214.4
205.2
194.7
193.0
178.8
167.9
162.8

.1286
.1306
.1435
.1425
.1383
.1407
.1353
.1285
.1282
.1177
.1093
.1056

196.0
199.1
218.8
217.2
210.8
214.5
206.3
195.9
195.4
179.4
166.6
161.0

* N o relative price com puted. For explanation, see page 347.




.1125
.1075
.1106
.1225
.1200
.1163
.1170
.1156
.1175
.1175
.1150
.1115

0)
0)
(0
m
(v
(i)
(»)
(J)
(l)
n\
(li

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

423

Table II.—AVEBAGE YEABLY ACTUAL AND BELATIVE PBICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND BELATIVE PBICES,
JANUAP.Y TO DECEMBEB, 1910, AND BASE PBICES (AVEBAGE FOB
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Meat: beef,
fresh, native Meat: beef, salt, Meat: beef, salt, Meat: hams,
smoked.
extra mess. hams, western.
sides (New
York market).

Meat: mutton,
dressed.

Rela­
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average tive Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive
tive
price per tive price per tive price per price. price per price. price per price.
pound.
pound.
pound. price. barrel. price. barrel.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.0771 100.0 $8.0166 100.0 $18.6912 100.0 $0.0984 100.0 TO.0754 100.0
1890............................. .0688 89.2 6.9596 86.8 14.5409 80.4 .0995 101.1 .0933 123.7
99.8
1891............................. .0819 106.2 8.3654 104.4 15.5144 85.8 .0982 109.3 .0866 114.9
80.5
84.8
1892............................. .0762 98.8 6.7966 102.2 14.5577 98.6 .1076 126.9 .0914 121.2
.0803 106.5
.1249
8.1938
17.8317
1893............................. .0813 105.4 8.0933
.0605 80.2
.1019
1894............................. .0748 97.0 8.1274 101.0 18.3558 101.5 .0947 103.6 .0620 82.2
96.2
101.4 17.3443 95.9
1895............................. .0792 102.7
82.9
15.9327 88.1 .0943
1896............................. .0698 90.5 7.5096 93.7 22.6250 125.1 .0894 95.8 .0625 96.6
90.9 .0728
1897............................. .0769 99.7 7.6755 95.7
.0807 82.0
1898............................. .0781 101.3 9.1563 114.2 21.4880 118.8 .0923 93.8 .0739 98.0
22.7212
.0711
9.2885
1899............................. .0835 108.3 9.7538 115.9 20.6587 125.6 .1025 104.2 .0727 94.3
96.4
114.2
104.3
1900............................. .0804 102.1 9.3204 121.7 20.3774 112.6 .1075 109.2 .0675 89.5
116.3
1901............................. .0787
118.0
1902............................. .0971 125.9 11.7885 147.1 21.3413 117.2 .1211 123.1 .0738 97.9
.0744 98.7
1903............................. .0784 101.7 9.0673 113.1 21.2115 123.5 .1271 129.2 .0778 103.2
1904............................. .0818 106.1 8.7689 109.4 22.3341 121.6 .1072 108.9 .0859 113.9
.1046 106.3
21.9952
1905............................. .0802 104.0 10.0240 125.0
1906............................. .0780 101.2 8.8462 110.3 21.5625 119.2 .1235 125.5 .0910 120.7
132.4
116.0
26.0519 144.0
114.7
1907............................. .0884 121.1 9.8173 122.5 27.7115 153.2 .1303 114.3 .0875 114.5
.0863
.1125
13.1837 164.5
1908............................. .0934
138.8 .1310 133.1 .0899 119.2
1909............................. .0949 123.1 11.0227 137.5 25.1058
1910............................. .1027 133.2 14.5888 182.0 25.0000 138.2 .1644 167.1 .1005 133.3
1910.
January..................... .0960 124.5 11.6500 145.3 25.0000 138.2 .1476 150.0 .0994 131.8
February................... .0947 122.8 12.1250 151.2 25.0000 138.2 .1532 155.7 .1088 144.3
175.7
March........................ .1068 138.5 14.7175 183.6 25.0000 138.2 .1740 176.8 .1325 186.5
April.......................... .1182 153.3 15.5000 193.3 25.0000 138.2 .1782 181.1 .1406
May............................ .1145 148.5 15.5000 193.3 25.0000 138.2 .1775 180.4 .1220 161.8
138.2 .1791 182.0 .1056 140.1
June........................... .1044 135.4 15.6250 194.9 25.0000 138.2 .1807 183.6 .0925 122.7
193.3
July............................ .1069 138.7 15.5000 190.2 25.0000 138.2 .1708 173.6 .0875 116.0
25.0000
August....................... .1020 132.3 15.2500
September................. .1044 135.4 15.3750 191.8 25.0000 138.2 .1660 168.7 .0888 117.8
October...................... .0931 120.8 15.7500 196.5 25.0000 138.2 .1600 162.6 .0831 110.2
November................. .0950 123.2 15.0000 187.1 25.0000 138.2 .1480 150.4 .0700 92.8
December.................. .0950 123.2 13.5500 169.0 25.0000 138.2 .1353 137.5 .0731 96.9




BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

424

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion ol this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description o! the articles,
see Table I.)
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Meat: pork,
salt, mess.

Milk: fresh.

Poultry:
Molasses: New dressed, fowls, Rice: domestic,
Orleans, open western, dry
choice.
kettle.
picked.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per Rela­ price per Rela­
tive
tive
barrel. price. quart. price. gallon. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $11.6332
1890............................. 12.1502
1891......................... 11.3029
1892............................. 11.5252
1893............................. 18.3389
1894............................. 14.1262
1895............................. 11.8255
1896............................. 8.9399
1897............................. 8.9087
1898............................. 9.8678
1899............................. 9.3462
1900............................. 12.5072
1901............................. 15.6108
1902............................. 17.9399
1903............................. 16.651*4
1904............................. 14.0288
1905............................. 14.4183
1906............................. 17.5120
1907............................ 17.5684
1908............................. 15.9736
1909............................. 21.3438
1910............................. 23.7380

100.0 $0.0255 100.0 $0.3151 100.0
104.4 .0263 103.1 .3542 112.4
97.2 .0267 104.7 .2788 88.5
99.1 .0268 105.1 .3188 101.2
157.6 .0279 109.4 .3346 106.2
121.4 .0263 103.1 .3092 98.1
101.7 .0253 99.2 .3083 97.8
76.8 .0234 91.8 .3246 103.0
76.6 .0235 92.2 .2617 83.1
84.8 .0239 93.7 .3083 97.8
80.3 .0253 99.2 .3525 111.9
107.5 .0274 107.5 .4775 151.5
134.2 .0262 102.7 .3783 120.1
154.2 .0288 112.9 .3638 115.5
143.1 .0288 112.9 .3546 112.5
120.6 .0275 107.8 .3396 107.8
123.9 .0289 113.3 .3229 102.5
150.5 .0301 118.0 .3400 107.9
151.0 .0335 131.4 .4088 129.7
137.3 .0329 129.0 .3550 112.7, $0.1389
183.5 .0338 132.5 .3500 111.1 .1619
204.1 .0368 144.3 .3704 117.5 .1761

(i)
(l>
C)
1

$0.0561
.0605
.0637
.0569
.0459
.0526
.0533
.0519
.0542
.0608
.0607
.0548
.0548
.0559
.0566
.0441
.0417
.0474
.0534
.0624
.0619
.0547

100.0
107.8
113.5
101.4
81.8
93.8
95.0
92.5
96.6
108.4
108.2
97.7
97.7
99.6
100.9
78.6
74.3
84.5
95.2
111.2
110.3
97.5

.0569
.0569
.0556
.0544
.0544
.0544
.0531
.0544
.0544
.0544
.0544
.0525

101.4
101.4
99.1
97.0
97.0
97.0
94.7
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
93.6

1910.

January.....................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

23.8438
24.0938
27.0250
25.6563
24.2000
24.3750
25.7500
24.9000
23.6250
21.0000
19.5500
20.6563

205.0
207.1
232.3
220.5
208.0
209.5
221.3
214.0
203.1
180.5
168.1
177.6

.0412
.0400
.0375
.0358
.0300
.0300
.0326
.0350
.0367
.0400
.0400
.0425

161.6
156.9
147.1
140.4
117.6
117.6
127.8
137.3
143.9
156.9
156.9
166.7

.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3750

117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
119.0

.1700
.1800
.1863
.1965
.1919
.1913
.1810
.1731
.1738
.1715
.1525
.1490

1 N o relative price com puted. For explanation, see page 347.




(1
)
0)
(l)
0)
C)
1
0)
0)
(1)
(i)
(l)
(>)

WHOLESALE PR IC ES/1890 TO 1910.

425

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Salt: American.

Soda: bicar­ Spices: pepper, Starch: pure j Sugar: 89° fair
bonate of,
Singapore.
corn.
’refining.
American.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. j pound. price.
Average, 1S90-1899... $0.7044 100.0 $0.0209 100.0 $0.0749 100.0 $0.0548 100.6
1890............................. .7921 112.5 .0275 131.6 .1151 153.7 .0548 99.6
1891............................. .7865 111.7 .0317 151.7 .0873 116.6 .0600 109.5
1892............................. .7575 107.5 .0218 104.3 .0889 92.0 .0600 109.5
1893............................. .7019 99.6 .0285 136.4 .0595 79.4 .0600 109.5
1894............................. .7192 102.1 .0268 128.2 .0516 68.9 .0567 103.5
1895............................. .7019 99.6 .0177 . 84.7 .0497 66.4 .0554 ioi.i
1896............................. .6226 88.4 .0152 72.7 .0500 66.8 .0513 93.6
1897............................. .6613 93.9 .0150 71.8 .0664 88.7 .0500 91.2
1898............................. .6648 94.4 .0129 61.7 .0891 119.0 .0500 91.2
1899............................. .6365 90.4 .0117 56.0 .1117 149.1 .0500 91.2
1900............................. 1.0010 142.1 .0123 58.9 .1291 172.4 .0500 91.2
1901............................. .8567 121.6 .0107 51.2 .1292 172.5 .0470 85.8
1902............................. .6360 90.3 .0108 51.7 .1255 167.6 .0440 80.3
1903............................. .6140 87.2 .0129 61.7 .1289 172.1 .0507 92.5
1904............................. .7704 109.4 .0130 62.2 .1229 164.1 .0525 95.8
1905............................. .7552 107.2 .0130 62.2 .1217 162.5 .0552 100.7
1906............................. .7144 101.4 .0130 62.2 .1138 151.9 .0577 105.3
1907............................. .7931 112.6 .0130 62.2 .0994 132.7 .0600 109.5
1908............................. .7854 111.5 .0110 52.6 .0715 95.5 .0575 104.9
1909............................. .8175 116.1 .0100 47.8 .0711. 94.9 .0600 109.5
0100 47.8 .0800 106.8 .0600 109.5
1910............................. .7546 107.1
1910.
January..................... .8700 123.5 .0100 47.8 .0813 108.5 .0600 109.5
February................... .8700 123.5 .0100 47.8 .0813 108.5 .0600 109.5
March........................ .8325 118.2 .0100 47.8 .0781 104.3 .0600 109.5
April.......................... .6900 98.0 .0100 47.8 .0794 106.0 .0600 109.5
May............................ .6700 95.1 .0100 47.8 .0756 100.9 .0600 109.5
June........................... .6700 95.1 .0100 47.8 .0781 104.3 .0600 109.5
July............................ .6700 95.1 .0100 47.8 .0794 .106.0 .0600 109.5
August....................... .7325 104.0 .0100 47.8 .0819 109.3 .0600 109.5
September................. .7700 109.3 .0100 47.8 .0806 107.6 .0600 109.5
October...................... .7700 109.3 .0100 47.8 .0806 107.6 .0600 109.5
November................. .7700 109.3 .0100 47.8 .0813 108.5 .0600 109.5
December.................. .7700 109.3 .0100 47.8 .0819 109.3 .0600 109.5




$0.03398
.04890
.03459
.02873
.03203
.02759
.02894
.03192
.03077
.03712
.03922
.04051
.03521
.03035
.03228
.03470
.03696
.03183
.03251
.03563
.03499
.03685

100.0
143.9
101.8
84.5
94.3
81.2
85.2
93.9
90.6
109.2
115.4
119.2
103.6
89.3
95.0
102.1
108.8
93.7
95.7
104.9
103.0
108.4

.03573 105.2
.03710 109.2
.03866 113.8
.03815 112.3
.03763 110.7
.03738 110.0
.03838 112.9
.03913 115.2
.03787 111.4
.03378 99.4
.03373 99.3
.03465 102.0

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

426

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Sugar: 96° cen­ Sugar: granu­
trifugal.
lated.

Tallow.

Tea: Formosa, Vegetables,
fine.
fresh: cabbage.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. ton. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.03869
1890............................. .05460
1891............................. . 03910
1892............................. . 03315
1893.......................
.03680
1894............................. .03229
1895............................. .03253
1896............................. . 03624
1897............................. .03564
1898............................. .04235
1899............................. .04422
1900............................. .04572
1901............................. . 04040
1902............................. .03542
1903............................. . 03720
1904............................. .03974
1905............................. . 04278
1906............................. .03686
1907............................. . 03754
1908............................. .04064
1909............................. .03999
1910......................... . 04185
1910.
January..................... .04088
February................... . 04210
March........................ .04366
April........................... .04315
May............................ .04263
June........... ................ .04238
July............................ .04338
August....................... .04413
September................. .04287
October...................... .03878
November................. . 03873
December.................. .03965

100.0
141.1
101.1
85.7
95.1
83.5
84.1
93.7
92.1
109.5
114.3
118.2
104.4
91.5
96.1
102.7
110. 6
95.3
97.0
105.0
m3.4
108.2

$0.04727
.06168
.04714
. 04354
.04836
. 04111
.04155
.04532
.04497
. 04974
.04924
.05332
.05048
.04455
.04641
.04772
.05256
.04515
.04651
. 04940
.04758
. 04959

105.7
108.8
112.8
111.5
110.2
109.5
112.1
114.1
110.8
100.2
100.1
102.5

.04875
.04925
.05160
.05088
.05163
.05050
.05075
. 05113
.05040
.04825
.04550
.04670

100.0 $0.0435 100.0 $0.2839 100.0
130.5 .0460 105.7 .2733 96.3
99.7 .0483 111.0 .2817 99.2
92.1 .0463 106.4 .3008 106.0
102.3 .0544 125.1 .2888 101.7
87.0 .0480 110.3 .2783 9a 0
87.9 .0434 99.8 .2700 95.1
95.9 .0343 78.9 .2583 91.0.
95.1 .0332 76.3 .2800 9a 6
105.2 .0356 81.8 .2958 104 2
104 2 .0453 1041 .3117 109.8
112.8 .0485 111.5 .2977 104 9
106.8 .0518 119.1 .2850 100. 4
94 2 .0629 144 6 .3015 106.2
98.2 .0510 117.2 .2296 80.9
101.0 .0459 105.5 .2758 97.1
111.2 ' .0449 103.2 .2675 94 2
95.5 .0529 119.3 .2350 82.8
98. 4 .0621 142.8 .2300 81 0
104 5 .0551 126.7 .2133 75.1 $15.4394
100.7 .0594 136.6 .2329 82.0 26.1739
104 9 .0729 167.6 .2400 84 5 17.5625
103.1
104 2
109.2
107.6
109.2
106.8
107.4
108.2
106.6
102.1
96.3
9a 8

.0678
.0684
.0708
.0750
.0714
.0678
.0681
.0738
.0775
.0788
.0793
.0750

155.9
157.2
162.8
172.4
1641
155.9
156.6
169.7
17a 2
181.1
182.3
172.4

1 No d ative price com puted. For explanation, see page 347.




.2400
.2400
2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400

84 5
84 5
84 5
84 5
84 5
84.5
84 5
84 5
84 5
84.5
84 5
84 5

27.7500
27.0000
24 6250
30.8333
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
11.0000
8.5000
7.6250
9.2000

* No quotation for ihonth.

fi)
?i)
0)

(JJ
0)
(l)

(0
f1)
C)

WHOLESALE PRICES, 18S0 TO 1910,

427

11,—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table!.]
Food, etc.
Year or month.

Cloths and clothing.

Vegetables, Vinegar: cider, Bags: 2-bushel, Blankets: all
Vegetables,
5
Monarch.
Amoskeag. wool,thepounds
fresh: onions. fresh: potatoes,
to pair.
white.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. bushel. price. gallon. price. bag.. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$3.3995
4.3438
4.1250
3.6042
3.1875
3.2500
3.1146
1.9479
3.9271
3.2708
3.2238
2.4271
3.5000
3.6458
3.5675
3.5568
3.2392
3.2917
3.5000
3.5357
3.0893
2.9643
/n
l1)
m
(i)
3.5000
(i)
3.2500
2.2500
3.2500
2.7500
2.7500
3.0000




100.0 $0.4991 100.0 $0.1478 100.0 $0.1399 100.0 10.840 100.0
127.8 .5956 119.3 .1558 105.4 .1594 113.9
.910 108.3
121.3 .7730 154 9 .1800 121.8 .1563 111.7
.890 106.0
106.0 .4546 91.1 .1642 111.1 .1550 110.8
.900 107.1
93.8 .6714 134 5 .1500 101.5 .1494 106.8
.900 107.1
.850 101.2
95.6 .6128 122.8 .1500 101.5 .1275 91.1
91.6 .4326 86.7 .1450 98.1 .1150 82.2
.750 89.3
57.3 .1965 39.4 .1300 88.0 .1281 91.6
.750 89.3
115.5 .3279 65.7 .1300 88.0 .1300 92.9
.750 89.3
96.2 .5094 102.1 .1325 89.6 .1338 95.6
.900 107.1
94.8 .4172 83.6 .1400 94 7 .1446 103.4
.800 95.2
71.4 .3736 74 9 .1350 91.3 .1575 112.6
.900 107.1
103.0 .5642 113.0 .1325 89.6 .1413 101.0
.850 101.2
107.2 .5958 119.4 .1408 95.3 .1433 102.4
.850 101.2
104.9 .5249 105.2 .1300 88.0 . 1458 104 2
.925 110.1
104.6 . 7301 146.3 .1325 89.6 .1796 128.4
.925 110.1
95.3 .4026 80.7 .1458 98.6 .1533 109.6 1.000 119.0
96.8 .5476 109.7 .1700 115.0 .1806 129.1 1.025 122.0
103.0 .4912 98.4 .1725 116.7 . 1938 138.5 1.000 119.0
104.0 .7119 142.6 .1842 124 6 .1879 134 3
.950 113.1
90.9 .6858 137.4 .1800 121.8 .1883 134 6 1.000 119.0
87.2 .4275 8^7 .1750 118.4 .2042 146.0 1.054 125.5

103.0
95.6
66.2
95.6
80.9
80.9
88.2

.4590
.3800
.3400
.2240
.2525
.1963
.4470
.7900
.7413
.5210
.4150
.3880

92.0
76.1
68.1
449
50.6
39.3
89.6
158.3
148.5
104 4
83.1
77.7

.1800
.1800
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1800
.2200
.2200

1 No quotation for month.

121.8
121.8
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
121.8
148.8
148.8

. 1950
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2100
.2100
.2100
.2050
.2050
.2050
.2050
.2050

139.4
143.0
143.0
143.0
150.1
150 1
150.1
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5

1.100
1.100
1.100
1.100
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.000
1.000
1.000

131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

428

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table L]i
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Boots and
Boots and
Boots and
Blankets: cot­ Boots and ' shoes: men’s shoes: men’s shoes: women’s
ton, 2 pounds shoes: men’s vici calf shoes, vici kid shoes, solid grain
to the pair. brogans, split. Blucher bal. Goodyear welt.
shoes.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per Rela­ price per Rela­
tive
tive
pair. price. pair. price. pair. price. pair. price. pair. price.

Average, 1890-1899... i$0.424 U00..0 $0.9894 100.0 2$2.376 2100.0 $2.3000 100.0 $0.8175 100.0
1890............................. 1.460 1108.5 1.0500 106.1 22.400 2101.0 2.5000 108.7 .8500 104.0
1891............................. 1.4G0 1108.5 1.0500 106.1 22.400 2101.0 2.5000 108.7
97.9
1892............................. 1.430 U01.4 1.0375 104.9 22.400 2101.0 2.5000 108.7 .8000 94 8
1893............................. 1.420 199.1 1.0125 102.3 22.400 2101.0 2.5000 108.7 .7750 91.7
.7500
1894............................. 1.410 196.7 .9688 97.9 22.400 2101.0 2.5000 108.7 .7500 91.7
1895............................. 1.400 194.3 .9813 99.2 22.400 2101.0 2.2500 97.8 .8500 104.0
1896............................. 1.400 194.3 .9938 100.4 22.400 2101.0 2.2500 97.8 .8500 1040
1897............................. 1.420 199.1 .9500 96.0 22.400 2101.0 2.0000 87.0
104.0
1898............................. 1.420 199.1 .9125 92.2 22.320 297.6 2.0000 87.0 .8500 104.0
1899............................. 1.420 199.1 .9375 94.8 22.240 294.3 2.0000 87.0 .8500 104.0
.8500
1900............................. 1.525 U23.8 .9375 94.8 22.240 294 3
87.0 .9042 110.6
1901............................. 1.475 U12.0 .9438 95.4 22.300 296.8 2.0000
2.0000
1902............................. 1.475 1112.0 .9313 94.1 22.300 296.8 2.0000 87.0 .8542 104.5
87.0 .8625
1903.......................... 1.500 U17.9 .9250 93.5 22.350 298.9 2.0000 87.0 .8875 105.5
1904............................. 1.525 1123.8 .9250 93.5 22.350 298.9 2.0083 87.3 .9183 108.6
1905............................. 1.600 U41.5 1.0042 101.5 22.375 2100.0 2.1958 95.5 .9771 112.3
1906............................. 1.600 U41.5 1.2542 126.8 2.775 3108.0 2.3792 103.4 1.0313 119.5
126.2
1907............................. 1.600 U41.5 1.2729 128.7 2.800 3109.0 2.5000 108.7 1.0063 123.1
1908............................. .504 4136.1 1.1354 114.8 2.800 3109.0 2.5000 108.7 .9688 118.5
1909............................. .500 <135.0 1.2000 121.3 2.950 3114 8 2.6000 113.0 1.0396 127.2
1910............................. .550 4148.5 1.1375 115.0 3.017 3117.4 2.6000 113.0 1.0229 125.1
1910.
January.....................
.550 4148.5 1.2000 121.3 3.050 3118.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0500 128.4
February................... .550 4148.5 1.1750 118.8 3.050 3118.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0500 128.4
March......................... .550 <148.5 1.1750 118.8 3.050 3118.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0500 128.4
April..........................
.550 4148.5 1.1750 118.8 3.050 3118.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0500 128.4
May............................ .550 <148.5 1.1750 118.8 3.000 3116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0250 125.4
June........................... .550 4148.5 1.1500 116.2 3.000 »116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0250 125.4
.550 4148.5 1.1500 116.2 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0250 125.4
July.......... :...............
August....................... .550 <148.5 1.1250 113.7 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0000 122.3
September................
.550 4148.5 1.1000 111.2 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0000 122.3
October.....................
.550 4148.5 1.1000 111.2 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0000 122.3
November................. .550 4148.5 1.0750 108.7 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0000 122.3
December.................. .550 4148.5 1.0500 106.1 3.000 *116.7 2.6000 113.0 1.0000 122.3
i Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, cotton and wool filling, per pound.
*Boots and shoes: men’s calf bal. shoes, Goodyear welt, dongola top.
*For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349, average price for 1905, $2.57.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349, average price for 1907, $0,524.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

429

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
2
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Broadcloths:
first quality, Calico: Amer­ Carpets: Brus­
ican standard
black, 54-inch, prints, 64 by 64. sels, 5-frame,
Bigelow.
XXX wool.

Carpets: in­
grain, 2-ply,
Lowell.

Carpets: Wil­
ton, 5-frame,
Bigelow.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.732 100.0
1890............................. 1.970 lia7
1891............................. 1.970 ua7
1892............................. 1.970 113.7
1893............................. 1.970 ua7
1894............................. 1.580 91.2
1895............................. 1.380 79.7
1896............................ 1.380 79.7
1897............................. 1.700 98.2
1898.......................... 1.700 9& 2
1899............................. 1.700 9a 2
1900.......................... 1.870 108.0
1901............................. 1.910 110.3
1902............................. 1.910 110.3
1903............................. 1.910 110.3
1904............................. 1.914 110.5
1905....'...................... 1.995 115.2
1906............................. 2.020 116.6
1907............................. 2.020 116.6
1908............................. 2.003 115.6
1909............................. 2.020 116.6
1910............................. 2.040 117.8
1910.
January..................... 2.060 118.9
February................... 2.060 11&9
March......................... 2.060 na 9
April.......................... 2.060 118.9
May............................ 2.060 ua9
June........................... 2.060 118.9
July............................ 2.020 116.6.
August....................... 2.020 116.6
September................. 2.020 116.6
October..................... 2.020 116.6
November............*.. . 2.020 116.6
December.................. 2.020 116.6

i|0.0553
1.0650
1.0575
1.0650
1.0625
1.0550
1.0525
1.0525
1.0500
1.0450
1.0483
1.0525
1.0500
1.0500
1.0504
1.0529
i. 0517
1.0550
.0602
.0519
.0483
.0531

1100.0
1117.5
1104.0
1117.5
m ao
199.5
194.9
194 9
190.4
181.4
187.3
1949
190.4
190.4
191.1
195.7
19 a 5
199.5
2 121.0
2104 3
2 97.1
2106.8

$1. 0008
1. 0320
1. 1280
1. 0320
9840
9360
9360
9360
9600
1. 0320
1. 0320
1. 0320
1. 0320
1. 0360
1. 0880
L 1040
1. 1520
1 1800
1. 2480
1. 2000
1. 1920
1. 2000

100.0 $0.4752 100.0 $1.8432
ioai .5160 108.6 1.9200
112.7 .5520
ioai .5280 116.2 2.0160
.5040 106.1 1.9200
98.3
111.1 1.9200
93.5 .4680 98.5 1.9200
9a 5 .4200 88.4 1.6800
9a 5 .4080 85.9 1.6800
95.9 .4320 90.9
ioai1 .4560 96.0 1.7280
.4680 9& 5 1.8240
10a
1.8240
10a 1 .4920 10a 5 1.8720
10a 1 .4800 101.0 1.8720
10a 5 .4840 101.9 1.8840
108.7 .5136 ioai 2.0080
110.3 .5184 109.1 2.0400
115.1 .5520 116.2 2.1360
117.9 .5520 116.2 2.1920
124 7 .5760 121.2 2.2800
119.9 .5540 116.6 2.2160
119.1 .5280 111.1 2.2160
119.9 .5280 111.1 2.2320

.0523
.0523
.0570
.0570
.0523
.0523
.0523
.0523
.0523
.0523
.0523
.0523

2105.1
105.1
2114 6
2114 6
2105.1
2105.1
2105.1
2105.1
2105.1
2 105.1
2 105.1
2105.1

1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1.2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000
1. 2000

119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9

2

.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280

111.1
111.1
11L1
111. 1
1111
111. 1
1111
111. 1
111. 1
111.1
111.1
11L 1

2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.23202.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

1 Calico: Cocheco prints.
For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1906,10.0495.

2




100.0
104.2
109.4
104 2
104 2
104 2
9L1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0
101.6
101.6
102.2
10a 9
110.7

115.9
lia 9
12a 7
120.2
120.2
12L1
121.1
121.1
1211
1211
1211
1211
121.1
1211
1211
121.1
121.1
1211

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,

430

T able II.— AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]*
1
Cloths and clothing.
thread: Cotton yams: Cotton yarns:
Cotton flannels: Cotton flannels: Cotton 200-yard carded, white, carded, white,
2f yards to the 3J yards to the 6-cord, J. & P. mule-spun,
mule-spun,
spools,
pound.
Year or month.
pound.
northern,
northern,
Coats.
cones, 22/1.
cones, 10/1.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Relap
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. spool.* price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899. 10.0706 100.0 10.0575 100.0 $0.031008 100.0
1890........................... .0875 123.9 .0688 119.7 . 031514 101.6
1891........................... .0875 123.9 .0688 119.7 . 031238 100.7
1892........................... .0838 118.7 .0650 nao .031238 100.7
1893........................... .0725 102.7 .0575 100.0 .031238 100.7
1894........................... .0675 95.6 .0550 95.7 .031238 100.7
1895........................... .0650 92.1 .0525 91.3 .031238 100.7
1896........................... .0650 92.1 .0550 95.7 . 030871 99.6
1897........................... .0575 81.4 .0550 95.7 .030503 9a 4
1898........................... .0575 81.4 .0463 sa 5 .030503 9a 4
1899........................... .0619 87.7 .0508 88.3 .030503 9a 4
1900........................... .0738 104.5 .0567 9a 6 .037240 120.1
1901........................... .0640 90.7- .0575 100.0 .037240 12a i
1902........................... .0650 92.1 .0575 100.0 . 037240 120.1
1903........................... .0735 104.1 .0629 109.4 .037240 120.1
1904........................... .0885 125.4 .0723 125.7 .037240 120.1
1905........................... .0854 121.0 .0681 lia 4 .037240 120.1
1906........................... .0923 m 7 .0723 125.7 .037240 120.1
1907........................... .0988 13a 9 .0800 139.1 .041813 134.8
1908........................... .0829 117.4 .0696 121.0 .040833 131.7
1909........................... .0754 106.8 .0633 n a i .039200 126.4
1910........................... .0900 127.5 .0750- m 4 . 039200 126.4

$0.1608
2.1790
2.1794
*.1885
.1808
.1523
.1477
.1483
.1452.1456
.1408
.1850.1585
.1538
.1869
.1981
.1733
.2004
.2204
.1777
.1967
.2233

100.0
111.3
111.6
117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
9a 6
95.6
116.2
m2
107.8
124.6
137.1
110.5
122.3
138.9

13a 4 .039200 126.4
130.4 .039200 126.4
13a 4 .039200 126.4

.2350
.2300
.2200
.2200
.2200
.2100
.2050
.2250
.2200
.2300
.2300
.2350

146.1
136.8
136.8
136.8
130.6
127.5
139.9
136.8
14a 0
14a 0
14a 1

1910.

January..................
February.................
March.......................
April........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September...............
October....................
November...............
December................

.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.'0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900

1 Freight paid.

1 Records destroyed.




127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5

.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750

m 4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
13a 4
130.4
13a 4
13a 4

.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200
.039200

126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
12a 4
126.4

12a 4

14a 0

$0.1969
2.2208
2.2244
2.2300
.2138
.1796
.1815
.1844
.1788
.1792
.1760
.2283
.1927
.1819
.2156
.2279
.2038
.2304
.2571
.2104
.2260
.2519

100.0
112.1
114 0
116.8
ioa6
91.2
92.2
9a 7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
ioa5
117.0
130.6
106.9
114 8
127.9

.2600 132.0
.2550 129.5
.2500 127.0
.2475 125.7
.2525 12a 2
.2500 127.0
.2500 127.0
.2450 124 4
. 2475 125.7
.2500 127.0
.2550 12a 5
.2600 132.0

Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

431

II.—
AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Drillings:
Denims: Amos- brown, Pepkeag.
perell.

Flannels:
Drillings: 30- white, 4-4, Bal­
inch, Stark A. lard Vale No. 3.

Ginghams:
Amoskeag.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899. - 10.1044 100.0 $0.0572 100.0 $0.0521 100.0 $0.3768 100.0 $0.0533 100.0
1890............................. .1175 112.5 .0683 119.4 .0640 122.8 .4400 116.8 .0625 117.3
1891............................. .1144 109.6 .0652 114.0 .0600 115.2 .4400 116.8 .0650 122.0
1892............................. .1144 109.6 .0582 101.7 .0535 102.7 .4367 115.9 .0650 122.0
1893............................. .1175 112.5 .0590 103.1 .0563 108.1 .4125 109.5 .0631 n a 4
1894............................. .1100 105.4 .0559 97.7 .0502 96.4 .3546 94.1 .0485 91.0
1895............................. .0988 94 6 .0529 92.5 .0489 93.9 .3080 81.7 .0466 87.4
1896............................. .0988 94 6 .0573 100.2 .0522 100.2 .3217 85.4 .0472 88.6
1897............................. .0931 89.2 .0525 91.8 .0463 88.9 .3113 82.6 .0438 82.2
1898............................. .0897 85.9 .0513 89.7 .0437 83.9 .3685 97.8 .0431 80.9
1899............................. .0896 85.8 .0510 89.2 .0457 87.7 .3750 99.5 .0477 89.5
1900............................. .1073 102.8 .0606 105.9 .0542 1040 .4096 108.7 .0515 96.6
1901............................. .1046 100.2 .0585 102.3 .0532 102.1 .3800 100.8 .0490 91.9
1902............................. .1050 100.6 .0575 100.5 .0539 103.5 .3986 105.8 .0523 98.1
1903..................:........ .1127 108.0 .0619 108.2 .0581 111.5 .4306 114.3 .0550 103.2
1904............................. .1217 116.6 .0727 127.1 .0658 126.3 .4433 117.6 .0548 102.8
1905............................. .1083 103.7 .0721 126.0 .0633 121.5 .4461 118.4 .0515 96.6
1906............................. .1233 1184 .0775 135.5 .0740 142.0 .4613 122.4 .0565 106.0
1907............................. .1381 132.3 .0825 144 2 .0782 150.1 .4638 123.1 .0658 123.5
1908............................. .1160 111.1 .0706 123.4 .0718 137.8 .4611 122.4 .0548 102.8
1909............................. .1252 119.9 .0738 129.0 .0786 150.9 .4594 121.9 .0588 110.3
1910............................. .1450 138.9 .0825 144.2 .0857 164 5 .4655 123.5 .0700 131.3
1910.
January..................... .1500 143.7 .0825 144.2 .0825 158.3 .4687 1*24.4 .0700 131.3
February................... .1500 143.7 .0825 144.2 .0825 158.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
March......................... .1500 143.7 .0825 144 2 .0825 158.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
April.......................... .1500 143.7 .0825 144.2 .0833 159.9 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
May............................ .1400 134.1 .0825 144.2 .0833 159.9 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
June........................... .1400 134.1 .0825 144 2 .0877 168.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
July............................ .1400 1341 .0825 144.2 .0877 168.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
August....................... .1400 134.1 .0825 144 2 .0877 168.3 .4687 . 124.4 .0700 131.3
September................. .1450 138.9 .0825 144.2 .0877 168.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
October...................... .1450 138.9 .0825 144 2 .0877 168.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
November................. .1450 138.9 .0825 1442 .0877 168.3 .4687 124.4 .0700 131.3
December.................. .1450 138.9 .0825 1442 .0877 168.3 .4300 114.1 .0700 131.3




432

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Ginghams:
Lancaster.

Hosiery: men's
Hosiery: wom­
cotton half hose,
en’s cotton hose,
seamless, last Hosiery:
Horseblankets: black, 20 to 22 en’s cottonwom­ seamless, fast
hose, black, 26-ounce,
all wool, 6
160 nee­
pounds each. ounce, single combed peeler 176 needles,
dles,
yarn.
single thread,
thread, carded
carded yarn.
yam.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. pound. price. 12 pairs. price. 12 pairs. price. 12 pairs. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0573 100.0
1890............. ............... .0692 120.8
1891.............................. .0700 122.2
1892.............................. .0700 122.2
1893.............................. .0638 111.3
1894.............................. .0504 88.0
1895.............................. .0496 86.6
1896.............................. .0500 87.3
1897.............................. .0494 86.2
1898.............................. .0488 85.2
1899.............................. .0515 89.9
1900.............................. .0550 96.0
1901.............................. .0531 92.7
1902.............................. .0575 100.3
1903.............................. .0575 100.3
1904.............................. .0556 97.0
1905.............................. .0517 90.2
1906.............................. .0592 103.3
1907.............................. .0690 120.4
1908.............................. .0573 100.0
1909.............................. .0596 104.0
1910.............................. .0660 115.2
1910.
January...................... .0675 117.8
February................... .0675 117.8
March......................... .0675 117.8
April........................... .0675 117.8
May............................ .0675 117.8
June............................ .0650 113.4
July............................. .0650 113.4
August....................... .0650 113.4
September................. .0650 113.4
October...................... .0650 113.4
November................. .0650 113.4
December.................. .0650 113.4

$0,573
.625
.600
.625
.600
.550
.530
.520
.570
.570
.540
.680
.630
.630
.675
.700
.750
.775
.750
.725
.725
.775

100.0
109.1
104.7
109.1
104.7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94.2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9
126.5
126.5
135.3

i $0.9555
1 1.2740
11.1760
i 1.0780
11.0535
1.9800
1.9065
i .8330
i .7840
i .7350
i .7350
i .7840
1.6860
i .7350
1.7840
5 .6370
5 .6370
5.6615
8 .7350
.7500
.8104
.8042

ilOO.O
1133.3
1123.1
1112.8
1110.3
1102.6
194.9
187.2
182.1
176.9
176.9
182.1
171.8
i 76.9
182.1
882.1
5 82.1
5 85.3
5 94.8
8 88.9
®96.1
6 95.4

.775
.775
.775
.775
.775
.775
.775
• .775
.775
.775
.775
.775

135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3

.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.7750
.7750
.7750
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000

« 97.8
8 97.8
®97.8
8 97.8
8 97.8
6 91.9
6 91.9
8 91.9
8 94.9
8 94.9
8 94.9
8 94.9

*$1,850 100.0 8$0.9310
8 1.2250
8 1.1270
31.0780
4 i.900 4102.7 31.0535
4 1.900 4102.7 3.9800
8 1.875 4101.4 3.8575
4 1.875 4101.4 3.7840
<1.850 4100.0 3.7595
4 1.800 4 97.3 '3.7105
41.750 4 94.6 3.7350
4 1.900 4102.7 8.7595
4 2.000 4108.1 3.6615
4 1.850 4100.0 3.7350
41.875 4101.4 3.8085
4 1.800 4 97.3 3.7595
41.750 4 94.6 3.7840
4 1.900 4102.7 8.7595
4 2.025 4109.5 3.8330
1.775 95.9 .8000
1.775 95.9 .8104
1.831 99.0 .8125
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850
1.850

95.9
95.9
95.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.7750
.7750
.7750
.8000
.8500
.8250
.8250

3 100.0
3 131.6
3 121.1
* 115.8
3 113.2
3 105.3
3 92.1
3 84.2
3 81.6
3 76.3
3 78.9
3 81.6
«71.1
3 78.9
3 86.8
3 81.6
3 84.2
8 81.6
3 89.5
7 84.2
7 85.3
7 85.5
7 86.8
7 86.8
7 86.8
7 86.8
7 86.8
7 81.6
7 81.6
7 81.6
7 84.2
7 89.5
7 86.8
7 86.8

1Hosiery: men's cotton half hose, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, two thread. September
price, which represents bulk of sales.
2 Combed Egyptian cotton. Average for 1893-1899.
s Hosiery: women's cotton hose, seamless, fast black, 26 to 28 ounce, 160 to 176 needles. September
price, which represents bulk of sales.
4 Combed Egyptian cotton.
8 Hosiery: men's cotton half hose, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, single thread. Sep­
tember price, which represents bulk of sales. For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and
349, September price, 1903, $0.6370.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349, average price for 1907, $0.80.
7 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349, average price for 1907, $0.85.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

433

T able I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Leather: har­
Leather: chrome ness, oak, pack­ Leather: sole, Leather: sole,
oak.
hemlock.
calf.
ers’ hides.

Linen shoe
thread: 10s,
Barbour.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
sq. foot. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... i $0.6545
1890............................. 1.6000
1891............................. 1.6469
1892............................. i. 6929
1893............................. 1.6450
1894............................. 1.6042
1895............................. i. 7333
1896............................. 1.6433
1897............................. 1.6156
1898............................. 1.6760
1899............................ 1.6875
1900............................. 1.6563
1901............................. 1.6281
1902............................. 1.6604
1903............................. 1.6900
1904............................. 1.6875
1905............................. 1.6969
1906............................. i. 7167
1907............................. 1.7667
1908............................. .2183
1909............................. .2313
1910............................. .2275
1910.
January...................... .2450
February................... .2450
March......................... .2250
April........................... .2300
May............................ .2250
June........................... .2250
July............................ .2250
August....................... .2250
September................. .2250
October...................... .2200
November................. .2200
December.................. .2200

ilOO.O
191.7
198.8
ua5.9
198.5
192.3
1112.0
198.3
194.1
1103.3
1105.0
1100.3
196.0
1100.9
U05.4
1105.0
1106.5
1109.5
1117.1
<113.6
<120.4
<118.4

2$0.2590
• 2.2571
2.2579
2.2367
2.2400
2.2275
2.2888
2.2554
2.2433
2.2825
2.3004
2.3025
2.2971
.3325
.3313
.3188
.3333
.3713
.3738
.3508
.3808
.3792

2 99.3
299.6
2 91.4
292.7
2 87.8
2111.5
298.6
2 93.9
2109.1
2116.0
2116.8
2114.7
U14.7
3114.3
3110.0
3115.0
3128.1
3129.0
3121.1
*131.5
*130.9

$0.1939
.1921
.1858
.1727
.1796
.1715
.2073
.1881
.2033
.2129
.2254
.2490
.2475
.2367
.2267
.2258
.2290
.2538
.2644
•.2508
.2550
.2467

<127.5
<127.5
<117.1
<119.7
<117.1
<117.1
<117.1
<117.1
<117.1
<114.5
<114.5
<114.5

.3950
.3950
.3950
.3800
.3850
.3800
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700

*136.4
*136.4
3136.4
3131.2
3132.9
*131.2
3127.8
*127.8
*127.8
*127.8
*127.8
*127.8

.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2350
.2350

2100.0

100.0 $0.3363 100.0 $0.8748 100.0
99.1 .3771 112.1 .8910 101.9
95.8 .3679 109.4 .8910 101.9
89.1 .3421 101.7 .8910 101.9
92.6 .3483 103.6 .8993 102.8
88.4 .3279 97.5 ,9182 105.0
106.9 .3421 101.7 .8514 97.3
97.0 .2925 87.0 .8514 97.3
104.8 .3079 91.6 .8514 97.3
109.8 .3213 95.5 .8514 97.3
116.2 .3358 99.9 .8514 97.3
128.4 .3608 107.3 .8877 101.5
127.6 .3525 104.8 .8910 101.9
122.1 .3800 113.0 .8910 101.9
116.9 .3742 111.3 .8460 96.7
116.5 .3450 102.6 .8499 97.2
118.1 .3663 108.9 .8499 97.2
130.9 .3796 112.9 .8930 102.1
136.4 .3821 113.6 .8930 102.1
129.3 .3800 113.0 .8930 102.1
131.5 .4125 122.7 .8930 102.1
127.2 .4146 123.3 .8930 102.1
131.5 .4250
131.5 .4250
131.5 .4350
131.5 .4350
128.9 .4300
128.9 .4350
128.9 .4200
123.8 .4200
123.8 .4000.
123.8 .3900
121.2 ' .3800
121.2 .3800

126.4
126.4
129.3
129.3
127.9
129.3
124.9
124.9
118.9
116.0
113.0
113.0

.8930
.8930
*.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

1 Leather: wax calf, 30 to 40 pounds to the dozen, B grade.
* Leather: harness, oak, country middles.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1901,10.3325.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 439; average price for 1907, $0.2250.

86026°—Bull. 93—11----- 9




102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

434

T able I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
2
Cloth and clothing.
Year or month.

Overcoatings: Overcoatings:
covert cloth, kersey, 27 to 28
14-ounce.
ounce.

Print cloths:
64 by 64.

Sheetings:
Sheetings:
bleached, 9-4, bleached, 10-4,
Atlantic.
Pepperell.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.
1890............................
1891............................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900..........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................
1910...........................
1910.
January....................
February.................
March.......................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August.....................
September...............
October....................
November...............
December................

1$2.3286 1105.7 $1.2472 100.0 $0.02838 117.7 3$0.1836 *122.1
1100.0
100.0 *.2241 *100.0
i 2.4616
.03340
U05.7
1105.7
U05.7
U04.2
199.9
187.4
183.6
197.2
U04.9
U01.4
107.2
197.2
194.0
194.0
1 96.9
196.9
196.9
1 96.9
5 96.9
5 01.1

1.1833
1.3000
1.2583
1.5750
1.5000
1.5000
1.5750
1.6500
1.8313
2.0417
1.9708
1.8500
1.7875
1.9250

2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
1.9125
1.9125
1.9125
1.9125
1.9125
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000

5 96.9
5 96.9
5 96.9
2 91.5
2 01.5
501.5
5 01.5
5 91.5
5 86.1
5 86.1
586.1
586.1

1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250
1.9250

94 9
104.2
100.9
126.3
.&
120.3
126.3
132.3
146.8
163.7
158.0
148.3
143.3
154.3

103.5
119.3
1146
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
127.7
167.4
118.0
126.5
1348

*.2138
*.1996
s .2062
*. 1741
8.1722
*.1700
*1604
*. 1527
*.1641
*.2043
*.1853
*. 1917
*2124
*.2355
».2024
.2095
.2315
.2390
.2073
.2254

*116.4
*108.7
*111.8
*94.8
*93.8
*92.6
*87.4
*83.2
*89.4
*111.3
*100.9
*104.4
*115.7
*128.3
*110.2
4121.5
4134.3
4138.7
4120.3
4130.8

$0.1884
.2190
.2008
.1900
.1946
.1742
.1785
.1792
.1738
.1721
.2292
.2117
.2275
.2425
.2267
.2475
.2883
.2442
.2517
.2675

92.5
94.7
95.1
92.3
91.3
107.3
121.7
112.4
111.5
128.7
120.3
131.4
153.0
129.6
133.6
142.0

154 3
154.3
154 3
154.3
154.3
154.3
1543
154 3
154.3
154.3
154 3
1543

.041875
.042500
.041250
.038000
.035938
.036250
.035750
.037500
.037188
.037625
.037813
.037500

147.6
149.8
145.3
133.9
126.6
127.7
126.0
132.1
131.0
132.6
133.2
132.1

.2203
.2143
.2256
.2348
.2348
.2348
.2287
.2223
.2223
.2223
.2223
.2223

4127.8
4124.4
4130.9
4136.3
4136.3
4136.3
4132.7
4129.0
4129.0
4129.0
4129.0
4129.0

.2800
.2800
.2800
.2600
.2600
.2609
.2600
.2600
.2600
.2700
.2700
.2700

148.6
148.6
148.6
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0
143.3
143.3
143.3

120

110.0

.2021
.2100 120.8

1 Overcoatings: Covert cloth, light weight, staple goods.
2 Average price for 1897-1899.
-*Sheetings: Bleached, 10-4, Atlantic.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and ,349; average price for 1903,10.1901.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1908, $2.0250.




100.0
116.2
106.6
100.8
103.3

.02938
.03386
.03251
.02748
.02864
.02581
.02485
.02059
.02732
.03083
.02819
.03090
.032156
.033290
.031214
.036238
.047512
.033486
.035889
.038255

2

i 2.4616
12.4616
i 2.4616
i 2.4254
12.3250
i 2.0363
11.9458
12.2625
12.4435
12.3621
12.2625
12.2625
12.1889
12.1899
12.2568
12.2568
12.2568
12.2568
2.0250
1.9031

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

435

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
v
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Sheetings:
Sheetings:
Sheetings:
Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
brown, 4-4,
bleached, 10-4, brown, 4-4,
Wamsutta S. T. Indian Head. Lawrence L. L. Pepperell R.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Fruit of the
Loom.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive
tive
tive
price per tive price per tive price per price. price per price. price per price.
yard.
yard.
yard. price. yard. price. yard.

100.0

100.0

100.0

$0.0728
i $0.0525 ilOO.O $0.0551
$0.0626
Average, 1890-1899... $0.2949
.0845
1.0660
.0725
1890..7.1.................... .3126 106.0 .0727 115.8 1.0594 1125.7 .0640 116.2 .0799
1113.1
1891............................. .3162 107.2 .0648 116.1 1.0545 1103.8 .0597 108.3 .0808
.0569 103.3
103.5
1892............................. .2944 99.8 .0679 108.5 1.0574 1109.3 .0583 105.8 .0832
1893............................. .3056 103.6 .0598 95.5 1.0521 199.2 .0531 96.4 .0727
1894............................. .2756 93.5 .0585 93.5 1.0513 197.7 .0529 96.0 .0700
1895............................. .2719 92.2
1896............................. .2925 99.2 .0622 99.4 1.0511 197.3 .0558 101.3 .0696
.0525
.0588 93.9
1897............................. .2925 99.2 .0540 86.3 1.0452 186.1 .0475 95.3 .0641
1898............................. .2925 99.2 .0544 86.9 1.0424 180.8 .0504 91.5 .0584
.0644
1.0451 185.9 .0592 107.4 .0753
1899............................. .2951
1.0508 196.8
1900............................. .3075 104.3 .0623 99.5 1.0494 194.1
1901............................. .2925 99.2 .0631 99.8 *.0566 *92.6 .0592 107.4 .0750
.0569 103.3 .0756
1902............................. *2925 99.2 .0625
.0767
*101.9 .0599
1903............................ .3038 103.0 .0681 108.8 *.0623 *117 0 .0669 108.7 .0802
121.4
.0802 128.1 *.0715
1904............................. .2775 94.1 .0758
116.9 .0748
*.0725 *118.6
1905............................. .2700 91.6 .0802 128.1 *.0767 *125.5 .0644 124.3 .0817
1906............................. .2733 92.7 .0835 133.4 *.0777 *127.1 .0685 135.4 .1117
.0746
1907............................. .3050 103.4
1908............................. .2794 94.7 .0779 124.4 .0519 *102.0 .0683 124.0 .0913
*110.3
1909............................. .2867 97.2 .0752 133.4 .0561 *119.9 .0688 124.9 .0908
.0731 132.7 .0917
.0610
1910............................. .3400 115.3 .0835
1910.
January...................... .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8 .0663 *130.4 .0775 140.7
February................... .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8 .0638 *125.4 .0775 140.7
March......................... .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8 .0625 *122.9 .0775 140.7 .0900
.0600 *118.0
April........................... .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8 .0588 *115.6 .0700 127.0 .0913
.0700 127.0
May............................ .3400 115.3 .0800 127.8
127.0
*113.0
June........................... .3400 115.3 .0800 127.8 .0575 *115.6 .0700 127.0 .0913
.0850
.0700
.0588
July............................ .3400 115.3 .0800 127.8 .0588 *115.6 .0700 127.0 .0875
August....................... .3400 115.3 .0800 127.8 .0600 *118.0 .0700 127.0 .0875
September................. .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8 .0613 *120.5 .0750 136.1 .0875
October...................... .3400 115.3 .0850 135.8
November................. .3400 115.3 ,0850 135.8 .0625 *122.9 .0750 136.1 .0900
December.................. .3400 115.3 .0875 139.8 .0625 *122.9 .0750 136.1 .0900

100.1

100.8
121.1
120.1

86.2

.1000
1000
..1000

100.0
116.1
109.8
111.0
114.3
99.9
96.2
95.6
80.2
88.5
103.4
103.0
103.8
105.4
102.7
153.4
125.4
124.7
126.0

88.0

110.2
112.2

137.4
137.4
137.4
123.6
125.4
125.4
116.8

120.2
120.2
120.2
123.6

123.6

i Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Stark A. A.
, , _
.
* Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing relative
price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1901,10.0575.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, 30.0647.




436

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Shirtings:
Shirtings:
Shirtings:
Silk: raw,
bleached, 4-4, bleached, 4-4, bleached, 4-4, Italian, clas­
Lonsdale.
Rough Rider. W am sutta^^
sical.

Silk: raw, Ja­
pan, filatures.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per Rela­
tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. pound. price. pound. price.

100.0 1

.1011 100.0
102.6
1101.0
100.2
102.2

100.0

101.8

112.1

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0727
$0.0876 U00.O $0.0948
$42558
$40187
1890............................. .0845 116.2 1.0968 U10.5
106.6 5.2238 122.7 5.2429
1891......... ................... .0822 113.1 1.0965 U10.2 .1009 106 4 41865 98.4 40110
1892............................. .0812 111.7 1.0931 U06.3 .0973
4 4826 105.3 4 3266
1893.........'.................. .0832 114 4 1.0925 U05.6 .0981 103.5 5.0289 118.2 4 5409
1894............................. .0727
1.0885
3.6816 86.5 3.3627
.0950
1895............................. .0697 95.9 1.0851 197.1 .0969
40373 94.9 3.7855
1896............................. .0685 94 2 1.0885 U01.0 .0951 100.3 3.6293 85.3 3.4072
1897............................. .0633 87.1 1.0836 195.4 .0935 98.6 3.6404 85.5 3.4637
1898............................. .0595 81.8 1.0784 189.5 .0807 85.1 3.8768 91.1 3.6376
1899............................. .0626
1.0725 182.8 .0892 94.1 4 7706
4 4085
1900............................. .0731
1.0786 189.7 .0965
4.5128 106.0 41690
1901............................. .0738 101.5 1.0760 186.8 .0875 92.3 3.8466 90.4 3.5132
1902............................. .0741 101.9 1.0766 187.4 .0885 93.4 41085 96.5 3.8224
1903............................. .0.755 103.9 1.0850 197.0 .0974 102.7 4.5241 106.3 41346
1904............................. .0796 109.5 1.0830 194 7 .0921 97.2 3.8651 90.8 3.6416
1905............................. .0739 101.7 1.0848 196.8 .0942 99.4 4.1085 96.5 3.9912
1906............................. .0806 110.9 *.0946 *108.0 .1033 109.0 4 3249
41632
1907............................. .1025 141.0 2.1163 2132.8
116.0 5.5812 131.1 5.0602
1908............................. .0873
2.0938 *107.1 .1119 118.0 41807 98.2 3.8902
1909............................. .0879 120.9 2.0875 2 99.9 .1058
4 3777 102.9 3.8396
1910............................. .0892 122.7 .0846 3101.5 .1138
40054 941 3.5244
1910.
January...................... .0975 134.1 .0900 3107.9 .1175 123.9 4.2323 99.4 3.5163
February................... .0975 1341 .0900 3107.9 .1175 123.9 4 0095 94.2 3.4678
March......................... .0975 134.1 .0900 3107.9 .1175 123.9 3.8610 90.7 3.3223
April........................... .0875- 120.4 .0850 3101.9 .1095 115.5 3.8115 89.6 3.4193
May............................ .0875 120.4 .0825 98.9 .1095 115.5 3.8115 89.6 3.5163
June........................... .0875 120.4 .0825 *98.9 .1095 115 5 4.0095 94 2 3.4193
July............................ .0850 116.9 .0825 3 98.9 .1095 115.5 3.9353 92.5 3.4193
August....................... .0850 116.9 .0825 *98.9 .1095 115.5 3.9106 91.9 3.3708
September................. .0850 116.9 .0825 *98.9 .1095 115.5 4.0343 94.8 3.4193
October...................... .0850 116.9 .0825 *98.9 .1188 125.3 4.0838 96.0 3.6133
November................. .0875 120.4 .0825 » 98.9 .1188 125.3 4.1828 98.3 3.8558
December.................. .0875 120.4 .0825 » 98.9 .1188 125.3 41828 98.3 3.9528

100.0

86.1
100.6

.1100

120.1

111.0
120.6

101.6

8

14-4, New York Mills.
* 4-4, Williamsville Al.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1909, $0.0833.




100.0
130.5

99.8
107.7
113.0
83.7
94.2
84 8
90.5
109.7
103.7
87.4
95.1
102.9
90.6
99.3
103.6
125.9
96.8
5.5
87.7

86.2

87.5
86.3
82.7
85.1
87.5
85.1
85.1
83.9
85.1
89.9
95.9
98.4

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

437

T a b l e H . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
vYear or month.

Suitings: clay Suitings: clay Suitings: indigo Suitings: serge,
11-ounce,
worsted diago­ worsted diago­ blue, all wool, Fulton Mills
14-ounce,
nal, 12-ounce. nal, 16-ounce. Middlesex.
3192.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A.C.A.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela*
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899... i $0.8236
1890 ...........................
1801
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895............................. .7621
1896............................. .7337
1897............................. .7595
1898............................. .9165
1899............................. .9461
1900............................. 1.0819
1901............................. .9113
1902............................. .9131
1903............................. .9488
1904............................. .9244
1905............................. 1.0931
1906........................... . 1.2150
1907............................. 1.1700
1908............................. 1.1138
1909.......................... 1.2375
1910............................. 1.2225

100.0 i $1.0068 100.0 $1.3230
1.5470
1.5470
1.5470
1.5084
1.4697
92.5 .9445 93.8 1.1523
89.1 .8819 87.6 1.1375
92.2 .9392 93.3 1.0465
111.3 1.1216 111.4 1.1375
114.9 1.1468 113.9 1.1375
131.4 1.3463 133.7 1.1375
110.6 1.1175 111.0 1.1849
110.9 1.0931 108.6 1.3119
115.2 1.1288 112.1 1.4400
112.2 1.1036 109.6 1.4438
132.7 1.3013 129.3 1.5300
147.5 1.4738 146.4 1.7100
142.1 1.4025 139.3 1.7100
135.2 1.3388 133.0 1.5750
150.3 1.4850 147.5 1.5750
148.4 1.4588 144.9 1.5750

100.0
116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0
111.1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3
119.0
119.0
119.0

158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
136.6
136.6
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3

125.9
125.9
125.9
119.0
119.0
119.0
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6

*$0.7526 100.0 $0.1061 100.0
.1200 113.1
.1175 110.7
*. 9100 *120.9 .1150 108.4
*.9100 *120.9 .1181 111.3
*.6825 *90.7 .1084 102.2
*.6825 *90.7 .1006 94.8
*.6143 *81.6 .1019 96.0
*.6598 *87.7 .0975 91.6
*.7508 *99.8 .0894 84.3
*.8106 *107.7 .0923 87.0
*.8100 *107.6 .1084 102.2
*.8025 *106.6 .1013 95.5
*.7913 *105.1 .1050 99.0
*.7556 *100.4 .1104 104.1
*.7744 *102.9 .1213 114.3
*.9638 *128.1 .1083 102.1
*1.0444 *138.8 .1263 119.0
*1.0500 *139.5 .1373 129.4
*.9938 *132.0 .1125 106.0
*1.0688 *142.0 .1181 111.3
1.2656 4138.9 .1285 121.1

1910.

January......................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

1.3050
1.3050
1.3050
1.3050
1.3050
1.3050
1.1250
1.1250
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475

1.5075
1.5075
1.5075
1.5075
1.5075
1.5075
1.3950
1,3950
1.4175
1.4175
1.4175
1.4175

149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
138.6
138.6
140.8
140.8
140.8
140.8

1.6650
1.6650
1.6650
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300

1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700
1.1925
1.1925
1.1925

4148.2
4148.2
4148.2
4148.2
4148.2
4148.2
4128.4
4128.4
4128.4
4130.9
4130.9
4130.9

.14Q0
.1400
.1400
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1250
.1275
.1350
.1350

i Average price for 1895-1899.
* Average price for 1892-1899.
* Suitings: serge, Washington Mills 6700.
4 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1909, $1.2938.




132.0
132.0
132.0
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
117.8
120.2
127.2
127.2

438

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890TO1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Underwear:
Trouserings: Underwear:
shirts and
shirts
fancy worsted, drawers, and drawers, white,
white, merino, 60 per
18-ounce.
all-wool.
cent woof.

Women’s dress
goods: cashmere, all wool,
8-9 twill, 35inch, Atlantic
Mills.

Women’s dress
goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic
Mills F.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price, 12 tive price, 12 tive price per tive price per tive
gar­
gar­
yard. price. ments. price. ments. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899... 1$1.9456
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892............................. <2.0734
1893............................. <2.0734
1894............................. <1.9238
1895............................. < 1.7100
1896............................. <1.7955
1897............................. <1.7955
1898............................. <2.1197
1899............................. <2.0734
1900............................. <2.2871
1901............................. <1.9879
1902............................. <1.9800
1903............................. 8 2.0925
1904............................. 8 2.1244
1905............................. 8 2.2331
1906............................. 8 2.4131
1907............................. 8 2.4469
1908............................. 7 2.4938
1909............................. »2.4844
1910............................. 2.5781
1910.
January..................... 2.4750
February................... 2.5875
March........................ 2.5875
April.......................... 2.5875
May............................ 2.5875
June........................... 2.5875
July............................ 2.5875
August...................... 2.5875
September................ 2.5875
October...................... 2.5875
November........I___ 2.5875
December.................. 2.5875

100.0 $23.31
24.75
25.65
<106.6 25.65
<106.6 25.65
<98.9 21.60
<87.9 . 21.60
<92.3 21.60
<92.3 21.60
<108.9 21.60
<106.6 23.40
<117.6 23.^)
<102.2 23.40
<101.8 23.40
8104.6 23.40
8106.2 23.40
8111.6 23.40
8120.6 27.00
8122.3 27.00
7124.6 27.00
»124.1 27.00
*128.8 27.00

100.0
106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

« $15.57
2 16.65
*17.55
*17.55
*17.55
*14.85
*14.40
*14.40
*14.40
*14.85
*13.50
*14.85
*14.85
*14.85
16.20
16.20
16.20
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

*100.0
*106.9
*112.7
*112.7
*112.7
*95.4
*92.5
*92.5
*92.5
*95.4
*86.7
*95.4
*95.4
*95.4
*95.4
*95.4
*95.4
•106.0
•106.0
•106.0
*106.0
*106.0

*123.6
*129.3
*129.3
*129.3
•129.3
•129.3
*129.3
•129.3
*129.3
*129.3
*129.3
*129.3

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

•106.0
*106.0
*106.0
*106.0
*106.0
•106.0
*106.0
*106.0
•106.0
*106.0
*106.0
*106.0

27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

*$0.2905 *100.0 $0.1520
*.3479 *119.8 .1813
* 3663 *126.1 .1813
* 3724 *128.2 .1789
*.3247 *111.8 .1495
*.2450 *84.3 .1348
*.2352 *81.0 .1274
*.1960 *67.5 .1270
*.2389 *82.2 .1372
*.2573 *88.6 .1434
*.3208 *110.4 .1593
*.3459 *119.1 .1642
*.3234 *111.3 .1585
*.3234 *111.3 .1642
*.3320 *114.3 .1679
*3418 *117.7 .1740
*.3730 *128.4 .2017
*.3920 *134.9 .2156
*.3920 *134.9 .2234
.3185 *127.1 .2107
.3479 *138.8 .2230
.3675 *146.6 .2279

100.0
119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
94.3
104.8
108.0
104.3
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0
138.6
146.7
149.9

*150.5
*150.5
*150.5
*150.5
*150.5
*150.5
*142.7
*142.7
•142.7
*142.7
*142.7
•142.7

151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3

.3773
.3773
.3773
.3773
.3773
.3773
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577

.2303
.2303
.2303
.2303
.2303
.2303
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254

122 to 23 ounce. Average price for 1892-1899.
* Shirts and drawers, white, merino, full-fashioned, 52 per cent wool, 48 per cent cotton, 24-gauge.
* Cashmere, all-wool, 10-11 twill, 38-inch, Atlantic Mills J.
<22 to 23 ounce.
* 21 to 22 ounce. For average price in 1902 and method of computing relative price, see page 349.
• For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
719 to 20 ounce. For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $0.3381.
* 18 to 19 ounce.- For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

439

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Women’s dress Women’s dress
goods: cashmere, cotton goods: Panama
cloth, all
warp, 36-inch, wool, 54-inch.
Hamilton.

Women’s dress
goods: poplar
cloth, cotton
warp and
worsted filling,
36-inch.

Women’s dress Wool: Ohio,
goods: Sicilian fine fleece (X
cloth, cotton and XX grade),
warp, 50-inch.
scoured.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... 1$0.0883
1890............................. 1.0980
1891............................. 1.0980
1892............................. 1.0968
1893............................. 1.0937
1894............................. 1.0907
1895............................. 1.0846
1896............................. 1.0821
1897............................. 1.0784
1898............................. 1.0784
1899............................. 1.0821
1900............................. 1.0882
1901............................. 1.0907
1902............................. 1.0901
1903............................. 1.0894
1904............................. 1.0976
1905............................. 1.1072
1906............................. .1911
1907............................. .1960
1908............................. .1911
1909............................. .1891
1910............................. .1911
1910.
January...................... .1911
February................... .1911
March......................... .1911
April.......................... .1911
May............................ .1911
June........................... .1911
July............................ .1911
August....................... .1911
September................. .1911
October...................... .1911
Novem ber.............. .1911
December................. .1911

UOO.O 2$0.5151 2100.0 *$0.0758 *100.0 4$0.0680 4100.0 $0.5526
j1111.0 2.5938 2115.3 *.0833 *109.9 *.0735 4108.1 .7156
|i 111.0 2.6175 2119.9 * 0833 *109.9 *. 0735 4108.1 .6857
1109.6 2.6175 2119.9 3.0821 *108.3 4.0723 4106.3 .6119
1106.1 2.6056 2117.6 *.0809 *106.7 4.0711 4104.6 .5639
U02.7 *.4988 296.8 *.0760 *100.3 4.0686 4100.9 .4448
195.8 2.4342 2 84.3 *.0735 *97.0 4.0637 4 93.7 .3768
193.0 2.4156 2 80.7 *.0711 *93.8 4.0637 4 93.7 .3940
188.8 2.4235 2 82.2 *.0686 *90.5 4.0637 4 93.7 .4955
188.8 *.4552 2 88.4 *.0686 *90.5 4.0637 4193.7 .6150
193.0 2.4889 2 94.9 *.0706 *93.1 4.0657 4196.6 .6232
199.9 2.6096 2118.3 * 0760 *100.3 4.0711 4104.6 .6594
1102.7 2.5383 2104.5 *.0760 *100.3 4.0711 4104.6 .5453
1102.0 2.5581 2108.3 *.0754 *99.5 4.0705 4103.7 .5770
1101.2 2.5898 2114.5 *.0741 *97.8 4.0690 4101.5 .6546
1110.5 2.5839 2113.4 *.0809 *106.7 4.0764 4112.4 .6862
1121.4 2.6749 2131.0 .1867 6107.7 -*.1150 «114.9 .7591
U24.6 2.6868 2133.3 .1900 5109.6 «.1217 *121.6 .7181
7127.8 2.6531 2126.8 .1908 *110.1 3.1250 *124.9 .7181
7124.6 .6983 *126.8 .1967 *113.5 .3491 9124.9 .7163
7123.3 .7041 *127.9 .1908 *110.1 .3317 9118.7 .7376
7124.6 .6952 *126.3 .2000 *115.4 .3383 9121.1 .6862

100.0
129.5
124.1
110.7
102.0
80.5
68.2
71.3
89.7
111.3
112.8
119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9
129.6
133.5
124.2

7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6

130.9
127.1
127.1
*127.1
127.1
127.1
123.2
123.2
119 4
119.4
119.4
119.4

.7215
.7215
.7215
.7215
.7215
.6750
.6750
.6750
.6750
.6750
.6750
.6843

*131.1
*131.1
*131.1
*131.1
*131.1
*122.6
*122.6
*122.6
*122.6
*122.6
*122.6
*124.3

.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000

*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4
*115.4

.3491
.3491
.3491
.3491
.3491
.3491
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3352

9124.9
9124.9
9124.9
9124.9
9124.9
9124.9
9116.69116.6
9116.6
9116.6
9116.6
*120.0

.7234
.7021
.7021
.7021
.7021
.7021
.6809
.6809
.6596
.6596
.6596
.6596

1 Twenty-seven inch, Hamilton.
2 Franklin sackings, 6-4.
2 Cashmere, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
4 Alpaca, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; ‘average price for 1904, $0.1850.
* Danish cloth, cotton warp and worsted filling, 22-inch. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 348 and 349; average price for 1904, $0.1125.
7 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1905, $0.1862.
8 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $0.6983.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $0.3491.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

440

H .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Year or month.

Fuel and lighting.

Wool: Ohio,
Worsted yams:
medium fleece Worsted yarns: 2-32s, crossbred Candles: ada­ Coal: anthra­
(i and | grade), 2-40s, Austra­ stock, white, in mantine, 6s, cite, broken.
lian fine.
14-ounce.
scoured.
skeins.
Average Refer Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive. price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. ton. price.

Average, 1890-1899... $0.4564 100.0 $1.0183 100.0 i$1.0071 UOO.O $0.0782 100.0 $3.3669 100.0
1890............................. .6143 134.6 1.2263 120.4 U.2500 U24.1 .0800 102.3 3.4858 103.5
1891............................. .5820 127.5 1.2354 121.3 U.2625 U25.4 .0800 102.3 3.4433 102.3
1892............................. .5276 115.6 1.2175 119.6 11.1563 U14.8 .0800 102.3 3.6152 107.4
1893............................. .4620 101.2 1.1342 111.4 11.0833 1107.6 .0883 112.9 3.5628 105.8
1894............................. .3542 77.6 .9292 91.3 i .9188 191.2 .0867 110.9 3.4172 101.5
1895............................. .3280 71.9 .7425 72.9 i .7563 i 75.1 .0850 108.7 3.2833 97.5
1896............................. .3186 69.8 .7250 71.2 i .7500 i 74.5 .0850 1C8.7 3.2691 97.1
1897............................. .3999 87.6 .8517 83.6 1.8188 181.3 .0745 95.3 3.2465 96.4
1 8 9 8 . . . . ............... .4805 105.3 1.0308 101.2 11.0042 199.7 .0613 78.4 3.2108 95.4
1899............................. .-4966 108.8 1.0908 107.1 U.0708 U06.3 .0613 78.4 3.1350 93.1
1900............................. .5296 116.0 1.2050 118.3 11.1938 1118.5 .1059 135.4 3.2706 97.1
1901............................. .4315 94.5 1.0404 102.2 11.0283 1102.1 .1100 140.7 3.5508 105.5
1902............................. .4436 97.2 1.1229 110.3 21.1392 2113.1 .1100 140.7 3.7186 110.4
1903............................. .4658 102.1 1.1771 115.6 21.2125 2120.4 .0996 127.4 4.2496 126.2
1904............................. .4869 106.7 1.1875 116.6 21.1717 2116.3 .0900 115.1 4.2473 126.1
4.2134 125.1
.0858
1.2525
21.2733
1905............................. .5348 117.2 1.2933 123.0 21.3092 2126.4 .0766 109.7 4.2021 124.8
98.0
127.0
3130.0
1906............................. .5125 112.3
1907............................. .5158 113.0 1.2967 127.3 3 1.2933 2128.4 .0741 94.8 4.2040 124.9
1908............................. .4899 107.3 1.2300 120.8 2.8017 2114.4 .0731 93.5 4.2019 124.8
1909............................. .5429 119.0 1.3067 128.3 .9233 3131.8 .0725 92.7 4.2003 124.8
1910............................. .4884 107.0 1.2521 123.0 .8692 3124.1 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
1910.
January..................... .5556 121.7 1.3000 127.7 .9250 3132.0 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
February................... .5556 121.7 1.3000 127.7 .9250 3132.0 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
March......................... .5417 118.7 1.2750 125.2 .9250 3132.0 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
April.......................... .5139 112.6 1.2500 122.8 .9250 *132.0 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
M ay...:...................... .5000 109.6 1.2500 122.8 .8700 *124.2 .0725 97.7 4.2000 124.7
June........................... .4861 106.5 1.2500 122.8 .8700 *124.2 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
July............................ .4722 103.5 1.2500 122.8 .8700 *124.2 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
August....................... .4583 100.4 1.2500 122.8 .8200 *117.1 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
September................ .4444 97.4 1.2250 120.3 .8200 *117.1 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
October...................... .4444 97.4 1.2250 120.3 .8200 *117.1 .0725 92.7 4.2000 124.7
4.2000
November................. .4444 97.4 1.2250 120.3 .8200 *117.1 .0725 92.7 4.1994 124.7
124.7
December.................. *.4444 97.4 1.2250 120.3 .8400 *119.9 .0725 92.7
i Worsted yarns: 2-40s, XXX. white, in skeins.
* 2-40s, XXXX, white, in skeins.
• For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907,80.90.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

441

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

*(For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.

Year or month.

Coal; anthra­ Coal: anthra­
cite, egg.
cite, chestnut.

Coal: bitumi­
Coal:
Coal: anthra­ nous, bitumi­ nous, Georges
Georges
cite, stove. Creek (at mine). Creek (f. o. b.
New York
Harbor).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton. price. ton. price. ton. price. ton. price. ton. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1898.............................
1897 .............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November..................
December........1.........

$3.5953
3.3533
3.4758
3.9443
4.1673
3.5416
2.9793
3.5561
3.7366
3.5525
3.6458
3.9166
4.3270
4.4597
4.8251
4.8250
4.8226
4.8601
4.8204
4.8206
4.8198
4.8129

100.0
93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
98.9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
124.0
134.2
134.2
134.1
135.2
134.1
134.1
134.1
133.9

$3.5936
3.6142
3.7508
3.9803
3.8520
3.3903
3.0296
3.5490
3.7986
3.5993
3.3714
3.5843
4.0565
4.3673
4.8251
4.8227
4.8246
4.8629
4.8211
4.8203
4.7853
4.8126

100.0
100.6
104.4
110.8
107.2
94.3
84.3
98.8
105.7
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134.3
134.2
134.3
135.3
134.2
134.1
133.2
133.9

$3.7949
3.7108
3.8542
4.1532
4.1931
3.6003
3.1264
3.7942
4.0146
3.7978
3.7047
3.9451
4.3224
4.4627
4.8245
4.8246
4.8226
4.8615
4.8215
4.8226
4.8196
4.8178

100.0
97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
94.9
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
104.0
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1
127.1
127.0
127.0

$0.8887
.8625
.9500
.9000
.9208
.8208
.7750
.9000
.8333
.9125
1.0125
1.2000
1.3375
2.1250
2.3958
1.7500
1.6000
1.5500
1.5375
1.4417
1.3792
1.4083

100.0
97.1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174.4
173.0
162.2
155.2
158.5

$2.7429
2.9875
3.0313
2.9313
2.9500
2.7375
2.8125
2.6625
2.4417
2.1750
2.7000
2.9083
2.9250
4.0583
4.4375
3.1958
3.1500
3.1250
3.2375
3.0792
3.0517
3.0467

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4493
4.5296
4.6169
4.7233
4.8318
4.9054
4.9500
4.9489
4.9500

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.0
128.4
131.4
134.4
136.4
137.7
137.6
137.7

4.9186
4.9500
4.9500
4.4479
4.5455
4.6149
4.6988
4.8500
4.9260
4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

136.9
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.5
128.4
130.8
135.0
137.1
137.7
137.7
137.7

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4498
4.5337
4.6276
4.7238
4.8498
4.9294
4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

130.4
130.4
130.4
117.3
119.5
121.9
124.5
127.8
129.9
130.4
130.4
130.4

1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4500
1.4000
1.4000
1.3500
1.4000
1.4000
1.4500
1.4500

157.5
157.5
157.5
157.5
163.2
157.5
157.5
151.9
157.5
157.5
163.2
163.2

3.1100 113.4
3.1000 113.0
3.0000 109.4
3.1000 113.0
3.0000 109.4
3.1000 113.0
2.9500 107.6
3.0000 109.4
3.0500 111.2
2.9500 107.6
3.1000 113.0
3.1000 113.0




100.0
108.9
110.5
106.9
107.6
99.8
102.5
97.1
89.0
79.3
98.4
106.0
106.6
148.0
161.8
116.5
114.8
113.9
118.0
112.3
111.3
111.1

442

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.
Coal: bitumi­ Coke: Connous, Pittsburg nellsville, fur­ Matches: par­
lor, domestic.
(Youghiogheny).
nace.
Year or month.

Petroleum:
crude.

Petroleum: re­
fined, for
export.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price 144 tive price per tive price per Rela­
tive
boxes
bushel. price. ton. price. (200s). price. barrel. price. gallon. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0643 1C0.0 $1.6983 100.0 $1.7563 100.0 $0.9102 100.0 $0.0649 100.0
1890............................. .0664 103.3 2.0833 122.7 1.9583 111.5 .8680 95.4
112.9
1891............................. .0789 122.7 1.8750 110.4 1.7500 99.6 .6697 73.6 .0733 105.5
.0685
1892............................. .0749 116.5 1.8083 106.5 1.7500 99.6 .5564 61.1 .0609 93.8
1893............................. .0758 117.9 1.4792 87.1 1.7500 99.6 .6399 70.3 .0522 80.4
1894............................. .0634 98.6 1.0583 62.3 1.6667
.8389 92.2 .0515 79.4
1895............................. .0600 93.3 1.3250 78.0 1.6875 94.9 1.3581 149.2 .0711 109.6
96.1
1896............................. .0573 89.1 1.8750 110.4 1.7500 99.6 1.1789 129.5 .0702 108.2
1897............................. .0570 88.6 1.6167 95.2 1.7500 99.6
86.5
1898............................. .0565 87.9 1.6771 98.8 1.7500 99.6 .7869 100.2 .0597 92.0
.9118
.0628 96.8
1899............................. .0531 82.6 2.1854 128.7 1.7500 99.6 1.2934 142.1 .0791 121.9
1900............................. .0752 117.0 2.6458 155.8 1.7500 99.6 1.3521 148.5 .0854 131.6
1901............................. .0752 117.0 1.9625 115.6 1.7500
1.2095
1902............................. .0787 122.4 2.6875 158.2 1.5833 99.6 1.2369 132.9 .0749 115.4
90.1
135.9 .0734
1903............................. .0925 143.9 2.9125 171.5 1.5000 85.4 1.5886 174.5 .0860 113.1
1904............................. .0852 132.5 1.6375 96.4 1.5000 85.4 1.6270 178.8 .0826 132.5
127.3
1905............................. .0800 124.4 2.2875 134.7 1.5000 85.4 1.3842 152.1 .0722 111.2
1906............................. .0789 122.7 2.6750 157.5 1.5000 85.4 1.5975 175.5 .0762 117.4
1907............................. .0824 128.1 2.8250 166.3 l.fiOOO 85.4 1.7342 190.5
1908............................. .0851 132.3 1.7083 100.6 1.5000 85.4 1.7800 195.6 .0824 127.0
.0869 133.9
1909............................. .0809 125.8 2.0021 117.9 1.5000 85.4 1.6633 182.7 .0835 128.7
1910............................. .0805 125.2 1.9688 115.9 1.5000 85.4 1.3442 147.7 .0770 118.6
1910.
January..................... .0800 124.4 2.6250 154.6 1.5000 85.4 1.4300 157.1 .0790 121.7
February................... .0800 124.4 2.5000 147.2 1.5000 85.4
March........................ .0800 124.4 2.5500 150.2 1.5000 85.4 1.4000 153.8 .0790 121.7
1.4000 153.8 .0790 121.7
April.......................... .0800 124.4 2.1250 125.1 1.5000 85.4 1.4000 153.8 .0790 121.7
May............................ .0800 124.4 1.8750 110.4 1.5000 85.4 1.3500 148.3 .0775 119.4
June........................... .0800 124.4 1.8250 107.5 1.5000 85.4 1.3500 148.3 .0775 119.4
July............................ .0800 124.4 1.8250 107.5 1.5000 85.4 1.3000 142.8 .0765 117.9
August..................... .0800 124.4 1.8250 107.5 1.5000 85.4 1.3000 142.8 .0765 117.9
September................. .0800 124.4 1.7000 100.1 1.5000 85.4 1.3000 142.8 .0765 117.9
October...................... .0800 124.4 1.6000 94.2 1.5000 85.4
.0750 115.6
November................. .0813 126.4 1.5500 91.3 1.5000 85.4 1.3000 142.8 .0740 114.0
December................. .0851 132.3 1.6250 95.7 1.5000 85.4 1.3000 142.8 .0740 114.0
1.3000 142.8




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

443

H .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table L]
Fuel and light­
ing.
Year or month.

Metals and implements.

Petroleum: re­
fined, 150° fire Augers: extra, Axes: M. C. O.,
1-inch.
Yankee.
test, water
white.

Bar iron: best
refined, from
store (Philadel­
phia market).

Bar iron: com­
mon to best re­
fined, from mill
(Pittsburg mar­
ket).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price tive price tive price per tive price per tive
gallon. price. each. price. each. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0890 100.0 i $0.1608 UOO.O $0.4693 100.0 $0.0164 100.0 *$0.0145 2 100.0
1890............................. .0995 111.8 1.1900 U18.2 .5650 120 4 .0205 125.0 2.0184 2 126.9
1891............................. .0879 98.8 1.1900 1118.2 .5550 118.3 .0190 115.9 2.0171 2 117.9
1892............................. .0794 89.2 1.1900 U18.2 .5000 106.5 .0187 114.0 2.0164 2 113.1
1893............................. .0725 81.5 1.1800 1111.9 .5000 106.5 .0170 103.7 *0150 *103.4
1894............................. .0725 81.5 1.1542 195.9 .4733 100.9 .0134 81.7 2.0120 *82.8
1895............................. .0922 103.6 1.1333 182.9 .4600 98.0 .0144 87.8 2.0125 *86.2
1896............................. .1039 116.7 1.1394 186.7 , .4150 88.4 .0140 85.4 2.0122 *84.1
1897............................. .0900 101.1 1.1425 188.6 .3938 83.9 .0131 79.9 2.0110 *75.9
1898............................. .0909 102.1 1.1425 188.6 .3750 79.9 .0128 78.0 2.0107 *73.8
1899*............................. .1015 114.0 1.1465 191.1 .4555 97.1 .0207 126.2 2.0195 *134.5
1900............................. .1188 133.5 1.2000 1124.4 .4831 102.9 .0196 119.5 2.0215 *148.3
1901............................. .1096 123.1 1.1700 U05.7 .4166 88.8 .0184 112.2 2.0180 *124.1
1902............................. .1108 124.5 1.1800 1111.9 .4833 103.0 .0213 129.9 2.0194 *133.8
1903............................. .1363 153.1 1.2310 U43.7 .5050 107.6 .0200 122.0 2.0177 *122.1
1904............................. .1367 153.6 1.2400 1149.3 .5788 123.3 .0172 104.9 2.0148 *102.1
1905............................. .1263 141.9 1.3067 U90.7 .6323 134.7 .0192 117.1 2.0187 *129.0
1906............................. .1300 146.1 1.3567 1221.8 .6715 143.1 .0198 120.7 .0169 * 126.8
1907............................. 1346 151.2 1.3600 1223.9 .6800 144.9 .0211 128.7 .0175 3 131.3
1908............................. .1350 151.7 .4200 ^223.9 .6800 144.9 .0170 103.7 .0146 *109.5
1909............................. .1225 137.6 .3723 4198.5 .6683 142.4 .0176 107.3 .0146 *109.5
1910............................. .1079 121.2 .3660 4195.1 .6813 145.2 .0185 112.8 .0155 *116.2
1910.
January...................... .1175 132.0 .3300 4175.9 .6250 133.2 .0196 119.5 .0170 *127.5
February................... .1175 132.0 .3300 4175.9 .6250 133.2 .0196 119.5 .0170 *127.5
March......................... .1175 132.0 .3300 4175.9 .6250 133.2 .0196 119.5 .0168 *126.0
April........................... .1175 132.0 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0190 115.9 .0165 *123.7
May............................. .1175 132.0 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0186 113.4 .0158 *118.5
June........................... .1175 132.0 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0186 113.4 .0155 *116.2
July............................ .1075 120.8 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0186 113.4 .0150 *112.5
August....................... .1025 115.2 .3780
.7000 149.2 .0176 107.3 .0148 *111.0
September................. .1025 115.2 ,3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0176 107.3 .0145 *108.8
4201.5
October...................... .0925 103.9 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0176 107.3 .0145 *108.8
November................. .0925 103.9 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0176 107.3 .0145 *108.8
December.................. .0925 103.9 .3780 4201.5 .7000 149.2 .0176 107.3 .0140 *105.0
1 Augers: extra, three-fourths inch.
* Bar iron: best refined, from mill (Pittsburg market).
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1905, $0.0172.
4 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $0.42.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

444

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.)1
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Barb wire:
galvanized.

Butts: loose
pin, wrought Chisels: extra, Copper: ingot, Copper: sheet,
steel, 3£ by 3J socket firmer, electrolytic. hot-rolled (base
1-inch.
sizes).
inch.

Average Relar Average Relar Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price tive price tive priceper tive priceper tive
100 lbs. price. per pair. price. each. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892...........................
1893.............................
1894........................
1895.........................
1896.............................
W .............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
A p r il......................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December.................

$2.5261
3.5665
3.2189
2.7662
2.5188
2.1750
2.2458
1.9625
1.8000
1.8375
3.1696
3.3942
3.0375
2.9542
2.7375
2.5075
2.3829
2.4283
2.6342
2.6217
2.3592
2.1325

100.0
141.2
127.4
109.5
99.7
86.1
88.9
77.7
71.3
72.7
125.5
134.4
120.2
116.9
108.4
99.3
94.3
96.1
104.3
103.8
93.4
84.4

i$0.0316
1.0353
1.0353
1.0306
1.0311
1.0303
1.0317
1.0329
1.0306
1.0292
1.0292
1.0400
1.0369
1.0400
1.0400
1.0400
1.0400
1.0400
1.0400
.0900
.0927
.1075

2.3300
2.3300
2.3300
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000

92.2
92.2
92.2
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
79.2
79.2
79.2
79.2
79.2

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1100
.1100
.1106
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100

ilOO.O $0.1894 100.0 2$0.1234 2100.0 $0.1659
1111.7 .2100 110.9 3.1575 2127.6 .2275 100.0
137.1
1111.7 .2100 110.9 2.1305 2105.8 .1900 114.5
196.8 .2100 110.9 2.1154 293.5 .1600 96.4
198.4 .1933 102.1 2.1093 288.6 .1500
195.9 .1733 91.5 2.0948 276.8 .1425 90.4
1100.3 .1710 90.3 2.1075 287.1 .1425 85.9
85.9
1104.1 .1793 94.7 2.1097 288.9 .1425 85.9
196.8 .1710 90.3 2.1132 2917 .1463 88.2
192.4 .1720 90.8 2.1194 296.8 .1400 84.4
192.4 .2038 107.6 2.1767 2143.2 .2175 131.1
U26.6 .2417 127.6 2.1661 2134.6 .2067 124.6
1116.8 .2300 121.4 *.1687 2136.7 .2088 125.9
1126.6 .2700 142.6 2.1201 2 97.3 .1783 107.5
1126.6 .2800 147.8 2.1368 *110.9 .1917 115.6
1126.6 .3000 158.4 2.1311 2106.2 .1800 108.5
1126.6 .3967 209.5 2.1576 2127.7 .1992 120.1
1126.6 .4188 221.1 2.1961 2158.9 .2375 143.2
1126.6 .4438 234.3 2 2125 2172.2 .2792 168.3
4126.6 .3750 198.0 .1334 <110.5 .1792 108.0
3130.4 .3319 175.2 .1311 <108.6 .1792 108.0
3151.2 .3475 183.5 .1291 <106.9 .1803 108.7
3140.7
3140.7
3140.7
3154.7
3154 7
*154.7
3154.7
3154.7
3154.7
3154.7
3154.7
3154.7

.2500
.2500
.2500
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800
.3800

132.0
132.0
132.0
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6

.1375
.1363
.1338
.1325
.1245
.1281
.1238
.1256
.1263
.1250
.1275
.1288

<113.9
<112.9
<110.8
<109.8
<103.1
<106.1
<102.6
<104.0
<104.6
<103.6
<105.6
<106.7

.1800
.1800
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1665 1
1
.1665 1

l
1

1 Butts: loose joint, cast, 3 by 3 inch.
*Copper: ingot, lake.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907,10.09.
<For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $0.2078.




108.5
108.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
100.4
100.4

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

445

Table U .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.)
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Copper wire:
bare.

Door knobs:
steel, bronzeplated.

Files: 8-inch
Hammers:
mill bastard. Maydole No. 1£.

Lead: pig.

Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price tive price per Rela­
tive
pound. price. pair. price. dozen. price. each. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. 10.1464 100.0 $0.1697 100.0
1890............................. .1875 128.1 .1660 97.8
1891............................. .1650 112.7 .1660 97.8
1892.;......................... .1438 98.2 .1660 97.8
1893............................. .1350 92.2 .1660 97.8
1894............................. .1156 79.0 .1660 97.8
1895............................. .1238 84.6 .1953 115.1
1896............................. .1356 92.6 .1733 102.1
1897............................. .1375 93.9 .1660 97.8
1898............................. .1375 93.9 .1660 97.8
1899............................. .1825 124.7 .1660 97.8
1900............................. .1800 123.0 .1813 106.8
1901............................. .1815 124.0 .1900 112.0
1902............................. .1326 90.6 .2153 126.9
1903............................. .1497 102.3 .2250 132.6.
1904............................. .1438 98.2 .2458 144.8
1905............................. .1702 116.3 .3625 213.6
1906............................. .2108 144.0 .4408 259.8
1907............................. .2402 164.1 .4500 265.2
1908............................. .1519 103.8 .4000 235.7
1909............................. .1483 101.3 .4000 235.7
1910............................. .1435 98.0 .4750 279.9
1910.
January..................... .1500 102.5 .4000 235.7
February................... .1500
March........................ .1475 102.5 .4000 235.7
100.8 .4000 235.7
April.......................... .1475 100.8 .5000 294.6
May............................ ■ .1425 97.3 .5000 294.6
June........................... .1425 97.3 .5000 294.6
July............................ .1400 95.6 .5000 294.6
August....................... .1400 95.6 .5000 294.6
September................. .1400 95.6 .5000 294.6
October...................... .1400 95.6 .5000 294.6
November................. .1400 95.6 .5000 294.6
December.................. .1425 97.3 .5000 294.6




$0.8527
.9100
.8917
.8717
.8667
.8300
.8133
.7775
.8050
.8250
.9358
1.0900
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
1.4000
1.0367
1.0217
.9975
.9542
.9333
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300

100.0 $0.3613 100.0 $0.0381
106.7 .3500 96.9 .0440
104.6 .3500 96.9 .0437
102.2. .3500 96.9 .0413
101.6 .3500 96.9 .0374
97.3 .3500 96.9 .0331
95.4 .3525 97.6 .0326
91.2 .3800 105.2 .0300
94.4 .3800 105.2 .0358
96.8 .3633 100.6 .0380
109.7 .3867 107.0 .0448
127.8 .4189 115.9 .0445
123.1 .4233 117.2 .0438
123.1 .4233 117.2 .0411
123.1 .4660 129.0 .0428
122.0 .4660 129.0 .0443
121.6 .4660 129.0 .0479
119.8 .4660 129.0 .0588
117.0 .4660 129.0 .0552
111.9 .4660 129.0 .0422
109.5 .4660 129.0 .0429
109.1 .4690 129.8 .0448

100.0
115.5
114.7
108.4
98.2
86.9
85.6
78.7
94.0
99.7
117.6
116.8
115.0
107.9
112.3
116.3
125.7
154.3
144.9
110.8
112.6
117.6

109.1 .4660 129.0
109.1 .4660 129.0
109.1 .4660 129.0
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 *.4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1
109.1 .4700 130.1

124.1
123.6
122.0
115.7
115.5
115.0
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
118.1

.0473
.0471
.0465
.0441
.0440
.0438
.0440
.0440
.0440
.0440
.0440
.0450

■446

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOB.

II.—
AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES O
P
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Lead pipe.

Locks: com­
mon mortise.

Nails: cut, 8- Nails: wire, 8- Pig iron: Bes­
penny, fence penny, fence
semer.
and common. and common.

Average Bela* Average Rela­ Average RelaAverage
price per tive price tive price per tive Average Reten­ price per Rela­
price per tive
tive
100 lbs. price. each. price. 100 lbs price. 100 lbs. price. ton. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
JoJy— ........................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$4.8183
5.4000
5.6000
5.1833
5.0000
4.4333
4.2000
4.1000
4.3167
4.6000
5.3500
5.1208
5.0479
5.2167
5.1958
4.7950
5.2250
6.4208
6.7050
4.7400
4.8206
5.0606

100.0 $0.0617 100.0 $1.8275 100.0 $2.1618
$13.7783
112.1 .0830* 101.6 2.2875 125.2 2.9646 100.0 18.8725 100.0
137.1
116.2 . .0830 101.6 1.8333 100.3 2.4667 114.1 15.9500 137.0
107.6 .0830 101.6 1.7583 96.2 2.1896 101.3 14.3667 115.8
104.3
103.8 .0830 101.6 1.6813 92.0 1.9917 92.1 12.8692 93.4
92.0 .0818 100.1 1.5271 83.6 1.6521 76.4 11.3775 82.6
87.2 .0833 102.0 1.9250 105.3 2.1177 98.0 12.7167 92.3
85.1 .0867 106.1 2.7125 148.4 2.9250 135.3 12.1400 88.1
89.6 .0833 102.0 1.3329 72.9 1.4854 68.7 10.1258 73.5
95.5 .0750 91.8 1.1927 65.3 1.4375 66.5 10.3317 75.0
111.0 .0750 91.8 2.0240 110.8 2.3875 110.4 19.0333 138.1
106.3 .0788 96.5 2.2500 123.1 2.6333 121.8 19.4925 141.5
104.8 .0750 91.8 2.1125 115.6 2.3646 109.4 15.9350 115.7
108.3 .0850 104.0 2.1333 116.7 2.1042 97.3 20.6742 150.0
107.8 .0900 110.2 2.1958 120.2 2.0750 96.0 18.9758 137.7
99.5 .1025 125.5 1.8188 99.5 1.9063 88.2 13.7558 99.8
108.4 .1496 183.1 1.8250 99.9 1.8958 87.7 16.3592 118.7
133.3 .1808 221.3 1.9313 105.7 1.9583 90.6 19.5442 141.8
139.2 .2000 244.8 2.1625 118.3 2.1167 97.9 22.8417 165.8
98.4 .1660 203.2 1.9500 106.7 2.1000 97.1 17.0700 123.9
100.1 .1593 195.0 1.8688 102.3 1.9167 88.7 17.4083 126.3
105.0 .1650 202.0 1.8438 100.9 1.8875 87.3 17.1925 124.8

5.2300
5.4600
5.4600
5.2200
4.9800
4.9800
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000

108.5
113.3
113.3
108.3
103.4
103.4
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7.
101.7
101.7




.1500,
.1500
.1500
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700

183.6
183.6
183.6
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
206.1
208.1
208.1

1.9500
1.9000
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.8750
1.8750
1.7750
1.7500
1.7500
1.7000
1.7000

106.7
104.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
102.6
102.6
97.1
95.8
95.8
93.0
93.0

1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000

90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3

19.9000
19.3400
18.6000
18.3400
17.5200
16.6200
16.4000
16.0900
15.9000
15.9000
15.8000
15.9000

144.4
140.4
135.0
133.1
127.2
120.6
119.0
116.8
115.4
115.4
114.7
115.4

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

447

II.—
AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles
see Table I.)
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Pig iron:
Pig iron: gray Planes: Bailey
Pig iron:
foundry No. 1. foundry No. 2. forge, south­
No. 5, jack
ern, coke.
plane.

Quicksilver.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price tive price per tive
ton. price. ton. price. ton. price. each. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $14.8042
1890............................. 18.4083
1891............................. 17.5208
1892............................. 15.7492
1893............................. 14.5167
1894............................. 12.6642
1895............................. 13.1033
1896............................. 12.9550
1897............................. 12.1008
1898............................. 11.6608
1899............................. 19.3633
1900............................. 19.9800
1901............................. 15.8683
1902............................. 22.1933
1903............................. 19.9158
1904............................. 15.5725
1905............................. 17.8850
1906............................. 20.9825
1907............................. 23.8950
1908............................. 17.7000
1909............................. 17.8058
1910............................. 17.3617
1910.
January...................... 19.5000
February................... 19.1900
March......................... 18.5000
April........................... 18.2500
May............................ 17.5000
June........................... 17.1500
July............................ 16.7500.
August....................... 16.5000
September................. 16.5000
October...................... 16.3100
November................. 16.1900
December................. 16.0000




100.0
124.3
118.4
106.4
98.1
85.5
88.5
87.5
81.7
78.8
130.8
135.0
107.2
149.9
134.5
105.2
120.8
141.7
161.4
119.6
120.3
117.3

$13.0533
17.1563
15.3958
13.7729
12.4396
10.8458
11.6750
11.7708
10.1000
10.0271
17.3500
18.5063
14.718S
21.2396
19.1417
13.6250
16.4104
19.2667
23.8688
16.2500
16.4104
15.9833

100.0
131.4
117.9
105.5
95.3
83.1
89.0
90.2
77.4
76.8
132.9
141.8
112.8
162.7
146.6
104.4
125.7
147.6
182.9
124.5
125.7
122.4

$11.0892
14.5000
12.5167
11.7917
10.6354
8.9375
10.3229
9.6042
8.8021
8.7188
15.0625
15.6042
12.5521
17.6042
16.2292
11.6771
14.48%
16.5313
20.9875
14.3750
14.9375
14.5729

100.0
130.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
78.6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
1C5.3
130.7
149.1
189.3
129.6
134.7
131.4

$1.3220
1.4200
1.4200
1.4200
1.4200
1.3783
1.2417
1.2300
1.2300
1.2300
1.2300
1.4142
1.4600
1.5100
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.7100
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.6575

100.0 $0.5593
107.4 .7300
107.4 .6283
107.4 .5642
107.4 .5213
104.3 .4792
93.9 .5133
93.0 .4979
93.0 .5157
93.0 .5425
93.0 .6004
107.0 .6769
110.4 .6629
114.2 .6458
115.7 .6342
115.7 .5900
115.7 .5446
129.3 .5517
115.7 .5429
115.7 .6100
115.7 .6317
125.4 .6492

100.0
130.5
112.3
100.9
93.2
85.7
91.8
89.0
92.2
97.0
107.3
121.0
118.5
115.5
113.4
105.5
97.4
98.6
97.1
109.1
112.9
116.1

131.7
129.6
125.0
123.3
118.2
115.8
113.1
111.5
111.5
110.2
109.4
108.1

17.9000
17.9000
17.1500
16.7750
16.4000
16.0250
15.4000
15.1500
14.7750
14.7750
14.9000
14.6500

137.1
137.1
131.4
128.5
125.6
122.8
118.0
116.1
113.2
113.2
114.1
112.2

16.6250
16.0000
15.7500
14.8750
14.3750
14.2500
14.1250
13.8750
13.7500
13.7500
13.7500
13.7500

149.9
144.3
142.0
134.1
129.6
128.5
127.4
125.1
124.0
124.0
124.0
124.0

1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000

115.7
115.7
115.7
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6

128.7
123.4
123.4
118.0
118.0
114.4
114.4
114.4
111.7
111.7
111.7
102.8

.7200
.6900
.6900
.6600
.6600
.6400
.6400
.6400
.6250
.6250
.6250
.5750

448

BULLETIN OB THE BTJBEAU OB LABOR.

Table ML—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

(For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Saws: cross­
cut, Disston
No. 2.

Saws: hand, Shovels: Ames
Disston No. 7.
No. 2.

Silver: bar,
fine.

Spelter: west­
ern.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
tive
each. price. dozen. price. dozen. price. ounce. price. price per price.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.....................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899... .•......................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July. ..........................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$1.6038
1.6038
1.C038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$12,780
12.400
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950

100.0
112.7
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

$7.8658
7.8700
7.8700
7.8700
7.8700
7.4500
7.4500
7.8100
7.9300
7.9300
8.6075
9.1200
9.1200
9.3550
8.0200
7.6533
7.6200
7.6200
7.8400
7.8217
7.6200
7.7383

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
94.7
94.7
99.3
100.8
100.8
109.4
115.9
115.9
118.9
102.0
97.3
96.9
96.9
99.7
99.4
96.9
98.4

$0.74899
1.05329
.99034
.87552
.78219
.64043
.66268
.68195
.60775
.59065
.60507
.62095
.59703
.52816
.54208
.57844
.61008
.67379
.65979
.53496
.52164
.54245

1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

7.6200
7.6200
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.4500
7.4500

96.9
96.9
99.7
99.7
99.7
-99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
94.7
94.7

.53080
.52229
.52105
.53894
.54524
.54182
.54925
.53935
.54158
.56250
.56384
.55278




100.0 $0.0452 100.0
140.6 .0554 122.6
132.2 .0508 112.4
116.9 .0465 102.9
104.4 .0410 90.7
85.5 .0355 78.5
88.5 .0362 80.1
91.0 .0401 88.7
81.1 .0421 93.1
78.9 .0453 100.2
80.8
0588 130.1
82.9 .0442 97.8
79.7 .0405 89.6
70.5 .0487 107.7
72.4 .0558 123.5
77.2 .0515 113.9
81.5 .0592 131.0
90.0 .0620 137.2
88.1 .0617 136.5
71.4 .0475 105.1
69.6 .0551 121.9
72.4 .0563 124.6.
70.9
69.7
69.6
72.0
72.8
72.3
73.3
72.0
72.3
75.1
75.3
73.8

.0628
.0613
.0575
.0560
.051o
.0530
.0520
.0525
.0540
.0560
.0595
.0600

138.9
135.6
127.2
123.9
113.9
117.3
115.0
116.2
119.5
123.9
131.6
132.7,

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

449

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.J
Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Steel billets.

Steel rails.

Steel sheets:
black, No. 27.

Tin: pig.

Tin plates: do­
mestic, Besse­
mer, coke.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive.
ton. price. ton. price. pound. price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $21.5262
1890............................. 30.4075
1891............................. 25.3292
1892............................. 23.6308
1893............................. 20.4358
1894............................. 16.5783
1895............................. 18.4842
1896............................. 18.8333
1897............................. 15.0800
1898............................. 15.3058
1899............................. 31.1167
1900............................. 25.0625
1901............................. 24.1308
1902............................. 30.5992
1903............................. 27.9117
1904............................. 22.1792
1905............................. 24.0283
1906............................. 27.4475
1907............................. 29.2533
1908............................. 26.3125
1909............................. 24.6158
1910............................. 25.3800
1910.
January..................... 27.5000
February................... 27.5000
March......................... 27.5000
April.......................... 26.7500
May............................ 26.1200
June........................... 25.3000
July............................ 24.8700
August....................... 24.5000
September................. 24.4000
October...................... 23.7500
November................. 23.3700
December.................. 23.0000

100.0
141.5
117.7
109.8
94.9
77.0
85.9
87.5
70.1
71.1
144.6
116.4
112.1
142.1
129.7
103.0
111.6
127.5
135.9
122.2
114.4
117.9

$26.0654
31.7792
29.9167
30.0000
28.1250
24.0000
24.3333
28.0000
18.7500
17.6250
28.1250
32.2875
27.3333
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000

127.8
127.8
127.8
124.3
121.3
117.5
115.5
113.8
113.4
110.3
108.6
106.8

28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000

100.0 i$0.0224 100.0 $0.1836 100.0 2$3.4148
121.9
.2121 115.5
114.8
.2025 110.3
115.1
.2037 110.9
.2002 109.0
107.9
92.1 .0235 104.9 .1812 98.7
93.4 .0244 108.9 .1405 76.5
107.4 .0215 96.0 .1330 72.4 3.4354
71.9 .0195 87.1 .1358 74.0 3.1823
67.6 .0190 84.8 .1551 84.5 2.8500
107.9 .0267 119.2 .2721 148.2 4.1913
123.9 .0293 130.8 .3006 163.7 4.6775
104.9 .0315 140.6 .2618 142.6 4.1900
107.4 .0291 129.9 .2648 144.2 4.1233
107.4 .0260 116.1 .2816 153.4 3.9400
107.4 .0210 93.8 .2799 152.5 3.6025
107.4 .0222 99.1 .3127 170.3 3.7067
107.4 .0237 105.8 .3922 213.6 3.8608
107.4 .0250 111.6 .3875 211.1 4.0900
107.4 .0240 107.1 .2942 160.2 3.8900
107.4 .0223 99.6 .2958 161.1 3.7367
107.4 .0227 101.3 .3420 186.3 3.8400
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

.0235
.0235
.0235
.0235
.0235
.0235
.0225
.0220
.0213
.0215
.0220
.0215

104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
100.4
98.2
95.1
96.0
98.2
96.0

i Average price for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899.
860260°—B u ll. 93—11-----10




.3315
.3250
.3288
.3270
.3270
.3290
.3290
.3320
.3620
.3650
.3680
.3795

180.6
177.0
179.1
178.1
178.1
179.2
179.2
180.8
197.2
198.8
200.4
206.7

100.6

100.6
93.2
83.5
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8
113.9
109.4
112.5

3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5
3.8400 112.5

* Average price for 1896-1899.

450

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I — AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber
and building
materials.

Metals and implements.
Year or month.

Trowels:
Wood screws:
M.C. O., brick, Vises: solid box, 1-inch, No. 10,
50-pound.
lOJ-inch.
flat head.

Zinc: sheet.

Brick: common
domestic.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price tive price tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
each. price. each. price. gross. price. 100 lbs. price. M. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.3400 100.0 $3.9009 100.0 $0.1510 100.0 $5.3112
1890............................. .3400 100.0 4.1400 106.1 .1970 130.5 6.0542 100.0 $5.5625 100.0
6.5625
1891............................. .3400 100.0 4.1400 106.1 .2000 132.5 5.7192 114.0 5.7083 118.0
1892............................. .3400 100.0 4.2550 109.1 .2100 139.1 5.4900 107.7 5.7708 102.6
103.4
103.7
1893............................. .3400 100.0 4.1975 107.6 .2100 139.1 4.9942 94.0 5.8333 104.9
1894............................. .3400 100.0 4.0567 104.0 .1558 103.2 3.9500 74.4 5.0000 89.9
1895............................. .3400 100.0 3.7933 97.2 .1117 74.0 4.5217
5.3125 95.5
1896............................. .3400 100.0 3.7200 95.4 .1033 68.4 4.9400 85.1 5.0625 91.0
93.0
1897............................. .3400 100.0 3.5000 89.7 .0850 56.3 4.9400 93.0 4.9375 88.8
1898............................. .3400 100.0 3.2800 84.1 .0918 60.8 5.4983 103.5 5.7500 103.4
1899............................. .3400 100.0 3.9267 100.7 .1452 96.2 7.0042 131.9 5.6875
1900............................. .3400 100.0 4.2683 109.4 .1820 120.5 6.0950 114.8 5.2500 102.2
94.4
1901............................. .3400 100.0 5.0200 128.7 .1045 69.2 5.5583 104.7 5.7656 103.7
1902............................. .3400 100.0 5.1300 131.5 .0952 63.0 5.7308 107.9 5.3854 96.8
1903............................. .3400 100.0 5.1767 132.7 .1093 72.4 6.0183 113.3 5.9063 106.2
1904............................. .3400 100.0 4.2550 109.1 .0945 62.6 5.6092 105.6 7.4948 134.7
1905............................. .3400 100.0 4.1400 106.1 .1055 69.9 6.8250 128.5 8.1042 145.7
1906............................. .3400 100.0 4.5208 115.9 .1055 69.9 7.1725 135.0 8.5469 153.7
1907............................. .3400 100.0 5.7500 147.4 .1219 80.7 7.4858 140.9 6.1563 110.7
1908.........................
.3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1000 66.2 6.4400 121.3 5.1042 91.8
1909............................. .3400 100.0 4.6000 U55.2 .1157 76.6 6.6425 125.1 6.3854 114.8
1910............................. .3400 100.0 4.4850 1151.3 .1488 98.5 7.0192 132.2 5.7188 102.8
1910.
January..................... .3400 100.0 4.6000 U55.2 .1350 89.4 7.3600 138.6 6.7500 121.3
February................... .3400 100.0 4.6000 1155.2 .1500 99.3 6.9500 130.9 6.8750 123.6
March......................... .3400 100.0 4.6000 U55.2 .1500 99.3 7.1300 134.2 6.0000 107.9
April.......................... .3400 100.0 4.6000 1155.2 .1500 99.3 7.1300 134.2 6.0000 107.9
May............................ .3400 100.0 4.6000 1155.2 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 6.0000 107.9
June........................... .3400 100.0 4.6000 1155.2 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 5.8750 105.6
July............................ .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 5.7500 103.4
August....................... .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 5.1250 92.1
September................. .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 5.0000 89.9
October...................... .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 6.9000 129.9 5.0000 89.9
November................. .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 7.1300 134.2 5.2500 94.4
December.................. .3400 100.0 4.3700 1147.4 .1500 99.3 7.1300 134.2 5.0000 89.9
1 Price quoted by another firm. For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349: average
price for 1907, $4.37.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

451

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.
Year or month.

Carbonate of Cement: Port­
lead: American, land, domestic.
in oil.

Doors: western
Cement:
Rosendaie. white pine (Chi­
cago market).

Hemlock.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive priceper tive priceper tive priceper tive priceper tive
pound. price. barrel. price. barrel. price. door. price. M feet. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.0577 100.0 i $1.9963 100.0
................ .0638 110.6
1890
1891............................. .0650 112.7
1892............................. .0658 114.0
1893............................. .0609 105.5
1894............................. .0524 90.8
1895............................. .0525 91.0 1.9688 98.6
1896............................. .0517 89.6 2.0000 100.2
.0535 92.7 1.9667 98.5
1897....................
1898............................. .0543 94.1 1.9979 100.1
1899............................. .0568 98.4 2.0479 102.6
1900............................. .0625 108.3 2.1583 108.1
1901............................. .0576 99.8 1.8896 94.7
1902............................. .0539 93.4 1.9500 97.7
1903............................. .0615 106.6 2.0292 101.6
1904............................. .0598 103.6 1.4604 73.2
1905............................. .0633 109.7 1.4271 71.5
1906............................. .0690 119.6 1.5750 78.9
1907............................. .0697 120.8 1.6458 82.4
1903............................. .0650 112.7 1.4600 73.1
1909............................. .0637 110.4 1.4117 70.7
1910............................. .0692 119.9 1.4483 72.5
1910.
January..................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
February................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
March......................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
April.......................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
May............................ .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
June........................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
July............................ .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
August....................... .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
September................. .0686 118.9 1.4300 71.6
October...................... .0711 123.2 1.4300 71.6
November................. .0711 123.2 1.5400 77.1
December.................. .0711 123.2 1.5400 77.1

$0.8871
1.0542
.9417
.9688
.8875
.9271
.8521
.8333
.7521
.7604
.8938
1.0167
1.0188
.8646
.8896
.8021
.8333
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9458

100.0
118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
96.1
93.9
84.8
85.7
100.8
114.6
114.8
97.5
100.3
90.4
93.9
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
106.6

a$1.0929
21.3750
21.2500
21.2500
21.2250
21.0500
2.9125
2.8375
2.8125
2.9250
21.2917
21.5900
21.8913
22.1208
21.7292
21.6900
81.8367
81.7271
81.8842
1.7438
1.7750
1.6733

2100.0
2125.8
2114.4
2114.4
2112.1
296.1
283.5
276.6
274.3
284.6
2118.2
2145.5
2173.1
2194.1
2158.2
2154.6
8163.2
8153.5
8167.5
4 161.3
4164.2
4154.8

$11.9625
12.5833
12.4583
12.2917
12.0000
11.7083
11:1458
11.1667
11.0000
11.7500
13.5208
16.5000
15.0000
15.8333
16.7917
17.0000
17.8750
21.8958
22.2500
20.8750
20.5833
20.6250

100.0
105.2
104.1
102.8
100.3
97.9
93.2
93.3
92.0
98.2
113.0
137.9
125.4
132.4
140.4
142.1
149.4
183.0
186.0
174.5
172.1
172.4

.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9250
.9250

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
104.3
104.3

1.8100
1.8100
1.8100
1.6800
1.6800
1.6800
1.6800
1.6100
1.6100
1.6100
1.5500
1.5500

4167.4
4167.4
4167.4
4155.4
4155.4
4155.4
4155.4
4148.9
4148.9
4148.9
4143.4
4143.4

21.0000
21.0000
21.0000
20.7500
20.7500
20.7500
(1
5)
4
*
2
( )
20.7500
20.7500
19.0000
20.5000

175.5
175.5
175.5
173.5
173.5
173.5

5

173.5
173.5
158.8
171.4

1 Average price for 1895-1899.
2 Doors: pme, unmolded, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, 1J inches thick (Buffalo market).
8 Doors: western white pine, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, If inches thick, 5 panel, No. 1, O. G. (Buffalo
market). For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1904, $1.74.
4 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $1.8108.
5 No quotation for month.




452

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

II.—
AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.
Year or month.

Lime: com­
mon.

Linseed oil:
raw.

Maple: hard.

Oak: white,
plain.

Oak: white,
quartered.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive p ric e p e r Rela­
tive
barrel. price. gallon. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. M feet. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.......................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

10.8332
.9792
.9125
.9292
.9292
.8479
.7813
.6938
.7188
.7417
.7979
.6833
.7742
.8058
.7875
.8246
.8908
.9471
.9492
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450




100.0 $0.4535 100.0 $26,5042 100.0 $37.4292
117.5 .6158 135.8 26.5000 100.0 37.8750 100.0 $53.6771 100.0
101.2
109.5 .4842 106.8 26.5000 100.0 38.0000 101.5 51.4583 95.9
111.5 .4083 90.0 26.5000 100.0 38.4583 102.7 53.5833 99.8
53.0000
.111.5 .4633 102.2 26.5000 100.0 38.7500 103.5 53.0000 98.7
101.8 .5242. 115.6 26.5000 100.0 37.2500 99.5 51.1250 98.7
95.2
93.8 .5242 115.6 26.5000 100.0 36.2500 96.8 53.2500 99.2
83.3 .3683 81.2 26.5000 100.0 36.2500 96.8 54.5000 101.5
86.3 .3275 72.2 26.5000 100.0 36.2500 96.8
89.0 .3925 86.5 26.5000 100.0 36.2500 96.8 53.8333 100.3
52.5000 97.8
95.8 .4267 94.1 26.5417 100.1 38.9583 104.1 60.5208 112.7
82.0 .6292 138.7 27.5000 103.8 40.8333 109.1 64.4583 120.1
92.9 .6350 140.0 26.7083 100.8 36.7708 98.2 59.1667 110.2
96.7 .5933 130.8 28.5833 107.8 40.8750 109.2 63.0833 117.5
94.5 .4167 91.9 31.6667 119.5 44.8333 119.8 74.7917 139.3
99.0 .4158 91.7 31.0000 117.0 46.5000 124.2 80.7500 150.4
106.9 .4675 103.1 30.5000 115.1 47.3333 126.5 80.2500 149.5
113.7 .4050 89.3 31.0000 117.0 50.4167 134.7 79.1667 147.5
113.9 .4342 95.7 32.2500 121.7 55.2083 147.5 80.0000 149.0
125.4 .4375 96.5 31.6250 119.3 49.2917 131.7 80.1667 149.3
125.4 .5800 127.9 31.0000 117.0 48.4167 129.4 84.3333 157.1
125.4 .8467 186.7 31.8000 120.0 54.2500 144.9 88.0000 163.9
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4

.7600
.7700
.7700
.8100
.8400
.8200
.7900
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9500
.9500

167.6
169.8
169.8
178.6
185.2
180.8
174.2
198.5
198.5
198.5
209.5
209.5

31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
32.0000
(i)
0)
32.0000
32.0000
33.5000
33.5000

i No quotation for month.

117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
120.7

53.0000
53.0000
55.0000
55.0000
55.0000
55.0000

141.6
141.6
146.9
146.9
146.9
146.9

120.7
120.7
126.4
126.4

h)
55.0000
53.0000
54.0000
54.5000

i.46.9
141.6
144.3
145.6

85.5000
88.0000
88.0000
88.0000
88.0000
88.0000
(1
)
0)
88.0000
88.0000
88.0000
87.7500

159.3
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.9
163.5

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

453

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY- TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

{For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.J
Lumber and building materials.
Year or month.

Oxide of zinc.

Pine: white,
Pine: white,
boards, No. 2 boards, uppers
bam (New
(New York
York market).
market).

Pine: yellow, Pine: yellow,
flooring.
siding.

•Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. M feet. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0400 100.0 i$17.1104 ilOO.O i $46.5542 UOO.O
1890..7.1.................. .0425 106.3 i 16.7917 i 98.1 i 44.0833 1 94.7
1891........................... .0419 104.8 117.0000 i 99.4 145.0000 1 96.7
1892........................... .0426 106.5 117.1458 1100.2 1 46.1417 198.9
1893........................... .0413 103.3 i 18.6250 1108.9 1 48.5000 U04.2
1894........................... .0373 93.3 118.1667 1106.2 1 46.4167 1 99.7
1895........................... .0350 87.5 i 17.2500 U00.8 146.0000 1 98.8
1896........................... .0383 95.8 116.5000 i 96.4 146.6250 U00.2
1897........................... .0377 94.3 i 15.8333 192.5 1 46.3333 1 99.5
1898........................... .0396 99.0 i 15.5000 i 90.6 1 46.0833 1 99.0
1899........................... .0438 109.5 118.2917 U06.9 1 50.4583 1108.4
1900........................... .0451 112.8 i 21.5000 1125.7 1 57.5000 1123.5
1901........................... .0438 109.5 1 20.8750 U22.0 1 60.4167 U29.8
1902........................... .0440 110.0 123.5000 1137.3 1 74.8333 U60.7
1903........................... .0463 115.8 124.0000 U40.3 1 80.0000 1 171.8
1904........................... .0463 115.8 i 23.0000 1134.4 1 81.0000 1174.0
1905........................... .0465 116.3 124.1667 1141.2 182.0000 1 176.1
1906........................... .0508 127.0 i 29.7500 i 173.9 1 84.7500 1 182.0
1907........................... .0538 134.5 37.4167 2195.7 97.0833 8200.2
1908........................... .0513 128.3 36.3750 2190.3 96.0833 8198.1 $43.9167
1909........................... .0517 129.3 37.1042 2194.1 93.0417 8191.8 45.8333
1910........................... .0538 134.5 38.2500 2200.1 98.8000 8203.7 46.3000
1910.
January................... .0538 134.5 38.0000 2198.8 95.5000 8196.9 45.5000
February................. .0538 134.5 38.0000 2198.8 95.5000 8196.9 46.5000
March....................... .0538 134.5 38.0000 2198.8 95.5000 3196.9 46.5000
April........................ .0538 134.5 38.0000 2198.8 95.5000 3196.9 46.5000
May.......................... .0538 134.5 38.0000 2198.8 95.5000 3196.9 46.5000
June......................... .0538 134.5 38.5000 2201.4 102.5000 3211.3 46.5000
July.......................... .0538 134.5
(*)
(6)
(5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
August..................... .0538 134.5
September............... .0538 134.5 38.5000 2201.4 102.5000 3211.3 45.5000
October.................... .0538 134.5 38.5000 2201.4 102.5000 3211.3 45.5000
November............... .0538 134.5 38.5000 2201.4 102.5000 *211.3 47.0000
December................ .0538 134.5 38.5000 2201.4 100.5000 *207.2 47.0000

$18.4646
20.7500
19.9583
18.5000
18.5000
18.5000
16.9167
16.4167
16.4375
18.6250
20.0417
20.7083
19.6667
21.0000
21.0000
21.4167
24.9167
29.3333
30.5000
(1 30.5000
4)
*
2
(4) 33.0417
(4) 30.8000

100.0
112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
89.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
134.9
158.9
165.2
165.2
178.9
166.8

(a
(v
(v

167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9
167.9

(4)
(4)

(4)
( 4)
(4)
(4)
(<)

31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
(6)
( 5)
30.5000
30.5000
30.5000
30.5000

1 Buffalo market.
2 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1906,133.25.
8 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1906, $88.25.
4 No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 347.
8 No quotation for month.




165.2
165.2
165.2
165.2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

454

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.)1
3
2
Lumber and building materials.
Year or month.

Plate glass:
Plate glass:
polished, glaz­ polished, glaz­
ing, area 3 to 5 ing, area 5 to 10
square feet.
square feet.

Poplar.

Rosin: good,
strained.

Putty.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
prieeper tive prieeper tive prieeper tive prieeper tive prieeper tive
sq. ft. price.
price. M feet. price. pound. price. barrel. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. i $0.3630
1890............................. 1.5300
1891............................. 1.5200
1892............................. 1.4200
1893............................. 1.4200
1894............................. 1.3300
1895............................. 1.3000
1896............................. 1.3400
1897............................. 1.2000
1898............................. 1.2700
1899............................. 1.3000
1900............................. 1.3400
1901............................. 1.3200
1902............................. 1.2575
1903............................. 1.2625
1904............................. 1.2275
1905............................. 1.2408
1906............................. .2267
1907............................. .2300
1908............................. .1733
1909............................. .2017
1910............................. .2492
1910.
January..................... .2400
February................... .2500
March........................ .2500
April.......................... .2500
May........................... .2500
June........................... .2500
July............................ .2500
August....................... .2500
September................. .2500
October...................... .2500
November................. .2500
December.................. .2500

1100.0 2$0.5190
1146.0 2 7000
U43.3 2.6900
1115.7 2.5500
1115.7 2.5500
190.9 2.4500
182.6 2.4800
193.7 2.5400
155.1 2.3200
174.4 2.4300
182.6 2.4800
193.7 2.5400
188.2 2.4900
170.9 2.4113
172.3 2.4313
162.7 2.3650
166.3 2.3729
3 76.1
.3300
3 77.2 .3400
*58.2 .2750
3 67.7 .2817
8 83.6 .3475

2134.9
2132.9
2106.0
2106.0
286.7
2 92.5
2104.0
261.7
2 82.9
2 92.5
2104.0
2 94.4
2 79.2
283.1
2 70.3
2 71.8
<77.7
<80.1
<64.8
<66.4
<81.9

$31.3667
30.5000
30.5000
30.6042
33.6250
31.7500
31.0000
31.0000
30.6667
30.0000
34.0208
37.6875
36.7083
42.1042
49.6458
50.3292
48.2083
50.9583
58.0833
58.2917
57.6250
61.5000

100.0 $0.0158 100.0 $1.4399
97.2 .0175 110.8 1.3844
97.2 .0175 110.8 1.4740
97.6 .0161 101.9 1.3417
107.2 .0160 101.3 1.2615
101.2 .0157 99.4 1.2510
98.8 .0145 91.8 1.5615
98.8 .0145 91.8 1.7458
97.8 .0145 91.8 1.6125
95.6 .0145 91.8 1.4208
108.5 .0168 106.3 1.3458
120.2 .0190 120.3 1.6021
117.0 .0150 94.9 1.5302
134.2 .0192 121.5 1.6125
158.3 .0141 89.2 2.2156
160.5 .0110 69.6 2.8333
153.7 .0109 69.0 3.4229
162.5 .0119 75.3 4.0146
185.2 .0120 75.9 4.3771
185.8 .0120 75.9 3.2817
183.7 .0120 75.9 3.5000
196.1 .0115 72.8 5.2333

100.0
96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
304.0
227.9
243.1
363.4

380.6
883.9
383.9
383.9
383.9
383.9
3 83.9
383.9
383.9
3 83.9
383.9
383.9

<75.4
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5
<82.5

59.0000
59.0000
59.0000
61.0000
63.0000
63.0000
(5)
(5)
63.0000
63.0000
63.0000
62.0000

188.1
188.1
188.1
194.5
200.8
200.8

291.7
305.6
316.0
322.9
312.5
312.5
368.1
420.2
423.6
444.5
423.6
420.2

.3200
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500

2100.0

200.8
200.8
200.8
197.7

.0120
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115
.0115

75.9
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72! 8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8

4.2000
4.4000
4.5500
4.6500
4.5000
4.5000
5.3000
6.0500
6.1000
6.4000
6.1000
6.0500

1 Plate glass: polished, unsilvered, area 3 to 5 square feet.
2Plate glass: polished, unsilvered, area 5 to 10 square feet.
3For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1905, $0.1975.
<For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1905, $0.3050.
3No quotation for month.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

455

I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

Table

IFor explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
3
2
Lumber and building materials.
Year or month.

Shingles:
cypress.

Shingles: Red
cedar, 16 inches
long.

Spruce.

Turpentine:
spirits of.

Tar.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
M. price. . M. price. M feet. price. barrel. price. gallon. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899 .............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
Mav............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$2.8213
3.3500
3.2500
3.1500
3.0000
2.8000
2.6500
2.5000
2.3500
2.5000
2.6625
2.8500
2.8500
2.6708
2.5667
2.6000
2.7250
3.2417
4.2250
3.5375
3.2667
3.4917
3.6000
3.8500
3.8500
3.6000
3.6000
3.5000
3.3500
3.3500
3.3500
3.2500
3.2500
3.3500

100.0 i13.8417 ilOO.O $14.3489 113.5 $1.2048 122.4 $0.3343 122.0
$3.7434
100.0 1.4750 100.0 .4080 100.0
U02.6 16.2917
14.0000 1106.9 14.2183 99.1 1.5833 131.4 .3795 113.5
13.9063 1104.4 14.8542 103.5 1.3000 107.9 .3227 96.5
13.8500 U02.8 13.7708 96.0 1.0458 86.8 .3002 89.8
13.7500 1100.2 12.7083 88.6 1.0917 90.6 .2932 87.7
13.7000 198.8 14.2500 99.3 1.1417 94.8 .2923 87.4
88.6 13.6125 196.5 14.0000 97.6 1.0542 84.0 .2743 87.5
82.1
14.2500 99.3 1.0125
87.5 .2924
13.5521 194.9
88.6 13.5417 194.6 13.7500 107.3 1.0979 103.4 .3221 137.0
95.8
91.1
96.4
198.3 15.3958
.4581
101.0 113.6792 1106.9 17.3750 121.1 1.2458 113.1 .4771 142.7
14.0000
1.3625
106.4 .3729 111.5
101.0 23.5875 1111.9 19.2500 134.2 1.2817 110.0 .4740 141.8
4.1875
18.0000 125.4
94.7
2123.0
1.3250
91.0 23.6500 2125.1 19.1875 133.7 1.6792 139.4 .5715 171.0
118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
83.3
94.4

92.2
96.6
114.9
149.8
125.4
115.8
123.8
127.6
136.5
136.5
127.6
127.6
124.1
118.7
118.7
118.7
115.2
115.2
118.7

2 3.5750
23.5000
2.2125
2.6958
2.0125
2.0042
2.0083

2122.5
2119.9
3157.2
3191.5
3143.0
3142.4
3142.7

2.1000
2.1000
2000
2.0000
2.0000 3
2.

20.5000
21.4167
25.5417
24.0000
20.7917
25.2500
24.6000

142.9
149.3
178.0
167.3
144.9
176.0
171.4

2.0500 3145.7 25.0000 174.2
3 149.2 25.0000 174.2
2.1500 3 152.8 25.0000 174.2
3 156.3 25.0000 174.2
3 149.2 25.0000 174.2
3 142.1 25.0000 174.2
142.1
1.9500 3 138.6 8
1.9500 3138.6 24.0000 167.3
1.9000 3 135.0 24.0000 167.3
1.8500 3131.4 24.0000 167.3
1.8500 3131.4 24.0000 167.3

1.6792
1.7583
1.9583
2.3292
1.6000
1.6375
2.2542

2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.2500
2.2500
2.2500
2.5000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000

139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3
132.8
135.9
187.1

.5757
.6276
.6649
.6344
.4533
.4908
.6829

172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8
135.6
146.8
204.3

166.0
166.0
166.0
166.0
166.0
186.8
186.8
186.8
207.5
215.8
215.8
215.8

.5925
.6325
.6300
.6300
.6250
.5925
.6725
.7150
.7450
.7650
.8100
.7850

177.2
189.2
188.5
188.5
187.0
177.2
213.9
222.9
228.8
242.3
234.8

201.2

1 Shingles: White pine, 18 inches long.
2 Shingles: Michigan white pine, 16 inches long, XXXX. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 348 and 349; average price for 1901, $3.2625.
3 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1905, $1.6875.
« No quotation for month.




456

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Drugs and chemicals.

Window glass: Window glass:
American, sin- American, sinAlcohol: wood,
gle, firsts, 6 x 8 gle, thirds, 6 x 8 Alcohol: grain. refined, 95 per Alum: lump.
to 10 x 15
to 10 x 15
cent.
inches.
inches.
Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per ' tive price per tive price per Rela­
tive
50 sq.ft. price. 50 sq.ft. price. gallon. price. gallon. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

12.1514
2.2283
2.2125
1.9935
2.1375
1.9918
1.5988
1.8021
2.1986
2.6432
2.7081
2.6990
4.1282
3.2187
2.6400
2.8867
2.7637
2.9196
2.8133
2.3600
2.3200
2.9300
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
3.0400
2.8800
2.8800
3.0400
3.0400
3.0400
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800




100.0
103.6
102.8
92.7

100.0
98.2

99.4
92.6
74.3
.83.8
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8
109.7
107.8
136.2

$1.8190
1.7858
1.7700
1.5948
1.7100
1.6326
1.3919
1.6000
1.9630
2.3428
2.3986
2.3194
3.2823
2.5649
2.1600
2.3283
2.1365
2.2563
2.2419
1.8806
1.8488
2.3375

97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2
103.4
128.5

101.6

$2.2405
2.0717
2.2150
2.1417
2.1808
2.1521
2.3292
2.3008
2.2767
2.3250
2.4117
2.3867
2.4583
2.4057
2.3958
2.4325
2.4275
2.4642
2.5229
2.6367
2.6175
2.5525

133.9
133.9
133.9
141.3
133.9
133.9
141.3
141.3
141.3
133.9
133.9
133.9

2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.4225
2.2950
2.2950
2.4225
2.4225
2.4225
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950

126.2
126.2
126.2
133.2
126.2
126.2
133.2
133.2
133.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

2.6100
2.6100
2.6100
2.6100
2.5300
2.5100
2.5000
2.5000
2.5500
2.5600
2.5200
2.5200

102.2

88.0

100.0 $0.9539 119.20 $0.0167 100.0
100. .0182 109.0
92.5 1.1375
98.9 1.1598 121.6 .0158 94.6
95.6 1.2973 136.0 .0160 95.8
97.3 1.2917 135.4 .0174 104.2
96.1 .7198 75.5 .0169 101.2
104.0 .8667 90.9 .0160 95.8
102.7 .8500 89.1 .0164 98.2
101.6 .7500 72.9 .0166 99.4
.6938
103,8
78.6 .0165 98.8
107.6 .7708 80.8 .0168 100.6
106.5 .8000 83.9 .0175 104.8
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3

110.0
112.6
117.7

116.8
113.9

116.5
116.5
116.5
116.5
112.9

112.0
111.6
111.6
113.8
114.3
112.5
112.5

.6125
.6417
.5917
.5875
.6750
.7000
.3992
.4275
.5000
.5000

64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8
44.8
52.4
52.4

.0175
.0175
.0173
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

104.8
104.8
103.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

.5000
.5600
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000

52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4

.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

457

Table II .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Drugs and chemicals.
Year or month.

Brimstone:
crude, seconds.

Glycerin:
refined.

20

Muriatic acid: Opium: natural, Quinine: Amer­
in cases.
°.
ican.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. ounce. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $20.6958
1890............................. 21.1458
1891............................. 28.6042
1892............................. 24.1458
1893............................. 18.7292
1894............................. 16.5833
1895............................. 15.6250
1896............................. 17.9583
1897............................. 20.1250
1898............................. 22.9167
1899............................. 21.1250
1900............................. 21.1458
1901.............................
1902............................. 23.4375
1903............................. 22.3333
1904............................. 21.7750
1905............................. 21.2667
1906............................. 22.1563
1907............................. 21.4983
1908............................. 21.7917
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December.................

100.2
102.0
138.2

116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
97.2
110.7

86.8
102.1
102.2
22.0000 113.2
106.3
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9
105.3
22.0000 106.3
22.0000 106.3
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
22.0000




106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3

$0.1399
.1767
.1538
.1396
.1346
.1194
.1204
.1671
.1308
.1238
.1329
.1515
.1504
.1444
.1446
.1396
.1238
.1129
.1383
.1492
.1700
.2142

100.0

126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
108.3
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
88.5
80.7
98.9
106.6
121.5
153.1

86.1

.1925 137.6
141.2
143.0
141.2
139.4
143.0
146.5
.2075 148.3
.2350 168.0
.2400 171.6
.2400 171.6
.2600 185.8

..1975
2000
.1975
.1950
..2050
2000

100.0 $2.3602 111.0
100.0 2.6208 100.0
1.9438 82.4

$0.0104
.0104
.0098 94.2
116.3
97.1
.0088 84.6
.0083 79.8
.0075 72.1
.0109 104.8
.0128 123.1
.0135 129.8
.0135 129.8
.0150 144.2
.0168 161#5
.0160 153.8
.0160 153.8
.0160 153.8
.0135 129.8
.0135 129.8
.0135 129.8
.0134 128.8
.0130 125.0

1.6708
2.3917
2.2854
1.8413
2.0917
2.3417
3.3417
3.0729
3.2000
3.2292
2.8313
3.0813
2.7500
3.0333
2.9500
4.9458
4.7146
4.6104
5.3708

70.8
101.3
96.8
78.0
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
130.6
116.5
128.5
125.0
209.6
199.8
195.3
227.6

$0.2460
.3275
.2508
.2183
.2150
.2621
.2508
.2406
.1829
.2146
.2975
.3325
.3025
.2575
.2525
.2333
.1658
. 1775
.1567
.1408
.1400

125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

5.7500
5.6500
5.4500
5.4500
5.8500
5.6500
5.3500
5.0000
4.8500
4.6000
4.8500

243.6
239.4
230.9
230.9
254.2
247.9
239.4
226.7
205.5
194.9
205.5

.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400

.0121
.0101

.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130

6.0000

88.6

120.0

211.8

.2100

100.0
133.1
102.0
88.7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
104.7
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2
63.7
57.2
56.9

102.6

56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9

458

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table IJ
Drugs and chem­
icals.
Sulphuric acid: 66‘
Year or month.

House-furnishing goods.
Earthenware:
plates, creamcolored.

Earthenware:
plates, white
granite.

Earthenware:
teacups and saucers,
white granite.

Average
price per
Average Relative Average Relative Average Relative gross (6 Relative
price per price. price per price. price per price. dozen
dozen.
pound.
dozen.
cups and price.
dozen
saucers).

6

Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$0.0089
.0088
.0081
.0095
.0085
.0073
.0070
.0070
.0095
.0113

..0120
0120
.0125
.0130
.0127
.0129
.0124

0100
...0102
0100
0100
..0100
.0100
0100
...0100
..0100
0100
0100
..0100
0100
0100
...0100
0
.0100
100




100.0
98.9

100.0
108.0

100.0
109.1

100.0

91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
78.7
106.7
127.0
134.8
134.8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4
114.6
112.4
112.4

$0.4136
.4465
.4367
.4230
.4230
.4177
.3913
.3807
.3807
.4153
.4208
.4410
.4655
.4655
.4775
.4705
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4300
.4300
.4333

105.6
102.3
102.3
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6
104.0
104.0
104.8

$0.4479
.4888
.4786
.4644
.4644
.4566
.4162
.3991
.3991
.4515
.4607
.4841
.5096
.5096
.4988
.4943
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4621

106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
103.2

$3.4292
3.7000
3.6817
3.5720
3.5720
3.5250
3.2374
3.0907
3.0907
3.3595
3.4026
3.5750
3.7632
3.7632
3.6832
3.6503
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.4128

109.6
107.4
104.2
104.2
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104.3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
99.5

112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

.4300
.4300
.4300
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344
.4344

104.0
104.0
104.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0

.4586
.4586
.4586
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633
.4633

102.4
102.4
102.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4

3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214
3.4214

98.8
98.8
98.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8

101.0

100.8

102.8

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

459

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
House-furnishing goods.

Year or month.

Furniture: b e d room sets, iron Furniture: chairs, Furniture: chairs, Furniture: tables,
bedstead, hard­ bedroom, maple.
kitchen.
kitchen.
wood dresser and
washstand.
Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
price. dozen. price. dozen. price. dozen. price.
set.

Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January......................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December.................

* $10.555
112.000
112.000
112.000
ill.OOO
111.000
19.950
18.750
i 8.750
110.000
110.100
111.250
111.250
111.750
112.167
112.250
112.354
112.958
114.500
11.000
10.875
11.875

1100.0
1113.7
1113.7
i li a 7
1104.2
1104.2
194.3
182.9
182.9
194.7
195.7
1 106.6
1106.6
1 111. 3
1115.3
1 116.1
1 117.0
1 122.8
1 137.4
* 134.3
2 132.8
2 145.0

11.500
11.500
11.500
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000
12.000

*140.4
2 140.4
2 140.4
2 146.5
2 146.5
2 146.5
2 146.5
2 146.5
*146.5
2 146.5
*146.5
2 146.5

$6.195 100.0
7.000 113.0
7.000 113.0
6.850 110.6
6.850 110.6
96.9
6.000
96.9
6.000
96.9
6.000
80.7
5.000
82.7
5.125
6.125
98.9
8.000 129.1
7.000 113.0
7.333 118.4
7.917 127.8
8.000 129.1
8.000 129.1
8.917 143.9
10.000 161.4
9.417 152.0
9.000 145.3
9.000 • 145.3

$3.8255
4.2000
4.2000
4.2500
4.2500
3.5000
3.5000
3.5000
3.5C00
3.3130
4.0420
5.2080
4.7500
4.9167
5.0000
4.7708
4.7500
5.1250
5.7917
6.0000
5.5833
5.5000

100.0
109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4
156.8
145.9
143.8

$14,435
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
14.250
14.250
13.800
13.800
13.800
14.450
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
16.500
18.000
18.000
18.000
20.000

100.0
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100.0
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7
124.7
124.7
138.6

145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3

5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000

143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8

18.000
19.500
19.500
19.500
19.500
19.500
19.500
21.000
21.000
21.000
21.000
21.000

124.7
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
145.5
145.5
145.5
145.5
145.5

9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000

1 Furniture: bedroom sets, ash.
2 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1907, $11.25.




460

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

T a b l e I I . — AVERAGE

YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles
see Table I.]
I louse-furnishing goods.
Year or month.

Glassware:
nappies, 4-inch.

Glassware:
pitchers, ^-gallon,
common.

Glassware:
cutlery: carv­
tumblers, £-pint, Tablestag handles.
ers,
common.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
price.
dozen. price. dozen. price. dozen. price.
pair.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$0,112
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.100
.100
.100
.100
.100
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.122
.117
.113

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
108.9
104.5
100.9

$1,175
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250

.110
.110
.110
.120
.120
.120
.120
.110
.110
.110
.110
.110

98.2
98.2
98.2
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2

.800
.800
.800




1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.300

1.300
1.300
1.150
1.050
1.050
1.050
.963
.996
• .942

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
.900

100.0
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4
82.0
84.8
80.2

$0.1775
.1800
.2000
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1850
.1800
.1700
.1600
.1300
.1800
.1800
.1850
.1767
.1600
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1325
.1342
.1200

100.0
101.4
112.7
107.0
107.0
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.1
73.2
101.4
101.2
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
74.6
75.6
67.6

$0.80
.80
.80
.80
.95
.80
.80
.80
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.80
.75
.75
.75

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8

68.1
68.1
68.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
76.6

.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200

67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6

.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75

93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1880 TO 1910.

461

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
House-furnishing goods.
Year or month.

Miscellaneous.

Table cutlery:
Woodenware:
Woodenware:
knives and forks,
cocobolo handles. pails, oak-grained. tubs, oak-grained.

Cottonseed meal.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative ton of 2,000 Relative
price. dozen. price. nest of 3. price.
price.
gross.
pounds.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898......................... .
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January....................
February...................
March......................
April..........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$6.0600
7.7500
7.7500
6.8500
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.0000
5.5000
5.7500
5.7500
6.5000
6.5000
6.5000
6.6667
6.6875
6.0500
6.4833
5.4167
5.0000
5.0000

100.0
127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0
89.4
82.5
82.5

$1.2988
1.5917
1.4500
1.3500
1.3125
1.2583
1.1208
1.2625
1.2417
1.1333
1.2667
1.4917
1.5500
1.5500
1.5875
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.9708
2.1000
1.9167
1.9000

100.0
122.6
111.6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7
161.7
147.6
146.3

$1.3471
1.6500
1.5667
1.4000
1.3083
1.2875
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2583
1.4417
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.6000
1.6500
1.6500
1.6125

100.0 $21.9625
122.5 23.3750
116.3 25.2083
103.9 23.6958
97.1 25.7042
95.6 22.5583
92.8 18.9125
92.8 19.9375
92.8 20.4375
92.8 19.0000
93.4 20.7958
107.0 25.5458
107.6 25.0208
107.6 27.1333
107.6 26.7083
107.6 26.2000
107.6 26.3583
107.6 30.3917
118.8 28.7042
122.5 29.3917
122.5 32.0373
119.7 33.5625

100.0
100.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
86.1
90.8
93.1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
121.6
119.3
120.0
138.4
130.7
133.8
145.9
152.8

5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000

82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5

1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000

146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3

1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000
1.6000

122.5
122.5
122.5
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8

165.7
165.7
161.2
156.4
148.4
148.4
153.0
148.4
143.9
142.7
135.9




36.4000
36.4000
36.0000
35.4000
34.3500
32.6000
32.6000
33.6000
32.6000
31.6000
31.3500
29.8500

163.9

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

462

I I .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]1
Miscellaneous.
Year or month.

Cottonseed oil:
summer yellow,
prime.

Jute: raw,
M-double triangle.

Malt: western
made.

Paper: news.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
gallon. price. pound. price. bushel. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................

$0.3044
.3446
.3567
.3088
.4550
.3238
.2721
.2513
.2365
.2288
.2663
.3556
.3571
.4067
.3977
.3135
.2696
.3613
.4869
.4090
.4399
.5969

100.0 1 $0.0359 1100.0
113.2 1.0388 1108.1
117.2 1.0371 1103.3
101.4 i .0475 1132.3
149.5 i .0346 196.4
106.4 1.0345 196.1
89.4 i . 0279 177.7
82.6 1.0319 188.9
77.7 1.0373 1103.9
75.2
1.0332* 192.5
87.5 1.0365 1101.7
116.8 1.0435 1121.2
117.3 1.0400 1111.4
133.6 1.0438 U22.0
130.7 i .0464 1129.2
103.0 1.0444 1123.7
88.6
.0398 * 151.0
118.7
.0539 8 204.5
160.0
.0486 3 184.4
134.4
.0370 a 140.4
144.5
.0318 *120.7
.0344 a 130.6
196.1

$0.7029
.7500
.9271
.8015
.7750
.7446
.6854
.5629
.5438
.6163
.6221.
.6538
.7450
.7925
.7246
.6758
.6150
.6471
1.0346
.9325
.7867
.8867

100.0
106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
93.0
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2
132.7
111.9
126.1

$0.0299
.0382
.0340
.0340
.0318
.0323
.0308
.0275
.0271
.0219
.0209
.0281
.0226
.0242
.0253
.0267
.0242
.0219
.0249
.0248
.0205
.0206

100.0
127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4
108.0
103.0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
94.0
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3
82.9
68.6
68.9

184.8
171.3
181.7
187.9
194.0
191.0
192.2
227.9
258.7
209.4
184.8
169.4

.8750
.8550
.8350
.7650
.7950
.8200
.9200
.9200
.9200
.9250
.9800
1.0300

124.5
121.6
118.8
108.8
113.1
116.7
130.9
130.9
130.9
131.6
139.4
146.5

.0195
.0195
.0193
.0193
.0208
.0223
.0203
.0203
.0208
.0213
.0218
.0220

65.2
65.2
64.5
64.5
69.6
74.6
67.9
67.9
69.6
71.2
72.9
73.6

1910.

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April..........................
M ay.........................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

.5625
.5213
.5531
.5719
.5906
.5813
.5850
.6938
.7875
.6375
.5625
.5156

.0325
.0313
.0313
.0313
.0313
.0325
.0325
.0325
.0350
.0375
.0413
.0438

a1 3
2 .4
118.8
118.8
*118.8
*118.8
*123.4
*123.4
*123.4
*132.8
*142.3
*156.8
*166.3

a
a

1 Jute: raw.
a For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349; average price for 1904, $0.0326.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

463

H .—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Miscellaneous.
Paper: wrapping,
manila.

Year or month.

Rope: manila,
base sizes.

Proof spirits.

Rubber: Para
Island.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
price. gallon. price. pound. price. pound. price.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
May............................
June...........................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

10.0553
.0575
.0575
.0558
.0579
.0584
.0586
.0588
.0588
.0459
.0438
.0480
.0502
.0497
.0526
.0530
.0525
.0500
.0506
.0500
.0475
.0475

100.0
104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
86.8
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5
90.4
85.9
85.9

$1.1499
1.0533
1.1052
1.0757
1.0713
1.1326
1.2109
1.2031
1.1830
1.2220
1.2421
1.2460
1.2861
1.3138
1.2809
1.2692
1.2616
1.2879
1.3133
1.3565
1.3575
1.3248

100.0 i $0.0934 ilOO.O
91.6
1.1494 1160.0
K 1038 1111.1
96.1
1.1148 1122.9
93.5
93.2
1.0919 198.4
98.5
i. 0770 i 82.4
105.3
».0735 i 78.7
1.0664 171.1
104.6
1.0631 167.6
102.9
106.3
1.0842 190.1
1.1094 1117.1
108.0
108.4
1.1320 1141.3
1.1092 1116.9
111.8
1.1348 1144.3
114.3
111.4
2.1146 2 122.7
2.1171 2 125.4
110.4
109.7
*. 1195 2 127.9
2.1252 2 134.0
112.0
114.2
2.1290 2138.1
118.0
.1015 108.7
118.1
.0841
90.0
115.2
94.1
.0879

.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475

85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9

1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3325
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3300
1.3300
1.3300
1.3300

117.4
117.4
117.4
115.9
113.1
113.1
113 1
113.1
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

1 Three-eighths inch.




.0825
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0875
.0925
.0925
.0925
.0925
.0925
.0925
.0900

88.3
85.7
85.7
85.7
93.7
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
96.4

* Seven-sixteenths inch.

$0.8007
.8379
.7908
.6763
.7167
.6744
.7425
.8000
.8454
.9271
.9954
.9817
.8496
.7273
.905*
1.0875
1.2425
1.2131
1.0633
.8708
1.4810
1.9075

100.0
104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84.2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
122.6
106.1
90.8
113.1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8
108.8
185.0
238.2

1.6950
1.7900
1.9950
2.6000
2.6000
2.2950
2.2500
2.0700
1.8000
1.3700
1.1900
1.2350

211.7
223.6
249.2
324.7
324.7
286.6
281.0
258 5
224.8
171.-1
148 6
154.2

464

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—AVERAGE YEARLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910; MONTHLY ACTUAL AND RELATIVE PRICES,
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (AVERAGE FOR
1890-1899)—Concluded.

[For explanation and discussion of this table,see page 347. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.J
Miscellaneous.
Year or month.

Soap: castile, mot­ Starch: laundry.
tled, pure.

Tobacco: plug.

Tobacco: smoking,
granulated.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1910.
January.....................
February...................
March........................
April..........................
May...........................
June...........................
July............................
August......................
September................
October......................
November.................
December..................

$0.0569
.0594
.0621
.0624
.0615
.0588
.0507
.0502
.0531
.0550
.0558
.0613
.0655
.0063
.0658
.0647
.0650
.0650
.0671
.0700
.1042
.0975

100.0
104.4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
88.2
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
116.5
115.6
113.7
114.2
114.2
117.9
123.0
183.1
171.4

$0.0348
.0371
.0426
.0373
.0366
.0366
.0363
.0310
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0340
.0363
.0454
.0431
.0369
.0329
.0367
.0404
.0433
.0429
.0390

100.0
106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1
86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7
104.3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1
124.4
123.3
112.1

$0.3962
.4050
.4008
.3725
.3967
.4000
.4000
.3808
.3758
.4133
.4175
.4433
.4658
.4542
.4500
.4700
.4900
.4833
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700

100.0
102.2
101.2
94.0
100.1
101.0
101.0
96.1
94.9
304.3
105.4
111.9
117.6
114.6
113.6
118.6
123.7
122.0
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

$0.5090
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5300
.5600
.5600
.5600
.5592
.5700
.5825
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.5850

100.0
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
104.1
110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114.4
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
114.9

.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850

193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4

.0400
.0400
.0100
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0375
.0350
.0350

114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
107.8
100.6
100.6

.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

.6000
.6000
.6000
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800
.5800

117.9
117.9
117.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
123.9




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

465

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899—100.0.]
Farm products.
Grain.
Hides:
Year or Cotton:
green,
Hay: salted, Hops:
month. upland, Flax­
New
timo­
seed:
York
mid­ No. 1. Barley: Com: Oats: Rye: Wheat: Aver­ thy, packers’, State,
heavy
No. 2,
dling.
N o.i. native choice.
by
sample. cash. cash. cash. cash. age.
steers.
1890....
1891....
1892___
1893....
1894....
1895___
1896.... .
1897....
1898___
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F e b ....
M ar....
A p r....
May—
June__
July—
A u g....
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec___

142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.0
134.8
156.0
194.8

125.5
97.1
91.4
97.7
121.6
111.8
72.9
78.1
99.8
104.0
145.7
145.8
135.0
94.1
99.6
107.6
99.1
106.1
108.0
140.6
203.7

111.6
134.5
112.2
103.3
113.2
94.8
65.7
71.2
95.9
97.6
106.2
129.8
139.4
121.2
116.9
107.0
112.8
169.0
161.8
148.7
158.7

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1
132.6
131.7
121.8
138.8
179.9
175.5
152.7

115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115.7
88.3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
118.3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4
189.5
178.9
143.5

103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4
148.0
148.0
147.0

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8
131.8
159.7
146.1

110.6
143.0
115.3
99.1
101.0
91.6
70.5
77.3
96.4
95.1
96.5
115.0
129.0
115.3
131.4
123.8
115.6
148.3
163.0
164.6
153.0

95.8
117.8
113.5
107.4
99.9
109.1
99.0
80.9
79.9
96.6
110.9
123.0
120.9
119.2
112.5
107.9
124.3
162.4
118.3
129.0
165.6

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8
165.0

148.0
149.1
141.4
128.2
85.5
53.1
49.5
65.5
91.5
88.3
83.7
97.1
134.1
159.5
196.2
150.9
92.0
98.1
67.1
113.4
146.1

191.3
189.4
193.8
194.1
199.9
198.9
200.8
214*6
178.6
186.5
190.7
193.7

178.8 160.3
187.7 157.1
192.7 152.9
203.0 143.8
212.5 143.1
186.8 144.4
181.9 157.5
212.0 154.7
221.9 157.8
211.6 164.9
230.4 175.8
224.6 189.0

170.9
169.2
164.2
153.0
158.4
154.6
162.9
165.0
145.3
130.2
131.3
125.8

173.7
176.4
167.2
158.3
151.6
140.4
152.6
132.6
123.8
115.6
117.0
117.1

151.7
153.5
149.7
148.4
146.6
143.0
144.4
143.3
139.0
144.1
147.7
153.0

158.6
159.5
157.8
150.6
146.8
138.4
152.0
148.2
141.9
136.9
131.1
131.7

165.9
166.0
161.2
153.7
152.1
147.2
157.0
152.0
145.1
142.4
144.9
148.1

167.8
168.4
163.5
157.0
140.5
146.8
187.0
186.5
164.2
167.2
169.2
169.6

189.4
176.1
152.1
158.8
168.1
168.1
153.5
160.1
165.4
170.8
162.8
154.7

192.0
192.0
186.3
163.7
138.3
132.7
127.0
127.0
121.4
124.2
127.0
121.4

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----11




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

466

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER*
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899—100.0.]

Farm products.
Live stock.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897___
1898....
1899___
1900___
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904___
1905___
1906___
1907..-..
1908....
1909___
1910___
1910.
Jan.......
Feb___
'Mar___
Apr___
May---June...
July___
Aug---Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dee___

Aver­
age,
farm
prod­
Aver­ ucts.
Steers: Steers: Aver­
Wethers: Wethers:
age.
choice good to age. Heavy. Light. Aver­ good to plain to Aver­
age. fancy. choice. age.
to extra. choice.
Cattle.

Hogs.

Sheep.

91.5
110.0
95.7
103.8
97.0
103.1
86.4
98.2
101.1
112.6
108.7
115.1
140.4
104.7
112.0
112.2
115.2
123.0
128.1
138.0
146.1

87.4
107.7
95.0
102.2
95.6
104.2
90.2
100.8
103.2
113.7
113.9
118.1
138.5
106.9
109.7
110.2
113.1
122.8
126.7
136.3
148.2

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5
102.2
113.2
111.3
116.6
139.5
105.8
110.9
111.3
114.2
122.9
127.4
137.1
147.1

89.6
100.2
116.8
148.4
112.7
97.0
76.1
81.4
86.2
91.5
115.2
135.0
158.0
137.3
116.8
119.9
141.3
137.8
131.4
171.6
202.7

88.8
98.2
114.6
148.7
111.6
96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6
127.5
166.5
203.8

89.2
99.2
115.7
148.6
112.2
96.6
78.3
82.8
85.6
91.8
115.5
134.5
155.2
137.2
116.7
120.2
142.2
139.2
129.5
169.1
203.3

1120.5
U20.0
U27.2
U03.2
171.7
178.5
178.0
193.1
1104.4
1103.3
1109.7
189.2
1100.6
198.7
1110.3
1134.5
1131.7
1130.3
*112.3
*123.2
*125.8

2118.0
2 115.6
2 123.2
2 104.3
275.4
2 78.3
2 79.4
295.3
2 105.3
2 105.2
*114.3
*94.7
*105.7
*98.0
*107.8
*128.5
*133.5
*123.5
*109.6
*120.1
*122.9

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3
112.0
92.0
103.2
98.4
109.1
131.5
132.6
126.9
111.0
121.7
124.4

99.3 110.0
108.7 121.5
112.1 111.7
118.4 107.9
94.0
95.9
92.9
93.3
81.8
78.3
92.2
85.2
97.5
96.1
103.1 100.0
112.9 109.5
114.3 116.9
132.6 130.5
113.8 118.8
112.2 126.2
121.0 124.2
129.7 123.6
129.7 137.1
<122.3 *133.1
<139.1 6 153.1
<151.3 * 164.6

141.1
141.4
153.9
154.8
154.5
157.1
151.9
148.8
146.4
141.2
132.3
126.1

133.2
137.8
156.7
161.2
160.6
164.2
154.8
153.2
147.3
142.2
133.6
129.8

137.1
m 6
155.3
158.0
157.6
160.7
153.4
151.0
146.8
141.7
132.9
127.9

194.8
209.3
240.6
224.4
215.8
213.0
197.3
189.5
206.5
190.9
171.5
175.6

189.5
204.2
235.4
222.0
213.7
213.1
203.5
200.0
218.2
200.4
168.1
172.9

192.2
206.8
238.0
223.2
214.8
213.2
200.5
194.9
212.5
195.8
169.9
174.3

*136.4
*162.6
*190.0
*182.8
*144.9
* 119.5
*97.0
*98.9
*104.2
*97.8
* 86/4
*88.3

*133.0
*160.1
*188.6
*182.0
* 141.6
*119.2
*94.8
*96.4
*98.7
*91.0
*83.9
*86.2

134.7
161.4
189.4
182.5
143.3
119.4
96.0
97.7
101.5
94.4
85.2
87.3

<149.2
<160.7
<179.8
<175.0
<162.0
<155.1
<143.8
<142.5
<146.6
*139.6
<129.^6
<129.9

*169.4
*175.1
*181.0
*177.0
*168.5
*163.3
* 161.6
*161.6
*159.3
*155.5
*151.0
*150.5

1 Sheep, native.
* Sheep, western.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
<Including horses ana mules. See explanation, page 349.
* Including horses; mules; poultry: live, fowls; ana leaf tobacco. See explanation, page 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

467

III.—
-YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

Table

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899—100.0.]

Food, etc.
Bread.
Year or
month. Beans:
medium
choice.

Crackers.
Oyster.

1890....
1891___
1892___
1893....
1894....
1895___
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903___
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___
1910___

Loaf.

Soda.

Average.
Washing­ Home­ Vienna
made
Average. ton mar­ (NewYork (NewYork Average.
ket.
market).
market).

121.5
134 9
112.0
119.2
110.6
107.2
70.3
62.6
74 7
87.0
125.6
131.3
115.0
135.5
12d 4
128.8
113.8
106.4
138.9
146.7
143.7

1104 0
U 04 0
U02.2
196.6
196.6
197.2
196.6
188.0
1108.9
1105.9
1 111 . 4
1 118.9
1118.9
1112.6
1115.2
1132.5
1133.7
1133.7
2133.7
2134 5
2 144 0

111.4
111.4
106.3
104 5
101.0
94 0
91.6
82.5
105.6
92.3
94 0
97.5
97.5
9a 0
91.6
95.1
90.5
9a 5
90.5
91.1
97.5

136.2
142.2
a
137.7
134 0
141.5
145.2

2 1440
2 144 0
*144 0
*1440
2144 0
21440
2 144 0
2144 0
21440
*144 0
*144 0
*144 0

97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5

107.7
107.7
1043
100.6
98.8
95.6
941
85.3
107.3
99.1
102.7
108.2
108.2
101.3
103.4
.113.8
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.8

12a 7

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
941
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
106.5
109.6

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
90.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
110.4
118.6
118.6
118.6
126.2
126.2
126.2

109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6

126.2
126.2
126.2

101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
9a 6

101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1

105.1
113.6
113.6
113.6
117.3
118.5
117.3

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
98.7
94 5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
106.0
110.9
lia 9
na9
114 5
117.1
117.9

103.6
103.6
102.2
100.7
100.0
97.5
94 4
94 6
103.4
100.2
101.6
103.8
103.8
101.0
105.0
112.1
111.4
111.4
113.6
115.4
119.1

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
119.9
117.9

119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119.1
119,1
119.1
119.1

1910 .

Jan.......
F eb ....
Mar___
A p r....
May___
June—
July—
Aug---Sept__
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

14 0

14a 0

162.4

161.7
142.2
134 7

1 Crackers, butter.




12a 7

120.7

12a 7
12a 7

120.7

12a 7
12a 7
12a 7

12ft 7
12a 7
12a 7
12a 7

12a 2
12a 2

126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

468

Table m . —YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explantlon and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899—100.0.]
Food, etc.
Butter.
Year or
month. Cream­
ery,
Elgin
(Elgin
mar­
ket).
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
M ar....
A pr....
May....
June...
July....
A ug....
Sep t...
Oct___
Nov__
Dec___

CreameSra
(New
York
mar­
ket).

Fish.

Cheese:
Eggs:
New
newYork Coffee: laid,
Mack­
Dairy,
Rio fancy,
State, No. 7.
New Aver­ full
Her­ erel, Salmon,
near­ Cod. ring. salt, canned. Aver­
York age. cream.
age.
by.
large
State.
No. 3s.

103.1
115.3
116.5
118.9
101.1
95.1
82.6
84.7
86.9
95.6
100.4
97.4
111.2
106.1
100.4
111.9
113.3
127.2
124.1
133.3
137.2

101.5
115.3
116.5
120.5
102.1
95.3
82.1
84.5
87.2
94 8
100.1
96.5
110.6
104 7
97.6
111.0
111.0
126.2
12a 9
13a 2
1341

96.5
117.6
116.1
124 6
103.3
93.0
82.3
83.2
86.4
97.1
104 5
99.2
114 5
106.2
97.3
115.6
114 9
132.0
121.0
13L1
143.6

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
94 5
82.3
841
sa 8
95.8
101.7
97.7
112.1
105.7
98.4
112.8
113.1
128.5
122.1
131.7
138.5

97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
941
92.0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114 3
102.4
1141
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3
138.2
150.5
159.3

me
127.3
108.9
131.2
12a 0
121.2
93.9
60.4
48.2
4a 0
62.6
49.2
446
42.6
59.6
63.4
61.8
50.1
47.8
59.6
72.5

99.1
110.0
110.4
114 5
93.5
102.0
88.7
87.5
92.6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2
135.0
138.2
133.2
141.2
142.0
160.3
lea 0

101.7
120.5
12a 3
114 2
ioa7
98.9
75.4
80.9
83.6
92.0
94 9
107.2
91.2
105.0
130.4
132.4
136.2
138.6
13tt 7
125.7
124 2

93.3
124 6
77.8
101.0
89.9
83.6
88.8
96.3
111.4
133.2
134 6
131.9
129.9
151.7
144 4
158.9
168.0
162.9
160.1
159.8
16a 3

129.2
108.4
92.0
92.0
78.2
110.6
98.5
86.5
96.7
107.9
98.3
76.6
97.3
123.5
102.6
98.5
104 7
98.5
80.4
72.1
103.2

111.4
101.8
100.7
101.4
96.7
102.1
105.2
90.8
sa 0
103.8
120.2
lia 3
109.6
110.0
117.1
lia 7
114 3
113.2
130.4
115.4
118.4

108.9
113.8
99.2
102.2
92.9
98.8
92.0
sa 6
94 4
109.2
112,0
ioao
107.0
122.6
123.6
126.4
130.8
12a 3
124 9
116.8
130.8

155.8
135.9
145.2
141.7
128.1
125.0
127.3
134.6
137.1
135.5
141.7
137.1

149.4
131.0
144 5
137.7
127.1
124 6
12d 3
m s
132.4
132.7
138.5
133.0

160.0
139.0
153.9
149.5
138.8
135.3
136.2
137.6
139.3
141.5
147.7
143.6

155.2
135.5
148.1
143.1
131.5
128.5
m i
134 5
136.4
m .7
142.8
138.0

1742 66.2
174 8 6a 2
174 8 67.1
174 5 67.1
m 3 643
144 4 62.4
643
m i
151.5 6a 2
152.6 77.6
153.3 84 2
155.0 84 2
157.0 100.5

223.5
170.0
130.9
122.6
122.5
124 8
13a 9
14a 2
167.5
189.1
232.3
233.1

12a 3
12a 3
125.3
1141
1141
1141
1141
118.6
118.6
134 3
134 3
152.2

169.6
169.6
169.6
169.6
169.6
169.6
169.6
152.6
152.6
163.9
163.9
163.9

81.4
84 9
88.5
92.0
92.0
99.1
102.6
106.2
113.2
123.8
127.4
127.4

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
132.4
132.4
132.4

121.8
123.3
124 7
123.5
123.5
12a 4
127.8
127.2
m i
1448
14a 2
150.4




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

469

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910;
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Food, etc.
Flour.

Year or
month.

Wheat.
Buckwheat.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1896....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903___
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan.......
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July___
Aug—
Sept—
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

Fruit.

Rye.

Spring
patents.

V/inter
straights.

Average.

Average.

Apples,
evaporated,
cnoice.

104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4
86.2
71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5
120.1
112.7
115.0
132.4
156.1
121.4
110.2

101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.9
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7
142.8
135.2
127.5

120.7
123.5
101.1
93.2
S3.7
84.8
88.3
106.8
110.1
87.8
89.4
88.7
88.6
100.8
125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5
126.1
134.0
127.9

121.0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8
88.0
87.1
86.0
90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
103.7
111.6
141.8
122.0

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.2
96.8
108.6
118.8
138.6
125.8

111.8
131.3
105.4
98.4
91.1
87.4
83.6
95.1
97.7
98.4
97.0
95.8
99.6
102.2
125.5
122.9
106.1
122.1
134.2
136.1
124.7

1134.1
1145.1
181.7
1104.0
U25.7
186.7
161.8
158.7
191.2
1110.5
179.3
181.7
1103.6
178.0
168.0
175.1
1109.4
1111.7
101.9
90.8
98.7

102.9
102.9
102.9
2102.9
2102.9
2102.9
2102.9
2102.9
*102.9
121.0
115.8
115.8

131.9
131.9
133.4
129.6
128.1
125.9
125.9
129.6
121.3
122.1
125.9
124.4

132.1
131.3
130.2
125.5
126.6
122.5
136.1
134.9
128.9
124.9
119.5
122.2

140.1
140.3
139.1
131.7
122.5
113.9
U8.J3
116.8
113.9
110.9
108.3
108.1

136.8
136.5
135.4
129.3
125.4
119.1
128.5
126.8
122.4
118.8
114.8
116.0

129.2
129.1
128.9
125.0
122.7
119.0
123.6
123.8
119.5
123.0
120.5
120.7

94.5
96.0
96.0
90.1
91.5
91.5
94.5
98.9
100.4
103.3
104.8
122.6

i Average for apples, evaporated, choice; and apples, sun-dried. See explanation, page 336.
* Nominal price.




470

BULLETIN OF THE. BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table III.—
YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1399= 100.0.]
Food, etc.
Fruit.
Meal: Com.
Year or
month.
Lard:
Glucose.1 contract. Fine Fine
prime,
Currants, Prunes, Raisins,
London
in barrels. California, California, Average.
white. yellow. Average.
in boxes. layer.
138.0
157.3
*138.2
18C.... 127.5
0
96.8
129.2
**93.8
130.6
120.1
113.6
142.0
1891....
143.4
, 117.9 101.2 100.3 100.8
100.9
140.6
1892....
128.6
79.2
114.2
97.9
113.7
134.2
113.3
**93.9 111.4 118.2 105.0 106.5 114.0
105.5
1893....
72.0
124.3
157.5
105.8
1894....
95.0
105.6
46.1
76.9
86.0
95.2
*84.5 109.2 99.8 106.7 104.5 103.3
102.2
1895....
67.7
104.4
1896....
75.1
*81.7 81.7 67.4 77.8 75.1
70.7
77.2
87.2
67.9
77.4
71.7
77.5
93.2
1897....
70.5
86.0
76.5
127.7
**
100.0
83.2
83.7
70.3
92.7
91.8
84.4
84.1
1898....
154.7
91.2
73.0
*101.0 104.9 105.5 91.1 91.2
85.5
95.6
85.0
1899....
125.3
97.0
67.4
*109.8 116.0 135.3 114.2 116.8 115.5
103.9
97.4
1900....
101.3
96.5
192.0
1901....
67.8
96.1
*104.5 153.6 161.9 146.4 150.0 148.2
221.6
71.2
1902....
**88.3' 129.7 134.1 123.7 125.7 124.7
112.3
131.7
62.1
1903.... 126.9
96.3
59.6
98.2
*96.0 126.3 111.8 127.8 131.1 128.4
129.5
1904.... 130.1
79.1
1905....
59.3
125.1
130.7
124.2
135.6
1906....
83.5
106.6
**83.8 142.9 113.9 126.4 130.3 122.5
117.9
120.8
163.7
*119.2 159.4 140.7 129.5 158.8 156.4
131.5
76.6
108.4
133.5
1907....
187.5
186.2
134.0
77.3
120.6
119.5
1908....
162.4
138.8
156.7
158.4
68.6
103.7
174.4
155.0
1909....
84.6
178.7
160.8
146.3
111.7
147.0
145.5
1910....
173.6
80.7
81.3
136.9
191.6
1910 .
162.3
Jan..... 160.0
104.0
149.5
164.7
69.5
82.5
194.3
159.7
167.1
Feb.... 158.4
104.0
196.2
153.0
164.5
169.6
69.5
80.0
167.1
Mar.... 160.0
103.3
153.0
164.5
169.6
67.8
80.0
219.3
147.7
150.2
101.4
203.4
Apr__ 160.0
145.0
158.4
67.8
80.0
146.0
147.7
15(»2
May—
101.5
138.9
145.0
67.8
78.3
200.8
104.3
136.1
150.2
147.7
June— 163.5
71.1
81.6
192.0
145.0
150.2
147.7
106.4
129.0
81.6
183.6
145.0
July— 163.5
74.3
147.7
109.7
139.6
150.2
81.6
145.0
Aug— 171.7
76.0
183.3
150.2
147.7
118.8
139.6
Sept__ 191.7
90.4
81.6
194.6
145.0
150.2
140.1
145.3
98.6
124.8
122.0
Oct..... 198.4 105.0
85.0
194.5
112.1
126.6
113.8
Nov__ 198.4 111.5
81.6
118.5
171.4
115.5
112.1
113.8
85.0
135.1
163.6
117.8
115.5
Dec..... 198.4
1 Average for 1893-1899= 100.0.




*Including apples, sun-dried. See explanation, p. 336.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

471

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES* FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.)

Food, etc.
Meat.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898----1899....
1900___
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907___
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
Aug---Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec___

Pork.

Beef.

Fresh,
Mutton, Aver­
native
Sait,
sides Salt, hams, Aver­ Bacon, short rib Hams, Sait, Aver­ dressed. age.
short Bacon,
(New extra west­ age. clear
smoked. mess. age.
York mess. ern.
sides. sides.
mar. ket).
89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0
101.2
114.7
i 129.5
1133.1
1143.2

86.8
104.4
84.4
102.2
101.0
101.4
93.7
95.7
114.2
115.9
121.7
11G. 3
147.1
113.1
109/4
125.0
110.3
122.5
164.5
137.5
182.0

U35.7
1131.7
1142.1
U57.3
1153.2
U43.9
1146.1.
1141.8
1144.6
1136.7
U36.5
U34.4

85.5 89.3
80.4
98.8 103.6
85.8
80.5
88.0 116.6
98.6 102.1 155.-3
101.5
99.8 111.3
95.9 100.0 96.3
90.8 73.2
88.1
125.1 106.8 80.1
118.8 111.4 88.3
125.6 116.6 86.4
114.2 113.4 111.4
112.6 110.3 132.0
118.0 130.3 159.0
117.2 110.7 142.1
123.5 113.0 114.8
.121.6 116.9 118.5
119.2 110.2 139.6
144.0 127.1 141.3
153.2 1148.2 133.5
138.8 i 140.9 173.8
138.2 1156.7 197.3

145.3
151.2
183.6
193.3
193.3
194.9
193.3
190.2
191.8
196.5
187.1
169.0

138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2

1143.9
1143.4
1157.1
U67.7
1165.5
1160.9
1161.7
1158.6
i 160.5
1 157.5
i 155.1
U49.3

198.7
200.4
220.7
218.8
211.3
214.4
205.2
194.7
193.0
178.8
167.9
162.8

89.3
103.8
116.5
154.0
112.2
96.3
73.0
79.6
90.5
85.1
111.6
132.5
159.5
143.0
115.4
119.4
140.2
140.1
132.6
172.9
196.8

101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4
114.3
133.1
167.1

104.4 96.0
97.2 101.1
99.1 110.4
157.6 148.5
121.4 112.1
101.7 97.6
76.8 79.7
76.6 81.8
84.8 86.4
80.3 86.4
107.5 108.7
134.2 127.0
154.2 149.0
143.1 139.4
120.6 114.9
123.9 117.0
150.5 139.0
151.0 141.2
137.3 129.3
183.5 165.1
204.1 191.6

196.0
199.1
218.8
217.2
210.8
214.5
206.3
195.9
195.4
179.4
166.6
161.0

150.0
155.7
176.8
181.1
180.4
182.0
183.6
173.6
168.7
162.6
150.4
137.5

205.0
207.1
232.3
220.5
208.0
209.5
221.3
214.0
203.1
180.5
168.1
177.6

186.6
190.0
211.7
209.6
203.2
205.7
204.7
195.0
190.5
176.3
164.1
159.7

95.5
123.7
114.9 102.0
121.2 103.4
106.5 125.8
80.2 103.5
82.2
96.6
82.9
84.3
96.6
93.0
97.2
98.0
94.3
98.7
96.4 108.9
89.5 116.1
97.9 135.6
98.7 123.5
103.2 112.7
113.9 116.6
120.7 125.9
116.0 132.8
114.5 U37.4
119.2 1151.8
133.3 1172.3
131.8
144.3
175.7
186.5
161.8
140.1
122.7
116.0
117.8
110.2
92.8
96.9

1163.9
1166.8
1186.7
1192.4
1185.3
1181.0
1178.5
1172.2
U71.5
1163.2
1154.5
1150.6

i Including beef, fresh, carcass, good native steers (Chicago market). See explanation, p. 349.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

472

Table III.—
YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899= 100.0.]1
2
Food, etc.

Year or
month. Milk: fresh. Molasses: domestic, Salt: Ameri­ Soda: bicar­ pepper, Starch: pure
New Or­ Rice:
bonate of, Spices:
can. American. Singapore. com.
leans, open choice.
kettle.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902__
1903__
1904....
1905__
1906__
1907__
1908__
1909....
1910....

103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4
129.0
132.5
144.3

112.4
88.5
101.2
106.2
98.1
97.8
103.0
83.1
97.8
111.9
151.5
120.1
115.5
112.5
107.8
102.5
107.9
129.7
112.7
111.1
117.5

107.8
113.5
101.4
81.8
93.8
95.0
92.5
96.6
108.4
108.2
97.7
97.7
99.6
100.9
78.6
74.3
84.5
95.2
111.2
110.3
97.5

i1109.9
112.2

1107.7
1102.6
U01.9
196.3
190.7
193.5
193.7
191.7
U 17.6
1110.3
195.7
194.6
109.4
107.2
101.4
112.6
111.5
116.1
107.1

131.6
151.7
104.3
136.4
128.2
84.7
72.7
71.8
67.7
56.0
58.9
51.2
51.7
61.7
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
52.6
47.8
47.8

2 150.0
2 128.7
2 107.6
2 92.8
2 80.7
2 79.1
2 75.0
2 83.2
2 95.9
2 107.8
2 116.3
2 113.4
2 107.3
2 119.4
2 107.2
2 101.2
2 96.0
2 82.5
95.5
94.9
106.8

99.6
109.5
109.5
109.5
103.5
101.1
93.6
91.2
91.2
91.2
91.2
85.8
80.3
92.5
95.8
100.7
105.3
109.5
104.9
109.5
109.5

Jan.....
Feb__
Mar__
Apr__
May....
June__
July—
Aug--Sept__
Oct.....
Nov__
Dec__

161.6
156.9
147.1
140.4
117.6
117.6
127.8
137.3
143.9
156.9
156.9
166.7

117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
119.0

101.4
101.4
99.1
97.0
97.0
97.0
94.7
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
93.6

123.5
123.5
118.2
98.0
95.1
95.1
95.1
104.0
109.3
109.3
109.3
109.3

47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8

108.5
108.5
104.3
106.0
100.9
104.3
106.0
109.3
107.6
107.6
108.5
109.3

109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

1910.

1Average for salt, American;pepper, Singapore. See explanation, p.p.336. .
Average for nutmegs, and and salt, Ashton’s. See explanation, 336
2




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

47a

Table IEL—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,

AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.)

Food, etc.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906___
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
M ay....
June....
July—
Aug---Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

Sugar.
89° fair 96ccen­ Granu­ Aver­
refin­ trifu­ lated. age.
ing. gal.

Vegetables, fresh.
Tea:
Tal­ For­
low. mosa,
Pota?
fine. Onions. toes, Aver­
white. age.

143.9
101.8
84.5
94.3
81.2
85.2
93.9
90.6'
109.2
115.4
119.2
103.6
89.3
95.0
102.1
108.8
93.7
95.7
104.9
103.0
108.4

141.1
101.1
85.7
95.1
83.5
84.1
93.7
92.1
109.5
114 3
118.2
104 4
91.5
96.1
102.7
110.6
95.3
97.0
105.0
103.4
108.2

130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104 2
112.8
106.8
942
98.2
101.0
111.2
95.5
98.4
104 5
100.7
104 9

138.5
100.9
87.4
97.2
83.9
85.7
945
92.6
108.0
111.3
116.7
104 9
91.7
96.4
101.9
110.2
94.8
97.0
104.8
102.3
107.1

105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
1041
111.5
119.1
144 6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8
126.7
136.6
167.6.

96.3
99.2
106.0
101.7
98.0
95.1
91.0
98.6
104 2
109.8
104 9
100.4
106.2
80.9
97.1
942
82.8
81.0
75.1
82.0
845

105.2
109.2
113.8
112.3
110.7
110.0
112.9
115.2
111.4
99.4
99.3
102.0

105.7
108.8
112.8
111.5
110.2
109.5
112.1
114.1
110.8
100.2
100.1
102.5

103.1
104.2
109.2
107.6
109.2
106.8
107.4
108.2
106.6
102.1
96.3
98.8

104 6
107.4
111.9
110.4
110.0
108.8
110.8
112.4
109.6
100.6
98.5
101.1

155.9
157.2
162.8
172.4
1641
155.9
156.6
169.7
178.2
181.1
182.3
172.4

845 5 62.5
845 6 62.5
845 6 62.5
845 5 62.5
845 103.0
845 5 103.0
845
95.6
66.2
845
845
95.6
845
80.9
845
80.9
88.2
845

127.8
121.3
106.0
93.8
95.6
91.6
57.3
115.5
96.2
94.8
71.4
103.0
107.2
104 9
104 6
95.3
96.8
103.0
104 0
90.9
87.2

Vinegar:
cider,
Mon­
arch.

AverZd,

etc.

119.3 123.6
154 9 138.1
91.1
98.6
134.5 114 2
122.8 109.2
89.2
86.7
39.4
48.4
65.7
90.6
102.1
99.2
89.2
83.6
74 9
73.2
113.0 108.0
119.4 113.3
105.2 105.1
146.3 125.5
80.7
88.0
109.7 103.3
98.4 100.7
142.6 8124.8
137.4 *146.9
85.7 *110.4

105.4
121.8
111.1
101.5
101.5
98.1
88.0
88.0
89.6
947
91.3
89.6
95.3
88.0
89.6
98.6
115.0
116.7
124 6
121.8
118.4

U12.4
1115.7
1103.6
1110.2
199.8
1946
183.8
187.7
1944
198.3
U 042
1105.9
i 111. 3
1107.1
2 107.2
*108.7
2 112.6
2 117.8
<120.6
4 124.7
4128.7

92.0
76.1
68.1
449
50.6
39.3
89.6
158.3
148.5
104 4
83.1
77.7

121.8
121.8
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
121.8
148.8
148.8

<129.1
<128.2
4 130.9
<129.8
4127.8
<126.8
<128.1
<129.1
<130.1
<129.6
<127.8
<128.9

118.4
* 111. 3
*104.0
* 107.4
* 131.2
* 127.2
* 141.1
* 149.7
*125.0
*96.7
*87.5
*92.5

1 Including apples, sun-dried; salt, Ashton's; and nutmegs. See explanation, page 336.
2 Including apples, sun-dried; and nutmegs. See explanation, page 336.
8 Including cabbage. See explanation, page 349.
<Including canned com; canned peas; canned tomatoes; beef, fresh, carcass, good native steers (Chicago
market); poultry: dressed, fowls; and cabbage. See explanation, page 349.
8 Nominal price.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

474

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Cloths and clothing.
Blankets.
Boots and shoes.
Year or Bags:
month. 2-bushel,
Men's
Amos- All wool, 2Cotton,
Men's Men's vici vici kid Women’s
solid
keag. 5 pounds pounds Average. brogans, calf shoes, shoes, grain Average.
to the
to the
split. Blucher Good­ shoes.
pair.
pair.
year
bal.
welt.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897___
1898----1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903___
1904....
1905....
1906___
1907....
1908....
1909___
1910___
1910.
Jan----F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
Aug---Sept___
Oct........
Nov___
Dec___

113.9
111.7
110.8
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4
112.6
101.0
102.4
104.2
128.4
109.6
129.1
138.5
134.3
134.6
146.0

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0
113.1
119.0
125.5

139.4
143.0
143.0
143.0
150.1
150.1
150.1
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5

131.0 5 148.5
131.0 5 148.5
131.0 5 148.5,
131.0 5 148.5
125.0 5 148.5
125.0 5 148.5
125.0 6 148.5
125.0 . 5 148.5
125.0 5 148.5
119.0 5 148.5
119.0 5 148.5
119.0 6 148.5

1108.5
U08.5
U01.4
199.1
196.7
194.3
194 3
199.1
199.1
199.1
1123.8
1 112.0
1 112.0
1117.9
U23.8
U41.5
1 141.5
U41.5
5 136.1
5 135.0
5 148.5

2 107.6
2 106.8
2 104.3
2 103.5
2 95.9
2 90.6
2 91.7
29&I
2 102.7
2 98.8
2 117.7
2 106.4
2 106.4
2 114.1
2 117.4
2 129.0
2 131.3
2 130.3
124.6
127.4
137.2

106.1
106.1
104.9
102.3
97.9
99.2
100.4
96.0
92.2
94.8
94.8
95.4
94.1
93.5
93.5
101.5
12a 8
128.7
114.8
121.3
115.0

* 101.0
2 101.0
*101.0
*101.0
* 101.0
* 101.0
* 101.0
* 101.0
*97.6
*94.3
*94.3
*96.8
*96.8
*98.9
*98.9
*100.0
5 108.0
6 109.0
5 109.0
5 114 8
6 117.4 -

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
97.8
97.8
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.3
95.5
103.4
108.7
108.7
113.0
113.0

104.0
97.9
94.8
91.7
91.7
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
110.6
104 5
105.5
108.6
112.3
119.5
126.2
123.1
118.5
127.2
125.1

104.8
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
4 98.7
4 99.6
4 97.2
4 96.3
4 96.8
4 99.4
4 99.2
498.9
4 100.2
4 101.1
4 107.4
4 121.8
4 125.9
121.3
128.1
126.6

14U1
140.1
140.1
14a 1
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
133.8
133.8
133.8

121.3
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
116.2
116.2
113.7
111.2
111.2
108.7
106.1

5 118.7
5 118.7
5118.7
5118.7
5 116.7
5 116.7
5116. 7
6116.7
8 116.7
5 116.7
5 116.7
5 116.7

113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0

128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3

129.5
128.8
128.8
128.8
127.5
126.9
126.9
125.4
124 8
124.8
124.1
123.4

* Blankets: 11-4,5 pounds to the pair, cotton waip, cotton and wool filling.
2 Including blankets: 11-4, cotton warp, all wool filling. See explanation, page 336.
* Men's calf bal. shoes, Goodyear welt, aongola top.
4 Including men's split boots, russet-bound top. See explanation, page 336.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.




4
4
4
4
4

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

475

Table HI.—
YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Cotton flannels.
Carpets.
Year or Broad­ Calico:
month. cloths: American
first
standard
2| yards 3i yards
prints, Brussels, Ingrain, Wilton,
to the
54-inch, 64 by 64. 5-frame, 2-ply, 5-frame, Average. to the pound. Average.
pound.
Bigelow. Lowell. Bigelow.
XXX
wool.
1890....
1891___
1892___
1893....
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899___
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903___
1904___
1905___
1906....
1907___
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
Aug---Sept___
Oct.......
N ov..
Dec.......

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
1105
115.2
118.6
116.6
115.6
116.6
117.8

1 117.5

1104.0
1117.5
1113.0
199.5
194.9
194.9
190.4
181.4
187.3
194.9
190.4
190.4
191.1
195.7
193.5
199.5
*121.0
*104.3
*97.1
*106.8

103.1
112.7
103.1
98.3
98.5
93.5
93.5
95.9
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.5
108.7
110.3
115.1
117.9
124.7
119.9
119.1
119.9

108.6
116.2
106.1
111.1
98.5
88.4
85.9
90.9
98.5
96.0
103.5
101.0
101.9
108.1
109.1
116.2
116.2
121.2
116.6
111.1
111.1

104.2
109.4
104.2
104.2
104.2
91.1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0
101.6
101.6
102.2
108.9
110.7
115.9
118.9
123.7
120.2
120.2
121.1

105.3
112.8
104.5
104.5
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5
100.2
99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6
110.0
115.7
117.7
123.2
118.9
116.8
117.3

123.9
123.9
118.7
102.7
95.6
92.1
92.1
81.4
81.4
87.7
104.5
90.7
92.1
104.1
125.4
121.0
130.7
139.9
117.4
106.8
127.5

119.7
119.7
113.0
100.0
95.7
91.3
95.7
95.7
80.5
88.3
98.6
100.0
100.0
109.4
125.7
118.4
125.7
139.1
121.0
110.1
130.4

121.8
121.8
115.9
101.4
95.7
91.7
93.9
88.6
81.0
88.0
101.6
95.4
96.1
106.8
125.6
119.7
128.2
139.5
119.2
108.4
128.9

118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6

* 105.1
*105.1
*114.6
*114.6
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1
*105.1

119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9 5
119.9
119.9
119.9.
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5

130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4
130.4

128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9
128.9

1 Calico: Cocheco prints.




* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

476

III.— YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Cotton yarns.
Drillings.
Cotton
Flannels:
Year or thread:
white,
month. 6-cord, Carded, Carded,
Denims:
4-4, Bal­
Amos- Brown,
200-yard white,
white,
lard
spools,
mulemule- Average. keag.
Pep- 30-inch, Average. Vale
J. &P.
spun,
spun,
perell. Stark A.
No. 3.
Coats. northern, northern,
cones, 10/1. cones, 22/1.
1890....
1891....
1892....
3893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898___
1899___
1900___
1901....
1902___
1903___
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908___
1909___
1910___
1910.
Jan........
Feb___
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
Aug___
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

101.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
320.1
120.1
120.1
134.8
131.7
126.4
126.4

111.3
111.6
117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
98.6
95.6
116.2
123.2
107.8
124.6
137.1
110.5
122.3
138.9

112.1
114.0
116.8
108.6
91.2
92.2
93.7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
103.5
117.0
130.6
106.9
114.8
127.9

111.7
112.8
117.0
110.5
93.0
92.1
93.0
90.6
90.8
88.5
115.5
98.3
94.0
112.9
119.5
105.7
120.8
133.9
108.8
118.6
133.4

112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3
111.1
119.9
138.9

119.4
114.0
101.7
103.1
97.7
92.5
100.2
91.8
89.7
89.2
105.9
102.3
100.5
108.2
127.1
126.0
135.5
144.2
123.4
129.0
144.2

122.8
115.2
102.7
108.1
96.4
93.9
100.2
88.9
83.9
87.7
104.0
102.1
103.5
111.5
126.3
121.5
142.0
150.1
137.8
150.9
164.5

121.1
114.6
102.2
105.6
97.1
93.2
100.2
90.4
86.8
88.5
105.0
102.2
102.0
109.9
126.7
123.8
138.8
147.2
130.6
139.7
154.2

116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
94.1
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114.3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1
122.4
121.9
123.5

126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4

146.1
143.0
136.8
136.8
136.8
130.6
127.5
139.9
136.8
143.0
143.0
146.1

132.0
129.5
127.0
125.7
128.2
127.0
127.0
124.4
125.7
127.0
129.5
332.0

139.1
136.2
131.9
131.3
132.6
128.9
127.4
132.1
131.3
134.9
136.2
139.1

143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
138.9
138.9
138.9
138.9

144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2

158.3
158.3
158.3
159.9
159.9
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3

151.4
151.4
151.4
152.1
152.1
156.0
156.0
156.0
156.0
156.0
156.0
156.0

124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
114.1




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

477

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

Table

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.)

Cloths and clothing.
Ginghams.

Year or
month.
Amoskeag.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908---1909---1910---1910.
Jan___
F eb ....
M ar....
A pr....
May....
June...
July....
Aug....
S ept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec—

Lan­
caster.

Hosiery.
Horse
blankets:
all wool, Men’s cotton Women’s Women’s
Average. 6 pounds half hose, cotton hose, cotton hose, Average.
each.
seamless,
combed
seamless,
fast black. peeler yarn.i fast black.

117.3
122.0
122.0
118.4
91.0
87.4
88.6
82.2
80.9
89.5
96.6
91.9
98.1
103.2
102.8
96.6
106.0
123.5
102.8
110.3
131.3

120.8
122.2
122.2
111.3
88.0
86.6
87.3
86.2
85.2
89.9
96.0
92.7
100.3
100.3
97.0
90.2
103.3
120.4
100.0
104.0
115.2

119.1
122.1
122.1
114.9
89.5
87.0
88.0
84.2
83.1
89.7
96.3
92.3
99.2
101.8
99.9
93.4
104.7
122.0
101.5
107.2
123.2

109.1
104.7
109.1
104.7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94.2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9
126.5
126.5
135.3

133.3
123.1
112.8
110.3
102.6
94.9
87.2
82.1
76.9
76.9
82.1
71.8
76.9
82.1
82.1
82.1
85.3
94.8
88.9
96.1
95.4

131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3

117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4

124.5
124.5
124.5
124.5
124.5
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
122 3
122.3

135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3
135.3

97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
91.9
91.9
91.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9

102.7
102.7
101.4
101.4
100.0
97.3
94.6
102.7
108.1
100.0
101.4
97.3
94.6
102.7
109.5
95.9
95.9
99.0

131.6
121.1
115.8
113.2
105.3
92.1
84.2
81.6
76.3
78.9
81.6
71.1
78.9
86.8
81.6
84.2
81.6
89.5
84.2
85.3
83.5

3129.7
3 122.8
2 117.4
2 109.4
2 100.8
2 94.4
2 90.5
2 86.7
*83.4
2 82.5
2 87.3
*85.9
2 85.2
2 90.1
2 89.2
2 87.5
2 89.7
2 97.4
89.5
92.3
93.1

95.9
95.9
95.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

86.8
86.8
86.8
86.8
86.8
81.6
81.6
81.6
84.2
89.5
86.8
86.8

93.4
93.4
93.4
94.7
94.7
90.9
90.9
90.9
92.8
94.7
93.8
93.8

1 Average for 1893-1899=100.0.
*Including men’s cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles. See explanation, page 336.




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,

478

T able H I .—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
(For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899**100.0.}

Cloths and clothing.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr___
May....
June...
July....
Aug—
Sept...
Oct___
Nov__
Dec___

Leather.

Overcoatings.
Linen
shoe
Print
thread: Covert
cloths:
Aver­ 10s, Bar­ cloth, 14 Kersey, Aver­ 64 by 64.
bour. ounce. 27 to 28 age.
age.
ounce.1

Sole,
Chrome Harness, hem­
calf.
oak. lock.

Sole,
oak.

*91.7
*98.8
*105.9
*98.5
*92.3
*112.0
*98.3
*94.1
*103.3
* 105.0
*100.3
*96.0
*100.9
*105.4
* 105.0
*106.5
*109.5
*117.1
* 113.6
*120.4
7 118.5

99.3
99.6
91.4
92.7
87.8
111.5
98.6
93.9
109.1
116.0
116.8
114.7
114.7
114.3
110.0
115.0
128.1
129.0
121.1
131.5
130.9

99.1
95.8
89.1
92.6
88.4
106.9
97.0
104.8
109.8
116.2
128.4
127.6
122.1
116.9
116.5
118.1
130.9
136.4
129.3
131.5
127.2

112.1
109.4
101.7
103.6
97.5
101.7
87.0
91.6
95.5
99.9
107.3
104.8
113.0
111.3
102.6
108.9
112.9
113.6
113.0
122.7
123.3

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
124.0
119.4
126.8
125.3

*103.3
*97.6
*98.0
*100.2
*102.5
*98.6
* 98.6
*99.6
*101.0
*101.0
*103.1
*103.3
*103.3
*97.5
*100.5
*100.5
*102.9
*104.7
102.1
102.1
102.1

4105.7
4105.7
4105.7
4105.7
4104.2
4 99.9
4 87.4
*83.6
4 97.2
4104,9
4101.4
4 97.2
4 97.2
4 94.0
4 94.0
4 96.9
*96.9
4 96.9
4 96.9
* 96.9
* 91.1

94.9
104.2
100.9
126.3
120.3
120.3
126.3
132.3
146.8
163.7
158.0
148.3
143.3
154.3

7 127.5
7 127.5
7 117.1
7 119.7
7 117.1
7 117.1
7 117.1
7 117.1
7 117.1
7 114.5
7 114.5
7 114.5

136.4
136.4
136.4
131.2
132.9
131.2
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8

131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
128.9
128.9
128.9
123.8
123.8
123.8
121.2
121.2

126.4 130.8
126.4 130.8
129.3 128.9
129.3 128.3
127.9 127.0
129.3 127.0
124.9 125.0
124.9 123.8
118.9 122.2
116.0 . 120.8
113.0 119.4
113.0 119.4

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

7 96.9
* 96.9
7 96.9
7 91.5
7 91.5
7 91.5
7 91.5
7 91.5
7 86.1
7 86.1
7 86.1
7 86.1

154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3
154.3

5111.2
5110.9
5111.2
5109.0
8 97.4
5 91.2
*87.3
*89.0
*97.4
*99.2
* 112.9
*102.4
* 102.7
*106.7
*106.9
*113.4
*120.0
*118.7
*111.7
109.8
110.7

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
110.0
127.7
167.4
118.0
126.5
134.8

114.0
114.0
114.0
111.0

147.6
149.8
145.3
133.9
126.6
127.7
126.0
132.1
131.0
132.6
133.2
132.1

111.0
111.0
111.0
111.0
107.9
107.9
107 9
107.9

* Average for 1897-1899=100.0.
* Wax calf, 30 to 40 pounds to the dozen, B grade.
*Average for linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour; and linen thread: 3-card, 200-yard spools, Barbour. See
explanation, page 336.
4 Covert cloth, light weight, staple goods.
* Including beaver, Moscow, all wool, black; chinchilla, B-rough, all wool; and chinchilla, cotton warp,
C. C. grade. See explanation, page 336.
«Including chinchilla, B-rough; and chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade. See explanation, page 336.
7 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
0 Including chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade. See explanation, page 336.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

479

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899“ 100.0.]

Cloths and clothing.1
Sheetings.
Year or
month.
9-4, At­
lantic.
1890.......
1891.......
1892.......
1893.......
1894.......
1895.......
1896.......
1897.......
1898.......
1899.......
1900.......
1901.......
1902.......
1903.......
1904.......
1905.......
1906.......
1907.......
1908.......
1909.......
1910.......

Brown.

Bleached.
10-4,
Pee r
Pi

Average.
10-4,
4,
Wam- Average. 4-4, In­ 4— Law­ 4-4, Pep- Average.
dian
rence perell R.
sutta
Head.
L. L.
S. T.

U22.1
U16.4
1108.7
1111.8
194.8
19a 8
192.6
187.4
183.2
189.4
1 111. 3
1100.9
U04.4
1115.7
1128.3
iU0i2
*121.5
*134.3
*138.7
*120.3
*130.8

116.2
106.6
100.8
io a 3
92.5
947
95.1
92.3
9L3
107.3
121.7
112.4
11L5
12a 8
128.7
120.3
131.4
15a 0
129.6
m e
142.0

106.0
107.2
99.8
92.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.1
104 3
99.2
99.2
io a o
941
91.6
92.7
103.4
94 7
97.2
115.3

95.6
91.2
9a 9
112.4
104 2
105.0
na2
117.0
107.4
115.2
130.2
121.3
na2
131.4

*127.8
*124 4
*130.9
*136.3
*136.3
*136.3
*132.7
*129.0
*129.0
*129.0
*129.0
*129.0

14a 6
148.6
148.6
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0
138.0

115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3

132.4
131.3
13a 4
132.1
132.1
132.1
13a 9
129.7
129.7
131.2
131.2
131.2

io a 6
9a 5

114 8
110.1
io a i
106.2
9a 6
9a 6

9a 0

115.8
116.1
io a 5
108.5
95.5
9a 5
99.4
93.9
86.3
86.9
99.5
100.8
99.8
108.8
12a 1
121.1

*125.7
*n a i
* io a 8

124 4
120.1
m .4

*109.3
*99.2
*97.7
*37.3
*86.1
*80.8
*85.9
*96.8
*941
<92.6
<101.9
<117.0
<nae
<125.5
<127.1
*102.0
*110.3
*119.9

135.8
135.8
135.8
135.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
135.8
135.8
135.8
139.8

*130.4
* 125.4
*122.9
*iia o
* 115.6
*u ao
* 115.6
* 115.6
*n a o
*120.5
*122.9
*122.9

12a 1
m .4

116.2
108.3
io a 3
105.8
96.4
96.0
101.3
• 95.3
86.2
91.5
107.4
107.4
103.3
10a 7
121.4

116.9
124 3
135.4
124 0
124 9
132.7

*119.7
*lia 9
*104 3
* io a 9
*97.6
*95.3
*9a7
*9L0
*8 a 4
*87.2
*101.0
*100.1
39a 8
* io a e

*1241
*n a i
*127.9

*m 7
11a 1

120.2
13a 6

*117.6
*112.3
* io a 8
*107.7
*95.9
*94 6
*97.4
*91.8
*86.7
*92.2
*105.9
*101.8
*101.4
su ae
*12L1
*n a5
*122.4
*132.2
120.0
119.6
131.5

1910.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......
M ay....
June....
July....
A u g ....
Sept—
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

14a 3
14a 3
14a 3

140.7
140.7
140.7
127.0
127.0
127.0
127.0
127.0
127.0
136.1
136.1
136.1

137.8
136.0
135.1
12a 9
125.4
124 5
125.4
125.4
12a 9
132.7
133.6
134 9

135.5
1341
134 7
130.9
129.2
12a 7
12a 6
12a 0

129.7
132.4
132.9
13a 5

110-4, Atlantic.
* 4r— Stark A. A.
4,
* Including 4-4, Atlantic A. See explanation, page 336.
<4— Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing relative price, see pages 348
4,
and 349.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

480

IH.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Cloths and clothing.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....

1910.
Jan___
Feb___
Mar___
Apr__
May....
June...
July....
Aug....
Sept...
Oct___
N ov....
D ec....

Shirtings: bleached.

Silk: raw.

4-4, Fruit 4-4, Lons­ 4-4, Rough 4-4, Warn*
sutta
of the
Average.
dale.
Rider.
<o>
Loom.
XX.

Italian, Japan,
classical. filatures. Average*

nai
109.8
111.0
114 3
99.9
96.2
95.6
sa 0
80.2
88.5
103.4
ioao
103.8
105.4
110.2
102.7
112.2
153.4
125.4
124.7
126.0

116.2
nai
111.7
114 4
100.0
9& 9
942
87.1
81.8
86.1
100.6
10L5
101.9
ioa9
109.5
101.7
110.9
14L0
12a 1
120.9
122.7 .

u ia 5
i lltt2
U06.3
U05.6
1101.0
197.1
1101.0
i 95.4
189.5
i 82.8
189.7
186.8
187.4
197.0
i 94 7
196.8
*ioao
*132.8
* 107.1
*99.9
4 101.5

106.6
106.4
102.6
ioa5
100.2
102.2
100.3
98.6
85.1
941
10L 8
92.3
9a 4
102.7
97.2
99.4
109.0
116.0
uao
111. 6
120.0

137.4
137.4
137.4
12a 6
125.4
125.4
116.8
120.2
120.2
120.2
12a 6
m6

1341
1341
1341
120.4
120.4
120.4
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
12a 4
120.4

4 107.9
4 107.9
4 107.9
4 10L 9
49a9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9
4 9a 9

12a 9
12a 9
12a 9
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
12a 3
125.3
125.3

2 112.9

2 1ia 2
2 107.4
2 1ia 2

299.9
2 97.6
297.9
2 92.0
28a8
2 87.8
2 100.4

a9
a8

29
29

2 10a 2
2 104 7
2 101.2
2 111. 1
2 137.4
120.0
116.4
119.8
12a 1
12a 1
12a 1

117.6
117.1
117.1
114 3
nai
nai
117.7
119.3
119.3

122.7
9a 4
105.3
lia 2
86.5
949
85.3
85.5
91.1
112.1
106.0
90.4
96.5
106.3
90.8
96.5
101.6
131.1
9a 2
102.9
941

130.5
99.8
107.7
nao
sa 7
94 2
84 8
86.2
90.5
109.7
ioa7
87.4
95.1
102.9
90.6
99.3
103.6
125.9
96.8
95.5
87.7

126.6
99.1
106.5
nae
85.1
946
85.1
85.9
90.8
llfi9
104 9
sa 9
95.8
104 6
90.7
97.9
102.6
12a 5
97.5
99.2
90.9

99.4
942
90.7
89.6
89.6
94 2
92.5
91.9
94.8
96.0
oa 3

87.5
86.3
82.7
85.1
87.5
85.1
85.1
sa 9
85.1
89.9
9a 9
9a 4

9a4
90.2
86.7
87.4
sae
89.6
8a 8
87.9
89.9
9a 0
97.2
985

9a 3

14-4, New York Mills.
* Including 4-4, Hope. See explanation, page 336.
* 4-4, Williamsvilie A. L.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO 1910,

481

Table H I.—
-YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,

AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Cloths and clothing.
Suitings.

Year or
.month.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A.

Clay
worsted
diagonal,
12-ounce.1

1890___
1891___
1892___
1893___
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902...1
1903___
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910*
Jan........
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
A ug....
Sept....
Oct.......
Nov___
D e c ....

Clay
Indigo blue,
worsted all wool,
diagonal, 14-ounce,
16-ounce.1 Middlesex.

4 120.9

92.5
89.1
92.2
111.3
114.9
131.4
110.6
110.9
115.2
112.2
132.7
147.5
142.1
135.2
150.3
148.4

93.8
87.6
93.3
111.4
113.9
133.7
111.0
108.6
112.1
109.6
129.3
146.4
139.3
133.0
147.5
144.9

116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0
111.1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3
119.0
119.0
119.0

120.9
490.7
<90.7
<81.6
<87.7
<99.8
<107.7
<107.6
<106.6
<105.1
<100.4
<102.9
<128.1
<138.8
<139.5
<132.0
<142.0
5 138.9

106. o
106.6
98.9
87.9
92.3
92.3
108.9
106.6
117.6
102.2
101.8
104.6
106.2
111.6
120.6
122.3
127.6
124.1
128.8

* 113.1
8113.1
3 xi3. 4
3 11217
8 98 3
8 89.2
8 87.8
8 88.7
8103.9
8 106.1
8U5.8
8 104.9
8105.8
8 109.0
8 109.0
8 122.7
8134.8
8 133.1
«124.6
135.1
134.7

113.1
110.7
108.4
111! 3
102! 2
94.8
96.0
91.9
84.3
87.0
102.2
95.5
99.0
104.1
114.3
102.1
119.0
129.4
106.0
111.3
121.1

158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
158.5
136.6
136.6
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3

149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
149.7
138.6
138.6
140.8
140.8
140.8
140.8

125.9
125.9
125.9
119.0
119.0
119.0
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6
115.6

6 148.25 148.2
5 148.2
5 148.2
5148.2
6 148.2
5 128.4
6 128.4
5 128.4
5 130.9
5 130.9
6 130.9

123.6
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3

139.6
140.8
140.8
139.3
139.3
139.3
128.8
128.8
129.7
130.1
130.1
130.1

132.0
132.0
132.0
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
117.8
120.2
127.2
127.2

Serge,
Fulton
Mills
3192.2

4

Trouserings,
fancy
worsted.1
2

Average.

1 Average for 1895-1899=100.0.
2 Average for 1892-1899=100.0.
* Including indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce. See explanation, page 336.
<Washington Mills 6700.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.

86026°—B ull. 93—11----- 12




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

482

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.)

Cloths and clothing.
Underwear.

Women’s dress goods.

Year or Shirts Shirts
Cashmonth. and
and
mere, all
draw­ drawers, Aver­ wool,
ers, white,
8-9 twill,
white, merino, age. 35-inch,
60 per
all
Atlantic
cent
wool. wool.
Mills.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908.:..
1909....
1910....
1910.
J a n ....
F eb....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay...
June...
Ju ly ...
Aug....
S ept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec___

Cashmere,
cotton
warp,
9-twfll,
4-4, At­
lantic
Mills F.

Poplar
Cashcloth,
mere, Panama cotton Sicilian
cloth,
cotton cloth,
warp cotton
warp,
ana
36-inch, all wool, worsted warp,
Hamil­ 54-inch. filling, 60-inch.
ton.
36-inch.

Aver­
age.

106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

U06.9
1112.7
1112.7
1112.7
195.4
192.5
192.5
192.5
195.4
186.7
195.4
195.4
195.4
7 95.4
7 95.4
7 95.4
7 106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0

106.6
111.4
111.4
111.4
94.1
92.6
92.6
92.6
94.1
93.6
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

2119.8
2 126.1
2 128.2
2 111.8
2 84.3
2 81.0
2 67.5
2 82.2
2 88.6
2 110.4
2119.1
2 111.3
2111.3
2 114.3
2 117.7
2 128.4
2 134.9
2 134.9
7127.1
7138.8
7 146.6

119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
94.3
104.8
108.0
104.3
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0
138.6
146.7
149.9

2 111.0 4115.3
*111.0 4119.9.
*109.6 ' 4119.9
*106.1 4117.6
*102.7 <96.8
*95.8
4 84.3
*93.0
480.7
*88.8
4 82.2
*88.8
4 88.4
*93.0
4 94.9
*99.9 4118.3
*102.7 <104.5
*102.0 <108.3
*101.2 <114.5
*110.5 4113.4
*121.4 <131.0
7124.6 <133.3
7 127.8 4.126.8
7124.6 7126.8
7123.3 7127.9
7124.6 7126.3

6109.9
6109.9
6108.3
6106.7
* 100.3
5 97.0
*93.8
5 90.5
5 90.5
5 93.1
5 100.3
5 100.3
599.5
5 97.8
5 106.7
7 107.7
7109.6
7 110.1
7 113.5
7110.1
7115.4

«108.1
«108.1
«106.3
«104.6
«100.9
« 93.7
« 93.7
5 93.7
*93.7
« 96.6
6 104.6
«104.6
«103.7
5 101.5
5 112.4
*114.9
*121.6
*124.9
7 124.9
7 118.7
7121.1

113.9
115.7
115.0
107.5
95.6
89.3
85.4
88.0
90.7
98.8
108.4
104*6
105.5
106.6
112 5
122.7
127.6
128.6
126.3
127.8
130.9

115.8
115.8
115.8115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

7106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0
7106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0
7106.0
7 106.0
7106.0
7 106.0
7 106.0

110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

7 150.5
7150.5
7 150.5
7 150.5
7150.5
7150.5
7142.7
7142.7
7142.7
7142.7
7142.7
7 142.7

151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
151.5
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3

7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7 124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7124.6
7 124.6
7 124.6

7 131.1
7 131.1
7 131.1
7131.1
7 131.1
7 122.6
7122.6
7122.6
7122.6
7122.6
7122.6
7 124.3

7 115.4
7 115.4
7 115.4
7 115.4
7 115.4
7115.4
7115.4
7115.4
7115.4
7 115.4
7115.4
7 115.4

7124.9
7 124.9
7 124.9
7 124.9
7 124.9
7 124.9
7 116.6
7 116.6
7 116.6
7 116.6
7U6.6
7 120.0

133.2
133.2
133.2
133.2
133.2
131.8
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
129.5

152 per cent wool.
2 Cashmere, all-wool, 10-11 twill, 38 inch, Atlantic Mills J.
* 27-inch.
4 Franklin sackings, 6-4.
6 Cashmere, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
* Alpaca, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
7 For method of computing relative price see pages 348 and 349.
* Danish cloth, cotton warp and filling. For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

483

H I.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OP COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Cloths and clothing.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan.......
F eb ....
M ar....
A p r....
May---June....
July—
A u g....
Sept....
Oct.......
N ov ....
Dec.......

Wool.

Worsted yams.

2-32s, cross­
Ohio, fine Ohio, medi­
fleece (X and um fleece (i Average. 2-40s, Aus­ bred stock, Average.
XX grade), and | grade),
tralian fine. white, in
scoured.
scoured.
skeins.

Average,
cloths and
clothing.

129.5
124.1
110.7
102.0
80.5
68.2
71.3
89.7
111.3
112.8
119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9
129.6
133.5
124.2

134.6
127.5
115.6
101.2
77.6
71.9
69.8
87.6
105.3
108.8
116.0
94.5
97.2
102.1
106.7
117.2
112.3
113.0
107.3
119.0
107.0

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5
118.3
126.5
115.8

120.4
121.3
119.6
111.4
91.3
72.9
71.2
83.6
101.2
107.1
118.3
102.2
110.3
115.6
116.6
123.0
127.0
127.3
120.8
128.3
123.0

11241
1125.4
1114.8
1107.6
191.2
175.1
174.5
181.3
199.7
1106.3
1118.5
U02.1
* 113.1
* 120.4
*116.3
*126.4
*130.0
* 128.4
* 114 4
6131.8
*1241

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74 0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0
116.5
124 7
128.5
127.9
117.6
130.2
123.7

*113.5
*111.3
*109.0
*107.2
*96.1
*92.7
*91.3
*91.1
*93.4
*96.7
*106.8
*101.0
*102.0
*106.6
*109.8
*112.0
* 120.0
*126.7
*116.9
119.6
123.7

130.9
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
123.2
123.2
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4

121.7
121.7
118.7
112.6
109.6
106.5
103.5
100.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4

126.8
124.9
123.3
120.1
118.5
116.8
113.4
111.8
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3

127.7
127.7
125.2
122.8
122.8
122.8
122.8
122.8
120.3
120.3
120.3
120.3

»132.0
* 132.0
* 132.0
* 132.0
*124.2
*1242
*124 2
* 117.1
#117.1
* 117.1
* 117.1
*119.9

130.0
130.0
128.7
127.5
123.6
123.6
123.6
120.1
118.8
118.8
118.8
120.3

126.9
126.7
126.4
124 6
123.8
123.3
121.8
121.6
121.8
122.4
122.7
122.8

12-40, XXX, white, in skeins.
* Including blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, all wool filling; men's split boots, russet
bound top; men's cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles; linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools, Barbour;
overcoatings: beaver, Moscow, all wool, black; overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough, all wool; overcoatings:
chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade; shawls; sheetings: brown 4-4, Atlantic A; shirtings: bleached, 4-4:
Hope; suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16 -ounce. See explanation, page 336.
*2-40, XXXX, white, in skeins.
4Including blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, all wool filling; men's split boots, russetbound top; men's cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles; linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools, Barbour;
overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough all wool; overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade; shawls;
sheetings: brown, 4-4,336.
See explanation, page Atlantic A; shirtings* bleached, 4-4, Hope; suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce.
6 For method or computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
*Including overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade. See explanation, page 349.




BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOB.

484

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
.AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages $49 to $61. Average for 1890-1899-100.0.]

Fuel and lighting.
Coal.
Year or Candles:
ada­
month. man­
tine,
6s, 14-oz.

1890....
1891___
1892___
1893....
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897___
1898___
1899___
1900___
1901___
1902___
1903___
1904___
1905___
1906___
1907___
1908___
1909___
1910___
1910.
Jan.......
Feb___
M ar....
A p r....
M ay....
June__
July___
A u g....
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

Anthracite.

Bituminous.

Georges
Creek
Bro­ Chest­ Egg. Stove. Aver­ Georges (f. o. b.
Creek
ken. nut.
age.
(at
New
mine). York
Harbor).

Pitts­
Aver­
burg
age.
(Yough- Aver­
ioage.
gheny).

102.3
102.3
102.3
112.9
110.9
108.7
108.7
95.3
78.4
78.4
135.4
140.7
140.7
127.4
115.1
109.7
98.0
94.8
93.5
92.7
92.7

103.5
102.3
107.4
105.8
101.5
97.5
97.1
96.4
95.4
93.1
97.1
105.5
110.4
126.2
126.1
125.1
124.8
124.9
1248
124 8
1247

93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
98.9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
1240
1342
1342
1341
135.2
1341
1341
134.1
133.9

100.6
104 4
110.8
107.2
943
843
98.8
105.7
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134 3
1342
1343
135.3
1342
1341
133.2
133.9

97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
949
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
1040
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1
127.1
127.0
127.0

98.8
101.3
109.3
109.9
97.3
86.8
98.7
103.0
98.6
96.5
102.4
113.2
118.4
130.5
130.4
130.2
130.9
130.1
130.1
129.8
129.9

97,1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174 4
173.0
162.2
155.2
158.5

108.9
110.5
106.9
107.6
99.8
102.5
97.1
89.0
79.3
98.4
106.0
106.6
148.0
161.8
116.5
114 8
113.9
118.0
112.3
111.3
111.1

103.3
122.7
116.5
117.9
98.6
93.3
89.1
88.6
87.9
82.6
117.0
117.0
122.4
143.9
132.5
124 4
122.7
128.1
132.3
125.8
125.2

103.1
113.4
108.2
109.7
96.9
94.3
95.8
90.5
90.0
98.3
119.3
124 7
169.8
191.8
148.6
139.7
137.0
139.7
136.1
131.5
132.1

100.6
106.4
108.9
109.8
97.1
90.0
97.5
97.6
94 9
97.3
109.7
118.1
140.4
156.7
138.2
134 3
133.5
134.2
132.7
130.6
130.9

92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7

1247
1247
1247
1247
1247
1247
1247
124.7
1247
124 7
124 7
124 7

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.0
128.4
131.4
134 4
136.4
137.7
137.6
137.7

136.9
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.5
128.4
130.8
135.0
137.1
137.7
137.7
137.7

130.4
130.4
130.4
117.3
119.5
121.9
124 5
127.8
129.9
130.4
130.4
130.4

132.5
132.7
132.7
122.5
1243
126.0
127.9
130.5
132.1
132.7
132.7
132.7

157.5
157.5
157.5
157.5
163.2
157.5
157.5
151.9
157.5
157.5
163.2
163.2

113.4
113.0
109.4
113.0
109.4
113.0
107.6
109.4
111.2
107.6
113.0
113.0

124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
1244
124 4
124 4
124 4
126.4
132.3

132.5
132.4
130.9
132.4
132.5
132.4
130.2
129.3
131.6
130.2
134.7
136.7

132.6
132.6
132.0
126.8
127.9
128.8
129.0
130.1
132.0
131.7
133.6
1345




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

485

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Fuel and lighting.
Petroleum.
Year or Coke:
month. Connells- Matches:
parlor,
ville,
furnace. domestic.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr—
May....
June...
July....
Aug....
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec___

Refined.
Crude.

150° fire
For export. test, water Average.
white.

Average,
fuel and
Average. lighting.

122.7
110.4
106.5
87.1
62.3
78.0
110.4
95.2
98.8
128.7
155.8
115.6
158.2
171.5
96.4
134.7
157.5
166.3
100.6
117.9
115.9

111.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.9
96.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
90.1
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5
195.6
182.7
147.7

112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5
127.3
111.2
117.4
127.0
133.9
128.7
118.6

111.8
98.8
89.2
81.5
81.5
103.6
116.7
101.1
102.1
114.0
133.5
123.1
124.5
153.1
153.6
141.9
146.1
151.2
151.7
137.6
121.2

112.4
102.2
81.4
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119.3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1
143.1
133.7
120.5

106.7
92.6
91.5
77.4
84.4
120.8
118.1
93.2
99.7
126.0
137.9
123.8
124.5
153.4
153.2
135.1
146.3
156.2
160.6
150.0
130.6

104.7
102.7
101.1
100.0
92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3
125.4

154.6
147.2
150.2
125.1
110.4
107.5
107.5
107.5
100.1
94.2
91.3
95/7

85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

157.1
153.8
153.8
153.8
148.3
148.3
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8
142.8

121.7
121.7
121.7
121.7
119.4
119.4
117.9
117.9
117.9
115.6
114.0
114.0

132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
120.8
115.2
115.2
103.9
103.9
103.9

127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
126.2
126.2
119.9
117.2
117.2
110.5
109.7
109.7

138.3
137.4
137.4
137.4
134.9
134.9
128.8
126.7
126.7
121.7
121.1
121.1

131.1
130.3
130.3
125.4
124.2
124.5
123.3
123.5
123.9
122.3
122.9
123.8




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

486

I I I .—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1899-1899=»100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr___
May....
June...
July....
Aug....
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec___

Bar iron.

Builders’ hardware.

Barb wire:
galvanized.
From mill From store
(Pittsburg (Philadel­ Average.
phia
market). market).

Butts.

Doorknobs: Locks:
steel,
bronze common Average.
plated. mortise.

126.9
117.9
113.1
103.4
82.8
86.2
84.1
75.9
73.8
134.5
148.3
124.1
133.8
122.1
102.1
129.0
126.8
131.3
109.5
109.5
116.2

125.0
115.9
114.0
103.7
81.7
87.8
85.4’
79.9
78.0
126.2
119.5
112.2
129.9
122.0
104.9
117.1
120.7
128.7
103.7
107.3
112.8

126.0
116.9
113.6
103.6
82.3
87.0
84.8
77.9
75.9
130.4
133.9
118.2
131.9
122.1
103.5
123.1
123.8
130.0
106.6
108.5
114.6

141.2
127.4
109.5
99.7
86.1
88.9
77.7
71.3
72.7
125.5
134.4
120.2
116.9
108.4
99.3
94.3
96.1
104.3
103.8
93.4
84.4

111.7
111.7
96.8
98.4
95.9
100.3
104.1
96.8
92.4
92.4
126.6
116.8
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
130.4
151.2

97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
115.1
102.1
97.8
97.8
97.8
106.8
112.0
126.9
132.6
144.8
213.6
259.8
265.2
235.7
235.7
279.9

101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100.1
102.0
106.1
102.0
91.8
91.8
96.5
91.8
104.0
110.2
125.5
183.1
221.3
244.8
203.2
195.0
202.0

103.7
103.7
98.7
99.3
97.9
105.8
104.1
98.9
94.0
94.0
110.0
106.9
119.2
123.1
132.3
174.4
202.6
212.2
192.3
191.6
216.1

127.5
127.5
126.0
123.7
118.5
116.2
112.5
111.0
108.8
108.8
108.8
105.0

119.5
119.5
119.5
115.9
113.4
113.4
113.4
107.3
107.3
107.3
107.3
107.3

123.6
123.6
122.8
119.9
116.0
114.9
113.1
109.2
108.1
108.1
108.1
106.3

92.2
92.2
92.2
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
79.2
79.2
79.2
79.2
79.2

140.7
140.7
140.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7
154.7

235.7
235.7
235.7
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6
294.6

183.6
183.6
183.6
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1
208.1

192.9
192.9
192.9
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8
223.8




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

487

HI.—
YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.

Ingot.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905___
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
M!ay—
June__
July—
Aug---Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec___

Nails.

Copper.

Year or
month.

Sheet,
hot-rolled
(base
sizes).

Wire,
bare.

Average.

Lead:
Pig-

Lead
pipe.

Cut,
8-penny,
fence and
common.

Wire,
8-penny, Aver­
fence and age.
common.

127.6
105.8
93.5
88.6
76.8
87.1
88.9
91.7
96.8
143.2
134.6
136.7
.97.3
110.9
106.2
127.7
158.9
172.2
110.5
108.6
106.9

137.1
114.5
96.4
90.4
85.9
85.9
85.9
88.2
84.4
131.1
124.6
125.9
107.5
115.6
108.5
120.1
143.2
168.3
108.0
108.0
108.7

128.1
112.7
98.2
92.2
79.0.
84.6
92.6
93.9
93.9
124.7
123.0
124.0
90.6
102.3
98.2
164.1
144.0
164.1
103.8
101.3
98.0

130.9
111.0
96.0
90.4
80.6
85.9
89.1
91.3
91.7
133.0
127.4
128.9
98.5
109.6
104.3
121.4
148.7
168.2
107.4
105.9
104.4

115.5
114.7
108.4
98.2
86.9
85.6
78.7
94.0
99.7
117.6
116.8
115.0
107.9
112.3
116.3
125.7
154.3
144.9
110.8
112.6
117.6

112.1
116.2
107.6
103.8
92.0
87.2
85.1
89.6
95.5
111.0
106.3
104.8
108.3
107.8
99.5
108.4
133.3
139.2
98.4
100.1
105.0

125.2
100.3
96.2
92.0
83.6
105.3
148.4
72.9
65.3
110.8
123.1
115.6
116.7
120.2
99.5
99.9
105.7
118.3
106.7
102.3
100.9

137.1
114.1
101.3
92.1
76.4
98.0
135.3
68.7
66.5
110.4
121.8
109.4
97.3
96.0
88.2
87.7
90.6
97.9
97.1
88.7
87.3

131.2
107.2
98.8
92.1
80.0
101.7
141.9
70.8
65.9
110.6
122.5
112.5
107.0
108.1
93.9
93.8
98.2
108.1
102.4
95.8
94.4

113.9
112.9
110.8
109.8
103.1
106.1
102.6
104.0
104.6
103.6
105.6
106.7

108.5
108.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
108.5
100.4
100.4

102.5
102.5
100.8
100.8
97.3
97.3
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
97.3

108.2
107.9
108.6
108.2
104.9
103.9
102.1
102.6
102.8
102.4
100.4
101.4

124.1
123.6
122.0
115.7
115.5
115.0
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
115.5
118.1

108.5
113.3
113.3
108.3
103.4
103.4
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7

106.7
104.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
102.6
102.6
97.1
95.8
95.8
93.0
93.0

90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
90.2
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3

98.7
97.4
98.7
98.7
98.7
96.8
96.8
90.5
89.8
89.8
88.6
88.6




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

488

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

IFor explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=-100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Pig iron.

Year or
month.
Besse­
mer.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897....
1898___
1899....
1900___
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905___
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan........
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
June....
July—
Aug---Sept ...
Oct.......
N o v ....
Dec-----

Gray
forge,
Foundry Foundry south­
No. 2.
No. 1.
ern,
coke.

Aver­
age.

Quick­
silver.

Silver: Spelter: Steel
bar,
fine. western. billets.

137.0
115.8
104.3
93.4
82.6
92.3
88.1
73.5
75.0
138.1
141.5
115.7
150.0
137.7
99.8
118.7
141.8
165.8
123.9
126.3
124.8

124.3
118.4
106.4
98.1
85.5
88.5
87.5
81.7
78.8
130.8
135.0
107.2
149.9
134.5
105.2
120.8
141.7
161.4
119.6
120.3
117.3

131.4
117.9
105.5
95.3
83.1
89.4
90.2
77.4
76.8
132.9
141.8
112.8
162.7
146.6
104.4
125.7
147.6
182.9
124.5
125.7
122.4

130.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
78.6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
105.3
130.7
149.1
189.3
129.6
134.7
131.4

130.9
116.3
105.6
95.7
83.0
90.8
88.1
78.0
77.3
134.4
139.8
112.2
155.4
141.3
103.7
124.0
145.1
174.9
124.8
127.1
124.3

130.5
112.3
100.9
93.2
85.7
91.8
89.0
92.2
97.0
107.3
121.0
118.5
115.5
113.4
105.5
97.4
98.6
97.1
109.1
112.9
116.1

140.6
132.2
116.9
104.4
85.5
88.5
91.0
81.1
78.9
80.8
82.9
79.7
70.5
72.4
77.2
81.5
90.0
88.1
71.4
69.6
72.4

122.6
112.4
102.9
90.7
78.5
80.1
88.7
93.1
100.2
130.1
97.8
89.6
107.7
123.5
113.9
131.0
137.2
136.5
105.1
121.9
124.6

141.5
117.7
109.8
94.9
77.0
85.9
87.5
70.1
71.1
144.6
116.4
112.1
142.1
129.7
103.0
111.6
127.5
135.9
122.2
114.4
117.9

144.4
140.4
135.0
133.1
127.2
120.6
119.0
116.8
115.4
115.4
114.7
115.4

131.7
129.6
125.0
123.3
118.2
115.8
113.1
111.5
111.5
110.2
109.4
108.1

137.1
137.1
131.4
128.5
125.6
122.8
118.0
116.1
113.2
113.2
114.1
112.2

149.9
144.3
142.0
134.1
129.6
128.5
127.4
*125.1
124.0
124.0
124.0
124.0

141.1
138.2
133.7
130.2
125.5
122.3
119.7
117.7
116.3
116.0
115.8
115.2

128.7
123.4
123.4
118.0
118.0
114.4
114.4
114.4
111.7
111.7
111.7
102.8

70.9
69.7
69.6
72.0
72.8
72.3
73.3
72.0
72.3
75.1
75.3
73.8

138.9
135.6
127.2
123.9
113.9
117.3
115.0
116.2
119.5
123.9
131.6
132.7

127.8
127.8
127.8
124.3
121.3
117.5
115.5
113.8
113.4
110.3
108.6
106.8




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

489

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Metals and implements.
Year or
month. Steel
rails.
1890.... 121.9
1891.... 114.8
1892.... 115.1
1893.... 107.9
1894.... 92.1
1895.... 93.4
1896.... 107.4
1897.... 71.9
1898.... 67.6
1899.... 107.9
1900.... 123.9
1901.... 104.9
1902.... 107.4
1903.... 107.4
1904.... 107.4
1905.... . 107.4
1906.... 107.4
1907.... 107.4
1908.... 107.4
1909.... 107.4
1910.... 107.4
1910.
Jan___ 107 4
F eb.... 107.4
M ar.... 107.4
Apr___ 107.4
M ay... 107.4
June... 107.4
Ju ly... 107.4
Aug.... 107.4
Sept... 107.4
Oct___ 107.4
Nov__ 107.4
Dec__ 107.4

Steel
sheets:
black,
No. 27.i

Tin
plates;
domes­
Tin: tic, Bes­
Axes:
Pig- semer, Augers, M.C.O.,
coke, extra. Yankee.
14 by 20.2

Tools.
Chisels:
extra, Files: 8socket inch mill
firmer, bastard.
1-inch.

Ham­
mers:
Maydole
No. 1*.

Planes:
Bailey
No. 5,
jack
plane.

104 9
108.9
96.0
87.1
84 8
119.2
130.8
140.6
129.9
116.1
93.8
99.1
105.8
111.6
107.1
99.6
101.3

115.5
110.3
110.9
109.0
9& 7
76.5
72.4
74 0
84 5
148.2
163.7
142.6
144 2
153.4
152.5
170.3
213.6
211.1
160.2
161.1
186.3

*104 6
* 116.4
*115.7
* 117.1
*106.7
*844
4 91.8
4 89.2
4 85.4
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8
113.9
109.4
112.5

118.2
lia 2
lia 2
111.9
95.9
82.9
86.7
88.6
88.6
91.1
124 4
105.7
111.9
143.7
149.3
190.7
221.8
223.9
223.9
198.5
195.1

120.4
118.3
106.5
106.5
100.9
98.0
88.4
83.9
70.9
97.1
102.9
88.8
103.0
107.6
123.3
134 7
143.1
144.9
144.9
142.4
145.2

110.9
110.9
110.9
102.1
91.5
90.3
94 7
90.3
90.8
107.6
127.6
121.4
142.6
147.8
158.4
209.5
221.1
234.3
198.0
175.2
183.5

106.7
104 6
102.2
101.6
97.3
95.4
91.2
94.4
96.8
109.7
127.8
123.1
123.1
123.1
122.0
121.6
119.8
117.0
111.9
109.5
109.1

96.9
96.9
96.9
96 9
96.9
97.6
105.2
105.2
100 6
107.0
115.9
117 2
117.2
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.8

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
104 3
93.9
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
107.0
110.4
114 2
115.7
115.7
115.7
129.3
115.7
115.7
115.7
125.4

104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
104 9
104.9
100.4
98.2
95.1
96.0
98.2
96.0

180.6
177.0
179.1
178.1
178.1
179.2
179.2
180.8
197.2
198.8
200.4
206.7

112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5

175.9
175.9
175.9
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5
201.5

133.2
133.2
133.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2
149.2

132.0
132.0
132.0
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6
200.6

109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1

129.0
129.0
129.0
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1

115.7
115.7
115.7
12a 6
128.6
12a 6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
12a 6

i Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899=100.0.
* Average for 1890-1899=100.0.
* Imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 by 20. Average for 1890-1898=100.0.
4 Average for domestic, Bessemer, coke, 14 by 20; and imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 by 20. See ex­
planation, page 336.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

490

T a b l e I I I . — YEARLY

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Metals and implements.
Tools.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay...
June...
Ju ly...
Aug....
Sept...
Oct___
Nov__
Dec___

Wood
screws:
1-inch,
No. 10,
Shovels: Trowels: Vises:
flat
Cross­ Hand,
Ames M. C. O., solid box, Average. head.
brick,
cut, Disston Average. No. 2. 10^-inch. 50-pound.
Disston No. 7.
No. 2.
Saws.

Average,
Zinc: metals
and
sheet. imple­
ments.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. or
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.7
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

106.4
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
94.7
94.7
99.3
100.8
100.8
109.4
115.9
115.9
118.9
102.0
97.3
96.9
96.9
99.7
99.4
96.9
98.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.1
106.1
109.1
107.6
104.0
97.2
95.4
89.7
841
100.7
109.4
128.7
131.5
132.7
109.1
106.1
115.9
147.4
147 4
155.2
151.3

107.2
105.6
104.5
103.0
98.6
95.3
95.7
95.0
93.9
101.3
111.8
110.0
114 6
118.2
118.4
127.5
134 4
115 7
113.6
111.1
112.4

130.5
132.5
139.1
139.1
103.2
74 0
68.4
56.3
60.8
96.2
120.5
69.2
63.0
72.4
62.6
69.9
69.9
80.7
66.2
76 6
98.5

114 0
107.7
103.4
94 0
74 4
85.1
93.0
93.0
103. 5
131.9
114 8
104 7
107.9
11&3
105.6
128.5
135.0
140.9
121.3
125.1
132.2

1119.2
i 111. 2
1106.7
UOO.O
190.7
192.7
193.0
186.7
186.6
114 4
120.7
111.5
117.9
117.2
109.6
122.6
135.5
143.2
125.4
124 8
128.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

96.9
96.9
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
94.7
94.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4

106.8
106.8
107.1
114.7
114.7
114 7
114 2
1142
114 2
114 2
113.6
113.6

89.4
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3

138.6
130.9
134 2
134.2
129.9
129.9
129.9
129.9
129.9
129.9
134.2
134 2

129.7
129.3
128.9
131.5
129.9
129.1
128.2
127.0
127.0
127.2
127.1
126.8

1 Including tin plates: imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 by 20. See explanation, page 336.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

491

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899*=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1901....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan----F eb....
Mar....
Apr___
May....
June...
July....
Aug—
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Pec___

Cement.
Brick: Carbonate
of lead:
common American,
domestic. in oil. Portland, Rosendale. Average.
domestic.1
118.0
102.6
103.7
104.9
89.9
95.5
91.0
88.8
103.4
102.2
94.4
103.7
96.8
106.2
134.7
145.7
153.7
110.7
91.8
114.8
102.8

110.6
112.7
114.0
105.5
90.8
91.0
89.6
92.7
94.1
98.4
108.3
99.8
93.4
106.6
103.6
109.7
119.6
120.8
112.7
110.4
119.9

121.3
123.6
107.9
107.9
107.9
105.6
103.4
92.1
89.9
89.9
94.4
89.9

118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
123.2
123.2
123.2




Poors:
pine.

Lime: Linseed
common. oil: raw.

98.6
100.2
98.5
100.1
102.6
108.1
94.7
97.7
101.6
73.2
71.5
78.9
82.4
73.1
70.7
72.5

118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
96.1
93.9
84.8
85.7
100.8
114.6
114.8
97.5
100.3
90.4
93.9
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
106.6

118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
97.4
97.1
91.7
92.9
101.7
111.4
104.8
97.6
101.0
81.8
82.7
93. C
94.8
89.5
88.0
89.0

125.8
114.4
114.4
112.1
96.1
83.5
76.6
74.3
84.6
118.2
145.5
173.1
194.1
158.2
154.6
163.2
153.5
107.5
161.3
164.2
154.8

117.5
109.5
111.5
111.5
101.8
93.8
83.3
86.3
89.0
95.8
82.0
92.9
96.7
94.5
99.0
106.9
113.7
113.9
125.4
125.4
125.4

135.8
106.8
9Q.0
102.2
115.6
115.6
81.2
72.2
86.5
94.1
138.7
140.0
130.8
91.9
91.7
103.1
89.3
95.7
96.5
127.9
186.7

71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
77.1
77.1

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
104.3
104.3

88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
90.8
90.8

167.4
107.4
167.4
155.4
155.4
155.4
155.4
148.9
148.9
148.9
143.4
143.4

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4

167.6
169.8
169.8
128.6
185.2
180.8
174.2
198.5
198.5
198.5
209.5
209.5

* Average for 1895-1899-100.0.

49 2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.1

Lumber and building materials.1
Lumber.
Year or
xnonrh.

Oak: white.
Hem­ Maple:
lock. hard.

Plain.

Quar­
tered.

Pine.
Aver­
age.

White, boards.
No. 2 Uppers.
bam.

95.9
1890.... 105.2 100.0 101.2
98.6
98.1
1891.... 104.1 100.0 101.5
99.8 100.7
99.4
1892.... 102.8 100.0 102.7
98.7 100.7 100.2
1893.... 100.3 100.0 103.5
98.7 101.1 108.9
95.2
1894.... 97.9 100.0
99.5
97.4 106.2
99.2
96.8
98.0 100.8
1895.... 93.2 100.0
99.2
96.8 101.5
96.4
1896.... 93.3 100.0
96.8 100.3
98.6
92.5
1897.... 92.0 100.0
96.8
97.8
97.3
90.6
1S98---- 98.2 100.0
1899---- 113.0 100.1 104.1 112.7 108.4 106.9
1900___ 137.9 103.8 109.1 120.1 114.6 125.7
98.2 110.2 104.2 122.0
1901.... 125.4 100.8
1902.... 132.4 107.8 109.2 117.5 113.4 137.3
119.5 119.8 139.3 129.6 140.3
1903.... 140.1
1904.... 142.1 117.0 124.2 150.4 137.3 134.4
1805.... 149.4 115.1 126.5 149.5 138.0 141.2
1906.... 183.0 117.0 134.7 147.5 141.1 173.9
1907.... 186.0 121.7 147.5 149.0 148.3 195.7
1908.... 174.5 119.3 131.7 149.3 140.5 190.3
1909.... 172.1 117.0 129.4 157.1 142.9 194.1
1910.... 172.4 120.0 144.9 163.9 154.4 200.1
1910.
Ian___ 175.5 117.0 141.6 159.3 150.7 198.8
F eb .... 175.5 117.0 141.6 163.9 152.8 198.8
Mar— 175.5 117.0 146.9 163.9 155.7 198.8
Apr— 173.5 117.0 146.9 163.9 155.7 198.8
M ay... 173.5 117.0 146.9 163.9 155.7 198.8
June... 173.5 120.7 146.9 163.9 155.7 201.4
Ju ly... 3 173.5 3 120.7 3 146.9 *163.9 *155.7 *201.4
Aug.... »173.5 3 120.7 *146.9 *163.9 *155.7 *201.4
Sept... 173.5 120.7 146.9 163.9 155.7 201.4
O ct.... 173.5 120.7 141.6 163.9 152.8 201.4
Nov__ 158.8 126.4 144.3 163.9 154.2 <i 201.4
Dec___ 171.4 126.4 145.6 163.5 155.0 201.4

Aver­
age.

Yellow, Average.
siding.

94.7
96.7
98.9
104.2
99.7
98.8
100.2
99.5
99.0
108.4
123.5
129.8
160.7
171.8
174.0
176.1
182.0
200.2
198.1
191.8
203.7

96.4
98.1
99.6
106.6
103.0
99.8
98.3
96.0
94.8
107.7
124.6
125.9
149.0
156.1
154.2
158.7
178.0
198.0
194.2
193.1
202.1

112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
89.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
134.9
158.9
165.2
U71.8
1182.7
1177.4

101.7
101.4
99.8
104.4
102.0
97.1
95.2
93.7
96.8
107.9
120.5
119.4
137.2
141.9
141.5
150.7
171.6
187.0
*189.0
*194.4
*196.1

196.9
196.9
196.9
196.9
196.9
211.3
*211.3
*211.3
211.3
211.3
211.3
207.2

198.0
198.0
198.0
198.0
198.0
206.6
*206.6
*206.6
206.6
206.6
206.6
204.5

U76.4
U78.4
1178.4
1178.4
U78.4
1178.4
*178.4
*178.4
U76.0
1175.0
1178.0
1178.0

*193.5
*194.6
* 394.6
* 194.6
*194.6
*198.9
*198.9
*198.9
*197.1
*197.1
*198.7
*197.6

1Average for siding and flooring. See explanation, page 349.
*Including pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 349.
*Nominal price.
*Average for siding and flooring; nominal price. See explanation, page 349.
*Including pine: yellow, flooring, nominal price. See explanation, page 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

493

H I.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.

Poplar.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905----1906....
1907....
1908___
1909___
1910....
1910.
Jan.......
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May—
June__
July—
Aug—
Sept—
Oct.......
Nov___
D ec...,.

Plate glass: polished.
Rosin:
Oxide of
Putty. good,
zinc. Area 3 to Area 5 to
stramed.
5 square 10 square Average.
Spruce. Average.
feet.
feet.

Lumber.

Year or

97.2
97.2
97.6
107.2
101.2
98.8
98.8
97.8
95.6
108.5
120.2
117.0
134.2
158.3
160.5
153.7
162.5
185.2
185.8
183.7
196.1

113.5
99.1
103.5
96.0
88.6
99.3
99.3
97.6
95.8
107.3
121.1
125.4
134.2
133.7
142.9
149.3
178.0
167.3
144.9
176.0
171.4

102.0
100.7
100.5
102.1
98.7
97.6
97.2
96.2
97.2
107.7
119.3
115.0
127.4
137.4
140.2
144.0
159.7
168.6
1164.0
1169.2
U73.7

106.3
104.8
106.5
103.3
93.3
87.5
95.8
94.3
99.0
109.5
112.8
109.5
110.0
115.8
115.8
116.3
127.0
134.5
128.3
129.3
134.5

146.0
143.3
115.7
115.7
90.9
82.6
93.7
55.1
74.4
82.6
93.7
88.2
70.9
72.3
62.7
66.3
76.1
77.2
58.2
67.7
83.6

134.9
132.9
106.0
106.0
86.7
92.5
104.0
61.7
82.9
92.5
104.0
94.4
79.2
83.1
70.3
71.8
77.7
80.1
64.8
66.4
81.9

140.5
138.1
110.9
110.9
88.8
87.6
98.9
58.4
78.7
87.6
98.9
91.3
75.1
77.7
66.5
69.1
76.9
78.7
61.5
67.3
83.1

110.8
110.8
101.9
101.3
99.4
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8
106.3
120.3
94.9
121.5
89.2
69.6
69.0
75.3
75.9
75.9
75.9
72.8

96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
304.0
227.9
243.1
363.4

188.1
188.1
188.1
194.5
200.8
200.8
2 200.8
2 200.8
200.8
200.8
200.8
197.7

174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
2174.2
*174.2
167.3
167.3
167.3
167.3

U71.3
U72.2
1172.9
U73.3
U73.8
1175.9
*175.9
*175.9
1174.6
U73.9
U74.2
U74.9

134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5

80.6
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9
83.9

75.4
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5

78.3
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5

75.9
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8
72.8

291.7
305.6
316.0
322.9
312.5
312.5
368.1
420.2
423.6
444.5
423.6
420.2

1 Including pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 349.
2 Nominal price.
* Including pine: yellow, flooring; nominal price. See explanation, page 349.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

494

T able I I I .—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Lumber and building materials.
Window glass: American,
single.

Shingles.

Year or
month.

Red cedar,
Cypress. 16 inches Average.
long.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899----1900....
1901___
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905___
1906___
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910----1910.
Jan.......
F eb ....
Mar___
Apr___
May—
June__
July---Aug---Sept—
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......

Tar.

Turpen­
tine:
spirits of. 6Firsts,
by 8 to
10 by 15
inches.

Average,
lumber
and
building
Thirds,
6 by 8 to Average. mate­
10 by 15
rials.
inches.

118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
88.6
83.3
88.6
94.4
101.0
101.0
94.7
91.0
92.2
96.6
114.9
149.8
125.4
115.8
123.8

U02.6
U06.9
1104.4
U02.8
1100.2
198.8
196.5
194.6
194.9
198.3
1106.9
1111.9
2 123.0
2125.1
*122.5
2 119.9
*157.2
*191.5
*143.0
*142.4
*142.7

110.7
111.1
108.1
104.6
99.7
96.4
92.6
89.0
91.8
96.4
104.0
106.5
108.9
108.1
107.4
108.3
136.1
170.7
135.2
129.8
134.4

122.4
131.4
107.9
86.8
90.6
94.8
84.0
87.5
91.1
103.4
113.1
106.4
110.0
139.4
139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3
132.8
135.9
187.1

122.0
113.5
96.5
89.8
87.7
87.4
82.1
87.5
96.4
137.0
142.7
111.5
141.8
171.0
172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8
135.6
146.8
204.3

103.6
102.8
92.7
99.4
92.6
74.3
83.8
102.2
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8
109.7
107.8
136.2

98.2
97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
88.0
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2
103.4
101.6
128.5

100.9
100.1
90.2
96.7
91.2
75.4
85.9
105.1
125.9
128.9
126.5
186.2
145.3
120.7
131.1
123.0
129.9
127.0
106.5
104.7
132.3

111.8
108.4
102.8
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
4133.1
4138.4
4153.2

127.6
136.5
136.5
127.6
127.6
124.1
118.7
118.7
118.7
115.2
115.2
118.7

*145.7
*149.2
*152.8
*156.3
* 149.2
*142.1
*142.1
*138.6
*138.6
*135.0
*131.4
*131.4

137.9
144.5
146.1
142.8
139.5
134.3
131.3
129.7
129.7
126.1
124.5
126.5

166.0
166.0
166.0
166.0
166.0
186.8
186.8
186.8
207.5
215.8
215.8
215.8

177.2
189.2
188.5
188.5
187.0
177.2
201.2
213.9
222.9
228.8
242.3
234.8

133.9
133.9
133.9
141.3
133.9
133.9
141.3
141.3
141.3
133.9
133.9
133.9

126.2
126.2
126.2
133.2
126.2
126.2
133.2
133.2
133.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

130.0
130.0
130.0
137.2
130.0
130.0
137.2
137.2
137.2
130.0
130.0
130.0

<149.3
<151.5
4 151.3
<152.0
<151.2
<151.6
<153.6
<155.2
<155.9
<155.9
<156.5
<156.4

i Shingles: white pine, 18 inches long.
* Shingles: Michigan white pine, 16 inches long, XXXX. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 348 and 349.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 348 and 349.
<Including pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 349.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

495

Table III.—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=160.0.]
Drugs and chemicals.
Year or
month. Alcohol:
grain.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Ja n ....
F eb....
M ar....
Apr___
M ay...
June...
July...
Aug....
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
D ec....

Alcohol:
Brim­ Glycer- Muriatic Opium: Quinine: Sul­ Average,
wood,
drugs
stone:
acid: natural, Ameri­ phuric ana
refined, Alum: crude,
in
lump.
acid: chemi­
can.
refined. 20°.
95 per
cases.
seconds.
66°.
cent.
cals.

92.5
98.9
95.6
97.3
96.1
104.0
102.7
101.6
103.8
107.6
106.5
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3
110.0
112.6
117.7
116.8
113.9

119.2
121.6
136.0
135.4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8
44.8
52.4
52.4

109.0
94.6
95.8
104.2
101.2
95.8
98.2
99.4
98.8
100.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
103.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

102.2
13A 2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
86.8
97.2
110.7
102.1
102.2
106.3
113.2
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9
105.3
106.3
106.3

126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
86.1
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
10A3
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
88.5
80.7
98.9
106.6
121.5
153.1

100.0
94.2
116.3
97.1
84.6
79.8
72.1
104.8
123.1
129.8
129.8
144.2
161.5
153.8
153.8
153.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
128.8
125.0

111.0
82.4
70.8
101.3
96.8
78.0
sa 6
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
120.0
130.6
116.5
12a 5
125.0
209.6
199.8
195.3
227.6

133.1
102.0
88.7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
104.7
102.6
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2
63.7
57.2
56.9

98.9
91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
7a 7
106.7
127.0
134 8
134 8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4
114 6
112.4
112.4

110.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
1142
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6
110.4
112.4
117.0

116.5
116.5
116.5
116.5
112.9
112.0
111.6
111.6
113.8
114.3
112.5
112.5

52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3

137.6
141.2
143.0
141.2
139.4
143.0
146.5
148.3
168.0
171.6
171.6
185.8

125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

243.6
239.4
230.9
230.9
254.2
247.9
239.4
226.7
211.8
205.5
194.9
205.5

56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9

112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

116.7
116.8
116.4
116.2
117.1
117.0
116.8
116.2
117.5
117.5
116.6




lias

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

49 6

Table III,—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,

AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899*=*100.0.]
House-furnishing goods.

Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892___
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897....
1898....
1899___
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906___
1907___
1908.,..
1909....
1910___
1910.
Jan........
F eb ....
M ar....
Apr___
May___
June__
July—
A u g....
Sept....
Oct.......
N o v ....
D e c ....

Earthenware.
Plates,
creamcolored.

Furniture.

Teacups
Plates, and sau­
Chairs, Chairs, Tables,
white cers, white Average. Bedroom bedroom, kitchen. kitchen. Aver­
sets. maple.
age.
granite. granite.

108.0
105.6
102.3
102.3
101.0
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6
104.0
104.0
104 8

109.1
106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
100.8
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
103.2

109.6
107.4
1042
104 2
102.8
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104 3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
99.5

108.9
106.6
103.4
103.4
101.9
94 0
90.4
90.4
99.7
101.3
106.3
112.0
112:0
111.4
110.2
102.6
102.6
102.6
101.7
101.7
102.5

113.7
113.7
113.7
104 2
104 2
943
82.9
82.9
94.7
95.7
106.6
106.6
111.3
115.3
116.1
117*. 0
122.8
137.4
134 3
132.8
145.0

113.0
113.0
110.6
110.6
96.9
96.9
96.9
80.7
82.7
98.9
129.1
113.0
118.4
127.8
129.1
129.1
143.9
161.4
152.0
145.3
145.3

109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4
156.8
145.9
143.8

103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7
124.7
124.7
138.6

110.1
110.1
109.8
107.5
97.8
95.4
91.7
87.7
89.9
100.1
120.0
113.0
116.6
120.5
119.5
119.6
128.8
143.7
142.1
137.7
144 2

1040
1040
1040
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0

102.4
102.4
102.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4

98.8
98.8
98.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8

101.7
101.7
101.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7

140.4
140.4
140.4
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5

145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.5
145.5

143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8

124.7
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
145.5
145.5
145.5
145.5
145.5

139.2
142.0
142.0
143.6
143.6
143.6
143.6
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5
146.5




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910.

497

T able I I I .—YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899—100.0. ]
House-furnishing goods.
Year or
month.

1890___
1891....
1892___
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896___
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900___
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910.
Jan___
Feb....
Mar....
Apr__
M ay...
June...
July...
Aug....
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec__

Pitch­
Nap­ ers,
pies, 1-gallon,
4-inch. com­
mon.

Woodenware.

Table cutlery.

Glassware.

Average,
Knives
Tum­
houseblers, Aver­ Carvers, and Aver­ Pails, Tubs, Aver­ fur­
J-pint, age. stag forks, age. oak­ oak­ age. nishing
com­
grained. grained.
handles. cocobolo
goods.
mon.
handles.

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
108.9
104.5
100.9

106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4
82.0
84.8
80.2

101.4
112.7
107.0
107.0
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.0
73.2
101.4
101.4
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
74.6
75.6
67.6

105.0
108.7
106.8
106.8
106.8
105.9
99.0
90.1
88.2
82.5
91.9
112.3
113.3
111.7
104.3
99.6
99.6
99.6
88.7
88.9
83.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8

127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0
89.4
82.5
82.5

114.0
114.0
106.5
104.8
95.4
95.4
95.4
88.2
92.3
94.4
94.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
101.9
102.1
96.8
103.5
91.8
88.3
88.3

122.6
111.6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7
161.7
147.6
146.3

122.5
116.3
103.9
97.1
95.6
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
93.4
107.0
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
118.8
122.5
122.5
119.7

122.6
114.0
103.9
99.1
96.3
89.6
95.0
94.2
90.1
95.5
111.0
113.5
113.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
119.3
135.3
141.9
135.7
133.6

111.1
110.2
106.5
104.9
100.1
96.5
94.0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5
114.0
111.7
111.6

98.2
98.2
98.2
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2

68.1
68.1
68.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
76.6

67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6
67.6

78.2
78.2
78.2
86.6
86.6
86.6
86.6
84.1
84.1
84.1
84.1
84.1

93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8

82.5
82.5
82.6
. 82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5

88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3

146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3

122.5
122.5
122.5
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8

135.1
135.1
135.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1
133.1

109.1
109 7
109.7
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
111.6

86026°—Bull.'93—11---- 13




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

498

T a b l e f l l . — YEARLY

RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,'
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,'
1910—Continued.
(For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1390-1899-100.0.]
Miscellaneous.

Year or
month. Cotton­
seed meal.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906.,..
1907....
1908....
1909....
1910....
.
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr—
M ay...
June...
July....
Au«__
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
D ec....

1010

Cotton­
seed oil:
summer Jute: raw.
yellow,
prime.

Malt:
western
made.

Paper.
News.

Wrapping, Average.
manila.

Proof
spirits.

106.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
90.8
9a 1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
119.3
138.4
130.7
133.8
145.9
152.8

113.2
117.2
101.4
149.5
106.4
89 4
82 6
77.7
75.2
87.5
116.8
117.3
13a 6
130.7
103.0
118.7
160.0
134.4
144.5
196.1

108.1
103.3
132.3
96.4
96.1
77.7
88.9
103.9
92.5
101.7
111.4
129.2
123.7
151.0
204.5
184.4
140.4
120.7
130.6

106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
oao
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2
132.7
111.9
126.1

127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4
108.0
103.0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
94.0
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3
82.9
68.9

68.6

104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5
90.4
85.9
85.9

115.9
108.9
107.3
105.6
106.8
104.5
99.2
98.5
78.1
74.6
90.4
83.2
85.4
89.9
92.6
87.9
81.8
87.4
.7
77.0
77.2

91.6
96.1
93.5
93.2
98.5
105.3
104.6
102.9
106.3
108.0
108.41
114.3
111.4
110.4
109.7
114.2
nao
118.1
115.2

165.7
165.7
163.9
161.2
156.4
148.4
148.4
153.0
148.4
143.9
142.7
135.9

184.8
171.3
181.7
187.9
194.0
191.0
192.2
227.9
258.7
290.4
184.8
169.4

123.4
118.8
A8
118.8
118.8
12a 4
123.4
123.4
132.8
142.8
156.8
166.3

124.5
lia s
108.8
nai
116.7
130.9
130.9
130.9
131.6
139.4
146.5

121.6

65.2
65 2
64.5
64.5
69.6
74.6
67.9
67.9
69.6
71.2
72.9
73.6

85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9

75.1
75.1
74.8
74.8
77.6
80.4
76.6
76.6
77.6
78,5
79.4
79.8

117.4
117.4
117.4
115.9
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

86.1

121.6
120.0




88.6

121.2
122.0

11

86.8

86

111.8

112.0

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1910,

499

III.— YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1910,
AND MONTHLY RELATIVE PRICES FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER,
1910—Continued.

T able

{For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 349 to 361. Average for 1890-1899=100.0-1
Miscellaneous.
Year or
month. Rope: ma- Rubber: Soap: cas- Starch:
Para
tile, mot­
nila.
Island. tled, pure. laundry.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894---1895---1896___
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907. ..
1908....
1909....
1910....
1910*
Jan___
F eb....
Mar___
Apr___
May....
June...
July....
Aug....
Sept...
O ct....
Nov__
Dec___

Tobacco.
Plug.

102.2
101.2
94.0
100.1
101.0
101.0

160.0
122.9
98.4
82.4
78.7
71.1
67.6
90.1
117.1
141.3
116.9
144.3
122.7
125.4
127.9
134.0
138.1
108.7
90.0
94.1

104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84.2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
106.1
90.8
113.1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8
108.8
185.0
238.2

106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1

122.6

104.4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
110.5
115.6
113.7
114.2
114.2
117.9
123.0
183.1
171.4

112.1

96.1
94.9
104.3
105.4
111.9
117.6
114.6
113.6
118.6
123.7
118.6
118.0
118.6
118.6

^ .3
85.7
85.7
85.7
93.7
99.0
§9.0
99.0
99.0
.99.0
99.0
96.4

211.7
223.6
249.2
324.7
324.7
286.6
281.0
258.5
224.8
17L1
148.6
154.2

193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4

114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
107.8
300.6

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
.118.6
118.6
118.6

111.1




88.2

86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7

104.3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1
124.4
123.3

100.6

122.0

Smoking,
granulated. Average.
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
104.1

110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114.4
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
114.9

117.9
117.9
117.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9
113.9

100.2
99.7

Average,
miscella­
neous.

96.1
99.2
99.6
99.6
97.2
96.6
104.2
107.7
111.0
113.8
112.3
116.5

110.3
109.4
106.2
105.9
99.8
94.5
91.4
92.1
92.4
97.7
109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6
111.7

118.3
118.3
116.8

119.9
125.9
133.1

118.3
118.3
118.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3
116.3

131.8
130.6
132.2
135.1
136.9
136.1
133.8
135.4
136.6
130.6
129.2
129.2

112.8
120.0
120.8
118.3

112.8
121.1
127.1

EEPOET OF BEITISH BOAED OF TEADE OBT COST OF LIVING
IN THE PEINCIPAL INDUSTEIAL CITIES OF THE UNITED
STATES.1
INTRODUCTION.

The report, a summary of which is presented in the following pages,
is the fifth of a series issued by the British Board of Trade concern­
ing the conditions of living of the wage-earning population in the
more important industrial towns of various countries, and dealing
particularly with the wages and hours of labor, rents and housing
conditions, retail prices of food, and the expenditure for food of the
families of wage earners. The first of these reports related to Great
Britain. The succeeding reports, in the order of issue, related to
Germany, France, and Belgium.2 The main object of these foreign
inquiries has been stated to be in all cases identical, namely, to obtain
a collection of data comparable with those presented in the first
report relating to the cost of living in the United Kingdom.
The methods adopted in the present investigation relating to the
United States, including the collection of the statistical material in
regard to wages and hours of labor, rents, prices, and family expendi­
ture for food were so far as possible the same as in the former investi­
gations. The important difference in the date to which the statistical
data relate was deemed necessary owing to the lapse of time between
the beginning of the investigation in Great Britain in 1905 and its
completion in the United States in 1909. Supplementary inquiries
were made for the purpose of making the adjustments necessary in
order to ascertain approximately the differences in the results which
were due to the different dates of the investigations in England and
in the United States. With this information figures are presented
making international comparisons of conditions in England and
Wales and in the United States.
In considering the scope and method of the present investigation
it is necessary to bear in mind that its purpose was to make compari­
sons between the United States and England and Wales, and, secondly,
to make comparisons between the various sections of the United
States. This purpose, as the report points out, has made necessary
certain limitations in its scope and method. This has reference
especially to the selection of industries and occupations for which
1Cost of Living in American Towns. Report of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class
Rents, Housing, and Retail Prices, together with the Rates of Wages in certain Occupations in the Principal

Industrial Towns of the United States of America, with an introductory memorandum and a comparison
of conditions in the United States and the United Kingdom. London, 1911. [Cd 5609.]
* See Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor No. 77 July. 1908, pp. 336-354; Bulletin No. 78, September, 1908,
pp. 523-548; Bulletin No. 83, July, 1909, pp. 66-87; and Bulletin No. 87, March, 1910, pp. 608-625. See also
pages 557 to 570 of this Bulletin.

500




COST 03? LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

501

comparable wages and hours of labor could be secured. It is carefully
pointed out in the report that while the industries and occupations
selected rank among the more highly organized and more highly
skilled, they do not appear to occupy a substantially higher relative
position in the United States than they do in England and Wales,
and that the selection of these occupations for the purposes of inter­
national comparison is not less suitable in the United States than in
the other foreign countries which have been made the subjects of
similar reports by the Board of Trade.
Throughout the summary of the report, which is given in the fol­
lowing pages, it has been the purpose to present fully and fairly the
conclusions of the original report with whatever of the details is
most important from the standpoint of the American reader. In
order to express exactly the findings of the British investigators, as
presented in their report, the text of the report has been freely drawn
upon both by direct quotation and by statements somewhat con­
densed for the sake of brevity. The conclusions and comment
throughout are according to the original report.
SCOPE OP THE INVESTIGATION.

The present investigation, relating to conditions in the United
States, was carried on by agents of the British Board of Trade during
the year 1909. The data forming the basis of the report relate to
February, 1909.
Twenty-eight cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul being counted as
one) were covered by the investigation. These cities were chosen
“ because of their representative industrial character or their intrinsic
importance, and an attempt was also made to select those that would
fall in the few groups framed on broad lines of geographical distribution.,, No cities were included west of St. Louis and Minneapolis.
The cities included within the inquiry were as follows:

New York.
New England towns:
Boston.
Brockton.
Fall River.
Lawrence.
Lowell.
Providence.
Other eastern towns:
Baltimore.
Newark.
Paterson.
Philadelphia.
Central towns:
Cincinnati.
Cleveland.
Detroit.



Central towns—Concluded.
Louisville.
Muncie.
Pittsburg.
Middle West towns:
Chicago.
Duluth.
Milwaukee.
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
St. Louis.
Southern towns:
Atlanta.
Augusta.
Birmingham.
Memphis.
New Orleans.
Savannah.

502

W V hL& Tm

OF THE BUREAU OF T A B O R .

It will be noticed that New England is represented by six cities,
five of which are in Massachusetts, while the State of New York has
only one city, namely, New York. Pennsylvania is represented by
two cities, Philadelphia and Pittsburg; Illinois by one only, Chicago,
and Indiana by one only, Muncie. The South is represented by six
cities, three of which are in Georgia.
The industries which form the basis of the information in regard
to wages and hours are the same as in previous investigations of the
Board of Trade, namely, the building trades, engineering (that is,
foundries and "machine shops), and hand compositors on job work in
the printing trade. While the principal comparisons are based
entirely upon these occupations, the report contains much detailed
information in regard to earnings and hours in other occupations in
the individual cities.

In regard to housing and rents of wage-earning families, informa­
tion was secured covering approximately 90,000 tenements.
In order to arrive at some estimate of the standard of living prev­
alent in industrial communities in the United States, 7,616 family
budgets were secured showing the expenditure for food in the normal
week representative of numerous occupations and of the various
grades of income. The information in. regard to prices is chiefly
limited to such principal articles of food as permit of comparison
between city and city and between the United States and England
and Wales. Prices are also presented, for coal and for kerosene.
RATES OF WAGES.
UNITED STATES.

Information in regard to wages and hours of labor was obtained
mainly from individual employers, but to some extent also from
public authorities. In some cases trade unions also furnished infor­
mation as to current local rates. The industries and occupations
concerning which data as to wages and hours of labor were obtained
were those that were considered as “ most widely distributed and
those of chief local importance; the former being chosen mainly as
affording a basis for internal and international comparisons; the
latter as being best calculated to make the investigation of local
industrial conditions adequate.”
February, 1909, was taken as the period for which wages and hours
of labor were obtained, and employers were asked to give for the
principal classes of adult male labor in their service the predominant
earnings or the predominant range of earnings for a full ordinary
week without overtime. In the case of workmen not paid by time
the amount most frequently earned on some other basis, generally
piecework, during an ordinary week was obtained. Separate returns



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

503

of yages and hours were obtained from about 1,300 representative
employers.
In the following table are given the predominant range of wages
for an ordinary week in February, 1909, in the case of the engineering
and printing trades and for an ordinary week in summer in the case
of the building trades for the entire group of cities covered by the
investigation:
PREDOMINANT w e e k l y w a g e s o p a d u l t m a l e s i n c e r t a in o c c u p a t io n s in
THE UNITED STATES IN FEBRUARY, 1909.
[The wages of Negroes have been excluded.]

Occupation.

Building trades:1
Bricklayers.....................................
Stonemasons..........................................
Stonecutters...........................................
Carpenters.............. ...............................
Plasterers................................................
Plumbers...............................................
Structural iron workers........................
Painters..................................................
Hod carriers and bricklayers' labor­
ers......................... ...............................
Engineering trades:
Iron molders..........._.............................
Machinists (fitters and turners).........
Blacksmiths.................................. .
Pattern makers......................................
Laborers........ ........................................
Printing trades:
Hand compositors (job work)..... . ..

Number of towns in which the mean
predominant wage
Number Predominant occupation was— for the given
of towns range of weekly
to which wages (Febru­
figures ary, 1909). Within the Below the Above the
mate.
predomi­ predomi­ predomi­
nant range. nant range. nant range.
25 S26.77-«30.42
25 23.42- 26.77
20 22.30- 25.10
28 16.73- 21.90
24 24.33- 29.00
28 21.29- 27.37
21 22.81- 27.37
28 15.82- 20.68
18 12.17- 16.73
27 16.73- 19.77
28 15.41- 18.13
24 16.47- 20.76
25 18.13- 22.30
9.12- 10.65
22
28 16.73- 19.77

18
15
11
19
17
17
15
22
14
26
16
14
17
15
21

The wages stated for the building trades are for a full week in summer.




4
5
5
4
3
6
3
3
2
6
5
4
4
3

3
5
4
5
4
5
3
3
2
1
6
5
4
3
4

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

504

In order that the actual wages and the hours of labor in each city
may be studied and compared, the following table is presented, show­
ing the predominant rate of weekly wages for each occupation and
in each of the cities so far as the information was secured:
PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF
THE UNITED STATES, 1909.
Building trades.
Bricklayers.

Town.

Stonemasons.

Stonecutters.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per
week.
week.
week.
$31.23

New York.

44 $22.30-426.77

44 $22.30-127.88

44

22.30

44
48

$26.76- 29.20 44-48
26.77
48
25.65
48
24.54
44
26.77
48
24.54
44

26.77
24.33
25.55
21.90
21.41
20.0J

27.88- 30.42 4448
44
29.00
44
26.77
44
27.88

25.10- 27.37
29.00
26.77
22.30

27.88
29.20
24.33- 26.77
29.20
24.33- 29.20
29.00

24.09
24.33- 29.20
24.33
26.77
24.33
26.77

25.10
22.30
24.33
17.03- 24.33
24.33
24.33

&£&£££

Boston.........
Brockton...
Fall River..
Lawrence...
Lowell.........
Providence.

30.11
31.63
29.20
29.20
29.00

30.11
29.20
29.20
24.33
26.77

27.37
24.33
24.33- 27.37
25.10- 27.88

£££&:

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

18.25

48

31.23
21.90- 24.33

44
48

"*i&25-2i.*29

4448
44
44
44

20.07- 22.30
22.30- 27.88
22.30- 26.77
21.31- 22.30

tttt

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore....
Newark.........
Paterson.......
Philadelphia.
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati.
Cleveland..
D etroit....
Louisville..
Muncie___
Pittsburg..
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago........................
Duluth........................
Milwaukee..................
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
St. Louis.....................
SOUTHERN TOWNS.

121.90- 24.64 154-60
121.90 154
2 30.42 248
118.25- 24.33 154-60
31.23
44
30.42
48
119.47- 21.90 148

Atlanta..........
Augusta........ .
Birmingham.,
M em phis.....
New Orleans.
Savannah....

i Colored men.




21.90

54

31.23
24.33- 27.37
2 White men.

COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

505

PREDO M INANT W E E K L Y W AGES A N D HOURS OF LABOR IN SPEC IFIED TOW NS OF
TH E U N IT ED STATES, 1909—Continued.

Building trades.
Plasterers.

Carpenters.

Town.

Plumbers.

Hours
Hours
Hours
Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per
week.
week.
week.
New York................................... $25.10-127.88

44

830.68

$27.88

44

44 $21.90- 24.33
22.30
48
19.77
48
18.25
44
19.77
48
22.30
44

48
44
48
48
50
44

21.29
24.54
22.30
19.53

48
44
44
44

44

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston.........................................
Brockton.....................................
Fall River...................................
Lawrence....................................
Lowell.........................................
Providence.................................

26.77
19t 53- 21.90- 44-48
19.95
26.77
48
18.25
25.55
48
13.95- 18.25 44-48
24.54
17.03
21.29
48
18.29
44 $22.30- 24.54

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore...................................
Newark.......................................
Paterson......................................
Philadelphia..............................

18.29
22.30
20.07- 21.19
20.07

48
44
44
44

24.33
29.00
24.54- 26.77
26.48

20.07
19.47- 21.90
14.60- 17.03
15.21- 18.25
19.26
21.29

44
48
48
48
50
48

27.88- 28.21 44-44J
25.12
44
24.33
48
27.88
44
24.33- 27.37 48-54
27.37
48

22.57- 25.10 44-444
27.37
48
44
19.77- 22.81
18.25- 24.33 48-54
54
19.77
48
27.37

28.77
44
21.90
48
17.84- 18.25 44-48
21.90
48
26.77
44

30.68
44
30.42
48
26.77- 30.42 44-48
27.37
48
33.46
44

30.68
30.42
25.10
27.37
27.88- 33.46

44
48
44
48
44

21.90
19.77- 21.29
30.42
24.33- 30.42
24.33- 27.37
21.90- 24.33

54
60
47
48
48
48

48
44
44
44

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati...................................
Cleveland....................................
Detroit........................................
Louisville....................................
Muncie........................................
Pittsburg....................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago.......................................
Duluth........................................
Milwaukee..................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul...............
St. Louis.....................................
SOUTHERN TOWNS.

121.90
Atlanta........................................ 15.07- 18.25 54-60
Augusta.....................................
15.21
21,90
60
127.88
Birmingham............................... /\ i 15.21-«19.47 *48
18.25 i 60
27.88
24.64 48-54
Memphis..................................... J1 2 19.47- 16.42 2 52-54
l
113.18New Orleans.............................. 19.47- 21.90 48-54
124.33
Savannah.................................... 15.21- 18.25
48 115.21- 21.90
i Colored men.




154
54
144
44
148
i 48

* White men.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

506

PREDO M IN AN T W E E K L Y W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR IN SPE C IFIED TOW NS O F
THE U N IT E D STATES, 1909—Continued.

Building trades.
Town.

Structural iron
workers.
Weekly
wages.

New York...................

Hrs.
per
week.

$25.10

44

Painters.
Weekly
wages.
$19.53

Hod carriers.

Hrs.
per
week.
44

Weekly
wages.

Plasterers’ laborers.

Hrs.
per
week.

$16.73

Weekly
wages.

Hrs.
per
week.

44

$18.13

44

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

$21.90- 24.33

48 $17.62- 18.74
18.25
16.73
15.21
15.21
15.61- 16.73

44 $11.15- 14.60 44-48
17.03 48
48
48
10.65 54
48
13.69 48-54
14.60 48
48
12.17 48
44

16.95
17.03
10.65
16.22

44
48
54
48

Baltimore....................
24.33
Newark........................ 25.10- 27.88
Paterson......................
24.54
Philadelphia...............
25.10

48 15.21- 18.25
44
18.29
18.29
44
44 15.61- 17.84

48 113.69- 15.21 148 113.69- 15.21
15.61 44
15.61
44
44 11.15- 13.38 44 11.15- 13.38
16.73
44 113.38- 15.61 144

148
44
44
44

Brockton.....................
Fall River...................
Lawrence....................
Lowell.........................
Providence.................
OTHER EAST’N TOWNS.

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati...................
24.33 48
20.68
Cleveland....................
18.25
29.20 48
Detroit.. . . . __. . . . . . 15.21- 18.25 48-60 14.60- 17.03
Louisville.................... 16.42- 21.90 54
18.25
Muncie........................ 15.21- 16.73 60 16.83- 17.74
Pittsburg....................
27.37 48 19.47- 20.68

48
48
48
48
50
48

15.61- 17.84 44
12.17 48
9.12- 12.17 60
113.69- 15.21 i 48
12.17- 14.60 48
17.03 48

13.38

44

17.03

48

MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago........................
27.88
Duluth........................ 21.29- 24.33
Milwaukee..................
24.33
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
24.33
St. Louis..................... 26.77- 29.00

24.54
44
48 21.29-21.90
18.25
48
20.68
48
44 22.30- 25.10

15.61 45|
44
16.42
54
16.42 54
48
14.60
48
14.60 48
48
48 10.95- 13.69 54 12.17- 16.42 48-54
122.30 144
44 118.96- 20.07 144

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta........................ 2L90- 24.64 54 15.07-16.73
Augusta.......................
13.69
27.37 54 *17.03-19.47
Birmingham............... f
U2.17- 18.25
Memphis...................... J24.33^- 27.37 48-54 *19.47- 21.90
114.60- 19.47
New Orleans...............
24.33 48 17.03-19.47
Savannah....................
15.21-16.73
1 Colored men.




54-60
54
*48
*60
*48
*48
48
48

17.30- 7.60
15.47
17.60- 12.17
112.17- 14.60
U2.17- 17.03
17.60- 9.12

160 17.30- 7.60
15.47
54
1 60 1 7 .60- 12.17
144-48
148 114.60- 17.03
148 1 7 .60- 9.12
1

* White men*.

160
154
160
148
148

COST OF IRVING IN THE UNITED STATES,

507

PREDO M INANT W E E K L Y W AGES A N D H OURS OF LABOR IN SPE C IFIE D TOW NS OF
TH E U N IT E D STATES, 1909-Contimied.

Engineering trades.
Machinists.

Iron molders.

Town.

Weekly wages.
$19.77

New York...................................

Blacksmiths.

Hours
Hours
Hours
per Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per
week.
week.
week.
54 $10.22-$19.77

54 $21.90-$27.37

54

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston.........................................
Brockton.....................................
Fall River...................................
Lawrence....................................
Lowell.........................................
Providence..................................

18.25
54
$15.21-18.25
58
17.24
54
14.19-19.26
55
16.73-19.77 54-55

15.07-17.52 54-55
15.21-16.42
54
12.17-17.24
58
13.95-15.21 55-60
11.15-12.55
55
13.69-16.22 54-55

13.69-16.42
15.21
14.70-18.25
12.17-15.21
13.69-19.26

54-55
54
55-60
55
54-55

16.73-18.-25
54
18.25-21.29
54
17.58
55
17.64-19.47 54-60

15.41-18.25
54
16.42-18.25
54
12.55-16.73
55
14.25-16.73 54-60

15.21-18.25
15.21-16.73
16.73-18.25
16.73-21.29

54
54
55
54-60

55
54
60
60
54
54

13.69-17.24
55
15.21-18.25 54-60
15.33-16.73 54-60
16.73-18.25
60
12.17-16.73 59-60
17.52-17.80
54

16.42-25.10
17.03-18.25
15.33-16.12
16.73-18.25
17.95-20.95

55
54-60
54-60
60
59-60

19.77
54
19.16-19.77 54-59
116.12-16.99 } 55-60
* 18.25-19.53
16.73-21.90 54-60
19.16
54

19.77
54
19.16-21.29 54-59
16.73-19.53
55
16.73-18.41 55-60
13.69-18.07
54

19.77-24.64
18.25-19.45
16.18-18.13
16.73-19.53
18.61-21.90

54
54-59
55
55-60
54

15.21-19.45 59-60
16.73 59-60
19.16
60
18.25-19.77
54
19.77
54
18.25
60

14.96-19.77 59-60
16.73 59-60
19.16
60
19.16-21.29
54
19.77
54
21.29
60

19.16-25.25
21.29
19.77-21.29
21.29-23.42

60
54
54
60

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore...................................
Newark.......................................
Paterson......................................
Philadelphia........:.....................
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati................................... 18.25-19.47
Cleveland....................................
18.25
Detroit......................................... 1 16.73; * 18.25
Louisville.................................... 16.73-18.25
Muncie.........................................
18.25
Pittsburg..................................... 19.97-21.90
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago........................................
Duluth........................................
Milwaukee.................................. \/
Minneapolis-St. Paul................
St. Louis...................................
SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta ......................................
Augusta......................................
Birmingham...............................
Memphis........ ............................
New Orleans...............................
Savannah....................................

i Time-work.




* Piecework.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

508

PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF
THE UNITED STATES, 1909—Concluded.
Engineering trades.
Town.

Pattern makers.
Weekly wages.

New York................................... $21.90-127.37

Printing trade: Hand
com p o sito rs (job
work).

Laborers,

Hours
Hours
Hours
per Weekly wages. per Weekly wages. per
week.
week.
week.
54

$8.21-$12.17

54

$21.29

48

16.7a-21.90 54-55
18.25
58
15.21-17.24
55
15.21-20.28 ,54-55

10.14-10.65 54-55
54
9.12-10.65
8.11- 9.12
58
9.12-12.17 54-60
7.81
55
8.11-10.14 54-55

19.26
17.74
16.22
15.21
$15.21-18.25
18.25-20.28

48
48
48
48
48
48

18.25-21.29
54
18.13-21.29
55
19.77-20.28 54-60

54
*7.60- 9.85
10.65 54-60
7.81- 8.92
55
9.12- 9.59 54-60

15.61-18.25
18.61-21.29
18.25
1&25

48
48
48
48

17.74-19.77
55
20.68 23.12 54-60
16.73-21.29 54-60
18.25
60
15.21-20.95 55-60
54
19.77-20.54

9.12-10.14
55
60
9.12-10.65
9.73-10.95 54-60
9.12-10.65
60
9.12-10.65 54-60
8.21-10.04 54-60

18.25
18.25-21.29
17.24-18.25
17.74-20.28
16.22-16.73
18.25-20.28

48
48-54
48
54
48
52-54

24.64
22.43-22.81
16.73-19.53
18.13-21.90
21.29-22.99

9.43-12.67
10.95-12.17
9.49-10.65
10.04-12.17
9.12-10.65

54-58|
54-59
55-60
55-60
54

21.29
18.25-22.10
17.24
18.25-19.77
18.49

48-54
48-54
48
48-49
48

1 6.69- 7.60 159-60
16.08 159-60
17.60- 9.85 154
18.21- 9.12 • 154
110.65 154
‘ 7.60- 9.12 160

18.25
18.25
18.25
18.25-20.28
18.25-20.28
15.21-18.25

48-54
48
48
48
48-54
48

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston.........................................
Brockton.....................................
Fall River...................................
Lawrence....................................
Lowell.........................................
Providence.................................
OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore....................................
Newark........................................
Paterson......................................
Philadelphia...............................
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati...................................
Cleveland....................................
Detroit........................................
Louisville....................................
Muncie........................................
Pittsburg....................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago........................................
Duluth........................................
Milwaukee..................................
Minneapolis^ t. Paul................
St. Louis.....................................

54
59
55
55-60
54

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta........................................
Augusta......................................
Birmingham.............................
Memphis.....................................
New Orleans...............................
Savannah....................................

16.73-20.95 59-60
15.21-18.25 59-60
19.16-20.68
60
54
21.29-23.28
19.77-21.29
54
21.29-24.33
60

i Colored men.

The figures of the foregoing table may be more readily compared
arranged in the form of index numbers, New York being taken as the
base or 100 and the mean predominant wage being expressed in the
terms of wages in New York.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

509

RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY WAGES IN SPECIFIED CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES
AS COMPARED WITH NEW YORK CITY.
Building trades.
Hod carriers
Town.
Skilled and brick­
men.
layers'
laborers.
New York.................................................
100
100
New England towns:
Boston....................................................
91
77
Brockton................................................
102
88
64
Fall River...............................................
83
82
76
Lawrence................................................
Lowell.....................................................
87
77
73
79
Providence.............................................
Other Eastern towns:
t86
87
Baltimore...............................................
93
98
Newark...................................................
73
Paterson..................................................
91
86
187
Philadelphia..........................................
Central towns:
Cincinnati...............................................
94
100
96
73
Cleveland...............................................
64
Detroit....................................................
81
186
86
Louisville..............................................
Muncie....................................................
80
83
102
Pittsburg................................................
98
Middle West towns:
93
110
Chicago....................................................
Duluth....................................................
103
98
95
87
Milwaukee..............................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul..........................
74
97
St. Louis.................................................
108
>117
Southern towns:
Atlanta....................................................
145
79
Augusta..................................................
73
133
Birmingham...........................................
i 59
97
180
Memphis.................................................
105
New Orleans..........................................
94
187
76
150
Savannah...............................................
i Includes wages of Negroes.

Engineering-trades.
Skilled
men.
100
81
75
80
78
68
79
83
87
80
85
85
86
80
83
81
95
100
95
83
88
89
87
82
94
96
94
96

Printing
trade:
Unskilled Hand com­
positors
laborers. (job work).
100
102
97
85
104
77
90
86
104
82
92
95
97
101
97
97
90
108
113
99
109
97
170
160
167
185
1104
182

100
90
83
76
71
.79
90
80
94
86
86
86
93
83
89
77
90
100
95
81
89
87
86
86
86
90
90
79

These comparisons are restricted to occupations common to nearly
all cities. The rates of wages ascertained for these occupations show
in general no very marked divergence and, according to the report,
the differences are “ certainly not greater than those shown to exist
as between the towns of England and Wales.” 1 In some towns, in
the Middle West especially, the New York rates are exceeded in cer­
tain occupations. Omitting New York, the highest general wage levels
occur in the Middle West towns, the lowest in the New England group.
A conspicuous feature of the situation commented on in the report
is the rough apportionment of the tasks of unskilled labor on the
one hand to the immigrant classes, largely to those of more recent
arrival, and on the other hand to the colored race. The absorption
into the ranks of the unskilled or semiskilled of the greater part of
immigrant labor tends, according to the investigators, to leave skilled
labor comparatively unaffected by the competition of foreigners.
This fact, combined with the size, wealth, and comparatively recent
development of the country, tends, in the opinion of the investigators,
to maintain the rates for skilled labor at their present high level.
The report further notes as a special characteristic of the unskilled
labor supply that, owing partly to the comparatively modem char


i See also page 562 of this Bulletin.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

510

acter of urban development in the United States and partly to the
large influx of labor that is physically sound and morally enterprising,
the proportion of deteriorated labor unfit for employment is relatively
small. The mobility of labor is noted as unusually great. In fields
of employment that are well known as centers toward which great
numbers of foreigners drift and in which much of the labor is unskilled,
in which organized relationships are almost absent, and in which the
work is especially laborious, as in iron and steel works, or especially
intermittent, as in the stockyards and packing houses of Chicago,
the constantly changing stream of labor that passes through is a
conspicuous feature of the situation.
UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED.

The predominant rates of weekly wages in the printing, engineering,
and building trades of the United States (industries which were found
in all of the cities investigated) are in the following table brought
into contrast with the rates of weekly wages paid in similar trades in
England and Wales. The wages for the United States, it will be
observed, relate to February, 1909, while the corresponding data for
England and Wales are for October, 1905.
The wages as given for England and Wales are, as is shown by the
first report of the series, that relating to cost of living in the United
Kingdom, exclusive of London.
PREDOMINANT WEEKLY WAGES OF ADULT MALES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN
ENGLAND AND WALES (EXCLUSIVE OF LONDON) AND IN THE UNITED STATES
COMPARED.

Ratio of mean
predominant
wage in the
United States
(February,
1909) to mean
United States predominant
wage in
(February, 1909). land and Eng­
Wales
(October, 1905),
taken as 100.

Predominant range of weekly
wages.
Occupation.

England and
Wales, exclu­
sive of London
(October, 19%).

BUILDING TRIBES , 1
Bricklayers
....................
StonemasonsCarpenters......... ................... .............. .......................... \
Joiners ....... .....................................................................
Plasterers....................................... .............. ........
Plumbers
.
Painters
Hod carriers and bricklayers* laborers
ENGINEERING TRADES.
Fitters.
Turners
Smiths
Pattern makers...................................................................
Laborers
............
............................. .................................
................................ ............................ ....................
..
..
..

.......

..

..

..............

....................... - ......................................... ......................

........... - ................................................................................
.................................

................................................................................... ..
- ................................................ ..
.................................................................................................
...............................................................................

PRINTING TRADES.

$9-12-49.85 §26.77-430.42
9.04- 9.57
23.42- 26.77
& 80-9.57
16. 73- 21.90
8.88-10.14
24.33- 29.00
8.60-9.67
21.29- 27.37
15.82- 20.68
7.60- 9,12
§.92- 6.S7
12.17- 16.73
7.79- 8.76
7.79- 8.76 } 15.41- 18.13
16.47-20.76
7.79- 8.76
18.13- 22.30
8.27-9.25
9.12- 10.65
4.38- 5.35

/
\

/
\

210
210
280
266
217
231
203
203
225
231
203

16.73- 19.77
Hand compositors (job work).
6.81- 8.03
246
fTb# hiiilrtfnp trad
243
Arithmetic means ............... |AH flhnvp<w»npat.inn« .....................................................
Th AnginAAriog trades
r
213
232
1 The wages stated for the building trades are for a full week in summer in both countries.
* In arriving at the trade and general index numbers, bricklayers and stonemasons have been regarded
as one occupation, and carpenters and joiners and fitters and turners as two, respectively, as in the earlier
foreign inquiries.
........................
as

8.




<

a

___

........................................................

-

.....

COST OF LIVIKO 1ST THE XJMTED STATES.

511

The level of wages in the building trades was, according to the
report, the same in England and Wales in 1009 as in 1905, but the
rates in the engineering trades had been raised by about 1£ per cent
between October, 1905, and February, 1909, and those of composi­
tors by about per cent. The effect of these changes would be to
lower the mean ratio for the combined trades represented in the above
table from 232:100 to 230:100.
In the building trades, the rates for the United States are based
upon actual returns from employers, but many of these returns
embody the locally accepted standard rates in the relatively highly
organized group.
In the case of the engineering trades, the English wages are the
standard time rates recognized by the unions concerned. The Ameri­
can ranges, on the other hand, are based, in the absence of standard
rates, on reports obtained from employers of actual earnings in an
ordinary week, and consequently the two sets of figures are, accord­
ing to the report, not strictly comparable.
In the printing trades, the rates for hand compositors engaged on
job printing are given. The American figures represent predominant
time rates ascertained to be paid in practice, while those for England
and Wales are, as in the case of the engineering trades, the standard
time rates recognized by the trade unions.
In no case in the table are the comparative ranges seriously com­
plicated by the distinction as between time and piece rates, and in
the case of the building trades and the printing trades, not at all.
Neither are the comparisons invalidated by differences in the char­
acter of the work done by those who fall into similar classes in the
two countries. It will be seen that in the building trades the mean
of the predominant range in the United States is in no case less than
double that of the corresponding English grade of wage earners.
For the whole group, the wages in the United States are 143 per cent
above those in England and Wales; In the engineering trades, the
index numbers are in no case less than double the English figure, and
the combined figure is 113 per cent above the English figure. For
the compositors, wages in the United States are 146 per cent above
die English level, as compared with 132 per cent for all of the occu­
pations included in the table. It will be remembered that these
figures are subject to slight modification, in view of the different
dates to which the reports relate, as previously noted.
In regard to the question as to whether the foregoing figures fairly
represent the level of wages for adult males m the cities investigated
in the United States as compared with the cities covered by the
corresponding investigation in England and Wales, or whether the
ratio based upon the same occupations as have been used in the pre­



512

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ceding international comparisons is one that may either exaggerate
or minimize the existing difference, the report concludes as follows:
While the combined ratio yielded by the figures in the above table
appears to give an approximately correct general indication of the
relative rates of remuneration for town occupations as between the
two countries, so far as they can be determined within the limits of
the present inquiry, the comparative figures appear to be somewhat
weighted in favor of the United States and should not be pressed to
an undue extent. It must be remembered that the position of the
building trades in the United States involves a selection of a group
of occupations for comparative purposes that is probably slightly
favorable to the United States, and the whole basis of comparison
is not a very wide one. The proportion of unskilled or of semiskilled
labor employed in industry in the United States is greater than in
this country and it may be noted that this fact would affect the
comparison of trades as a whole, while it is clear that, in order to
ascertain the comparative level of wages in the two countries—
taking into account the proportions employed at high and low rates
in both cases—a general census of wages would be required.
“ Although the proportion of those who may be roughly classed as
the unskilled or semiskilled in comparison with the skilled workers
is greater in the United States than in England and Wales, it should
be observed that the evidence of the town reports indicates that the
proportion of men in the community who in an industrial classification
would fall below any of these three classes as representing a class of
relatively unemployable labor, be it through premature deterioration
or through old age, is smaller than in this country. The compara­
tively recent character of American urban development and a rapid
growth of population, largely due to the influx of those in the prime
of life or who, having passed the more uncertain years of childnood,
have not yet reached their prime, are the main general considerations
that underlie the above conclusion.
HOURS OF LABOR.
UNITED STATES.

The weekly hours of labor for the individual occupations and cities
have been shown in connection with the rates of wages in a preced­
ing table. The hours stated below summarize the conditions for all
of the cities taken together and show the number of cities with each
specified number of hours per week, exclusive of intervals and with­
out overtime. In the case of the building trades the hours are for a
full week in summer. In other cases they refer to February, 1909.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

513

WEEKLY HOURS OF LABOR OF ADULT MALES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES IN 1909.
[The hours of labor of Negroes have been excluded.]
towns in which the usual hours
Number Number ofweek (excluding intervals) were—of labor
per
of towns
Occupation.
to which
figures 44 From 44 48 From 48 54 From 54 60
to 48
to 54
relate.
to 60
BUILDING TRADES.1
Bricklayers...................................................
Stonemasons................................................
Stonecutters.................................................
Carpenters....................................................
Plasterers......................................................
Plumbers......................................................
Structural iron workers.............................
Painters..........................:............................
Hod carriers and bricklayers’ laborers...

25
25
20
28
24
28
21
28
18

Iron mol ders................................
Machinists (fitters and turners)
Blacksmiths.................................
Patternmakers...........................
Laborers.......................................

27
28
24
25
22

ENGINEERING TRADES.

PRINTING TRADES.

11
10
10
8
12

9

6
8

4

2

1
3
2
2
...
2

12

13
10
12
8
12
9
17
7

1

3
1
2
1
1
1

3

i......i
1 1
1

12

...

11

1
2
24
1

9
8
7
4

1

16
13
15
16

4
3
3
3
2

Hand compositors (job work)
7
1
28
20
1 The hours of labor stated for the building trades are for a full week in summer.
* Detroit, where the hours are 48 and 60, has been included here.

UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED.

In the table which follows a comparison is made of the hours of
labor in the United States and in England and Wales. As in the
other international comparisons of this report the figures for the
United States relate to February, 1909, while those for England and
Wales refer to October, 1905.
WEEKLY HOURS OF LABOR OF ADULT MALES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN
ENGLAND AND WALES AND IN THE UNITED STATES COMPARED.

Occupation.

Average hours of labor per Ratio of aver­
week (excluding intervals) in— age hours of
labor in the
United States
(February,
England and United States 19091 to those
in England
Wales (Octo­ (February,
and Wales
ber, 1905).
1909).
(October, 1905),
taken as 100.

/
BUILDING TRADES.1
Bricklayers...............................................................................
53
46
87\oo
Stonemasons...........................................................................
52
89/^
46*
Carpenters...............................................................................
/
90
47| \
Joiners......................................................................................
90
53
Plasterers................................................................................. }
53
46*
87
Plumbers.................................................................................
47*
53*
89
Painters....................................................................................
53*
89
47*
52*
Hod carriers and bricklayers’ laborers. ; ...........................
48|
93
ENGINEERING TRADES.
Fitters......................................................................................
53
106
Ml
ooi \/
Turners....................................................................................
53 \>
106
Smiths......................................................................................
56
53
106
Pattern m akers......................................................................
53
56*
106
Laborers........................................ ..........................................
56*
53
106
PRINTING TRADES.
52*
Hand compositors (job work)..............................................
49
93
[The engineering trades__
building trades...........
89
Arithmetic means_________ jThe
106
[All above occupations.................................................................
96
1 The hours ol labor stated for the building trades are for a full week in summer in both countries.

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----14




514

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

No adjustment of the figures shown in the above table is required
to allow for the difference in date to which they refer, since changes
in the hours of labor in the building and engineering trades and for
compositors in England and Wales between the dates of the two
inquiries amount in each case to less than one-half of 1 per cent.

It will be seen that the average hours of labor per week range in
the various occupations in the building trades from 52 to 53£ in
England and Wales and from 46 to 48f in the United States. The
weekly working time in England and Wales averages about six
hours longer than in the United States in the case of the skilled men,
and only 3 | hours longer in the case of hod carriers and bricklayers'
laborers. The arithmetical mean of the index numbers in the whole
group of building trades is 89, indicating a working week in summer
11 per cent shorter than in England and Wales.

In the engineering trades (foundries and machine shops) the
hours are distinctly longer in the United States than in the building
trades, ranging from a minimum of 54 hours to a maximum of 60.
As compared with England and Wales the average hours in the
engineering trades are 3 or 3J hours per week longer, the English
average being 53 and the average hours in these trades in the United
States being 6 per cent above those in England and Wales.

Among compositors the American working week is, on an average,
about 3£ hours shorter than in England and Wales, or, expressed in
percentages, about 7 per cent less.
For the three groups of trades combined, the hours in the United
States are 4 per cent shorter than in the corresponding occupations
in England and Wales.
Upon the question as to whether a general conclusion can be drawn
from the above figures concerning the hours of labor in the two
countries the report concludes that “ there is little doubt that the
percentage figure is somewhat low for the United States. Although
in a general survey it is probable that the respective levels shown in
the above tables might be somewhat unduly favorable to the United
States, the comparison as between the three selected trade groups
themselves is a fair one, and it therefore provides a basis of calcula­
tion of the hourly rate of wages similar to that which has been made
in the preceding foreign inquiries. Thus for the trades under con­
sideration, the weekly wages for the United States as compared with
England and Wales being approximately as 230 to 100 (regard being
had to the different dates of inquiry), and the hours of the usual
working week being as 96 to 100, it follows that the average hourly
earnings of the American workmen are, to those of English workmen
in the same trades, approximately as 240 to 100. In the building
trades the ratio is as 273 to 100 and in the printing trades it is 258
to 100, while in the engineering trades it falls to 198 to 100.”



COST OT I/Iv m o 12? THE UNITED STATES.

515

HOUSING AND RENTS.
UNITED STATES.

In order to ascertain the rents of dwellings usually occupied by
wage-earning families in the cities visited, many reports were obtained
showing the rents paid in February, 1909. These reports were mainly
from real-estate agents and from tenants. A large number of dwell­
ings were also visited, so that first-hand knowledge might be obtained
not only as to rents paid but as to the character of the accommoda­
tion, including such points as the number and dimensions of rooms,
the conveniences provided, and in some measure as to the standard
of the families themselves. Much detailed information on these
points is contained in the individual city reports. Altogether,
information in regard to rents was obtained for over 90,000 wageearners’ dwellings. It was found that four-room dwellings were
predominant types throughout the whole field of inquiry, and, save
in three cases, five-room tenements were also found a prevailing
type. The results obtained for the cities investigated are shown in
the following table. The table does not, however, include the facts
as to colored tenants.
PREDOMINANT WEEKLY RENTS OP WORKING-CLASS DWELLINGS IN TOWNS OF
THE UNITED STATES, IN FEBRUARY, 1909.
Number of towns in which the mean
rent is—
Number
of towns Predominant
Number of rooms per dwelling. to which range of
figures weekly rents. Within the Below the Above the
predominant predominant predominant
relate.
range.
range.
range.
Three rooms.....................................
Four rooms____. . . __________ ....
Five rooms.........................................
Six rooms..........................................

IS
27
24
19

$1.64-12.33
2.11- 2.92
2180- 3.63
3.16- 4.22

11
15
15
10

3
6
5
4

4
6
4
5

A large amount of information in regard to rents actually paid was
obtained in connection with budgets of family expenditure, which are
considered in a later section* but this information does not enter into
the above table. The report, however, calls attention to the fact
that the average rent per room shown by the mean of the ranges given
in the above table corresponds almost exactly to the average rent
per room as shown by the budgets. The average rent per room thus
given by the above table is 63.9 cents, as compared with 64.4 cents
as shown by the budgets, which is referred to as a striking illustration
of the general soundness of the above figures.
The predominant ranges of rentals for the individual cities are
given separately in the report as well as the predominant* ranges for
all of the cities combined. In the following table index numbers are
given showing the relative level of rents in each of the cities investi­



BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

516

gated as compared with New York, the mean of the predominant
rents in that city being taken as the base or 100.
RELATIVE RENT LEVEL IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES AS COM­
PARED WITH NEW YORK CITY.
Town.
Borough of Manhattan
(New York)....................
St. Louis.............................
New York...........................
Pittsburg............................
Memphis.............................
Cincinnati...........................
Borough of Brooklyn
(New York)....................
Brockton.............................
Boston.................................

Index
num­
ber.
109
101
100
94
93
93
88
83
82

Index
num­
ber.

Town.
Birmingham....................
Philadelphia....................
Newark.............................
Minneapolis-St. Paul...
Atlanta.............................
New Orleans....................
Savannah.........................
Louisville.........................
Chicago.............................
Milwaukee........................
Lawrence.........................

81
79
78
77
76
72
71
71
70
66
64

Town.
Cleveland.........................
Paterson...........................
Providence.......................
Augusta............................
Detroit..............................
Fall River........................
Baltimore........................
Lowell...............................
Muncie..............................

Index
num­
ber.
64
62
59
58
57
55
54
52
44

, UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED.

In both the United States and England and Wales the dwelling of
four rooms is the most common type; in.fact, the only one found in
all of the cities investigated, although the dwelling of five rooms is in
both countries very common. On the other hand, the six-room
dwelling is relatively far more common in the American reports, 71
per cent of the American cities showing dwellings of this size to be
common as compared with only 41 per cent of the cities in England
and Wales.
In the following table the predominant rents for dwellings of three,
four, five, and six rooms in the United States are given in comparison
with those for England and Wales (exclusive of London):
PREDOMINANT WEEKLY RENTS OF WORKING-CLASS DWELLINGS IN ENGLAND AND
WALES (EXCLUSIVE OF LONDON) AND IN THE UNITED STATES COMPARED.
Predominant range of
weekly rents.
Number of rooms per dwelling.

Three rooms.............................................................................
Four rooms..............................................................................
Five rooms...............................................................................
Six rooms.................................................................................
Arithm etic m ean______________________________________

England and
Wales, exclu­
sive of London
(October, 1905).
$0.91-fl. 10
1.10- 1.34
1.34- 1.58
1.58- 1.89

Ratio of mean
predominant
rent in the
United States
to that
United States England in
and
(February, Wales, taken
1909).
as 100.
$1.64-12.33
2.11- 2.92
2.80- 3.63
3.16- 4.22

198
207
220
213
209

In both the United States and in England and Wales the rent paid
is, as regards rates and taxes, an inclusive charge, and to this extent
comparison on the basis of expenditure is free from complications.
It will be observed that the mean predominant rents in the cities
of the United States are considerably higher than those of England and



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

517

Wales in the case of dwellings of larger size, the mean of the ratios
for five and six room dwellings being 216.5 as compared with 202.5
for those of three and four rooms.
A further basis of comparison of rents as between the two countries
is afforded by taking the mean of the various predominant ranges
and comparing the average rent per room for the whole series. By
this method the weekly rent per room in the United States is found
to be 63.9 cents as compared with 30.4 cents in England and Wales,
equivalent to a ratio of 210 to 100.
In regard to the comparison of cost of rents in the United States
and England and Wales, the report concludes:

The rental figures obtained in the United States are, as stated,
for February, 1909, and the question arises as to how far these may
be comparable with the rentals for England and Wales collected for
October, 1905. No exact answer can be given to this question, but
there is a considerable amount of evidence to show that if the Ameri­
can figures had been collected for February, 1907—that is for a period
two years earlier than that actually selected—they would have shown
in many places a somewhat higher level, inasmuch as the industrial
depression which followed the financial crisis of October, 1907, and
continued throughout the following year, led to a decline on the
levels reached during the preceding period of prosperity and active
immigration. Taking into account the further fact that, even in
the United States, rents do not move on a large and general scale
rapidly, it seems highly improbable that any possible variations
due to the different dates at which the particulars were collected
in the two countriesi would affect appreciably the general comparisons
presented. It is believed, therefore, that for practical purposes the
ratio given above of 207:100 may be taken as representing with
approximate accuracy the level of rents paid by the working classes
in the United States and England and Wales respectively.
The explanation of the higher rentals in the American towns
investigated must be looked for in various directions, but principally
in the higher cost of building as expressed by labor and materials,
in the more generous allowance of ground space per dwelling, except
in congested areas, in the more modem character of a greater propor­
tion of the fittings and conveniences of the dwelling, as illustrated
by the more frequent provision of bathrooms, in a higher general
level of material prosperity that is able effectively to demand such
increasing variety ana completeness of accommodation and in the
shorter life that is expected from the individual dwellings.
RETAIL PRICES.
UNITED STATES.

Information in regard to the prices most commonly paid by wageearning families for a variety of food commodities, for coal, and for
kerosene was obtained from representative stores in different dis­
tricts in each city. In all over 1,000 returns, containing more than
17,000 quotations of prices for February, 1909, were obtained.



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

518

The following table shows the predominant retail prices of certain
principal articles of food and of coal and kerosene in February, 1909,
for the 28 cities covered by the investigation, considered as a whole.
It should be observed that in this table the predominant price is
expressed by a single amount in one case only, that of cheese, the
ranges quoted both here and in the table giving prices for the indi­
vidual cities constantly indicating that not any single figure, but a
series represents the prices most usually paid, a series to some extent
reflecting differences in taste or in spending power of the purchasing
classes. Broadly, an identical price may be assumed to represent
an approximately similar commodity, but sometimes, either as regards
cities as a whole, or even in quarters of a single city, when position,
environment, the class of consumer, or other cause involves some
special advantage or disadvantage on one side or the other, and thus
a special strength or weakness in competition, the qualitative sig­
nificance of the price equivalent may be weakened.
PREDOMINANT RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES IN FEBRUARY, 1909.

Commodity.

Unit.

Tea.................................................... 1 pound___
Coflee............................................... ........do.........
Sugar:
White, granulated................... ........do.........
Brown........................................ ........do.........
Bacon, breakfast, boneless. . . . . . . ........do.........
Eggs.................................................. 1 dozen----Cheese, American........................... 1 pound___
Butter.............................................. .....d o ........
Potatoes, Irish.... ........................ . 7 pounds...
Flour, wheat.............................. .....
Bread, white.................................... 4 pounds...
Milk................................................... 1 quart2. ..
Beef................................................... 1 pound....
Mutton or lamb............................... ........do.........
Veal................................................... ........do.........
Pork.............................:................... ........do.........
Coal:
Anthracite................................. 1 cwt.2........
Bituminous............................... ........do.........
Kerosene......................................... 1 gallon2 ..

Number of towns in which the
Number Predominant mean predominant price is—
of towns
to which range of retail Within Below Above
prices in
the pre­ the pre­ the pre­
relate. February, 1909. dominant dominant dominant
range. range. range.
28 80.41 -80.56
.2 0 - .25
28
.054- .06
28
27 • .05 - .054
28
.1 7 - .20
.27 - .32
28
.20
28
. 32 - .35
28
.11J- .17
28
.234- .274
28
.22 - .234
28
28
.084- *094
.1 2 - .16
28
. 13 - .17
28
.1 4 - .17
28
.1 2 - .15
28
16
.35 - *.46
13
.23 - 8. 27
.1 1 - .18
28

19
21
22
21
21
19
16
21
27
26
22
18
24
24
23
24
12
7
27

4
1
4
3
4
5
U1
5
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
3
1

5
6
2
3
3
4
1
2
1
2
6
2
2
3
4
2
3

1 In 10 of these 11 towns the predominant prices were 18 cents and 20 cents; 19 cents occurred very seldom.
2 English measure.
8 The prices relate to purchases by the ton. Smaller units are not sufficiently frequent to permit the
establishment of a predominant range.

The price of tea shows a wide range in the different cities, from 25
cents a pound as a lowest usual price up to 60 cents as a highest.
The former price is in no case the sole predominant, and appears in
fact only as the lowest figure in the ranges quoted for Lowell and
Providence, whereas 60 cents is the actual predominant for Atlanta,
Augusta, Cincinnati, Louisville, and Muncie. It may probably be
assumed, in view of the low price at which it is possible to purchase



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

519

tea, that did this beverage enter more largely than it does into house­
hold consumption a lower general predominant would result than
the figure actually quoted, 41 to 56 cents; but an average weekly
family consumption of from less than one-fourth pound to a little
less than one-half pound, respectively, in the lowest and highest
income classes in the American-British budget, although this is a
quantity considerably in excess of a general working-class average
for the whole country, still leaves tea among the commodities that
rank among the less important from the point of view of family
expenditure.
In coffee the range in prices, both absolutely and relatively, is
much less marked, never falling below 18 cents a pound, this figure
only appearing as the lower predominant price for Baltimore, and
never exceeding 35 cents, a maximum that is only reached in the
higher predominant figure in four of the New England cities—Bos­
ton, Brockton, Lawrence, and Lowell. The predominant range of
from 20 to 25 cents is the actual predominant in Chicago, Cleveland,
Duluth, Memphis, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Savan­
nah; while in seven cases, including Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and New
Orleans, 20 cents is the most usual local price, and in five cases,
including New York, it is 25 cents.
The general uniformity prevailing in the price of sugar is a reflec­
tion of the extensive control exercised over this particular market
by a single company. The predominant prices for white granulated,
the kind that is in by far the most general use, are 5J and 6 cents a
pound. Brown sugar, when purchased, appears to be often used in
cooking and sometimes for making candy. Loaf sugar was still less
frequently sold, and for this no predominant price can be quoted.
Bacon is not so extensively consumed as in England, fresh pork
taking relatively a more important place in the family dietary. The
comparatively high range for bacon, in Chicago—a great center of
its production—of from 18 to 22 cents a pound is noticeable. The
general predominant range is from 17 to 20 cents.
Eggs are consumed in America in great quantities, and in Febru­
ary, 1909, when new-laid eggs were often very dear—quotations of,
for instance, from 36 to 42 cents a dozen, being certainly not above
the ranges for that season of the year—storage eggs were those most
generally consumed. It may be observed that the normal effects of
geographical position on price were found to be almost, if not quite,
eliminated; the most usual price in Minneapolis-St. Paul, for in­
stance, 24 to 29 cents a dozen for storage eggs, was exactly the same
as that being paid in Brockton, Louisville, Memphis, and Savannah;
while the price of eggs at Duluth of 24 to 36 cents a dozen was iden­
tical with that for New York and somewhat lower than that for
New Orleans, where 36 cents a dozen was the maximum.



520

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The cheese to which the price quoted in the above table refers and
which has been described throughout the city reports as “American
cheese,” in order to distinguish it from cream cheese as. understood
in England, is that known as “ full cream,” by which is really meant
full milk, that is, not skim milk. As will be observed, the most usual
price of cheese of this description—20 cents a pound—shows great
uniformity.
Butter, as in the case of cheese, is a commodity in which the usual
prices paid are very regular, and geographical position, again owing
to the combined agencies of cold storage and efficient transport, has
no appreciable effect on the predominant range, which runs from 32
to 35 cents a pound. The highest usual price quoted is included in
the wide Pittsburg range of from 30 to 40J cents a pound, and the
lowest is that of from 28 to 32 cents for Providence.
Potatoes are dear in the United States and the highest prices were
quoted in the Southern group of cities (where, however, as compared
with sweet potatoes they ate of least importance) and in New York
and Paterson. They were lowest in the cities of the Middle West,
with the exception of St. Louis, in Baltimore, Cincinnati, Detroit,
and Pittsburg, and in the New England cities, other than Boston.
In these 13 towns the extreme range was from 9£ to 14 cents per
7 pounds and the predominant range was from 11 to 14 cents, as
compared with the general predominant of from 11J to 17 cents
per 7 pounds.
The brands of wheat flour most usually consumed are western and
the market is highly sensitive and highly centralized. .The differ­
ences in the most usual prices are thus mainly explained partly by
local preferences for particular brands, and partly by geographical
position, great distances from the wheat-growing areas sending prices
for the same qualities slightly, but only slightly, upward. In the
group of Middle Western cities the highest usual price never exceeded
25 cents per 7 pounds, which was approximate to the customary
starting point for most of the New England and other Eastern cities,
including New York. The general predominant price is from 23 to
27 cents per 7 pounds. The most general unit by which wheat
flour was purchased by the working classes was the bag of 24J pounds
(one-eighth barrel). In some cases, however, it was stated that the
bag contained only 24 pounds, and it was not found possible to dis­
tinguish with certainty in which towns a 24-pound bag was more
usual. Accordingly the bag has been taken throughout at its nom­
inal content, viz, 24£ pounds, any resultant error being very small.
As is clearly shown by the separate city reports, bread is sold in
great variety and ranges, from the big rough rye loaf, as retailed in
Jewish quarters in New York at 3 cents a pound, and the “half rye”
loaf of various sizes and prices, to the pure wheat loaf. This also



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

521

is of many shapes and prices, but apart from the Italian communities,
the predominant kind is that retailed at 5 cents a loaf. It is mainly
on this loaf as being the size most generally sold that the predomi­
nant price is based. The loaf appears to be very rarely weighed at
the time of sale, but, though ranking in a general way as a pound
loaf, it fluctuates with the price of wheat and flour, and in February,
1909, generally weighed from 14 to 15 ounces. Thus, in that month,
the predominant price was from 22 to 231 cents per 4 pounds. In
spite of a connection that is manifest between the prices of bread and
those of wheat and flour, the high price of the former has to be looked
for mainly in circumstances attending the manufacture and distribu­
tion of the loaf—in the rate of wages paid;1 in establishment charges,
including those of delivery and of advertisement; in the more fre­
quent distribution through middlemen; and in the range of high
total profits involved in the machinery of production and distribution.
It should be observed, however, that bread in the shape of the
baker’s loaf, like tea, enters relatively to a slight extent into the
American wage earner’s dietary and that consequently a high pre­
dominant price for bread to that extent loses much of the significance
which it possesses in countries in which dietaries are less varied, and
in which bread substitutes, either home baked or purchased, are less
widely consumed.
The predominant price of milk is from 8J to 9£ cents a quart, New
York, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee having a uniform price of 7 cents,
and the six southern cities one of 12 cents. These were the extreme
ranges shown, and among the remaining cities a general uniformity
ruled. The importance of milk, on the one hand as a food and on
the other as a possible source of infection, is being widely recognized,
and the city reports contain constant reference to the greater care
that is being taken to insure purity of supply. To some extent
climatic conditions explain this activity just as they help to explain
the high predominant price in the southern cities, since the high tem­
perature reached during several months in the year requires excep­
tional care to keep milk wholesome. Thus a common municipal
*From the report on “ Standard Time Rates of Wages in the United Kingdom at 1st October, 1909/'
the following statement is taken showing for several selected cities the minimum weekly rates paid to
bakers of the highest class (fore hands):
London............................................................................................................................................................... $8.76
Birmingham.................................................................................................................. ................................... 7.79
Leeds.................................................................................................................................................................... 8.76
Liverpool................................................................................................................................................................ 8.76
Manchester.......................................................................................................................................................... 9.00
The present report shows the following predominant weekly wages paid to bakers of the highest class in
the cities named:
Chicago, oven hands \mght work....................................................................................................
....................................................................................................
18.25
Atlanta, first hands............................................................................................................................... 1G. 22 to 20.28
Baltimore, first bench hands............................................................................................................... 14.19 to 18.25
Minneapolis and St. Paul, bench men............................................................................................. 15.21 to 16.22



522

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

requirement is that retailers must keep milk in refrigerated vessels
and the sale of milk in bottles was found to be frequent and occa­
sionally compulsory.
Much condensed milk is sold, of many brands and in cans of various
sizes, the most usual price being 10 cents per can, and the most
usual gross weight being from 16 to 18 ounces, the can generally
weighing a little less than 2 ounces. Thus the usual net price of
condensed milk may be taken as from 10 to 11J cents a pound.
There is a great general similarity in the method of cutting up
meat throughout all the cities investigated, perhaps the most impor­
tant difference as affecting the range of prices being the occasional
inclusion of the fillet in the “ sirloin” steak, as in Boston and a few
other cities, the form of steak thus resulting corresponding to the
porterhouse steak of New York and most other places.
Practically all the meat consumed is home reared and the great
majority of the cities derive the bulk of their supplies of beef, pork,
mutton, and lamb from western sources of supply. Owing to the
demand for dairy produce, especially milk, dairy farming is much
more widely diffused and veal is thus apt to be derived more uni­
formly and to a greater degree from adjacent areas.
In the country at large veal appears to be the dearest description
of meat sold and pork the cheapest, but all meats being alternative
articles of consumption great divergence in price is prevented.
The prices for the various cuts in the different cities show a con­
siderable range, but in a few cases, as in that of the chuck roast of
beef or short ribs, the uniformity of price prevailing over the great
field of inquiry is very noticeable. As regards the cut mentioned, in
only three cities—Chicago, Cincinnati, and Detroit—did the lowest
usual price fall below 10 cents, an,d only once—at Atlanta—did the
highest exceed 14 cents, the most usual maximum being 12§ cents
a pound.
• General meat prices, as reflected in the index numbers, are highest
in the New England cities, where the maximum of 10 per cent above
the New York level is reached at Brockton. New York being taken
as 100, the mean of the index numbers for this group of cities is 104.
The lowest general index number for meat is shown appropriately by
Chicago, where, with the other articles of food for which quotations
were obtained selling in general at New York prices, the index num­
ber of meat alone is lower than in New York by 20 per cent. In the
Middle West cities as a whole, as also, with the exception of Pitts­
burg, in the central group, meat prices are appreciably lower than in
New York, the mean of the index numbers for the former group being
the lowest for all the groups at 86. Mutton or lamb—a clear dis­
tinction between the two as retailed can not be drawn—is dear in
the southern cities, but even so the New York index number for



COST OP LIVING IH THE UNITED STATES.

523

meat as a whole is exceeded only by Atlanta, where it stands at 102.
The general meat prices at New Orleans are rather low, but the
mean index number for the whole southern group is 96. Baltimore,
known as a city that is favorably situated for the supplies of farm
produce, has for meat prices the index number 92. Cincinnati, the
center of the pork-packing industry before it shifted westward to
Chicago and beyond, has a general meat index number of 86, and
the average price of pork there still ranks among the lowest of all
the cities, being grouped in this connection with Chicago itself,
Detroit, Duluth, and Minneapolis-St. Paul. Detroit, which ranks as
one of the favorably situated cities, has an index number 18 per cent
lower than New York. Only in eight cases is the New York-index
number for meat exceeded and five out of the eight are in New
England, the others being Newark, Pittsburg, and Atlanta.
The prices of the various articles of food in the individual cities are
shown in the table which follows:
PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY WORKING CLASSES, FEBRUARY, 1909, IN SPECIFIED
TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Town.
New Y ork............................. .

Tea.
Per pound.
$0.35-10.50

Bacon,
Coffee. Sugar, white, Sugar, brown. breakfast,
Per pound. granulated. Per pound. boneless.
Per pound.
Per pound.
$0.25 $0.05-$0.06 $0.05-$0.06

$0.20

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston...................................... .
Brockton................................
Fall River................................
Lawrence...................................
Lowell.....................................
Providence...............................

.40.40.30.25.25-

.50 $0.30- .35
.60
.25- .35
.40
.25
.25- .35
.50
.50
.25- .35
.40
.22- .25

.0 5 .0 5 .05$.0 5 -

.05$
.06
.05$
.06
.05$
.06

.05 .0 5 .0 5 .0 5 -

.40- .60
.40- .60
.35- .50
.40

.IS- .20 .0 5 .25
.25
.20- .25

.05$
.06
.05$
.05

.05
.06
.05
.04$- .05

.1 8 - .20
.22
.20
.1 6 - .20

.60
.50
.35- .40
.60
.60
.40- .60

.20 .0 5 .20- .25 .05$.25- .30 .05$.20 .0 5 .20
.20 .0 5 -

.05$
.06
.06
.06
.06
.06

.05
.05
.05
.0 5 - .06
.05
.0 5 - .06

.14$- .18
.1 6 - .18
.1 5 - .20
.20
.20
.20 - .25

.40.40.35.50-

.50
.50
.50
.50
.60

.20.20.20.25.20-

.50.49.50-

.60
.60
.60
.60
.40
.60

.25 .06$- .07$
.20 .0 5 - .06 .0 4 .20 .0 6 - .06$ .0 5 .5$
.20- .25
.20 .0 5 - .07 .0 4 .20- .25 .05$- .06 .0 5 -

.05 $0.15- .18
.1 8 - .20
.06
.05
.1 6 - *18
.18
.06
.05$ .1 5 - .20
.06
.1 5 - .18

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore.................................
Newark....................................
Paterson...................................
Philadelphia............................
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati.................................
Cleveland..................................
Detroit......................................
Louisville.................................
Muncie......................................
Pittsburg..................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago.....................................
Duluth......................................
Milwaukee................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul.............
St. Louis..................................

.25
.25
.25
.30
.25

.05$ .05 - .05$
.06
.06
.05$ .0 5 - .05$
.05$- .06 .0 5 - .06
.0 5 - .06$ .0 5 - .06

.1 8 .1 5 .1 6 .1 5 .1 5 -

.22
.20
.18
.16
.20

.2 0 .17$.18 .18 .17$-

.25
.22$
.20
.20
.20
.20

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta.....................................
Augusta....................................
Birmingham............................
Memphis..................................
New Orleans...........................
Savannah.................................




.05$
.06$
.05
.05
.06

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

524

PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY WORKING CLASSES, FEBRUARY, 1909, IN SPECIFIED
TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES—Continued.
Eggs.1
Per dozen.

Cheese,
Butter. Flour,wheat. Bread, white.
American.
Per pound. Per pound. Per 7 pounds. Per 4 pounds.

New York........................................ $0.24-10.36

$0.20 $0.32 -$0.35 $0.24*-$0.25* $0.20- $0.23

Town.

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston............................................. .29- .36
.20
Brockton......................................... .36-.42J. 24-29 $0.18- .20
Fall River........................................ .32- .42
.18- .20
Lawrence......................................... .29- .42
.18- .20
Lowell.............................................. .36-.49j.29-.32
.20
Providence...................................... .24- .36
.18- .20

.28*
.25*
.25*
.27
.25*

.3 2 .29 .3 0 .3 0 .2 8 -

.35
.35
.32
• 36*
.36*
.32

.25*.24*.2 5 .21*.23 -

.2 9 .3 2 .3 4 .3 0 -

.35
.37*
.35
.38*

.24*- .25*
.24*- .27
.23 - .25*
.25*

.2 3 .2 0 .2 0 .2 0 -

.23
.25*
.26*
.23
.26*
.24*

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore........................................
Newark............................................
Paterson...........................................
Philadelphia....................................

.29.29.29.22-

.32
.36
.36
.24

.18.18.18.18-

.20
.22
.20
.20

.21*- .23
.2 0 - .24
.2 2 - .23
.20

CENTRAL TOWNS.

.Cincinnati........................................ .29- .32
Cleveland.........................................
.29
Detroit............................................. .29-32j.20-.22
Louisville........................................
.29; .24
Muncie.............................................
.29
Pittsburg......................................... .29- .32

.18- .20 .3 5 - .36* .24*- .25*
.23
.18- .20 .36*- .38*
.20 .3 0 - .32
.21*
.20 .3 0 - .35 .24*- • 28*
.30 .23 .20
.18- .20 .3 0 - .40* .23 - .*23*

.1 2 .20*.2 0 .21*-

.20
.23
.23
.23
.23
.23

MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago............................................. .24- .36
Duluth............................................. .24- .36
Milwaukee....................................... .36-. 42; .29
Minneapolis-St. Paul..................... .36-42; .24-.29
St. Louis.......................................... .29- .42

• 20
.18- .22
.18
.20
.20

.3 2 .30 .30 .3 0 -

.38*
.35
.34
.35
.35

.23 .2 3 .23 .2 2 -

.24*
.23*
.23
.25
.23*

.23
.23
.23
.23
.20 - .23

.20- .25
.20
.20
.20
.20
.20

.3 0 - .35
.35
.3 0 - .35
.30
.35
.35

.23 .21*.24*.21*. 23*.24*-

.25*
.25*
.27
.25*
.29
.25*

.2 0 .24*.2 0 .1 9 -

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta............................................
Augusta...........................................
Birmingham...................................
Memphis.........................................
New Orleans...................................
Savannah........................................

.21.24.29.24-

.29
.24
.24
.29
.36
.29

.26*
.29
.24*
.23
.20
.20

1 Where two ranges or two prices are shown separated by a semicolon, the first range or price relates
to “ fresh” eggs and the other to “storage” eggs.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

525

PREDO M IN AN T PRICES P A ID B Y W O RK ING CLASSES, F E B R U A R Y , 1909, IN SPE C IFIED
TOW NS OF T H E U N IT E D STA T ES-C ontinued.

Beef: Roasts.
Town.

Round. Ribs, prime. Ribs, second Chuck.
Per pound. Per pound. Percut.
pound. Per pound.
$0.16

10.16

New York

Beef: Steaks,
round.
Per pound.

$0.14 $0.10-$0.14 $0.16 -$0.20

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

$0.15.1 8 .1 6 .1 4 .1 5 -

Boston.....................................
Brockton.................................
Fall River...............................
Lawrence................................
Lowell.....................................

.18
.15
.20 $0.16- .18
.18 .1 4 - .16
.20 .1 2 - .16
.18 .1 2 - .15

.10.10.10.12-

.12*
.14
.12
.14
.10

.2 0 .16 .16 .15 .15 -

.25
.25
.20
.20
.20

.10.10.10-

.12
.14
.10
.12

.14 .18 .14 .16 -

.15
.20
.16
.18

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore...............................
Newark...................................
Paterson.................................
Philadelphia..........................

.15
.18
.14
.16

.1 4 .1 6 .1 2 .1 4 -

.16
.20
.14
.16

.1 2 .1 4 .1 0 .12 -

. 12*.1 2 .11 .12*. 12*-

.14
.14
. 12*
.15
.15
.15

.1 4 .12 .1 2 .12*.12*.15 -

.15
.16
.15
.15
.15
.18

.10 .12 .1 0 -

.1 0 .12 .1 2 . 12*-

. 12*

.12 .15
.14 .1 2 .15
. 12* .12*-

.14
.15
.16
.15
.15

.1 0 .12*.11 .12*.1 0 -

$0.14.1 6 .12 .12 -

.14
.16
.12
.16

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati..............................
Cleveland...............................
Detroit....................................
Louisville...............................
Muncie....................................
Pittsburg...............................

.12*
.14
.14
.12*
.12*
.12*- .15

.07- .10
.12
.08- .10
.10
.12*
.121

.1 4 - .15
.12 - .16
.11 - .13
.15
.15
.15 - .18

.08.10.10.10-

.1 1 - .14
.15
.12 - .15
.15
.15

MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago....................................
Duluth....................................
Milwaukee..............................
Minneapolis-St. Paul...........
St. Louis.................................

.12*
.15
.14
.15
.12*

.10
.12*
.12*
.12*
.10

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta...................................
Augusta..................................
Birmingham..........................
Memphis
New Orleans,
Savannah...




.15
.12*- .15
.15
.12*- .15

:3

.15 .15 .12*-

.15 .12*- .15
.15 .1 0 - .15
.17* .12*- .15
.18 .12*- .15
.12*
.15
.15
• 12*

.10- .15
.10
.12*
.10- .12*
.10
.10- .12*

:8 t

.15
.15
.15
.15
.12*
.12*- .15

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

52 6

PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY WORKING CLASSES, FEBRUARY, 1909, IN SPECIFIED
TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES—Continued.

Town.

Beef: Plate, brisket.
Beef: Steaks, Beef: Shin, Beef: Flank.
without
sirloin.
Per pound.
Salt or
Per pound. Perbone.
Fresh.
pouad.
corned.
Per pound. Per pound.

New Y ork...................................... $& 18-$0.20 $0.10-50.12 SO 08 -$0,121 50.08-50.12

50.07-40.08

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston........................ .............
Brockton............ .................. .
Fall River........................................
Lawrence.....................................
Lowell...............................................
Providence......................................

.2 5 .2 4 .2 8 .25 -

.25
.30
.26
.30
.25
.30

.08.03.08.06.08-

.10
.10
.08
.10
.10
.10

.05 .0 6 .07 .0 6 -

1.141.131.121.141.12-

.1 6 .2 0 .1 6 .1 8 -

.18
.22
.18
.22

.08.08.08-

.10
.10
.10
.10

.0 6 - .08
.0 8 - .12
.08
.08

.0 6 .0 6 .05 .0 6 -

.C8.
.08
.06
.07

.06- .08
.06- ..08
.05- .06
.07- .08

.1 5 .1 4 .1 4 .1 5 .1 5 .1 8 -

.18
.20
.15
.17*
.18
.20

.08.09.08.08.10-

.10
.11
.10
.10
.124
.10

.0 7 - .08
.0 8 - .10
.0 6 - .08
.08
.10
.10

.0 7 .0 7 .06 . 08 -

.08
.08
.08
.08
.10
.08

.07
.07- .08
.07- .08
.08- .10
.10

.121.1 8 .1 4 .1 5 -

-18
.20
.18
.18
.15

.08.08.10-

.10 .0 6 - .07
.10 .0 5 - .08
.12 .0 6 - .07
.06
.12* .0 6 - .08

.0 6 .0 5 .0 6 .05 .0 6 -

.07
.06
.07
.06
.03

.06.05.00.05-

.074.074.074. 07 .C7J-

.10
.08
.10
.08
. 10
.10

.08
.08
.08
.08
.10
.05

.15
.15
.14
.16
.13

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore................................. .
Newark............................................
Paterson...........................................
Philadelphia...................................
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati........................................
Cleveland........................................
Detroit.............................................
Louisville.....................................
Mancie.........................................
Pittsburg.........................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago.............................................
Duluth.............................................
Milwaukee.......................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul....................
St. Louis..........................................

.08
.06
.08
.06
.08

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta............................................. .1 5 - .20
Augusta...........................................
.15
Birmingham..................................
.174
Memphis.......................................... .1 5 - .171
New Orleans...................................
.15
Savannah...............................
.1 5 - .20




i “ Fancy” brisket.

.074.05 .074.06 .074-

.10
.06
.10
.08
^10

.io

COST OF IHVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

527

PRE D O M IN A N T PRICES P A ID B Y W O RK ING CLASSES, F E B R U A R Y , 1909, IN SPE C IF IE D
TOW NS OF T H E U N IT E D BTA TES-Continued.

Mutton or lamb.
Town.

Breast.
Loin.
Chops. Shoulder,
Leg.
Neck.
Per pound. Per pound. Per pound. Per pound. Per pound. Per pound.

New Y ork ............................ 90.12^90.16 5a 08-90.10 9a 16-90.22 90.20-90.22 90.10 -90.16 90.04-90.12
NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston......................................
Brockton.................................
Fall River...............................
Lawrence.................................
Lowell......................................
Providence..............................

.1 5 .1 4 .1 4 .1 5 .1 5 .1 5 -

.18 .10- .12 .15- .16 .20- .25
.18 .08- .12 .1&- .16 .25- .30
.10 .14- .18 .15- .20
.18
.10
.20
,.15 .20- .30
.18 .08- .12 .12- .16 .20- .25
.18 .08- .10 .12- .15 .18- .25

.1 2 .1 4 .12*.1 4 -

.18 .08- .12 .15.18 .08- .10 .18.14 .06- .07 .14.16 .06- .07 .16-

.1 4 .1 2 .1 4 .1 5 -

.18
.10
.18
.08
.15 .08- .10
.17* .♦ 10- .15
.25
.18
:3
.15
.15
.16
.15
.15

.12
.1 0 - .14
.1 0 - .12
.1 0 - .15
.12
.10

.08.07.06.05-

.10
.10
.10
.07

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore................................
Newark....................................
Paterson..................................
Philadelphia...........................

.20 .18- .20 .1 0 .20 .20- .22 .1 4 .16
.16 .1 0 .20 .16- .22 .1 0 -

.12
.18
.12
.12

.08.08.06.08-

.10
.12
.08
.10

.20.14.15.15-

.22
.18
.20
.17*
.20
.18

.20.16.18.20-

.25
.18
.20
.20
.25
.20

.1 0 .1 2 .1 2 .12*.12*-

.15
.14
.15
.15
.15
.15

.08.08.08.10.10-

.12*
.10
.10
.10
.12*
.12*

.12.15.13.15.15-

.18
.18
.18
.18
.20

.12.15.16.15.15-

.18
.18
.18
.18
.20

.1 0 - .14
.1 0 - .15
.12*- .14

.08.08.08.08-

.10
.10
.12
.10
.10

.12*
.20
.20 .20- .25
.20
.15
.20 .20- .25
.20 .10- .15 .15- .25 .20- .25
.20 .10- .15 .15- .20
.20
.20
.10 .15- .20
.20
.20
.15
.20
.20

.12*- .17*
.15
.15
.1 0 - .15
.1 0 - .15
.12*- .15

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati...............................
Cleveland................................
Detroit.......... .........................
Louisville................................
Muneie.....................................
Pittsburg.................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago................................... .1 2 Duluth.....................................
Milwaukee............................... .1 4 Minneapolis-St. Paul.............
St. Louis.................................

.06.07.06.10-

.09
.08
.09
.10
.12*

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta....................................
Augusta...................................
Birmingham...........................
Memphis................. ............... .1 5 New Orleans........................... .1 6 Savannah................................ .17*-




:3

.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

528

PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY WORKING CLASSES, FEBRUARY, 1909, IN SPECIFIED
TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES—Continued.
Veal.
Town.

Cutlets.
Rib chops. Loin chops. Breast.
Per pound. Per pound. Eer pound. Per pound. PerNeck.
pound.

New York........................................

$0.22 $0.16 -$0.20 $0.18-SO. 20 $0.12 -$0.16

$0.12-$0.14

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston.............................................
.30
Brockton.........................................
.28
Fall River........................................ $0.20- .30
Lawrence......................................... .20- .30
Lowell.............................................. .20- .28
Providence...................................... .18- .30

.15 .20 .16 .16 .17 .1 5 -

.20
.25
.22
.20
.22
.25

.20.20.18.18.18.18-

.25
.28
.24
.24
.23
.25

.1 0 .1 0 .1 0 .0 8 -

.20
.22
.20
.20

.1 0 - .12*
.1 2 - .16
.0 8 - ,.12
.12

.10
,.12
,.14
.12
,.12
.10

.08* .08.08.08.07-

.10
.10
.10
.08
.10
.10

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore........................................
Newark............................................
Paterson..........................................
Philadelphia...................................

.20.24.18.20-

.22
.25
.24
.25

.1 5 .16 .14 .16 -

.18
.22
.16
.18

.15.16.16.18-

.20.18.20.20-

.22
.22
.20
.25
.20
.25

.15 .14 .15 -

.18
.16
.16
.15
.18
.18

.15- .18
.16- .18
.14- .16
.15
.18
.18- .20

.1 0 .0 9 .12J.1 0 •12J-

.12*
].16
,.12*
. 15
. 12*
. 15

.10.10.09.10.10-

.16.16.20-

.20
.18
.20
.18
.25

.12 .15 • 12*-

.15
.15
.18
.15
.15

.12.15.16.15.15-

.18
.18
.18
.18
.17

.1 0 .lo .0 8 -

.12
.10
!.12*
,.10
.12*

.08- .10
.10
.10
.08- .10
.10- .12*

.20
.1 5 - .20
.15
.15
.1 5 - .20
.20

.15.15.10-

.20
.20
.15
.20
.20
.20

. 0 8 - ..13

.10 .12*.1 0 .0 7 .1 0 -

15
:.15
,.12*
,.10
. 15

.10
.08- .10
.08- .10
.05- .08
.10

.08- .12
.12- .14
.08- .12
.12

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati........................................
Cleveland........................................
Detroit.............................................
Louisville........................................
Muneie.............................................
Pittsburg.........................................

.12*
.12*
.10
.12*
.12*
.12*

MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago............................................
Duluth.............................................
Milwaukee......................................
Minneapolis^. Paul....................
St. Louis.........................................
SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta............................................
Augusta...........................................
Birmingham...................................
Memphis.........................................
New Orleans...................................
Savannah........................................




.20- .25
.20
.20
.20
.18- .25
.20- .25

COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

529

PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY WORKING CLASSES, FEBRUARY, 1909, IN SPECIFIED
TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES-Conttaaed.
Fresh pork.
Town.

Loin.
Perpound.

Spare rib. Shoulder.
Per pound. Per pound.

Chops.
Per pound.

Pork: Corned
(wet salt or
pickled).
Per pound.

New York....................................... $0.12*-$0.14 $0.09-10.10 $0.12-$0.12* $0.14-10.16 $0.14-$0.16
NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

Boston.............................................
Brockton.........................................
Fall River........................................
Lawrence.........................................
Lowell............................................ 1
Providence......................................

.12|.12 .12 .14 .1 2 .1 2 -

.15
.15
.15
.15
.15
.15

.10
.10
.10
.08 - .12
.10

.1 0 .1 0 .1 0 .1 0 -

.11
.12*
.11
.12
.10
.10

.1 3 .14 .1 4 .13 -

.15
.16
.15
.16
.16
.16

.1 2 .1 2 . 13 .11 -

.1 4 .16 .1 4 .1 4 -

.16
.18
.16
.16

.10
.0 8 - .12
.0 8 - .12
.10

.1 0 - .14
.1 2 - .15
.1 0 - .14
.12

.1 4 .1 6 .14 .1 5 -

.18
.18
.16
.16

.12 - .15
.14 - .18
.1 2 - .16
.14

.14
.14
.14
.14
.14
.12

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore........................................
Newark............................................
Paterson..........................................
Philadelphia...................................
CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati........................................
Cleveland......................................... .1 2 - .15
.16
Detroit............................................. .1 2 - .14
Louisville.....................1.................
.15
Muncie.............................................
.15
Pittsburg......................................... .1 5 - .20

.0 9 .1 0 .0 9 .10 .10 .1 0 -

.10
.12*
.10
.12*
.12*
.12*

.08*.12*.1 0 .10 .12*-

.10 .1 3 - .15
.14 .16 - .17
.11 .12 - .15
.12*
.15
.12*
.15
.15 .1 5 - .20

.12 .12*.12*.12*-

.15
.16
12*
.15
.15
.15

MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago............................................ .1 2 - .14 .0 8 - .10
Duluth.............................................
Milwaukee....................................... .1 4 - .12* .08 - .10
.10
.15
Minneapolis-St. Paul....................
.12*
.10
St. Louis.......................................... .12*- .15
.10

.1 0 - .12
.10
.11 - .12*
.10
.10

.1 2 .12*.1 4 .12*.12*-

.15
.15
.15
.15
.15

.124- .15 .1 5 . 12*- .15
.12*
.12*
.10 - .15
.12*- .15 .17*-

.20
. 15
.15
.15
.15
.20

.12 .12*.12*-

.12*
.15
.14
.15
.12*

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta............................................ .15 - .17* .12*- . 15
Augusta........................................... .1 5 - .20
.15
Birmingham...................................
.12*
.15
Memphis....................................
.12*
.15
New Orleans...................................
.15 .10 - .12*
Savannah..........................
.15 - .20 .12*- .15

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----15




12*

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*

530

PREDO M IN AN T PRICES P A ID B Y W O RK ING CLASSES, F E B R U A R Y , 1909, IN SPEC IFIED
TOW NS O F T H E U N IT E D STA TES—Concluded.

Town.

Shoul­
Pork: Dry Pork: Ham. Pork:salt or Potatoes,
der,
Milk.
salt.
Per pound. smoked. PerIrish.
Per pound.
7 pounds. Ter quart.
Per pound.

New York

10.14 $0.14-10.16 $0. 1 0 -$ 0,124 $0.14-$0,184

$0.07

NEW ENGLAND TOWNS.

$0.12 - .14
.14
.14
i
©

Boston___
Brockton..,
Fall River.,
Lawrence..
Lowell........
Providence.

.1 4 - .15
.13 - .17
.1 3 - .15
.14
. 1 2 - .14

.10 .09 .10 .0 9 -

.10
.12
.10
.1 1
.10
.10

.114.1 2 .114.1 3 .114-

.14 $0,084- -09|
.09
.14
.14
.09
.14
. 084- .09
.08
.14
.08;
.14

OTHER EASTERN TOWNS.

Baltimore.................................
Newark.....................................
Paterson...................................
Philadelphia............................

15 1214 -

.15
.18
.16
.16

.1 4 .1 5 .13 -

.17
.16
.16
.16

. 1 2 - .15
. 1 2 - .14
. 1 0 - .14
. 1 0 -*- .1 2

12411 124124124-

.15
.16
.12
.15
.15
.16

.1 4 . 124. 124.1 5 -

.16
.13
.15
.18
.15

.12
.10
.10
.10

124-

.16
.15
.14
.15

. •. -

.15
.15
.15
.15
.15

. 10 .09 .09 .09 -

12

.1 2

.1 1 - .14
.1 4 - .15
.1 4 - .184
.1 4 - .16

.094
.084- .094
.094
.094

CENTRAL TOWNS.

Cincinnati.................................
Cleveland..................................
Detroit......................................
Louisville.................................
Muncie......................................
Pittsburg..................................
MIDDLE WEST TOWNS.

Chicago.....................................
Duluth......................................
Milwaukee................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul.............
St. Louis..................................

12
124

.124

SOUTHERN TOWNS.

Atlanta.,
Augusta..
Birming'
Memph
New Orleans.
Savannah___

.125- .15
.1 1 - —
.125- .15

.12

.1 1
124
12

.15 - .16
.15

.14
.14
.14
.164
.14
.14

.07
.084- .094
.084
.094
.07 - .08}
.084- .094

.1 1 - .14
.114- .12
.094- .14.
.114
.14

.08|
.084- .094
.07
.084
.084

.09 - .124 .1 1 - .14
- .1 1 .1 1 - .124 .1 4 - . 12|
-125- .15 .114.124
.10
.12
.1 1
.10

: t .15
S

.124

.164
.164
.1 4 - .184
.1 4 - .164
.14
.164- -185

.12
.12
.12
.12
.12
.12

The prices of the principal articles of food consumption, like bread,
flour, meat, potatoes, and sugar, do not vary greatly as between one
city and another. With a view to obtaining for each of the cities a
general indication of the retail prices of food there as compared with
the other cities, a series of index numbers was constructed, the level
of prices in New York City being taken as the base, or 100. In order
to allow for the varying importance of the different articles as judged
by the normal weekly consumption by a wage-earning family,
recourse was had to “ weighting,” and for this purpose average quan­
tities were ascertained from the budgets of American-British (includ­
ing American, Irish, English, Scottish, Welsh, and Canadian) families
secured in the northern cities as being the group most suitable for
international comparison. The commodities selected were those
most generally consumed and at the same time most easily measur-




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

531

able. The following are the quantities consumed weekly, per family,
so ascertained:
Tea...................... ..............pounds.. i Flour, wheaten....... ........pounds.. 101
i Bread, white............ ............do----- 81
Coffee.................. ...................d o ....
Sugar...................
5i Milk...........................
51
Bacon............................. .-...d o .... U Beef..........................
11
........................
22 Mutton or lamb. . . . ............d o .... 61
Veal........................... ............do----Cheese................
1
i
2 Pork...........................
Butter.................
21
Potatoes.................................d o .... 21
Using the quantities for each article as shown in the above table
and the predominant food prices as given for each town in the table
preceding, the comparative index numbers, New York City being
used as a basis, are as shown in the following table:
RELATIVE LEVEL OF FOOD PRICES IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES
AS COMPARED WITH NEW YORK CITY.
Town.
.................. .............
"Newark_______________
Brockton.................. .........
Boston................................
Lawrence.............. _............
Savannah............................
Augusta..............................
Birmingham.......................
Pittsburg...........................
Lowell..................................

Index
num­
ber.
109
106
106
105
105
104
103
102
102
102

Town.
Fall River........................
Memphis...........................
New Orleans....................
New York........................
Paterson...........................
Cleveland.........................
Louisville.........................
Muncie..............................
St. Louis...........................
Providence.......................

Index
num­
ber.
101
101
100
100
100
99
99
98
97
97

Town.
Baltimore.........................
Philadelphia....................
Duluth..............................
Minneapolis-St. Paul....
Chicago.............................
Milwaukee........................
Cincinnati.........................
Detroit..............................

Index
num­
ber.
97
96
96
95
94
93
92
91

It will be observed that the total range as shown in the table is
from 91 to 109, the highest level of prices, 109, being found in Atlanta,
Ga., and the lowest level, 91, being found in Detroit, Mich. New
York, which is taken as 100, occupies an exactly middle position. It
is of interest to note that this variation in prices of food as between
the various cities of the United States is not greater than was found
in the earlier investigation of the British Board of Trade in the cities
of England and Wales.1
UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED.

The predominant prices paid in February, 1909, for various articles
of food in the 28 cities investigated in the United States have been
set forth in a preceding table. In certain cases, for the principal
articles of consumption, representing about 61 per cent of the cost
of all articles that enter into the ordinary household expenditure for
food in the American-British budget and about 66 per cent for those
enumerated in that of the United Kingdom, a comparison is possible




1See page 568 of this Bulletin.

532

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

as between American and English prices. This comparison is set
forth in the following table:
PREDOMINANT RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD IN ENGLAND AND WALES (EXCLUSIVE OF
LONDON) AND IN THE UNITED STATES COMPARED.
Predominant range of retail
prices.
Commodity.

Unit.

England and
Wales, exclus­
ive of London
(October, 1905).

Sugar................................................................. 1 pound___
10.041
.142
Cheese............................................................... ........do.........
.264
Butter............................................................... ........do......... /l 10.245- *.284
\
Potatoes............................................................ 7 pounds... .051- .071
Flour................................................................. ........do.........
.162- .203
Bread................................................................. 4 pounds... .091- .112
Milk................................................................... 1 quart.......
.061- .081
.172
Beef................................................................... 1 pound___ /\ *.152- .122
1.101/ *.152- .183
Mutton.............................................................. ........do......... t .081- .101
Pork.................................................................. ........do.........
.152- .172
Bacon................................................................ ........do......... .142- .183
1 Colonial or foreign.

* Danish.

Ratio of mean
predominant
price in the
United States
(February,
United States 1909) to that in
England and
(February, Wales (Octo­
1909).
ber, 1905),
taken as 100.

$0.056-$0.061
.203
\ .324- .355
.117- .167
.233- .274
.218- .233
.086- .096
j- .122- .162
} .132- .167
.117- .147
.172- .203

144
143
126
233
139
223
129
104
116
81
116

* British or home killed.

The report notes that it has not been possible to bring up to date
the individual English prices stated in the above table, but that
records of retail prices in London are available and form a sufficient
index of the general course of prices in the country. So far as the
items shown above are concerned, the retail prices in London in
February, 1909, as compared with October, 1905, show an advance
of 10 per cent in the price of cheese, 17 per cent in flour, 8 per cent in
bread, 6 per cent in British beef, and 12 per cent in foreign beef. The
prices of potatoes, milk, foreign mutton, and pork were the same for
the two periods, while those of sugar, butter, British mutton, and
bacon were respectively 7, 2, 7, and 3 per cent lower at the later date.
Taken as a whole, these figures, after due allowance for the varying
degrees of importance of the articles included has been made, indicate
that retail food prices were 3 or 4 per cent higher in England and
Wales in February, 1909, than they were in October, 1905.

An examination of the above table shows that the articles in the
United States that most nearly approximate in price at the specified
dates to those of England and Wales are beef, mutton, bacon, and
pork, the last named being the only one for which a lower price level
is shown in the United States. In regard to the other items, a great
disparity is shown as a rule between American and English prices, a
disparity entirely apart from that due to the different periods to
which the figures of the table refer. The greatest differences are




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

533

shown in the case of potatoes and bread, American prices being in
both these cases more than double those of England and Wales. As
will be seen later, the consumption of potatoes per family, as shown
by the American budgets, is somewhat greater than that shown by
the budgets of the United Kingdom, and the difference in the price
therefore has an increased effect upon the expenditure. In the case
of bread the effect is not so great, as the average consumption of bread
in the shape of a bought loaf is not much more than one-third of that
shown in the budgets collected in England and Wales.

The remaining food items, sugar, cheese, flour, milk, and butter,
show excesses in prices for the United States ranging from 44 down
to 26 per cent.

In the foregoing comparisons no account has been taken of the
difference in the quantities of the various articles of food that are
consumed, either in an average working-class family in different
sections of the same country or in similar families in the two countries.
Internal comparisons of the cost of living in the United Kingdom
were arrived at by comparing the cost in the various towns investi­
gated of maintaining what had been found by investigation to repre­
sent, as regards food, an average standard of living in British wage­
earning families. Thus, the measurable quantities that made up the
standard having been ascertained, and local predominant prices
having been obtained, variations in the local cost of living were
calculated by seeing how much it would cost in the different towns
investigated to purchase the quantities of meat, bread, butter, sugar,
etc., included in the average budget.
“ Thus, if the quantities shown in the average British working-class
dietary be taken and the question be asked what would it cost the
same family to maintain the same dietary in another country, it is
clear that the influence of environment and the tendency to conform
to changed conditions can not be allowed for in the answer. The test
is insular in character and to that extent defective. On the other
hand, if predominant prices have been obtained for the two countries
under comparison, and the problem be to determine what it would
cost an average family in one country to maintain an accepted
standard of living at the prices prevailing in another country, the
hypothetical basis of any such calculation is manifest. Defects and
limitations of this kind are, in fact, inherent in any attempt to com­
pare international and to some extent even internal local conditions
as regards industrial and social standards, and they are indicated here
in order that the following comparisons may be interpreted and
applied with as clear a conception as possible of the assumptions they
involve and the elements of the problem of adjustment and adaptation
to which they necessarily fail to give due weight.”



534

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

The following table shows the comparative cost in the two countries
of the articles in the average British budget for which .comparative
prices can be given:

COST OF THE AVERAGE BRITISH WORKINGMAN'S WEEKLY BUDGET (EXCLUDING
COMMODITIES FOR WHICH COMPARATIVE PRICES CAN NOT BE GIVEN) AT THE
PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID BY THE WORKING CLASSES OF (1) ENGLAND AND
WALES (EXCLUSIVE OF LONDON) AND (2) THE UNITED STATES.
Commodity.

Cost of quantity in
Predominant range of retail prices.
"Rritish 'hiiri<n»£ in—.
Quantity in
average
British
Wales,
budget. England and London United States (Febru­ England United
exclusive of
and
ary, 1909).
(October, 1905).
Wales. States.

Sugar___
5J pounds... $0,041 per pound............. $0,056 to $0,061 per pound.
Cheese...
f pound........ $0,142 per pound............. $0,203 per pound...............
2 pounds___ $0,269 per pound1........... $0,324 to $0,355 per pound.
Butter...
Potatoes.,
17 pounds... $0,051 to $0,071 per 7 $0,117 to $0,167 per 7
pounds.
pounds.
Flour.
10 pounds... $0,162 to $0,203 per 7 $0,233 to $0,274 per 7
pounds.
pounds.
Bread,
22 pounds... $0,091 to $0,112 per 4 $0,218 to $0,233 per 4
pounds.
pounds.
Milk....
5 quarts........ $0,061 to $0,081 per quart. $0,086 to $0,096 per quart.
Beef....
4£ pounds... $0,137 per pound *........... $0,122 to $0,162 per pound.
Mutton.
if pounds... $0,129 per pound *........... $0,132 to $0,167 per pound.
Pork...
| pound........ $0,152 to $0,172 per pound $0,117 to $0,147 per pound.
Bacon..
lh pounds... $0,142 to $0,183 per pound $0,172 to $0,203 per pound.
Total cost of the above,
Trir1_Y numbers|Adjustedand February, 1909...................................................... ...............
England for Wales, October, 1905; United States, February, 1909..
index
i Mean of colonial or “foreign” and Danish.
* Mean of British or home-killed and of foreign or colonial.

$0,218
.107
.537
.147
.259
.558
.193
.081
.243
3.317
100
100
.O-Ltf

$0,309
.152
.679
.345
.360
1.242
.456
.639
.223
.066
.284
4.755
143
138

From the foregoing table it appears that the English housewife
would have had to pay $4,755 at American prices for the same quan­
tities of those articles of food which cost at English prices in October,
1905, $3,317, or as adjusted to the prices of February, 1909, about
$3.44. Her weekly expenditure in the United States would thus be
raised on the adjusted prices about $1.32, or 38 per cent. Of this
total increase, however, about 64 cents is due to the much higher
price of baker’s bread in the United States, an item that, as has been
seen, does not enter largely into the American workman’s budget.
The explanation of more than half of the balance of the difference is
found in the comparative costs of potatoes, in which the excess in
the United States would be equivalent to an expenditure of about
20 cents per week, and of butter, in which the corresponding excess
would be about 15 cents per week. Allowing for the adjusted prices
as between the two countries, beef, mutton, pork, and bacon com­
bined would have cost about 3 cents more in the United States. The
list of commodities is not exhaustive, but, on the basis of comparison
adopted, it is, in the opinion of the investigators, sufficiently complete
to give a fairly accurate indication of the difference in the cost of
food in the two countries.
The most important of the items omitted from the foregoing list
of food articles is tea, the price of which is higher in the United States
than in England, but which is supplanted there, as in Germany,



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

535

France, and Belgium, by coffee, as the customary domestic beverage.
The other most important items omitted are fish and vegetables, for
neither of which can any basis of comparison be obtained, and eggs,
which have also been regarded as noncomparable because of the
variety of brand and quality.
The foregoing figures represent the change in family expenditure
that would result if either in the United States or in England an aver­
age British workman’s family continued to purchase the main articles
of food to which it was accustomed and paid American prices for them,
leaving out of question either the power or the desire to adjust
expenditure to any new channels by which changed price conditions
might be accompanied.
But it is apparent from a study of the budgets of American families
that there are numerous and important differences in the quantities
of the various articles of food consumed. In the following table
another comparison has been made of the cost of the wage earner’s
food budget in the two countries, using as the basis of comparison the
quantities found to be ordinarily consumed in the average American
workman’s family:
COST OF THE AVERAGE AMERICAN WORKINGMAN'S BUDGET (EXCLUDING COM­
MODITIES FOR WHICH COMPARATIVE PRICES CAN NOT BE GIVEN) AT THE PRE­
DOMINANT PRICES PAID BY THE WORKING CLASSES OF (1) ENGLAND AND WALES
(EXCLUSIVE OF LONDON) AND (2) THE UNITED STATES.
Predominant range of retail prices.

Commodity.

Cost of quantity in
American budget
in—

Quantity in
average
American1
budget. England and Wales, United States (February, England United
exclusive of London
and
1909).
(October, 1905).
Wales. States.
$0,041 per pound.............
$0,142 per pound.............
$0,269 per pound *...........
$0,051 to *$0,071 per 7
pounds.
$0,162 to $0,203 per 7
pounds.
$0,091 to $0,112 per 4
pounds.
$0,061 to $0,081 per quart.
$0,137 per pound3...........
$0,129 per pound 3...........
$0,152 to $0,172 per
pound.
$0,142 to $0,183 per
pound.

$0,056 to $0,061 per pound
$0,203 per pound...............
$0,324 to $0,355 per pound.
$0,117 to $0,167 per 7
pounds.
$0,233 to $0,274 per 7
pounds.
$0,218 to $0,233 per 4
pounds.
$0,086 to $0,096 per quart..
$0,122 to $0,162 per pound.
$0,132 to $0,167 per pound.
$0,117 to $0,147 per pound.
$0,172 to $0,203 per pound.

$0,213
.071
.537
.183
.269
.208
.380
.923
.162
.365
.284

$0,304
.101
.679
.426
.370
.466
.487
.958
.188
.299
.330

Total cost of the above.
TrtriOT numbers|AdJustedan<*February> 1909. . .................................................." ...........
index Tin7nKor«/England for Wales, October, 1905; United & tes, February, 1909..

3.595

4.608
128
125

Sugar.. . . . . . . . .
Cheese................
Butter................
Potatoes.............
Flour..................
Bread.................
Milk....................
Beef....................
Mutton...............
Pork...................
Bacon.................

51 pounds...
4 pound........
2 pounds—
21 pounds...
10J pounds..
81 pounds...
51 quarts___
6| pounds...
11 pounds...
21 pounds...
If pounds...

100
100

1That is, American-British (northern).
* Mean of colonial or “foreign" and Danish,
a Mean of British or home killed and of foreign or colonial.

The total cost of the average food budget at English prices, adjusted
to February, 1909, is about $3.70 per week, or 90.8 cents less than
that for the same articles and quantities if bought at American prices.



BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

536

The ratio of the total cost of the articles of food enumerated in the
table at American prices to their cost at English prices is 128 to 100,
or adjusted to February, 1909, as 125 to 100, as compared with 138
to 100 in the case of the quantities of the same articles on the basis of
the British workman’s budget. Of the two ratios, that based upon
the quantities of the average British budget is presented by the
investigators as more directly concerning the working-class consumer
in England, and 138 to 100 is therefore taken in the report as repre­
senting from this point of view the relative levels of the cost of food
in the United States and in England and Wales in February, 1909.
RENTS AND RETAIL FOOD PRICES COMBINED.

In the following table the cost of food and rent in the various
cities has been expressed by means of a combined index number, New
York being taken as base or 100. In computing this index number
allowance was made for the relative importance of the two forms of
expenditure, and this was determined by the general ratio in which
these two items stood in the American-British budget. A weight
of 3 was therefore given to food prices and of 1 for rents.
RELATIVE LEVEL OP RENT AND FOOD PRICES IN SPECIFIED CITIES OF THE
UNITED STATES AS COMPARED WITH NEW YORK CITY.
Index
num­
ber.

Town.
Atlfl-TlfA ___________
Rroftkton............................
N p.\y Vork........................
Pittsburg ...........................
Boston.................................
Memphis................ ............
N ewark...........................
f?t. Louis .........................
■ Birmingham.... .................

101
100
100
100
99
99
99
98
97

Town.
Savannah.........................
Lawrence..........................
New Orleans....................
Cincinnati........................
Louisville.........................
Augusta............................
Philadelphia....................
Minneapolis-St. Paul___
Paterson...........................

Index
num­
ber.
96
95
93
92
92
92
92
91
91

Town.
Cleveland.........................
Fall River........................
Lowell...............................
Chicago,...........................
Providence.......................
Baltimore.........................
Milwaukee.......................
Muncie..............................
Detroit..............................

FAMILY INCOME AND COST OF LIVING.
UNITED STATES.

Index
num­
ber.
90
90
90
88
88
86
86
85
83

In order to secure information in regard to the standards of living
in various cities a large number of budgets were secured for wageearning families showing the particulars of family income and of
expenditure for food and rent. This information is presented in the
report on a nationality basis according to the declared country of
birth of the head of the family, but for purposes of the international
comparisons the report uses the group representing American and
British families of the northern cities.
The particulars sought in connection with these family budgets
were mainly confined to those items of domestic expenditure which
were most recurrent and most likely to be furnished correctly and
the most pertinent to the main comparative object in full. The



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

537

only other full particulars obtained were such as were necessary to
throw light on the income and composition of the family, including
in the last the occupation of the husband and the country of birth
of both parents.
In the discussion of the various types represented in the family
budgets the report explains that it is necessary to draw attention to
the fact that even in relation to the alien people of the United States
“American” speedily comes to have a meaning all its own. Were
there nothing industrially or socially distinctive, the United States
would, indeed, cease to exercise its attractive force, and in various
ways, and as regards the mere material standard of comfort, in
forms that compare favorably with those that have been left behind,
the Americanization of immigrants is apt to begin almost from the
ifkoment of their landing.
“ Thus, although the industrial status of the bulk of the Italians,
Poles, and other Slavonic and allied peoples is different from and
lower than that of the bulk of those who are regarded as the true
Americans, it is equally true that as measured by the command of
material comforts the position of the great bulk, even of such races
as those mentioned, begins at once to be relatively American in
standard. Even as regards the poorer industrial classes of the United
States, the term Americany is thus found to have a significance
that, covering, it is true, great differences and wide ranges, still
represents, even apart from all considerations of political and social
environment, something that is not the less definable and real.”
Altogether 7,616 family budgets were secured in the course of the
investigation. The following table shows the distribution of these
budgets among the various nationalities and geographical groups:
CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS BY NATIONALITIES.
Nationality.
American-British (including American, Irish, English, Scottish, Welsh, and Cana­
dian):
(1) Northern......................................................................................................................
(2) Southern......................................................................................................................
(3) (American) Southern (broken families).................................................................
German (including a few Dutch, Belgian, and Swiss).......................................................
Scandinavian (including Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes).............................................
South European (including Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, and Portuguese. A few
French and Syrian budgets have been included here)...................................................
Slavonic and allied peoples (including Bohemians, Croats, Hungarians, Galicians,
Poles, Lithuanians, Russians, Roumanians, and Serbs)...............................................
Jewish—from all countries (chiefly Russia).........................................................................
Negro:
(1) Northern group...........................................................................................................
(2) Southern group...........................................................................................................
Total.................................................................................................................................




Number Percent­
of
age of
budgets. total.
3,215
580
46
9G6
335
599
598
758
303
276
7,616

42.2
7.6
.6
11.9
4.4
7.9
7.9
9.9
4.0
3.6
100.0

538

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

It will be seen that the American-British (northern) group, which
has been taken as the basis of all comparisons between the United
States and England, comprises 3,215 families, or 42.2 per cent of the
entire number included in the study.
The distribution of these budgets among the various industrial
occupations according to nationality is shown in the following table:
CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS, BY OCCUPATIONS.
Trade group.

Sla­
American- Ger­ Scan­ South vonic Jewish. Negro. Total.
dina­ Euro­ and
Brit- man. vian. pean. allied
ish.
peoples.
627
875
246

127
207
31

107
60
1

55
52
68

55
202
4

82
64
6

94
46
7

1,147
1,506
363

122
30
21

12
20
10

13
12

32
40
7

8
53

35
246
41

6
5

228
406

167
81
204
52
154

21
13
53
10
22

13
2
21
14
5

5
3
35
29
8

9
5
20
12
10

3
15
2
21

23
8
117

34
1

238
115
465
153
221

Millers, bakers, grocers, etc..................
89
62
Butchers and meat trade......................
75
Brewers, distillers, etc..........................
34
Tobacco and cigars................................
Public-utility services........................... 149
Miscellaneous and specified trades___ 386
General laborers1................................... 230
Occupations not stated or unclassifiable..................................................... 237
Total............................................. 3,841

34
16
40
26
22
124
77
41
906

16
5
1
1
12
18
16
18
335

60
13
9
3
31
40
71
38
599

11
9
7
4
4
73
86
26
598

28
8
8
42
5
83
13
56
758

14
6
7
1
26
81
49
54
579

252
119
147
111
249
805
542
470
7,616

Building trades......................................
Metal and engineering trades...............
Textile trades.........................................
CLOTHING TRADES.

Boots and shoes......................................
Tailoring..................................................
Hatters, furriers, etc.............................

79

TRANSPORT TRADES.

Railways.................................................
Tramways and omnibuses...................
Carters, cabmen, porters......................
Dock and riverside labor......................
Printing and allied trades....................
FOOD, DRINK, AND TOBACCO TRADES.

i The term “laborer” in the United States is not infrequently used to designate an assistant or helper,
and many of these would therefore have been transferred to definite trades had the description been more
complete.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

539

In the following table the 3,215 budgets of the American-British
(Northern) group of families are summarized somewhat in detail,
the families being classified according to the weekly family income:
SUMMARY OF BUDGETS OF AMERICAN-BRITISH (NORTHERN) GROUP.
Limits of weekly family income.
$9.73 $14.60 $19.47 $24.33 $29.20 $34.07
Under and and and and and and $38.93
and
$9.73. under under under under under under over.
$14.60. $19.47. $24.33. $29.20. $34.07. $38.93.
Number of budgets (total 3,215).........
Percentage of total number of bud^
gets..................*...................................
Average number of children living at
home.....................................................
Average number of persons living at
home.....................................................
Average weekly earnings of husband..
Average weekly earnings of wife.........
Average weekly earnings of children:
Male..................................................
Female.............................................
Average weekly other income.............
Average total income..................
Quantity of meat, poultry, and fish
purchased per capita per annum,
pounds.................................................
Food bill1 per capita per week...........
Percentage of family income spent
on—
(1) Meat (including poultry and
fish).........................................
(2) Food of all kinds i (excluding
wine, beer, and spirits).......
(3) Rent...........................................
(4) Food1 and rent combined___
Percentage balance after paying for
food1 and rent....................................

67
2.08
1.78
3.78
$8.16
$0.26
$0.07
$0.12
$0.14
$8.76

532
16.55
2.06
4.08
$11.53
$0.25
$0.23
$0.18
$0.22
$12.42

1,036
32.22
2.46
4.54
$15.16
$0.29
$0.54
$0.38
$0.63
$16.99

545
16.95
2.88
5.02
$17.14
$0.27
$1.85
$0.85
$1.40
$21.51

437
13.59
3.07
5.27
$19.11
$0.55
$2.97
$1.43
$2.04
$26.10

224
6.97
3.63
5.82
$19.14
$0.30
$5.99
$3.33
$2,62
$31.38

131
243
7.56
4.08
3.82
4.20
6.10
6.33
$19.98 $22.34
$0.44 $0.37
$7.97 $17.58
$3.75 $6.45
$3.99 $3.60
$36.13 $50.33

109.25 145.08 160.11 165.15 173.58 176.33 195.42
$1.19 $1.45 $1.65 $1.76 $1.87 $1.92 $2.04

211.90
$2.24

12.95 13.49 12.22 11.36 10.50 9.82 10.23
51.39 47.62 44.15 41.19 37.78 35.53 34.49
19.53 17.74 16.66 15.34 14.04 12.01 12.04
70.92 65.36 60.81 56.53 51.82 47.54 46.53
29.08 34.64 39.19 43.47 48.18 52.46 53.47

8.28
28.40
9.91
38.31
61.69

i Including meals away from home.

It should be noted that in the foregoing table and in all of the
tables of food expenditure and food consumption the family—that
is, all persons sharing in the family food irrespective of the age of
its members—has been taken as the unit. The composition of the
family in every group tends to vary greatly with the income and the
supplementary earnings of the children, and occasionally the other
sources of income assume large proportions in the higher income
classes.




540

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR,

The following table shows for the same group of families the
details of weekly expenditure per family for food, the families, as
before, being classified according to the weekly family income:
WEEKLY EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY ON FOOD IN AMERICAN-BRITISH
(NORTHERN) GROUP.
Families reporting weekly-income of—
$9.73
Under and
$9.73. under
$14.60.

$14.60
and
under
$19.47.

$19.47
and
under
$24.33.

$24.33
and
under
$29.20.

$29.20
and
under
$34.07.

$34.07
and $38.93
under and
$38.93. over.

Number of budgets................................
67
532 1,036
$45
437
224
131
243
Average weekly family income.. *___ $8.76 $12.42 $16.99 $21.51 $26.10 $31.38 $36.13 $50.33
Average number of children living at
home..................................................... 1.78 2.06 2.46 2.88 3.07 3.63 *3.82
4.20
Average number of persons per fam­
ily 1........................................................ 3.78 4.08 4.54 5.02 5.27 5.82 6.10
6.38
Average weekly cost per family.
Bread, wheat.......................................... $0,274 $0,355 $0,416 $0,476 $0.497 $0,502 $0,568 $0,644
Bread, rye............................................... .030 .046 .046 .036 .041 .046 .030
.071
Bread, other............................................
.005 .005 .010 .005 .020 .005
.010
.532
Flour, wheat........................................... .365 .309 .345 .400 .446 .543 .517
Flour, rye................................................
.005
.005 .005 .005 .005 .005 .005
.041
Flour, buckwheat and other................ .010 .010 .015 .020 .025 .020 .015
.041
Maize and maize meal........................... .025 .020 .025 .025 .025 .036 .036
.395
Cakes, crackers, doughnuts.................. .091 .142 .208 .233 .269 .309 .340
.243
Rolls, buns, biscuits.............................. .046 .096 .137 .137 .167 .162 .203
.061
Macaroni, noodles, spaghetti............... .030 .036 .051 .056 .056 .046 .066
R ice, barley, sago, etc............................
.096
.056 .056 .076 .076 .081 .091 .086
.132
Oatmeal ana breakfast cereals............. .051 .066 .086 .101 .112 .117 .117
.568
Potatoes (Irish)...................................... .299 .340 .360 .421 .441 .482 .593
.086
Sweet potatoes, etc................................ .005 .010 .025 .041 .036 .061 .051
.096
Dried peas and beans............................ .076 .071 .066 .076 .086 .096 .107
.142
Sweet corn.............................................. .025 .030 .041 .066 .061 .091 .101
.629
Green vegetables, etc............................ .183 .269 .360 .421 .451 .527 .543
.198
Canned vegetables................................. .096 .091 .127 .157 .183 .193 .208
Beef (fresh and corned)........................ .512 .750 .902 1.044 1.227 1.257 1.526 1.708
.431
Mutton and lamb........................... „... .066 .117 .147 .208 .259 .335 .436
.507
Pork (fresh and salt)___*..................... .218 .289 .309 .314 .330 .421 .456
.537
Bacon, ham, brawn, etc....................... .172 .218 .253 .314 .324 .395 .456
.223
Veal..................................................
.056 .071 .127 .142 .162 .193 .193
.127
Sausage.................................................... .041 .061 .081 .096 .101 .107 .147
.360
Poultry.................................................... .005 .056 .107 .137 .172 .157 .264
.274
Fish of all kinds...............................
.076 .117 .152 .188 .172 .213 .228
.269
Lard, suet, dripping.............................. .142 .157 .177 .203 .218 .248 .253 1.029
Butter...................................................... .335 .411 .548 .684 .760 .852 .973
.005
Oleomargarine........................................ .015 .020 .010 .015 .020 .020 .030
.036
Olive oil.................................................
.010 .010 .015 .020 .020 .025
.162
Cheese...................................................... .046 .056 .091 .112. .117 .137 .142
.715
Milk (fresh)............................................. .253 .330 .426 .476 .543 .593 .619
.066
Milk (condensed)................................... .061 .081 .086 .086 .081 .081 .101
.811
Eggs......................................................... .223 .335 .461 .558 .598 .690 .750
.248
Tea........................................................... .091 .127 .142 .183 .198 .233 .253
.335
.238 .264 .274 .279
Coflee....................................................... .132 .172 .223
.076
Cocoa and chocolate.............................. .005 .015 .030 .036 .041 .056 .071
.416
Sugar....................................................... .208 .218 .259 .324 .335 .390 .426
.056
Molasses and sirup............................... .020 .030 .036 .046 .041 .056 .056
.107
.091
Vinegar, pickles, condiments............... .020 .030 .051 .061 .066 .086 .507
.548
Fruits and jams...................................... .112 .188 .279 .370 .390 .482
.051
Other items............................................. .020 .025 .036 .025 .046 .041 .061
Meals away from home......................... .010 .071 .167 .228 .395 .466 .527 1.212
Total.............................................. 4.501 5.912 7.504 8.860 9.867 11.150 12.461 14.299
1Including boarders aufi relatives sharing the family food. The total number of these was 466, of whom
about one-third were sons or daughters of the family. Children whose weekly payments for board and
lodging—and not their weekly wages—were furnished, were counted as boarders.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

541

Attention is called in the report to the fact that in an even more
striking degree than in the case of the European investigations by the
Board of Trade the higher incomes are due not so much to increased
earnings of the husband as to the contributions of children of' wageearning age. This is mainly because of the actual amounts of the
supplementary earnings and not because of the different proportions
in which these stand to the total family income. This is made clear
in the following table:
COMPOSITION OF FAMILY INCOMES IN AMERICAN-BRITISH (NORTHERN) GROUP.
Average weekly family income from—
Number of
Children.
fami­
Weekly family income. lies
re­ Hus­ Wife.
21
Other.
port­ band.
Under 16 to years
ing. 1
16 20 and Total.
years. years. over.

Aver­
age
week­
ly
family
in­
come.

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
chil­
dren
at
home.

Aver­
age
per­
sons
per
fam­
ily.

$0.12
Under $9.73.....................
67 $8.16 $0.26 $0.07
$9.73 and under $14.60.. 532 11.53 .25 .11 $0.23 .07
$14.60 and under $19.47.. 1,036 15.16 .29 .20 .50 .21
$19.47 and under $24.33.. 545 17.14 .27 .33 1.63 .73
$24.33 and under $29.20.. 437 19.11 .55 .28 2.94 1.18
$29.20 and under $34.07.. 224 19.14 .30 .46 4.98 3.88
$34.07 and under $38.93.. 131 19.98 .44 .62 6.54 4.56
$38.93 and over............... 243 22.34 .36 .40 9.75 13.88

$8.76
12.42
16.99
21.51
26.10
31.38
36.13
50.33

1.78
2.06
2.46
2.88
3.07
3.63
3.82
4.20

3.78
4.08
4.54
5.02
5.27
5.82
6.10
6.38

$0.19
.41
.91
2.69
4.40
9.32
11.72
24.03

$0.14
.22
.63
1.40
2.04
2.62
3.99
3.60

The proportion of the weekly income of the family supplied by
the children begins to be important in the incomes between $19.47
and $24.33, when it reaches 12£ per cent of the total, rising in the
next class to nearly 17 per cent, and passing from 30 to 33 per cent,
until in the highest class it accounts for 47.7 per cent of the total
family income. It is noticeable that the average earnings of the
wife are never very large and vary but little.
In the income classes “ $24.33 and under.$29.20” and “ $29.20 and
under $34.07,” the earnings of the husband are practically the same,
and since there is a falling off in the relatively unimportant earnings
of the wife while other income shows an increase of only 58 cents,
the position of the families with incomes of between $29.20 and $34.07
weekly is seen to be almost entirely due to greatly increased earnings
of the children.
The following table shows for those articles for which figures were
obtained the average quantity of each consumed. All children living
at home, of whatever age, and all other persons sharing the family
food have been included.




542

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WEEKLY CONSUMPTION PER FAMILY OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD IN AMERICANBRITISH (NORTHERN) GROUP.
Limits of weekly .family income.
$9.73
Under and
19.73. under
$14.60.
Number of budgets...........................
67
Average weekly family income___
$8.76
Average number of children living
at home................................................ 1.78
Average number of persons per family. 3.78
Bread, wheat..........................pound
5.02
Bread, rye....................................do.,
.65
Bread, other................................ do..
Flour, wheat..............................do.
9.52
Flour, rye.................................... d o..,.
Flour, buckwheat and other.. .do___ .21
Maize and maize meal................do__
.88
Cakes,crackers,and doughnuts .do___ .96
Rolls, buns, and biscuits...........do___ .80
Macaroni, noodles, and spaghetti,
pounds.................................................. .37
Rice, barley, sago, etc...........pounds.. .60
Oatmeal and breakfast cereals..do___ .77
Potatoes (Irish)........................... do___ 15.69
Sweet potatoes, etc.....................do___ .19
Dried peas and beans.................do___ 1.38
Beef (fresh and corned)............. do___ 3.59
Mutton and lamb........................do___ .39
Pork (fresh and salt).................. do___ 1.55
Bacon, ham, brawn, etc............ do___ 1.04
Veal..............................................do..
.38
.27
Sausage........................................ do..
Poultry........................................ do..
.03
Fish of all kinds..........................do__
.68
Lard, suet, dripping...................do__ 1.08
Butter...........................................do... 1.14
Oleomargarine............................. do...
.08
Olive oil...................................... pints..
Cheese..................................... pounds.. .24
Milk (fresh).........................
quarts.. 2.96
Milk (condensed).................. pounds.. .54
Eggs........................................number.. 9.03
Tea...........................................pounds.. .21
Coffee.............................................do__
.63
.02
Cocoa and chocolate....................do__
Sugar.............................................do.
3.56
Molasses and sirup...................pints.. .25

532
$12.42
2.06
4.08
• 6.53
96
.05
7.94
.04
.26
.68
1.57
1.37
.42
.67
.96
17.43
.43
1.24
5.09
.69
1.94
1.26
.46
.51
.30
1.13
1.16
1.35
.09
.03
.31
3.75
.71
14.49
.27
.77
.04
3.78
.33

$14.60 $19.47 $24.33 $29.20 $34.07 $38.93
and and and and and and
under under under under under over.
$19.47. $24.33. $29.20. $34.07. $38.93.
1,036
131
545
437
224
243
$16.99 $21.51 $26.10 $31.38 $36.13 $50.33
2.46 2.88 3.07 3.63 3.82
4.20
4.54 5.02 5.27 5.82 6.10
6.38
7.64 8.74 9.09 9.06 10.02 11.27
.87
.85
.96
1.51
.74
.68
.10
.12
.21
.13
.16
.38
8.99 10.51 11.77 14.10 13.47 13.80
.12
.07
.06
.09
.08
.09
.31
.32
.57
.49
.89
.41
.73
1.27
.81
.93 1.00 1.23
2.19 2.38 2.73 3.07 3.33
3.86
1.80 1.95 2.26 2.24 3.01
3.80
.72
.64
.53
.57 1 .56
.47
1.17
.91
.89
.96 1.09 1.02
1.67
1.23 1.40 1.48 1.56 1.59
18.59 21.18 22.99 24.83 29.98 27.98
2.92
1.00 1.46 1.38 1.91 1.50
1.54
1.11 1.27 1.35 1.60 1.70
0.04 6.71 7.81 7.93 9.38 10.43
2.53
.91 1.23 1.48 2.04 2.43
3.32
2.15 2.17 2.24 2.81 2.81
3.06
1.46 1.83 1.81 2.26 2.53
.80
1.33
1.00 1.15 1.23
.91
1.01
.82
.69
.75
.84 1.19
1.83
.72
.54
.89
.83 1.37
2.49
1.40 1.64 1.54 1.88 2.00
2.01
1.29 1.48 1.54 1.81 1.82
3.27
1.74 2.15 2.36 2.65 3.01
.02
.13
.05
.06
.09
.09
.09
.08
.03
.05
.04
.05
.82
.69
.73
.56
.60
.45
8.08
4.77 5.46 5.92 6.79 7.04
.72
.57
.89
.76
.68
.78
19.90 24.09 25.34 28.88 31.53 34.39
.46
.48
.45
.28
.36
.38
1.38
.93
.99 1.07 1.09 1.10
.21
.21
.12
.07
.10
.15
7.28
4.45 5.67 5.81 6.81 7.20
.54
.56
.57
.40
.45
.41

The following paragraphs contain comments on the consumption
of various articles of food, as set out in the above table.
The particulars giyen will be found to refer either to the budget
group as a whole, or to the three components of the group—American,
British-born or Canadian; or ta the various income classes as set out
in the above table. Occasionally reference will be made to certain
subgroups formed on the basis of nationality and town into which a
large number of the budgets fall. These subgroups, 37 in number,
have been formed whenever in any single town either of the com­
ponents furnished not less than 25 budgets.
The consumption of bought wheat bread, although affording no
criterion of the well-being of the family, does in fact rise more or less
steadily with income, from 1.3 pounds per capita in the lowest income
class to 1.8 pounds per capita in the highest. The average per capita
consumption for the whole group is 1.7 pounds weekly.



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

543

The components of the group show the following differences: The
Americans average rather more than 1.7 pounds per capita weekly,
the British-born 1.6 pounds, and the Canadians 1.4 pounds. The
smallest quantity of bread per capita, accompanying a high con­
sumption of flour, is found in the lowest income class of the British
budgets (0.66 pound) and the largest among the Canadians with
incomes between £7 and £8 ($34.07 and $38.93), viz, 2.6 pounds
per capita weekly. The bread consumption of the lowest income
class among the Candians is also relatively high (2.3 pounds).
The consumption of rye bread purchased at the bakers is small and
somewhat irregular, not averaging on the whole quite 1 pound per
family weekly, and of this 80 per cent is consumed by the Americanborn families. The per capita weekly consumption for the com­
ponents of the group is as follows: American, 0.21 pound; Britishborn, 0.13 pound; Canadian, 0.03 pound. The relatively high figure
of the American consumption may probably be explained by the
presence among them of families of German or eastern European
descent. Rye bread in this group, as in others, appears to be pur­
chased by families with incomes of every range and its consumption
to be entirely a matter of inherited or acquired taste.
The average consumption of wheat flour per family is 10.4 pounds
weekly, or 2.1 pounds per capita. The range is very small, from 2.5
pounds per capita in the lowest income class to 2.2 pounds in the
highest. The differences in the flour consumption of the components
of the group are also small. The American returns average 2.1 pounds
per capita weekly, those of the British-born 2.2 pounds, and of the
Canadian 1.8 pounds.
The consumption of rye and buckwheat flour is almost insignificant.
Adding together the weights of flour and bread of all kinds as given
in the budgets, the figure for the whole group is 4.1 pounds per capita
weekly; for the Americans, 4.2 pounds; for the British-born, 4pounds;
and for the Canadians, 3.4 pounds; in the last case nearly three-fourth
pound below the average of the group. The consumption of both
bread and flour shown in the Canadian returns is lower than that of
either of the other components.
With regard to bread substitutes, the difference in the movement
of the per capita expenditure is very marked as compared with that
of bread, the latter rising only from 3.57d. (7.2 cents) per capita in
the lowest income class to 4.97d. (10.1 cents) in the highest; while
the former shows a corresponding movement of from 1.78d. (3.6
cents) per capita to 4.93d. (10 cents).




544

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The position is set out in the following table:
AVERAGE WEEKLY CONSUMPTION AND EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA ON BREAD,
FLOUR, CAKES, ETC., IN AMERICAN-BRlTISH (NORTHERN) GROUP.
Bread.
Classified weekly family income.

Under $9.73......................................................
$9.73 and under $14.60....................................
$14.60 and under $19.47..................................
$19.47 and under $24.33..................................
$24.33 and under $29.20..................................
$29.20 and under $34.07..................................
$34.07 and under $38.93..................................
$38.93 and over................................................

Rolls, cakes, bis­
cuits, etc.

Flour.

Con­
Con­
Con­
sumption Expend­ sumption Expend­ sumption Expend­
(pounds). iture. (pounds). iture. (pounds). iture.
1.50
1.85
1.90
1.92
1.91
1.79
1.77
2.04

$0,081
.099
.103
.104
.104
.098
.100
.114

2.58
2.02
2.07
2.19
2.36
2.52
2.28
2.32

$0,099
.080
.080
.085
.091
.098
.088
.091

0.47
.72
.88
.86
.95
.91
1.04
1.20

$0,036
.058
.076
.074
.083
.081
.089
.100

Kolls, cakes, biscuits, and other forms of fancy bread form a con­
stant and important item in the cereal food consumption of American
households, amounting to 0.9 pound per capita weekly in this group.
.The particulars furnished for British-born families show rather more
than the average, and those for Canadian little more than half the
amount, or 0.5 pound per capita weekly.
The consumption of macaroni, noodles, and spaghetti per family
rises slowly with the income, but the average per capita is almost con­
stant throughout, something less than 0.1 pound weekly. The differ­
ences shown by the components of the group are insignificant.
There is a small rise in the per capita consumption of rice, barley,
sago, etc., with the income. The average per capita is 0.18 pound
weekly, and again no material departure from the general average is
shown by the components of the group.
The average weekly consumption of oatmeal and breakfast cereals
is almost exactly 0.25 pound per capita for the whole group, but it is
somewhat higher in the middle income class than at either end of the
series.
Potatoes are an important constituent of the dietaiy, showing an
average of 21 pounds per family weekly for all budgets together, or
4.3 pounds per capita. There is no material difference between the
components of the group in their per capita consumption.
Dried peas and beans (chiefly the small haricot, sometimes known
in the United States as “ Navy beans”) are used in considerable quan­
tity. The American and British-born families use about a quarter
of a pound per capita weekly, the Canadian, 0.4 pound.
It is not possible even to estimate the quantities consumed, but the
expenditure on green vegetables rises steadily with the income from
9d. (18.3 cents) per family in the lowest income class, to 2s. 7d. (62.9
cents) in the highest, so that, allowing for different size of family,
the expenditure per capita is just doubled in the latter class. The



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

545

expenditure on sweet com and sweet potatoes is somewhat irregular,
but tends to rise with the income. The former is sold very largely
in the “ cob” and the price of both is dependent upon season and
locality. The canned vegetables are chiefly tomatoes, for which
10 cents per can, weighing about 2£ pounds gross, or three cans for
25 cents, are .very general prices. “ String beans” are also largely
used. The consumption of sweet potatoes, a southern rather than a
northern food, is much greater in the American than in either the
British-born or Canadian families. The expenditure per capita on
sweet corn and fresh and canned vegetables is highest in the Ameri­
can returns and lowest in the Canadian.
The average consumption of fresh milk is a little over one quart per
capita weekly, being 56 quarts per annum for the whole group. Of
the components the American returns show an average of 54 quarts,
the British one of 61 quarts, and the Canadian one of 66 quarts.
The average consumption of condensed milk is for the whole group'
0.15 pound per capita per week. For the components the figures
show but little difference, although the range within the group is very
great. In 14 out of the 37 subgroups of not less than 25 families each
into which, on the basis of nationality, and town, the budgets fall,
the quantity is 0.10 pound per capita or less; 16 subgroups use 0.10
pound and less than 0.20 pound, and in the remaining 7 the consump­
tion ranges from 0.20 pound to 0.40 pound per capita per week.
The average consumption of butter per capita per week is for the
whole group 0.42 pound. The differences between the components
are insignificant, the Canadian returns showing a slightly higher con­
sumption than the others. Within the group the range is consider­
able, from 0.64 pound, as shown by the American returns from
Duluth, to 0.27 pound by those of Americans in St. Louis. Out of
the 37 subgroups of more than 25 budgets each, 16 have a consump­
tion of 0.40 pound and less than 0.50 pound per capita per week.
The consumption of lard, suet, and dripping averages for the whole
group 0.29 pound per capita per week. Of the components the Brit­
ish-born average 0.20 pound, the Canadians, 0.30, and the Americans,
0.33.
The average consumption of cheese of all kinds, is, for the group,
0.11 pound per capita per week, the Americans and the British-born
each showing an average almost equal to that of the group, and the
Canadians an average of 0.09 pound.
The consumption of eggs is, for the whole group, 4.6 per capita
weekly (237 per annum). Of the components the returns from the
British-bom show an average of 5.1, from the Americans one of 4.4,
and from the Canadians one of 4.3 per capita weekly; equivalent to
265, 229, and 224 per annum, respectively. The 37 subgroups show
a very wide range of consumption from 8 eggs per capita weekly to 2.
86026°—Bull. 93—11-----16




546

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

In 4 subgroups the average is above 7 eggs per capita weekly; in 2
it is practically 7; in 10 it is above 5 but less than 6; in 10 more it is
above 4 and less than 5; in nine it is above 3 but less than 4; and in
2 only is the average less than 3.
The gross annual consumption of eggs in the United States is very
large, and that by the 3,215 families now under consideration, esti­
mated on the basis of the budgets, would itself amount to 312,500
dozens. The total number of eggs produced in the .whole of the
United States during 1909 is estimated at about 1,400,000,000 dozens.
Coffee, as contrasted with tea, may be regarded as the national
domestic beverage. The average consumption of coffee per capita per
week is 0.20 pound for the whole group. Of the components the Amer­
ican returns show a weekly consumption of 0.23 pound per capita,
the British 0.12 pound, and the Canadian 0.09 pound. The American
budgets obtained in Pittsburg, with 0.31 pound per capita per week,
show the largest consumption, followed by six subgroups of Americans
with an average weekly consumption per capita of over 0.25 pound.
The smallest consumption is shown by British returns from Lowell,
viz, 0.03 pound. There are nine subgroups at the lower end of the
scale using less than 0.10 pound of coffee weekly, and of these only
one is American. The 106 American families in Muncie, which often
provided the minima in foodstuffs, are eleventh on the list in coffee
consumption, using 0.23 pound per capita per week, or 0.03^ pound
above the average of the whole group, and but little short of the
general American average, as shown by the budgets.
The average consumption of tea per capita per week is, for the
whole group, 0.07 pound. Of the components the returns from
British-bom families show an average of 0.10 pound, from Canadians
one of 0.09 pound, and from Americans one of 0.06 pound. The
consumption of cocoa and chocolate relatively to both coffee and tea
is very small, about 1 pound per capita per annum for the whole
group.
The average weekly consumption of sugar per capita is, for the
whole group, 1.06 pounds. Of the components, the American and
Canadian returns show an average of 1.03 pounds and those of the
British-born 1.13 pounds. The range within the group is, as usual,
very considerable, viz, from 1.44 to 0.78 per capita. Out of the 37
subgroups of 25 budgets or more, 22 show a consumption of at least
1 pound per capita weekly, and the mean for the remaining 15 sub­
groups is 14 ounces per capita weekly, or 45.5 pounds per annum.
The average consumption of molasses and sirup per capita per
week for the whole group is 0.09 pint.
The average consumption of all meat, including poultry and sau­
sage, shown by the budgets, is 14.4 pounds per family weekly, or at



COST OP LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

547

the rate of 152 pounds per capita per annum; if fish be included, the
amount is increased to 168 pounds. The range of consumption is
very great, from 100 pounds in the lowest income class to 192 pounds
in the highest. If fish be included, these figures become 109 pounds
and 212 pounds, respectively.
Of the components of the group the Canadian returns show the
lowest meat consumption, with 138.75 pounds per capita per annum
(excluding fish), as against 155.5 pounds and 152 pounds, as shown
by those of the British-born and of Americans, respectively.
Transportation and the refrigerating car tend to weaken the signifi­
cance of the aggregate consumption figures yielded by the budgets
for different areas. For the various geographical groups of towns,
however, the following are the figures of annual consumption per
capita:
New England towns.......................................................................................................
Other Eastern towns (including New York)..............................................................
Central towns...................................................................................................................
Middle West towns.........................................................................................................

Pounds.

146.6
156.0
146.6
160.2

When these aggregate figures are analyzed, the most important
local differences shown are in the consumption of mutton and lamb,
pork and bacon, ham, etc. Thus, while the consumption of beef is
at its lowest in the Central and Middle West groups of towns, with
percentages to the total meat consumption of 45 and 45.1, respec­
tively, and reaches its maximum proportion in the New England
towns, with 50.7 per cent, the minimum and maximum percentage of
mutton and lamb differ much more considerably between the various
groups of towns, the respective figures being 4.9 per cent in the Middle
West group and 13.1 in that of New England. Pork, on the other
hand, is at its maximum in the Middle West towns, with 19.2 per cent
of total meat consumption, and at its lowest in the other eastern towns
(including New York) at 10.7 per cent. The consumption of bacon,
ham, etc., is also at its maximum in the Middle West group of towns,
where it accounts for 13.6 per cent of the total meat consumption
shown by the budgets, but was at its minimum in the New England
towns, with 9.9 per cent. Local variations are also great in the cases
of veal, sausage, and poultry, but these forms of meat enter less into
the family dietaries.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

548

The following table sets out the quantities and percentages of the
different kinds of meat, as shown by the budgets, derived from the
various geographical groups of towns:
CONSUMPTION OP DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEAT, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF
TOWNS.
Annual consumption of meat (pounds) Percentage consumption of each kind of
per capita in—
meat.
Items.

Other
Other
Eastern
Eastern
New towns (in­ Central Middle New towns (in­ Central
England cluding towns West England cluding towns.
towns. New
towns. towns. New
York).
York).

Beef.............................
Mutton and lamb___
Pork.............................
Bacon, ham, etc.........
yeal.............................
Sausage....................
Poultry.......................

74.4
19.2
23.4
14.6
3.6
6.2
6.2

76.4
19.2
16.6
17.7
7.8
6.7
12.5

66.0
8.3
27.0
19.2
10.9
8.8
6.2

72.3
7.8 •
30.7
21.8
12.5
10.9
4.2

50.7
13.1
16.0
9.9
2.5
3.5
4.3

49.0
12.3
10.7
11.3
5.0
3.7
8.0

45.0
5.7
18.4
13.1
7.5
6.0
4.3

Middle
West
towns.
45.1
4.9
19.2
13.6
7.8
6.8
2.6

The average consumption of beef per capita per annum is, for the
whole group, 71.7 pounds, and the component nationalities show no
important deviation from this figure; the returns from the Britishborn showing an average of 75.9 pounds, from the Americans one of
70.3 pounds, and from the Canadians one of 69.8 pounds.
The average consumption of pork, fresh and salt, in the whole group
is 24.1 pounds per capita per annum; of the components the British
returns show an average of 19 pounds, the American one of 25 pounds,
and the Canadian one of 34 pounds.
The average consumption of bacon per capita per annum is, for the
whole group, 18.5 pounds; for the components: British-born. 19.7
pounds, American 18.9 pounds, and Canadian 9.4 pounds. Combin­
ing the figures for pork and bacon, the British returns show a con­
sumption of 38.8 pounds per capita per annum, the Canadian 43.1
pounds, and the American 43.9 pounds, and when thus combined
there is but little difference in the consumption shown.
The average consumption of mutton and lamb is only 13.3 pounds
per capita per annum for the whole group. Of the components, the
British-born show an average of 18.9 pounds, the American one of
11.6 pounds, and the Canadian of 9.4 pounds. The range of consump­
tion is very great.
The average consumption of veal for the whole group is 9 pounds
per capita per annum.
For sausage the average per capita per annum is 7.75 pounds. The
American average is 8.5 pounds, showing a slightly larger consump­
tion than the Canadian (7.75 pounds), while that of the British-born
falls to 5.8 pounds. There are only three town groups of 25 or more



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

,549

budgets in which the consumption of sausage exceeds 15 pounds per
capita per annum, and in 19 such town groups the consumption is 6
pounds or less; in 6 of these it is below 3 pounds.
The relative proportion of each kind of meat to all meat in the
whole group is set out below:
PERCENTAGE CONSUMPTION OF EACH KIND OF MEAT IN AMERICAN-BRITISH
(NORTHERN) GROUP.
Beef, fresh and corned............................................................................................................................
Mutton and lamb....................................................................................................................................
Pork, fresh and salt................*...............................................................................................................
Bacon, ham. etc.......................................................................................................................................
Veal............................................................................................................................................................
Poultry.. ............................................................................................................................:...................
Total................................................................................................................................................

8.8
12.2
C.O

47.1

15.8

5.1
5.0
100.0

Among the component nationalities the Canadians, according to
the budgets, use the largest proportion of beef, viz, 50.4 per cent,
while the British-born show a consumption of mutton and lamb
much greater than that used b'y either of the others, viz., 12.2 per
cent, as against 7.6 per cent in the American returns and 6.8 per cent
in the Canadian. There are also great differences in the consumption
of pork, which forms 24 per cent of the whole in the case of the
Canadians, 16 per cent in that of the Americans, and 12 per cent in
that of the British-born as set out in the budgets.
Fish is of considerable importance in these dietaries, the returns
from the British-born showing a consumption of 0.42 pound per
capita per week, the Canadian one of 0.33 pound and the American
one of 0.27 pound, If fish be included with meat the average
annual consumption of all meat per capita for the whole group is, as
already stated, raised to 168 pounds.
The local figures of quantity of fish consumed reflect mainly
differences in the degree of facility with which fish can be obtained,
all the towns showing the highest consumption being within easy
reach of the Atlantic seaboard. The actual consumption per capita
per annum as shown by the budgets of the various geographical
groups of towns is as follows:
Pounds.

New England towns....................................................................................................... 23.9
Other Eastern towns (including New York).............................................................. 22.9
Central towns.................................................................................................................... 9.4
Middle West towns......................................................................................................... 12.0




550

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The annual per capita consumption of and expenditure on all meat
and fish and the percentage of income spent on such food is as follows
in each of the income classes:
CONSUMPTION OF AND EXPENDITURE ON MEAT AND FISH IN AMERICAN-BRITISH
(NORTHERN) GROUP.
Classified weekly family income.
Under $9.73.........................................................................................
$9.73 and under $14.60.......................................................................
$14.60 and under $19.47.....................................................................
$19.47 and under $24.33.....................................................................
$24.33 and under $29.20.....................................................................
$29.20 and under $34.07....................................................................
$34.07 and under $38.93.....................................................................
$38.93 and over...................................................................................

Annual
Weekly
consumption expenditure Percentage
(pounds) per capita. of income.
per capita.
109
145
160
165
174
176
195
212

$0,299
.411
.456
.487
.522
.527
.608
.654

12.95
13.49
12.22
11.36
10.50
9.82
10.23
8.28

The predominant range of consumption of all meat, poultry, and
fish per capita per annum is from 140 to 190 pounds, 23 local nation­
ality subgroups of at least 25 budgets each, comprising 2,201 families,
falling within this range. The corresponding predominant range
excluding fish and poultry may be taken as from 120 to 160 pounds
per capita per annum.
The consumption of meat of all kinds as shown by the budgets is
in general high and much above European standards. As a rule
nationality and occupation greatly influence the figures, and locality
has been seen to be not without its effects, but when it is considered
that in the lowest income class of the group of budgets under con­
sideration the purchase of all meat and fish is 109 pounds per capita
per annum (notwithstanding the fact that out of 119 children only
two are earning and the remainder are of low average age), while it
approaches double this figure in the highest income class, it is obvious
that meat is regarded as a very important feature of the family
dietary.
A general tendency for food consumption per capita to rise with
income is shown in the budgets, but in this there is no regularity.
On the whole it is more marked as regards the first three income
classes, that is, for those earning up to and under £4 ($19.47) per
week, but even in these classes in some commodities as, for instance,
pork, bacon and ham; sugar; lard, suet, and dripping, and coffee, it is
hardly apparent in the budgets. As regards the total meat con­
sumption itself it is only in the classes with family earnings averaging
less than £4 ($19.47) per week that the consumption tends to move
consistently with income.
In addition to the large meat consumption, one of the most striking
features of the American-British budgets is the great variety of food
consumed and the relatively small proportion which the family food
bill bears to total income.



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

551

UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND AND WALES COMPARED.

In the comparison of income and cost of living based on the family
budgets, the report uses the Ameriean-British (northern) budgets as
forming the fairest basis of comparison with conditions in England.
In the United Kingdom about 70 per cent of all the budgets collected
were of families with incomes of less than $9.73 per week; of those col­
lected in the United States for all nationalities (and not for the
American budget alone, in which the corresponding figure is a little
over 2 per cent) less than 4 per cent fell within this range, and while
in the United Kingdom about half the budgets were of families with
incomes under $8.52 per week, in the United States the number fall­
ing below this figure is almost negligible, comprising only 1.4 per cent
of the whole and, therefore, too small in number to form a separate
income class. The difference, if not of standard at least of nominal
range of income, as between the two countries, is manifest, and
although it can not be concluded on the basis of this negative evi­
dence that incomes of less than $8.52 per week are insufficient to
maintain an ordinary family under American urban conditions, it is
at least probable, say the investigators, that families maintaining a
position of independence upon an income below this sum are excep­
tional.
The points in connection with which budget comparisons have been
especially attempted between the United States and England and
Wales are: (1) The percentage of income spent on food; (2) the per­
centage of income spent on similar items of food in both countries;
and (3) the quantities consumed and amount spent on similar items.
The following table shows for England and Wales and for the United
States the average weekly family income and the average amount and
per cent of the expenditure for food, the families being classified ac­
cording to weekly family income:
AVERAGE WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME AND AMOUNT AND PER CENT OF INCOME
EXPENDED FOR FOOD, BY CLASSIFIED FAMILY INCOME.

Limits of weekly family income.

Average
weekly
family in­
come.

Expenditure on food
(excluding wine,beer,
Average
number of and spirits).
children
living at
home.
Average Percentage
amount. of income.

UNITED KINGDOM.

$6.08 and under $7.30............................................................
$7.30 and under $8.52.............................................................
$8.52 and under $9.73.............................................................

$6.56
7.77
8.89

3.3
3.2
3.4

$4.34
5.05
5.42

66.18
65.04
61.04

12.42
16.99
21.51
26.10

2.06
2.46
2.88
3.07

• 5.91
7.50
8.86
9.86

47.62
44.15
41.19
37.78

UNITED STATE3.

$9.73 and under $14.60...........................................................
$14.60 and under $19.47.........................................................
$19.47 and under $24.33.........................................................
$24.33 and under $29.20....................................................... .




552

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The point in the foregoing table which at once attracts attention is
the much wider range shown between the various family incomes in
the two countries than between the amounts actually spent on food,
and consequently the much greater margin of income available in the
American group after expenses for food have been met.
It will be observed that the average number of persons in the
American budgets is 0.68 less than in those of the United Kingdom.
Exact comparison in respect to age and proportionate contribution
made to the family income by the children in the two countries is not
possible, but the data available show that in these respects there is a
general similarity.
The actual amounts spent on food per capita in each income class
in England and Wales and in the United States are shown in the fol­
lowing table:
AVERAGE FOOD BILL PER CAPITA IN FAMILIES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FAMILY
INCOME.
United Kingdom.
Limits of weekly family income.
Under $6.08...........................................................
$7.30 and under $8.52.......................................
$8.52 and under $ 9 .7 3 ....................................
$9.73 and over.............................................

$6.08 a n d u n d e r 57.30.....................................

United States.
Average
food bill
per capita.
$0.68
.82
.97
1.00
1.13

Limits of weekly family income.
Under $9.73..........................................................
$9.73 and under $14.00....................................
$14.60 and under $19.47..................................
$19.47 and under $24.33.................................
$24.33 and under $29.20.................................
$29.20 and under $34.07..................................
$34.07 and under $38.93..................................
$38.93 and over..........................................

Average
food bill
per capita.
$1.19
1.45
1.65
1.76
1.87
1.92
2.04
2.24

In the following table comparison is made of the consumption of
certain articles of food by average workmen's families in the United
States and in England and Wales: (1) Of families with total family
income approximately similar; (2) of families with total amount
spent for food approximately similar, and (3) of families with total
amount spent for food approximately similar, allowance being made
for the difference in retail prices in the two countries. Comparison
is made on the basis of quantity wherever possible. Where quantity
can not be given, the comparison is based on cost. The quantity
consumed or the amount spent is taken as 100, and the relative con­
sumption or expenditure in the American families as compared with
this is shown in the table.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

553

PER CAPITA QUANTITIES OF, OR AMOUNTS SPENT ON CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD
CONSUMED BY WORKMEN'S FAMILIES IN THE UNITED STATES (AMERICAN-BRITISH—NORTHERN GROUP), AS COMPARED WITH THE UNITED KINGDOM.
(United Kingdom=100.]
Families with
Families with total family total amount
income approximately spent on food
similar.
?y similar.
Commodity or group of com-]
modities.

Quantities:
Bread and flour.......................
All meat and fish....................
Eggs..........................................
Fresh milk...............................
Cheese.......................................
Butter and animal fats..........
Potatoes....................................
Sugar.........................................
Expenditure:
Other vegetables and fruit1..
Tea, coffee, cocoa, etc.............

Income,
Income,
United
United
Kingdom, Kingdom,
58.52 to $9.73; $9.73 and
income. over; income,
United
United
States,
States,
under $9.73. $9.73 to $14.60.
73
123
108
82
43
115
141
98
238
92

66
151
139
93
50
103
137
89
261
108

Fam ilies w ith total
amount spent on food
approximately similar,
allowance being made
for percentage difference
in retail prices as be­
tween United States and
England and Wales.

Income,
income,
Income,
United
United
United
Kingdom, Kingdom, Kingdom,
$9.73 and $6.08 to $7.30; $S.52to$9.73;
over; income, income,
income,
United
United
United
States,
States,
States,
$14.60 to
$9.73 to
$14.60 to
$14.60.
$19.47.
$19.47.
67
165
172
107
63
110
132
93
320
122

69
195
216
126
62
136
143
107
483
139

72
178
197
109
71
128
139
102
357
133

1 Fresh, dried, and canned fruit. In the United States, including a small quantity of sweet potatoes
and jam.

In spite of the different bases upon which the above comparisons
are made, a marked uniformity in the general results is shown in the
consumption per capita, which is the basis of comparison adopted in
all cases. The differences shown are nearly always those of degree and
not of direction. Thus, even in the lowest income class of the Ameri­
can budgets, the consumption of certain commodities is always higher
than that shown in the British budgets with which they can be com­
pared, while other foods, even in the highest American income classes
included in the table, show a consumption that is always lower.
The most striking examples of the former characteristic are seen in
meat and fish, in which the American consumption per capita ranges
from an excess of 23 per cent to one of 95 per cpnt; eggs, in which
the corresponding excess ranges from 8 to 116 per cent, and potatoes,
in which the excess is comparatively uniform throughout, ranging
from 32 to 43 per cent. On the other hand, a smaller consumption
of bread and flour is always shown in the American budgets, and
almost uniformly, the range being only from 27 to 34 per cent less.
Much the same general results are shown in the case of cheese, in
which the consumption is only something over half as much in the
American families as in those of the United Kingdom, the figures
showing a difference of from 57 to 29 per cent. Fresh milk and sugar
are the only articles in which consumption is sometimes more and



554

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

sometimes less in the American families, the variation shown being
in the case of fresh milk, from 18 per cent less to 26 per cent more,
and in that of sugar, from 11 per cent less to 7 per cent more.
In the classes of commodities in which the comparison has to be
made on the basis of expenditure and not of quantity, uniform excess
in the United States is shown in the case of vegetables and fruit. In
this group of items, which includes canned vegetables, so largely
consumed in the United States, the amount expended exceeds by 138
to 383 per cent that spent by the average family in the United King­
dom with which comparisons are made. The amounts spent on tea,
coffee, etc., in the two countries are relatively uniform, being never
more than 8 per cent less or 39 per cent more in one country than
in the other.
The figures of the foregoing table illustrate, according to the report,
the general effect that “The dietary of the average American family
is more varied and more liberal than that of families that as nearly as
possible correspond to them in the United Kingdom.” “The amount
spent per capita on food in the average American family begins at a
figure a little higher than that at which the British maximum stops;
and the mean of the average food bill per capita of the second,third,
and fourth British income classes is 93.3 cents per capita, and that of
the second, third* and fourth American income classes $1.62.”
The complete basis for strict international comparisons goes no
further than income and cost of food. As regards rent, the report has
shown that roughly this item costs something more than twice as
much in the United States as in England and Wales, but as to the
remaining charges on family income, such as clothing, fuel and light,
beverages other than coffee, etc., tobacco, insurance, recreation and
holidays, etc., the necessary data for international comparison are
wanting.
But while the necessary statistical'data for an exact comparison of
the classes of supplementary expenditure are wanting, the report
notes that there is sufficient evidence to show the general relationship
to income that such expenditure would bear in the United States as
compared with England. Thus, for some months in the year over a
great part of the field of inquiry fuel is a heavier charge than in Eng­
land and Wales, owing partly to the lighter structure of the houses,
but mainly to the greater severity of the climate. No figure as to
this excess in comparative cost can, however, be mentioned. On the
other hand, it is noted that the methods of heating generally adopted,
although less hygienic than the open fireplace, are more efficient, that
the American dwelling is kept at a higher temperature than in Eng­
land, and that all rooms are more uniformly heated.
The item of clothing raises wider and more difficult questions of
comparison, but the report states that particulars that have been



COST OB’ LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

555

obtained go to show that while higher prices have as a rule been paid
in the United States than in the United Kingdom for woolen and
worsted fabrics of similar quality, a very large ,supply of domestic
articles of wearing apparel of most descriptions is available there of
standard sizes that are on sale at prices either not much higher or not
higher than in England, although often less durable. Regarding other
items the report makes the following statement:
In connection with the consumption of beverages other than
coffee, tea, and alcoholic drinks, the great quantity of iced drinks of
various descriptions consumed may be mentioned, and ice itself,
mainly for the preservation of foods, is a weekly item of expenditure
in the summer months in practically every household, while an ice box
is a common possession and an ice-cream freezer by no means rare in
working-class homes. While, therefore, ice ranks as a small distinc­
tive charge on income, it affords one of the numerous illustrations of
an expenditure that, regarded as necessary, secures at the same time
its own return in comfort and satisfaction. Much tobacco is con­
sumed, and the number of cigar ends thrown away which no one takes
the trouble to pick up is one of the trifles that is noticeable.
Traveling to and from work for short distances is more expensive
in America than in England, 5 cents being the usual minimum on
tramways, and reduced tickets for workmen being very rarely issued.
Thus, if the cars have to be used at all, the double journey nearly
always costs 60 cents per week. On the other hand, it rarely costs
more, the uniform fare adopted for long and short distances generally,
taking the wage earner as far as he is likely to travel. Holidays,
recreation, and sundries, together with savings, come more avowedly
and more completely within the region of the voluntary use of any
margin of income that may be available than do the previous items,
and the amounts are; therefore, even more elastic and indeterminable.
SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS.

The conclusions of the report are summed up as follows:
Summarizing now the results of the international comparison, it
appears that the ratio of the weekly wages for certain occupations in
the United States and England and Wales, respectively, at the dates
of the two inquiries, is 243 to 100 in the building trades, 213 to 100 in
the engineering trades, 246 to 100 in the printing trades, and 232 to
100 in all these trades together. Allowing for a slight advance in
wages in England and Wales between the dates of the two inquiries,
the combined ratio would be 230 to 100.
The weekly hours of labor were found to be 11 per cent shorter in
the building trades in the United States than in England and Wales,
7 per cent shorter in the printing trades, but 6 per cent longer in the
engineering trades, the ratio shown by all the occupations in these
three trade groups together being 96 to 100.
AlSregards rents, the American workman pays on the whole a little
more than twice as much as the English workman for the same
amount of house accommodation, the actual ratio being 207 to 100;
the minimum of the predominant range of rents for the United States
towns as a whole exceeding by from 50 to 77 per cent the maximum



556

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of the range for towns in England and Wales for dwellings containing
the same number of rooms.
The retail prices of food, obtained by weighting the ascertained

according to
the
British budgets, show, when allowance made for the increase
Sredominantinpricescountry between the isconsumption shown bywhich
took place this
October, 1905, and February, 1909,
a ratio of 138 to 100 for the United States and England and Wales,
respectively.

One peculiarity shown by the budgets is the comparatively small
consumption of baker’s bread in the average American working-class
family, the consumption being 8£ pounds weekly per family as against
22 pounds in the United Kingdom, the place of bread being taken in
the United States to some extent by rolls, cakes, biscuits, etc., on
which the expenditure is about three times as great as that shown in
the average British budget. On the other hand, the consumption of
meat is much larger in the United States, and the consumption of
vegetables is also larger. The budgets indicate, in general, that the
dietary of American working-class families is more liberal and more
varied than that of corresponding families in the United Kingdom.

Comparison of wages, hours of labor, rents, and prices in the areas
of investigation in the two countries has been made on the assump­
tion that an English workman with an average family maintained
under American conditions the standard of consumption as regards
food to which he had been accustomed. Under such conditions the
workman’s wages would be higher in the United States by about 130
per cent, with slightly shorter hours, while on the other hand his
expenditure on food and rent would be higher by about 52 per cent.

It is evident then, that even when allowance has been made for
the increased expenditure on food and rent a much greater margin is
available in the United States than in England and Wales. In the
words of the British report—
The margin -[over expenditure for rent and food] is clearly large,
making possible a command of the necessaries and conveniences and
minor luxuries of life that is both nominally and really greater than
that enjoyed by the corresponding class in this country, although the
effective margin is itself, in practice, curtailed by a scale of expendi­
ture to some extent necessarily and to some extent voluntarily
adopted in accordance with a different and a higher standard of
material comfort.




REPOETS OF BRITISH BOARD OF TRADE OH COST OF LIVING
IN ENGLAND AND WALES, GERMANY, FRANCE, BELGIUM,
AND THE UNITED STATES.
INTRODUCTION.

The report recently issued by the British Board of Trade on Cost of
Living in American Towns, which is summarized somewhat in detail
in an earlier part of this Bulletin, is the fifth of a series of uniform
studies by the Board of Trade into the subject of the conditions of
living of the wage-earning population in the more important indus­
trial towns of various countries, and particularly into the wages and
hours of labor, rents and housing conditions, retail prices of food, and
the expenditure for food of the families of wage earners. The first of
these reports related to Great Britain and covered 77 towns in England
and Wales, 11 in Scotland, and 6 in Ireland, or 94 in all. The data
presented were for October, 1905. The second relating to Germany
covered 33 industrial towns in that country, the data presented being
for March and April, 1908. The third report relating to France cov­
ered 30 industrial towns in that country and presented conditions for
August to October, 1907. The fourth report relating to Belgium cov­
ered 15 industrial towns in that country, the data being for June,
1908.1 The main object of these foreign inquiries has been stated to
be in all cases identical, namely, to obtain a collection of data com­
parable with those presented in the first report relating to cost of
living in the United Kingdom.
The methods adopted in the several investigations, including the
collection of the statistical material in regard to wages and hours of
labor, rents, prices, and family expenditure for food, were the same
so far as possible. The important difference in the date to which the
statistical data relate was deemed necessary owing to the lapse of
time between the beginning of the investigation in Great Britain in
1905 and its completion in the United States in 1909. Supplemen­
tary inquiries were made in connection with each of the foreign studies
for the purpose of making the adjustments necessary in order to ascer­
tain approximately the differences in the results which were due to the
different dates of the investigation in the various countries. Withi
i See Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor No. 77, July, 1908, pp. 336-354; Bulletin No. 78, September, 1908,
pp. 523-548; Bulletin No. 83, July, 1909, pp. 68-87; and Bulletin No. 87, March, 1910, pp. 608-625.




557

558

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

this information the reports of the Board of Trade present inter­
national comparisons of conditions in each foreign country and in
England and Wales at corresponding dates.
In planning the scope and method of these investigations, it is
carefully pointed out in the various reports, the main purpose was to
secure the basis of international comparisons between England and
Wales and the various foreign countries, and, secondly, to make com­
parisons between the various sections of the several countries. This
purpose, as the report makes clear, made necessary certain limitations
in its scope and method. This applied especially in the selection of
industries and occupations for which comparable data in regard to
wages and hours of labor could be secured.
Thus far the British Board of Trade has not brought together into
a single report the comparisons between England and Wales and the
four foreign countries studied by their investigators, but inasmuch as
the same figures for England and Wales have been used as the basis
of comparison in each of the volumes relating to the foreign studies,
it seems proper to bring the results which have been published in the
five reports into a single comparison. This has been done briefly in
the tables presented in the following pages. The fact should not be
overlooked, however, that for a full understanding of these compari­
sons reference should be made to the original reports. Inasmuch as
international comparisons of rates of wages, retail prices of food,
rents, and details of family cost of living are extremely complex, a
definite conclusion should not be drawn without a careful study of the
details involved. The figures which are included in the following
comparative tables are in all cases, except as may be noted, from the
reports of the British Board of Trade.
The scope of the investigations which form the basis of the five
reports of the Board of Trade is indicated in the following table. The
table contains no reference to the wage data collected. For some of
the cities much wage information was included in the report, cover­
ing a wide range of occupations. The international comparisons,
however, were limited to cover in the building trades bricklayers,
stonemasons, carpenters, joiners, plasterers, plumbers, painters, and
hod carriers and bricklayers’ laborers; in the engineering trades
(foundries and machine shops) there were included fitters, turners,
smiths, pattern makers, and laborers; the printing trades were repre­
sented by hand compositors on job work.




COST OF UVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

559

SUMMARY OF DATA COLLECTED IN EACH COUNTRY.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and RetaU
Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the
United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Data relate to—
Country.

Cities or towns.

Prices of
commod­
Family ities:
Aggregate budgets. Number
Number. population.
of quo­
tations.

England and Wales........
Germany....., ...................
France...............................
Belgium............................
United States *................

177

33
30
15
<28

13.500.000
1,944
9.000.
0005,046
6.000.
000
5,605
1,680,000
1,859
15.488.000
7,616

Rents of
workingclass ten­
ements:
Number
of dwel­
lings.

107,000
60,000
<*)
32.000
17,000 90.000

8

Month and year

Oct., 1905.
Oct., 1905; Mar.-Apr.,
1908.
Oct., 1905; Aug.-Oet.,
1907.
June, 1908.
Feb., 1909.

1 The report also covered towns in Scotland and Ireland, but in the international comparisons only data
for England and Wales were used.
2Not reported.
2 Dwellings occupied by colored tenants are excluded.
* Counting, for statistical purposes, the “ Twin Cities,” Minneapolis and St. Paul, as one town.

The cities chosen for the investigation in each of the countries
differed greatly in size, ranging in England from London, with four
million and a half inhabitants, to Normanton, with only 12,000; in
Germany from Berlin, with over two trillion, to Oschersleben, with
13,000; in France from Paris, with two and three-quarter million, to
Fougeres, with 23,500; in Belgium from Brussels, with 630,000 (in
the Metropolitan area), to Paturages, with 12,000; in the United
States New York, with nearly three and a half million was, of course,
the greatest, and Muncie, Ind., with 24,000, was the smallest city
included in the investigation.
In the consideration of all of the tables which follow, the varying
dates of the investigations should be kept in mind.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

560

RATES OF WAGES.

The predominant range of weekly wages at the dates of the several
investigations in the various countries for selected occupations in the
building, engineering, and printing trades is shown in the following
table. It should be noted that the figures for England and Wales are
exclusive of London and those of Germany are exclusive of Berlin:
PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY WAGES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN SPECIFIED
INDUSTRIES, BY COUNTRIES
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and Retail
Prices, together wich Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the
United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States. 1911.]
Predominant range of weekly wages.
Country.

Building trades.
Joiners.

Bricklayers. Stonemasons. Carpenters.
England and Wales (excluding
London).......................................
Germany (excluding Berlin)........
France..............................................
Belgium...........................................
United States..................................

S8.80-S9.57 S8.80-S9.57
6.55- 7.60
5.84- 7.36 5.78- 6.43
4.91- 6.14 4.97- 5.70
16.73-21.90 16.73-21.90

$9.12-19.85 I9.04-S9.57
16.55- 7.60
(2)
5.25- 7.02 5.25- 7.02
15.05- 5.84
(2)
26.77-30.42 23.42-26.77

Plumbers.

Painters.

Hod carriers
and brick­
layers* laborers.

Turners.

Fitters.

England and Wales (excluding
London)....................................... $8. 60-S9.67 $7.66-S9.12 $5.92-$6.57 $7.79-S8.76
Germany (excluding Berlin)........ 5.84- 6.93 5.84- 7.22 4.74- 5.84 6.33- 7.79
France............................................ 5.84- 7.02 5.21- 6.43 3.85- 4.83 5.84- 7.02
Belgium........................................... 4.91- 5.70 4.56- 5.25 3.65- 4.38 4.81- 5.56
United States.................................. 21.29-27.37 15.82-20.68 12.17-16.73 15.41-18.13
Country.
England and Wales (excluding
London)........................................
Germany (excluding Berlin)........
France...............................................
Belgium........................................
United States..................................

Engineering trades.
Smiths.
S7.79-S8.76
6.93- 8.03
6.12- 7.73
4.80- 5.96
16.47-20.76

1 Including stonemasons.

S8.88-S10.14
5.78- 7.06
5.01- 5.96
24.33-29.00

Engineering trades.

Building trades.
Country.

Plasterers.

Pattern makers.
S8.27-S9.25
6.20- 7.30
6.20- 7.24
4.77-5.84
18.13-22.30

Laborers.
S4.38-S5.35
4.38- 5.35
3.79- 4.66
3.14- 3.95
9.12-10.65

$7.79-18.76
6.57- 8.03
5.84- 7.42
4.99- 5.92
15.41-18.13

Printing trade:
Hand com­
positors (job
work).
S6.81-S8.03
6.02- 6.31
5.56- 7.02
4.68- 5.56
16.73-19.77

* Included in bricklayers.

When the wages in the various countries are compared a wide
range is found in every occupation. In the several reports issued
by the Board of Trade not only are actual wages presented, but
relative figures are also given, wages for England and Wales (exclu­
sive of London) being taken as the basis of comparison or 100. In
the following table these figures, expressive of relative weekly wages,
are given:



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

561

RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY WAGES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN SPECIFIED
INDUSTRIES, BY COUNTRIES.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal IndustrialTowns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Ratio of mean predominant weekly wage to that in England and Wales
taken as 100.
Building trades.
Hod car­
riers and
Brick­ Stone­ Carpen­ Joiners. Plaster­ Plumb­ Painters. bricklay­
ers. ers.
layers. masons. ters.
ers' la­
borers.
England and Wales (excluding
London)........................................
Germany (excluding Berlin)........
France...............................................
Belgium...........................................
United States..................................

100
i 75
65
158
301

100
77
72
60
210

100

100
66
. 58
210

100
67
58
280

100
70
70
58
266

100
78
69
58
217

100
86
71
65
231

Printing
trade:
Hand
composi­
Pattern
Fitters. Turners. Smiths. makers. Laborers. tors
(job
work).

Arithme­
tic mean
of ratios,
all trades.

(\
%

Engineering trades.

Country.

England and Wales (excluding
London)........................................
100
Germany (excluding Berlin).........
85
France...............................................
78
Belgium.............................................
63
United States...................................
203
i Including stonemasons.

100
88
80
66
203

100
100
100
100
90
77
87
84
77
61
73
66
225
231
203
2 Included in bricklayers.

100
83
85
69
246

100
83
75
63
232

An examination of the above table shows that for all occupations
without exception wages are highest in the United States, the other
countries arranging themselves in order, England and Wales, Ger­
many, France, and Belgium. Taking the arithmetical mean of the
ratios for all occupations, the weekly rate of wages in the United
States was, according to the reports, approximately two and onethird times the wages in England and Wales, two and five-sixths
times the wages in Germany, three and one-eighth times the wages
in France, and three and three-fourths times the wages in Belgium.
With regard to the effect of the differences in the dates of the
investigations upon the wages as shown in the table, the statements
of the reports of the Board of Trade may be summed up as follows:
G e rm a n y .—If the data for all the trades be taken together, an
estimate of a rise of 8 or 9 per cent in the general level of weekly
wages and earnings between October* 1905, and March, 1908 (that
is, in a period marked until near its close by great industrial activity),
may be regarded as approximately accurate.
F ra n c e .—Between October, 1905, and October, 1907, on the
average, wages in the building trades increased about 5 per cent.
In the engineering trades changes were less marked. Taking all
the towns together the average rise was about 3 per cent. Earnings
86026°—Bull. 93—11---- 17




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

562

in the printing trades do not appear to have increased to any appre­
ciable extent.
B e lg iu m ,—It does not appear that the result of the investigation
would have been appreciably different if all the data could have
been brought down to the autumn of 1908.
E n g la n d a n d Wales .—The level of wages in the building trades was
the same in England and Wales in 1909 as in 1905, but the level in
the engineering trades had been raised by about 1J per cent between
October, 1905, and February, 1909, and those of compositors by
about per cent. The effect of these changes would be to lower
the mean ratio for the trades represented in the above table from
232 to 100 to 230 to 100.

When the rates of wages reported in the individual cities of each
country are compared a wide range is found. Each report contains
figures showing the relative rates of wages in each city as compared
with those in the chief city of the country as a basis or 100, and in
order to compare the ranges in the various countries these figures
have been brought together in the following table:
RANGE OF WEEKLY WAGES IN THE CITIES OF EACH COUNTRY AS COMPARED WITH
WAGES IN THE CHIEF CITY.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
R e la tiv e w age level as c o m p ared w ith chief c ity .

Country.

England and Wales.
Germany...................
France.......................
Belgium....................
United States...........

Num­
ber City taken
of
cities as basis or
100
eov“ered.

.

77
33
30
15
28

Building trades.
Unskilled men.

Skilled men.

Range
Range
from
from
Highest. Lowest. lowest to Highest. Lowest. lowest to
highest.
highest.

London........
Berlin...........
Paris............
Brussels.......
New York..

105
102
100
100
110

74
65
53
72
73

31
37
47
28
37

69
58
55
67
64

110
125
100
100
U02

41
67
45
33
38

Relative wage level as compared with chief city.

Country.

England and Wales.
Germany..................
France......................
Belgium....................
United States..........

Num­
ber City taken
of
cities as basis or
100.
cov­
ered.

77
33
30
15
28




London.......
Berlin..........
Paris.............
Brussels.......
New York..

Engineering trades.
Unskilled men.

Skilled men.

Range
from
High­ Low­ lowest High­ Low­
est. to high­ est. est.
est.
est.
100
100
100
111
100

74
65
56
71
68

26
35
44
40
32

100
108
100
109
113

1 Not including wages of negroes.

71
71
60
74
77

Printing, h a n d
compositors (job
work).

Range
from
lowest High­ Low­
to high­ est. est.
est.

Range
from
lowest
to high­
est.

62
80
57
63
71

38
20
43
37
29

29
37
40
35
36

100
100
100
100
100

COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

563

Comparing the various countries in regard to the extent of the
range in wages, it will be seen that within every country and within
every occupation the rates of wages differ widely. This range is
found to be generally the widest in the cities of France. Taking the
five groups of occupations together, the differences between the
cities of the United States are, according to these reports, less than
the differences between the cities of any of the other countries,
although the territory covered by the investigation in the United
States was greater than that covered in any of the other countries.1
Although the fact is not brought out in the table, it may be stated
that in no case was the minimum wage reported found in the smallest
city of the country. On the other hand, it will be seen that in many
cases the highest wage was paid in some city other than the largest
city of the country. In France, however, the highest wage was
reported for Paris for every occupation.
HOURS OF LABOR.

The average usual hours of labor per week for the same group of
occupations for which rates of wages have been shown are presented
in the following table:
AVERAGE USUAL HOURS OF LABOR IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN SPECIFIED INDUS­
TRIES, BY COUNTRIES.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Average usual hours of labor per week.
Building trades.
Hod car­
Brick­ Stone­ Carpen­ Joiners. Plas­ Plumb­ Painters. riers and
brick­
layers. masons. ters.
terers. ers.
layers7
laborers.
England and Wales1
2..................
Germany......................................
France 8........................................
Belgium........................................
United States..............................

52*
59
64*
67*
46

52*
59
64*
67*
46*

53
59
64
67*
47|

53
63|
674
47f

53
63
67*
464

53*
58
63
674
47*

Engineering trades.
Fitters.
England and Wales2..................
Germany......................................
France8........................................
Belgium........................................
United States...............................

Turners.

53
59*
604
60*
564

53
60£
60*
564

Smiths.
53
59*
60*
60*
56

Pattern
makers.
53
59*
604
60*
564

53*
59
63
684
47*

52*
59
64|
67*
48|

Printing
trade:
Hand com­
positors
Laborers. (job work).
53
59*
604
60*
564

52*
54
59*
594
49

1 According to the Board of Trade report “ The inquiry embraced towns scattered over an area nine times
as great as the United Kingdom and equal to nearly twice the combined areas of the United Kingdom,
Germany, France, and Belgium, the four countries previously investigated.”
2 Whether London is included, not reported.
2 Whether Paris is included, not reported.



564

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

The comparison of weekly hours of labor can be made much more
readily by the use of the relative figures contained in the reports,
which are in the case of each occupation computed upon the basis of
the average weekly hours in England and Wales as 100.
RELATIVE LEVEL OF AVERAGE USUAL HOURS OF LABOR.IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS
IN SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, BY COUNTRIES.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of
the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Ratio of average weekly hours of labor to those in England and Wales
taken as 100.
Building trades.
Hod car­
riers and
Brick­ Stone­ Car­
Plas­ Plumb­
brick­
layers. masons. penters. Joiners. terers. ers. Painters. layers'
laborers.
England and Wales1..................
Germany.......................................
France2................................:___
Belgium........................................
United States...............................

100
112
123
129
87

100
112
123
129
89

100
111
121
127
90

100
i20
127
90

100
108
118
126
89

100
119
127
87

100
110
118
128
89

100
112
123
129
93

Engineering trades.

Printing Arithmetic
uaae: xiana mean of
Pattern Labor­ compositors ratios, all
Fitters. Turners. Smiths. makers. ers. (job work). trades.
England and Wales1..................
Germany.......................................
France2.........................................
Belgium.........................................
United States...............................

100
112
114
114
106

100
112
114
114
106

i Whether London is included, not reported.

100
112
114
114
106

100
112
114
114
106

100
112
114
114
106

100
103
113
114
93

100
111
117
121
96

* Whether Paris is included, not reported.

An examination of the foregoing table shows that for the building
trades and for compositors the hours of labor in the United States are
uniformly fewer than those in any of the other countries, being
approximately 10 per cent below the hours in those occupations in
England and Wales. The next above England and Wales is Ger­
many, with hours from 10 to 12 per cent longer; France, with hours
approximately 20 per cent longer in the building trades, and 13 per
cent for compositors, and 14 per cent in the engineering trades; and
Belgium, with hours in the building trades nearly 30 per cent higher
and in the engineering and printing trades 14 per cent higher. Con­
sidering the arithmetical mean of the ratios for all trades, hours in the
United States are 5 per cent below those in England and Wales, and
those in Germany, France, and Belgium are, respectively, 11,17, and
21 per cent higher than England and Wales.




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

565

Since the date of the investigation a slight tendency toward a reduc­
tion of hours has been noted in all of the countries save Belgium, but
it does not appear that these changes would affect in any marked
degree the comparisons *>f the foregoing table.
RENTS.

In the following table are presented the actual and relative weekly
rents charged in the various countries for dwellings of two, three,
four, five, and six rooms. Only dwellings of three and four rooms
were found as prevailing types in all of the countries, and dwellings of
five and six rooms were found common types only in England and the
United States.
PREDOMINANT RANGE OP WEEKLY RENTS IN EACH COUNTRY, BY SIZE OF
DWELLING.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Predominant range of weekly rents for—

Country.

Two rooms. Three rooms. Four rooms. Five rooms. Six rooms.

England and Wales (excluding
London)....................................... $0.73-10.85
Germany (excluding Berlin).......
.65- .85
France (excluding Paris)............. .57- .69
Belgium........................................... .43- .55
United States1...............................

$1.58-$l. 89

$0.91-11.10 $1.10-$1.34 $1.34-$l. 58
.85- 1.16 1.03- 1.46
.85- 1.05
.71- 1.01
.65- .85
.53- .69
1.64- 2.33 2.11- 2.92 2.80- 3.63

3.16- 4.22

1 Dwellings occupied by colored tenants are excluded.
RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY RENTS IN EACH COUNTRY, BY SIZE OF DWELLING.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Country.
England and Wales (excluding London).
Germany (excluding Berlin).....................
France (excluding Paris)...........................
Belgium.........................................................
United States1.............................................

Ratio of mean predominant weekly rent to that in
England and Wales taken as 100.
Two
rooms.

Three
rooms.

100

100
100
86

95
79
62

61
198

Four
rooms.
100

102.5
78
62
207

Five
rooms.

Six
rooms.

100

100

220

213

1 Dwellings occupied by colored tenants are excluded.

For the type of dwelling most generally found in the United States
weekly rentals were more than double the rates paid in England and
Wales and in Germany. As compared with the other countries the
rate is about 2\ times that of France and over 3 times that of Belgium.
It can not, of course, be said in regard to housing that these compari­
sons are for approximately the same accommodation. They are in
each case for the type of dwelling occupied by families of wage earn­



566

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ers, with all of the differences as to conveniences and comforts char­
acteristic of the several countries. For an accurate understanding
of these differences the reports relating to the several countries
should be consulted.
When the rents reported in the individual cities of each country
are compared, the range is found to be much greater than that noted
in the case of wages. Each report contains figures showing the rela­
tive rents in each city as compared with those in the chief city of the
country as a basis or 100, and in order to compare the ranges these
figures have been brought together in the following table:
RANGE OF RENTS IN THE CITIES OF EACH COUNTRY AS COMPARED WITH RENTS
IN THE CHIEF CITY.
Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Number City taken as
of cities. basis or 100.

Country.
England and Wales............................................
Germany...............................................................
France..................................................................
Belgium.................................................................
United States.......................................................

77
33
30
15
28

Relative rent compared with
chief city.
Range from
Highest. Lowest. lowest to
highest.

London...........
Berlin.............
Paris................
Brussels...........
New Y ork ....

100
100
100 *
100
109

32
28
37
43
44

68
72
63
57
65

In the case of rents the maximum cost was found in the largest
city in each country except the United States, and in nearly all cases
the lowest rent was found in the smallest or one of the smallest cities.
The widest range in the cost of rents was found in Germany, where
in one city rents were only 28 per cent of those in Berlin. In both
Germany and Great Britain the range was found to be slightly wider
than in the United States; in France and Belgium it was somewhat
narrower, Belgium showing the least range from lowest to highest.
RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES.

Comparisons of the retail prices of commodities are limited to those
articles found in general use in several countries and which are of
approximately the same grade or character. The actual prices of the
11 articles of food and of coal and of paraffin oil are shown in the
following table:




COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

56?

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN EACH COUNTRY.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of
the United Kingdom, 1908, Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911J
Predominant retail prices.
Sugar, Bacon, Cheese, Butter, Potatoes, Flour, Bread,
1 pound. 1 pound. 1 pound 1 pound. 7 pounds 7wheat, 4 white,
pounds. pounds.
Cents.

Cents, Cents.
u { i24*-26*
2 28*

Cents.

England and Wales (excluding
London)............................................
4
Germany (including Berlin)............. } 4J-5
France (including Paris)...................
Belgium................................................ 5*^7*
United States.......................................

14-18*
18-22
ii^ii*
17-20

26-30
22*-28*
15*-19 25*-27*
20 32 -35*

Cents.

} 5* 7
4*- 6
6
5 -6
12 -17

Beef, Mutton, Pork,
Milk,
1 quart. 1 pound. 1 pound. 1 pound.
Englapd and Wales (excluding
London)........................................... .
Germany (including Berlin)............
France (including Paris)...................
Belgium................................................
United States......................................

Cents.

Cents.

110-12
6-8 /1 *15-17
5 -5h
16-18
4*-5*
13-16*
12-14
8*-9*
12-16

i Foreign or colonial.

2

Cents.

Cents.

18-10
* 15-18* } 15-17
16-20 1 18 -22
15*-22
14-20
35 -19*
13-15
12 -15
13-17

Danish^

Cents.

16-20*
23-28
25-31
19-20*
23-27

Cents.

9-11
11 -12
8*-10*
22 -23

Coal,
1 cwt.

Paraffin
oil,
1 gallon.

Cents.

Cents .

19*-24J
22 -32
33*-40*
25 -30

14-16
19-22
26*-31
13*-15

8 British or home killed.

The relative prices of this same list of commodities (prices in Eng­
land and Wales in each case being taken as 100) are shown in the
following table:
RELATIVE LEVEL OF RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN EACH COUNTRY.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of
the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Ratio of mean predominant price to that in England and Wales taken
as 100.
Sugar, Bacon, Cheese, Butter, Potatoes. Flour, Bread,
1 pound. 1 pound. 1 pound. 1 pound. 7 pounds. 7wheat, 4 white,
pounds. pounds.
England and Wales (excluding
London)............................................
Germany (including Berlin)............
France (including Paris)...................
Belgium................................................
United States......................................

100
119
144
150
144

100
123
98
116

100
121
143

100
105
94
98
126

100
88
100
92
233

Beef, Mutton, Pork,
Milk,
1 quart. 1 pound. 1 pound. 1 pound.
England and Wales (excluding Lon­
don)....................................................
Germany (including Berlin)............
France (including Paris)....................
Belgium..............:.................................
United States.......................................




100

75
71
64
129

100
122
109
96
104

100
137
131
110
116

100
123
116
106
81

100
140
153
107
139
Coal,
1 cwt.
100

124
JL70
126

100
115
95
223
Paraffin
oil,
1 gallon.
100
135
188
95

568

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The table shows that for all the articles included in the comparison,
save pork, prices in the United States were higher than in England.
On this one article prices were lower in the United States than in any
of the other countries. Without exception the highest prices for
meat were found in Germany. For two varieties of meat, beef
and bacon, Belgium showed the lowest prices, while for mutton the
lowest price was found in England. England also showed the lowest
price for flour, the price in the United States being 39 per cent
higher, while in Germany and France it was 40 and 53 per cent higher,
respectively. For bread the highest price was found in the United
States, being almost two and one-fourth times the price in England.
In France the price was 15 per cent higher than in England, and in
Belgium 5 per cent lower.
Each report contains figures showing the relative retail prices of
commodities in each city as compared with those in the chief city of
the country as a basis or 100, and in order to compare the range
between the various cities in the several countries these figures have
been brought together in the following table:
RANGE OF RETAIL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN THE CITIES OF EACH COUNTRY AS
COMPARED WITH PRICES IN THE CHIEF CITY.
(Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rente, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]

Country.

England and Wales............................................
Germany...............................................................
France...................................................................
Belgium................................................................
United States.......................................................

Number City taken as
of cities
covered. basis or 100.
77
33
30
15
28

London...........
Berlin.............
Paris................
Brussels..........
New York___

Relative price level as compared
with chief city.
Range from
Highest. Lowest. lowest to
highest.

110
122
100
109

106

88
86
88
89
91

18
24
34
18

11

The differences between the various cities of the several countries
are much smaller in the case of prices than was found in the case of
wages or rents. In Belgium, for example, a range of only 11 per
cent was found between Brussels, the city of highest prices in that
country, and Bruges, the city of lowest prices. Both in the United
States and in England and Wales the range from lowest to highest
was only 18 points; in Germany 24 points; and in France, where the
maximum difference was found, 34 points. In all of the countries
except Belgium the highest prices were reported from some city other
than the largest city. Thus in England the highest prices were
reported for Dover; in Germany for Barmen; in France for Marseille;
in the United States for Atlanta. It is worthy of note that notwith­
standing the great extent of territory covered by the investigation



COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES.

569

in the United States, the differences in prices throughout that territory
were found to be less than in France and Germany and not greater
than in England and Wales.
COST OF FOOD CONSUMED WEEKLY IN THE BRITISH WORKMAN’S
, FAMILY.

The reports of the Board of Trade have used as a basis of com­
parison of the cost of food the average quantity consumed as ascer­
tained from an investigation of a large number of British wage­
earning families. Applying these quantities to the predominant
prices of the same articles in the various countries, a total figure is
arrived at in which each of the selected articles is weighted according
to its importance to the .British wage-earning family. The figures
so weighted are presented in the following table:
COST OF COMMODITIES CONSUMED PER WEEK IN AVERAGE BRITISH WORKMAN’S
FAMILY.
[Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and
Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns
of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]
Cost of commodities, average quantity consumed, in British workman’s
weekly budget.
Flour
Bread
Sugar, Bacon, Cheese, Butter, Potatoes, (wheat), (white),
5$ pounds. 1J pounds. I pound. 2 pounds. 17 pounds. 10 pounds 22 pounds.
England and Wales (exclud­
ing London).......................
Germany (including Berlin).
France (including Paris)...
Belgium..................................
United States..................... ...

$0,218
.259
.309
.324
.309

$0,243 $0.107
.299
.086
.238
.129
.284
.152

Milk,
Beef,
5 quarts. 4£ pounds.
England and Wales (exclud­
ing London)........................
Germany (including Berlin).
France (including Paris)___
Belgium..................................
United States.........................

$0,355
.269
.253
.228
.456

$0,619
.750
.674
.593
.639

i

$0,537
.563
.507
.527
.679

$0,147
.127
.147
.137
.345

Pork,
Mutton,
pound. 1&pounds.
$0,081
.101
.094
.086
.066

$0,193
.269
.253
.213
.223

$0,259
.365
.400
.279
.360
Total.
$3,317
3.894
3.281
3.284
4.755

$0,558
».806
.644
.530
1.242
Index
number
100
117
99
99
*143

1 Cost of 22 pounds of wheat flour in Germany. The British report states: “Actually 22 pounds of flour
are not required for making 22 pounds of bread, but no allowance has been made for the cost of other mate­
rials nor oi baking, and as the predominant cost of bread per pound in England [2.5 cents] is almost identical
with the cost of flour [2.6 cents] the method adopted seems fair. ”
2 As between prices in Great Britain, October, 1905, and prices in the United States, February, 1909.
British prices in February, 1909, after due allowance for the varying degrees of importance of the articles
included, were about 4 per cent higher than in October, 1905. The index number when adjusted accordingly
becomes 138.

The index numbers computed on the total cost of the selected
articles of food in the several countries show that the British work­
man’s weekly food budget, which in England and Wales is represented
by 100, costs in the United States 43 per cent more; in Germany
17 per cent more; and in France and Belgium 1 per cent less.



570

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

With, reference to the extent to which these figures are modified
by the changes in prices between October, 1905, the date of the inves­
tigation in England and Wales, and the dates of the several investiga­
tions in the other countries, the reports show that in Germany, so
far as it was possible to judge from the few returns obtained at the
later date, March, 1908, prices appeared to have undergone little
change. In France the average increase in prices between October,
1905, and October, 1907, of food other than meat, was estimated at
4i per cent, and on food of all kinds at slightly under 5 per cent. In
Belgium no appreciable change appears to have occurred down to the
autumn of 1908. When allowance is made for the increase of 4 per
cent which took place in England and Wales between October, 1905,
and February, 1909, the cost of the British workman's weekly budget
was found to be 38 per cent higher in the United States than in
England and Wales instead of 43 per cent, as shown in the above
table.




HOURS OF LABOR OF MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN EMPLOYED
IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

In order to ascertain the effectiveness of the regulations for the pro­
tection of workmen in factories, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the
Austrian Department of Commerce made a study of all the factory
establishments in that country in the year 1906.1 The movement for
a reduction in the hours of labor of factory employees had largely
engaged the activities of the Austrian Labor Bureau, and especial
attention was directed toward finding out in what industries and
establishments the hours of labor had already been reduced below
the maximum allowed by law. The information on which the
study was based was collected by the factory inspection force of the
Empire, and only those establishments were included which were
subject to the factory inspection laws. For this reason a number of
factories, especially iron and steel plants, which were subsidiary
parts of mining establishments and therefore subject to the mininginspection department, were not included.
The definition of the term factory was of course based on the speci­
fications of the factory laws. According to the ministerial decree of
July 18, 1883, a factory is an industrial undertaking in which the
production or working up of commodities takes place in workrooms
in which more than 20 workmen are employed. Other character­
istics are: The use of machines in the processes; a division of labor
as distinguished from the artisan method of conducting production;
the head of the establishment or proprietor is responsible for the
conduct of the undertaking; the higher rates of taxation imposed; the
business is conducted by firms, partnerships, corporations, etc.
LEGAL REGULATIONS CONCERNING HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES.

The law of March 8, 1885, provides that between the beginning and
closing of the working day suitable periods or intermissions for rest
must be given, amounting to not less than one and one-half hours per
day. Unless special conditions in the establishments prevail, one
hour of this time must be given for the midday meal, but if the time
before or after the midday rest period amounts to five hours or less, then
only the one hour for the midday period is required. In the case of
night work, the same regulation applies, with the changes required by
the difference in time. The minister of commerce, acting in agree­
ment with the minister of the interior, may, on application of the
chambers of commerce and industry, permit of a suitable reduction
in the time of the rest periods where such is shown to be called for by
the character of the technical operations.i
i Die Arbeitszeit in den Fabriksbetrieben Osterreiehs. Dargestellt vom K. K. Ar-beitsstati&tischen
Amte im Handelsministerium. Wien, 1907.




571

572

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In the following branches of industry a reduction in the duration
of the rest period may be permitted, or rest periods may be arranged
to fall at times permitted by the nature of the work carried on: Blast
furnaces, coking plants, charcoal burning plants, puddling works,
rolling mills, steel mills, foundries; enamel ironware works; copper,
brass,metal, alloy working, etc.; blacksmithing, wheelwrighting; lime­
kilns, cement plants, brickkilns, clay and porcelain factories; glass
furnaces; and textiles, including dyeing, bleaching, printing, finishing,
fulling, spinning, and mechanical weaving; paper and paper products;
flour and similar mills; sugar factories and sugar refineries; sirup
factories; bakeries and confectioneries; beer brewing, malting, dis­
tilleries; compressed yeast factories; artificial ice factories; chemical
factories, including the manufacture of sulphuric acid, nitric acid,
hydrochloric acid, soda, saltpeter, potash, starch, and essential oils;
also for zinc color factories, illuminating gas, newspaper printing
plants, engine and boiler tenders, linoleum factories, macaroni, etc.,
factories. In the industrial operations mentioned in the preceding
list, although definitely specified periods of rest during the course
of operations may be transposed or distributed, it must, however, be
understood that during the period of the shift the workmen must be
granted adequate time for meals and for rest.

The factory inspection laws define a young person as one who is
under 16 years of age. Young persons may not be employed for regular
industrial operations between 8 p. m. and 5 a. m.; however, the minister
of commerce in agreement with the minister of the interior is author­
ized to change the limits of night work just specified, having due regard
to the climatic conditions and other important circumstances, but
such changes shall apply to specified categories of industries only.
Under this authority the hours of labor for young persons have been
fixed as follows: In scythe making male young persons working at the
forge may be employed later at night or earlier in the morning on con­
dition that they are changed from day to night shifts; in silk-spinning
mills young persons during June and July may be employed earlier
in the morning and later at night than the limits already specified,
provided that proper rest periods are granted them; in bakeries
( Weissbdckereien) male young persons may be employed as apprentices
in such bread bakeries as make only one baking during 24 hours, but
such employment between 8 p. m. and 5. a. m. may not continue
longer than 4 hours without a rest period.
In industrial establishments conducted as factories the hours of
labor, not including the rest periods, shall not exceed 11 in any
24. However, the minister of commerce in agreement with the minis­
ter of the interior, after a hearing of the chambers of commerce and
of industry, may draw up a list of those industries which on account
of special circumstances can show reasons for increasing the daily
hours of labor, and may grant an increase of 1 hour per day; this



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

573

list must be revised every 3 years. In addition, the minister of
commerce in agreement with the minister of the interior is authorized
to make special regulations for those branches of industry which
operate continuously in regard to special hours of labor necessary for
changing the shifts.
If unforeseen natural events or accidents have interrupted the
regular operation of the establishment or if there is a special demand
for labor, then the industrial (factory) officials of the lowest rank
may permit a temporary increase of the hours of labor of individual
establishments; such increases shall not be for longer than three
weeks and if a longer period is desired, such grant shall be made by
the political officials of highest rank. An increase in the hours
of labor may in case of necessity and for not longer than threb days
in one month take place by reporting this fact to the industrial
(factory) officials of the various provinces, etc. The above pro­
visions as to the hours of labor do not apply to work which is not
a part of the regular factory work and which is necessary to be
done before or after the regular work, such for instance as firing
the boilers, arranging for the lighting, and cleaning, provided that
such work is not done by young persons. All overtime work is to
be paid for separately.
Establishments operating continuously may have a 12-hour shift,
including the rest periods for special classes of workmen, subject to
the decree of the ministry as above provided. This applies especially
to the list of industries already enumerated.
In order to permit the weekly change from day to night work?
any establishments operating continuously may be granted a working
shift of 18 hours for one day in the week provided that it is not possible
to arrange for two 6-hour or three 8-hour special shifts at the close
of the week. But in order to change the shifts, the 24-hour shift
for one day in the week is not permissible.
Women and young persons may not be employed in night work in
industrial establishments conducted as factories. However, the
minister of commerce in agreement with the minister of the interior,
after a hearing of the chambers of commerce and of industry, may issue
decrees that special categories of industrial operations may employ
young persons 14 to 16 years of age and females for night work
provided that an interruption of the operations, because of the special
conditions prevailing in the industry, is not permissible or night work
is absolutely necessary in order to make the weekly changes in the
shifts. However, the total number of hours per day for such persons
may not exceed the legal maximum in any 24 hours. The minister
of commerce in accordance with this authority has permitted the
employment at night of young persons 14 years of age and over and
females in the following industries: Iron furnaces, glass furnaces,
paper and rag pulp factories, sugar factories and sugar refineries,
preserve factories, enamel stamped-ware factories; females 16 years of



574

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

age and over may be employed at night in the cleaning and finishing
of bed feathers, in machine lace factories, and in fez factories. In
some of the factories just specified, the employment of women and
children may occur only in special occupations.
NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS
EMPLOYED.

The number of establishments classified by the method of operation,
and the number of employees classified by age and sex, are shown
in the following table:
NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND NUMBER OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS
EMPLOYED* IN EACH CLASS OF FACTORIES, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Factories not operating continuously.
Industry groups.

Textile..............................................
Food products.............*..................
Stones, earths, etc...........................
Metalworking.................................
Machinery........................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc.
Paper................................................
C h e m ic a l....................................................
Clothing............................................
Printing and publishing................
Leather.............................................
Rubber.............................................
Power plants...................................
Smelting, e tc ..................................
Mining, agricultural products, etc
Upholstering, etc............................
Total.......................................

Workers.
Number.

Total4

Males
Females
16
16
Males.1 under of Females.2 under of
years
years
age.
age.

2,274 300,828 141,369
853 31,071 19,674
762 43,457 34,277
1,145 101,081 84,875
843 94,987 92,063
1,151 60,808 51,465
454 28,036 14,658
479 20,484 12,085
474 36,801 14,824
417 22,758 17,097
313 15,658 13,471
4,413
30
2,735
104
659
653
224
3
220
1,082
1,822
10
412
546
15
9,327 763,633 500,960

9,611 159,459
349 11,397
2,080
9,180
5,264 16,206
6,361
2,924
1,905
9,343
708 13,378
8,399
290
463 21,977
5,661
1,220
496
2,187
112
1,678
6
3
4
195
740
2
134
29,059 262,673

14,020
1,255
941
1,686
149
739
1,369
432
1,477
463
88
111
92
5
22,827

Factories operating continuously.
Industry .groups

Workers.
Number.

Textile................................................
Food products...................................
Stones, earths, etc.............................
Metalworking...................................
Machinery..........................................
Woodworking, basket wares, e tc..
Paper..................................................
Chemical.............................................
Clothing..............................................
Printing and publishing..................
Leather...............................................
Rubber...............................................
Power plants.....................................
Smelting, etc......................................
Mining, agricultural products, etc.
Upholstering, etc..............................
Total.
1 Including males under 16 years of age.



Total.

Males
Females
16
16
Males.1 under of Females.2 under of
years
years

11,904
152
1,327

9,742
146
1,312

218
1,162

202
1,127

138
3

1,067
455

1,067
455

406

16,285

14,051

176
4
16

350
19
51

2,162
6
15

225

431

2,234

225

2 Including females under 16 years of age.

HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA,

575

NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND, NUMBER OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS
EMPLOYED IN EACH CLASS OF FACTORIES, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906—ConcPd.
Factories with continuous and noncontinuous departments.
Workers.

Industry groups.

Number.

' Textile.
Food products...............................
Stones, earths, etc.........................
Metalworking...............................
Machinery......................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc
Paper...............................................
Chemical.........................................
Clothing..........................................
Printing and publishing..............
Leather...........................................
Rubber.
Power plants...................................
Smelting, etc....................................
Mining, agricultural products, etc
Upholstering, etc............................
Total

Total.

Males
Females
16
16
Males.1 under of Females.2 under of
years
years
age.
age.

907
1,310
82
2
225
252

97,136
94,892
23,682
173
17,167
20,932

73
7
3

1,874
1,771
56

2,752
5,997
907
3
283
162

81,530
75,753
21,302
173
12,570
18,896
1,865
1,764
56 .

2,861

257,683 213,909

15,606
19,139
2,380

1,600
1,487
184

4,597
2,036.

208
48

9
7
10,183

43,774

3,527

All factories.
Industry groups.

Workers.
Number.

Total

Textile........................................... 2,274 300,828
1,936 140,111
Food products..............................
Stones, earths, etc........................ 2,076 138,501
Metal working............................... 1,243 126,090
843 94,987
Machinery.....................................
Woodworking, basket wares,etc. 1,153 60,981
694 45,421
Paper.............................................
785 42,578
Chemical........................................
474 36,801
Clothing.........................................
Printing and publishing.............
417 22,758
313 15,658
Leather..........................................
30
Rubber...........................................
4,413
Power plants...............................
315
3,600
13
Smelting, etc.................................
2,450
Mining, agricultural products,
etc...............................................
13
1,878
Upholstering, etc.........................
15
546
Total.................................... 12,594 1,037,601
1 Including males under 16 years of age.

Total
Males
Females
under 16 Males.1 under 16 Females.2 under 16
years of
years of
yearn of
age.
age.
age.
23,631 141,369
9,611 159,459
14,020
6,531 110,946
3,451 29,165
3,080
10,524 110,176
8,096 28,325'
2,428
8,092 107,489
6,222 18,601
1,870
6,361
2,924
6,510 92,063
149
1,908
9,343
2,647 51,638
739
993 17,991
2,570 27,430
1,577
940 32,108
460 10,470
480
1,940 14,824
463 21,977
1,477
1,683 17,097
1,220
5,661
463
584 13,471
496
2,187
88
223
2,735
112
1,678
111
20
3,585
20
15
11
63
2,439
63
1,138
287
195
740
92
412
2
134
7
5
66,252 728,920 39,673 308,681
26,579
1
2 Including females under 16 years.of age.

At the time of the 1906 investigation there were in Austria 12,594
factories, in which 1,037,601 persons were employed, of whom
728,920 were males and 308,681 were females. The latest industrial
census of Austria was taken on June 3, 1902, and as the two enumer­
ations were made at approximately the same season of the year, a
comparison of the two sets of returns is of interest. In those groups
of industries in which factory establishments occur (i. e., in all
classes of productive industry, except hotels and restaurants, the
building trades, and the industrial establishments engaged in itiner­
ant trades), there were 494,607 establishments employing 2,274,759



576

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

persons, of whom 1,798,788 were males and 475,971 females. The
factory establishments, therefore, comprised approximately 2.5 per
cent of all industrial establishments, and the factory workers 45.6
per cent of all the persons employed in these industries. The indus­
trial census of June 3,1902, showed that there were in these industry
groups 157,398 young persons under 16 years of age, of whom 121,420
were males and 35,978 were females; the 1906 enumeration of the
factory establishments showed that there were employed in factories
66,252 young persons under 16, of whom 39,673 were males and
26,579 were females. The young persons employed in factories
comprised, therefore, 42.1 per cent of all young persons in these
industry groups while the male young persons formed 32.7 per
cent of all male young persons and the female young persons 73.9
per cent of all female young persons employed in these industries.
The high proportion of females among factory workers is due to the
fact that in the textile industries, which have the largest number of
women employees, nearly all the female employees are in factories.
The study of the geographical distribution of the factory estab­
lishments shows that the largest number of factories occurs in the
chamber of commerce district of Vienna with 2,500 establishments;
Reichenberg with 2,353 establishments ranks second, and Prague
with 1,214 establishments ranks third; all the other chamber of
commerce districts have less than 1,000 establishments. The dis­
trict of Reichenberg has the highest number of factory employees,
having 221,022. Vienna comes next with 200,654, and Prague
third, with 109,835 persons employed in factories; all the other
chamber of commerce districts have less than 100,000 factory em­
ployees. The three districts of Reichenberg, Vienna, and Prague’
,
therefore, are the factory centers of the country and contain over
half of the employees included in the present investigation.
The industry with the largest number*of factory establishments
and factory employees is the textile industry, which had 2,274
establishments and 300,828 employees engaged in these factories;
the industry of stones, earths, etc., ranks second with 2,076 estab­
lishments and 138,501 employees, while the food products industry
had 1,936 establishments and 140,111 persons employed. The three
industry groups with the smallest number of factories is reported
. for the smelting, etc., industries with only 13 establishments and
2,450 workers; the mining, agricultural products, etc., factories
with 13 establishments and 1,878 workers; and the upholstering,
etc., industries with 15 establishments and 546 workers. The
small number of smelting, etc., establishments reported is due to
the fact that the greater part of the smelting establishments were
not included in the study because they were parts of mining estab­
lishments and not subject to the jurisdiction of the factory inspection
officials.



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

577

Throughout the study factories are classed as those operating
continuously, meaning thereby those in operation 24 hours per day
and 7 days of the week; second, establishments not operating
continuously, including those establishments which shut down
regularly at night and on Sundays in each week; and third, mixed
establishments, those having departments operating, continuously
and departments shutting down at night and on Sundays. The
establishments which did not operate continuously numbered 9,327
and employed 763,633 workers, of whom 500,960 were males and
262,673 were females; the establishments operating continuously
numbered 406 and employed 16,285 workers, of whom 14,051
were males and 2,234 were females; the mixed establishments
numbered 2,861 establishments and employed 257,683 workers, of
whom 213,909 were males and 43,774 were females. The establish­
ments operating continuously formed, therefore, but a small propor­
tion of the total; they comprised 3.2 per cent of the establishments
and* employed 1.6 per cent of the factory workers. The mixed
establishments, however, comprised 22.7 per cent of all factories
and 24.8 per cent of the factory workers. The largest number of
establishments operating continuously was found in the food products
industry with 176 establishments and 11,904 workers, and in the
power plants with 138 establishments employing 1,067 workers.
The largest number of mixed establishments is found in the industry
of stones and earths with 1,310 establishments employing 94,892
workers and in the food products industry with 907 establishments
employing 97,136 workers.
The size of these factory establishments as disclosed by the average
number of workmen employed is a matter of some interest. The
smelting, etc., industries showed the largest plants with an average
of 188 employees per factory; the rubber industries, ranked
second with 147 employees, and mining, agricultural products, etc.,
industries with 144 workmen per factory. It should be noted,
however, that these three groups included but few establishments and
but few workmen; it is important to note that in the textile indus­
tries, the machine building industries, and%the metal working indus­
tries, the average size of the establishment ranks high; the textile
establishments averaged 132 employees per factory, the machine
building 113, and the metal working 101 employees per factory.
The average for all establishments included in the study was 82
persons per establishment. A more accurate statement of the
size of the establishments is found in the table showing the establish­
ments arranged in groups; if the establishments employing more
than 300 workmen be regarded as the larger establishments, it is
found that the textile industry ranks first with 12.2 per cent of all
the establishments in this class, the machine building industry with
7.9 per cent, the food products industry with 6.9 per cent, and
86026°—Bull. 93—11-----18




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

57 8

the metal working industry with 6.8 per cent. Of the very large
establishments, namely, those with more than 1,000 workmen, the
largest proportion is found in the machinery, the textile, and the
metal working industries.
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS IN FACTORIES.

The following tables show the number and proportion of women
and young persons employed in factory establishments in 1906,
and similar data for industrial undertakings, including both factory
and nonfactory establishments, in 1902.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND FEMALE WORKERS AND OF PERSONS
UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE EMPLOYED IN FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1906 AND
IN ALL INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1902.
FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS, 1906.
Male workers.

Female workers.

All workers.

Un­
Under
Under,
der
16
16
Num­ Per years Per Num­ Per 16 Per Total. years Per
ber. cent.1 of cent.8 ber. cent.1 years cent.8
of cent.1
of
age.
age.
age.

Industry groups.

Textile.............................
Food products................
Stones, earths, etc.........
Metal working.................
Machinery.......................
Woodworking, basket
wares, etc.....................
Paper...............................
Chemical..........................
Clothing...........................
Printing mid publishing.
Leather............................
Rubber.............................
Power plants.................. ;
Smelting, etc...................
M in in g , agricultural
products, etc...........
Upholstering, etc...........
Total......................

141,369
110,946
110,176
107,489
92,063
51,638
27,430
32,108
14,824
17,097
13,471
2,735
3,585
2,439
1,138
412
728,920

47.0
79.2
79.5
85.2
96.9
84.7
60.4
75.4
40.3
75.1
86.0
62.0
99.6
99.6
60.6
75.5
70.3

9,611
3,451
8,096
6,222
6,361
1,908
993
460
463
1,220
496
112
20
63
195
2
39,673

40.7 159,459
52.8 29,165
76.9 28,325
76.9 18,601
97.7 2,924
72.1 9,343
38.6 17,991
48.9 10,470
23.9 21,977
72.5 5,661
84.9 2,187
50.2 1,678
100.0
15
100.0
67.9 740
28.6 134
59.9 308,681

n

53.0 14,020
20.8 3,080 *
20.5 2,428
14.8 1,870
3.1 149
15.3 739
39.6 1,577
24.6 480
59.7 1,477
24.9 463
14.0 88
38.0 111
.4
„4
39.4 92
24.5
5
26,579
29.7

59.3
47.2
23.1
23.1
2.3
27.9
61.4
51.1
76.1
27.5
15.1
49.8

300,828
140,111
138,501
126,090
94,987
60,981
45,421
42,578
36,801
22,758
15,658
4,413
3,600
2,450
32.1 1,878
71.4
546
40.1 1,037,601

23,631
6,531
10,524
8,092
6,510
2,647
2,570
940
1,940
1,683
584
223
20
63
287
7
66,252

7.9
4.7
7.6
6.4
6.9
4.3
5.7
2.2
5.3
7.4
3.7
5.1
.6
2.6
15.3
1.3
6.4

59.4 337,473 22,638
14.3 328,993 18,315
19.4 215,789 11,959
6.0 245,327 22,369
1.2 161,822 9,316
3.8 193,763 14,731
41.0 53,912 3,561
44.2 55,836 1,097
29.4 397,171 41,004
19.7 36,429 2,692
4.0 41,907 2,931
50.7 4,476 205
4,676
36
19.5 8,635 241
13.7 182,142 5,425
1.7 6,408 878
22.9 2,274,759 157,398

6.7
5.6
5.5
9.1
5.8
7.6
6.6
2.0
10.3
7.4
7.0
4.6
.8
2.8
3.0
13.7
6.9

ALL INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 1902.
Textile............................. 171,990
Food products................ 252,328
Stones, earths, etc......... 181,021
Metal working................. 227,265
Machinery........................ 158,466
Woodworking, basket
wares, etc..................... 183,221
Paper............................... 35,367
Chemical.......................... 45,491
Clothing........................... 282,977
Printing andpublishing. 29,641
Leather............................ 38,613
Rubber,........................... 2,654
Power plants.................. 4,629
Smelting, etc..................
8,071
M in in g, agricultural
products, etc............... 171,252
Upholstering, etc........... 5,802
Total...................... 1,798,788

51.0 9,183
76.7 15,689
83.9 9,635
92.6 21,016
97.9 9,202
94.6 14,167
65.6 2,102
81.5 612
71.2 28,963
81.4 2,161
92.1 2,813
59.3 101
36
99.0
93.5 194
94.0 4,683
90.5 863
79.1 121,420

40.6 165,483
85.7 76,665
80.6 34,768
94.0 18,062
98.8 3,356
96.2 10,542
59.0 18,545
55.8 10,345
70.6 114,194
80.3 6,788
96.0 3,294
49.3 1,822
100.0
47
80.5 564
86.3 10,890
98.3 606
77.1 475,971

49.0 13,455
23.3 2,626
16.1 2,324
7.4 1,353
2.1 114
5.4 564
34.4 1,459
18.5 485
28.8 12,041
18.6 531
7.9 118
40.7 104
1.0
6.5 47
6.0 742
9.5 15
20.9 35,978

1 Of all workers in the respective industry groups.
* Of all persons under 16 years of age in tne respective industry groups.



HOURS OF I jABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

579

Of the 1,037,601 persons enumerated in 1906 in the factories,
308,681, or 29.7 per cent, were women and 66,252, or 6.4 per cent, were
young persons under 16 yearn of age. The industries showing the
largest number of women are the clothing industries, where 59.7 per
cent of all the employees were women; the textile industries, where 53
per cent were women; and the p#per industries, where 39.6 per cent
were women. The industries with the smallest proportion of females
employed are the metal working, the machinery, woodworking, leather,
smelting, and power plants.
The industries employing the largest proportion of young persons
under 16 years of age are the mining, agricultural products, etc., indus­
tries with 15.3 per cent of all employees, though it must be remembered
that the number of establishments here included is relatively small;
the textile industries with 7.9 per cent of all employees, the stones,
earths, etc., industries with 7.6 per cent, the printing and publishing
with 7.4 per cent, and the machinery industries with 6.9 per cent.
The industries employing the largest number of female young per­
sons are, first, the clothing, etc., industries with 76.1 per cent of its
young persons being females, the paper industry with 61.4 per cent,
and the textile industries with 59.3 per cent. The industries showing
the largest proportion of males among the young persons under 16 are
the machinery industries with 97.7 per cent of its young persons
being males, leather industries with 84.9 percent, metalworking 76.9
per cent, and stones, earths, etc., 76.9 per cent.
; In those industries in which large numbers of female workers are
employed, nearly all of these workers are employed in factory estab­
lishments. For instance, the 1902 industrial census showed that the
textile establishments employed 165,483 females, while the factory
establishments in 1906 employed 159,459 females; a similar high pro­
portion of females is found in the industry of stones, earths, etc. On
the other hand, the number of females employed in the clothing
industries is greater in the nonfactory establishments; thus, out of
114,194 females employed, only 21,977 were employed in factory
establishments.
A comparison of the number of young persons under 16 years of
age employed in all kinds of establishments shows that the number
of young persons employed in the textile industries was 22,638 in
1902, while the investigation of factories showed that there were
23,631 such employees in 1906. It can, however, be stated that in
the textile industries the young persons are almost entirely factoiy
employees; similarly, in the stones, earths, etc., industries and the
chemical industries almost all the young persons were factory em­
ployees, in the machinery industries 69.9 per cent were factoiy em­
ployees, while, on the other hand, in the food products and the metal­
working industries there were very few factory employees, and in



580

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the ease of the clothing industries an extremely small proportion of
the young persons were engaged in factories.
The 1902 data showed that of all persons included in the table,
only 20.9 per cent were females, while in 1906, of the factory em­
ployees, 29.7 per cent were females. In most of the industry groups
the proportion of females employed, in the entire industry is smaller
than that of females employed in the factories only, though there are
a number of exceptions to this statement; thus, in the food products
industries 23.3 per cent and in the rubber industries 40.7 per cent are
females, while in the factory establishments of these same industries
the proportions are 20.8 per cent and 38 per cent. As a general rule,
however, it may be stated that the proportion of women employed
in factories is higher than the proportion of women employed in the
industry as a whole.
The proportion of young persons under 16 years of age in the in­
dustry groups as a whole is approximately the same as the proportion
of young persons employed in the factory establishments engaged in
these industry groups. However, there is a marked difference in the
proportion of male and female young persons; thus, of all persons
under 16 years of age, the females employed in the industry groups
formed 22.9 per cent, while in the factory establishments the females
formed 40.1 per cent of all persons under 16 years of age. In 12 out
of 16 industry groups the proportion of females under 16 years of
age in the factory establishments is higher than the proportion of
female workers under that age in the whole industry group, and in a
few instances the difference is quite marked; thus, in the woodwork­
ing industries, of all persons under 16 years of age 27.9 per cent in
the factories were females as contrasted with 3.8 per cent in the
whole industry group. In the metal-working industries the respec­
tive proportions were 23.1 per cent and 6 per cent. In the food
products industries the proportions were 47.2 per cent and 14.3
percent. In the clothing industries 76.1 per cent and 29.4 per cent,
and in the paper industries 61.4 per cent and 41 per cent. In all
industrial establishments in 1902., the males under 16 years of age
formed 77.1 per ceiit of all persons under that age, but in factory
establishments in 1906 only 59.9 per cent of all persons under 16
years of age were males This is due to the fact that the young persons
employed in certain handworking trades, such, for instance, as blacksmithing, bookbinding, men’s clothing, and shoemaking, are princi­
pally males.
NIGHT WORK IN FACTORIES.

In filling out the schedules for the mixed establishments, namely,
establishments having continuous-operation and noncontinuousoperation departments, the factory inspectors were required to report



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

581

how many workers were employed in each. In addition, reports
were made for the noncontinuous-operation establishments working
both day and night shifts, as to the number of day workers and also
as to the number of shift workers. From these answers it was pos­
sible to ascertain the approximate number of males and females who
were employed in day and in night shifts; this number is approxi­
mate only, because the number of workmen in the continuous-opera­
tion establishments is not always the same as the number of workmen
actually employed in day and night shifts, since there was always a
certain number of workmen who were employed during the day only.
However, the figures are on the whole close to the truth, because
the reports in many cases specifically stated that in the continuousoperation departments certain categories of workers, such, for
instance, as the women or the young persons, were employed only by
day and thus permitted the separation of that part of the force
which was not employed in shifts.

In the following table is shown the number of establishments in
which night shifts were used and the number for which data concern­
ing the number of day and night workers were reported. The table
also gives the total number of workmen by sex and age groups so as
to permit of a comparison of the data given in the table on page 582.
TOTAL FACTORIES AND TOTAL EMPLOYEES, BY SEX; FACTORIES EMPLOYING
DAY AND NIGHT SHIFT WORKERS AND FACTORIES REPORTING NUMBER OF
EACH, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Workers in factory establishments.
Males.
Industry groups.

Textile..................................
Food products.....................
Stones, earths, etc...............
Metal working.....................
Machinery............................
Woodworking, b a sk e t
wares, etc..........................
Paper....................................
Chemical...............................
Clothing................................
Printing and publishing...
Leather.................................
Rubber.................................
Power plants.......................
Smelting, etc........................
Mining, agricultural prod­
ucts, etc.............................
Upholstering, etc................
Total...........................




Females.

Totals.

Factories re­
porting—

All
Num­
fac­
tories. Day ofber
ana
day
Under
Under
Under
All
16
night and
16
16
years, Total. years, Total. years, workers.
shift night
work­ shift
of age.
of age.
of age.
ers. work­
ers.
9,611
3,451
8,096
6,222
6,361
1,908
993
460
463
1,220
496
112
20
63
195
2
39,673

141,369
110,946
110,176
107,489
92,063
51,638
27,430
32,108
14,824
17,097
13,471
2,735
3,585
2,439
1,138
412
728,920

14,020
3,080
2,428
1,870
149
739
1,577
480
1,477
463
88
111

159,459
29,165
28,325
18,601
2,924
9,343
17,991
10,470
21,977
5,661
2,187
1,678
15
11
92
740
134
5
26,579 308,681

23,631
6,531
10,524
8,092
6,510
2,647
2,570
940
1,940
1,683
584
223
20
63
287
7
66,252

300,828
140,111
138,501
126,090
94,987
60,981
45,421
42,578
36,801
22,758
15,658
4,413
3,600
2,450
1,878
546
1,037,601

2,274
195
1,936 1,263
2,076 1,412
1,243
298
19
843
1,153
164
694
411
785
366
474
30
417
313
6
2
30
231
315
11
13
13
3
15
12,594 4,411

192
1,194
1,409
278
18
131
360
363
28
6
2
227
11
3
4,222

582

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

The last two columns in the preceding table show that the larger
proportion, namely, 95.7 per cent, of establishments employing day
and night shifts reported the information on this topic. In the fol­
lowing table is given by sex and age groups the number of persons
employed on these day and night shifts:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE SHIFT WORKERS EMPLOYED
IN FACTORIES, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF YOUNG PERSONS SO EMPLOYED,
BY SEX, AND TOTAL SHIFT WORKERS, IN EACH INDUSTRY GROUP, 1906.
Workers employed on day and night shifts.
Males under
Females un­
Total Under
16 years Total males. der 16 years Total females. 16 years
of age.
of age.
of age.
Industry groups.

Total
Per
Per
.work­
cent of
cent of
Per
Per ers.
total
Per
total
cent
cent
per­
per­
Num­ sons Num­ cent of Num­ sons Num­ of Num­ of
total
ber. un­ ber. work­ ber. un­ ber. total ber. total
work­
work­
der 16
der 16
ers.
ers.
ers.
years
years
of age.
of age.

Textile.................................
Food products.................... 2,027
Stones, earths, etc............. 1,623
Metal working................... 634
Machinery...........................
Woodworking, b a s k e t
waxes, etc.........................
Paper................................... 61
Chemical.............................
Clothing..............................
Printing and publishing..
Leather........................
Rubber................................
Power plants......................
Smelting, etc...................... 10
Mining, agricultural prod­
ucts, etc...........................
Upholstering, etc...............
Total......................... 4,255

3,421 99.4
19 0.6
3,440
67.7 60,349 84.5 967 32.3 11,079 15.5 2,994 4.2 71,428
17,059 100.0
100.0
1,623 *9,5 17,059
534 2.2 24,516
100.0 24,516 100.0
1,515
1,515 100.0
5,660
5,660 100.0
475 4.2 61 .5 11,247
100.0 10,772 95.8
9,463
9,463 100.0
106
106 100.0
24
24 100.0
70
70 100.0
2,130
2,130 100.0
10 .6 1,640
ioo.o 1,640 100.0
6
6 100.0
81.5 136,731

92.2

967 18.5 11,573

7.8 5,222

3.5 148,304

According to the preceding table, the total number of workers
employed in factories using day and night shifts was 148,304, or 14.3
per cent of all factory employees; this number is composed of 136,731
males, or 18.8 per cent of all males employed in factories, and 11,573
females, or 3.7 per cent of all females employed in factories. The
number of young persons employed in shift work was 5,222, or 7.9
per cent of all young persons employed in factories; this number is
composed of 4,255 boys, or 10.7 per cent of all male young persons
employed in factories, and 967 girls, or 3.6 per cent of all female
young persons employed in factories. The number of females there­
fore employed on day and on night shifts forms but a small propor­
tion of the total number of such employees.




HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

583

The industry employing the largest number of factory workers in day
and night shifts is that of the food products group which had 71,428
of such employees; following this come the metal-working group with
24,156 such employees, the industry of stones, earths, etc., with 17,059
such employees, and the paj>er industry with 11,247 such employees.
The number of females and of young persons employed in day and
night shifts is subject to many restrictions by the factory laws and
for this reason the proportion which they bear to the total number of
employees is but small. The food products industry employs the
largest number of women in day and night shifts, haying 11,079 such
employees, the paper industry ranks second with 475 such employees,
and the textile industry (1 establishment engaged in machine-lace
manufacture) with 19 persons. The employment of young persons
in day and night shifts occurs most frequently in the food products
industries where 2,994 such employees are engaged, the stones, earths,
etc., industry with 1,623 such employees, the metal-working industry
with 534, the paper industry with 61, and the smelting, etc., industries
with 10. Night work of females therefore in the factory industries
occurs most frequently in the food products group, which has 15.5 per
cent of all persons employed in day and night shifts; night work of
young persons in the factory industries occurs most frequently in the
stones, earths, etc., group, 9.5 per cent of all workers employed in day
and night shifts being under 16 years of age.
HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS.

In reporting the hours of labor the factory inspectors specified the
duration of the employment separately for workmen engaged in
establishments or parts of establishments operating continuously and
those operating not continuously. In compiling the data, a mixed
establishment operating both continuous and noncontinuous depart­
ments was counted as two establishments and the data classified
accordingly.
In the table following is given the total number of establishments
not operating continuously, the total number of employees of each
sex, and also the per cent of factories and of employees having each
specified number of working hours.




584

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

TOTAL FACTORIES NOT IN CONTINUOUS OPERATION AND TOTAL WORKERS, AND
PER CENT OF FACTORIES AND OF WORKERS HAYING SPECIFIED NUMBER OF
WORKING HOURS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Per cent of establishments and
per cent of workers, with
working time of—

Total number of—

Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural products, etc___
Smelting, etc...........................................
Stones, earths,‘etc..................................
Metal working........................................
Machinery...............................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc........
Rubber....................................................
Leather....................................................
Textile......................................................
Upholstering, etc....................................
Clothing...................................................
Paper........................................................
Food products......................................
Chemical..................................................
Printing and publishing.......................
Power plants...........................................
Total..............................................

Employees.
Estab­
lish­
ments,
and
parts
of
Fe­
estab­ Males. males. Total.
lish­
ments.
13
10
2,072
1,227
843
1,153
30
313
2,274
15
474
679
1,760
731
417
177
12,188

1,132
983
97,092
99,937
92,063
51,620
2,735
13,471
141,369
412
14,824
21,767
53,755
23,725
17,097
1,579
633,561

740
11
28,271
18,557
2,924
9,343
1,678
2,187
159,459
134
21,977
17,764
18,234
10,414
5,661
15
297,369

1,872
994
125,363
118,494
94,987
60,963
4,413
15,658
300,828
546
36,801
39,531
71,989
34,139
22,758
1,594
930,930

9 hours and under.
Workers.
Estab­
lishments,
and
parts
Fe­
of
estab­ Males. males. Total.
lish­
ments.
7.7
5.0
11.6
12.8
9.6
3.3
6.1
1.2
60.0
7.8
8.0
3.5
5.2
94.2
6.2
9.2

0.1
4.3
9.7
25.1
10.8
.4
4.2
.4
75.2
6.9
6.3
3.2
4.9
95.9
7.1
10.4

10.0
2.8
11.3
24.0
3.7
.8
6.6
.5
42.5
5.8
18.9
3.9
6.2
93.0
20.0
5.5

4.0
3.9
9.9
25.1
9.7
.6
4.6
.4
67.2
6.3
12.0
3.4
5.3
95.2
7.2
8.8

Per cent of establishments and per cent of workers, with working
time of—
Over 9 hours to 10 hours.
Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural products, etc___
Smelting, etc...........................................
Stones, earths, etc..................................
Metal working........................................
Machinery...............................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc........
Rubber....................................................
Leather....................................................
Textile......................................................
Upholstering, etc....................................
Clothing...................................................
Paper........................................................
Food products........................................
Chemical..................................................
Printing and publishing.......................
Power plants...........................................
Total..............................................

Over 10 hours to 11 hours.

Workers.
Estab­
lishments,
and
parts
Fe­
of
estab­ Males. males. Total.
lish­
ments.

Workers.
Estab­
lishments,
and
parts
of
Fe­
estab­ Males. males. Total.
lish­
ments.

53.8
20.0
38.6
59.3
70.2
34.6
86.7
58.8
40.4
26.7
57.2
43.7
31.0
45.6
6.0
52.5
42.8

17.6
2.6
41.4
58.8
62.9
32.7
94.0
69.2
40.9
13.1
62.9
40.0
35.7
44.0
3.9
69.0
46.3

27.6
27.3
48.5
59.9
63.7
43.8
95.6
70.6
40.2
56.0
66.8
43.3
47.6
45.3
6.7
60.0
45.2

21.5
2.9
43.0
59.0
62.9
34.4
94.5
69.3
40.5
23.6
65.2
41.5
38.7
44.4
4.6
68.9
45.9

38.5
80.0
48.3
31.5
17.3
55.4
10.0
35.8
58.4
13.3
35.0
52.3
63.5
50.6
.7
41.3
46.9

9.5
97.4
46.2
31.4
12.0
54.2
5.6
26.6
58.7
.11.7
29.7
53.7
59.3
50.8
.2
23.7
41.6

1.9
72.7
42.3
28.8
12.3
52.4
3.6
'22.8
59.2
1.5
27.4
37.8
48.5
48.5
.3
20.0
4a 5

6.5
97.1
45.3
31.0
12.0
53.9
4.9
26.1
59.0
9.2
28.3
46.5
56.5
50.1
.2
23.7
43.8

According to the preceding table the investigation showed that
there were in existence 12,188 establishments and parts of establish­
ments not operating continuously and in these 930,930 workers



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

585

were employed. In 9.2 per cent of these establishments and parts
of establishments, and for 8.8 per cent of the workers, the workingday was 9 hours or less; for 42.8 per cent of the establishments,
etc., and for 45.9 per cent of the workers, the working-day was 10
hours or less, but over 9 hours; for 46.9 per cent of the establish­
ments, etc., and for 43.8 per cent of the workers, the working-day
was 11 hours or less, but more than 10 hours; foi* 2.7 per cent of the
establishments, etc., 1.5 per cent of the workers, the working-day
was longer than 11 hours or the length of the working-day was
indefinite. For more than half of all the workers, therefore, or 54.7
per cent, the working-day was 10 hours or less. The percentages
relating to the number of establishments just given when added
together are slightly in excess of 100, this excess being caused by the
duplication involved in computing parts of establishments.
The working-day of 9 hours or less is shown to be most extensive
in the printing and publishing industries, where 94.2 per cent of the
establishments and 95.2 per cent of all the workers in this group
have this length of working time. The upholstering, etc., industries
rank second in this respect, but the number of establishments and
the persons employed is small. In the machinery industry 25.1 per
cent of all the workers in this group have a working-day of 9 hours
or less. In the other industry groups the workers engaged in paper,
metal working, and woodworking establishments to the* extent of 10
per cent or more have a working-day of 9 hours or less. In the textile
industries less than 1 per cent of the employees have a 9-hour day,
while in the smelting, etc., industries this working-day does not ap­
pear at all.
As a majority of the employees have a working-day of 10 hours
and under, but over 9, the following summary is given to show what
proportion of the employees in the various industry groups are em­
ployed over 10 hours, but not exceeding 11 per day:
PER CENT OF FACTORY WORKERS HAVING A WORKING TIME OF 10 HOURS AND
UNDER, AND OF THOSE WORKING MORE THAN 10 HOURS BUT NOT EXCEEDING
11, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.

Industry groups.

Per cent of work­
ers with working
time of—
10 hours Over 10
and hours to
under. 11 hours.

Mining, agricultural products, etc. 25.5
Smelting, etc.................................... 2.9
Stones, earths, etc........................... 46.9
Metal working.................................. 68.9
Machinery......................................... •88.0
Woodworking, basket wares, etc.. 44.1
Rubber............................... ............. 95.1
Leather............................................. .73.9
Textile..................................'........... 40.9



6.5
97.1
45.3
31.0
12.0
53.9
4.9
26.1
59.0

Industry groups.

Upholstering, etc...........
Clothing...........................
Paper...............................
Food products................
Chemical.........................
Printing and publishing.
Power plants......... ------Average

Per cent of work­
ers with working
time of—
10 hours Over 10
and hours to
under. 11 hours.
90.8
71.5
53.5
42.1
49.7
99.8
76.1
54.7

9.2
28.3
46.5
56.5
50.1
.2
23.7
43.8

586

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In 9 of the 16 industry groups more than a half of all the workmen
are employed 10 hours or less. In printing and publishing 99.8
per cent of all workers fall in this group, though as a rule the
working-day in this trade is usually 9 hours or less. The industry
groups in which the 10-hour day is predominant may be mentioned
the following: The machinery industries where 88 per cent of the
workers have such »a day, power plants with 76.1 per cent, leather
industry with 73.9 per cent, clothing industries with 71.5 per
cent, and metal working with 68.9 per cent. The industries where
the working-day in excess of 10 hours predominates are textiles with
59 per cent of the workers having a day of this length, food products
with 56.5 per cent, woodworking 53.9 per cent, and the chemical
industry with 50.1 per cent. It should be mentioned that the
industry of stones, earths, etc., which in the preceding table shows
45.3 per cent working in excess of 10 hours has, as is stated in the
second table following, 2.9 per cent of its workers employed more
than 11 hours; 4.8 per cent of its workers have the hours of labor
unspecified.
As the law regulating the hours of labor restricts the working-day
to 11 hours with certain exceptions, the following table shows what
proportion of the establishments and workers avail themselves of
the maximum working-day allowed. The first half of the table
shows similar data for establishments in which the working-day is
less than 9 hours.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND PARTS OF ESTABLISHMENTS
NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND OF WORKERS HAVING A WORKING TIME
OF UNDER 9 HOURS AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THOSE HAVING A WORK­
ING TIME OF EXACTLY 11 HOURS, 1906.
Under 9 hours.
Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural products..............
Stones, earths, etc..................................
Metal working........................................
Machinery...............................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc........
Rubber....................................................
Leather....................................................
Textile.....................................................
Upholstering, etc...................................
Clothing...................................................
Paper........................................................
Food products........................................
Chemical..................................................
Printing and publishing.......................
Power plants...........................................
Total..............................................

Establishments
and parts of
establishments.

Workers.
Females.

Males.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent.1 ber. cent.* ber. cent.*
•
1.2
2.1 1,515
44
1.6
339
.25
2.0
648
2.0 1/956
3.5
6.2
13
55
1.9
1.5 5,688
1.2
1.2
616
14
85
.9
1
3
15
.3
1 (5)
19
9
’,
32
2 13.3
7.8
29
1.2
3
.6
177
116
.5
3.4
11
.7
158
610
1.6
554
293
1.6
26
1.5
1.0
12
1.6
237
1.0
299
2.9
287 68.8 13,142 76.9 3,938 69.6
3.4
5.0
79
3 20.0
6
3.8 6,449
3.7 24,166
445

8

£

2.2

Total.
Num­ Per
ber. cent.*
1,854
2.604
5,743
701
18
28
61
293
768
847
536
17,080
82
30,615

1.5
2.2
6.0
■ 1.1

.1
.8
1.2
1.6
75.1

(5)
11.2
1.9

' Ol att noTicoutiimous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of males employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of females employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of all persons employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
6 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.



5.1
3.3

HOURS OF liABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

587

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND PARTS OF ESTABLISHMENTS
NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND OF WORKERS HAVING A WORKING TIME
OF UNDER 9 HOURS AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THOSE HAVING A WORK­
ING TIME OF EXACTLY 11 HOURS, 1906-Concluded.
11 hours.
Industry grobps.

Establishments
and parts of
establishments.

Workers.
Males.

Females.

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent.1 ber. cent.2 ber. cent.3 ber. cent.4
1
Mining, agricultural products, etc___
Stones, earths, etc.................................. 418
Metal working........................................
76
Machinery...............................................
37
Woodworking, basket wares, etc........ 173
1
Rubber....................................................
Leather....................................................
43
Textile.....................................................
750
Upholstering, etc...................................
Clothing...................................................
52
Paper.......................................................
60
Food products........................................ 429
Chemical..................................................
57
Printing and publishing.......................
Power plants..........................................
15
Total.............................................. 2,112

7.7
20.2
6.2
4.4
15.0
3.3
13.7
33.0
11.0
8.8
24.4
7.8
8.5
17.3

16
16,030
4,807
1.345
8,868
127
1,275
46,697
1,818
1,904
8,457
1,319
72
92,735

1.4
16.5
4.8
1.5
17.2
4.6
9.5
33.0
12.3
8.7
15.7
5.6
4.6
14.6

6
4,675
1,209
15
1,689
28
58
54,418
2,176
1,102
1,166
1,104
67,646

0.8
16.5
6.5
.5
18.1
1.7
2.7
34.1
9.9
6.2
6.4
10.6

99

20,705
6,016
1,360
10,557
155
1,333
101,115
3,994
3,006
9,623
2,423
72
22.7 160,381

1.2
16.5
5.1
1.4
17.3
3.5
8.5
33.6
10.9
7.6
13.4
7.1
4.5
17.2

1 Of all noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
2 Of males employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
« Of females employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of all persons employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.

According to the preceding table, 30,615, or 3.3 per cent, of all
workers employed in noncontinuous factory operations have a work­
ing-day of less than 9 hours, while 160,381, or 17.2 per cent, of all the
workers engaged in noncontinuous factory operations, have a workingday of exactly 11 hours. The table shows that the printing and
publishing trades are conspicuous for the high proportion of employees
working less than 9 hours per day, and only one other industry
group—that of upholstering, etc., with 11.2 per cent—has more than 6
per cent of its employees with a working-day of less than 9 hours.
The textile industries rank highest in the largest proportion of its
employees working the full legal maximum of 11 hours per day, as
33.6 per cent of all textile employees in noncontinuous factory opera­
tions have a working-day of this duration. Four other groups have
over 10 per cent of their employees employed the full maximum
working-day. These are the woodworking industry, with 17.3 percent;
the stones, earths, etc., industry, with 16.5 per cent; the food-products
industry, with 13.4 per cent; and the clothing industry, with 10.9
per cent. It is of interest to point out that 22.7 per cent of all
female employees in noncontinuous factory establishments have the
maximum working-day of 11 hours, as against 14.6 per cent of all the
males. This proportion is due to the extensive employment of females
in the textile industries.



588

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table shows the number of establishments and the
persons employed therein whose working-day is in excess of 11 hours
per day:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OP ESTABLISHMENTS AND PARTS OF ESTABLISHMENTS
NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND OF EMPLOYEES WITH WORKING TIME
OF MORE THAN 11 HOURS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Over 11 hours to 12 hours. Over 12 hours to 13 hours.
Industry groups.

Stones, earths, etc......................
Metal working...........................
Machinery...................................
Woodworking...........................
Textile.........................................
Clothing.......................................
Food.............................................
Chemical......................................
Power plants..............................
Total.................................

Over 13 hours.

Workers.
Workers,
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­ Workers.
lish­
lishlish­
ments
ments
ments
and
and
and
parts
parts
parts
of M. F. Total. of M. F. Total. of M. F. To­
estab­
estab­
estab­
tal.
lish­
lish­
lish­
ments.
ments.
ments.
54
2
1
10
3
1
64
2
1
138

1,808 233 2,041
•52
52
40
40
816
7 823
61 108 169
2 22
20
935 11 946
61
61
2
2
3,795 361 4,156

27 1,228 133 1,361
4 346

2 348

55

5

36 1,629

6 159 51 210

55
!

135 1,764

6 159 51 210
i

All over 11 hours.
Industry groups.

Establishments
and parts of
establishments.
Total.

Stones, earths, etc.....................
Metal working...........................
Machinery...................................
Woodworking...........................
Textile.........................................
Clothing......................................
Food............................................
Chemical.....................................
Power plants..............................
Total.................................

6 85
2
1
14
3
1
69
2
1
5178

Workers.

Per Num­
cent.1 ber.
4.1
.2
.1
1.2
.1
.2
3.9
.3
.6
1.5

3,195
52
40
1,162
61
20
990
61
2
5,583

Total.

Females.

Males.

Per Num­
cent.1* ber.
2
3.3
.1
(t>, 3
W .l

1.8
.3
.1
.9

Per Num­
cent.8 ber.

417

1.5

9
108
2
11

.1
.1
(6). i

547

.2

3,612
52
40
1,171
169
22
1,001
61
2
6,130

Per
cent.4*
2.9

!;L.
.1

1 Of all noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
2 Of males employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of females employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of ail persons employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Including 2 establishments with a working day of 12 and of 14 to 15 hours for part of the time.
* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




.1
1.4
.2
.1
.7

HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IK AUSTRIA.

689

From the preceding table it is seen that the working-day in excess
of 11 hours occurs but infrequently; of all the establishments and
parts of establishments not operating continuously, 1.5 per cent
employing 0.7 per cent of all workers in such establishments have
a working-day in excess'of 11 hours. The total number of workers
with this working-day is 6,130, of whom 5,583 are men and 547
women, and these persons comprise 0.9 per cent of the men and 0.2
per cent of the women employed in establishments and parts of
establishments not operating continuously. The working-day in
excess of the legal maximum occurs most frequently in the industry
of stones, earths, etc., with 2.9 per cent of all its workmen so em­
ployed, and due to the fact that the piece-rate system is the method
of paying wages; next in rank comes the woodworking industries
with 1.9 per cent, and third, the food products industries with 1.4
per cent. None of the other industries included in the above table
has over 0.2 per cent of its employees working more than 11 hours
per day.
In addition to the establishments having a regular specified work­
ing-day in excess of 11 hours per day, a number of establishments
not operating continuously have an irregular and unspecified workingday largely due to the effort to adjust the industry to weather condi­
tions and seasonal fluctuations. The number of these establish­
ments and the number of their employees is given in the following
table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND PARTS OF ESTABLISHMENTS
NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND OF EMPLOYEES HAVING IRREGULAR AND
UNSPECIFIED HOURS OF LABOR, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.

Industry groups.

Establishments
and parts of
establishments.

Workers.
Males.

Females.

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent.1 ber. cent.2 ber. cent.8 ber. cent.4
Mining, agricultural products, etc___
Stones, earths, etc..................................
Textile.....................................................
Clothing...................................................
Food products........................................
Total.............................................

2
142
1
1
1
147

15.4
825
6.9 4,676
3
(6).2
51
.1
24
1.2 5,579

72.9
4.8
(5).a
.9

448
1,381
22
3
4
1,858

60.5 1,273
4.9 6,057
25
(5)
54
(5)
28
.6 7,437

68.0
4.8
(5)
(6)
.8

1 Of all noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
2 Of males employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
* Of females employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
4 Of all persons employed in the noncontinuous establishments in the respective industry groups.
6 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




.i

590

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

According to the preceding table, establishments having irregular and
unspecified hours of labor are not numerous; of all the factory estab­
lishments not operating continuously, 1.2 per cent operate under such
working hours and employ 0.8 per cent of the factory workers in such
establishments. The industry group mining, etc., is conspicuous in
the table as having 2 or 15.4 per cent of its establishments and 68.0
per cent of its employees at work under such conditions; this is due
to the fact that these two establishments are privately owned salt
works operating under special conditions! The industry group of
stones, earths, etc., is also of some importance in this connection,
having 6.9 per cent of the establishments in this group and 4.8 per
cent of all the employees engaged in noncontiguous operations work­
ing an unspecified number of hours; these establishments are princi­
pally brick works in which the hours of labor are varied to suit
weather conditions and the seasonal fluctuations in the building
industries.
HOURS OF LABOR IN LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS AND IN URBAN AND
RURAL DISTRICTS.

The report brings out the difference in the working time of facto­
ries under three heads, first, by comparing the various subgroups of
industries with each other; second, by contrasting the establishments
according to size, or rather, according to number of employees; and
third, by comparing the hours of labor in the factories in the large
cities as distinguished from the rest of the country. The following
table shows the proportion of workers in the subgroups of industries
according to the number of hours the employees are engaged; the
first part of the table shows those subgroups of industries with over
1,000 employees while the second part of the table separates from the
preceding group those subgroups of industries with more than 5,000
employees. The first table shows the workers classified into three
groups of working time while the second table classifies the workers
into two groups only, namely, those employed for 10 hours or less
and those employed over 10 but not more than 11 hours.




HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA,

591

P E R C EN T O F EM PLO YEES WORKING* SPE C IF IE D N U M B E R O F H O U R S P E R D A Y IN
EACH G RO UP A N D SU BG R O U P O F IN D U ST R IE S IN WHICH MORE T H A N 1,000 P E R ­
SONS W ER E EM PLO YED IN FACTORIES NOT O PERA TIN G CONTINUO USLY, 1906.

Per cent of work­
ers with work­
ing time of—

Per cent of work­
ers with work­
ing time of—

Industry groups and subgroups. 9 Over Over Industry groups and subgroups.
hours 9 10
and hours hours
un­ to 10 to ll
tier. hours. hours.

Over Over
hours 9 10
and hours hours
un­ to 10 to ll
der. hours. hours.

Stones, earths, etc......................
Stone quarries......................
Stone cutting........................
Chalk quarries......................
Cement plants......................
. Cement products.............. ~.
Kaolin digging.....................
Brick kilns............................
Potteries................................
Fayence wares.....................
Porcelain...............................
Ironstone wares....................
Porcelain painting...............
Cut glass...............................
Mirror glass making............
Glass grinding......................
Miscellaneous glass making.
Metal working............................
Iron foundries..................... .
Wrought-iron wares...........
Blacksmithing.................... .
Scythes, sickles, etc.............
Iron dishes............................
Locksmithing.......................
Structural iron.....................
Wire making, nail making,
etc.......................................
Needles.................................
Wire weaving...................... .
Lamp making......................
Tin, etc., smithing. .........
Sheet-copper work............. .
Percussion caps...................
Brass castings.......................
Tinwares.............................
Gold and silver work......... .
Machinery...................................
Steam engines......................
Miscellaneous motors..........
Agricultural machinery___
>us machinery...
Weapons.
Bicycles.................................
Shipbuilding.......................
Electrical apparatus............
Mathematical apparatus...
Watches and clocks........... .
Pianos..................................
Miscellaneous musical in­
struments..............*.......... .
Woodworking..............................
Sawmills................................
Cooperage.............................
Parquetry work...................
Coarse woodwork..............
Box making........................
Building woodwork........... .
Cabinet making..................
Wood buttons, knobs, etc..
Toys.....................................
Rubber.........................................
Rubber goods.......................
Leather.......................................
Tanning............................... .
Leather products.................
Saddlery................................




3.9 43.0
27.4
67.4
26.9
6.8 24.0
10.3 80.8
72.0
-.6 25.4
.9 69-8
1.5 81.8
3.6 7a 0
69.1
2.2 86.3
11.5 48.4
72.5
20.9 47.0
10.5 sa 7
9.9 59.0
14.9 62.9
4.1 33.3
3.4 63.6
14.3 21.2
9.0 84.5
7.8 78.8
22.2 71.7
.9 59.0
33.7
85.2
54.1 45.9
14.9 72.1
55.6
14.4 13.7
11.9 71.9
1.8 28.6
52.2 44.8
25.1 62.9
30.7 48.8
6.0 94.0
13.5 74.4
16.1 83.9
12.5 75.4
1.2 68.2
30.1 67.2
71.7 23.4
89.7 9.3
56.6 39.8
23.4 32.8
5.9 64.9
62.0 38.0
17.2
9.7 34.4
1.2
8.9
47.8
13.7 22.7
1.1 34.1
10.2 30.9
39.9 52.3
16.1 47.6
20.4 54.4
38.4
11.5 67.2
.6 94.5
95.9
4.6 69.3
68.9
98.7
60.2
.6
8.8

1.2

45.3
72.0
23.8
71.9
69.2
8.9
28.0
66.4
28.6
16.7
25.0
30.9
1L5
40.1
15.5
31.3
38.8
31.0
22.2
62.6
32.8
64.5
6.5
12.9
6.1
40.1
66.3
14.8
13.0
44.4
71.9
16.2
69.6
3.0
12.0
20.5
*ii*i
*ii.9
30.6
2.7
4.9
1.0
3.6
43.8
82.8
53.9
84.4
52.2
63.6
64.3
58.9
7.8
36.3
25.2
61.6
21.3
4.9
4.1
26.1
31.1
1.3
14.0

Textile...................................
Preparing wool..............
Silk spinning.................
Silk weaving..................
Wool spinning...............
Felt..................................
Carpets...........................
Shawls.............................
Wool weavii
Cotton spit
Cotton weaving.
Flax spinning................
Linen weaving...............
Cordage work.................
Jute manufacture..........
Miscellaneous weaving.
Elastic weaving.............
Silk ribbons.
Other ribbons................
Knit goods......................
Lace making..................
Embroidery...................
Textile finishing............
Textile printing.............
Clothing.................................
Sewing work..................
Men’s clothing...............
Shoemaking...................
Glove making................
Hat making...................
Fez making....................
Straw hat making........
Artificial flowers............
Laundries.......................
Paper......................................
Wood i
Pasteb
Paper...............................
Paper products..............
Bookbinding..................
Paper boxes...................
Food products......................
Flourmills.....................
Bakeries..........................
Starch making...............
Sugar...............................
Cocoa, candies...............
Preserves........................
Coffee substitutes..........
Dairies.............................
Malt.................................
Beer breweries...............
Distilleries......................
Chemical................................
Chemical products........
Illuminating je
Petroleum ren
Dyestuffs.....................
Lead pencils.................
Margarin supplies, etc..
Fats and oils................
Explosives....................
Matches.........................
Spodium........................
Printing and j
Type casting.
Book printing..
Lithographing.

0.4 40.5
9.1
7.1
.5 70.3
15.8
36.8
93.8
1.5 37.8
38.5
29.4
45.4
7.0
1.1 32.8
18.1
50.4
73.4
5.5 80.1
12.6 13.6
30.8
52.8
38.2
1.5 36.3
1.9 14.6
.8 54-3
61.8
6.3 65.2
3.0 78.0
30.2 52.2
1.8 61.7
3.8 46.1
6.5 76.7
9.3 83.4
6.8 39.4
77.1
12.0 41.5
47.3
2.3 28.6
7.5 31.0
36.4 34.1
29.2 69.5
14.0 68.1
3.4 38.7
.1 29.3
23.7 48.2
15.2
.4 21.1
2.7 64.7
1.4 60.8
8.9 50.6
20.8 46.2
8.5 39.0
2.6 42.2
4.5 41.3
6.3 44.4
10.2 38.1
15.1 62.4
45.2
6.3 49.2
95.1
*2.5 67.7
1.3
27.5 @ .6
16.0
3.3 44.5
95.2 4.6
85.4 14.6
97.0 2.7
80.3 19.7

59.0
90.9
92.9
29.2
84.2
63.2
6.2
60.7
81.5
70.6
54.6
93.0
64.5
80.9
49.6
26.6
14.4
73.8
69.2
47.2
61.8
62.2
83.5
44.8
38.2
28.3
19.0
17.6
35.7
50.1
16.5
100.0
7.3
53.8
22.9
46.5
52.7
69.1
61.5
29.5
1.3
17.9
56.5
60.1
28.1
83.5
78.5
32.6
37.8
40.5
32.3
52.5
53.4
53.8
50.1
51.7
22.5
53.9
44.5
4.9
29.8
98.7
18.9
84.0
51.4
.2

592

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

P E R C E N T OF EM PLO YEES W O RK ING SPE C IFIED N U M B E R OF H O URS P E R D A Y IN
EACH GROUP AND SUBG R O UP OF IN D U ST R IE S IN W HICH MORE THAN 5,000 PER ­
SONS W E R E EM PLO YED IN FACTORIES NOT O PERA TIN G CONTINUO USLY, 1906.

Industry groups and subgroups.

Stones, earths, etc......................... .
Cement plants...........................
Brick kilns............................... .
Porcelain..................................
Iron-stone wares......................
Glass making...........................
Cut glass.................................. .
Metal working.................................
Iron foundries..........................
Wrought-iron wares...............
Blacksmithing.........................
Iron dishes...............................
Locksmithing..........................
Wire making, nail making,
Brass castings...................
Machinery................................
Steam engines..................
Agricultural machinery..
Miscellaneous machinery,
Scales.................................
Shipbuilding....................
Electrical apparatus........
Woodworking.........................
Saw mills...........................
Cabinetmaking.................
Leather.....................................
Tanning.............................

Per cent of
workers with
working time
of—
10
hours
and
under.

Over 10
hours
to ll
hours.

46.9
30.8
26.0
73.6
69.1
59.9
67.9
68.9
77.8
37.4
67.0
93.5
86.6
59.9
83.8
88.0
79.5
87.9
87.9
97.3
99.0
96.4
44.1
10.1
63.7
73.9
68.9

45.3
69.2
56.4
25.0
30.9
40.1
31.3
31.0
22.2
62.6
32.8
6.5
12.9
40.1
16.2
12.0
20.5
12.1
11.9
2.7
1.0
3.6
53.9
84.4
36.3
26.1
31.1

Industry groups and subgroups.

Textile...............................................
Silk weaving..............................
Wool spinning...........................
Wool weaving...........................
Cotton spinning........................
Cotton weaving.........................
Flax spinning...........................
Linen weaving..........................
Jute manufacture......................
Miscellaneous weaving.............
Knit goods.................................
Textile finishing............................
Clothing.............................................
Sewing work..............................
Shoemaking...............................
Paper.................................................
Wood pulp.................................
Paper..........................................
Paper products.........................
Food products..................................
Flour mills.................................
Sugar...........................................
Cocoa, candies...........................
Beer breweries...........................
Chemical...........................................
Chemical products....................
Matches......................................
Printing and publishing.................
Book printing...........................

Per cent of
workers with
working time
of—
10
'hours
and
under.

Over 10
hours
to ll
hours.

40.9
70.8
15.8
38.5
29.4
45.4
7.0
33.9
50.4
73.4
38.2
55.1
71.5
81.0
63.5
53.5
47.3
38.5
70.5
42.1
29.4
21.5
67.4
44.8
49. 7
48.3
16.0
99.8
99.7

59.0
29.2
84.2
61.5
70.6
54.6
93.0
64.5
49.6
26.6
61.8
44.8
28.3
19.0
35.7
46.5
52.7
61.5
29.5
56.5
60.1
78.5
32.6
53.4
50.1
51.7
84.0
.2
.3

The most conspicuous fact in the preceding tables is that the
skilled or qualified workers are more favorably situated than other
workers as far as working time is concerned. Thus, in the first of
the preceding tables the especially skilled workers have favorable
hours of labor while those branches of industry, not using skilled
labor have working hours in excess of the average for the whole group.
For instance, the workers in the porcelain factories and glass grind­
ing class have shorter working hours than the average for the whole
group, while the brickmakers and cement work and quarry laborers
have longer hours than the average for the group; in the metal­
working trades, the locksmiths, etc., have shorter hours than the
average for the group, while the employees of iron and wire works
have longer working hours than the average for the whole group; the
machine-building industries, scale making, shipbuilding, and electrical
apparatus, which on the whole require skilled labor, have but few
workers with hours of labor in excess of 10, while in the manufac­
ture of steam engines and steam, boilers the percentage of workers
employed more than 10 hours per day is higher than the average for
the whole group; in the textile industries the hours of labor for the
weavers are more favorable than those for the spinners. In all of



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

593

these cases the trained and skilled workers are situated more favorably
than others.
In the following table is given the proportion of workers employed
a specified number of hours per day with the establishments classified
according to size:
PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND PARTS OF ESTABLISHMENTS NOT OPERATING
CONTINUOUSLY AND OF EMPLOYEES HAVING SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER
DAY, CLASSIFIED BY SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, 1906.
Per cent of establishments and of workers having a working
day of—
Industry groups and size of estahlishments by number of employees.

Mining, agricultural products, etc...............
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen...........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Smelting, etc....................................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen........................
Stones, earths, etc...........................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Over 1,000 workmen.........................
Metal working.................................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Over 1,000 workmen.........................
Machinery.................................................. .
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Over 1,000 workmen.........................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc.................
Establishments with—
. 1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workman............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Over 1,000 workmen.........................
Rubber.............................................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
101 to 300 workmen..........................
301 to 1,000 workmen.......................
Over 1,000 workmen........................

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----19




and includ­ Over10 and includ­
9 hours and under. Over 9 10 hours.
ing
ing 11 hours.
Estab­
lish­
ments
and parts Workers.
of estab­
lish­
ments.
7.7

4.0

50.0

52.8

5.0
7.1
5.3
3.0
4.1
7.4
11.6
11.4
12.7
10.0
10.6
14.1
12.8
4.1
10. G
14.5
13.8
30.4
45.5
9.6
5.8
10.6
11.7
15.4
5.0
3.3

3.9
7.7
5.1
2.5
3.7
4.2
9.9
13.2
13.2
10.4
9.5
11.0
25.1
4.4
10.7
14.1
13.2
31.0
54.2
9.7
6.3
10.4
11.5
14.2
6.0
.6

9.1

7.7

Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
ments
ments
and parts Workers. and parts Workers.
of estab­
of estab­
lish­
lish­
ments.
ments.
53.8
50.0
40.0
50.0
100.0
20.0
100.0
100.0
38.6
42.6
34.3
36.9
49.4
59.3
50.0
59.3
56.9
61.8
61.0
52.4
65.4
50.0
70.2
72.3
67.8
72.7
77.0
58.9
45.5
34.6
36.9
33.0
36.7
33.3
15.0
100.0
86.7
80.0
81.8
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0

21.5
60.0
44.0
47.2
15.2
2.9
100.0
100.0
43.0
42.2
33.5
36.8
49.5
50.6
83.9
59.0
55.9
62.0
61.4
50.9
64.2
63.4
62.9
69.7
67.5
73.4
77.1
57.8
37.3
34.4
36.0
33.2
37.9
30.7
12.1
100.0
94.5
74.7
80.5
100.0
89.9
100.0
100.0

38.5
50.0
60.0

40.0
56.0

80.0

97.1

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

48.3
43.9
49.5
51.1
44.9
42.6
50.0
31.5
32.2
26.1
31.7
42.3
26.9
50.0
17.3
23.6
21.9
13.4
9.2
12.5
9.0
55.4
56.7
56.0
51.1
52.6
80.0
10.0

20.0

9.1

11.1

100.0
45.3
43.1
48.4
48.7
42.3
44.9
16.1
31.0
30.4
24.6
28.2
39.6
24.8
36.6
12.0
25.9
21.4
12.5
9.7
11.2
8.5
53.9
56.6
55.2
50.1
52.6
76.5
4.9
25.3
11.8
10.1

594

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

P E R CENT OF ESTA BLISH M EN TS A N D PA R TS O F ESTA BLISH M EN TS NOT O PERA TNG
CONTINUO USLY A N D OF EM PLO YEES H AVING SPE C IFIED N U M B E R OF H O U RS P E R
D A Y , C LA SSIFIED B Y SIZE OF ESTA BLISH M EN T, 1906-Continued.

Per cent of establishments and of workers having a working
day of—
Industry groups and size of establish­
ments by number of employees.

Leather...........................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen.............. .
21 to 50 workmen............ .
51 to 100 workmen...........
101 to 300 workmen..........
301 to 1,000 workmen___
Textile..............................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen...............
21 to 50 workmen............ .
51 to 100 workmen............
101 to 300 workmen..........
301 to 1,000 workmen___
Over 1,000 workmen........
Paper hanging, upholstering, etc
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen.............. .
21 to 50 workmen............ .
51 to 100 workmen............
Clothing...........................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen...............
21 to 50 workmen............ .
51 to 100 workmen............
101 to 300 workmen.........
301 to 1,000 workmen___
Over 1,000 workmen........
Paper...............................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen..............
21 to 50 workmen............
51 to 100 workmen............
101 to 300 workmen..........
301 to 1,000 workmen___
Food products...............................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen..............
21 to 50 workmen............
51 to 100 workmen............
101 to 300 workmen.........
301 to 1,000 workmen___
Over 1,000 workmen.......
Chemical.........................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen............
21 to 50 workmen............
51 to 100 workmen...........
101 to 300 workmen.........
301 to 1,000 workmen....
Over 1,000 workmen.......
j . u u u u g a u u y u u u a m u u , . . • • •.
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen..........
21 to 50 workmen........
51 to 100 workmen......
101 to 300 workmen....
301 to 1,000 workmen..




and includ­ Over 10 and includ­
9 hours and under. Over 910 hours.
ing
ing 11 hours.
Establishments
and parts Workers.
of establishments.
6.1
5.2
9.4
1.9
2.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
1.9
2
4
60.0
25.0
75.0
66.7
7.8
1.5
8.8
9.4
10.3

67.2
26.7
79.5
67.1
6.3
1.7
8.9
8.6
9.3

8.0
6.1
6.3
9.1
12.4
17.2
3.5
3.9
2.7
5.6
3.6
1.7
5.2
6.0
3.5
6.1
3.8
11.8
94.2
92.2
95.8
92.5
94.7
100.0

12.0
8.9
6.5
10.1
12.0
17.4
3.4
3.9
2.7
6.0
4.5
1.5
5.3
5.5
4.0
6.5
4.2
9.4
95.2
92.2
95.2
92.0
96.5
100.0

4.6
5.3
10.2
1.4
3.1
.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
.1

Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
ments
ments
and parts Workers. and parts Workers.
of estab­
of estab­
lish­
lish­
ments.
ments.
58.8
48.4
54.3
75.0
76.5
100.0
40.4
45.2
44.0
40.5
32.8
42.0
53.8
26.7
50.0
12.5
33.3
57.2
57.4
58.8
50.4
57.3
78.6
100.0
43.7
34.6
52.3
49.1
33.7
51.7
31.0
25.3
35.2
31.1
46.1
23.9
100.0
45.6
49.4
45.8
36.5
45.0
35.3
50.0
6.0
7.8
4.8
7.5
5.3

69.3
48.4
55.2
76.4
74.7
100.0
40.5
44.6
43.4
39.7
33.5
43.4
61.3
23.6
46.6
8.4
32.9
65.2
58.6
61.7
51.6
57.2
78.1
100.0
41.5
38.0
52.6
51.4
34.5
36.9
38.7
26.9
35.8
30.9
51.2
34.4
100.0
44.4
53.3
46.6
34.2
47.7
40.7
50.0
4.6
6.3
4.4
8.0
3.5

35.8
46.4
37.0
23.1
23.5
58.4
53.0
54.0
57.8
67.0
58.3
46.2
13.3
25.0
12.5
35.0
42.6
31.9
40.2
32.4
21.4
52.3
64.0
44.3
42.7
58.4
48.3
63.5
64.9
61.9
65.0
53.9
75.2
50.6
44.9
51.2
60.9
53.8
58.8
100.0
.7
1.9
0.5

26.1
46.3
34.6
22.2
22.2
59.0
53.4
54.6
58.3
66.2
56.6
38 7
9.2
26.7
12.1
28.3
39.7
29.1
39.2
33.5
21.9
46.5
53.1
40.9
38.5
53.5
45.7
56.5
62.8
58.9
61.5
44.3
64.1
50.1
41.2
48.3
59.3
48.1
49.9
50.0
.2
1.5
0.4

HOOTS OF XABOE IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

595

P E R CENT O F ESTA BLISH M EN TS A N D PA R TS OF ESTA BLISH M EN TS NOT O PERA TIN G
C O N TIN UO USLY A N D OF EM PLO YEES H AV IN G SPE C IFIED N UM BER OF H O U RS P E R
D A Y , C LA SSIFIED B Y SIZE OF E STA BLISH M EN T, 1906—Concluded.

Per cent of establishments and of workers having a working
day of—
Industry groups and size of establishments by number of employees.

Power plants.:................................................
Establishments with—
1 to 20 workmen................................
21 to 50 workmen..............................
51 to 100 workmen............................
100 to 300 workmen..........................
Total................................................
1 to 20 workmen.........................
21 to 50 workmen.......................
51 to 100 workmen.....................
101 to 300 workmen...................
301 to 1,000 workmen................
Over 1,000 workmen..................

and includ­ Over 10 and includ­
9 hours and under. Over 910 hours.
ing 11 hours.
ing
Estab­
lish­
ments
and parts Workers.
of estab­
lish­
ments.
6.2
6.8
33.3

7.2
9.0
64.0

9.2
8.4
10.3
9.6
7.4
7.5
11.6

8.8
9.7
10.5
9.9
7.2
7.4
15.8

Estab­
lish­
ments
and parts Workers.
of estab­
lish­
ments.
52.5
48.6
75.0
100.0
42.8
40.0
43.1
43.8
44.8
44.5
60.5

68.9
51.9
81.3
100.0
45.9
41.2
43.4
44.3
44.9
46.4
62.8

Estab­
lish­
ments
and parts Workers.
of estab­
lish­
ments.
41.3
43.8
29.2
66.7

23.7
38.9
18.7
36.0

46.9
49.8
44.5
45.4
49.0
51.0
30.2

43.8
46.6
42.7
43.2
47.1
45.4
21.4

According to the preceding table no general rule can be formulated
as to the relation between the hours of labor and the size of the estab­
lishment. In some of the industry groups the number of workers
with hours in excess of 10 is smaller in the large establishments than
in the small establishments; thus in the machine industry, leather
industry, clothing and printing and publishing industries this fact is
observed. In other industry groups the hours of labor in the smaller
establishments are more favorable to the workers than is the case
in the large establishments. Even the total for all the groups shows
no regular tendency. In the establishments employing 21 to 50
workers and those employing 51 to 100 workers the number of
workers employed more than 10 hours per day is less than the aver­
age for all the groups, while the contrary is true for the establish­
ments employing 101 to 300 workers. On the other hand, in the
establishments employing more than 1,000 workers the number
working more than 10 hours per day is only 21.4 per cent, as com­
pared with 43.8 per cent of the average for all workers.




596

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

HOURS OF LABOR IN THE CITIES AND IN THE RURAL DISTRICTS.

In the following table the six cities having a population according
to the 1900 census in excess of 100,000 are compared with the rest of
the chamber of commerce districts in which they are located; the
six cities mentioned in the table contain more than one-fifth of all
the factory employees engaged in noncontinuous factories.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WORKERS IN FACTORIES NOT OPERATING CONTIN­
UOUSLY, HAVING SPECIFIED HOURS OF LABOR PER DAY, CLASSIFIED BY CITIES
AND BY RURAL DISTRICTS, 1906.




HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA,

597

N UM BER A ND P E R CENT OF W O RK ERS IN FACTORIES NOT O PERATING CONTIN.
UOUSLY, HAVING SPEC IFIED HOURS OF LABOR P E R D A Y , CLASSIFIED B Y CITIES
A N D B Y R U R A L DISTRICTS, 1906—Concluded.

Number and per cent of workers with work­
ing time of—
Number of workers.
Industry groups and localities.

9 hours
10 hours
9 hours and Over includ­ Over includ­
and
and
under.
ing 10 hours. ing 11 hours.

Per
Per
Fe­
Per
Males. males. Total. Num­ cent. Num­ cent. Num­ cent.
ber.
ber.
ber.
TEXTILE.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn.............................................. 12,535 14,924 27,459
Districts, outside cities.................... 24,446 23,783 48,229
Districts and cities................. 36,981 38,707 75,688
UPHOLSTERING, ETC.

Vienna................................................

404

125

529

975 3.5 15,863 57.8 10,621 38.7
62 .1 9,851 20.4 38,291 79.4
1,037 1.4 25,714 34.0 48,912 64.6
367 69.4

112 21.2

50

9.4

CLOTHING.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn.............................................. 6,054 12,300 18,354 2,045 11.1 15,162 82.6 1,147 6.3
2,135 58.6 1,509 41.4
Districts, outside cities.................... 1,997 1,647 3,644
Districts and cities................. 8,051 13,947 21,998 2,045 9.3 17,297 78.6 2,656 12.1
PAPER.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn, Lemberg............................ 3,210 6,169 9,379 4,422 47.1
269 2.9
Districts, outside cities.................... 5,682 3,728 9,410
Districts and cities................. 8,892 9,897 18,789 4,691 25.0

4,763 50.8
3,294 35.0
8,057 42.9

194 2.1
5,847 62.1
6,041 32.1

FOOD PRODUCTS.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn, Lemberg............................ 8,828 5,078 13,906 1,212 8.7 9,355 67.3 3,081 22.2
Districts, outside cities.................... 16,922 4,189 21,111
237 1.1 5,638 26.7 14,949 70.8
Districts and cities................. 25,750 9,267 35,017 1,449 4.1 14,993 42.8 18,030 51.5
CHEMICAL.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn, Lemberg............................ 5,633 2,083 7,716
Districts, outside cities.................... 7,095 3,370 10,465
Districts and cities................. 12,728 5,453 18,181

889 11.5 5,582 72.4
642 6.1 4,844 46.3
1,531 8.4 10,426 57.3

1,245 16.1
4,938 47.2
6,183 34.0

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn, Lemberg........................... 12,079 3,924 16,003 15,831 98.9
Districts, outside cities.................... 440
115
555
463 83.4
Districts and cities................. 12,519 4,039 16,558 16,294 98.4

172 1.1
92 16.6
264 1.6

POWER PLANTS.

Vienna, Gratz, Prague, Briinn___
Districts, outside cities....................
Districts and cities.................

493
148
641

8
8

501
148
649

55 11.0
13 8.8
68 10.5

364 72.6
70 47.3
434 66.9

82 16.4
65 43.9
147 22.6

TOTALS.

Vienna, Gratz, Trieste, Prague,
Briinn, Lemberg............................ 144,808 58,510 203,318 62,196 30.6 118,381 58.2 22,107 10.9
Districts, outside cities.................... 142,417 52,429 194,846 5,123 2.6 72,874 37.4 109,542 56.2
Districts and cities................. 287,225 110,939 398,164 67,319 16.9 191,255 48.0 131,649 32.9




598

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

According to the preceding table, factory workers in cities have
uniformly more favorable working hours than factory workers in
establishments located in the rural districts. In the six cities in­
cluded in the table, 30.6 per cent of all the workers have 9 hours or
less and 58.2 per cent have from 9 to 10 hours, while in the rest of
the districts only 2.6 per cent had a working-day of 9 hours or less
and 37.4 per cent had a working-day of from 9 to 10 hours. The
contrast is most marked in the column showing the working-day of
over 10 to 11 hours, where the six cities had only 10.9 per cent as
contrasted with 56.2 per cent of the workers in the rural districts.
The same tendency is shown for each of the industry groups in­
cluded in the table, and in many cases the difference is quite marked;
thus, in the industry of stones, earths, etc., there was a working day
of 9 hours or less in the cities for 7.6 per cent of the workers, while
in the rural districts only 1 per cent had such a day; in the wood­
working industry 50.3 per cent of the city workers had a day of 9
hours or less as contrasted with 2.4 per cent of the rural workers;
in the textile industries the proportions were 3.5 per cent for the
city workers and 0.1 per cent for the rural workers, while in the
paper industry the proportions were 47.1 per cent for the city workers
and 2.9 per cent for the rural workers. The same tendency is
brought out by comparing the proportion of workers having a day
of over 10 hours to 11 hours as shown by the figures in the last
column; thus, of the metal workers in the cities only 1.4 per cent
while in the rural districts 31.5 per cent had a working-day of over
10 to 11 hours.
Several causes combined to produce the more favorable position
of the city factory employee; the report states that the dwellers in
the city on account of their larger numbers find it easier to enforce
their demands for shorter hours than the smaller numbers of per­
sons living in the rural districts; besides this the industry groups
which use principally trained and skilled workers are mainly located
in the larger cities. The editor of the report states that this factor
is mainly responsible for the marked contrast in the proportion of
workers having a day of over 10 hours to 11 hours in the metal­
working, the machinery, the woodworking, and the paper industries.
HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS OPERATING
CONTINUOUSLY.

The investigation showed that there were in Austria 3,267 estab­
lishments and parts of establishments operating continuously, and
that these establishments employed 106,671 persons. The folioWv
ing table shows the length of the working-day in these establishments
and parts of establishments:



HOURS OF LABOR IK FACTORIES IK AUSTRIA.

599

TOTAL FACTO RIES O PERATING CONTINUO USLY A N D TOTAL W O RK ERS, A N D P E R
CENT OF FACTORIES A ND OF W O RK ERS H AVING SPEC IFIED N U M B E R OF H O U R S
TO A SH IFT, B Y IN D U ST R IE S, 1906.

Per cent of establishments and of workers
with shifts of—
12 hours.

8 hours.
Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural products,
etc................................................
Smelting, etc........ .......................
Stones, earths, etc........................
Metal working...............................
Woodworking, basket wares,etc.
Paper....... ......................................
Food products...............................
Chemical........................................
Power plants.................................
Total.

tablishments
and
parts
of establishments.

Workers.

10.0 2.5

Workers.
Establishments
and
To­ parts M.
To­
of es­
tal. ta b ­
tal.
lish.ments.

2.5
1.3 9.6
9.6
11.2 12.7 22.7 12.8
.8
10.1
.7
2.0
2.8
1.6 3.2 .3 2.9

Total number of—
Workers.
Establishments
and
parts
of establish- M. F. Total.
ments.

100.0
3
6
6
1,456
90.0 97.5
10 1,456
97.5
13,138
96.1 41.1 11.1 41.0 1,31413,084
98 7,552
7,596
92.9 .87.3 77.3 87.2
100.0 100.0
100.0
2 18
18
99.6 99.3 89.9 98.9 240 5,663| 227 5,890
92.6 95.1 100.0 95.9 1,083 57,19110,931 68,122
96.7 92.6 100.0 92.6 306 8,383 56 8,439
96.7 94.9
94.9 211 2,006'.
2,006
95.2 87.1 1.3 88.4 3,267^5,35911,312 106,671
100.0 100.0

According to the preceding table 1.6 per cent of the establishments
and parts of establishments and 2.9 per cent of the workers had a
working shift of 8 hours per day; 95.2 per cent of the establishments
and parts of establishments and 88.4 per cent of the workers had a
working day of 12 hours; 3.2 per cent of the establishments and parts
of establishments operating continuously and 8.7 per cent of the
workmen employed in this class were establishments and workers
with a shift whose duration was either 8 or 12 hours and included
some glass workers and maltsters who did not work in shifts. The
8-hour shift, therefore, occurred but seldom and the 12-hour shift was
almost the uniform rule in continuous operating factories. It will
be noted that the food products industry is responsible for a large
proportion of the establishments with the 12-hour day; according to
a more detailed table contained in the original report, the sugar facto­
ries are responsible for 53.5 per cent of the workers having a 12-hour
day; in the sugar industry no establishment reported a working shift of
8 hours. According to the report the working hours in the establish­
ments operating continuously are, as a matter of fact, not so unfavor­
able as the data in the table might indicate; the duration of the shift in
the establishments operating continuously includes the mealtimes pre­
scribed by law, and, as is shown below, such rest periods for three-fourths
of the continuous operating establishments and for over half of the
workers employed therein amount to more than 1 hour per day. The
metal working industry group shows 12.8 per cent of the workers in
continuous establishments with a working day of 8 hours; the group



600

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ranking next in order is that of stones, earths, etc., with 9.6 per cent,
chemical industry with 7.3 per cent, and power plants with 4.4 per
cent of all the workmen in establishments operating continuously.
The 8-hour shift is found least in the food products industry on
account of the presence of the sugar factories, while in the wood­
working and mining, agricultural, etc., products factories, the 8-hour
shift does not occur at. all, although it should be stated that the
number of establishments in this class is respectively 2 and 3 and the
number of workmen employed is small. A few establishments oper­
ating continuously have a shift of more than 12 hours per day for
any regular shift. The following table shows the number of these
establishments and the number of employees:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FACTORIES IN CONTINUOUS OPERATION, AND OF
WORKERS THEREIN, HAVING SHIFTS OF MORE THAN 12 HOURS AND HAVING
ONE WEEKLY SHIFT OF MORE THAN 18 HOURS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Continuously operating establishments with shifts of—
Over 12 hours or unspecified.
Industry groups.

Workers.
Estab­
lishments
and parts
Fe­
of estab­
lishments. Males. males. Total.

Over 18 hours or unspecified on the day
when the weekly change of shifts was
made.
Establish-mflnts
and parts
of estab­
lishments. Males.

Workers.
Fe­
males.

Total.

No. Per No. Per No. Per No. Per No. Per No. Per No. Per No. Per
Ct.2
ct.3
Ct.2
ct.1
ct.3
ct.4
ct.1
Ct.4
Stones, earths, etc. 23 1.8 168
Metal working___
Food products. . . .
Chemical................ 4 1.3 9
Power plants......... 1 .5 15
Total............ 28 .‘9 192

1.3
.1
.7
.2

168 1.3 5 45
1
6 74
.9 .1 12
15 .7 5
192 .2 137

3.4 100 0.8
1.0 52 .7
6.8 1,375 2.4
3.9 309 3.7
2.4 31 1.5
4.2 1,867 2.0

5
5

100 0.8
.7
2.0
3.7
1.5
1.8

52
(9 1,380
309
31
(9 1,872

1 Of all continuously operating establishments and parts of establishments in the respective industry
groups.
2 Of all males employed in continuously operating establishments and parts of establishments in the
respective industry groups.
* Of all females employed in continuously operating establishments and parts of establishments in the
respective industry groups.
4 Of all persons employed in continuously operating establishments and parts of establishments in the
respective industry groups.
5 In addition there were 8 parts of establishments each having 2 male employees without change of shift.
* In addition there were 2 parts of establishments each having 2 male employees without change of shift.
7 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

According to the preceding table 28 establishments and parts of
establishments or 0.9 per cent of all such establishments operating
continuously and 192 workmen or 0.2 per cent of all workmen so
employed had a shift of over 12 hours per day. The second part of
the preceding table shows the number of establishments and number
of employees who are required to work more than 18 hours on the
day when the weekly change of day and night shift is made; 137
establishments and parts of establishments or 4.2 per cent of all con­
tinuous operating establishments and 1,872 employees or 1.8 per cent
of the employees in continuous operating establishments had such a




HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA,

601

shift. Most of the workers in this class are found in the food
products industry, where 1,380 workers were so employed and in
the chemical industry where 309 workers were so employed.
In order to show what influence, if any, the size of establishment
had upon the length of the shift, the following table presents the
data for 9 industry groups with the establishments classified accord­
ing to the number of employees:
PER CENT OF FACTORIES IN CONTINUOUS OPERATION, AND OF WORKERS
THEREIN, HAVING SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS TO A SHIFT, IN EACH INDUS­
TRY GROUP, BY SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, 1906.
Per cent of establishments and of workers with
shifts of—
Industry groups and size of establishments, by number
of workers.

Smelting «te

................................................................

Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers.................
Stones, earths, etc..................................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 60 workers........................
Establishments w ith51 to 100 workers.....................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers..................
Establishments with over 1,000 workers....................
Metal working__ , ...................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers..................
Establishments with over 1,000 workers....................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc........................................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers.........................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Paper.......................................................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers..................
Food products........................................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
Establishments with 301 to LOOOworkers.................
Establishments with over 1,000 workers....................
Chemical..................................................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers..................
Power plants..........................................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers.......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers.....................
All industry groups..............................................................
Establishments with 1 to 20 workers..........................
Establishments with 21 to 50 workers........................
Establishments with 51 to 100 workers......................
Establishments with 101 to 300 workers....................
Establishments with 301 to 1,000 workers..................
Establishments with over 1,000 workers....................



8 hours.

12 hours.

Establish­
Establish­
ments and
ments and
parts of Workers. parts of Workers.
establish­
establish­
ments.
ments.
10.0
50.0

2.5
54.4

1.3

9.6

3.0
1.3
12.8
11.2

7.2
4.8
28.4
12.8

4.8
22.6
13.6

1.7
33.6
8.4

.8
1.3

1.1
.2

7.1
.7
.7
.3
2.9

4.1
.1
.5
.1
.2

2.0

7.3

1.8
7.5
9.1
2.8
1.7
8.7
20.0
1.6
.6
.4
2.2
4.3
4.7

1.5
12.3
12.9
4.4
1.5
11.8
4.8
2.9
.5
1.1
2.7
4.2
2.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
90.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.1
97.1
97.4
96.1
94.3
82.1
50.0
92.9
100.0
100.0
95.2
83.9
95.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.9
92.6
88.5
92.2
94.6
99.3
100.0
50.0
96.7
96.4
100.0
98.2
92.5
90.9
96.7
97.8
91.3
100.0
80.0
95.2
93.5
96.2
96.3
95.2
95.3
75.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
45.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
41.0
97.2
80.2
43.2
35.6
23.7
4.7
87.2
100.0
100.0
98.3
66.4
91.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.9
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
95.9
95.9
79.3
73.7
71.9
97.9
99.8
90.6
92.6
98.7
100.0
98.5
87.7
87.1
94 9
96.8
88.2
100.0
95.2
88.4
88.0
83.8
74.0
87.0
94.0
73.7

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

602

DURATION OF INTERMISSIONS IN ESTABLISHMENTS NOT OPERATING
CONTINUOUSLY.

The duration of the intermissions or rest periods for meals, etc., is
a matter of importance to the welfare of factory workers. The fol­
lowing table shows the facts for the establishments not operating
continuously included in the present investigation:
TOTAL FACTORIES NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND TOTAL WORKERS, AND
PER CENT OF FACTORIES AND OF WORKERS HAVING SPECIFIED LENGTH OF
MIDDAY REST PERIODS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Per cent of establishments and of employees
with midday rest period of—
1 hour and under.
Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural prod­
ucts, etc..............................
Smelting, etc.........................
Stones, earths, etc................
Metal working......................
Machinery.............................
W o o d w o rk in g , basket
wares, etc...........................
Rubber..................................
Leather....v:.........................
Textile...................................
Upholstering, etc.................
Clothing.................................
Paper......................................
Food products......................
Chemical................................
Printing and publishing__
Power plants........................
Total............................

Over 1 hour.

Estab­ Workers.
lishments
and
parts
of
To­
estab­ M. F. tal.
lish­
ments.

Estab­ Workers.
lishments
and
parts
of
To­
estab­ M. F. tal.
lish­
ments.

84.6
90.6
82.3
82.2
78.5
90.4
96.7
90.4
90.7
80.0
81.0
89.7
83.9
93.4
13.2
72.9
83.4

22.4
97.9
85.3
80.8
68.6
89.6
99.6
92.5
90.8
74.3
82.4
87.3
84.6
93.5
9.3
68.5
82.0

27.4
72.7
87.2
80.4
83.8
92.8
99.2
91.7
88.2
85.8
85.6
80.2
84.6
84.9
9.9
80.0
85.2

Total number of
vvui-h-eia.
Estab­
lish­
ments
and
parts
of
estab­
lish­ M. F. Total.
ments.

24.4 .15.4 4.7 12.0 7.6
13 1,132 740 1,872
97.6 10.0 2.1 27.3 2.4
11 994
10 983
85.8 11.3 8.8 6.3 8.3 2,072 97,092 28,271 125,363
80.7 18.5 18.9 19.5 18.9 1,227 99,937 18,557 118,494
69.1 21.5 31.4 16.2 30.9 843 92,063 2,924 94,987
90.1 9.5 10.2 7.2 9.8 1,153 51,620 9,343 60,963
99.4 3.3 .4 .8 .6
30 2,735 1,678 4,413
92.4 9.6 7.5 8.3 7.6 313 13,471 2,187 15,658
89.4 9.4 9.2 11.7 10.5 2,274 141,369 159,459 300,828
77.1 20.0 25.7 14.2 22.9
15 412 134 546
84.3 19.0 17.3 14.4 15.6 474 14,824 21,977 36,801
84.1 13.3 12.6 19.8 15.9 679 21,767 17,764 39,531
84.6 15.7 15.0 14.4 14.8 1,760 53,755 18,234 71,989
90.9 6.8 6.5 15.1 9.1 731 23,725 10,414 34,139
9.4 88.0 90.5 90.1 90.4 417 17,097 5,661 22,758
15 1,594
68.6 19.2 29.4 20.0 29.4 177 1,579
83.0 15.7 16.8 14.0 15.9 12,188 633,561 297,369 930,930

In the establishments included in the present investigation nearly
all of the workers had a regularly definitely specified noonday rest
period; only in the case of 1.1 per cent of the workmen was such a
regular rest period lacking, and this occurred in the establishments
that specified hours of labor. In the great majority of cases the
noonday intermission was one hour or less in duration; periods of
more than one hour occurred in the case of more than 25 per cent of
the workers in the southern geographical sections, such as the
southern portions of the Empire. In the printing and publishing
trades the noon intermission was more than one hour for 90.4 per
cent of the workers, while in the case of the machine-building indus­
tries the proportion was 30.9 per cent, power plants 29.4 per cent,
upholstering establishments 22.9 per cent, and metal working 18.9
per cent of the workers.



HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA.

603

la some industries it is customary to allow a rest period ini the
forenoon and also in the afternoon, usually designated as the breakfast
recess or the afternoon lunch recess. The following table shows the
proportion of workers in establishments not operating continuously,1
by industry groups, having such a rest period:
PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN ESTABLISHMENTS NOT OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY
HAVING FORENOON AND AFTERNOON REST PERIODS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS,
1906.

Industry groups.

Per cent of em­
ployees hav­
ing rest pe­
riods in the—

Industry groups.

Fore- After­
noon. noon.

Fore­ After­
noon. noon.
Mining, agricultural products, etc.
Smelting, etc....................................
Stones, earth, etc.............................
Metal working..................................
Machinery.........................................
Woodworking, basket wares, etc..
Rubber..............................................
Leather..............................................
Textile...............................................

13.1
97.6
78.9
45.8
20.3
64.5
39.8
40.2
31.1

10.5
.5
64.0
29.2
15.3
41.0
21.9
31.6
19.4

Per cent of em­
ployees hav­
ing rest pe­
riods in the—

Upholstering, etc............
Clothing............................
Paper................................
Food products.................
Chemical..........................
Printing and publishing.
Power plants...................
Average..................

64.3
47.9
67.9
79.8
76.6
5.2
38.6
47.8

59.1
48.7
52.8
47.0
47.7
5.4
32.4
33.3

On an average 47.8 per cent of all the workers have an intermission
for breakfast, and 33.3 per cent a similar period for afternoon lunch.
The extent of these intermissions is dependent on the number of hours
worked per day. The law provides that such intermissions may be
omitted if the working time before the noonday rest is five hours or
less, and similarly for the afternoon. Such rest periods, therefore,
do not occur in those industry groups having shorter working hours;
the printing and publishing trades therefore have but few such inter­
missions, while in most of the other industry groups, where a shorter
working-day prevails, the percentage of workers with breakfast or
afternoon luncheon intermissions is less than 50* per cent of all the
workers. In addition, the law permits, under certain conditions,
that these intermissions may be omitted, or, in the case of machinery
running continuously, it may be arranged that the workers may
have these meals during the operations of the plant; thus, in the
textile industry, an intermission for breakfast is reported for only
31.1 per cent of the workers, and the afternoon lunch for only 19.4
per cent of the workers, although in this industry group more than
half of all the workers are employed for longer than 10 hours. The
above table also includes night workers, in whose case the rest peri­
ods come at corresponding intervals during the night.




604

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

DURATION OF INTERMISSIONS IN ESTABLISHMENTS OPERATING
CONTINUOUSLY.

In the establishments operating continuously, 41.5 per cent of the
workmen had intermissions which together were equal to one hour or
less, 46.8 per cent had intermissions of more than one hour, including
two hours, and 2.2 per cent had intermissions of more than two hours;
the remaining 9.5 per cent is composed of glassworkers, maltsters,
etc., whose intermission came at times allowed by the work, and
therefore extremely irregular, while a few had no rest periods at all,
though in such cases the shift was short in duration.
The following tables show these facts for the various industry
groups:
TOTAL FACTORIES OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND TOTAL WORKERS, AND PER
CENT OF FACTORIES AND OF WORKERS HAVING SPECIFIED LENGTH OF REST
PERIODS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Total number of—

Industry
groups.

EsWorkers.
tablishments
and
parts
of es­
tab­ M. F. Total
lish
ments

Per cent of establishments and of workers with rest periods
of—
1 hour and under. Over 1 hour to 2 hours. Over 2hours.
Es- Workers.
tablishments
and
parts
of es- M. F. To­
tal.
tablishments

Mining, agricul­
tural prod­
3
6
6 100.0 100.0 100.0
ucts, etc........
Smelting, etc... 10 1,456
1,456 30.0 42.8
42.8
Stones, earths,
etc.................. 1,314 13,084 54 13,138 8.5 8.4 .... 8.3
Metal working. 98 7,552 44 7,596 15.3 15.5 .... 15.4
Woodworking,
basket wares,
2 18
etc.................
18
Paper................ 240 5,663 227 5,890 20.0 20.3 9.9 19.5
Food products. 1,083 57,191 10,931 68,122 35.0 55.4 56.3 55.5
Chemical......... 306 8,383 56 8,439 17.3 25.3 __ 25.2
12.0
Power plants... 211 2,006
2,006 12.3 12.0
Total....... 3,267 95,359 11,312 106,671 19.6 39.9 54.5 41.5




Workers.
EsEs- Workers.
tabtablishlishments
ments
and
and
parts
parts
of es- M. F. To­ of es- M. F. To­
tal. tabtal.
tablishlishments
ments
70.0 57.2 ..... 57.2
87.0 40.7 11.1 40.6
84.7 83.2 100.0 83.3

. - • . . . • . ••
1.3 0.7 _ 0.7
3.1 1.3 1.3

100.0
100.0 100.0
77.5 72.6 85.9 73.1 .4 .6 . . .
51.2 37.0 41.6 37.7 3.6 2.4 2.1
75.2 68.6 100.0 68.8 6.2 5.3
82.2 6.6 2.7
80.1 82.2
72.7 47.3 42.8 46.8 2.8 2.2 2.1

.6
2.4
5,3
2.7
2.2

HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORIES IN AUSTRIA,

605

PER CENT OF FACTORIES OPERATING CONTINUOUSLY AND OF WORKERS HAVING
SPECIFIED LENGTH OF REST PERIODS IN THE FORENOON AND iN THE AFTERNOON, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Per cent of establishments and of employees having rest periods during-—
The forenoon (or preceding midnight) The afternoon (or after midnight)
of—
of—
One-fourth hour.
Industry groups.

Mining, agricultural prod­
ucts, etc..........................
Smeltmg, etc.....................
Stones, earths, etc.............
Metal working...................
Machinery..........................
Woodworking, b a sk e t
wares, etc.......................
Rubber...............................
Leather...............................
Textile................................
Upholstering, etc..............
Clothing.............................
Paper..................................
Food products...................
Chemical.............................
Printing and publishing..
Power plants..................
Average....................

One-half hour.

One-fourth hour.

One-half hour.

Es- Workers. Es- Workers. Es- Workers. Es- Workers.
tabtabtabtablishlishIishlishm’ts
m’ts
m’ts
m’ts
and
and
and
and
parts
parts
parts
To­ parts
of es- M. F. To­ of es- M. F. To­ of es- M. F. tal. of es- M. F. To­
tal. tabtal. tabtal.
tabtablishlishlishlishm’ts.
m’ts.
m’ts.
m’ts.
15.4 5.0 1.9 3.8
10.0 1.5 _ 1.5
20.0 21.6 30.7 23.7
28.6 21.3 38.3 24.0
22.1 13.7 40.2 14.5
30.9 26.6 29.0 27.0
36.7 35.4 37.7 36.3
19.2 12.2 27.5 14.3
22.4 20.2 19.2 19.6
46.7 47.6 74.6 54.2
38.8 31.7 42.4 38.1
28.3 20.9 21.8 21.3
15.7 12.1 21.7 14.6
29.4 28.5 47.4 34.3
3.4 3.8 5.5 4.3
22.6 21.7 33.3 21.8
23.1 19.5 24.9 21.2




38.5 7.2 12.6 9.3 15.4 5.0 1.9 3.8
_
80.0 96.3 72.7 96.1
59.3 57.2 48.2 55.2 ” 20.8 22.5 30.9 24.4
24.0 23.6 12.5 21.8 26.1 18.6 27.8 20.1
10.6 5.8 3.7 5.8 20; 9 11.8 34.2 12.5
38.4 38.3 33.3 37.5 23.2 20.5 33.4 22.5
3.3 4.6 1.7 3.5 26.7 19.8 16.2 18.4
35.5 27.2 17.7 25.9 23.6 17.7 31.6 19.6
13.5 12.0 11.1 11.5 19.4 13.6 13.3 13.4
13.3 11.7 5.2 10.1 46.7 47.6 74.6 54.2
16.2 11.3 8.7 9.8 38.8 30.6 42.2 37.6
42.9 53.9 37.7 46.6 29.7 26.4 23.2 25.0
59.0 69.7 52.0 65.2 14.6 11.7 20.8 14.0
46.9 47.4 30.6 42.3 27.9 25.9 45.1 31.7
0.7 1.0 0.8 0.9 3.8 4.0 5.7 4.4
14.1 16.6 33.3 16.8 23.2 22.4 40.0 22.5
35.0 29.8 19.7 26.6 21.6 17.1 21.0 18.3

15.4 2.8 12.6 6.7
10.0 0.5
0.5
43.1 40.3 37.5 39.6
12.7 9.5 7.2 9.1
5.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
18.5 17.2 25.8 18.5
3.3 4.6 1.7 3.5
20.1 12.8 6.6 12.0
8.4 6.3 5.7 6.0
6.7 5.3 3.7 4.9
17.7 12.7 10.1 11.1
25.9 31.0 23.9 27.8
35.2 37.5 19.8 33.0
19.8 15.9 16.2 16.0
1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0
9.0 9.8 20.0 9.9
21.5 16.4 12.0 15.0

606

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

EARLY CLOSING ON SATURDAY AND ON DAYS PRECEDING HOLIDAYS.

The following table shows the number and proportion of establish­
ments and employees having a shorter working-day on Saturday and
on days preceding holidays.
ESTABLISHMENTS AND EMPLOYEES WITH SHORTER WORKING-DAY ON SATUR­
DAY AND ON DAYS PRECEDING HOLIDAYS, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
Total number of—
Industry groups.

Establishments

Per cent of establishments and of employees
with earlier closing time on—

M.

F.

Days preceding
holidays.

Saturday.

Workers.

Workers.
Workers.
Es­
Estab­
tablishlishTotal. ments M. F. Total. ments M. F. Total

Mining, agricultural prod­
ucts, etc............................ 13 1,138 740 1,878
Smelting, etc....................... 13 2,439
11 2,450
Stones, earths, etc.............. 2,076 110.176 28,325 138,501
Metal working..................... 1,243 107,489 18,601 126,090
Machinery........................... 843 92,063 2,924 94,987
Woodworking, b ask et
wares, etc......................... 1,153 51,638 9,343 60,981
Rubber................................. 30 2,735 1,678 4,413
Leather................................ 313 13,471 2,187 15,658
Textile................................. 2,274 141,369 159,459 300,828
Upholstering, etc................ 15 412 134
546
Clothing............................... 474 14,824 21,977 36,801
Paper.................................... 694 27,430 17,991 45,421
Food products.................... 1,936 110,946 29,165 140,111
Chemical.............................. 785 32,108 10,470 42,578
Printing and publishing... 417 17,097 5,661 - 22,758
Power plants...................... 315 3,585
15 3,600
Total.......................... 12,594 728,920 308,681 1,037,601

15.4
31.6
42.2
38.8
25.9
43.3
26.8
38.0
33.3
40.5
25.1
8.3
21.0
8.4
7.6
28.0

5.5
30.5
38.5
53.3
22.5
38.6
31.3
41.5
25.2
49.4
21.7
4.3
17.7
6.1
7.4
30.8

2.3
46.2
49.3
44.9
25.8
38.4
37.3
41.6
70.9
51.5
29.8
8.9
27.7
7.8
13.3
37.7

4.3
33.7
40.1
53.0
23.0
38.6
32.1
41.6
36.4
50.6
24.9
5.2
20.2
6.5
7.4
32.9

23.1
23.1
34.2
55.4
52.4
35.4
60.0
43.5
54.1
53.3
46.4
41.2
16.7
32.0
58.3
11.1
39.8

6.3
5.9
31.3
48.1
52.7
35.5
44.5
44.1
63.2
56.3
41.9
31.1
7.4
25.3
66.6
7.5
40.2

2.3
41.8
57.7
73.5
28.9
42.8
38.9
65.3
76.9
53.3
42.8
16.7
45.8
69.3
6.7
53.9

4.7
5.9
33.5
49.5
53.3
34.5
43.8
43.4
64.3
61.4
48.7
35.7
9.3
30.4
67.3
7.5
44.2

The total line in the preceding table shows that 32.9 per cent of the
factory employees have a shorter working-day on Saturday and 44.2
per cent a shorter day on days preceding holidays. Of the males
employed in factories 30.8 per cent had a shorter working-day on Sat­
urday and 40.2 per cent on days preceding holidays, while of the
females 37.7 per cent had a shorter day on Saturdays and 53.9 per
cent on days preceding holidays. The more favorable rest periods
granted to females is doubtless due to the desire to afford them
opportunity to perform household work for which they are unable to
find time during the week.




RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
CHILE.

Informes Presentados a la
Oficina de Estadistica del Trabajo. 1908. 119 pp.
The results of an inquiry into the condition of labor in the saltpeter
industry of northern Chile are given in this volume. The extraction
of this mineral forms a most important branch of Chilean industry, in
the Province of Tarapacd alone more than 20,000 persons in a popu­
lation of 110,036 being employed in the various operations of mining
and preparing the niter for market.
The investigation was conducted in 1908 by a special agent of the
Chilean Bureau of Labor Statistics and covers the subjects of systems
of employment, wages, hours of labor, cost of living, the truck system,
industrial accidents, the consumption of alcoholic liquors, vital sta­
tistics, savings, and other questions affecting the social and economic
welfare of workers. Much of the information is presented in tabular
form. The conditions of labor are described as dangerous, the labor­
ers being employed in a rigorous climate, in a section of country that is
practically a desert, and at exhausting employment. The moral, social,
and economic conditions were found to be extremely bad, one result
being shown in a death rate of 3.38 per 100, as against a birth rate of
but 3.09; while, on account of the isolated situation of the region, civil
administration is very defective.
The report comprises 12 chapters, or subdivisions, of which the
first is composed of copies of official letters relating to the investiga­
tion, while the second is devoted to a reproduction of a memorial pre­
sented to the Government in 1904 by operators and proprietors of
saltpeter works in Tarapacd and Antofagasta concerning certain
measures proposed for the betterment of conditions among the
working classes. This memorial gave the amount invested in the
saltpeter industry, including necessary railway construction, as over
287,000,000 pesos C$104,755,000).1 It was also claimed that wage
payments amounting to 30,000,000 pesos ($10,950,000) were made at
the mines and works and 8,000,000 pesos ($2,920,000) to workmen
employed in transportation. Some of the hardships claimed to exist
by workmen and others were acknowledged, but emphasis was laid on
El

Trd b a jo en la In d u s tria Salitrera .

1The conversion of Chilean money is made on the basis: 1 peso equals 36.5 cents.




607

608

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

the provisions made by the operators to provide for the welfare of
the workmen, the deficiencies in administration, etc.
The third chapter deals with the subject of work and wages, the
data being based on the results of the investigation. Three systems
of labor are in general use in the niter fields. Under the first are in­
cluded those persons whose work is to extract the crude materials from
the earth. Such workers are subdivided into two classes, according
to the character of labor which they perform, the earnings in each case
being based on a definite unit of work. Drill men, called barreteros,
are those whose work consists in sinking the holes for the reception of
explosives used in loosening the soil around the saltpeter veins. These
men are paid a stipulated amount for each foot of excavation, the
amount varying from 70 centavos (26 cents) to 2 pesos (73 cents),
according to the hardness of the materials encountered and the time
required for blasting. The average daily earnings of this class of
employees are given as 5.5 pesos ($2.01).
The second class of laborers, known as p a r t ic u la r s , separate and
remove the useful material after the shots have been fired, piling it in
heaps of uniform size alongside of the pits. The pay of these employees
is governed by the amount of salt-laden earth {caliche) handled, the
prevailing unit being a cartload weighing 45 quintals (Spanish). The
rate of pay varies according to the difficulties of removing the mate­
rial, the depth of the excavation, the hardness of the deposit, etc.
The average daily earnings of particulares are given in,the report as 6
pesos ($2.19). Workers of the foregoing classes enjoy a considerable
degree of independence, choosing their own places of work and being
under no surveillance or obligation to labor a fixed number of hours
per day. The average length of the working day is estimated at
eight hours. About 55 per cent of all laborers in the saltpeter works
belong to this group.
The second system comprises those laborers who are employed in
the various operations connected with the refinement and preparation
of the crude saltpeter for the market. This work must be performed
at fixed hours and in a definite time, and is usually done in gangs of
four or eight men, because this system lends itself most readily to the
accomplishment of the best results. The length of the working day is
usually 10 hours, exclusive of time spent at meals. The earnings of
these employees are dependent on the amount of work done by the
gang, the average for each worker ranging from 5 pesos ($1.83) to 7
pesos ($2.56) per day.
Teamsters who transport the crude materials from the pits to the
refineries constitute the third system of labor. The workmen in this
group are paid under a minimum task system, the basis of which is a
certain number of loads—usually 14, but varying with the distance
traveled and the difficulty of hauling—which can be delivered in a day



FOBEIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— CHILE.

609

of 10 hours. The pay for the minimum day’s work varies in the
different establishments, the average being about 5 pesos ($1.83).
For each load in excess of the minimum number, additional pay rang­
ing from 30 centavos (11 cents) to 50 centavos (18 cents) is allowed.
Day labor is the exception in the saltpeter industry. While em­
ployed to some extent in all branches of the work, experience has
shown that the returns to employers under this system are smaller
than under other methods of fixing the remuneration of workers,
although the working-day is from two to four hours longer. The aver­
age daily wage of day laborers is stated to be 4.5 pesos ($1.64).
Machinists, carpenters, blacksmiths, masons, and other artisans em­
ployed by the day receive an average wage of about 6 pesos ($2.19).
Boys from 10 to 16 years of age are employed in some establishments,
either as helpers to skilled artisans or to carry the tools of laborers.
These boys work from 10 to 12 hours a day and earn from 2.5 pesos
(91 cents) to 4.5 pesos ($1.64). All establishments furnish free
dwellings to employees, the monthly rental value of which averages
about 10 pesos ($3.65) for those occupied by single men and 30 pesos
($10.95) for those tenanted by families. In addition, meats and other
articles of food are sold at reduced prices by the companies. It is
estimated that these features are equivalent to an increase in the em
ployee’s earnings of about 25 per cent.
The fourth chapter of the report relates to methods of wage pay­
ment. The svjstem in general use throughout the saltpeter zone is
that of montmy settlements. Each employee is furnished a book in
which are entered daily the quantity of work done and the correspond­
ing amount of pay. Once a month the account is canceled and the
amount of accrued earnings paid to the workman. This is usually
effected by the use of checks of metal or other substance, called ficha s,
one side of which bears the name of the establishment or company
and the other the monetary value represented. In actual practice,
the fic h a is a real medium of exchange, of limited circulation, which
each establishment freely issues in proportion to the number of its
employees. Beyond a recognized radius in each case, it possesses no
value and is not accepted in commerce. The total value of these
checks issued by the various companies is estimated at a million pesos
($365,000). On account of the numerous abuses which have arisen
under this system, its suppression by the Government and the enact­
ment of a law requiring the payment of wages in current coin of the
Republic are recommended in the report.
Company stores (p u lp e ria s ), in which food and other articles are
sold to the employees of saltpeter works, are described in the fifth
chapter. These are usually located in the same building with the
company offices and comprise three departments: The meat market,
the warehouse, and the salesroom proper. As a rule, the stores are
86026°—Bull. 93—11-----20




610

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

managed directly by the companies, and are operated at a considerable
loss, because many articles of food and other necessaries are sold to
employees at a price below that paid for them by the employers them­
selves. The fear of disturbing the existing harmonious relations with
their workmen has caused proprietors to maintain the scale of prices
established in former years, notwithstanding the recent general
increase in the cost of the commodities handled. Articles of clothing,
including those which may be regarded as luxuries, may be pur­
chased at these stores at a price equal to or even lower than that
charged by the shops of neighboring cities. Tables showing the
relative cost of certain commodities in the company stores and in
the shops of neighboring cities are shown in the report.
Following is a table showing the average cost of food at six com­
pany stores, at three stores in Lagunas, at two in San Antonio, and
at three in Iquique:
PRICES OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD AT COMPANY STORES AND AT STORES IN
LAGUNAS, SAN ANTONIO, IQUIQUE.
Articles.

Unit.

Bread.................................................................... Pound..
Meat...................................................................... ...d o ....
Suet....................................................................... ...d o ___.
Lard...................................................................... do. . .
Peas....................................................................... ...d o ___
Lentils................................................................... ...d o.......
Cheese................................................................... ...d o ___
Wine...................................................................... Quart...
Beans.................................................................... Pound..
Flour..................................................................... ...d o .. ..
Rice....................................................................... ...d o ___
Potatoes................................................................ __d o.. ..
Milk....................................................................... Quart...
Wheat_________________________________ Pound..
\
Sn^ar _ ___
d o .. ..

Company Lagunas.
stores.

San An­
tonio.

$0,108
.346
.227
.335
.083
.090
.515
.276
.072
.072
..155
.054
.366
.047

$0.135
.342
.216
.108
.108
.540
.242
.072
.081
.180
.045
.380
.047

$0.079
.144
.317
.072
.081
.432
.211
.061
.068
.115
.043
.363
.068 .
.119

Iquique.
$0,071
.298
.253
.104
.099
.430
.211
.080
.066
.166
.033
.180
.066

The next table shows the number of workmen at one of the plants
for each of the first six months of 1908, their total average earnings,
the average amount of their bills at the company store, and the
average balance remaining to their credit at the end of the month:
EARNINGS, ACCOUNTS AT THE COMPANY STORE, AND MONTHLY BALANCES OF
WORKMEN AT A SINGLE PLANT, JANUARY TO JUNE, 1908.
Months.
January.................................................................
February..............................................................
March....................................................................
April i....................................................................
May........................................................................
June.......................................................................
Average......................................................

Number Earnings of employees. Average Average
bill at com­
of em­
ployees. Total. Average. pany store. balance.
752
<758
754
844
843
868
802

$50,662
49.020
47,925
36,245
50,954
52,998
47,924

$67.53
64.61
63.51
43.07
60.23
61.32
60.04

$28.84
28.47
32.85
27.01
31.39
31.76
30.05

1 Production was reduced in April on account of the breakage of machinery.



$38.69
36.14
30.66
16.06
28.84
29.56
29.99

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS----CHILE.

611

The remaining chapters deal with the social and economic con­
dition of workers and their families, including family expenses and
savings, accidents, hospital and medical service, inebriety, prostitu­
tion, and reform in the administration of justice in the lower courts.
FINLAND.

- och Handelsbitrddenas i F in la n d F o r h a lPa uppdrag af Industristyrelsen. Helsingfors. 1909.
96,168 pp.
This volume presents the results of an inquiry by the National
Bureau of Industry into the conditions of employment of clerks and
assistants in business offices and mercantile establishments in repre­
sentative localities, urban and rural, in Finland, in 1907 and 1908.
Banks and insurance offices were not included in the first group, nor
pharmacies in the second; traveling salesmen were also omitted
from consideration, as were other employees receiving more than
6,000 Finnish marks ($1,158) per annum.
The following table shows the number of establishments of the
two kinds investigated, and the number and per cent of employees,
by sex:
TJndersokning a f Kontors
landen.

NUMBER OF BUSINESS OFFICES AND OF MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS INVESTI­
GATED, AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES, BY SEX.

Classes of establishments.

Business offices.............................
Mercantile establishments:
Hardware, builders’ sup­
plies, and cabinet work...
Drugs and chemicals............
Clothing..................................
Food........................................
Liquors and tobacco.............
Books, paper, and drawing
materials.............................
Other, and general stores...
Total....................................
Grand total.........................

Number
of es­
tablish­
ments. Total.

Employees.
Male.
Female.
Average
per es­
tablish­
ment. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.

556

2,221

4.0

1,405

63.3

816

36.7

106
27
323
312
46
103
384
1,301
1,857

435
85
1,013
1,068
115
356
1,439
4,511
6,732

4.1
3.1
3.1
3.7
2.5
3.5
3.7
3.5

310
37
245
428
44
141
875
2,080
3,485

71.3
43.5
24.1
40.0
38.3
39.6
60.8
46.1

125
48
768
640
71
215
564
2,431
3,247

28.7
56.5
75.9
60.0
61.7
60.4
39.2
53.9

This table shows a preponderance of male over female employees,
taking both classes of establishments together; in mercantile estab­
lishments alone, however, the number of females is in excess of
males. In every class of mercantile establishments except those
dealing in hardware, etc., and the general class, the number of female
employees exceeds the number of males.



612

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table shows the number and per cent of employees
grouped by ages:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES, CLASSIFIED BY AGE GROUPS.
Age groups.
11 to 14 years.........................................................................................
15 to 19 years.........................................................................................
20 to 24 years.........................................................................................
25 to 29 years.........................................................................................
30 to 34 years.........................................................................................
35 to 39 years.........................................................................................
40 to 49 years.........................................................................................
50 to 59 years.........................................................................................
60 years and over..................................................................................
Not reported..........................................................................................
Total.............................................................................................

Males.

Females.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
177
952
787
599
388
248
251
59
22
2
3,485

5.1
27.5
22.5
17.2
11.1
7.1
7.2
1.6
.6
.1

71
767
1,131
647
322
147
123
34
5

2.2
23.6
34.8
19.9
9.9
4.5
3.8
1.1
.2

100.0

3,247

100.0

The largest single group of males is found between 15 and 19
years, while for females the largest single group is that between 20
and 24 years. Only 16.5 per cent of all males exceed 34 years of
age, while but 9.6 per cent of the females have passed this age.
As to the conjugal condition of employees, 2,485 males were single,
960 were married, 18 were widowers, 8 were divorced, and for 14 it
was not reported; of the females, 3,041 were single, 106 were mar­
ried, 54 were widows, 13 were divorced, and for 33 it was not reported.
Two males and 1 female entered employment at the age of 8 years.
The age at which the largest number of males entered service was 14
years, when 486 began work; the largest number of females began
work at the age of 17 years. The following table shows by age
groups the period at which the employees embraced in this investi­
gation entered their service:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN BUSINESS OFFICES AND IN MERCANTILE
ESTABLISHMENTS, CLASSIFIED BY AGE AT BEGINNING WORK.
Age at beginning work.
8 to 14 years..........................................................................................
15 to 19 years.........................................................................................
20 to 24 years.........................................................................................
25 to 29 years................ ........................................................................
30 to 34 years.........................................................................................
35 to 39 years.........................................................................................
40 years and over..................................................................................
Not reported........................................................................................
Total............................................................................................

Females.

Males.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
1,202
1,439
456
139
81
46
40
82
3,485

34.6
41.3
13.0
4.0
2.3
1.3
1.1
2.4
100.0

477
1,730
731
157
60
24
21
47
3,247

14.7
53.3
22.7
4.8
1.8
.7
.6
1.4
100.0

Seventy-five and nine-tenths per cent of the male and 68 per cent of
the female employees were at work before they had reached the age
of 20 years. Only 4.7 per cent of the males began work after the



FOGEIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS----FINLAND.

613

age of 30 years was reached, while of the females but 3.1 per cent
entered service after this age.
The next table shows the length of service of employees:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES, CLASSIFIED BY PERIOD OF SERVICE.
Males.

Periods of service.

Females.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
1,467
817
527
292
136
75
48
25
16
82
3,485

Under 5 years.......................................................................................
5 and under 10 years............................................................................
10 and under 15 years........................................................................
15 and under 20 years..........................................................................
20 and under 25 years............................................................. *..........
25 and under 30 years..........................................................................
30 and under 35 years..........................................................................
35 and under 40 years..........................................................................
40 years and over..................................................................................
Not reported.........................................................................................
Total............................................................................................

42.0
23.4
15.1
8.4
3.9
2.2
1.4
.7
.5
2.4
100.0

1,661
867
418
154
57
24
17
2
47
3,247

51.3
26.8
12.9
4.7
1.7
.7
.5
0)
1.4
100.0

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

The period of service is evidently short, especially for females, more
than one-half of whom had been employed for a term not exceeding
five years; less than 3 per cent of the females served more than
20 years.
Written contracts of employment were found to be but little used,
only 62 males and 18 females in 39 places of employment having
such contracts.

In considering wages and hours of labor, the two classes of estab­
lishments discussed are taken up separately. The following table
shows the number and per cent of employees of each sex falling
within the designated wage groups in business offices and in mercan­
tile establishments:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN BUSINESS
OFFICES AND IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS, CLASSIFIED BY WAGE GROUPS.
[Finnish mark=$0,193.]
Business offices.
Annual earnings.

Males.

Mercantile establishments.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Under 500 marks ($96.50)................................... 142
500 marks ($96.50) and under 1,000 marks
165
1.000 marks ($1*93) and under 2,000 marks
($386).................................................................. 416
2.000 marks ($386) and under 3,000 marks
($579).................................................................. 296
3.000 marks ($579) and under 4,000 marks
($772).................................................................. 213
4.000 marks ($772) and under 6,000 marks
($1,158)............................................................... , 170
Board and lodging or no fixed salary..............
3
Total.......................................................... 1,405



10.1
11.7
29.6
21.1
15.2
12.1
.2
100.0

46
188
421
127
28
5
1
816

5.6 381
23.1 528
51.6 754
15.6 263
3.4 108
38
.6
8
.1
100.0 2,080

18.3 454 18.7
25.4 1,177 48.4
36.4 728 30.0
2.4
12.6
59
5.2
.2
6
1.8
2
.1
.2
.3
5
100.0 2,431 100.0

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

614

In business offices, the proportion of females receiving the lowest
wages is hardly more than one-half the proportion of males in this
class, due no doubt to the fact that the class is made up chiefly of
young persons and that, as a rule, boys enter service at an earlier
age than do girls. Slightly more than one-half of all females annually
receive 1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386); this is
also the group which comprises the greatest number of male
employees, but the distribution in the higher classes is indicative of
the fact that the average payment for females is considerably less
than for males.
As would be anticipated, the earnings of employees in mercantile
establishments are less than the earnings of employees in business
offices. The proportion of males and of females in the lowest group
is practically the same; while 67.1 per cent of the females receive
less than 1,000 marks ($193), 61.8 per cent of the males are in the
two groups between 500 marks ($96.50) and 2,000 marks ($386).
The relations between age and earnings of employees in mercantile
establishments are shown in the following table:
PER CENT OF MALE AND 0 ¥ FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISH­
MENTS EARNING SPECIFIED AMOUNTS PER ANNUM, BY AGE GROUPS.
[Finnish m ark-10.193.]
Per cent of male and of female employees earning annually—
Age groups.

500 marks 1,000 marks 2,000 marks
Under 500 ($96.50) and ($193) and ($386) and
marks under 1,000 under 2,000 under 3,000
marks
($96.50).
marks
marks
($579).
($193).
($386).

3.000 marks Board and
($579) and lodging or
under
6.000 marks no fixed
salary.
($1,158).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male.
Under 18 years......................
18 and under 30 years..........
30 and under 45 years..........
45 and under 60 years..........
60 years and over..................
Not reported.........................
Total...........................

59.0
4.1
.8
20.0

72.3
10.1
1.7
6.0
20.0
100.0
18.3 18.7

36.2
25.3
10.5
17.0
40.0
33.3
25 4

26.4
58.7
28.2
26.0
20.0

3.9
52.0
41.0
32.1

0.8
30.0
59.6
44.0
40.0

14.3 1.1 4.0
24.5 8.5 23.2 2.0
24.5 22.0 26.4 2.0
20.0
20.0
66.7
48.4 36.4 30.0 12.6 2.4 7.0 .3

0.9
.3

0.5
.1
20.0

.3

.2

From this table it appears that the persons receiving less than
500 marks ($96.50) are either under 18 or over 60 years of age, with
very few exceptions. More than one-half of the males under 18 years
and nearly three-fourths of the females under that age are within this
wage group. Of the age group 18 to 30 years, the per cent of females
receiving 500 marks ($96.50) and under 1,000 marks ($193) per
annum is nearly twice as great as is the per cent receiving 1,000
marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386) per annum; while in
the case of males of the same age group the situation is practically



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— FINLAND.

615

reversed. The per cent of females between the ages of 30 and 60
is larger than that of males of the same ages receiving the wage rate
1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386), but females fall
behind in the next higher wage group, and practically disappear in
the class of employees receiving 3,000 marks ($579) or above.
Some inferences as to the effect of the length of employment on
wages may be drawn from the above table; the facts in this connec­
tion are more clearly set forth in the following table, which shows
wage groups by sex and period of service:
PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISH­
MENTS EARNING SPECIFIED AMOUNTS PER ANNUM, BY PERIOD OF SERVICE.
[Finnish mark=$0.193.]
Per cent of male and of female employees earning annually—
Periods of service.

Under 500
marks
($96.50).

500 marks 1,000 marks 2,000 marks 3.000 marks Board and
($96.50) and ($193) and ($386) and ($579) and lodging or
under 1,000 under 2,000 under 3,000 under
no fixed
marks($193). marks ($386). marks($579). 6.000 marks salary.
($1,158).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male. Male. male.
Under 2 years....................... 52.1 44.4 32.9 47.3 12.7 7.4
2 and under 10 years............ 14.7 15.4 33.1 56.3 44.2 27.1
10 and under 20 years.......... .7 1.1 4.9 24.7 41.6 65.1
20 years and over.................. .8 3.1 6.9 14.1 27.7 59.3
10.0 36.8 40.0 47.4 40.0
Not reported.........................
Total........................... 18.3 18.7 25.4 48.4 36.4 30.0

0.9
5.7
33.9
33.8
15.8
12.6

1.1
7.2
21.9
10.0
2.4

0.2
2.0
18.9
30.8

1.9
1.6

7.0

.3

1.2
.3

0.8
.1

.3

.2

The earlier age of employment for males must be looked to to
account for the larger percentage of males than of females in the
wage group under 500 marks ($96.50), after less than two years of
service. In the next higher wage group the proportion of females
is uniformly higher than the proportion of males. The greater num­
ber of females serving 10 and under 20 years are to be found in the class
1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386), while for males
practically one-third are found in the next higher group; nearly
another one-third of the males employed 20 years and over are to
be found in the wage group 3,000 marks ($579) and under 6,000
marks ($1,158), while almost no females are found in this group.
As regards the hours of labor, employees in business offices are
more favorably situated than are those in mercantile establishments.
The table following shows for each class the number of places of
employment represented and the number and per cent of employees
of each sex affected, in groups of establishments requiring the des­
ignated periods of daily service. The time given is actual working
time, intervals for rest and recreation having been deducted.



616

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN BUSINESS
OFFICES AND MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS, CLASSIFIED BY HOURS OF
SERVICE.
Business offices.

Mercantile establishments.

Employees.
Hours of service.

Num­
ber.

Male.

Employees.

Female.

Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent.
7 and under.................................
Over 7 but not over 9...............
Over 9 but not over 10..............
Over 10........................................
Total..................................

157 462 32.9
282 829 59.0
74
78 5.5
43
36 2.6
556 1,405 100.0

295
405
86
30
816

Num­
ber.

Male.

Female.

Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent.

14
36.2
19
49.6 245 559
10.5 433 759
3.7 609 743
100.0 1,301 2,080

0.8
22
0.9
26.8 518 21.3
36.7 911 37.6
35.7 980 40.2
100.0 2,431 100.0

Only 8.1 per cent of the males and 14.2 per cent of the females
employed in business offices work more than nine hours, while in
mercantile establishments, 72.4 per cent of the males and 77.8 per
cent of the females work more than nine hours. It is noticeable that
the proportion of females is greater than that of males in both classes
of establishments that observe the longer working day. In so far as
mercantile establishments are concerned, this is explained by the
preponderance of female employees in milk shops and bakeries—
places of business that open at an early hour of the day.
The large majority of business offices open between 8 and 9 o’clock
in the morning, the actual per cent being 80.9. In these are employed
89.1 per cent of the males and 87.4 per cent of the females; 77.5 per
cent of these offices, employing 75.5 per cent of the males and 75 per
cent of the females, close between 6 and 7 o’clock p. m. Of the
mercantile establishments, 26.3 per cent open before 7 a. m., and
65.9 per cent open between 7 and 8 a. m.; 65.3 per cent are closed by
7 p. m., 29.4 per cent close between 7 and 8 p. m., and 5.3 per cent
close after 8 p. m.
The hours for recreation and the partaking of food are said not to
be satisfactorily arranged, particularly in the mercantile establish­
ments. Sunday labor ranging from 1 to 15 hours was found in 175
stores, employing 101 males and 462 females; few business offices open
on Sunday.
GERMANY.
Denkschriften des Statistischen Amtes dev Stadt Dusseldorf. Heft 7.
7. Die stddtische Arbeitslosenbeschdftigung in Dusseldorf 1908-9.
77. Zur Frage dev Arbeitslosenversicherung. 1909. 17 pp., 1
diagram.
Since the winter of 1901-2 the municipality of Dusseldorf, like
many other German cities, has made a practice of instituting sys­
tematic relief work for unemployed residents during the whiter. The




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GERMANY.

617

present report gives an account of the operations of this systematic
relief work during the winter of 1908-9 with a comparison of the expe­
rience in previous winters. The report also gives a summary state­
ment of attempts to institute systems of unemployment insurance
in various countries.
As the city of Dusseldorf is the center of a large industrial dis­
trict, the slackening of industrial activity which took place in the
year 1908 was responsible for the large number of unemployed
workmen, and in the winter of 1908-9 the number was even greater
than during the first part of the year 1908. The number of persons
in the city reported as employed and on that account paying dues
under the national compulsory sickness insurance system at the end
of March, 1908, was 69,076; at the end of June, 70,213; at the end of
September, 69,271; while at the end of December it had fallen to
64,498. The usual effects of this decrease in the number of employed
persons were accentuated by the fact that a large number of persons
moved into the city during this period. The effect of this immigra­
tion on the resident population is indicated by the report of the
General Employment Agency, which shows that of the 14,285 posi­
tions secured for male persons in 1908, not less than 5,091, or 35.6
per cent, were given to persons who had recently moved into the city.
The unfavorable industrial conditions prevailing in the year 1908
are illustrated most clearly by a comparison between the number of
persons applying for work and the number of positions secured by
the General Employment Agency of the city. The following table
shows, for each hundred male persons who applied at the agency,
the number of positions secured:
NUMBER OF POSITIONS SECURED PER 100 MALE PERSONS APPLYING FOR WORK
BY THE DUSSELDORF GENERAL EMPLOYMENT AGENCY IN 1907 AND 1908.

Months.

Positions secured
per 100 male per­
sons applying for
work.
1907

January...
February..
March.......
April.........
May...........
June..........

60.68
63.85
74.12
82.69
72.33
70.16

Months.

1908
42.15
40.69
42.64
27.33
39.68
36.80

Positions secured
per 100 male per­
sons applying for
work.
1907

July............................................
August.......................................
September..................................
October......................................
November..................................
December...................................

59.36
64.98
70.98
61.27
59.25
56.71

1908
31.94
38.65
44.76
48.71
34.41
32.23

The report states that since the creation of the municipal employ­
ment agency, the results were never so unsatisfactory as during the
fall and winter months of 1908. On this account, the operation of
the municipal relief work system was begun at an earlier date than
at any previous time; the relief work began on November 19, 1901,



618

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

for the winter of 1901-2; on December 15, 1902, for the winter of
1902-3; on January 15, 1907, for the winter of 1907-8; and for the
winter of 1908-9 actual operations began on November 17, 1908,
although the office was open for investigation and registry on Novem­
ber 9, 1908.
The regulations for the municipal relief work system provide that
work shall be given only to persons who have a legal residence in
the city of Diisseldorf, such residence to be determined according
to the principles of the poor law. Employment was given only to
an applicant who proved to the officials of the General Employment
Agency that he had made earnest and prolonged efforts on his own
account to secure employment, and only those applicants who had
been out of work at least 14 days were piit on the registry. Prefer­
ence was given to married men and to single men who could show
that they had relatives depending on them for support.
The preliminary work in the administration of the relief work sys­
tem was placed in the hands of the municipal statistical office. In
previous years this work had been done by the poor relief authorities,
but the association of the relief work system with the charity office
was regarded as undesirable. The municipal statistical office made
a thorough investigation, and each applicant complying with the regu­
lations was given a registry card which was to be presented at a
specified time to the official in charge of the construction or other work
undertaken for the purpose of providing employment.
The number of persons registering themselves as out of work was
4,520, of whom 1,623 were not considered because they were out of
work less than 14 days or because they had no family to support; 56
other applications were not considered for various reasons. A number
of persons who were given registry cards did not use them, so that alto­
gether the number of persons given work was 2,354. The extent of
the relief work is indicated by the following statement:
NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS, PERSONS EMPLOYED, AND DAYS WORKED DURING
SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
Items.

1901-2.

1902-3.

1907-8.

Applications..........................................................................................
Persons employed................................................................................
Days of work performed.....................................................................

1,750
1,399
38,404

1,061
736
21,089

2,273
1,640
27,293

1908-9.
4,520
2,354
91,045

The number of persons given employment was greatly in excess
of any previous year, and the number of days of work performed was
far in excess of any previous year.




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GERMANY.

61 9

The occupation of the persons applying for employment in the
relief work system are shown in the following table:
OCCUPATIONS OF PERSONS OUT OF WORK AS REPORTED BY THE RELIEF WORK
SYSTEM OF DUSSELDORF, FOR SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
Unemployed ]persons applying for work in the
relief work system m the winter of—
Occupations.

1901-2.

1902-3.

1907-8.

Unemployed
persons given
work in the
winter of 1908-9.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Skilled workmen:
102
9.6
319
173
7.7
Metal workers.................................. 194 11.1
Cabinetmakers...............................
13
2.6
85
28
2.6
.7
60
6.4
Building trades............................... 131
68
470
7.5
468 20.6
4.3
57
3.3
45
5.9
191
135
Others...............................................
Total.............................................. 395 22.6
243 22.9
836 36.8 1,065
Unskilled workmen.............................. 1,312 75.0
818 77.1 1,426 62.7 1,820
12
Commercial employees, clerks, etc__
43
11
.5
2.4
Grand total.................................. 1,750 100.0 1,061 100.0 2,273 100.0 1 2,897

11.0
2.9
16.2
6.6
36.7
62.9
.4
100.0

i The total number of persons reporting themselves as being out of work was 4,520.

As in the preceding year, the skilled workmen in 1908-9 formed
over one-third of the persons included in the table. Among the
skilled workers, the building trades employees were the most numer­
ous. In the last two winters the unskilled workers have formed
slightly less than two-thirds of the persons included in the table.
The report shows the ages of the persons applying for work for the
first three periods, and for 1908-9 the ages of the persons given work.
AGES OF PERSONS OUT OF WORK AS REPORTED BY THE RELIEF WORK SYSTEM OF
DUSSELDORF, FOR SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
Unemployed persons applying for work in the
relief work system in the winter of—
Age groups.

1901-2.

1902-3.

1907-8.

Unemployed
persons given
work in the
winter of 1908-9.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. Cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Under 20 years........................................ 373 21.3
20 to 30 years........................................... 549 31.4
30 to 40 years........................................... 340 19.4
40 to 50 years.......................................... 304 17.9
50 to 60 years........................................... 137
7.3
Over 60 years..........................................
30
1.7
Unknown................................................
17
1.0
Total.............................................. 1,750 100.0

176
233
236
234
155
27
1,061

16.6
22.0
22.2
22.1
14.6
2.5

270
695
562
432
258
56

100.0 2,273

11.9
30.6
24.7
19.0
11.3
2.5

220
717
865
631
388
76

7.6
24.7
29.9
21.8
13.4
2.6

100.0 2,897

100.0

For the four periods covered by the preceding table there is a
marked decrease in each succeeding period in the proportion of per­
sons under 20 years of age; in the last period, the winter of 190S-9,
there is an increase in the proportion of persons 30 to 40 years of age,



620

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The conjugal condition of the persons included in the report is
shown in the following table:
CONJUGAL CONDITION OF PERSONS OUT OF WORK AS REPORTED BY THE RELIEF
WORK SYSTEM OF DttSSELDORF, FOR SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
Unemployed persons applying for work in the
relief work system in the winter of—
Conjugal condition.

1901-2.

1902-3.

1907-8.

Unemployed
persons given
work in the
winter of 1908-9.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
375
686
1,061

1,031 45.4
609
1,125 49.5 2,288
117
5.1
100.0 2,273 100.0 2,897
35.3
64.7

oo

Single........................................................ 850 48.6
Married, widowed, or divorced........... 883 50.4
Unknown................................................
17
1.0
Total.............................................. 1,750 100.0

100.0

The length of time which the persons whose applications were
approved were employed on the relief works is shown in the following
table:
LENGTH OF TIME PERSONS OUT OF WORK WERE EMPLOYED ON THE RELIEF WORK
SYSTEM OF DUSSELDORF DURING SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
Persons employed In the winter of—
Length of working time.

1901-2.

1902-3.

1907-8.

1908-9.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
3 days....................................................... 114
8.1
Over 3 to 6 days..................................... 124
8.9
Over 6 to 10 days...................................
142 10.1
Over 10 to 20 days.................................
291 20.8
190 13.6
Over 20 to 30 days.................................
Over 30 to 60 days.................................
397 28.4
Over 60 days........................................... 141 10.1
Total.............................................. 1,399 100.0

196
34
4.6
347 21.2
174 10.6
7.6
179
56
8.5
187
78 10.6
139
377
375 22.8
161 22.0
275
347 21.2
108 14.7
592
242 14.7
32.4
238
548
16
1.0
8.1
59
734 100.0 1,640 100.0 2,354

8.3
7.6
7.9
16.0
11 7
25.2
23.3
100.0

In the period 1908-9 the unfavorable industrial conditions made it
difficult for those accepting work from the relief system to readily
leave their employment; 76.2 per cent of those employed worked
longer than ten days, while in 1907-8 only 59.7 per cent worked
longer than ten days. Other information collected by the statistical
office shows that the unskilled workers continued at work longer
than the skilled workers. The average length of employment was
38.7 days. While the relief work system was in operation the average
number of persons employed was 803.5 per day as compared with
454.5 in the preceding winter; the maximum, occurring on February
19, 1909, was 1,302 persons as compared with the maximum on
February 7, 1908, with 931 persons.



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS----GERMANY.

621

The work performed by the unemployed was of a varied character
it consisted principally in the construction of streets and roads, mis­
cellaneous earthwork, preparation of material for the city public
works department, digging sand, sprinkling of sand, sorting of refuse,
etc. After February, 1909, the breaking of stone was introduced.
On account of the large number of persons asking for work difficulty
was experienced in finding opportunities for employment, especially
since the snowfall was fighter than usual. The breaking of stone
was introduced only after other opportunities were exhausted,
although it was recognized that, in view of the varied training and
physical condition of those employed on this work, it was by no
means an ideal employment.
Wage payments were made in form of day wages except in the case
of stone breaking. In accordance-with the terms of a resolution
passed by the municipal council on August 11, 1908, the unemployed
persons were required to be given a wage corresponding to that re­
ceived by them in their last place of employment, reduced by 5 per
cent, and subject to the limitation that persons with families depend­
ent upon them should receive not more than 3.50 marks (83 cents),
and not less than 2.50 marks (60 cents). As a matter of fact the
average daily wages earned by the persons employed at the various
kinds of work was 3.25 marks (77 cents), as compared with the same
amount in the preceding year.
The total cost to the municipality for the relief work system was
higher than in previous years, being largely due to the greater length
of time for which this work was prosecuted. The amount paid out
in wages by the relief work system in 1901-2 for 38,404 working days
was 76,292 marks ($18,157.50); in 1902-3 for 21,089 working days it
was 42,090 marks ($10,017.42); in 1907-8 for 27,293 working days
it was 88,810 marks ($21,136.78), and in 1908-9 for 91,044.9 working
days it was 295,956 marks ($70,437.53).
The total cost to the city for this work was as follows: In 1901-2
it was 68,340 marks ($16,264.92); in 1902-3 it was 77,719 marks
($18,497.12); in 1907-8 it was 138,677 marks ($33,005.13), and in
1908-9 it was 498,522.30 marks ($118,648.31). It is estimated in
the report that the increased cost to the city by having work done by
the relief system instead of the regular methods was approximately
200,000 marks ($47,600).
The second half of the report is devoted to a brief review of the
experience with various types of insurance against the consequences
of unemployment. The report concludes with a recommendation
that the municipal authorities^ apply for the enactment of a federal
law authorizing municipalities to institute a system of compulsory
insurance for classes of persons to be specified in the law.



622

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

Statistic der Frauenorganisationen im Deutschen Reiche. Bearbeitet
im Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amte, Abteilung fur Arbeiterstatistik. 1909. 28*, 70 pp.
In the present report the German labor office has given a statis­
tical survey of the women's organizations in the Empire, the data
relating to the kind, purpose, number, size, and financial operations
of those organizations that were in operation in the year 1908. It
is the intention of the Imperial Statistical Office to publish such a
statistical survey at frequent intervals in the future.
The report includes organizations whose membership is composed
either wholly or principally of women, whatever the purpose of the
organization may be. In the report are included, for instance, socie­
ties which advocate continuation schools for the industrial training
of girls; societies for the promotion of higher education for women,
especially in regard to securing admission for women to all the higher
technical, art, and scientific institutions of learning; societies for the
advancement of the interest of woman teachers; temperance organi­
zations; organizations of nurses; societies for the protection of
children; societies for improvement of housing conditions; societies
for charitable purposes; societies for the advancement of domestic
and trade education; societies for the promotion of kindergartens
and of normal schools for kindergarten instructors; societies whose
purpose is the securing of political rights for women; societies for
the study of colonial and naval questions, etc. The report classes
these organizations as (a) general, (b) occupational, (c) social, (d)
charitable, (e) educational, (f) political, (g) purposes not specified.
The historical survey of the rise and development of the women's
organizations in Germany states that the two most important were
instituted in the years 1865 and 1866. The first of these, the General
Union of German Women, was founded in 1865 in Leipzig by Louise
Otto, while the second, the Association for the Improvement of the
Earning Capacity of the Female Sex, was founded in 1866 in Berlin
by W. A. Lette.
The General Union of German Women at first sought to enlarge
the field of occupations open to women, but later gradually concen­
trated its efforts in promoting the general interest in the question of
the status of women in modem life. For instance, in the year 1867
this association petitioned the Parliament of the North German
Confederation to employ women in the postal and telegraph service;
in the same year a petition was submitted to the various State authori­
ties urging that women be admitted on equal terms to educational
institutions, while later special efforts were made to secure for women
positions in the civil service and as teachers in the public schools.



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GERMANY.

823

After the year 1868 the question of the status of women under the
civil law was the most frequent topic of discussion.
The second of the institutions above mentioned, usually designated
as the Lette Society, at first directed its efforts to the support of
institutions in which training for industrial and commercial positions
was provided for women. One of its earliest acts was the creation of
an employment agency for women, which is still in existence. Inde­
pendent schools for industrial training, for commercial training,
cooking schools, schools for telegraphers, and schools for teaching
the printing trades were established one after another. In 1877 a
school providing training in domestic science was established and
continuation schools for laundresses were instituted; in 1890 a special
school for the teaching of photography was instituted, and in 1904
instruction in photomechanical processes and in microphotography
was provided.
During the period of approximately 1880 to 1890 the interest in
the woman’s movement in Germany seems to have produced but
little results. About the year 1890 an energetic movement for the
opening of the secondary schools and the higher educational insti­
tutions to women was started; this movement finally resulted in the
opening of many of the universities to women, though in accordance
with a decree of the minister, on account of special reasons, women
could be excluded from specified courses of lectures, subject to the
approval of the minister. Similar success was obtained in having
the technical universities opened to women.
In the year 1889 the Commercial Union for Woman Employees and
in the year 1901 the Federated Commercial Association for Woman
Employees were founded. Both organizations aim to secure better
working conditions for woman employees and advocate compulsory
continuation courses of instruction, commercial schools for girls, and
are devoting special attention to care of woman employees in cases
of sickness, to the elimination of Sunday work, to the early closing of
establishments, and to the general reduction of working hours.
In the year 1906 a number of associations of woman employees
engaged in the State postal and telegraph service were founded, and in
.1906 the woman employees of the Prussian-Hessian State railways
formed an organization to advance their interests.
Numerous organizations for the protection of the interests of
Women engaged in domestic service have been founded; the report
mentions especially that in 1894 a society was created in Leipzig
whose purpose is to care for women employed as housekeepers, house
instructors, nurses, house workers, etc., and has created a special
employment agency and instituted funds to provide loans and relief
in case of sickness.



624

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The number of organizations included in the study made by this
report is as follows:
NUMBER AND CLASS OF WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS REPORTING TO THE LABOR
OFFICE IN 1908.
Organizations whose scope was—
Class of organization.

State or
Imperial. provincial.
9
28
11
10
9
3
1
71

General...........................................................................................................
Occupational.................................................................................................
Social..............................................................................................................
Charitable......................................................................................................
Educational..................................................................................................
Political.........................................................................................................
Purpose not specified..................................................................................
Total....................................................................................................

Local.
1,287
1,530
310
4,058
167
124
5
7,481

14

41
4
62

3
7
7
138

According to the preceding table, by far the greatest number of
Woman’s organizations are engaged in charitable work; the 4,058
local organizations included in the preceding table include 2,150
societies of the Red Cross and 1,383 societies of the Woman’s Branch
of the Aid Society of Evangelical Churches.
The number of organizations is of course an imperfect indication
of the extent of the women’s movement in the Empire. Owing to
duplications, it is impossible to find the exact number of members
of the societies above enumerated, but the labor office estimates that
approximately 1,000,000 women are members of organizations in the
Empire. As the population census of 1905 showed that there were
18,503,452 women over 18 years of age in the Empire, the organized
women, therefore, composed 5.4 per cent of the women of this age.
The date of the organization of 70 imperial, 131 state and pro­
vincial, and 1,136 local associations was reported to the labor office
in the schedules. The number and per cent of organizations in oper­
ation in the year 1908 reporting the date of founding are shown in
the following table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EACH CLASS OF WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS IN 1908
REPORTING DATE OF FOUNDATION BY YEARLY PERIODS.
General.
Yearly periods.

Occupa­
tional.

Social.

Charitable.

Educa­
tional.

Political.

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.

3 0.7
Before 1871.... 1 0.3
3 1.0 34 7.4
1871 to 1890__
1891 to 1900.... 62 20.0 83 18.1
1901 to 1908.... 232 74.8 238 52.0
Unknown....... 12 3.9 100 21.8
Total.... 310 100.0 458 100.0




6
14
61
106
6
193

3.1 58
7.3 31
31.6 43
54.9 64
3.1 57
100.0 253

22.9
12.3
17.0
25.3
22.5
100.0

10
15
31
37

10.8
16.1
33.3
39.8

93 100.0

1
28
1
30

3.3
93.4
3.3
100.0

78
97
281
705
176
1,337

5.8
7.3
21.0
52.7
13.2
100.0

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS----GERMANY.

625

According to tlie preceding table comparatively few organizations
were in existence previous to the founding of the Empire in 1871;
also, from 1871 to 1890 the number established was small, but after
the enactment of the national laws on social insurance the num­
ber increased rapidly. After 1890 the increase is marked in all of
the classes of organizations, but particularly so in the occupational
organizations. The most conspicuous occupational organizations
were those of the woman teachers, closely followed by the organiza­
tions of commercial employees.
The data relating to the number of members of these organizations
were not reported in satisfactory form, but as already stated it is
estimated that the number of members is not far from 1,000,000.
Of the membership reported, 68.7 per cent are in the State of Prussia,
10.2 per cent in the State of Bavaria, 9.8 per cent in the State of
Baden, and 2.3 per cent in the State of Saxony. It is interesting
to note that 5.2 per cent are in the city of Berlin. The number of
members of the occupational associations in 1908 was as follows:
Prussia, 50,049; Bavaria, 7,009; Saxony, 4,327; Wurttemberg, 2,382;
Baden, 3,774; Hesse, 909.
Approximately 23,000 members of the occupational associations
are credited to the city of Berlin.
In the report special attention is paid to the activities of these
organizations in conducting employment agencies, each type of the
associations, except those whose purpose is political, having some
institution for this purpose, though they are most numerous in the
case of the occupational organizations. Thus the number of organ­
izations conducting agencies or institutions for securing employment
in 1908 was as follows: General organizations, 38; occupational
organizations, 65; social organizations, 36; charitable organizations,
25; and educational organizations, 21.
The summary statement of the receipts, expenditures, and assets
for the year 1907 of the organizations reporting is shown in the
following table:
RECEIPTS, EXPENDITURES, AND ASSETS OF WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS IN 1907.
Class of organization.
General...............................................................................................
Occupational.....................................................................................
Social.................................................................................................
Charitable.................................................. T......................................
Educational.....................................................................................
Political.............................................................................................
Total.........................................................................................

86026°—Bull. 93—11-----21




Receipts.

Expendi­
tures.

Assets.

$169,094
632,162
981,729
9,235,761
585,512
16,666
11,620,924

$142,728
471,373
954,761
8,401,580
559,338
2,798
10,532,578

$251,278
2,956,769
702,551
14,249,100
538,565
14,168
18,712,431

626

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

The most conspicuous group is that of the organizations designated
as charitable, which includes the societies affiliated with the Red
Cross and those affiliated with the Woman’s Branch of the Aid
Society of Evangelical Churches.
The following table shows for the year 1907 the items of expenditure
separately reported for the various classes of organizations, and the
per cent that these amounts were of the total expenditures in each
class:
EXPENDITURES OF WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS OF EACH CLASS FOR SPECIFIED
PURPOSES IN 1907.
Administra­
tion.
Class of organization.

Institutions,
propaganda,
etc.

Relief pur­
poses.

Employment Miscellaneous.
agency.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
of
of
of
of
of
Amount. total Amount. total Amount. total Amount. total Amount. total
exex­
exexexpenpen­
penpenpends
didididitures.
tures.
tures.
tures.
tures.

General...................... $15,607 10.9 $72,555 50.8
Occupational............ 82,715 17.5 102,846 21.8
Social......................... 48,119 5.0 207,848 21.8
Charitable................. 98,934 1.2 764,465 9.1
Educational.............. 36,313 6.5 524,000 22.3
Political.....................
869 31.0
4,780 40.6

$6,768
31,555
10,824
262,200
2,397
463

4.7
6.7
1.1
3.1
.4
16.5

$627
21,049
1,570
1,354
152

0.44
4.47
.17
.01
.04

$17,108 12.0
184,073 39.1
34,145 3.6
428,877 5.1
43,865 7.8
285 10.2

In the case of the occupational societies the miscellaneous items of
expenditure comprise 39.1 per cent of the total; the next largest
amount was that expended for institutions of various kinds, propa­
ganda, newspapers, etc., with 21.8 per cent, the cost of administration
comprised 17.5 per cent, the amount expended for relief purposes
of various kinds was 6.7 per cent, while the cost of the employment
agency work comprised 4.5 per cent of the total amount expended.
ITALY.

Inchiesta suite abitazioni degli impiegati d1ordine e subalterni in Roma
e del personale ferroviario in Roma e in altre cittd d’Italia. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Ufficio del Lavoro.
1908. vii, 293 pp.
In the present volume are published the results of an investigation
of housing conditions among public administration employees re­
siding in the city of Rome, also among employees of railways in
Rome and in other cities of Italy. The inquiry was conducted by
the office of labor, which forms a branch of the Italian Ministry of
Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce. The report comprises four
parts, each of which contains, in addition to a textual analysis of



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— ITALY.

627

the data presented, a series of statistical tables. A map of the city
of Rome, showing its division into districts for the purpose of topo­
graphical classification of dwellings, is inserted in the volume.
Part I of the monograph relates to the habitations of salaried
employees (impiegati d’ordine) and subordinates (subaltemi) in the
public service at Rome. Among the former class were included heads
of offices and their assistants, persons attached to administrative
and accounting divisions, postal and telegraph officials and em­
ployees, State lottery commissioners, secretaries of museums and
technical schools, local officers connected with the Ministry of War,
and others. Under the term subordinates were included letter car­
riers, telegraph messengers, museum employees, forest guards,
policemen, doorkeepers, watchmen, etc.

Of 2,008 homes occupied by persons of the first class, who owned
the furniture of their lodgings, 3.4 per cent were of one room, 4.7
per cent of two rooms, 21.4 per cent of three rooms, 34.7 per cent of
four rooms, 21.1 per cent of five rooms, 9 per cent of six rooms, and
5.7 per cent were of more than six rooms. Of the entire number,
77.2 per cent contained from three to five rooms. With regard to
the lodgings of employees in a subordinate capacity, of 1,404 in­
cluded in the investigation, 16.9 per cent contained but one room,
16.3 per cent two rooms, 29.6 per cent three rooms, 20.9 per cent
four rooms, 10.3 per cent five rooms, 3.9 per cent six rooms, and
2.1 per cent more than six rooms. The number of lodgings con­
taining from three to five rooms amounted to 60.8 per cent of the

total number, as compared with 77.2 per cent for the habitations of
officials and salaried employees.
A third class of employees, composed of persons in service of a
special nature for the municipal government, such as funeral direc­
tors, hearse drivers, cemetery hands, fountain keepers, members of
disinfecting squads, stable hands, building watchmen, highway
custodians, etc., was covered by the investigation. Out of 256
dwellings occupied by such persons, 25 per cent had one room only,
24.2 per cent had two rooms, 25.4 per cent three rooms, 14.8 per
cent four rooms, 6.3 per cent five rooms, 3.5 per cent six rooms, and
0.8 per cent seven rooms. The relative number of lodgings of
medium size (from three to five rooms) belonging to this group of
employees was smaller than that of either of the two preceding
groups, constituting but 46.5 per cent of the total number. Small
dwellings of one or two rooms each formed nearly 50 per cent of the~
entire number for this class of employees. The distribution of
lodgings among the three groups, classified according to the number
of rooms contained, is shown in the table following.




628

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEES
RESIDING IN ROME, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ROOMS.

Class of occupants.

Lodgings containing—
Lodg­
ings for
1
which
the
number 1
2
4
3
5
6 7 rooms
of rooms room. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. and
was re­
over.
ported.

Officials and salaried employees......... 12,008
Subordinates........................................... 1,404
Special-service employees..................... 256

1

67
238
64

95
229
62

430
416
65

697
293
38

423
144
16

181
55
9

113
29
2

1 Total does not agree with the sum of the items, hut is reproduced as published.

Of 1,989 unfurnished lodgings rented by officials and salaried
employees for which the number of occupants was reported, 2 per
cent were occupied by persons living alone, 17 per cent by two
persons, 19 per cent by three persons, 21 per cent by four persons,
16 per cent by five persons, and 25 per cent by more than five per­
sons. Over 85 per cent of all homes were occupied by families of
from two to six persons. Among persons living alone, 37 per cent
were found to occupy single rooms; 22 per cent, apartments of two
rooms; 22 per cent, apartments of three rooms; and 19 per cent,
apartments of four or more rooms. Among subordinate employees,
of 1,395 dwellings for which the facts were reported, 3 per cent con­
tained one tenant; 14 per cent, two tenants; 17 per cent, three
tenants; 19 per cent, four tenants; 15 per cent, five tenants; and 32
per cent, six or more tenants. Families comprising from two to six
members occupied nearly 77 per cent of all dwellings. Of 38 emplQyees of this class living alone, 33 occupied single rooms. With
regard to special-service employees, of 255 lodgings, 4 per cent had
a single occupant; 11 per cent, two occupants; 17 per cent, three
occupants; 15 per cent, four occupants; 14 per cent, five occupants;
and 39 per cent, six or more occupants.
The table following shows, for each of the three classes of em­
ployees, the condition of the dwellings covered by the investigation
with regard to the provision of modern conveniences.




FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— ITALY.

629

U N F U R N ISH E D LODGINGS R E N T E D B Y PUBLIC ADM INISTRATION EM PLO YEES
R ESID IN G IN ROME, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO M ODERN CONVENIENCES PRO­
V ID E D .

Lodgings furnished with—
Class of employees and
number of rooms occu­
pied.

Lodg­
Drinking water.
ings in­
cluded
in in­
vestiga­ Forex- In com­
mon
tion. elusive with Not re­
use of
the other ported.
family. families.

Salaried employees:
56
One room..................
40
94
Two rooms................
56
Three rooms.............
418
390
Four rooms............... 661
640
Five rooms...............
391
380
Six rooms and over.. 278
268
Total....................... 1,898 1,774
Subordinates:
One room.................. 216
145
211
Two rooms................
153
379
333
Three rooms.............
Four rooms............... 276
260
Five rooms................ 136
129
72
Six rooms and over..
81
T o ta l.................. 1,299 1,092
S p e cia l-ser v ice em­
ployees:
One room..................
61
39
59
34
Two rooms................
61
Three rooms..............
48
35
Four rooms...............
33
16
Five rooms................
13
11
11
Six rooms and over..
Total....................... 243
178

Latrines.
Elec­ Gas Gas
For ex­ In com­
tric for for
clusive mon Not re­ lights. cook­ light­
ing. ing.
use of with ported.
the other
family. families.

16
35
26
16
11
7
111

38
3
61
2
392
5
649
383
3
273
13 1,796

17
33
21
10
5
4
90

1
5
2
3
1
12

5
5
10

67
46
39
13
6
8
179

4
12
7
3
1
1
28

142
166
350
265
127
74
1,124

71
40
27
11
9
6
164

3
5
2

2
2

1
11

4

22
23
12
2
3

2
1

21
16
8
2
1

62

3

40
43
53
33
15
11
195

48

1
7
25
21
30
84

7
8
14
38
41
67
175

2
1
2
2
3
10

6
10
12
9
9
7
53

2
2

1
1
1
1
4

Among salaried employees the average annual rental per unfur­
nished room varied from above 60 lire ($11.58) to 120 lire ($23.16) in
26 per cent of the lodgings investigated; from above 120 lire ($23.16)
to 180 lire ($34.74) in 56 per cent of the cases; from above 180 lire
($34.74) to 240 lire ($46.32) in 13 per cent of the number; and in 5
per cent of the dwellings included in the inquiry the annual rental
per room amounted to more than 240 lire ($46.32). The rent paid
by subordinate employees was somewhat lower, the yearly average
for a room being below 120 lire ($23.16) in 41 per cent of all cases
reported, while for special-service employees the average was below
120 lire ($23.16) in 58 per cent of all cases.
The second part of the report relates to the habitations of railway
employees of the lower grades residing in Rome. Two general classes
of employees, those belonging to the central administration and those
concerned with the operation of the various railway lines, were
included. In each case the inquiry was restricted to employees of the




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

630

twelfth grade and under. For the purpose of classification of results,
persons belonging to each service were divided into two groups, viz,
those of grade 12 and those below that grade, the facts for each group
being reported separately.
The following table shows the distribution of lodgings among the
different classes and grades of railway employees, according to number
of rooms and occupants:
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY RAILWAY EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN ROME,
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ROOMS AND OCCUPANTS.
CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION.
Other grades.

Grade 12.
Number of
occupants
of lodgings.

One.................
Two...............
Three.............
Four...............
Five...............
Six and over.
Total__

Number of lodgings composed of-

Total
6rms. lodg­
2rms. 3rms. 4rms. 5rms. and ings.
over.

Number of lodgings composed of—

Total
6 rms. lodg­
2rms. 3rms. 4rms. 5rms. and ings.
over.
6

20

11

10

156

17

10

27

15
23
13
12
21
90

25

RAILWAY LINES.
One..................
Two.................
Three...............
Four................
Five.................
Six and over..
Total..'..

40
10
4
2
1
57

4
2
6 22
9
5 16 26
4 17 19
3 21 23
4 39 54
26 117 131

2
4
7
15
6
23
57

1
48 48 20
9
1 52 16 67 42 19
62 65 27
8 66 15
5 62 13 48 76 30
5 35 58 32
3 56
5 46 122 83
14 135
31 419 102 298 372 192

2
7
4
14
37
64

* 84
2 148
4 180
6 177
5 149
9 322
26 *1,060

1 Including 3 lodgings for which data were not reported.
* Including 6 lodgings for which the number of rooms was not reported.

By reference to the foregoing table it is seen that of 143 lodgings
occupied by employees of the central administration for which the
facts were reported 21, or 14.7 per cent, contained one occupant; 20,
or 14 per cent, two occupants; 32, or 22.4 per cent, three occupants;
25, or 17.5 per cent, four occupants; 19, or 13.2 per cent, five occu­
pants; and 26, or 18.2 per cent, six or more occupants. Among
employees of railway lines, of 1,479 lodgings investigated, 8.9 per
cent were occupied by one person, 13.5 per cent by two persons, 16.6
per cent by three persons, 16.2 per cent by four persons, 13.9 per
cent by five persons, and 30.9 per cent by six or more persons. The
number of lodgings composed of one room was nearly 11 per cent of
the entire number. One-third of the total number was made up of
apartments of three rooms.



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— ITALY.

631

The following table classifies the lodgings according to the annual
amount of rent per room:
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY RAILWAY EMPLOYEES LIVING IN ROME,
CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF RENT PER ROOM.
Number of lodgings whose annual rental per room was—
Class of employees.

Num­
ber of 120 lire
lodg­ (123.16)
ings. and
under.

Central administration:
Grade 12...........................................
56
90
Other grades....................................
Railway lines:
Grade 12........................................... 419
Other grades.................................... 1,060

9
29
108
489

Over
120 to
180 lire
($23.16
to
$34.74).

Over
180 to
240 lire
($34.74
to
$46.32).

Over
240 to
300 lire
($46.32
to
$57.90).

22
48
215
438

11
9
56
90

7
3
16
25

Over
300 to Over
360 lire 560 lire Not re­
($57.90
ported.
_ to ($69.48).
$69.48).
4
17
11

6
1

3
1
1
6

Of the 1,625 lodgings occupied by railway employees of all grades
covered by the investigation, 39 per cent rented for 120 lire ($23.16)
or less per room annually. In nearly 84 per cent of all cases the
annual amount of rent per room was 180 lire ($34.74) or less.
Part three of the volume contains data relating to the homes of
railway employees in 53 cities of Italy. The facts reported are for
23,921 habitations, containing 75,138 rooms and occupied by 104,004
persons. This information is presented in a series of statistical tables,
which show in detail the principal data for each class of employees
in the different localities. Among the facts shown are the number
of employees of each class having dependent persons at their charge,
the number of such dependents, the average number of persons com­
prising the family, the average annual rent per room, and the average
number of persons occupying each room.
Part four consists of various statistical data of an economic or demo­
graphic nature relating to public administration employees in Rome.
The facts reported are for the same classes of persons described in
the first section of the volume, the information being presented in a
series of 11 statistical tables with a text analysis of each.




632

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*
SWEDEN.

i Sverige , a r 1907. Utgifven af K.
Kommerskollegii afdelning for Arbetsstatistik. Stockholm, 1909.
136 pp.
This report of the Royal Board of Trade of Sweden, division of
industrial statistics, treats of the employment of alien laborers in
Sweden. This employment is chiefly seasonal, commencing with the
month of April and continuing until the close of November or the
beginning of December. It is only recently that such labor has
become of notable importance, taking its beginning in the year 1904.
In 1907, when the present inquiry was conducted, the number had
grown to 1,678. Of this number 386 were employed in industrial
establishments manufacturing a sort of peat bricks. ~By far the
greater number, however, are agricultural employees engaged in the
raising of beets. The number thus employed was 1,174, of whom 414
were males and 760 were females. Of the males 93 were under 18
years of age, while of the females but 75 were under 18 years old.
The chief sources of supply for these workers were Austrian Galicia,
707, and Russian Poland, 324; 24 came from Roumania, 12 from
Germany, and 107 were from unknown localities. The employer
defrays the expenses of the journey from and to the country of resi­
dence, the average cost being 40 kroner ($10.72), besides an employ­
ment agent’s fee of 10 kroner ($2.68).
The contract may be for the season, or the hiring may be by the
day; a common method is to hire for a period of three months for a
fixed sum, then to work by the day at somewhat higher wages during
the harvest. The payment is made partly in provisions, lodging,
fuel, etc., and partly in cash, the total payment averaging 1.80
kroner (48 cents) per day for adult males and 1.37 kroner (37 cents)
for females during ordinary employment, and 2.03 kroner (54 cents)
for males and 1.66 kroner (44 cents) for females during harvest. The
hours of labor average ten and two-thirds per day, the total working
time being twelve and three-fourths hours, with three rest periods
amounting to a little more than two hours. The annual savings per
employee per season are rated at from 150 to 200 kroner ($40.20 to
$53.60). The food is regarded as sufficient and the lodgings satis­
factory.
V tlan dska JordlruTcsarbetare




DECISIONS OP COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.
[Except in cases of special interest, the decisions here presented are restricted to
those rendered by the Federal courts and the higher courts of the States and Terri­
tories. Only material portions of such decisions are reproduced, introductory and
explanatory matter being given in the words of the editor.]
DECISIONS UNDER STATUTE LAW.
Combinations in R estraint of T rade—A ntitrust L aw—
P enalties—J urisdiction—Constitutionality—G renada L u m b e r
Co. et a l. v . State, S up re m e C ourt o f M is s is s ip p i, 54 Southern Reporter,
page 8 .

—This case was before the supreme court of the State follow­
ing an action by the attorney general of the State to recover the
penalties provided in section 5004 of the Code for the violation of
the antitrust law, section 5002 et seq. A combination of retail
dealers in lumber, sash, doors, etc., doing business in the States
of Mississippi and Louisiana had been found guilty of a violation
of the statute named, having combined in restraint of trade.
The judgment of'the State courts was affirmed in the Supreme
Court of the United States, 217 U. S. 433, 30 Sup. Ct. 535. (See
Bulletin No. 89, p. 414.) The penalty prescribed by the statute is
not less than $200 nor more than $5,000 for each offense, each day of
the violation constituting a separate offense. The suit, therefore,
was to recover a penalty of $197,000 against each of the offending
companies in the association, making a total of $14,184,000. Action
had been brought in the chancery court of Holmes County and the
defendants demurred. The demurrer was overruled, whereupon the
defendants appealed to the supreme court of the State, which affirmed
the judgment of the court below and remanded the case for further
proceedings. The questions involved were, first, as to the jurisdiction
of the chancery court;' second, as to individual or joint liability for
the penalty incurred; third, whether there was a limitation running
against the State; and fourth, whether or not the penalties were so
excessive as to be confiscatory and in violation of the fourteenth
amendment of the Constitution of the United States.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Anderson who dis­
cussed the law of the State governing jurisdiction, reaching the con­
clusion that the court in which the suit had been brought had the
case properly before it. As to other points involved, Judge Anderson
said:
By the express terms of section 5004 of the Code, each person,
partnership, or corporation is liable for the penalty provided for its



633

634

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

violation. There is no room for construction. Where any number
have combined together, in violation of law, each is liable for the full
amount of the penalty which the court may see fit to impose, from the
minimum to the maximum fixed by the statute; each stands as if he
were the only guilty one; and each day the business is carried on is a
separate breach of the statute.
Section 3096, Code 1906, provides that “ statutes of limitation in
civil cases shall not run against the State, or any subdivision or
municipal corporation thereof,” etc. This is a “ civil case,” as herein
held, and therefore there is no statute of limitation.
Whether the penalties in question are confiscatory, and therefore
violative of the equal protection and. due process clauses of the four­
teenth amendment of the Constitution of the United States can not be
considered here on bill and demurrer where there is no allegation as
to the property owned by the appellants. The statute (sec. 5004)
is valid on its face. Its enforcement might amount to confiscation
in one case and not in another. This question must await the case
on proof.
E mployers’ A dvances—Contracts with I ntent to D efraud—
P eonage—Constitutionality of Statute—B a ile y v . A la b a m a , S u ­

.—
Alonzo Bailey was a laborer employed by the Riverside Company, a
corporation, under a written contract for one year’s service at the rate
of $12 per month. Of the prospective earnings the sum of $15 was
advanced and receipt thereof acknowledged, the subsequent monthly
payments to be at the rate of $10.75 per month. After working for
something more than one month Bailey left service and declined to
continue work under the contract. A statute of the State of Alabama
provides that “ any person, who with intent to injure or defraud his em­
ployer, enters into a contract in writing for the performance of any act
or service, and thereby obtains money or other personal property from
such employer, and with like intent without just cause, without
refunding such money, or paying for such property, refuses or fails to
perform such act or service,” shall be punished by a fine in double
damages, one-half to the county and one-half to the person injured.
(Section 4730, Code of 1896, as amended in 1903 and 1907; sec.
6845, Code of 1907.) A rule of evidence enforced by the courts of
Alabama is to the effect that no accused person shall be allowed, for
the purpose of rebutting statutory presumption, to testify “ as to his
uncommunicated motives, purpose, or intentions;” while the statute
above referred to declares that the refusal or failure to render the
service or refund the advances without just cause shall be prima facie
evidence of the intent to injure or defraud. Bailey was found guilty
of a violation of this statute in the Montgomery city court and in the
supreme court of the State. (See Bulletin No. 83, p. 147.) On
appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, however, the

prem e C ourt o f the U n ited States, 31 S up re m e C ourt Reporter, page 145




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

635

statute in question was declared unconstitutional as violating the
provisions of the Constitution of the United States as to involuntary
servitude and of the Federal law prohibiting peonage (Rev. Stat.,
secs. 1990, 5526), Judge Holmes, with whom Judge Lurton concurred,
dissenting.
The penalty had taken the form of a fine as provided by the law,
and in default of the payment thereof Bailey was sentenced to hard
labor for 20 days in lieu of the fine and 116 days on account of the
costs. The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Hughes and
is in part as follows:
Prior to the amendment of the year 1903, enlarged in 1907, the
statute did not make the mere breach of the contract, under which
the employee had obtained from his employer money which was not
refunded or property which was not paid for, a crime. The essential
ingredient or the offense was the intent of the accused to injure or
defraud. To justify conviction, it was necessary that this intent
should be established by competent evidence, aided only by such
inferences as might logically be derived from the facts proved, and
should not be the subject of mere surmise or arbitrary assumption.
This was the construction which the supreme court of Alabama
placed upon the statute, as it then stood, in Ex parte Riley, 94 Ala.
82, 10 So. 528.
We pass, then, to the consideration of the amendment, through
the operation of which under the charge of the trial court this con­
viction was obtained. No longer was it necessary for the prosecu­
tion to comply with the rule of the Riley case (supra) in order to
establish the intent to injure or defraud which, as the court said,
constituted the gist of the offense. It was “ the difficulty in proving
the intent, made patent by that decision,” which “ suggested the
amendment of 1903.” (Bailey v. State, 158 AJa. p. 25, 48 So. 498.)
By this amendment it was provided, in substance, that the refusal
or failure to perform the^ service contracted for, or to refund the
money obtained, without just cause, should be prima facie evidence
of the intent to injure or defraud.
But the refusal or failure to perform the service, without just cause,
constitutes the breach of the contract. The justice of the grounds
of refusal or failure must, of course, be determined by the contrac­
tual obligation assumed. Whatever the reason for leaving the
service, if, judged by the terms of the contract, it is insufficient in
law, it is not “just cause.” The money received and repayable,
nothing more being shown, constitutes a mere debt. The asserted
difficulty of proving the intent to injure or defraud is thus made the
occasion for dispensing with such proof, so far as the prima facie
case is concerned. # And the mere breach of a contract for personal
service, coupled with the mere failure to pay a debt which was to be
liquidated in the course of such service, is made sufficient to warrant
a conviction.
It is no answer to say that the jury must find, and here found,
that a fraudulent intent existed. The jury by their verdict can not
add to the facts before them. If nothing be shown but a mere
breach of a contract of service and a mere failure to pay a debt, the



636

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

jury have nothing else to go upon, and the evidence becomes nothing
more because of their finding. Had it not been for this statutory
presumption, supplied by the amendment, no one would be heard to
say that Bailey could have been convicted.

rrima facie evidence is sufficient evidence to outweigh the presurifption of innocence, and if not met by opposing evidence, to sup­
port a verdict of guilty. “ It is such as, in judgment of law, is suffi­
cient to establish the fact; and, if not rebutted, remains sufficient
for the purpose.” (Kellyy . Jackson, 6 Pet. 632, 8 L. ed. 526.)
We are not impressed with the argument that the supreme court of
Alabama has construed the amendment to mean that the jury is not
controlled by the presumption, if unrebutted, and still may find the
accused not guilty. That court, in its opinion, said: “ Again, it
must be borne in mind that the rule of evidence fixed by the statute
does not make it the duty of the jury to convict on the evidence
referred to in the enactment, if unrebutted, whether satisfied thereby
of the guilt of the accused beyond a reasonable doubt or not. On
the contrary, with such evidence before them, the jury are still left
free to find the accused guilty or not guilty, according as they may be
satisfied of his guilt or not, by the whole evidence.” (161 Ala. 78, 49
So. 886.)
B ut the controlling construction of the statute is the affirmance of
this judgment of conviction. It is not sufficient to declare that the
statute does not make it the duty of the jury to convict, where there
is not other evidence but the breach of the contract and the failure
to pay the debt. The point is that, in such a case, the statute author­
izes the jury to convict. It is not enough to say that the jury m ay
not accept that evidence as alone sufficient; for the jury m ay accept
it, and they have the express warrant of the statute to accept it as a
basis for their verdict. And it is in this light that the validity of the
statute must be determined.
It is urged that the tim e and circumstances of the departure from
service m ay be such as to raise not only an inference, but a strong
inference, of fraudulent intent. There was no need to create a statu­
tory presumption, and it was not created for such a case. Where
circumstances are shown permitting a fair inference of fraudulent
purpose, the case falls within the rule of E x parte Riley (supra),
which governed prosecutions under the statute before the amend­
ment was made. The “ difficulty,” which admittedly the amend­
ment was intended to surmount, did not exist where natural infer­
ences sufficed. Plainly, the object of the statute was to hit cases
which were destitute or such inferences, and to provide that the mere
breach of the contract and the mere failure to pay the debt might
do duty in their absence.
Consider the situation of the accused under this statutory pre­
sumption. If, at the outset, nothing took place but the making of
the contract and the receipt of the money, he could show nothing
else. If there was no legal justification for his leaving his employ­
ment, he could show none. If he had not paid the debt, there was
nothing to be said as to that. The law of the State did not permit
him to testify that he did not intend to injure or defraud. Unless
he were fortunate enough to be able to command evidence of cir­
cumstances affirmatively showing good faith, he was helpless. He
stood, stripped by the statute of the presumption of innocence, and




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

637

exposed to conviction for fraud upon evidence only of breach of con­
tract and failure to pay.
It is said that we may assume that a fair jury would convict only
where the circumstances sufficiently indicated a fraudulent intent.
Why should this be assumed in the race of the statute and upon this
record? In the present case the jury did convict, although there is
an absence of evidence sufficient to establish fraud under the familiar
rule that fraud will not be presumed, and the obvious explanation
of the verdict is that the trial court, in accordance with the statute,
charged the jury that refusal to perform the service, or to repay the
money, without just cause, constituted prima facie evidence of the
commission of the offense which the statute defined. That is, the
jury were told in effect that the evidence, under the statutory rule,
was sufficie